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Sample records for infarction risk score

  1. Relation of Neutrophil-to-Lymphocyte Ratio With GRACE Risk Score to In-Hospital Cardiac Events in Patients With ST-Segment Elevated Myocardial Infarction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oncel, Ramazan Can; Ucar, Mustafa; Karakas, Mustafa Serkan; Akdemir, Baris; Yanikoglu, Atakan; Gulcan, Ali Riza; Altekin, Refik Emre; Demir, Ibrahim

    2015-05-01

    In this study, we aimed to investigate the association of the neutrophil-to-lymphocyte ratio (NLR) with Global Registry of Acute Coronary Events (GRACE) risk score in patients with ST-segment elevated myocardial infarction (STEMI). We analyzed 101 consecutive patients with STEMI. Patients were divided into 3 groups by use of GRACE risk score. The association between NLR and GRACE risk score was assessed. The NLR showed a proportional increase correlated with GRACE risk score (P NLR at admission (P NLR and GRACE risk score showed a significant positive correlation (r = .803, P NLR resulted as a predictor of worse in-hospital outcomes independent of GRACE risk score. Our study suggests that the NLR is significantly associated with adverse in-hospital outcomes, independent of GRACE risk score in patients with STEMI. PMID:24078555

  2. Proton pump inhibitor use and risk of adverse cardiovascular events in aspirin treated patients with first time myocardial infarction: nationwide propensity score matched study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Charlot, Mette; Grove, Erik

    2011-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To examine the effect of proton pump inhibitors on adverse cardiovascular events in aspirin treated patients with first time myocardial infarction. DESIGN: Retrospective nationwide propensity score matched study based on administrative data. Setting All hospitals in Denmark. PARTICIPANTS: All aspirin treated patients surviving 30 days after a first myocardial infarction from 1997 to 2006, with follow-up for one year. Patients treated with clopidogrel were excluded. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: The risk of the combined end point of cardiovascular death, myocardial infarction, or stroke associated with use of proton pump inhibitors was analysed using Kaplan-Meier analysis, Cox proportional hazard models, and propensity score matched Cox proportional hazard models. Results 3366 of 19,925 (16.9%) aspirin treated patients experienced recurrent myocardial infarction, stroke, or cardiovascular death. The hazard ratio for the combined end point in patients receiving proton pump inhibitors based on the time dependent Cox proportional hazard model was 1.46 (1.33 to 1.61; P<0.001) and for the propensity score matched model based on 8318 patients it was 1.61 (1.45 to 1.79; P<0.001). A sensitivity analysis showed no increase in risk related to use of H(2) receptor blockers (1.04, 0.79 to 1.38; P=0.78). Conclusion In aspirin treated patients with first time myocardial infarction, treatment with proton pump inhibitors was associated with an increased risk of adverse cardiovascular events.

  3. Proton pump inhibitor use and risk of adverse cardiovascular events in aspirin treated patients with first time myocardial infarction : nationwide propensity score matched study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Charlot, Mette Gitz; Grove, Erik L

    2011-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To examine the effect of proton pump inhibitors on adverse cardiovascular events in aspirin treated patients with first time myocardial infarction. DESIGN: Retrospective nationwide propensity score matched study based on administrative data. Setting All hospitals in Denmark. PARTICIPANTS: All aspirin treated patients surviving 30 days after a first myocardial infarction from 1997 to 2006, with follow-up for one year. Patients treated with clopidogrel were excluded. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: The risk of the combined end point of cardiovascular death, myocardial infarction, or stroke associated with use of proton pump inhibitors was analysed using Kaplan-Meier analysis, Cox proportional hazard models, and propensity score matched Cox proportional hazard models. Results 3366 of 19,925 (16.9%) aspirin treated patients experienced recurrent myocardial infarction, stroke, or cardiovascular death. The hazard ratio for the combined end point in patients receiving proton pump inhibitors based on the time dependent Cox proportional hazard model was 1.46 (1.33 to 1.61; P

  4. Coronary artery calcium scoring in myocardial infarction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Background. The aim of this study was to evaluate coronary artery calcium scoring and the assessment of the risk factors in patients with myocardial infarction (MI). Methods. During the period of three years, 27 patients with MI were analyzed. The average age of patients was 66.1 years (46 to 81). Coronary arteries calcium was evaluated by multi row detector computed tomography (MTDC) Somatom Volume Zoom Siemens, and, retrospectively by ECG gating data acquisition. Semi automated calcium quantification to calculate Agatston calcium score (CS) was performed with 4 x 2.5 mm collimation, using 130 ml of contrast medium, injected with an automatic injector, with the flow rate of 4 ml/sec. The delay time was determined empirically. At the same time several risk factors were evaluated. Results. Out of 27 patients with MI, 3 (11.1%) patients had low CS (10- 100), 5 (18.5%) moderate CS (101- 499), and 19 (70.4%) patients high CS (>500). Of risk factors, smoking was confirmed in 17 (63.0%), high blood pressure (HTA) in 10 (57.0%), diabetes mellitus in 7 (25.9%), positive family history in 5 (18.5%), pathological lipids in 5 (18.5%), alcohol abuse in 4 (1.8%) patients. Six (22.2%) patients had symptoms of angina pectoris. Conclusions. The research showed high correlation of MI and high CS (>500). Smoking, HTA, diabetes mellitus, positive family history and hypercholesterolemia are significant risk factors. Symptoms are relatively poor in large number of pa are relatively poor in large number of patients. (author)

  5. Traditional SCORE-based health check fails to identify individuals who develop acute myocardial infarction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mortensen, Martin B; Sivesgaard, Kim

    2013-01-01

    Atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease (CVD), including acute myocardial infarction (AMI), is caused by well-known risk factors. They constitute important therapeutic targets, but their predictive value is disputed. We evaluated the effectiveness of the risk scoring system (SCORE) and thresholds for pharmacotherapy re-commended in the European guidelines on CVD prevention.

  6. Lower Framingham risk score and the absence of hypertension are associated with the morning peak in the circadian variation of ST-elevation myocardial infarction onset.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Usuku, Hiroki; Izumiya, Yasuhiro; Sugiyama, Seigo; Kojima, Sunao; Araki, Satoshi; Kurogi, Kazumasa; Yamamoto, Nobuyasu; Ando, Yukio; Ogawa, Hisao

    2014-03-01

    There are few studies analyzing the influences of coronary risk factors on the circadian variation of ST-elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI). Between 2008 and 2011, 293 patients were admitted to Miyazaki Prefectural Nobeoka Hospital with STEMI. The onset time of STEMI was identified in 280 patients (age, 70.5±11.7 years; male subjects, 68%; hypertension (HT), 80%; diabetes mellitus, 28%; current smoking (cSM), 33%; Framingham risk score (FRS), 8.77±3.28). The day was divided into six 4-h periods, with the morning peak between 0800 and 1200 hours. The frequency of HT was significantly lower in the morning incidence group than in the nighttime incidence group. Multivariate logistic regression analysis revealed that the prevalence of HT was the only independent variable associated with the morning peak of STEMI (odds ratio (OR), 0.43; 95% confidence interval (95% CI), 0.23-0.83; P=0.01) and that cSM was significantly associated with the nighttime peak of STEMI (OR, 1.96; 95% CI, 1.01-3.80; P=0.04). A comprehensive evaluation using the FRS showed that the FRS was significantly lower in the morning incidence group than in the nighttime incidence group and the other time incidence group (7.95±3.47 vs. 9.14±2.89 vs. 9.06±3.25, Pmorning peak of STEMI (OR, 1.12; 95% CI, 1.02-1.21; P=0.01). A lower FRS and non-HT status are associated with the morning peak in the circadian variation of STEMI onset. The morning incidence of STEMI might be affected by pathogenic factors other than the classic coronary risk factors. PMID:24108239

  7. BLEED-Myocardial Infarction Score: Predicting mid-term post-discharge bleeding events

    OpenAIRE

    Marques, Ant Xf Nio Leit Xe O.; Paulo Dinis; Paiva, Lu Xed S.; Almeida, In Xea S.; Rui Providência; Francisca Caetano; Xe Rgio Barra, S.

    2013-01-01

    AIM: To derive and validate a score for the prediction of mid-term bleeding events following discharge for myocardial infarction (MI). METHODS: One thousand and fifty patients admitted for MI and followed for 19.9 ± 6.7 mo were assigned to a derivation cohort. A new risk model, called BLEED-MI, was developed for predicting clinically significant bleeding events during follow-up (primary endpoint) and a composite endpoint of significant hemorrhage plus all-cause mortality (secondary endpo...

  8. Greek stroke score, Siriraj score and allen score in clinical diagnosis of intracerebral hemorrhage and infarct: Validation and comparison study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soman Aamod

    2004-10-01

    Full Text Available AIM: To compare Greek stroke score with available previous two stroke scores for the diagnosis of cerebral ischemia and hemorrhage in acute stroke patients, and validate the Greek stroke score. SETTING: A tertiary hospital in India. MATERIALS AND METHODS: In a prospective study acute stroke patients were evaluated with Greek stroke score, Allen score and Siriraj stroke score. Comparability (Kappa Statistics and validity (sensitivity, specificity, negative predictive value and positive predictive value of the Greek stroke score and previous scores were tested. RESULT: Out of the 91 patients enrolled in the study, 47 patients had cerebral infarction and 44 patients had hemorrhage by CT scan. Allen score was uncertain / equivocal in 39 patients, Siriraj Stroke score in 22 and Greek stroke score in 47 patients. Sensitivity, Specificity, positive predictive value, negative predictive value for Allen score were 0.5(95% CI:0.34,0.58, 0.94(95% CI:0.86,0.98, 0.81(95% CI:0.56,0.95, 0.78(95% CI: 0.71,0.81 for Siriraj score were 0.75(95% CI: 0.63,0.84, 0.81(95% CI: 0.71,0.89, 0.77(95% CI: 0.65,0.86, 0.78(95% CI 0.69,0.86 and for Greek Score were 0.42(95% CI: 0.23,0.53, 0.93(95% CI: 0.87,0.98, 0.71(95% CI:0.39,0.91, 0.81(95% CI:0.75,0.85 respectively. Greek stroke score was compared with previous scores using kappa statistics which revealed substantial strength of agreement between the Allen Score for certain results. CONCLUSION: The overall comparability of Greek stroke score and Allen score was better as compared to Greek stroke score and Siriraj stroke score. Greek Stroke score was more specific in diagnosing hemorrhage as compared to Siriraj score. However, all these stroke scores lack accuracy hence could not be applied safely to guide the physician in management of stroke.

  9. Systemic Risk Score: A Suggestion

    OpenAIRE

    Hurlin, Christophe; Pe?rignon, Christophe

    2013-01-01

    We identify a potential bias in the methodology disclosed in July 2013 by the Basel Committee on Banking Supervision (BCBS) for identifying systemically important financial banks. Contrary to the original objective, the relative importance of the five categories of risk importance (size, cross-jurisdictional activity, interconnectedness, substitutability/financial institution infrastructure, and complexity) may not be equal and the resulting systemic risk scores are mechanically dominated by ...

  10. Comparison of Selvester QRS score with magnetic resonance imaging measured infarct size in patients with ST elevation myocardial infarction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Carlsen, Esben A; Bang, Lia E

    2012-01-01

    Recent studies have shown that the Selvester QRS score is significantly correlated with delayed enhancement-magnetic resonance imaging (DE-MRI) measured myocardial infarct (MI) size in reperfused ST elevation MI (STEMI). This study further tests the hypothesis that Selvester QRS score correlates well with MI size determined by DE-MRI in reperfused STEMI.

  11. Plasma HDL cholesterol and risk of myocardial infarction: a mendelian randomisation study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voight, Benjamin F; Peloso, Gina M; Orho-Melander, Marju; Frikke-Schmidt, Ruth; Barbalic, Maja; Jensen, Majken K; Hindy, George; Hólm, Hilma; Ding, Eric L; Johnson, Toby; Schunkert, Heribert; Samani, Nilesh J; Clarke, Robert; Hopewell, Jemma C; Thompson, John F; Li, Mingyao; Thorleifsson, Gudmar; Newton-Cheh, Christopher; Musunuru, Kiran; Pirruccello, James P; Saleheen, Danish; Chen, Li; Stewart, Alexandre FR; Schillert, Arne; Thorsteinsdottir, Unnur; Thorgeirsson, Gudmundur; Anand, Sonia; Engert, James C; Morgan, Thomas; Spertus, John; Stoll, Monika; Berger, Klaus; Martinelli, Nicola; Girelli, Domenico; McKeown, Pascal P; Patterson, Christopher C; Epstein, Stephen E; Devaney, Joseph; Burnett, Mary-Susan; Mooser, Vincent; Ripatti, Samuli; Surakka, Ida; Nieminen, Markku S; Sinisalo, Juha; Lokki, Marja-Liisa; Perola, Markus; Havulinna, Aki; de Faire, Ulf; Gigante, Bruna; Ingelsson, Erik; Zeller, Tanja; Wild, Philipp; de Bakker, Paul I W; Klungel, Olaf H; Maitland-van der Zee, Anke-Hilse; Peters, Bas J M; de Boer, Anthonius; Grobbee, Diederick E; Kamphuisen, Pieter W; Deneer, Vera H M; Elbers, Clara C; Onland-Moret, N Charlotte; Hofker, Marten H; Wijmenga, Cisca; Verschuren, WM Monique; Boer, Jolanda MA; van der Schouw, Yvonne T; Rasheed, Asif; Frossard, Philippe; Demissie, Serkalem; Willer, Cristen; Do, Ron; Ordovas, Jose M; Abecasis, Gonçalo R; Boehnke, Michael; Mohlke, Karen L; Daly, Mark J; Guiducci, Candace; Burtt, Noël P; Surti, Aarti; Gonzalez, Elena; Purcell, Shaun; Gabriel, Stacey; Marrugat, Jaume; Peden, John; Erdmann, Jeanette; Diemert, Patrick; Willenborg, Christina; König, Inke R; Fischer, Marcus; Hengstenberg, Christian; Ziegler, Andreas; Buysschaert, Ian; Lambrechts, Diether; Van de Werf, Frans; Fox, Keith A; El Mokhtari, Nour Eddine; Rubin, Diana; Schrezenmeir, Jürgen; Schreiber, Stefan; Schäfer, Arne; Danesh, John; Blankenberg, Stefan; Roberts, Robert; McPherson, Ruth; Watkins, Hugh; Hall, Alistair S; Overvad, Kim; Rimm, Eric; Boerwinkle, Eric; Tybjaerg-Hansen, Anne; Cupples, L Adrienne; Reilly, Muredach P; Melander, Olle; Mannucci, Pier M; Ardissino, Diego; Siscovick, David; Elosua, Roberto; Stefansson, Kari; O'Donnell, Christopher J; Salomaa, Veikko; Rader, Daniel J; Peltonen, Leena; Schwartz, Stephen M; Altshuler, David; Kathiresan, Sekar

    2012-01-01

    Summary Background High plasma HDL cholesterol is associated with reduced risk of myocardial infarction, but whether this association is causal is unclear. Exploiting the fact that genotypes are randomly assigned at meiosis, are independent of non-genetic confounding, and are unmodified by disease processes, mendelian randomisation can be used to test the hypothesis that the association of a plasma biomarker with disease is causal. Methods We performed two mendelian randomisation analyses. First, we used as an instrument a single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) in the endothelial lipase gene (LIPG Asn396Ser) and tested this SNP in 20 studies (20?913 myocardial infarction cases, 95?407 controls). Second, we used as an instrument a genetic score consisting of 14 common SNPs that exclusively associate with HDL cholesterol and tested this score in up to 12?482 cases of myocardial infarction and 41?331 controls. As a positive control, we also tested a genetic score of 13 common SNPs exclusively associated with LDL cholesterol. Findings Carriers of the LIPG 396Ser allele (2·6% frequency) had higher HDL cholesterol (0·14 mmol/L higher, p=8×10?13) but similar levels of other lipid and non-lipid risk factors for myocardial infarction compared with non-carriers. This difference in HDL cholesterol is expected to decrease risk of myocardial infarction by 13% (odds ratio [OR] 0·87, 95% CI 0·84–0·91). However, we noted that the 396Ser allele was not associated with risk of myocardial infarction (OR 0·99, 95% CI 0·88–1·11, p=0·85). From observational epidemiology, an increase of 1 SD in HDL cholesterol was associated with reduced risk of myocardial infarction (OR 0·62, 95% CI 0·58–0·66). However, a 1 SD increase in HDL cholesterol due to genetic score was not associated with risk of myocardial infarction (OR 0·93, 95% CI 0·68–1·26, p=0·63). For LDL cholesterol, the estimate from observational epidemiology (a 1 SD increase in LDL cholesterol associated with OR 1·54, 95% CI 1·45–1·63) was concordant with that from genetic score (OR 2·13, 95% CI 1·69–2·69, p=2×10?10). Interpretation Some genetic mechanisms that raise plasma HDL cholesterol do not seem to lower risk of myocardial infarction. These data challenge the concept that raising of plasma HDL cholesterol will uniformly translate into reductions in risk of myocardial infarction. Funding US National Institutes of Health, The Wellcome Trust, European Union, British Heart Foundation, and the German Federal Ministry of Education and Research. PMID:22607825

  12. Plasma HDL cholesterol and risk of myocardial infarction : a mendelian randomisation study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Voight, Benjamin F; Peloso, Gina M

    2012-01-01

    BACKGROUND: High plasma HDL cholesterol is associated with reduced risk of myocardial infarction, but whether this association is causal is unclear. Exploiting the fact that genotypes are randomly assigned at meiosis, are independent of non-genetic confounding, and are unmodified by disease processes, mendelian randomisation can be used to test the hypothesis that the association of a plasma biomarker with disease is causal. METHODS: We performed two mendelian randomisation analyses. First, we used as an instrument a single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) in the endothelial lipase gene (LIPG Asn396Ser) and tested this SNP in 20 studies (20?913 myocardial infarction cases, 95?407 controls). Second, we used as an instrument a genetic score consisting of 14 common SNPs that exclusively associate with HDL cholesterol and tested this score in up to 12?482 cases of myocardial infarction and 41?331 controls. As a positive control, we also tested a genetic score of 13 common SNPs exclusively associated with LDL cholesterol. FINDINGS: Carriers of the LIPG 396Ser allele (2·6% frequency) had higher HDL cholesterol (0·14 mmol/L higher, p=8×10(-13)) but similar levels of other lipid and non-lipid risk factors for myocardial infarction compared with non-carriers. This difference in HDL cholesterol is expected to decrease risk of myocardial infarction by 13% (odds ratio [OR] 0·87, 95% CI 0·84-0·91). However, we noted that the 396Ser allele was not associated with risk of myocardial infarction (OR 0·99, 95% CI 0·88-1·11, p=0·85). From observational epidemiology, an increase of 1 SD in HDL cholesterol was associated with reduced risk of myocardial infarction (OR 0·62, 95% CI 0·58-0·66). However, a 1 SD increase in HDL cholesterol due to genetic score was not associated with risk of myocardial infarction (OR 0·93, 95% CI 0·68-1·26, p=0·63). For LDL cholesterol, the estimate from observational epidemiology (a 1 SD increase in LDL cholesterol associated with OR 1·54, 95% CI 1·45-1·63) was concordant with that from genetic score (OR 2·13, 95% CI 1·69-2·69, p=2×10(-10)). INTERPRETATION: Some genetic mechanisms that raise plasma HDL cholesterol do not seem to lower risk of myocardial infarction. These data challenge the concept that raising of plasma HDL cholesterol will uniformly translate into reductions in risk of myocardial infarction. FUNDING: US National Institutes of Health, The Wellcome Trust, European Union, British Heart Foundation, and the German Federal Ministry of Education and Research.

  13. Metabolic Syndrome is Associated With Higher Wall Motion Score and Larger Infarct Size After Acute Myocardial Infarction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hajsadeghi, Shokoufeh; Chitsazan, Mitra; Chitsazan, Mandana; Haghjoo, Majid; Babaali, Nima; Norouzzadeh, Zahra; Mohsenian, Maryam

    2015-01-01

    Background: Infarct size is an important surrogate end point for early and late mortality after acute myocardial infarction. Despite the high prevalence of metabolic syndrome in patients with atherosclerotic diseases, adequate data are still lacking regarding the extent of myocardial necrosis after acute myocardial infarction in these patients. Objectives: In the present study we aimed to compare myocardial infarction size in patients with metabolic syndrome to those without metabolic syndrome using peak CK-MB and cardiac troponin I (cTnI) at 72 hours after the onset of symptoms. Patients and Methods: One-hundred patients with metabolic syndrome (group I) and 100 control subjects without metabolic syndrome (group II) who experienced acute myocardial infarction were included in the study. Diagnosis of metabolic syndrome was based on the National Cholesterol Education Program Adult Treatment Panel III (NCEP ATP III) guidelines published in 2001. Myocardial infarction size was compared between the two groups of patients using peak CK-MB and cTnI level in 72 hours after the onset of symptoms. Results: Peak CK-MB and cTnI in 72 hours were found to be significantly higher in patients with metabolic syndrome compared with control subjects (both P < 0.001). Patients with metabolic syndrome also had markedly higher wall motion abnormality at 72 hours after the onset of symptoms as assessed by echocardiographically-derived Wall Motion Score Index (WMSI) (P < 0.001). Moreover, statistically significant relationships were found between WMSI and peak CK-MB and also cTnI at 72 hours (Spearman's rho = 0.56, P < 0.001 and Spearman's rho = 0.5, P < 0.001; respectively). However, association between WMSI and left ventricular ejection fraction was insignificant (Spearman's rho = -0.05, P = 0.46). Conclusions: We showed that patients with metabolic syndrome have larger infarct size compared to control subjects. PMID:25789257

  14. Comparison of infarct size changes with delayed contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging and electrocardiogram QRS scoring during the 6 months after acutely reperfused myocardial infarction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bang, L.E.; Ripa, R.S.

    2008-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Magnetic resonance imaging using the delayed contrast-enhanced (DE-MRI) method can be used for characterizing and quantifying myocardial infarction (MI). Electrocardiogram (ECG) score after the acute phase of MI can be used to estimate the portion of left ventricular myocardium that has infarcted. There are no comparison of serial changes on ECG and DE-MRI measuring infarct size. AIM: The general aim of this study was to describe the acute, healing, and chronic phases of the changes in infarct size estimated by the ECG and DE-MRI. The specific aim was to compare estimates of the Selvester QRS scoring system and DE-MRI to identify the difference between the extent of left ventricle occupied by infarction in the acute and chronic phases. METHODS: In 31 patients (26 men, age 56 +/- 9) with reperfused ST-elevation MI (11 anterior, 20 inferior), standard 12-lead ECG and DE-MRI were taken from 1 to 2 days (acute), 1 month (healing), and 6 months (chronic) after the MI. Selvester QRS scoring was used to estimate the infarct size from the ECG. RESULTS: The correlation values between infarct size measured by DE-MRI and QRS scoring range from 0.33 to 0.43 higher for anterior than inferior infarcts. The infarct size estimated by QRS scoring was larger (about 5% of the left ventricle) than infarct size by DE-MRI acute and 1 month, but at 6 months, there was no difference. In about half of the patients, the QRS score agreed with DE-MRI in change of infarct size from acute to 6 months. CONCLUSION: In conclusion, the Selvester QRS scoring system is in half of the patients with reperfused first time MI in good accordance with DE-MRI in identifying a decrease or no change in the extent of left ventricle occupied by infarction in the acute and chronic phases Udgivelsesdato: 2008/11

  15. Difference in MRI findings and risk factors between multiple infarction without dementia and multi-infarct dementia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    MRI findings and risk factors for vascular dementia were evaluated with multi-variate analysis in 96 multi-infarct patients without dementia and 40 multi-infarct patients with dementia (MID). Only subjects with small infarcts in the territory of the perforator artery or deep white matter were studied. The diagnosis of MID was diagnosed according to DMS-III criteria and Hachinski's ischemia score. Location and area of patchy high-intensity areas including small infarcts, the degree of periventricular high intensity (PVH), and the degree of brain atrophy were examined with MR images. Independent variables were: history of hypertension, diabetes mellitus, other complications; systolic and diastolic blood pressure, atherosclerotic index, hematocrit, history of smoking, level of education, and activities of daily life (ADL). Hayashi's quantification method II was used to analyze the data. The most significant correlation was found between history of hypertension and dementia (partial correlation coefficient: 0.39). Significant correlations were also found between ADL and dementia (0.32), between thalamic infarction and dementia (0.31), and between PVH and dementia (0.27). Age, brain atrophy index, and history of diabetes mellitus contributed little to dementia. The contribution to dementia did not differ significantly between right and left patchy high-intensity areas on MR images. Location of infarcts, except for bilateral thalamic infarcts and large PVH, contributed littc infarcts and large PVH, contributed little to dementia. Thus it would be difficult to base a prediction of the prevalence of vascular dementia on MRI findings. However, both hypertention and ADL contribute to vascular dementia and both are treatable, which may be significant for the prevention of dementia. (author)

  16. A QRS scoring system for assessing left ventricular function and myocardial infarct size

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Left ventricular function and infarct size were evaluated noninvasively by 12 lead electrocardiography (ECG), Tl-201 imaging (TLI) and ECG gated radionuclide ventriculography (RNV) examined from 5 to 14 days after the initial attack in 36 patients with acute transmural myocardial infarction. Ages ranged from 32 to 77 years with a mean of 60. The subjects were divided into 2 groups according to the site of infarct: anterior and inferior. Parameters obtained were left ventricular ejection fraction (EF) examined by RNV, QRS score described by Palmeri et al. total myocardial perfusion index (TMPI), lung uptake of Tl-201 (LU) on TLI. Significant negative correlation was obtained between EF and QRS score (r = -0.784, p < 0.01), better in patients with inferior MI than those with anterior. Also significant relationship was noted between TMPI and QRS score (r = 0.636, p < 0.01). LU had a specificity of 93 % and a sensitivity of 71 % for predicting EF < 30 % and 79 % and 86 % respectively for TMPI < 30. These data suggest that left ventricular function and infarct size will be detected by QRS score. LU was thought to be a fairly good sign predicting decreased EF (< 30 %) and massive infarct. (author)

  17. A new scoring system to stratify risk in unstable angina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salzberg Simón

    2003-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background We performed this study to develop a new scoring system to stratify different levels of risk in patients admitted to hospital with a diagnosis of unstable angina (UA, which is a complex syndrome that encompasses different outcomes. Many prognostic variables have been described but few efforts have been made to group them in order to enhance their individual predictive power. Methods In a first phase, 473 patients were prospectively analyzed to determine which factors were significantly associated with the in-hospital occurrence of refractory ischemia, acute myocardial infarction (AMI or death. A risk score ranging from 0 to 10 points was developed using a multivariate analysis. In a second phase, such score was validated in a new sample of 242 patients and it was finally applied to the entire population (n = 715. Results ST-segment deviation on the electrocardiogram, age ? 70 years, previous bypass surgery and troponin T ? 0.1 ng/mL were found as independent prognostic variables. A clear distinction was shown among categories of low, intermediate and high risk, defined according to the risk score. The incidence of the triple end-point was 6 %, 19.2 % and 44.7 % respectively, and the figures for AMI or death were 2 %, 11.4 % and 27.6 % respectively (p Conclusions This new scoring system is simple and easy to achieve. It allows a very good stratification of risk in patients having a clinical diagnosis of UA. They may be divided in three categories, which could be of help in the decision-making process.

  18. Irregularly shaped lacunar infarction: risk factors and clinical significance / Infartos lacunares com morfologia irregular: fatores de risco e significado clinico

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Chao, Feng; Yu, Xu; Ting, Hua; Xue-Yuan, Liu; Min, Fang.

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in portuguese Objetivo Estudar as diferentes formas dos infartos lacunares agudos, investigando os fatores de risco e o significado clinico daqueles com morfologia irregular. Métodos Os 204 pacientes com infartos lacunares agudos foram classificados em dois grupos: aqueles com morfologia regular e aqueles com [...] morfologia irregular. Foram estudadas as características dos dois grupos e caracterizados os fatores de risco para infartos irregulares, deterioração neurológica e altos escores da escala de Rankin modificada. Resultados Variabilidade da pressão arterial é fator de risco independente para infartos lacunares irregulares. Tamanho do infarto, prevalência de leucoaraiose e formato irregular dos infartos lacunares são fatores de risco independentes para escores mais elevados na escala de Rankin modificada. Conclusões Variabilidade da pressão arterial está relacionada ao formato irregular dos infartos lacunares agudos. Este tipo de infarto e a leucoaraiose podem estar relacionado a desfechos clínicos desfavoráveis. Abstract in english Objective Our study focused on acute lacunar infarct shapes to explore the risk factors and clinical significance of irregularly shaped lacunar infarctions. Methods Based on the shape of their acute lacunar infarct, patients (n=204) were classified into the “regular” group or “irregular” group. T [...] he characteristics of the lacunar infarction were compared between the regular and irregular groups, between patients with and without neurological deterioration, and between patients with different modified Rankin scale (mRS) scores. The risk factors for irregularly shaped lacunar infarctions, neurological deterioration, and high mRS scores were identified. Results Blood pressure variability (BPV) was an independent risk factor for irregularly shaped lacunar infarction. Infarction size, prevalence of advanced leukoaraiosis, and irregularly shaped lacunar infarcts were independent risk factors for higher mRS scores. Conclusions The irregularly shaped lacunar infarcts were correlated with BPV. Irregularly shaped lacunar infarctions and leukoaraiosis may be associated with unfavorable clinical outcomes.

  19. Gender and secondary risk assessment following an ST-elevation myocardial infarction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Scruth E

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Elizabeth Scruth,1,3 Linda Worrall-Carter,1 Eugene Cheng2 1St Vincent’s/ACU Centre for Nursing Research, School of Nursing and Midwifery, Faculty of Health Sciences, Australian Catholic University, Melbourne, VIC, Australia; 2Kaiser Permanente Medical Group, San Jose, CA, USA; 3Kaiser Permanente Northern California, Oakland, CA, USA Purpose: The Thrombolysis in Myocardial Infarction (TIMI risk score, Global Register of Acute Coronary Events (GRACE risk score, and the Controlled Abciximab and Device Investigation to Lower Late Angioplasty Complications (CADILLAC risk score are validated predictors of secondary events and death after an acute coronary syndrome (ACS. In our study, we sought to examine the predictability of the TIMI, GRACE, and the CADILLAC risk scores in women undergoing percutaneous coronary intervention for ST-elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI for in-hospital, 1-year major cardiac events, nonmajor cardiac events, and mortality. A limited number of studies examining the secondary risk scores for use after STEMI in women have been conducted. Most studies have been conducted in both men and women without separating out the predictability in women in regard to the various risk scores. Patients and methods: In a subanalysis of women from a larger study of both men and women with STEMI, a 1-year follow up of 77 women with STEMI was undertaken using a retrospective approach and comparing the TIMI, GRACE, and CADILLAC risk scores for in-hospital and 1-year outcomes of major cardiac events, nonmajor cardiac events, and death. The predictive value of the models was assessed with evaluation of the area under the curve in receiver operating-characteristic analysis. Results: The study revealed that risk stratification of female patients with STEMI early after presentation using the TIMI risk score or after angiography using the CADILLAC risk score may provide important prognostic information and enable accurate identification of high-risk patients. Conclusion: Though limited by sample size and retrospective analysis, our study provided evidence into the validity of using existing secondary risk tools in women. Further studies are needed to determine the risk score that is most predictive for women presenting with STEMI and treated with percutaneous coronary intervention. It may be useful to incorporate the risk scores into clinical practice to guide short- and long-term follow-up after STEMI in women as a preventive strategy. Keywords: cardiovascular risk, acute coronary syndromes, nonmajor cardiac events, major cardiac events

  20. Risk Factors And Seasonal-Diurinal Variatons In Lacunar Infarctions

    OpenAIRE

    Alemdar, Murat; Iseri, Pervin; Kamaci, Senol; Efendi, Husnu; Budak, Faik; Komsuoglu, Sezer Sener

    2006-01-01

    Lacunar infarctions are deeply located ischemic infarctions smaller than 1.5 cm in diameter. Patients hospitalized in our neurology clinic in between 2001 and 2005 with signs of lacunar infarction and in whom diagnosis were confirmed with neuroimaging studies, were included in this study. Risk factors and time of symptom-onset were re-evaluated by use of phone calls with them and/or their relatives. Eighty-one patients with mean age of 64.6 were involved in the study. Forty-three of them (%53...

  1. Evaluation of area at risk by 123I-BMIPP in patients with acute myocardial infarction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the detection of area at risk of acute myocardial infarction (AMI) by 123I-BMIPP (BMIPP). 99mTc-tetrofosmin (TF) scintigraphy was performed on 13 patients with AMI with total coronary occlusion. BMIPP scintigraphy was done on the same patients within 1 week after successful reperfusion by direct PTCA. Activity of both tracers was scored in 8 basal, 8 midventricular and 2 apical segments, using a four-point grading system as defect score: 3=defect, 2=severely low uptake, 1=slightly low uptake, 0=normal. Extent score (ES) was defined as a total number of segment which deteriorated uptake, and severity score (SS) was defined as a total score of defect score. ES of BMIPP was 6.5±2.4 and that of TF was 7.5±2.4. ES of BMIPP was smaller than that of TF. A ratio of BMIPP/TF was 0.86±0.18. SS of BMIPP was 16.2±6.0 and that of TF was 19.2±5.6. SS of TF was larger than that of BMIPP. A ratio of BMIPP/TF was 0.83±0.18. A correlation of ES and SS between TF and BMIPP was excellent. BMIPP showed ischemic area by culprit lesion and infarct area clearly. We concluded that BMIPP could indicate area at risk. (author)

  2. Risk profile in young patients with acute myocardial infarction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The objective of this study was to determine the frequency of risk factors in young patients with acute myocardial infarction and thus with ischemic heart disease (IHD), aged 20 to 40 years, in our population. All patients who fulfilled the inclusion criteria who presented to emergency reception of the hospital with a diagnosis of Acute MI were included. The patients were admitted to coronary care unit (CCU) and were managed for Acute myocardial infarction (MI). Their detailed history was then taken including symptoms at presentation and their risk factors were assessed with the help of history and laboratory investigations. A total of 137 patients were included during the study period. Mean age was 36 years (SD=3.67). Majority of patients were males. Smoking was the major risk factor (64.2%) followed by family history of IHD (30.7%). Most frequent risk factor for Acute myocardial infarction (MI) at young age is smoking followed by family history. (author)

  3. Limitations of a QRS scoring system to assess left ventricular function and prognosis at hospital discharge after myocardial infarction.

    OpenAIRE

    Fioretti, P.; Brower, R. W.; Lazzeroni, E.; Simoons, M. L.; Wijns, W.; Reiber, J. H.; Bos, R. J.; Hugenholtz, P. G.

    1985-01-01

    The value of a QRS scoring system derived from 12 lead electrocardiograms to estimate left ventricular ejection fraction was assessed in a prospective study of 285 hospital survivors of myocardial infarction. In these patients both the QRS score and ejection fraction were measured by radionuclide ventriculography at discharge. The correlation between ejection fraction and QRS score was weak. In 22 patients who died during six to 12 months follow up the ability of the ejection fraction and QRS...

  4. Credit scores, cardiovascular disease risk, and human capital

    OpenAIRE

    Israel, Salomon; Caspi, Avshalom; Belsky, Daniel W.; Harrington, Honalee; Hogan, Sean; Houts, Renate; Ramrakha, Sandhya; Sanders, Seth; Poulton, Richie; Moffitt, Terrie E.

    2014-01-01

    Credit scoring is expanding into domains beyond lending. Today, credit scores are used by employers, utility companies, and automobile insurers to index high-risk behavior. Life insurance companies even incorporate credit scores into actuarial models. This expansion is controversial, as it is unclear what personal attributes credit scores capture. Following 1,000 individuals from birth to midlife, we show that low credit scores predict cardiovascular disease risk. We also show that the reason...

  5. Class of Antiretroviral Drugs and the Risk of Myocardial Infarction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Friis-MØller, Nina; Reiss, P.

    2007-01-01

    BACKGROUND: We have previously demonstrated an association between combination antiretroviral therapy and the risk of myocardial infarction. It is not clear whether this association differs according to the class of antiretroviral drugs. We conducted a study to investigate the association of cumulative exposure to protease inhibitors and nonnucleoside reverse-transcriptase inhibitors with the risk of myocardial infarction. METHODS: We analyzed data collected through February 2005 from our prospective observational study of 23,437 patients infected with the human immunodeficiency virus. The incidence rates of myocardial infarction during the follow-up period were calculated, and the associations between myocardial infarction and exposure to protease inhibitors or nonnucleoside reverse-transcriptase inhibitors were determined. RESULTS: Three hundred forty-five patients had a myocardial infarction during 94,469 person-years of observation. The incidence of myocardial infarction increased from 1.53 per 1000 person-years in those not exposed to protease inhibitors to 6.01 per 1000 person-years in those exposed to protease inhibitors for more than 6 years. After adjustment for exposure to the other drug class and established cardiovascular risk factors (excluding lipid levels), the relative rate of myocardial infarction per year of protease-inhibitor exposure was 1.16 (95% confidence interval [CI], 1.10 to 1.23), whereas the relative rate per year of exposure to nonnucleoside reverse-transcriptase inhibitors was 1.05 (95% CI, 0.98 to 1.13). Adjustment for serum lipid levels further reduced the effect of exposure to each drug class to 1.10 (95% CI, 1.04 to 1.18) and 1.00 (95% CI, 0.93 to 1.09), respectively. CONCLUSIONS: Increased exposure to protease inhibitors is associated with an increased risk of myocardial infarction, which is partly explained by dyslipidemia. We found no evidence of such an association for nonnucleoside reverse-transcriptase inhibitors; however, the number of person-years of observation for exposure to this class of drug was less than that for exposure to protease inhibitors. Copyright 2007 Massachusetts Medical Society. Udgivelsesdato: Apr 26

  6. The stability of myocardial area at risk estimated electrocardiographically in patients with ST elevation myocardial infarction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Carlsen, Esben A; Hassell, Mariëlla E C J

    2014-01-01

    In patients with ST-elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) the amount of myocardial area at risk (MaR) indicates the maximal potential loss of myocardium if the coronary artery remains occluded. During the time course of infarct evolution ischemic MaR is replaced by necrosis, which results in a decrease in ST segment elevation and QRS complex distortion. Recently it has been shown that combining the electrocardiographic (ECG) Aldrich ST and Selvester QRS scores result in a more accurate estimate of MaR than using either method alone. Therefore, we hypothesized that the combined Aldrich and Selvester score, indicating MaR, is stable until myocardial reperfusion therapy. In a retrospective analysis of a study population of 114 patients, 33 patients were included. The combined Aldrich and Selvester score was determined in ECGs recorded in the ambulance (ECG1) and in the hospital before reperfusion (ECG2). The combined Aldrich and Selvester score was considered stable if the difference between ECG1 and ECG2 was <4.5-percentage point. Stability of the combined Aldrich and Selvester score was observed in 12/33 patients (36.4%), and in regards to anterior and inferior ST elevation in 4/14 patients (28.6%) and 8/19 patients (42.1%), respectively. The median time between the recording of ECG1 and ECG2 was 75minutes, however the changes in ECG scores were independent of the time between ECG recordings. Patients not meeting the stability criterion either had a decrease (9 patients) or increase (12 patients) of the combined Aldrich and Selvester score. In conclusion, the ECG estimated MaR was stable between the earliest recording time and initiation of reperfusion treatment only in a subgroup of the patients with STEMI. The findings of this study may suggest heterogeneity in regards to the development of the MaR and could indicate a potential need for differentiation in the acute treatment.

  7. Plasma enterolignans are not associated with nonfatal myocardial infarction risk

    OpenAIRE

    Kuijsten, A.; Bueno-de-mesquita, H. B.; Boer, J. M. A.; Arts, I. C. W.; Kok, F. J.; Veer, P.; Hollman, P. C. H.

    2009-01-01

    Plant lignans present in foods such as whole grains, seeds and nuts, fruits and vegetables, and beverages. Plant lignans are converted by intestinal bacteria into the enterolignans enterodiol and enterolactone. Up to now, epidemiological evidence for a protective role of enterolignans on cardiovascular diseases is limited and inconsistent. We investigated the association between plasma enterodiol and enterolactone and nonfatal myocardial infarction risk in a prospective study. During follow-u...

  8. Online risk engines and scoring tools in endocrinology

    OpenAIRE

    Chakraborty, Partha Pratim; Ghosh, Sujoy; Kalra, Sanjay

    2013-01-01

    With evolution of evidence-based medicine, risk prediction equations have been formulated and validated. Such risk engines and scoring systems are able to predict disease outcome and risks of possible complications with varying degrees of accuracy. From health policy makers point of view it helps in appropriate disbursement of available resources for greatest benefit of population at risk. Understandably, the accuracy of prediction of different risk engines and scoring systems are highly vari...

  9. Risk Factors And Seasonal-Diurinal Variatons In Lacunar Infarctions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Murat ALEMDAR

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Lacunar infarctions are deeply located ischemic infarctions smaller than 1.5 cm in diameter. Patients hospitalized in our neurology clinic in between 2001 and 2005 with signs of lacunar infarction and in whom diagnosis were confirmed with neuroimaging studies, were included in this study. Risk factors and time of symptom-onset were re-evaluated by use of phone calls with them and/or their relatives. Eighty-one patients with mean age of 64.6 were involved in the study. Forty-three of them (%53 were female. The lesion was in left hemisphere in forty-five patients (%55.6, and in right hemisphere in remaining 36 (%44.4 ones. There was at least one vascular risk factor in 80 of them (%98.8, and a cardiac one in 6 patients (%7.4. Sixty-five patients (%80.2 had multiple vascular risk factors. There was hypertension in 68 (%83.9, dyslipidemia in 48 (%59.2, smoking in 26 (%32.1, and diabetes mellitus in 22 (%27.2 of them. Among 16 patients with single risk factor, 10 patients had hypertension and 6 patients had dyslipidemia. In 34 of them (%41.9, symptoms had appeared during night-time (sleeping + first hour of awakeness, and in 47 of them (%58.1 during day-time. The disease was seen during winter in 17 (21%, spring in 22 (27.2%, summer in 19 (23.4%, and autumn in 23 (28.3% of them. After analyses were corrected according to risk factors, sex and age, any seasonal-diurnal variation or side differences were not detected. Presence of many patients with single risk factor reveals the importance of primary prophylaxis clearly. High frequency of multiple risk factors underlines needs for use of preventive treatment carefully in these patients.

  10. Incidence of cardiovascular events after kidney transplantation and cardiovascular risk scores: study protocol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lorenzo-Aguiar Dolores

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Cardiovascular disease (CVD is the major cause of death after renal transplantation. Not only conventional CVD risk factors, but also transplant-specific risk factors can influence the development of CVD in kidney transplant recipients. The main objective of this study will be to determine the incidence of post-transplant CVD after renal transplantation and related factors. A secondary objective will be to examine the ability of standard cardiovascular risk scores (Framingham, Regicor, SCORE, and DORICA to predict post-transplantation cardiovascular events in renal transplant recipients, and to develop a new score for predicting the risk of CVD after kidney transplantation. Methods/Design Observational prospective cohort study of all kidney transplant recipients in the A Coruña Hospital (Spain in the period 1981-2008 (2059 transplants corresponding to 1794 patients. The variables included will be: donor and recipient characteristics, chronic kidney disease-related risk factors, pre-transplant and post-transplant cardiovascular risk factors, routine biochemistry, and immunosuppressive, antihypertensive and lipid-lowering treatment. The events studied in the follow-up will be: patient and graft survival, acute rejection episodes and cardiovascular events (myocardial infarction, invasive coronary artery therapy, cerebral vascular events, new-onset angina, congestive heart failure, rhythm disturbances and peripheral vascular disease. Four cardiovascular risk scores were calculated at the time of transplantation: the Framingham score, the European Systematic Coronary Risk Evaluation (SCORE equation, and the REGICOR (Registre Gironí del COR (Gerona Heart Registry, and DORICA (Dyslipidemia, Obesity, and Cardiovascular Risk functions. The cumulative incidence of cardiovascular events will be analyzed by competing risk survival methods. The clinical relevance of different variables will be calculated using the ARR (Absolute Risk Reduction, RRR (Relative Risk Reduction and NNT (Number Needed to Treat. The ability of different cardiovascular risk scores to predict cardiovascular events will be analyzed by using the c index and the area under ROC curves. Based on the competing risks analysis, a nomogram to predict the probability of cardiovascular events after kidney transplantation will be developed. Discussion This study will make it possible to determine the post-transplant incidence of cardiovascular events in a large cohort of renal transplant recipients in Spain, to confirm the relationship between traditional and transplant-specific cardiovascular risk factors and CVD, and to develop a score to predict the risk of CVD in these patients.

  11. Smoking and risk of myocardial infarction in women and men: longitudinal population study

    OpenAIRE

    Prescott, Eva; Hippe, Merete; Schnohr, Peter; Hein, Hans Ole; Vestbo, Jørgen

    1998-01-01

    Objective: To compare risk of myocardial infarction associated with smoking in men and women, taking into consideration differences in smoking behaviour and a number of potential confounding variables.

  12. Risk and benefit of dual antiplatelet treatment among non-revascularized myocardial infarction patients in different age groups

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Juul, Nikolai; Gislason, Gunnar

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Dual anti-platelet treatment with clopidogrel and aspirin is indicated for most patients after myocardial infarction. We examined the risk/benefit relationship of dual anti-platelet treatment according to age in a nationwide cohort of 30,532 myocardial infarction patients without revascularization. METHODS: Patients admitted with first-time myocardial infarction in 2002-2010, not undergoing revascularization, were identified from nationwide Danish registers. Dual anti-platelet treatment use was assessed by claimed prescriptions. Stratified into age groups, risk of bleeding, all-cause mortality and a combined endpoint of cardiovascular death, recurrent myocardial infarction and ischaemic stroke was analysed by Cox proportional-hazard models and tested in a propensity-score matched population. RESULTS: A total of 21,302 users and 9230 non-users of dual anti-platelet treatment were included (mean age 67.02 (±13.8) years and 64.7% males). Use of dual anti-platelet treatment decreased with age: 80% (79 years). We found a reduced risk of cardiovascular death, recurrent myocardial infarction and ischaemic stroke in users 79 years (HR=0.92; 95% CI 0.84-1.01, NS). Risk of bleeding increased with dual anti-platelet treatment use in patients aged 79 years (HR=1.46; 95% CI 1.22-1.74). Similar tendencies in all four age groups were found in the propensity-matched population. CONCLUSION: Dual anti-platelet treatment use was less likely among elderly patients although similar effects regarding both risk and benefit were found in all age groups. Increased focus on initiating dual anti-platelet treatment in elderly, non-invasively treated myocardial infarction patients is warranted.

  13. Usefulness of EuroSCORE systems for risk stratification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saffioti, Silvia; Burzotta, Francesco; Coluccia, Valentina; Trani, Carlo; Bruno, Piergiorgio; Massetti, Massimo; Crea, Filippo

    2015-02-01

    Risk stratification of patients undergoing open-heart surgery or percutaneous interventions may help physicians select the best individual management of patients with advanced heart disease.European System for Cardiac Operative Risk Evaluation (EuroSCORE) is an easy-to-calculate, clinical scoring system which has been developed for coronary surgery and applied in various cardiological settings. Recently, the EuroSCORE II model has been launched with the aim of improving the stratification performance over the first model.In the present study, we review the available scientific data on the use of EuroSCORE systems in patients undergoing surgical or percutaneous procedures. PMID:25111773

  14. Dehydroepiandrosterone Sulfate as a Risk Factor for Premature Myocardial Infarction: A Comparative Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shojaie, Mohammad; Rajpout, Mohammad Yaghoub; Abtahian, Armin; Pour, Azadeh Esmail; Akbarzadeh, Armin

    2015-01-01

    Background This study aimed to evaluate some of the major risk factors of myocardial infarction including dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate in patients with premature myocardial infarction (age <50 years old) and myocardial infarction (age ?50 years). Methods This is a parallel case-control study on 50 premature myocardial infarction patients and 50 myocardial infarction patients. We also recruited 50 matched participants for each of the two groups. Patients and their control groups were assessed for dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate serum level, diabetes mellitus, hyperlipidemia, hypertriglyceridemia, and hypertension. In addition, family history of cardiovascular disease and current smoking was recorded. Univariate and multivariate logistic regression analyses were performed to evaluate predictors of premature myocardial infarction and myocardial infarction. Results No significant differences were observed between the demographic data of patients and their controls. The dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate serum level was significantly higher in patients with premature myocardial infarction compared with controls. Multivariate logistic regression analysis revealed only serum dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate level to be significantly associated with premature myocardial infarction (odds ratio, 2.65; 95% confidence interval, 1.44 to 4.877; P = 0.002). Additionally, hypertension was found to be associated with myocardial infarction. Conclusion Higher levels of serum dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate level are associated with premature myocardial infarction but not with myocardial infarction, and this association is independent of the effects of other risk factors. PMID:25780511

  15. Influence of gender on the risk of death and adverse events in patients with acute myocardial infarction undergoing pharmacoinvasive strategy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lanaro, Eduardo; Caixeta, Adriano; Soares, Juliana A; Alves, Cláudia Maria Rodrigues; Barbosa, Adriano Henrique Pereira; Souza, José Augusto Marcondes; Sousa, José Marconi Almeida; Amaral, Amaury; Ferreira, Guilherme M; Moreno, Antônio Célio; Júnior, Iran Gonçalves; Stefanini, Edson; Carvalho, Antônio Carlos

    2014-11-01

    Pharmacoinvasive treatment is an acceptable alternative for patients with ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) in developing countries. The present study evaluated the influence of gender on the risks of death and major adverse cardiovascular events (MACE) in this population. Seven municipal emergency rooms and the Emergency Mobile Healthcare Service in São Paulo treated STEMI patients with tenecteplase. The patients were subsequently transferred to a tertiary teaching hospital for early (hypertension (70.7 vs. 59.3%, p = 0.02); higher incidence of hypothyroidism (20.0 vs. 5.5%; p risk scores (40.0 vs. 23.7%; p risk factors and not gender itself. PMID:24671733

  16. The relationship between neutrophil to lymphocyte ratio and SYNTAX score in patients with ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Halit Acet

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Objective: We aimed to assess relationship between the severity of coronary atherosclerosis assessed by SYNTAX score (SS and neutrophil to lymphocyte ratio (NLR in patients with ST elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI. Methods: After accounting for exclusion criteria, a total of 291 patient with STEMI in whom primary percutaneous coronary intervention was performed were retrospectively included (216 male, 75 female; mean age 61.6+14.0 years. Total and differential leukocyte counts and other biochemical markers were measured at admission. Patients were categorized into tertiles on the basis of SS. Monitoring for major adverse cardiac events (MACEs was performed during the in hospital follow-up period. Results: The SS high group leukocyte (p=0.009, neutrophil (p=0.008, NLR (p=0.048, peak troponin (p<0.001, peak CK-MB (p=0.001 lactate dehydrogenase (p=0.005, aspartate aminotransferase (p=0.004 values were significantly higher compared with SSlow and SSmid groups. SS was increased, left ventricular ejection fraction was decrease (p<0.001 and left ventricular systolic diameter was increased (p=0.007. The in-hospital death rate and MACEs were greater in the high SS group than in the other groups (p<0.001 both of. Conclusion: We found that high NLR was significantly and correlated increased with SS. In addition, high SS were significantly associated with increased in-hospital MACE and in-hospital death. Further prospective studies assessing the predictive role of both SS and NLR in conjunction for risk stratification might improve risk prediction in patients with STEMI. J Clin Exp Invest 2014; 5 (2: 211-218

  17. High-risk subgroup of inferior myocardial infarction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To identify high-risk subgroups of inferior myocardial infarction, 75 patients presenting with their first inferior infarction were investigated by sequential gated blood pool scans. The patients were divided into four groups based on the right ventricular function (RVF) and anterior wall motion (AWM) of the left ventricle by scan at the time of admission. A second blood pool scan was performed at ten days to evaluate RV and LV function. Thirty-eight patients had cardiac catheterization before discharge and all patients were followed up for one year to determine their clinical outcome. Depressed RVF and reduced AWM were observed in 26 (35 %) (Group A); depressed RVF and normal AWM were found in 20 (27 %) (Group B); reduced AWM and normal RVE in 10 (13 %) (Group C); and normal RVF and AWM in 19 (25 %) (Group D). The mean values of biventricular function (LVEF, RVEF) in groups A, B, C, and D were (44.9 ± 8.4 %, 32.5 ± 9.9 %), (59.9 ± 8.6 %, 34.5 ± 8.0 %), (44.9 ± 15.7 %, 48.2 ± 3.3 %), and (60.4 ± 9.1 %, 51.6 ± 10.6%), respectively, at admission. In serial measurements, LVEF did not change significantly in any group, however, RVEF improved nearly 10 points in groups A and B at 10 days. Group A also had the highest incidence (82 %) of left anterior descending coronary artery involvement, and the highest mean creatine phosphokinase levels (762 ± 318 U/1): Furthermore, group A had a high incidence of major complications during their hospital course and high mortalr hospital course and high mortality during the one-year follow-up. These data clearly identified group A as a high-risk subgroup of patients with inferior infarction. (author)

  18. The Value of Simplified Selvester QRS Scoring System in Predicting ST-segment Resolution after Thrombolysis in Patients with Acute Myocardial Infarction

    OpenAIRE

    Samad Ghaffari; Babak Kazemi; Gholamreza Saeidi; Nariman Sepehrvand; Leili Pourafkari

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACT Background: Selvester QRS scoring system was developed for estimating the infarct size from the electrocardiogram (ECG). Objective: To evaluate the predictive value of the simplified version of this scoring system on ST-segment resolution (STR) mortality in patients with acute ST-elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) undergoing thrombolytic therapy (TLT). Methods: We enrolled 100 consecutive patients with their first acute STEMI within 12 hours of onset of chest pain who...

  19. Antidiabetic treatments and risk of hospitalisation with myocardial infarction: a nationwide case-control study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Horsdal, Henriette Thisted; SØndergaard, Flemming

    2011-01-01

    Data on cardiovascular risk associated with different types of antidiabetic treatments are sparse and conflicting. We examined the risk of hospitalisation with myocardial infarction (MI) among patients treated with sulfonylureas, metformin, insulin, any combination and no antidiabetic pharmacotherapy.

  20. SCORING THE DEFAULT RISK OF LOCAL AUTHORITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    GORI Elena

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available In the Nineties, almost all public administrations were affected by a change that made municipalities more responsible in using public resources. More recently, the global crisis and the gradual cuts in funding from the State led to significant repercussions on the budgets of local authorities with an increasing number of defaults. The Italian government introduced the procedure of “financial default” to rescue local authorities in financial difficulties from 1989. However, to date, a methodology to constantly monitor the local authorities’ "health" and to prevent financial defaults has not yet been formalized. As previous studies highlighted a close link between financial condition and service delivered to citizens, the study aims to construct a set of specific indicators to judge the default risk of Italian LAs in order to prevent defaults. In this research we use a deductive method. The research was carried out in eight different steps according to a logical process of identifying the risk indicators and the consequent risk ranges. The results are significant as they clarify the situation leading potentially to default and they propose a set of specific risk indicators to evaluate and to prevent the risk of default. This logical process could easily be adopted at an international level, with the necessary modifications for specific accounting regimes.

  1. Chronic myocardial infarction detection and characterization during coronary artery calcium scoring acquisitions.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Rodríguez-Granillo, Gastón A

    2012-01-05

    Hypoenhanced regions on multidetector CT (MDCT) coronary angiography correlate with myocardial hyperperfusion. In addition to a limited capillary density, chronic myocardial infarction (MI) commonly contains a considerable amount of adipose tissue.

  2. Alcohol Intake, Myocardial Infarction, Biochemical Risk Factors, and Alcohol Dehydrogenase Genotypes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tolstrup, Janne Schurmann; GrØnbæk, Morten

    2009-01-01

      Background- The risk of myocardial infarction is lower among light-to-moderate alcohol drinkers compared with abstainers. We tested associations between alcohol intake and risk of myocardial infarction and risk factors and whether these associations are modified by variations in alcohol dehydrogenases. Methods and Results- We used information on 9584 men and women from the Danish general population in the Copenhagen City Heart Study. During follow-up, from 1991 to 2007, 663 incident cases of myocardial infarction occurred. We observed that increasing alcohol intake was associated with decreasing risk of myocardial infarction, decreasing low-density lipoprotein cholesterol and fibrinogen, increasing diastolic and systolic blood pressure and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, and with U-shaped nonfasting triglycerides. In contrast, ADH1B and ADH1C genotypes were not associated with risk of myocardial infarction or with any of the cardiovascular biochemical risk factors, and there was no indication that associations between alcohol intake and myocardial infarction and between alcohol intake and risk factors were modified by genotypes. Conclusions- Increasing alcohol intake is associated with decreasing risk of myocardial infarction, decreasing low-density lipoprotein cholesterol and fibrinogen, increasing diastolic and systolic blood pressure and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, and U-shaped nonfasting triglycerides. These associations were not modified by ADH1B and ADH1C are genotypes. Udgivelsesdato: 2009

  3. Risk factors of postoperative myocardial infarction after colorectal surgeries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moghadamyeghaneh, Zhobin; Mills, Steven D; Carmichael, Joseph C; Pigazzi, Alessio; Stamos, Michael J

    2015-04-01

    There are limited data regarding the specific risk factors of postoperative myocardial infarction (MI) in patients undergoing colorectal resectional surgery. We sought to identify risk factors of acute MI after colorectal resection operations. The National Inpatient Sample database was used to identify patients who had postoperative MI after colorectal resection operations between 2002 and 2010. Statistical analysis was performed to identify factors predictive of postoperative MI. We sampled a total of 2,513,124 patients undergoing colorectal resection, of whom 38,317 (1.5%) sustained a postoperative MI. Patients with postoperative MI had associated 28.5 per cent in-hospital mortality. Risk factors identified include (P congestive heart failure (odds ratio [OR], 8.18), chronic renal failure (OR, 3.86), age 70 years or older (OR, 3.68), peripheral vascular disorders (OR, 2.93), fluid and electrolyte disorders (OR, 2.69), emergency admission (OR, 2.56), preoperative weight loss (OR, 2.49), cardiac valvular disease (OR, 2.46), chronic lung disease (OR, 1.75), deficiency anemia (OR, 1.22), colorectal cancer (OR, 1.77), and hypertension (OR, 1.14). Postoperative MI occurs in less than 2 per cent of colorectal resections. However, patients sustaining postoperative MI are over six times more likely to die. Congestive heart failure and chronic renal failure are the strongest predictors of postoperative MI. PMID:25831181

  4. A case-control study of physical activity patterns and risk of non-fatal myocardial infarction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gong Jian

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The interactive effects of different types of physical activity on cardiovascular disease (CVD risk have not been fully considered in previous studies. We aimed to identify physical activity patterns that take into account combinations of physical activities and examine the association between derived physical activity patterns and risk of acute myocardial infarction (AMI. Methods We examined the relationship between physical activity patterns, identified by principal component analysis (PCA, and AMI risk in a case-control study of myocardial infarction in Costa Rica (N=4172, 1994-2004. The component scores derived from PCA and total METS were used in natural cubic spline models to assess the association between physical activity and AMI risk. Results Four physical activity patterns were retained from PCA that were characterized as the rest/sleep, agricultural job, light indoor activity, and manual labor job patterns. The light indoor activity and rest/sleep patterns showed an inverse linear relation (P for linearity=0.001 and a U-shaped association (P for non-linearity=0.03 with AMI risk, respectively. There was an inverse association between total activity-related energy expenditure and AMI risk but it reached a plateau at high levels of physical activity (P for non-linearity=0.01. Conclusions These data suggest that a light indoor activity pattern is associated with reduced AMI risk. PCA provides a new approach to investigate the relationship between physical activity and CVD risk.

  5. New risk markers may change the HeartScore risk classification significantly in one-fifth of the population

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, MH; Hansen, Tine Willum

    2009-01-01

    The study aim was to determine whether urine albumin/creatinine ratio (UACR), high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hsCRP) or N-terminal pro-brain natriuretic peptide (Nt-proBNP) added to risk prediction based on HeartScore and history of diabetes or cardiovascular disease. A Danish population sample of 2460 individuals was divided in three groups: 472 subjects receiving cardiovascular medication or having history of diabetes, prior myocardial infarction or stroke, 559 high-risk subjects with a 10-year risk of cardiovascular death above 5% as estimated by HeartScore, and 1429 low-moderate risk subjects with estimated risk below 5%. During the following 9.5 years the composite end point of cardiovascular death, non-fatal myocardial infarction or stroke (CEP) occurred in 204 subjects. CEP was predicted in all three groups by UACR (HRs: 2.1, 2.1 and 2.3 per 10-fold increase, all P<0.001) or by hsCRP (HRs: 1.9, 1.9 and 1.7 per 10-fold increase, all P<0.05), but not by Nt-proBNP (HRs: 1.1, 2.6 and 3.7 per 10-fold increase, last two P<0.001) (P<0.05 for interaction). In the low-moderate risk group, pre-specified gender adjusted (men/women) cutoff values of UACR 0.73/1.06 mg mmol-1 or hsCRP 6.0/7.3 mg l-1 identified a subgroup of 16% who experienced one-third of the CEPs. In the patient group, combined absence of high UACR and high Nt-proBNP 110/164 pg ml-1 (men/women) identified a subgroup of 52% who experienced only 15% of the CEPs. Additional use of UACR and hsCRP in subjects with low-moderate risk and UACR and Nt-proBNP in subjects with known diabetes of cardiovascular disease changed HeartScore risk classification significantly in 19% of the population.

  6. Risk factors for post-traumatic massive cerebral infarction secondary to space-occupying epidural hematoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Wen-hao; Hu, Lian-shui; Lin, Hong; Li, Jun; Luo, Fei; Huang, Wei; Lin, Jun-ming; Cai, Gen-ping; Liu, Chang-chun

    2014-08-15

    Post-traumatic massive cerebral infarction (MCI) is a fatal complication of concurrent epidural hematoma (EDH) and brain herniation that commonly requires an aggressive decompressive craniectomy. The risk factors and surgical indications of MCI have not been fully elucidated. In this retrospective study, post-traumatic MCI was diagnosed in 32 of 176 patients. The performance of a decompressive craniectomy simultaneously with the initial hematoma-evacuation surgery improved their functional outcomes, compared with delayed surgery (on the 6-month Extended Glasgow Outcome Scale, 5.6±1.5 vs. 3.4±0.6; pmydriasis (OR, 7.08; p=0.004), preoperative brain herniation for longer than 90?min (OR, 6.41; p<0.001), and a Glasgow Coma Score of 3-5 points (OR, 2.86; p<0.053). Multi-variate logistic regression analysis revealed no significant association between post-traumatic MCI and age, gender, mid-line shift, Rotterdam computed tomography score, intraoperative hypotension, or serum concentrations of sodium or glucose. Incidence of post-traumatic MCI increased from 16.4% in those having any two of the six risk factors to 47.7% in those having any three or more of the six risk factors (p<0.001). Patients with concurrent EDH and brain herniation exhibited an increased risk for post-traumatic MCI with the accumulation of several critical clinical factors. Early decompressive craniectomy based on accurate risk estimation is recommended in efforts to improve patient functional outcomes. PMID:24773559

  7. Prognostic Value of TIMI Score versus GRACE Score in ST-segment Elevation Myocardial Infarction / Valor Prognóstico do Escore TIMI versus Escore GRACE no Infarto com Supradesnível do Segmento ST

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Luis C. L., Correia; Guilherme, Garcia; Felipe, Kalil; Felipe, Ferreira; Manuela, Carvalhal; Ruan, Oliveira; André, Silva; Isis, Vasconcelos; Caio, Henri; Márcia, Noya-Rabelo.

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Languages: English, Portuguese Abstract in portuguese Fundamento: O Escore TIMI para infarto com supradesnível do segmento ST (IAMcSST) foi criado e validado especificamente para este cenário clínico, enquanto o Escore GRACE é genérico para qualquer tipo de síndrome coronariana aguda. Objetivo: Identificar qual dos escores, TIMI ou GRACE, apresen [...] ta melhor desempenho prognóstico em pacientes com IAMcSST. Métodos: Foram incluídos 152 indivíduos consecutivamente internados por IAMcSST. Os escores TIMI e GRACE foram testados quanto a sua capacidade discriminatória (estatística-C) e calibração (teste Hosmer-Lemeshow), em relação ao desfecho óbito hospitalar. Resultados: O Escore TIMI apresentou distribuição equitativa de pacientes nas faixas de baixo, intermediário e alto risco (39%, 27% e 34%, respectivamente), diferente do Escore GRACE que apresentou distribuição predominante em baixo risco (80%, 13% e 7%, respectivamente). A letalidade da amostra foi de 11%. A estatística-C do Escore TIMI foi de 0,87 (95% IC = 0,76 - 0,98), semelhante ao GRACE (0,87; 95% IC = 0,75-0,99) - p = 0,71. O Escore TIMI apresentou calibração satisfatória, representada por ?2 de 1,4 (p = 0,92), nitidamente superior à calibração do Escore GRACE, que apresentou ?2 de 14 (p = 0,08). Esta calibração se reflete em incidências esperadas para as faixas de baixo, intermediário e alto risco de acordo com o Escore TIMI (0%, 4,9% e 25%, respectivamente), diferente do GRACE (2,4%, 25% e 73%) que caracterizou inadequadamente a faixa intermediária. Conclusão: Os escores TIMI e GRACE apresentam semelhante capacidade discriminatória em relação a óbito hospitalar, porém o Escore TIMI possui calibração superior ao GRACE. Para populações de risco diferente da nossa amostra, esta conclusão deve ser validada por futuros trabalhos. Abstract in english Background: The TIMI Score for ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) was created and validated specifically for this clinical scenario, while the GRACE score is generic to any type of acute coronary syndrome. Objective: Between TIMI and GRACE scores, identify the one of better pro [...] gnostic performance in patients with STEMI. Methods: We included 152 individuals consecutively admitted for STEMI. The TIMI and GRACE scores were tested for their discriminatory ability (C-statistics) and calibration (Hosmer-Lemeshow) in relation to hospital death. Results: The TIMI score showed equal distribution of patients in the ranges of low, intermediate and high risk (39 %, 27 % and 34 %, respectively), as opposed to the GRACE Score that showed predominant distribution at low risk (80 %, 13 % and 7%, respectively). Case-fatality was 11%. The C-statistics of the TIMI score was 0.87 (95%CI = 0.76 to 0.98), similar to GRACE (0.87, 95%CI = 0.75 to 0.99) - p = 0.71. The TIMI score showed satisfactory calibration represented by ?2 = 1.4 (p = 0.92), well above the calibration of the GRACE score, which showed ?2 = 14 (p = 0.08). This calibration is reflected in the expected incidence ranges for low, intermediate and high risk, according to the TIMI score (0 %, 4.9 % and 25 %, respectively), differently to GRACE (2.4%, 25% and 73%), which featured middle range incidence inappropriately. Conclusion: Although the scores show similar discriminatory capacity for hospital death, the TIMI score had better calibration than GRACE. These findings need to be validated populations of different risk profiles.

  8. Genetic polymorphisms in the ESR1 gene and cerebral infarction risk: a meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Hong-Hua; Gao, Lian-Bo; Wen, Jia-Mei

    2014-09-01

    A number of studies have documented that estrogen receptor ? (ESR1) may play an important role in the development and progression of cerebral infarction, but many existing studies have yielded inconclusive results. This meta-analysis was performed to evaluate the relationships between ESR1 genetic polymorphisms and cerebral infarction risk. The PubMed, CISCOM, CINAHL, Web of Science, Google Scholar, EBSCO, Cochrane Library, and CBM databases were searched for relevant articles published before October 1, 2013, without any language restrictions. Meta-analysis was conducted using the STATA 12.0 software. Seven case-control studies were included with a total of 1471 patients with cerebral infarction and 4688 healthy control subjects. Two common single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the ESR1 gene (rs2234693 T>C and rs9340799?A>G) were assessed. Our meta-analysis results revealed that ESR1 genetic polymorphisms might increase the risk of cerebral infarction. Subgroup analysis by SNP type indicated that both rs2234693 and rs9340799 polymorphisms in the ESR1 gene were strongly associated with an increased risk of cerebral infarction. Further subgroup analysis by ethnicity showed significant associations between ESR1 genetic polymorphisms and increased risk of cerebral infarction among both Asians and Caucasians. In the stratified subgroup analysis by gender, the results suggested that ESR1 genetic polymorphisms were associated with an increased risk of cerebral infarction in the female population. However, there were no statistically significant associations between ESR1 genetic polymorphisms and cerebral infarction risk in the male population. Meta-regression analyses also confirmed that gender might be a main source of heterogeneity. Our findings indicate that ESR1 genetic polymorphisms may contribute to the development of cerebral infarction, especially in the female population. PMID:24772998

  9. C-Reactive protein predicts acute myocardial infarction during high-risk noncardiac and vascular surgery

    OpenAIRE

    Martins, Oscar M.; Fonseca, Vicente F.; Ivan Borges; Vaierio Martins; Vera Lucia Portal; Lucia Campos Pellanda

    2011-01-01

    BACKGROUND: High-sensitivity C-reactive protein predicts cardiovascular events in a wide range of clinical contexts. However, the role of high-sensitivity C-reactive protein as a predictive marker for perioperative acute myocardial infarction during noncardiac surgery is not yet clear. The present study investigated high-sensitivity C-reactive protein levels as predictors of acute myocardial infarction risk in patients undergoing high-risk noncardiac surgery. METHODS: This concurrent cohort s...

  10. High Framingham risk score decreases quality of life in adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christian Yosaputra

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Cardiovascular disease (CVD risk factors, such as diabetes, hypertension, hypercholesterolemia, smoking, and obesity tend to occur together in the general population. Increasing prevalence of multiple CVD risk factors has been related to increased risk of death from coronary heart disease and stroke. Studies have suggested that people with several risk factors of CVD may have impaired health-related quality of life. The objective of this study was to assess the association of CVD risk factors with quality of life (QOL among adults aged 40 to 65 years. A cross-sectional study was conducted involving 220 subjects 40 - 65 years of age at a health center. The CVD risk factors were assessed using the Framingham risk score that is the standard instrument for assessment of the risk of a first cardiac event. The risk factors assessed were age, smoking, blood pressure, total cholesterol and high density lipoprotein cholesterol concentrations. QOL was assessed by means of the WHOQOL-BREF instrument that had been prevalidated. The results of the study showed that 28.2% of subjects were smokers, 56.4% had stage 1 hypertension, 42.8% high total cholesterol and 13.6% low HDL cholesterol. The high risk group amounted to 45.5% and 42.3% constitued an intermediate risk group. High CVD risk scores were significantly associated with a low QOL for all domains (physical, psychological, social and environment (p=0.000. Preventing or reducing the multiple CVD risk factors to improve QOL is necessary among adults.

  11. Potential demographic and baselines variables for risk stratification of high-risk post-myocardial infarction patients in the era of implantable cardioverter-defibrillator - a prognostic indicator

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yap, Yee Guan; Duong, Trinh

    2008-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Risk stratification after myocardial infarction (MI) remains expensive and disappointing. We designed a prognostic indicator using demographic information to select patients at risk of dying after MI. METHOD AND RESULTS: We combined individual patient data from the placebo arms of EMIAT, CAMIAT, TRACE and DIAMOND-MI with LVEF 10 ventricular premature beats/hour or a run of ventricular tachycardia). Risk factors for mortality beginning at day 45 post-MI up to 2 years were examined using Cox regression analysis. Risk scores were derived from the equation of a Cox regression model containing only significant variables. The prognostic index was the sum of the individual contribution from the risk factors. 2707 patients were pooled (age: 66 (23-92) years, 78.8% M) with 480 deaths at 2-years (44% arrhythmic and 35.6% non-arrhythmic cardiac deaths). Variables predicting mortality were age, sex, previous MI or angina, hypertension, diabetes, systolic blood pressure, heart rate, NYHA functional class and non-Q wave infarct on electrocardiogram. Distinct survival curves were obtained for 3 risk groups based on the median and inter-quartile range for the prognostic index. In the high-risk group, up to 40% of patients died (all-cause mortality), 19.1% died of arrhythmic and 18.2% died of non-arrhythmic cardiac causes at 2-years. CONCLUSION: In post-MI patients with LVEF Udgivelsesdato: 2008/5/7

  12. Discrepancy between coronary artery calcium score and HeartScore in middle-aged Danes: the DanRisk study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Diederichsen, Axel Cosmus Pyndt; Sand, Niels Peter

    2012-01-01

    Background: Coronary artery calcification (CAC) is an independent and incremental risk marker. This marker has previously not been compared to the HeartScore risk model. Design: A random sample of 1825 citizens (men and women, 50 or 60 years of age) was invited for screening. Methods: Using the HeartScore model, the 10-year risk of fatal cardiovascular events based on gender, age, smoking, systolic blood pressure, and total cholesterol was estimated. A low risk was defined as

  13. The Selvester QRS Score is More Accurate than Q Waves and Fragmented QRS Complexes Using the Mason-Likar Configuration in Estimating Infarct Volume in Patients with Ischemic Cardiomyopathy

    OpenAIRE

    Carey, Mary G.; Luisi, Andrew J.; Baldwa, Sunil; Al-zaiti, Salah; Veneziano, Marc J.; Dekemp, Robert A.; Canty, John M.; Fallavollita, James A.

    2010-01-01

    Infarct volume independently predicts cardiovascular events. Fragmented QRS complexes (fQRS) may complement Q-waves for identifying infarction; however, their utility in advanced coronary disease is unknown. We tested whether fQRS could improve the ECG prediction of infarct volume by PET in 138 patients with ischemic cardiomyopathy (EF 0.27±0.09). Indices of infarction (pathologic Q-waves, fQRS, and Selvester QRS Score) were analyzed by blinded observers. In patients with QRS duration

  14. Reliability and validity of the postepidural fall risk assessment score.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Kathleen; Haddad, Lisa; Smith, Sarah

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to establish the interrater reliability and face validity of the postepidural fall risk assessment score instrument for the obstetric patient. The sample consisted of 207 healthy mothers at an inner-city level 1 trauma center. Kappa coefficients ranged from 0.54 to 0.83. Face validity of the tool was determined by participating nurses (n = 25). Results indicated that the tool was reliable and required modification to increase face validity. PMID:24375109

  15. Metabolic syndrome and Framingham risk score in obese young adults

    OpenAIRE

    Widjaja, Felix F.; Widjaja, Ivan R.; Yuni Astria; Suwita, Christopher S.; Sarwono Waspadji

    2013-01-01

    Background: The increase number of the metabolic syndrome (MetS) among young adults was mostly caused by obesity. MetS increases the risk of coronary heart disease (CHD) which can be estimated by Framingham risk score (FRS). The study was aimed to know the prevalence of MetS and FRS in obese young adults and to associate them with the components of MetS. Methods: A total of 70 male and female students aged 18 to 25 years with BMI ? 25 kg/m2 in Faculty of Medicine Universitas Indonesia were ...

