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A Novel Risk Stratification Model for Patients with Non-ST Elevation Myocardial Infarction in the Korea Acute Myocardial Infarction Registry (KAMIR): Limitation of the TIMI Risk Scoring System  

OpenAIRE

The Thrombolysis in Myocardial Infarction (TIMI) risk score (TRS) has proven value in predicting prognosis in unstable angina/non ST-elevation myocardial infarction (NSTEMI) as well as in ST-elevation myocardial infarction. The TRS system has little implication, however, in the extent of myocardial damage in high-risk patients with NSTEMI. A total of 1621 patients (63.6±12.2 years; 1043 males) with NSTEMI were enrolled in the Korea Acute Myocardial Infarction Registry (KAMIR). We analyzed th...

Kim, Ju Han; Jeong, Myung Ho; Ahn, Youngkeun; Kim, Young Jo; Chae, Sung Chull; Seong, In Whan; Kim, Chong Jin; Cho, Myeong Chan; Seung, Ki Bae; Park, Seung Jung

2011-01-01

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Long-Term Clinical Outcomes according to Initial Management and Thrombolysis In Myocardial Infarction Risk Score in Patients with Acute Non-ST-Segment Elevation Myocardial Infarction  

Science.gov (United States)

Purpose There is still debate about the timing of revascularization in patients with acute non-ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction (NSTEMI). We analyzed the long-term clinical outcomes of the timing of revascularization in patients with acute NSTEMI obtained from the Korea Acute Myocardial Infarction Registry (KAMIR). Materials and Methods 2,845 patients with acute NSTEMI (65.6 ± 12.5 years, 1,836 males) who were enrolled in KAMIR were included in the present study. The therapeutic strategy of NSTEMI was categorized into early invasive (within 48 hours, 65.8 ± 12.6 years, 856 males) and late invasive treatment (65.3 ± 12.1 years, 979 males). The initial- and long-term clinical outcomes were compared between two groups according to the level of Thrombolysis In Myocardial Infarction (TIMI) risk score. Results There were significant differences in-hospital mortality and the incidence of major adverse cardiac events during one-year clinical follow-up between two groups (2.1% vs. 4.8%, p < 0.001, 10.0% vs. 13.5%, p = 0.004, respectively). According to the TIMI risk score, there was no significant difference of long-term clinical outcomes in patients with low to moderate TIMI risk score, but significant difference in patients with high TIMI risk score (? 5 points). Conclusions The old age, high Killip class, low ejection fraction, high TIMI risk score, and late invasive treatment strategy are the independent predictors for the long-term clinical outcomes in patients with NSTEMI. PMID:20046515

Jeong, Hae Chang; Jeong, Myung Ho; Chae, Shung Chull; Hur, Seung Ho; Hong, Taek Jong; Kim, Young Jo; Seong, In Whan; Chae, Jei Keon; Rhew, Jay Young; Chae, In Ho; Cho, Myeong Chan; Bae, Jang Ho; Rha, Seung Woon; Kim, Chong Jin; Choi, Donghoon; Jang, Yang Soo; Yoon, Junghan; Chung, Wook Sung; Cho, Jeong Gwan; Seung, Ki Bae; Park, Seung Jung

2010-01-01

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Proton pump inhibitor use and risk of adverse cardiovascular events in aspirin treated patients with first time myocardial infarction: nationwide propensity score matched study  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

OBJECTIVE: To examine the effect of proton pump inhibitors on adverse cardiovascular events in aspirin treated patients with first time myocardial infarction. DESIGN: Retrospective nationwide propensity score matched study based on administrative data. Setting All hospitals in Denmark. PARTICIPANTS: All aspirin treated patients surviving 30 days after a first myocardial infarction from 1997 to 2006, with follow-up for one year. Patients treated with clopidogrel were excluded. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: The risk of the combined end point of cardiovascular death, myocardial infarction, or stroke associated with use of proton pump inhibitors was analysed using Kaplan-Meier analysis, Cox proportional hazard models, and propensity score matched Cox proportional hazard models. Results 3366 of 19,925 (16.9%) aspirin treated patients experienced recurrent myocardial infarction, stroke, or cardiovascular death. The hazard ratio for the combined end point in patients receiving proton pump inhibitors based on the time dependent Cox proportional hazard model was 1.46 (1.33 to 1.61; P<0.001) and for the propensity score matched model based on 8318 patients it was 1.61 (1.45 to 1.79; P<0.001). A sensitivity analysis showed no increase in risk related to use of H(2) receptor blockers (1.04, 0.79 to 1.38; P=0.78). Conclusion In aspirin treated patients with first time myocardial infarction, treatment with proton pump inhibitors was associated with an increased risk of adverse cardiovascular events.

Charlot, Mette; Grove, Erik

2011-01-01

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A Novel Risk Stratification Model for Patients with Non-ST Elevation Myocardial Infarction in the Korea Acute Myocardial Infarction Registry (KAMIR): Limitation of the TIMI Risk Scoring System  

Science.gov (United States)

The Thrombolysis in Myocardial Infarction (TIMI) risk score (TRS) has proven value in predicting prognosis in unstable angina/non ST-elevation myocardial infarction (NSTEMI) as well as in ST-elevation myocardial infarction. The TRS system has little implication, however, in the extent of myocardial damage in high-risk patients with NSTEMI. A total of 1621 patients (63.6±12.2 years; 1043 males) with NSTEMI were enrolled in the Korea Acute Myocardial Infarction Registry (KAMIR). We analyzed the risk for major adverse cardiac events (MACE) during a 6-month follow-up period. The TRS system showed good correlation with MACE for patients in the low and intermediate groups but had poor correlation when the high-risk group was included (p=0.128). The MACE rate was 3.8% for TRS 1, 9.4% for TRS 2, 10.7% for TRS 3, and 12.3% for TRS 4 (HR=1.29, p=0.026). Among the biomarkers and clinical risk factors, elevated N-terminal pro-brain natriuretic peptide (NT-proBNP) (HR=2.61, p=0.001) and Killip class above III showed good correlation with MACE (HR=0.302, p 65 years, history of ischemic heart disease, Killip class above III, and elevated pro-BNP levels above the 75th percentile. This modified scoring system, when tested for validity, showed good predictive value for MACE (HR=1.64, p<0.001). Compared with the traditional TRS, the novel alternative scoring system based on age, history of ischemic heart disease, Killip class, and NT-proBNP showed a better predictive value for 6-month MACE in high-risk patients with NSTEMI. PMID:22111052

Kim, Ju Han; Ahn, Youngkeun; Kim, Young Jo; Chae, Sung Chull; Seong, In Whan; Kim, Chong Jin; Cho, Myeong Chan; Seung, Ki Bae; Park, Seung Jung

2011-01-01

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Proton pump inhibitor use and risk of adverse cardiovascular events in aspirin treated patients with first time myocardial infarction : nationwide propensity score matched study  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

OBJECTIVE: To examine the effect of proton pump inhibitors on adverse cardiovascular events in aspirin treated patients with first time myocardial infarction. DESIGN: Retrospective nationwide propensity score matched study based on administrative data. Setting All hospitals in Denmark. PARTICIPANTS: All aspirin treated patients surviving 30 days after a first myocardial infarction from 1997 to 2006, with follow-up for one year. Patients treated with clopidogrel were excluded. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: The risk of the combined end point of cardiovascular death, myocardial infarction, or stroke associated with use of proton pump inhibitors was analysed using Kaplan-Meier analysis, Cox proportional hazard models, and propensity score matched Cox proportional hazard models. Results 3366 of 19,925 (16.9%) aspirin treated patients experienced recurrent myocardial infarction, stroke, or cardiovascular death. The hazard ratio for the combined end point in patients receiving proton pump inhibitors based on the time dependent Cox proportional hazard model was 1.46 (1.33 to 1.61; P

Charlot, Mette Gitz; Grove, Erik L

2011-01-01

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Subclinical myocardial injury identified by cardiac infarction/injury score and the risk of mortality in men and women free of cardiovascular disease.  

Science.gov (United States)

Previous studies have explored the ability of the Cardiac Infarction/Injury Score (CIIS) to identify individuals who are high risk for cardiovascular disease (CVD) mortality. However, its prognostic significance among those without CVD in the United States general population has not been established. This analysis included 6,298 participants (mean age 59±13 years, 53% women, 51% nonwhites) from the Third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, excluding participants with a history of CVD or electrocardiographic evidence of old myocardial infarction or ischemic ST depression at baseline. Subclinical myocardial injury was defined as CIIS?10. Mortality data were ascertained using the National Death Index. Cox proportional hazards regression was used to compute hazard ratios (HRs) and 95% confidence intervals (95% CIs) for the association between subclinical myocardial injury and CVD and all-cause mortalities. Subclinical myocardial injury was detected in 1,376 participants (22%). A total of 1,928 deaths occurred during a median follow-up of 14 years of which 765 (40%) were due to CVD. In a multivariate model adjusted for demographics, traditional CVD risk factors, and other medical co-morbidities, subclinical myocardial injury was associated with an increased risk of CVD (HR 1.26, 95% CI 1.02 to 1.56) and all-cause (HR 1.42, 95% CI 1.23 to 1.63) mortalities. In conclusion, subclinical myocardial injury in those without manifestations of CVD is associated with an increased risk of CVD and all-cause mortalities. These findings highlight the important role of CIIS to identify subclinical myocardial injury and its association with mortality among men and women in the United States. PMID:25129878

O'Neal, Wesley T; Shah, Amit J; Efird, Jimmy T; Rautaharju, Pentti M; Soliman, Elsayed Z

2014-10-01

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Traditional SCORE-based health check fails to identify individuals who develop acute myocardial infarction  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease (CVD), including acute myocardial infarction (AMI), is caused by well-known risk factors. They constitute important therapeutic targets, but their predictive value is disputed. We evaluated the effectiveness of the risk scoring system (SCORE) and thresholds for pharmacotherapy re-commended in the European guidelines on CVD prevention.

Mortensen, Martin B; Sivesgaard, Kim

2013-01-01

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BLEED-Myocardial Infarction Score: Predicting mid-term post-discharge bleeding events  

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Full Text Available AIM: To derive and validate a score for the prediction of mid-term bleeding events following discharge for myocardial infarction (MI. METHODS: One thousand and fifty patients admitted for MI and followed for 19.9 ± 6.7 mo were assigned to a derivation cohort. A new risk model, called BLEED-MI, was developed for predicting clinically significant bleeding events during follow-up (primary endpoint and a composite endpoint of significant hemorrhage plus all-cause mortality (secondary endpoint, incorporating the following variables: age, diabetes mellitus, arterial hypertension, smoking habits, blood urea nitrogen, glomerular filtration rate and hemoglobin at admission, history of stroke, bleeding during hospitalization or previous major bleeding, heart failure during hospitalization and anti-thrombotic therapies prescribed at discharge. The BLEED-MI model was tested for calibration, accuracy and discrimination in the derivation sample and in a new, independent, validation cohort comprising 852 patients admitted at a later date. RESULTS: The BLEED-MI score showed good calibration in both derivation and validation samples (Hosmer-Lemeshow test P value 0.371 and 0.444, respectively and high accuracy within each individual patient (Brier score 0.061 and 0.067, respectively. Its discriminative performance in predicting the primary outcome was relatively high (c-statistic of 0.753 ± 0.032 in the derivation cohort and 0.718 ± 0.033 in the validation sample. Incidence of primary/secondary endpoints increased progressively with increasing BLEED-MI scores. In the validation sample, a BLEED-MI score below 2 had a negative predictive value of 98.7% (152/154 for the occurrence of a clinically significant hemorrhagic episode during follow-up and for the composite endpoint of post-discharge hemorrhage plus all-cause mortality. An accurate prediction of bleeding events was shown independently of mortality, as BLEED-MI predicted bleeding with similar efficacy in patients who did not die during follow-up: Area Under the Curve 0.703, Hosmer-Lemeshow test P value 0.547, Brier score 0.060; low-risk (BLEED-MI score 0-3 event rate: 1.2%; intermediate risk (score 4-6 event rate: 5.6%; high risk (score ? 7 event rate: 12.5%. CONCLUSION: A new bedside prediction-scoring model for post-discharge mid-term bleeding has been derived and preliminarily validated. This is the first score designed to predict mid- term hemorrhagic risk in patients discharged following admission for acute MI. This model should be externally validated in larger cohorts of patients before its potential implementation.

António Leitão Marques

2013-01-01

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Cardiac risk stratification: Role of the coronary calcium score  

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Full Text Available Rakesh K Sharma1, Rajiv K Sharma1, Donald J Voelker1, Vibhuti N Singh2, Deepak Pahuja3, Teresa Nash1, Hanumanth K Reddy11Medical Center of South Arkansas, University of Arkansas for Medical Sciences, Little Rock, AR, USA; 2Bayfront Medical Center, St Petersburg, Florida; 3Saint Vincent Health Center, Erie, PA, USAAbstract: Coronary artery calcium (CAC is an integral part of atherosclerotic coronary heart disease (CHD. CHD is the leading cause of death in industrialized nations and there is a constant effort to develop preventative strategies. The emphasis is on risk stratification and primary risk prevention in asymptomatic patients to decrease cardiovascular mortality and morbidity. The Framingham Risk Score predicts CHD events only moderately well where family history is not included as a risk factor. There has been an exploration for new tests for better risk stratification and risk factor modification. While the Framingham Risk Score, European Systematic Coronary Risk Evaluation Project, and European Prospective Cardiovascular Munster study remain excellent tools for risk factor modification, the CAC score may have additional benefit in risk assessment. There have been several studies supporting the role of CAC score for prediction of myocardial infarction and cardiovascular mortality. It has been shown to have great scope in risk stratification of asymptomatic patients in the emergency room. Additionally, it may help in assessment of progression or regression of coronary artery disease. Furthermore, the CAC score may help differentiate ischemic from nonischemic cardiomyopathy.Keywords: coronary calcium scoring, coronary artery disease, CAC, cardiomyopathy, angiography, chest pain, Framingham, risk stratification, risk factors

Rakesh K Sharma

2010-07-01

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Comparative characteristics of diabetes risk scores  

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Full Text Available The worldwide prevalence of diabetes among adults (aged 20–79 years was 8.35% in 2013, and this is expected to increase by 55% (592 million adults by 2035. To avoid the increase in the prevalence of diabetes, primary prevention and early diagnosis of prediabetes are required. It is important to identify individuals at a high risk of hyperglycaemia using inexpensive and available methods. At present, risk score is an alternative to identify the risk of developing diabetes. There are approximately 10 types of risk scores in the world, and further research for the development and adaptation of risk scores for various populations are being conducted. The use of risk score methods for prediction allows the setting of the level of total risk, identification of high-risk patients and prescription of necessary preventive measures. Actual validation of existing diabetes risk score for the Russian population is being conducted. Assessment of the risk of diabetes is simple, fast, inexpensive, non-invasive and reliable.

Svetlana Vladimirovna Mustafina

2014-06-01

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Comparison of infarct size changes with delayed contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging and electrocardiogram QRS scoring during the 6 months after acutely reperfused myocardial infarction  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

INTRODUCTION: Magnetic resonance imaging using the delayed contrast-enhanced (DE-MRI) method can be used for characterizing and quantifying myocardial infarction (MI). Electrocardiogram (ECG) score after the acute phase of MI can be used to estimate the portion of left ventricular myocardium that has infarcted. There are no comparison of serial changes on ECG and DE-MRI measuring infarct size. AIM: The general aim of this study was to describe the acute, healing, and chronic phases of the changes in infarct size estimated by the ECG and DE-MRI. The specific aim was to compare estimates of the Selvester QRS scoring system and DE-MRI to identify the difference between the extent of left ventricle occupied by infarction in the acute and chronic phases. METHODS: In 31 patients (26 men, age 56 +/- 9) with reperfused ST-elevation MI (11 anterior, 20 inferior), standard 12-lead ECG and DE-MRI were taken from 1 to 2 days (acute), 1 month (healing), and 6 months (chronic) after the MI. Selvester QRS scoring was used to estimate the infarct size from the ECG. RESULTS: The correlation values between infarct size measured by DE-MRI and QRS scoring range from 0.33 to 0.43 higher for anterior than inferior infarcts. The infarct size estimated by QRS scoring was larger (about 5% of the left ventricle) than infarct size by DE-MRI acute and 1 month, but at 6 months, there was no difference. In about half of the patients, the QRS score agreed with DE-MRI in change of infarct size from acute to 6 months. CONCLUSION: In conclusion, the Selvester QRS scoring system is in half of the patients with reperfused first time MI in good accordance with DE-MRI in identifying a decrease or no change in the extent of left ventricle occupied by infarction in the acute and chronic phases Udgivelsesdato: 2008/11

Bang, L.E.; Ripa, R.S.

2008-01-01

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Difference in MRI findings and risk factors between multiple infarction without dementia and multi-infarct dementia  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

MRI findings and risk factors for vascular dementia were evaluated with multi-variate analysis in 96 multi-infarct patients without dementia and 40 multi-infarct patients with dementia (MID). Only subjects with small infarcts in the territory of the perforator artery or deep white matter were studied. The diagnosis of MID was diagnosed according to DMS-III criteria and Hachinski's ischemia score. Location and area of patchy high-intensity areas including small infarcts, the degree of periventricular high intensity (PVH), and the degree of brain atrophy were examined with MR images. Independent variables were: history of hypertension, diabetes mellitus, other complications; systolic and diastolic blood pressure, atherosclerotic index, hematocrit, history of smoking, level of education, and activities of daily life (ADL). Hayashi's quantification method II was used to analyze the data. The most significant correlation was found between history of hypertension and dementia (partial correlation coefficient: 0.39). Significant correlations were also found between ADL and dementia (0.32), between thalamic infarction and dementia (0.31), and between PVH and dementia (0.27). Age, brain atrophy index, and history of diabetes mellitus contributed little to dementia. The contribution to dementia did not differ significantly between right and left patchy high-intensity areas on MR images. Location of infarcts, except for bilateral thalamic infarcts and large PVH, contributed littc infarcts and large PVH, contributed little to dementia. Thus it would be difficult to base a prediction of the prevalence of vascular dementia on MRI findings. However, both hypertention and ADL contribute to vascular dementia and both are treatable, which may be significant for the prevention of dementia. (author)

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A QRS scoring system for assessing left ventricular function and myocardial infarct size  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Left ventricular function and infarct size were evaluated noninvasively by 12 lead electrocardiography (ECG), Tl-201 imaging (TLI) and ECG gated radionuclide ventriculography (RNV) examined from 5 to 14 days after the initial attack in 36 patients with acute transmural myocardial infarction. Ages ranged from 32 to 77 years with a mean of 60. The subjects were divided into 2 groups according to the site of infarct: anterior and inferior. Parameters obtained were left ventricular ejection fraction (EF) examined by RNV, QRS score described by Palmeri et al. total myocardial perfusion index (TMPI), lung uptake of Tl-201 (LU) on TLI. Significant negative correlation was obtained between EF and QRS score (r = -0.784, p < 0.01), better in patients with inferior MI than those with anterior. Also significant relationship was noted between TMPI and QRS score (r = 0.636, p < 0.01). LU had a specificity of 93 % and a sensitivity of 71 % for predicting EF < 30 % and 79 % and 86 % respectively for TMPI < 30. These data suggest that left ventricular function and infarct size will be detected by QRS score. LU was thought to be a fairly good sign predicting decreased EF (< 30 %) and massive infarct. (author)

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A new scoring system to stratify risk in unstable angina  

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Full Text Available Abstract Background We performed this study to develop a new scoring system to stratify different levels of risk in patients admitted to hospital with a diagnosis of unstable angina (UA, which is a complex syndrome that encompasses different outcomes. Many prognostic variables have been described but few efforts have been made to group them in order to enhance their individual predictive power. Methods In a first phase, 473 patients were prospectively analyzed to determine which factors were significantly associated with the in-hospital occurrence of refractory ischemia, acute myocardial infarction (AMI or death. A risk score ranging from 0 to 10 points was developed using a multivariate analysis. In a second phase, such score was validated in a new sample of 242 patients and it was finally applied to the entire population (n = 715. Results ST-segment deviation on the electrocardiogram, age ? 70 years, previous bypass surgery and troponin T ? 0.1 ng/mL were found as independent prognostic variables. A clear distinction was shown among categories of low, intermediate and high risk, defined according to the risk score. The incidence of the triple end-point was 6 %, 19.2 % and 44.7 % respectively, and the figures for AMI or death were 2 %, 11.4 % and 27.6 % respectively (p Conclusions This new scoring system is simple and easy to achieve. It allows a very good stratification of risk in patients having a clinical diagnosis of UA. They may be divided in three categories, which could be of help in the decision-making process.

Salzberg Simón

2003-08-01

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Distribution of brain infarction in children with tuberculous meningitis and correlation with outcome score at 6 months  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Prognostic indicators for tuberculous meningitis (TBM) offer realistic expectations for parents of affected children. Infarctions affecting the basal ganglia are associated with a poor outcome. To correlate the distribution of infarction in children with TBM on CT with an outcome score (OS). CT brain scans in children with TBM were retrospectively reviewed and the distribution of infarctions recorded. The degree of correlation with OS at 6 months was determined. There was a statistically significant association between all sites of infarction (P = 0.0001-0.001), other than hemispheric (P = 0.35), and outcome score. There was also a statistically significant association between all types of infarction (P = 0.0001-0.02), other than hemispheric (P = 0.05), and overall poor outcome. The odds ratio for poor outcome with bilateral basal ganglia and internal capsule infarction was 12. The odds ratio for poor outcome with 'any infarction' was 4.91 (CI 2.24-10.74), with 'bilateral infarctions' 8.50 (CI 2.49-28.59), with basal ganglia infarction 5.73 (CI 2.60-12.64), and for hemispheric infarction 2.30 (CI 1.00-5.28). Infarction is associated with a poor outcome unless purely hemispheric. MRI diffusion-weighted imaging was not part of this study, but is likely to play a central role in detecting infarctions not demonstrated by CT. (orig.)

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Development of a Cardiovascular Risk Score for Use in Low- and Middle-Income Countries123  

OpenAIRE

Summary measures of cardiovascular risk have long been used in public health, but few include nutritional predictors despite extensive evidence linking diet and heart disease. Study objectives were to develop and validate a novel risk score in a case-control study of myocardial infarction (MI) conducted in Costa Rica during 1994–2004. After restricting the data set to healthy participants (n = 1678), conditional logistic regression analyses modeled associations of lifestyle factors (unhealt...

Aslibekyan, Stella; Campos, Hannia; Loucks, Eric B.; Linkletter, Crystal D.; Ordovas, Jose M.; Baylin, Ana

2011-01-01

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Myocardial infarct size and area at risk assessment in mice  

OpenAIRE

Mouse models of myocardial ischemia and infarction are important in cardiovascular research. Reliable and reproducible assessment of the area at risk (AAR) and infarct size (IS) in mice is vital for deciphering mechanisms behind these common diseases, and for developing and evaluating treatment strategies. The present review will briefly describe and discuss the most common methods for determining the AAR and IS in mouse models of cardiovascular disease. Several methods exist for ex vivo asse...

Redfors, Bjorn; Shao, Yangzhen; Omerovic, Elmir

2012-01-01

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[A study on standard 12-lead ECG QRS scoring system for estimating myocardial infarct size].  

Science.gov (United States)

Using the standard 12-lead electrocardiographic QRS scoring system modified by Nancy (1985), 99 ECGs of 52 patients with acute myocardial infarction were used for estimating myocardial infarct size (MIS). One point was designed to represent 3% of the left ventricle. Each patient had the first score of ECG at the day ranged from 7 to 12 and the second 25-32 days post acute chest pain except 5 cases died before the second scoring. The results showed that the averaged score was 6.7 +/- 3.1 points accumulated from all 99 ECGs and 11.0 points from 5 cases died. There was no statistic difference between the points value of the first scoring 6.4 +/- 2.9 vs second 6.5 +/- 2.7 points, nor between the points received from Q waves 4.0 +/- 1.5 vs 3.9 +/- 1.4 points in 47 patients. There was nevertheless strong correlation both between the total points of the first and second scoring, r = 0.85 (P less than 0.0005), and those between the points related to Q wave, r = 0.81 (P less than 0.005). Furthermore, early serial serum CPK changes were determined for evaluating MIS in 25 patients, the results were compared to the first and second scores respectively, the correlations were significant, r = 0.58, P less than 0.0025 and r = 0.47, P less than 0.01.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:1813289

Huang, T

1991-08-01

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Risk scoring for percutaneous coronary intervention: let's do it!  

OpenAIRE

The recent publication of a robust percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) risk scoring system should stimulate every interventional cardiologist to incorporate risk adjustment into their everyday practice

Siotia, A.