  16. Risk Factors for Rehospitalization for Acute Coronary Syndromes and Unplanned Revascularization Following Acute Myocardial Infarction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arnold, Suzanne V.; Smolderen, Kim G.; Kennedy, Kevin F.; Li, Yan; Shore, Supriya; Stolker, Joshua M.; Wang, Tracy Y.; Jones, Philip G.; Zhao, Zhenxiang; Spertus, John A.

    2015-01-01

    Background Rehospitalizations for acute coronary syndromes (ACS) and coronary revascularization after an acute myocardial infarction (AMI) are not only common and costly but can also impact patients’ quality of life. In contrast to mortality and all?cause readmissions, little insight is available into risk factors associated with ACS and revascularization after AMI. Methods and Results In a multicenter AMI registry, we examined the rates and predictors of rehospitalizations for ACS and revascularization within the year after AMI among 3283 patients. Staged revascularization procedures were excluded. Kaplan–Meier estimated rates of rehospitalization due to ACS and revascularization were 6.8% and 4.1%, respectively. In hierarchical, multivariable models, the strongest predictors of rehospitalization for ACS were coronary artery bypass graft prior to AMI hospitalization (hazard ratio [HR] 2.12, 95% CI 1.45 to 3.10), female sex (HR 1.67, 95% CI 1.23 to 2.25), and in?hospital PCI (HR 1.85, 95% CI 1.28 to 2.69). The strongest predictors of subsequent revascularization were multivessel disease (HR 2.89, 95% CI 1.90 to 4.39) and in?hospital percutaneous coronary intervention with a bare metal stent (HR 2.08, 95% CI 1.19 to 3.63). The Global Registry of Acute Coronary Events mortality risk score was not associated with the risk of rehospitalization for ACS or revascularization. Conclusions Unique characteristics are associated with admissions for ACS and revascularization, as compared with survival. These multivariable risk predictors may help identify patients at high risk for ACS and revascularization, in whom intensification of secondary prevention therapies or closer post?AMI follow?up may be warranted. PMID:25666368

  17. The associations between a polygenic score, reproductive and menstrual risk factors and breast cancer risk

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andersen, Shaneda Warren; Trentham-Dietz, Amy; Gangnon, Ronald E; Hampton, John M; Figueroa, Jonine D; Skinner, Halcyon G; Engelman, Corinne D; Klein, Barbara E; Titus, Linda J; Newcomb, Polly A

    2013-01-01

    We evaluated whether 13 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) identified in genome-wide association studies interact with one another and with reproductive and menstrual risk factors in association with breast cancer risk. DNA samples and information on parity, breastfeeding, age at menarche, age at first birth, and age at menopause were collected through structured interviews from 1484 breast cancer cases and 1307 controls who participated in a population-based case-control study conducted in three U.S. states. A polygenic score was created as the sum of risk allele copies multiplied by the corresponding log odds estimate. Logistic regression was used to test associations between SNPs, the score, reproductive and menstrual factors and breast cancer risk. Nonlinearity of the score was assessed by the inclusion of a quadratic term for polygenic score. Interactions between the aforementioned variables were tested by including a cross-product term in models. We confirmed associations between rs13387042 (2q35), rs4973768 (SLC4A7), rs10941679 (5p12), rs2981582 (FGFR2), rs3817198 (LSP1), rs3803662 (TOX3) and rs6504950 (STXBP4) with breast cancer. Women in the score’s highest quintile had 2.2-fold increased risk when compared to women in the lowest quintile (95% confidence interval:1.67–2.88). The quadratic polygenic score term was not significant in the model (p=0.85), suggesting established breast cancer loci are not associated with increased risk more than the sum of risk alleles. Modifications of menstrual and reproductive risk factors associations with breast cancer risk by polygenic score were not observed. Our results suggest interactions between breast cancer susceptibility loci and reproductive factors are not strong contributors to breast cancer risk. PMID:23893088

  18. An Ultrasonographic Risk Score For Detecting Symptomatic Carotid Atherosclerotic Plaques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Afonso, David; Seabra, Jose; Pedro, Luis; E Fernandes, Jose Fernandes; Sanches, Joao

    2014-09-19

    This paper proposes a risk score computed from ultrasound data that correlates to plaque activity. It has the twofold purpose of detecting symptomatic plaques and estimating the likelihood of the asymptomatic lesion to become symptomatic. The proposed ultrasonographic activity index (UAI) relies on the plaque active profile which is a combination of the most discriminate ultrasound parameter associated with symptoms. These features are extracted by the automatic algorithm and also by the physician from the ultrasound images and from some transformations on it, such as monogenic decomposition which is a novelty in this clinical problem. This information is used to compute a risk score from the conditional probabilities of either symptomatic or asymptomatic groups. Symptom detection performance is evaluated on a transversal dataset of 146 plaques, where UAI obtained 83:5% accuracy, 84:1% sensitivity and 83:7% specificity. Performance is also assessed on a longitudinal study of 112 plaques, where UAI shows a significant improvement over the gold standard degree of stenosis, demonstrating higher power at predicting which asymptomatic plaques developed symptoms in an average follow-up of 10 months. Results suggest that this score could have a positive impact on early stroke prevention and treatment planning. PMID:25252286

  19. Comparing patients with spinal cord infarction and cerebral infarction: clinical characteristics, and short-term outcome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Romi F

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Halvor Naess, Fredrik RomiDepartment of Neurology, Haukeland University Hospital, N-5021 Bergen, NorwayBackground: To compare the clinical characteristics, and short-term outcome of spinal cord infarction and cerebral infarction.Methods: Risk factors, concomitant diseases, neurological deficits on admission, and short-term outcome were registered among 28 patients with spinal cord infarction and 1075 patients with cerebral infarction admitted to the Department of Neurology, Haukeland University Hospital, Bergen, Norway. Multivariate analyses were performed with location of stroke (cord or brain, neurological deficits on admission, and short-term outcome (both Barthel Index [BI] 1 week after symptom onset and discharge home or to other institution as dependent variables.Results: Multivariate analysis showed that patients with spinal cord infarction were younger, more often female, and less afflicted by hypertension and cardiac disease than patients with cerebral infarction. Functional score (BI was lower among patients with spinal cord infarctions 1 week after onset of symptoms (P < 0.001. Odds ratio for being discharged home was 5.5 for patients with spinal cord infarction compared to cerebral infarction after adjusting for BI scored 1 week after onset (P = 0.019.Conclusion: Patients with spinal cord infarction have a risk factor profile that differs significantly from that of patients with cerebral infarction, although there are some parallels to cerebral infarction caused by atherosclerosis. Patients with spinal cord infarction were more likely to be discharged home when adjusting for early functional level on multivariate analysis.Keywords: spinal cord infarction, cerebral infarction, risk factors, short-term outcome

  20. Risk of Myocardial Infarction or Diabetes During Androgen Deprivation Therapy for Prostate Cancer: Does Comorbidity Influence Risk?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keating, Nancy L.; O’Malley, A. James; Freedland, Stephen J.; Smith, Matthew R.

    2013-01-01

    Background Androgen deprivation therapy for prostate cancer is associated with cardiovascular disease and diabetes. Some data suggest that men with certain conditions may be more susceptible to developing cardiovascular disease than others. Objective Assess whether the risk of myocardial infarction or diabetes during androgen deprivation therapy is modified by specific baseline comorbidities. Design, Settings and Participants Population-based observational study of 185,106 U.S. men aged ?66 years diagnosed with local/regional prostate cancer from 1992 to 2007. We assessed comorbidities monthly over the follow-up period. Outcome Measurement and Analysis Cox proportional hazards models with time varying variables assessing incident diabetes or myocardial infarction. Results and limitations Overall, 49.9% received androgen deprivation therapy during follow-up. Among men with no comorbidities, androgen deprivation therapy was associated with an increase in the adjusted hazard of myocardial infarction (adjusted hazard ratio [AHR]=1.09, 95% confidence interval [CI]=1.02–1.16) and diabetes (AHR=1.33, 95% CI=1.27–1.39). Risk of myocardial infarction and diabetes were similarly increased among men with and without specific comorbid illnesses (all P for interactions >.10 with one exception). Previous myocardial infarction, congestive heart failure, peripheral arterial disease, stroke, hypertension, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, and renal disease were associated with new myocardial infarction and diabetes, and obesity and rheumatologic disease were also associated with diabetes. Limitations include the observational study design, reliance on administrative data to ascertain outcomes, and lack of information on risk factors such as smoking and family history. Conclusions Traditional risk factors for myocardial infarction and diabetes were also associated with developing these conditions during androgen deprivation therapy but did not significantly modify the risk attributable to androgen deprivation therapy. Strategies to screen and prevent diabetes and cardiovascular disease in men with prostate cancer should be similar to those recommended for the general population. PMID:22537796

  1. Coronary age as a risk factor in the modified Framingham risk score

    OpenAIRE

    Whitcomb Brian W; Schisterman Enrique F

    2004-01-01

    Abstract Background Clinical guidelines emphasize risk assessment as vital to patient selection for medical primary intervention. However, risk assessment methods are restricted in their ability to predict further coronary events. The most widely accepted tool in the United States is the Framingham risk score. In these equations age is a powerful risk factor. Although the extent of coronary atherosclerosis increases with age, there is large inter-individual variability in the rate of developm...

  2. Cardiovascular risk assessment scores for people with diabetes: a systematic review

    OpenAIRE

    Chamnan, P.; Simmons, R. K.; Sharp, S. J.; Griffin, S. J.; Wareham, N. J.

    2009-01-01

    People with type 2 diabetes have an increased risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD). Multivariate cardiovascular risk scores have been used in many countries to identify individuals who are at high risk of CVD. These risk scores include those originally developed in individuals with diabetes and those developed in a general population. This article reviews the published evidence for the performance of CVD risk scores in diabetic patients by: (1) examining the overall rationale for using risk s...

  3. Rapid Identification of Myocardial Infarction Risk Associated With Diabetes Medications Using Electronic Medical Records

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brownstein, John S.; Murphy, Shawn N.; Goldfine, Allison B.; Grant, Richard W.; Sordo, Margarita; Gainer, Vivian; Colecchi, Judith A.; Dubey, Anil; Nathan, David M.; Glaser, John P.; Kohane, Isaac S.

    2010-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To assess the ability to identify potential association(s) of diabetes medications with myocardial infarction using usual care clinical data obtained from the electronic medical record. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS We defined a retrospective cohort of patients (n = 34,253) treated with a sulfonylurea, metformin, rosiglitazone, or pioglitazone in a single academic health care network. All patients were aged >18 years with at least one prescription for one of the medications between 1 January 2000 and 31 December 2006. The study outcome was acute myocardial infarction requiring hospitalization. We used a cumulative temporal approach to ascertain the calendar date for earliest identifiable risk associated with rosiglitazone compared with that for other therapies. RESULTS Sulfonylurea, metformin, rosiglitazone, or pioglitazone therapy was prescribed for 11,200, 12,490, 1,879, and 806 patients, respectively. A total of 1,343 myocardial infarctions were identified. After adjustment for potential myocardial infarction risk factors, the relative risk for myocardial infarction with rosiglitazone was 1.3 (95% CI 1.1–1.6) compared with sulfonylurea, 2.2 (1.6–3.1) compared with metformin, and 2.2 (1.5–3.4) compared with pioglitazone. Prospective surveillance using these data would have identified increased risk for myocardial infarction with rosiglitazone compared with metformin within 18 months of its introduction with a risk ratio of 2.1 (95% CI 1.2–3.8). CONCLUSIONS Our results are consistent with a relative adverse cardiovascular risk profile for rosiglitazone. Our use of usual care electronic data sources from a large hospital network represents an innovative approach to rapid safety signal detection that may enable more effective postmarketing drug surveillance. PMID:20009093

  4. Myocardial infarction (heart attack) and its risk factors: a statistical study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A Statistical technique of odds ratio analysis was performed to look at the association of Myocardial Infarction with sex, smoking, hypertension, cholesterol, diabetes, family history, number of dependents, household income and residence. For this purpose a total of 506 patients were examined and their personal and medical data were collected. For each patient, the phenomenon of myocardial infarction was studied in relation to different risk factors. The analysis suggests that smoking, hypertension, cholesterol level, diabetes, family history are important risk factors for the occurrence of MI. (author)

  5. Effects of resting ischemia assessed by thallium scintigraphy on QRS scoring system for estimating left ventricular function quantified by radionuclide angiography in acute myocardial infarction patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The purpose of this study was to determine whether resting ischemia limits the usefulness of the QRS scoring system in predicting left ventricular (LV) ejection fraction (EF) in patients with acute infarction. We studied 48 patients after acute infarction by means of 12-lead ECG, thallium-201 scintigraphy, and radionuclide angiography. The thallium-201 scintigrams showed fixed defects in 25 patients, perfusion defects with partial or complete redistribution in the delayed images in 19 patients, and normal images in the remaining four patients. In the 48 patients there was a significant correlation between the QRS score and LVEF (r . -0.67; p less than 0.001). Patients with fixed defects showed a better correlation than patients with resting ischemia (r . -0.77 vs r . -0.60). A QRS score of 3 or less was used to separate patients with LVEF of 40% or greater from those with lower LVEF in patients with fixed defects (p . 0.0005), but this cutoff did not categorize patients with resting ischemia as to LVEF. Thus the presence of rest ischemia in patients with acute infarction may affect the correlation between QRS score and LVEF

  6. Risk factors for acute myocardial infarction during the postoperative period of myocardial revascularization

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    José Ribamar, Costa Jr.; Dinaldo C., Oliveira; Alexei, DerBedrossian; Enilton T., Egito; Edson R., Romano; Marcos O., Barbosa; Ieda M., Liguori; Jorge, Fahran; Luis C. B., Souza; Adib D., Jatene; Leopoldo S., Piegas.

    2003-03-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To identify risk factors for acute myocardial infarction during the postoperative period after myocardial revascularization. METHODS: This was a case-control study paired for sex, age, number, type of graft used, coronary endarterectomy, type of myocardial protection, and use of extracorp [...] oreal circulation. We assessed 178 patients (89 patients in each group) undergoing myocardial revascularization, and the following variables were considered: dyslipidemia, systemic hypertension, smoking, diabetes mellitus, previous myocardial revascularization surgery, previous coronary angioplasty, and acute myocardial infarction. RESULTS: Baseline clinical characteristics did not differ in the groups, except for previous myocardial revascularization surgery, prevalent in the case group (34 patients vs. 12 patients; p = 0.0002). This was the only independent predictor of risk for acute myocardial infarction in the postoperative period, based on a multivariate logistic regression analysis (p=0.0001). Mortality and the time of hospital stay of the case group were significantly higher (19.1% vs. 1.1%; p

  7. Risk for Myocardial Infarction and Stroke after Community-Acquired Bacteremia : A 20-Year Population-Based Cohort Study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dalager-Pedersen, Michael; SØgaard, Mette

    2014-01-01

    Infections may trigger acute cardiovascular events, but the risk after community-acquired bacteremia is unknown. We assessed the risk for acute myocardial infarction and ischemic stroke within 1 year of community-acquired bacteremia.

  8. Neutrophil to Lymphocyte Ratio Predicts SYNTAX Score in Patients With Non-ST Segment Elevation Myocardial Infarction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurtul, Serkan; Sarli, Bahadir; Baktir, Ahmet Oguz; Demirbas, Melih; Saglam, Hayrettin; Do?an, Yasemin; Sahin, Omer; Akpek, Mahmut; Odabas, Huseyin; Arinc, Huseyin; Kaya, Mehmet G

    2015-01-21

    In this study we aimed to investigate whether there is an association between the neutrophil to lymphocyte ratio (NLR) and severity of coronary artery disease (CAD) in patients with non-ST segment elevation myocardial infarction (NSTEMI) using the SYNTAX score (SXscore). A total of 414 patients with NSTEMI who underwent coronary angiography were enrolled in the study. NLR was measured for all patients at presentation. The study population was then divided into 3 tertiles based on the SYNTAX trial results.(1)) The low syntax group (n = 329) was defined as those with an SXscore ? 22, the intermediate syntax group (n = 58) was defined as an SXscore ? 23 and < 33, and the high syntax group (n = 27) as those with an SXscore ? 33. NLR was significantly lower in patients with a low SXscore compared to patients with an intermediate SXscore or high SXscore (3.7 ± 4 to 4.6 ± 2 and 7.9 ± 4, P < 0.001). Linear regression analysis revealed that NLR (coefficient? = 0.380, 95%CI: 1.165-1.917, P < 0.001) was significantly associated with the SXscore in patients with NSTEMI. Our results indicate that NLR is independently associated with the severity of CAD in patients with NSTEMI. PMID:25742940

  9. Coronary calcium score as a predictor for coronary artery disease and cardiac events in Japanese high-risk patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Although the coronary artery calcium (CAC) score as measured with computed tomography (CT) is associated with cardiovascular mortality and morbidity in Western countries, little is known in Asian populations. Three hundred and seventeen Japanese patients (205 men and 112 women) were followed in the study and they underwent both coronary angiography and CT for CAC measurements. The frequencies of angiographic coronary artery disease (CAD) were 5%, 36%, 76%, 80%, and 94% (P1,000 (n=49), respectively. In the average of 6.0 (range, 1-10) years follow-up period, 34 patients died including 13 from reasons of cardiac disease. In a Cox proportional hazard model after adjustment for age and sex, traditional coronary risk factors, previous myocardial infarction, and the need for revascularization, the hazard ratio for cardiac mortality in patients with a CAC score >1,000 was 2.98 (95% confidence interval: 1.15-9.40) compared with those with a CAC score=0-100. The CAC score has a predictive value for angiographical CAD and long-term mortality from cardiac disease in Japanese high-risk patients who undergo coronary angiography. (author)

  10. SCORING ASSESSMENT AND FORECASTING MODELS BANKRUPTCY RISK OF COMPANIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SUSU Stefanita

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Bankruptcy risk made the subject of many research studies that aim at identifying the time of the bankruptcy, the factors that compete to achieve this state, the indicators that best express this orientation (the bankruptcy. The threats to enterprises require the managers knowledge of continually economic and financial situations, and vulnerable areas with development potential. Managers need to identify and properly manage the threats that would prevent achieving the targets. In terms of methods known in the literature of assessment and evaluation of bankruptcy risk they are static, functional, strategic, and scoring nonfinancial models. This article addresses Altman and Conan-Holder-known internationally as the model developed at national level by two teachers from prestigious universities in our country-the Robu-Mironiuc model. Those models are applied to data released by the profit and loss account and balance sheet Turism Covasna company over which bankruptcy risk analysis is performed. The results of the analysis are interpreted while trying to formulate solutions to the economic and financial viability of the entity.

  11. Diabetes patients requiring glucose-lowering therapy and nondiabetics with a prior myocardial infarction carry the same cardiovascular risk: a population study of 3.3 million people

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schramm, Tina Ken; Gislason, Gunnar H

    2008-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Previous studies reveal major differences in the estimated cardiovascular risk in diabetes mellitus, including uncertainty about the risk in young patients. Therefore, large studies of well-defined populations are needed. METHODS AND RESULTS: All residents in Denmark > or = 30 years of age were followed up for 5 years (1997 to 2002) by individual-level linkage of nationwide registers. Diabetes patients receiving glucose-lowering medications and nondiabetics with and without a prior myocardial infarction were compared. At baseline, 71 801 (2.2%) had diabetes mellitus and 79 575 (2.4%) had a prior myocardial infarction. Regardless of age, age-adjusted Cox proportional-hazard ratios for cardiovascular death were 2.42 (95% confidence interval [CI], 2.35 to 2.49) in men with diabetes mellitus without a prior myocardial infarction and 2.44 (95% CI, 2.39 to 2.49) in nondiabetic men with a prior myocardial infarction (P=0.60), with nondiabetics without a prior myocardial infarction as the reference. Results for women were 2.45 (95% CI, 2.38 to 2.51) and 2.62 (95% CI, 2.55 to 2.69) (P=0.001), respectively. For the composite of myocardial infarction, stroke, and cardiovascular death, the hazard ratios in men with diabetes only were 2.32 (95% CI, 2.27 to 2.38) and 2.48 (95% CI, 2.43 to 2.54) in those with a prior myocardial infarction only (P=0.001). Results for women were 2.48 (95% CI, 2.43 to 2.54) and 2.71 (95% CI, 2.65 to 2.78) (P=0.001), respectively. Risks were similar for both diabetes types. Analyses with adjustments for comorbidity, socioeconomic status, and prophylactic medical treatment showed similar results, and propensity score-based matched-pair analyses supported these findings. CONCLUSIONS: Patients requiring glucose-lowering therapy who were > or = 30 years of age exhibited a cardiovascular risk comparable to nondiabetics with a prior myocardial infarction, regardless of sex and diabetes type. Therefore, requirement for glucose-lowering therapy should prompt intensive prophylactic treatment forcardiovascular diseases.

  12. Metabolic syndrome and Framingham risk score in obese young adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Felix F. Widjaja

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: The increase number of the metabolic syndrome (MetS among young adults was mostly caused by obesity. MetS increases the risk of coronary heart disease (CHD which can be estimated by Framingham risk score (FRS. The study was aimed to know the prevalence of MetS and FRS in obese young adults and to associate them with the components of MetS. Methods: A total of 70 male and female students aged 18 to 25 years with BMI ? 25 kg/m2 in Faculty of Medicine Universitas Indonesia were selected consecutively. The blood samples used to test fasting blood glucose, total cholesterol, high-density lipoprotein, and triglyceride were examined in Department of Clinical Pathology, Cipto Mangunkusumo Hospital after fasting for 14 to 16 hours. International Diabetes Federation (IDF definition was used to diagnose MetS. Univariate and bivariate analysis were done. Results: The prevalence of MetS based on IDF definition was 18.6% among obese young adults. The most associated MetS components was hypertriglyceridemia (OR 12.13; 95% CI 2.92-50.46; p = 0.001, followed with high blood pressure (OR 9.33; 95% CI 2.26-38.56; p = 0.001, low-HDL (OR 8.33; 95% CI 2.17-32.05; p = 0.003, and impaired fasting glucose (p = 0.03. Four subjects had FRS ? 1% and 66 subjects had risk < 1%. Increased FRS was not associated with MetS (p = 0.154. There was no component of MetS associated with increased FRS. Conclusion: Prevalence of MetS in obese young adults was similar with obese children and adolescents. Although no association of MetS and FRS was found, they are significant predictors for CHD which should not be used separately. (Med J Indones. 2013;22:100-6Keywords: Abdominal obesity, Framingham risk score, metabolic syndrome, young adults

  13. Evaluation of association between obstructive sleep apnea and coronary risk scores predicted by tomographic coronary calcium scoring in asymptomatic patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alper Kepez

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Objective: This cross-sectional observational study is designed to evaluate direct effects of obstructive sleep apnea syndrome (OSA on presence and extent of coronary atherosclerosis by using tomographic coronary calcification scoring on a population asymptomatic for coronary artery disease.Methods: Ninety-seven consecutive patients (49.17±0.86 years who were evaluated with sleep study for the suspicion of obstructive sleep apnea syndrome underwent tomographic coronary calcium scoring test. Cardiovascular risk factors, current medications and sleep study recordings of all patients were recorded. Patients were classified into 4 groups according to the apnea-hypopnea index (AHI. Linear and logistic regression analyses were used for assessment of association between variables.Results: Coronary risk scores of patients, assessed by tomographic coronary calcium scoring, were observed to increase linearly from simple snoring group to severe OSA groups (p=0.046. When patients were classified according to their gender, AHI and parameters reflecting severity of OSA-related hypoxia were found to correlate significantly with coronary risk scores of women but not with scores of men. Linear regression analysis revealed age as the only independent associated variable with cardiovascular risk scores assessed by tomographic coronary calcification scoring (Beta coefficient: 0.27, 95% CI 0.007-0.087, p=0.018. Binary logistic regression analysis also revealed age as the only variable which independently predicted the presence of coronary calcification (OR:1.11, 95% CI 1.039-1.188, p=0.002.Conclusion: These results suggest that presence of OSA may contribute to coronary artery disease risk of patients in association with its severity; however, association between OSA and subclinical atherosclerosis seems to be primarily dependent on age.

  14. SCORE underestimates cardiovascular risk (CVR of HIV+ patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R Ramírez

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available The new European Guidelines of Dislipidemia Management of the European Societies of Cardiology and Arteriosclerosis consider HIV+ as patients at high risk of developing cardiovascular events and deaths. The objective of the study was to evaluate cardiovascular events and deaths in a series of HIV+ patients. Observational, cross-sectional study, including a cohort of HIV+ and HIV? patients from 2008. CVR was calculated using the SCORE-CVR chart. Variation on lipid profile and incidence of cardiovascular events, cardiovascular death or death related to any cause were recorded. Data was analyzed using SPSS version 20.0 for MAC. 154 HIV+ and 155 HIV? patients were included. Mean age: 44.8±9.5 vs 55.2±14.3 y and 69.5% vs 49% males respectively (p<0.01. Mean time since HIV+ diagnosis was 11±6.2 y. Mean BMI and systolic blood pressure were lower in HIV+ (25.1±6.7 kg/m2 vs 28.7±5.1 kg/m2, (p<0.01 and 119.6±19.4 vs 124.7±14.7 mmHg, (p=0.044; respectively. A lower proportion of hypertense, diabetic and obese patients was observed in HIV+ (25.5% vs 6.5%; 20.6% vs 3.9% and 36.8% vs 12.3% but a larger proportion of smokers (68.8% vs 29.7% was observed (p<0.01 in all cases. Mean cholesterol and LDLc were lower in HIV+ (191.2±41.4 vs 218.5±44.6 mg/dl and 109.5±33.9 vs 134.6±37.7 mg/dl; p<0.01; respectively but with a lower mean HDLc and higher TG (50.3±19 mg/dl vs 55.2±14.9 mg/dl; p=0.013 and 156.7±85.7 vs 135.8±66.2 mg/dl; p=0.017; respectively. There was no significant difference in mean CVR-SCORE (3.5±3.6% vs 4.4±3.8%; p=0.091. With this SCORE, 5.2±5.3 and 6.7±5.8 cardiovascular events or deaths should be expected in HIV+ and HIV? respectively at 10 y. Four years later cholesterol, LDLc, HDLc, TG in HIV+ and HIV? patients did not vary compared with those obtained 4 y before. 5 events and 1 death were seen at 4 y follow-up in HIV+, and in HIV? patients. The incidence of events in HIV+ patients is similar to the expected according to their SCORE at 10 y. We could suppose that once the 10 y follow-up is reached, this incidence would be higher. On the other side, in HIV? at 4 y just 3 events ocurred, far from the 6.7 events expected. There were no significant differences between lipid profiles in any of the cohorts. Lipid profile with low HDLc and high TG is persistent in HIV+ patients at 4 y follow-up. Understimation of CVR in HIV+ patients by SCORE charts could be present as soon as 4 y after the first assesment. This supports the stratification of HIV+ patients as high-risk patients in new guidelines.

  15. The 'silence' of silent brain infarctions may be related to chronic ischemic preconditioning and nonstrategic locations rather than to a small infarction size

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Chao, Feng; Xue, Bai; Yu, Xu; Ting, Hua; Xue-Yuan, Liu.

    Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in english OBJECTIVE: Silent brain infarctions are the silent cerebrovascular events that are distinguished from symptomatic lacunar infarctions by their 'silence'; the origin of these infarctions is still unclear. This study analyzed the characteristics of silent and symptomatic lacunar infarctions and sought [...] to explore the mechanism of this 'silence'. METHODS: In total, 156 patients with only silent brain infarctions, 90 with only symptomatic lacunar infarctions, 160 with both silent and symptomatic lacunar infarctions, and 115 without any infarctions were recruited. Vascular risk factors, leukoaraiosis, and vascular assessment results were compared. The National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale scores were compared between patients with only symptomatic lacunar infarctions and patients with two types of infarctions. The locations of all of the infarctions were evaluated. The evolution of the two types of infarctions was retrospectively studied by comparing the infarcts on the magnetic resonance images of 63 patients obtained at different times. RESULTS: The main risk factors for silent brain infarctions were hypertension, age, and advanced leukoaraiosis; the main factors for symptomatic lacunar infarctions were hypertension, atrial fibrillation, and atherosclerosis of relevant arteries. The neurological deficits of patients with only symptomatic lacunar infarctions were more severe than those of patients with both types of infarctions. More silent brain infarctions were located in the corona radiata and basal ganglia; these locations were different from those of the symptomatic lacunar infarctions. The initial sizes of the symptomatic lacunar infarctions were larger than the silent brain infarctions, whereas the final sizes were almost equal between the two groups. CONCLUSIONS: Chronic ischemic preconditioning and nonstrategic locations may be the main reasons for the 'silence' of silent brain infarctions.

  16. The 'silence' of silent brain infarctions may be related to chronic ischemic preconditioning and nonstrategic locations rather than to a small infarction size

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chao Feng

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: Silent brain infarctions are the silent cerebrovascular events that are distinguished from symptomatic lacunar infarctions by their 'silence'; the origin of these infarctions is still unclear. This study analyzed the characteristics of silent and symptomatic lacunar infarctions and sought to explore the mechanism of this 'silence'. METHODS: In total, 156 patients with only silent brain infarctions, 90 with only symptomatic lacunar infarctions, 160 with both silent and symptomatic lacunar infarctions, and 115 without any infarctions were recruited. Vascular risk factors, leukoaraiosis, and vascular assessment results were compared. The National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale scores were compared between patients with only symptomatic lacunar infarctions and patients with two types of infarctions. The locations of all of the infarctions were evaluated. The evolution of the two types of infarctions was retrospectively studied by comparing the infarcts on the magnetic resonance images of 63 patients obtained at different times. RESULTS: The main risk factors for silent brain infarctions were hypertension, age, and advanced leukoaraiosis; the main factors for symptomatic lacunar infarctions were hypertension, atrial fibrillation, and atherosclerosis of relevant arteries. The neurological deficits of patients with only symptomatic lacunar infarctions were more severe than those of patients with both types of infarctions. More silent brain infarctions were located in the corona radiata and basal ganglia; these locations were different from those of the symptomatic lacunar infarctions. The initial sizes of the symptomatic lacunar infarctions were larger than the silent brain infarctions, whereas the final sizes were almost equal between the two groups. CONCLUSIONS: Chronic ischemic preconditioning and nonstrategic locations may be the main reasons for the 'silence' of silent brain infarctions.

  17. Comparison of the TIMI and the GRACE risk scores with the extent of coronary artery disease in patients with non-ST-elevation acute coronary syndrome

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objective: To compare the accuracy of the Global Registry of Acute Coronary Events risk score and the Thrombolysis In Myocardial Infarction risk score in predicting the extent of coronary artery disease in patients with non-ST segment elevation acute coronary syndrome. Methods: The cross-sectional study comprising 406 consecutive patients was conducted at the National Institute of Cardiovascular Diseases, Karachi, from August 2010 to March 2011. For all patients, the GRACE and TIMI RS's relevant scores on the two indices were calculated on admission using specified variables. The patients underwent coronary angiography to determine the extent of the disease. A significant level was defined as >70% stenosis in any major epicardial artery or >50% stenosis in the left main coronary artery. SPSS 19 was used for statistical analysis. Results: Both the indices showed good predictive value in identifying the extent of the disease. A Thrombolysis In Myocardial Infarction score >4 and Global Registry of Acute Coronary Events score >133 was significantly associated with 3vessel disease and left main disease, while for the former score <4 and latter score <133 was associated with normal or non-obstructive coronary disease (p<0.01). On comparison of the two risk scores, the discriminatory accuracy of the latter was significantly superior to the former in predicting 2vessel, 3vessel and left main diseases (p<0.05). Conclusion: Although both the indices were helpful in predicting th the indices were helpful in predicting the extent of the disease, the Global Registry showed better performance and was more strongly associated with multi-vessel and left main coronary artery disease. (author)

  18. Higher relative, but lower absolute risks of myocardial infarction in women than in men : analysis of some major risk factors in the SHEEP study. The SHEEP Study Group

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Reuterwall, C; Hallqvist, J

    1999-01-01

    Middle-aged men have often been the subjects of multifactorial studies of myocardial infarction (MI) risk factors. One major objective of the SHEEP study was to compare the effects of different MI risk factors in women and men.

  19. Relation of asymmetric dimethylarginine levels with conventional risk score systems in the healthy subjects with positive family history for coronary artery disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hulusi Sat?lm??o?lu

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Coronary artery disease is the most common cause of death in Turkey and the world. Asymmetric dimethylarginine is the major inhibitor of nitric oxide synthesis in humans. It has been shown that increased levels of asymmetric dimethylarginine is associated with endothelial dysfunction and increased atherogenesis. In this study, we aimed to investigate whether asymmetric dimethylarginine level is related with conventional risk score systems in subjects who had family history of coronary artery disease. Methods: Fifty two subjects within 20-40 years old of whom first degree relatives had myocardial infarction at young ages and 26 age and sex matched control subjects were included in this cross-sectional observational study. Frequency of diabetes, hyperlipidemia, smoking and serum levels of homocysteine, high-sensitive C-reactive protein (hsCRP and asymmetric dimethylarginine were compared between risk group and control subjects. Relation of asymmetric dimethylarginine level with Framingham and TEKHARF risk scores was also compared. Chi-square and Mann-Whitney U tests were used to compare categorical and continuous variables, respectively.Results: Fasting serum glucose, triglyceride, high-density lipoprotein, diastolic blood pressure, waist circumference and TEKHARF scores were increased in the subjects who had family history of myocardial infarction. Total cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein, hsCRP, homocysteine, creatinine and Framingham risk score were similar in studied groups . Asymmetric dimethylarginine levels were 0.1µmol/L higher in the risk group; however this difference could not reach significance (0.7±0.1 µmol/l vs 0.8±0.1 µmol/l; p=0.061. Conclusion: Measurement of serum asymmetric dimethylarginine levels did not reveal utility in defining conventional coronary artery disease risk score systems in cases that had positive family history. Larger studies including patients with different risk tertiles are needed.

  20. Frequency of risk factors of cerebral infarction in stroke patients. a study of 100 cases in naseer teaching hospital, peshawar

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To study the risk factors of cerebral infarction in stroke patients. It is a descriptive hospital based study conducted at the Department of Medicine, Naseer Teaching Hospital, Peshawar from January 2005 to December 2005. One hundred patients of stroke with cerebral infarction confirmed on C.T. scan brain and more than twenty years of age were included. Risk factors for cerebral infarction were defined in terms of hypertension, diabetes mellitus, ischemic heart disease, smoking, dyslipidaemia, TIAs (transient ischemic attacks), carotid artery stenosis and family history of stroke. Data of 100 cases with cerebral infarction was recorded. Most of the patients had more than one risk factors for cerebral infarction. hypertension was commonest risk factor (55%), smoking (30%), ischemic heart disease (34%), diabetes mellitus) (26%), hyperlipedaemia (30%), atrial fibrillation (25%), carotid artery stenosis (27%), obesity (15%) and family history of stroke (12%). 39% of patients had physical inactivity. Males were slightly predominant than females (51% vs 49%) and mean age was 50 years. females were rather older with mean age of 53 years. Cerebral infarction accounts for 80% to 85% of cases of stroke, which is a common neurological disorder. It increases a burden of disability and misery for patients and their families. Most of the risk factors of cerebral infarction are modifiable, its prevention should be the main cause of concern for the community. (author)or the community. (author)

  1. Acetaminophen use and risk of myocardial infarction and stroke in a hypertensive cohort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fulton, Rachael L; Walters, Matthew R; Morton, Ross; Touyz, Rhian M; Dominiczak, Anna F; Morrison, David S; Padmanabhan, Sandosh; Meredith, Peter A; McInnes, Gordon T; Dawson, Jesse

    2015-05-01

    Recent data suggest that self-reported acetaminophen use is associated with increased risk of cardiovascular events and that acetaminophen causes a modest blood pressure rise. There are no randomized trials or studies using verified prescription data of this relationship. We aimed to assess the relationship between verified acetaminophen prescription data and risk of myocardial infarction or stroke in patients with hypertension. We performed a retrospective data analysis using information contained within the UK Clinical Research Practice Datalink. Multivariable Cox proportional hazard models were used to estimate hazard ratios for myocardial infarction (primary end point), stroke, and any cardiovascular event (secondary end points) associated with acetaminophen use during a 10-year period. Acetaminophen exposure was a time-dependent variable. A propensity-matched design was also used to reduce potential for confounding. We included 24?496 hypertensive individuals aged ?65 years. Of these, 10?878 were acetaminophen-exposed and 13?618 were not. There was no relationship between risk of myocardial infarction, stroke, or any cardiovascular event and acetaminophen exposure on adjusted analysis (hazard ratio, 0.98; 95% confidence interval, 0.76-1.27; hazard ratio, 1.09; 95% confidence interval, 0.86-1.38; and hazard ratio, 1.17; 95% confidence interval, 0.99-1.37; respectively). Results in the propensity-matched sample (n=4000 per group) and when men and women were analyzed separately were similar. High-frequency users (defined as receiving a prescription for >75% of months) were also not at increased risk. After allowance for potentially confounding variables, the use of acetaminophen was not associated with an increased risk of myocardial infarction or stroke in a large cohort of hypertensive patients. PMID:25801870

  2. Self-rated health and standard risk factors for myocardial infarction: a cohort study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waller, Göran; Janlert, Urban; Norberg, Margareta; Lundqvist, Robert; Forssén, Annika

    2015-01-01

    Objective To investigate the relationship between self-rated health, adjusted for standard risk factors, and myocardial infarction. Design Population-based prospective cohort study. Setting Enrolment took place between 1990 and 2004 in Västerbotten County, Sweden Participants Every year, persons in the total population, aged 40, 50 or 60 were invited. Participation rate was 60%. The cohort consisted of 75?386 men and women. After exclusion for stroke or myocardial infarction before, or within 12?months after enrolment or death within 12?months after enrolment, 72?530 persons remained for analysis. Mean follow-up time was 13.2?years. Outcome measures Cox regression analysis was used to estimate HRs for the end point of first non-fatal or fatal myocardial infarction. HR were adjusted for age, sex, systolic blood pressure, total cholesterol, smoking, diabetes, body mass index, education, physical activity and self-rated health in the categories very good; pretty good; somewhat good; pretty poor or poor. Results In the cohort, 2062 persons were diagnosed with fatal or non-fatal myocardial infarction. Poor self-rated health adjusted for sex and age was associated with the outcome with HR 2.03 (95% CI 1.45 to 2.84). All categories of self-rated health worse than very good were statistically significant and showed a dose–response relationship. In a multivariable analysis with standard risk factors (not including physical activity and education) HR was attenuated to 1.61 (95% CI 1.13 to 2.31) for poor self-rated health. All categories of self-rated health remained statistically significant. We found no interaction between self-rated health and standard risk factors except for poor self-rated health and diabetes. Conclusions This study supports the use of self-rated health as a standard risk factor among others for myocardial infarction. It remains to demonstrate whether self-rated health adds predictive value for myocardial infarction in combined algorithms with standard risk factors. PMID:25681313

  3. Surgical and transcatheter aortic valve procedures. The limits of risk scores.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ranucci, Marco; Guarracino, Fabio; Castelvecchio, Serenella; Baldassarri, Rubia; Covello, Remo Daniel; Landoni, Giovanni

    2010-08-01

    Transcatheter aortic valve implantation (TAVI) is an alternative to surgical aortic valve replacement in very high-risk patients with severe aortic stenosis. The present multicenter, retrospective study investigates the accuracy and calibration properties of the EuroSCORE and the age, serum creatinine, and ejection fraction (ACEF) score in selecting a population of patients to be referred to TAVI. The study includes 1053 surgical and 211 transcatheter procedures. The operative mortality rate within the surgical group was 2%. The EuroSCORE and the ACEF score had similar levels of accuracy; the ACEF score was well calibrated and the EuroSCORE overestimated the mortality risk. The observed mortality rate within the transcatheter group was 10.4%. Cut-off values corresponding to a mortality rate of 10% were 26 for the logistic EuroSCORE and 2.5 for the ACEF score: both the EuroSCORE and the ACEF score may be used to refer patients to TAVI. However, they do not consider a number of 'extreme' risk conditions that may justify a transcatheter procedure even in absence of an overall elevated risk score. These risk conditions should be included in a specific risk model for referring patients for TAVI. PMID:20484408

  4. Awareness and use of cardiovascular risk scores by family physicians in southeastern Ontario

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Murray F. Matangi

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Background: Our objective was to determine the assessment of cardiovascular risk by family physicians. Methods: A questionnaire was sent by mail or fax regarding both awareness and use of the various CV risk scores in southeastern Ontario. Results: Of 181 family physicians surveyed, 96% were aware of at least one CV risk score and 40% were aware of the JUPITER study. Despite this awareness, 72% simply counted risk factors to assess risk, rather than to calculate risk using established scoring methods. Only 23% used the JUPITER study criteria. This suggests an under-estimated of overall CV risk by family physician’s practicing in southeastern Ontario. Interpetation: Cardiovascular risk in primary care is being underestimated in southeastern Ontario. Additional knowledge translation strategies are required to enhance the family physician’s awareness and use of established risk scoring methods if we are to reduce the burden of CV disease.

  5. Discontinuation of low dose aspirin and risk of myocardial infarction: case-control study in UK primary care

    OpenAIRE

    Garci?a Rodri?guez, Luis A.; Cea-soriano, Luci?a; Marti?n-merino, Elisa; Johansson, Saga

    2011-01-01

    Objectives To evaluate the risk of myocardial infarction and death from coronary heart disease after discontinuation of low dose aspirin in primary care patients with a history of cardiovascular events.

  6. Serum ferritin and risk of myocardial infarction in the elderly: the Rotterdam Study

    OpenAIRE

    Klipstein-grobusch, K.; Koster, J. F.; Grobbee, D. E.; Lindemans, J.; Boeing, H.; Witteman, J. C. M.; Hofman, A.

    1999-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Elevated body iron stores have been suggested to be a risk factor for ischemic heart disease. OBJECTIVE: We examined whether elevated serum ferritin concentrations, other indicators of iron status, and dietary iron affected the incidence of myocardial infarction (MI) in an elderly population. DESIGN: A nested, case-control study of 60 patients who had their first MI and 112 age- and sex-matched control subjects ...

  7. Dietary antioxidants and risk of myocardial infarction in the elderly: the Rotterdam Study

    OpenAIRE

    Klipstein-grobusch, K.; Geleijnse, J. M.; Breeijen, J. H. Den; Boeing, H.; Grobbee, D. E.; Witteman, J. C. M.; Hofman, A.

    1999-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Epidemiologic studies have shown dietary antioxidants to be inversely correlated with ischemic heart disease. OBJECTIVE: We investigated whether dietary beta-carotene, vitamin C, and vitamin E were related to the risk of myocardial infarction (MI) in an elderly population. DESIGN: The study sample consisted of 4802 participants of the Rotterdam Study aged 55-95 y who were free of MI at baseline and for whom ...

  8. Conjugated linoleic acid in adipose tissue and risk of myocardial infarction123

    OpenAIRE

    Smit, Liesbeth A.; Baylin, Ana; Campos, Hannia

    2010-01-01

    Background: Despite the high saturated fat content of dairy products, no clear association between dairy product intake and risk of myocardial infarction (MI) has been observed. Dairy products are the main source of conjugated linoleic acid (CLA; 18:2n?7t), which is produced by the ruminal biohydrogenation of grasses eaten by cows. Pasture-grazing dairy cows have more CLA in their milk than do grain-fed cows. Some animal models have reported beneficial effects of CLA on atherosclerosis.

  9. Lipoprotein (a) as an independent risk factor for myocardial infarction in patients with common hypercholesterolaemia.

    OpenAIRE

    Watts, G. F.; Kearney, E. M.; Taub, N. A.; Slavin, B. M.

    1993-01-01

    AIMS: To examine whether lipoprotein (a) (Lp(a)) increases the risk of myocardial infarction (MI) in patients with common hypercholesterolaemia. METHODS: 15 middle aged men with common hypercholesterolaemia (mean serum low density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol 4.94 mmol/l, SD 1.0) and a history of MI were selected consecutively from referrals to a lipid clinic. A control group that had not sustained an MI and with similar age, sex, cigarette smoking and blood pressure characteristics was also...

  10. The Pakistan Risk of Myocardial Infarction Study: a resource for the study of genetic, lifestyle and other determinants of myocardial infarction in South Asia

    OpenAIRE

    Saleheen, Danish; Zaidi, Moazzam; Rasheed, Asif; Ahmad, Usman; Hakeem, Abdul; Murtaza, Muhammed; Kayani, Waleed; Faruqui, Azhar; Kundi, Assadullah; Zaman, Khan Shah; Yaqoob, Zia; Cheema, Liaquat Ali; Samad, Abdus; Rasheed, Syed Zahed; Mallick, Nadeem Hayat

    2009-01-01

    The burden of coronary heart disease (CHD) is increasing at a greater rate in South Asia than in any other region globally, but there is little direct evidence about its determinants. The Pakistan Risk of Myocardial Infarction Study (PROMIS) is an epidemiological resource to enable reliable study of genetic, lifestyle and other determinants of CHD in South Asia. By March 2009, PROMIS had recruited over 5,000 cases of first-ever confirmed acute myocardial infarction (MI) and over 5,000 matched...

  11. Poor predictive ability of the risk chart SCORE in a Danish population

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Saidj, Madina; JØrgensen, Torben

    2013-01-01

    In Denmark, the European risk chart Systematic COronary Risk Evaluation (SCORE) from the European Society of Cardiology is recommended for use in cardiovascular prevention. Nevertheless, its predictive ability in a Danish population has never been investigated. The purpose of this study was therefore to assess the predictive ability of the SCORE risk chart with regard to fatal cardiovascular risk according to the socio-demographic factors of age, sex, income and education in a Danish population.

  12. Cardiovascular risk scores do not account for the effect of treatment: a review.

    OpenAIRE

    Liew, Sm; Doust, J.; Glasziou, P.

    2011-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To compare the strengths and limitations of cardiovascular risk scores available for clinicians in assessing the global (absolute) risk of cardiovascular disease. DESIGN: Review of cardiovascular risk scores. DATA SOURCES: Medline (1966 to May 2009) using a mixture of MeSH terms and free text for the keywords 'cardiovascular', 'risk prediction' and 'cohort studies'. ELIGIBILITY CRITERIA FOR SELECTING STUDIES: A study was eligible if it fulfilled the following criteria: (1) it was a...

  13. FAMILY HISTORY OF DISEASE AS A RISK FACTOR OF ACUTE MYOCARDIAL INFARCTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zoran Velickovic

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available Myocardial infarction (MI is a complex disease that begins with a lifelong interaction between genetics and environmental factors. The aim of the study was to identify family history as a risk factor of myocardial infarction in examined population in the Municipality of Nis.We used a case-control study with 100 patients with a first MI (in the period 1998-2000 and 100 controls, matched with respect to sex and age (± 2 years from the Municipality of Nis.Data was obtained from the epidemiological questionnaire. The Yates c2 test, odds ratio-OR and their 99% interval of confident were used as statistical procedures.The results showed that statistical significance for MI was present among all three degrees of relatives of subjects who have had an acute MI, and for hypertension, hypercholesterolemia and stroke among first and second - degree relatives. The subjects with family history of hypercholesterolemia had 12.43 times higher risk of disease (p = 0,000 and in the case of family history of MI before the age of 55, the risk was almost 10 times (p = 0,000 higher. Almost 4 times higher risk of disease was registered in subjects with family history of hypertension (p < 0,00001 and stroke (before 65 years of age - (p < 00005; a two-fold higher risk was registered in subjects with diagnoses of diabetes (p < 0,05 and other cardiovascular diseases (unless hypertension (p < 0,01 in the nearest relatives before the age of 55.We concluded that family history of diseases on the sample of the Municipality of Nis inhabitants was very important risk factor, mostly in the first-degree relatives. Genetic epidemiology is the future for all investigations between different population, and special attention should be paid to investigations and findings of different genes and loci which are very important for myocardial infarction occurrence, which would allow a new approach to preventive medicine.

  14. Genetic polymorphism of CYP1A2 increases the risk of myocardial infarction

    OpenAIRE

    Cornelis, M.; El-sohemy, A.; Campos, H.

    2004-01-01

    Background: There is growing evidence that DNA damage caused by mutagens found in tobacco smoke may contribute to the development of coronary heart disease (CHD). In order to bind to DNA many mutagens require metabolic activation by cytochrome P450 (CYP) 1A1 or CYP1A2. The objective of this study was to determine the effects of CYP1A1 and CYP1A2 genotypes on risk of myocardial infarction (MI) and whether smoking interacts with genotype to modify risk.

  15. Common clinical practice versus new PRIM score in predicting coronary heart disease risk

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frikke-Schmidt, Ruth; Tybjærg-Hansen, Anne

    2010-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To compare the new Patient Rule Induction Method (PRIM) Score and common clinical practice with the Framingham Point Score for classification of individuals with respect to coronary heart disease (CHD) risk. METHODS AND RESULTS: PRIM Score and the Framingham Point Score were estimated for 11,444 participants from the Copenhagen City Heart Study. Gender specific cumulative incidences and 10 year absolute CHD risks were estimated for subsets defined by age, total cholesterol, high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol, blood pressure, diabetes and smoking categories. PRIM defined seven mutually exclusive subsets in women and men, with cumulative incidences of CHD from 0.01 to 0.22 in women, and from 0.03 to 0.26 in men. PRIM versus Framingham Point Score found 11% versus 4% of all women, and 31% versus 35% of all men to have 10 year CHD risks>20%. Among women?65 years with hypertension and/or with diabetes, 10 year CHD risk>20% was found for 100% with PRIM scoring but for only 18% with the Framingham Point Score. CONCLUSION: Compared to the PRIM Score, common clinical practice with the Framingham Point Score underestimates CHD risk in women, especially in women?65 years with hypertension and/or with diabetes.

  16. Risk for myocardial infarction and stroke after community-acquired bacteremia : a 20-year population-based cohort study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dalager-Pedersen, Michael; SØgaard, Mette

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Infections may trigger acute cardiovascular events, but the risk after community-acquired bacteremia is unknown. We assessed the risk for acute myocardial infarction and ischemic stroke within 1 year of community-acquired bacteremia. METHODS AND RESULTS: This population-based cohort study was conducted in Northern Denmark. We included 4389 hospitalized medical patients with positive blood cultures obtained on the day of admission. Patients hospitalized with bacteremia were matched with up to 10 general population controls and up to 5 acutely admitted nonbacteremic controls, matched on age, sex, and calendar time. All incident events of myocardial infarction and stroke during the following 365 days were ascertained from population-based healthcare databases. Multivariable regression analyses were used to assess relative risks with 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for myocardial infarction and stroke among bacteremia patients and their controls. The risk for myocardial infarction or stroke was greatly increased within 30 days of community-acquired bacteremia: 3.6% versus 0.2% among population controls (adjusted relative risk, 20.86; 95% CI, 15.38-28.29) and 1.7% among hospitalized controls (adjusted relative risk, 2.18; 95% CI, 1.80-2.65). The risks for myocardial infarction or stroke remained modestly increased from 31 to 180 days after bacteremia in comparison with population controls (adjusted hazard ratio, 1.64; 95% CI, 1.18-2.27), but not versus hospitalized controls (adjusted hazard ratio, 0.95; 95% CI, 0.69-1.32). No differences in cardiovascular risk were seen after >6 months. Increased 30-day risks were consistently found for a variety of etiologic agents and infectious foci. CONCLUSIONS: Community-acquired bacteremia is associated with increased short-term risk of myocardial infarction and stroke.

  17. Common variants in the haemostatic gene pathway contribute to risk of early-onset myocardial infarction in the Italian population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guella, Ilaria; Duga, Stefano; Ardissino, Diego; Merlini, Pier Angelica; Peyvandi, Flora; Mannucci, Pier Mannuccio; Asselta, Rosanna

    2011-10-01

    Occlusive coronary thrombus formation superimposed on an atherosclerotic plaque is the ultimate event leading to myocardial infarction (MI). Therefore, haemostatic proteins may represent important players in the pathogenesis of MI. It was the objective of this study to evaluate, in a comprehensive way, the role of haemostatic gene polymorphisms in predisposition to premature MI. A total of 810 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in 37 genes were assessed for association with MI in a large cohort (1,670 males, 210 females) of Italian patients who suffered from an MI event before the age of 45, and an equal number of controls. Thirty-eight SNPs selected from the literature were genotyped using the SNPlex technology, whereas genotypes for the remaining 772 SNPs were extracted from a previous genome-wide association study. Genotypes were analysed by a standard case-control analysis corrected for classical cardiovascular risk factors, and by haplotype analysis. A weighted Genetic Risk Score (GRS) was calculated. Evidence for association with MI after covariate correction was found for 35 SNPs in 12 loci: F5, PROS1, F11, ITGA2, F12, F13A1, SERPINE1, PLAT, VWF, THBD, PROCR, and F9. The weighted GRS was constructed by including the top SNP for each of the 12 associated loci. The GRS distribution was significantly different between cases and controls, and subjects in the highest quintile had a 2.69-fold increased risk for MI compared with those in the lowest quintile. Our results suggest that a GRS, based on the combined effect of several risk alleles in different haemostatic genes, is associated with an increased risk of MI. PMID:21901231

  18. Predicting stroke through genetic risk functions: The CHARGE risk score project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ibrahim-Verbaas, Carla A; Fornage, Myriam; Bis, Joshua C; Choi, Seung Hoan; Psaty, Bruce M; Meigs, James B; Rao, Madhu; Nalls, Mike; Fontes, Joao D; O’Donnell, Christopher J.; Kathiresan, Sekar; Ehret, Georg B.; Fox, Caroline S; Malik, Rainer; Dichgans, Martin; Schmidt, Helena; Lahti, Jari; Heckbert, Susan R; Lumley, Thomas; Rice, Kenneth; Rotter, Jerome I; Taylor, Kent D; Folsom, Aaron R; Boerwinkle, Eric; Rosamond, Wayne D; Shahar, Eyal; Gottesman, Rebecca F.; Koudstaal, Peter J; Amin, Najaf; Wieberdink, Renske G.; Dehghan, Abbas; Hofman, Albert; Uitterlinden, André G; DeStefano, Anita L.; Debette, Stephanie; Xue, Luting; Beiser, Alexa; Wolf, Philip A.; DeCarli, Charles; Ikram, M. Arfan; Seshadri, Sudha; Mosley, Thomas H; Longstreth, WT; van Duijn, Cornelia M; Launer, Lenore J

    2014-01-01

    Background and Purpose Beyond the Framingham Stroke Risk Score (FSRS), prediction of future stroke may improve with a genetic risk score (GRS) based on Single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) associated with stroke and its risk factors. Methods The study includes four population-based cohorts with 2,047 first incident strokes from 22,720 initially stroke-free European origin participants aged 55 years and older, who were followed for up to 20 years. GRS were constructed with 324 SNPs implicated in stroke and 9 risk factors. The association of the GRS to first incident stroke was tested using Cox regression; the GRS predictive properties were assessed with Area under the curve (AUC) statistics comparing the GRS to age sex, and FSRS models, and with reclassification statistics. These analyses were performed per cohort and in a meta-analysis of pooled data. Replication was sought in a case-control study of ischemic stroke (IS). Results In the meta-analysis, adding the GRS to the FSRS, age and sex model resulted in a significant improvement in discrimination (All stroke: ?joint AUC =0.016, p-value=2.3*10-6; IS: ? joint AUC =0.021, p-value=3.7*10?7), although the overall AUC remained low. In all studies there was a highly significantly improved net reclassification index (p-values <10?4). Conclusions The SNPs associated with stroke and its risk factors result only in a small improvement in prediction of future stroke compared to the classical epidemiological risk factors for stroke. PMID:24436238

  19. Mean systolic annular velocity and strain score index: new and non-invasive parameters for the evaluation of acute myocardial infarction patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ergün Bar?? Kaya

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To evaluate the diagnostic value of mean annular velocity (MAV and strain score index (SSI for determination of the left ventricular systolic dysfunction in patients with first acute myocardial infarction (AMI. Methods: Seventy-one patients (55 male, mean age: 59±12 years with first acute ST-elevation myocardial infarction and 30 healthy subjects were included in this cross-sectional and observational study. Echocardiography with tissue Doppler and strain analysis was performed during initial hospital admission. Peak systolic myocardial velocities were recorded from 4 different sites on the mitral annulus. A MAV value was calculated and the peak systolic strain values of 12 segments were measured and a mean SSI was calculated. ROC curve analysis was used in order to determine cut-off values for MAV and SSI. Results: The patients with AMI had a significantly reduced MAV compared with healthy subjects (5.52±1.78 cm/s vs 9.80±1.13 cm/s, p<0.001. In ROC analysis, a cut-off value of 8.41 cm/s (AUC 0.915, 95%CI 0.887-0.952, p<0.001 for MAV differentiated AMI patients from controls with 97.2% sensitivity and 93.3% specificity. The patients with AMI have also decreased SSI (11.23±2.83 vs 19.11±2.05, p<0.001. A cut-off value of 15.35% differentiated AMI patients from controls with 94.4% sensitivity and 100% specificity (ROC AUC 0.945, 95%CI 0.901-0.972, p<0.001. There was a good correlation between left ventricular EF and MAV (r=0.73, p<0.001 and SSI (r=0.66, p<0.001.Conclusion: The patients with first myocardial infarction have decreased mean systolic annular velocity and mean systolic strain score index.

  20. DESIGN AND STUDY OF ONLINE FUZZY RISK SCORE ANALYZER FOR DIABETES MELLITUS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SunithaKarnam Anantha

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study is to determine the risks of various subjects to type 2 Diabetes and its dependence on the different subject records. A Fuzzy based system was designed to find the risk scores for diabetes based on risk score derived from Chennai Urban Rural Epidemiology Study (CURES. The risk score that has been adapted into the system is referred to as Indian Diabetes Risk Score (IDRS. The variables employed in it are age, gender, waist, exercise and history of diabetes. A database of subject records was collected from hundred random individuals from southern regions of India. A comparative study was performed on these records between the normal and fuzzified risk score based on IDRS. The program has been designed using Lab VIEW with Fuzzy System Designer being used for fuzzy rule execution. The details are transmitted online through web page to the physicians who can provide assistance in prevention of diabetes. The obtained risk scores of the subjects are used to improve the lifestyle and delay the onset of diabetes to the maximum possible. This system can be implemented in rural regions where experienced medical assistance may not be available. This system would form an ideal part of the current developments in medicine where physical physician presence is not required due to the buttress provided by advancements in computer technology. The aim of this study is to determine the risks of various subjects to type 2 Diabetes and its dependence on the different subject records. A Fuzzy based system was designed to find the risk scores for diabetes based on risk score derived from Chennai Urban Rural Epidemiology Study (CURES. The risk score that has been adapted into the system is referred to as Indian Diabetes Risk Score (IDRS. The variables employed in it are age, gender, waist, exercise and history of diabetes. A database of subject records was collected from hundred random individuals from southern regions of India. A comparative study was performed on these records between the normal and fuzzified risk score based on IDRS. The program has been designed using Lab VIEW with Fuzzy System Designer being used for fuzzy rule execution. The details are transmitted online through web page to the physicians who can provide assistance in prevention of diabetes. The obtained risk scores of the subjects are used to improve the lifestyle and delay the onset of diabetes to the maximum possible. This system can be implemented in rural regions where experienced medical assistance may not be available. This system would form an ideal part of the current developments in medicine where physical physician presence is not required due to the buttress provided by advancements in computer technology.

  1. Low-dose inhaled corticosteroids and the risk of acute myocardial infarction in COPD.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huiart, L; Ernst, P; Ranouil, X; Suissa, S

    2005-04-01

    Inflammation plays a major role in the development and complications of atherosclerosis. Here, the dose-related impact of inhaled corticosteroids (ICS), used for their anti-inflammatory properties, on the risk of acute myocardial infarction (AMI) is studied in a cohort of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) patients. Saskatchewan (Canada) health services databases were used to form a population-based cohort of 5,648 patients, > or =55 yrs, who received a first treatment for COPD between 1990 and 1997. A nested case-control analysis was conducted, where 371 cases presenting with a first AMI were matched with 1,864 controls, based on the date of cohort entry and age. A conditional logistic regression was used to estimate the effect of ICS, after adjusting for use of oral corticosteroids, severity of COPD, sex, systemic hypertension, diabetes and cardiovascular disease. ICS were used in the prior year by 42.2% of cases and 46.4% of controls. Overall, current use of ICS was not associated with a significant decrease in the risk of AMI. However, a 32% reduction in the risk of AMI was observed for doses ranging 50-200 microg x day(-1). In conclusion, very low doses of inhaled corticosteroids may be associated with a reduction in the risk of acute myocardial infarction. PMID:15802336

  2. Autoradiographic method for measuring the ischemic myocardium at risk: effects of verapamil on infarct size aftr experimental coronary artery occlusion.

    OpenAIRE

    Deboer, L. W.; Strauss, H. W.; Kloner, R. A.; Rude, R. E.; Davis, R. F.; Maroko, P. R.; Braunwald, E.

    1980-01-01

    Investigation of the efficacy of pharmacologic agents affecting myocardial infarct size after coronary artery occlusion is complicated by the variability of collateral flow among experimental animals which results in variability of infarct size. To overcome this difficulty, we developed an autoradiographic method to delineate the ischemic area at risk of necrosis after coronary artery occlusion and we invetigated the potential protective effect of a calcium antagonist verapamil. The left ante...

  3. Reduced risk of death at 28 days in patients taking a beta blocker before admission to hospital with myocardial infarction.

    OpenAIRE

    Nidorf, S. M.; Parsons, R. W.; Thompson, P. L.; Jamrozik, K. D.; Hobbs, M. S.

    1990-01-01

    OBJECTIVE--To see whether patients taking an oral beta blocker at the time of admission to hospital with myocardial infarction have a reduced risk of death at 28 days. DESIGN--Retrospective analysis of data collected on patients admitted over four years. SETTING--Community based study. PATIENTS--2430 Consecutive patients living in the Perth statistical division admitted to hospital with myocardial infarction during 1984-7. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURE--Survival at 28 days among patients taking a beta...

  4. Evaluation of a risk-scoring system for prediction of preterm labor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holbrook, R H; Laros, R K; Creasy, R K

    1989-01-01

    A scoring system was used prospectively to screen 7329 patients for risk of preterm labor over a 6-year period. When 15.8% of patients (1156 of 7329) were scored as high risk, sensitivity was 42.4% (multiparas, 55.2%, nulliparas, 29.8%) and positive predictive value was 22.8%. The incidence of preterm labor increased with increasing risk score; gestational age at delivery was negatively correlated with risk score. Analysis of individual factors revealed that more than half were not of predictive value in the population under investigation. A simplification of the system, defining 12 of the factors as major (high risk) and six as minor (2 or more indicates high risk) yielded a high risk group of 14.1%, sensitivity of 41.0%, and positive predictive value of 24.6%. Thus, although risk scoring does predict a substantial proportion of patients with preterm labor, its sensitivity is less than ideal. No advantage was gained with a larger and more complex system. Planning for preterm birth prevention programs should include recognition of the limitations of risk scoring, consideration of simplified systems, and investigation of additional biochemical or biophysical screening methods. PMID:2910321

  5. Comparison of visual scoring and quantitative planimetry methods for estimation of global infarct size on delayed enhanced cardiac MRI and validation with myocardial enzymes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mewton, Nathan, E-mail: nmewton@gmail.com [Hopital Cardiovasculaire Louis Pradel, 28, Avenue Doyen Lepine, 69677 Bron cedex, Hospices Civils de Lyon (France); CREATIS-LRMN (Centre de Recherche et d' Applications en Traitement de l' Image et du Signal), Universite Claude Bernard Lyon 1, UMR CNRS 5220, U 630 INSERM (France); Revel, Didier [Hopital Cardiovasculaire Louis Pradel, 28, Avenue Doyen Lepine, 69677 Bron cedex, Hospices Civils de Lyon (France); CREATIS-LRMN (Centre de Recherche et d' Applications en Traitement de l' Image et du Signal), Universite Claude Bernard Lyon 1, UMR CNRS 5220, U 630 INSERM (France); Bonnefoy, Eric [Hopital Cardiovasculaire Louis Pradel, 28, Avenue Doyen Lepine, 69677 Bron cedex, Hospices Civils de Lyon (France); Ovize, Michel [Hopital Cardiovasculaire Louis Pradel, 28, Avenue Doyen Lepine, 69677 Bron cedex, Hospices Civils de Lyon (France); INSERM Unite 886 (France); Croisille, Pierre [Hopital Cardiovasculaire Louis Pradel, 28, Avenue Doyen Lepine, 69677 Bron cedex, Hospices Civils de Lyon (France); CREATIS-LRMN (Centre de Recherche et d' Applications en Traitement de l' Image et du Signal), Universite Claude Bernard Lyon 1, UMR CNRS 5220, U 630 INSERM (France)

    2011-04-15

    Purpose: Although delayed enhanced CMR has become a reference method for infarct size quantification, there is no ideal method to quantify total infarct size in a routine clinical practice. In a prospective study we compared the performance and post-processing time of a global visual scoring method to standard quantitative planimetry and we compared both methods to the peak values of myocardial biomarkers. Materials and methods: This study had local ethics committee approval; all patients gave written informed consent. One hundred and three patients admitted with reperfused AMI to our intensive care unit had a complete CMR study with gadolinium-contrast injection 4 {+-} 2 days after admission. A global visual score was defined on a 17-segment model and compared with the quantitative planimetric evaluation of hyperenhancement. The peak values of serum Troponin I (TnI) and creatine kinase (CK) release were measured in each patient. Results: The mean percentage of total left ventricular myocardium with hyperenhancement determined by the quantitative planimetry method was (20.1 {+-} 14.6) with a range of 1-68%. There was an excellent correlation between quantitative planimetry and visual global scoring for the hyperenhancement extent's measurement (r = 0.94; y = 1.093x + 0.87; SEE = 1.2; P < 0.001) The Bland-Altman plot showed a good concordance between the two approaches (mean of the differences = 1.9% with a standard deviation of 4.7). Mean post-processing time for quantitative planimetry was significantly longer than visual scoring post-processing time (23.7 {+-} 5.7 min vs 5.0 {+-} 1.1 min respectively, P < 0.001). Correlation between peak CK and quantitative planimetry was r = 0.82 (P < 0.001) and r = 0.83 (P < 0.001) with visual global scoring. Correlation between peak Troponin I and quantitative planimetry was r = 0.86 (P < 0.001) and r = 0.85 (P < 0.001) with visual global scoring. Conclusion: A visual approach based on a 17-segment model allows a rapid and accurate assessment of the myocardial global delayed enhancement. This scoring method could be used on a daily practice and useful for the management strategy of post-MI patients.

  6. Long-term recording of cardiac arrhythmias with an implantable cardiac monitor in patients with reduced ejection fraction after acute myocardial infarction: the Cardiac Arrhythmias and Risk Stratification After Acute Myocardial Infarction (CARISMA) study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bloch Thomsen, Poul Erik; Jons, Christian

    2010-01-01

    Knowledge about the incidence of cardiac arrhythmias after acute myocardial infarction has been limited by the lack of traditional ECG recording systems to document and confirm asymptomatic and symptomatic arrhythmias. The Cardiac Arrhythmias and Risk Stratification After Myocardial Infarction (CARISMA) trial was designed to study the incidence and prognostic significance of arrhythmias documented by an implantable cardiac monitor among patients with acute myocardial infarction and reduced left ventricular ejection fraction.

  7. Effect of antecedent hypertension and follow-up blood pressure on outcomes after high-risk myocardial infarction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thune, J.J.; Signorovitch, J.

    2007-01-01

    The influence of blood pressure on outcomes after high-risk myocardial infarction is not well characterized. We studied the relationship between blood pressure and the risk of cardiovascular events in 14 703 patients with heart failure, left ventricular systolic dysfunction, or both after acute myocardial infarction in the Valsartan in Myocardial Infarction Trial. We assessed the relationship between antecedent hypertension and outcomes and the association between elevated (systolic: >140 mm Hg) or low blood pressure (systolic: <100 mm Hg) in 2 of 3 follow-up visits during the first 6 months and subsequent cardiovascular events over a median 24.7 months of follow-up. Antecedent hypertension independently increased the risk of heart failure (hazard ratio [HR]: 1.19; 95% CI: 1.08 to 1.32), stroke (HR: 1.27; 95% CI: 1.02 to 1.58), cardiovascular death (HR: 1.11; 95% CI: 1.01 to 1.22), and the composite of death, myocardial infarction, heart failure, stroke, or cardiac arrest (HR: 1.13; 95% CI: 1.06 to 1.21). While low blood pressure in the postmyocardial infarction period was associated with increased risk of adverse events, patients with elevated blood pressure (n=1226) were at significantly higher risk of stroke (adjusted HR: 1.64; 95% CI: 1.17 to 2.29) and combined cardiovascular events (adjusted HR: 1.14; 95% CI: 1.00 to 1.31). Six months after a high-risk myocardial infarction, elevated systolic blood pressure, a potentially modifiable risk factor, is associated with an increased risk of subsequent stroke and cardiovascular events. Whether aggressive antihypertensive treatment can reduce this risk remains unknown Udgivelsesdato: 2008/1

  8. Duration of clopidogrel treatment and risk of mortality and recurrent myocardial infarction among 11 680 patients with myocardial infarction treated with percutaneous coronary intervention: a cohort study

    OpenAIRE

    Køber Lars; Abildgaard Ulrik; Madsen Jan K; Hansen Peter R; Hansen Morten L; Fosbøl Emil L; Folke Fredrik; Weeke Peter; Abildstrom Steen Z; Sørensen Rikke; Poulsen Henrik E; Torp-Pedersen Christian; Gislason Gunnar H

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Background The optimal duration of clopidogrel treatment after percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) is unclear. We studied the risk of death or recurrent myocardial infarction (MI) in relation to 6- and 12-months clopidogrel treatment among MI patients treated with PCI. Methods Using nationwide registers of hospitalizations and drug dispensing from pharmacies we identified 11 680 patients admitted with MI, treated with PCI and clopidogrel. Clopidogrel treatment was categorized in...

  9. Risk factors for acute myocardial infarction in women: evidence from the Royal College of General Practitioners' oral contraception study.

    OpenAIRE

    Croft, P.; Hannaford, P. C.

    1989-01-01

    To determine the pattern of risk factors for acute myocardial infarction associated solely with women a nested case-control study was carried out on cohort data collected during the Royal College of General Practitioners' oral contraception study. Smoking (adjusted relative risk 1.7 for light smokers and 4.3 for heavy smokers), hypertension (2.4), toxaemia of pregnancy (2.8), and diabetes mellitus (6.9) were associated with a significantly increased risk of myocardial infarction. There was no...

  10. Effect of ?-Blockers on the Risk of Atrial Fibrillation in Patients with Acute Myocardial Infarction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pesaro, Antonio Eduardo; de Matos Soeiro, Alexandre; Serrano, Carlos Vicente; Giraldez, Roberto Rocha; Ladeira, Renata Teixeira; Nicolau, José Carlos

    2010-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Oral ?-blockers improve the prognosis of patients with acute myocardial infarction, while atrial fibrillation worsens the prognosis of this population. The reduction of atrial fibrillation incidence in patients treated with ?-blockers could at least in part explain the benefits of this drug. OBJECTIVE: To investigate the effect of ?-blockers on the incidence of atrial fibrillation in patients with acute myocardial infarction. METHODS: We analyzed 1401 patients with acute myocardial infarction and evaluated the occurrence or absence of atrial fibrillation, the use of oral ?-blockers and mortality during the first 24 hours. RESULTS: a) The use of ?-blockers was inversely correlated with the presence of atrial fibrillation (? = 0.004; OR = 0.54). b) Correlations with mortality were as follows: 31.5% in patients with atrial fibrillation, 9.2% in those without atrial fibrillation (? < 0.001; Odds Ratio = 4.52), and 17.5% in patients not treated with ?-blockers and 6.7% in those who received the drug (? < 0.001; OR = 0.34). c) Adjusted Models: The presence of atrial fibrillation was independently correlated with mortality (OR = 2.48, ? = 0.002). The use of ?-blockers was inversely and independently correlated with mortality (OR = 0.53; ? = 0.002). The patients who used ?-blockers showed a lower risk of atrial fibrillation (OR = 0.59; ? = 0.029) in the adjusted model. CONCLUSION: The presence of atrial fibrillation and the absence of oral ?-blockers increased in-hospital mortality in patients with acute myocardial infarction. Oral ?-blockers reduced the incidence of atrial fibrillation, which might be at least partially responsible for the drug’s benefit. PMID:20360916

  11. Effect of ?-blockers on the risk of atrial fibrillation in patients with acute myocardial infarction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio Eduardo Pesaro

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Oral ?-blockers improve the prognosis of patients with acute myocardial infarction, while atrial fibrillation worsens the prognosis of this population. The reduction of atrial fibrillation incidence in patients treated with ?-blockers could at least in part explain the benefits of this drug. OBJECTIVE: To investigate the effect of ?-blockers on the incidence of atrial fibrillation in patients with acute myocardial infarction. METHODS: We analyzed 1401 patients with acute myocardial infarction and evaluated the occurrence or absence of atrial fibrillation, the use of oral ?-blockers and mortality during the first 24 hours. RESULTS: a The use of ?-blockers was inversely correlated with the presence of atrial fibrillation (? = 0.004; OR = 0.54. b Correlations with mortality were as follows: 31.5% in patients with atrial fibrillation, 9.2% in those without atrial fibrillation (? < 0.001; Odds Ratio = 4.52, and 17.5% in patients not treated with ?-blockers and 6.7% in those who received the drug (? < 0.001; OR = 0.34. c Adjusted Models: The presence of atrial fibrillation was independently correlated with mortality (OR = 2.48, ? = 0.002. The use of ?-blockers was inversely and independently correlated with mortality (OR = 0.53; ? = 0.002. The patients who used ?-blockers showed a lower risk of atrial fibrillation (OR = 0.59; ? = 0.029 in the adjusted model. CONCLUSION: The presence of atrial fibrillation and the absence of oral ?-blockers increased in-hospital mortality in patients with acute myocardial infarction. Oral ?-blockers reduced the incidence of atrial fibrillation, which might be at least partially responsible for the drug's benefit.