2006-01-01

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Risk prediction for myocardial infarction via generalized functional regression models.  

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In this paper, we propose a generalized functional linear regression model for a binary outcome indicating the presence/absence of a cardiac disease with multivariate functional data among the relevant predictors. In particular, the motivating aim is the analysis of electrocardiographic traces of patients whose pre-hospital electrocardiogram (ECG) has been sent to 118 Dispatch Center of Milan (the Italian free-toll number for emergencies) by life support personnel of the basic rescue units. The statistical analysis starts with a preprocessing of ECGs treated as multivariate functional data. The signals are reconstructed from noisy observations. The biological variability is then removed by a nonlinear registration procedure based on landmarks. Thus, in order to perform a data-driven dimensional reduction, a multivariate functional principal component analysis is carried out on the variance-covariance matrix of the reconstructed and registered ECGs and their first derivatives. We use the scores of the Principal Components decomposition as covariates in a generalized linear model to predict the presence of the disease in a new patient. Hence, a new semi-automatic diagnostic procedure is proposed to estimate the risk of infarction (in the case of interest, the probability of being affected by Left Bundle Brunch Block). The performance of this classification method is evaluated and compared with other methods proposed in literature. Finally, the robustness of the procedure is checked via leave-j-out techniques. PMID:23868543

Ieva, Francesca; Paganoni, Anna M

2013-07-18

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Value of the "TAVI2-SCORe" Versus Surgical Risk Scores for Prediction of One Year Mortality in 511 Patients Who Underwent Transcatheter Aortic Valve Implantation.  

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A bedside-available transcatheter aortic valve implantation (TAVI)-dedicated prognostic risk score is an unmet clinical need. We aimed to develop such a risk score predicting 1-year mortality post-TAVI and to compare it with the performance of the logistic EuroSCORE (LES) I and LES-II and the Society of Thoracic Surgeons' (STS) score. Baseline variables of 511 consecutive patients who underwent TAVI that were independently associated with 1-year mortality post-TAVI were included in the "TAVI2-SCORe." Discrimination and calibration abilities of the novel score were assessed and compared with surgical risk scores. One-year mortality was 17.0% (n = 80 of 471). Porcelain thoracic aorta (hazard ratio [HR] 2.56), anemia (HR 2.03), left ventricular dysfunction (HR 1.98), recent myocardial infarction (HR 3.78), male sex (HR 1.81), critical aortic valve stenosis (HR 2.46), old age (HR 1.68), and renal dysfunction (HR 1.76) formed the TAVI2-SCORe (all p 0.05, Hosmer-Lemeshow statistic 0.304), suggesting superior calibration performance. In conclusion, the TAVI2-SCORe is an accurate, simple, and bedside-available score predicting 1-year mortality post-TAVI, outperforming conventional surgical risk scores for this end point. PMID:25432413

Debonnaire, Philippe; Fusini, Laura; Wolterbeek, Ron; Kamperidis, Vasileios; van Rosendael, Philippe; van der Kley, Frank; Katsanos, Spyridon; Joyce, Emer; Tamborini, Gloria; Muratori, Manuela; Gripari, Paola; Bax, Jeroen J; Marsan, Nina Ajmone; Pepi, Mauro; Delgado, Victoria

2015-01-15

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Kidney Stones Associate with Increased Risk for Myocardial Infarction  

OpenAIRE

Kidney stones are a risk factor for chronic kidney disease (CKD), which, in turn, is a risk factor for myocardial infarction (MI). The objective of this study was to determine whether kidney stones associate with an increased risk for MI. We matched 4564 stone formers (1984 through 2003) on age and gender with 10,860 control subjects among residents in Olmsted County, Minnesota. We identified incident MI by diagnostic codes and validated events by chart review through 2006. We used diagnostic...

Rule, Andrew D.; Roger, Veronique L.; Melton, L. Joseph; Bergstralh, Eric J.; Li, Xujian; Peyser, Patricia A.; Krambeck, Amy E.; Lieske, John C.

2010-01-01

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Migrainous infarction: aspects on risk factors and therapy.  

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Migraine and stroke are related in more than one way. Migraine with aura is a risk factor for ischemic stroke in women under age 45 years, particularly when combined with other risk factors such as smoking and oral contraceptives. Further, individuals with migraine with aura seem to have more white matter lesions and ischemic infarctions than control patients. Migraine has been correlated to cervical artery dissection, the symptoms of which can mimic migraine. Correspondingly, migraine with aura sometimes is mistaken for stroke. Migrainous infarction is a rare but specific type of ischemic stroke developing during an attack of migraine with aura. It is important to recognize this unusual complication of migraine because the management probably is important. In this review, we will discuss the present knowledge of migrainous infarction, the clinical picture, possible mechanisms, and potential prevention and treatment. PMID:22527790

Laurell, Katarina; Lundström, Erik

2012-06-01

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Postoperative myocardial infarction and cardiac death. Predictive value of dipyridamole-thallium imaging and five clinical scoring systems based on multifactorial analysis  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Sixty-six patients unable to complete a standard preoperative exercise test because of physical limitations were studied to determine the predictive value of individual clinical parameters, of clinical scoring systems based on multifactorial analysis, and of dipyridamole-thallium imaging before major general and vascular surgery. Study endpoints were limited to postoperative myocardial infarction or cardiac death before hospital discharge. There were nine postoperative cardiac events (seven deaths and two nonfatal infarctions). There was no statistical correlation between cardiac events and preoperative clinical descriptors, including individual clinical parameters, the Dripps-American Surgical Association score, the Goldman Cardiac Risk Index score, the Detsky Modified Cardiac Risk Index score, Eagle's clinical markers of low surgical risk, and the probability of postoperative events as determined by Cooperman's equation. There were no cardiac events in 30 patients with normal dipyridamole-thallium scans or in nine patients with fixed myocardial perfusion defects. Of 21 patients with reversible perfusion defects who underwent surgery, nine had a postoperative cardiac event (sensitivity, 100%; specificity, 43%). In the six other patients with reversible defects, preoperative angiography showed severe coronary disease or cardiomyopathy. Thus in patients unable to complete a standard exercise stress test, postoperative outcome cannot be predicted clinically before majorannot be predicted clinically before major general and vascular surgery, whereas dipyridamole-thallium imaging successfully identified all patients who sustained a postoperative cardiac event

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Left ventricular asynergy score as an indicator of previous myocardial infarction  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Sixty-eight patients with coronary heart disease (CHD) i.e. a hisotry of angina of effort and/or previous 'possible infarction' were examined inter alia with ECG and cinecardioangiography. A system of scoring was designed which allowed a semiquantitative estimate of the left ventricular asynergy from cinecardioangiography - the left ventricular motion score (LVMS). The LVMS was associated with the presence of a previous myocardial infarction (MI), as indicated by the history and ECG findings. The ECG changes specific for a previous MI were associated with high LVMS values and unspecific or absent ECG changes with low LVMS values. Decision thresholds for ECG changes and asynergy in diagnosing a previous MI were evaluated by means of a ROC analysis. The accuracy of ECG in detecting a previous MI was slightly higher when asynergy indicated a 'true MI' than when autopsy result did so in a comparable group. Therefore the accuracy of asynergy (LVMS ? 1) in detecting a previous MI or myocardial fibrosis in patients with CHD should be at least comparable with that of autopsy (scar > 1 cm). (orig.)

26

Class of Antiretroviral Drugs and the Risk of Myocardial Infarction  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

BACKGROUND: We have previously demonstrated an association between combination antiretroviral therapy and the risk of myocardial infarction. It is not clear whether this association differs according to the class of antiretroviral drugs. We conducted a study to investigate the association of cumulative exposure to protease inhibitors and nonnucleoside reverse-transcriptase inhibitors with the risk of myocardial infarction. METHODS: We analyzed data collected through February 2005 from our prospective observational study of 23,437 patients infected with the human immunodeficiency virus. The incidence rates of myocardial infarction during the follow-up period were calculated, and the associations between myocardial infarction and exposure to protease inhibitors or nonnucleoside reverse-transcriptase inhibitors were determined. RESULTS: Three hundred forty-five patients had a myocardial infarction during 94,469 person-years of observation. The incidence of myocardial infarction increased from 1.53 per 1000 person-years in those not exposed to protease inhibitors to 6.01 per 1000 person-years in those exposed to protease inhibitors for more than 6 years. After adjustment for exposure to the other drug class and established cardiovascular risk factors (excluding lipid levels), the relative rate of myocardial infarction per year of protease-inhibitor exposure was 1.16 (95% confidence interval [CI], 1.10 to 1.23), whereas the relative rate per year of exposure to nonnucleoside reverse-transcriptase inhibitors was 1.05 (95% CI, 0.98 to 1.13). Adjustment for serum lipid levels further reduced the effect of exposure to each drug class to 1.10 (95% CI, 1.04 to 1.18) and 1.00 (95% CI, 0.93 to 1.09), respectively. CONCLUSIONS: Increased exposure to protease inhibitors is associated with an increased risk of myocardial infarction, which is partly explained by dyslipidemia. We found no evidence of such an association for nonnucleoside reverse-transcriptase inhibitors; however, the number of person-years of observation for exposure to this class of drug was less than that for exposure to protease inhibitors. Copyright 2007 Massachusetts Medical Society. Udgivelsesdato: Apr 26

Friis-MØller, Nina; Reiss, P.

2007-01-01

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Changes in subclinical organ damage vs. in Framingham risk score for assessing cardiovascular risk reduction during continued antihypertensive treatment: a LIFE substudy  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

To investigate whether in-treatment measurements of subclinical organ damage (SOD) assessed by elevated urine albumin/creatinine ratio (UACR) or electrocardiographic left ventricular hypertrophy improved the prediction of the composite cardiovascular endpoint of cardiovascular death, nonfatal myocardial infarction and stroke beyond in-treatment Framingham risk score (FRS).

Olsen, Michael H; Wachtell, Kristian

2011-01-01

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The stability of myocardial area at risk estimated electrocardiographically in patients with ST elevation myocardial infarction  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

In patients with ST-elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) the amount of myocardial area at risk (MaR) indicates the maximal potential loss of myocardium if the coronary artery remains occluded. During the time course of infarct evolution ischemic MaR is replaced by necrosis, which results in a decrease in ST segment elevation and QRS complex distortion. Recently it has been shown that combining the electrocardiographic (ECG) Aldrich ST and Selvester QRS scores result in a more accurate estimate of MaR than using either method alone. Therefore, we hypothesized that the combined Aldrich and Selvester score, indicating MaR, is stable until myocardial reperfusion therapy. In a retrospective analysis of a study population of 114 patients, 33 patients were included. The combined Aldrich and Selvester score was determined in ECGs recorded in the ambulance (ECG1) and in the hospital before reperfusion (ECG2). The combined Aldrich and Selvester score was considered stable if the difference between ECG1 and ECG2 was <4.5-percentage point. Stability of the combined Aldrich and Selvester score was observed in 12/33 patients (36.4%), and in regards to anterior and inferior ST elevation in 4/14 patients (28.6%) and 8/19 patients (42.1%), respectively. The median time between the recording of ECG1 and ECG2 was 75minutes, however the changes in ECG scores were independent of the time between ECG recordings. Patients not meeting the stability criterion either had a decrease (9 patients) or increase (12 patients) of the combined Aldrich and Selvester score. In conclusion, the ECG estimated MaR was stable between the earliest recording time and initiation of reperfusion treatment only in a subgroup of the patients with STEMI. The findings of this study may suggest heterogeneity in regards to the development of the MaR and could indicate a potential need for differentiation in the acute treatment.

Carlsen, Esben A; Hassell, Mariëlla E C J

2014-01-01

29

Plasma enterolignans are not associated with nonfatal myocardial infarction risk  

OpenAIRE

Plant lignans present in foods such as whole grains, seeds and nuts, fruits and vegetables, and beverages. Plant lignans are converted by intestinal bacteria into the enterolignans enterodiol and enterolactone. Up to now, epidemiological evidence for a protective role of enterolignans on cardiovascular diseases is limited and inconsistent. We investigated the association between plasma enterodiol and enterolactone and nonfatal myocardial infarction risk in a prospective study. During follow-u...

Kuijsten, A.; Bueno-de-mesquita, H. B.; Boer, J. M. A.; Arts, I. C. W.; Kok, F. J.; Veer, P.; Hollman, P. C. H.

2009-01-01

30

Evaluation of Cardiovascular Risk Scores Applied to NASA's Astronant Corps  

Science.gov (United States)

In an effort to improve cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk prediction, this analysis evaluates and compares the applicability of multiple CVD risk scores to the NASA Astronaut Corps which is extremely healthy at selection.

Jain, I.; Charvat, J. M.; VanBaalen, M.; Lee, L.; Wear, M. L.

2014-01-01

31

Credit scores, cardiovascular disease risk, and human capital.  

Science.gov (United States)

Credit scores are the most widely used instruments to assess whether or not a person is a financial risk. Credit scoring has been so successful that it has expanded beyond lending and into our everyday lives, even to inform how insurers evaluate our health. The pervasive application of credit scoring has outpaced knowledge about why credit scores are such useful indicators of individual behavior. Here we test if the same factors that lead to poor credit scores also lead to poor health. Following the Dunedin (New Zealand) Longitudinal Study cohort of 1,037 study members, we examined the association between credit scores and cardiovascular disease risk and the underlying factors that account for this association. We find that credit scores are negatively correlated with cardiovascular disease risk. Variation in household income was not sufficient to account for this association. Rather, individual differences in human capital factors-educational attainment, cognitive ability, and self-control-predicted both credit scores and cardiovascular disease risk and accounted for ?45% of the correlation between credit scores and cardiovascular disease risk. Tracing human capital factors back to their childhood antecedents revealed that the characteristic attitudes, behaviors, and competencies children develop in their first decade of life account for a significant portion (?22%) of the link between credit scores and cardiovascular disease risk at midlife. We discuss the implications of these findings for policy debates about data privacy, financial literacy, and early childhood interventions. PMID:25404329

Israel, Salomon; Caspi, Avshalom; Belsky, Daniel W; Harrington, HonaLee; Hogan, Sean; Houts, Renate; Ramrakha, Sandhya; Sanders, Seth; Poulton, Richie; Moffitt, Terrie E

2014-12-01

32

Incidence of cardiovascular events after kidney transplantation and cardiovascular risk scores: study protocol  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background Cardiovascular disease (CVD is the major cause of death after renal transplantation. Not only conventional CVD risk factors, but also transplant-specific risk factors can influence the development of CVD in kidney transplant recipients. The main objective of this study will be to determine the incidence of post-transplant CVD after renal transplantation and related factors. A secondary objective will be to examine the ability of standard cardiovascular risk scores (Framingham, Regicor, SCORE, and DORICA to predict post-transplantation cardiovascular events in renal transplant recipients, and to develop a new score for predicting the risk of CVD after kidney transplantation. Methods/Design Observational prospective cohort study of all kidney transplant recipients in the A Coruña Hospital (Spain in the period 1981-2008 (2059 transplants corresponding to 1794 patients. The variables included will be: donor and recipient characteristics, chronic kidney disease-related risk factors, pre-transplant and post-transplant cardiovascular risk factors, routine biochemistry, and immunosuppressive, antihypertensive and lipid-lowering treatment. The events studied in the follow-up will be: patient and graft survival, acute rejection episodes and cardiovascular events (myocardial infarction, invasive coronary artery therapy, cerebral vascular events, new-onset angina, congestive heart failure, rhythm disturbances and peripheral vascular disease. Four cardiovascular risk scores were calculated at the time of transplantation: the Framingham score, the European Systematic Coronary Risk Evaluation (SCORE equation, and the REGICOR (Registre Gironí del COR (Gerona Heart Registry, and DORICA (Dyslipidemia, Obesity, and Cardiovascular Risk functions. The cumulative incidence of cardiovascular events will be analyzed by competing risk survival methods. The clinical relevance of different variables will be calculated using the ARR (Absolute Risk Reduction, RRR (Relative Risk Reduction and NNT (Number Needed to Treat. The ability of different cardiovascular risk scores to predict cardiovascular events will be analyzed by using the c index and the area under ROC curves. Based on the competing risks analysis, a nomogram to predict the probability of cardiovascular events after kidney transplantation will be developed. Discussion This study will make it possible to determine the post-transplant incidence of cardiovascular events in a large cohort of renal transplant recipients in Spain, to confirm the relationship between traditional and transplant-specific cardiovascular risk factors and CVD, and to develop a score to predict the risk of CVD in these patients.

Lorenzo-Aguiar Dolores

2011-01-01

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Risk Factors And Seasonal-Diurinal Variatons In Lacunar Infarctions  

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Full Text Available Lacunar infarctions are deeply located ischemic infarctions smaller than 1.5 cm in diameter. Patients hospitalized in our neurology clinic in between 2001 and 2005 with signs of lacunar infarction and in whom diagnosis were confirmed with neuroimaging studies, were included in this study. Risk factors and time of symptom-onset were re-evaluated by use of phone calls with them and/or their relatives. Eighty-one patients with mean age of 64.6 were involved in the study. Forty-three of them (%53 were female. The lesion was in left hemisphere in forty-five patients (%55.6, and in right hemisphere in remaining 36 (%44.4 ones. There was at least one vascular risk factor in 80 of them (%98.8, and a cardiac one in 6 patients (%7.4. Sixty-five patients (%80.2 had multiple vascular risk factors. There was hypertension in 68 (%83.9, dyslipidemia in 48 (%59.2, smoking in 26 (%32.1, and diabetes mellitus in 22 (%27.2 of them. Among 16 patients with single risk factor, 10 patients had hypertension and 6 patients had dyslipidemia. In 34 of them (%41.9, symptoms had appeared during night-time (sleeping + first hour of awakeness, and in 47 of them (%58.1 during day-time. The disease was seen during winter in 17 (21%, spring in 22 (27.2%, summer in 19 (23.4%, and autumn in 23 (28.3% of them. After analyses were corrected according to risk factors, sex and age, any seasonal-diurnal variation or side differences were not detected. Presence of many patients with single risk factor reveals the importance of primary prophylaxis clearly. High frequency of multiple risk factors underlines needs for use of preventive treatment carefully in these patients.

Murat ALEMDAR

2006-06-01

34

Lipoprotein Lp(a). A risk factor for myocardial infarction.  

Science.gov (United States)

The aim of this study was to test plasma lipoprotein Lp(a) and other lipid and lipoprotein levels for association with the incidence of myocardial infarction. Total plasma cholesterol, triglycerides, low density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol, high density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol, and Lp(a) were measured in 1486 men at the age of 18 years. In addition, the Broca Index (a measure of relative body weight) and other data were recorded. The sample was divided into probands whose mothers or fathers suffered a myocardial infarction (case group, n = 52) and into probands whose parents had no myocardial infarction (control group, n = 1434). In the case group, 32% had Lp(a) plasma concentrations greater than 25 mg/dl, but only 13.4% of the control group had this level of concentration, a highly significant difference (p less than 0.01). In addition, there was a statistically significant difference in the ratio of LDL cholesterol/HDL cholesterol (p less than 0.05) and the Broca Index (p less than 0.01) between cases and controls. The parents of the case group were significantly older than the parents of the control group; however, when a control group was matched for parents' age, the results were similar. These data suggest that parents of male children with Lp(a) plasma concentrations greater than 25 mg/dl have a 2.5-fold higher incidence of myocardial infarction. Considering the familial aggregation of elevated Lp(a) levels, we conclude that increased levels of this lipoprotein may be a significant risk factor for myocardial infarction. PMID:2969235

Hoefler, G; Harnoncourt, F; Paschke, E; Mirtl, W; Pfeiffer, K H; Kostner, G M

1988-01-01

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Silent infarction or white matter hyperintensity and impaired attention task scores in a nondemented population: the Osaki-Tajiri Project.  

Science.gov (United States)

Whether silent infarction can be completely asymptomatic remains unclear. Although the central cholinergic system affects cognition, little attention has been given to infarction. We hypothesized that specific damage to the cholinergic pathways due to infarction or white matter hyperintensity (WMH) would deteriorate cognition, especially attention. A total of 502 representative elderly participants enrolled in the Osaki-Tajiri Project in 1998 were studied. Participants with focal neurologic signs or previous history of stroke or transient ischemic attack were excluded from the analysis. MRIs were available for all participants, and the Cholinergic Pathways Hyperintensities scale (CHIPS) was used to assess vascular damage in the cholinergic pathways. The Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE), word fluency test, Digit Symbol test, and digit span test were used to assess global cognitive function and several aspects of attention. Participants were divided into 3 groups according to the comorbidity of cerebrovascular disease (CVD) and cholinergic involvement: non-CVD, CVD with cholinergic involvement [CVD-Ch(+)], and CVD without cholinergic involvement [CVD-Ch(-)]. Cognitive scores were compared among the 3 groups. In the non-CVD group, the correlations between cognitive function and the CHIPS score were examined. The CVD-Ch(+) group exhibited significantly lower scores for the Digit Symbol test compared with the other two groups, regardless of the MMSE score. In the non-CVD group, the CHIPS score of white matter changes was irreversibly correlated (ie, biologically meaningful) with the Digit Symbol score in participants age >80 years. Our findings suggest that silent infarction or WMH may deteriorate attention regardless of global cognitive function by interrupting the central cholinergic pathway. PMID:20971655

Ishikawa, Hiroyasu; Meguro, Kenichi; Ishii, Hiroshi; Tanaka, Naofumi; Yamaguchi, Satoshi

2012-05-01

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RISKS MANAGEMENT. A PROPENSITY SCORE APPLICATION  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Risk management is relatively unexplored in Romania. Although Romanian specialists dwell on theoretical aspects such as the risks classification and the important distinction between risks and uncertainty the practical relevance of the matter is outside existing studies. Present paper uses a dataset of consumer data to build a propensity scorecard based on relevant quantitative modeling.

Constangioara Alexandru

2008-05-01

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Prehypertension, Hypertension, and the Risk of Acute Myocardial Infarction in HIV-Infected and -Uninfected Veterans  

OpenAIRE

We found increased acute myocardial infarction risk among hypertensive and prehypertensive HIV-infected veterans compared to normotensive uninfected veterans, independent of confounding comorbidities.

Armah, Kaku A.; Chang, Chung-chou H.; Baker, Jason V.; Ramachandran, Vasan S.; Budoff, Matthew J.; Crane, Heidi M.; Gibert, Cynthia L.; Goetz, Matthew B.; Leaf, David A.; Mcginnis, Kathleen A.; Oursler, Krisann K.; Rimland, David; Rodriguez-barradas, Maria C.; Sico, Jason J.; Warner, Alberta L.

2013-01-01

38

Risk and benefit of dual antiplatelet treatment among non-revascularized myocardial infarction patients in different age groups  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

BACKGROUND: Dual anti-platelet treatment with clopidogrel and aspirin is indicated for most patients after myocardial infarction. We examined the risk/benefit relationship of dual anti-platelet treatment according to age in a nationwide cohort of 30,532 myocardial infarction patients without revascularization. METHODS: Patients admitted with first-time myocardial infarction in 2002-2010, not undergoing revascularization, were identified from nationwide Danish registers. Dual anti-platelet treatment use was assessed by claimed prescriptions. Stratified into age groups, risk of bleeding, all-cause mortality and a combined endpoint of cardiovascular death, recurrent myocardial infarction and ischaemic stroke was analysed by Cox proportional-hazard models and tested in a propensity-score matched population. RESULTS: A total of 21,302 users and 9230 non-users of dual anti-platelet treatment were included (mean age 67.02 (±13.8) years and 64.7% males). Use of dual anti-platelet treatment decreased with age: 80% (79 years). We found a reduced risk of cardiovascular death, recurrent myocardial infarction and ischaemic stroke in users 79 years (HR=0.92; 95% CI 0.84-1.01, NS). Risk of bleeding increased with dual anti-platelet treatment use in patients aged 79 years (HR=1.46; 95% CI 1.22-1.74). Similar tendencies in all four age groups were found in the propensity-matched population. CONCLUSION: Dual anti-platelet treatment use was less likely among elderly patients although similar effects regarding both risk and benefit were found in all age groups. Increased focus on initiating dual anti-platelet treatment in elderly, non-invasively treated myocardial infarction patients is warranted.

Juul, Nikolai; Gislason, Gunnar

2014-01-01

39

Cardiovascular risk assessment in Italy: the CUORE Project risk score and risk chart  

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Full Text Available

Aim: Risk charts and risk score, based on the global absolute risk, are key tools for CVD risk assessment. When applied to the population from which they derive, they provide the best estimate of CVD risk. That is why the CUORE Project has among its objectives the assessment of the Italian population’s cardiovascular risk, identifying the model for the prediction of coronary and cerebrovascular events in 10 years.

Methods: Data fromdifferent cohorts enrolled in the North, Centre and South of Italy between the 1980s and the 1990s were used. From the 7,056 men and 12,574 women aged 35-69 years, free of cardiovascular disease at base-line and followed up for a mean time of 10 years for total and cause-specific mortality and non fatal cerebrovascular and coronary events, 894 major cardiovascular events (596 coronary and 298 cerebrovascular were identified and validated. To assess 10-year cardiovascular risk, the risk score and risk chart were developed for men and women separately, considering the first major coronary or cerebrovascular event as the endpoint.

Results: The risk score is applied tomen andwomen aged 35-69 years and includes age, systolic blood pressure, total cholesterol, HDL-cholesterol, smoking habit, diabetes and hypertension treatment using continuous values when possible. The risk chart is applied to persons aged 40-69 years and includes the same risk factors as risk score, except for HDL-cholesterol and hypertension treatment, and uses categorical values for all variables.

Conclusions: The risk score and risk chart are easy-to-use tools which enable general practitioners and specialists to achieve an objective evaluation of the absolute global cardiovascular risk of middle-aged persons in primary prevention.

Simona Giampaoli

2007-06-01

40

Comparison of different electrocardiographic scoring systems for detection of any previous myocardial infarction as assessed with cardiovascular magnetic resonance imaging.  

Science.gov (United States)

Although electrocardiography is frequently used as an initial test to detect or rule out previous myocardial infarction (MI), the diagnostic performance of commonly used electrocardiographic scoring systems is not well described. We aimed to determine the diagnostic accuracy of (1) the Universal Definition, (2) Minnesota ECG Code (MC), (3) Selvester QRS Score, and (4) assessment by cardiologists using late gadolinium enhancement cardiovascular magnetic resonance imaging as the reference standard. Additionally, the effect of electrocardiographic patterns and infarct characteristics on detecting previous MI was evaluated. The 3-month follow-up electrocardiograms of 78 patients with first-time reperfused ST elevation MI were pooled with electrocardiograms of 36 healthy controls. All 114 electrocardiograms were randomly analyzed, blinded to clinical and LGE-CMR data. The sensitivity of the Universal Definition, MC, Selvester QRS Score, and cardiologists to detect previous MI was 33%, 79%, 90%, and 67%, respectively; specificity 97%, 72%, 31%, and 89%, respectively; diagnostic accuracy 54%, 77%, 71%, and 74%, respectively. Probability of detecting MI by cardiologists increased with an increasing number (odds ratio [OR] 2.00, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.30 to 3.09), width (OR 1.02, 95% CI 1.01 to 1.03), and depth (OR 1.16, 95% CI 1.07 to 1.27) of Q waves as well as increasing infarct size (OR 1.15, 95% CI 1.06 to 1.25) and transmurality (OR 1.05, 95% CI 1.01 to 1.08; p detect previous MI. The diagnostic performance of all 4 electrocardiographic scoring systems was modest and related to the number, depth, and width of Q waves as well as increasing infarct size and transmurality. In conclusion, the exclusion of a previous MI based solely on electrocardiographic findings should be done with caution. Future studies are needed to define which patients should be referred to additional diagnostic testing. PMID:23827406

Jaarsma, Caroline; Bekkers, Sebastiaan C; Haidari, Zaki; Smulders, Martijn W; Nelemans, Patricia J; Gorgels, Anton P; Crijns, Harry J; Wildberger, Joachim E; Schalla, Simon

2013-10-15

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The relationship between neutrophil to lymphocyte ratio and SYNTAX score in patients with ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction  

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Full Text Available Objective: We aimed to assess relationship between the severity of coronary atherosclerosis assessed by SYNTAX score (SS and neutrophil to lymphocyte ratio (NLR in patients with ST elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI. Methods: After accounting for exclusion criteria, a total of 291 patient with STEMI in whom primary percutaneous coronary intervention was performed were retrospectively included (216 male, 75 female; mean age 61.6+14.0 years. Total and differential leukocyte counts and other biochemical markers were measured at admission. Patients were categorized into tertiles on the basis of SS. Monitoring for major adverse cardiac events (MACEs was performed during the in hospital follow-up period. Results: The SS high group leukocyte (p=0.009, neutrophil (p=0.008, NLR (p=0.048, peak troponin (p<0.001, peak CK-MB (p=0.001 lactate dehydrogenase (p=0.005, aspartate aminotransferase (p=0.004 values were significantly higher compared with SSlow and SSmid groups. SS was increased, left ventricular ejection fraction was decrease (p<0.001 and left ventricular systolic diameter was increased (p=0.007. The in-hospital death rate and MACEs were greater in the high SS group than in the other groups (p<0.001 both of. Conclusion: We found that high NLR was significantly and correlated increased with SS. In addition, high SS were significantly associated with increased in-hospital MACE and in-hospital death. Further prospective studies assessing the predictive role of both SS and NLR in conjunction for risk stratification might improve risk prediction in patients with STEMI. J Clin Exp Invest 2014; 5 (2: 211-218

Halit Acet

2014-06-01

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Predicting long-term cardiovascular risk using the mayo clinic cardiovascular risk score in a referral population.  

Science.gov (United States)

Exercise testing provides valuable information but is rarely integrated to derive a risk prediction model in a referral population. In this study, we assessed the predictive value of conventional cardiovascular risk factors and exercise test parameters in 6,546 consecutive adults referred for exercise testing, who were followed for a period of 8.1 ± 3.7 years for incident myocardial infarction, coronary revascularization, and cardiovascular death. A risk prediction model was developed, and cross-validation of model was performed by splitting the data set into 10 equal random subsets, with model fitting based on 9 of the 10 subsets and testing in of the remaining subset, repeated in all 10 possible ways. The best performing model was chosen based on measurements of model discrimination and stability. A risk score was constructed from the final model, with points assigned for the presence of each predictor based on the regression coefficients. Using both conventional risk factors and exercise test parameters, a total of 9 variables were identified as independent and robust predictors and were included in a risk score. The prognostic ability of this model was compared with that of the Adult Treatment Panel III model using the net reclassification and integrated discrimination index. From the cross-validation results, the c statistic of 0.77 for the final model indicated strong predictive power. In conclusion, we developed, tested, and internally validated a novel risk prediction model using exercise treadmill testing parameters. PMID:25052544

Dhoble, Abhijeet; Lahr, Brian D; Allison, Thomas G; Bailey, Kent R; Thomas, Randal J; Lopez-Jimenez, Francisco; Kullo, Iftikhar J; Gupta, Bhanu; Kopecky, Stephen L

2014-09-01

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Risk factors in young patients of acute myocardial infarction  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Background: Ischemic heart disease is a leading cause of death throughout the world. CAD has been recognized among younger age group more frequently in recent years. Very limited data is available regarding the prevalence of various risk factors in our younger patients that is why this study was planed. Objectives of the study were to look for the risk factors most prevalent in our young patient of first Acute Myocardial Infarction. And to also look for the number of Risk Factors present in each patient. Methods: We studied 100 consecutive patients from 16-45 years of age presenting with first acute MI. Twelve risk factors were studied namely, gender, family history of premature CAD, smoking hypertension, diabetes, dyslipidemia, obesity, mental stress (type A personality), alcohol, oral contraceptive pills (OCPs), physical activity, and diet. We divided the patients into two groups. Group A with patients 35 years of age or less and group B with patients 36-45 years of age. All risk factors were compared in both the groups. Results: Smoking, diabetes mellitus, dyslipidemia and hypertension were statistically different between the two groups. Frequency wise risk factors were lined up as male sex (91%) Diet (66%), Dyslipidemia (62%), smoking (46%), Type A personality(46%), family history (32%), diabetes mellitus (28%), sedentary lifestyle (26%), hypertension (22%), obesity (17%), alcohol (3%), and OCPs (0%) Most of the patients that is 94% had 3 or more risk factors. Conhat is 94% had 3 or more risk factors. Conclusion: Smoking, hypertension, diabetes and dyslipidemia are the major modifiable risk factors in our young adults. If a young male who is smoker or a young female who is diabetic, presents in emergency room with chest pain, always suspect coronary artery disease. Other conventional risk factors are also prevalent but alcohol and OCPs are not a major health problem for us. (author)

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The Value of Simplified Selvester QRS Scoring System in Predicting ST-segment Resolution after Thrombolysis in Patients with Acute Myocardial Infarction  

OpenAIRE

ABSTRACT Background: Selvester QRS scoring system was developed for estimating the infarct size from the electrocardiogram (ECG). Objective: To evaluate the predictive value of the simplified version of this scoring system on ST-segment resolution (STR) mortality in patients with acute ST-elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) undergoing thrombolytic therapy (TLT). Methods: We enrolled 100 consecutive patients with their first acute STEMI within 12 hours of onset of chest pain who...

Samad Ghaffari; Babak Kazemi; Gholamreza Saeidi; Nariman Sepehrvand; Leili Pourafkari

2014-01-01

45

Risk factors for near-term myocardial infarction in apparently healthy men and women  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Limited information is available regarding risk factors for the near-term (4 years) onset of myocardial infarction (MI). We evaluated established cardiovascular risk factors and putative circulating biomarkers as predictors for MI within 4 years of measurement.

Nordestgaard, BØrge G; Adourian, Aram S

2010-01-01

46

Antidiabetic treatments and risk of hospitalisation with myocardial infarction: a nationwide case-control study  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Data on cardiovascular risk associated with different types of antidiabetic treatments are sparse and conflicting. We examined the risk of hospitalisation with myocardial infarction (MI) among patients treated with sulfonylureas, metformin, insulin, any combination and no antidiabetic pharmacotherapy.

Horsdal, Henriette Thisted; SØndergaard, Flemming

2011-01-01

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Chronic myocardial infarction detection and characterization during coronary artery calcium scoring acquisitions.  

LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

Hypoenhanced regions on multidetector CT (MDCT) coronary angiography correlate with myocardial hyperperfusion. In addition to a limited capillary density, chronic myocardial infarction (MI) commonly contains a considerable amount of adipose tissue.

Rodríguez-Granillo, Gastón A

2012-01-05

48

Scoring Of High Risk Mothers And Related Outcome  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In a study of 777 mothers delivering at Dufferin Hospital, Lucknow, 195 (25.1 % mothers were in O risk group, 321 (41.3% in 1-3 risk group, 199(25.6% in 4-6 risk group and 62 (7.9 % in risk group 7 +. On the other hand, caesarean section increased from 3(1.5 % in ‘O� risk mothers to 25 (40.4% in 7 + risk score mothers. The incidence of low birth weight was lowest (5/ 1000 births when risk score was 0 and highest (432.8 / 1000 births when risk score was 7 +. Out of a total of 777 mothers, 222 (28.5% had postnatal complications. In ‘O� risk group, out of 195 mothers only 24 (12.3 % had postnatal complications, while 37 (59.7 % out of 62 had complications in 7 + group. The maternal mortality rate was 1.3 / 1000 live births. Perinatal mortality rate was 61.6 /1000 total births and neonatal mortality rate was 47.7/1000 live births.

Krishnan V

1988-01-01

49

Alcohol intake, myocardial infarction, biochemical risk factors, and alcohol dehydrogenase genotypes  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

BACKGROUND: The risk of myocardial infarction is lower among light-to-moderate alcohol drinkers compared with abstainers. We tested associations between alcohol intake and risk of myocardial infarction and risk factors and whether these associations are modified by variations in alcohol dehydrogenases. METHODS AND RESULTS: We used information on 9584 men and women from the Danish general population in the Copenhagen City Heart Study. During follow-up, from 1991 to 2007, 663 incident cases of myocardial infarction occurred. We observed that increasing alcohol intake was associated with decreasing risk of myocardial infarction, decreasing low-density lipoprotein cholesterol and fibrinogen, increasing diastolic and systolic blood pressure and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, and with U-shaped nonfasting triglycerides. In contrast, ADH1B and ADH1C genotypes were not associated with risk of myocardial infarction or with any of the cardiovascular biochemical risk factors, and there was no indication that associations between alcohol intake and myocardial infarction and between alcohol intake and risk factors were modified by genotypes. CONCLUSIONS: Increasing alcohol intake is associated with decreasing risk of myocardial infarction, decreasing low-density lipoprotein cholesterol and fibrinogen, increasing diastolic and systolic blood pressure and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, and U-shaped nonfasting triglycerides. These associations were not modified by ADH1B and ADH1C are genotypes.

Tolstrup, Janne S; GrØnbaek, Morten

2009-01-01

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Alcohol Intake, Myocardial Infarction, Biochemical Risk Factors, and Alcohol Dehydrogenase Genotypes  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

  Background- The risk of myocardial infarction is lower among light-to-moderate alcohol drinkers compared with abstainers. We tested associations between alcohol intake and risk of myocardial infarction and risk factors and whether these associations are modified by variations in alcohol dehydrogenases. Methods and Results- We used information on 9584 men and women from the Danish general population in the Copenhagen City Heart Study. During follow-up, from 1991 to 2007, 663 incident cases of myocardial infarction occurred. We observed that increasing alcohol intake was associated with decreasing risk of myocardial infarction, decreasing low-density lipoprotein cholesterol and fibrinogen, increasing diastolic and systolic blood pressure and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, and with U-shaped nonfasting triglycerides. In contrast, ADH1B and ADH1C genotypes were not associated with risk of myocardial infarction or with any of the cardiovascular biochemical risk factors, and there was no indication that associations between alcohol intake and myocardial infarction and between alcohol intake and risk factors were modified by genotypes. Conclusions- Increasing alcohol intake is associated with decreasing risk of myocardial infarction, decreasing low-density lipoprotein cholesterol and fibrinogen, increasing diastolic and systolic blood pressure and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, and U-shaped nonfasting triglycerides. These associations were not modified by ADH1B and ADH1C are genotypes. Udgivelsesdato: 2009

Tolstrup, Janne Schurmann; GrØnbæk, Morten

2009-01-01

51

Same score, different message: perceptions of offender risk depend on Static-99R risk communication format.  

Science.gov (United States)

The popular Static-99R allows evaluators to convey results in terms of risk category (e.g., low, moderate, high), relative risk (compared with other sexual offenders), or normative sample recidivism rate formats (e.g., 30% reoffended in 5 years). But we do not know whether judges and jurors draw similar conclusions about the same Static-99R score when findings are communicated using different formats. Community members reporting for jury duty (N = 211) read a tutorial on the Static-99R and a description of a sexual offender and his crimes. We varied his Static-99R score (1 or 6) and risk communication format (categorical, relative risk, or recidivism rate). Participants rated the high-scoring offender as higher risk than the low-scoring offender in the categorical communication condition, but not in the relative risk or recidivism rate conditions. Moreover, risk ratings of the high-scoring offender were notably higher in the categorical communication condition than the relative risk and recidivism rate conditions. Participants who read about a low Static-99R score tended to report that Static-99R results were unimportant and difficult to understand, especially when risk was communicated using categorical or relative risk formats. Overall, results suggest that laypersons are more receptive to risk results indicating high risk than low risk and more receptive to risk communication messages that provide an interpretative label (e.g., high risk) than those that provide statistical results. PMID:24377910

Varela, Jorge G; Boccaccini, Marcus T; Cuervo, Veronica A; Murrie, Daniel C; Clark, John W

2014-10-01

52

IS OPIUM ADDICTION A RISK FACTOR FOR ACUTE MYOCARDIAL INFARCTION?  

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Full Text Available There is a misconception among our people that opioids may prevent or have ameliorating effects in the occurrence of cardiovascular diseases. In this study we evaluated 556 consecutive male patients hospitalized due to acute myocardial infarction (MI in city of Yazd, from May 2000 to October 2001 and compared the characteristics of opium addicts to non opium users. Prevalence of opium addiction in MI patients was 19% in comparison with 2-2.8% in general population. There were not any differences in prevalence of traditional risk factors between opium users and non-users. Overall, in-hospital mortality was 18.6 percent among opium users and 6.2 percent among non-opium users (unadjusted odd ratio, 1.3; 95% confidence interval, 0.7 to 2.7, P = 0.2. After adjustment for the differences in the baseline features (age and other risk factors, odds ratio increased to 2.2 (95 percent confidence interval, 0.9 to 5.1. It seems that opium addiction may work as a risk factor in cardiovascular disease.

"S. M. Sadr Bafghi

2005-06-01

53

A case-control study of physical activity patterns and risk of non-fatal myocardial infarction  

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Full Text Available Abstract Background The interactive effects of different types of physical activity on cardiovascular disease (CVD risk have not been fully considered in previous studies. We aimed to identify physical activity patterns that take into account combinations of physical activities and examine the association between derived physical activity patterns and risk of acute myocardial infarction (AMI. Methods We examined the relationship between physical activity patterns, identified by principal component analysis (PCA, and AMI risk in a case-control study of myocardial infarction in Costa Rica (N=4172, 1994-2004. The component scores derived from PCA and total METS were used in natural cubic spline models to assess the association between physical activity and AMI risk. Results Four physical activity patterns were retained from PCA that were characterized as the rest/sleep, agricultural job, light indoor activity, and manual labor job patterns. The light indoor activity and rest/sleep patterns showed an inverse linear relation (P for linearity=0.001 and a U-shaped association (P for non-linearity=0.03 with AMI risk, respectively. There was an inverse association between total activity-related energy expenditure and AMI risk but it reached a plateau at high levels of physical activity (P for non-linearity=0.01. Conclusions These data suggest that a light indoor activity pattern is associated with reduced AMI risk. PCA provides a new approach to investigate the relationship between physical activity and CVD risk.

Gong Jian

2013-02-01

54

Time course of lesion development in patients with acute brain stem infarction and correlation with NIHSS score  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Background and purpose: diffusion weighted magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is highly sensitive in detecting acute supratentorial cerebral ischemia and Diffusion Weighted Imaging (DWI) lesion size has been shown to correlate strongly with the neurologic deficit in middle cerebral artery territory stroke. However, data concerning infratentorial strokes are rare. We examined the size and evolution of acute brain stem ischemic lesions and their relationship to neurological outcome. Methods: brain stem infarctions of 11 patients were analyzed. We performed DWI in all patients and in 7/11 patients within 24 h, T2W sequences within the first 2 weeks (10/11 patients) and follow-up MRI (MR2) within 3-9 months (median 4.8 months) later (12/12 patients). Lesion volumes were compared with early and follow-up neurologic deficit as determined by National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale (NIHSS) score. Results: the relative infarct volumes--with MR2 lesion size set to 100%--decreased over the time (P<0.02) with a mean shrinking factor of 3.3 between DWI (MR0) and the follow-up MRT (P<0.02), and 1.6 between early T2W (MR1) and MR2 (P<0.04). The mean DWI volume size (MR0) was larger than the early T2W (P<0.02). Although neurological outcome was good in all patients (mean NIHSS score of 1.3 at follow-up), early NIHSS and follow-up NIHSS scores were strongly correlated (r=0.9, P<0.00). NIHSS score at follow-up was highly correlated with lesion size of DWI (MR0; r=0.71, P<0.04) and T2W of MR1 (r=0.86, P<0.001). Conclusions: in this study, we saw a shrinking of the brain stem infarct volume according to clinical improvement of patients. Great extension of restricted diffusion in the acute stage does not necessarily implicate a large resulting infarction or a bad clinical outcome.

Fitzek, Sabine E-mail: sabine.fitzek@med.uni-jena.de; Fitzek, Clemens; Urban, Peter Paul; Marx, Juergen; Hopf, Hanns Christian; Stoeter, Peter

2001-09-01

55

Time course of lesion development in patients with acute brain stem infarction and correlation with NIHSS score  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Background and purpose: diffusion weighted magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is highly sensitive in detecting acute supratentorial cerebral ischemia and Diffusion Weighted Imaging (DWI) lesion size has been shown to correlate strongly with the neurologic deficit in middle cerebral artery territory stroke. However, data concerning infratentorial strokes are rare. We examined the size and evolution of acute brain stem ischemic lesions and their relationship to neurological outcome. Methods: brain stem infarctions of 11 patients were analyzed. We performed DWI in all patients and in 7/11 patients within 24 h, T2W sequences within the first 2 weeks (10/11 patients) and follow-up MRI (MR2) within 3-9 months (median 4.8 months) later (12/12 patients). Lesion volumes were compared with early and follow-up neurologic deficit as determined by National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale (NIHSS) score. Results: the relative infarct volumes--with MR2 lesion size set to 100%--decreased over the time (P<0.02) with a mean shrinking factor of 3.3 between DWI (MR0) and the follow-up MRT (P<0.02), and 1.6 between early T2W (MR1) and MR2 (P<0.04). The mean DWI volume size (MR0) was larger than the early T2W (P<0.02). Although neurological outcome was good in all patients (mean NIHSS score of 1.3 at follow-up), early NIHSS and follow-up NIHSS scores were strongly correlated (r=0.9, P<0.00). NIHSS score at follow-up was highly correlated with lesion size of DWI (MR0; r=0.71, P<0.04) and T2W size of DWI (MR0; r=0.71, P<0.04) and T2W of MR1 (r=0.86, P<0.001). Conclusions: in this study, we saw a shrinking of the brain stem infarct volume according to clinical improvement of patients. Great extension of restricted diffusion in the acute stage does not necessarily implicate a large resulting infarction or a bad clinical outcome

56

Unstabel post-infarction ischemia : Identification and risk statification with special emphasis on noninvasive methods  

OpenAIRE

The Karolinska Institute, Department of Cardiology, Karolinska Hospital, Stockholm, Sweden Unstable post-infarction ischemia Identification and risk stratification with special emphasis on noninvasive methods MIGUEL QUINTANAAlthough in-hospital mortality after acute myocardiat infarction has decreased, long-term mortality i...

Quintana, Miguel

1996-01-01

57

Clinical risk-scoring algorithm to forecast scrub typhus severity  

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Full Text Available Pamornsri Sriwongpan,1,2 Pornsuda Krittigamas,3 Hutsaya Tantipong,4 Jayanton Patumanond,5 Chamaiporn Tawichasri,6 Sirianong Namwongprom1,71Clinical Epidemiology Program, Chiang Mai University, Chiang Mai, Thailand; 2Department of Social Medicine, Chiangrai Prachanukroh Hospital, Chiang Rai, Thailand; 3Department of General Pediatrics, Nakornping Hospital, Chiang Mai, Thailand; 4Department of Medicine, Chonburi Hospital, Chonburi, Thailand; 5Clinical Epidemiology Program, Thammasat University, Bangkok, Thailand; 6Clinical Epidemiology Society at Chiang Mai, Chiang Mai, Thailand; 7Department of Radiology, Chiang Mai University, Chiang Mai, ThailandPurpose: To develop a simple risk-scoring system to forecast scrub typhus severity.Patients and methods: Seven years' retrospective data of patients diagnosed with scrub typhus from two university-affiliated hospitals in the north of Thailand were analyzed. Patients were categorized into three severity groups: nonsevere, severe, and dead. Predictors for severity were analyzed under multivariable ordinal continuation ratio logistic regression. Significant coefficients were transformed into item score and summed to total scores.Results: Predictors of scrub typhus severity were age >15 years, (odds ratio [OR] =4.09, pulse rate >100/minute (OR 3.19, crepitation (OR 2.97, serum aspartate aminotransferase >160 IU/L (OR 2.89, serum albumin ?3.0 g/dL (OR 4.69, and serum creatinine >1.4 mg/dL (OR 8.19. The scores which ranged from 0 to 16, classified patients into three risk levels: non-severe (score ?5, n=278, 52.8%, severe (score 6–9, n=143, 27.2%, and fatal (score ?10, n=105, 20.0%. Exact severity classification was obtained in 68.3% of cases. Underestimations of 5.9% and overestimations of 25.8% were clinically acceptable.Conclusion: The derived scrub typhus severity score classified patients into their severity levels with high levels of prediction, with clinically acceptable under- and overestimations. This classification may assist clinicians in patient prognostication, investigation, and management. The scoring algorithm should be validated by independent data before adoption into routine clinical practice.Keywords: severe scrub typhus, risk-scoring system, clinical prediction rule, prognostic predictors

Sriwongpan P

2013-12-01

58

[Risk classification of patients with acute myocardial infarct using two-dimensional echocardiography].  