  12. Coronary angiographic findings in diagnostically manifested myocardial infarctions: Their relationship to psychlosocial and somatic risk factors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The investigation was meant as an attempt to illustrate coronary arteriosclerosis as the cause of myocardial infarction and the mechanisms of its development as well as the conditions influencing it. The paper consists of two parts: 1) Literature part: In this part, risk factors of coronary arteriosclerosis and the mechanism of its effects (as far as known) are introduced. The results obtained by other authors are also summarized. 2) Empiric part: The following empiric part covers the author's own results which are discussed and compared to the results obtained by other authors. (orig./MG)

  13. A combination of proatherogenic single-nucleotide polymorphisms is associated with increased risk of coronary artery disease and myocardial infarction in Asian Indians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poduri, Aruna; Khullar, Madhu; Bahl, Ajay; Sharma, Yash Paul; Talwar, Kewal K

    2009-09-01

    Common single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in genes of lipid metabolism modestly influence plasma low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) and risk of coronary artery disease (CAD). We evaluated a panel of LDL-C-modulating SNPs for potential association with risk of CAD in Asian Indians. Fifteen SNPs of CETP, ABCB1, APOAI, CYP7A1, and HMGCR genes were genotyped in 265 CAD patients and 150 controls of North Indian origin. A proatherogenic genotype score was formulated based on number of alleles associated with LDL-C and was evaluated for association with risk of CAD. We observed 12 SNPs from CETP, APOAI, ABCB1, CYP7A1, and HMGCR genes to be associated with baseline LDL-C and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels and increased risk of CAD (p or=3) was associated with increased risk of CAD and myocardial infarction. Analysis of epistatic interactions revealed CETPTaqIB1B1/405II/APOAI-75GA to be best model of CAD risk prediction in our population. Our study highlights synergistic association of multiple SNPs of lipid pathway with LDL-C levels and risk of CAD, and indicates that co-occurrence of proatherogenic risk alleles may provide incremental information about CAD risk beyond lipid concentrations. PMID:19558216

  14. The risk of myocardial infarction in rheumatoid arthritis and diabetes mellitus: a Danish nationwide cohort study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lindhardsen, Jesper; Ahlehoff, Ole

    2011-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: /st> To examine in a nationwide cohort whether the risk of myocardial infarction (MI) in patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is comparable to the risk in patients with diabetes mellitus (DM). METHODS: /st> The study included the entire Danish population followed from 1 January 1997 until 31 December 2006. Through individual level-linkage of nationwide administrative registers, the authors identified subjects who developed RA and DM. The risk of MI was analysed using multivariable Poisson regression models including data on cardioprotective drugs, comorbidity and socioeconomic status. RESULTS: /st> From a total of 4 311 022 individuals included in the cohort, 10 477 and 130 215 individuals developed RA and DM respectively. The overall incidence rate ratio (IRR) of MI in RA was 1.7 (95% CI 1.5 to 1.9), which was similar to the risk in DM (1.7 (1.6 to 1.8); p=0.64 for difference). The risk was significantly increased in all groups when stratifying on age and gender, with higher RRs in younger patients. This was especially pronounced in women RA is associated with the same risk of MI as DM, and the risk of MI in RA patients generally corresponded to the risk in non-RA subjects 10 years older.

  15. A simple risk score for identifying individuals with impaired fasting glucose in the southern chinese population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Hui; Liu, Tao; Qiu, Quan; Ding, Peng; He, Yan-Hui; Chen, Wei-Qing

    2015-01-01

    This study aimed to develop and validate a simple risk score for detecting individuals with impaired fasting glucose (IFG) among the Southern Chinese population. A sample of participants aged ?20 years and without known diabetes from the 2006-2007 Guangzhou diabetes cross-sectional survey was used to develop separate risk scores for men and women. The participants completed a self-administered structured questionnaire and underwent simple clinical measurements. The risk scores were developed by multiple logistic regression analysis. External validation was performed based on three other studies: the 2007 Zhuhai rural population-based study, the 2008-2010 Guangzhou diabetes cross-sectional study and the 2007 Tibet population-based study. Performance of the scores was measured with the Hosmer-Lemeshow goodness-of-fit test and ROC c-statistic. Age, waist circumference, body mass index and family history of diabetes were included in the risk score for both men and women, with the additional factor of hypertension for men. The ROC c-statistic was 0.70 for both men and women in the derivation samples. Risk scores of ?28 for men and ?18 for women showed respective sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value and negative predictive value of 56.6%, 71.7%, 13.0% and 96.0% for men and 68.7%, 60.2%, 11% and 96.0% for women in the derivation population. The scores performed comparably with the Zhuhai rural sample and the 2008-2010 Guangzhou urban samples but poorly in the Tibet sample. The performance of pre-existing USA, Shanghai, and Chengdu risk scores was poorer in our population than in their original study populations. The results suggest that the developed simple IFG risk scores can be generalized in Guangzhou city and nearby rural regions and may help primary health care workers to identify individuals with IFG in their practice. PMID:25625405

  16. A Simple Risk Score for Identifying Individuals with Impaired Fasting Glucose in the Southern Chinese Population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hui Wang

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to develop and validate a simple risk score for detecting individuals with impaired fasting glucose (IFG among the Southern Chinese population. A sample of participants aged ?20 years and without known diabetes from the 2006–2007 Guangzhou diabetes cross-sectional survey was used to develop separate risk scores for men and women. The participants completed a self-administered structured questionnaire and underwent simple clinical measurements. The risk scores were developed by multiple logistic regression analysis. External validation was performed based on three other studies: the 2007 Zhuhai rural population-based study, the 2008–2010 Guangzhou diabetes cross-sectional study and the 2007 Tibet population-based study. Performance of the scores was measured with the Hosmer-Lemeshow goodness-of-fit test and ROC c-statistic. Age, waist circumference, body mass index and family history of diabetes were included in the risk score for both men and women, with the additional factor of hypertension for men. The ROC c-statistic was 0.70 for both men and women in the derivation samples. Risk scores of ?28 for men and ?18 for women showed respective sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value and negative predictive value of 56.6%, 71.7%, 13.0% and 96.0% for men and 68.7%, 60.2%, 11% and 96.0% for women in the derivation population. The scores performed comparably with the Zhuhai rural sample and the 2008–2010 Guangzhou urban samples but poorly in the Tibet sample. The performance of pre-existing USA, Shanghai, and Chengdu risk scores was poorer in our population than in their original study populations. The results suggest that the developed simple IFG risk scores can be generalized in Guangzhou city and nearby rural regions and may help primary health care workers to identify individuals with IFG in their practice.

  17. Admission Insular Infarction >25% is the Strongest Predictor of Large Mismatch Loss in Proximal MCA Stroke

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamalian, Shervin; Kemmling, Andre; Borgie, Roderick C; Morais, Livia T; Payabvash, Seyedmehdi; Franceschi, Ana M; Kamalian, Shahmir; Yoo, Albert J; Furie, Karen L; Lev, Michael H

    2013-01-01

    Background and Purpose Previous univariate analyses have suggested that proximal middle cerebral artery (MCA) infarcts with insular involvement have greater severity, and are more likely to progress into surrounding penumbral “tissue-at-risk”. We hypothesized that a practical, simple scoring method to assess percent insular-ribbon infarction (“PIRI-score”) would improve prediction of penumbral-loss over other common imaging biomarkers. Methods Of consecutive acute stroke patients from 2003–2008, forty-five with proximal-MCA-only occlusion met inclusion criteria, including available penumbral imaging. Infarct (DWI), tissue-at-risk (MR-MTT), and final infarct-volume (MR/CT) were manually segmented. DWI images were rated according to the 5-point PIRI-score (“0”=normal, “1”PIRI-score was 3 (0.75–4). PIRI-score was significantly correlated with PML (pPIRI (25% threshold), age, NIHSS-score, DWI-infarct-volume, and CTA-collateral-score as covariates, revealed that only dichotomized insula-score (p=0.03) and age (p=0.02) were independent predictors of large (68.2%) vs. small (8.1%) mismatch-loss. There was excellent inter-observer agreement for dichotomized PIRI-scoring (? =0.91). Conclusions Admission insular infarction >25% is the strongest predictor of large mismatch-loss in this cohort of proximal-MCA occlusive stroke. This outcome marker may help to identify treatment-eligible patients who are in greatest need of rapid reperfusion therapy. PMID:23988643

  18. How much does HDL cholesterol add to risk estimation? A report from the SCORE Investigators.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Cooney, Marie Therese

    2009-06-01

    Systematic COronary Risk Evaluation (SCORE), the risk estimation system recommended by the European guidelines on cardiovascular disease prevention, estimates 10-year risk of cardiovascular disease mortality based on age, sex, country of origin, systolic blood pressure, smoking status and either total cholesterol (TC) or TC\\/high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) ratio. As, counterintuitively, these two systems perform very similarly, we have investigated whether incorporating HDL-C and TC as separate variables improves risk estimation.

  19. Elevated triglycerides and risk of myocardial infarction in HIV-positive persons

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Worm, Signe W; Kamara, David Alim

    2011-01-01

    Objectives: To explore the relationship between elevated triglyceride levels and the risk of myocardial infarction (MI) in HIV-positive persons after adjustment for total cholesterol (TC), high-density lipoprotein–cholesterol (HDL-C) and nonlipid risk factors. Background: Although elevated triglyceride levels are commonly noted in HIV-positive individuals, it is unclear whether they represent an independent risk factor for MI. Methods: The incidence of MI during follow-up was stratified according to the latest triglyceride level. Multivariable Poisson regression models were used to describe the independent association between the latest triglyceride level and MI risk after adjusting for TC and HDL-C, nonlipids cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk factors, HIV and treatment-related factors. Results: The 33 308 persons included in the study from 1999 to 2008 experienced 580 MIs over 178 835 person-years. Unadjusted, the risk of MI increased by 67% [relative risk (RR) 1.67, 95% confidence interval 1.54–1.80] per doubling in triglyceride level. After adjustment for the latest TC and HDL-C level, the RR dropped to 1.33 (95% confidence interval 1.21–1.45); this effect was further attenuated by other CVD risk factors and the RR was reduced to 1.17 (95% confidence interval 1.06–1.29). In models that additionally adjusted for HIV and treatment factors, the risk was further diminished, although remained significant (RR 1.11, 95% confidence interval 1.01–1.23). Conclusion: Higher triglyceride levels were marginally independently associated with an increased risk of MI in HIV-positive persons, although the extent of reduction in RR after taking account of latest TC, latest HDL-C and other confounders suggests that any independent effect is small.

  20. Cardiovascular Risk Factors in Normolipidemic Acute Myocardial Infarct Patients on Admission – Do Dietary Fruits and Vegetables Offer Any Benefits?

    OpenAIRE

    Arun Kumar De,; Ramiah Sivakanesan

    2010-01-01

    Background: Myocardial Infarction (MI) is a leading cause of death in India. Whether dietary vitamins could reduce risk of cardiovascular disease among Indians is still not clear and very few studies have addressed the association between dietary vitamin acting as an antioxidant or pro-oxidant and its effect on risk reduction or aggravation in normolipidemic AMI patients. Objective: The goal of the current study was to address the association between dietary vitamin and cardiovascular risk in...

  1. Cardiovascular disease risk score prediction models for women and its applicability to Asians

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Goh LGH

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Louise GH Goh,1 Satvinder S Dhaliwal,1 Timothy A Welborn,2 Peter L Thompson,2–4 Bruce R Maycock,1 Deborah A Kerr,1 Andy H Lee,1 Dean Bertolatti,1 Karin M Clark,1 Rakhshanda Naheed,1 Ranil Coorey,1 Phillip R Della5 1School of Public Health, Curtin Health Innovation Research Institute, Curtin University, Perth, WA, Australia; 2Sir Charles Gairdner Hospital, Nedlands, Perth, WA, Australia; 3School of Population Health, University of Western Australia, Perth, WA, Australia; 4Harry Perkins Institute for Medical Research, Perth, WA, Australia; 5School of Nursing and Midwifery, Curtin Health Innovation Research Institute, Curtin University, Perth, WA, Australia Purpose: Although elevated cardiovascular disease (CVD risk factors are associated with a higher risk of developing heart conditions across all ethnic groups, variations exist between groups in the distribution and association of risk factors, and also risk levels. This study assessed the 10-year predicted risk in a multiethnic cohort of women and compared the differences in risk between Asian and Caucasian women. Methods: Information on demographics, medical conditions and treatment, smoking behavior, dietary behavior, and exercise patterns were collected. Physical measurements were also taken. The 10-year risk was calculated using the Framingham model, SCORE (Systematic COronary Risk Evaluation risk chart for low risk and high risk regions, the general CVD, and simplified general CVD risk score models in 4,354 females aged 20–69 years with no heart disease, diabetes, or stroke at baseline from the third Australian Risk Factor Prevalence Study. Country of birth was used as a surrogate for ethnicity. Nonparametric statistics were used to compare risk levels between ethnic groups. Results: Asian women generally had lower risk of CVD when compared to Caucasian women. The 10-year predicted risk was, however, similar between Asian and Australian women, for some models. These findings were consistent with Australian CVD prevalence. Conclusion: In summary, ethnicity needs to be incorporated into CVD risk assessment. Australian standards used to quantify risk and treat women could be applied to Asians in the interim. The SCORE risk chart for low-risk regions and Framingham risk score model for incidence are recommended. The inclusion of other relevant risk variables such as obesity, poor diet/nutrition, and low levels of physical activity may improve risk estimation. Keywords: cardiovascular disease prevention, risk assessment, epidemiology, Asia, female

  2. Effects of epilepsy and selected antiepileptic drugs on risk of myocardial infarction, stroke, and death in patients with or without previous stroke: a nationwide cohort study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olesen, Jonas Bjerring; AbildstrØm, Steen Zabell

    2011-01-01

    Patients with epilepsy have increased morbidity and mortality. We evaluated the risk of myocardial infarction (MI), stroke, and death associated with epilepsy and examined if this risk was modified by treatment with antiepileptic drugs (AEDs).

  3. Exome sequencing identifies rare LDLR and APOA5 alleles conferring risk for myocardial infarction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Do, Ron; Stitziel, Nathan O

    2015-01-01

    Myocardial infarction (MI), a leading cause of death around the world, displays a complex pattern of inheritance. When MI occurs early in life, genetic inheritance is a major component to risk. Previously, rare mutations in low-density lipoprotein (LDL) genes have been shown to contribute to MI risk in individual families, whereas common variants at more than 45 loci have been associated with MI risk in the population. Here we evaluate how rare mutations contribute to early-onset MI risk in the population. We sequenced the protein-coding regions of 9,793 genomes from patients with MI at an early age (?50 years in males and ?60 years in females) along with MI-free controls. We identified two genes in which rare coding-sequence mutations were more frequent in MI cases versus controls at exome-wide significance. At low-density lipoprotein receptor (LDLR), carriers of rare non-synonymous mutations were at 4.2-fold increased risk for MI; carriers of null alleles at LDLR were at even higher risk (13-fold difference). Approximately 2% of early MI cases harbour a rare, damaging mutation in LDLR; this estimate is similar to one made more than 40 years ago using an analysis of total cholesterol. Among controls, about 1 in 217 carried an LDLR coding-sequence mutation and had plasma LDL cholesterol > 190 mg dl(-1). At apolipoprotein A-V (APOA5), carriers of rare non-synonymous mutations were at 2.2-fold increased risk for MI. When compared with non-carriers, LDLR mutation carriers had higher plasma LDL cholesterol, whereas APOA5 mutation carriers had higher plasma triglycerides. Recent evidence has connected MI risk with coding-sequence mutations at two genes functionally related to APOA5, namely lipoprotein lipase and apolipoprotein C-III (refs 18, 19). Combined, these observations suggest that, as well as LDL cholesterol, disordered metabolism of triglyceride-rich lipoproteins contributes to MI risk.

  4. Prothrombotic gene variants as risk factors of acute myocardial infarction in young women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomaiuolo Rossella

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Acute myocardial infarction (AMI in young women represent an extreme phenotype associated with a higher mortality compared with similarly aged men. Prothrombotic gene variants could play a role as risk factors for AMI at young age. Methods We studied Factor V Leiden, FII G20210A, MTHFR C677T and beta-fibrinogen -455G>A variants by real-time PCR in 955 young AMI (362 females and in 698 AMI (245 females patients. The data were compared to those obtained in 909 unrelated subjects (458 females from the general population of the same geographical area (southern Italy. Results In young AMI females, the allelic frequency of either FV Leiden and of FII G20210A was significantly higher versus the general population (O.R.: 3.67 for FV Leiden and O.R.: 3.84 for FII G20210A; p Discussion and conclusion Our data confirm that young AMI in females is a peculiar phenotype with specific risk factors as the increased plasma procoagulant activity of FV and FII. On the contrary, the homozygous state for the 677T MTHFR variant may cause increased levels of homocysteine and/or an altered folate status and thus an increased risk for AMI, particularly in males. The knowledge of such risk factors (that may be easily identified by molecular analysis may help to improve prevention strategies for acute coronary diseases in specific risk-group subjects.

  5. Are the myocardial infarction risk factors the same in survived and dead patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coronary heart disease is one of the most common diseases causing mortality and morbidity in industrialized and developing countries. The first presentation in 25% of cases is sudden cardiac death. The most common risk factors in dead people are hypercholesterolemia. This study was carried out to compare the prevalence of risk factors in patients hospitalized in CCU's and cardiology departments (case group) and people who died because of sudden death myocardial infarction before arriving at hospitals (control group). This study was a case-control one, carried out on 154 patients and 112 dead persons. The questionnaires were completed after referring to their first relatives and the documents, in control group and in case group, were completed from patients and their records in hospitals. Then history of risk factor were compared. The ratio of men/women in the first group (hospitalized patients) was 3 and the second group (dead patients) were 1.7 (P=0.000). The peak ages in men of both groups were 60 to 69 years old, 2-3 times more than women in both groups. The most prevalent risk factor in women of both groups was hypertension, the same as in men of the control group. But the most prevalent risk factor in men of the case group was smoking (P=0.000). So, primary prevention which has a great role in controlling coronary artery disease is suggested

  6. Posttraumatic stress and myocardial infarction risk perceptions in hospitalized acute coronary syndrome patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    DonaldEdmondson

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD is related to acute coronary syndrome (ACS; i.e., myocardial infarction or unstable angina recurrence and poor post-ACS adherence to medical advice. Since risk perceptions are a primary motivator of adherence behaviors, we assessed the relationship of probable PTSD to ACS risk perceptions in hospitalized ACS patients (n= 420. Participants completed a brief PTSD screen 3-7 days post-ACS, and rated their 1-year ACS recurrence risk relative to other men or women their age. Most participants exhibited optimistic bias (mean recurrence risk estimate between “average” and “below average”. Further, participants who screened positive for current PTSD (n=15 showed significantly greater optimistic bias than those who screened negative (p< .05, after adjustment for demographics, ACS severity, medical comorbidities, depression, and self-confidence in their ability to control their heart disease. Clinicians should be aware that psychosocial factors, and PTSD in particular, may be associated with poor adherence to medical advice due to exaggerated optimistic bias in recurrence risk perceptions.

  7. Low amniotic fluid index in high risk pregnancy and poor apgar score at birth

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To determine the accuracy of antepartum Amniotic Fluid Index (AFI) of 5 cm was labeled as predictor of good outcome at birth. The subjects in both the groups were demographically matched and fulfilled the inclusion and exclusion criteria. The Apgar score was calculated at 5 minutes of birth. The newborns, with Apgar score 6 were labeled as healthy. AFI was compared with Apgar score, using Chi-square and a p-value was calculated to determine the statistical significance. Sensitivity, specificity, efficiency and the predictive values of AFI at a cut off point of < 5 cm as a predictor of adverse outcome at birth (Apgar score of < 6 at 5 minutes of birth) in high-risk pregnancy were calculated. Only 8 neonates of 50 women with low AFI had low Apgar score. Similarly, 6 neonates of 50 women with normal AFI had poor Apgar score. The diagnostic sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value, negative predictive value and efficiency of AFI as test were 57.1%, 51.3%, 16%, 88% and 52% respectively. Low AFI is a poo88% and 52% respectively. Low AFI is a poor predictor of adverse outcome for high-risk term patients. AFI is not a good screening test for high-risk pregnant women at term for birth of an infant with low Apgar score. (author)

  8. Thrombolysis risk prediction: applying the SITS-SICH and SEDAN scores in South African patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    von Klemperer, A; Bateman, K; Owen, J; Bryer, A

    2014-01-01

    At present, the only specific medical treatment for acute ischaemic stroke is intravenous administration of recombinant tissue plasminogen activator within 4.5 hours of stroke onset. In the last year, two scores for risk stratification of intracranial haemorrhage have been derived from multicentric European trial groups, the Safe Implementation of Treatment in Stroke - Symptomatic IntraCerebral Haemorrhage risk score (SITS-SICH) and the SEDAN score. The aim of this study was to pilot their use in a cohort of patients treated at a South African tertiary hospital. Prospectively collected data were used from a cohort of 41 patients who underwent thrombolysis at Groote Schuur Hospital from 2000 to 2012. Computerised tomography brain imaging was available for review in 23 of these cases. The SITS-SICH and SEDAN scores were then applied and risk prediction was compared with outcomes. Two patients suffered symptomatic intracranial haemorrhage (SICH), representing 4.9% (95% CI: 0-11.5%) of the cohort. This was comparable to the SICH rate in both the SITS-SICH (5.1%) and SEDAN (6.5%) cohorts. Patient scores in the Groote Schuur Hospital cohort appeared similar to those of the validation cohorts of both SITS-SICH and SEDAN. With increasing use of thrombolysis in a resource-constrained setting, these scores represent a potentially useful tool in patient selection of those most likely to benefit from intravenous thrombolysis, reducing risk for SICH and with the added benefit of curtailing cost. PMID:25629538

  9. Correlations of MCP-1 -2518A>G polymorphism and serum levels with cerebral infarction risk: a meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Hong-Hua; Gao, Lian-Bo; Wen, Jia-Mei

    2014-08-01

    This meta-analysis was performed to evaluate the relationships between the monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1) -2518A>G (rs1024611 A>G) polymorphism and its serum levels, and the risk of cerebral infarction. The PubMed, CISCOM, CINAHL, Web of Science, Google Scholar, EBSCO, Cochrane Library, and CBM databases were searched for relevant articles published before October 1st, 2013 without language restrictions. Meta-analysis was conducted using the STATA 12.0 software. Crude odds ratios (ORs) or standardized mean difference (SMD) with their 95% confidence intervals (95% CIs) were calculated. Twelve case-control studies that met all the inclusion criteria were included in this meta-analysis. A total of 1272 patients with cerebral infarction and 1210 healthy control subjects were involved in this meta-analysis. Our meta-analysis results reveal that the MCP-1 -2518A>G polymorphism might increase the risk of cerebral infarction (A allele vs. G allele: OR=1.37, 95% CI: 1.18-1.60, p0.05). Our findings indicate that the MCP-1 -2518A>G polymorphism and serum MCP-1 levels may contribute to the development of cerebral infarction. Thus, the MCP-1 -2518A>G polymorphism and serum MCP-1 levels could be potential biomarkers for the early detection of cerebral infarction. PMID:24720638

  10. Increased Risk of Myocardial Infarction in Depressed Patients With Type 2 Diabetes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scherrer, Jeffrey F.; Garfield, Lauren D.; Chrusciel, Timothy; Hauptman, Paul J.; Carney, Robert M.; Freedland, Kenneth E.; Owen, Richard; True, William R.; Lustman, Patrick J.

    2011-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To investigate major depressive disorder (MDD), which complicates the course of type 2 diabetes and is associated with an increased risk of cardiovascular disease and death. This risk may be due to a greater susceptibility for myocardial infarction (MI) in depressed patients with type 2 diabetes compared with nondepressed patients with type 2 diabetes. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS Veterans Administration electronic medical records were analyzed to identify a cohort free of cardiovascular disease in fiscal years 1999 and 2000, aged 25 to 80 years. ICD-9-CM codes were used to create a four-level risk group indicating 1) neither diabetes nor MDD (n = 214,749), 2) MDD alone (n = 77,568), 3) type 2 diabetes alone (n = 40,953), and 4) comorbid MDD and type 2 diabetes (n = 12,679). Age-adjusted Cox proportional hazards models were computed before and after adjusting for baseline sociodemographic and time-dependent covariates. RESULTS After adjusting for covariates, patients with type 2 diabetes alone and patients with MDD alone were at ?30% increased risk for MI, and patients with type 2 diabetes and MDD were at 82% increased risk for MI (hazard ratio 1.82 [95% CI 1.69–1.97]) compared with patients without either condition. CONCLUSIONS Compared with patients with only diabetes or only MDD, individuals with type 2 diabetes and MDD are at increased risk for new-onset MI. Monitoring cardiovascular health in depressed patients with type 2 diabetes may reduce the risk of MI in this especially high-risk group. PMID:21680721

  11. Low adiponectin levels and increased risk of type 2 diabetes in patients with myocardial infarction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lindberg, SØren; Jensen, Jan S

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Patients with acute myocardial infarction (MI) have increased risk of developing type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). Adiponectin is an insulin-sensitizing hormone produced in adipose tissue, directly suppressing hepatic gluconeogenesis, stimulating fatty acid oxidation and glucose uptake in skeletal muscle and insulin secretion. In healthy humans, low plasma adiponectin levels associate with increased risk of T2DM; however, the relationship between adiponectin and T2DM in patients with MI has never been investigated. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS: We prospectively included 666 patients with ST-segment elevation MI, without diabetes, treated with percutaneous coronary intervention, from September 2006 to December 2008 at a tertiary cardiac center. Blood samples were drawn before intervention, and total plasma adiponectin was measured in all samples. During follow-up (median 5.7 years [interquartile range 5.3-6.1]) 6% (n = 38) developed T2DM. Risk of T2DM was analyzed using a competing risk analysis. RESULTS: Low adiponectin levels were associated with increased risk of T2DM (P < 0.001). Even after adjustment for confounding risk factors (age, sex, hypertension, hypercholesterolemia, current smoking, previous MI, BMI, blood glucose, total cholesterol, HDL, LDL, triglyceride, estimated glomerular filtration rate, C-reactive protein, peak troponin I, and proatrial natriuretic peptide), low adiponectin levels remained an independent predictor of T2DM (hazard ratio [HR] 5.8 [2.3-15.0]; P < 0.001). Importantly, plasma adiponectin added to the predictive value of blood glucose, with the combination of high blood glucose and low plasma adiponectin, vastly increasing the risk of developing T2DM (HR 9.6 [3.7-25.3]; P < 0.001). CONCLUSIONS: Low plasma adiponectin levels are independently associated with increased risk of T2DM in patients with MI and added significantly to the predictive value of blood glucose.

  12. A scoring system to predict superinfections in high-risk febrile neutropenic children with cancer

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Hugo, Paganini; Juliana, Caccavo; Clarisa, Aguirre; Sandra, Gómez; Pedro, Zubizarreta.

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available SciELO Mexico | Language: English Abstract in english Background. No scoring system has been published to date to assess the risk of superinfections (SI) for high-risk children with febrile neutropenia (HRFN). Methods. SI diagnoses during or 1 week after initiating antibiotic therapy in HRFN children were evaluated. Eight hundred and forty-nine episode [...] s of febrile neutropenia (FN) were included in a prospective study to evaluate a scoring system designed to identify SI. Results. In the derivation set (566 episodes), 17% had SI. A multivariate analysis identified the following significant SI-related risk factors: acute lymphoblastic leukemia-acute myeloid leukemia (ALL-AML, OR, 1.87; 95% CI, 1.13-3.10), central venous catheter (OR, 2.11; 95% CI, 1.23-3.62), and febrile episode occurring within 10 days after chemotherapy (OR, 1.86; 95% CI, 1.09-3.15). A SI scoring system could be built: 1 point for ALL-AML, 1 point for the presence of a central venous catheter, and 1 point for the febrile episode occurring within 10 days after chemotherapy. If patients collected 3 points, then their risk of SI was 25.8%. With 2 points the risk was 16.7%, and with one minimum score of 1 point, their risk was 10.9%. The sensitivity to predict SS was 100% and its negative predictive value (NPV) was 100%. In the validation set (283 episodes), 49 (17%) children had SI. For children with scores > 0, the scoring system yielded a sensitivity of 100%, and a NPV of 100% for predicting SI. Conclusions. The use of a SI score for HRFN patients was statistically validated by these results. A better initial predictive approach may allow improved therapeutic decisions for these children.

  13. Subclinical hypothyroidism is an independent risk factor for atherosclerosis and myocardial infarction in elderly women: the Rotterdam Study

    OpenAIRE

    Hak, A. E.; Pols, H. A. P.; Visser, T. J.; Drexhage, H. A.; Witteman, J. C. M.; Hofman, A.

    2000-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Overt hypothyroidism has been found to be associated with cardiovascular disease. Whether subclinical hypothyroidism and thyroid autoimmunity are also risk factors for cardiovascular disease is controversial. OBJECTIVE: To investigate whether subclinical hypothyroidism and thyroid autoimmunity are associated with aortic atherosclerosis and myocardial infarction in postmenopausal women. DESIGN: Population...

  14. Serum Gamma-Glutamyltransferase Concentration Correlates with Framingham Risk Score in Koreans

    OpenAIRE

    Kim, Kyu-nam; Kim, Kwang-min; Lee, Duck-joo; Joo, Nam-seok

    2011-01-01

    Gamma-glutamyltransferase (GGT) is a novel coronary artery disease (CAD) risk factor, but its use as an independent factor for CAD risk prediction remains unclear in Asian population. This study examined the association between serum GGT concentration and Framingham risk score (FRS) in the Korean population. This cross-sectional study was performed on 30,710 Koreans. Besides FRS, body mass index, fasting blood glucose, liver enzymes, lipid profile, uric acid and high sensitive C-reactive prot...

  15. Time-perspective in cardiovascular risk of NSAID use after first-time myocardial infarction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, A. M.; Gislason, G. H.

    2013-01-01

    PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Despite the fact that NSAIDs are not recommended among patients with established cardiovascular disease, many patients receive NSAID treatment for a short period of time. However, up until recently, data on the relationship between treatment duration and associated cardiovascular risk were sparse and have not been summarized. RECENT FINDINGS: A series of recent studies of patients with prior myocardial infarction (MI) demonstrated that short-term treatment with most NSAIDs is associated with an increased cardiovascular risk relative to no NSAID treatment. These studies furthermore demonstrated that NSAID use among patients with first-time MI was associated with persistently increased risk of all-cause mortality and of a composite of coronary death or nonfatal recurrent MI for at least 5 years thereafter. SUMMARY: The present review indicates that there is no apparent well-tolerated therapeutic window for associated cardiovascular risk and NSAID use in patients with prior MI. Further randomized studies are warranted to evaluate the cardiovascular safety of NSAIDs, but, at this point, the overall evidence suggests advising caution in using NSAIDs at all times after MI. Legislation bodies need to address this issue of public health proportions, as studies have shown that utilization rates of NSAID keep increasing.

  16. Valproate attenuates the risk of myocardial infarction in patients with epilepsy: a nationwide cohort study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olesen, Jonas Bjerring; Hansen, Peter Riis

    2011-01-01

    PURPOSE: Patients with epilepsy have increased risk of myocardial infarction (MI). Valproate can exert anti-atherosclerotic effects. We therefore examined the risk of MI in patients with epilepsy receiving valproate. METHODS: Two cohorts of patients with valproate-treated epilepsy and sex- and age-matched individuals (controls) from the general Danish population were identified by individual-level-linkage of nationwide registries and followed for 10 years. The two cohorts comprised patients treated with valproate at baseline and valproate-naïve patients initiating treatment in the study period, respectively. The hazard ratios (HR) of MI and all-cause death were estimated by two different Cox proportional-hazard models; valproate treatment was analysed as a baseline categorical covariate in the first cohort and as a time-dependent exposure covariate in the second cohort. RESULTS: The two cohorts comprised 53¿086 and 102¿003 individuals, respectively. In the first cohort, the risk of MI was decreased (HR 0.75, 95% confidence interval 0.59-0.97) while the risk of all-cause death was increased (HR 2.11, 95% confidence interval 1.95-2.28), compared to the controls. In the second cohort, the risk of MI was decreased (HR 0.62, 95% confidence interval 0.53-0.73) while the risk of all-cause death was similar to the controls (HR 1.02, 95% confidence interval 0.97-1.07). CONCLUSIONS: In this nationwide pharmacoepidemiological study, we found a consistent association between valproate treatment and a reduced risk of MI in patients with epilepsy. Copyright © 2010 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  17. Risk Score Model for Predicting Sonographic Non-alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease in Children and Adolescents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sayed-Mohsen Hosseini

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Objective: This study aimed to develop and test the validity of a risk score to be used as a simple tool to identify those children at high risk of sonographic non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD.Methods:This cross-sectional study was conducted among 962 participants aged 6-18 years in Isfahan, Iran. They consisted of three groups of nearly equal number of normal-weight, overweight and obese individuals. Coefficients of the logistic regression models were used to assign a score value for each variable and the composite sonographic NAFLD risk score was calculated as the sum of those scores. Performance of model was assessed by receiver operating characteristic (ROC curve procedure.Findings:Data of 931 participants was included in the analysis. The sonographic findings of 16.8% of participants were compatible with NAFLD. Age, sex, body mass index, waist circumference and serum triglycerides level were diagnosed as factors associated with NAFLD. The risk score was calculated as 50 for sonographic NAFLD.Conclusion:This study, to the best of our knowledge is the first of its kind in the pediatric age group, focuses on predicting sonographic NAFLD from easily-measured factors. It may suggest an association of hypertriglyceridemic-waist phenotype with NAFLD in the pediatric age group.

  18. Risk Score Model for Predicting Sonographic Non-Alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease in Children and Adolescents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Parinaz Poursafa

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Objective: This study aimed to develop and test the validity of a risk score to be used as a simple tool to identify those children at high risk of sonographic non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD. Methods:This cross-sectional study was conducted among 962 participants aged 6-18 years in Isfahan, Iran. They consisted of three groups of nearly equal number of normal-weight, overweight and obese individuals. Coefficients of the logistic regression models were used to assign a score value for each variable and the composite sonographic NAFLD risk score was calculated as the sum of those scores. Performance of model was assessed by receiver operating characteristic (ROC curve procedure. Findings:Data of 931 participants was included in the analysis. The sonographic findings of 16.8% of participants were compatible with NAFLD. Age, sex, body mass index, waist circumference and serum triglycerides level were diagnosed as factors associated with NAFLD. The risk score was calculated as 50 for sonographic NAFLD. Conclusion:This study, to the best of our knowledge is the first of its kind in the pediatric age group, focuses on predicting sonographic NAFLD from easily-measured factors. It may suggest an association of hypertriglyceridemic-waist phenotype with NAFLD in the pediatric age group.

  19. External validation of Indian diabetes risk score in a rural community of central India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bharati Taksande

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Aim: To find whether the individuals of 45 years and more of rural area who are in higher tertile of Indian Diabetes Risk Score i.e. of IDRS of >60 as compared to those who are in lower tertile i.e. of <30, have high frequency of hyperglycemia, impaired glucose tolerance, and manifest diabetes mellitus. Methods: A cross-sectional community based study. The study was conducted in three pre-identified villages. For all consenting and the eligible subjects, the medical student visited their house and the fasting capillary blood glucose was done by One touch blood glucose monitoring system. Four simple questions and one anthropometric measurement for waist circumference helped in deriving the information for Indian Diabetes Risk Score from the same subject. Results: The Indian Diabetes Risk Score (IDRS (consisting of the factors like age, abdominal obesity, physical inactivity and the family history which predicted diabetes mellitus in the subject, its sensitivity was 97.50% and specificity of 87.89% when the score of >/+ 60 was externally validated on our rural population. Conclusion: Our study demonstrated that the Indian Diabetes Risk Score (IDRS can be reliably applied as effective tool for the mass screening of diabetes in the community.

  20. Serial assessment of the area at risk in myocardial infarction with Gd-DTPA-enhanced MR imaging in humans

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Experimental studies have shown that the region of increased myocardial signal intensity with Gd-DTPA correlates with the area at risk but overestimates the infarct size. The authors have assessed the evolution of the area at risk in acute myocardial infarction in seven patients, using Gd-DTPA enhanced MR imaging at 1 and 2 weeks after the acute event. Multisection MR imaging of the total left ventricle was performed at 0.5 T after injection of 0.2 mmol/kg of Gd-DTPA. The area with a signal intensity greater than that of normal myocardium (± 2SDs) was designated as the area at risk in each section. The summation of these areas was measured by two observers at 1 and 2 weeks after infarction; intra- and interobserver variability was 3%. The area at risk ranged from 3% to 18%; at 2 weeks the size of the area at risk showed only slight changes (P = not significant). The authors discuss how Gd- DTPA enhances the area at risk and may be useful in assessing the evolution of the size of this area

  1. Risk Score Model for Predicting Sonographic Non-alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease in Children and Adolescents

    OpenAIRE

    Sayed-Mohsen Hosseini; Saeid Mousavi; Parinaz Poursafa; Roya Kelishadi

    2011-01-01

    Objective: This study aimed to develop and test the validity of a risk score to be used as a simple tool to identify those children at high risk of sonographic non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). Methods:This cross-sectional study was conducted among 962 participants aged 6-18 years in Isfahan, Iran. They consisted of three groups of nearly equal number of normal-weight, overweight and obese individuals. Coefficients of the logistic regression models were used to assign a score value f...

  2. Glyburide increases risk in patients with diabetes mellitus after emergent percutaneous intervention for myocardial infarction - A nationwide study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    JØrgensen, C H; Gislason, G H

    2011-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Sulfonylureas have been linked to an increased cardiovascular risk by inhibition of myocardial preconditioning. Whether individual sulfonylureas affect outcomes in diabetic patients after emergent percutaneous coronary intervention for myocardial infarction is unknown. METHODS: All Danish patients receiving glucose-lowering drugs admitted with myocardial infarction between 1997 and 2006 who underwent emergent percutaneous coronary intervention were identified from national registers. Multivariable Cox proportional hazards models were used to analyze the risk of cardiovascular mortality and morbidity associated with sulfonylureas. RESULTS: A total of 926 patients were included and 163 (17.6%) patients died during the first year of which 155 (16.7%) were cardiovascular deaths. The most common treatment was sulfonylureas which were received by 271 (29.3%) patients, and 129 (13.9%) received metformin. Cox proportional hazard regression analyses adjusted for age, sex, calendar year, comorbidity and concomitant pharmacotherapy showed an increased risk of cardiovascular mortality (hazard ratio [HR] 2.91, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.26-6.72 ; p=0.012), cardiovascular mortality and nonfatal myocardial infarction (HR 2.69 , 95% CI 1.21-6.00; p=0.016), and all-cause mortality (HR 2.46, 95% CI 1.11-5.47; p=0.027), respectively, with glyburide compared to metformin. CONCLUSIONS: Glyburide is associated with increased cardiovascular mortality and morbidity in patients with diabetes mellitus undergoing emergent percutaneous coronary intervention after myocardial infarction. Early reperfusion therapy is the mainstay in modern treatment of myocardial infarction and the time may have come to discard glyburide in favour of sulfonylureas that do not appear to confer increased cardiovascular risk.

  3. The cerebrospinal fluid HIV risk score for assessing central nervous system activity in persons with HIV.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hammond, Edward R; Crum, Rosa M; Treisman, Glenn J; Mehta, Shruti H; Marra, Christina M; Clifford, David B; Morgello, Susan; Simpson, David M; Gelman, Benjamin B; Ellis, Ronald J; Grant, Igor; Letendre, Scott L; McArthur, Justin C

    2014-08-01

    Detectable human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) RNA in the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) is associated with central nervous system (CNS) complications. We developed the CSF HIV risk score through prediction modeling to estimate the risk of detectable CSF HIV RNA (threshold >50 copies/mL) to help identify persons who might benefit most from CSF monitoring. We used baseline data from 1,053 participants receiving combination antiretroviral therapy who were enrolled in the 6-center, US-based CNS HIV Antiretroviral Therapy Effects Research (CHARTER) prospective cohort in 2004-2007. Plasma HIV RNA, CNS penetration effectiveness, duration of combination antiretroviral therapy, medication adherence, race, and depression status were retained correlates of CSF HIV RNA, displaying good discrimination (C statistic = 0.90, 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.87, 0.93) and calibration (Hosmer-Lemeshow P = 0.85). The CSF HIV risk score ranges from 0 to 42 points, with a mean of 15.4 (standard deviation, 7.3) points. At risk scores greater than 25, the probability of detecting CSF HIV RNA was at least 42.9% (95% CI: 36.6, 49.6). For each 1-point increase, the odds of detecting CSF HIV RNA increased by 26% (odds ratio = 1.26, 95% CI: 1.21, 1.31; P < 0.01). The risk score correlates with detection of CSF HIV RNA. It represents an advance in HIV management and monitoring of CNS effects, providing a potentially useful tool for clinicians. PMID:24966216

  4. Active and passive smoking and the risk of myocardial infarction in 24,968 men and women during 11 year of follow-up: the Tromsø Study

    OpenAIRE

    Iversen, Birgitte; Jacobsen, Bjarne K.; Løchen, Maja-lisa

    2013-01-01

    Active smoking is a well-established risk factor for myocardial infarction, but less is known about the impact of passive smoking, and possible sex differences in risk related to passive smoking. We investigated active and passive smoking as risk factors for myocardial infarction in an 11-year follow-up of 11,762 men and 13,206 women included in the Tromsø Study. There were a total of 769 and 453 incident cases of myocardial infarction in men and women, respectively. We found linear age-adju...

  5. Exome sequencing identifies rare LDLR and APOA5 alleles conferring risk for myocardial infarction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Do, Ron; Stitziel, Nathan O; Won, Hong-Hee; Jørgensen, Anders Berg; Duga, Stefano; Angelica Merlini, Pier; Kiezun, Adam; Farrall, Martin; Goel, Anuj; Zuk, Or; Guella, Illaria; Asselta, Rosanna; Lange, Leslie A; Peloso, Gina M; Auer, Paul L; Girelli, Domenico; Martinelli, Nicola; Farlow, Deborah N; DePristo, Mark A; Roberts, Robert; Stewart, Alexander F R; Saleheen, Danish; Danesh, John; Epstein, Stephen E; Sivapalaratnam, Suthesh; Hovingh, G Kees; Kastelein, John J; Samani, Nilesh J; Schunkert, Heribert; Erdmann, Jeanette; Shah, Svati H; Kraus, William E; Davies, Robert; Nikpay, Majid; Johansen, Christopher T; Wang, Jian; Hegele, Robert A; Hechter, Eliana; Marz, Winfried; Kleber, Marcus E; Huang, Jie; Johnson, Andrew D; Li, Mingyao; Burke, Greg L; Gross, Myron; Liu, Yongmei; Assimes, Themistocles L; Heiss, Gerardo; Lange, Ethan M; Folsom, Aaron R; Taylor, Herman A; Olivieri, Oliviero; Hamsten, Anders; Clarke, Robert; Reilly, Dermot F; Yin, Wu; Rivas, Manuel A; Donnelly, Peter; Rossouw, Jacques E; Psaty, Bruce M; Herrington, David M; Wilson, James G; Rich, Stephen S; Bamshad, Michael J; Tracy, Russell P; Cupples, L Adrienne; Rader, Daniel J; Reilly, Muredach P; Spertus, John A; Cresci, Sharon; Hartiala, Jaana; Tang, W H Wilson; Hazen, Stanley L; Allayee, Hooman; Reiner, Alex P; Carlson, Christopher S; Kooperberg, Charles; Jackson, Rebecca D; Boerwinkle, Eric; Lander, Eric S; Schwartz, Stephen M; Siscovick, David S; McPherson, Ruth; Tybjaerg-Hansen, Anne; Abecasis, Goncalo R; Watkins, Hugh; Nickerson, Deborah A; Ardissino, Diego; Sunyaev, Shamil R; O'Donnell, Christopher J; Altshuler, David; Gabriel, Stacey; Kathiresan, Sekar

    2015-02-01

    Myocardial infarction (MI), a leading cause of death around the world, displays a complex pattern of inheritance. When MI occurs early in life, genetic inheritance is a major component to risk. Previously, rare mutations in low-density lipoprotein (LDL) genes have been shown to contribute to MI risk in individual families, whereas common variants at more than 45 loci have been associated with MI risk in the population. Here we evaluate how rare mutations contribute to early-onset MI risk in the population. We sequenced the protein-coding regions of 9,793 genomes from patients with MI at an early age (?50 years in males and ?60 years in females) along with MI-free controls. We identified two genes in which rare coding-sequence mutations were more frequent in MI cases versus controls at exome-wide significance. At low-density lipoprotein receptor (LDLR), carriers of rare non-synonymous mutations were at 4.2-fold increased risk for MI; carriers of null alleles at LDLR were at even higher risk (13-fold difference). Approximately 2% of early MI cases harbour a rare, damaging mutation in LDLR; this estimate is similar to one made more than 40 years ago using an analysis of total cholesterol. Among controls, about 1 in 217 carried an LDLR coding-sequence mutation and had plasma LDL cholesterol > 190 mg dl(-1). At apolipoprotein A-V (APOA5), carriers of rare non-synonymous mutations were at 2.2-fold increased risk for MI. When compared with non-carriers, LDLR mutation carriers had higher plasma LDL cholesterol, whereas APOA5 mutation carriers had higher plasma triglycerides. Recent evidence has connected MI risk with coding-sequence mutations at two genes functionally related to APOA5, namely lipoprotein lipase and apolipoprotein C-III (refs 18, 19). Combined, these observations suggest that, as well as LDL cholesterol, disordered metabolism of triglyceride-rich lipoproteins contributes to MI risk. PMID:25487149

  6. Performance of bleeding risk-prediction scores in patients with atrial fibrillation undergoing percutaneous coronary intervention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiviniemi, Tuomas; Puurunen, Marja; Schlitt, Axel; Rubboli, Andrea; Karjalainen, Pasi; Vikman, Saila; Niemelä, Matti; Lahtela, Heli; Lip, Gregory Y H; Airaksinen, K E Juhani

    2014-06-15

    The hypertension, abnormal renal/liver function, stroke, bleeding history or predisposition, labile international normalized ratio, elderly, and drugs/alcohol (HAS-BLED); anticoagulation and risk factors in atrial fibrillation (ATRIA); modified Outpatient Bleeding Risk Index (mOBRI); and reduction of atherothrombosis for continued health (REACH) schemes are validated bleeding risk-prediction tools, but their predictive performance in patients with AF receiving multiple antithrombotic drugs after percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) is unknown. We sought to compare the predictive performance of bleeding risk-estimation tools in a cohort of patients with atrial fibrillation (AF) undergoing PCI. Management of patients with AF undergoing coronary artery stenting is a multicenter European prospective registry enrolling patients with AF undergoing PCI. We calculated HAS-BLED, ATRIA, mOBRI, and REACH bleeding risk-prediction scores and assessed the rate of bleeding complications as defined by Bleeding Academic Research Consortium at 12 months follow-up in 929 consecutive patients undergoing PCI. Increasing age, femoral access site, and previous peptic ulcer were independent determinants of bleeding. Low bleeding risk scores as determined by HAS-BLED 0 to 2, ATRIA 0 to 3, mOBRI 0, and REACH 0 to 10 were detected in 23.7%, 73.0%, 7.8%, and 5.7% of patients of the cohort, respectively. No significant differences were detected in the rates of any bleeding or major bleeding events for low versus intermediate/high scores with each risk-prediction tool. In conclusion, the performance of ATRIA, HAS-BLED, mOBRI, and REACH scores in predicting bleeding complications in this high-risk patient subset was useless. PMID:24793675

  7. Early risk predictors of sudden cardiac death after myocardial infarction: Results of follow up of 881 patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milovanovi? Branislav

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: It has been shown that depolarization disorders, autonomic dysfunction, and systolic dysfunction of the left ventricle are associated with sudden cardiac death after myocardial infarction. Objective: The Objective of study was to examine the prognostic value of the most important predictors in the first week after myocardial infarction. Method: Study included 881 patients who were followed up from 1 to 60 months. During the first week after myocardial infarction, following examination were performed: ECG with standard leads and X, Y, Z orthogonal leads, vectorcardiogram, QT interval, late potentials, short-time spectral analysis of RR variability, nonlinear (Poincare plot analysis and echocardiogram. Results: In univariate analysis, the following parameters measured on the first day were important predictors of sudden cardiac death: lower LF/HF ratio(<1.5 (p=0.000, T wave inversion in X lead (p=0.000, high P wave in D2 lead (p=0.030, and diminished systolic function (p=0.000. In multivariate analysis, the following parameters were significant risk predictors: T wave inversion in X lead, lower LF/HF ratio, positive late potentials and the left ventricle systolic dysfunction. Conclusion: The parameters of the left ventricle systolic dysfunction with sympathicovagal imbalance and electric instability are the key risk predictors in the first few days after myocardial infarction.

  8. Escores de risco nas intervenções em valvopatia / Risk scores in valvular heart disease interventions

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Ricardo, Casalino; Flávio, Tarassoutchi.

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Languages: English, Portuguese Abstract in portuguese Os escores de risco utilizados assistencialmente em clínica de valvopatia já apresentam validações em todo mundo, entretanto, os dados não são homogêneos. As características epidemiológicas de cada população requerem uma validação local dessas ferramentas de risco. A troca valvar percutânea, que já [...] é uma realidade em doença valvar (principalmente na estenose aórtica), está indicada em pacientes com risco cirúrgico elevado ou considerado proibitivo. Os estudos com essa nova estratégia de tratamento utilizam os escores de risco como um dos critérios de inclusão e são escassos trabalhos que utilizam tais ferramentas como preditoras de risco. Os escores de risco depois de validados em suas respectivas populações vieram para somar com a prática clínica (individualização da conduta) na definição da conduta em clínica de valvopatia. Abstract in english The risk scores used as assistance agents in valve diseases are validated worldwide; however, the data are not homogeneous. The epidemiological characteristics of each population require local validation of these risk tools. The percutaneous valve replacement, which is a reality in valvular diseases [...] (especially aortic stenosis), is indicated for patients with high or prohibitive surgical risk. Studies with this new treatment strategy use risk scores as criteria for inclusion and there are few studies that use such tools as predictors of risk. The risk scores, after due validation in their relevant populations, are combined with clinical practice (individualization of conduct) in the definition of the conduct to be adopted in the clinical practice of valvular heart disease.

  9. Genetic Variation in ABCG1 and Risk of Myocardial Infarction and Ischemic Heart Disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schou, Jesper; Frikke-Schmidt, Ruth

    2012-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: ATP binding cassette transporter G1 (ABCG1) facilitates cholesterol efflux from macrophages to mature high-density lipoprotein particles. Whether genetic variation in ABCG1 affects risk of atherosclerosis in humans remains to be determined. METHODS AND RESULTS: We resequenced the core promoter and coding regions of ABCG1 in 380 individuals from the general population. Next, we genotyped 10 237 individuals from the Copenhagen City Heart Study for the identified variants and determined the effect on lipid and lipoprotein levels and on risk of myocardial infarction (MI) and ischemic heart disease (IHD). g.-376C>T, g.-311T>A, and Ser630Leu predicted risk of MI in the Copenhagen City Heart Study, with hazard ratios of 2.2 (95% confidence interval: 1.2-4.3), 1.7 (1.0-2.9), and 7.5 (1.9-30), respectively. These results were confirmed for g.-376C>T in a case-control study comprising 4983 independently ascertained IHD cases and 7489 controls. Expression levels of ABCG1 mRNA were decreased by approximately 40% in g.-376C>T heterozygotes versus noncarriers (probability values: 0.005-0.009). Finally, in vitro specificity protein 1 (Sp1) bound specifically to a putative Sp1 binding site at position -382 to -373 in the ABCG1 promoter, and the presence of the -376 T allele reduced binding and transactivation of the promoter by Sp1. CONCLUSIONS: This is the first report of a functional variant in ABCG1 that associates with increased risk of MI and IHD in the general population.

  10. Impact of acute hyperglycemia on myocardial infarct size, area at risk and salvage in patients with ST elevation myocardial infarction and the association with exenatide treatment - results from a randomized study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    LØnborg, Jacob Thomsen; Vejlstrup, Niels Grove

    2014-01-01

    Hyperglycemia upon admission in ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) patients occurs frequently and is associated with adverse outcome. It is however unsettled whether elevated blood glucose is the cause or consequence of increased myocardial damage. In addition, whether the cardioprotective effect of exenatide, a glucose-lowering drug, is dependent on hyperglycemia remains unknown. The objectives of this sub-study were to evaluate the association between hyperglycemia and infarct size, myocardial salvage and area-at-risk, and to assess the interaction between exenatide and hyperglycemia. A total of 210 STEMI patients were randomized to receive intravenous exenatide or placebo before percutaneous coronary intervention. Hyperglycemia was associated with larger area-at-risk and infarct size compared to patients with normoglycemia, but the salvage index and infarct size adjusting for area-at-risk did not differ between the groups. Treatment with exenatide resulted in increased salvage index both among patients with normoglycemia and hyperglycemia. Thus, we conclude that the association between hyperglycemia upon admission and infarct size in STEMI patients is a consequence of a larger myocardial area-at-risk but not on a reduction in myocardial salvage. Also, cardioprotection by exenatide treatment is independent of admission glucose levels. Thus, hyperglycemia does not influence the effect of the reperfusion treatment but rather represents a surrogate marker for the severity of myocardium at risk and injury.

  11. SNPs in microRNA binding sites in 3'-UTRs of RAAS genes influence arterial blood pressure and risk of myocardial infarction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nossent, Anne Yaël; Hansen, Jakob Liebe

    2011-01-01

    We hypothesized that single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) located in microRNA (miR) binding sites in genes of the renin angiotensin aldosterone system (RAAS) can influence blood pressure and risk of myocardial infarction.

  12. Post-operative acute kidney injury and five-year risk of death, myocardial infarction, and stroke among elective cardiac surgical patients : a cohort study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Malene Kærslund; Gammelager, Henrik

    2013-01-01

    The prognostic impact of acute kidney injury (AKI) on long-term clinical outcomes remains controversial. We examined the five-year risk of death, myocardial infarction, and stroke after elective cardiac surgery complicated by AKI.

  13. To Construct A Forecasting Model of the Anthropometric Chronic Disease Risk Factor Score

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yi-Chou Chuang

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: Many health indices have a relationship with anthropometric indices. Thisresearch attempts to provide a new measurement: a chronic disease risk factorscore built into the regression model. This new model will help peoplevisualize their health status and get multiple information during the processof the healthy examination.Methods: Data from 8,034 subjects were collected from the data bank of the HealthExamination Center in Chang Gung Memorial Hospital. Related anthropometricindices and biochemical factors were selected and used to construct aregression model. The anthropometric indices used were body mass index,waist hip ratio, waist hip area ratio, health index, waist leg ratio and trunk legratio. Biochemical data included blood pressure, glucose, triglyceride, cholesteroland uric acid, combined to form an anthropometric chronic diseaserisk factor score.Results: Subjects under 45 years of age had the highest chronic disease risk factorscore, and were selected to construct a regression model. The R-square ofthis model is 0.355; its predictive error is near 12%. After verification with atesting group, the regression model could be used to predict health status.Conclusion: The purpose of this study was to develop a new anthropometric chronic diseaserisk factor score by combining anthropometric indices and biochemicaldata. A multiple regression model was used to illustrate health status viaanthropometric chronic disease risk factor scores for the subjects participatingin the health examination. The results show that the chronic disease riskfactor score is useful for prescribing relevant medical treatment as well as forother research.

  14. A Bayesian Framework for Automated Cardiovascular Risk Scoring on Standard Lumbar Radiographs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Peter Kersten; Ganz, Melanie

    2011-01-01

    We present a fully automated framework for scoring a patients risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD) and mortality from a standard lateral radiograph of the lumbar aorta. The framework segments abdominal aortic calcifications for computing a CVD risk score and performs a survival analysis to validate the score. Since the aorta is invisible on X-ray images, its position is reasoned from (1) the shape and location of the lumbar vertebrae and (2) the location, shape, and orientation of potential calcifications. The proposed framework follows the principle of Bayesian inference, which has several advantages in the complex task of segmenting aortic calcifications. Bayesian modeling allows us to compute CVD risk scores conditioned on the seen calcifications by formulating distributions, dependencies, and constraints on the unknown parameters. We evaluate the framework on two datasets consisting of 351 and 462 standard lumbar radiographs, respectively. Promising results indicate that the framework has potential applications in diagnosis, treatment planning, and the study of drug effects related to CVD.

  15. Hyperhomocysteinemia, a Risk Factor for Myocardial Infarction in Patients with Type-2 Diabetes in Southern Sindh, Pakistan

    OpenAIRE

    Arshad Hussain Laghari; Allah Nawaz Memon; Afsheen Mushtaque shah; Syed Fasih Ahmed; Muhammad Saleh Memon

    2009-01-01

    Hyperhomocysteinemia is a major risk factor for Myocardial Infarction (MI) in patients with type 2 diabetes, in general population of Pakistan. However, the role of increase plasma homocysteine level in the development of Coronary Heart Disease (CHD) in patients with type 2 diabetes is still unknown. Therefore this study was designed to determine the relation ship between plasma homocysteine level and the incidence of MI in patients with type 2 diabetes. The study group consists of 107 patien...

  16. The CYP2J2 G-50T polymorphism and myocardial infarction in patients with cardiovascular risk profile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Epplen Jörg T

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Cytochrome P450 (CYP enzyme 2J2, an epoxygenase predominantly expressed in the heart, metabolises arachidonic acid to biologically active eicosanoids. One of the CYP2J2 products, 11, 12-epoxyeicosatrienoic acid, has several vasoprotective effects. The CYP2J2-G-50T-promotor polymorphism decreases gene expression and is associated with coronary artery disease. This association supports the vascular protective role of CYP-derived eicosanoids in cardiovascular disease. In the present study, we investigated the influence of this polymorphism on survived myocardial infarction in two study groups of patients with on average high cardiovascular risk profile. Methods The CYP2J2 polymorphism was genotyped in two groups of patients that were collected with the same method of clinical data collection. Data from 512 patients with sleep apnoea (group: OSA and on average high cardiovascular risk profile and from another 488 patients who were admitted for coronary angiography (CAR-group were evaluated for a potential correlation of the CYP2J2 polymorphism G-50T and a history of myocardial infarction. The G-50T polymorphism of the CYP2J2 gene was genotyped by allele specific restriction and light cycler analysis. Results The T-allele of the polymorphism was found in 111 (11.1%; CAR-group: N = 65, 13.3%; OSA: N = 46, 9.0%. 146 patients had a history of myocardial infarction (CAR: N = 120, 24.6%; OSA: N = 26, 5.1%. Cardiovascular risk factors were equally distributed between the different genotypes of the CYP2J2 G-50T polymorphism. In the total group of 1000 individuals, carriers of the T-allele had significantly more myocardial infarctions compared to carriers of the wild type (T/T or G/T: 21.6%; G/G: 13.7%; p = 0.026, odds ratio 1.73, 95%-CI [1.06–2.83]. In the multivariate logistic regression analysis the odds ratio for a history of myocardial infarction in carriers of the T-allele was 1.611, 95%-CI [0.957–2.731] but this trend was not significant (p = 0.073. Conclusion In presence of other risk factors, the CYP2J2 G-50T failed to show a significant role in the development of myocardial infarction. However, since our result is close to the border of significance, this question should be clarified in larger, prospective studies in the future.

  17. Risk factors for development of left ventricular thrombus after first acute anterior myocardial infarction-association with anticardiolipin antibodies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Okuyan Ertu?rul

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Left ventricular thrombus(LVT] formation is a frequent complication in patients with acute anterior myocardial infarction(MI. LVT is associated with increased risk of embolism and higher mortality rates after acute MI. Anticardiolipin antibodies (ACA are immunoglobulins that react with phospholipid-binding proteins interfering with the prothrombin activator complex. The effects of phospholipids on pathophysiology of cardiovascular thrombotic events are well known. In this study, we aimed to evaluate the importance of clinical and biochemical parameters including anticardiolipin antibodies on left ventricular thrombus formation after acute anterior MI. Methods and Results Seventy patients with a first anterior AMI were prospectively and consecutively enrolled. Patients with previous MI, autoimmune disease, collagen vascular disease and arterial or venous thrombosis history were excluded from this study. At the time of hospitalization, key demographic and clinical characteristics were collected including age, gender, ethanol intake and presence of traditional risk factors for atherosclerosis (hypertension, diabetes, smoking, hyperlipidemia, positive family history. Patients were evaluated for echocardiographic data, blood chemistry and ACA. Two-dimensional and Doppler echocardiographic examinations were performed in all patients within the first week and at 14 days after MI. LV thrombus was detected in 30 (42.8% patients. ACA IgM levels were significantly higher in the patient group with LV thrombus than in the group without thrombus (12.44 ±4.12 vs. 7.69 ± 4.25 mpl, p = 0,01. ACA IgG levels were also found higher in the group with LV thrombus (24.2 ± 7.5 vs.17.98 ± 6.45 gpl, p = 0.02. Multivariate analyses revealed diabetes mellitus, higher WMSI, lower MDT and higher ACA IgM and higher ACA IgG levels as independent predictors of left ventricular thrombus formation. Conclusions Our data demonstrate that beside the low ejection fraction, lower MDT and higher wall motion score index, modestly elevated ACA IgM and ACA IgG levels are associated with LV thrombus formation in patients with anterior MI.

  18. Assessment of cardiovascular risk in hypertensive patients: a comparison of commonly used risk scoring programs

    OpenAIRE

    Ulusoy, S?u?kru?

    2013-01-01

    Several calculation modalities are used today for cardiovascular risk assessment. Cardiovascular risk assessment should be performed in all hypertensive patients. Risk assessment methods being based on the population in which the patient lives and the inclusion of factors such as ethnicity variations, socioeconomic status, and medication use will contribute to improvements in risk assessments. The results should be shared with the patient, and modifiable risk factors must be effectively treated.

  19. Long-term prognosis and risk heterogeneity of heart failure complicating acute myocardial infarction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Carvalho, Leonardo P; Gao, Fei; Chen, Qifeng; Sim, Ling-Ling; Koh, Tian-Hai; Foo, David; Ong, Hean-Yee; Tong, Khim-Leng; Tan, Huay-Cheem; Yeo, Tiong-Cheng; Chow, Khuan-Yew; Richards, A Mark; Peterson, Eric D; Chua, Terrance; Chan, Mark Y

    2015-04-01

    The Killip classification of acute heart failure was developed decades ago to predict short-term mortality in patients with acute myocardial infarction (AMI). The aim of this study was to determine the long-term prognosis of acute heart failure graded according to the Killip classification in 15,235 unselected patients hospitalized for AMI from 2000 to 2005. Vital status for each patient was ascertained, through to March 1, 2012, from linkage with national death records. A stepwise gradient in the adjusted hazard ratio (HR) for 12-year mortality was observed with increasing Killip class: class I (n = 10,123), HR 1.00 (reference group); class II (n = 2,913), HR 1.13 (95% confidence interval [CI] 1.06 to 1.21); class III (n = 1,217) HR 1.49 (95% CI 1.37 to 1.62); and class IV (n = 898), HR 2.80 (95% CI 2.53 to 3.10). Unexpectedly, in a landmark analysis excluding deaths 60 years of age was 2.30 (95% CI 2.07 to 2.56, p <0.001). In conclusion, on the basis of simple clinical features, the Killip classification robustly predicted 12-year mortality after AMI. The heterogeneity in early versus late risk in patients with Killip class IV heart failure underscores the importance of appropriate early treatment in cardiogenic shock. PMID:25682439

  20. Risk score modeling of multiple gene to gene interactions using aggregated-multifactor dimensionality reduction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dai Hongying

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Multifactor Dimensionality Reduction (MDR has been widely applied to detect gene-gene (GxG interactions associated with complex diseases. Existing MDR methods summarize disease risk by a dichotomous predisposing model (high-risk/low-risk from one optimal GxG interaction, which does not take the accumulated effects from multiple GxG interactions into account. Results We propose an Aggregated-Multifactor Dimensionality Reduction (A-MDR method that exhaustively searches for and detects significant GxG interactions to generate an epistasis enriched gene network. An aggregated epistasis enriched risk score, which takes into account multiple GxG interactions simultaneously, replaces the dichotomous predisposing risk variable and provides higher resolution in the quantification of disease susceptibility. We evaluate this new A-MDR approach in a broad range of simulations. Also, we present the results of an application of the A-MDR method to a data set derived from Juvenile Idiopathic Arthritis patients treated with methotrexate (MTX that revealed several GxG interactions in the folate pathway that were associated with treatment response. The epistasis enriched risk score that pooled information from 82 significant GxG interactions distinguished MTX responders from non-responders with 82% accuracy. Conclusions The proposed A-MDR is innovative in the MDR framework to investigate aggregated effects among GxG interactions. New measures (pOR, pRR and pChi are proposed to detect multiple GxG interactions.

  1. Risk Prediction Score for Severe High Altitude Illness: A Cohort Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Canouï-Poitrine, Florence; Veerabudun, Kalaivani; Larmignat, Philippe; Letournel, Murielle

    2014-01-01

    Background Risk prediction of acute mountain sickness, high altitude (HA) pulmonary or cerebral edema is currently based on clinical assessment. Our objective was to develop a risk prediction score of Severe High Altitude Illness (SHAI) combining clinical and physiological factors. Study population was 1017 sea-level subjects who performed a hypoxia exercise test before a stay at HA. The outcome was the occurrence of SHAI during HA exposure. Two scores were built, according to the presence (PRE, n?=?537) or absence (ABS, n?=?480) of previous experience at HA, using multivariate logistic regression. Calibration was evaluated by Hosmer-Lemeshow chisquare test and discrimination by Area Under ROC Curve (AUC) and Net Reclassification Index (NRI). Results The score was a linear combination of history of SHAI, ventilatory and cardiac response to hypoxia at exercise, speed of ascent, desaturation during hypoxic exercise, history of migraine, geographical location, female sex, age under 46 and regular physical activity. In the PRE/ABS groups, the score ranged from 0 to 12/10, a cut-off of 5/5.5 gave a sensitivity of 87%/87% and a specificity of 82%/73%. Adding physiological variables via the hypoxic exercise test improved the discrimination ability of the models: AUC increased by 7% to 0.91 (95%CI: 0.87–0.93) and 17% to 0.89 (95%CI: 0.85–0.91), NRI was 30% and 54% in the PRE and ABS groups respectively. A score computed with ten clinical, environmental and physiological factors accurately predicted the risk of SHAI in a large cohort of sea-level residents visiting HA regions. PMID:25068815

  2. Predicting PTSD using the New York Risk Score with genotype data: potential clinical and research opportunities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Boscarino JA

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Joseph A Boscarino,1,2 H Lester Kirchner,3,4 Stuart N Hoffman,5 Porat M Erlich1,4 1Center for Health Research, Geisinger Clinic, Danville, 2Department of Psychiatry, Temple University School of Medicine, Philadelphia, 3Division of Medicine, Geisinger Clinic, Danville, 4Department of Medicine, Temple University School of Medicine, Philadelphia, 5Department of Neurology, Geisinger Clinic, Danville, PA, USA Background: We previously developed a post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD screening instrument, ie, the New York PTSD Risk Score (NYPRS, that was effective in predicting PTSD. In the present study, we assessed a version of this risk score that also included genetic information. Methods: Utilizing diagnostic testing methods, we hierarchically examined different prediction variables identified in previous NYPRS research, including genetic risk-allele information, to assess lifetime and current PTSD status among a population of trauma-exposed adults. Results: We found that, in predicting lifetime PTSD, the area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUC for the Primary Care PTSD Screen alone was 0.865. When we added psychosocial predictors from the original NYPRS to the model, including depression, sleep disturbance, and a measure of health care access, the AUC increased to 0.902, which was a significant improvement (P = 0.0021. When genetic information was added in the form of a count of PTSD risk alleles located within FKBP, COMT, CHRNA5, and CRHR1 genetic loci (coded 0–6, the AUC increased to 0.920, which was also a significant improvement (P = 0.0178. The results for current PTSD were similar. In the final model for current PTSD with the psychosocial risk factors included, genotype resulted in a prediction weight of 17 for each risk allele present, indicating that a person with six risk alleles or more would receive a PTSD risk score of 17 × 6 = 102, the highest risk score for any of the predictors studied. Conclusion: Genetic information added to the NYPRS helped improve the accuracy of prediction results for a screening instrument that already had high AUC test results. This improvement was achieved by increasing PTSD prediction specificity. Further research validation is advised. Keywords: post-traumatic stress disorder, psychological trauma, diagnostic screening, test development, genotype, single nucleotide polymorphism

  3. Electro-mechanical characteristics of myocardial infarction border zones and ventricular arrhythmic risk: novel insights from grid-tagged cardiac magnetic resonance imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wong, Dennis T.L.; Weightman, Michael J.; Baumert, Mathias; Tayeb, Hussam; Richardson, James D.; Puri, Rishi; Bertaso, Angela G.; Roberts-Thomson, Kurt C.; Sanders, Prashanthan; Worthley, Matthew I. [University of Adelaide, Cardiovascular Research Centre, Royal Adelaide Hospital and Discipline of Medicine, SA (Australia); Worthley, Stephen G. [University of Adelaide, Cardiovascular Research Centre, Royal Adelaide Hospital and Discipline of Medicine, SA (Australia); Royal Adelaide Hospital, Cardiovascular Investigational Unit, SA (Australia)

    2012-08-15

    To investigate whether grid-tag myocardial strain evaluation can characterise 'border-zone' peri-infarct region and identify patients at risk of ventricular arrhythmia as the peri-infarct myocardial zone may represent an important contributor to ventricular arrhythmia following ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI). Forty-five patients with STEMI underwent cardiac magnetic resonance (CMR) imaging on days 3 and 90 following primary percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI). Circumferential peak circumferential systolic strain (CS) and strain rate (CSR) were calculated from grid-tagged images. Myocardial segments were classified into 'infarct', 'border-zone', 'adjacent' and 'remote' regions by late-gadolinium enhancement distribution. The relationship between CS and CSR and these distinct myocardial regions was assessed. Ambulatory Holter monitoring was performed 14 days post myocardial infarction (MI) to estimate ventricular arrhythmia risk via evaluation of heart-rate variability (HRV). We analysed 1,222 myocardial segments. Remote and adjacent regions had near-normal parameters of CS and CSR. Border-zone regions had intermediate CS (-9.0 {+-} 4.6 vs -5.9 {+-} 7.4, P < 0.001) and CSR (-86.4 {+-} 33.3 vs -73.5 {+-} 51.4, P < 0.001) severity compared with infarct regions. Patients with 'border-zone' peri-infarct regions had reduced very-low-frequency power on HRV analysis, which is a surrogate for ventricular arrhythmia risk (P = 0.03). Grid-tagged CMR-derived myocardial strain accurately characterises the mechanical characteristics of 'border-zone' peri-infarct region. Presence of 'border-zone' peri-infarct region correlated with a surrogate marker of heightened arrhythmia risk following STEMI. (orig.)

  4. Electro-mechanical characteristics of myocardial infarction border zones and ventricular arrhythmic risk: novel insights from grid-tagged cardiac magnetic resonance imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To investigate whether grid-tag myocardial strain evaluation can characterise 'border-zone' peri-infarct region and identify patients at risk of ventricular arrhythmia as the peri-infarct myocardial zone may represent an important contributor to ventricular arrhythmia following ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI). Forty-five patients with STEMI underwent cardiac magnetic resonance (CMR) imaging on days 3 and 90 following primary percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI). Circumferential peak circumferential systolic strain (CS) and strain rate (CSR) were calculated from grid-tagged images. Myocardial segments were classified into 'infarct', 'border-zone', 'adjacent' and 'remote' regions by late-gadolinium enhancement distribution. The relationship between CS and CSR and these distinct myocardial regions was assessed. Ambulatory Holter monitoring was performed 14 days post myocardial infarction (MI) to estimate ventricular arrhythmia risk via evaluation of heart-rate variability (HRV). We analysed 1,222 myocardial segments. Remote and adjacent regions had near-normal parameters of CS and CSR. Border-zone regions had intermediate CS (-9.0 ± 4.6 vs -5.9 ± 7.4, P < 0.001) and CSR (-86.4 ± 33.3 vs -73.5 ± 51.4, P < 0.001) severity compared with infarct regions. Patients with 'border-zone' peri-infarct regions had reduced very-low-frequency power on HRV analysis, which is a surrogate for ventricular arrhythmia risk (P = 0.03). Grid-tagged CMR-derived myoca= 0.03). Grid-tagged CMR-derived myocardial strain accurately characterises the mechanical characteristics of 'border-zone' peri-infarct region. Presence of 'border-zone' peri-infarct region correlated with a surrogate marker of heightened arrhythmia risk following STEMI. (orig.)

  5. Validity of a PCI Bleeding Risk Score in patient subsets stratified for body mass index

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dobies, David R; Barber, Kimberly R; Cohoon, Amanda L

    2015-01-01

    Objective An accurate tool with good discriminative for bleeding would be useful to clinicians for improved management of all their patients. Bleeding risk models have been published but not externally validated in independent clinical data set. We chose the National Cardiovascular Data Registry (NCDR) percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) score to validate within a large, multisite community data set. The aim of the study was validation of this Bleeding Risk Score (BRS) tool among a subgroup of patients based on body mass index. Methods This is a large-scale retrospective analysis of a current registry utilising data from a 37-hospital health system. The central repository of patients with coronary heart disease undergoing PCI between 1 June 2009 and 30 June 2012 was utilised to validate the NCDR PCI BRS among 4693 patients. The primary end point was major bleeding. Validation analysis calculating the receiver operating characteristic curve was performed. Results There were 143 (3%) major bleeds. Mean BRS was 14.7 (range 3–42). Incidence of bleeding by risk category: low (0.5%), intermediate (1.7%) and high risk (7.6%). Tool accuracy was poor to fair (area-under-the curve (AUC) 0.78 heparin, 0.65 bivalirudin). Overall accuracy was 0.71 (CI 0.66 to 0.76). Accuracy did not improve when confined to just the intermediate risk group (AUC 0.58; CI 0.55 to 0.67). Tool accuracy was the lowest among the low BMI group (AUC 0.62) though they are at increased risk of bleeding following PCI. Conclusions Bleeding risk tools have low predictive value even among subgroups of patients at higher risk. Adjustment for anticoagulation use resulted in poor discrimination because bivalirudin differentially biases outcomes toward no bleeding. The current state of bleeding risk tools provide little support for diagnostic utility in regards to major bleeding and therefore have limited clinical applicability. PMID:25745565

  6. Total sitting time and risk of myocardial infarction, coronary heart disease and all-cause mortality in a prospective cohort of Danish adults

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Christina BjØrk; Bauman, Adrian

    2014-01-01

    Evidence suggests that sitting time is adversely associated with health risks. However, previous epidemiological studies have mainly addressed mortality whereas little is known of the risk of coronary heart disease. This study aimed to investigate total sitting time and risk of myocardial infarction, coronary heart disease incidence and all-cause mortality.

  7. Risk reduction of brain infarction during carotid endarterectomy or stenting using sonolysis - Prospective randomized study pilot data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuliha, Martin; Školoudík, David; Martin Roubec, Martin; Herzig, Roman; Procházka, Václav; Jonszta, Tomáš; Kraj?a, Jan; Czerný, Dan; Hrbá?, Tomáš; Otáhal, David; Langová, Kate?ina

    2012-11-01

    Sonolysis is a new therapeutic option for the acceleration of arterial recanalization. The aim of this study was to confirm risk reduction of brain infarction during endarterectomy (CEA) and stenting (CAS) of the internal carotid artery (ICA) using sonolysis with continuous transcranial Doppler (TCD) monitoring by diagnostic 2 MHz probe, additional interest was to assess impact of new brain ischemic lesions on cognitive functions. Methods: All consecutive patients 1/ with ICA stenosis >70%, 2/ indicated to CEA or CAS, 3/ with signed informed consent, were enrolled to the prospective study during 17 months. Patients were randomized into 2 groups: Group 1 with sonolysis during intervention and Group 2 without sonolysis. Neurological examination, assessment of cognitive functions and brain magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) were performed before and 24 hours after intervention in all patients. Occurrence of new brain infarctions (including infarctions >0.5 cm3), and the results of Mini-Mental State Examination, Clock Drawing and Verbal Fluency tests were statistically evaluated using T-test. Results: 97 patients were included into the study. Out of the 47 patients randomized to sonolysis group (Group 1) 25 underwent CEA (Group 1a) and 22 CAS (Group 1b). Out of the 50 patients randomized to control group (Group 2), 22 underwent CEA (Group 2a) and 28 CAS (Group 2b). New ischemic brain infarctions on follow up MRI were found in 14 (29.8%) patients in Group 1-4 (16.0%) in Group 1a and 10 (45.5%) in Group 1b. In Group 2, new ischemic brain infarctions were found in 18 (36.0%) patients-6 (27.3%) in Group 2a and 12 (42.9%) in Group 2b (p>0.05 in all cases). New ischemic brain infarctions >0.5 cm3 were found in 4 (8.5 %) patients in Group 1 and in 11 (22.0 %) patients in Group 2 (p= 0.017). No significant differences were found in cognitive tests results between subgroups (p>0.05 in all tests). Conclusion: Sonolysis seems to be effective in the prevention of large ischemic brain infarctions during CEA and CAS.