Science.gov (United States)

30 patients with acute myocardial infarction were examined by means of two-dimensional echocardiography, clinically classified according to Killip and the requisite CK peak level was determined. An echocardiographic score system was used to quantify the wall movement disturbances. The patients were subdivided into 3 groups according to clinical course during hospitalization (average 4 weeks) and these data correlated to Killip classification, CK peak level and echocardiographic score system determined on admission: Group 1 (9 patients with uncomplicated myocardial infarction), group 2 (11 patients with complicated posterior wall infarction), group 3 (10 patients with complicated anterior wall infarction). Cardiogenic shock, left ventricular pump failure, life-threatening arrhythmias and death were defined as complications. Mean value difference of the scores between group 1 and group 2 were significant (alpha less than 1%) and between group 1 and group 3 very significant (alpha less than 0.1%). With respect to CK, a significant difference existed between group 1 and group 2 and also between group 1 and group 3 (alpha less than 5%). Killip classification was specific, but very insensitive (64%). The echocardiographic score system is suitable for the prediction of in hospital course after myocardial infarction, and is superior to CK peak level determination. PMID:6666156

Zenker, G; Kandlhofer, B; Forche, G; Harnoncourt, K

1983-10-14

59

Clopidogrel discontinuation after myocardial infarction and risk of thrombosis : a nationwide cohort study  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

The benefit of extending clopidogrel treatment beyond the 12-month period recommended in current guidelines after myocardial infarction (MI) is debated. We analysed the risk of adverse cardiovascular outcomes after discontinuation of 12 months of clopidogrel treatment.

Charlot, Mette; Nielsen, Lars Hougaard

2012-01-01

60

Lipoprotein(a) and risk of myocardial infarction--genetic epidemiologic evidence of causality  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Elevated levels of lipoprotein(a) are associated with an increased risk of myocardial infarction. Our study aimed to test whether genetic data are consistent with this association being causal. Accordingly, we developed a high-throughput realtime PCR assay to genotype for the lipoprotein(a) kringle IV type 2 (KIV-2) repeat polymorphism in the LPA gene in > 40,000 individuals. The LPA KIV-2 genotype associated with plasma levels of lipoprotein(a) (trend p <0.001), and the LPA KIV-2 genotype associated with risk of myocardial infarction (trend p <0.001 to 0.03) in a manner consistent with its effect on plasma levels of lipoprotein(a). The association of LPA KIV-2 genotypes raising plasma levels of lipoprotein(a) with increased risk of myocardial infarction strongly supports a causal association of lipoprotein(a) with risk of myocardial infarction.

Kamstrup, Pia R; Tybjærg-Hansen, Anne

2011-01-01

61

Acute Myocardial Infarction: The First Manifestation of Ischemic Heart Disease and Relation to Risk Factors  

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Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To assess the association between cardiovascular risk factors and acute myocardial infarction as the first manifestation of ischemic heart disease, correlating them with coronary angiographic findings. METHODS: We carried out a cross-sectional study of 104 patients with previous acute myocardial infarction, who were divided into 2 groups according to the presence or absence of angina prior to acute myocardial infarction. We assessed the presence of angina preceding acute myocardial infarction and risk factors, such as age >55 years, male sex, smoking, systemic arterial hypertension, lipid profile, diabetes mellitus, obesity, sedentary lifestyle, and familial history of ischemic heart disease. On coronary angiography, the severity of coronary heart disease and presence of left ventricular hypertrophy were assessed. RESULTS: Of the 104 patients studied, 72.1% were males, 90.4% were white, 73.1% were older than 55 years, and 53.8% were hypertensive. Acute myocardial infarction was the first manifestation of ischemic heart disease in 49% of the patients. The associated risk factors were systemic arterial hypertension (RR=0.19; 95% CI=0.06-0.59; P=0.04 and left ventricular hypertrophy (RR=0.27; 95% CI=0,.8-0.88; P=0.03. The remaining risk factors were not statistically significant. CONCLUSION: Prevalence of acute myocardial infarction as the first manifestation of ischemic heart disease is high, approximately 50%. Hypertensive individuals more frequently have symptoms preceding acute myocardial infarction, probably due to ventricular hypertrophy associated with high blood pressure levels.

Waldomiro Carlos Manfroi

2002-04-01

62

Siriraj stroke score and validation study to distinguish supratentorial intracerebral haemorrhage from infarction.  

OpenAIRE

OBJECTIVES--To develop a simple, reliable, and safe diagnostic tool for acute stroke syndromes in a setting where computerised brain scanning was not readily available and to validate its accuracy with regard to pathological types of stroke. DESIGN--13 clinical variables that potentially might differentiate supratentorial cerebral haemorrhage from infarction were recorded and tested by multivariate analysis in a prospective study of 174 patients with acute stroke. In developing the Siriraj st...

Poungvarin, N.; Viriyavejakul, A.; Komontri, C.

1991-01-01

63

The scoring system for early technetium-99m pyrophosphate scintigraphy as a method of evaluation of limiting the myocardial infarct size by thrombolysis  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The usefulness of a scoring system with early technetium-99m pyrophosphate scintigraphy as a method for evaluating the efficacy of myocardial preservation after thrombolysis was studied. The mean time from the onset of acute myocardial infarction to injection of the tracer was 5.6±1.5 h (range 2.8 to 11.9 h). All 36 patients underwent successful recanalization. Patients with strongly positive technetium-99m pyrophosphate uptake in anterior acute myocardial infarction had a significantly lower regional ejection fraction and a significantly larger thallium-201 defect score than those with 2+ positive results in chronic stage. Similarly, in inferior acute myocardial infarction, the thallium-201 defect score was significantly larger in patients with strongly positive uptake than in those with 2+ and negative uptake score. In conclusion, strongly positive results in early technetium-99m pyrophosphate scintigraphy within 12 h after the onset of acute myocardial infarction may indicate failure in limiting the infarct size by coronary thrombolysis. (author)

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Potential demographic and baselines variables for risk stratification of high-risk post-myocardial infarction patients in the era of implantable cardioverter-defibrillator - a prognostic indicator  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

BACKGROUND: Risk stratification after myocardial infarction (MI) remains expensive and disappointing. We designed a prognostic indicator using demographic information to select patients at risk of dying after MI. METHOD AND RESULTS: We combined individual patient data from the placebo arms of EMIAT, CAMIAT, TRACE and DIAMOND-MI with LVEF 10 ventricular premature beats/hour or a run of ventricular tachycardia). Risk factors for mortality beginning at day 45 post-MI up to 2 years were examined using Cox regression analysis. Risk scores were derived from the equation of a Cox regression model containing only significant variables. The prognostic index was the sum of the individual contribution from the risk factors. 2707 patients were pooled (age: 66 (23-92) years, 78.8% M) with 480 deaths at 2-years (44% arrhythmic and 35.6% non-arrhythmic cardiac deaths). Variables predicting mortality were age, sex, previous MI or angina, hypertension, diabetes, systolic blood pressure, heart rate, NYHA functional class and non-Q wave infarct on electrocardiogram. Distinct survival curves were obtained for 3 risk groups based on the median and inter-quartile range for the prognostic index. In the high-risk group, up to 40% of patients died (all-cause mortality), 19.1% died of arrhythmic and 18.2% died of non-arrhythmic cardiac causes at 2-years. CONCLUSION: In post-MI patients with LVEF Udgivelsesdato: 2008/5/7

Yap, Yee Guan; Duong, Trinh

2008-01-01

65

A risk scoring system for prediction of haemorrhagic stroke.  

Science.gov (United States)

The present pair-matched case control study was carried out at Government Medical College Hospital, Nagpur, India, a tertiary care hospital with the objective to devise and validate a risk scoring system for prediction of hemorrhagic stroke. The study consisted of 166 hospitalized CT scan proved cases of hemorrhagic stroke (ICD 9, 431-432), and a age and sex matched control per case. The controls were selected from patients who attended the study hospital for conditions other than stroke. On conditional multiple logistic regression five risk factors- hypertension (OR = 1.9. 95% Cl = 1.5-2.5). raised scrum total cholesterol (OR = 2.3, 95% Cl = 1.1-4.9). use of anticoagulants and antiplatelet agents (OR = 3.4, 95% Cl =1.1-10.4). past history of transient ischaemic attack (OR = 8.4, 95% Cl = 2.1- 33.6) and alcohol intake (OR = 2.1, 95% Cl = 1.3-3.6) were significant. These factors were ascribed statistical weights (based on regression coefficients) of 6, 8, 12, 21 and 8 respectively. The nonsignificant factors (diabetes mellitus, physical inactivity, obesity, smoking, type A personality, history of claudication, family history of stroke, history of cardiac diseases and oral contraceptive use in females) were not included in the development of scoring system. ROC curve suggested a total score of 21 to be the best cut-off for predicting haemorrhag stroke. At this cut-off the sensitivity, specificity, positive predictivity and Cohen's kappa were 0.74, 0.74, 0.74 and 0.48 respectively. The overall predictive accuracy of this additive risk scoring system (area under ROC curve by Wilcoxon statistic) was 0.79 (95% Cl = 0.73-0.84). Thus to conclude, if substantiated by further validation, this scorincy system can be used to predict haemorrhagic stroke, thereby helping to devise effective risk factor intervention strategy. PMID:16479901

Zodpey, S P; Tiwari, R R

2005-01-01

66

A new scoring system to stratify risk in unstable angina  

OpenAIRE

Abstract Background We performed this study to develop a new scoring system to stratify different levels of risk in patients admitted to hospital with a diagnosis of unstable angina (UA), which is a complex syndrome that encompasses different outcomes. Many prognostic variables have been described but few efforts have been made to group them in order to enhance their individual predictive power. Methods In a first phase, 473 patients were prospectively analyzed ...

Salzberg Simón; Fuselli Juan; Guetta Javier; Gagliardi Juan A; Piombo Alfredo C; Fairman Enrique; Bertolasi Carlos

2003-01-01

67

A Genetic Risk Score Combining Ten Psoriasis Risk Loci Improves Disease Prediction  

OpenAIRE

Psoriasis is a chronic, immune-mediated skin disease affecting 2–3% of Caucasians. Recent genetic association studies have identified multiple psoriasis risk loci; however, most of these loci contribute only modestly to disease risk. In this study, we investigated whether a genetic risk score (GRS) combining multiple loci could improve psoriasis prediction. Two approaches were used: a simple risk alleles count (cGRS) and a weighted (wGRS) approach. Ten psoriasis risk SNPs were genotyped in ...

Chen, Haoyan; Poon, Annie; Yeung, Celestine; Helms, Cynthia; Pons, Jennifer; Bowcock, Anne M.; Kwok, Pui-yan; Liao, Wilson

2011-01-01

68

Automated Risk Identification of Myocardial Infarction Using Relative Frequency Band Coefficient (RFBC) Features from ECG  

OpenAIRE

Various structural and functional changes associated with ischemic (myocardial infarcted) heart cause amplitude and spectral changes in signals obtained at different leads of ECG. In order to capture these changes, Relative Frequency Band Coefficient (RFBC) features from 12-lead ECG have been proposed and used for automated identification of myocardial infarction risk. RFBC features reduces the effect of subject variabilty in body composition on the amplitude dependent features. The proposed ...

Bakul, Gohel; Tiwary, U. S.

2010-01-01

69

Consideration of QRS complex in addition to ST-segment abnormalities in the estimation of the "risk region" during acute anterior or inferior myocardial infarction.  

Science.gov (United States)

The myocardial area at risk (MaR) is an important aspect in acute ST-elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI). It represents the myocardium at the onset of the STEMI that is ischemic and could become infarcted if no reperfusion occurs. The MaR, therefore, has clinical value because it gives an indication of the amount of myocardium that could potentially be salvaged by rapid reperfusion therapy. The most validated method for measuring the MaR is (99m)Tc-sestamibi SPECT, but this technique is not easily applied in the clinical setting. Another method that can be used for measuring the MaR is the standard ECG-based scoring system, Aldrich ST score, which is more easily applied. This ECG-based scoring system can be used to estimate the extent of acute ischemia for anterior or inferior left ventricular locations, by considering quantitative changes in the ST-segment. Deviations in the ST-segment baseline that occur following an acute coronary occlusion represent the ischemic changes in the transmurally ischemic myocardium. In most instances however, the ECG is not available at the very first moments of STEMI and as times passes the ischemic myocardium becomes necrotic with regression of the ST-segment deviation along with progressive changes of the QRS complex. Thus over the time course of the acute event, the Aldrich ST score would be expected to progressively underestimate the MaR, as was seen in studies with SPECT as gold standard; anterior STEMI (r=0.21, p=0.32) and inferior STEMI (r=0.17, p=0.36). Another standard ECG-based scoring system is the Selvester QRS score, which can be used to estimate the final infarct size by considering the quantitative changes in the QRS complex. Therefore, additional consideration of the Selvester QRS score in the acute phase could potentially provide the "component" of infarcted myocardium that is missing when the Aldrich ST score alone is used to determine the MaR in the acute phase, as was seen in studies with SPECT as gold standard: anterior STEMI (r=0.47, p=0.02) and inferior STEMI (r=0.58, p<0.001). The aim of this review will be to discuss the findings regarding the combining of the Aldrich ST score and initial Selvester QRS score in determining the MaR at the onset of the event in acute anterior or inferior ST-elevation myocardial infarction. PMID:24813354

Vervaat, F E; Bouwmeester, S; van Hellemond, I E G; Wagner, G S; Gorgels, A P M

2014-01-01

70

Myocardial infarction and risk of suicide: a population-based case-control study  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Myocardial infarction (MI) is associated with an increased risk of anxiety, depression, low quality of life, and all-cause mortality. Whether MI is associated with an increased risk of suicide is unknown. We examined the association between MI and suicide.

Larsen, Karen Kjær; Agerbo, Esben

2010-01-01

71

C-Reactive protein predicts acute myocardial infarction during high-risk noncardiac and vascular surgery  

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Full Text Available BACKGROUND: High-sensitivity C-reactive protein predicts cardiovascular events in a wide range of clinical contexts. However, the role of high-sensitivity C-reactive protein as a predictive marker for perioperative acute myocardial infarction during noncardiac surgery is not yet clear. The present study investigated high-sensitivity C-reactive protein levels as predictors of acute myocardial infarction risk in patients undergoing high-risk noncardiac surgery. METHODS: This concurrent cohort study included patients aged >50 years referred for high-risk noncardiac surgery according to American Heart Association/ACC 2002 criteria. Patients with infections were excluded. Electrocardiograms were performed, and biomarkers (Troponin I or T and/or total creatine phosphokinase and the MB fraction (CPK-T/MB were evaluated on the first and fourth days after surgery. Patients were followed until discharge. Baseline high-sensitivity C-reactive protein levels were compared between patients with and without acute myocardial infarction. RESULTS: A total of 101 patients undergoing noncardiac surgery, including 33 vascular procedures (17 aortic and 16 peripheral artery revascularizations, were studied. Sixty of the patients were men, and their mean age was 66 years. Baseline levels of high-sensitivity C-reactive protein were higher in the group with perioperative acute myocardial infarction than in the group with non-acute myocardial infarction patients (mean 48.02 vs. 4.50, p = 0.005. All five acute myocardial infarction cases occurred in vascular surgery patients with high CRP levels. CONCLUSIONS: Patients undergoing high-risk noncardiac surgery, especially vascular surgery, and presenting elevated baseline high-sensitivity C-reactive protein levels are at increased risk for perioperative acute myocardial infarction.

Oscar M. Martins

2011-01-01

72

C-Reactive protein predicts acute myocardial infarction during high-risk noncardiac and vascular surgery  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in english BACKGROUND: High-sensitivity C-reactive protein predicts cardiovascular events in a wide range of clinical contexts. However, the role of high-sensitivity C-reactive protein as a predictive marker for perioperative acute myocardial infarction during noncardiac surgery is not yet clear. The present s [...] tudy investigated high-sensitivity C-reactive protein levels as predictors of acute myocardial infarction risk in patients undergoing high-risk noncardiac surgery. METHODS: This concurrent cohort study included patients aged >50 years referred for high-risk noncardiac surgery according to American Heart Association/ACC 2002 criteria. Patients with infections were excluded. Electrocardiograms were performed, and biomarkers (Troponin I or T) and/or total creatine phosphokinase and the MB fraction (CPK-T/MB) were evaluated on the first and fourth days after surgery. Patients were followed until discharge. Baseline high-sensitivity C-reactive protein levels were compared between patients with and without acute myocardial infarction. RESULTS: A total of 101 patients undergoing noncardiac surgery, including 33 vascular procedures (17 aortic and 16 peripheral artery revascularizations), were studied. Sixty of the patients were men, and their mean age was 66 years. Baseline levels of high-sensitivity C-reactive protein were higher in the group with perioperative acute myocardial infarction than in the group with non-acute myocardial infarction patients (mean 48.02 vs. 4.50, p = 0.005). All five acute myocardial infarction cases occurred in vascular surgery patients with high CRP levels. CONCLUSIONS: Patients undergoing high-risk noncardiac surgery, especially vascular surgery, and presenting elevated baseline high-sensitivity C-reactive protein levels are at increased risk for perioperative acute myocardial infarction.

Oscar M., Martins; Vicente F., Fonseca; Ivan, Borges; Vaierio, Martins; Vera Lucia, Portal; Lucia Campos, Pellanda.

73

Assessment of cardiac risk 10 days after uncomplicated myocardial infarction.  

OpenAIRE

A total of 188 patients with uncomplicated acute myocardial infarction (long-term Norris prognostic index 3.2) were rapidly mobilised, underwent a symptom-limited exercise test around the day of discharge from hospital (day 10), and returned to work at a median of six weeks after the acute event. The incidence of cardiac death six months, one year, and three years after infarction was 2.7%, 4.5%, and 7.3% respectively, and the corresponding figures for recurrent heart attacks were 3.4%, 8.2%,...

Jelinek, V. M.; Mcdonald, I. G.; Ryan, W. F.; Ziffer, R. W.; Clemens, A.; Gerloff, J.

1982-01-01

74

Risk of myocardial infarction, stroke, and fracture in a cohort of community-based breast cancer patients.  

Science.gov (United States)

Clinical trials suggest that increased risk of osteoporosis and fracture are the only serious side effects of adjuvant aromatase inhibitors (AIs), but little is known regarding toxicities of AIs in non-trial populations. We evaluated whether use of AIs was associated with myocardial infarction, stroke, and fracture in a community-based population. Using data from the HealthCore Integrated Research Database, 44,463 women aged ? 50 years with ? 2 breast cancer diagnosis codes between 2001 and 2007 were followed through 2008. Of these, 44,026 were matched using propensity score methods to women aged ? 50 years with no breast cancer codes. We assessed whether treatment with AIs was associated with myocardial infarction, stroke, and fracture using Cox proportional hazards models with time-varying treatment variables. Among breast cancer patients, 68.7% received no hormonal therapy, 20.6% received AIs (15.8% received only AIs, 4.8% were also treated with tamoxifen), and 10.7% received tamoxifen only. Breast cancer patients on AIs had a higher risk of any fracture (AHR = 1.13, 95% CI = 1.02-1.25) than breast cancer patients not receiving hormonal therapy. Patients on tamoxifen had a lower risk of hip fracture (AHR = 0.51, 95% CI = 0.32-0.81) than breast cancer patients not receiving hormonal therapy. Rates of myocardial infarction and stroke for patients on AIs or tamoxifen did not differ significantly from breast cancer patients not on therapy. The side effect profile of AIs in this community-based population was similar to that seen in clinical trials. These findings provide reassurance that AIs appear to be associated with few serious side effects. PMID:21881937

Ligibel, Jennifer A; James O'Malley, A; Fisher, Maxine; Daniel, Gregory W; Winer, Eric P; Keating, Nancy L

2012-01-01

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Mortality Risk Prediction by Application of PRISM Scoring System in Pediatric Intensive Care Unit  

OpenAIRE

Objective: The Pediatric Risk of Mortality (PRISM) score is one of the scores used by many pediatricians for prediction of the mortality risk in the pediatric intensive care unit (PICU). Herein, evaluate the efficacy of PRISM score in prediction of mortality rate in PICU.Methods: In this cohort study, 221 children admitted during an 18-month period to PICU, were enrolled. PRISM score and mortality risk were calculated. Follow up was noted as death or discharge. Results were analyzed by Kaplan...

Mahdi Mohammadi; Afshin Fayyazi; Mohsen Raeisi; Noor Mohammad Noori; Ali Khajeh; Ghasem Miri-Aliabad

2013-01-01

76

Evaluation of the effect of primary PTCA for acute myocardial infarction my myocardial perfusion score  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The aim of the study is to evaluate the perfusion defect after reperfusion therapy (primary PTCA) from Tc99m tetrofosmin SPECT study by perfusion score and to determine its relation to the left ventricular function, determined in dynamic by echocardiography. Twenty patients were examined: 14 men and 6 women, aged from 42 to 67: 11 with reperfusion of left anterior descendent artery (LAD), 4 - with reperfusion of circumflex artery (Rcx) and 5 - with right coronary artery (RCA) procedures. The perfusion score P was evaluated before discharge and at the 2nd month according to 4-degree scale (1- normal uptake, 4 - severe uptake reduction or lack of uptake). Dynamic in left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF) and volumes (end diastolic EDV and end systolic ESV) as well as in the global wall motion score (GWMI) were determined by early and late (at the 2nd month) echocardiography. For GWMI determination a 4-grade scale was used: 1 - normo, 4 - dyskinesia. A 16 segments model of the left ventricle was chosen for both: echocardiography and SPECT for comparison of segments with perfusion and function disturbances. The decrease in P and GWMI means improvement. All patients were with TIMI 3 or 2 after procedure. Insignificant improvement in P from 1.61±0.39 to 1.52±0.46, p NS, and significant improvement in function were found for 2 months: in LVEF from 46.9±7.24.% to 59.5±13.0.%, in GWMI from 1.99±0.34 to 1.56±0.44, p>0.01. According to the discharge Pd the patients wereo the discharge Pd the patients were distributed into: gr.1 Pd?1.3 (n=6) mild defects; gr.2 Pd >1.3<1.9 (n=9) moderate defects; gr.3 Pd?l.9 (n=5) large defects. Improvement in ESV, GWMI and LVEF and preserved function at the 2nd month was observed from gr.1 and 2. Gr. 3 had tendency of increase in ESV and EDV (LV dilatation) and patients were with LV dysfunction at the 2nd month. Mismatch between kinetic and perfusion scores - the GWMI/P ratio changed from 1.27±0.28 to 1.04±0.11, p<0.001 - stunning resolution and spontaneous kinetic improvement. The correlation between early Pd and peak enzyme values of CPK and MB was relatively good: for CPK r=0.570, p<0.014 for MB-fraction r=0.748, p<0.000. A good correlation was found between P at discharge and late functional data: for Pd and LVEF2m r=-0,853, p<0.000, for Pd and GWMI2m r=0.861, p<0.000. Pd is related to both: myocardial losses and prognosis. (authors)

77

SCORING ASSESSMENT AND FORECASTING MODELS BANKRUPTCY RISK OF COMPANIES  

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Full Text Available Bankruptcy risk made the subject of many research studies that aim at identifying the time of the bankruptcy, the factors that compete to achieve this state, the indicators that best express this orientation (the bankruptcy. The threats to enterprises require the managers knowledge of continually economic and financial situations, and vulnerable areas with development potential. Managers need to identify and properly manage the threats that would prevent achieving the targets. In terms of methods known in the literature of assessment and evaluation of bankruptcy risk they are static, functional, strategic, and scoring nonfinancial models. This article addresses Altman and Conan-Holder-known internationally as the model developed at national level by two teachers from prestigious universities in our country-the Robu-Mironiuc model. Those models are applied to data released by the profit and loss account and balance sheet Turism Covasna company over which bankruptcy risk analysis is performed. The results of the analysis are interpreted while trying to formulate solutions to the economic and financial viability of the entity.

SUSU Stefanita

2014-07-01

78

Risk for Myocardial Infarction and Stroke after Community-Acquired Bacteremia : A 20-Year Population-Based Cohort Study  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Infections may trigger acute cardiovascular events, but the risk after community-acquired bacteremia is unknown. We assessed the risk for acute myocardial infarction and ischemic stroke within 1 year of community-acquired bacteremia.

Dalager-Pedersen, Michael; SØgaard, Mette

2014-01-01

79

Does interhospital transfer improve outcome of acute myocardial infarction? A propensity score analysis from the Cardiovascular Cooperative Project  

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Full Text Available Abstract Background Many patients suffering acute myocardial infarction (AMI are transferred from one hospital to another during their hospitalization. There is little information about the outcomes related to interhospital transfer. The purpose of this study was to compare processes and outcomes of AMI care among patients undergoing interhospital transfer with special attention to the impact on mortality in rural hospitals. Methods National sample of Medicare patients in the Cooperative Cardiovascular Study (n = 184,295. Retrospective structured medical record review of AMI hospitalizations. Descriptive study using a retrospective propensity score analysis of clinical and administrative data for 184,295 Medicare patients admitted with clinically confirmed AMI to 4,765 hospitals between February 1994 and July 1995. Main outcome measure included: 30-day mortality, administration of aspirin, beta-blockers, ACE-inhibitors, and thrombolytic therapy. Results Overall, 51,530 (28% patients underwent interhospital transfer. Transferred patients were significantly younger, less critically ill, and had lower comorbidity than non-transferred patients. After propensity-matching, patients who underwent interhospital transfer had better quality of care anlower mortality than non-transferred patients. Patients cared for in a rural hospital had similar mortality as patients cared for in an urban hospital. Conclusion Transferred patients were vastly different than non-transferred patients. However, even after a rigorous propensity-score analysis, transferred patients had lower mortality than non-transferred patients. Mortality was similar in rural and urban hospitals. Identifying patients who derive the greatest benefit from transfer may help physicians faced with the complex decision of whether to transfer a patient suffering an acute MI.

Goudie Anthony

2008-09-01

80

Metabolic syndrome and Framingham risk score in obese young adults  

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Full Text Available Background: The increase number of the metabolic syndrome (MetS among young adults was mostly caused by obesity. MetS increases the risk of coronary heart disease (CHD which can be estimated by Framingham risk score (FRS. The study was aimed to know the prevalence of MetS and FRS in obese young adults and to associate them with the components of MetS. Methods: A total of 70 male and female students aged 18 to 25 years with BMI ? 25 kg/m2 in Faculty of Medicine Universitas Indonesia were selected consecutively. The blood samples used to test fasting blood glucose, total cholesterol, high-density lipoprotein, and triglyceride were examined in Department of Clinical Pathology, Cipto Mangunkusumo Hospital after fasting for 14 to 16 hours. International Diabetes Federation (IDF definition was used to diagnose MetS. Univariate and bivariate analysis were done. Results: The prevalence of MetS based on IDF definition was 18.6% among obese young adults. The most associated MetS components was hypertriglyceridemia (OR 12.13; 95% CI 2.92-50.46; p = 0.001, followed with high blood pressure (OR 9.33; 95% CI 2.26-38.56; p = 0.001, low-HDL (OR 8.33; 95% CI 2.17-32.05; p = 0.003, and impaired fasting glucose (p = 0.03. Four subjects had FRS ? 1% and 66 subjects had risk < 1%. Increased FRS was not associated with MetS (p = 0.154. There was no component of MetS associated with increased FRS. Conclusion: Prevalence of MetS in obese young adults was similar with obese children and adolescents. Although no association of MetS and FRS was found, they are significant predictors for CHD which should not be used separately. (Med J Indones. 2013;22:100-6Keywords: Abdominal obesity, Framingham risk score, metabolic syndrome, young adults

Felix F. Widjaja

2013-06-01

81

Evaluation of association between obstructive sleep apnea and coronary risk scores predicted by tomographic coronary calcium scoring in asymptomatic patients  

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Full Text Available Objective: This cross-sectional observational study is designed to evaluate direct effects of obstructive sleep apnea syndrome (OSA on presence and extent of coronary atherosclerosis by using tomographic coronary calcification scoring on a population asymptomatic for coronary artery disease.Methods: Ninety-seven consecutive patients (49.17±0.86 years who were evaluated with sleep study for the suspicion of obstructive sleep apnea syndrome underwent tomographic coronary calcium scoring test. Cardiovascular risk factors, current medications and sleep study recordings of all patients were recorded. Patients were classified into 4 groups according to the apnea-hypopnea index (AHI. Linear and logistic regression analyses were used for assessment of association between variables.Results: Coronary risk scores of patients, assessed by tomographic coronary calcium scoring, were observed to increase linearly from simple snoring group to severe OSA groups (p=0.046. When patients were classified according to their gender, AHI and parameters reflecting severity of OSA-related hypoxia were found to correlate significantly with coronary risk scores of women but not with scores of men. Linear regression analysis revealed age as the only independent associated variable with cardiovascular risk scores assessed by tomographic coronary calcification scoring (Beta coefficient: 0.27, 95% CI 0.007-0.087, p=0.018. Binary logistic regression analysis also revealed age as the only variable which independently predicted the presence of coronary calcification (OR:1.11, 95% CI 1.039-1.188, p=0.002.Conclusion: These results suggest that presence of OSA may contribute to coronary artery disease risk of patients in association with its severity; however, association between OSA and subclinical atherosclerosis seems to be primarily dependent on age.

Alper Kepez

2011-08-01

82

Plasma sodium and mortality risk in patients with myocardial infarction and a low LVEF  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Hyponatremia is a known prognostic factor for mortality in patients with heart failure but has not been extensively studied in patients with myocardial infarction (MI). This study was, therefore, designed to evaluate whether plasma sodium and hyponatremia (<135 mM) are associated with mortality risk in patients with MI.

Schou, Morten; Valeur, Nana

2011-01-01

83

Mechanisms and predictors of mitral regurgitation after high-risk myocardial infarction  

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Mitral regurgitation (MR) has been associated with adverse outcomes after myocardial infarction (MI). Without structural valve disease, functional MR has been related to left ventricular (LV) remodeling and geometric deformation of the mitral apparatus. The aims of this study were to elucidate the mechanistic components of MR after high-risk MI and to identify predictors of MR progression during follow-up.

Meris, Alessandra; Amigoni, Maria

2012-01-01

84

Diabetes patients requiring glucose-lowering therapy and nondiabetics with a prior myocardial infarction carry the same cardiovascular risk: a population study of 3.3 million people  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

BACKGROUND: Previous studies reveal major differences in the estimated cardiovascular risk in diabetes mellitus, including uncertainty about the risk in young patients. Therefore, large studies of well-defined populations are needed. METHODS AND RESULTS: All residents in Denmark > or = 30 years of age were followed up for 5 years (1997 to 2002) by individual-level linkage of nationwide registers. Diabetes patients receiving glucose-lowering medications and nondiabetics with and without a prior myocardial infarction were compared. At baseline, 71 801 (2.2%) had diabetes mellitus and 79 575 (2.4%) had a prior myocardial infarction. Regardless of age, age-adjusted Cox proportional-hazard ratios for cardiovascular death were 2.42 (95% confidence interval [CI], 2.35 to 2.49) in men with diabetes mellitus without a prior myocardial infarction and 2.44 (95% CI, 2.39 to 2.49) in nondiabetic men with a prior myocardial infarction (P=0.60), with nondiabetics without a prior myocardial infarction as the reference. Results for women were 2.45 (95% CI, 2.38 to 2.51) and 2.62 (95% CI, 2.55 to 2.69) (P=0.001), respectively. For the composite of myocardial infarction, stroke, and cardiovascular death, the hazard ratios in men with diabetes only were 2.32 (95% CI, 2.27 to 2.38) and 2.48 (95% CI, 2.43 to 2.54) in those with a prior myocardial infarction only (P=0.001). Results for women were 2.48 (95% CI, 2.43 to 2.54) and 2.71 (95% CI, 2.65 to 2.78) (P=0.001), respectively. Risks were similar for both diabetes types. Analyses with adjustments for comorbidity, socioeconomic status, and prophylactic medical treatment showed similar results, and propensity score-based matched-pair analyses supported these findings. CONCLUSIONS: Patients requiring glucose-lowering therapy who were > or = 30 years of age exhibited a cardiovascular risk comparable to nondiabetics with a prior myocardial infarction, regardless of sex and diabetes type. Therefore, requirement for glucose-lowering therapy should prompt intensive prophylactic treatment forcardiovascular diseases.

Schramm, Tina Ken; Gislason, Gunnar H

2008-01-01

85

Comparison of the TIMI and the GRACE risk scores with the extent of coronary artery disease in patients with non-ST-elevation acute coronary syndrome  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Objective: To compare the accuracy of the Global Registry of Acute Coronary Events risk score and the Thrombolysis In Myocardial Infarction risk score in predicting the extent of coronary artery disease in patients with non-ST segment elevation acute coronary syndrome. Methods: The cross-sectional study comprising 406 consecutive patients was conducted at the National Institute of Cardiovascular Diseases, Karachi, from August 2010 to March 2011. For all patients, the GRACE and TIMI RS's relevant scores on the two indices were calculated on admission using specified variables. The patients underwent coronary angiography to determine the extent of the disease. A significant level was defined as >70% stenosis in any major epicardial artery or >50% stenosis in the left main coronary artery. SPSS 19 was used for statistical analysis. Results: Both the indices showed good predictive value in identifying the extent of the disease. A Thrombolysis In Myocardial Infarction score >4 and Global Registry of Acute Coronary Events score >133 was significantly associated with 3vessel disease and left main disease, while for the former score <4 and latter score <133 was associated with normal or non-obstructive coronary disease (p<0.01). On comparison of the two risk scores, the discriminatory accuracy of the latter was significantly superior to the former in predicting 2vessel, 3vessel and left main diseases (p<0.05). Conclusion: Although both the indices were helpful in predicting th the indices were helpful in predicting the extent of the disease, the Global Registry showed better performance and was more strongly associated with multi-vessel and left main coronary artery disease. (author)

86

Relation of asymmetric dimethylarginine levels with conventional risk score systems in the healthy subjects with positive family history for coronary artery disease  

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Full Text Available Objective: Coronary artery disease is the most common cause of death in Turkey and the world. Asymmetric dimethylarginine is the major inhibitor of nitric oxide synthesis in humans. It has been shown that increased levels of asymmetric dimethylarginine is associated with endothelial dysfunction and increased atherogenesis. In this study, we aimed to investigate whether asymmetric dimethylarginine level is related with conventional risk score systems in subjects who had family history of coronary artery disease. Methods: Fifty two subjects within 20-40 years old of whom first degree relatives had myocardial infarction at young ages and 26 age and sex matched control subjects were included in this cross-sectional observational study. Frequency of diabetes, hyperlipidemia, smoking and serum levels of homocysteine, high-sensitive C-reactive protein (hsCRP and asymmetric dimethylarginine were compared between risk group and control subjects. Relation of asymmetric dimethylarginine level with Framingham and TEKHARF risk scores was also compared. Chi-square and Mann-Whitney U tests were used to compare categorical and continuous variables, respectively.Results: Fasting serum glucose, triglyceride, high-density lipoprotein, diastolic blood pressure, waist circumference and TEKHARF scores were increased in the subjects who had family history of myocardial infarction. Total cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein, hsCRP, homocysteine, creatinine and Framingham risk score were similar in studied groups . Asymmetric dimethylarginine levels were 0.1µmol/L higher in the risk group; however this difference could not reach significance (0.7±0.1 µmol/l vs 0.8±0.1 µmol/l; p=0.061. Conclusion: Measurement of serum asymmetric dimethylarginine levels did not reveal utility in defining conventional coronary artery disease risk score systems in cases that had positive family history. Larger studies including patients with different risk tertiles are needed.

Hulusi Sat?lm??o?lu

2011-03-01

87

Validation of the Rockall risk scoring system in upper gastrointestinal bleeding  

OpenAIRE

BACKGROUND—Several scoring systems have been developed to predict the risk of rebleeding or death in patients with upper gastrointestinal bleeding (UGIB). These risk scoring systems have not been validated in a new patient population outside the clinical context of the original study. ?AIMS—To assess internal and external validity of a simple risk scoring system recently developed by Rockall and coworkers. ?METHODS—Calibration and discrimination were assessed as...

Vreeburg, E. M.; Terwee, C. B.; Snel, P.; Rauws, E. A. J.; Bartelsman, J. F. W. M.; Meulen, J. H. P.; Tytgat, G. N. J.

1999-01-01

88

The 'silence' of silent brain infarctions may be related to chronic ischemic preconditioning and nonstrategic locations rather than to a small infarction size  

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Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: Silent brain infarctions are the silent cerebrovascular events that are distinguished from symptomatic lacunar infarctions by their 'silence'; the origin of these infarctions is still unclear. This study analyzed the characteristics of silent and symptomatic lacunar infarctions and sought to explore the mechanism of this 'silence'. METHODS: In total, 156 patients with only silent brain infarctions, 90 with only symptomatic lacunar infarctions, 160 with both silent and symptomatic lacunar infarctions, and 115 without any infarctions were recruited. Vascular risk factors, leukoaraiosis, and vascular assessment results were compared. The National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale scores were compared between patients with only symptomatic lacunar infarctions and patients with two types of infarctions. The locations of all of the infarctions were evaluated. The evolution of the two types of infarctions was retrospectively studied by comparing the infarcts on the magnetic resonance images of 63 patients obtained at different times. RESULTS: The main risk factors for silent brain infarctions were hypertension, age, and advanced leukoaraiosis; the main factors for symptomatic lacunar infarctions were hypertension, atrial fibrillation, and atherosclerosis of relevant arteries. The neurological deficits of patients with only symptomatic lacunar infarctions were more severe than those of patients with both types of infarctions. More silent brain infarctions were located in the corona radiata and basal ganglia; these locations were different from those of the symptomatic lacunar infarctions. The initial sizes of the symptomatic lacunar infarctions were larger than the silent brain infarctions, whereas the final sizes were almost equal between the two groups. CONCLUSIONS: Chronic ischemic preconditioning and nonstrategic locations may be the main reasons for the 'silence' of silent brain infarctions.

Chao Feng

2013-01-01

89

Awareness and use of cardiovascular risk scores by family physicians in southeastern Ontario  

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Full Text Available Background: Our objective was to determine the assessment of cardiovascular risk by family physicians. Methods: A questionnaire was sent by mail or fax regarding both awareness and use of the various CV risk scores in southeastern Ontario. Results: Of 181 family physicians surveyed, 96% were aware of at least one CV risk score and 40% were aware of the JUPITER study. Despite this awareness, 72% simply counted risk factors to assess risk, rather than to calculate risk using established scoring methods. Only 23% used the JUPITER study criteria. This suggests an under-estimated of overall CV risk by family physician’s practicing in southeastern Ontario. Interpetation: Cardiovascular risk in primary care is being underestimated in southeastern Ontario. Additional knowledge translation strategies are required to enhance the family physician’s awareness and use of established risk scoring methods if we are to reduce the burden of CV disease.

Murray F. Matangi

2013-11-01

90

Logistic Organ Dysfunction Score (LODS): A reliable postoperative risk management score also in cardiac surgical patients?  

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Abstract Background The original Logistic Organ Dysfunction Sore (LODS) excluded cardiac surgerypatients from its target population, and the suitability of this score in cardiac surgery patients has never been tested. We evaluated the accuracy of the LODS and the usefulness of its daily measurement in cardiac surgery patients. The LODS is not a true logistic scoring system, since it does not use ?-coefficients. Methods This prospective study included all c...

Bayer Ole; Lehmann Thomas; Doerr Fabian; Ma, Badreldin Akmal; Heldwein Matthias B; Doenst Torsten; Hekmat Khosro

2011-01-01

91

The ability of the 2013 ACC/AHA cardiovascular risk score to identify rheumatoid arthritis patients with high coronary artery calcification scores.  

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Objective: Patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA) have increased risk of atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease (ASCVD) that is underestimated by the Framingham risk score (FRS). We hypothesized that the 2013 ACC/AHA 10-year risk score would perform better than the FRS and the Reynolds risk score (RRS) in identifying RA patients known to have elevated cardiovascular risk based on high coronary artery calcification (CAC) scores. Methods: Among 98 RA patients eligible for risk stratification using the ACC/AHA score we identified 34 patients with high CAC (? 300 Agatston units or ? 75(th) percentile) and compared the ability of the 10-year FRS, RRS and the ACC/AHA risk scores to correctly assign these patients to an elevated risk category. Results: All three risk scores were higher in patients with high CAC (P values <0.05). The percentage of patients with high CAC correctly assigned to the elevated risk category was similar among the three scores (FRS 32%, RRS 32%, ACC/AHA 41%) (P=0.233). The c-statistics for the FRS, RRS and ACC/AHA risk scores predicting the presence of high CAC were 0.65, 0.66, and 0.65, respectively. Conclusions: The ACC/AHA 10-year risk score does not offer any advantage compared to the traditional FRS and RRS in the identification of RA patients with elevated risk as determined by high CAC. The ACC/AHA risk score assigned almost 60% of patients with high CAC into a low risk category. Risk scores and standard risk prediction models used in the general population do not adequately identify many RA patients with elevated cardiovascular risk. © 2014 American College of Rheumatology. PMID:25371313

Kawai, Vivian K; Chung, Cecilia P; Solus, Joseph F; Oeser, Annette; Raggi, Paolo; Stein, C Michael

2014-11-01

92

Frequency of risk factors of cerebral infarction in stroke patients. a study of 100 cases in naseer teaching hospital, peshawar  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

To study the risk factors of cerebral infarction in stroke patients. It is a descriptive hospital based study conducted at the Department of Medicine, Naseer Teaching Hospital, Peshawar from January 2005 to December 2005. One hundred patients of stroke with cerebral infarction confirmed on C.T. scan brain and more than twenty years of age were included. Risk factors for cerebral infarction were defined in terms of hypertension, diabetes mellitus, ischemic heart disease, smoking, dyslipidaemia, TIAs (transient ischemic attacks), carotid artery stenosis and family history of stroke. Data of 100 cases with cerebral infarction was recorded. Most of the patients had more than one risk factors for cerebral infarction. hypertension was commonest risk factor (55%), smoking (30%), ischemic heart disease (34%), diabetes mellitus) (26%), hyperlipedaemia (30%), atrial fibrillation (25%), carotid artery stenosis (27%), obesity (15%) and family history of stroke (12%). 39% of patients had physical inactivity. Males were slightly predominant than females (51% vs 49%) and mean age was 50 years. females were rather older with mean age of 53 years. Cerebral infarction accounts for 80% to 85% of cases of stroke, which is a common neurological disorder. It increases a burden of disability and misery for patients and their families. Most of the risk factors of cerebral infarction are modifiable, its prevention should be the main cause of concern for the community. (author)or the community. (author)

93

QT dispersion as a risk factor for sudden cardiac death and fatal myocardial infarction in a coronary risk population.  

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OBJECTIVE: To test in a prospective study the hypothesis that increased QT dispersion in resting 12-lead ECG is a predictor of sudden cardiac death. DESIGN: A nested case-control study during a mean (SD) follow up time of 6.5 (2.8) years. SETTING: A prospective, placebo controlled, coronary prevention trial with gemfibrozil among dyslipidaemic middle aged men in primary (occupational) health care units: the Helsinki heart study. PATIENTS: 24 victims of fatal myocardial infarction, 48 victims of sudden cardiac death without acute myocardial infarction, and their matched controls. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: QT dispersion in baseline and pre-event electrocardiograms. RESULTS: At study baseline, QT dispersion was similar in all victims and controls. When estimated from the pre-event ECG on average 14 months before death, the risk of sudden cardiac death in the highest QTPEAK (up to the peak of the T wave) dispersion tertile (> or = 50 ms) was 6.2-fold (95% confidence interval 1.7 to 23.5) compared with the risk in the lowest tertile (< or = 30 ms), and 4.9-fold (1.2 to 19.5) after adjustment for the presence of left ventricular hypertrophy, while QTPEAK dispersion could not predict fatal myocardial infarction. QTEND dispersion (up to the end of the T wave) in pre-event ECGs could not discriminate victims of either sudden cardiac death or fatal myocardial infarction from their matched controls. CONCLUSIONS: In middle aged men with a normal conventional QT interval in 12-lead resting ECG, increased QTPEAK dispersion is an independent risk factor for sudden cardiac death, but not for fatal myocardial infarction. PMID:9391289

Mänttäri, M.; Oikarinen, L.; Manninen, V.; Viitasalo, M.

1997-01-01

94

Poor predictive ability of the risk chart SCORE in a Danish population  

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In Denmark, the European risk chart Systematic COronary Risk Evaluation (SCORE) from the European Society of Cardiology is recommended for use in cardiovascular prevention. Nevertheless, its predictive ability in a Danish population has never been investigated. The purpose of this study was therefore to assess the predictive ability of the SCORE risk chart with regard to fatal cardiovascular risk according to the socio-demographic factors of age, sex, income and education in a Danish population.

Saidj, Madina; JØrgensen, Torben

2013-01-01

95

The development and validation of a risk score for predicting microalbuminuria in type 2 diabetic patients  

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Full Text Available Objective: To develop and validate a prognostic scoring scheme for the prediction of microalbuminuria in type 2 diabetic patients of Thai descent. Methods: The clinical information from type 2 diabetic patients who were treated at community hospitals was used to develop a prediction model (derivation set. The model evaluated at a tertiary hospital (validation set. A stepwise logistic regression model was used to identify the independent risk variables from the derivation set and a simple point scoring system was derived from the beta-coefficients. The risk scoring scheme was validated by the validation set. Results: The risk scoring scheme is based on six risk predictors: the duration of diabetes, age at the onset of diabetes, systolic blood pressure, low density lipoprotein levels, creatinine levels, and alcohol consumption. The total score ranged from 0 to 11.5. The likelihood of microalbuminuria in patients with low risk (scores ? 2 was 0.28, with moderate risk (scores 2.5 to 5.5 was 0.86, and high risk (scores ? 6 was 7.36. The area under the ROC curve of the derivation set and validation set were 0.768 (95% CI 0.73 - 0.81 and 0.758 (95% CI 0.70 - 0.80, respectively. Conclusion: Our scoring system is a simple and reasonably accurate method for predicting the future presence of microalbuminuria in type 2 diabetic patients.

Jayanton Patumanond

2012-05-01

96

Troponin I level in risk stratification of non-ST-elevation myocardial infarction in smokers  

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Full Text Available A prospective study was carried out to evaluate the role of troponin I in risk stratification of non-ST-elevation myocardial infarction in 40 smoker and 40 non-smoker patients. The troponin I was significantly higher (p<0.001 in smokers (35.5 ± 5.22 ng/mL than non-smoker (0.27 ± 0.01 ng/mL. The duration of hospital stay was longer in Group I (106.6 ± 2.36 hour than in Group II (49.20 ± 1.01 hour. The major adverse cardiac event was higher in smoker (71.79% compared to non-smokers (10.8%. So, it may be concluded that higher value of troponin I with history of smoking in non-ST-elevation myocardial infarction may be considered as ‘high risk group’ patients.

Iram Shahriar, Shahina Sobhan and Ziarrat Islam

2010-12-01

97

Risk factors for myocardial infarction and death due to ischemic heart disease and other causes.  

Science.gov (United States)

As part of a study of the male population in an industrial city in Sweden, one third of all male inhabitants of Göteborg born in 1913 were invited to an examination in 1963. Of those invited, 855 (88 percent) accepted. This report examines the incidence of nonfatal myocardial infarction and death from ischemic heart disease and other causes in this group of men during the ensuing 10 years. There were 6l deaths; autopsy was performed in 56 cases. Nineteen men died of ischemic heart disease and 18 of cancer; 12 men died violently. Thirty-one men survived an acute myocardial infarction. Cigarette smoking and registration with the Temperance Board at the time of the initial examination were more common in men who later had a nonfatal myocardial infarction or died of ischemic heart disease or other causes than in surviving subjects and men who did not have an infarction. Dyspnea was more common in men who died of ischemic heart disease but was less common in those who died of other causes than in the remaining subjects. Values for systolic blood presure were higher and those for peak expiratory flow lower in men who died of ischemic heart disease. Serum cholesterol values were higher and those for serum triglycerides tended to be higher in men who died of ischemic heart disease than in other subjects. Heart size tended to be greater in those who had nonfatal or fatal ischemic heart disease. Obesity, the level of physical activity, fasting blood glucose levels, doffee consumption, hematocrit and erythrocyte sedimentation rate as determined at age 50 years had no predictive value for assissing the risk of nonfatal myocardial infarction, fatal ischemic heart disease or death from other causes before age 60. The results indicate that many so-called risk factors have a different relation to fatal than to nonfatal ischemic heart disease. PMID:1119402

Tibblin, G; Wilhelmsen, L; Werkö, L

1975-04-01

98

Conjugated linoleic acid in adipose tissue and risk of myocardial infarction123  

OpenAIRE

Background: Despite the high saturated fat content of dairy products, no clear association between dairy product intake and risk of myocardial infarction (MI) has been observed. Dairy products are the main source of conjugated linoleic acid (CLA; 18:2n?7t), which is produced by the ruminal biohydrogenation of grasses eaten by cows. Pasture-grazing dairy cows have more CLA in their milk than do grain-fed cows. Some animal models have reported beneficial effects of CLA on atherosclerosis.

Smit, Liesbeth A.; Baylin, Ana; Campos, Hannia

2010-01-01

99

Risk factors for myocardial infarction among low socioeconomic status South Indian population  

OpenAIRE

Abstract Background As longevity increases, cases of myocardial infarction (MI) are likely to be more. Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is a major global health problem reaching epidemic proportions in the Indian subcontinent, also among low socio-economic status (SES) and thin individuals. Objectives The present study was undertaken to elicit risk factors for MI among low SES Southern Indians and to find out its association with body mass index (BMI). Materi...