  8. A risk score development for diabetic retinopathy screening in Isfahan-Iran

    OpenAIRE

    Sayed Mohsen Hosseini; Maracy, M. R.; Amini, M.

    2009-01-01

    • BACKGROUND: The purpose of this study was to develop a simple risk score as screening tool for retinopathy in type II diabetic patients.
    • METHODS: A cross-sectional study was carried out recruiting 3734  atients with type II diabetes in an outpatient clinic in Isfahan ndocrinology and Metabolism Research Center (IEMRC), Iran. The logistic regression was used as a model to predict diabetic...

    • Risk score to stratify children with suspected serious bacterial infection: observational cohort study.

      OpenAIRE

      Brent, Aj; Lakhanpaul, M.; Thompson, M.; Collier, J.; Ray, S.; Ninis, N.; Levin, M.; Macfaul, R.

      2011-01-01

      Objectives: To derive and validate a clinical score to risk stratify children presenting with acute infection. Study design and participants: Observational cohort study of children presenting with suspected infection to an emergency department in England. Detailed data were collected prospectively on presenting clinical features, laboratory investigations and outcome. Clinical predictors of serious bacterial infection (SBI) were explored in multivariate logistic regression models using part o...

    • Predictive accuracy of the Framingham coronary risk score in British men: prospective cohort study.

      OpenAIRE

      Brindle, P.; Emberson, J.; Lampe, F.; Walker, M.; Whincup, P.; Fahey, T.; Ebrahim, S.

      2003-01-01

      OBJECTIVE: To establish the predictive accuracy of the Framingham risk score for coronary heart disease in a representative British population. DESIGN: Prospective cohort study. SETTING: 24 towns in the United Kingdom. PARTICIPANTS: 6643 British men aged 40-59 years and free from cardiovascular disease at entry into the British regional heart study. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Comparison of observed 10 year coronary heart disease mortality and event rates with predicted rates for each individual, ...

    • Diet-Quality Scores and the Risk of Type 2 Diabetes in Men

      OpenAIRE

      Koning, Lawrence; Chiuve, Stephanie Elizabeth; Fung, Teresa Toiyee; Willett, Walter C.; Rimm, Eric B.; Hu, Frank B.

      2011-01-01

      Objective: To 1) compare associations of diet-quality scores, which were inversely associated with cardiovascular disease, with incident type 2 diabetes and 2) test for differences in absolute-risk reduction across various strata. Research Design and Methods: Men from the Health Professionals Follow-Up Study, who were initially free of type 2 diabetes, cardiovascular disease, or cancer (n = 41,615), were followed for \\(\\leq 20\\) years. The Healthy Eating Index (HEI) 2005, the alternative HEI ...

    • Neuropathology-Based Risk Scoring for Dementia Diagnosis in the Elderly

      OpenAIRE

      Haneuse, Sebastien; Larson, Eric; Walker, Rod; Montine, Thomas; Sonnen, Joshua

      2009-01-01

      Current neuropathologic consensus criteria for diagnosis of dementia yield a classification of processes that likely contributed to dementia in that individual. While dementia diagnosis currently relies on clinical criteria, practicing neuropathologists and researchers might benefit from a simple, accurate risk scoring protocol for the neuropathologic diagnosis of dementia. Using 232 consecutive autopsies from the population-based Adult Changes in Thought study, we developed two logistic regr...

    • Real-life evaluation of European and American high-risk strategies for primary prevention of cardiovascular disease in patients with first myocardial infarction

      DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

      Mortensen, Martin B; Falk, Erling

      2014-01-01

      OBJECTIVE: To determine the detection rate (sensitivity) of the high-risk strategy recommended in the European Society of Cardiology (ESC) and National Institute for Health and Care Excellence (NICE/UK) and American College of Cardiology/American Heart Association (ACC/AHA) guidelines on cardiovascular disease (CVD) prevention. In particular, to evaluate the ability to ensure statin therapy to contemporary Europeans destined for a first myocardial infarction (MI). DESIGN: 393 consecutive statin-naïve, CVD-free patients without diabetes hospitalised for a first MI, 247 of whom were 40-75?years of age. We assumed they had undergone a health check the day before their MI and estimated the predicted risk. PRIMARY OUTCOME: Sensitivity of the risk-based eligibility for primary prevention with statins recommended by the guidelines. RESULTS: All recommended risk scores rank-ordered patients similarly, but the sensitivity of the cut point above which statin therapy should be considered differed substantially. In younger patients (age 40-60), 62% of men and 13% of women qualified for statin therapy by ACC/AHA criteria, compared with only 2% of men and no women using the ESC criteria recommended for most non-Eastern European countries. In those 60-75?years of age, the ACC/AHA guidelines captured all men and 85% of women, compared with 12% and 2%, respectively, using the new ESC guideline. This guideline restricted the eligibility for primary prevention with statins substantially by reclassifying many European countries from 'high-risk' to 'low-risk', whereas the eligibility was expanded in the ACC/AHA and the new NICE/UK guidelines by lowering the decision threshold. CONCLUSIONS: The 2012 ESC guidelines differ substantially from the 2013 ACC/AHA and 2014 NICE/UK guidelines in ability to secure statin therapy to those destined for a first MI. A great opportunity for primary prevention with statins remains unexploited in Europe.

    • Management-based risk prediction in community-acquired pneumonia by scores and biomarkers.

      Science.gov (United States)

      Kolditz, Martin; Ewig, Santiago; Höffken, Gert

      2013-04-01

      Community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) represents a major life-threatening infection, but disease course and outcome is highly variable. Major drivers of prognosis are respiratory failure, sepsis-related organ dysfunction and unstable comorbidities. Current risk stratification tools have been primarily designed to predict mortality and identify low risk patients potentially suitable for ambulatory management. Detection of patients at high risk for clinical deterioration by current scores remains suboptimal. Therefore, management-related risk stratification tools designed to predict benefit from early intensified monitoring and treatment strategies in hospitalised CAP are advocated. An approach including early and repeatedly evaluated clinical markers of respiratory failure, sepsis-related organ dysfunction or decompensating comorbidity combined with individual definition of treatment goals is suggested. Inflammatory biomarkers can add prognostic information. New cardiovascular or stress-related biomarkers like copeptin, midregional proadrenomedullin and cortisol have been repeatedly linked with outcome and disease course in CAP and improved clinical scoring in observational studies. Thus they represent promising tools for individualised risk stratification. A major task in future CAP research will be the evaluation of their additional value in large interventional trials with control groups incorporating strict management guidance by clinical criteria. PMID:23018905

    • Effect of ?-blockers on the risk of atrial fibrillation in patients with acute myocardial infarction

      OpenAIRE

      Antonio Eduardo Pesaro; Alexandre de Matos Soeiro; Carlos Vicente Serrano; Roberto Rocha Giraldez; Renata Teixeira Ladeira; José Carlos Nicolau

      2010-01-01

      INTRODUCTION: Oral ?-blockers improve the prognosis of patients with acute myocardial infarction, while atrial fibrillation worsens the prognosis of this population. The reduction of atrial fibrillation incidence in patients treated with ?-blockers could at least in part explain the benefits of this drug. OBJECTIVE: To investigate the effect of ?-blockers on the incidence of atrial fibrillation in patients with acute myocardial infarction. METHODS: We analyzed 1401 patients wit...

    • Early prediction of mortality in patients with acute myocardial infarction: a prospective study of clinical and radionuclide risk factors

      International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

      To examine the prognostic value of early radionuclide imaging in patients with transmural acute myocardial infarction, 222 patients in Killip class I and II were studied prospectively within 24 hours of the onset of symptoms. The 30-day mortality rate for the entire group was 11% (25 of 222). Univariate analysis indicated that an initial radionuclide left ventricular ejection fraction (EF) of less than 0.30 was associated with the greatest relative risk (RR = 6.6), although the percent of abnormally contracting regions (RR = 3.9) and thallium-201 defect index (RR = 3.3) were also significant risk factors. Stepwise logistic regression indicated that addition of EF resulted in the greatest improvement over the best clinical model (Killip class and chest radiographic findings) for the prediction of 30-day mortality (chi 2 improvement = 12.8, p less than 0.0005). Using the optimal model for prediction of mortality (EF and Killip class), a high-risk group with a 30-day mortality rate of 39% (90-day mortality 47%) and a low-risk group with a 30-day mortality rate of 3% (90-day mortality 4%) was identified. In clinically stable patients with transmural acute myocardial infarction, early assessment of EF in conjunction with clinical evaluation, is a valuable method for early identification of high-risk subsets

    • Impact of Primary Gleason Grade on Risk Stratification for Gleason Score 7 Prostate Cancers

      Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

      Koontz, Bridget F., E-mail: bridget.koontz@duke.edu [Department of Radiation Oncology, Duke Prostate Center, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, NC (United States); Tsivian, Matvey [Division of Urology, Department of Surgery, Duke Prostate Center, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, NC (United States); Mouraviev, Vladimir [Department of Radiation Oncology, Duke Prostate Center, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, NC (United States); Sun, Leon [Division of Urology, Department of Surgery, Duke Prostate Center, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, NC (United States); Vujaskovic, Zeljko [Department of Radiation Oncology, Duke Prostate Center, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, NC (United States); Moul, Judd [Division of Urology, Department of Surgery, Duke Prostate Center, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, NC (United States); Lee, W. Robert [Department of Radiation Oncology, Duke Prostate Center, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, NC (United States)

      2012-01-01

      Purpose: To evaluate the primary Gleason grade (GG) in Gleason score (GS) 7 prostate cancers for risk of non-organ-confined disease with the goal of optimizing radiotherapy treatment option counseling. Methods: One thousand three hundred thirty-three patients with pathologic GS7 were identified in the Duke Prostate Center research database. Clinical factors including age, race, clinical stage, prostate-specific antigen at diagnosis, and pathologic stage were obtained. Data were stratified by prostate-specific antigen and clinical stage at diagnosis into adapted D'Amico risk groups. Univariate and multivariate analyses were performed evaluating for association of primary GG with pathologic outcome. Results: Nine hundred seventy-nine patients had primary GG3 and 354 had GG4. On univariate analyses, GG4 was associated with an increased risk of non-organ-confined disease. On multivariate analysis, GG4 was independently associated with seminal vesicle invasion (SVI) but not extracapsular extension. Patients with otherwise low-risk disease and primary GG3 had a very low risk of SVI (4%). Conclusions: Primary GG4 in GS7 cancers is associated with increased risk of SVI compared with primary GG3. Otherwise low-risk patients with GS 3+4 have a very low risk of SVI and may be candidates for prostate-only radiotherapy modalities.

    • Relationship between Sarcopenic Obesity and Cardiovascular Disease Risk as Estimated by the Framingham Risk Score.

      Science.gov (United States)

      Kim, Jeong-Hyeon; Cho, Jung Jin; Park, Yong Soon

      2015-03-01

      This study was conducted to assess the association between sarcopenic obesity and cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk in Korean adults (n=3,320; ?40 yr) who participated in the 5th Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey in 2010. The appendicular skeletal muscle mass divided by body weight was calculated for each participant; participants with values <1 standard deviation below the mean reference value (i.e., aged 20-39 yr) were considered sarcopenic. Subjects were further classified into 4 groups according to their obesity (i.e., body mass index ?25 kg/m(2)) and sarcopenic status. Individuals' 10-yr CVD risk was determined using the Framingham risk model. The sarcopenic obese group had more participants (43.8% men, 14.6% women) with a high risk of CVD (?20%). The sarcopenic obese group was associated with an increased 10-yr CVD risk than the non-sarcopenic, non-obese group (odds ratio [OR], 2.49; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.53-4.06, P<0.001 in men; OR, 1.87; 95% CI, 1.02-3.41, P=0.041 in women). Sarcopenic non-obese and non-sarcopenic obese subjects were not associated with an increased 10-yr CVD risk. Sarcopenic obesity, but not non-sarcopenic obesity, was closely associated with an increased CVD risk in Korean adults. PMID:25729248

    • The risk of acute myocardial infarction and arterial hypertension in a cohort of male employees of a Siberian Group of Chemical Enterprises exposed to long-term irradiation.

      Science.gov (United States)

      Karpov, Andrey B; Semenova, Yulia V; Takhauov, Ravil M; Litvinenko, Tatyana M; Kalinkin, Dmitry E

      2012-07-01

      During the period from 1998 to 2007, a prospective cohort study of acute myocardial infarction morbidity cases as well as a "case-control" study of arterial hypertension was carried out. The risk of acute myocardial infarction was assessed as well as arterial hypertension; the dose-response relationship and the role of radiation in the mechanism of acute myocardial infarction as well as arterial hypertension development were studied. As a result of this study, a statistically significant increased risk of acute myocardial infarction among the male staff at the Siberian Group of Chemical Enterprises [standardized relative risk = 1.16 (1.04; 1.29)] exposed to external irradiation in comparison with employees unexposed to ionizing radiation was observed. A significant increase in the risk of acute myocardial infarction was observed at external radiation dose accumulation of more than 300 mSv [standardized relative risk = 1.46 (1.09; 1.91)]. The increase in arterial hypertension risk has been established among the analyzed group of employees exposed to long-term irradiation in the absence of the linear dependence of risk, based on cumulative dose of external ?-irradiation [risk due to external radiation dose in the range of 7.3-21.3 mSv = 1.6 (0.96; 2.51) and in the range of external radiation dose 21.4-68.5 mSv = 1.7 (1.04; 2.67) for 68.6-864 mSv = 1.6 (1.01; 2.57)]. This led to the conclusion that radiation can act also as a factor that might potentiate the negative effects of the "traditional" risk factors in the pathogenesis of acute myocardial infarction and hypertension. PMID:22647907

    • The associations between a polygenic score, reproductive and menstrual risk factors and breast cancer risk

      OpenAIRE

      Andersen, Shaneda Warren; Trentham-dietz, Amy; Gangnon, Ronald E.; Hampton, John M.; Figueroa, Jonine D.; Skinner, Halcyon G.; Engelman, Corinne D.; Klein, Barbara E.; Titus, Linda J.; Newcomb, Polly A.

      2013-01-01

      We evaluated whether 13 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) identified in genome-wide association studies interact with one another and with reproductive and menstrual risk factors in association with breast cancer risk. DNA samples and information on parity, breastfeeding, age at menarche, age at first birth, and age at menopause were collected through structured interviews from 1484 breast cancer cases and 1307 controls who participated in a population-based case-control study conducted ...

  1. Influence of Androgen Deprivation Therapy on All-Cause Mortality in Men With High-Risk Prostate Cancer and a History of Congestive Heart Failure or Myocardial Infarction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nguyen, Paul L., E-mail: pnguyen@LROC.harvard.edu [Department of Radiation Oncology, Dana Farber Cancer Institute and Brigham and Women' s Hospital, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA (United States); Chen, Ming-Hui [Department of Statistics, University of Connecticut, Storrs, CT (United States); Beckman, Joshua A. [Department of Cardiology, Brigham and Women' s Hospital, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA (United States); Beard, Clair J.; Martin, Neil E. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Dana Farber Cancer Institute and Brigham and Women' s Hospital, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA (United States); Choueiri, Toni K. [Lank Center for Genitourinary Oncology, Dana-Farber Cancer Institute, Boston, MA (United States); Hu, Jim C. [Division of Urologic Surgery, Brigham and Women' s/Faulkner Hospital, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA (United States); Hoffman, Karen E. [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Texas M. D. Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, TX (United States); Dosoretz, Daniel E. [21st Century Oncology, Fort Myers, FL (United States); Moran, Brian J. [Chicago Prostate Center, Westmont, IL (United States); Salenius, Sharon A. [21st Century Oncology, Fort Myers, FL (United States); Braccioforte, Michelle H. [Chicago Prostate Center, Westmont, IL (United States); Kantoff, Philip W. [Lank Center for Genitourinary Oncology, Dana-Farber Cancer Institute, Boston, MA (United States); D' Amico, Anthony V. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Dana Farber Cancer Institute and Brigham and Women' s Hospital, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA (United States); Ennis, Ronald D. [Department of Radiation Oncology, St. Luke' s-Roosevelt and Beth Israel Hospitals, Continuum Cancer Centers of New York, Albert Einstein College of Medicine, New York, NY (Israel)

    2012-03-15

    Purpose: It is unknown whether the excess risk of all-cause mortality (ACM) observed when androgen deprivation therapy (ADT) is added to radiation for men with prostate cancer and a history of congestive heart failure (CHF) or myocardial infarction (MI) also applies to those with high-risk disease. Methods and Materials: Of 14,594 men with cT1c-T3aN0M0 prostate cancer treated with brachytherapy-based radiation from 1991 through 2006, 1,378 (9.4%) with a history of CHF or MI comprised the study cohort. Of these, 22.6% received supplemental external beam radiation, and 42.9% received a median of 4 months of neoadjuvant ADT. Median age was 71.8 years. Median follow-up was 4.3 years. Cox multivariable analysis tested for an association between ADT use and ACM within risk groups, after adjusting for treatment factors, prognostic factors, and propensity score for ADT. Results: ADT was associated with significantly increased ACM (adjusted hazard ratio [AHR] = 1.76; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.32-2.34; p = 0.0001), with 5-year estimates of 22.71% with ADT and 11.62% without ADT. The impact of ADT on ACM by risk group was as follows: high-risk AHR = 2.57; 95% CI, 1.17-5.67; p = 0.019; intermediate-risk AHR = 1.75; 95% CI, 1.13-2.73; p = 0.012; low-risk AHR = 1.52; 95% CI, 0.96-2.43; p = 0.075). Conclusions: Among patients with a history of CHF or MI treated with brachytherapy-based radiation, ADT was associated with increased all-cause mortality, even for patients with high-risk disease. Although ADT has been shown in Phase III studies to improve overall survival in high-risk disease, the small subgroup of high-risk patients with a history of CHF or MI, who represented about 9% of the patients, may be harmed by ADT.

  2. Influence of Androgen Deprivation Therapy on All-Cause Mortality in Men With High-Risk Prostate Cancer and a History of Congestive Heart Failure or Myocardial Infarction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: It is unknown whether the excess risk of all-cause mortality (ACM) observed when androgen deprivation therapy (ADT) is added to radiation for men with prostate cancer and a history of congestive heart failure (CHF) or myocardial infarction (MI) also applies to those with high-risk disease. Methods and Materials: Of 14,594 men with cT1c–T3aN0M0 prostate cancer treated with brachytherapy-based radiation from 1991 through 2006, 1,378 (9.4%) with a history of CHF or MI comprised the study cohort. Of these, 22.6% received supplemental external beam radiation, and 42.9% received a median of 4 months of neoadjuvant ADT. Median age was 71.8 years. Median follow-up was 4.3 years. Cox multivariable analysis tested for an association between ADT use and ACM within risk groups, after adjusting for treatment factors, prognostic factors, and propensity score for ADT. Results: ADT was associated with significantly increased ACM (adjusted hazard ratio [AHR] = 1.76; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.32–2.34; p = 0.0001), with 5-year estimates of 22.71% with ADT and 11.62% without ADT. The impact of ADT on ACM by risk group was as follows: high-risk AHR = 2.57; 95% CI, 1.17–5.67; p = 0.019; intermediate-risk AHR = 1.75; 95% CI, 1.13–2.73; p = 0.012; low-risk AHR = 1.52; 95% CI, 0.96–2.43; p = 0.075). Conclusions: Among patients with a history of CHF or MI treated with brachytherapy-based radiation, ADT was associated with increased all-cause mortality, even for patientause mortality, even for patients with high-risk disease. Although ADT has been shown in Phase III studies to improve overall survival in high-risk disease, the small subgroup of high-risk patients with a history of CHF or MI, who represented about 9% of the patients, may be harmed by ADT.

  3. Impact of Acute Hyperglycemia on Myocardial Infarct Size, Area at Risk, and Salvage in Patients With STEMI and the Association With Exenatide Treatment : Results From a Randomized Study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    LØnborg, Jacob; Vejlstrup, Niels

    2014-01-01

    Hyperglycemia upon hospital admission in patients with ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) occurs frequently and is associated with adverse outcomes. It is, however, unsettled as to whether an elevated blood glucose level is the cause or consequence of increased myocardial damage. In addition, whether the cardioprotective effect of exenatide, a glucose-lowering drug, is dependent on hyperglycemia remains unknown. The objectives of this substudy were to evaluate the association between hyperglycemia and infarct size, myocardial salvage, and area at risk, and to assess the interaction between exenatide and hyperglycemia. A total of 210 STEMI patients were randomized to receive intravenous exenatide or placebo before percutaneous coronary intervention. Hyperglycemia was associated with larger area at risk and infarct size compared with patients with normoglycemia, but the salvage index and infarct size adjusting for area at risk did not differ between the groups. Treatment with exenatide resulted in increased salvage index both among patients with normoglycemia and hyperglycemia. Thus, we conclude that the association between hyperglycemia upon hospital admission and infarct size in STEMI patients is a consequence of a larger myocardial area at risk but not of a reduction in myocardial salvage. Also, cardioprotection by exenatide treatment is independent of glucose levels at hospital admission. Thus, hyperglycemia does not influence the effect of the reperfusion treatment but rather represents a surrogate marker for the severity of risk and injury to the myocardium.

  4. Effect of ?-blockers on the risk of atrial fibrillation in patients with acute myocardial infarction

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Antonio Eduardo, Pesaro; Alexandre de Matos, Soeiro; Carlos Vicente, Serrano; Roberto Rocha, Giraldez; Renata Teixeira, Ladeira; José Carlos, Nicolau.

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Oral ?-blockers improve the prognosis of patients with acute myocardial infarction, while atrial fibrillation worsens the prognosis of this population. The reduction of atrial fibrillation incidence in patients treated with ?-blockers could at least in part explain the benefits of this [...] drug. OBJECTIVE: To investigate the effect of ?-blockers on the incidence of atrial fibrillation in patients with acute myocardial infarction. METHODS: We analyzed 1401 patients with acute myocardial infarction and evaluated the occurrence or absence of atrial fibrillation, the use of oral ?-blockers and mortality during the first 24 hours. RESULTS: a) The use of ?-blockers was inversely correlated with the presence of atrial fibrillation (? = 0.004; OR = 0.54). b) Correlations with mortality were as follows: 31.5% in patients with atrial fibrillation, 9.2% in those without atrial fibrillation (?

  5. Relationship of Psychosocial Risk Factors, Certain Personality Traits and Myocardial Infarction in Indians: A Case–control Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Rajni; Kishore, Jugal; Bansal, Yogesh; Daga, MK; Jiloha, RC; Singal, Rajeev; Ingle, GK

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the relationship of psychosocial factors (lack of social support, stress and subjective well-being) and personality traits with myocardial infarction (MI). Materials and Methods: A case–control study involving 100 cases and 100 matched controls was conducted in Lok Nayak Hospital, New Delhi. Results: Stress over 1 year was significantly higher in cases (P introvert (P < 0.001) personalities. Conclusion: Certain personality traits and recent stress may be important risk factors of MI, especially in Indians. The finding may have implications on the preventive strategies planned for MI patients. PMID:22090670

  6. Long-term cardiovascular risk of nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug use according to time passed after first-time myocardial infarction : a nationwide cohort study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, Anne-Marie Schjerning; FosbØl, Emil L

    2012-01-01

    The cardiovascular risk after the first myocardial infarction (MI) declines rapidly during the first year. We analyzed whether the cardiovascular risk associated with using nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) was associated with the time elapsed following first-time MI.

  7. Duration of clopidogrel treatment and risk of mortality and recurrent myocardial infarction among 11 680 patients with myocardial infarction treated with percutaneous coronary intervention: a cohort study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Køber Lars

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The optimal duration of clopidogrel treatment after percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI is unclear. We studied the risk of death or recurrent myocardial infarction (MI in relation to 6- and 12-months clopidogrel treatment among MI patients treated with PCI. Methods Using nationwide registers of hospitalizations and drug dispensing from pharmacies we identified 11 680 patients admitted with MI, treated with PCI and clopidogrel. Clopidogrel treatment was categorized in a 6-months and a 12-months regimen. Rates of death, recurrent MI or a combination of both were analyzed by the Kaplan Meier method and Cox proportional hazards models. Bleedings were compared between treatment regimens. Results The Kaplan Meier analysis indicated no benefit of the 12-months regimen compared with the 6-months in all endpoints. The Cox proportional hazards analysis confirmed these findings with hazard ratios for the 12-months regimen (the 6-months regimen used as reference for the composite endpoint of 1.01 (confidence intervals 0.81-1.26 and 1.24 (confidence intervals 0.95-1.62 for Day 0-179 and Day 180-540 after discharge. Bleedings occurred in 3.5% and 4.1% of the patients in the 6-months and 12-months regimen (p = 0.06. Conclusions We found comparable rates of death and recurrent MI in patients treated with 6- and 12-months' clopidogrel. The potential benefit of prolonged clopidogrel treatment in a real-life setting remains uncertain.

  8. A score to predict short-term risk of COPD exacerbations (SCOPEX

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Make BJ

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Barry J Make,1 Göran Eriksson,2 Peter M Calverley,3 Christine R Jenkins,4 Dirkje S Postma,5 Stefan Peterson,6 Ollie Östlund,7 Antonio Anzueto8 1Division of Pulmonary Sciences and Critical Care Medicine, National Jewish Health, University of Colorado Denver School of Medicine, Denver, CO, USA; 2Department of Respiratory Medicine and Allergology, University Hospital, Lund, Sweden; 3Pulmonary and Rehabilitation Research Group, University Hospital Aintree, Liverpool, UK; 4George Institute for Global Health, The University of Sydney and Concord Clinical School, Woolcock Institute of Medical Research, Sydney, NSW, Australia; 5Department of Pulmonology, University of Groningen and GRIAC Research Institute, University Medical Center Groningen, Groningen, The Netherlands; 6StatMind AB, Lund, Sweden; 7Department of Medical Sciences and Uppsala Clinical Research Center, Uppsala University, Uppsala, Sweden; 8Department of Pulmonary/Critical Care, University of Texas Health Sciences Center and South Texas Veterans Healthcare System, San Antonio, TX, USA Background: There is no clinically useful score to predict chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD exacerbations. We aimed to derive this by analyzing data from three existing COPD clinical trials of budesonide/formoterol, formoterol, or placebo in patients with moderate-to-very-severe COPD and a history of exacerbations in the previous year. Methods: Predictive variables were selected using Cox regression for time to first severe COPD exacerbation. We determined absolute risk estimates for an exacerbation by identifying variables in a binomial model, adjusting for observation time, study, and treatment. The model was further reduced to clinically useful variables and the final regression coefficients scaled to obtain risk scores of 0–100 to predict an exacerbation within 6 months. Receiver operating characteristic (ROC curves and the corresponding C-index were used to investigate the discriminatory properties of predictive variables. Results: The best predictors of an exacerbation in the next 6 months were more COPD maintenance medications prior to the trial, higher mean daily reliever use, more exacerbations during the previous year, lower forced expiratory volume in 1 second/forced vital capacity ratio, and female sex. Using these risk variables, we developed a score to predict short-term (6-month risk of COPD exacerbations (SCOPEX. Budesonide/formoterol reduced future exacerbation risk more than formoterol or as-needed short-acting ß2-agonist (salbutamol. Conclusion: SCOPEX incorporates easily identifiable patient characteristics and can be readily applied in clinical practice to target therapy to reduce COPD exacerbations in patients at the highest risk. Keywords: chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, exacerbation, model, predictor, inhaled corticosteroids, bronchodilators 

  9. Risk Score for Predicting Outcome in Patients With Asymptomatic Aortic Stenosis

    OpenAIRE

    Monin, J. L.; Lancellotti, Patrizio; Monchi, M.; Lim, P.; Weiss, E.; Pierard, Luc; Gue?ret, P.

    2009-01-01

    Background— The management of patients with asymptomatic severe aortic stenosis remains controversial. We sought to develop a continuous risk score for predicting the midterm development of symptoms or adverse events in this setting. Methods and Results— We prospectively followed 107 patients with asymptomatic aortic stenosis (aged 72 years [63 to 77]; 35 women; aortic-jet velocity, 4.1 m/s [3.5 to 4.4]) at a single center in France. Predefined end points for assessing outcome were th...

  10. Cardiovascular Risk Factors in Normolipidemic Acute Myocardial Infarct Patients on Admission – Do Dietary Fruits and Vegetables Offer Any Benefits?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arun Kumar

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: Myocardial Infarction (MI is a leading cause of death in India. Whether dietary vitamins could reduce risk of cardiovascular disease among Indians is still not clear and very few studies have addressed the association between dietary vitamin acting as an antioxidant or pro-oxidant and its effect on risk reduction or aggravation in normolipidemic AMI patients. Objective: The goal of the current study was to address the association between dietary vitamin and cardiovascular risk in normolipidemic acute myocardial infarct patients compared with healthy controls. Design: Dietary intake of vitamins was assessed by 131 food frequency questionnaire items in both AMI patients and age/sex-matched controls. The associated changes in risk factors due to antioxidant vitamins intake was also assessed in normolipidemic acute myocardial patients and was compared with controls. Results: Dietary intake of vitamin A, B1, B2, B3 was significantly higher in AMI patients compared to healthy controls but the intake of vitamin C was significantly higher in controls compared to AMI patients. Even though the vitamins intake was higher in patients, the associated cardiovascular risk factors were not reduced compared to controls. The total cholesterol, LDL-c, TAG were significantly higher (p<0.001 in AMI patients except HDL-c which was significantly higher (p<0.001 in controls. The endogenous antioxidants were found to be significantly lowered in patients compared to controls in spite of higher vitamin intake. Similarly the enzymatic antioxidants were also significantly lowered in patients. The mean serum Lipoprotein (a malondialdehyde (MDA and conjugated diene (CD levels in patients were significantly elevated compared with controls. The levels of caeruloplasmin, C-reactive protein, fibrinogen, ischemia-modified albumin were significantly higher but arylesterase activities were lowered in patients. Conclusion: Diets rich in vegetables and fruits do not seem to reduce the cardiovascular risk in normolipidemic AMI patients among Indians and Sri Lankans.

  11. Determinants of Excess Genetic Risk of Acute Myocardial Infarction - A Matched Case-Control Study.

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Valenta, Zden?k; Mazura, Ivan; Kolá?, M.; Feglarová, Petra; Peleška, Jan; Tome?ková, Marie; Kalina, Jan; Slovák, Dalibor; Zvárová, Jana

    2012-01-01

    Ro?. 8, ?. 1 (2012), s. 34-43. ISSN 1801-5603 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) 1M06014 Institutional support: RVO:67985807 Keywords : genome-wide association study * gene expression * myocardial infarction * genetic predisposition * predictive modeling Subject RIV: BB - Applied Statistics, Operational Research http://www.ejbi.org/img/ejbi/2012/1/Valenta_en.pdf

  12. Derivation and validation of the SEER-Medicare myelodysplastic syndromes risk score (SMMRS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uno, Hajime; Cronin, Angel M; Wadleigh, Martha; Schrag, Deborah; Abel, Gregory A

    2014-12-01

    Accruing data since 2001, the SEER-Medicare dataset is an outstanding resource for MDS-related comparative effectiveness research; however, although several MDS prognostic models exist, complete data required to calculate them are not available therein. Using SEER-Medicare as a training and internal validation set (n=9820) and clinical data at our institution as an external validation set (n=307), we created a new MDS risk score (the SMMRS) for use with SEER-Medicare. Risk stratification by the SMMRS was comparable to the IPSS (net reclassification improvement index was 0.0), demonstrating that it is a useful research tool to stratify MDS patients in studies using SEER-Medicare. PMID:25443886

  13. Risk of myocardial infarction in parents of HIV-infected Individuals: a population-based Cohort Study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Line D; Omland, Lars H

    2010-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Previous studies have indicated an increased risk of myocardial infarction (MI) in HIV infected individuals especially after start of highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART). It is however controversial whether the increased risk of atherosclerotic disease is exclusively associated with the HIV disease and HAART or whether life-style related or genetic factors also increase the risk in this population. To establish whether the increased risk of myocardial infarction in HIV patients partly reflects an increased risk of MI in their families, we estimated the relative risk of MI in parents of HIV-infected individuals. METHODS: From the Danish HIV Cohort Study and the Danish Civil Registration System we identified the parents of all HIV-infected patients born in Denmark after 1952 in whom a Danish born mother was identifiable. For each HIV patient, 4 matched population controls and their parents were identified. Cumulative incidence functions were constructed to illustrate time to first MI of the parents as registered in the Danish National Hospital Registry. Incidence rate ratios (IRR) were estimated by Cox's regression analyses. Due to the confidential type of the analysed data the study was approved by the Danish Data Protection Agency. RESULTS: 2,269 mothers and 2,022 fathers of HIV patients as well as 9,076 mothers and 8,460 fathers of control subjects were identified. We observed an increased risk of MI in mothers of HIV patients (adjusted IRR, 1.31; 95% CI: 1.08-1.60). The strongest association was seen in case the offspring was infected heterosexually (adjusted IRR, 1.59; 95% CI: 1.07-2.35) or by IV drug abuse (IVD) (adjusted IRR, 1.63; 95% CI: 1.02-2.60). In fathers of HIV patients the risk of MI was only increased if the offspring was infected by IVD (adjusted IRR, 1.42; 95% CI: 1.01-2.00). CONCLUSION: Mothers of HIV-infected patients have an increased risk of MI. We presume that this stems from family related life style risk factors, some of which may also influence the risk of MI in HIV-infected patients.

  14. Discrepancy Between Clinician and Research Assistant in TIMI Score Calculation (TRIAGED CPU

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Taylor, Brian T.

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Several studies have attempted to demonstrate that the Thrombolysis in Myocardial Infarction (TIMI risk score has the ability to risk stratify emergency department (ED patients with potential acute coronary syndromes (ACS. Most of the studies we reviewed relied on trained research investigators to determine TIMI risk scores rather than ED providers functioning in their normal work capacity. We assessed whether TIMI risk scores obtained by ED providers in the setting of a busy ED differed from those obtained by trained research investigators. Methods: This was an ED-based prospective observational cohort study comparing TIMI scores obtained by 49 ED providers admitting patients to an ED chest pain unit (CPU to scores generated by a team of trained research investigators. We examined provider type, patient gender, and TIMI elements for their effects on TIMI risk score discrepancy. Results: Of the 501 adult patients enrolled in the study, 29.3% of TIMI risk scores determined by ED providers and trained research investigators were generated using identical TIMI risk score variables. In our low-risk population the majority of TIMI risk score differences were small; however, 12% of TIMI risk scores differed by two or more points. Conclusion: TIMI risk scores determined by ED providers in the setting of a busy ED frequently differ from scores generated by trained research investigators who complete them while not under the same pressure of an ED provider. [West J Emerg Med. 2015;16(1:24–33.

  15. Reflex and Tonic Autonomic Markers for Risk Stratification in Patients With Type 2 Diabetes Surviving Acute Myocardial Infarction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barthel, Petra; Bauer, Axel; Müller, Alexander; Junk, Nadine; Huster, Katharina M.; Ulm, Kurt; Malik, Marek; Schmidt, Georg

    2011-01-01

    OBJECTIVE Diabetic postinfarction patients are at increased mortality risk compared with nondiabetic postinfarction patients. In a substantial number of these patients, diabetic cardiac neuropathy already preexists at the time of the infarction. In the current study we investigated if markers of autonomic dysfunction can further discriminate diabetic postinfarction patients into low- and high-risk groups. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS We prospectively enrolled 481 patients with type 2 diabetes who survived acute myocardial infarction (MI), were aged ?80 years, and presented in sinus rhythm. Primary end point was total mortality at 5 years of follow-up. Severe autonomic failure (SAF) was defined as coincidence of abnormal autonomic reflex function (assessed by means of heart rate turbulence) and of abnormal autonomic tonic activity (assessed by means of deceleration capacity of heart rate). Multivariable risk analyses considered SAF and standard risk predictors including history of previous MI, arrhythmia on Holter monitoring, insulin treatment, and impaired left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF) ?30%. RESULTS During follow-up, 83 of the 481 patients (17.3%) died. Of these, 24 deaths were sudden cardiac deaths and 21 nonsudden cardiac deaths. SAF identified a high-risk group of 58 patients with a 5-year mortality rate of 64.0% at a sensitivity level of 38.0%. Multivariately, SAF was the strongest predictor of mortality (hazard ratio 4.9 [95% CI 2.4–9.9]), followed by age ?65 years (3.4 [1.9–5.8]), and LVEF ?30% (2.6 [1.5–4.4]). CONCLUSIONS Combined abnormalities of autonomic reflex function and autonomic tonic activity identifies diabetic postinfarction patients with very poor prognoses. PMID:21680727

  16. The methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) 677C-->T mutation and cardiovascular risk--A case of ischemic stroke and acute myocardial infarction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melo, Miguel; Gaspar, Elsa; Madeira, Sofia; de Moura, Pereira; Alexandrino, Borges; de Moura, J J Alves

    2005-01-01

    The authors report the case of a 39-year-old male patient who had an ischemic stroke (complete infarction of right anterior cerebral circulation) and an acute myocardial infarction during the same year. Molecular study revealed he was homozygous for the 677C-->T mutation in the gene coding for methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase, a key enzyme of folate metabolism; deficiency of this enzyme is associated with increased cardiovascular risk and neurological lesions. Some considerations are put forward about hyperhomocysteinemia and the MTHFR 677C-->T mutation as cardiovascular risk factors. PMID:15773669

  17. Genetic risk score for nonsyndromic cleft lip with or without cleft palate for a Chilean population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blanco, R; Colombo, A; Suazo, J

    2014-01-01

    It has been widely accepted that nonsyndromic cleft lip with or without cleft palate (NSCLP) depends on the altered function of several genes during craniofacial development. The construction of genetic risk score (GRS) have allowed to estimate the combined effect of risk alleles from genes interacting in different molecular pathways in order to improve an estimation of the individual's susceptibility to a complex disease. The aim of our study was to construct a GRS considering markers showing previous allele/haplotype association with NSCLP in Chile. Considering 10 risk markers from IRF6, MSX1, BMP4 and TGFB3 genes, we estimate a GRS for each of 152 NSCLP cases and 164 controls. GRS showed no significant results when comparing cases and controls for these markers. These results could be explained by a possible indirect relationship of these genes between them in NSCLP which GRS is not capable of detecting and/or the modest number of risk alleles considered herein. PMID:25059012

  18. Investigation of the genetic association between quantitative measures of psychosis and schizophrenia : a polygenic risk score analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Derks, Eske M; Vorstman, Jacob A S

    2012-01-01

    The presence of subclinical levels of psychosis in the general population may imply that schizophrenia is the extreme expression of more or less continuously distributed traits in the population. In a previous study, we identified five quantitative measures of schizophrenia (positive, negative, disorganisation, mania, and depression scores). The aim of this study is to examine the association between a direct measure of genetic risk of schizophrenia and the five quantitative measures of psychosis. Estimates of the log of the odds ratios of case/control allelic association tests were obtained from the Psychiatric GWAS Consortium (PGC) (minus our sample) which included genome-wide genotype data of 8,690 schizophrenia cases and 11,831 controls. These data were used to calculate genetic risk scores in 314 schizophrenia cases and 148 controls from the Netherlands for whom genotype data and quantitative symptom scores were available. The genetic risk score of schizophrenia was significantly associated with case-control status (p

  19. Cardiovascular risk prediction in the general population with use of suPAR, CRP, and Framingham Risk Score

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lyngbæk, Stig; Marott, Jacob L

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The inflammatory biomarkers soluble urokinase plasminogen activator receptor (suPAR) and C-reactive protein (CRP) independently predict cardiovascular disease (CVD). The prognostic implications of suPAR and CRP combined with Framingham Risk Score (FRS) have not been determined. METHODS: From 1993 to 1994, baseline levels of suPAR and CRP were obtained from 2315 generally healthy Danish individuals (mean [SD] age: 53.9 [10.6] years) who were followed for the composite outcome of ischemic heart disease, stroke and CVD mortality. RESULTS: During a median follow-up of 12.7years, 302 events were recorded. After adjusting for FRS, women with suPAR levels in the highest tertile had a 1.74-fold (95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.08-2.81, p=0.027) and men a 2.09-fold (95% CI: 1.37-3.18, p20%) risk categories, respectively. This was reflected in a significant improvement of C statistics for men (p=0.034) and borderline significant for women (p=0.054), while the integrated discrimination improvement was highlysignificant (P?0.001) for both genders. CONCLUSIONS: suPAR provides prognostic information of CVD risk beyond FRS and improves risk prediction substantially when combined with CRP in this setting.

  20. Association of uric acid genetic risk score with blood pressure: the Rotterdam study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sedaghat, Sanaz; Pazoki, Raha; Uitterlinden, Andre G; Hofman, Albert; Stricker, Bruno H Ch; Ikram, M Arfan; Franco, Oscar H; Dehghan, Abbas

    2014-11-01

    High levels of serum uric acid are associated with hypertension in observational studies. The aim of this study was to investigate the association of uric acid gene variants with blood pressure. We studied 5791 participants aged ?55 years from the Rotterdam Study. Thirty gene variants identified for serum uric acid level were used to compile genetic risk score (GRS). We used linear regression models to investigate the association of the uric acid GRS with systolic and diastolic blood pressure in the whole study population and separately in participants with and without comorbidities and medication use. In the age- and sex-adjusted model, each SD increase in uric acid GRS was associated with 0.75 mm Hg lower systolic blood pressure (95% confidence interval, -1.31 to -0.19) and 0.42 mm Hg lower diastolic blood pressure (95% confidence interval, -0.72 to -0.13). The association did not attenuate after further adjustment for antihypertensive medication use and conventional cardiovascular risk factors. In subgroup analysis, the association of uric acid GRS with systolic blood pressure was significantly stronger in participants (n=885) on diuretic treatment (P for interaction, 0.007). In conclusion, we found that higher uric acid GRS is associated with lower systolic and diastolic blood pressure. Diuretics treatment may modify the association of uric acid genetic risk score and systolic blood pressure. Our study suggests that genome wide association study's findings can be associated with an intermediate factor or have a pleiotropic role and, therefore, should be applied for Mendelian Randomization with caution. PMID:25185132

  1. High platelet volume and increased risk of myocardial infarction: 39,531 participants from the general population

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Klovaite, J; Benn, M

    2011-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Active platelets are large and contribute to development of myocardial infarction (MI). Platelet size is measured automatically as mean platelet volume (MPV) together with platelet count. OBJECTIVES: We tested the hypothesis that increased MPV is associated with risk of MI in the general population independent of known cardiovascular risk factors. METHODS: We examined 39,531 men and woman from the Danish general population (the Copenhagen General Population Study), of whom 1300 developed MI. RESULTS: After multifactorial adjustment for known cardiovascular risk factors, risk of MI was increased by 37% (95% CI, 18-59%) in the middle and 30% (12-52%) in the upper vs. the lower tertile of MPV. Compared with the 1st quintile of MPV, there was corresponding increased risk of MI of 13% (-7% to 39%), 35% (11-64%), 31% (8-59%) and 29% (6-57%) in the 2nd, 3rd, 4th and 5th quintile, respectively. Similar values for octiles were increases in MI risk of -3% (-25% to 26%), 15% (-10% to 46%), 31% (1-69%), 32% (5-68%), 31% (2-67%), 27% (-1% to 62%) and 26% (-1% to 61%), respectively, in the 2nd through to the 8th octile vs. the 1st octile of MPV. Use of antiplatelet therapy did not modify these risk estimates. Finally, in prospective, multifactorially adjusted analyses, risk of MI increased by 38% (8-75%) in individuals with MPV = 7.4 vs. < 7.4 fL. CONCLUSIONS: Increased MPV is associated with increased risk of MI independent of known cardiovascular risk factors.

  2. Risk of ischemic stroke after an acute myocardial infarction in patients with diabetes mellitus

    OpenAIRE

    Jakobsson, Stina; Bergstro?m, Lisa; Bjo?rklund, Fredrik; Jernberg, Tomas; So?derstro?m, Lars; Mooe, Thomas

    2014-01-01

    Background Incidence, any trend over time, and predictors of ischemic stroke after an acute myocardial infarction (AMI) in diabetic patients are unknown. Methods and Results Data for 173 233 unselected patients with an AMI, including 33 503 patients with diabetes mellitus, were taken from the Swedish Register of Information and Knowledge about Swedish Heart Intensive Care Admissions (RIKS-HIA) during 1998 to 2008. Ischemic stroke events were recorded during 1 year of follow-up. Patients with ...

  3. Ten-year absolute risk of osteoporotic fractures according to BMD T score at menopause: the Danish Osteoporosis Prevention Study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Abrahamsen, Bo; Vestergaard, Peter

    2006-01-01

    In the non-HRT arms of the DOPS study, 10-year fracture risk was higher at each level of T score than predicted by the Kanis algorithm. Under-reporting of fractures in registers and inclusion of HRT users are probable explanations for inappropriately low fracture risk estimates for younger women. INTRODUCTION: International recommendations highlight the importance of absolute fracture risk in establishing intervention thresholds. The available estimates of long-term risk have been derived by combining relative risks from meta-analyses with U.S. normative BMD data and Swedish fracture incidence records. We validated the 2001 Kanis risk algorithm using incident fractures observed in untreated women in the first 10 years of the Danish Osteoporosis Prevention Study (DOPS). Comparisons were also made with the relative risks derived from a recent meta-analysis of 12 cohort studies. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We analyzed DXA of the spine and hip from 872 women who were enrolled in the non-hormone replacement therapy (HRT) arms of the study and had not received HRT, bisphosphonates, or raloxifene. We collected verified reports of fractures at each visit. We focused on fractures of the hip, spine, shoulder, and forearm to provide risks comparable with the Kanis algorithm. Accordingly, asymptomatic radiographic vertebral fractures were not included. RESULTS: Seventy-eight women (9%) sustained relevant fractures. The risk of fracture increased by 1.32 (95% CI, 1.02; 1.70) for each unit decrease in femoral neck T score and by 1.30 (95% CI, 1.06; 1.58) for each unit decrease in lumbar spine T score at baseline. Absolute fracture risk was higher than expected from the Kanis algorithm at all T score levels. The difference was greatest for participants in the higher range of T scores. At T = -1, the observed risk was 10.9% as opposed to an expected risk of 5.7%. Relative risk gradients were similar to those of the recent meta-analysis. CONCLUSIONS: In healthy women, examined in the first year or two after menopause, 10-year fracture risk was higher at each level of BMD T score than expected from the model by Kanis et al. Inclusion of HRT users in the cohorts used may have led to higher BMD values and lower absolute fracture risk in the Kanis model. These longitudinal data can be used directly in estimating absolute fracture risk in untreated north European women from BMD at menopause.

  4. Could symptoms and risk factors diagnose COPD? Development of a Diagnosis Score for COPD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salameh P

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Pascale Salameh,1 Georges Khayat,2 Mirna Waked31Faculties of Pharmacy and of Public Health, Lebanese University, Beirut, 2Faculty of Medicine, Hôtel Dieu de France Hospital, Beirut and Saint Joseph University, Beirut, 3Faculty of Medicine, Saint George Hospital, Beirut and Balamand University, Beirut, LebanonBackground: Diagnosing chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD without spirometry is still a challenge. Our objective in this study was to develop a scale for diagnosis of COPD.Methods: Data were taken from a cross-sectional epidemiological study. After reducing chronic respiratory symptoms, a logistic regression was used to select risk factors for and symptoms of COPD. The rounded coefficients generated a Diagnosis Score for COPD (DS-COPD, which was dichotomized and differentiated between COPD and other individuals with respiratory symptoms.Results: We constructed a tool for COPD diagnosis with good properties, comprising 12 items. The area under the curve was 0.849; the positive predictive value was 76% if the DS-COPD was >20 and the negative predictive value was 97% if the DS-COPD was <10. A DS-COPD of 10–19 represented a zone mostly suggestive of no COPD (77%. The score was also inversely correlated with forced expiratory volume in 1 second/forced vital capacity.Conclusion: In this study, a tool for diagnosis of COPD was constructed with good properties for use in the epidemiological setting, mainly in cases of low or high scoring. It would be of particular interest in the primary care setting, where spirometry may not be available. Prospective studies and application in clinical settings would be necessary to validate this scale further.Keywords: diagnosis, scale, development, spirometry

  5. Ten-year absolute risk of osteoporotic fractures according to BMD T score at menopause : the Danish Osteoporosis Prevention Study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Abrahamsen, Bo; Vestergaard, Peter

    2006-01-01

    In the non-HRT arms of the DOPS study, 10-year fracture risk was higher at each level of T score than predicted by the Kanis algorithm. Under-reporting of fractures in registers and inclusion of HRT users are probable explanations for inappropriately low fracture risk estimates for younger women. INTRODUCTION: International recommendations highlight the importance of absolute fracture risk in establishing intervention thresholds. The available estimates of long-term risk have been derived by combining relative risks from meta-analyses with U.S. normative BMD data and Swedish fracture incidence records. We validated the 2001 Kanis risk algorithm using incident fractures observed in untreated women in the first 10 years of the Danish Osteoporosis Prevention Study (DOPS). Comparisons were also made with the relative risks derived from a recent meta-analysis of 12 cohort studies. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We analyzed DXA of the spine and hip from 872 women who were enrolled in the non-hormone replacement therapy (HRT) arms of the study and had not received HRT, bisphosphonates, or raloxifene. We collected verified reports of fractures at each visit. We focused on fractures of the hip, spine, shoulder, and forearm to provide risks comparable with the Kanis algorithm. Accordingly, asymptomatic radiographic vertebral fractures were not included. RESULTS: Seventy-eight women (9%) sustained relevant fractures. The risk of fracture increased by 1.32 (95% CI, 1.02; 1.70) for each unit decrease in femoral neck T score and by 1.30 (95% CI, 1.06; 1.58) for each unit decrease in lumbar spine T score at baseline. Absolute fracture risk was higher than expected from the Kanis algorithm at all T score levels. The difference was greatest for participants in the higher range of T scores. At T = -1, the observed risk was 10.9% as opposed to an expected risk of 5.7%. Relative risk gradients were similar to those of the recent meta-analysis. CONCLUSIONS: In healthy women, examined in the first year or two after menopause, 10-year fracturerisk was higher at each level of BMD T score than expected from the model by Kanis et al. Inclusion of HRT users in the cohorts used may have led to higher BMD values and lower absolute fracture risk in the Kanis model. These longitudinal data can be used directly in estimating absolute fracture risk in untreated north European women from BMD at menopause.

  6. Developing and Validating a Risk Score for Lower-Extremity Amputation in Patients Hospitalized for a Diabetic Foot Infection

    OpenAIRE

    Lipsky, Benjamin A.; Weigelt, John A.; Sun, Xiaowu; Derby, Karen G.; Tabak, Ying P.; Johannes, Richard Scott

    2011-01-01

    Objective: Diabetic foot infection is the predominant predisposing factor to nontraumatic lower-extremity amputation (LEA), but few studies have investigated which specific risk factors are most associated with LEA. We sought to develop and validate a risk score to aid in the early identification of patients hospitalized for diabetic foot infection who are at highest risk of LEA. Research Design and Methods: Using a large, clinical research database (CareFusion), we identified patients hosp...

  7. QT dispersion as a risk factor for sudden cardiac death and fatal myocardial infarction in a coronary risk population.

    OpenAIRE

    Ma?ntta?ri, M.; Oikarinen, L.; Manninen, V.; Viitasalo, M.

    1997-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To test in a prospective study the hypothesis that increased QT dispersion in resting 12-lead ECG is a predictor of sudden cardiac death. DESIGN: A nested case-control study during a mean (SD) follow up time of 6.5 (2.8) years. SETTING: A prospective, placebo controlled, coronary prevention trial with gemfibrozil among dyslipidaemic middle aged men in primary (occupational) health care units: the Helsinki heart study. PATIENTS: 24 victims of fatal myocardial infarction, 48 victims ...

  8. Single-living is associated with increased risk of long-term mortality among employed patients with acute myocardial infarction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Finn Erl

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Finn Erland Nielsen, Shan MardDepartment of Cardiology S, Herlev University Hospital, DenmarkObjective: There is conflicting evidence about the impact of social support on adverse outcome after acute myocardial infarction (MI. We examined the relation between single-living and long-term all-cause mortality after MI.Design: A prospective cohort study of 242 employed patients with MI followed up to 16 years after MI.Results: A total of 106 (43.8% patients died during the follow-up. Single-living nearly doubled the risk of death; after adjusting for potential confounding factors, single-living was an independent predictor of death, with a hazard ratio of 2.55 (95% confidence interval: 1.52–4.30. Other predictors of death were diabetes mellitus, atrial fibrillation, age, and ejection fraction less than 35%.Conclusion: Single-living is a prognostic determinant of long-term all-cause mortality after MI.Keywords: acute myocardial infarction, social support, single-living, prognosis.

  9. Polymorphisms Related to the Serum 25-Hydroxyvitamin D Level and Risk of Myocardial Infarction, Diabetes, Cancer and Mortality. The Tromsø Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jorde, Rolf; Schirmer, Henrik; Wilsgaard, Tom; Joakimsen, Ragnar Martin; Mathiesen, Ellisiv Bøgeberg; Njølstad, Inger; Løchen, Maja-Lisa; Figenschau, Yngve; Berg, Jens Petter; Svartberg, Johan; Grimnes, Guri

    2012-01-01

    Objective Low serum 25(OH)D levels are associated with cardiovascular risk factors, and also predict future myocardial infarction (MI), type 2 diabetes (T2DM), cancer and all-cause mortality. Recently several single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) associated with serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D) level have been identified. If these relations are causal one would expect a similar association between these SNPs and health. Methods DNA was prepared from subjects who participated in the fourth survey of the Tromsø Study in 1994–1995 and who were registered with the endpoints MI, T2DM, cancer or death as well as a randomly selected control group. The endpoint registers were complete up to 2007–2010. Genotyping was performed for 17 SNPs related to the serum 25(OH)D level. Results A total of 9528 subjects were selected for genetic analyses which were successfully performed for at least one SNP in 9471 subjects. Among these, 2025 were registered with MI, 1092 with T2DM, 2924 with cancer and 3828 had died. The mean differences in serum 25(OH)D levels between SNP genotypes with the lowest and highest serum 25(OH)D levels varied from 0.1 to 7.8 nmol/L. A genotype score based on weighted risk alleles regarding low serum 25(OH)D levels was established. There was no consistent association between the genotype score or individuals SNPs and MI, T2DM, cancer, mortality or risk factors for disease. However, for rs6013897 genotypes (located at the 24-hydroxylase gene (CYP24A1)) there was a significant association with breast cancer (P<0.05). Conclusion Our results do not support nor exclude a causal relationship between serum 25(OH)D levels and MI, T2DM, cancer or mortality, and our observation on breast cancer needs confirmation. Further genetic studies are warranted, particularly in populations with vitamin D deficiency. Trial Registration ClinicalTrials.gov NCT01395303 PMID:22649517

  10. Poststroke fatigue following minor infarcts

    OpenAIRE

    Radman, Narges; Staub, Fabienne; Aboulafia-brakha, Tatiana; Berney, Alexandre; Bogousslavsky, Julien; Annoni, Jean-marie

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To explore the potential relationship between fatigue following strokes and poststroke mood, cognitive dysfunction, disability, and infarct site and to determine the predictive factors in the development of poststroke fatigue (PSF) following minor infarcts.Methods: Ninety-nine functionally active patients aged less than 70 years with a first, nondisabling stroke (NIH Stroke Scale score ?6 in acute phase and ?3 after 6 months, modified Rankin Scale score ?1 at 6 months) were a...

  11. Postpartum thromboembolism: Severe events might be preventable using a new risk score model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pelle G Lindqvist

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available Pelle G Lindqvist1,3, Jelena Torsson2, Åsa Almqvist1, Ola Björgell21Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology; 2Radiology, Malmö University Hospital, Lund University, Malmö, Sweden; 3Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Karolinska Hospital, Huddinge, SwedenBackground: Pregnancy-related venous thromboembolism (VTE is a major cause of maternal morbidity and mortality. A new risk assessment model for VTE in relation to pregnancy has been introduced in Sweden. We wished to determine the proportion of preventable VTE cases if the model had been in use and make a brief cost-benefit analysis.Methods: A hospital-based retrospective case-control study of all postpartum thromboembolic instances of deep venous thrombosis and pulmonary embolisms during a 16-year period. Large anamnestic risk factors at the time of delivery were assessed. We correlated the findings with the new Swedish guidelines for thromboprophylaxis.Results: We found 37 cases of postpartum VTE during the study period. Nineteen of all VTE cases (51% and eight out of eleven of cases of pulmonary embolism (73% had two or more large anamnestic risk factors, ie, they would have been subjected to thromboprophylaxis if the new guidelines had been used. The cost of each preventable VTE was lower than treating a VTE.Conclusion: Approximately one-half of postpartum VTE cases and 70% of pulmonary emboli cases have at least two large risk factors and might be preventable using the new algorithm. From the perspective of the health care system the new recommendations appears to be cost-effective.Keywords: thromboprophylaxis, low molecular weight heparin, scoring system, health care financing, ultrasonography, phlebography

  12. Heart failure severity, as determined by loop diuretic dosages, predicts the risk of developing diabetes after myocardial infarction: a nationwide cohort study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersson, Charlotte; Norgaard, Mette Lykke

    2010-01-01

    Heart failure (HF) is associated with increased insulin resistance, but the consequences of HF for development of diabetes are not well studied. The aim of the present study was to investigate the relationship between HF severity and risk of developing diabetes in a nationwide cohort of patients with myocardial infarction (MI).

  13. The Risk Assessment Score in acute whiplash injury predicts outcome and reflects bio-psycho-social factors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kasch, Helge; Qerama, Erisela

    2011-01-01

    ABSTRACT: Study Design. 1-year prospective study of 141 acute whiplash patients (WLP) and 40 acute ankle injured controlsObjective. This study investigates a priori determined potential risk factors in order to develop a risk assessment tool, for which the expediency was examinedSummary of Background Data. The Whiplash Associated Disorders (WAD) grading system that emerged from The Quebec Task-force-on-Whiplash has been of limited value for predicting work-related recovery and for explaining bio-psychosocial disability after whiplash and new predictive factors e.g. risk criteria that comprehensively differentiate acute WLP in a bio-psycho-social manner are needed.Methods. Consecutively 141 acute WLP and 40 ankle injured recruited from emergency units were examined after 1 week, 1, 3, 6, 12 months obtaining neck/head VAS score, number-of-non-painful complaints, epidemiological, social, psychological data and neurological examination, active neck mobility, and furthermore muscle tenderness and pain response, strength and duration of neck muscles. Risk factors derived (reduced CROM, intense neckpain/headache, multiple non-pain complaints) were applied in a Risk Assessment Score and divided into 7 risk-strata.Results. A ROC curve for the Risk Assessment Score and 1-year work disability showed an area of 0.90. Risk strata and number of sick days showed a log-linear relationship. In stratum 1 full recovery was encountered, but for high risk patients in stratum 6 only 50% and 7 only 20% had returned to work after 1-yr (p <5.4 * 10). Strength measures, psychophysical pain measurements and psychological and social data (reported elsewhere) showed significant relation to risk strata.Conclusion. The Risk Assessment score is suggested as a valuable tool for grading WLP early after injury. It has reasonable screening power for encountering work disability and reflects the bio-psycho-social nature of whiplash injuries.

  14. Refined ambient PM2.5 exposure surrogates and the risk of myocardial infarction

    OpenAIRE

    Hodas, Natasha; Turpin, Barbara; Lunden, Melissa; Baxter, Lisa; O?zkaynak, Halu?k; Burke, Janet; Ohman-strickland, Pamela; Thevenet-morrison, Kelly; Rich, David Q.

    2013-01-01

    Using a case-crossover study design and conditional logistic regression, we compared the relative odds of transmural (full-wall) myocardial infarction (MI) calculated using exposure surrogates that account for human activity patterns and the indoor transport of ambient PM2.5 with those calculated using central-site PM2.5 concentrations to estimate exposure to PM2.5 of outdoor origin (exposure to ambient PM2.5). Because variability in human activity and indoor PM2.5 transport contributes expos...

  15. Utility of established cardiovascular disease risk score models for the 10-year prediction of disease outcomes in women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goh, Louise G H; Dhaliwal, Satvinder S; Lee, Andy H; Bertolatti, Dean; Della, Phillip R

    2013-04-01

    Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is a major cause of mortality globally. In absolute numbers, more women die from CVD than men do. CVD mortality risk differs between genders, reflecting the different distribution of modifiable risk factors and severity of CVD outcomes. This study reviews six established risk score models and their applicability to the female population. These models are assessed against two criteria: discrimination and calibration. Sensitivity, specificity and positive- and negative-predictive values are also examined. The risk score models are found to be limited in applicability, requiring recalibration beyond their study population. Relevant risk factors to predict CVD mortality for women, such as measures of obesity, physical activity, alcohol consumption, use of antihypertensive medication, chronic kidney disease and coronary artery calcium are generally not incorporated in these models. PMID:23570356

  16. Genetically elevated non-fasting triglycerides and calculated remnant cholesterol as causal risk factors for myocardial infarction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    JØrgensen, Anders Berg; Frikke-Schmidt, Ruth

    2012-01-01

    AimsElevated non-fasting triglycerides mark elevated levels of remnant cholesterol. Using a Mendelian randomization approach, we tested whether genetically increased remnant cholesterol in hypertriglyceridaemia due to genetic variation in the apolipoprotein A5 gene (APOA5) associates with an increased risk of myocardial infarction (MI).Methods and resultsWe resequenced the core promoter and coding regions of APOA5 in individuals with the lowest 1% (n = 95) and highest 2% (n = 190) triglyceride levels in the Copenhagen City Heart Study (CCHS, n = 10 391). Genetic variants which differed in frequency between the two extreme triglyceride groups (c.-1131T > C, S19W, and c.*31C > T; P-value: 0.06 to

  17. Genetic Addiction Risk Score (GARS): molecular neurogenetic evidence for predisposition to Reward Deficiency Syndrome (RDS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blum, Kenneth; Oscar-Berman, Marlene; Demetrovics, Zsolt; Barh, Debmalya; Gold, Mark S

    2014-12-01

    We have published extensively on the neurogenetics of brain reward systems with reference to the genes related to dopaminergic function in particular. In 1996, we coined "Reward Deficiency Syndrome" (RDS), to portray behaviors found to have gene-based association with hypodopaminergic function. RDS as a useful concept has been embraced in many subsequent studies, to increase our understanding of Substance Use Disorder (SUD), addictions, and other obsessive, compulsive, and impulsive behaviors. Interestingly, albeit others, in one published study, we were able to describe lifetime RDS behaviors in a recovering addict (17 years sober) blindly by assessing resultant Genetic Addiction Risk Score (GARS™) data only. We hypothesize that genetic testing at an early age may be an effective preventive strategy to reduce or eliminate pathological substance and behavioral seeking activity. Here, we consider a select number of genes, their polymorphisms, and associated risks for RDS whereby, utilizing GWAS, there is evidence for convergence to reward candidate genes. The evidence presented serves as a plausible brain-print providing relevant genetic information that will reinforce targeted therapies, to improve recovery and prevent relapse on an individualized basis. The primary driver of RDS is a hypodopaminergic trait (genes) as well as epigenetic states (methylation and deacetylation on chromatin structure). We now have entered a new era in addiction medicine that embraces the neuroscience of addiction and RDS as a pathological condition in brain reward circuitry that calls for appropriate evidence-based therapy and early genetic diagnosis and that requires further intensive investigation. PMID:24878765

  18. Consideration of QRS complex in addition to ST-segment abnormalities in the estimated "risk region" during acute anterior myocardial infarction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    van Hellemond, Irene E G; Bouwmeester, Sjoerd

    2011-01-01

    The myocardial area at risk (MaR) has been estimated in patients with acute myocardial infarction (AMI) by using ST segment-based electrocardiographic (ECG) methods. As the process from ischemia to infarction progresses, the ST-segment deviation is typically replaced by QRS abnormalities causing a falsely low estimated total MaR if determined by using ST segment-based methods. The purpose of this study was to investigate if consideration of the abnormalities in the QRS complex, in addition to those in the ST segment, provides a more accurate estimated total MaR during anterior AMI than by considering the ST segment alone.

  19. Implantable cardioverter-defibrillator registry risk score models for acute procedural complications or death after implantable cardioverter-defibrillator implantation.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Haines, David E

    2012-02-01

    BACKGROUND: Patients undergoing implantable cardioverter-defibrillator (ICD) implantation are at risk of postprocedural complications. However, we do not have a risk stratification schema to identify patients at high and low risk of adverse events. METHODS AND RESULTS: We analyzed data from 268 701 ICD implants submitted to the ICD Registry and developed logistic regression models to identify variables most strongly associated with the risk of acute complications and\\/or in-hospital death. Overall, 3.2% of the population experienced an adverse event. A simple risk score consisting of 10 readily available variables successfully identified patients at high and low risk of complications. The variables included in the score and assigned points included: age >\\/= 70 years (1 point), female (2 points), New York Heart Association class III (1 point) or IV (3 points), atrial fibrillation (1 point), prior valve surgery (3 points), chronic lung disease (2 points), blood urea nitrogen >30 (2 points), reimplantation for reasons other than battery change (6 points), ICD type dual chamber (2 points) or biventricular (4 points), and nonelective ICD implant (3 points). The risk of any in-hospital complication increased from 0.6% among patients with a score of <\\/= 5 (8.4% of the population) to 8.4% among patients with >\\/= 19 risk points (3.9% of the population). CONCLUSIONS: A simple risk score consisting of readily available clinical variables can identify high- and low-risk subsets of patients undergoing ICD implantation. This information can guide the physician in patient selection and determining the intensity of care required post procedure.

  20. Postpartal recurrent non-ST elevation myocardial infarction in essential thrombocythaemia: case report and review of the literature

    OpenAIRE

    Raio Luigi; Lakiopoulos Vassilios; Stefanidis Ioannis; Arampatzis Spyridon; Surbek Daniel; Mohaupt Markus G

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Normal pregnancy corresponds to a procoagulant state. Acute myocardial infarction during pregnancy is rare, yet considering the low non-pregnant risk score of childbearing women it is still surprisingly frequent. We report a case of postpartum recurrent non-ST elevation myocardial infarction in a 40-year-old caucasian woman with essential thrombocythaemia in the presence of a positive JAK-2 mutation and an elevated anti-cardiolipin IgM antibody titer. In the majority of cases of myoc...

  1. Evaluation of an empiric risk screening score to identify acute and early HIV-1 infection among MSM in Coastal Kenya.

    OpenAIRE

    Wahome, E.; Fegan, G.; Okuku, Hs; Mugo, P.; Price, Ma; Mwashigadi, G.; Thiong O, A.; Graham, Sm; Sanders, Ej

    2013-01-01

    We evaluated the University of North Carolina-Malawi Risk Screening Score (UMRSS) for detection of acute and early HIV-1 infection (AEHI) in a cohort of Kenyan MSM with approximately 8% annual HIV-1 incidence. Three components of the UMRSS (fever, diarrhea, and discordant rapid HIV tests) were also independent predictors of AEHI in our cohort. The predictive ability (area under the receiver operating characteristic curve, AUC) of the UMRSS was 0.79. A cohort-derived risk score consisting of s...

  2. Interactions of Lipid Genetic Risk Scores with Estimates of Metabolic Health in a Danish Population

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Justesen, Johanne M; Allin, Kristine H

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: -There are several well-established lifestyle factors influencing dyslipidemia and currently, 157 genetic susceptibility loci have been reported to be associated with serum lipid levels at genome-wide statistical significance. However, the interplay between lifestyle risk factors and these susceptibility loci has not been fully elucidated. We tested if genetic risk scores (GRS) of lipid-associated SNPs associate with fasting serum lipid traits and if the effects are modulated by lifestyle factors or estimates of metabolic health. METHODS AND RESULTS: -The SNPs were genotyped in two Danish cohorts: Inter99 (n=5,961) for discovery analyses and Health2006 (n=2,565) for replication. Based on published effect sizes of SNPs associated with circulating fasting levels of total cholesterol, LDL-cholesterol, HDL-cholesterol or triglyceride, four weighted GRS (wGRS) were constructed. In a cross-sectional design, we investigated if the effect of these wGRSs on lipid levels were modulated by diet, alcohol consumption, physical activity and smoking or the individual metabolic health status as estimated from BMI, waist circumference and insulin resistance assessed using HOMA-IR. All four lipid wGRSs associated strongly with their respective trait (from P=3.3×10(-69) to P=1.1×10(-123)). We found interactions between the triglyceride wGRS and BMI and waist circumference on fasting triglyceride levels in Inter99 and replicated these findings in Health2006 (Pinteraction=9.8×10(-5) and 2.0×10(-5), respectively in combined analysis). CONCLUSIONS: -Our findings suggest that individuals who are obese may be more susceptible to the cumulative genetic burden of triglyceride SNPs. Therefore, it is suggested that especially these genetically at-risk individuals may benefit more from targeted interventions aiming at obesity prevention.

  3. Usefulness of Desirable Lifestyle Factors to Attenuate the Risk of Heart Failure Among Offspring whose Parents had Myocardial Infarction before Age 55 Years

    OpenAIRE

    Khawaja, Owais; Kotler, Gregory; Gaziano, John Michael; Djousse?, Luc

    2012-01-01

    Heart failure (HF) is one of the leading causes of hospitalization and death in United States and throughout Europe. While a higher risk of HF with antecedent myocardial infarction (MI) has been reported in offspring whose parents had MI before age 55, it is unclear whether adherence to healthful behaviors could mitigate that risk. The aim of the current study was therefore to prospectively examine if adherence to healthy weight, regular exercise, moderate alcohol consumption, and abstinence ...

  4. Modelo predictivo de "score" de calcio alto en pacientes con factores de riesgo cardiovascular Predictive model of high calcium score in patients with cardiovascular risk factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gloria Franco

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Introducción: a través de múltiples estudios, se ha encontrado que el "score" de calcio coronario es un buen predictor de enfermedad coronaria, en individuos asintomáticos con uno o más factores de riesgo cardiovascular. Por ello sería ideal realizar esta prueba para estratificar su riesgo, pero esto no es posible en la mayoría de los casos por motivos de índole económica. El modelo que se presenta permite predecir la probabilidad de que un paciente tenga un score de calcio coronario alto, a partir de sus factores de riesgo cardiovascular. Lo novedoso del modelo es que también involucra factores "protectores" que disminuyen dicha probabilidad. Métodos: estudio de casos y controles, en pacientes asintomáticos con factores de riesgo cardiovascular, a quienes se les realizó un PCC. Los casos son pacientes con score de calcio coronario por encima del percentil 75 para su edad y género; la relación control:caso es 2:1. Resultados: las edades oscilaron entre 35 y 75 años; el 14,4% eran de género femenino, el 44,4% tenían historia familiar de CHD, el 34,4% eran hipertensos, el 38,9% colesterol total elevado, el 24,4% colesterol HDL por debajo de 40 mg/dL, el 33,3% colesterol LDL por encima de 160 mg/dL, el 25,6% fumaban, el 23,3% eran sedentarios, el 13,3% consumían licor periódicamente, el 15,6% eran obesos (IMC>30, el 18,9% realizaban ejercicio de manera periódica y 34,4% tomaba estatinas. Los factores de riesgo cardiovascular que se correlacionaron con el score de calcio coronario alto, se consignan en la tabla 1. En el modelo de regresión logística se incluyen los factores que tienen un valor de p tabla 2. La expresión para el modelo sería: Los valores de ci son 1, si el factor está presente y 0 si no lo está. Conclusiones: el anterior modelo no pretende reemplazar la estratificación con el modelo de Framingham, al contrario, es un complemento que permite orientar al médico tratante sobre si es recomendable realizar la prueba del score de calcio coronario a un paciente con factores de riesgo cardiovascular. Se puede observar que muchos de los factores de riesgo que se correlacionan con un valor elevado de "score" de calcio coronario pueden ser modificables: cesar el hábito de fumar o realizar ejercicio.Introduction: it has been found through multiple studies that coronary calcium score is a good predictor of coronary disease in asymptomatic individuals with one or more cardiovascular risk factors; therefore it would be ideal to perform this test in order to stratify its risk, but due to economic factors this is not possible in most cases. The model presented allows predicting the probability that a patient may have a high coronary calcium score by means of his cardiovascular risk factors. The originality of the model is that it also comprises "protector" factors that diminish such probability. Methods: study of cases and controls in asymptomatic patients with cardiovascular risk factors to whom a PCC had been performed. The cases are patients with coronary calcium score greater than percentile 75 for his age and gender; the control case relationship is 2:1. Results: ages ranged between 35 and 75 years; 14.4% were female; 44.4% had family history of CHD; 34.4% were hypertensive; 38.9% had high total cholesterol; 24.4% had HDL cholesterol under 40 mg/dl; 33.3% had LDL cholesterol greater than 160 mg/dl; 25.6% were cigarette smokers; 23.3% were sedentary; 13.3% were periodical alcohol consumers; 15.6% were obese (BMI > 30; 18.9% exercised periodically and 34.4% received statins. Cardiovascular risk factors correlated with high coronary calcium score are recorded in table 1. In the logistic regression model, factors having a p table 2 are obtained. Expression for the model would be: The values of ci values are 1, if the factor is present and 0 if it is not. Conclusions: this model does not pretend to replace stratification through Framinghan model; on the contrary, it is a complement that allows the physician to realize if the coronary calcium score test is recommended for patie

  5. Evaluation of the simple calculated osteoporosis risk estimation (SCORE) in a sample of white women from Belgium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ben Sedrine, W; Devogelaer, J P; Kaufman, J M; Goemaere, S; Depresseux, G; Zegels, B; Deroisy, R; Reginster, J Y

    2001-10-01

    Identifying patients at risk of developing an osteoporosis-related fracture will continue to be a challenge. The "gold standard" for osteoporosis diagnosis is bone densitometry. However, economic issues or availability of the technology may prevent its use under a mass screening scenario. A risk assessment instrument, the "simple calculated osteoporosis risk estimation" (SCORE), has been reported to appropriately identify women likely to have low (t score or = 45 years, either consulting spontaneously or referred for a BMD measurement to an outpatient osteoporosis center located at the University of Liège, Belgium. BMD measurements, using dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) technology, were taken at the hip (total and neck) and lumbar spine (L2-4). At the recommended cutoff point of 6, SCORE had a sensitivity of 91.5% to detect low BMD at any of the measured sites, a specificity of 26.5%, a positive predictive value of 52.8%, and a negative predictive value of 77.7%. According to SCORE, 18% of the patients would not be recommended for densitometry. Among these, 10.9% were misclassified as they had osteoporosis (t score < or = -2.5 SD) at one or more of the sites investigated. The negative predictive errors of SCORE, when failing to detect osteoporosis, were only 1% for the total hip, 3.2% for the femoral neck, and 8.8% for the lumbar spine. We conclude that, notwithstanding the high values of sensitivity, SCORE specificity is too low to be useful as a diagnostic tool for screening patients at high risk to later develop osteoporosis. Nevertheless, from a resource allocation perspective, this instrument can be used with relative confidence to exclude patients who do not need a BMD measurement, and would therefore provide an opportunity to realize substantial cost savings in comparison to a mass screening strategy. PMID:11595621

  6. Modelo predictivo de "score" de calcio alto en pacientes con factores de riesgo cardiovascular / Predictive model of high calcium score in patients with cardiovascular risk factors

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Gloria, Franco; Samuel, Jaramillo; José Victor, de Fex; Lina M, Sierra.