Meenakshisundaram Ramachandran; Agarwal Dipti; Rajendiran Chinnaswamy; Thirumalaikolundusubramanian Ponniah

2010-01-01

100

Validating the Framingham Hypertension Risk Score: results from the Whitehall II study.  

OpenAIRE

A promising hypertension risk prediction score using data from the US Framingham Offspring Study has been developed, but this score has not been tested in other cohorts. We examined the predictive performance of the Framingham hypertension risk score in a European population, the Whitehall II Study. Participants were 6704 London-based civil servants aged 35 to 68 years, 31% women, free from prevalent hypertension, diabetes mellitus, and coronary heart disease. Standard clinical examinations o...

Kivima?ki, Mika; Batty, G. David; Singh-manoux, Archana; Ferrie, Jane; Tabak, Adam; Jokela, Markus; Marmot, Michael; Smith, George Davey; Shipley, Martin

2009-01-01

101

The Pakistan Risk of Myocardial Infarction Study: a resource for the study of genetic, lifestyle and other determinants of myocardial infarction in South Asia  

OpenAIRE

The burden of coronary heart disease (CHD) is increasing at a greater rate in South Asia than in any other region globally, but there is little direct evidence about its determinants. The Pakistan Risk of Myocardial Infarction Study (PROMIS) is an epidemiological resource to enable reliable study of genetic, lifestyle and other determinants of CHD in South Asia. By March 2009, PROMIS had recruited over 5,000 cases of first-ever confirmed acute myocardial infarction (MI) and over 5,000 matched...

Saleheen, Danish; Zaidi, Moazzam; Rasheed, Asif; Ahmad, Usman; Hakeem, Abdul; Murtaza, Muhammed; Kayani, Waleed; Faruqui, Azhar; Kundi, Assadullah; Zaman, Khan Shah; Yaqoob, Zia; Cheema, Liaquat Ali; Samad, Abdus; Rasheed, Syed Zahed; Mallick, Nadeem Hayat

2009-01-01

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EBMT risk score can predict the outcome of leukaemia after unmanipulated haploidentical blood and marrow transplantation.  

Science.gov (United States)

Systematic, standardised pretransplant risk assessment is an important tool for predicting patient outcomes following allogeneic haematopoietic SCT (HSCT). To assess the European Group for Blood and Marrow Transplantation (EBMT) risk score capacities for predicting patient outcomes following unmanipulated haploidentical blood and marrow transplantation (HBMT), we analysed 502 leukaemia patients who received transplants at our centre between 2008 and 2010. The cohort OS and leukaemia-free survival (LFS) were 72.1% and 68.1%, whereas the cumulative non-relapse mortality (NRM) and relapse incidences were 16.5% and 16.1%. According to univariate analysis, the values for OS, LFS and NRM were worse for an EBMT risk score of 6 (40.0, 40.0, 50.0%) than a score of 1 (83.1, 78.3, 8.4%). Hazard ratios steadily increased for each additional score point. Likewise, a higher EBMT risk score was associated with an increased relapse incidence. Importantly, the EBMT risk score prognostic value regarding OS, LFS, NRM and relapse was maintained in the multivariate analysis. Moreover, we also made a haploidentical EBMT (haplo-EBMT) risk score, which used number of HLA disparity instead of donor type, and the haplo-EBMT risk scores can also be used to predict patient outcomes following unmanipulated HBMT. PMID:24777191

Wang, H-T; Chang, Y-J; Xu, L-P; Liu, D-H; Wang, Y; Liu, K-Y; Huang, X-J

2014-07-01

103

FAMILY HISTORY OF DISEASE AS A RISK FACTOR OF ACUTE MYOCARDIAL INFARCTION  

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Full Text Available Myocardial infarction (MI is a complex disease that begins with a lifelong interaction between genetics and environmental factors. The aim of the study was to identify family history as a risk factor of myocardial infarction in examined population in the Municipality of Nis.We used a case-control study with 100 patients with a first MI (in the period 1998-2000 and 100 controls, matched with respect to sex and age (± 2 years from the Municipality of Nis.Data was obtained from the epidemiological questionnaire. The Yates c2 test, odds ratio-OR and their 99% interval of confident were used as statistical procedures.The results showed that statistical significance for MI was present among all three degrees of relatives of subjects who have had an acute MI, and for hypertension, hypercholesterolemia and stroke among first and second - degree relatives. The subjects with family history of hypercholesterolemia had 12.43 times higher risk of disease (p = 0,000 and in the case of family history of MI before the age of 55, the risk was almost 10 times (p = 0,000 higher. Almost 4 times higher risk of disease was registered in subjects with family history of hypertension (p < 0,00001 and stroke (before 65 years of age - (p < 00005; a two-fold higher risk was registered in subjects with diagnoses of diabetes (p < 0,05 and other cardiovascular diseases (unless hypertension (p < 0,01 in the nearest relatives before the age of 55.We concluded that family history of diseases on the sample of the Municipality of Nis inhabitants was very important risk factor, mostly in the first-degree relatives. Genetic epidemiology is the future for all investigations between different population, and special attention should be paid to investigations and findings of different genes and loci which are very important for myocardial infarction occurrence, which would allow a new approach to preventive medicine.

Zoran Velickovic

2006-10-01

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Common clinical practice versus new PRIM score in predicting coronary heart disease risk  

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OBJECTIVES: To compare the new Patient Rule Induction Method (PRIM) Score and common clinical practice with the Framingham Point Score for classification of individuals with respect to coronary heart disease (CHD) risk. METHODS AND RESULTS: PRIM Score and the Framingham Point Score were estimated for 11,444 participants from the Copenhagen City Heart Study. Gender specific cumulative incidences and 10 year absolute CHD risks were estimated for subsets defined by age, total cholesterol, high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol, blood pressure, diabetes and smoking categories. PRIM defined seven mutually exclusive subsets in women and men, with cumulative incidences of CHD from 0.01 to 0.22 in women, and from 0.03 to 0.26 in men. PRIM versus Framingham Point Score found 11% versus 4% of all women, and 31% versus 35% of all men to have 10 year CHD risks>20%. Among women?65 years with hypertension and/or with diabetes, 10 year CHD risk>20% was found for 100% with PRIM scoring but for only 18% with the Framingham Point Score. CONCLUSION: Compared to the PRIM Score, common clinical practice with the Framingham Point Score underestimates CHD risk in women, especially in women?65 years with hypertension and/or with diabetes.

Frikke-Schmidt, Ruth; Tybjærg-Hansen, Anne

2010-01-01

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Low Apgar Scores and Risk of Childhood Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

OBJECTIVE: To examine whether low Apgar scores at 5 minutes are associated with increased risks of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). STUDY DESIGN: We conducted a nationwide population-based cohort study of all 980 902 singletons born in Denmark from 1988 to 2001. All children were monitored from 3 years of age until a first International Classification of Diseases diagnosis of hyperkinetic disorder, a first medication for ADHD, migration, death, or the end of 2006, whichever came first. We used Cox regression models to examine the association between Apgar scores at 5 minutes and ADHD. RESULTS: Apgar scores were inversely associated with risk of ADHD (hazard ratio 0.92; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.88-0.96, P trend <.001). Compared with children with Apgar scores of 9 or 10 at 5 minutes, the risk for ADHD was 75% higher in children with Apgar scores of 1 to 4 (hazard ratio 1.75; 95% CI: 1.15-2.11) and 63% higher for those with Apgar scores of 5 to 6 (95% CI: 1.25-2.11). CONCLUSIONS: A low Apgar score was associated with an increased risk of ADHD in childhood. Low Apgar scores and ADHD may share common causes or a low Apgar score reflects at least one causal pathway leading to ADHD.

Li, Jiong; Olsen, JØrn

2011-01-01

106

A Genetic Risk Score Combining Ten Psoriasis Risk Loci Improves Disease Prediction  

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Psoriasis is a chronic, immune-mediated skin disease affecting 2–3% of Caucasians. Recent genetic association studies have identified multiple psoriasis risk loci; however, most of these loci contribute only modestly to disease risk. In this study, we investigated whether a genetic risk score (GRS) combining multiple loci could improve psoriasis prediction. Two approaches were used: a simple risk alleles count (cGRS) and a weighted (wGRS) approach. Ten psoriasis risk SNPs were genotyped in 2815 case-control samples and 858 family samples. We found that the total number of risk alleles in the cases was significantly higher than in controls, mean 13.16 (SD 1.7) versus 12.09 (SD 1.8), p?=?4.577×10?40. The wGRS captured considerably more risk than any SNP considered alone, with a psoriasis OR for high-low wGRS quartiles of 10.55 (95% CI 7.63–14.57), p?=?2.010×10?65. To compare the discriminatory ability of the GRS models, receiver operating characteristic curves were used to calculate the area under the curve (AUC). The AUC for wGRS was significantly greater than for cGRS (72.0% versus 66.5%, p?=?2.13×10?8). Additionally, the AUC for HLA-C alone (rs10484554) was equivalent to the AUC for all nine other risk loci combined (66.2% versus 63.8%, p?=?0.18), highlighting the dominance of HLA-C as a risk locus. Logistic regression revealed that the wGRS was significantly associated with two subphenotypes of psoriasis, age of onset (p?=?4.91×10?6) and family history (p?=?0.020). Using a liability threshold model, we estimated that the 10 risk loci account for only11.6% of the genetic variance in psoriasis. In summary, we found that a GRS combining 10 psoriasis risk loci captured significantly more risk than any individual SNP and was associated with early onset of disease and a positive family history. Notably, only a small fraction of psoriasis heritability is captured by the common risk variants identified to date. PMID:21559375

Chen, Haoyan; Poon, Annie; Yeung, Celestine; Helms, Cynthia; Pons, Jennifer; Bowcock, Anne M.; Kwok, Pui-Yan; Liao, Wilson

2011-01-01

107

Risk for myocardial infarction and stroke after community-acquired bacteremia : a 20-year population-based cohort study  

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BACKGROUND: Infections may trigger acute cardiovascular events, but the risk after community-acquired bacteremia is unknown. We assessed the risk for acute myocardial infarction and ischemic stroke within 1 year of community-acquired bacteremia. METHODS AND RESULTS: This population-based cohort study was conducted in Northern Denmark. We included 4389 hospitalized medical patients with positive blood cultures obtained on the day of admission. Patients hospitalized with bacteremia were matched with up to 10 general population controls and up to 5 acutely admitted nonbacteremic controls, matched on age, sex, and calendar time. All incident events of myocardial infarction and stroke during the following 365 days were ascertained from population-based healthcare databases. Multivariable regression analyses were used to assess relative risks with 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for myocardial infarction and stroke among bacteremia patients and their controls. The risk for myocardial infarction or stroke was greatly increased within 30 days of community-acquired bacteremia: 3.6% versus 0.2% among population controls (adjusted relative risk, 20.86; 95% CI, 15.38-28.29) and 1.7% among hospitalized controls (adjusted relative risk, 2.18; 95% CI, 1.80-2.65). The risks for myocardial infarction or stroke remained modestly increased from 31 to 180 days after bacteremia in comparison with population controls (adjusted hazard ratio, 1.64; 95% CI, 1.18-2.27), but not versus hospitalized controls (adjusted hazard ratio, 0.95; 95% CI, 0.69-1.32). No differences in cardiovascular risk were seen after >6 months. Increased 30-day risks were consistently found for a variety of etiologic agents and infectious foci. CONCLUSIONS: Community-acquired bacteremia is associated with increased short-term risk of myocardial infarction and stroke.

Dalager-Pedersen, Michael; SØgaard, Mette

2014-01-01

108

Dietary Intake Is Related to Multifactor Cardiovascular Risk Score in Obese Boys  

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Full Text Available Cardiovascular disease (CVD originates in childhood and early identification of risk factors provides an early intervention opportunity. The aim was to identify children at higher risk using a CVD risk score, developed from factors known to cluster in childhood. Risk was scored as very high (?97.5th centile, high (?95th, moderate (?90th or threshold (<90th using normal pediatric reference ranges for 10 common biomedical risk factors. These were summed in a multifactor CVD risk score and applied to a sample of 285 observations from 136 overweight Australian children (41% male, aged 7–12 years. Strength of associations between CVD risk score and individual biomedical and dietary variables were assessed using univariate logistic regression. High waist circumference (Odds Ratio: 5.48 [95% CI: 2.60–11.55], body mass index (OR: 3.22 [1.98–5.26], serum insulin (OR: 3.37 [2.56–4.42] and triglycerides (OR: 3.02 [2.22–4.12] were all significantly related to CVD risk score. High intakes of total fat (OR: 4.44 [1.19–16.60], sugar (OR: 2.82 [1.54–5.15] and carbohydrate (OR 1.75 [1.11–2.77] were significantly related to CVD risk score in boys only. This multifactor CVD risk score could be a useful tool for researchers to identify elevated risk in children. Further research is warranted to examine sex-specific dietary factors related to CVD risk in children.

Tracy L. Schumacher

2014-07-01

109

Adding multiple risk factors improves Framingham coronary heart disease risk scores  

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Full Text Available Guizhou Hu,1 Martin Root,2 Ashlee W Duncan1 1BioSignia, Inc., Durham, NC, USA; 2Department of Nutrition and Health Care Management, Appalachian State University, Boone, NC, USA Purpose: Since the introduction of the Framingham Risk Score (FRS, numerous versions of coronary heart disease (CHD prediction models have claimed improvement over the FRS. Tzoulaki et al challenged the validity of these claims by illustrating methodology deficiencies among the studies. However, the question remains: Is it possible to create a new CHD model that is better than FRS while overcoming the noted deficiencies? To address this, a new CHD prediction model was developed by integrating additional risk factors, using a novel modeling process. Methods: Using the National Health Nutritional Examination Survey III data set with CHD-specific mortality outcomes and the Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities data set with CHD incidence outcomes, two FRSs (FRSv1 from 1998 and FRSv2 from National Cholesterol Education Program Adult Treatment Panel III, along with an additional risk score in which the high density lipoprotein (HDL component of FRSv1 was ignored (FRSHDL, were compared with a new CHD model (NEW-CHD. This new model contains seven elements: the original Framingham equation, FRSv1, and six additional risk factors. Discrimination, calibration, and reclassification improvements all were assessed among models. Results: Discrimination was improved for NEW-CHD in both cohorts when compared with FRSv1 and FRSv2 (P<0.05 and was similar in magnitude to the improvement of FRSv1 over FRSHDL. NEW-CHD had a similar calibration to FRSv2 and was improved over FRSv1. Net reclassification for NEW-CHD was substantially improved over both FRSv1 and FRSv2, for both cohorts, and was similar in magnitude to the improvement of FRSv1 over FRSHDL. Conclusion: While overcoming several methodology deficiencies reported by earlier authors, the NEW-CHD model improved CHD risk assessment when compared with the FRSs, comparable to the improvement of adding HDL to the FRS. Keywords: risk assessment, atherosclerotic risk in communities, NHANES, epidemiology

Hu G

2014-09-01

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Risk Factors for Acute Myocardial Infarction in Central India: A Case-Control Study  

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Background: Atherosclerosis is a multi-factorial disease involving the interplay of genetic and environmental factors. Studies highlighting the public health importance of risk factors like chronic infections causing acute myocardial infarction (AMI) in the Indian context are scarce. This study was undertaken to study the association of socio-demographic and life-style factors with acute myocardial infarction in central India. Materials and Methods: The cases and controls were group-matched for age, gender, and socio-economic status. A blinded research associate administered the study questionnaire. We performed an unconditional multiple logistic regression analysis. Results: The case-control study included 265 cases of AMI and 265 controls. The results of final model of logistic regression analysis for risk factors of AMI included 11 risk factors at ? = 0.05. They were waist hip ratio, body mass index, stress at home in last 1 year, hypertension, family history of CHD, past history of gingival sepsis, tobacco smoking, raised total serum cholesterol, Chlamydia pneumoniae, Helicobacter pylori and raised C-reactive protein. Conclusion: The findings confirm the role of conventional risk factors for cardiac disease and highlight need for research into the association between chronic infections with AMI.

Zodpey, Sanjay P.; Shrikhande, Sunanda N.; Negandhi, Himanshu N.; Ughade, Suresh N.; Joshi, Prashant P.

2015-01-01

111

Logistic Organ Dysfunction Score (LODS: A reliable postoperative risk management score also in cardiac surgical patients?  

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Full Text Available Abstract Background The original Logistic Organ Dysfunction Sore (LODS excluded cardiac surgerypatients from its target population, and the suitability of this score in cardiac surgery patients has never been tested. We evaluated the accuracy of the LODS and the usefulness of its daily measurement in cardiac surgery patients. The LODS is not a true logistic scoring system, since it does not use ?-coefficients. Methods This prospective study included all consecutive adult patients who were admitted tothe intensive care unit (ICU after cardiac surgery between January 2007 and December 2008. The LODS was calculated daily from the first until the seventh postoperative day. Performance was assessed with Hosmer-Lemeshow (HL goodness-of-fit test (calibration and receiver operating characteristic (ROC curves (discrimination from ICU admission day until day 7. The outcome measure was ICU mortality. Results A total of 2801 patients (29.6% female with a mean age of 66.4 ± 10.7 years wereincluded. The ICU mortality rate was 5.2% (n = 147. The mean stay on the ICU was 4.3 ± 6.8 days. Calibration of the LODS was good with no significant difference between expected and observed mortality rates on any day (p ? 0.05. The initial LODS had an area under the ROC curve (AUC of 0.81. The AUC was best on ICU day 3 with a value of 0.93, and declined to 0.85 on ICU day 7. Conclusions Although the LODS has not previously been validated for cardiac surgerypatients it showed reasonable accuracy in prediction of ICU mortality in patients after cardiac surgery.

Bayer Ole

2011-09-01

112

Comparison of visual scoring and quantitative planimetry methods for estimation of global infarct size on delayed enhanced cardiac MRI and validation with myocardial enzymes  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Purpose: Although delayed enhanced CMR has become a reference method for infarct size quantification, there is no ideal method to quantify total infarct size in a routine clinical practice. In a prospective study we compared the performance and post-processing time of a global visual scoring method to standard quantitative planimetry and we compared both methods to the peak values of myocardial biomarkers. Materials and methods: This study had local ethics committee approval; all patients gave written informed consent. One hundred and three patients admitted with reperfused AMI to our intensive care unit had a complete CMR study with gadolinium-contrast injection 4 {+-} 2 days after admission. A global visual score was defined on a 17-segment model and compared with the quantitative planimetric evaluation of hyperenhancement. The peak values of serum Troponin I (TnI) and creatine kinase (CK) release were measured in each patient. Results: The mean percentage of total left ventricular myocardium with hyperenhancement determined by the quantitative planimetry method was (20.1 {+-} 14.6) with a range of 1-68%. There was an excellent correlation between quantitative planimetry and visual global scoring for the hyperenhancement extent's measurement (r = 0.94; y = 1.093x + 0.87; SEE = 1.2; P < 0.001) The Bland-Altman plot showed a good concordance between the two approaches (mean of the differences = 1.9% with a standard deviation of 4.7). Mean post-processing time for quantitative planimetry was significantly longer than visual scoring post-processing time (23.7 {+-} 5.7 min vs 5.0 {+-} 1.1 min respectively, P < 0.001). Correlation between peak CK and quantitative planimetry was r = 0.82 (P < 0.001) and r = 0.83 (P < 0.001) with visual global scoring. Correlation between peak Troponin I and quantitative planimetry was r = 0.86 (P < 0.001) and r = 0.85 (P < 0.001) with visual global scoring. Conclusion: A visual approach based on a 17-segment model allows a rapid and accurate assessment of the myocardial global delayed enhancement. This scoring method could be used on a daily practice and useful for the management strategy of post-MI patients.

Mewton, Nathan, E-mail: nmewton@gmail.com [Hopital Cardiovasculaire Louis Pradel, 28, Avenue Doyen Lepine, 69677 Bron cedex, Hospices Civils de Lyon (France); CREATIS-LRMN (Centre de Recherche et d' Applications en Traitement de l' Image et du Signal), Universite Claude Bernard Lyon 1, UMR CNRS 5220, U 630 INSERM (France); Revel, Didier [Hopital Cardiovasculaire Louis Pradel, 28, Avenue Doyen Lepine, 69677 Bron cedex, Hospices Civils de Lyon (France); CREATIS-LRMN (Centre de Recherche et d' Applications en Traitement de l' Image et du Signal), Universite Claude Bernard Lyon 1, UMR CNRS 5220, U 630 INSERM (France); Bonnefoy, Eric [Hopital Cardiovasculaire Louis Pradel, 28, Avenue Doyen Lepine, 69677 Bron cedex, Hospices Civils de Lyon (France); Ovize, Michel [Hopital Cardiovasculaire Louis Pradel, 28, Avenue Doyen Lepine, 69677 Bron cedex, Hospices Civils de Lyon (France); INSERM Unite 886 (France); Croisille, Pierre [Hopital Cardiovasculaire Louis Pradel, 28, Avenue Doyen Lepine, 69677 Bron cedex, Hospices Civils de Lyon (France); CREATIS-LRMN (Centre de Recherche et d' Applications en Traitement de l' Image et du Signal), Universite Claude Bernard Lyon 1, UMR CNRS 5220, U 630 INSERM (France)

2011-04-15

113

Comparison of visual scoring and quantitative planimetry methods for estimation of global infarct size on delayed enhanced cardiac MRI and validation with myocardial enzymes  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Purpose: Although delayed enhanced CMR has become a reference method for infarct size quantification, there is no ideal method to quantify total infarct size in a routine clinical practice. In a prospective study we compared the performance and post-processing time of a global visual scoring method to standard quantitative planimetry and we compared both methods to the peak values of myocardial biomarkers. Materials and methods: This study had local ethics committee approval; all patients gave written informed consent. One hundred and three patients admitted with reperfused AMI to our intensive care unit had a complete CMR study with gadolinium-contrast injection 4 ± 2 days after admission. A global visual score was defined on a 17-segment model and compared with the quantitative planimetric evaluation of hyperenhancement. The peak values of serum Troponin I (TnI) and creatine kinase (CK) release were measured in each patient. Results: The mean percentage of total left ventricular myocardium with hyperenhancement determined by the quantitative planimetry method was (20.1 ± 14.6) with a range of 1-68%. There was an excellent correlation between quantitative planimetry and visual global scoring for the hyperenhancement extent's measurement (r = 0.94; y = 1.093x + 0.87; SEE = 1.2; P < 0.001) The Bland-Altman plot showed a good concordance between the two approaches (mean of the differences = 1.9% with a standard deviation of 4.7). Mean post-processing time for quantita. Mean post-processing time for quantitative planimetry was significantly longer than visual scoring post-processing time (23.7 ± 5.7 min vs 5.0 ± 1.1 min respectively, P < 0.001). Correlation between peak CK and quantitative planimetry was r = 0.82 (P < 0.001) and r = 0.83 (P < 0.001) with visual global scoring. Correlation between peak Troponin I and quantitative planimetry was r = 0.86 (P < 0.001) and r = 0.85 (P < 0.001) with visual global scoring. Conclusion: A visual approach based on a 17-segment model allows a rapid and accurate assessment of the myocardial global delayed enhancement. This scoring method could be used on a daily practice and useful for the management strategy of post-MI patients.

114

Disease activity in inflammatory bowel disease is associated with increased risk of myocardial infarction, stroke and cardiovascular death - a danish nationwide cohort study  

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Chronic inflammatory diseases have been linked to increased risk of atherothrombotic events, but the risk associated with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) is unclear. We therefore examined the risk of myocardial infarction (MI), stroke, and cardiovascular death in patients with IBD.

Kristensen, SØren Lund; Ahlehoff, Ole

2013-01-01

115

Long-term recording of cardiac arrhythmias with an implantable cardiac monitor in patients with reduced ejection fraction after acute myocardial infarction: the Cardiac Arrhythmias and Risk Stratification After Acute Myocardial Infarction (CARISMA) study  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Knowledge about the incidence of cardiac arrhythmias after acute myocardial infarction has been limited by the lack of traditional ECG recording systems to document and confirm asymptomatic and symptomatic arrhythmias. The Cardiac Arrhythmias and Risk Stratification After Myocardial Infarction (CARISMA) trial was designed to study the incidence and prognostic significance of arrhythmias documented by an implantable cardiac monitor among patients with acute myocardial infarction and reduced left ventricular ejection fraction.

Bloch Thomsen, Poul Erik; Jons, Christian

2010-01-01

116

Waterlow score to predict patients at risk of developing Clostridium difficile-associated disease.  