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Introducción: a través de múltiples estudios, se ha encontrado que el "score" de calcio coronario es un buen predictor de enfermedad coronaria, en individuos asintomáticos con uno o más factores de riesgo cardiovascular. Por ello sería ideal realizar esta prueba para estratificar su riesgo, pero est [...] o no es posible en la mayoría de los casos por motivos de índole económica. El modelo que se presenta permite predecir la probabilidad de que un paciente tenga un score de calcio coronario alto, a partir de sus factores de riesgo cardiovascular. Lo novedoso del modelo es que también involucra factores "protectores" que disminuyen dicha probabilidad. Métodos: estudio de casos y controles, en pacientes asintomáticos con factores de riesgo cardiovascular, a quienes se les realizó un PCC. Los casos son pacientes con score de calcio coronario por encima del percentil 75 para su edad y género; la relación control:caso es 2:1. Resultados: las edades oscilaron entre 35 y 75 años; el 14,4% eran de género femenino, el 44,4% tenían historia familiar de CHD, el 34,4% eran hipertensos, el 38,9% colesterol total elevado, el 24,4% colesterol HDL por debajo de 40 mg/dL, el 33,3% colesterol LDL por encima de 160 mg/dL, el 25,6% fumaban, el 23,3% eran sedentarios, el 13,3% consumían licor periódicamente, el 15,6% eran obesos (IMC>30), el 18,9% realizaban ejercicio de manera periódica y 34,4% tomaba estatinas. Los factores de riesgo cardiovascular que se correlacionaron con el score de calcio coronario alto, se consignan en la tabla 1. En el modelo de regresión logística se incluyen los factores que tienen un valor de p tabla 2. La expresión para el modelo sería: Los valores de ci son 1, si el factor está presente y 0 si no lo está. Conclusiones: el anterior modelo no pretende reemplazar la estratificación con el modelo de Framingham, al contrario, es un complemento que permite orientar al médico tratante sobre si es recomendable realizar la prueba del score de calcio coronario a un paciente con factores de riesgo cardiovascular. Se puede observar que muchos de los factores de riesgo que se correlacionan con un valor elevado de "score" de calcio coronario pueden ser modificables: cesar el hábito de fumar o realizar ejercicio. Abstract in english Introduction: it has been found through multiple studies that coronary calcium score is a good predictor of coronary disease in asymptomatic individuals with one or more cardiovascular risk factors; therefore it would be ideal to perform this test in order to stratify its risk, but due to economic f [...] actors this is not possible in most cases. The model presented allows predicting the probability that a patient may have a high coronary calcium score by means of his cardiovascular risk factors. The originality of the model is that it also comprises "protector" factors that diminish such probability. Methods: study of cases and controls in asymptomatic patients with cardiovascular risk factors to whom a PCC had been performed. The cases are patients with coronary calcium score greater than percentile 75 for his age and gender; the control case relationship is 2:1. Results: ages ranged between 35 and 75 years; 14.4% were female; 44.4% had family history of CHD; 34.4% were hypertensive; 38.9% had high total cholesterol; 24.4% had HDL cholesterol under 40 mg/dl; 33.3% had LDL cholesterol greater than 160 mg/dl; 25.6% were cigarette smokers; 23.3% were sedentary; 13.3% were periodical alcohol consumers; 15.6% were obese (BMI > 30); 18.9% exercised periodically and 34.4% received statins. Cardiovascular risk factors correlated with high coronary calcium score are recorded in table 1. In the logistic regression model, factors having a p table 2 are obtained. Expression for the model would be: The values of ci values are 1, if the factor is present and 0 if it is not. Conclusions: this model does not pretend to replace stratification through Framinghan model; on the contrary, it is a complement that allows the physician to realize if the coronary calciu

  7. Clinical discriminators between acute brain hemorrhage and infarction: a practical score for early patient identification / Características clínicas diferenciais entre hemorragia e infarto cerebral: uma escala prática para identificação precoce do paciente

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Ayrton R., Massaro; Ralph L., Sacco; Milberto, Scaff; J.P., Mohr.

    2002-06-01

    Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in portuguese Novas perspectivas no tratamento do acidente vascular cerebral (AVC) requerem um método de triagem rápido para seleção dos pacientes. Nosso objetivo foi criar uma escala com informações clínicas simples para diferenciar hematoma intra-parenquimatoso (HEM) entre os pacientes com AVC. Estudamos 1.273 [...] pacientes com AVC isquêmico (INF) e 237 com HEM do Stroke Data Bank. Variáveis independentes para o diagnóstico de INF e HEM foram determinadas pela análise de regressão logística e utilizadas para criar uma escala. Através da curva ROC foi escolhido o nível de corte para discriminar HEM ( Abstract in english New treatments for acute stroke require a rapid triage system, which minimizes treatment delays and maximizes selection of eligible patients. Our aim was to create a score for assessing the probability of brain hemorrhage among patients with acute stroke based upon clinical information. Of 1805 pati [...] ents in the Stroke Data Bank, 1273 had infarction (INF) and 237 had parenchymatous hemorrhage (HEM) verified by CT. INF and HEM discriminators were determined by logistic regression and used to create a score. ROC curve was used to choose the cut-point for predicting HEM (score

  8. Improved cognition after control of risk factors for multi-infarct dementia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A cohort of 52 patients (30 men and 22 women) with multi-infarct dementia (MID) has been followed up prospectively for a mean interval of 22.2 months. Clinical course has been documented by serial history taking and interviews and neurological, medical, and psychological examinations, and correlated with measurements of cerebral blood flow. The clinical course and cognitive performance have been compared with those of age-matched normal volunteers and patients with Alzheimer's disease. Patients with MID were subdivided into hypertensive and normotensive groups, and also into those displaying stabilized or improved cognition and those whose condition deteriorated. Among hypertensive patients with MID, improved cognition and clinical course correlated with control of systolic blood pressure within upper limits of normalf (135 to 150 mm Hg), but if systolic blood pressure was reduced below this level, patients with MID deteriorated. Among normotensive patients with MID, improved cognition was associated with cessation of smoking cigarettes

  9. Myocardial Infarction Accelerates Atherosclerosis

    OpenAIRE

    Leuschner, Florian; Robbins, Clinton; Iwamoto, Yoshiko; Thompson, Brian; Carlson, Alicia L.; Heidt, Timo; Lasitschka, Felix; Etzrodt, Martin; Waterman, Peter; Waring, Michael T.; Chicoine, Adam T.; Laan, Anja M.; Niessen, Hans W. M.; Piek, Jan J.; Rubin, Barry B.

    2012-01-01

    During progression of atherosclerosis, myeloid cells destabilize lipid-rich plaque in the arterial wall and cause its rupture, thus triggering myocardial infarction and stroke. Survivors of acute coronary syndromes have a high risk of recurrent events for unknown reasons. Here we show that the systemic response to ischemic injury aggravates chronic atherosclerosis. After myocardial infarction or stroke, apoE\\(^{?/?}\\) mice developed larger atherosclerotic lesions with a more advanced morp...

  10. The EBMT Risk Score in the Presence of Graft Versus Host Disease in Allogeneic Stem Cell Transplantation in Adult Acute Myelogenous Leukemia: A Multistate Model for Competing Risks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jalali, Arash; Alimoghaddam, Kamran; Mahmoudi, Mahmood; Mohammad, Kazem; Zeraati, Hojjat; Mousavi, Seied Asadollah; Bahar, Babak; Vaezi, Mohammad; Jahani, Mohammad; Ghavamzadeh, Ardeshir

    2014-07-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the predictive effect of the EBMT risk score on the outcomes of allogeneic stem cell transplantation in a relatively homogenous group of acute myelogenous leukemia (AML) patients regarding the occurrence of acute and chronic graft versus host disease (GVHD). This historical cohort study included adult patients (? 15 years old) with AML (n=363) who received allogeneic peripheral blood stem cell transplantation from HLA-identical sibling donors in the first or higher complete remission following myeloablative conditioning regimens between 2004 and 2011.The patients recruited in this study were followed-up until January 2013. Patients with acute promyelocytic leukemia (APL) were excluded from the study. Early outcomes until day +100 and events after day +100 were regarded for acute and chronic GVHD, respectively. A multi state model for competing risks was applied. We found that the EBMT risk score was a good predictor for overall survival (OS) and relapse incidence; however, it was not associated with transplant-related mortality (TRM). The EBMT risk score was not associated with acute and chronic GVHD. For early outcomes, the predictive effect of the EBMT risk score was not statistically significant in the presence of acute GVHD; however, in the presence of chronic GVHD, it was a significant predictor of relapse but not for TRM. It seems that the effect of EBMT risk score on OS and relapse incidence cannot be affected by GVHD. Although the results were insignificant, there was evidence that the EBMT risk score can predict early outcomes, while for late outcomes, it works well for relapse and OS but not for TRM. PMID:25642302

  11. Association between Framingham risk score and subclinical atherosclerosis among elderly with both type 2 diabetes mellitus and healthy subjects

    OpenAIRE

    Amer, Moatassem S.; Khater, Mohamed S.; Omar, Omar H.; Mabrouk, Randa A.; Mostafa, Shimaa A.

    2014-01-01

    Framingham risk score (FRS) is a widely used tool to identify asymptomatic individuals who are at risk to cardiovascular disease. We aimed to investigate the association between subclinical atherosclerosis and FRS among elderly with both type 2 diabetes mellitus and healthy participants. Methods: As case-control study was done on 58 men and women, who had type 2 diabetes mellitus, and in 59 age and gender matched control participants. They were selected from a geriatric outpatient clinic at A...

  12. Lack of association between a common polymorphism near the INSIG2 gene and BMI, myocardial infarction, and cardiovascular risk factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiedmann, Silke; Neureuther, Katharina; Stark, Klaus; Reinhard, Wibke; Kallmünzer, Bernd; Baessler, Andrea; Fischer, Marcus; Linsel-Nitschke, Patrick; Erdmann, Jeanette; Schunkert, Heribert; Hengstenberg, Christian

    2009-07-01

    Epidemiological studies revealed an increasing prevalence of and a steep increase in obesity, a risk factor for cardiovascular disease. Because significant influence of a polymorphism, rs7566605, near the INSIG2 gene on BMI has been shown in the general population and in obesity cohorts, we hypothesized that this polymorphism might also act through an elevated BMI on the development of coronary artery disease (CAD) or myocardial infarction (MI). We pursued two strategies: First, the polymorphism rs7566605 was investigated for association with BMI, CAD/MI, and cardiovascular risk factors in a large German cohort at high risk for CAD and MI (n = 1,460 MI patients) as compared to unrelated healthy controls (n = 1,215); second, we extended our analyses on the families of MI patients and performed family-based association testing (n = 5,390 individuals). The polymorphism rs7566605 was analyzed using TaqMan technology. No deviation from Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium could be observed, and the call rate was 98.2%. No significant associations of rs7566605 with CAD/MI, BMI, and classical cardiovascular risk factors could be detected in the full sample size or in the subgroups. A total of 6,878 individuals were investigated in a population of German MI patients and their family members. Although the number of individuals was large enough, no influence of the rs7566605 INSIG2 polymorphism was detected on BMI and CAD/MI. We therefore conclude that in our sample the SNP rs7566605 near the INSIG2 gene does not influence BMI and is not associated directly with CAD/MI or indirectly through cardiovascular risk factors. PMID:19197259

  13. Models of Assessment of the Credit Risk of Borrowers with a Time Parameter for the Systems of Application Credit Scoring ?????? ?????? ?????????? ????? ????????? ? ????????? ?????????? ??? ?????? ??????????????? ?????????? ????????

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pisanets Konstantin K.

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available The article considers a concept of introduction of the time factor into the models of application credit scoring as a key characteristic of a default level. Using example of data of the consumption segment of the credit market of Ukraine, the article presents results of modelling the credit risk of potential borrowers (applicants, using approaches of Kaplan-Meier and Cox.? ?????? ??????????? ????????? ???????? ??????? ??????? ? ?????? ??????????????? ?????????? ???????? ??? ???????? ?????????????? ?????? ???????. ?? ??????? ?????? ???????????????? ???????? ?????????? ????? ??????? ???????????? ?????????? ????????????? ?????????? ????? ????????????? ????????? (???????????, ????????? ??????? ???????-?????? ? ?????.

  14. Risk stratification of cardiovascular events in hypertensive patients with asymptomatic or symptomatic lacunar infarcts by 24-hour ambulatory blood pressure monitoring

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Our goal was to investigate the utility of 24-hour ambulatory blood pressure monitoring (ABPM) for the risk stratification of cardiovascular events in hypertensive patients with asymptomatic or symptomatic lacunar infarcts. A total of 175 hypertensive patients with MRI evidence of asymptomatic or symptomatic lacunar infarcts (92 men, mean age of 69±11 years old) were studied. Patients with symptomatic infarctions were included whose events occurred more than 6 months after the onset. ABPM was performed in all patients in the outpatient clinic. Parameters obtained from ABPM were related to the composite outcome which consisted of all death and fatal or non-fatal cardiovascular events by using the Cox proportional hazard model. Mean follow-up period was 4.8 years and the composite outcome was recorded in 38 patients. 34 of them (89%) had recurrence of lacunar infarcts. Significant association between sleep-time lowest systolic blood pressure and composite outcome was demonstrated by multivariate Cox hazard analyses (heart rate (HR) 1.025, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.011-1.039, p<0.001). The risk for composite outcome in patients with the highest tertile of sleep-time lowest systolic blood pressure (?133 mmHg) was significantly elevated when compared to the lowest tertile (<132 mmHg, HR 3.93, 95% CI 1.57-9.86, p=0.004). Sleep-time lowest systolic blood pressure in ABPM may be a useful parameter for the risk stratification of future cardiovascular events in hypertenuture cardiovascular events in hypertensive patients with asymptomatic or symptomatic lacunar infarcts, especially for the recurrence of these events. (author)

  15. Beyond the established risk factors of myocardial infarction : lifestyle factors and novel biomarkers

    OpenAIRE

    Wennberg, Patrik

    2009-01-01

    Age, male sex, hypertension, smoking, diabetes, dyslipidaemia, and obesity are considered as established risk factors for cardiovascular diseases. Several of these established cardiovascular risk factors are strongly influenced by lifestyle. Novel biomarkers from different mechanistic pathways have been associated with cardiovascular risk, but their clinical utility is still uncertain. The overall objective of the thesis was to evaluate the associations between certain lifestyle factors (phys...

  16. Pain-to-hospital times, cardiovascular risk factors, and early intrahospital mortality in patients with acute myocardial infarction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brkovi? E

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Eliana Brkovi?,1 Katarina Novak,2,3 Livia Puljak3 1Department of Psychiatry, 2Department of Internal Medicine, Division of Cardiology, 3Laboratory for Pain Research, University of Split School of Medicine, Split, Croatia Background: The aim of the study was to analyze the most recent trends in myocardial infarction (MI care, the number of patients treated for MI and their outcomes, cardiovascular disease risk factors, and pain-to-hospital times in MI patients. Subjects and methods: For 778 patients treated for acute MI at the Coronary Care Unit (CCU of University Hospital Split, Croatia the following data were acquired: outcome during hospitalization (survived, deceased, cardiovascular risk factors (hypertension, diabetes, dyslipidemia, previous MI, smoking, and pain-to-CCU time. Results: Among 778 patients treated for acute MI, there were 291 (37% women and 487 (63% men. Forty-five patients (6% died during hospitalization, mostly due to cardiogenic shock. An association was found between early intrahospital mortality and the following risk factors: age >70 years, female sex, previous MI, and smoking. Median pain-to-call time was 2 hours, and median time from the onset of pain to arrival into the CCU was 4 hours. There were 59 (7.6% patients admitted to the CCU within recommended 90 minutes. Diabetic comorbidity was not associated with early death or with longer time from pain to emergency calls. Conclusion: Some of the risk factors associated with adverse outcomes in MI are modifiable. Prehospital delay of 4 hours observed in patients who suffered an MI is too long, and more effort should be devoted to investments in health care and education of the general public regarding chest pain symptoms. Keywords: prehospital delay, ischemic heart disease

  17. Adipose tissue arachidonic acid content is associated with the risk of myocardial infarction : A Danish case-cohort study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Michael René Skjelbo; Schmidt, Erik Berg

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: The primary aim of the study was to evaluate the association between adipose tissue arachidonic acid (AA) content and the risk of myocardial infarction (MI). The secondary aim was to assess the correlation between adipose tissue AA and dietary intake of AA and linoleic acid (LA). METHODS: We conducted a case-cohort study nested within the Danish prospective Diet, Cancer and Health (DCH) study. After appropriate exclusions, the study included 2134 incident MI cases. Gluteal adipose tissue biopsies were collected at recruitment, and the fatty acid composition was determined by gas chromatography. A weighted Cox proportional hazards model was used to evaluate the association between adipose tissue AA content and the risk of MI. RESULTS: After adjusting for confounders we found a positive association between adipose tissue AA content and the risk of MI. Hazard ratios (HR) of MI relative to the lowest quintile of adipose tissue AA content, increased across quintiles; second quintile (HR 1.19 95%CI: 0.97-1.45), third (HR 1.24 95%CI: 1.02-1.52), fourth (HR 1.28 95%CI: 1.03-1.60), and fifth quintile (HR 1.39 95%CI: 1.10-1.77). Adipose tissue AA levels were not correlated with dietary intake of AA (r=0.03, 95%CI: -0.01, 0.06) and weakly negatively correlated with dietary intake of LA (r=-0.12, 95%CI: -0.15, -0.08). CONCLUSIONS: The adipose tissue content of AA was positively associated with the risk of MI but did not correlate with dietary intake of neither AA nor LA.

  18. A population-based case-cohort study of the risk of myocardial infarction following radiation therapy for breast cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objective: To describe the risk of acute myocardial infarction (AMI) after radiation therapy (RT) for breast cancer (BrCa) in an exposed population. Methods: We identified and validated cases of AMI (vAMI), by electrocardiographic or enzyme criteria, among all 6680 women who received post-operative RT following lumpectomy or mastectomy, within 12 months following diagnosis of BrCa between 1982 and 1988 in Ontario, Canada. We identified women without vAMI whose death certification was ascribed to AMI (dAMI). We abstracted risk factors and treatment exposures for a random sample of women from the 6680, and for all with vAMI or dAMI. The hazards of vAMI and of dAMI were estimated using multivariate Cox proportional hazards models, corrected for study design. Results: We validated 121 cases of vAMI and identified 92 cases of dAMI. The risk of vAMI associated with RT to the left breast HR = 1.96 (1.09, 3.54) among women at age ? 60 at time of RT, adjusted for history of smoking and prior MI. The adjusted HR dAMI = 1.90 (1.08, 3.35) for exposure to anterior internal mammary node (IMC) RT. Among women who received anterior left breast boost RT, increasing area of the boost is associated with adjusted HR vAMI = 1.02 (1.00, 1.03)/cm2, and adjusted HR dAMI = 1.02 (1.01, 1.03)/cm2. Conclusion: The risks of vAMI and dAMI following RT for BrCa are related to anatomic sites of RT (left breast, area of anterior left breast boost field, and anterior IMC field)ast boost field, and anterior IMC field)

  19. A risk score for predicting 30-day mortality in heart failure patients undergoing non-cardiac surgery

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersson, Charlotte; Gislason, Gunnar H

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Heart failure is an established risk factor for poor outcomes in patients undergoing non-cardiac surgery, yet risk stratification remains a clinical challenge. We developed an index for 30-day mortality risk prediction in this particular group. METHODS AND RESULTS: All individuals with heart failure undergoing non-cardiac surgery between October 23 2004 and October 31 2011 were included from Danish administrative registers (n?=?16?827). In total, 1787 (10.6%) died within 30?days. In a simple risk score based on the variables from the revised cardiac risk index, plus age, gender, acute surgery, and body mass index category the following variables predicted mortality (points): male gender (1), age 56-65?years (2), age 66-75?years (4), age 76-85?years (5), or age >85?years (7), being underweight (4), normal weight (3), or overweight (1), undergoing acute surgery (5), undergoing high-risk procedures (intra-thoracic, intra-abdominal, or suprainguinal aortic) (3), having renal disease (1), cerebrovascular disease (1), and use of insulin (1). The c-statistic was 0.79 and calibration was good. Mortality risk ranged from 50% for a score ?20. Internal validation by bootstrapping (1000 re-samples) provided c-statistic of 0.79. A more complex risk score based on stepwise logistic regression including 24 variables at P?risk for perioperative mortality.

  20. Improved risk stratification by the integration of the revised international prognostic scoring system with the myelodysplastic syndromes comorbidity index.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Spronsen, M F; Ossenkoppele, G J; Holman, R; van de Loosdrecht, A A

    2014-12-01

    Myelodysplastic syndromes (MDS) comprise bone marrow failure diseases with a diverse clinical outcome. For improved risk stratification, the International Prognostic Scoring System (IPSS) has recently been revised (IPSS-R). This single-centre study aimed to validate the IPSS-R and to evaluate prior prognostic scoring systems for MDS. We retrospectively analysed 363 patients diagnosed with MDS according to the FAB criteria between 2000 and 2012. The IPSS, MD Anderson Risk Model Score (MDAS), World Health Organisation (WHO)-classification based Prognostic Scoring System (WPSS), refined WPSS (WPSS-R), IPSS-R and MDS-Comorbidity Index (MDS-CI) were applied to 222 patients considered with primary MDS following the WHO criteria and their prognostic power was investigated. According to the IPSS-R, 18 (8%), 81 (37%), 50 (23%), 43 (19%) and 30 (13%) patients were classified as very low, low, intermediate, high and very high risk with, respectively, a median overall survival of 96 (95% Confidence interval (CI) not reached), 49 (95% CI 34-64), 22 (95% CI 0-49), 19 (95% CI 11-27) and 10 (95% CI 6-13) months (paccounting for the disease status by means of the IPSS-R and comorbidity through the MDS-CI considerably improves the prognostic assessment in MDS patients. PMID:25454415

  1. Trombo auricular derecho con riesgo embólico durante infarto agudo de miocardio / Right auricular thrombus with embolic risk during myocardial acute infarction

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Amaury, Flores Sánchez; Damaris, Hernández-Veliz; Biolkis, Zorio Valdés; María Beatriz, Cabalé Vilariño.

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Un trombo móvil en la aurícula derecha implica un riesgo elevado de embolismo pulmonar y la presencia del mismo en un paciente con fibrilación auricular en el curso de un infarto agudo de miocardio, es infrecuente. Se presentó una paciente con infarto agudo de miocardio, fibrilación auricular y trom [...] bo móvil en aurícula derecha con riesgo embólico pulmonar, que desapareció luego de tratamiento antiagregante plaquetario y anticoagulante. Abstract in english A mobile thrombus into the right auricle leads to a high risk of pulmonary embolism and its presence in a patient with auricular fibrillation during a acute myocardial infarction is uncommon. This is the case of a female patient presenting with acute myocardial infarction, auricular fibrillation and [...] a mobile thrombus in right auricle with risk of pulmonary embolism, which disappeared after platelet, anticoagulant and anti-aggregating treatment.

  2. Olson method for locating and calculating the extent of transmural ischemic areas at risk of infarction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olson, Charles W; Wagner, Galen S

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: The purpose of this study is to present a new and improved method for translating the electrocardiographic changes of acute myocardial ischemia into a display which reflects the location and extent of the ischemic area and the associated culprit coronary artery. This method could be automated to present a graphic image of the ischemic area in a manner understandable by all levels of caregivers; from emergency transport personnel to the consulting cardiologist. BACKGROUND: Current methods for the ECG diagnosis of ST elevated myocardial infarction (STEMI) are criteria driven, and complex, and beyond the interpretive capability of many caregivers. New methods are needed to accurately diagnose the presence of acute transmural myocardial ischemia in order to accelerate a patient's clinical "door to balloon time." The proposed new method could potentially provide the information needed to accomplish this objective. METHODS: The new method improves the precision of diagnosis and quantification of ischemia by normalizing the ST segment inputs from the standard 12 lead ECG, transforming these into a three dimensional vector representation of the ischemia at the electrical center of the heart. The myocardial areas likely to be involved in this ischemia are separately analyzed to assess the probability that they contributed to this event. The source of the ischemia is revealed as a specific region of the heart, and the likely location of the associated culprit coronary artery. Seventy 12 lead ECGs from subjects with known single artery occlusion in one of the three main coronary arteries were selected to test this new method. Graphic plots of the distribution of ischemia as indicated by the method are consistent with the known occlusion. The analysis of the distribution of ischemic areas in the myocardium reveals that the relationships between leads with either ST elevation or ST depression, provide critical information improving the current method.

  3. Therapeutic implications of selecting the SCORE (European versus the D'AGOSTINO (American risk charts for cardiovascular risk assessment in hypertensive patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giné-Garriga Maria

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background No comparisons have been made of scales estimating cardiovascular mortality and overall cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. The study objectives were to assess the agreement between the Framingham-D'Agostino cardiovascular risk (CVR scale and the chart currently recommended in Europe (SCORE with regard to identification of patients with high CVR, and to describe the discrepancies between them and the attendant implications for the treatment of hypertension and hyperlipidaemia. Methods A total of 474 hypertensive patients aged 40–65 years monitored in primary care were enrolled into the study. CVR was assessed using the Framingham-D'Agostino scale, which estimates the overall cardiovascular morbidity and mortality risk, and the SCORE chart, which estimates the cardiovascular mortality risk. Cardiovascular risk was considered to be high for values ? 20% and ? 5% according to the Framingham-D'Agostino and SCORE charts respectively. Kappa statistics was estimated for agreement in classification of patients with high CVR. The therapeutic recommendations in the 2007 European Guidelines on Cardiovascular Disease Prevention were followed. Results Mean patient age was 54.1 (SD 7.3, and 58.4% were males. A high CVR was found in 17.5% using the SCORE chart (25.3% males, 6.6% females and in 32.7% using the D'Agostino method (56.9% males, 12,7% females. Kappa coefficient was 0.52, and increased to 0.68 when the high CVR threshold was established at 29% according to D'Agostino. Hypertensive patients with high SCORE and non-high D'Agostino (1.7% were characterized by an older age, diabetes, and a lower atherogenic index, while the opposite situation (16.9% was associated to males, hyperlipidaemia, and a higher atherogenic index. Variables with a greater weight in discrepancies were sex and smoking. A 32.0% according to SCORE and 33.5% according to D'Agostino would be candidates to receive antihypertensive treatment, and 15.8% and 27.3% respectively to receive lipid-lowering treatment. Conclusion A moderate to high agreement was found. SCORE may underestimate risk in males with an unfavourable lipid profile, and D'Agostino in diabetics with a lower atherogenic risk. Use of the D'Agostino scale implies treating more patients with lipid-lowering and antihypertensive drugs as compared to SCORE.

  4. Association of the eNOS E298D polymorphism and the risk of myocardial infarction in the Greek population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reczko Martin

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Nitric oxide (NO, produced by endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS, plays a key role in the regulation of vascular tone. Endothelium-derived NO exerts vasoprotective effects by suppressing platelet aggregation, leukocyte adhesion and smooth muscle cell proliferation. The E298D polymorphic variant of eNOS has been associated with myocardial infarction (MI, but data relating to this variant are divergent in Greece. Accordingly, we examined a possible association between the E298D polymorphism of the eNOS gene and MI in a subgroup of the Greek population. Methods The study population consisted of 204 patients with a history of MI and 218 control subjects. All subjects were of Greek origin and were selected from the general population of the greater Athens area. Genotyping was performed with melting curve analysis (Lightcycler system of polymerase chain reaction amplified products using hybridization probes. Results According to the univariate findings, the risk for MI in E298D TT was 2.06 (95%CI: 1.06-4.00, p = 0.032 versus GG+GT and 2.34 (95%CI: 1.17-4.68, p = 0.016 versus GG. The risk for the T allele was estimated at 1.42 (95%CI, 1.06-1.89, p = 0.022 as compared to G allele. Regarding the additive model, one allele increase was associated with 43% higher risk of MI (OR = 1.43, 95%CI: 1.07-1.93, p = 0.018 as compared to the baseline category of homozygous GG. The positive association of TT versus GG+GT with MI risk remained even after adjusting for the main study covariates. Moreover, strong evidence was found for an increased risk for MI among carriers of the TT genotype who were smokers, hypertensive and had a family history of CAD. Conclusions This study indicates that E298D polymorphism of the eNOS gene seems to be associated with MI occurrence in the Greek population. It is possible that TT genotype is closely linked to the etiology of MI even after adjusting for known MI risk factors.

  5. Cardioprotective medication use and risk factor control among US adults with unrecognized myocardial infarction: the REasons for Geographic And Racial Differences in Stroke (REGARDS) study

    OpenAIRE

    Eb, Levitan; Gamboa C; Mm, Safford; Dv, Rizk; Tm, Brown; Ez, Soliman; Muntner P

    2013-01-01

    Emily B Levitan,1 Christopher Gamboa,1 Monika M Safford,2 Dana V Rizk,3 Todd M Brown,4 Elsayed Z Soliman,5 Paul Muntner11Department of Epidemiology, 2Division of Preventive Medicine, 3Division of Nephrology, 4Division of Cardiology, University of Alabama at Birmingham, Birmingham, AL, USA; 5Epidemiological Cardiology Research Center, Wake Forest University School of Medicine, Winston Salem, NC, USABackground: Individuals with unrecognized myocardial infarction (UMI) have similar risks for car...

  6. Myocardial infarction and diabetes mellitus : Studies on glucose lowering therapies and novel risk markers based on observations from the DIGAMI 2 trial

    OpenAIRE

    Mellbin, Linda Garcia

    2010-01-01

    Background Patients with myocardial infarction (MI) and type 2 diabetes (T2DM) and have a poor prognosis. Hyperglycemia is an independent risk predictor. The best tools for glucose control are debated. Important is identification of biomarkers to gain further pathophysiological insights and new therapeutic possibilities. Aims In patients with acute MI and T2DM 1. Explore the prognostic impact of hypoglycemia during hospitalization for MI 2. Study the prognostic ...

  7. Polymorphisms Related to the Serum 25-Hydroxyvitamin D Level and Risk of Myocardial Infarction, Diabetes, Cancer and Mortality. The Tromsø Study

    OpenAIRE

    Jorde, Rolf; Schirmer, Henrik; Wilsgaard, Tom; Joakimsen, Ragnar Martin; Mathiesen, Ellisiv B.; Njølstad, Inger; Løchen, Maja-lisa; Figenschau, Yngve; Berg, Jens Petter; Svartberg, Johan; Grimnes, Guri

    2012-01-01

    Low serum 25(OH)D levels are associated with cardiovascular risk factors, and also predict future myocardial infarction (MI), type 2 diabetes (T2DM), cancer and all-cause mortality. Recently several single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) associated with serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D) level have been identified. If these relations are causal one would expect a similar association between these SNPs and health. DNA was prepared from subjects who participated in the fourth survey of the Tro...

  8. State level correlations between high heart attack and stroke symptomology knowledge scores and CVD risk factors and mortality rates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mary Nawal Lutfiyya

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: In 2008, cardiovascular disease (CVD accounted for one in three deaths in the United States. Epidemiological analyses suggest that two or more risk factors are the indicator of high risk and/or poor CVD outcomes. Knowledge of heart attack and stroke symptomology has been the focus of much research based on the assumption that accurate identification of an event is critical to reducing time to treatment. There is a paucity of research showing a clear association between knowledge of heart attack and stroke symptomology, risk factors, and mortality rates. In this study, we hypothesized that high stroke and heart attack symptomology knowledge scores would correspond to lower stroke or CVD mortality rankings as well as to a lower prevalence of two or more CVD risk factors. Methods: State was the unit of analysis used to examine data from two different sources and combined into a customized database. The first source was a multiyear Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance Survey (BRFSS heart attack and stroke symptom knowledge module database. CVD and stroke mortality data used came from the American Heart Association’s (AHA 2012 Heart Disease and Stroke Statistics Update. Spearman’s Rho was the test statistic. Results: A moderate negative correlation was found between high heart attack and stroke symptom knowledge scores and the percentage of adults with two or more CVD or stroke risk factors. Likewise, a similar correlation resulted from the two variables, high heart attack and stroke symptoms knowledge score and CVD mortality rank. Conclusions: This study demonstrated a significant relationship between high heart attack and stroke symptom knowledge and lower CVD mortality rates and lower prevalence of two or more CVD risk factors at the state level. Our findings suggest that it is important to continue education efforts regarding heart attack and stroke symptom knowledge. Pharmacists are one group of health care providers who could enhance the needed public health education efforts.

  9. Risk stratification in trauma and haemorrhagic shock: Scoring systems derived from the TraumaRegister DGU(®).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wutzler, Sebastian; Maegele, Marc; Wafaisade, Arasch; Wyen, Hendrik; Marzi, Ingo; Lefering, Rolf

    2014-10-01

    Scoring systems commonly attempt to reduce complex clinical situations into one-dimensional values by objectively valuing and combining a variety of clinical aspects. The aim is to allow for a comparison of selected patients or cohorts. To appreciate the true value of scoring systems in patients with multiple injuries it is necessary to understand the different purposes of quantifying the severity of specific injuries and overall trauma load, being: (1) clinical decision making; (2) triage; (3) planning of trauma systems and resources; (4) epidemiological and clinical research; (5) evaluation of outcome and trauma systems, including quality assessment; and (6) estimation of costs and allocation of resources. For the first two, easy-to estimate scores with immediate availability are necessary, mainly based on initial physiology. More sophisticated scores considering age, gender, injury pattern/severity and more are usually used for research and outcome evaluation, once the diagnostic and therapeutic process has been completed. For score development large numbers of data are necessary and thus, it appears as a logical consequence that large registries as the TraumaRegister DGU(®) of the German Trauma Society (TR-DGU) are used to derive and validate clinical scoring systems. A variety of scoring systems have been derived from this registry, the majority of them with focus on hospital mortality. The most important among these systems is probably the RISC score, which is currently used for quality assessment and outcome adjustment in the annual audit reports. This report summarizes the various scoring systems derived from the TraumaRegister DGU(®) over the recent years. PMID:25284230

  10. The Value of the European Society of Cardiology Guidelines for Refining Stroke Risk Stratification in Patients With Atrial Fibrillation Categorized as Low Risk Using the Anticoagulation and Risk Factors in Atrial Fibrillation Stroke Score : A Nationwide Cohort Study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lip, Gregory Y H; Nielsen, Peter BrØnnum

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Our objective was to determine stroke and thromboembolism event rates in patients with atrial fibrillation (AF) classified as "low risk" using the Anticoagulation and Risk Factors in Atrial Fibrillation (ATRIA) score and to ascertain event rates in this group in relation to the stroke risk assessment advocated in the 2012 European Society of Cardiology (ESC) guidelines (based on the CHA2DS2-VASc [congestive heart failure, hypertension, age ? 75 years, diabetes, previous stroke/transient ischemic attack, vascular disease, age 65 to 74 years, sex category] score). We tested the hypothesis that the stroke risk assessment scheme advocated in the ESC guidelines would be able to further refine stroke risk stratification in the low-risk category defined by the ATRIA score. METHODS: In our cohort of 207,543 incident patients with AF from 1999 to 2012, we identified 72,452 subjects who had an ATRIA score of 0 to 5 (low risk). RESULTS: Even among these patients categorized as low risk using the ATRIA score, the 1-year stroke/thromboembolic event rate ranged from 1.13 to 36.94 per 100 person-years, when subdivided by CHA2DS2-VASc scores. In patients with an ATRIA score 0 to 5, C statistics at 1 year follow-up in the Cox regression model were significantly improved from 0.626 (95% CI, 0.612-0.640) to 0.665 (95% CI, 0.651-0.679) when the CHA2DS2-VASc score was used for categorizing stroke risk instead of the ATRIA score (P < .001). CONCLUSIONS: Patients categorized as low risk using an ATRIA score 0 to 5 are not necessarily low risk, with 1-year event rates as high as 36.94 per 100 person-years. Thus, the stroke risk stratification scheme recommended in the ESC guidelines (based on the CHA2DS2-VASc score) would be best at identifying the "truly low risk" subjects with AF who do not need any antithrombotic therapy.

  11. Risk of Death and Recurrent Ventricular Arrhythmias in Survivors of Cardiac Arrest Concurrent With Acute Myocardial Infarction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ish Singla

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available Aims Cardiac arrest (CA is an indication for defibrillator (ICD implantation unless it occurs in the context of an acute myocardial infarction (AMI. We investigated the ventricular arrhythmia (VA-free survival of patients resuscitated from CA in the setting of AMI.Methods We reviewed a database of 1600 AMI and CA survivors from which 48 patients were identified as having concurrent CA and AMI (CA+AMI group. Those patients were matched by age, gender, race, and left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF to 96 patients with AMI but no CA (AMI group and 48 patients with CA but no AMI (CA group.Results Patients and controls were followed for 3.9±3.2 years. Patients in the 3 groups had similar baseline characteristics (age 63±14 yrs, 78% men, 98% white, 53% with CAD, LVEF 33±14%. The 5-year VA-free survival was 67%, 92%, and 80% for the CA+AMI, AMI, and CA groups, respectively, p<0.001. Conclusions Patients with concurrent CA and AMI are at high risk of recurrent VA, with VA-free survival rates significantly worse than those of patients with AMI but no CA, and comparable to those of patients with CA outside the context of an AMI. Accordingly, these patients should be considered for ICD implantation.

  12. Follicular lymphoma patients with a high FLIPI score and a high tumor burden: A risk stratification model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    An?eli? Boško

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aim. The widely accepted Follicular Lymphoma International Prognostic Index (FLIPI divides patients into three risk groups based on the score of adverse prognostic factors. The estimated 5-year survival in patients with a high FLIPI score is around 50%. The aim of this study was to analyse the prognostic value of clinical and laboratory parameters that are not included in the FLIPI and the New Prognostic Index for Follicular Lymphoma developed by the International Follicular Lymphoma Prognostic Factor Project (FLIPI2 indices, in follicular lymphoma (FL patients with a high FLIPI score and high tumor burden. Methods. The retrospective analysis included 57 newly diagnosed patients with FL, a high FLIPI score and a high tumor burden. All the patients were diagnosed and treated between April 2000 and June 2007 at the Clinic for Hematology, Clinical Center of Serbia, Belgrade. Results. The patients with a histological grade > 1, erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR ± 45 mm/h and hypoalbuminemia had a significantly worse overall survival (p = 0.015; p = 0.001; p = 0.008, respectively, while there was a tendency toward worse overall survival in the patients with an Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group (ECOG > 1 (p = 0.075. Multivariate Cox regression analysis identified a histological grade > 1, ESR ± 45 mm/h and hypoalbuminemia as independent risk factors for a poor outcome. Based on a cumulative score of unfavourable prognostic factors, patients who had 0 or 1 unfavourable factors had a significantly better 5-year overall survival compared to patients with 2 or 3 risk factors (75% vs 24.1%, p = 0.000. Conclusion. The obtained results suggest that from the examined prognostic parameters histological grade > 1, ESR ± 45 mm/h and hypoalbuminemia can contribute in defining patients who need more aggressive initial treatment approach, if two or three of these parameters are present on presentation.

  13. Does present use of cardiovascular medication reflect elevated cardiovascular risk scores estimated ten years ago? A population based longitudinal observational study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Straand Jørund

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background It is desirable that those at highest risk of cardiovascular disease should have priority for preventive measures, eg. treatment with prescription drugs to modify their risk. We wanted to investigate to what extent present use of cardiovascular medication (CVM correlates with cardiovascular risk estimated by three different risk scores (Framingham, SCORE and NORRISK ten years ago. Methods Prospective logitudinal observational study of 20 252 participants in The Hordaland Health Study born 1950-57, not using CVM in 1997-99. Prescription data obtained from The Norwegian Prescription Database in 2008. Results 26% of men and 22% of women aged 51-58 years had started to use some CVM during the previous decade. As a group, persons using CVM scored significantly higher on the risk algorithms Framingham, SCORE and NORRISK compared to those not treated. 16-20% of men and 20-22% of women with risk scores below the high-risk thresholds for the three risk scores were treated with CVM, while 60-65% of men and 25-45% of women with scores above the high-risk thresholds received no treatment. Among women using CVM, only 2.2% (NORRISK, 4.4% (SCORE and 14.5% (Framingham had risk scores above the high-risk values. Low education, poor self-reported general health, muscular pains, mental distress (in females only and a family history of premature cardiovascular disease correlated with use of CVM. Elevated blood pressure was the single factor most strongly predictive of CVM treatment. Conclusion Prescription of CVM to middle-aged individuals by large seems to occur independently of estimated total cardiovascular risk, and this applies especially to females.

  14. Clinical discriminators between acute brain hemorrhage and infarction: a practical score for early patient identification Características clínicas diferenciais entre hemorragia e infarto cerebral: uma escala prática para identificação precoce do paciente

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ayrton R. Massaro

    2002-06-01

    Full Text Available New treatments for acute stroke require a rapid triage system, which minimizes treatment delays and maximizes selection of eligible patients. Our aim was to create a score for assessing the probability of brain hemorrhage among patients with acute stroke based upon clinical information. Of 1805 patients in the Stroke Data Bank, 1273 had infarction (INF and 237 had parenchymatous hemorrhage (HEM verified by CT. INF and HEM discriminators were determined by logistic regression and used to create a score. ROC curve was used to choose the cut-point for predicting HEM (score Novas perspectivas no tratamento do acidente vascular cerebral (AVC requerem um método de triagem rápido para seleção dos pacientes. Nosso objetivo foi criar uma escala com informações clínicas simples para diferenciar hematoma intra-parenquimatoso (HEM entre os pacientes com AVC. Estudamos 1.273 pacientes com AVC isquêmico (INF e 237 com HEM do Stroke Data Bank. Variáveis independentes para o diagnóstico de INF e HEM foram determinadas pela análise de regressão logística e utilizadas para criar uma escala. Através da curva ROC foi escolhido o nível de corte para discriminar HEM (<= 2 , com sensibilidade de 76%, especificidade de 83%. Foi realizada validação externa utilizando os pacientes do estudo NOMASS. Embora o uso de uma escala de fácil aplicação pelas equipes de emergência não possa substituir os métodos de imagem na diferenciação entre INF e HEM para a indicação de trombolítico, a escala proposta pode ser útil para selecionar pacientes para estudos clínicos e tratamento pré-hospitalar, alertar técnicos de tomografia e as equipes médicas sobre a chegada de pacientes, contribuindo para reduzir atrasos cruciais no tratamento.

  15. Health care index score and risk of death following tuberculosis diagnosis in HIV-positive patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Podlekareva, D N; Grint, D

    2013-01-01

    To assess health care utilisation for patients co-infected with TB and HIV (TB-HIV), and to develop a weighted health care index (HCI) score based on commonly used interventions and compare it with patient outcome.

  16. Hip and fragility fracture prediction by 4-item clinical risk score and mobile heel BMD: a women cohort study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thulesius Hans

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background One in four Swedish women suffers a hip fracture yielding high morbidity and mortality. We wanted to revalidate a 4-item clinical risk score and evaluate a portable heel bone mineral density (BMD technique regarding hip and fragility fracture risk among elderly women. Methods In a population-based prospective cohort study we used clinical risk factors from a baseline questionnaire and heel BMD to predict a two-year hip and fragility fracture outcome for women, in a fracture preventive program. Calcaneal heel BMD was measured by portable dual X-ray laser absorptiometry (DXL and compared to hip BMD, measured with stationary dual X-ray absorptiometry (DXA technique. Results Seven women suffered hip fracture and 14 women fragility fracture/s (at hip, radius, humerus and pelvis among 285 women; 60% having heel BMD ? -2.5 SD. The 4-item FRAMO (Fracture and Mortality Index combined the clinical risk factors age ?80 years, weight Conclusions In a follow-up study we identified high risk groups for hip and fragility fracture with our plain 4-item risk model. Increased fracture risk was also related to decreasing heel BMD in calcaneal bone, measured with a mobile DXL technique. A combination of high FRAMO Index, prior fragility fracture, and very low BMD restricted the high risk group to 11%, among whom most hip fractures occurred (71%. These practical screening methods could eventually reduce hip fracture incidence by concentrating preventive resources to high fracture risk women.

  17. Application of the pediatric risk of mortality (PRISM) score and determination of mortality risk factors in a tertiary pediatric intensive care unit

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Graziela Araujo, Costa; Arthur F., Delgado; Alexandre, Ferraro; Thelma Suely, Okay.

    1087-10-01

    Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in english INTRODUCTION: To establish disease severity at admission can be performed by way of the mortality prognostic. Nowadays the prognostic scores make part of quality control and research. The Pediatric Risk of Mortality is one of the scores used in the pediatric intensive care units. OBJECTIVES: The pur [...] pose of this study is the utilization of the pediatric risk of mortality to determine mortality risk factors in a tertiary pediatric intensive care units. METHODS: Retrospective cohort study, in a period of one year, at a general tertiary pediatric intensive care unit. The pediatric risk of mortality scores corresponding to the first 24 hours of hospitalization were recorded; additional data were collected to characterize the study population. RESULTS: 359 patients were included; the variables that were found to be risk factors for death were multiple organ dysfunction syndrome, mechanical ventilation, use of vasoactive drugs, hospital-acquired infection, parenteral nutrition and duration of hospitalization (p

  18. Comparison of risk-scoring methods in predicting the immediate outcome after elective open abdominal aortic aneurysm surgery.

    OpenAIRE

    Tang, Ty; Walsh, Sr; Fanshawe, Tr; Seppi, V.; Sadat, U.; Hayes, Pd; Varty, K.; Gaunt, Me; Boyle, Jr

    2007-01-01

    BACKGROUND and OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was to apply three simple risk - scoring systems to prospectively collected data on all elective open Abdominal Aortic Aneurysm (AAA) operations in the Cambridge Academic Vascular Unit over a 6 - year period (January 1998 to January 2004), to compare their predictive values and to evaluate their validity with respect to prediction of mortality and post-operative complications. METHODS: 204 patients underwent elective open infra-renal AAA repair...

  19. High lifetime risk of cardiovascular disease vs low 10-year Framingham risk score in HIV-infected subjects under ART in Spain: the Coronator study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C Miralles

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: Due to the relative low age of HIV-infected patients, Framingham risk score (FRS usually estimates a low CVD risk. Lifetime risk estimations use the risk of developing CVD over the course of an individual's remaining lifetime and may be useful in communicating the risk of CVD to young patients. Our aim is to estimate the lifetime risk of CVD in a representative sample of HIV patients under antiretroviral therapy in Spain. Methods: Cross-sectional analysis in 10 HIV units across Spain, including information on demographics, HIV disease status, treatment history and cardiovascular risk factors of subject under ART. Lifetime CVD risk was calculated with the method of Berry et al, which classifies the lifetime risk in five mutually exclusive categories: 1. All risk factors are optimal; 2. At least one risk factor is not optimal; 3. At least one risk factor is elevated; 4. One major risk factor is present; and 5. Two or more major risk factors are present. Risk factors included are cholesterol level, blood pressure, diabetes and tobacco smoking. We grouped these five categories in two major groups, low-risk (groups 1+2+3 and high-risk category (groups 4+5. We calculated the prevalence of having a high lifetime risk, and its crude and aOR (adjusted by age, sex, place of origin, education level, transmission category, time since HIV diagnosis, CDC stage, current and nadir CD4 count, HCV coinfection, time on current and total ART, being on the first ART regimen, and PI vs. NNRTI regimen. Results: We included 839 subjects free of previous CVD disease: 72% men, median age 45.6y, median CD4 count 598 cells, median time since HIV diagnosis 11y, median time on ART 6.3y, 87% had undetectable VL. Estimated 10-year CVD risk was low (<5% in 78% of the patients, and intermediate (5–10% in 20%. Lifetime risk estimation shows a high risk profile for 71.4% of the population studied (?1 major risk factors. Factors significantly and independently associated with an increased lifetime risk were older age, non-Spanish origin and longer time on ART. Adjusted OR for patients on ART longer than 10 years (vs<5 years was 2.2 [95% CI 1.13–4.34]. No relationship was found with current or nadir CD4 lymphocyte counts, CDC stage C, HCV confection or type of ART. Conclusions: There are significant disparities between the low 10y CVD risk estimated with FRS and the elevated lifetime risk in HIV patients on ART. Prolonged ART is associated with an increased CVD lifetime risk.

  20. Detection of lipid-core plaques by intracoronary near-infrared spectroscopy identifies high risk of periprocedural myocardial infarction.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Goldstein, James A

    2012-02-01

    BACKGROUND: Percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) is associated with periprocedural myocardial infarction (MI) in 3% to 15% of cases (depending on the definition used). In many cases, these MIs result from distal embolization of lipid-core plaque (LCP) constituents. Prospective identification of LCP with catheter-based near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) may predict an increased risk of periprocedural MI and facilitate development of preventive measures. METHODS AND RESULTS: The present study analyzed the relationship between the presence of a large LCP (detected by NIRS) and periprocedural MI. Patients with stable preprocedural cardiac biomarkers undergoing stenting were identified from the COLOR Registry, an ongoing prospective observational study of patients undergoing NIRS before PCI. The extent of LCP in the treatment zone was calculated as the maximal lipid-core burden index (LCBI) measured by NIRS for each of the 4-mm longitudinal segments in the treatment zone. A periprocedural MI was defined as new cardiac biomarker elevation above 3x upper limit of normal. A total of 62 patients undergoing stenting met eligibility criteria. A large LCP (defined as a maxLCBI(4 mm) >\\/=500) was present in 14 of 62 lesions (22.6%), and periprocedural MI was documented in 9 of 62 (14.5%) of cases. Periprocedural MI occurred in 7 of 14 patients (50%) with a maxLCBI(4 mm) >\\/=500, compared with 2 of 48 patients (4.2%) patients with a lower maxLCBI(4 mm) (P=0.0002). CONCLUSIONS: NIRS provides rapid, automated detection of extensive LCPs that are associated with a high risk of periprocedural MI, presumably due to embolization of plaque contents during coronary intervention.

  1. Effect of serum lipid level change on 10-year coronary heart risk distribution estimated by means of seven different coronary risk scores during one-year treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eremi?-Koji? Nevena

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. This study was done in order to evaluate the effect of serum levels of total cholesterol, triglycerides, low-density lipoprotein- cholesterol and high-density lipoprotein-cholesterol on 10-year coronary heart disease risk distribution change. Material and Methods. This study included 110 subjects of both genders (71 female and 39 male, aged 29 to 73, treated at the Outpatient Department of Atherosclerosis Prevention, Centre for Laboratory Medicine, Clinical Centre Vojvodina. The 10-year coronary heart disease risk was estimated on first examination and after one-year treatment by means of Framingham, PROCAM and SCORE coronary risk scores and their modifications (Framingham Adult Treatment Panel III, Framingham Weibul, PROCAM NS and PROCAM Cox Hazards. Age, gender, systolic and diastolic blood pressure, smoking, positive family history and left ventricular hypertrophy are risk factors involved in the estimation of coronary heart disease besides lipid parameters. Results. There were no significant differences in nutritional status, smoking habits, systolic and diastolic pressure, and no development of diabetes mellitus or cardiovascular incidents during oneyear follow. However, a significant reduction in cholesterol level (p<0.001, triglycerides (p<0.001, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (p<0.001 and an increase in high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (p<0.02 was present although therapeutic target values were not achieved. In addition, a significant increase was observed in the category of low 10-year coronary heart disease risk (Framingham- p<0.001; Framingham ATP III- p<0.001; Framingham Weibul- p<0.001; PROCAM- p<0.05; PROCAM NSp< 0.05; PROCAM Cox Hazards- p<0.001; SCORE- p<0.001 and a reduction in high-risk category (Framingham- p<0.001; Framingham ATP III- p<0.005; Framingham Weibul- p<0.005; PROCAM- p<0.001; PROCAM NS-p<0.001; PROCAM Cox Hazards- p<0.001; SCORE- p<0.005 in comparison with the risk at the beginning of the study. Conclusion. Our results show that the correction of lipid level after one-year treatment leads to a significant redistribution of 10-year coronary heart disease risk estimated by means of seven different coronary risk scores. This should stimulate patients and doctors to persist in prevention measures.

  2. Risk-based priority scoring for Brookhaven National Laboratory environmental restoration programs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report describes the process of estimating the risk associated with environmental restoration programs under the Brookhaven National Laboratory Office of Environmental Restoration. The process was part of an effort across all Department of Energy facilities to provide a consistent framework to communicate risk information about the facilities to senior managers in the DOE Office of Environmental Management to foster understanding of risk activities across programs. the risk evaluation was a qualitative exercise. Categories considered included: Public health and safety; site personnel safety and health; compliance; mission impact; cost-effective risk management; environmental protection; inherent worker risk; environmental effects of clean-up; and social, cultural, political, and economic impacts

  3. Towards an Evidence Based Score Card for Aligning Risk Management and Sustainability Goals for Essential NORM Industries: Case Study - Phosphates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Approaches to regulating NORM industries risk suffering blight from over-conservative methodologies, whether based on worst case models, extreme event scenarios or unmediated application of the precautionary principle: the outcome can be a significant overestimation of risk and a consequent penalty on both producers and consumers in terms of access to and affordability of the intermediate and end products those industries provide. In particular, for historical reasons derived perhaps from the potentially distracting regulatory focus on what is usually trace radioactivity in products and by-products containing NORM, there is a damaging tendency to seek risk management models and best practices from nuclear industries in general rather than from those sectors to which the end products of NORM industries are specifically aligned. This risk is particularly visible in the phosphate sector, an industry now pivotal to long term security and sustainability in both food production and energy supply, plant based or nuclear. Premised on a companion paper which sets out the theory of 'constructive regulation', presented in 2008 at the 12th International Congress of the International Radiation Protection Association, Buenos Aires, this paper proposes the use of an evidence based score carding system to ensure the future alignment of risk management and sustainability goals for NORM industries, starting with phosphates. The score card elements are broken out into three primary catents are broken out into three primary categories along the lines defined in the concept of triple bottom line performance measurement, comprising economic, social and environmental elements. The question is put as to what role constructive regulation and best practices can play in ensuring that the outcome of the regulatory process is the preservation and enhancement of the capability of these industries to deliver sustainable returns to the customers and stakeholders who depend on them. Score carding will facilitate transparent, objective decision making and effective performance monitoring in both the short and long term, as measured against triple bottom line expectations. (author)

  4. Development and validation of a bedside risk score for MRSA among patients hospitalized with complicated skin and skin structure infections

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zilberberg Marya D

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA is a frequent cause of complicated skin and skin structure infections (cSSSI. Patients with MRSA require different empiric treatment than those with non-MRSA infections, yet no accurate tools exist to aid in stratifying the risk for a MRSA cSSSI. We sought to develop a simple bedside decision rule to tailor empiric coverage more accurately. Methods We conducted a large multicenter (N=62 hospitals retrospective cohort study in a US-based database between April 2005 and March 2009. All adult initial admissions with ICD-9-CM codes specific to cSSSI were included. Patients admitted with MRSA vs. non-MRSA were compared with regard to baseline demographic, clinical and hospital characteristics. We developed and validated a model to predict the risk of MRSA, and compared its performance via sensitivity, specificity and other classification statistics to the healthcare-associated (HCA infection risk factors. Results Of the 7,183 patients with cSSSI, 2,387 (33.2% had MRSA. Factors discriminating MRSA from non-MRSA were age, African-American race, no evidence of diabetes mellitus, cancer or renal dysfunction, and prior history of cardiac dysrhythmia. The score ranging from 0 to 8 points exhibited a consistent dose–response relationship. A MRSA score of 5 or higher was superior to the HCA classification in all characteristics, while that of 4 or higher was superior on all metrics except specificity. Conclusions MRSA is present in 1/3 of all hospitalized cSSSI. A simple bedside risk score can help discriminate the risk for MRSA vs. other pathogens with improved accuracy compared to the HCA definition.

  5. Feelings of being disabled as a risk factor for mortality up to 8 years after acute myocardial infarction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    van der Vlugt, Maureen J; van Domburg, Ron T

    2005-01-01

    We examined the independent prognostic value of the four subscales of the Heart Patients Psychological Questionnaire (HPPQ) on mortality in acute myocardial infarction (AMI) survivors up to 8 years after the event.

  6. Venous infarctions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Strokes of venous origin are relatively infrequent. They usually cause venous infarcts which can be observed in 2 main circumstances: cerebral thrombophlebitis or dural arteriovenous (AV) fistulae draining into cerebral veins. The authors study the CT and angiographic aspects of these venous infarcts and their evolution. Conventional angiography remains indispensible to confirm the diagnosis

  7. Consideration of QRS complex in addition to ST segment abnormalities in the estimation of the 'risk region' during acute inferior myocardial infarction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    van Hellemond, Irene E. G.; Bouwmeester, Sjoerd

    2013-01-01

    The myocardial area at risk (MaR) has been estimated in patients with acute myocardial infarction (AMI) by using ST segment based ECG methods. However, as the process from ischemia to infarction progresses, the ST segment deviation is typically replaced by QRS abnormalities, causing a falsely low estimation of the total MaR if determined by using ST segment based methods. A previous study showed the value of the consideration of the abnormalities in the QRS complex, in addition to those in the ST segment estimating the total MaR for patients with anterior AMI. The purpose of this study was to investigate the same method for patients with inferior AMI.

  8. Use of selective cyclooxygenase-2 inhibitors and nonselective nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drugs in high doses increases mortality and risk of reinfarction in patients with prior myocardial infarction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    SØrensen, Rikke; AbildstrØm, Steen Zabell

    2008-01-01

    The selective cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) inhibitors and other nonselective nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) have been associated with increased cardiovascular risk, but the risk in patients with established cardiovascular disease is unknown. In the present study, we analyzed the risk of rehospitalization for acute myocardial infarction (re-MI) and death related to the use of NSAIDs including selective COX-2 inhibitors in patients with a prior myocardial infarction (MI). We included 58,432 patients discharged alive after a first MI, and subsequent use of all NSAIDs was identified from a nationwide register of drug dispensing from pharmacies. We found a dose-dependent increase in risk of death for both the selective COX-2 inhibitors and the nonselective NSAIDs (all of the drugs tested). There were trends for increased risk of re-MI associated with the use of both the selective COX-2 inhibitors and the nonselective NSAIDs (high dosages). Selective COX-2 inhibitors in all dosages and nonselective NSAIDsin high dosages should be used with particular caution in patients with a prior MI Udgivelsesdato: 2008/1

  9. Impacto do tipo de procedimento e do fator cirurgião na validação do EuroSCORE / Impact of type of procedure and surgeon on EuroSCORE operative risk validation

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Fernando A., Atik; Claudio Ribeiro da, Cunha.

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Objetivo: O EuroSCORE tem sido utilizado na estimativa de risco em cirurgia cardíaca, apesar de fatores importantes não serem considerados. O objetivo foi validar o EuroSCORE na predição de mortalidade em cirurgia cardiovascular num centro brasileiro, definindo a influência do tipo de procedimento [...] e da equipe cirúrgica responsável pelo paciente. Métodos: No período de janeiro de 2006 a junho de 2011, 2320 pacientes adultos consecutivos foram estudados. De acordo com o EuroSCORE aditivo, os pacientes foram divididos em risco baixo (escore 12). A relação entre a mortalidade observada (O) sobre a esperada (E) de acordo com o EuroSCORE logístico foi calculada para cada um dos grupos, procedimentos e cirurgiões com > de 150 operações, e analisada por regressão logística. Resultados: O EuroSCORE calibrou com a mortalidade observada (O/E=0,94; P Abstract in english Objective: EuroSCORE has been used in cardiac surgery operative risk assessment, despite important variables were not included. The objective of this study was to validate EuroSCORE on mortality prediction in a Brazilian cardiovascular surgery center, defining the influence of type of procedure and [...] surgical team. Methods: Between January 2006 and June 2011, 2320 consecutive adult patients were studied. According to additive EuroSCORE, patients were divided into low risk (score12). The relation between observed mortality (O) and expected mortality (E) according to logistic EuroSCORE was calculated for each of the groups, types of procedures and surgeons with > 150 operations, and analyzed by logistic regression. Results: EuroSCORE correlated to the observed mortality (O/E=0.94; P

  10. Industry-specific risk models for numerical scoring of hazards and prioritization of safety measures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Risk analysis consists of five cornerstones that have to be viewed in an holistic manner by risk practitioners of any organization regardless of the industry type or nature of its critical infrastructures. The cornerstones are hazard identification, risk assessment and consequence analysis, determination of risk management actions required to reduce risks to acceptable levels, communication of risk insights among the stake-holders, and continuous monitoring and verification to ensure sustained attainment of tolerable risk levels. Our primary objectives in this research are two fold: first, we compare and contrast a wide spectrum of current industry-specific and application-dependent semi-quantitative risk models. Secondly, based on the insights to be gained from the first task, we propose a framework for a robust risk-based approach for conducting security vulnerability assessment (SVA). Risk practitioners of critical infrastructures, such as commercial nuclear power plants, water utilities, chemical plants, transmission and distribution substations... etc., could readily use this proposed approach to classify, evaluate, and prioritize risks to support allocation of resources required to ensure protection of public health and safety. (author)

  11. Replacement tunnelled dialysis catheters for haemodialysis access: Same site, new site, or exchange — A multivariate analysis and risk score

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aim: To identify variables related to complications following tunnelled dialysis catheter (TDC) replacement and stratifying the risk to reduce morbidity in patients with end-stage renal disease. Materials and methods: One hundred and forty TDCs (Split Cath, medCOMP) were replaced in 140 patients over a 5 year period. Multiple variables were retrospectively collected and analysed to stratify the risk and to predict patients who were more likely to suffer from complications. Multivariate regression analysis was used to identify variables predictive of complications. Results: There were six immediate complications, 42 early complications, and 37 late complications. Multivariate analysis revealed that variables significantly associated to complications were: female sex (p = 0.003; OR 2.9); previous TDC in the same anatomical position in the past (p = 0.014; OR 4.1); catheter exchange (p = 0.038; OR 3.8); haemoglobin 15 s (p = 0.002; OR 4.1); and C-reactive protein >50 mg/l (p = 0.007; OR 4.6). A high-risk score, which used the values from the multivariate analysis, predicted 100% of the immediate complications, 95% of the early complications, and 68% of the late complications. Conclusion: Patients can now be scored prior to TDC replacement. A patient with a high-risk score can be optimized to reduce the chance of complications. Further prospective studies to confirm that rotating the site studies to confirm that rotating the site of TDC reduces complications are warranted as this has implications for current guidelines.

  12. Update of the German Diabetes Risk Score and external validation in the German MONICA/KORA study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mühlenbruch, Kristin; Ludwig, Tonia

    2014-01-01

    AIMS: Several published diabetes prediction models include information about family history of diabetes. The aim of this study was to extend the previously developed German Diabetes Risk Score (GDRS) with family history of diabetes and to validate the updated GDRS in the Multinational MONItoring of trends and determinants in CArdiovascular Diseases (MONICA)/German Cooperative Health Research in the Region of Augsburg (KORA) study. METHODS: We used data from the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC)-Potsdam study for extending the GDRS, including 21,846 participants. Within 5 years of follow-up 492 participants developed diabetes. The definition of family history included information about the father, the mother and/or sibling/s. Model extension was evaluated by discrimination and reclassification. We updated the calculation of the score and absolute risks. External validation was performed in the MONICA/KORA study comprising 11,940 participants with 315 incident cases after 5 years of follow-up. RESULTS: The basic ROC-AUC of 0.856 (95%-CI: 0.842-0.870) was improved by 0.007 (0.003-0.011) when parent and sibling history was included in the GDRS. The net reclassification improvement was 0.110 (0.072-0.149), respectively. For the updated score we demonstrated good calibration across all tenths of risk. In MONICA/KORA, the ROC-AUC was 0.837 (0.819-0.855); regarding calibration we saw slight overestimation of absolute risks. CONCLUSIONS: Inclusion of the number of diabetes-affected parents and sibling history improved the prediction of type 2 diabetes. Therefore, we updated the GDRS algorithm accordingly. Validation in another German cohort study showed good discrimination and acceptable calibration for the vast majority of individuals.

  13. Comparison of Accuracy of Diabetes Risk Score and Components of the Metabolic Syndrome in Assessing Risk of Incident Type 2 Diabetes in Inter99 Cohort

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shafizadeh, Tracy B; Moler, Edward J

    2011-01-01

    Background: Given the increasing worldwide incidence of diabetes, methods to assess diabetes risk which would identify those at highest risk are needed. We compared two risk-stratification approaches for incident type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM); factors of metabolic syndrome (MetS) and a previously developed diabetes risk score, PreDxH Diabetes Risk Score (DRS). DRS assesses 5 yr risk of incident T2DM based on the measurement of 7 biomarkers in fasting blood. Methodology/Principal Findings: DRS was evaluated in baseline serum samples from 4,128 non-diabetic subjects in the Inter99 cohort (Danes aged 30–60) for whom diabetes outcomes at 5 years were known. Subjects were classified as having MetS based on the presence of at least 3 MetS risk factors in baseline clinical data. The sensitivity and false positive rate for predicting diabetes using MetS was compared to DRS. When the sensitivity was fixed to match MetS, DRS had a significantly lower false positive rate. Similarly, when the false positive rate was fixed to match MetS, DRS had a significantly higher specificity. In further analyses, subjects were classified by presence of 0–2, 3 or 4–5 risk factors with matching proportions of subjects distributed among three DRS groups. Comparison between the two risk stratification schemes, MetS risk factors and DRS, were evaluated using Net Reclassification Improvement (NRI). Comparing risk stratification by DRS to MetS factors in the total population, the NRI was 0.146 (p = 0.008) demonstrating DRS provides significantly improved stratification. Additionally, the relative risk of T2DM differed by 15 fold between the low and high DRS risk groups, but only 8-fold between the low and high risk MetS groups. Conclusions/Significance: DRS provides a more accurate assessment of risk for diabetes than MetS. This improved performance may allow clinicians to focus preventive strategies on those most in need of urgent intervention.

  14. Risk of myocardial infarction and death associated with the use of nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) among healthy individuals: a nationwide cohort study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    FosbØl, E L; Gislason, G H

    2009-01-01

    Use of some nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) is associated with increased cardiovascular risk in several patient groups, but whether this excess risk exists in apparently healthy individuals has not been clarified. Using a historical cohort design, we estimated the risk of death and myocardial infarction associated with the use of NSAIDs. Participants in the study were selected from the Danish population and were defined as healthy according to a history of no hospital admissions and no concomitant selected pharmacotherapy. The source population consisted of 4,614,807 individuals, of whom 1,028,437 were included in the study after applying selection criteria. Compared to no NSAID use, hazard ratios (95% confidence limits) for death/myocardial infarction were 1.01 (0.96-1.07) for ibuprofen, 1.63 (1.52-1.76) for diclofenac, 0.97 (0.83-1.12) for naproxen, 2.13 (1.89-2.41) for rofecoxib, and 2.01 (1.78-2.27) for celecoxib. A dose-dependent increase in cardiovascular risk was seen for selective COX-2 inhibitors and diclofenac. Caution should be exercised in NSAID use in all individuals, and particularly high doses should be avoided if possible.

  15. Identifying admitted patients at risk of dying : a prospective observational validation of four biochemical scoring systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brabrand, Mikkel; Knudsen, Torben

    2013-01-01

    Risk assessment is an important part of emergency patient care. Risk assessment tools based on biochemical data have the advantage that calculation can be automated and results can be easily provided. However, to be used clinically, existing tools have to be validated by independent researchers. This study involved an independent external validation of four risk stratification systems predicting death that rely primarily on biochemical variables.

  16. Scoring system to identify men at high risk of stroke: a strategy for general practice.

    OpenAIRE

    Coppola, W. G.; Whincup, P. H.; Papacosta, O.; Walker, M.; Ebrahim, S.

    1995-01-01

    BACKGROUND--The major risk factors for stroke are well described and there is good evidence that the risks associated with hypertension and cigarette smoking are reversible by appropriate interventions. However, if disease prevention measures are to be efficient, it is important that a system which can identify individuals at high risk of stroke be available for use in general practice. AIM--A study was therefore undertaken to design an effective and practical system for detecting men aged 40...

  17. Duration of Treatment With Nonsteroidal Anti-Inflammatory Drugs and Impact on Risk of Death and Recurrent Myocardial Infarction in Patients With Prior Myocardial Infarction: A Nationwide Cohort Study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schjerning Olsen, Anne-Marie; FosbØl, Emil L

    2011-01-01

    Background- Despite the fact that nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) are contraindicated among patients with established cardiovascular disease, many receive NSAID treatment for a short period of time. However, little is known about the association between NSAID treatment duration and risk of cardiovascular disease. We therefore studied the duration of NSAID treatment and cardiovascular risk in a nationwide cohort of patients with prior myocardial infarction (MI). Methods and Results- Patients =30 years of age who were admitted with first-time MI during 1997 to 2006 and their subsequent NSAID use were identified by individual-level linkage of nationwide registries of hospitalization and drug dispensing from pharmacies in Denmark. Risk of death and recurrent MI according to duration of NSAID treatment was analyzed by multivariable time-stratified Cox proportional-hazard models and by incidence rates per 1000 person-years. Of the 83 677 patients included, 42.3% received NSAIDs during follow-up. Therewere 35 257 deaths/recurrent MIs. Overall, NSAID treatment was significantly associated with an increased risk of death/recurrent MI (hazard ratio, 1.45; 95% confidence interval, 1.29 to 1.62) at the beginning of the treatment, and the risk persisted throughout the treatment course (hazard ratio, 1.55; 95% confidence interval, 1.46 to 1.64 after 90 days). Analyses of individual NSAIDs showed that the traditional NSAID diclofenac was associated with the highest risk (hazard ratio, 3.26; 95% confidence interval, 2.57 to 3.86 for death/MI at day 1 to 7 of treatment). Conclusions- Even short-term treatment with most NSAIDs was associated with increased risk of death and recurrent MI in patients with prior MI. Neither short- nor long-term treatment with NSAIDs is advised in this population, and any NSAID use should be limited from a cardiovascular safety point of view.

  18. Cerebellar infarction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Datar, Sudhir; Rabinstein, Alejandro A

    2014-11-01

    Cerebellar infarction presents with symptoms of nausea, vomiting, and dizziness and thus mimics benign conditions such as viral gastroenteritis or labyrinthitis, which constitutes a good proportion of patients seen in the emergency department. A physician is often faced with the task of identifying the few cases in which cerebellar stroke is the underlying cause instead. In-depth knowledge of the signs and symptoms of cerebellar infarction is therefore essential. Large infarctions or the ones with hemorrhagic conversion can lead to tissue swelling and complications such as obstructive hydrocephalus and brainstem compression. This article summarizes the current multidisciplinary approach to cerebellar stroke. PMID:25439292

  19. A polygenic risk score for breast cancer in women receiving tamoxifen or raloxifene on NSABP P-1 and P-2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vachon, Celine M; Schaid, Daniel J; Ingle, James N; Wickerham, D Lawrence; Kubo, Michiaki; Mushiroda, Taisei; Goetz, Matthew P; Carlson, Erin E; Paik, Soonmyung; Wolmark, Norman; Nakamura, Yusuke; Wang, Liewei; Weinshilboum, Richard; Couch, Fergus J

    2015-01-01

    Recent genetic studies have identified common variation in susceptibility loci that stratify lifetime risks of breast cancer and may inform prevention and screening strategies. However, whether these loci have similar implications for women treated with tamoxifen or raloxifene (SERMs) is unknown. We conducted a matched case-control study of 592 cases who developed breast cancer and 1,171 unaffected women from 32,859 participants on SERM therapy enrolled on NSABP P-1 and P-2 breast cancer prevention trials. We formed a quantitative polygenic risk score (PRS) using genotypes of 75 breast cancer-associated single nucleotide polymorphisms and examined the PRS as a risk factor for breast cancer among women treated with SERMs. The PRS ranged from 3.98 to 7.74, with a one-unit change associated with a 42 % increase in breast cancer (OR = 1.42; P = 0.0002). The PRS had a stronger association with breast cancer among high-risk women with no first-degree family history (OR = 1.62) compared to those with a positive family history (OR = 1.32) (P intx = 0.04). There was also suggestion that PRS was a stronger risk factor for ER-positive (OR = 1.59, P = 0.0002) than ER-negative (OR = 1.05, P = 0.84) breast cancer (P intx = 0.10). Associations did not differ by tamoxifen or raloxifene treatment, age at trial entry, 5-year predicted Gail model risk or other clinical variables. The PRS is a strong risk factor for ER-positive breast cancer in moderate to high-risk individuals treated with either tamoxifen or raloxifene for cancer prevention. These data suggest that common genetic variation informs risk of breast cancer in women receiving SERMs. PMID:25575444

  20. Edad avanzada y factores de riesgo para infarto agudo de miocardio / Risk factors for acute myocardial infarction in the elderly

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    M. A., Ciruzzi; H., Schargrozky; P., Pramparo; J., Rosloznyk; H., Zylberstejn; M., Haquim; V., Rudich; A., Caccavo; D., Pizkorz.

    2002-12-01

    Full Text Available SciELO Argentina | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish Este estudio caso-control analizó en los sujetos añosos el rol de los factores de riesgo coronario en el desarrollo del infarto agudo de miocardio (IAM), estableció la naturaleza de esta asociación y el grado de riesgo. Los datos fueron obtenidos en una investigación que incluyó 1060 casos y 1071 co [...] ntroles, realizada en 35 unidades coronarias de centros médicos de Argentina entre noviembre de 1991 y agosto de 1994. Nuestro análisis se basó en la información de los sujetos mayores de 65 años. Los casos fueron 427 pacientes con un primer IAM. Los controles fueron 396 sujetos sin evidencias clinicas de enfermedad cardiovascular, seleccionados en los mismos centros que los casos. Los Odds Ratios (OR) y su intervalo de confianza del 95% (IC 95%) se obtuvieron mediante un análisis de regresión logística, incluyendo variables como la edad, educación, clase social, tabaquismo, antecedente de diabetes o hipertensión arterial, índice de masa corporal e historia familiar de enfermedad coronaria. Los factores de riesgo relacionados independientemente con IAM fueron los siguientes: hipercolesterolemia (colesterol sérico > 240 mg/dl): OR=1.76 (IC 95%: 1.25-2.49), tabaquismo: OR=1.6 (IC 95%: 1.06-2.4), hipertensión arterial: OR=2.05 (IC 95%: 1.51-2.73), diabetes OR=1.71 (IC 95%: 1.12-2.70), historia de un familiar con enfermedad coronaria: OR=1.36 (IC 95%: 0.93-1.97) y de dos o más familiares: OR=2.63 (IC 95%: 1.21-5.71). Este estudio, confirma en los sujetos de edad avanzada la importancia de la hipercolesterolemia, del tabaquismo, la hipertesión arterial, la diabetes y la historia familiar de enfermedad coronaria como factores de riesgo de IAM Abstract in english This case-control study, analized the role of coronary risk factors in acute myocardial infarction (AMI) in the elderly, and established the nature of this association and the degree of risk. Data were derived from an investigation (1060 cases and 1071 controls) conducted in 35 coronary care units f [...] rom clinical centres in Argentina between November 1991 and August 1994. Our analysis was based on data collected from subjets over age 65. Cases were 427 patients with AMI and without history of ischaemic heart disease. Controls were 396 subjects identified in the same centres as the cases. Odds ratios (OR) estimates and their 95% confidence intervals (CI) were derived from multiple logistic regression equations including terms for age, education, social status, smoking status, history of diabetes or hypertension, body mass index and family history of coronary heart disease. The risk factors independently and strongly related to the risk of AMI were the following: hyperlipidemia (serum cholesterol > 240 mg/dl): OR=1.76 (95% CI: 1.25-2.49), smoking habits: OR=1.6 (95% CI: 1.06-2.4), hypertension: OR=2.05 (95% CI: 1.51-2.73), diabetes OR=1.71 (95% CI: 1.12-2.70), one relative with family history of coronary heart disease: OR=1.36 (95% CI: 0.93-1.97) and two or more relatives: OR=2.63 (95% CI: 1.21-5.71). This study confirms in the elderly the importance of hyperlipidemia, tobacco, hypertension, diabetes and family history of coronary heart disease as risks factors of AMI.

  1. Evaluation of the impact of genetic polymorphisms in glutathione-related genes on the association between methylmercury or n-3 polyunsaturated long chain fatty acids and risk of myocardial infarction: a case-control study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Norberg Margareta

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids eicosapentaenoic acid and docosahexaenoic acid, which are present in fish, are protective against myocardial infarction. However, fish also contains methylmercury, which influences the risk of myocardial infarction, possibly by generating oxidative stress. Methylmercury is metabolized by conjugation to glutathione, which facilitates elimination. Glutathione is also an antioxidant. Individuals with certain polymorphisms in glutathione-related genes may tolerate higher exposures to methylmercury, due to faster metabolism and elimination and/or better glutathione-associated antioxidative capacity. They would thus benefit more from the protective agents in fish, such as eicosapentaenoic+docosahexaenoic acid and selenium. The objective for this study was to elucidate whether genetic polymorphisms in glutathione-related genes modify the association between eicosapentaenoic+docosahexaenoic acid or methylmercury and risk of first ever myocardial infarction. Methods Polymorphisms in glutathione-synthesizing (glutamyl-cysteine ligase catalytic subunit, GCLC and glutamyl-cysteine ligase modifier subunit, GCLM or glutathione-conjugating (glutathione S-transferase P, GSTP1 genes were genotyped in 1027 individuals from northern Sweden (458 cases of first-ever myocardial infarction and 569 matched controls. The impact of these polymorphisms on the association between erythrocyte-mercury (proxy for methylmercury and risk of myocardial infarction, as well as between plasma eicosapentaenoic+docosahexaenoic acid and risk of myocardial infarction, was evaluated by conditional logistic regression. The effect of erythrocyte-selenium on risk of myocardial infarction was also taken into consideration. Results There were no strong genetic modifying effects on the association between plasma eicosapentaenoic+docosahexaenoic acid or erythrocyte-mercury and risk of myocardial infarction risk. When eicosapentaenoic+docosahexaenoic acid or erythrocyte-mercury were divided into tertiles, individuals with GCLM-588 TT genotype displayed a lower risk relative to the CC genotype in all but one tertile; in most tertiles the odds ratio was around 0.5 for TT. However, there were few TT carriers and the results were not statistically significant. The results were similar when taking plasma eicosapentaenoic+docosahexaenoic acid, erythrocyte-selenium and erythrocyte-mercury into account simultaneously. Conclusions No statistically significant genetic modifying effects were seen for the association between plasma eicosapentaenoic+docosahexaenoic acid or erythrocyte-mercury and risk of myocardial infarction. Still, our results indicate that the relatively rare GCLM-588 TT genotype may have an impact, but a larger study is necessary for confirmation.

  2. Comparing patients with spinal cord infarction and cerebral infarction: clinical characteristics, and short-term outcome

    OpenAIRE

    Romi F; Naess H

    2011-01-01

    Halvor Naess, Fredrik RomiDepartment of Neurology, Haukeland University Hospital, N-5021 Bergen, NorwayBackground: To compare the clinical characteristics, and short-term outcome of spinal cord infarction and cerebral infarction.Methods: Risk factors, concomitant diseases, neurological deficits on admission, and short-term outcome were registered among 28 patients with spinal cord infarction and 1075 patients with cerebral infarction admitted to the Department of Neurology, Haukeland Universi...

  3. Long-term use of non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs and the risk of myocardial infarction in the general population

    OpenAIRE

    González-Pérez Antonio; García Rodríguez Luis A

    2005-01-01

    Abstract Background Recent data indicate that chronic use of coxibs leads to an increased occurrence of thrombotic cardiovascular events. This raises the question as to whether traditional non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (tNSAIDs) might also produce similar hazards. Our aim has been to evaluate the association between the chronic use of tNSAIDs and the risk of myocardial infarction (MI) in patients. Methods We performed a nested case-control analysis with 4,975 cases of acute MI and 20,...

  4. Cardioprotective medication use and risk factor control among US adults with unrecognized myocardial infarction: the REasons for Geographic And Racial Differences in Stroke (REGARDS study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Levitan EB

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Emily B Levitan,1 Christopher Gamboa,1 Monika M Safford,2 Dana V Rizk,3 Todd M Brown,4 Elsayed Z Soliman,5 Paul Muntner11Department of Epidemiology, 2Division of Preventive Medicine, 3Division of Nephrology, 4Division of Cardiology, University of Alabama at Birmingham, Birmingham, AL, USA; 5Epidemiological Cardiology Research Center, Wake Forest University School of Medicine, Winston Salem, NC, USABackground: Individuals with unrecognized myocardial infarction (UMI have similar risks for cardiovascular events and mortality as those with recognized myocardial infarction (RMI. The prevalence of cardioprotective medication use and blood pressure and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol control among individuals with UMI is unknown.Methods: Participants from the REasons for Geographic And Racial Differences in Stroke (REGARDS study who were recruited between May 2004 and October 2007 received baseline twelve-lead electrocardiograms (n = 21,036. Myocardial infarction (MI status was characterized as no MI, UMI (electrocardiogram abnormalities consistent with MI without self-reported history; n = 949; 4.5%, and RMI (self-reported history of MI; n = 1574; 7.5%.Results: For participants with no MI, UMI, and RMI, prevalence of use was 38.4%, 44.4%, and 75.7% for aspirin; 18.0%, 25.8%, and 57.2% for beta blockers; 31.7%, 38.7%, and 55.0% for angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitors or angiotensin receptor blockers; and 28.1%, 33.9%, and 64.1% for statins, respectively. Participants with RMI were 35% more likely to have low-density lipoprotein cholesterol < 100 mg/dL than participants with UMI (prevalence ratio = 1.35, 95% confidence interval 1.19–1.52. Blood pressure control (<140/90 mmHg was similar between RMI and UMI groups (prevalence ratio = 1.03, 95% confidence interval 0.93–1.13.Conclusion: Although participants with UMI were somewhat more likely to use cardioprotective medications than those with no MI, they were less likely to use cardioprotective medications and to have controlled low-density lipoprotein cholesterol than participants with RMI. Increasing appropriate treatment and risk factor control among individuals with UMI may reduce risk of mortality and future cardiovascular events.Keywords: unrecognized myocardial infarction, secondary prevention, risk factor control

  5. Common Y402H variant in complement factor H gene is not associated with susceptibility to myocardial infarction and its related risk factors

    OpenAIRE

    Stark, Klaus; Neureuther, Katharina; Sedlacek, Kamil; Hengstenberg, Wibke; Fischer, Marcus; Baessler, Andrea; Wiedmann, Silke; Jeron, Andreas; Holmer, Stephan; Erdmann, Jeanette; Schunkert, Heribert; Hengstenberg, Christian

    2007-01-01

    Abstract Recently, the genetic variant Y402H in complement factor H gene (CFH) was associated with increased risk for myocardial infarction (MI) in a prospective Caucasian cohort. In another nested case-control study, however, the CFH-Y402H variant did not carry susceptibility to MI. The aim of the present study was to test for association between the CFH-Y402H variant and MI in a large case-control sample with familial background for coronary artery disease (CAD). A total of 2,161...

  6. Factores de riesgo coronarios asociados al infarto agudo del miocardio en el adulto mayor Coronary risk factors associated with the acute myocardial infarction in the elderly

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julia Tamara Alvarez Cortés

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Se realizó un estudio observacional, analítico y retrospectivo, de tipo caso-control, de los adultos mayores con infarto agudo del miocardio, pertenecientes al área de salud Municipal de Santiago de Cuba, desde enero de 2006 hasta diciembre de 2011, a fin de identificar los factores de riesgo coronarios asociados al mismo. Se seleccionaron 33 casos y 2 controles por cada uno de ellos. Se calcularon el riesgo relativo a través de la razón de productos cruzados y el riesgo atribuible en expuestos porcentual como medida de impacto. El sedentarismo y la hipertensión arterial tuvieron una acentuada relación significativa de causalidad con el infarto agudo del miocardio y de forma moderada con el tabaquismo, no así los antecedentes familiares ni personales de cardiopatía isquémica, sexo, obesidad y diabetes mellitus.An observational, analytic and retrospective study of case-control type, of aged patients with acute myocardial infarction, belonging to the health Municipal area of Santiago de Cuba was carried out from January, 2006 to December, 2011, in order to identify the coronary risk factors associated with it. Thirty three cases and two controls for each were selected. The relative risk through the odds ratio and the attributable risk in percentage exposed as impact measure were calculated. Sedentarism and hypertension had a considerable significant causative relationship with acute myocardial infarction and in a moderate way with smoking habit. Family or personal history of ischemic cardiopathy, sex, obesity or diabetes mellitus had no relation with it.

  7. Development and Internal Validation of the Male Osteoporosis Risk Estimation Score

    OpenAIRE

    Shepherd, Angela J.; Cass, Alvah R.; Carlson, Carol A.; Ray, Laura

    2007-01-01

    PURPOSE We wanted to develop and validate a clinical prediction rule to identify men at risk for osteoporosis and subsequent hip fracture who might benefit from dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry (DXA).

  8. Development and Validation of a Risk Score for Chronic Kidney Disease in HIV Infection Using Prospective Cohort Data from the D:A:D Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mocroft, Amanda; Lundgren, Jens D.; Ross, Michael; Law, Matthew; Reiss, Peter; Kirk, Ole; Smith, Colette; Wentworth, Deborah; Neuhaus, Jacqueline; Fux, Christoph A.; Moranne, Olivier; Morlat, Phillipe; Johnson, Margaret A.; Ryom, Lene

    2015-01-01

    Background Chronic kidney disease (CKD) is a major health issue for HIV-positive individuals, associated with increased morbidity and mortality. Development and implementation of a risk score model for CKD would allow comparison of the risks and benefits of adding potentially nephrotoxic antiretrovirals to a treatment regimen and would identify those at greatest risk of CKD. The aims of this study were to develop a simple, externally validated, and widely applicable long-term risk score model for CKD in HIV-positive individuals that can guide decision making in clinical practice. Methods and Findings A total of 17,954 HIV-positive individuals from the Data Collection on Adverse Events of Anti-HIV Drugs (D:A:D) study with ?3 estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) values after 1 January 2004 were included. Baseline was defined as the first eGFR > 60 ml/min/1.73 m2 after 1 January 2004; individuals with exposure to tenofovir, atazanavir, atazanavir/ritonavir, lopinavir/ritonavir, other boosted protease inhibitors before baseline were excluded. CKD was defined as confirmed (>3 mo apart) eGFR ? 60 ml/min/1.73 m2. Poisson regression was used to develop a risk score, externally validated on two independent cohorts. In the D:A:D study, 641 individuals developed CKD during 103,185 person-years of follow-up (PYFU; incidence 6.2/1,000 PYFU, 95% CI 5.7–6.7; median follow-up 6.1 y, range 0.3–9.1 y). Older age, intravenous drug use, hepatitis C coinfection, lower baseline eGFR, female gender, lower CD4 count nadir, hypertension, diabetes, and cardiovascular disease (CVD) predicted CKD. The adjusted incidence rate ratios of these nine categorical variables were scaled and summed to create the risk score. The median risk score at baseline was ?2 (interquartile range –4 to 2). There was a 1:393 chance of developing CKD in the next 5 y in the low risk group (risk score medium (risk score 0–4, 103 events) and high risk groups (risk score ? 5, 505 events), respectively. Number needed to harm (NNTH) at 5 y when starting unboosted atazanavir or lopinavir/ritonavir among those with a low risk score was 1,702 (95% CI 1,166–3,367); NNTH was 202 (95% CI 159–278) and 21 (95% CI 19–23), respectively, for those with a medium and high risk score. NNTH was 739 (95% CI 506–1462), 88 (95% CI 69–121), and 9 (95% CI 8–10) for those with a low, medium, and high risk score, respectively, starting tenofovir, atazanavir/ritonavir, or another boosted protease inhibitor. The Royal Free Hospital Clinic Cohort included 2,548 individuals, of whom 94 individuals developed CKD (3.7%) during 18,376 PYFU (median follow-up 7.4 y, range 0.3–12.7 y). Of 2,013 individuals included from the SMART/ESPRIT control arms, 32 individuals developed CKD (1.6%) during 8,452 PYFU (median follow-up 4.1 y, range 0.6–8.1 y). External validation showed that the risk score predicted well in these cohorts. Limitations of this study included limited data on race and no information on proteinuria. Conclusions Both traditional and HIV-related risk factors were predictive of CKD. These factors were used to develop a risk score for CKD in HIV infection, externally validated, that has direct clinical relevance for patients and clinicians to weigh the benefits of certain antiretrovirals against the risk of CKD and to identify those at greatest risk of CKD. PMID:25826420

  9. Bacteremic pneumococcal pneumonia: serotype distribution, antimicrobial susceptibility, severity scores, risk factors, and mortality in a single center in Chile

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Alberto, Fica; Nicolás, Bunster; Felipe, Aliaga; Felipe, Olivares; Lorena, Porte; Stephanie, Braun; Jeannette, Dabanch; Juan Carlos, Hormázabal; Antonio, Hernández; María Guacolda, Benavides.

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available AIMS: Bacteremic pneumococcal pneumonia (BPP) is a severe condition. To evaluate seasonal distribution, mortality, serotype frequencies, antimicrobial susceptibility, and different severity scores among patients with BPP. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Patients were identified by laboratory data and restr [...] icted to adulthood. Standard methods were used for serotyping and antimicrobial susceptibility. Risk factors were analyzed by univariate and multivariate methods. Severity scores (APACHE II, CURB-65 and CAP PIRO) were compared using ROC curves. RESULTS: Sixty events of community-acquired BPP occurred between 2005 and 2010. A seasonal pattern was detected. Mean age was 72.1 years old (81.4% >60 years). All had a predisposing factor. Previous influenza (3.3%) or pneumococcal immunization (1.7%) was infrequent. Admission to critical units was required by 51.7%. Twenty-two serotypes were identified among 59 strains. Only one strain had intermediate resistance to penicillin (1.7%). In-hospital mortality reached 33.3%. Multivariate analysis identified a CAP PIRO score>3 (OR 29.7; IC95 4.7-187), age >65 years (OR 42.1; IC95 2.2-796), and a platelet count

  10. Validação prospectiva do escore de risco dante pazzanese em síndrome coronariana aguda sem supradesnivelamento do segmento ST / Prospective validation of the dante pazzanese risk score in non-ST-segment elevation acute coronary syndrome

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Elizabete Silva dos, Santos; Luiz, Minuzzo; Roberta de, Souza; Ari, Timerman.

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Languages: English, Portuguese Abstract in portuguese FUNDAMENTO: Em Síndrome Coronariana Aguda (SCA) sem Supradesnivelamento do segmento ST (SST) é importante estimar a probabilidade de eventos adversos. Para esse fim, as diretrizes recomendam modelos de estratificação de risco. O escore de risco Dante Pazzanese (escore DANTE) é um modelo simples de e [...] stratificação de risco, composto das variáveis: aumento da idade (0 a 9 pontos); antecedente de diabete melito (2 pontos) ou acidente vascular encefálico (4 pontos); não uso de inibidor da enzima conversora da angiotensina (1 ponto); elevação da creatinina (0 a 10 pontos); combinação de elevação da troponina e depressão do segmento ST (0 a 4 pontos). OBJETIVO: Validar o escore DANTE em pacientes com SCA sem SST. MÉTODOS: Estudo prospectivo, observacional, com inclusão de 457 pacientes, de setembro de 2009 a outubro de 2010. Os pacientes foram agrupados em: muito baixo, baixo, intermediário e alto risco de acordo com a pontuação do modelo original. A habilidade preditiva do escore foi avaliada pela estatística-C. RESULTADOS: Foram 291 (63,7%) homens e a média da idade 62,1 anos (11,04). Dezessete pacientes (3,7%) apresentaram o evento de morte ou (re)infarto em 30 dias. Ocorreu aumento progressivo na proporção do evento, com aumento da pontuação: muito baixo risco = 0,0%; baixo risco = 3,9%; risco intermediário = 10,9%; alto risco = 60,0%; p Abstract in english BACKGROUND: In non-ST-segment elevation acute coronary syndrome (ACS), the likelihood of adverse events should be estimated. Guidelines recommend risk stratification models for that purpose. The Dante Pazzanese risk score (DANTE score) is a simple risk stratification model composed with the followin [...] g variables: age increase (0 to 9 points); history of diabetes mellitus (2 points) or stroke (4 points); no use of angiotensin-converting-enzyme inhibitor (1 point); creatinine elevation (0 to 10 points); combination of troponin elevation and ST-segment depression (0 to 4 points). OBJECTIVE: To validate the DANTE score in patients with non-ST-segment elevation ACS. METHODS: Prospective, observational study including 457 patients, from September 2009 to October 2010. The patients were grouped in risk categories according to the original model score as follows: very low; low; intermediate; and high. The predictive ability of the score was assessed by using C-statistics. RESULTS: The sample comprised 291 (63.7%) men, the mean age being 62.1 years (SD=11.04). The event death or (re)infarction in 30 days was observed in 17 patients (3.7%). Progressive increase in the proportion of events was observed as the score increased: very low risk = 0.0%; low risk = 3.9%; intermediate risk = 10.9%; high risk = 60.0%; p

  11. Quantificação da massa infartada do ventrículo esquerdo pela ressonância magnética cardíaca: comparação entre a planimetria e o método de escore visual semi-quantitativo Quantification of left ventricular infarcted mass on cardiac magnetic resonance imaging: comparison between planimetry and the semiquantitative visual scoring method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clerio Francisco de Azevedo Filho

    2004-08-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Validar um novo método de escore visual semi-quantitativo contra a planimetria digital quantitativa para a determinação da massa infartada do ventrículo esquerdo pela ressonância magnética cardíaca com técnica de realce tardio. MÉTODO: Estudados 77 pacientes com infarto miocárdico prévio em aparelho de ressonância magnética de 1,5T utilizando técnica de realce tardio para avaliação da viabilidade miocárdica e cálculo da massa infartada. Para avaliação da função ventricular esquerda pelo método de Simpson utilizamos técnica de cine-ressonância. O cálculo da massa infartada foi realizado nas imagens de realce tardio de duas formas: planimetria e método de escore. Utilizamos métodos de regressão linear simples, correlação e concordância entre métodos e observadores segundo a análise de Bland-Altman. RESULTADOS: Em todos os 77 pacientes as áreas de infarto foram detectadas pela ressonância magnética cardíaca utilizando a técnica de realce tardio. O tamanho do infarto medido pela planimetria foi semelhante ao obtido pelo método de escore, com a média das diferenças entres as medidas de apenas 1,03% da massa do ventrículo esquerdo. As variabilidades inter (0,41% e intra-observador (0,34% evidenciaram excelente reprodutibilidade do método de escore. A massa infartada apresentou boa correlação com a fração de ejeção e volumes distólico e sistólico finais indexados, r=-0,76, r=0,63 e r=0,67, respectivamente. CONCLUSÃO: A avaliação de pacientes com infarto agudo do miocárdio prévio pela ressonância magnética cardíaca, utilizando a técnica de realce tardio, permite a determinação reprodutível do tamanho do infarto, tanto pelo método de planimetria, quanto pelo modelo semi-quantitativo de escore.OBJECTIVE: To compare a new semiquantitative visual scoring method with quantitative digital planimetry for determining left ventricular infarcted mass by use of cardiac delayed contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging. METHOD: Seventy-seven patients with previous myocardial infarction underwent delayed contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging using a 1.5T device for assessing myocardial viability and calculating the infarcted mass. Cine magnetic resonance imaging was used for assessing left ventricular function with the Simpson method. The infarcted mass was calculated on the delayed contrast-enhanced images according to the following 2 methods: planimetry and the scoring method. Simple linear regression and correlation and agreement between the methods and observers according to the Bland-Altman plot were used. RESULTS: The infarcted areas in all 77 patients were detected by use of cardiac delayed contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging. The size of the infarction measured by planimetry was similar to that obtained with the scoring method, with a mean difference between measurements of only 1.03% of the left ventricular mass. Inter- (0.41% and intraobserver (0.34% variabilities indicated an excellent reproducibility of the scoring method. Infarcted mass showed a good correlation with ejection fraction and indexed end-diastolic and end-systolic volumes, r=-0.76, r=0.63, and r=0.67, respectively. CONCLUSION: In patients with previous myocardial infarction, delayed-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging provides accurate infarct size quantification by planimetry and by semiquantitative score.

  12. Evaluation of Risk Scores Derived from the Health Family Tree Program

    OpenAIRE

    Jiang, Yuling; Staes, Catherine J.; Adams, Ted D.; Hunt, Steven C.

    2009-01-01

    Family health history is an independent risk factor for certain diseases. The Health Family Tree (HFT) was developed and used to document and assess family health history from the families of high school students since 1980. While the risk algorithm of the HFT was initially validated, 20 years of use as a public health tool in the community provides an extremely large dataset for more rigorous validation. A retrospective cohort study was used with the events before the “cut-off” year as t...

  13. Job level risk assessment using task level ACGIH hand activity level TLV scores: a pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drinkaus, Phillip; Sesek, Richard; Bloswick, Donald S; Mann, Clay; Bernard, Thomas

    2005-01-01

    Existing upper extremity musculoskeletal disorder analytical tools are primarily intended for single or mono-task jobs. However, many jobs contain more than 1 task and some include job rotation. This case/control study investigates methods of modifying an existing tool, the American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists (ACGIH) Hand Activity Level (HAL) Threshold Limit Value (TLV), to assess the upper extremity risk of multi-task jobs. Various methods of combining the task differences and ratios into a job level assessment were explored. Two methods returned significant odds ratios, (p work-related risk of multi-task jobs. Further research is needed to optimize this process. PMID:16219155

  14. Dual isotope thallium and indium antimyosin SPECT imaging to identify acute infarct patients at further ischemic risk

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Forty-two patients (28 men and 14 women) with acute myocardial infarction (35 Q, seven non-Q wave) were injected with 2.0 mCi indium 111-labeled antimyosin (AM) monoclonal antibody (111In AM) within 48 hours of the onset of chest pain. Forty-eight hours later (72-96 hours after onset of chest pain), patients were injected with 2.2 mCi thallium 201, and two sets of single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) images were obtained simultaneously using dual energy windows set for the 247 keV indium photopeak and the 70 keV thallium peak. Seventeen patients had repeat scans at 4 hours. 111In AM uptake and 201Tl defects were localized to one or more of 24 coronal and sagittal segments. Scans with only 201Tl defects and corresponding 111In AM uptake were classified as matches; scans with unmatched 201Tl defects in addition to matching regions corresponding to electrocardiographic infarct location were classified as mismatches; and scans with 201Tl and 111In AM uptake in the same segments were classified as overlap. Scan patterns were correlated with clinical evidence for residual ischemia occurring within 6 weeks of infarct and including infarct extension, recurrent angina, and positive predischarge low-level or 6-week symptom-limited stress tests and with coronary anatomy. Fourteen patients had only matching patterns (group 1), 23 had mismatches (group 2), and five had 201Tl-111In overlap as the predominant pattern. None of the patients in group 1 had previous myocarhe patients in group 1 had previous myocardial infarction; in each, the matched area corresponded to the Q wave location on electrocardiogram, and none had further in-hospital ischemic events or positive stress tests

  15. Changes in medical treatment six months after risk stratification with HeartScore and coronary artery calcification scanning of healthy middle-aged subjects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    SØrensen, Mette Hjortdal; Gerke, Oke

    2012-01-01

    Objectives: The aim was to examine and compare the impact of HeartScore and coronary artery calcification (CAC) score on subsequent changes in the use of medication. Methods: A total of 1156 healthy men and women, aged 50 or 60, had a baseline medical examination and a coronary artery CT-scan as a part of a screening programme. Using the European HeartScore, the total 10-year cardiovascular mortality risk was estimated (?5% risk was considered as high). Risk factors and CAC scores were reported to both the patients and their general practitioner. Six months after the screening, follow-up questionnaires addressing current medication were mailed to the participants. Results: A completed questionnaire was returned by 1075 (93%) subjects. At follow up, the overall use of prophylactic medication was significantly increased. Of those with CAC (n = 462) or high HeartScore (n = 233), 21 and 19%, respectively, received lipid-lowering treatment, while 25 and 32%, respectively, received antihypertensive treatment. In multivariate logistic regression analyses, the presence of CAC was associated with an increased use of lipid-lowering treatment (OR 2.2; 95% CI 1.2-4.0), while the presence of a high HeartScore was associated with an increased use of lipid-lowering (OR 2.9; 95% CI 1.6-5.5) and antihypertensive medication (OR 3.4; 95% CI 1.9-6.0). Conclusion: Knowledge of present cardiovascular risk factors like high HeartScore and/or CAC leads to beneficial changes in medication. However, at follow up only a minority of high-risk subjects did received prophylactic treatment. CAC score was not superior to HeartScore regarding these motivational outcomes.

  16. Student Risk Screening Scale: Initial Evidence for Score Reliability and Validity at the High School Level

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lane, Kathleen Lynne; Kalberg, Jemma Robertson; Parks, Robin J.; Carter, Erik W.

    2008-01-01

    This article presents findings from a study of the reliability and validity of the "Student Risk Screening Scale" for use with high school students (N = 674). Results revealed high internal consistency, test-retest stability, interrater reliability, and convergent validity with the "Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire". Predictive validity…

  17. A melanoma risk score in a Brazilian population Um escore de risco para melanoma em uma população brasileira

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucio Bakos

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Important risk factors for cutaneous melanoma (CM are recognized, but standardized scores for individual assessment must still be developed. OBJECTIVES: The objective of this study was to develop a risk score of CM for a Brazilian sample. METHODS: To verify the estimates of the main risk factors for melanoma, derived from a meta-analysis (Italian-based study, and externally validate them in a population in southern Brazil by means of a case-control study. A total of 117 individuals were evaluated. Different models were constructed combining the summary coefficients of different risk factors, derived from the meta-analysis, multiplied by the corresponding category of each variable for each participant according to a mathematical expression. RESULTS: the variable that best predicted the risk of CM in the studied population was hair color (AUC: 0.71; 95% CI: 0.62-0.79. Other important factors were freckles, sunburn episodes, and skin and eye color. Consideration of other variables such as common nevi, elastosis, family history, and premalignant lesions did not improve the predictive ability of the models. CONCLUSION: The discriminating capacity of the proposed model proved to be superior or comparable to that of previous risk models proposed for CM. FUNDAMENTOS: importantes fatores de risco para melanoma cutâneo são reconhecidos, mas escores padronizados para avaliação individual ainda precisam ser elaborados. OBJETIVOS: o objetivo deste estudo foi desenvolver um escore de risco de melanoma cutâneo para uma amostra brasileira. MÉTODOS: verificar as estimativas dos principais fatores de risco para melanoma, derivado de uma meta-análise (estudo de base italiano e, externamente, validar em uma população do sul do Brasil por um estudo caso-controle. Um total de 117 indivíduos foram avaliados. RESULTADOS: a variável com maior poder preditivo para o risco de melanoma cutâneo na população estudada foi a cor do cabelo (AUC: 0,71, IC 95%: 0,62-0,79. Outros fatores importantes para o modelo foram: sardas, queimaduras solares, e cor de pele e cor dos olhos. Adicionando outras variáveis, como os nevos comuns, elastose, história familiar e lesões pré-malignas não houve melhora da capacidade preditiva. CONCLUSÃO: A capacidade discriminatória do modelo proposto mostrou-se superior ou comparável aos modelos de risco anteriores propostos para melanoma cutâneo.

  18. A melanoma risk score in a Brazilian population / Um escore de risco para melanoma em uma população brasileira

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Lucio, Bakos; Simeona, Mastroeni; Renan Rangel, Bonamigo; Franco, Melchi; Paolo, Pasquini; Cristina, Fortes.

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in portuguese FUNDAMENTOS: importantes fatores de risco para melanoma cutâneo são reconhecidos, mas escores padronizados para avaliação individual ainda precisam ser elaborados. OBJETIVOS: o objetivo deste estudo foi desenv [...] olver um escore de risco de melanoma cutâneo para uma amostra brasileira. MÉTODOS: verificar as estimativas dos principais fatores de risco para melanoma, derivado de uma meta-análise (estudo de base italiano) e, externamente, validar em uma população do sul do Brasil por um estudo caso-controle. Um total de 117 indivíduos foram avaliados. RESULTADOS: a variável com maior poder preditivo para o risco de melanoma cutâneo na população estudada foi a cor do cabelo (AUC: 0,71, IC 95%: 0,62-0,79). Outros fatores importantes para o modelo foram: sardas, queimaduras solares, e cor de pele e cor dos olhos. Adicionando outras variáveis, como os nevos comuns, elastose, história familiar e lesões pré-malignas não houve melhora da capacidade preditiva. CONCLUSÃO: A capacidade discriminatória do modelo proposto mostrou-se superior ou comparável aos modelos de risco anteriores propostos para melanoma cutâneo. Abstract in english BACKGROUND: Important risk factors for cutaneous melanoma (CM) are recognized, but standardized scores for individual assessment must still be developed. OBJECTIVES: The objective of this study was to develop [...] a risk score of CM for a Brazilian sample. METHODS: To verify the estimates of the main risk factors for melanoma, derived from a meta-analysis (Italian-based study), and externally validate them in a population in southern Brazil by means of a case-control study. A total of 117 individuals were evaluated. Different models were constructed combining the summary coefficients of different risk factors, derived from the meta-analysis, multiplied by the corresponding category of each variable for each participant according to a mathematical expression. RESULTS: the variable that best predicted the risk of CM in the studied population was hair color (AUC: 0.71; 95% CI: 0.62-0.79). Other important factors were freckles, sunburn episodes, and skin and eye color. Consideration of other variables such as common nevi, elastosis, family history, and premalignant lesions did not improve the predictive ability of the models. CONCLUSION: The discriminating capacity of the proposed model proved to be superior or comparable to that of previous risk models proposed for CM.

  19. Physical activity assessed with three different methods and the Framingham Risk Score on 10-year coronary heart disease risk

    Science.gov (United States)

    Physical activity (PA) protects against coronary heart disease (CHD) by favorably altering several CHD risk factors. In order to best understand the true nature of the relationship between PA and CHD, the impact different PA assessment methods have on the relationships must first be clarified. The p...

  20. Modified Mediterranean Diet Score and Cardiovascular Risk in a North American Working Population

    OpenAIRE

    Yang, Justin; Farioli, Andrea; Korre, Maria; Kales, Stefanos N.

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: Greater adherence to a Mediterranean diet is linked to lower risk for cardiovascular morbidity/mortality in studies of Mediterranean cohorts, older subjects, and/or those with existing health conditions. No studies have examined the effects of this dietary pattern in younger working populations in the United States. We investigated the effects of Mediterranean diet adherence on cardiovascular disease (CVD) biomarkers, metabolic syndrome and body composition in an occupationally ...

  1. Ventricular remodeling and infarct expansion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zardini, P; Marino, P; Golia, G; Anselmi, M; Castelli, M

    1993-12-16

    Infarct expansion, defined as an alteration in the ventricular topography due to thinning and lengthening of the infarcted segment, develops within the first few hours of the acute symptoms, mostly in patients with a large, transmural, anterior myocardial infarction. Shape changes, peculiar to risk region location and due to disparity in regional ventricular architecture, could be posited as the first step in the process of infarct expansion, with various cellular mechanisms contributing to subsequent continued early and late ventricular dilation. Because the increase in left ventricular volume is expected to be linearly dependent on the extent of the infarction, limiting infarct size, by thrombolysis, would proportionally reduce enlargement of the cavity. The effect of thrombolysis on left ventricular volume, however, seems not to be completely accounted for by the lessening effect of reperfusion on infarct size, because data suggest a restraining effect of reperfusion on the process of ventricular dilation in addition to the lessening effect on infarct size. If this turns out to be true, then the achievement of a patent vessel even beyond the time period when that patency may be expected to salvage myocardium would be further justified. Theoretical predictions substantiate the potential effectiveness in restraining ventricular dilation of stiffening of the necrotic region alone, independently of myocardial salvage in infarcted patients. The process of progressive ventricular dilation involves not only a primary alteration in function of the infarcted region, but also a time-dependent secondary change in the noninfarcted tissue itself, finalized to restore stroke volume despite a persistently depressed ejection fraction.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:8279368

  2. Total Anterior Circulation Infarct’ to Assess Gender Differences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yusuf ?NANÇ

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Objective: We evaluated the risk factors, demographic, clinical and etiological characteristics of patients with total anterior circulation infarct (TACI. In this study, we aimed to elucidate the impact of gender-based differences on these parameters.Methods: A total of 74 patients with TACI were enrolled in the study. 38 (51.3% patients were female and 36 (48.6% were male. We compared the age, previous stroke, prestroke modified Rankin Scale (mRS scores, National Health Interview Survey (NIHSS scores according to The National Institute of Health Stroke scale, Glasgow coma score (GCS and mRS at the time of admission, risk factors, etiological subtypes of stroke, topography of infarcts, the rate of neurologic and systemic complications, length of hospital stay, the rate of death, and the causes of mortality between genders.Results: The frequency of recurrent stroke, the frequency of diabetes mellitus and systemic complications were significantly more common in females. Female patients had also higher median length of hospital stay than men.Conclusion: The result of the present study indicated that female gender has a negative effect on clinical outcome of TACI. (Archives of Neuropsychiatry 2013; 50: 135-140

  3. Association between Framingham risk score and subclinical atherosclerosis among elderly with both type 2 diabetes mellitus and healthy subjects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amer, Moatassem S; Khater, Mohamed S; Omar, Omar H; Mabrouk, Randa A; Mostafa, Shimaa A

    2014-01-01

    Framingham risk score (FRS) is a widely used tool to identify asymptomatic individuals who are at risk to cardiovascular disease. We aimed to investigate the association between subclinical atherosclerosis and FRS among elderly with both type 2 diabetes mellitus and healthy participants. Methods: As case-control study was done on 58 men and women, who had type 2 diabetes mellitus, and in 59 age and gender matched control participants. They were selected from a geriatric outpatient clinic at Ain Shams University Hospital, Cairo, Egypt. The carotid intima-media thickness (cIMT), clinical variables, plasma lipid profile, high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hs-CRP) were measured for each participants. Results: Diabetic patients had higher FRS, body mass index (BMI), fasting glucose, total cholesterol level, and LDL levels than control subjects. Mean cIMT values were higher in diabetic than healthy subjects. After multivariate regression analysis, FRS was independently associated with carotid IMT in type 2 diabetes patients after adjustment for other risk factors. However triglycerides and BMI were independently associated with cIMT among the control group. Conclusion: FRS is likely to be more informative about the atherosclerotic state in diabetics but not in the healthy elderly. PMID:24551481

  4. Genetic Risk Scores Associated with Baseline Lipoprotein Subfraction Concentrations Do Not Associate with Their Responses to Fenofibrate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexis C. Frazier-Wood

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Lipoprotein subclass concentrations are modifiable markers of cardiovascular disease risk. Fenofibrate is known to show beneficial effects on lipoprotein subclasses, but little is known about the role of genetics in mediating the responses of lipoprotein subclasses to fenofibrate. A recent genomewide association study (GWAS associated several single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs with lipoprotein measures, and validated these associations in two independent populations. We used this information to construct genetic risk scores (GRSs for fasting lipoprotein measures at baseline (pre-fenofibrate, and aimed to examine whether these GRSs also associated with the responses of lipoproteins to fenofibrate. Fourteen lipoprotein subclass measures were assayed in 817 men and women before and after a three week fenofibrate trial. We set significance at a Bonferroni corrected alpha <0.05 (p < 0.004. Twelve subclass measures changed with fenofibrate administration (each p = 0.003 to <0.0001. Mixed linear models which controlled for age, sex, body mass index (BMI, smoking status, pedigree and study-center, revealed that GRSs were associated with eight baseline lipoprotein measures (p < 0.004, however no GRS was associated with fenofibrate response. These results suggest that the mechanisms for changes in lipoprotein subclass concentrations with fenofibrate treatment are not mediated by the genetic risk for fasting levels.

  5. Psychosocial work environment and myocardial infarction: improving risk estimation by combining two complementary job stress models in the SHEEP Study

    OpenAIRE

    Peter, R.; Siegrist, J.; Hallqvist, J.; Reuterwall, C.; Theorell, T.

    2002-01-01

    Objectives: Associations between two alternative formulations of job stress derived from the effort-reward imbalance and the job strain model and first non-fatal acute myocardial infarction were studied. Whereas the job strain model concentrates on situational (extrinsic) characteristics the effort-reward imbalance model analyses distinct person (intrinsic) characteristics in addition to situational ones. In view of these conceptual differences the hypothesis was tested that combining informa...

  6. Prevalence of diabetes mellitus and the performance of a risk score among Hindustani Surinamese, African Surinamese and ethnic Dutch: a cross-sectional population-based study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michels Bob PJ

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background While the prevalence of type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM is high, tailored risk scores for screening among South Asian and African origin populations are lacking. The aim of this study was, first, to compare the prevalence of (known and newly detected DM among Hindustani Surinamese, African Surinamese and ethnic Dutch (Dutch. Second, to develop a new risk score for DM. Third, to evaluate the performance of the risk score and to compare it to criteria derived from current guidelines. Methods We conducted a cross-sectional population based study among 336 Hindustani Surinamese, 593 African Surinamese and 486 Dutch, aged 35–60 years, in Amsterdam. Logistic regressing analyses were used to derive a risk score based on non-invasively determined characteristics. The diagnostic accuracy was assessed by the area under the Receiver-Operator Characteristic curve (AUC. Results Hindustani Surinamese had the highest prevalence of DM, followed by African Surinamese and Dutch: 16.7, 8.1, 4.2% (age 35–44 and 35.0, 19.0, 8.2% (age 45–60, respectively. The risk score included ethnicity, body mass index, waist circumference, resting heart rate, first-degree relative with DM, hypertension and history of cardiovascular disease. Selection based on age alone showed the lowest AUC: between 0.57–0.62. The AUC of our score (0.74–0.80 was higher than that of criteria from guidelines based solely on age and BMI and as high as criteria that required invasive specimen collection. Conclusion In Hindustani Surinamese and African Surinamese populations, screening for DM should not be limited to those over 45 years, as is advocated in several guidelines. If selective screening is indicated, our ethnicity based risk score performs well as a screening test for DM among these groups, particularly compared to the criteria based on age and/or body mass index derived from current guidelines.

  7. Can primary prevention or selective screening for melanoma be more precisely targeted through general practice? A prospective study to validate a self administered risk score.

    OpenAIRE

    Jackson, A.; Wilkinson, C.; Ranger, M.; Pill, R.; August, P.

    1998-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To establish whether a questionnaire incorporating MacKie's risk factor flow chart can identify patients at high risk for melanoma so that they can be targeted for primary and secondary prevention. To validate the risk score derived from the questionnaire and test the feasibility of self completion by comparing patients' self reported skin characteristics with a skin examination performed by an experienced general practitioner. DESIGN: Prospective questionnaire survey followed by ...

  8. Factores de riesgo para la ocurrencia de infarto agudo del miocardio en pacientes fumadores / Risk factors for occurrence of acute myocardial infarction in smokers patients

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    José Antonio, González Pompa; José Manuel, González Pérez.

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available SciELO Public Health | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish Introducción: las enfermedades cardiovasculares son la principal causa de muerte en diferentes países. Objetivo: evaluar el efecto de factores de riesgo en la ocurrencia del infarto agudo del miocardio en pacientes fumadores, en una población venezolana. Métodos: se realizó un estudio de casos y tes [...] tigos, la muestra se seleccionó de forma aleatoria y estuvo integrada por 70 casos y 70 testigos. Se estudiaron factores sociodemográficos y premórbidos y hábitos tóxicos. El análisis estádístico se basó en una estrategia univariada con la determinación del odd ratio para cada uno de los factores de riesgo hipotéticamente influyente y sus intervalos de confianza para el 95 %, finalmente, un estudio multivariado para determinar el valor independiente de cada uno de los factores de riesgos. Resultados: según el análisis univariado, todos los factores constituyeron riesgo para la aparición de la enfermedad. En el análisis multivariado, se encontró que la hipercolesterolemia elevó en 4,2 veces el riesgo de ocurrencia del infarto del miocardio (OR 4,20; IC 1,18-14,97) en la población de fumadores, seguido del tiempo de evolución del hábito de fumar (OR 3,60; IC 1,468,91) y del consumo de cigarrillos (OR 2,32; IC 1,02- 4,95). Conclusiones: la hipercolesterolemia tiene un efecto mayor sobre la posible ocurrencia de tener un infarto del miocardio que el del resto de los factores de riesgo estudiados en pacientes fumadores, de ahí que es el factor de mayor peso e importancia. Abstract in english Introduction: cardiovascular diseases are the main causes of death in many countries. Objective: to evaluate the occurrence of acute myocardial infarction in smoking patients in a Venezuelan population section. Methods: a case-control study was carried out with a randomly selected sample of 70 cases [...] and 70 controls. Sociodemographic and premorbid factors as well as toxic habits were studied. The statistical analysis was based on univariate strategy with odd ratios estimated for every hypothetically influential risk factor and their confidence intervals of 95 %. Finally, a multivariate study determined the independent value of each risk factor. Results: in the univariate analysis, all factors represented a risk for the onset of acute myocardial infarction. Hypercholesterolemia was the main risk factor in the multivariate analysis, since it increased the risk of myocardial infarction by 4.2 times (OR 4.20 CI 1.18- 14.97), followed by the length of the smoking habit (OR 3.60 CI 1.46 8.91) and the quantity of cigarettes smoked daily (OR 2.32; IC 1.02 4.95). Conclusions: hypercholesterolemia has greater effect on possible occurrence of myocardial infarction than the rest of risk factors studied in smoking patients; therefore it is the most significant factor.

  9. Factores de riesgo para la ocurrencia de infarto agudo del miocardio en pacientes fumadores / Risk factors for occurrence of acute myocardial infarction in smokers patients

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    José Antonio, González Pompa; José Manuel, González Pérez.

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available SciELO Cuba | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish Introducción: las enfermedades cardiovasculares son la principal causa de muerte en diferentes países. Objetivo: evaluar el efecto de factores de riesgo en la ocurrencia del infarto agudo del miocardio en pacientes fumadores, en una población venezolana. Métodos: se realizó un estudio de casos y tes [...] tigos, la muestra se seleccionó de forma aleatoria y estuvo integrada por 70 casos y 70 testigos. Se estudiaron factores sociodemográficos y premórbidos y hábitos tóxicos. El análisis estádístico se basó en una estrategia univariada con la determinación del odd ratio para cada uno de los factores de riesgo hipotéticamente influyente y sus intervalos de confianza para el 95 %, finalmente, un estudio multivariado para determinar el valor independiente de cada uno de los factores de riesgos. Resultados: según el análisis univariado, todos los factores constituyeron riesgo para la aparición de la enfermedad. En el análisis multivariado, se encontró que la hipercolesterolemia elevó en 4,2 veces el riesgo de ocurrencia del infarto del miocardio (OR 4,20; IC 1,18-14,97) en la población de fumadores, seguido del tiempo de evolución del hábito de fumar (OR 3,60; IC 1,468,91) y del consumo de cigarrillos (OR 2,32; IC 1,02- 4,95). Conclusiones: la hipercolesterolemia tiene un efecto mayor sobre la posible ocurrencia de tener un infarto del miocardio que el del resto de los factores de riesgo estudiados en pacientes fumadores, de ahí que es el factor de mayor peso e importancia. Abstract in english Introduction: cardiovascular diseases are the main causes of death in many countries. Objective: to evaluate the occurrence of acute myocardial infarction in smoking patients in a Venezuelan population section. Methods: a case-control study was carried out with a randomly selected sample of 70 cases [...] and 70 controls. Sociodemographic and premorbid factors as well as toxic habits were studied. The statistical analysis was based on univariate strategy with odd ratios estimated for every hypothetically influential risk factor and their confidence intervals of 95 %. Finally, a multivariate study determined the independent value of each risk factor. Results: in the univariate analysis, all factors represented a risk for the onset of acute myocardial infarction. Hypercholesterolemia was the main risk factor in the multivariate analysis, since it increased the risk of myocardial infarction by 4.2 times (OR 4.20 CI 1.18- 14.97), followed by the length of the smoking habit (OR 3.60 CI 1.46 8.91) and the quantity of cigarettes smoked daily (OR 2.32; IC 1.02 4.95). Conclusions: hypercholesterolemia has greater effect on possible occurrence of myocardial infarction than the rest of risk factors studied in smoking patients; therefore it is the most significant factor.

  10. Evaluating pediatric risk of mortality (PRISM) score in a pediatric critical setting: A prospective observational study in Children’s Medical Center

    OpenAIRE

    Kadivar M; Nourbakhsh S; Nouri K; Samadi Khameneh P "

    2001-01-01

    The pediatric risk of mortality (PRISM) score is a measure of illness severity based on abnormalities observed on bedside examination and laboratory assessment at pediatric Intensive care Unit (PICU) admission to predict mortality probability. Our study was performed on 205 patients who were admitted to PICU of children’s Medical center (CMC) over a period of 6 months.Data were recorded prospectively from observations at the time of admission in PICU and PRISM score was measured at admissio...

  11. Factores de riesgo coronarios asociados al infarto agudo del miocardio en el adulto mayor / Coronary risk factors associated with the acute myocardial infarction in the elderly

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Julia Tamara, Alvarez Cortés; Vivian, Bello Hernández; Gipsy de los Ángeles, Pérez Hechavarría; Orlando, Antomarchi Duany; María Emilia, Bolívar Carrión.

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available SciELO Cuba | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish Se realizó un estudio observacional, analítico y retrospectivo, de tipo caso-control, de los adultos mayores con infarto agudo del miocardio, pertenecientes al área de salud Municipal de Santiago de Cuba, desde enero de 2006 hasta diciembre de 2011, a fin de identificar los factores de riesgo corona [...] rios asociados al mismo. Se seleccionaron 33 casos y 2 controles por cada uno de ellos. Se calcularon el riesgo relativo a través de la razón de productos cruzados y el riesgo atribuible en expuestos porcentual como medida de impacto. El sedentarismo y la hipertensión arterial tuvieron una acentuada relación significativa de causalidad con el infarto agudo del miocardio y de forma moderada con el tabaquismo, no así los antecedentes familiares ni personales de cardiopatía isquémica, sexo, obesidad y diabetes mellitus. Abstract in english An observational, analytic and retrospective study of case-control type, of aged patients with acute myocardial infarction, belonging to the health Municipal area of Santiago de Cuba was carried out from January, 2006 to December, 2011, in order to identify the coronary risk factors associated with [...] it. Thirty three cases and two controls for each were selected. The relative risk through the odds ratio and the attributable risk in percentage exposed as impact measure were calculated. Sedentarism and hypertension had a considerable significant causative relationship with acute myocardial infarction and in a moderate way with smoking habit. Family or personal history of ischemic cardiopathy, sex, obesity or diabetes mellitus had no relation with it.

  12. Sex differences in the risk profile and male predominance in silent brain infarction in community-dwelling elderly subjects. The Sefuri brain MRI study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Although brain infarction is more common in men, the male predominance of silent brain infarction (SBI) was inconsistent in the earlier studies. This study was to examine the relationship between sex differences in the risk profile and SBI. We conducted a population-based, cross-sectional analysis of cardiovascular risk factors and SBI on MRI. We asked all the female participants about the age at natural menopause and parity. SBI was detected in 77 (11.3%) of 680 participants (266 men and 414 women) with a mean age of 64.5 (range 40-93) years. In the logistic analysis, age (odds ratio (OR)=2.760/10 years, 95% confidence interval (CI)=2.037-3.738), hypertension (OR=3.465, 95% CI=1.991-6.031), alcohol intake (OR=2.494, 95% CI=1.392-4.466) and smoking (OR=2.302, 95% CI=1.161-4.565) were significant factors concerning SBI. Although SBI was more prevalent among men, this sex difference disappeared on the multivariate model after adjustment for other confounders. In 215 women aged 60 years or older, age at natural menopause, early menopause, duration of menopause, number of children and age at the last parity were not significantly associated with SBI after adjustment for age. Hypertension and age were considered to be the major risk factors for SBI in community-dwelling people. Male predominance in SBI was largely due to higher prevalence of alcohol habit and smoking in men than in women in our population. (author)

  13. The effect of bisoprolol on perioperative mortality and myocardial infarction in high-risk patients undergoing vascular surgery. Dutch Echocardiographic Cardiac Risk Evaluation Applying Stress Echocardiography Study Group

    OpenAIRE

    Poldermans, D.; Vigna, C.; Urk, H.; Bax, J. J.; Thomson, I. R.; Ven, L. L. M.; Blankensteijn, J. D.; Baars, H. F.; Yo, T. I.; Trocino, G.; Roelandt, J. R. T. C.; Boersma, H.

    1999-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Cardiovascular complications are the most important causes of perioperative morbidity and mortality among patients undergoing major vascular surgery. METHODS: We performed a randomized, multicenter trial to assess the effect of perioperative blockade of beta-adrenergic receptors on the incidence of death from cardiac causes and nonfatal myocardial infarction within 30 days after major vascular surgery in patients at ...

  14. Smoking, alcohol consumption, physical activity, and family history and the risks of acute myocardial infarction and unstable angina pectoris: a prospective cohort study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gorgels Anton PM

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Few studies investigated the association between smoking, alcohol consumption, or physical activity and the risk of unstable angina pectoris (UAP, while the strength of these associations may differ compared to other coronary diseases such as acute myocardial infarction (AMI. Therefore, we investigated whether the associations of these lifestyle factors with UAP differed from those with AMI. Additionally, we investigated whether these effects differed between subjects with and without a family history of myocardial infarction (MI. Methods The CAREMA study consists of 21,148 persons, aged 20-59 years at baseline and randomly sampled from the Maastricht region in 1987-1997. At baseline, all participants completed a self-administered questionnaire. After follow-up of maximally 16.9 years, 420 AMI and 274 UAP incident cases were registered. Incidence rate ratios (RRs were estimated using Cox proportional hazards models. Results For both diseases, smoking increased the risk while alcohol consumption was associated with a protective effect. Associations with both risk factors were stronger for AMI than UAP, although this difference was only statistically significant for smoking. In men, an inverse association was found with physical activity during leisure time which seemed to be stronger for the risk of UAP than of AMI. On the contrary, physical activity during leisure time was associated with an increased risk of both AMI and UAP in women which seemed to be weaker for UAP than for AMI. Except for occupational physical activity in women, no significant interactions on a multiplicative scale were found between the lifestyle factors and family history of MI. Nevertheless, the highest risks were found in subjects with both a positive family history and the most unfavorable level of the lifestyle factors. Conclusions The strength of the associations with the lifestyle factors did not differ between AMI and UAP, except for smoking. Furthermore, the effects of the lifestyle factors on the risk of both coronary diseases were similar for subjects with and without a positive family history.

  15. Algorithmic scoring models

    OpenAIRE

    Nurlybayeva, K.; Balakayeva, G.

    2013-01-01

    This article is devoted to the analysis of different credit scoring modeling techniques which can be used for the large datasets processing. Credit scoring is a basis of the banking system. There are lots if information gathered in the banks’ databases which should be used in the scoring. This article describes the basic methods and technologies of scoring models development for the risk management of the banking system.

  16. Algorithmic scoring models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Nurlybayeva

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This article is devoted to the analysis of different credit scoring modeling techniques which can be used for the large datasets processing. Credit scoring is a basis of the banking system. There are lots if information gathered in the banks’ databases which should be used in the scoring. This article describes the basic methods and technologies of scoring models development for the risk management of the banking system.

  17. Does the routine use of global coronary heart disease risk scores translate into clinical benefits or harms? A systematic review of the literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Crespo Eric

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Guidelines now recommend routine assessment of global coronary heart disease (CHD risk scores. We performed a systematic review to assess whether global CHD risk scores result in clinical benefits or harms. Methods We searched MEDLINE (1966 through June 13, 2007 for articles relevant to our review. Using predefined inclusion and exclusion criteria, we included studies of any design that provided physicians with global risk scores or allowed them to calculate scores themselves, and then measured clinical benefits and/or harms. Two reviewers reviewed potentially relevant studies for inclusion and resolved disagreement by consensus. Data from each article was then abstracted into an evidence table by one reviewer and the quality of evidence was assessed independently by two reviewers. Results 11 studies met criteria for inclusion in our review. Six studies addressed clinical benefits and 5 addressed clinical harms. Six studies were rated as "fair" quality and the others were deemed "methodologically limited". Two fair quality studies showed that physician knowledge of global CHD risk is associated with increased prescription of cardiovascular drugs in high risk (but not all patients. Two additional fair quality studies showed no effect on their primary outcomes, but one was underpowered and the other focused on prescribing of lifestyle changes, rather than drugs whose prescribing might be expected to be targeted by risk level. One of these aforementioned studies showed improved blood pressure in high-risk patients, but no improvement in the proportion of patients at high risk, perhaps due to the high proportion of participants with baseline risks significantly exceeding the risk threshold. Two fair quality studies found no evidence of harm from patient knowledge of global risk scores when they were accompanied by counseling, and optional or scheduled follow-up. Other studies were too methodologically limited to draw conclusions. Conclusion Our review provides preliminary evidence that physicians' knowledge of global CHD risk scores may translate into modestly increased prescribing of cardiovascular drugs and modest short-term reductions in CHD risk factors without clinical harm. Whether these results are replicable, and translate across other practice settings or into improved long-term CHD outcomes remains to be seen.

  18. Validação de um novo escore de risco cirúrgico para cirurgia valvar: VMCP / Validation of a new surgical risk score for heart valve surgery: VMCP / Validación de un nuevo score de riesgo quirúrgico para cirugía valvular: VMCP

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Max, Grinberg; Vívian Masutti, Jonke; Roney Orismar, Sampaio; Guilherme Sobreira, Spina; Flavio, Tarasoutchi.

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Languages: English, Portuguese, Spanish Abstract in portuguese FUNDAMENTO: Alguns estudos desenvolveram escores para avaliar o risco cirúrgico, particularmente o EuroSCORE que, entretanto, é complexo e trabalhoso. Sugerimos um escore novo e simples, mais adequado para a prática clínica e para a avaliação de risco cirúrgico em pacientes valvopatas. OBJETIVO: Est [...] e estudo foi realizado para criar e validar um escore simples e prático para predizer mortalidade e morbidade em cirurgia valvar. MÉTODOS: Coletamos dados hospitalares de 764 pacientes e realizamos a validação do escore, utilizando dois modelos estatísticos: óbito (= mortalidade) e tempo de internação hospitalar (TIH) > 10 dias (= morbidade). O escore foi composto de quatro índices (V [lesão valvar], M [função miocárdica], C [doença arterial coronariana] e P [pressão da artéria pulmonar]). Estabelecemos um valor de corte para o escore, e foram utilizadas análises uni e multivariada para confirmar se o escore seria capaz de predizer mortalidade e morbidade. Também estudamos se havia associação com outros fatores de risco. RESULTADOS: O escore foi validado, com boa consistência interna (0,65), e o melhor valor de corte para mortalidade e morbidade foi 8. O escore com valor > 8 pode predizer TIH > 10 dias (odds ratio (OR) = 1,7 p=0,006), e um maior risco de óbito ao menos na análise univariada (p=0,049). Entretanto, o risco de óbito não foi previsível na análise multivariada (p=0,258). CONCLUSÃO: O escore VMCP > 8 pode predizer TIH > 10 dias e pode ser usado como uma nova ferramenta para o seguimento de pacientes portadores de valvopatia submetidos a cirurgia. Abstract in spanish FUNDAMENTO: Algunos estudos desarrollaron scores para evaluar el riesgo quirúrgico, particularmente el EuroSCORE que, sin embargo, es complejo y de difícil aplicación. Sugerimos una puntuación nueva y sencilla, más adecuada para la práctica clínica y para la evaluación de riesgo quirúrgico en pacien [...] tes con valvulopatías. OBJETIVO: Se realizó este estudio con el objetivo de crear y validar un score sencillo y práctico para predecir mortalidad y morbilidad en cirugía valvular. MÉTODOS: Recoleccionamos datos hospitalarios de 764 pacientes y realizamos la validación del score, con la utilización de dos modelos estadísticos: óbito (= mortalidad) y tiempo de internación hospitalaria (TIH) > 10 días (= morbilidad). El score estaba conpuesto por cuatro índicadores (V [lesión valvular], M [función miocárdica], C [enfermedad arterial coronaria] y P [presión de la arteria pulmonar]). Establecemos un valor de corte para el score, y utilizamos el análisis uni y multivariado para confirmar si la puntuación sería capaz de predecir mortalidad y morbilidad. También investigamos si había asociación con otros factores de riesgo. RESULTADOS: Se validó el score, con satisfactoria consistencia interna (0,65). El mejor valor de corte para mortalidad y morbilidad fue 8. El score con valor > 8 es adecuado para predecir tanto el TIH > 10 días (odds ratio (OR) = 1,7 p=0,006), como un mayor riesgo de óbito, por lo menos en el análisis univariado (p=0,049). No obstante, el riesgo de óbito no se mostró previsible en el análisis multivariado (p=0,258). CONCLUSIÓN: El score VMCP > 8 es adecuado para predecir TIH > 10 días, y se puede utilizarlo como una nueva herramienta para el seguimiento de pacientes portadores de valvulopatía sometidos a cirugía. Abstract in english BACKGROUND: Some studies have developed scores for the assessment of surgical risk, particularly the EuroSCORE, which, however, is complex and difficult to apply. We suggest a new and simpler score, which is more appropriate for the clinical practice and for the assessment of surgical risk in patien [...] ts with heart valve diseases. OBJECTIVE: This study was conducted to create and validate a simple and practical score to predict mortality and morbidity related to heart valve surgery. METHODS: Hospital data from 764 patients were c

  19. Factores de riesgo de test de Apgar bajo en recién nacidos Risk factors for low Apgar score in newborns

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    HUGO SALVO F

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available La asfixia neonatal es una causa importante de mortalidad y secuelas neurológicas. El objetivo de nuestro estudio es identificar los factores de riesgo maternos, perinatales y neonatales asociado a un Puntaje de Apgar (PA bajo. Pacientes y Método: Se analizan los datos de 57 241 recién nacidos (RN, entre los años 1997 y 2004; los antecedentes fueron ingresados en forma prospectiva a una base de datos computacional. Se realizó un análisis multivariado con un modelo de regresión logística para identificar los factores de riesgo. Resultados: 1 167 presentaron un PA £ 3 al minuto (2,1% y 291 presentaron además un puntaje £ 5 a los 5 minutos (0,5%. Los factores de riesgo de PA bajo estadísticamente significativos fueron: RN de muy bajo peso, malformaciones congénitas mayores, RN pequeño para la edad gestacional, RN pretérmino, embarazo de 42 semanas, expulsivo prolongado, fórceps, desprendimiento placentario y líquido amniótico con meconio. Conclusiones: En este trabajo se identifican los factores de riesgo de PA bajo en nuestra población, los cuales deben ser considerados para una adecuado manejo perinatalBackground: Neonatal asphyxia is an important cause of mortality and neurological sequelaes. Objective: Identify maternal, perinatal and neonatal risk factors associated with low Apgar Score (AS. Method: A multivariate analysis using logistic regression model was performed to identify risk factors in a population of 57.241 infants, born between 1997 - 2004, whose information was recollect prospectively in a computer data base. Results: 1.167 newborns had a 1-minute AS £ 3 (2,06% and 291 presented a 5-minute AS £ 5 (0,51%. The low AS predictors, according to multivariate analysis, were: very low birth weight, prematurity, congenital malformations, low gestational age, placental abruption, 42 - weeks pregnancy, meconium stained amniotic fluid and forceps. Conclusions: Risk factors of low AS are identified in our population, essential for an adequate perinatal care

  20. Risk prediction models for biochemical recurrence after radical prostatectomy using prostate-specific antigen and Gleason score

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xin-Hai Hu

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Many computer models for predicting the risk of prostate cancer have been developed including for prediction of biochemical recurrence (BCR. However, models for individual BCR free probability at individual time-points after a BCR free period are rare. Follow-up data from 1656 patients who underwent laparoscopic radical prostatectomy (LRP were used to develop an artificial neural network (ANN to predict BCR and to compare it with a logistic regression (LR model using clinical and pathologic parameters, prostate-specific antigen (PSA, margin status (R0/1, pathological stage (pT, and Gleason Score (GS. For individual BCR prediction at any given time after operation, additional ANN, and LR models were calculated every 6 months for up to 7.5 years of follow-up. The areas under the receiver operating characteristic (ROC curve (AUC for the ANN (0.754 and LR models (0.755 calculated immediately following LRP, were larger than that for GS (AUC: 0.715; P = 0.0015 and 0.001, pT or PSA (AUC: 0.619; P always <0.0001 alone. The GS predicted the BCR better than PSA (P = 0.0001, but there was no difference between the ANN and LR models (P = 0.39. Our ANN and LR models predicted individual BCR risk from radical prostatectomy for up to 10 years postoperative. ANN and LR models equally and significantly improved the prediction of BCR compared with PSA and GS alone. When the GS and ANN output values are combined, a more accurate BCR prediction is possible, especially in high-risk patients with GS ?7.

  1. Factores de riesgo de test de Apgar bajo en recién nacidos / Risk factors for low Apgar score in newborns

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    HUGO, SALVO F; JORGE, FLORES A; JAIME, ALARCÓN R; RAÚL, NACHAR H; AXEL, PAREDES V.

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available La asfixia neonatal es una causa importante de mortalidad y secuelas neurológicas. El objetivo de nuestro estudio es identificar los factores de riesgo maternos, perinatales y neonatales asociado a un Puntaje de Apgar (PA) bajo. Pacientes y Método: Se analizan los datos de 57 241 recién nacidos (RN) [...] , entre los años 1997 y 2004; los antecedentes fueron ingresados en forma prospectiva a una base de datos computacional. Se realizó un análisis multivariado con un modelo de regresión logística para identificar los factores de riesgo. Resultados: 1 167 presentaron un PA £ 3 al minuto (2,1%) y 291 presentaron además un puntaje £ 5 a los 5 minutos (0,5%). Los factores de riesgo de PA bajo estadísticamente significativos fueron: RN de muy bajo peso, malformaciones congénitas mayores, RN pequeño para la edad gestacional, RN pretérmino, embarazo de 42 semanas, expulsivo prolongado, fórceps, desprendimiento placentario y líquido amniótico con meconio. Conclusiones: En este trabajo se identifican los factores de riesgo de PA bajo en nuestra población, los cuales deben ser considerados para una adecuado manejo perinatal Abstract in english Background: Neonatal asphyxia is an important cause of mortality and neurological sequelaes. Objective: Identify maternal, perinatal and neonatal risk factors associated with low Apgar Score (AS). Method: A multivariate analysis using logistic regression model was performed to identify risk factors [...] in a population of 57.241 infants, born between 1997 - 2004, whose information was recollect prospectively in a computer data base. Results: 1.167 newborns had a 1-minute AS £ 3 (2,06%) and 291 presented a 5-minute AS £ 5 (0,51%). The low AS predictors, according to multivariate analysis, were: very low birth weight, prematurity, congenital malformations, low gestational age, placental abruption, 42 - weeks pregnancy, meconium stained amniotic fluid and forceps. Conclusions: Risk factors of low AS are identified in our population, essential for an adequate perinatal care

  2. Center for International Blood and Marrow Transplant Research Chronic Graft-versus-Host Disease Risk Score Predicts Mortality in an Independent Validation Cohort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arora, Mukta; Hemmer, Michael T; Ahn, Kwang Woo; Klein, John P; Cutler, Corey S; Urbano-Ispizua, Alvaro; Couriel, Daniel R; Alousi, Amin M; Gale, Robert Peter; Inamoto, Yoshihiro; Weisdorf, Daniel J; Li, Peigang; Antin, Joseph H; Bolwell, Brian J; Boyiadzis, Michael; Cahn, Jean-Yves; Cairo, Mitchell S; Isola, Luis M; Jacobsohn, David A; Jagasia, Madan; Klumpp, Thomas R; Petersdorf, Effie W; Santarone, Stella; Schouten, Harry C; Wingard, John R; Spellman, Stephen R; Pavletic, Steven Z; Lee, Stephanie J; Horowitz, Mary M; Flowers, Mary E D

    2015-04-01

    We previously reported a risk score that predicted mortality in patients with chronic graft-versus-host disease (CGVHD) after hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HCT) between 1995 and 2004 and reported to the Center for International Blood and Marrow Transplant Research (CIBMTR). We sought to validate this risk score in an independent CIBMTR cohort of 1128 patients with CGVHD who underwent transplantation between 2005 and 2007 using the same inclusion criteria and risk score calculations. According to the sum of the overall risk score (range, 1 to 12), patients were assigned to 4 risk groups (RGs): RG1 (0 to 2), RG2 (3 to 6), RG3 (7 to 8), and RG4 (9 to 10). RG3 and RG4 were combined, as RG4 accounted for only 1% of the total cohort. Cumulative incidences of nonrelapse mortality (NRM) and probability of overall survival were significantly different between each RG (all P < .01). NRM and overall survival at 5 years after CGVHD for each RG were 17% and 72% in RG1, 26% and 53% in RG2, and 44% and 25% in RG3, respectively (all P < .01). Our study validates the prognostic value of the CIBMTR CGVHD RGs for overall survival and NRM in a contemporary transplantation population. The CIBMTR CGVHD RGs can be used to predict major outcomes, tailor treatment planning, and enroll patients in clinical trials. PMID:25528390

  3. Usefulness of combining serum uric acid and C-reactive protein for risk stratification of patients with coronary artery disease (Bezafibrate Infarction Prevention [BIP] study).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brodov, Yafim; Behar, Shlomo; Goldenberg, Ilan; Boyko, Valentina; Chouraqui, Pierre

    2009-07-15

    Combined assessment of serum uric acid (UA) and C-reactive protein (CRP) compared with single-marker evaluation in patients with coronary artery disease (CAD) was performed. CRP is an independent predictor of cardiac events in patients with or without CAD. Data regarding the prognostic value of UA in patients with CAD are conflicting. The primary end point (fatal or nonfatal myocardial infarction or sudden cardiac death) was related to levels of UA and CRP in 2,966 patients with CAD enrolled in the Bezafibrate Infarction Prevention trial who were followed for a mean period of 6.2 years. Primary end-point rates were directly related to increasing tertiles (from tertile 1 [T1] to tertile 3 [T3]) of UA (12.7%, 12.8%, and 17.6% respectively, p for trend 6.25 mg/dl) and T3 CRP (>5.37 mg/dl) were shown to be independently associated with a significant increase in risk for the primary end point (hazard ratio 1.30, 1.01 to 1.68, p = 0.04; hazard ratio 1.31, 1.02 to 1.69, p = 0.03, respectively). Primary end-point rates were similarly high in those patients with a combination of T3 UA and T1 CRP levels (hazard ratio 1.68, 1.05 to 2.66) or a combination of T3 CRP and T1 serum UA levels (hazard ratio 1.64, 1.04 to 2.58) or in patients with T3 of the 2 markers (hazard ratio 1.66, 1.07 to 2.59). In conclusion, combined assessment of UA and CRP levels provides incremental information for risk stratification of patients with CAD with low levels of a single marker. PMID:19576345

  4. Incidence and risk factors of ventricular fibrillation before primary angioplasty in patients with first ST-elevation myocardial infarction : a nationwide study in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jabbari, Reza; EngstrØm, Thomas

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: We aimed to investigate the incidence and risk factors for ventricular fibrillation (VF) before primary percutaneous coronary intervention (PPCI) among patients with ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) in a prospective nationwide setting. METHODS AND RESULTS: In this case-control study, patients presenting within the first 12 hours of first STEMI who survived to undergo angiography and subsequent PPCI were enrolled. Over 2 years, 219 cases presenting with VF before PPCI and 441 controls without preceding VF were enrolled. Of the 219 case patients, 182 (83%) had STEMI with out-of-hospital cardiac arrest due to VF, and 37 (17%) had cardiac arrest upon arrival to the emergency room. Medical history was collected by standardized interviews and by linkage to national electronic health records. The incidence of VF before PPCI among STEMI patients was 11.6%. Multivariable logistic regression analysis identified novel associations between atrial fibrillation and alcohol consumption with VF. Patients with a history of atrial fibrillation had a 2.80-fold odds of experiencing VF before PPCI (95% CI 1.10 to 7.30). Compared with nondrinkers, patients who consumed 1 to 7 units, 8 to 14 units, or >15 units of alcohol per week had an odds ratio (OR) of 1.30 (95% CI, 0.80 to 2.20), 2.30 (95% CI, 1.20 to 4.20), or 3.30 (95% CI, 1.80 to 5.90), respectively, for VF. Previously reported associations for preinfarction angina (OR 0.46; 95% CI 0.32 to 0.67), age of <60 years (OR 1.75; 95% CI 1.20 to 2.60), anterior infarction (OR 2.10; 95% CI 1.40 to 3.00), preprocedural thrombolysis in myocardial infarction flow grade 0 (OR 1.65; 95% CI 1.14 to 2.40), and family history of sudden death (OR 1.60; 95% CI 1.10 to 2.40) were all associated with VF. CONCLUSION: Several easily assessed risk factors were associated with VF occurring out-of-hospital or on arrival at the emergency room before PPCI in STEMI patients, thus providing potential avenues for investigation regarding improved identification and prevention of life-threatening ventricular arrhythmias.

  5. Association of urinary cadmium and myocardial infarction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We conducted a cross-sectional analysis of individuals 45-79 years old in the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey III (1988-1994) (NHANES III). Myocardial infarction was determined by electrocardiogram (ECG). Our sample included 4912 participants, which when weighted represented 52,234,055 Americans. We performed adjusted logistic regressions with the Framingham risk score, pack-years of smoking, race-ethnicity, and family history of heart attack, and diabetes as covariates. Urinary cadmium ?0.88 ?g/g creatinine had an odds ratio of 1.86 (95% CI 1.26-2.75) compared to urinary cadmium <0.43 ?g/g creatinine. This result supports the hypothesis that cadmium is associated with coronary heart disease. When logistic regressions were done by gender, women, but not men, showed a significant association of urinary cadmium with myocardial infarction. Women with urinary cadmium ?0.88 ?g/g creatinine had an odds ratio of 1.80 (95% CI 1.06-3.04) compared to urinary cadmium <0.43 ?g/g creatinine. When the analysis was restricted to never smokers (N=2187) urinary cadmium ?0.88 ?g/g creatinine had an odds ratio of 1.85 (95% CI 1.10-3.14) compared to urinary cadmium <0.43 ?g/g creatinine

  6. Long-term use of non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs and the risk of myocardial infarction in the general population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    González-Pérez Antonio

    2005-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Recent data indicate that chronic use of coxibs leads to an increased occurrence of thrombotic cardiovascular events. This raises the question as to whether traditional non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (tNSAIDs might also produce similar hazards. Our aim has been to evaluate the association between the chronic use of tNSAIDs and the risk of myocardial infarction (MI in patients. Methods We performed a nested case-control analysis with 4,975 cases of acute MI and 20,000 controls, frequency matched to cases by age, sex, and calendar year. Results Overall, current use of tNSAID was not associated with an increased risk of MI (RR:1.07;95%CI: 0.95–1.21. However, we found that the relative risk (RR of MI for durations of tNSAID treatment of >1 year was 1.21 (95% CI, 1.00–1.48. The corresponding RR was 1.34 (95% CI, 1.06–1.70 for non-fatal MI. The effect was independent from dose. The small risk associated with long-term use of tNSAIDs was observed among patients not taking low-dose aspirin (RR: 1.29; 95% CI, 1.01–1.65. The effect of long-term use for individual tNSAIDs ranged from a RR of 0.87 (95% CI, 0.47–1.62 with naproxen to 1.38 (95% CI, 1.00–1.90 with diclofenac. Conclusion This study adds support to the hypothesis that chronic treatment with some tNSAIDs is associated with a small increased risk of non-fatal MI. Our data are consistent with a substantial variability in cardiovascular risks between individual tNSAIDs.

  7. Risk of death or reinfarction associated with the use of selective cyclooxygenase-2 inhibitors and nonselective nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drugs after acute myocardial infarction.

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gislason, Gunnar H; Jacobsen, SØren

    2006-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The selective cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) inhibitors and other nonselective nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) have been associated with increased cardiovascular risk, but the risk in patients with established cardiovascular disease is unknown. We analyzed the risk of rehospitalization for acute myocardial infarction (MI) and death related to the use of NSAIDs including selective COX-2 inhibitors in patients with prior MI. METHODS AND RESULTS: All patients with first-time MI between 1995 and 2002 as well as all prescription claims for NSAIDs after discharge were identified from nationwide Danish administrative registers. The risk of death and rehospitalization for MI associated with the use of selective COX-2 inhibitors and nonselective NSAIDs was studied with the use of multivariable proportional hazards models and case-crossover analysis. A total of 58 432 patients were discharged alive and included in the study; 9773 experienced rehospitalization for MI, and 16 573 died. A total of 5.2% of patients received rofecoxib, 4.3% celecoxib, 17.5% ibuprofen, 10.6% diclofenac, and 12.7% other NSAIDs. For any use of rofecoxib, celecoxib, ibuprofen, diclofenac, and other NSAIDs, the hazard ratios and 95% confidence intervals for death were 2.80 (2.41 to 3.25; for rofecoxib), 2.57 (2.15 to 3.08; for celecoxib), 1.50 (1.36 to 1.67; for ibuprofen), 2.40 (2.09 to 2.80; for diclofenac), and 1.29 (1.16 to 1.43; for other NSAIDS); there were dose-related increases in risk of death for all of the drugs. There were trends for increased risk of rehospitalization for MI associated with the use of both the selective COX-2 inhibitors and the nonselective NSAIDs. CONCLUSIONS: Selective COX-2 inhibitors in all dosages and nonselective NSAIDs in high dosages increase mortality in patients with previous MI and should therefore be used with particular caution in these patients.