Science.gov (United States)

This study describes the development and testing of an assessment tool to predict the risk of patients developing Clostridium difficile-associated disease (CDAD). The three phases of the study include the development of the tool, prospective testing of the validity of the tool using 1468 patients in a medical assessment unit and external retrospective testing using data from 29 425 patients. In the first phase of the study, receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analysis identified the Waterlow assessment score as having the ability to predict CDAD (area under the curve: 0.827). The Waterlow tool was then tested prospectively with 1468 patients admitted to a medical assessment unit. A total of 1385 patients (94%) had a Waterlow score Waterlow score of > or = 20. After a three-month follow-up, six patients in the low Waterlow score group developed CDAD (0.4%) and 14 patients in the high score group developed CDAD (17%). The sensitivity and specificity of the Waterlow score to predict the risk of developing CDAD were 70% and 95%, respectively. Similar results were obtained when the tool was tested retrospectively on a large external patient data set. The Waterlow score appears to predict patients' risk of developing CDAD and although it did not identify all cases, it highlighted a small group of patients who had a disproportionately large number of CDAD cases. The Waterlow score can be used to target patients most at risk of developing CDAD. PMID:19162374

Tanner, J; Khan, D; Anthony, D; Paton, J

2009-03-01

117

A Simple Risk Score for Identifying Individuals with Impaired Fasting Glucose in the Southern Chinese Population  

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Full Text Available This study aimed to develop and validate a simple risk score for detecting individuals with impaired fasting glucose (IFG among the Southern Chinese population. A sample of participants aged ?20 years and without known diabetes from the 2006–2007 Guangzhou diabetes cross-sectional survey was used to develop separate risk scores for men and women. The participants completed a self-administered structured questionnaire and underwent simple clinical measurements. The risk scores were developed by multiple logistic regression analysis. External validation was performed based on three other studies: the 2007 Zhuhai rural population-based study, the 2008–2010 Guangzhou diabetes cross-sectional study and the 2007 Tibet population-based study. Performance of the scores was measured with the Hosmer-Lemeshow goodness-of-fit test and ROC c-statistic. Age, waist circumference, body mass index and family history of diabetes were included in the risk score for both men and women, with the additional factor of hypertension for men. The ROC c-statistic was 0.70 for both men and women in the derivation samples. Risk scores of ?28 for men and ?18 for women showed respective sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value and negative predictive value of 56.6%, 71.7%, 13.0% and 96.0% for men and 68.7%, 60.2%, 11% and 96.0% for women in the derivation population. The scores performed comparably with the Zhuhai rural sample and the 2008–2010 Guangzhou urban samples but poorly in the Tibet sample. The performance of pre-existing USA, Shanghai, and Chengdu risk scores was poorer in our population than in their original study populations. The results suggest that the developed simple IFG risk scores can be generalized in Guangzhou city and nearby rural regions and may help primary health care workers to identify individuals with IFG in their practice.

Hui Wang

2015-01-01

118

A simple risk score for identifying individuals with impaired fasting glucose in the southern chinese population.  

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This study aimed to develop and validate a simple risk score for detecting individuals with impaired fasting glucose (IFG) among the Southern Chinese population. A sample of participants aged ?20 years and without known diabetes from the 2006-2007 Guangzhou diabetes cross-sectional survey was used to develop separate risk scores for men and women. The participants completed a self-administered structured questionnaire and underwent simple clinical measurements. The risk scores were developed by multiple logistic regression analysis. External validation was performed based on three other studies: the 2007 Zhuhai rural population-based study, the 2008-2010 Guangzhou diabetes cross-sectional study and the 2007 Tibet population-based study. Performance of the scores was measured with the Hosmer-Lemeshow goodness-of-fit test and ROC c-statistic. Age, waist circumference, body mass index and family history of diabetes were included in the risk score for both men and women, with the additional factor of hypertension for men. The ROC c-statistic was 0.70 for both men and women in the derivation samples. Risk scores of ?28 for men and ?18 for women showed respective sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value and negative predictive value of 56.6%, 71.7%, 13.0% and 96.0% for men and 68.7%, 60.2%, 11% and 96.0% for women in the derivation population. The scores performed comparably with the Zhuhai rural sample and the 2008-2010 Guangzhou urban samples but poorly in the Tibet sample. The performance of pre-existing USA, Shanghai, and Chengdu risk scores was poorer in our population than in their original study populations. The results suggest that the developed simple IFG risk scores can be generalized in Guangzhou city and nearby rural regions and may help primary health care workers to identify individuals with IFG in their practice. PMID:25625405

Wang, Hui; Liu, Tao; Qiu, Quan; Ding, Peng; He, Yan-Hui; Chen, Wei-Qing

2015-01-01

119

Correlation between retinopathy of prematurity and clinical risk index for babies score  

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Background: Several risk factors like prematurity, hyperoxia, hyperglycemia, duration of mechanical ventilation and supplemental oxygen use have been attributed to the occurrence of retinopathy of prematurity (ROP) in low birth weight infants. Clinical Risk Index for Babies (CRIB) score have been used to assess the severity of the newborn's disease and neonatal mortality. The relation between the CRIB score and the incidence of retinopathy of prematurity is less assessed. This study was carri...

Mousa Ahmadpour-kacho; Yadollah Zahed Pasha; Seyed Ahmad Rasoulinejad; Mahmoud Hajiahmadi; Parisa Pourdad

2014-01-01

120

Prothrombotic gene variants as risk factors of acute myocardial infarction in young women  

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Abstract Background Acute myocardial infarction (AMI) in young women represent an extreme phenotype associated with a higher mortality compared with similarly aged men. Prothrombotic gene variants could play a role as risk factors for AMI at young age. Methods We studied Factor V Leiden, FII G20210A, MTHFR C677T and beta-fibrinogen -455G>A variants by real-time PCR in 955 young AMI (362 females) and in 698 AMI (245 females) patients. The data were compared to th...

Tomaiuolo Rossella; Bellia Chiara; Caruso Antonietta; Di Fiore Rosanna; Quaranta Sandro; Noto Davide; Cefalù Angelo B; Di Micco Pierpaolo; Zarrilli Federica; Castaldo Giuseppe; Averna Maurizio R; Ciaccio Marcello

2012-01-01

121

Coronary angiographic findings in diagnostically manifested myocardial infarctions: Their relationship to psychlosocial and somatic risk factors  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The investigation was meant as an attempt to illustrate coronary arteriosclerosis as the cause of myocardial infarction and the mechanisms of its development as well as the conditions influencing it. The paper consists of two parts: 1) Literature part: In this part, risk factors of coronary arteriosclerosis and the mechanism of its effects (as far as known) are introduced. The results obtained by other authors are also summarized. 2) Empiric part: The following empiric part covers the author's own results which are discussed and compared to the results obtained by other authors. (orig./MG)

122

Risk of acute myocardial infarction with nonselective non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs: a meta-analysis  

OpenAIRE

The use of cyclo-oxygenase 2 selective nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) is associated with increased risk of acute myocardial infarction (AMI). The association between the risks of AMI with nonselective NSAIDs is less clear. We reviewed the published evidence and assessed the risk of AMI with nonselective NSAIDs. We performed a meta-analysis of all studies containing data from population databases that compared the risk of AMI in NSAID users with that in non-users or remote NSAID...

Singh, G.; Wu, O.; Langhorne, P.; Madhok, R.

2006-01-01

123

High risk scoring for prediction of pregnancy outcome: a prospective study  

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Results: Out of 415 women, 96 (59% were High Risk, 191 (46% were Low risk and 128 (31% were No risk. In High risk group there were 59 perinatal deaths and perinatal mortality rate was very high (614 per 1000 live births. Conclusions: The risk scoring system can thus be used not only as a test for predicting perinatal mortality but also as a simple and cost effective screening tool for identifying pregnancies at higher risk of perinatal mortality and morbidity so that these are subjected to the special and lsquo;high risk' care they need. [Int J Reprod Contracept Obstet Gynecol 2014; 3(3.000: 516-522

Sapna Jain

2014-06-01

124

Usefulness of residual ischemic myocardium within prior infarct zone for identifying patients at high risk late after acute myocardial infarction  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This study examines the prognostic implications of ischemia within the territory of a prior acute myocardial infarction (AMI) vs ischemia at a distance, which develops late after AMI. Sixty-one consecutive patients who underwent both exercise thallium-201 (TI-201) imaging and cardiac catheterization for evaluation of chest pain that developed after discharge from the hospital for AMI form the study group. Mean interval between infarction to the TI-201 study was 10 +/- 17 months. Initial and 2-hour delay TI-201 images were analyzed quantitatively to determine the presence and location (within vs outside the prior infarct zone) of TI-201 redistribution, a marker of ischemic viable myocardium. TI-201 imaging results were separated into 3 groups based on presence and location of TI-201 redistribution: no significant TI-201 redistribution was found in 16 patients; in 29, TI-201 redistribution was confined to the infarct zone; and in 16, TI-201 redistribution was outside the infarct zone. Stepwise multivariate logistic regression analysis was used to examine the comparative ability of TI-201 results and other patient variables to predict cardiac events. For total cardiac events (cardiac death, recurrent nonfatal AMI, unstable angina and coronary revascularization), both the presence of any TI-201 redistribution and multivessel angiographic coronary artery disease were significant predictors. However, when coronary revascularization was excluded as an endpoint, TI-201 redistwas excluded as an endpoint, TI-201 redistribution limited to the prior infarct zone was the only significant predictor of cardiac events. All 8 cardiac events occurred in patients with T1-201 redistribution limited to the infart zone

125

Biomarkers in acute myocardial infarction  

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Full Text Available Abstract Myocardial infarction causes significant mortality and morbidity. Timely diagnosis allows clinicians to risk stratify their patients and select appropriate treatment. Biomarkers have been used to assist with timely diagnosis, while an increasing number of novel markers have been identified to predict outcome following an acute myocardial infarction or acute coronary syndrome. This may facilitate tailoring of appropriate therapy to high-risk patients. This review focuses on a variety of promising biomarkers which provide diagnostic and prognostic information. Heart-type Fatty Acid Binding Protein and copeptin in combination with cardiac troponin help diagnose myocardial infarction or acute coronary syndrome in the early hours following symptoms. An elevated N-Terminal Pro-B-type Natriuretic Peptide has been well validated to predict death and heart failure following a myocardial infarction. Similarly other biomarkers such as Mid-regional pro-Atrial Natriuretic Peptide, ST2, C-Terminal pro-endothelin 1, Mid-regional pro-Adrenomedullin and copeptin all provide incremental information in predicting death and heart failure. Growth differentiation factor-15 and high-sensitivity C-reactive protein predict death following an acute coronary syndrome. Pregnancy associated plasma protein A levels following chest pain predicts risk of myocardial infarction and revascularisation. Some biomarkers such as myeloperoxidase and high-sensitivity C-reactive protein in an apparently healthy population predicts risk of coronary disease and allows clinicians to initiate early preventative treatment. In addition to biomarkers, various well-validated scoring systems based on clinical characteristics are available to help clinicians predict mortality risk, such as the Thrombolysis In Myocardial Infarction score and Global Registry of Acute Coronary Events score. A multimarker approach incorporating biomarkers and clinical scores will increase the prognostic accuracy. However, it is important to note that only troponin has been used to direct therapeutic intervention and none of the new prognostic biomarkers have been tested and proven to alter outcome of therapeutic intervention. Novel biomarkers have improved prediction of outcome in acute myocardial infarction, but none have been demonstrated to alter the outcome of a particular therapy or management strategy. Randomised trials are urgently needed to address this translational gap before the use of novel biomarkers becomes common practice to facilitate tailored treatment following an acute coronary event.

Ng Leong L

2010-06-01

126

Platelet-larger cell ratio and the risk of periprocedural myocardial infarction after percutaneous coronary revascularization.  

Science.gov (United States)

Periprocedural myocardial infarction (PMI) represents a frequent complication in patients undergoing percutaneous coronary revascularization. Despite great attention focused on pharmacological prevention of periprocedural damage, very little is known about using biomarkers to potentially predict the risk of PMI. Larger platelets have been associated with enhanced reactivity, increased cardiovascular risk, and higher rates of complications after coronary stenting. The platelet-larger cell ratio (P-LCR) identifies the largest-sized fraction of platelets, the proportion potentially more closely related to thrombotic events. The present study evaluated the relationship between P-LCR and PMI. We included 1,285 patients undergoing PCI. Myonecrosis biomarkers were dosed at intervals from 6 to 48 h after PCI. Periprocedural myonecrosis was defined as troponin I increase by three times the upper limit of normal (ULN) or by 50 % of an elevated baseline value, whereas PMI was defined as an increase in creatine kinase MB by 3 × ULN or 50 % of baseline. We grouped patients according to tertile values of P-LCR (platelet count (P < 0.001) and glycemia (P = 0.05). Patients with higher P-LCR had a lower presence of coronary thrombus (P = 0.003). Higher P-LCR values did not increase the risk of PMI (P = 0.10; adjusted odds ratio (OR) (95 % confidence interval (CI)) = 0.97 (0.69-1.38)), P = 0.89) or periprocedural myonecrosis (P = 0.96; adjusted OR (95 % CI) = 1.003 (0.76-1.32), P = 0.99). Results were confirmed even in higher-risk subgroups of patients. P-LCR does not increase the risk of periprocedural myocardial infarction and myonecrosis in patients undergoing coronary stenting. PMID:24297745

Verdoia, Monica; Barbieri, Lucia; Schaffer, Alon; Cassetti, Ettore; Marino, Paolo; Bellomo, Giorgio; Sinigaglia, Fabiola; De Luca, Giuseppe

2015-01-01

127

Dual radionuclide single-photon emission computed tomography in the prediction of further ischemic risk after acute myocardial infarction  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

To evaluate whether the findings of dual single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) with technetium-99m pyrophosphate (Tc-99m PPi) and thallium-201 were predictive of further cardiac events in their hospital course, we studied 130 patients recovering from acute myocardial infarction (AMI). Fifty-four patients showed overlapping of Tc-99m PPi and thallium-201 in the same location (overlap positive group), and 76 patients had no overlap (overlap negative group). Of the 130 patients, 36 (28%) had a cardiac event. In patients in the overlap positive group, the incidence of subsequent events was significantly higher than in patients in the overlap negative group (44% versus 16%; p<0.001). In the overlap positive group, the Tc-99m PPi uptake score and the number of overlap segments in patients with further events was significantly higher than those in patients without further events (10.2±5.1 versus 6.4±4.1, p<0.005 and 5.2±2.0 versus 3.3±1.3, p<0.001, respectively). These results suggest that patients who have a Tc-99m PPi and thallium-201 overlap negative scan can be candidates for early hospital discharge. In contrast, patients who have a greater number of overlap segments may require early catheterization and revascularization, so that simultaneous SPECT imaging Tc-99m PPi and thallium-201 might be useful for identifying patients with further ischemic risk after AMI in their hospital course. (author)

128

Relation Between ABO Blood Groups, Cardiovascular Risk Factors and Acute Myocardial Infarction  

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Full Text Available Different risk factors affect development of atherosclerosis and Coronary Artery Disease (CAD. These factors are believed to be of value in prediction and prevention of coronary events. Here in we report the relation between blood groups, cardiovascular risk factors and Myocardial Infarction incidence. Measurements were made in samples obtained from 500 patients who had admitted to Cardiac Care Unit (CCU of Madani heart center of Tabriz, Iran due to first Acute Myocardial Infarction (AMI from Jan 2005 to April 2007. Participants provided blood samples for Cholesterol, Glucose (Fasting Blood Sugar (FBS, Cardiac enzymes and Blood Groups (BG. Standard 12-lead electrocardiograms were obtained immediately after admission. Patients were also asked about current smoking history, Hypertension (HTN and Diabetes Mellitus (DM history. Analysis showed significant differences between the frequency of ABO blood groups and AMI, Smoking, Serum Cholesterol, but non significant relation with HTN, DM and the location of MI. In individuals the incidence of AMI was higher in those with BG A; while, sleeping MI was higher in group O. AMI was less frequent in BG AB. The mean serum cholesterol level and positive current smoking history were significantly higher in AMI patients with BG A. Blood group A is related to the higher incidence of AMI, hypercholesterolemia and positive current smoking history, but the findings don`t support the view that ABO blood groups and AMI are related to HTN, DM and location of MI.

2008-01-01

129

[Risk stratification after uncomplicated myocardial infarct: the usefulness of the echocardiographic-dipyridamole test].  

Science.gov (United States)

To assess the value and safety of echo-dipyridamole test in risk stratification soon after an uncomplicated acute myocardial infarction, 56 consecutive patients were enrolled in a prospective study with a 1-year follow-up period for new coronary events. Echo-dipyridamole and symptom-limited ECG stress test were performed respectively 14 to 20 days and 4 to 5 weeks after acute event. Echo-dipyridamole test was performed administering 0.84 mg/kg iv of the drug in 10 min: any worsening of left ventricular regional wall motion was considered as a positive test. Up to December 1989, 43 out of 56 patients had their follow-up period completed: the infarction was anterior in 13 (30%), inferior in 22 (51%), non-Q wave in 8 (19%); mean age was 55 +/- 10; basal echocardiographic ejection fraction was 52 +/- 6%. There were no major complications during echo-dipyridamole test. Coronary events occurred in 7 patients (16%): reinfarction in 3, angina in 4; there were no cardiac deaths. A positive echo-dypiridamole test was observed in 12/43 patients (28%); sensitivity versus coronary events was 43%, specificity 75%, negative predictive value 87%. Ten out of 43 patients (23%) had positive and 9/43 (21%) non valuable ECG stress test: sensitivity versus coronary events was 50%, specificity 75%, predictive negative value 88%. The 2 tests showed no significant difference in detecting patients at risk of future coronary events.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:2078848

Ugliengo, G; Margaria, F; Meinardi, F; Vado, A; De Benedictis, N

1990-08-01

130

Cardiovascular disease risk score prediction models for women and its applicability to Asians  

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Full Text Available Louise GH Goh,1 Satvinder S Dhaliwal,1 Timothy A Welborn,2 Peter L Thompson,2–4 Bruce R Maycock,1 Deborah A Kerr,1 Andy H Lee,1 Dean Bertolatti,1 Karin M Clark,1 Rakhshanda Naheed,1 Ranil Coorey,1 Phillip R Della5 1School of Public Health, Curtin Health Innovation Research Institute, Curtin University, Perth, WA, Australia; 2Sir Charles Gairdner Hospital, Nedlands, Perth, WA, Australia; 3School of Population Health, University of Western Australia, Perth, WA, Australia; 4Harry Perkins Institute for Medical Research, Perth, WA, Australia; 5School of Nursing and Midwifery, Curtin Health Innovation Research Institute, Curtin University, Perth, WA, Australia Purpose: Although elevated cardiovascular disease (CVD risk factors are associated with a higher risk of developing heart conditions across all ethnic groups, variations exist between groups in the distribution and association of risk factors, and also risk levels. This study assessed the 10-year predicted risk in a multiethnic cohort of women and compared the differences in risk between Asian and Caucasian women. Methods: Information on demographics, medical conditions and treatment, smoking behavior, dietary behavior, and exercise patterns were collected. Physical measurements were also taken. The 10-year risk was calculated using the Framingham model, SCORE (Systematic COronary Risk Evaluation risk chart for low risk and high risk regions, the general CVD, and simplified general CVD risk score models in 4,354 females aged 20–69 years with no heart disease, diabetes, or stroke at baseline from the third Australian Risk Factor Prevalence Study. Country of birth was used as a surrogate for ethnicity. Nonparametric statistics were used to compare risk levels between ethnic groups. Results: Asian women generally had lower risk of CVD when compared to Caucasian women. The 10-year predicted risk was, however, similar between Asian and Australian women, for some models. These findings were consistent with Australian CVD prevalence. Conclusion: In summary, ethnicity needs to be incorporated into CVD risk assessment. Australian standards used to quantify risk and treat women could be applied to Asians in the interim. The SCORE risk chart for low-risk regions and Framingham risk score model for incidence are recommended. The inclusion of other relevant risk variables such as obesity, poor diet/nutrition, and low levels of physical activity may improve risk estimation. Keywords: cardiovascular disease prevention, risk assessment, epidemiology, Asia, female

Goh LGH

2014-03-01

131

Impact of framingham risk score, flow-mediated dilation, pulse wave velocity, and biomarkers for cardiovascular events in stable angina.  

Science.gov (United States)

Although the age-adjusted Framingham risk score (AFRS), flow-mediated dilation (FMD), brachial-ankle pulse wave velocity (baPWV), high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hsCRP), fibrinogen, homocysteine, and free fatty acid (FFA) can predict future cardiovascular events (CVEs), a comparison of these risk assessments for patients with stable angina has not been reported. We enrolled 203 patients with stable angina who had been scheduled for coronary angiography (CAG). After CAG, 134 patients showed significant coronary artery disease. During 4.2 yr follow-up, 36 patients (18%) showed CVEs, including myocardial infarction, de-novo coronary artery revascularization, in-stent restenosis, stroke, and cardiovascular death. ROC analysis showed that AFRS, FMD, baPWV, and hsCRP could predict CVEs (with AUC values of 0.752, 0.707, 0.659, and 0.702, respectively, all Ppower between combining AFRS plus FMD and AFRS alone (AUC 0.752 vs. 0.763; z=1.358, P=0.175). In patients with stable angina, AFRS and FMD are independent predictors of CVEs. However, there is no additive value of FMD on the AFRS in predicting CVEs. PMID:25368493

Park, Kyoung-Ha; Han, Sang Jin; Kim, Hyun-Sook; Kim, Min-Kyu; Jo, Sang Ho; Kim, Sung-Ai; Park, Woo Jung

2014-10-01

132

Correlation between the FINish diabetes risk score and the severity of coronary artery disease  

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Full Text Available Background/Aim. The FINish Diabetes RIsk SCore (FINDRISC which includes age, body mass index (BMI, waist circumference, physical (in activity, diet, arterial hypertension, history of high glucose levels, and family history of diabetes, is of a great significance in identifying patients with impaired glucose tolerance and a 10-year risk assessment of developing type 2 diabetes in adults. Due to the fact that the FINDRISC score includes parameters which are risk factors for coronary artery disease (CAD, our aim was to determine a correlation between this score, and some of its parameters respectively, with the severity of angiographically verified CAD in patients with stable angina in two ways: according to the Synergy between Percutaneous Coronary Intervention with Taxus and Cardiac Surgery (SYNTAX score and the number of diseased coronary arteries. Methods. The study included 70 patients with stable angina consecutively admitted to the Clinic of Cardiology, Military Medical Academy, Belgrade. The FINDRISC score was calculated in all the patients immediately prior to angiography. Venous blood samples were collected and inflammatory markers [erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR, leucocytes, C-reactive protein (CRP, total cholesterol, HDL cholesterol, triglycerides and fasting glucose] determined. Coronary angiography was performed in order to determine the severity of coronary artery disease according to the SYNTAX score and the number of affected coronary vessels: 1-vessel, 2-vessel or 3-vessel disease (hemodynamically significant stenoses: more than 70% of the blood vessel lumen. The patients were divided into three groups regarding the FINDRISC score: group I: 5-11 points; group II: 12-16 points; group III: 17-22 points. Results. Out of 70 patients (52 men and 18 women enrolled in this study, 14 had normal coronary angiogram. There was a statistically significant positive correlation between the FINDRISC score and its parameters respectively (age, body mass index-BMI, waist circumference and the severity of CAD according to the SYNTAX score (p < 0.001 and the number of diseased coronary arteries (p < 0.001. The patients with higher FINDRISC score (groups II and III had more severe and extensive CAD according to the SYNTAX score than the group I. The odds ratio with 95% confidence intervals (CI between the group III and the group I was 5.143 (95% CI 1.299-20.360, p = 0.002 and between the group II and the group I 5.867 (95% CI 1.590- 21.525, p = 0.007. There were no differences in odds ratio for multivessel disease according to FINDRISC score between the group II and the group III [1.141; (95% CI 0.348-3.734. In the group I mean SYNTAX score was 5.18, and more than 70% of patients had normal coronary angiogram. In the group II mean SYNTAX score was 17.06, and more than 70% of patients had 2-vessel disease and 3- vessel disease, and in the group III mean SYNTAX score was 18.89, and 2-vessel and 3-vessel disease had 36.36% and 31.82% patients, respectively. In multiple regression analysis, where SYNTAX score was dependent variable, and age, BMI, waist circumference, FINDRISC score were independent variables, we found that only FINDRISC score was independent predictor of SYNTAX score. Conclusion. The obtained results suggest a statistically significant correlation between the FINDRISC score and its parameters (age, BMI, waist circumference and the severity of CAD according to the SYNTAX score and the number of diseased coronary arteries. The FINDRISC score may be useful in identifying patients at the high risk for coronary artery disease.