  8. Body composition and body fat distribution in relation to later risk of acute myocardial infarction: a Danish follow-up study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stegger, Jakob; Schmidt, E B

    2011-01-01

    Introduction:Obesity is a modifiable risk factor for acute myocardial infarction (MI), but lean body mass (LBM) may also be an important factor. Low LBM may increase the risk of MI and LBM may modify the effect of obesity on MI. Thus, the inability of the classical anthropometric measures to evaluate LBM may lead to misclassification of MI risk in both lean and obese persons. We investigated the associations between incident MI and bioelectrical impedance analyses (BIA) derived measures of body composition in combination with body mass index (BMI) and anthropometric measures of body fat distribution.Methods and results:From 1993 to 1997, 27¿148 men and 29¿863 women, aged 50 to 64 year, were recruited into the Danish prospective study Diet, Cancer and Health. During 11.9 years of follow-up we identified 2028 cases of incident MI (1487 men and 541 women). BMI, waist circumference (WC), hip circumference and BIA of body composition including body fat mass (BFM), body fat percentage and LBM were measured at baseline. We used Cox proportional hazard models with age as time axis and performed extensive control for confounding. Weight, BMI, classical estimates of abdominal obesity and BIA estimates of obesity showed significant positive associations with incident MI. However, BFM adjusted for WC showed no association. Low LBM was associated with a higher risk of incident MI in both genders, and high LBM was associated with a higher risk in men.Conclusion:Obesity was positively associated with MI. Estimates of obesity achieved by BIA seemed not to add additional information to classical anthropometric measures regarding MI risk. Both high and low LBM may be positively associated with MI.International Journal of Obesity advance online publication, 1 February 2011; doi:10.1038/ijo.2010.278.

  9. The European System for Cardiac Operative Risk Evaluation (EuroSCORE is not appropriate for withholding surgery in high-risk patients with aortic stenosis: a retrospective cohort study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Légaré Jean-Francois

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The European System for Cardiac Operative Risk Evaluation (EuroSCORE is a widely used risk assessment tool in patients with severe aortic stenosis to determine operability and to select patients for alternative therapies such as transcatheter aortic valve implantation. The objective of this study was to determine the accuracy of the EuroSCORE in predicting mortality following aortic valve replacement (AVR. Methods The logistic EuroSCORE was determined for all consecutive patients that underwent conventional AVR between 1995 and 2005 at our institution. Provincial Vital Statistics were used to determine all-cause mortality. The accuracy of the prognostic risk prediction provided by logistic EuroSCORE was assessed by comparing observed and expected operative mortality. Results During the study period, a total of 1,421 patients underwent AVR including 237 patients (16.7% that had a logistic EuroSCORE > 20. Among these patients, the mean predicted operative mortality was 38.7% (SD = 18.1. The actual mortality of these patients was significantly lower than that predicted by EuroSCORE (11.4% vs. 38.7%, observed/expected ratio 0.29, 95% CI 0.15–0.52, P 20 (log rank P = 0.0001, approximately 60% are alive at five years. Conclusion Actual operative mortality in patients undergoing AVR is significantly lower than that predicted by the logistic EuroSCORE. Additionally, medium-term survival following AVR is acceptable in high-risk patients with EuroSCORE > 20. More accurate risk prediction models are needed for risk-stratifying patients with severe aortic stenosis.

  10. Association of the 894G>T polymorphism in the endothelial nitric oxide synthase gene with risk of acute myocardial infarction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Foussas Stefanos G

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background This study was designed to investigate the association of the 894G>T polymorphism in the eNOS gene with risk of acute myocardial infarction (AMI, extent of coronary artery disease (CAD on coronary angiography, and in-hospital mortality after AMI. Methods We studied 1602 consecutive patients who were enrolled in the GEMIG study. The control group was comprised by 727 individuals, who were randomly selected from the general adult population. Results The prevalence of the Asp298 variant of eNOS was not found to be significantly and independently associated with risk of AMI (RR = 1.08, 95%CI = 0.77–1.51, P = 0.663, extent of CAD on angiography (OR = 1.18, 95%CI = 0.63–2.23, P = 0.605 and in-hospital mortality (RR = 1.08, 95%CI = 0.29–4.04, P = 0.908. Conclusion In contrast to previous reports, homozygosity for the Asp298 variant of the 894G>T polymorphism in the eNOS gene was not found to be associated with risk of AMI, extent of CAD and in-hospital mortality after AMI

  11. Using electronic health record data to develop inpatient mortality predictive model: Acute Laboratory Risk of Mortality Score (ALaRMS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tabak, Ying P; Sun, Xiaowu; Nunez, Carlos M; Johannes, Richard S

    2014-01-01

    Objective Using numeric laboratory data and administrative data from hospital electronic health record (EHR) systems, to develop an inpatient mortality predictive model. Methods Using EHR data of 1?428?824 adult discharges from 70 hospitals in 2006–2007, we developed the Acute Laboratory Risk of Mortality Score (ALaRMS) using age, gender, and initial laboratory values on admission as candidate variables. We then added administrative variables using the Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality (AHRQ)'s clinical classification software (CCS) and comorbidity software (CS) as disease classification tools. We validated the model using 770?523 discharges in 2008. Results Mortality predictors with ORs >2.00 included age, deranged albumin, arterial pH, bands, blood urea nitrogen, oxygen partial pressure, platelets, pro-brain natriuretic peptide, troponin I, and white blood cell counts. The ALaRMS model c-statistic was 0.87. Adding the CCS and CS variables increased the c-statistic to 0.91. The relative contributions were 69% (ALaRMS), 25% (CCS), and 6% (CS). Furthermore, the integrated discrimination improvement statistic demonstrated a 127% (95% CI 122% to 133%) overall improvement when ALaRMS was added to CCS and CS variables. In contrast, only a 22% (CI 19% to 25%) improvement was seen when CCS and CS variables were added to ALaRMS. Conclusions EHR data can generate clinically plausible mortality predictive models with excellent discrimination. ALaRMS uses automated laboratory data widely available on admission, providing opportunities to aid real-time decision support. Models that incorporate laboratory and AHRQ's CCS and CS variables have utility for risk adjustment in retrospective outcome studies. PMID:24097807

  12. Coronary Artery Diameter Related to Calcium Scores and Coronary Risk Factors as Measured with Multidetector Computed Tomography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamirani, Yasmin S.; Nasir, Khurram; Avanes, Emil; Kadakia, Jigar; Budoff, Matthew J.

    2013-01-01

    Arterial remodeling, an early change of atherosclerosis, can cause dilated arterial diameter. We measured coronary artery diameter with use of noncontrast 64-slice multidetector computed tomography (MDCT), and studied its association with coronary artery calcium levels and traditional coronary risk factors. We included 140 patients from the ACCURACY trial whose noncontrast MDCT images showed measurable coronary arteries. Using 3 measurements of left main coronary artery (LMCA) and right coronary artery (RCA) diameters within 3 mm of the ostium, we associated the results with traditional coronary risk factors and calcium scores. The prevalence of LMCA and RCA calcium was 22% and 51%, respectively. Mean arterial diameters were 5.67 ± 1.18 mm (LMCA) and 4.66 ± 1.08 mm (RCA). Correlations for LMCA and RCA diameters in 50 randomly chosen patients were 0.91 and 0.93 (interobserver) and 0.98 and 0.93 (intraobserver). Adjusted odds ratios for the relationship of LMCA and RCA diameters to calcium in male versus female patients were 5.65 (95% confidence interval [CI], 2.78–11.5) and 4.35 (95% CI, 2.24–8.47), respectively. Adjusted ratios and 95% CIs for the association of larger RCA diameter with age, hypertension, and body mass index were 1.36 (1.00–1.86), 3.13 (1.26–7.78), and 1.60 (1.16–2.22), respectively. Arterial diameters were larger in women and patients with higher calcium levels, and body mass index and hypertension were predictors of larger RCA diameters. These findings suggest a link between arterial remodeling and the severity of atherosclerosis. PMID:23914015

  13. Right ventricular involvement with acute inferior wall myocardial infarction identifies high risk of developing atrioventricular nodal conduction disturbances

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In 67 consecutive patients with inferior wall acute myocardial infarction (AMI), 99m-technetium pyrophosphate scintigraphy was performed 36 to 72 hours after the onset of chest pain to detect right ventricular (RV) involvement. All patients were continuously monitored during at least 3 days to detect rhythm and conduction disturbances. In 29 patients RV involvement was diagnosed by scintigraphy. None of these 29 patients showed clinical signs of right-sided heart failure. Fourteen of the 19 patients showing atrioventricular (AV) nodal condution disturbances in the setting of inferior AMI also had RV involvement. Therefore, the incidence of high-degree AV nodal block in patients with RV involvement (14 of 29 patients) was 48% compared to only 13% (5 of 38) in patients with inferior AMI without RV involvement

  14. Right ventricular involvement with acute inferior wall myocardial infarction identifies high risk of developing atrioventricular nodal conduction disturbances

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Braat, S.H.; de Zwaan, C.; Brugada, P.; Coenegracht, J.M.; Wellens, H.J.

    1984-06-01

    In 67 consecutive patients with inferior wall acute myocardial infarction (AMI), 99m-technetium pyrophosphate scintigraphy was performed 36 to 72 hours after the onset of chest pain to detect right ventricular (RV) involvement. All patients were continuously monitored during at least 3 days to detect rhythm and conduction disturbances. In 29 patients RV involvement was diagnosed by scintigraphy. None of these 29 patients showed clinical signs of right-sided heart failure. Fourteen of the 19 patients showing atrioventricular (AV) nodal condution disturbances in the setting of inferior AMI also had RV involvement. Therefore, the incidence of high-degree AV nodal block in patients with RV involvement (14 of 29 patients) was 48% compared to only 13% (5 of 38) in patients with inferior AMI without RV involvement.

  15. Scoring Subjectivity and Item Performance on Measures Used to Assess Violence Risk: The PCL-R and HCR-20 as Exemplars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rufino, Katrina A.; Boccaccini, Marcus T.; Guy, Laura S.

    2011-01-01

    Although reliability is essential to validity, most research on violence risk assessment tools has paid little attention to strategies for improving rater agreement. The authors evaluated the degree to which perceived subjectivity in scoring guidelines for items from two measures--the Psychopathy Checklist-Revised (PCL-R) and the Historical,…

  16. Impaired myocardial perfusion score and inflammatory markers in patients undergoing primary angioplasty for acute myocardial infarction / Alteraciones de la perfusión miocárdica y marcadores de inflamación en pacientes con infarto agudo al miocardio tratados con angioplastía primaria

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    J Emilio, Exaire; Robert B, Fathi; Sorin J, Brener; Juhana, Karha; Stephen G, Ellis; Deepak L, Bhatt.

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available SciELO Mexico | Language: English Abstract in spanish Objetivos: La disfunción de la microcirculación coronaria durante el infarto agudo al miocardio es mediada por varios mecanismos incluyendo inflamación y embolización de placa y/o trombo. La hipótesis del presente estudio es que los pacientes con infarto agudo al miocardio que se presentan con nivel [...] es bajos de perfusión microcirculatoria (definidos como grado de perfusión Thrombolysis in Myocardial Infarction (TIMI) (TMP) 2 (P = .03). La edad avanzada, el uso de balón de contrapulsación y los niveles elevados de glóbulos blancos al momento de la admisión se relacionaron independientemente con la muerte intrahospitalaria y a 30 días. Conclusiones: Los niveles elevados de hs-CRP no se asociaron con disfunción de la microcirculación. La disfunción microcirculatoria puede estar relacionada a un proceso inflamatorio, independiente de los niveles elevados de hs-CRP. Abstract in english Background: Microcirculatory dysfunction during acute myocardial infarction is mediated by various mechanisms including inflammation, thrombus, or plaque embolization. We hypothesize that patients with acute myocardial infarction and admission Thrombolysis in Myocardial Infarction (TlMl) myocardial [...] perfusión grade (TMP)

  17. Risk of ischaemic heart disease and acute myocardial infarction in a Spanish population: observational prospective study in a primary-care setting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cucalón José M

    2006-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Ischaemic heart disease is a global priority of health-care policy, because of its social repercussions and its impact on the health-care system. Yet there is little information on coronary morbidity in Spain and on the effect of the principal risk factors on risk of coronary heart disease. The objective of this study is to describe the epidemiology of coronary disease (incidence, mortality and its association with cardiovascular risk factors using the information gathered by primary care practitioners on cardiovascular health of their population. Methods A prospective study was designed. Eight primary-care centres participated, each contributing to the constitution of the cohort with the entire population covered by the centre. A total of 6124 men and women aged over 25 years and free of cardiovascular disease agreed to participate and were thus enrolled and followed-up, with all fatal and non-fatal coronary disease episodes being registered during a 5-year period. Repeated measurements were collected on smoking, blood pressure, weight and height, serum total cholesterol, high-density and low-density lipoproteins and fasting glucose. Rates were calculated for acute myocardial infarction and ischaemic heart disease. Associations between cardiovascular risk factors and coronary disease-free survival were evaluated using Kaplan-Meier and Cox regression analyses. Results Mean age at recruitment was 51.6 ± 15, with 24% of patients being over 65. At baseline, 74% of patients were overweight, serum cholesterol over 240 was present in 35% of patients, arterial hypertension in 37%, and basal glucose over 126 in 11%. Thirty-four percent of men and 13% of women were current smokers. During follow-up, 155 first episodes of coronary disease were detected, which yielded age-adjusted rates of 362 and 191 per 100,000 person-years in men and women respectively. Disease-free survival was associated with all risk factors in univariate analyses. After multivariate adjustments, age, male gender, smoking, high total cholesterol, high HDL/LDL ratio, diabetes and overweight remained strongly associated with risk. Relative risks for hypertension in women and for diabetes in men did not reach statistical significance. Conclusion Despite high prevalence of vascular risk factors, incidence rates were lower than those reported for other countries and other periods, but similar to those reported in the few population-based studies in Spain. Effect measures of vascular risk factors were mainly as reported worldwide and support the hypothesis that protective factors not considered in this study must exist as to explain low rates. This study shows the feasibility of conducting epidemiological cohort studies in primary-care settings.

  18. Comparison of two-dimensional echocardiography with gated radionuclide ventriculography in the evaluation of global and regional left ventricular function in acute myocardial infarction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Two-dimensional echocardiography and gated radionuclide ventriculography were performed in 93 patients (66 men, 27 women; mean age 61 years) with 95 episodes of acute myocardial infarction within 48 hours and at 10 days after infarction. Abnormal motion of an inferior or posterior wall segment was seen in 91% of inferoposterior infarctions by echocardiography versus 61% seen by radionuclide ventriculography. Ejection fractions determined by echocardiography and radionuclide ventriculography correlated well (r . 0.82) and did not change from the first 48 hours to 10 days after infarction (0.48 +/- 0.14). Similarly, wall motion score showed minimal change from the first 48 hours to 10 days. In-hospital mortality was 37 and 42% in patients with an ejection fraction of 0.35 or less by echocardiography and radionuclide ventriculography, respectively. No mortality was seen in patients with an ejection fraction above 0.40 by either test. The echocardiographic wall motion score was also predictive of mortality (40 versus 2%; score less than or equal to 0.50 versus greater than 0.50). The 1 year mortality rate in the 81 short-term survivors was 17%. Mortality was lowest in patients with an ejection fraction above 0.49 or wall motion score above (0.79 (2 to 5%) and worse in those with an ejection fraction below 0.36 or wall motion score below 0.51 (36 to 63%) by either technique. Thus in acute myocardial infarction, echocardiography and radionuclide ventriculography provide a c radionuclide ventriculography provide a comparable assessment of left ventricular function and wall motion in anterior infarction. Echocardiography appears more sensitive in detecting inferoposterior wall motion abnormalities. Both techniques are capable of identifying subgroups of patients with a high risk of death during the acute event and with an equally high mortality rate over a 1 year follow-up period

  19. Comparison of two-dimensional echocardiography with gated radionuclide ventriculography in the evaluation of global and regional left ventricular function in acute myocardial infarction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Van Reet, R.E.; Quinones, M.A.; Poliner, L.R.; Nelson, J.G.; Waggoner, A.D.; Kanon, D.; Lubetkin, S.J.; Pratt, C.M.; Winters, W.L. Jr.

    1984-02-01

    Two-dimensional echocardiography and gated radionuclide ventriculography were performed in 93 patients (66 men, 27 women; mean age 61 years) with 95 episodes of acute myocardial infarction within 48 hours and at 10 days after infarction. Abnormal motion of an inferior or posterior wall segment was seen in 91% of inferoposterior infarctions by echocardiography versus 61% seen by radionuclide ventriculography. Ejection fractions determined by echocardiography and radionuclide ventriculography correlated well (r . 0.82) and did not change from the first 48 hours to 10 days after infarction (0.48 +/- 0.14). Similarly, wall motion score showed minimal change from the first 48 hours to 10 days. In-hospital mortality was 37 and 42% in patients with an ejection fraction of 0.35 or less by echocardiography and radionuclide ventriculography, respectively. No mortality was seen in patients with an ejection fraction above 0.40 by either test. The echocardiographic wall motion score was also predictive of mortality (40 versus 2%; score less than or equal to 0.50 versus greater than 0.50). The 1 year mortality rate in the 81 short-term survivors was 17%. Mortality was lowest in patients with an ejection fraction above 0.49 or wall motion score above (0.79 (2 to 5%) and worse in those with an ejection fraction below 0.36 or wall motion score below 0.51 (36 to 63%) by either technique. Thus in acute myocardial infarction, echocardiography and radionuclide ventriculography provide a comparable assessment of left ventricular function and wall motion in anterior infarction. Echocardiography appears more sensitive in detecting inferoposterior wall motion abnormalities. Both techniques are capable of identifying subgroups of patients with a high risk of death during the acute event and with an equally high mortality rate over a 1 year follow-up period.

  20. Short term clinical disease progression in HIV-1 positive patients taking combination antiretroviral therapy : The EuroSIDA risk-score

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mocroft, A; Ledergerber, B

    2007-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To derive and validate a clinically applicable prognostic score for predicting short-term disease progression in HIV-infected patients taking combination antiretroviral therapy (cART). DESIGN AND METHODS: Poisson regression was used to identify prognostic markers for new AIDS/death in patients taking cART. A score was derived for 4169 patients from EuroSIDA and validated on 5150 patients from the Swiss HIV Cohort Study (SHCS). RESULTS: In EuroSIDA, 658 events occurred during 22 321 person-years of follow-up: an incidence rate of 3.0/100 person-years of follow-up [95% confidence interval (CI), 2.7-3.3]. Current levels of viral load, CD4 cell count, CD4 cell slope, anaemia, and body mass index all independently predicted new AIDS/death, as did age, exposure group, a prior AIDS diagnosis, prior antiretroviral treatment and stopping all antiretroviral drugs. The EuroSIDA risk-score was divided into four strata; a patient in the lowest strata would have predicted chance of new AIDS/death of 1 in 801, 1in 401 and 1 in 201 within the next 3, 6 or 12 months, respectively. The corresponding figures for the highest strata were 1 in 17, 1 in 9 and 1 in 5, respectively. A single-unit increase in the risk-score was associated with a 2.70 times higher incidence of clinical progression (95% CI, 2.56-2.84) in EuroSIDA and 2.88 (95% CI, 2.75-3.02) in SHCS. CONCLUSIONS: A clinically relevant prognostic score was derived in EuroSIDA and validated within the SHCS, with good agreement. The EuroSIDA risk-score will be made available publicly via an interface that will perform all calculations for the individual. Udgivelsesdato: Sep 12

  1. Comparison of different screening tools (FRAX®, OST, ORAI, OSIRIS, SCORE and age alone) to identify women with increased risk of fracture. A population-based prospective study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rubin, Katrine Hass; Abrahamsen, Bo

    2013-01-01

    PURPOSE: To compare the power of FRAX® without bone mineral density (BMD) and simpler screening tools (OST, ORAI, OSIRIS, SCORE and age alone) in predicting fractures. METHODS: This study was a prospective, population-based study performed in Denmark comprising 3614 women aged 40-90years, who returned a questionnaire concerning items on risk factors for osteoporosis. Fracture risk was calculated using the different screening tools (FRAX®, OST, ORAI, OSIRIS and SCORE) for each woman. The women were followed using the Danish National Register registering new major osteoporotic fractures during 3years, counting only the first fracture per person. Area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (ROC) and statistics and Harrell's index were calculated. Agreement between the tools was calculated by kappa statistics. RESULTS: A total of 4% of the women experienced a new major osteoporotic fracture during the follow-up period. There were no differences in the area under the curve (AUC) values between FRAX® andthe simpler tools; AUC values between 0.703 and 0.722 (p=0.86). Also, Harrell's C values were very similar between the tools. Agreement between the tools was modest. CONCLUSION: During 3years follow-up FRAX® did not perform better in the fracture risk prediction compared with simpler tools such as OST, ORAI, OSIRIS, SCORE or age alone in a screening scenario where BMD was not measured. These findings suggest that simpler models based on fewer risk factors, which would be easier to use in clinical practice by the GP or the patient herself, could just as well as FRAX® be used to identify women with increased risk of fracture. SUMMARY: Comparison of FRAX® and simpler screening tools (OST, ORAI, OSIRIS, SCORE) in predicting fractures indicate that FRAX® did not perform better in fracture risk prediction compared with the simpler tools or even age alone in a screening scenario without bone mineral density assessment.

  2. Cardiovascular risk factor management of myocardial infarction patients with and without diabetes in the Netherlands between 2002 and 2006: a cross-sectional analysis of baseline data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soedamah-Muthu, Sabita S; Geleijnse, Johanna M; Giltay, Erik J; Kromhout, Daan

    2012-01-01

    Objective We examined levels and trends in cardiovascular risk factors and drug treatment in myocardial infarction (MI) patients with and without diabetes. Design Cross-sectional analysis of baseline Alpha Omega Trial data, a randomised controlled trial. Setting 32 hospitals in the Netherlands. Participants In total, we had 1014 MI patients with diabetes (74% men) and 3823 without diabetes (79% men) aged 60–80?years, analysed over the period 2002–2006. Results Between 2002 and 2006, a significantly decreasing trend in the prevalence of obesity (?5%, ptrend=0.02) and in systolic blood pressure (BP) levels (?5 mm?Hg, ptrend<0.0001) was demonstrated in non-diabetic patients, but not in diabetic patients. In 2006, obesity, mean systolic BP and serum triglyceride levels were significantly higher, whereas high-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels were lower in diabetic patients compared to those without. Prescription of antihypertensive drug (diabetic vs non-diabetic patients respectively, 95% vs 93%, p=0.08) and statin treatment were high (86% and 90%, p=0.11). Conclusions A high proportion of MI patients with and without diabetes was similarly treated with cardiovascular drugs. In spite of high drug treatment levels, more adverse risk factors were found in patients with diabetes. PMID:23117562

  3. Comparative value of maximal treadmill testing, exercise thallium myocardial perfusion scintigraphy and exercise radionuclide ventriculography for distinguishing high- and low-risk patients soon after acute myocardial infarction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The prognostic value of symptom-limited treadmill exercise electrocardiography, exercise thallium myocardial perfusion scintigraphy and rest and exercise radionuclide ventriculography was compared in 117 men, aged 54 +/- 9 years, tested 3 weeks after a clinically uncomplicated acute myocardial infarction (MI). During a mean follow-up period of 11.6 months, 8 men experienced ''hard'' medical events (cardiac death, nonfatal ventricular fibrillation or recurrent MI) and 14 were hospitalized for unstable angina pectoris, congestive heart failure or coronary bypass surgery (total of 22 combined events). By multivariate analysis (Cox proportional hazards model), peak treadmill work load and the change in left ventricular ejection fraction (EF) during exercise were significant (p less than 0.01) predictors of hard medical events; these 2 risk factors and recurrent ischemic chest pain in the coronary care unit were also significantly predictive (p less than 0.001) for combined events. A peak treadmill work load of 4 METs or less or a decrease in EF of 5% or more below the value at rest during submaximal effort distinguished 22 high-risk patients (20% of the study population) from 89 low-risk patients. The rate of hard medical events within 12 months was 23% (5 of 22 patients), vs 2% (2 of 89 patients) in the high- and low-risk patient subsets, respectively (p less than 0.001). Thus, in patients who underwent evaluation 3 weeks after a clinically uncomplicated MI, exercise rad clinically uncomplicated MI, exercise radionuclide ventriculography contributed independent prognostic information to that provided by symptom-limited treadmill testing and was superior to exercise thallium scintigraphy for this purpose

  4. Common polymorphisms in the cannabinoid CB2 receptor gene (CNR2) are not associated with myocardial infarction and cardiovascular risk factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reinhard, Wibke; Stark, Klaus; Neureuther, Katharina; Sedlacek, Kamil; Fischer, Marcus; Baessler, Andrea; Weber, Stefan; Kaess, Bernhard; Wiedmann, Silke; Erdmann, Jeanette; Lieb, Wolfgang; Jeron, Andreas; Riegger, Guenter; Hengstenberg, Christian

    2008-08-01

    Myocardial infarction (MI) is a complex disease. Multiple genes and their interaction with various environmental factors influence the pathogenesis of MI that is thought to be tightly regulated by inflammatory pathways. Recent progress in genetic analysis includes the use of large-scale genome-wide association studies that have proven to be powerful tools even in the analysis of multifactorial phenotypes. However, certain genes are only sparsely represented on the available gene chips and additional candidate gene approaches are necessary. One such example is the CNR2 gene, encoding the cannabinoid receptor 2 (CB2), which has been implicated in mediating anti-inflammatory and anti-atherosclerotic effects in vivo. We therefore hypothesized that genetic variations within the CNR2 gene are associated with the development of MI or classic cardiovascular risk factors. In a large case-control study, 1,968 individuals from the German MI family study were examined with 13 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) covering CNR2 and the adjacent genes. The association of these SNPs with MI or cardiovascular risk factors, such as arterial hypertension, obesity, hypercholesterolemia and diabetes mellitus, was determined. In allelic and genotypic models, none of the SNPs showed a significant association with MI. Separate analyses for men and women revealed no gender-specific relationship between common genetic variations within the CNR2 gene and MI. Moreover, no significant association between CNR2 gene variants and common cardiovascular risk factors was observed. We therefore provide evidence in a large German population that common polymorphisms within the CNR2 gene confer no susceptibility to MI or to cardiovascular risk factors. PMID:18636169

  5. The common Y402H variant in complement factor H gene is not associated with susceptibility to myocardial infarction and its related risk factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stark, Klaus; Neureuther, Katharina; Sedlacek, Kamil; Hengstenberg, Wibke; Fischer, Marcus; Baessler, Andrea; Wiedmann, Silke; Jeron, Andreas; Holmer, Stephan; Erdmann, Jeanette; Schunkert, Heribert; Hengstenberg, Christian

    2007-08-01

    Recently, the genetic variant Y402H in the CFH (complement factor H) gene was associated with an increased risk for MI (myocardial infarction) in a prospective Caucasian cohort. In another nested case-control study, however, the CFH-Y402H variant did not carry susceptibility to MI. The aim of the present study was to test for an association between the CFH-Y402H variant and MI in a large case-control sample with a familial background for CAD (coronary artery disease). A total of 2161 individuals from the German MI family study were studied by questionnaire, physical examination and biochemical analyses. MI patients (n=1188; 51.4+/-8.6 years at first MI) were recruited from families with at least two members affected by MI and/or severe CAD. Spouses, sisters-in-law and brothers-in-law respectively, without MI/CAD were included as unaffected controls (n=973; 56.9+/-9.8 years). Genotyping was performed using a TaqMan assay. The common Y402H variant in the CFH gene was not associated with classical cardiovascular risk factors (diabetes, hypercholesterolaemia, hypertension, obesity, smoking and C-reactive protein serum levels). No association was found between the CFH-Y402H variant and susceptibility to MI. Separate analyses in both men and women revealed no gender-specific influence of the gene variant on cardiovascular risk factors or MI. This investigation was unable to replicate the association between the common CFH-Y402H variant and susceptibility to MI in our large Caucasian population which is enriched for genetic factors. We conclude that the CFH-Y402H variant has no relevant risk-modifying effect in our population. PMID:17472578

  6. Effects of a 3-Year Nurse-Based Case Management in Aged Patients with Acute Myocardial Infarction on Rehospitalisation, Mortality, Risk Factors, Physical Functioning and Mental Health. A Secondary Analysis of the Randomized Controlled KORINNA Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirchberger, Inge; Hunger, Matthias; Stollenwerk, Björn; Seidl, Hildegard; Burkhardt, Katrin; Kuch, Bernhard; Meisinger, Christa; Holle, Rolf

    2015-01-01

    Background Home-based secondary prevention programs led by nurses have been proposed to facilitate patients’ adjustment to acute myocardial infarction (AMI). The objective of this study was to conduct secondary analyses of the three-year follow-up of a nurse-based case management for elderly patients discharged from hospital after an AMI. Methods In a single-centre randomized two-armed parallel group trial of hospitalized patients with AMI ?65 years, patients hospitalized between September 2008 and May 2010 in the Hospital of Augsburg, Germany, were randomly assigned to case management or usual care. The case-management intervention consisted of a nurse-based follow-up for three years including home visits and telephone calls. Study endpoints were time to first unplanned readmission or death, clinical parameters, functional status, depressive symptoms and malnutrition risk. Persons who assessed three-year outcomes and validated readmission data were blinded. The intention-to-treat approach was applied to the statistical analyses which included Cox Proportional Hazards models. Results Three hundred forty patients were allocated to receive case-management (n = 168) or usual care (n = 172). During three years, in the intervention group there were 80 first unplanned readmissions and 6 deaths, while the control group had 111first unplanned readmissions and 3 deaths. The intervention did not significantly affect time to first unplanned readmission or death (Hazard Ratio 0.89, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.67–1.19; p = 0.439), blood pressure, cholesterol level, instrumental activities of daily life (IADL) (only for men), and depressive symptoms. However, patients in the intervention group had a significantly better functional status, as assessed by the HAQ Disability Index, IADL (only for women), and hand grip strength, and better SCREEN-II malnutrition risk scores than patients in the control group. Conclusions A nurse-based management among elderly patients with AMI did not significantly affect time to unplanned readmissions or death during a three-year follow-up. However, the results indicate that functional status and malnutrition risk can be improved. Trial registration Current Controlled Trials ISRCTN02893746 PMID:25811486

  7. Sequential thallium-201 myocardial scintigraphy after acute infarction in man

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Three sequential Tl-201 myocardial perfusion studies were performed in 21 patients (18 men, 3 women) with first acute transmural myocardia infarction. The Tl-201 image defect size was determined with a semiquantitative visual scoring method and temporal changes in image defect size were compared to CK-MB infarct size and enzymatic evidence of progressive myocardial necrosis and infarct extension. Progressive decreases in Tl-201 image defect size were observed and the visual score in all 21 patients decreased significantly from 6.5 +- 3.7 (mean +- SD) on day 1 to 4.9 +- 3.5 on day 12. Eleven patients without evidence of infarct extension had significantly lower infarct size, a significant decrease in visual score by the 12th day and had significantly smaller Tl-201 defects at all three study times compared to 10 patients with infarct extension. Seven of 10 (70%) with extension had an initial visual score greater than or equal to 7 compared to only 2/11 (18%) without extension. The temporal behavior of Tl-201 image defects is related to the size of the infarction and presence or absence of extension. Sequential studies comparing early initial and subsequent defect size may assist in evaluating the behavior of ischemic and infarcted myocardium in the postinfarction period

  8. Formation of translational risk score based on correlation coefficients as an alternative to Cox regression models for predicting outcome in patients with NSCLC

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ElAidi Tina

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Personalised cancer therapy, such as that used for bronchial carcinoma (BC, requires treatment to be adjusted to the patient's status. Individual risk for progression is estimated from clinical and molecular-biological data using translational score systems. Additional molecular information can improve outcome prediction depending on the marker used and the applied algorithm. Two models, one based on regressions and the other on correlations, were used to investigate the effect of combining various items of prognostic information to produce a comprehensive score. This was carried out using correlation coefficients, with options concerning a more plausible selection of variables for modelling, and this is considered better than classical regression analysis. Methods Clinical data concerning 63 BC patients were used to investigate the expression pattern of five tumour-associated proteins. Significant impact on survival was determined using log-rank tests. Significant variables were integrated into a Cox regression model and a new variable called integrative score of individual risk (ISIR, based on Spearman's correlations, was obtained. Results High tumour stage (TNM was predictive for poor survival, while CD68 and Gas6 protein expression correlated with a favourable outcome. Cox regression model analysis predicted outcome more accurately than using each variable in isolation, and correctly classified 84% of patients as having a clear risk status. Calculation of the integrated score for an individual risk (ISIR, considering tumour size (T, lymph node status (N, metastasis (M, Gas6 and CD68 identified 82% of patients as having a clear risk status. Conclusion Combining protein expression analysis of CD68 and GAS6 with T, N and M, using Cox regression or ISIR, improves prediction. Considering the increasing number of molecular markers, subsequent studies will be required to validate translational algorithms for the prognostic potential to select variables with a high prognostic power; the use of correlations offers improved prediction.

  9. Perfusion imaging with 99mTc PPN-1011 for the assessment of myocardial area at risk and the efficacy of PTCA/PTCR in myocardial infarction and unstable angina

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The determination of the myocardium at risk before intervention and the change in that region after intervention constitute a promising measurement tool for the assessment of acute therapy. We used 99mTc PPN-1011 (1,2-bis[bis(2-ethoxyethyl)phosphino]ethane) in 4 patients with acute myocardial ischemia (2 patients with acute myocardial infarction, 2 unstable angina) and subsequent successful reperfusion. All 4 patients had perfusion defect on the pre-reperfusion image. Perfusion abnormality on post-reperfusion image was all improved significantly compared with pre-reperfusion image, suggesting the efficacy of acute treatment in acute myocardial ischemia. We concluded that 99mTc PPN-1011 scintigraphy is a useful method for the assessment of myocardial area at risk and the efficacy of percutaneous transluminal coronary angioplasty (PTCA)/percutaneous transluminal coronary thrombolysis (PTCR) in myocardial infarction and unstable angina. (author)

  10. Behavioural markers for autism in infancy: Scores on the Autism Observational Scale for Infants in a prospective study of at-risk siblings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gammer, Isobel; Bedford, Rachael; Elsabbagh, Mayada; Garwood, Holly; Pasco, Greg; Tucker, Leslie; Volein, Agnes; Johnson, Mark H.; Charman, Tony

    2015-01-01

    We investigated early behavioural markers of autism spectrum disorder (ASD) using the Autism Observational Scale for Infants (AOSI) in a prospective familial high-risk (HR) sample of infant siblings (N = 54) and low-risk (LR) controls (N = 50). The AOSI was completed at 7 and 14 month infant visits and children were seen again at age 24 and 36 months. Diagnostic outcome of ASD (HR-ASD) versus no ASD (HR-No ASD) was determined for the HR sample at the latter timepoint. The HR group scored higher than the LR group at 7 months and marginally but non-significantly higher than the LR group at 14 months, although these differences did not remain when verbal and nonverbal developmental level were covaried. The HR-ASD outcome group had higher AOSI scores than the LR group at 14 months but not 7 months, even when developmental level was taken into account. The HR-No ASD outcome group had scores intermediate between the HR-ASD and LR groups. At both timepoints a few individual items were higher in the HR-ASD and HR-No ASD outcome groups compared to the LR group and these included both social (e.g. orienting to name) and non-social (e.g. visual tracking) behaviours. AOSI scores at 14 months but not at 7 months were moderately correlated with later scores on the autism diagnostic observation schedule (ADOS) suggesting continuity of autistic-like behavioural atypicality but only from the second and not first year of life. The scores of HR siblings who did not go on to have ASD were intermediate between the HR-ASD outcome and LR groups, consistent with the notion of a broader autism phenotype. PMID:25656952

  11. Dietary intake of n-3 long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids and risk of myocardial infarction in coronary artery disease patients with or without diabetes mellitus:a prospective cohort study

    OpenAIRE

    Strand, Elin; Pedersen, Eva Ringdal; Svingen, Gard Frodal; Schartum-hansen, Hall; Rebnord, Eirik Wilberg; Bjørndal, Bodil; Seifert, Reinhard; Bohov, Pavol; Meyer, Klaus; Hiltunen, J. Kalervo; Nordrehaug, Jan Erik; Nilsen, Dennis W. T.; Berge, Rolf K.; Nyga?rd, Ottar

    2013-01-01

    Background: A beneficial effect of a high n-3 long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acid (LCPUFA) intake has been observed in heart failure patients, who are frequently insulin resistant. We investigated the potential influence of impaired glucose metabolism on the relation between dietary intake of n-3 LCPUFAs and risk of acute myocardial infarction (AMI) in patients with coronary artery disease.

    Methods: This prospective cohort study was based on the Western Norway B-Vitamin...

  12. Dietary intake of n-3 long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids and risk of myocardial infarction in coronary artery disease patients with or without diabetes mellitus: a prospective cohort study

    OpenAIRE

    Strand, Elin; Pedersen, Eva R.; Svingen, Gard Ft; Schartum-hansen, Hall; Rebnord, Eirik W.; Bjørndal, Bodil; Seifert, Reinhard; Bohov, Pavol; Meyer, Klaus; Hiltunen, J. Kalervo; Nordrehaug, Jan E.; Nilsen, Dennis Wt; Berge, Rolf K.; Nyga?rd, Ottar

    2013-01-01

    Background: A beneficial effect of a high n-3 long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acid (LCPUFA) intake has been observed in heart failure patients, who are frequently insulin resistant. We investigated the potential influence of impaired glucose metabolism on the relation between dietary intake of n-3 LCPUFAs and risk of acute myocardial infarction (AMI) in patients with coronary artery disease.Methods: This prospective cohort study was based on the Western Norway B-Vitamin Intervention...

  13. Development and validation of risk score for predicting positive repeat prostate biopsy in patients with a previous negative biopsy in a UK population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthews Fiona

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Little evidence is available to determine which patients should undergo repeat biopsy after initial benign extended core biopsy (ECB. Attempts have been made to reduce the frequency of negative repeat biopsies using PSA kinetics, density, free-to-total ratios and Kattan's nomogram, to identify men more likely to harbour cancer but no single tool accurately predicts biopsy outcome. The objective of this study was to develop a predictive nomogram to identify men more likely to have a cancer diagnosed on repeat prostate biopsy. Methods Patients with previous benign ECB undergoing repeat biopsy were identified from a database. Association between age, volume, stage, previous histology, PSA kinetics and positive repeat biopsy was analysed. Variables were entered stepwise into logistic regression models. A risk score giving the probability of positive repeat biopsy was estimated. The performance of this score was assessed using receiver characteristic (ROC analysis. Results 110 repeat biopsies were performed in this period. Cancer was detected in 31% of repeat biopsies at Hospital (1 and 30% at Hospital (2. The most accurate predictive model combined age, PSA, PSA velocity, free-to-total PSA ratio, prostate volume and digital rectal examination (DRE findings. The risk model performed well in an independent sample, area under the curve (AUCROC was 0.818 (95% CI 0.707 to 0.929 for the risk model and 0.696 (95% CI 0.472 to 0.921 for the validation model. It was calculated that using a threshold risk score of > 0.2 to identify high risk individuals would reduce repeat biopsies by 39% while identifying 90% of the men with prostate cancer. Conclusion An accurate multi-variable predictive tool to determine the risk of positive repeat prostate biopsy is presented. This can be used by urologists in an outpatient setting to aid decision-making for men with prior benign histology for whom a repeat biopsy is being considered.

  14. Formation of translational risk score based on correlation coefficients as an alternative to Cox regression models for predicting outcome in patients with NSCLC

    OpenAIRE

    ElAidi Tina; Willms Arnulf; Fiebeler Anette; Kössler Wolfgang; Klosterhalfen Bernd; Klinge Uwe

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Background Personalised cancer therapy, such as that used for bronchial carcinoma (BC), requires treatment to be adjusted to the patient's status. Individual risk for progression is estimated from clinical and molecular-biological data using translational score systems. Additional molecular information can improve outcome prediction depending on the marker used and the applied algorithm. Two models, one based on regressions and the other on correlations, were used to investigate the ...

  15. An application of conditional logistic regression and multifactor dimensionality reduction for detecting gene-gene Interactions on risk of myocardial infarction: The importance of model validation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Coffey Christopher S

    2004-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background To examine interactions among the angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE insertion/deletion, plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (PAI-1 4G/5G, and tissue plasminogen activator (t-PA insertion/deletion gene polymorphisms on risk of myocardial infarction using data from 343 matched case-control pairs from the Physicians Health Study. We examined the data using both conditional logistic regression and the multifactor dimensionality reduction (MDR method. One advantage of the MDR method is that it provides an internal prediction error for validation. We summarize our use of this internal prediction error for model validation. Results The overall results for the two methods were consistent, with both suggesting an interaction between the ACE I/D and PAI-1 4G/5G polymorphisms. However, using ten-fold cross validation, the 46% prediction error for the final MDR model was not significantly lower than that expected by chance. Conclusions The significant interaction initially observed does not validate and may represent a type I error. As data-driven analytic methods continue to be developed and used to examine complex genetic interactions, it will become increasingly important to stress model validation in order to ensure that significant effects represent true relationships rather than chance findings.

  16. Coagulation factor XIII-A Val34Leu polymorphism and the risk of coronary artery disease and myocardial infarction in a Chinese Han population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guodong Jin; Beili Feng; Peng Chen; Oushan Tang; Jian Wang; Ji Ma; Yuping Shi; Geng Xu

    2011-04-01

    There are controversial data regarding the impact of coagulation factor XIII A subunit (FXIII-A) Val34Leu polymorphism in the pathogeneric of coronary artery disease (CAD) and myocardial infarction (MI). Assuming this genetic factor is associated with the thrombotic process, we explored the role of FXIII-A Val34Leu in CAD and MI in a Chinese Han population. We recruited 195 consecutive patients with CAD confirmed by coronary angiography as well as a group of 203 controls. Factor XIII A Val34Leu polymorphism was determined through polymerase chain reaction-single strand conformational polymorphism (PCR-SSCP) analysis. We did not find the Leu/Leu genotype in patients with CAD or controls. No significant difference in Val34Leu gene polymorphism distribution was found between patients with CAD and the controls (P = .923). Subgroup analysis according to the history of MI showed the heterozygote Val/Leu genotype was associated with a significantly decreased risk of MI (P = .005; adjusted odds ratio [OR] = 1.75; 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.28-2.25). Furthermore, our study displayed that the frequency of the Leu34 allele in a Chinese Han population was lower than that in Caucasian populations (2.5 vs 20.4%-28.3%). Our preliminary data indicate that the FXIII-A Leu34 allele may contribute to a protective effect against the development of MI. There is a low prevalence of the Leu34 allele in Han Chinese compared to Caucasians. PMID:20211923

  17. Validación del euroSCORE en la valoración del riesgo quirúrgico en un centro de referencia cardiovascular en Colombia / Validation of the EuroSCORE in assessing surgical risk in a Cardiovascular referral center in Colombia

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Roberto, Parga-Gómez; Giancarlo, Buitrago-Gutiérrez; Johnny, Roldán-Henao.

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available SciELO Mexico | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish Introducción y objetivos: El euroSCORE es el modelo predictivo de mortalidad en cirugía cardiovascular de mayor aceptación en todo el mundo. El objetivo del presente estudio fue validar estadísticamente este modelo tanto en sus variantes logística como aditiva, en un centro de referencia para cirugí [...] a cardiovascular en Colombia. Métodos: Estudio retrospectivo; se incluyeron a los pacientes de cirugía cardiaca mayor intervenidos durante los años 2007 a 2009 en el centro. Se determinó para cada paciente el riesgo de muerte tanto con el euroSCORE aditivo como con el logístico; se validó a partir de su capacidad de calibración y discriminación para comparar la mortalidad predicha con la observada, de manera global y para cada grupo de riesgo. Resultados: Se incluyeron 498 pacientes, 226 (45%) correspondientes a cirugía de revascularización miocárdica aislada y el resto a otras cirugías cardiovasculares mayores. La calibración del modelo fue de p = 0.8 para el aditivo y de 0.2 para el logístico. Las áreas bajo la curva receiver operating characteristic fueron de 0.85 para ambos modelos. La mortalidad global observada alcanzó el 7.03% mientras que la estimada fue 5.34% por el modelo logístico y 4.47% con el aditivo. Conclusiones: La predicción fue buena con los dos modelos, tanto de manera global como dentro de cada categoría de riesgo; el modelo logístico fue el más aproximado a la mortalidad observada. El euroSCORE ha sido validado satisfactoriamente en este centro de referencia en Colombia y los resultados permiten calificar bien el desempeño del programa de cirugía cardiovascular en este centro. Abstract in english Introduction and objectives: The euroSCORE is the predictive model of mortality in cardiovascular surgery more accepted worldwide. The objective of the present study was to statistically validate this model in both its logistic and additive variants in a cardiovascular referral center in Colombia. M [...] ethods: We included patients undergoing major cardiac surgery consecutively during the period of years 2007 and 2009 in the center. The risk of death was determined separately for each patient for both the additive euroSCORE and the logistic model. The capacity calibration of the model and its discrimination were calculated by comparing the observed with the predicted mortality, both overall and for each risk group. Results: Were included 498 patients, 226 (45%) of isolated CABG, and the rest other major cardiovascular surgical procedures. The calibration of the model was satisfactory (p = 0.8 and 0.2 additive and logistic). The discrimination was calculated with an area under the curve AUC of 0.85 for both models. The overall mortality reached 7.03% while 5.34% was estimated by the logistic model, and 4.47% with the additive one. The prediction was good with the two models both for overall and within each risk category, but it was more accurate in the logistic model. Conclusions: The euroSCORE has been successfully validated in this cardiovascular referral center. The results allow us to properly qualify the performance of this cardiovascular surgery program of Colombia.

  18. Value of Indian Diabetes Risk Score among Medical Students and Its Correlation with Fasting Plasma Glucose, Blood Pressure and Lipid Profile

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vardhan, Anand; Prabha M.R., Adhikari; Shashidhar M., Kotian; Shankar, Nithya; Gupta, Sandhya; Tripathy, Amruta

    2012-01-01

    Introduction The Indian Diabetes Risk Score is a tool which was devised by the Madras Diabetes Research Foundation to screen people for the risk of developing Diabetes mellitus; it comprises of the family history, the abdominal circumference, age and the physical activity. Aim of the Study This study was aimed at finding out whether the Indian Diabetes Risk Score (MDRF) correlated with the blood sugar levels, the lipid profile and the blood pressure readings of medical students. Methods Seventy five female and 75 male students who signed the informed consent were selected for the study. Their IDRS was calculated by using a validated questionnaire which involved the family history, the abdominal circumference, age and the details of the physical activity. All of them had their blood pressure, fasting plasma glucose and lipid profiles measured. Results There were 101 students with an IDRS of <30, 42 students with a moderate IDRS (30-50) and 7 who had a high IDRS of ?60. The fasting plasma glucose was significantly correlated with the IDRS (P=0.001, r = 0.472), with a mean FPG of 84 ± 3.63mg/dl in the low risk groups, of 88 ± 4.93mg/dl in the moderate risk groups and of 94 ± 6.50mg/dl in the high risk groups. The total cholesterol value was r = 0.420 (P= 0.001), the total triglycerides value was r = 0.373 (P=0.001), the LDL cholesterol value was r = 0.578 (P=0.001) and the VLDL value was r = 0.566 (P=0.001), which positively correlated with the risk score and the HDL value r = -0.480 (P=0.001) correlated negatively with the risk score. There was no correlation between the IDRS and the blood pressure. Conclusion Our study showed that nearly 40% of the medical students had a moderate to a high IDRS. The IDRS significantly correlated with the fasting plasma glucose and with all the components of the lipid profile. The IDRS did not correlate with the blood pressure readings. PMID:23285447

  19. Validation of a Risk-Based Biomarker-Enhanced Scoring System for Lower Respiratory Tract Infections (OPTIMA I Basel—An Observational Survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Werner C. Albrich

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Background: Despiteits recommendation in management guide lines for community acquired pneumonia (CAP, the CURB65 score is frequently not followed for disposition decisions in clinical routine. We therefore proposed an improved CURB65 A score, supplemented by proadre nome dull in (ProADM levels for patients with CAP and other lower respiratory tract infections (LRTIs. In this study, we vali dated this risk based biomarker enhanced disposition in patients with LRTIs presenting to the emergency department of the University Hospital of Basel. Methods: In this prospective observational cohort study of 85 patients presenting with LRTIs, site of care was decided by the physicians in charge according to their judgement. Retro spectively the CURB65 A score was calculated and a virtual disposition assigned. This was compared with the existing disposition in order to identify efficacy of the novel risk based biomarker enhanced disposition. Results: The novel disposition criteria considered 14 patients suitable for outpatient treatment compared to 11 in the current disposition (p = 0.5. It detected 7 patients to be best treated outside the hospital for nursing reasons, while the current disposition detected only 1 patient requiring geriatric care (p = 0.09. Further, it decreased regular hospitalizations considerably (32 vs. 64, p 0.001. Conclusions: The novel risk based biomarker enhanced disposition is an objective, safe and probably more efficient disposition system to identify outpatient treatment options than the current practice at the University Hospital of Basel.

  20. A Refined Risk Score for Acute Graft-versus-Host Disease that Predicts Response to Initial Therapy, Survival, and Transplant-Related Mortality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacMillan, Margaret L; Robin, Marie; Harris, Andrew C; DeFor, Todd E; Martin, Paul J; Alousi, Amin; Ho, Vincent T; Bolaños-Meade, Javier; Ferrara, James L M; Jones, Richard; Arora, Mukta; Blazar, Bruce R; Holtan, Shernan G; Jacobsohn, David; Pasquini, Marcelo; Socie, Gerard; Antin, Joseph H; Levine, John E; Weisdorf, Daniel J

    2015-04-01

    To develop a novel acute graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) risk score, we examined the GVHD clinical stage and grade of 1723 patients at the onset of treatment with systemic steroids. Using clinical grouping, descriptive statistics and recursive partitioning, we identified poorly responsive, high-risk (HR) acute GVHD by the number of involved organs and severity of GVHD at onset. The overall response (complete response/partial response) rate 28 days after initiation of steroid therapy for acute GVHD was lower in the 269 patients with HR-GVHD than in the 1454 patients with standard risk (SR)-GVHD (44% [95% confidence interval (CI) 38% to 50%] versus 68% [95% CI, 66% to 70%], P CI, .2 to .4; P CI, 1.7 to 2.6; P CI, 2.0% to 3.2%, P < .001) than patients with SR-GVHD. This refined definition of acute GVHD risk is a better predictor of response, survival, and transplant-related mortality than other published acute GVHD risk scores. Patients with HR-GVHD are candidates for studies investigating new treatment approaches. Likewise, patients with SR-GVHD are candidates for studies investigating less toxic therapy. PMID:25585275

  1. A inclusão do escore de risco na tomada de decisão em cardiopatia valvar / Inclusion of the risk score in decision making of valvular heart disease

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Ricardo, Casalino; Max, Grinberg.

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Languages: English, Portuguese Abstract in portuguese Fatos clínicos e dados numéricos sustentam interpretações sobre qualidade de vida e sobrevida no portador de cardiopatia valvar. Tais dados são úteis na tomada de decisão sobre interrupção da história natural e substituição por uma história pós-correção hemodinâmica. Competência e expertise interdis [...] ciplinar são exigidas para maximizar o resultado necessário e possível. Contudo, o ideal das recomendações para a obtenção do mais alto grau de satisfação terapêutica pelo portador de cardiopatia valvar sofre a influência de um conjunto de variáveis, parte ligadas a especificações do paciente, parte decorrentes de limitações dos métodos. O racional do escore de risco validado para marcadores múltiplos é o acréscimo de acurácia quantitativa à avaliação clínica prognóstica baseada na heterogeneidade da experiência individual e na intuição. Nesse contexto, o uso dos escores de riscos com função de predizer mortalidade pós-operatória são ferramentas úteis, de fácil aplicabilidade e que nos oferece dados objetivos sobre a situação do paciente. Das ferramentas disponíveis (EuroSCORE, STS score e Ambler Score) e utilizadas de forma assistencial, nenhuma apresenta validação em nossa população. Abstract in english Clinical facts and numerical data support interpretations of quality of life and survival in patients with valvular heart disease. Such data are useful in decision making regarding the interruption of natural history and replacement by a hemodynamic post-correction history. Interdisciplinary compete [...] nce and expertise are required to maximize the necessary and possible results. However, the ideal of recommendations to achieve the highest degree of therapeutic satisfaction by patients with valvular heart disease is influenced by a set of variables, related in part to the specifications of the patient, and part to the limitations of methods. The rationale of the risk score validated for multiple markers is the addition of quantitative accuracy to the clinical assessment based on the heterogeneity of individual experience and intuition. In this context, the use of risk scores to predict postoperative mortality are useful tools, easy to apply and that gives us objective data on the patient's situation. None of the available tools (EuroSCORE, STS score and Ambler Score) used in healthcare has been validated has in our population.

  2. Stage of cirrhosis predicts the risk of liver-related death in patients with low Model for End-Stage Liver Disease scores and cirrhosis awaiting liver transplantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wedd, Joel; Bambha, Kiran M; Stotts, Matt; Laskey, Heather; Colmenero, Jordi; Gralla, Jane; Biggins, Scott W

    2014-10-01

    The Model for End-Stage Liver Disease (MELD) score has reduced predictive ability in patients with cirrhosis and MELD scores???20. We aimed to assess whether a 5-stage clinical model could identify liver transplantation (LT) candidates with low MELD scores who are at increased risk for death. We conducted a case-control study of subjects with cirrhosis and MELD scores???20 who were awaiting LT at a single academic medical center between February 2002 and May 2011. Conditional logistic regression was used to evaluate the risk of liver-related death according to the cirrhosis stage. We identified 41 case subjects who died from liver-related causes with MELD scores???20 within 90 days of death while they were waiting for LT. The cases were matched with up to 3 controls (66 controls in all) on the basis of the listing year, age, sex, liver disease etiology, presence of hepatocellular carcinoma, and MELD score. The cirrhosis stage was assessed for all subjects: (1) no varices or ascites, (2) varices, (3) variceal bleeding, (4) ascites, and (5) ascites and variceal bleeding. The MELD scores were similar for cases and controls. Clinical states contributing to death in cases were: sepsis 49%, spontaneous bacterial peritonitis 15%, variceal bleeding 24%, and hepatorenal syndrome 22%. In a univariate analysis, variceal bleeding [odds ratio (OR)?=?5.6, P?=?0.003], albumin (OR?=?0.5, P?=?0.041), an increasing cirrhosis stage (P?=?0.003), reaching cirrhosis stage 2, 3, or 4 versus lower stages (OR?=?3.6, P?=?0.048; OR?=?7.4, P?scores awaiting LT may help to select candidates for more aggressive monitoring or for living or extended criteria donation. PMID:24916539

  3. Predicting risk of upper gastrointestinal bleed and intracranial bleed with anticoagulants: cohort study to derive and validate the QBleed scores

    OpenAIRE

    Hippisley-cox, Julia; Coupland, Carol

    2014-01-01

    Objective To develop and validate risk algorithms (QBleed) for estimating the absolute risk of upper gastrointestinal and intracranial bleed for patients with and without anticoagulation aged 21-99 years in primary care.

  4. Simulation model for enumeration of Salmonella on chicken as a function of PCR detection time score and sample size: implications for risk assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oscar, T P

    2004-06-01

    A data gap commonly identified in risk assessments is the lack of quantitative information on the contamination of food with pathogens. A simulation model that predicts the incidence and distribution of Salmonella contamination on chicken as a function of PCR detection time score and sample size was developed with data from challenge studies with preenrichment samples that were composed of 25 g of chicken and 225 ml of buffered peptone water inoculated with 10(0.7) to 10(6) Salmonella and incubated at 37 degrees C. At 0, 2, 4, 6, 8, 10, 12, and 24 h of incubation, subsamples were collected and tested for Salmonella by PCR, and a PCR detection time score based on the widths of the bands in the electrophoresis gel was obtained for each preenrichment sample. Standard curves relating PCR detection time score to initial density of Salmonella inoculated were developed for sterile and nonsterile preenrichment samples. Presence of other microorganisms in the preenrichment sample decreased the PCR detection time score at low (10(2) per 25 g) initial densities of Salmonella and resulted in a nonlinear standard curve rather than the linear standard curve obtained for sterile samples. The predicted incidence and distribution of Salmonella contamination on chicken increased in a nonlinear manner as sample size increased from 25 to 500 g. The new method reduced the time and cost of Salmonella enumeration by eliminating the selective enrichment, selective plating, and confirmation steps of the traditional most-probable-number method. Results are useful for risk assessment because they consider the uncertainty of the standard curve predictions and because they provide distributions of Salmonella contamination for different size samples of chicken that can be directly used in risk assessment. PMID:15222550

  5. Clinical significance of late high-degree atrioventricular block in patients with left ventricular dysfunction after an acute myocardial infarction--a Cardiac Arrhythmias and Risk Stratification After Acute Myocardial Infarction (CARISMA) substudy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gang, Uffe Jakob Ortved; JØns, Christian

    2011-01-01

    High-degree atrioventricular block (HAVB) is a frequent complication in the acute stages of a myocardial infarction associated with an increased rate of mortality. However, the incidence and clinical significance of HAVB in late convalescent phases of an AMI is largely unknown. The aim of this study was to assess the incidence and prognostic value of late HAVB documented by continuous electrocardiogram (ECG) monitoring in post-AMI patients with reduced left ventricular function.

  6. Nifedipine in acute myocardial infarction: an assessment of left ventricular function, infarct size, and infarct expansion. A double blind, randomised, placebo controlled trial.

    OpenAIRE

    Gottlieb, S. O.; Becker, L. C.; Weiss, J. L.; Shapiro, E. P.; Chandra, N. C.; Flaherty, J. T.; Gottlieb, S. H.; Ouyang, P.; Mellits, E. D.; Townsend, S. N.

    1988-01-01

    The influence of nifedipine on left ventricular ejection fraction, infarct size, and infarct expansion was studied in a prospective, double blind, randomised, placebo controlled trial in 132 patients with low risk acute myocardial infarction of less than 12 hours duration, defined by an initial left ventricular ejection fraction greater than 35% and clinical Killip class of less than or equal to II. Sixty four patients were assigned to nifedipine 120 mg/day and 68 to placebo. Treatment was st...

  7. Predictors of malignant brain edema in middle cerebral artery infarction observed on CT angiography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Hoon; Jin, Seon Tak; Kim, Young Woo; Kim, Seong Rim; Park, Ik Seong; Jo, Kwang Wook

    2015-03-01

    Patients with middle cerebral artery (MCA) infarction accompanied by MCA occlusion with or without internal carotid artery (ICA) occlusion have a poor prognosis, as a result of brain cell damage caused by both the infarction and by space-occupying and life-threatening edema formation. Multiple treatments can reduce the likelihood of edema formation, but tend to show limited efficacy. Decompressive hemicraniectomy with duroplasty has been promising for improving functional outcomes and reducing mortality, particularly improved functional outcomes can be achieved with early decompressive surgery. Therefore, identifying patients at risk for developing fatal edema is important and should be performed as early as possible. Sixty-four patients diagnosed with major MCA infarction with MCA occlusion within 8 hours of symptom onset were retrospectively reviewed. Early clinical, laboratory, and computed tomography angiography (CTA) parameters were analyzed for malignant brain edema (MBE). Twenty of the 64 patients (31%) had MBE, and the clinical outcome was poor (3month modified Rankin Scale >2) in 95% of them. The National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale (NIHSS) score, Alberta Stroke Program Early Computed Tomography Score, Clot Burden Score, and Collateral Score (CS) showed statically significant differences in both groups. Multivariable analyses adjusted for age and sex identified the independent predictors of MBE: NIHSS score >18 (odds ratio [OR]: 4.4, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.2-16.0, p=0.023) and CS on CTA <2 (OR: 7.28, 95% CI: 1.7-30.3,p=0.006). Our results provide useful information for selecting patients in need of aggressive treatment such as decompressive surgery. PMID:25510537

  8. Acute myocardial infarction in early postpartum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Vuyst, Elke; Preumont, Nicolas; Renard, Marc

    2012-08-01

    We present a case of acute anterior myocardial infarction in a breastfeeding woman, 10 days after delivery. The presumed cause was proximal left anterior artery vasospasm, induced by a combination of smoking a first cigarette in the early morning and salbutamol inhalation, in the particular context of peripartum. We discuss briefly the epidemiology, pathophysiology, risk factors, diagnosis, treatment and prognosis of myocardial infarction related to pregnancy and the postpartum period. PMID:22998003

  9. Impact of newly diagnosed abnormal glucose regulation on long-term prognosis in low risk patients with ST-elevation myocardial infarction: A follow-up study

    OpenAIRE

    Abdelnoor Michael; Seljeflot Ingebjørg; Knudsen Eva C; Eritsland Jan; Mangschau Arild; Müller Carl; Arnesen Harald; Andersen Geir Ø

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Background Patients with acute myocardial infarction and newly detected abnormal glucose regulation have been shown to have a less favourable prognosis compared to patients with normal glucose regulation. The importance and timing of oral glucose tolerance testing (OGTT) in patients with acute myocardial infarction without known diabetes is uncertain. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the impact of abnormal glucose regulation classified by an OGTT in-hospital and at three-...

  10. Heart surgery programs innovation using surgical risk stratification at the São Paulo State Public Healthcare System: SP-SCORE-SUS study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mejía, Omar Asdrúbal Vilca; Lisboa, Luiz Augusto Ferreira; Dallan, Luis Alberto Oliveira; Pomerantzeff, Pablo Maria Alberto; Trindade, Evelinda Marramon; Jatene, Fabio Biscegli; Kalil Filho, Roberto

    2013-06-01

    Cardiovascular diseases represent the greatest burden of morbidity and mortality for the health system and cardiac surgery has an important impact on their resolutivity. The association and correlation of patients' demographic and clinical relevant information with the resources required for each stratum represent the possibility to adapt, improve and innovate into the healthcare programs. This project aims to remodel the "InsCor" risk score for the formulation of the SP-SCORE (Sao Paulo System for Cardiac Operative Risk Evaluation) in order to better reflects the complexity of cardiac surgical care. The participating hospitals include the Health Technology Assessment Centers in of the Health Secretariat' HTA Network of São Paulo State (HTA-NATSs / SES-SP). The SP-SCORE will use 10 variables of the InsCor model and others 8 variables with presumed influence in Brazil. The primary endpoints are morbidity and mortality. Bootstrap technique besides automated selection of variables (stepwise) will be used to develop a parsimonious model by multiple logistic regression. This project will contribute for the SUS-SP regionalized health-care (RRAS) sustainability and financing of the CABG and/or heart valve surgery programs promoting equitable allocation, increasing access and effectiveness, as well as characterizing the magnitude of available resources and its impact. PMID:23939324

  11. Use of the probability of stone formation (PSF) score to assess stone forming risk and treatment response in a cohort of Brazilian stone formers

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Benjamin, Turney; William, Robertson; Oliver, Wiseman; Carmen Regina P. R., Amaro; Victor A., Leitão; Isabela Leme da, Silva; João Luiz, Amaro.

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in english Introduction The aim was to confirm that PSF (probability of stone formation) changed appropriately following medical therapy on recurrent stone formers. Materials and Methods Data were collected on 26 Brazilian stone-formers. A baseline 24-hour urine collection was performed prior to treatment [...] . Details of the medical treatment initiated for stone-disease were recorded. A PSF calculation was performed on the 24 hour urine sample using the 7 urinary parameters required: voided volume, oxalate, calcium, urate, pH, citrate and magnesium. A repeat 24-hour urine sample was performed for PSF calculation after treatment. Comparison was made between the PSF scores before and during treatment. Results At baseline, 20 of the 26 patients (77%) had a high PSF score (> 0.5). Of the 26 patients, 17 (65%) showed an overall reduction in their PSF profiles with a medical treatment regimen. Eleven patients (42%) changed from a high risk (PSF > 0.5) to a low risk (PSF 0.5) during both assessments. Conclusions The PSF score reduced following medical treatment in the majority of patients in this cohort.

  12. Mortality and cardiovascular risk associated with different insulin secretagogues compared with metformin in type 2 diabetes, with or without a previous myocardial infarction: a nationwide study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schramm, Tina Ken; Gislason, Gunnar Hilmar

    2011-01-01

    Aims The impact of insulin secretagogues (ISs) on long-term major clinical outcomes in type 2 diabetes remains unclear. We examined mortality and cardiovascular risk associated with all available ISs compared with metformin in a nationwide study. Methods and results All Danish residents >20 years, initiating single-agent ISs or metformin between 1997 and 2006 were followed for up to 9 years (median 3.3 years) by individual-level linkage of nationwide registers. All-cause mortality, cardiovascular mortality, and the composite of myocardial infarction (MI), stroke, and cardiovascular mortality associated with individual ISs were investigated in patients with or without previous MI by multivariable Cox proportional-hazard analyses including propensity analyses. A total of 107 806 subjects were included, of whom 9607 had previous MI. Compared with metformin, glimepiride (hazard ratios and 95% confidence intervals): 1.32 (1.24-1.40), glibenclamide: 1.19 (1.11-1.28), glipizide: 1.27 (1.17-1.38), and tolbutamide: 1.28 (1.17-1.39) were associated with increased all-cause mortality in patients without previous MI. The corresponding results for patients with previous MI were as follows: glimepiride: 1.30 (1.11-1.44), glibenclamide: 1.47 (1.22-1.76), glipizide: 1.53 (1.23-1.89), and tolbutamide: 1.47 (1.17-1.84). Results for gliclazide [1.05 (0.94-1.16) and 0.90 (0.68-1.20)] and repaglinide and [0.97 (0.81-1.15) and 1.29 (0.86-1.94)] were not statistically different from metformin in both patients without and with previous MI, respectively. Results were similar for cardiovascular mortality and for the composite endpoint. Conclusion Monotherapy with the most used ISs, including glimepiride, glibenclamide, glipizide, and tolbutamide, seems to be associated with increased mortality and cardiovascular risk compared with metformin. Gliclazide and repaglinide appear to be associated with a lower risk than other ISs.

  13. The impact of social status inconsistency on cardiovascular risk factors, myocardial infarction and stroke in the EPIC-Heidelberg cohort

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hermann Silke

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Social inequalities in cardiovascular diseases are well documented. Yet, the relation of social status inconsistency (having different ranks in two or more status indicators like education, occupational position or income and medical conditions of heart or vessels is not clear. Status inconsistency (SI is assumed to be stressful, and the association of psychosocial distress and health is well known. Therefore, we aimed to analyze the relationship between cardiovascular diseases (CVD and status inconsistency. Another target was to assess the influence of behaviour related risk factors on this association. Methods 8960 men and 6070 women, aged 45-65 years, from the EPIC-Heidelberg cohort (European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition were included. Socio-economic status was assessed by education/vocational training and occupational position at recruitment. During a median follow-up of 8.7 years, information on CVD was collected. Results Compared to status consistent subjects, men who were in a higher occupational position than could be expected given their educational attainment had a nearly two-fold increased incidence of CVD (Odds Ratio (OR = 1.8, 95% Confidence Interval (CI = 1.5; 2.4, adjusted for age. Smoking behaviour and BMI differed significantly between those who had adequate occupational positions and those who did not. Yet, these lifestyle factors, as opposed to age, did not contribute to the observed differences in CVD. No association of cardiovascular diseases and status inconsistency was found for women or in cases where education exceeded occupational position. Conclusions Status inconsistent men (occupational position > education had a higher risk of cardiovascular diseases than status consistent men. However, harmful behaviour did not explain this relationship.

  14. Metabolism and blood flow as new markers of myocardial viability in the evolution of myocardial infarction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Animal studies have shown that increased regional deoxyglucose F 18 (FDG) uptake as demonstrated by positron emission tomography (PET) in ischemic and reperfused myocardium reflects reversible tissue injury. Therefore, we studied patients with acute myocardial infarction to define the extent and severity of injury. Left ventricular segments with reduced blood flow and metabolism, as demonstrated by matching defects on flow and FDG uptake, revealed irreversible injury as evidenced by lack of functional recovery. In contrast, segments with reduced flow but maintained FDG uptake showed variable functional outcome with improvement of the average wall motion score. Thus, PET may be useful in identifying myocardium at risk which may benefit from therapeutic interventions. (orig.)

  15. Depressive Symptoms and Risk of New Cardiovascular Events or Death in Patients with Myocardial Infarction: A Population-Based Longitudinal Study Examining Health Behaviors and Health Care Interventions.

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Karen Kjær; Christensen, Bo

    2013-01-01

    Mange mennesker rammes af depression efter en blodprop i hjertet (AMI), og denne kombination er forbundet med en dårligere prognose. Dette studie er det første, der viser, at depression udgør en selv-stændig risikofaktor for tidlig død hos patienter med blodprop i hjertet. Undersøgelsen tyder dog ikke på, at der også er en øget risiko for at få nye hjertetilfælde. Resultaterne tager højde for andre faktorer, der spiller ind på helbredet - fx en sværere grad af hjerte¬sygdom, andre samtidige kroniske sygdomme, for lidt motion, rygning og et lavere medicinforbrug. Den nye viden kan blandt andet bruges til at skærpe opmærksomheden over for denne patientgruppe hos de praktiserende læger, hvor op mod 90 % af alle patienter med depression bliver diagnosticeret og behandlet. Background: Depressive symptoms is associated with adverse cardiovascular outcomes in patients with myocardial infarction (MI), but the underlying mechanisms are unclear and it remains unknown whether subgroups of patients are at a particularly high relative risk of adverse outcomes. We examined the risk of new cardiovascular events and/or death in patients with depressive symptoms following first-time MI taking into account other secondary preventive factors. We further explored whether we could identify subgroups of patients with a particularly high relative risk of adverse outcomes. Methods and Results: We conducted a prospective population-based cohort study of 897 patients discharged with firsttime MI between 1 January 2009 and 31 December 2009, and followed up until 31 July 2012. Depressive symptoms were found in 18.6% using the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS-D$8). A total of 239 new cardiovascular events, 95 deaths, and 288 composite events (239 new cardiovascular events and 49 deaths) occurred during 1,975 person-years of follow-up. Event-free survival was evaluated using Cox regression analysis. Compared to the 730 patients without depressive symptoms (HADS-D,8), the 167 patients with depressive symptoms (HADS-D$8) had age- and sex-adjusted hazard ratios [HR] (95% confidence interval [CI]) of 1.53 (95% CI, 1.14–2.05) for a new cardiovascular event, 3.10 (95% CI, 2.04–4.71) for death and 1.77 (95% CI, 1.36–2.31) for a composite event. The associations were attenuated when adjusted for disease severity, comorbid conditions and physical inactivity; HR = 1.17 (95% CI, 0.85–1.61) for a new cardiovascular event, HR = 2.01 (95% CI, 1.28–3.16) for death, and HR = 1.33 (95% CI, 1.00–1.76) for a composite event. No subgroups of patients had a particularly high risk of adverse outcomes. Conclusions: Depressive symptoms following first-time MI was an independent prognostic risk factor for death, but not for new cardiovascular events. We found no subgroups of patients with a particularly high relative risk of adverse outcomes.

  16. Correlación entre el sistema sanguineo ABO y riesgo de infarto agudo de miocardio Correlation between ABO blood system and risk of acute myocardial infarction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carla Toro Opazo

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Introducción: entre las enfermedades cardiovasculares (ECV se incluye el infarto agudo del miocardio (IAM, enfermedad que representa en la actualidad el 30 % del total de las defunciones mundiales. La predisposición individual y la presencia de factores de riesgo clásicos de ECV determinan la ocurrencia de un IAM; sin embargo, hay individuos que sufren un IAM y carecen de estos factores. Esto podría ser explicado por la presencia de factores de riesgo emergentes, entre los cuales encontramos al grupo sanguíneo ABO. Objetivo: determinar la frecuencia de los grupos del sistema sanguíneo ABO en pacientes con IAM y asociar la influencia que podría ejercer sobre el riesgo de padecer esta condición. Métodos: se seleccionaron 60 pacientes con diagnóstico de IAM y 60 sin antecedentes de IAM, a los cuales se les determinó el fenotipo y genotipo ABO. Se utilizó el Chi-cuadrado para establecer asociaciones entre el fenotipo ABO y la presencia de IAM. Los análisis de riesgo asociado fueron desarrollados calculando el odds ratio (OR con un intervalo de confianza del 95 %. Resultados: se encontró que en los individuos sin IAM existe una frecuencia del 71,7 % del fenotipo «O». En la categoría indicada como «No O» que incluye los fenotipos A, B y AB, se obtuvo un OR de 2,21 para IAM (IC 95 %: 1,04-4,72 p=0,038. En relación con el genotipo, los individuos con IAM que presentan genotipos heterocigotos para el alelo O tienen un OR de 3,17 (IC95 %: 1,09-9,17 p=0,034 respecto a los homocigotos. Se pudo establecer un grupo de bajo riesgo para IAM asociado al fenotipo-genotipo homocigoto O y un grupo de mayor riesgo conformado por los fenotipos-genotipos A, B y AB.Background: among cardiovascular diseases (CVD acute myocardial infarction (AMI is included, a disease that currently represents 30 % of total global deaths. The individual predisposition and the presence of traditional risk factors for CVD determine the occurrence of AMI, but there are individuals who suffer an AMI and without these factors. This could be explained by the presence of emerging risk factors, among which is the ABO system blood group. Aim: to assess the frequency of ABO blood group system in patients with AMI and to investigate the influence it could have on the risk of developing that condition. Methods: we selected 60 patients with a diagnosis of AMI and 60 with no history of AMI, to which were determined ABO group phenotype and genotype were determined. We used the Chi-square for association between ABO phenotype and the presence of AMI. The associated risk analysis was developed by calculating the odds ratio (OR with a confidence interval of 95 %. Results: it was found that in individuals without AMI exists a frequency of 71.7 % of the phenotype «O» exists. In the category marked «No O» phenotypes including A, B and AB, an OR of 2.21 for MI (95% CI 1.04 to 4.72 p = 0.038 was obtained. In relation to genotype, individuals presenting with AMI heterozygous genotypes for allele OR have an OR of 3.17 (95% CI: 1.09 to 9.17 p = 0.034 compared to homozygous. It was established A group of low risk for MI associated with the phenotype-genotype homozygous O and a higher risk group consists of the phenotypes, genotypes A, B and AB was established.

  17. Correlación entre el sistema sanguineo ABO y riesgo de infarto agudo de miocardio / Correlation between ABO blood system and risk of acute myocardial infarction

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Carla, Toro Opazo; Marcela, Vásquez Rojas; Roxana, Orrego Castillo; Mónica, Maldonado Rojas; Verónica, Mujica Escudero.

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available SciELO Cuba | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish Introducción: entre las enfermedades cardiovasculares (ECV) se incluye el infarto agudo del miocardio (IAM), enfermedad que representa en la actualidad el 30 % del total de las defunciones mundiales. La predisposición individual y la presencia de factores de riesgo clásicos de ECV determinan la ocur [...] rencia de un IAM; sin embargo, hay individuos que sufren un IAM y carecen de estos factores. Esto podría ser explicado por la presencia de factores de riesgo emergentes, entre los cuales encontramos al grupo sanguíneo ABO. Objetivo: determinar la frecuencia de los grupos del sistema sanguíneo ABO en pacientes con IAM y asociar la influencia que podría ejercer sobre el riesgo de padecer esta condición. Métodos: se seleccionaron 60 pacientes con diagnóstico de IAM y 60 sin antecedentes de IAM, a los cuales se les determinó el fenotipo y genotipo ABO. Se utilizó el Chi-cuadrado para establecer asociaciones entre el fenotipo ABO y la presencia de IAM. Los análisis de riesgo asociado fueron desarrollados calculando el odds ratio (OR) con un intervalo de confianza del 95 %. Resultados: se encontró que en los individuos sin IAM existe una frecuencia del 71,7 % del fenotipo «O». En la categoría indicada como «No O» que incluye los fenotipos A, B y AB, se obtuvo un OR de 2,21 para IAM (IC 95 %: 1,04-4,72 p=0,038). En relación con el genotipo, los individuos con IAM que presentan genotipos heterocigotos para el alelo O tienen un OR de 3,17 (IC95 %: 1,09-9,17 p=0,034) respecto a los homocigotos. Se pudo establecer un grupo de bajo riesgo para IAM asociado al fenotipo-genotipo homocigoto O y un grupo de mayor riesgo conformado por los fenotipos-genotipos A, B y AB. Abstract in english Background: among cardiovascular diseases (CVD) acute myocardial infarction (AMI) is included, a disease that currently represents 30 % of total global deaths. The individual predisposition and the presence of traditional risk factors for CVD determine the occurrence of AMI, but there are individual [...] s who suffer an AMI and without these factors. This could be explained by the presence of emerging risk factors, among which is the ABO system blood group. Aim: to assess the frequency of ABO blood group system in patients with AMI and to investigate the influence it could have on the risk of developing that condition. Methods: we selected 60 patients with a diagnosis of AMI and 60 with no history of AMI, to which were determined ABO group phenotype and genotype were determined. We used the Chi-square for association between ABO phenotype and the presence of AMI. The associated risk analysis was developed by calculating the odds ratio (OR) with a confidence interval of 95 %. Results: it was found that in individuals without AMI exists a frequency of 71.7 % of the phenotype «O» exists. In the category marked «No O» phenotypes including A, B and AB, an OR of 2.21 for MI (95% CI 1.04 to 4.72 p = 0.038) was obtained. In relation to genotype, individuals presenting with AMI heterozygous genotypes for allele OR have an OR of 3.17 (95% CI: 1.09 to 9.17 p = 0.034) compared to homozygous. It was established A group of low risk for MI associated with the phenotype-genotype homozygous O and a higher risk group consists of the phenotypes, genotypes A, B and AB was established.

  18. Escore de cálcio e angiotomografia coronariana na estratificação do risco cardiovascular Coronary artery calcium score and coronary computed tomographic angiography for cardiovascular risk stratification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clerio F. Azevedo

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available A doença cardiovascular representa a principal causa de mortalidade no mundo. A capacidade de identificar, dentre os indivíduos assintomáticos, o subgrupo que apresenta maior risco de desenvolver eventos cardiovasculares no futuro representa uma etapa fundamental em qualquer estratégia voltada para a diminuição da taxas de eventos cardiovasculares. O primeiro passo na estratificação do risco cardiovascular é a utilização dos "escores de risco global", dentre os quais o mais frequentemente utilizado é o escore de Framingham. Entretanto, estudos prévios demonstraram que embora muito ?teis, os escores clínicos, quando utilizados isoladamente, apresentam capacidade limitada de estratificação do risco cardiovascular em uma parcela significativa da população. É nesse contexto que o escore de cálcio (EC coronariano e a angiotomografia das artérias coronárias podem desempenhar papel importante como ferramentas complementares na estratificação de risco dos pacientes assintomáticos. O EC coronariano proporciona importantes informações prognósticas que são incrementais aos escores clínicos baseados nos fatores de risco tradicionais e a outras modalidades diagnósticas, como a dosagem da proteína C reativa, por exemplo. Além disso, o EC também tem o potencial de alterar a conduta e auxiliar no manejo cl?nico dos pacientes. Já a angiotomografia coronariana proporciona avaliação detalhada da anatomia das artérias coronárias, permitindo visualizar não apenas o lúmen, mas também as paredes arteriais coronarianas. Comparada à coronariografia invasiva convencional, a angiotomografia apresenta excelente acurácia para identificar e, principalmente, excluir a presença de lesões obstrutivas significativas. Adicionalmente, demonstrou-se capaz de proporcionar informações prognósticas incrementais aos fatores de risco tradicionais e ao EC coronariano.Cardiovascular disease is the leading mortality cause worldwide. The capacity to identify among the asymptomatic individuals the subgroup at greater risk for developing cardiovascular events is fundamental in any strategy aimed at reducing the rate of cardiovascular events. The first step in cardiovascular risk stratification is the use of global risk scores, the Framingham risk score being the most frequently used. However, previous studies have shown that, although very useful, clinical scores, when used alone, have a limited capacity for stratifying cardiovascular risk in a significant part of the population. In that context, coronary artery calcium score (CACS and coronary computed tomographic angiography might play an important role as complementary tools for risk stratification of asymptomatic patients. The CACS provides important prognostic information that is incremental to clinical scores based on traditional risk factors and other diagnostic modalities, such as C-reactive protein measurement. In addition, CACS has the potential to change and help the patients' clinical management. On the other hand, coronary computed tomographic angiography provides a detailed assessment of the anatomy of the coronary arteries, allowing visualizing not only the lumen, but also the coronary arterial walls. Compared with conventional invasive coronary angiography, coronary computed tomographic angiography has excellent accuracy to identify and mainly exclude the presence of significant obstructive lesions. In addition, it proved to be able to provide incremental prognostic information to traditional risk factors and CACS.

  19. Acute myocardial infarct imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A brief review is presented of radiopharmaceuticals used for imaging acute myocardial infarction and instrumentation using the rectilinear scanner and the scintillation camera. Clinical experience indicates that myocardial imaging with /sup 99 m/Tc pyrophosphate is a useful adjunct to the electrocardiogram and serum enzyme activity in managing patients with myocardial infarction. The technique allows rapid diagnosis, accurate localization, and an estimate of the size of acute infarcts. It can also be used to document infarct extension and in association with myocardial perfusion imaging can help differentiate fresh from old myocardial infarction

  20. Comparison of the efficacy of pharmacoinvasive management for ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction in smokers versus non-smokers (from the Trial of Routine Angioplasty and Stenting After Fibrinolysis to Enhance Reperfusion in Acute Myocardial Infarction).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Nigel S; Goodman, Shaun G; Cantor, Warren J; Tan, Mary K; Yan, Raymond T; Bagnall, Alan J; Mehta, Shamir R; Fitchett, David; Strauss, Bradley H; Yan, Andrew T

    2014-10-01

    Compared with non-smokers, cigarette smokers with ST-segment elevation myocardial infarctions derive greater benefit from fibrinolytic therapy. However, it is not known whether the optimal treatment strategy after fibrinolysis differs on the basis of smoking status. The Trial of Routine Angioplasty and Stenting After Fibrinolysis to Enhance Reperfusion in Acute Myocardial Infarction (TRANSFER-AMI) randomized patients with ST-segment elevation myocardial infarctions to a routine early invasive (pharmacoinvasive) versus a standard (early transfer only for rescue percutaneous coronary intervention or delayed angiography) strategy after fibrinolysis. The efficacy of these strategies was compared in 1,051 patients on the basis of their smoking status. Treatment heterogeneity was assessed between smokers and non-smokers, and multivariable analysis was performed to evaluate for an interaction between smoking status and treatment strategy after adjusting for baseline Global Registry of Acute Coronary Events (GRACE) risk score. Smokers (n=448) were younger, had fewer cardiovascular risk factors, and had lower GRACE risk scores. They had a lower rate of the primary composite end point of 30-day mortality, reinfarction, recurrent ischemia, heart failure, or cardiogenic shock and fewer deaths or reinfarctions at 6 months and 1 year. Smoking status was not a significant predictor of either primary or secondary end points in multivariable analysis. Pharmacoinvasive management reduced the primary end point compared with standard therapy in smokers (7.7% vs 13.6%, p=0.04) and non-smokers (13.1% vs 19.7%, p=0.03). Smoking status did not modify treatment effect on any measured outcomes (p>0.10 for all). In conclusion, compared with non-smokers, current smokers receiving either standard or early invasive management of ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction after fibrinolysis have more favorable outcomes, which is likely attributable to their better baseline risk profile. The beneficial treatment effect of a pharmacoinvasive strategy is consistent in smokers and non-smokers. PMID:25118119

  1. C-Reactive Protein Activates Complement in Infarcted Human Myocardium

    OpenAIRE

    Nijmeijer, Remco; Lagrand, Wim K.; Lubbers, Yvonne T. P.; Visser, Cees A.; Meijer, Chris J. L. M.; Niessen, Hans W. M.; Hack, C. Erik

    2003-01-01

    Circulating levels of C-reactive protein (CRP) constitute a cardiovascular risk marker. Immunohistochemical studies have revealed co-localization of CRP and activated complement in human infarcted myocardium suggesting CRP to enhance inflammation in ischemic myocardium by inducing local complement activation. The aim was to establish whether CRP activates complement in infarcted human myocardium and to assess the relationship between this activation and the duration of infarction. Myocardial ...

  2. Infarct size and recurrence of ventricular arrhythmias after defibrillator implantation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sutter, J. de; Tavernier, R.; Kazmierckzak, J.; Buyzere, M. de; Clement, D.L. [Department of Cardiology, University Hospital Gent, Gent (Belgium); Wiele, C. van de; Dierckx, R.A. [Department of Nuclear Medicine, University Hospital Gent (Belgium); Jordaens, L. [Thoraxcenter, University Hospital Rotterdam-Dijkzigt (Netherlands)

    2000-07-01

    Infarct size as determined by perfusion imaging is an independent predictor of mortality after implantable cardioverter defibrillator (ICD) implantation in patients with coronary artery disease (CAD) and life-threatening ventricular arrhythmias (VA). However, its value as a predictor of VA recurrence and hospitalisation after ICD implantation is unknown. Therefore, the objective of this study was to evaluate whether infarct size as determined by perfusion imaging can help to identify patients who are at high risk for recurrence of VA and hospitalisation after ICD implantation. We studied 56 patients with CAD and life-threatening VA. Before ICD implantation, all patients underwent a uniform study protocol including a thallium-201 stress-redistribution perfusion study. A defect score as a measurement of infarct size was calculated using a 17-segment 5-point scoring system. Study endpoints during follow-up were documented episodes of appropriate anti-tachycardia pacing and/or shocks for VA and cardiac hospitalisation for electrical storm (defined as three or more appropriate ICD interventions within 24 h), heart failure or angina. After a mean follow-up of 470{+-}308 days, 22 patients (39%) had recurrences of VA. In univariate analysis, predictors for recurrence were: (a) ventricular tachycardia (VT) as the initial presenting arrhythmia (86% vs 59% for patients without ICD therapy, P=0.04), (b) treatment with {beta}-blockers (36% vs 68%, P=0.03) and (c) a defect score (DS) {>=}20 (64% vs 32%, P=0.03). In multivariate analysis, VT as the presenting arrhythmia ({chi}2=5.51, P=0.02) and a DS {>=}20 ({chi}2=4.22, P=0.04) remained independent predictors. Cardiac hospitalisation was more frequent in patients with a DS {>=}20 (44% vs 13% for patients with DS <20, P=0.015) and this was particularly due to more frequent hospitalisations for electrical storm (24% vs 3% for patients with DS<20, P=0.037). The extent of scarring determined by perfusion imaging can separate patients with CAD into high- and low-risk groups for recurrence of VA and cardiac hospitalisation after ICD implantation. (orig.)

  3. Low-carbohydrate, high-protein diet score and risk of incident cancer : a prospective cohort study

    OpenAIRE

    Nilsson, Lena Maria; Winkvist, Anna; Johansson, Ingegerd; Lindahl, Bernt; Hallmans, Go?ran; Lenner, Per; Guelpen, Bethany

    2013-01-01

    Background: Although carbohydrate reduction of varying degrees is a popular and controversial dietary trend, potential long-term effects for health, and cancer in specific, are largely unknown. Methods: We studied a previously established low-carbohydrate, high-protein (LCHP) score in relation to the incidence of cancer and specific cancer types in a population-based cohort in northern Sweden. Participants were 62,582 men and women with up to 17.8 years of follow-up (median 9.7), including 3,...

  4. Escore de risco Dante Pazzanese para síndrome coronariana aguda sem supradesnivelamento do segmento ST / Dante Pazzanese risk score for non-st-segment elevation acute coronary syndrome / Score de riesgo dante pazzanese para síndrome coronario agudo sin supradesnivel del segmento ST

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Elizabete Silva dos, Santos; Ari, Timerman; Valéria Troncoso, Baltar; Maria Tereza Cabrera, Castillo; Marcos Paulo, Pereira; Luiz, Minuzzo; Leopoldo Soares, Piegas.

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Languages: English, Portuguese, Spanish Abstract in portuguese FUNDAMENTO: Em síndrome coronariana aguda (SCA), é importante estimar a probabilidade de eventos adversos. OBJETIVO: Desenvolver um escore de risco em uma população brasileira com SCA sem supradesnivelamento do segmento ST (SST). MÉTODOS: Foram avaliados prospectivamente 1.027 pacientes em um centro [...] brasileiro de cardiologia. Um modelo de regressão logística múltipla foi desenvolvido para prever o risco de morte ou de (re)infarto em 30 dias. A acurácia preditiva do modelo foi determinada pelo C statistic. RESULTADOS: O evento combinado ocorreu em 54 pacientes (5,3%). O escore foi criado pela soma aritmética de pontos dos preditores independentes, cujas pontuações foram designadas pelas respectivas probabilidades de ocorrência do evento. As seguintes variáveis foram identificadas: aumento da idade (0 a 9 pontos); antecedente de diabete melito (2 pontos) ou de acidente vascular cerebral (4 pontos); não utilização prévia de inibidor da enzima conversora da angiotensina (1 ponto); elevação da creatinina (0 a 10 pontos); e combinação de elevação da troponina I cardíaca e depressão do segmento ST (0 a 4 pontos). Foram definidos quatro grupos de risco: muito baixo (até 5 pontos); baixo (6 a 10 pontos); intermediário (11 a 15 pontos); e alto risco (16 a 30 pontos). O C statistic para a probabilidade do evento foi de 0,78 e para o escore de risco em pontuação de 0,74. CONCLUSÃO: Um escore de risco foi desenvolvido para prever morte ou (re)infarto em 30 dias em uma população brasileira com SCA sem SST, podendo facilmente ser aplicável no departamento de emergência. Abstract in spanish FUNDAMENTO: En el síndrome coronario agudo (SCA), es importante estimar la probabilidad de eventos adversos. OBJETIVO: Desarrollar un score de riesgo en una población brasileña con SCA sin supradesnivel del segmento ST (SST). MÉTODOS: Se evaluaron prospectivamente 1.027 pacientes en un centro brasil [...] eño de cardiología. Un modelo de regresión logística múltiple se desarrolló para prever el riesgo de muerte o de (re)infarto en 30 días. La exactitud predictiva del modelo fue determinada por el C statistic. RESULTADOS: El evento combinado ocurrió en 54 pacientes (5,3%). El score se creó por la suma aritmética de puntos de los predictores independientes, cuyos puntajes se designaron por las respectivas probabilidades de ocurrencia del evento. Se identificaron las siguientes variables: aumento de la edad (0 a 9 puntos); antecedente de diabetes mellitus (2 puntos) o de accidente vascular cerebral (4 puntos); no utilización previa de inhibidor de la enzima conversora de la angiotensina (1 punto); elevación de la creatinina (0 a 10 puntos); y combinación de elevación de la troponina I cardíaca y depresión del segmento ST (0 a 4 puntos). Se definieron cuatro grupos de riesgo: muy bajo (até 5 puntos); bajo (6 a 10 puntos); intermedio (11 a 15 puntos); y alto riesgo (16 a 30 puntos). El C statistic para la probabilidad del evento fue de 0,78 y para el score de riesgo en puntaje de 0,74. CONCLUSIÓN: Se desarrolló un score de riesgo para prever muerte o (re)infarto en 30 días en una población brasileña con SCA sin SST, pudiendo fácilmente se aplicable en el departamento de emergencia. Abstract in english BACKGROUND: The probability of adverse events estimate is crucial in acute coronary syndrome condition. OBJECTIVES: To develop a risk score for the brazilian population presenting non-ST-segment elevation acute coronary syndrome. METHODS: One thousand and twenty seven (1,027) patients were investiga [...] ted prospectively at a cardiology center in Brazil. A multiple logistic regression model was developed to estimate death or (re)infarction risk within 30 days. Model predictive accuracy was determined by C statistic. RESULTS: Combined event occurred in 54 patients (5.3%). The score was created by the arithmetic sum of independent predictors points. Points were determined by corresponding proba

  5. Cerebral infarctions manifesting as neonatal seizure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cerebral infarction is a common cause of seizures in neonates with a prevalence of I in 4000 live births. We report two neonates with different presentations due to cerebral infarction and discuss their etiological and neuroradiological findings in this case report. The initial signs were cyanosis and convulsion. In case 1, tonic convulsion, eye deviation, while case 2 had additionally poor sucking and dehydration as a risk factor. Their evaluation for hereditary causes of thrombosis was unremarkable. With these 2 cases, it is emphasized that neonatal cerebral infarction may be a cause of neonatal convulsion. Hence, neonates with cerebral infarction should be evaluated for hereditary conditions like protein C and S deficiency, anti-thrombin III deficiency, Factor V leiden mutation, prothrombin gene mutation and homocystinuria. (author)

  6. Score 2009

    Science.gov (United States)

    Objectives/Purpose: The SCORE 2009 workshop has been conducted annually for the past eight years. This workshop brings together key program personnel and site coordinators, research nurses, data managers, and quality assurance officers from institutions

  7. Escore para rastrear idosos (> 75 anos) de alto risco para doença arterial periférica / A risk score for predicting peripheral arterial disease in individuals 75 years or older

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Marcia, Makdisse; Luiz Roberto, Ramos; Frederico, Moreira; Anderson, Oliveira; Otavio, Berwanger; Alcione, Moscardi; Virginia, Junqueira; Evandro, Rodrigues; Antonio Carlos, Carvalho.

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Languages: English, Portuguese Abstract in portuguese FUNDAMENTO: A prevalência de doença arterial periférica (DAP) é elevada entre os idosos. A maioria é assintomática e o exame físico pouco sensível. No Brasil, os fatores associados à DAP em idosos são pouco conhecidos. OBEJETIVOS: Identificar os fatores associados à presença de doença arterial perif [...] érica (DAP) em idosos (> 75 anos) da comunidade e desenvolver um escore de predição da doença. MÉTODOS: Estudo transversal, aninhado em uma coorte prospectiva ("Epidoso"). Foram avaliados 176 idosos (> 75 anos) da comunidade. A presença de DAP foi definida por meio do índice tornozelo-braquial 75 anos) da comunidade com alto risco para DAP e que mereceriam investigação mais detalhada. Abstract in english BACKGROUND: The prevalence of peripheral arterial disease (PAD) in the elderly is high. Most are asymptomatic and the sensitivity of the physical exam is low. In Brazil, little is known in regard to PAD risk factors in the elderly. OBJECTIVES: To identify risk factors for PAD among elderly individua [...] ls (> 75 years) in the community and to develop a prediction score. METHODS: Cross-sectional, prospective, community-based study nested within a cohort study ("Epidoso"). A total of 176 individuals were assessed. PAD was defined as an ankle-brachial index 18 points defined the "high risk" individuals and yielded sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value and negative predictive value of 85.9%, 71.4%, 63.2% and 89.9%, respectively. Receiver-operator characteristic analysis yielded area under curve of 85%, indicating excellent discrimination and goodness-of-fit statistics indicated excellent calibration (p=0.639). CONCLUSION: Because of its good performance, the proposed score can become a simple and useful tool to identify elderly community residents at higher risk of PAD who should be considered for further investigation.

  8. The prediction of the in-hospital mortality of acutely ill medical patients by electrocardiogram (ECG) dispersion mapping compared with established risk factors and predictive scores--a pilot study.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Kellett, John

    2011-08-01

    ECG dispersion mapping (ECG-DM) is a novel technique that analyzes low amplitude ECG oscillations and reports them as the myocardial micro-alternation index (MMI). This study compared the ability of ECG-DM to predict in-hospital mortality with traditional risk factors such as age, vital signs and co-morbid diagnoses, as well as three predictive scores: the Simple Clinical Score (SCS)--based on clinical and ECG findings, and two Medical Admission Risk System scores--one based on vital signs and laboratory data (MARS), and one only on laboratory data (LD).

  9. Estudio de dos variantes de la puntuación de riesgo nutricional "NUTRIC" en pacientes criticos ventilados / Study of two variants of nutritional risk score "nutric" in ventilated critical patients

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Dino, Moretti; Daniel, Horacio Bagilet; Martín, Buncuga; Claudio Jesús, Settecase; Marta Beatriz, Quaglino; Rosana, Quintana.

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Introducción: La puntuación NUTRIC, propuesta para evaluar el riesgo de eventos adversos potencialmente modificables por la intervención nutricional en pacientes críticos, utiliza un biomarcador no siempre disponible, la Interleuquina-6 (IL-6). Objetivo: Estudiar en pacientes con asistencia ventilat [...] oria mecánica (AVM) dos variantes de la puntuación: NUTRIC-1 sin IL-6 y NUTRIC-2 con PCR como biomarcador. Métodos: Cohorte prospectiva observacional de 368 enfermos con AVM >24 horas. La capacidad predictiva de las dos variantes del NUTRIC se estudió mediante regresión logística binaria. El nivel de significación utilizado fue de 5%. Resultados: Edad promedio: 52 años, varones: 68%. APACHE II promedio: 20,73 puntos. Fallecidos en la UCI: 196 (53%). Tiempo de AVM promedio de los sobrevivientes: 8,55 días. NUTRIC-1 y NUTRIC-2 promedio en fallecidos - sobrevivientes: 4,23 - 3,06 (p = 0,000) y 4,68 -3,39 (p = 0,000). La mortalidad aumentó en relación al incremento de la puntuación (p = 0,000). Las AUC calculadas para NUTRIC-1 y NUTRIC-2 fueron 0,671 (IC 0,617-0,726) y 0,679 (IC 0,624-0,733). La PCR promedio fue superior en los pacientes fallecidos: 13,07 mg/dl - 8,97 mg/dl (p = 0,001), mejoró la correlación con los días de AVM (p 0,034 y p 0,010) e incremento el AUC en forma similar a la IL-6 en el trabajo original (0,008 y 0,007 respectivamente). Conclusión: Las dos variantes de la puntuación estudiadas se comportaron en forma similar al NUTRIC original. La incorporación de la PCR mejora el rendimiento de dicha puntuación y podría ser una alternativa a la IL-6, de no estar disponible. Abstract in english Introduction: The NUTRIC score was proposed to assess the risk of adverse events potentially modifiable through nutritional intervention in critically ill patients. This score uses interleukin-6 (IL-6), a biomarker not always available. Objective: To study two variants of the score in patients with [...] assisted mechanical ventilation (AMV): NUTRIC-1 without IL-6 and NUTRIC-2 with CRP as biomarker. Methods: Observational prospective cohort with 368 patients with AMV >24 hours. The predictive capacity of both NUTRIC scores was studied by binary logistic regression. The significance level was set at 5%. Results: mean age, 52 years; males 68%. Mean APACHE II score: 20.73 points. Death at the ICU: 196 (53%). Mean time on AMV of the survivals: 8.55 days. Mean NUTRIC-1 and NUTRIC-2 in the deceased-survivors: 4.23 - 3.06 (p = 0.000) and 4.68 -3.39 (p = 0.000). The mortality increased in relation to the score (p = 0.000). The calculated AUC for NUTRIC-1 and NUTRIC-2 were 0.671 (CI 0.617-0.726) and 0.679 (CI 0.6240.733). The mean CRP was higher in deceased patients: 13.07 mg/dL - 8.97 mg/dL (p = 0.001), the correlation improved with more days on AMV (p = 0.034 and p = 0.010) and the AUC increased in a similar way to IL-6 in the original work (0.008 and 0.007, respectively). Conclusion: The two studied variants of the NUTRIC score behaved similarly to the original NUTRIC score. The addition of the CRP improves the score performance and may be an alternative to IL-6, if it is not available.

  10. Weighted Risk Score-Based Multifactor Dimensionality Reduction to Detect Gene-Gene Interactions in Nasopharyngeal Carcinoma

    OpenAIRE

    Chao-Feng Li; Fu-Tian Luo; Yi-Xin Zeng; Wei-Hua Jia

    2014-01-01

    Determining the complex relationships between diseases, polymorphisms in human genes and environmental factors is challenging. Multifactor dimensionality reduction (MDR) has been proven to be capable of effectively detecting the statistical patterns of epistasis, although classification accuracy is required for this approach. The imbalanced dataset can cause seriously negative effects on classification accuracy. Moreover, MDR methods cannot quantitatively assess the disease risk of genotype c...

  11. Thrombolytic Therapy in Patients with Acute Myocardial Infarction in Cienfuegos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lázaro Abilio Hernández Rodríguez

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: thrombolytic therapy performed less than two hours after the onset of infarction exhibits results similar to mechanical reperfusion therapy. Objectives: to describe relevant aspects of thrombolytic therapy in patients with ST-segment elevation acute myocardial infarction in Cienfuegos. Methods: a descriptive, prospective study was conducted with 225 patients discharged (alive and dead from the Comprehensive Cardiac Care Unit and the Polyvalent Intensive Care Unit of the Dr. Gustavo Aldereguía Lima Hospital during April 1, 2012-March 31, 2013. The variables were obtained from the review of medical records and they included: demographic and clinical variables, time delays, setting, reasons for exclusion and priority level for thrombolysis. Results: mean age was over 60 years. Hypertensive men at high risk according to the GRACE score predominated. Twenty-nine point seven percent of the patients did not receive thrombolytic therapy, mostly due to the time factor and the majority (82.3 % was treated in the hospital. Median delays: symptoms-door, door-drug and symptoms-drug were 90, 35 and 140 minutes respectively. Conclusions: out-of-hospital thrombolytic therapy shortens the total time of ischemia, but few patients benefited from it. Delays in thrombolytic therapy in Cienfuegos are still above the required standards.

  12. Potentially modifiable risk factors for acute kidney injury after surgery on the thoracic aorta: a propensity score matched case-control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Won Ho; Park, Mi Hye; Kim, Hyo-Jin; Lim, Hyun-Young; Shim, Haeng Seon; Sohn, Ju-Tae; Kim, Chung Su; Lee, Sangmin M

    2015-01-01

    Perioperative risk factors were identified for acute kidney injury (AKI) defined by the RIFLE criteria (RIFLE = risk, injury, failure, loss, end stage) after surgery on the thoracic aorta with cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB) in this case-control study. A retrospective review was completed for 702 patients who underwent surgery on the thoracic aorta with CPB. A total of 183 patients with AKI were matched 1:1 with patients without AKI by a propensity score. Matched variables included age, gender, body-mass index, preoperative creatinine levels, estimated glomerular filtration rate, a history of hypertension, diabetes mellitus, cerebrovascular accident, smoking history, or chronic obstructive pulmonary disease to exclude the influence of patient demographics, preoperative medical status, and baseline renal function. Multivariate logistic regression analysis was used to evaluate for independent risk factors in the matched sample of 366 patients. The incidence of AKI was 28.6% and 5.9% of patients from the entire sample required renal replacement therapy. AKI was associated with a prolonged postoperative hospital stay and a higher one-month and one-year mortality both in the entire and matched sample set. Independent risk factors for AKI were a left ventricular ejection fraction 7 hours, deep hypothermic circulatory arrest (DHCA) time >30 min, pRBC transfusion >1000 mL, and FFP transfusion >500 mL. Although the incidence of poor glucose control (blood glucose >180 mg/dL) was higher in patients with AKI in matched sample, it was not an independent risk factor.AKI was still associated with a poor clinical outcome in the matched sample. Potentially modifiable risk factors included preoperative anemia and hypoalbuminemia. Efforts to minimize operation time and DHCA time along with transfusion amount may protect patients undergoing aortic surgery against AKI. PMID:25590836

  13. The TIMI risk score for STEMI predicts in-hospital mortality and adverse events in patients without cardiogenic shock undergoing primary angioplasty / La escala de riesgo TIMI para infarto del miocardio con elevación del segmento ST predice mortalidad y eventos adversos intrahospitalarios en pacientes sin choque cardiogénico sometidos a angioplastía coronaria

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Héctor, González-Pacheco; Alexandra, Arias-Mendoza; Amada, Álvarez-Sangabriel; Úrsulo, Juárez-Herrera; Félix, Damas; Guering, Eid-Lidt; Francisco, Azar-Manzur; Carlos, Martínez-Sánchez.

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available SciELO Mexico | Language: English Abstract in spanish Introducción: Los pacientes con infarto agudo del miocardio con elevación del segmento ST (IAM CEST), son una población heterogénea por lo que toca al riesgo de eventos adversos. La intervención coronaria percutánea (ICP) primaria mostró ser mejor, principalmente en los pacientes de riesgo alto. Obj [...] etivo: La propuesta de este estudio fue determinar si la escala de riesgo de trombólisis en infarto del miocardio (TIMI) para IAM CEST, aplicado a los pacientes sometidos a ICP primaria, identifica a grupos de pacientes de riesgo alto de eventos adversos. Métodos: Se identificaron a pacientes con IAM CEST sin choque cardiogénico al ingreso, quienes fueron tratados con ICP primaria. Se calcularon las escalas de riesgo TIMI y CADILLAC (Controlled Abciximab and Device Investigation to Lower Late Angioplasty Complications), para determinar su valor predictivo de mortalidad intrahospitalaria. Los pacientes se dividieron en dos grupos de acuerdo a su escala de riesgo TIMI, riesgo bajo con 0-4 puntos y riesgo alto con ?5 puntos, se analizó la frecuencia de eventos adversos. Resultados: Se analizaron 572 pacientes con IAM CEST. El valor predictivo del estadístico C de la escala de riesgo TIMI para mortalidad fue de 0.80 (p=0.0001), y la escala de riesgo CADILLAC fue de 0.83, (p=0.0001). El 32% de los pacientes clasificados como riesgo alto (TIMI ?5), tuvo una alta incidencia de eventos adversos comparada con el grupo de riesgo bajo: la mortalidad 14.8% vs. 2.1%, (p=0.0001); falla cardiaca 15.3% vs. 4.1%, (p=0.0001); desarrollo de choque cardiogénico 10.9% vs. 1.5%, (p=0.0001); arritmias ventriculares 14.8% vs. 5.9%, (p=0.001), y fenómeno de no reflujo 22.4% vs. 13.6%, (p=0.01). Conclusiones: La escala de riesgo TIMI para IAM CEST, previo a ICP primaria puede predecir mortalidad intrahospitalaria e identificar a un grupo de pacientes de riesgo alto, los cuales pueden desarrollar eventos adversos. Abstract in english Introduction: Patients with ST elevation acute myocardial infarction (STEMI) comprise a heterogeneous population with respect to the risk for adverse events. Primary percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) has shown to be better, mainly in high-risk patients. Objective: The purpose of this study wa [...] s to determine if the Thrombolysis in Myocardial Infarction (TIMI) risk score for STEMI applied to patients undergo primary PCI identifies a group of patients at high risk for adverse events. Methods: We identifed patients with STEMI without cardiogenic shock on admission, who were treated with primary PCI. The TIMI and CADILLAC (Controlled Abciximab and Device Investigation to Lower Late Angioplasty Complications) risk scores were calculated to determine their predictive value for in hospital mortality. Patients were divided into two groups according to their TIMI risk score, low risk being 0-4 points and high risk ?5 points, and the frequency of adverse events was analyzed. Results: We analyzed 572 patients with STEMI. The c-statistics predictive value of the TIMI risk score for mortality was 0.80 (p=0.0001) and the CADILLAC risk score was 0.83, (p=0.0001). Thirty-two percent of patients classifed as high risk (TIMI ?5) had a higher incidence of adverse events than the low-risk group: mortality 14.8% vs. 2.1%, (p=0.0001); heart failure 15.3% vs. 4.1%, (p=0.0001); development of cardiogenic shock 10.9% vs. 1.5%, (p=0.0001); ventricular arrhythmias 14.8% vs. 5.9%, (p=0.001); and no-refow phenomenon 22.4% vs. 13.6%, (p=0.01). Conclusions: The TIMI risk score for STEMI prior to primary PCI can predict in hospital mortality and identifes a group of high-risk patients who might develop adverse events.

  14. A risk-scoring scheme for suicide attempts among patients with bipolar disorder in a Thai patient cohort

    OpenAIRE

    Patumanond J; Pumpaisalchai W; Mahatnirunkul S; Niwatananun W; Sanichwankul K; Ruengorn C

    2012-01-01

    Chidchanok Ruengorn1,2, Kittipong Sanichwankul3, Wirat Niwatananun2, Suwat Mahatnirunkul3, Wanida Pumpaisalchai3, Jayanton Patumanond11Clinical Epidemiology Program, Faculty of Medicine, Chiang Mai University, Chiang Mai, Thailand; 2Department of Pharmaceutical Care, Faculty of Pharmacy, Chiang Mai University, Chiang Mai, Thailand; 3Suanprung Psychiatric Hospital, Chiang Mai, ThailandBackground: In Thailand, risk factors associated with suicide attempts in bipolar disorder (BD) are rarely inv...

  15. The Association between Ergonomic Risk Factors, RULA Score, and Musculoskeletal Pain among School Children: A Preliminary Result

    OpenAIRE

    Syazwan Aizat Ismail; Shamsul Bahri Tamrin; Zailina Hashim

    2009-01-01

    A study was done to investigate the risk factors associated with musculoskeletal disorder (MSD) among school childrenin Malaysia. Two schools in the Klang Valley and one in Johor Bahru were selected. A cross sectional study was donebaginning February 2009 until May 2009. Two hundred and twenty nine pupils among 2nd Grade (age 8 years) and 5thGrade (age 11 years) from three school were selected to participate in this study. Musculoskeletal symptoms wererecorded using Modified Nordiq Body Map Q...

  16. The risk of venous thromboembolism, myocardial infarction, stroke, major bleeding and death in patients undergoing total hip and knee replacement : a 15-year retrospective cohort study of routine clinical practice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, A B; Mehnert, F

    2014-01-01

    We examined the risk of thrombotic and major bleeding events in patients undergoing total hip and knee replacement (THR and TKR) treated with thromboprophylaxis, using nationwide population-based databases. We identified 83 756 primary procedures performed between 1997 and 2011. The outcomes were symptomatic venous thromboembolism (VTE), myocardial infarction (MI), stroke, death and major bleeding requiring hospitalisation within 90 days of surgery. A total of 1114 (1.3%) and 483 (0.6%) patients experienced VTE and bleeding, respectively. The annual risk of VTE varied between 0.9% and 1.6%, and of bleeding between 0.4% and 0.8%. The risk of VTE and bleeding was unchanged over a 15-year period. A total of 0.7% of patients died within 90 days, with a decrease from 1% in 1997 to 0.6% in 2011 (p < 0.001). A high level of comorbidity and general anaesthesia were strong risk factors for both VTE and bleeding, with no difference between THR and TKR patients. The risk of both MI and stroke was 0.5%, which remained unchanged during the study period. In this cohort study of patients undergoing THR and TKR patients in routine clinical practice, approximately 3% experienced VTE, MI, stroke or bleeding. These risks did not decline during the 15-year study period, but the risk of dying fell substantially.

  17. Infarction of the Corpus Callosum: A Retrospective Clinical Investigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bai, Yu-meng; Qin, Hua-min; Wu, Xiao-mei; Zhang, Xiao; Jolkkonen, Jukka; Boltze, Johannes; Wang, Su-ping

    2015-01-01

    Objectives The aim of this study was to investigate patients with ischemic infarctions in the territory of the corpus callosum to advance our understanding of this rare stroke subtype by providing comprehensive descriptive and epidemiological data. Methods From January 1, 2010 to June 30, 2014, all cases of acute ischemic stroke diagnosed by clinical manifestation and diffusion weighted imaging in Dalian Municipal Central Hospital were investigated. The patients presenting with corpus callosum infarctions were selected and further allocated into genu and/or body and splenium infarction groups. Proportion, lesion patterns, clinical features, risk factors and etiology of corpus callosum infarction were analyzed. Results Out of 1,629 cases, 59 patients (3.6%) with corpus callosum infarctions were identified by diffusion weighted imaging, including 7 patients who had ischemic lesions restricted to the corpus callosum territory. Thirty six patients had lesions in the splenium (61.0%). Corpus callosum infarction patients suffered from a broad spectrum of symptoms including weakness and/or numbness of the limbs, clumsy speech, and vertigo, which could not be explained by lesions in corpus callosum. A classical callosal disconnection syndrome was found in 2 out of all patients with corpus callosum infarctions. Statistical differences in the risk factor and infarct pattern between the genu and/or body group and splenium group were revealed. Conclusion Corpus callosum infarction and the callosal disconnection syndrome were generally rare. The most susceptible location of ischemic corpus callosum lesion was the splenium. Splenium infarctions were often associated with bilateral cerebral hemisphere involvement (46.2%). The genu and/or body infarctions were associated with atherosclerosis. The most common cause of corpus callosum infarction probably was embolism. PMID:25785450

  18. The insertion/deletion variation in the ?2B-adrenoceptor does not seem to modify the risk for acute myocardial infarction, but may modify the risk for hypertension in sib-pairs from families with type 2 diabetes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Orho-Melander Marju

    2003-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background An insertion/deletion polymorphism in the ?2B-adrenoceptor (AR has been associated with the risk for acute myocardial infarction (AMI and sudden cardiac death. In this study we tested whether this polymorphism is associated with the risk for AMI among members of families with type 2 diabetes. Methods 154 subjects with a history of AMI were matched for age and sex with one of their siblings who did not have a history of AMI. The prevalence of the genotypes of the ?2B-AR insertion/deletion polymorphism was compared between the siblings using McNemar's test. We also explored the data to see whether this genetic variation affects the risk for hypertension by using logistic regression models in the two subpopulations of subjects, with and without a history of AMI. Results Among all study subjects, 73 (24% carried the ?2B-AR deletion/deletion genotype, 103 (33% carried the insertion/insertion genotype, and 132 (43% were heterozygous. The distribution of genotypes of the ?2B-AR insertion/deletion variation in the group of subjects with a history of AMI and their phenotype-discordant siblings did not statistically significantly differ from that expected by random distribution (p = 0.52: the deletion/deletion genotype was carried by 34 subjects with AMI (22%, and by 39 subjects without AMI (25%. Neither did we observe any significant difference in deletion allele frequencies of the ?2B-AR insertion/deletion polymorphism between patients with a history of AMI (0.44 and their sib-pair controls (0.46, p = 0.65. In an exploratory analysis, the ?2B-AR deletion/deletion genotype was associated with increased odds for hypertension compared with subjects carrying any of the other genotypes. Conclusions The deletion/deletion genotype of the ?2B-AR does not emerge in this study as a risk factor for AMI among members of families with type 2 diabetes; however, it might be involved in the development of hypertension.

  19. Neuropsychological Deficits, Depression and Type a Behavior Pattern in Patients with Myocardial Infarction

    OpenAIRE

    Antony, Sherin P.; Joseph, M. I.

    2013-01-01

    In cardiovascular disease, which is one of the leading causes of death in developing countries, the majority of deaths are due to myocardial infarction (MI). Myocardial infarction occurs when the blood supply to parts of the heart is interrupted causing some heart cells to die. Myocardial infarction may lead to cognitive deficits. The main causes or risk factors of myocardial infarction are hypertension, diabetes mellitus and tobacco use. Psychosocial factors such as Type A behavior pattern o...

  20. The Association between Ergonomic Risk Factors, RULA Score, and Musculoskeletal Pain among School Children: A Preliminary Result

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Syazwan Aizat Ismail

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available A study was done to investigate the risk factors associated with musculoskeletal disorder (MSD among school childrenin Malaysia. Two schools in the Klang Valley and one in Johor Bahru were selected. A cross sectional study was donebaginning February 2009 until May 2009. Two hundred and twenty nine pupils among 2nd Grade (age 8 years and 5thGrade (age 11 years from three school were selected to participate in this study. Musculoskeletal symptoms wererecorded using Modified Nordiq Body Map Questionnaires; Tanita weight measurement was used to measure schoolbag weight and students’ weight. Modified Rapid Upper Limb Assessment (RULA was used to assess the awkwardposture of the students’ torso namely bending forward movement, leaning, sitting and twisting. A high prevalence ofMSD among school children aged 11 years old (5th grade was found (68.0% compared to 8 years old (2nd grade with36.4%. Result also showed that 31.8% of 2nd grade and 62.2% of 5th grade students experience upper MSD. LowerMSD complains showed 5th grade students are at higher percentage than 2nd grade with 45.5% and 20.9% respectively.Logistic regression analysis controlling for body mass index, sport injuries and history of major accidents revealed thatthe following factors were related to MSD: home activities (involving television (TV watching and personal computer(PC used [1.889, 95% CI 1.081 – 3.301] and bag perception complain among school children [2.148, 95% CI 1.086 –4.247]. For specific MSD symptoms it was found that the duration of home activities using PC or TV exceeding 2 hourswas the main the risk factor of upper MSD among school children [4.923, 95% CI 1.188-20.389]. In conclusion,combination of risks leads to high increase of MSD among school children in Malaysia.

  1. A Study on Distribution and Determinants of Indian Diabetic Risk Score (IDRS Among Rural Population of West Bengal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ranadip Chowdhury

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: The burden of diabetes is expected to increase by 58%, from 51 million people in 2010 to 87 million in 2030. In rural India the prevalence rate has increased from 1% to 4-10% over last 20 years. IDRS is a cost-effective & simple method for identifying undiagnosed diabetic subject at community level. Objectives: To find out the distribution of IDRS among the study population and to determine the association of IDRS with socio-demographic & anthropometric factors. Methods: This community based cross-sectional study was carried out in the rural practice area of (Daspara, Amdanga Block Dept. of Community Medicine, R.G.Kar Medical College among 250 undiagnosed diabetic people aged ? 20 years in August’11 by using a predesigned & pretested schedule containing age, Physical activity, H/o Diabetes in family sex& waist circumference (IDRS component and religion, SE status, , blood pressure and various anthropometric measurements. Results: Out of 250, 235 (94% responded. 133(56.6% were females & 102 (43.4% were males. 108 (46% had moderate risk (IDRS 30-50; 74(31.5% had high risk (IDRS?60 and 53(22.6% had low risk (IDRS<30. In Multinomial Logistic Regression if low IDRS is compared with moderate IDRS female sex (OR-.183, BMI, hypertension (OR-.194 were found to be statistically significant and if low IDRS is compared with high IDRS female sex (OR-.202 , hypertension (OR-.13 & BMI were found to be statistically significant. By doing multinomial logistic regression hip circumference was also found to be statistical significantly associated with IDRS in both male and female. Conclusion: As the study finds that percentage of low IDRS is low among the three categories of IDRS, it is essential to implement the simple IDRS tool in the community for mass screening so that proper intervention can be carried out to reduce the burden of diabetes. [National J of Med Res 2012; 2(3.000: 282-286

  2. Score Correlation.

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Fabián, Zden?k

    2010-01-01

    Ro?. 20, ?. 6 (2010), s. 793-798. ISSN 1210-0552 R&D Projects: GA ?R GA205/09/1079 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10300504 Keywords : score function * correlation * rank correlation coefficient * heavy tails Subject RIV: BB - Applied Statistics, Operational Research Impact factor: 0.511, year: 2010

  3. Hemorragia digestiva alta no varicosa: comportamiento e índice de Rockall / Behavior and Rockall risk scoring in the non-variceal upper gastrointestinal bleeding

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    John, Karol Ramírez; Berta María, Menéndez Rivera; Roberto, Cobiellas Rodríguez.

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Introducción: la hemorragia digestiva alta no varicosa es actualmente una emergencia quirúrgica de difícil manejo, hecho que motivó el conocer su comportamiento y, usando el índice de Rockall, el riesgo de los afectados de sufrir resultados adversos durante su evolución, aquellos de posible alta pre [...] coz y las causas que la impiden. Métodos: estudio descriptivo de corte transversal realizado en el Hospital General Docente "Ernesto Guevara de la Serna" con 182 pacientes atendidos entre 2009 y 2010. Resultados: los hombres fueron los más afectados (54,4 %) y el grupo de 60-80 años tuvo el mayor número de casos. La úlcera gastroduodenal fue la primera causa (52,7 %). La melena se presentó como manifestación inicial en el 60,4 % de los pacientes. La hipertensión arterial fue la comorbilidad más frecuente (60,7 %). El 44,5 % de los pacientes necesitó transfusión sanguínea. La mortalidad fue del 8,2 %. La mayor parte de la muestra se ubicó en el grupo de riesgo intermedio de Rockall (40,1 %). Recibió alta precoz solo el 11,5 % de los pacientes, y la inestabilidad hemodinámica (38 %) fue la mayor responsable de este bajo número. El Rockall tuvo sensibilidad del 98,3 %, especificidad del 56,9 %, valor predictivo positivo del 52,3 %, valor predictivo negativo del 98,6 % y una exactitud del 70,9 %. En los pacientes clasificados de bajo riesgo la única complicación fue la recidiva (1,4 %). Conclusiones: el alta precoz puede ser dada a pacientes con Rockall bajo, siempre que se preste especial atención a la estabilidad hemodinámica. Abstract in english Introduction: Non-variceal upper gastrointestinal bleeding is a current surgical emergency of difficult management. This fact prompted the authors to find out its behavior and to use Rockall risk scoring system to determine the risk of suffering adverse effects during the recovery period, those pati [...] ents that may be early discharged and the causes that prevent it. Methods: Cross-sectional descriptive study conducted in 182 patients from "Ernesto Guevara de la Serna" general teaching hospital, who were seen in the period of 2009 through 2010. Results: Males were the most affected (54.4 %) and the 60-80 years age group registered the highest number of cases. Gastroduodenal ulcer was the first cause (52.7 %). The initial manifestation was tarry stools in 64 % of cases. Blood hypertension was the most frequent comorbidity (60.7%). In the study group, 44.5% of patients needed blood transfusion. The mortality rate was 8.2 %. Most of patients were classified as intermediate risk cases according to Rockall system (40.1 %). Just 11.5 % of patients were early discharged since the hemodynamic instability (38 %) was the main responsible for this low number. Rockall risk scoring system showed 98.3% sensitivity, 56.9% specificity, 52.3 % positive predictive value, 98.6% negative predictive value and 70.9 % accuracy. The only complication in low risk patients were relapse (1.4 %). Conclusions: Early discharge from hospital occurs in low Rockall risk score patients provided that special attention is paid to hemodynamic stability.

  4. Internal Model of Commercial Bank as an Instrument for Measuring Credit Risk of the Borrower in Relation to Financial Performance (Credit Scoring and Bankruptcy Models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Belás Jaroslav

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Commercial banks generally use different methods and procedures for managing credit risk. The internal rating method in which the client has an important position in the process of granting credit provides a comprehensive assessment of client creditworthiness. The aim of this article is to analyze selected theoretical, methodological and practical aspects of internal rating models of commercial banks within the context of models that measures financial performance and to make a comparison of results of real - rating models which are used in the Czech Republic and Slovakia. The results of the chosen credit scoring and bankruptcy methods on selected companies from segments of small and medium-sized companies are presented.

  5. Validation of cytogenetic risk groups according to International Prognostic Scoring Systems by peripheral blood CD34+FISH: results from a German diagnostic study in comparison with an international control group.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braulke, Friederike; Platzbecker, Uwe; Müller-Thomas, Catharina; Götze, Katharina; Germing, Ulrich; Brümmendorf, Tim H; Nolte, Florian; Hofmann, Wolf-Karsten; Giagounidis, Aristoteles A N; Lübbert, Michael; Greenberg, Peter L; Bennett, John M; Solé, Francesc; Mallo, Mar; Slovak, Marilyn L; Ohyashiki, Kazuma; Le Beau, Michelle M; Tüchler, Heinz; Pfeilstöcker, Michael; Nösslinger, Thomas; Hildebrandt, Barbara; Shirneshan, Katayoon; Aul, Carlo; Stauder, Reinhard; Sperr, Wolfgang R; Valent, Peter; Fonatsch, Christa; Trümper, Lorenz; Haase, Detlef; Schanz, Julie

    2015-02-01

    International Prognostic Scoring Systems are used to determine the individual risk profile of myelodysplastic syndrome patients. For the assessment of International Prognostic Scoring Systems, an adequate chromosome banding analysis of the bone marrow is essential. Cytogenetic information is not available for a substantial number of patients (5%-20%) with dry marrow or an insufficient number of metaphase cells. For these patients, a valid risk classification is impossible. In the study presented here, the International Prognostic Scoring Systems were validated based on fluorescence in situ hybridization analyses using extended probe panels applied to cluster of differentiation 34 positive (CD34(+)) peripheral blood cells of 328 MDS patients of our prospective multicenter German diagnostic study and compared to chromosome banding results of 2902 previously published patients with myelodysplastic syndromes. For cytogenetic risk classification by fluorescence in situ hybridization analyses of CD34(+) peripheral blood cells, the groups differed significantly for overall and leukemia-free survival by uni- and multivariate analyses without discrepancies between treated and untreated patients. Including cytogenetic data of fluorescence in situ hybridization analyses of peripheral CD34(+) blood cells (instead of bone marrow banding analysis) into the complete International Prognostic Scoring System assessment, the prognostic risk groups separated significantly for overall and leukemia-free survival. Our data show that a reliable stratification to the risk groups of the International Prognostic Scoring Systems is possible from peripheral blood in patients with missing chromosome banding analysis by using a comprehensive probe panel (clinicaltrials.gov identifier:01355913). PMID:25344522

  6. Development of an indoor air quality checklist for risk assessment of indoor air pollutants by semiquantitative score in nonindustrial workplaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Syazwan, AI; Rafee, B Mohd; Hafizan, Juahir; Azman, AZF; Nizar, AM; Izwyn, Z; Muhaimin, AA; Yunos, MA Syafiq; Anita, AR; Hanafiah, J Muhamad; Shaharuddin, MS; Ibthisham, A Mohd; Ismail, Mohd Hasmadi; Azhar, MN Mohamad; Azizan, HS; Zulfadhli, I; Othman, J

    2012-01-01

    Background To meet the current diversified health needs in workplaces, especially in nonindustrial workplaces in developing countries, an indoor air quality (IAQ) component of a participatory occupational safety and health survey should be included. Objectives The purpose of this study was to evaluate and suggest a multidisciplinary, integrated IAQ checklist for evaluating the health risk of building occupants. This IAQ checklist proposed to support employers, workers, and assessors in understanding a wide range of important elements in the indoor air environment to promote awareness in nonindustrial workplaces. Methods The general structure of and specific items in the IAQ checklist were discussed in a focus group meeting with IAQ assessors based upon the result of a literature review, previous industrial code of practice, and previous interviews with company employers and workers. Results For practicality and validity, several sessions were held to elicit the opinions of company members, and, as a result, modifications were made. The newly developed IAQ checklist was finally formulated, consisting of seven core areas, nine technical areas, and 71 essential items. Each item was linked to a suitable section in the Industry Code of Practice on Indoor Air Quality published by the Department of Occupational Safety and Health. Conclusion Combined usage of an IAQ checklist with the information from the Industry Code of Practice on Indoor Air Quality would provide easily comprehensible information and practical support. Intervention and evaluation studies using this newly developed IAQ checklist will clarify the effectiveness of a new approach in evaluating the risk of indoor air pollutants in the workplace. PMID:22570579

  7. Spinal cord infarction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Infarction of the spinal cord can cause a variety of symptoms and neurological deficits because of the complex vascular supply of the myelon. The most common leading symptom is distal paresis ranging from paraparesis to tetraplegia caused by arterial ischemia or infarction of the myelon. Venous infarction, however, cannot always be distinguished from arterial infarction based on the symptoms alone. Modern imaging techniques, such as computed tomography angiography (CTA) and magnetic resonance angiography (MRA) assist in preoperative planning of aortic operations to reliably identify not only the most important vascular structure supplying the spinal cord, the artery of Adamkiewicz, but also other pathologies such as tumors or infectious disorders. In contrast to CT, MRI can reliably depict infarction of the spinal cord. (orig.)

  8. A MultiFactorial Risk Score to weigh toxicities and co-morbidities relative to costs of antiretrovirals in a cohort of HIV-infected patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Tontodonati

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Purpose of the study: Considering costs of antiretrovirals (ARVs for HIV patients is increasingly needed. A simple and comprehensive tool weighing comorbidities and ARV-related toxicities could be useful to judge the appropriateness of use of more expensive drugs. We conceived a MultiFactorial Risk Score (MFRS to evaluate the appropriateness of ARVs prescription relative to their costs. Methods: HIV patients were consecutively enrolled in 2010-2011. We considered socio-demographic characteristics, HIV history, cardiovascular risk factors, low energy fractures, bone density. Psychological factors were assessed by BDI, DS14 and TAS-20. The MFRS was calculated as the sum of the following: age (<30y 1 point; 1 point increase every 5y, 10 for?70; AIDS diagnosis (5; CD4 nadir (5 if <100; 1 point less every 100 CD4 increase; ART line (0 first, up to 5 for?6 lines; lipodistrophy (5; HCV coinfection (7; education (1 degree, 2 secondary, 3 primary; alcohol (3 and drug abuse (5; working activity (3 if unemployed; hypertension (3; cholesterol?200 mg/dl (3; diabetes (3; Framingham score (7 if>7%; creatinine (0 if <1 mg/dl, 1 if<1.2; 2 if<1.5>1.2, 5 if<2> 1.5, 7 if?2; bone fractures (7; bone status at DEXA (0 normal, 3 osteopenic, 5 osteoporotic; cancer (5; depression (3 if BDI>17; other psychiatric illness (5. Annual costs of individual ART regimens were calculated. MFRS was correlated in univariate and multivariate models with all variables. All statistical analyses were carried out using Stata 10.1. Summary of results: We enrolled 241 HIV patients, 74.3% males, aged 44.5±9.9y; 19 patients (7.8% were untreated, 74.8% of treated had undetectable HIV RNA. Mean Nadir CD4 counts were 218±168, 38.5% of patients had an AIDS diagnosis. Mean individual ARV annual cost was 10,976±5,360. Mean MFRS was 28.5±13.9 (4–64. MFRS was significantly higher (p<0.001 in patients with older age, longer duration of HIV infection, lower CD4 nadirs, AIDS diagnosis, lipodistrophy, HCV, smoking, lower education, alcohol/drug abuse, hypertension, carotid plaques, higher Framingham score, diabetes, bone fractures or disorders, depression, alexithymia, and higher ARV costs. In multivariate models, ARV costs were significantly higher in patients with older age, previous AIDS diagnosis, lower CD4 nadir and higher MFRS. Conclusions: MFRS may be a simple and reliable tool to match patients’ complexity and ARV costs, deserving further validation on larger samples.

  9. Iatrogenic opioid dependence is endemic and legal: Genetic addiction risk score (GARS with electrotherapy a paradigm shift in pain treatment programs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kenneth Blum

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available The mounting endemic of prescription iatrogenic opioid dependence in pain patients provoked this treatise about an alternative method that can be used to treat pain, improve function and reduce the risk of opioid dependence. It is well known that as well as the side effects reported for chronic opioid therapy, genetically predisposed individuals are at risk for opioid dependence. We propose the use of the Genetic Addiction Risk Score (GARS assessment to identify patients early in treatment who should avoid narcotic pain medications. Primarily, this review will be an exploration of the mechanisms of action of an electrotherapeutic alternative to narcotic treatment that can be used to augment tissue healing and reduce the pain associated with human injuries and neuropathies. This particular electrotherapeutic device was developed at the Electronic Waveform Laboratory in Huntington Beach, California and is called the H-Wave? device. The primary effect of the H-Wave?device is stimulation (HWDS of small diameter fibers of “red-slow-twitch” skeletal muscle. Mechanisms of action of HWDS have been investigated in both animal and human studies. They include edema reduction, induction of nitric oxide dependent augmented microcirculation and angiogenesis, small muscle contraction that eliminates transcapillary fluid shifts, reducing the painful effects of tetanizing fatigue and gradual loading of healing injured muscle tissue that helps repair and remodeling. A recent metaanalysis found a moderate-to-strong-positive effect of the HWDS in providing pain relief, reducing the requirement for pain medication, with the most robust effect being increased functionality. We are proposing that GARS can be used to identify those at risk of developing opioid dependence and that the need for opioid analgesia can be reduced by use of this electro therapeutic alternative to opioid analgesia in the treatment of pain and injuries.

  10. SOCIAL SCORING ?????????? ???????

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Skiba S. A.

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The new approach to the classification of the client by a method of credit scoring on the basis of the profiles of social networks is considered in the article. The approach illustrates interaction with social networks as new data source in credit process. Statistical methods of data processing and corresponding to them mathematical tools were involved in the analysis. The description of this approach is kept within the made experiment

  11. Development of an indoor air quality checklist for risk assessment of indoor air pollutants by semiquantitative score in nonindustrial workplaces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Syazwan AI

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available AI Syazwan1, B Mohd Rafee1, Juahir Hafizan2, AZF Azman1, AM Nizar3, Z Izwyn4, AA Muhaimin5, MA Syafiq Yunos6, AR Anita1, J Muhamad Hanafiah1, MS Shaharuddin1, A Mohd Ibthisham7, Mohd Hasmadi Ismail8, MN Mohamad Azhar1, HS Azizan1, I Zulfadhli9, J Othman101Department of Community Health, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences, Universiti Putra Malaysia, Selangor, Malaysia; 2Department of Environmental Science, Faculty of Environmental Studies, Universiti Putra Malaysia, Selangor, Malaysia; 3Pharmacology Unit, Department of Human Anatomy, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences, Universiti Putra Malaysia, Selangor, Malaysia; 4Department of Therapy and Rehabilitation, Faculty of Health Science and Biomedical Engineering, Universiti Teknologi Malaysia, Johor, Malaysia; 5Department of Environmental Management, Faculty of Environmental Studies, Universiti Putra Malaysia, Selangor, Malaysia; 6Plant Assessment Technology (PAT, Industrial Technology Division (BTI, Malaysian Nuclear Agency (Nuklear Malaysia, Bangi, Kajang, Malaysia; 7Department of Mechanical Engineering, Faculty of Mechanical Engineering, Universiti Teknologi Malaysia, UTM Skudai, Johor, Malaysia; 8Department of Forest Production, Faculty of Forestry, Universiti Putra Malaysia, Selangor, Malaysia; 9Faculty of Built Environment and Architect, Universiti Teknologi Malaysia, Skudai, Johor, Malaysia; 10Department of Counsellor Education and Counselling Psychology (DCECP, Faculty of Educational Studies, Universiti Putra Malaysia, Selangor, MalaysiaBackground: To meet the current diversified health needs in workplaces, especially in nonindustrial workplaces in developing countries, an indoor air quality (IAQ component of a participatory occupational safety and health survey should be included.Objectives: The purpose of this study was to evaluate and suggest a multidisciplinary, integrated IAQ checklist for evaluating the health risk of building occupants. This IAQ checklist proposed to support employers, workers, and assessors in understanding a wide range of important elements in the indoor air environment to promote awareness in nonindustrial workplaces.Methods: The general structure of and specific items in the IAQ checklist were discussed in a focus group meeting with IAQ assessors based upon the result of a literature review, previous industrial code of practice, and previous interviews with company employers and workers.Results: For practicality and validity, several sessions were held to elicit the opinions of company members, and, as a result, modifications were made. The newly developed IAQ checklist was finally formulated, consisting of seven core areas, nine technical areas, and 71 essential items. Each item was linked to a suitable section in the Industry Code of Practice on Indoor Air Quality published by the Department of Occupational Safety and Health.Conclusion: Combined usage of an IAQ checklist with the information from the Industry Code of Practice on Indoor Air Quality would provide easily comprehensible information and practical support. Intervention and evaluation studies using this newly developed IAQ checklist will clarify the effectiveness of a new approach in evaluating the risk of indoor air pollutants in the workplace.Keywords: action checklist, aggregated risk index (ARI, qualitative, reliability, SME, enterprise, indoor environmental quality (IEQ, sick building syndrome, indoor air quality assessment

  12. Impact of newly diagnosed abnormal glucose regulation on long-term prognosis in low risk patients with ST-elevation myocardial infarction: A follow-up study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdelnoor Michael

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Patients with acute myocardial infarction and newly detected abnormal glucose regulation have been shown to have a less favourable prognosis compared to patients with normal glucose regulation. The importance and timing of oral glucose tolerance testing (OGTT in patients with acute myocardial infarction without known diabetes is uncertain. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the impact of abnormal glucose regulation classified by an OGTT in-hospital and at three-month follow-up on clinical outcome in patients with acute ST elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI without known diabetes. Methods Patients (n = 224, age 58 years with a primary percutanous coronary intervention (PCI treated STEMI were followed for clinical events (all-cause mortality, non-fatal myocardial re-infarction, recurrent ischemia causing hospital admission, and stroke. The patients were classified by a standardised 75 g OGTT at two time points, first, at a median time of 16.5 hours after hospital admission, then at three-month follow-up. Based on the OGTT results, the patients were categorised according to the WHO criteria and the term abnormal glucose regulation was defined as the sum of impaired fasting glucose, impaired glucose tolerance and type 2-diabetes. Results The number of patients diagnosed with abnormal glucose regulation in-hospital and at three-month was 105 (47% and 50 (25%, respectively. During the follow up time of (median 33 (27, 39 months, 58 (25.9% patients experienced a new clinical event. There were six deaths, 15 non-fatal re-infarction, 33 recurrent ischemia, and four strokes. Kaplan-Meier analysis of survival free of composite end-points showed similar results in patients with abnormal and normal glucose regulation, both when classified in-hospital (p = 0.4 and re-classified three months later (p = 0.3. Conclusions Patients with a primary PCI treated STEMI, without previously known diabetes, appear to have an excellent long-term prognosis, independent of the glucometabolic state classified by an OGTT in-hospital or at three-month follow-up. Trial registration The trial is registered at http://www.clinicaltrials.gov, NCT00926133.

  13. Cigar and pipe smoking and myocardial infarction in young men.

    OpenAIRE

    Kaufman, D. W.; Palmer, J. R.; Rosenberg, L.; Shapiro, S.

    1987-01-01

    The effect of cigar and pipe smoking on the risk of myocardial infarction was evaluated in an interview study of 572 men with non-fatal first myocardial infarctions and 934 hospital controls. The study was conducted in the north eastern United States from 1980 to 1983. All subjects were 40-54 years of age, and none had smoked cigarettes for at least two years. Among men who had never smoked cigarettes the relative risk of myocardial infarction for those who smoked at least five cigars a day, ...

  14. The insertion/deletion variation in the ?2B-adrenoceptor does not seem to modify the risk for acute myocardial infarction, but may modify the risk for hypertension in sib-pairs from families with type 2 diabetes

    OpenAIRE

    Orho-Melander Marju; Groop Leif C; Scheinin Mika; Snapir Amir

    2003-01-01

    Abstract Background An insertion/deletion polymorphism in the ?2B-adrenoceptor (AR) has been associated with the risk for acute myocardial infarction (AMI) and sudden cardiac death. In this study we tested whether this polymorphism is associated with the risk for AMI among members of families with type 2 diabetes. Methods 154 subjects with a history of AMI were matched for age and sex with one of their siblings who did not have a history of AMI. The prevalence of the genotypes of the ?2B-AR...

  15. Validation of the Total Dysphagia Risk Score (TDRS) as a predictive measure for acute swallowing dysfunction induced by chemoradiotherapy for head and neck cancers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Background and purpose: Methods for predicting acute swallowing dysfunction in patients with head and neck cancers undergoing definitive chemoradiotherapy have not been established. We investigated the validity of the Total Dysphagia Risk Score (TDRS) as a predictive measure for this morbidity. Materials and methods: Forty-seven patients with head and neck cancers who underwent definitive chemoradiotherapy between December 1998 and March 2006 were reviewed retrospectively. Median age was 63 years (range, 16-81). Almost all patients underwent platinum-based concomitant chemoradiotherapy. Factors of the TDRS were as follows: T-classification, neck irradiation, weight loss, primary tumour site and treatment modality. Patients were classified into three risk groups according to the TDRS. Results: Swallowing dysfunction was observed in 27 patients (57%) as RTOG grade 2 or higher acute morbidity. This classification was significantly associated with grade 2 or higher acute swallowing dysfunction (P < 0.001). In ROC (receiver operator characteristic) analysis, the cut-off value of TDRS was set at 18 (sensitivity = 0.81; specificity = 0.85). Prediction of severe (grade ? 3) acute swallowing dysfunction was similarly obtained. Conclusion: The TDRS is a useful tool to predict acute swallowing dysfunction induced by chemoradiotherapy for head and neck cancers.

  16. A structured approach to control of Salmonella Dublin in 10 Danish dairy herds based on risk scoring and test-and-manage procedures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Liza Rosenbaum; Nielsen, SØren Saxmose

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this study was to describe a structured approach to effectively reduce Salmonella Dublin prevalence in infected dairy herds based on a step-wise procedure. Furthermore, the aim was to describe tools for management and monitoring, and to report on development in prevalence among young stock and adult cattle in 10 case herds that were followed for more than three years. The five steps in the structured approach were: 1) risk scoring to determine transmission routes within the herd and into the herd; 2) determining a plan of action; 3) performing management changes to close important routes of infection; 4) interpretation of repeated testing of individual animals to detect high-risk animals for special hygienic management or culling; and 5) diagnostic testing of different age groups and bulk tank milk to evaluate progress of control over time. Serology, true prevalence estimates and changes in herd classification in the Danish surveillance programme for Salmonella Dublin were used to assess the progress in the herds during and after the control period. Effective control of Salmonella Dublin was achieved in all participating herds through management that focused on closing infection routes mainly in the calving areas and the young calf areas of the herds. It took on average three years to control the infection in the case herds. Bulk tank milk recordings from the four following years indicated that most of the herds might have eradicated the infection.

  17. Acute myocardial infarction after mediastinal radiotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mediastinal radiotherapy can affect the heart and great vessels to different degrees. It may turn up as coronary heart disease and less frequently as acute myocardial infarction. We report the case of a patient without coronary risk factors and an antecedent of mediastinal radiotherapy for Hodgkin's lymphoma. Considerations about mediastinal radiation as a risk factor for early development of coronary heart diseases are exposed. (author)

  18. Acute myocardial infarction in a young patient

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Myocardial infarction (MI) is considered to be the disease of the fifth and sixth decade as seen in the West but an earlier age incidence is not infrequently encountered in the South Asian population. However, occurrence of MI in the teen-age still remains a rare happening. We are reporting a case of a teenager, who suffered a myocardial infarction with cardiogenic shock and pulmonary edema on two separate occasions with ECG and biochemical evidence of myocardial infarction. An exercise stress test done in between the two episodes was negative at a workload of 13.5 METs. A coronary angiogram done after the second event revealed normal coronary arteries and a preserved left ventricular systolic and segmental function. Except for low HDL (high density lipoprotein) and mildly raised homocysteine levels, the patient did not have other conventional or novel risk factors for coronary artery disease. (author)

  19. Risk of new acute myocardial infarction hospitalization associated with use of oral and parenteral non-steroidal anti-inflammation drugs (NSAIDs: a case-crossover study of Taiwan's National Health Insurance claims database and review of current evidence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shau Wen-Yi

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Previous studies have documented the increased cardiovascular risk associated with the use of some nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs. Despite this, many old NSAIDs are still prescribed worldwide. Most of the studies to date have been focused on specific oral drugs or limited by the number of cases examined. We studied the risk of new acute myocardial infarction (AMI hospitalization with current use of a variety of oral and parenteral NSAIDs in a nationwide population, and compared our results with existing evidence. Methods We conducted a case-crossover study using the Taiwan's National Health Insurance claim database, identifying patients with new AMI hospitalized in 2006. The 1-30 days and 91-120 days prior to the admission were defined as case and matched control period for each patient, respectively. Uses of NSAIDs during the respective periods were compared using conditional logistic regression and adjusted for use of co-medications. Results 8354 new AMI hospitalization patients fulfilled the study criteria. 14 oral and 3 parenteral NSAIDs were selected based on drug utilization profile among 13.7 million NSAID users. The adjusted odds ratio, aOR (95% confidence interval, for risk of AMI and use of oral and parenteral non-selective NSAIDs were 1.42 (1.29, 1.56 and 3.35 (2.50, 4.47, respectively, and significantly greater for parenteral than oral drugs (p for interaction Conclusions The collective evidence revealed the tendency of increased AMI risk with current use of some NSAIDs. A higher AMI risk associated with use of parenteral NSAIDs was observed in the present study. Ketorolac had the highest associated risk in both oral and parenteral NSAIDs studied. Though further investigation to confirm the association is warranted, prescribing physicians and the general public should be cautious about the potential risk of AMI when using NSAIDs.

  20. Hábitos Alimentares, Atividade Física e Escore de Risco Global de Framingham na Síndrome Metabólica / Alimentary Habits, Physical Activity, and Framingham Global Risk Score in Metabolic Syndrome

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Thays Soliman, Soares; Carla Haas, Piovesan; Andréia da Silva, Gustavo; Fabrício Edler, Macagnan; Luiz Carlos, Bodanese; Ana Maria Pandolfo, Feoli.

    2014-04-29

    Full Text Available Fundamento: A síndrome metabólica é um transtorno complexo representado por um conjunto de fatores de risco cardiovascular. A adoção de um estilo de vida saudável está fortemente relacionada à melhora da Qualidade de Vida e interfere de forma positiva no controle dos fatores de risco presentes nes [...] sa condição clínica. Objetivo: Avaliar o efeito de um programa de modificação do estilo de vida sobre o Escore de Risco Cardiovascular Global de Framingham em indivíduos com síndrome metabólica. Método: Trata-se de uma subanálise de um ensaio clínico randomizado, controlado, cegado, com duração de três meses. Os participantes foram randomizados em quatro grupos: intervenção nutricional + placebo (INP), intervenção nutricional + suplementação de ácidos graxos ômega 3 (3 g/dia de óleo de peixe) (INS3), intervenção nutricional + atividade física + placebo (INEP) e intervenção nutricional + atividade física + suplementação de ácidos graxos ômega 3 (INES3). O Escore de Risco Cardiovascular Global de Framingham de cada indivíduo foi calculado antes e após a intervenção. Resultados: Participaram do estudo 70 indivíduos. Observou-se uma redução da média do escore após a intervenção de forma geral (p Abstract in english Background: Metabolic syndrome is a complex disorder represented by a set of cardiovascular risk factors. A healthy lifestyle is strongly related to improve Quality of Life and interfere positively in the control of risk factors presented in this condition. Objective: To evaluate the effect of [...] a program of lifestyle modification on the Framingham General Cardiovascular Risk Profile in subjects diagnosed with metabolic syndrome. Methods: A sub-analysis study of a randomized clinical trial controlled blind that lasted three months. Participants were randomized into four groups: dietary intervention + placebo (DIP), dietary intervention + supplementation of omega 3 (fish oil 3 g/day) (DIS3), dietary intervention + placebo + physical activity (DIPE) and dietary intervention + physical activity + supplementation of omega 3 (DIS3PE). The general cardiovascular risk profile of each individual was calculated before and after the intervention. Results: The study included 70 subjects. Evaluating the score between the pre and post intervention yielded a significant value (p

  1. [The role of genetic predisposition in the development of cardiovascular diseases (myocardial infarction, ischemic stroke, unstable stenocardia) and its interaction with conventional risk factors].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nazarenko, G I; Skvortsova, V I; Kle?menova, E B; Konstantinova, M V

    2009-01-01

    To assess the risk of cardiovascular events, the diagnostic effectiveness of molecular-genetic markers (polymorphisms in APOE, ACE (I/D) and MTHFR (C677T) genes) in combination with conventional risk factors has been studied. The prognostic effectiveness of common algorithms (the Framingham scale) is not sufficient for evaluation of risk factors for cardiovascular diseases. The combination of results of molecular-genetic testing with conventional risk factors allows to increase the predictability of cardiovascular risks. PMID:20229631

  2. A Cox proportional-hazards model with time-dependent covariates to evaluate the relationship between body-condition score and the risks of first insemination and pregnancy in a high-producing dairy herd.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suriyasathaporn, W; Nielen, M; Dieleman, S J; Brand, A; Noordhuizen-Stassen, E N; Schukken, Y H

    1998-12-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the relationship between body-condition score and postpartum reproductive efficiency in dairy cattle. Data on body-condition score, reproduction, diseases, and production from 1404 lactations of 639 cows, calving between January 1984 and November 1996 on a commercial farm, were used. The Cox proportional-hazards model with time-dependent covariates was used to qualify the relationship between body-condition score on a scale of 1 to 5 and risks of first insemination and pregnancy. Cows with body condition at calving lameness, milk fever and genital infection were associated with a reduction in reproductive efficiency. The results indicated that loss of body-condition and actual body-condition scores before conception or first insemination or both can be used as a prognosis for days open and days-to-first insemination in dairy herds. PMID:9879589

  3. Stratification of complexity: the Risk Adjustment for Congenital Heart Surgery-1 method and the Aristotle Complexity Score--past, present, and future.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobs, Marshall Lewis; Jacobs, Jeffrey Phillip; Jenkins, Kathy J; Gauvreau, Kimberlee; Clarke, David R; Lacour-Gayet, Francois

    2008-12-01

    Meaningful evaluation of quality of care must account for variations in the population of patients receiving treatment, or "case-mix". In adult cardiac surgery, empirical clinical data, initially from tens of thousands, and more recently hundreds of thousands of operations, have been used to develop risk-models, to increase the accuracy with which the outcome of a given procedure on a given patient can be predicted, and to compare outcomes on non-identical patient groups between centres, surgeons and eras. In the adult cardiac database of The Society of Thoracic Surgeons, algorithms for risk-adjustment are based on over 1.5 million patients undergoing isolated coronary artery bypass grafting and over 100,000 patients undergoing isolate