?uri? Predrag

2014-01-01

133

Correlation between Umbilical Cord pH and Apgar Score in High-Risk Pregnancy  

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Full Text Available Objective:The Apgar score as a proven useful tool for rapid assessment of the neonate is often poorly correlated with other indicators of intrapartum neonatal well-being. This study was carried out to determine the correlation between umbilical cord pH and Apgar score in high-risk pregnancies.Methods:This is a prospective cross-sectional, analytic study performed on 96 mother-fetal pairs during 2004-2005 at Shahid Yahyanejad hospital, which is affiliated to Babol University of Medical Sciences. Apgar score at 1 and 5 minutes after birth was taken and an umbilical cord blood gas analysis was done immediately after birth in both groups. Mothers came with a labor pain and were divided into high-risk and low risk if they have had any perinatal risk factors. Other data like gestational age, birth weight, need for resuscitation and admission to the newborn ward or NICU was gathered by a questionnaire for comparison between the two groups. P-value less than 0.05 was considered being significant.Findings:The gestational age and birth weight were the same in high-risk and low risk mothers. Mean umbilical artery blood pH in high-risk mothers was significantly lower than in low risk mothers (P=0.004. Mean Apgar scores at 1 and 5 minutes were significantly lower in high-risk mothers than in low risk mothers (P< 0.05. According to the Kendal correlation coefficient there was no significant correlation between Apgar score at 1 and 5 minutes and umbilical cord pH in low risk group (r=0.212, P=0.1. But in high-risk group there was significant correlation between Apgar score at 1st and 5th minute and the umbilical cord pH (r=0.01, P=0.036 and r=0.176, P=0.146, respectively.Conclusion:Combination of Apgar score and umbilical cord pH measurement in high-risk pregnant mother could better detect jeopardized baby.

Mousa Ahmadpour-Kacho

2010-12-01

134

Correlation Between Umbilical Cord pH and Apgar Score in High-Risk Pregnancy  

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Full Text Available Objective:The Apgar score as a proven useful tool for rapid assessment of the neonate is often poorly correlated with other indicators of intrapartum neonatal well-being. This study was carried out to determine the correlation between umbilical cord pH and Apgar score in high-risk pregnancies. Methods:This is a prospective cross-sectional, analytic study performed on 96 mother-fetal pairs during 2004-2005 at Shahid Yahyanejad hospital, which is affiliated to Babol University of Medical Sciences. Apgar score at 1 and 5 minutes after birth was taken and an umbilical cord blood gas analysis was done immediately after birth in both groups. Mothers came with a labor pain and were divided into high-risk and low risk if they have had any perinatal risk factors. Other data like gestational age, birth weight, need for resuscitation and admission to the newborn ward or NICU was gathered by a questionnaire for comparison between the two groups. P-value less than 0.05 was considered being significant. Findings:The gestational age and birth weight were the same in high-risk and low risk mothers. Mean umbilical artery blood pH in high-risk mothers was significantly lower than in low risk mothers (P=0.004. Mean Apgar scores at 1 and 5 minutes were significantly lower in high-risk mothers than in low risk mothers (P<0.05. According to the Kendal correlation coefficient there was no significant correlation between Apgar score at 1 and 5 minutes and umbilical cord pH in low risk group (r=0.212, P=0.1. But in high-risk group there was significant correlation between Apgar score at 1st and 5th minute and the umbilical cord pH (r=0.01, P=0.036 and r=0.176, P=0.146, respectively. Conclusion:Combination of Apgar score and umbilical cord pH measurement in high-risk pregnant mother could better detect jeopardized baby.

Mahmood Hajiahmadi

2010-12-01

135

A scoring system to predict superinfections in high-risk febrile neutropenic children with cancer  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Mexico | Language: English Abstract in english Background. No scoring system has been published to date to assess the risk of superinfections (SI) for high-risk children with febrile neutropenia (HRFN). Methods. SI diagnoses during or 1 week after initiating antibiotic therapy in HRFN children were evaluated. Eight hundred and forty-nine episode [...] s of febrile neutropenia (FN) were included in a prospective study to evaluate a scoring system designed to identify SI. Results. In the derivation set (566 episodes), 17% had SI. A multivariate analysis identified the following significant SI-related risk factors: acute lymphoblastic leukemia-acute myeloid leukemia (ALL-AML, OR, 1.87; 95% CI, 1.13-3.10), central venous catheter (OR, 2.11; 95% CI, 1.23-3.62), and febrile episode occurring within 10 days after chemotherapy (OR, 1.86; 95% CI, 1.09-3.15). A SI scoring system could be built: 1 point for ALL-AML, 1 point for the presence of a central venous catheter, and 1 point for the febrile episode occurring within 10 days after chemotherapy. If patients collected 3 points, then their risk of SI was 25.8%. With 2 points the risk was 16.7%, and with one minimum score of 1 point, their risk was 10.9%. The sensitivity to predict SS was 100% and its negative predictive value (NPV) was 100%. In the validation set (283 episodes), 49 (17%) children had SI. For children with scores > 0, the scoring system yielded a sensitivity of 100%, and a NPV of 100% for predicting SI. Conclusions. The use of a SI score for HRFN patients was statistically validated by these results. A better initial predictive approach may allow improved therapeutic decisions for these children.

Hugo, Paganini; Juliana, Caccavo; Clarisa, Aguirre; Sandra, Gómez; Pedro, Zubizarreta.

2011-02-01

136

A risk score development for diabetic retinopathy screening in Isfahan-Iran  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available

  • BACKGROUND: The purpose of this study was to develop a simple risk score as screening tool for retinopathy in type II diabetic patients.
  • METHODS: A cross-sectional study was carried out recruiting 3734  atients with type II diabetes in an outpatient clinic in Isfahan ndocrinology and Metabolism Research Center (IEMRC, Iran. The logistic regression was used as a model to predict diabetic retinopathy. The cut-off value for the risk score was determined using the Receiver  perating Characteristic (ROC curve procedure.
  • RESULTS: According to final models, being male, having lower body mass index (BMI, being older, longer duration of diabetes and higher HbA1c were correlated with increased risk of diabetic retinopathy. Area under the Curve (ROC was 0.704 (95% CI: 0.685-0.723. A value ; 52.5 had the optimum sensitivity (60% and specificity (69% for determining diabetic retinopathy.
  • CONCLUSIONS: The results indicated that risk factors for retinopathy were sex, BMI, age, duration of diabetes and HbA1c levels. In onclusion, applying developed retinopathy risk score is a practical way to identify patients who are at high risk for developing diabetic retinopathy for an early treatment.
  • KEYWORDS: Retinopathy risk score, sensitivity, specificity, receiver operating characteristic curve.

Sayed Mohsen Hosseini

2009-04-01

137

Prediction of risk of death and myocardial infarction in the six months after presentation with acute coronary syndrome: prospective multinational observational study (GRACE)  

OpenAIRE

Objective To develop a clinical risk prediction tool for estimating the cumulative six month risk of death and death or myocardial infarction to facilitate triage and management of patients with acute coronary syndrome.

Fox, Keith A. A.; Dabbous, Omar H.; Goldberg, Robert J.; Pieper, Karen S.; Eagle, Kim A.; Werf, Frans; Avezum, A?lvaro; Goodman, Shaun G.; Flather, Marcus D.; Anderson, Frederick A.; Granger, Christopher B.

2006-01-01

138

Prothrombotic gene variants as risk factors of acute myocardial infarction in young women  

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Full Text Available Abstract Background Acute myocardial infarction (AMI in young women represent an extreme phenotype associated with a higher mortality compared with similarly aged men. Prothrombotic gene variants could play a role as risk factors for AMI at young age. Methods We studied Factor V Leiden, FII G20210A, MTHFR C677T and beta-fibrinogen -455G>A variants by real-time PCR in 955 young AMI (362 females and in 698 AMI (245 females patients. The data were compared to those obtained in 909 unrelated subjects (458 females from the general population of the same geographical area (southern Italy. Results In young AMI females, the allelic frequency of either FV Leiden and of FII G20210A was significantly higher versus the general population (O.R.: 3.67 for FV Leiden and O.R.: 3.84 for FII G20210A; p Discussion and conclusion Our data confirm that young AMI in females is a peculiar phenotype with specific risk factors as the increased plasma procoagulant activity of FV and FII. On the contrary, the homozygous state for the 677T MTHFR variant may cause increased levels of homocysteine and/or an altered folate status and thus an increased risk for AMI, particularly in males. The knowledge of such risk factors (that may be easily identified by molecular analysis may help to improve prevention strategies for acute coronary diseases in specific risk-group subjects.

Tomaiuolo Rossella

2012-11-01

139

Are the myocardial infarction risk factors the same in survived and dead patients  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Coronary heart disease is one of the most common diseases causing mortality and morbidity in industrialized and developing countries. The first presentation in 25% of cases is sudden cardiac death. The most common risk factors in dead people are hypercholesterolemia. This study was carried out to compare the prevalence of risk factors in patients hospitalized in CCU's and cardiology departments (case group) and people who died because of sudden death myocardial infarction before arriving at hospitals (control group). This study was a case-control one, carried out on 154 patients and 112 dead persons. The questionnaires were completed after referring to their first relatives and the documents, in control group and in case group, were completed from patients and their records in hospitals. Then history of risk factor were compared. The ratio of men/women in the first group (hospitalized patients) was 3 and the second group (dead patients) were 1.7 (P=0.000). The peak ages in men of both groups were 60 to 69 years old, 2-3 times more than women in both groups. The most prevalent risk factor in women of both groups was hypertension, the same as in men of the control group. But the most prevalent risk factor in men of the case group was smoking (P=0.000). So, primary prevention which has a great role in controlling coronary artery disease is suggested

140

Chemicals exposure: scoring procedure and uncertainty propagation in scenario selection for risk analysis.  

Science.gov (United States)

The present work aims to obtain a methodology to score dangerous chemical pollutants related to the exposure scenarios of human risk and to evaluate the uncertainty of the scoring procedure. For chronic human risk evaluation, the problem of characterizing the most dangerous situation is posed. In this paper a ranking procedure was assessed in order to score eight pollutants through a "scoring model" approach. The scoring system was organized in a matrix form in order to put in evidence the strong connection between properties of the substances and exposure scenarios. Two different modelling approaches were considered as cause-effect relationships for risk evaluation: Risk Based Corrective Action (RBCA) and a "mobility and degradation matrix". The first takes into account the exposure pathways (soil, water and air) and the exposure routes (inhalation, ingestion and dermal contact), while the second considers the capacity of the chemicals to move into the environment and the rate of degradation associated with chemical-biological processes as measure of persistence. A specific score for each chemical along its uncertainty were evaluated. The uncertainty of the scoring procedure was evaluated by using the law of propagation of uncertainty; it was used to estimate the global uncertainty related to each exposure pathway for the eight substances for both models. Results of scoring as well uncertainty put in evidence that the ordering of chemicals is strongly dependent on the model used and on the available data. The procedure is simple and easy to use and its implementation allows users to compare several and several compounds. PMID:19666186

Ruggeri, Bernardo

2009-10-01

141

Low adiponectin levels and increased risk of type 2 diabetes in patients with myocardial infarction  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

OBJECTIVE: Patients with acute myocardial infarction (MI) have increased risk of developing type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). Adiponectin is an insulin-sensitizing hormone produced in adipose tissue, directly suppressing hepatic gluconeogenesis, stimulating fatty acid oxidation and glucose uptake in skeletal muscle and insulin secretion. In healthy humans, low plasma adiponectin levels associate with increased risk of T2DM; however, the relationship between adiponectin and T2DM in patients with MI has never been investigated. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS: We prospectively included 666 patients with ST-segment elevation MI, without diabetes, treated with percutaneous coronary intervention, from September 2006 to December 2008 at a tertiary cardiac center. Blood samples were drawn before intervention, and total plasma adiponectin was measured in all samples. During follow-up (median 5.7 years [interquartile range 5.3-6.1]) 6% (n = 38) developed T2DM. Risk of T2DM was analyzed using a competing risk analysis. RESULTS: Low adiponectin levels were associated with increased risk of T2DM (P < 0.001). Even after adjustment for confounding risk factors (age, sex, hypertension, hypercholesterolemia, current smoking, previous MI, BMI, blood glucose, total cholesterol, HDL, LDL, triglyceride, estimated glomerular filtration rate, C-reactive protein, peak troponin I, and proatrial natriuretic peptide), low adiponectin levels remained an independent predictor of T2DM (hazard ratio [HR] 5.8 [2.3-15.0]; P < 0.001). Importantly, plasma adiponectin added to the predictive value of blood glucose, with the combination of high blood glucose and low plasma adiponectin, vastly increasing the risk of developing T2DM (HR 9.6 [3.7-25.3]; P < 0.001). CONCLUSIONS: Low plasma adiponectin levels are independently associated with increased risk of T2DM in patients with MI and added significantly to the predictive value of blood glucose.

Lindberg, SØren; Jensen, Jan S

2014-01-01

142

Risk scores for patients with chest pain: evaluation in the emergency department.  

Science.gov (United States)

Chest pain is a common reason for presentation to the emergency department (ED). Absolute criteria for Acute Coronary Syndrome without ST elevation (NSTE-ACS) are lacking. An acute coronary syndrome (ACS) needs to be distinguished from a variety of other cardiac and non-cardiac diseases that may cause chest pain.For patients with confirmed ACS, several scoring methods can be applied in order to distinguish patients in the coronary care unit who may benefit most from therapies. The PURSUIT, TIMI, GRACE and FRISC risk scores are well validated with this respect. However, none of these risk scores has been used in the identification of an ACS in the emergency setting. The vast majority of patients with chest pain due to causes other than ACS were not evaluated in these trials. An evidence-based systematic stratification and policy for these patients does not currently exist.The more recently developed HEART score is specifically designed to stratify all chest pain patients in the ED. The HEART score was validated in a retrospective multicenter study and proved to be a strong predictor of event free survival on one hand and potentially life threatening cardiac events on the other hand. The HEART score facilitates risk stratification of chest pain patients in the ED. PMID:22294968

Backus, B E; Six, A J; Kelder, J H; Gibler, W B; Moll, F L; Doevendans, P A

2011-02-01

143

Frequency, clinical features and risk factors of lacunar infarction (data from a stroke registry in South India.  

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Full Text Available Analysis of 893 patients of ischaemic stroke in the stroke registry of Nizam?s institute of Medical Sciences, Hyderabad is presented. 16% of them had lacunar infarction. The mean age at presentation was 56.9 years and male to female ratio was 3.5:1. The common risk factors included hypertension(62%,diabetes(38% and smoking(28%. Six percent had an underlying cardiac source of embolism and none had significant (>50% extracranial carotid atherosclerosis. In 22% of patients, no obvious risk factors could be identified. The frequency of risk factors was similar in patients with lacunar and non- lacunar infarctions. However, patients with lacunar infarction had higher frequency of diabetes and absence of significant (>50% extracranial carotid artery disease. Pure motor hemiparesis was the presenting syndrome in 45% patients. Ataxic hemiparesis and sensorimotor stroke accounted for 18% each and dysarthria-clumsy hand syndrome for 14%. This study suggests that the frequency, risk factors and clinical profile of lacunar infarction in our stroke registry is similar to most of the western stroke registries.

Kaul S

2000-04-01

144

External validation of Indian diabetes risk score in a rural community of central India  

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Full Text Available Aim: To find whether the individuals of 45 years and more of rural area who are in higher tertile of Indian Diabetes Risk Score i.e. of IDRS of >60 as compared to those who are in lower tertile i.e. of <30, have high frequency of hyperglycemia, impaired glucose tolerance, and manifest diabetes mellitus. Methods: A cross-sectional community based study. The study was conducted in three pre-identified villages. For all consenting and the eligible subjects, the medical student visited their house and the fasting capillary blood glucose was done by One touch blood glucose monitoring system. Four simple questions and one anthropometric measurement for waist circumference helped in deriving the information for Indian Diabetes Risk Score from the same subject. Results: The Indian Diabetes Risk Score (IDRS (consisting of the factors like age, abdominal obesity, physical inactivity and the family history which predicted diabetes mellitus in the subject, its sensitivity was 97.50% and specificity of 87.89% when the score of >/+ 60 was externally validated on our rural population. Conclusion: Our study demonstrated that the Indian Diabetes Risk Score (IDRS can be reliably applied as effective tool for the mass screening of diabetes in the community.

Bharati Taksande

2012-02-01

145

Platelet distribution width and the risk of periprocedural myocardial infarction in patients undergoing percutaneous coronary intervention.  

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Periprocedural myocardial infarction (PMI) still occurs in a large amount of percutaneous coronary interventions (PCI), mainly due to increased platelet activation. Platelet size has been suggested as an indicator of enhanced reactivity and platelet distribution width (PDW) could reflect morphologic changes in platelets, therefore affecting their function and potentially increasing the risk of complications after coronary stenting. Aim of the present study was to evaluate the relationship between PDW and PMI. We included 1,300 consecutive patients undergoing PCI. Myonecrosis biomarkers were dosed at intervals from 6 to 48 h after PCI. Periprocedural myonecrosis was defined as troponin I increase by three times the ULN or by 50 % of an elevated baseline value, whereas PMI as CKMB increase by three times the ULN or 50 % of baseline. We grouped patients according to tertiles values of PDW (myonecrosis (p = 0.73; adjusted OR [95 % CI] = 0.95 [0.82-1.1], p = 0.51). Results were confirmed even in higher-risk subgroups of patients. In patients undergoing coronary stenting, PDW does not increase the risk of periprocedural MI and therefore should not be considered a risk factor for thrombotic periprocedural complications after PCI. PMID:23793523

Verdoia, Monica; Barbieri, Lucia; Schaffer, Alon; Cassetti, Ettore; Di Giovine, Gabriella; Bellomo, Giorgio; Marino, Paolo; Sinigaglia, Fabiola; De Luca, Giuseppe

2014-04-01

146

Time-perspective in cardiovascular risk of NSAID use after first-time myocardial infarction  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Despite the fact that NSAIDs are not recommended among patients with established cardiovascular disease, many patients receive NSAID treatment for a short period of time. However, up until recently, data on the relationship between treatment duration and associated cardiovascular risk were sparse and have not been summarized. RECENT FINDINGS: A series of recent studies of patients with prior myocardial infarction (MI) demonstrated that short-term treatment with most NSAIDs is associated with an increased cardiovascular risk relative to no NSAID treatment. These studies furthermore demonstrated that NSAID use among patients with first-time MI was associated with persistently increased risk of all-cause mortality and of a composite of coronary death or nonfatal recurrent MI for at least 5 years thereafter. SUMMARY: The present review indicates that there is no apparent well-tolerated therapeutic window for associated cardiovascular risk and NSAID use in patients with prior MI. Further randomized studies are warranted to evaluate the cardiovascular safety of NSAIDs, but, at this point, the overall evidence suggests advising caution in using NSAIDs at all times after MI. Legislation bodies need to address this issue of public health proportions, as studies have shown that utilization rates of NSAID keep increasing.

Olsen, A. M.; Gislason, G. H.

2013-01-01

147

Risk factors for myocardial infarction among low socioeconomic status South Indian population  

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Full Text Available Abstract Background As longevity increases, cases of myocardial infarction (MI are likely to be more. Cardiovascular disease (CVD is a major global health problem reaching epidemic proportions in the Indian subcontinent, also among low socio-economic status (SES and thin individuals. Objectives The present study was undertaken to elicit risk factors for MI among low SES Southern Indians and to find out its association with body mass index (BMI. Materials and methods A case-control study of patients with MI matched against healthy control subjects was carried out in a tertiary care teaching hospital. Standard methods were followed to elicit risk factors and BMI. Chi-square and Fishers exact test for categorical versus categorical, to show relationship with risk factors were analyzed. Results A total of 949 patients (male (M = 692 and post menopausal female (F = 257 and 611 age and sex matched healthy controls were included. In our study, BMI was below 23 in 48.2% of patients and below 21 in 22.5%. The risk of developing MI was significantly more in males (odds ratio (OR = 3.3, 95% confidence interval (C.I. = 2.69-4.13, among females with post-menopausal duration (PMD of more than or equal to 3 years (OR = 9.27, 95% C.I. = 6.36-13.50 and in those with BMI less than 23 with one or other risk factors (P = 0.002, OR = 1.38, 95% C.I. = 1.13-1.70. Conclusion BMI cannot be considered as a lone independent risk factor, as the study population had low BMI but had one or more modifiable risk factors. It would be advisable to keep BMI at least 21 kg/m2 for screening program. Health education on life style modification and programs to diagnose and control diabetes and hypertension have to be initiated at community level in order to reduce the occurrence.

Meenakshisundaram Ramachandran

2010-05-01

148

Valproate attenuates the risk of myocardial infarction in patients with epilepsy: a nationwide cohort study  

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PURPOSE: Patients with epilepsy have increased risk of myocardial infarction (MI). Valproate can exert anti-atherosclerotic effects. We therefore examined the risk of MI in patients with epilepsy receiving valproate. METHODS: Two cohorts of patients with valproate-treated epilepsy and sex- and age-matched individuals (controls) from the general Danish population were identified by individual-level-linkage of nationwide registries and followed for 10 years. The two cohorts comprised patients treated with valproate at baseline and valproate-naïve patients initiating treatment in the study period, respectively. The hazard ratios (HR) of MI and all-cause death were estimated by two different Cox proportional-hazard models; valproate treatment was analysed as a baseline categorical covariate in the first cohort and as a time-dependent exposure covariate in the second cohort. RESULTS: The two cohorts comprised 53¿086 and 102¿003 individuals, respectively. In the first cohort, the risk of MI was decreased (HR 0.75, 95% confidence interval 0.59-0.97) while the risk of all-cause death was increased (HR 2.11, 95% confidence interval 1.95-2.28), compared to the controls. In the second cohort, the risk of MI was decreased (HR 0.62, 95% confidence interval 0.53-0.73) while the risk of all-cause death was similar to the controls (HR 1.02, 95% confidence interval 0.97-1.07). CONCLUSIONS: In this nationwide pharmacoepidemiological study, we found a consistent association between valproate treatment and a reduced risk of MI in patients with epilepsy. Copyright © 2010 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

Olesen, Jonas Bjerring; Hansen, Peter Riis

2011-01-01

149

Risk Score and Metastasectomy Independently Impact Prognosis in Patients with Recurrent Renal Cell Carcinoma  

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Purpose To evaluate the prognostic roles of metastasectomy and an established risk stratification system for patients experiencing a disease recurrence following nephrectomy for non-metastatic renal cell carcinoma (RCC). Methods A retrospective analysis was performed on 129 patients with localized RCC treated by partial or radical nephrectomy and subsequently diagnosed with disease recurrence. At the time of recurrence, a previously validated risk score based on Karnofsky performance status, interval from nephrectomy, and serum hemoglobin, calcium, and lactate dehydrogenase levels was used to categorize patients as favorable, intermediate, or poor-risk. Survival from recurrence was assessed based on risk categorization and metastasectomy Results Median time from nephrectomy to recurrence was 16 months. Median and two-year survival rates were strongly associated with the risk score (favorable-risk: 73 months and 81%; intermediate-risk: 28 months and 54%; poor-risk: 6 months and 11%; log-rank<0.001). Metastasectomy was performed in 44 patients (34%) and found to be of clinical benefit across the various risk categories (interaction analysis, p=0.8). On multivariate analysis, a better risk category (p<0.001) and undergoing a metastasectomy (p<0.001) were each independently associated with a more favorable survival and when combined provided six different risk categories with an estimated two-year survival ranging from 0 – 93%. Conclusions The clinical course for patients with an RCC recurrence following nephrectomy can be variable and is independently impacted by an objectively obtained risk score and whether the patient undergoes a metastasectomy. PMID:18635225

Eggener, Scott E; Yossepowitch, Ofer; Kundu, Shilajit; Motzer, Robert J; Russo, Paul

2008-01-01

150

Performance of angiographic, electrocardiographic and MRI methods to assess the area at risk in acute myocardial infarction.  

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Objective Validation of methods to assess the area at risk (AAR) in patients with ST elevation myocardial infarction is limited. A study was undertaken to test different AAR methods using established physiological concepts to provide a reference standard. Main outcome measured In 78 reperfused patients with first ST elevation myocardial infarction, AAR was measured by electrocardiographic (Aldrich), angiographic (Bypass Angioplasty Revascularization Investigation (BARI), APPROACH) and cardiovascular magnetic resonance methods (T2-weighted hyperintensity and delayed enhanced endocardial surface area (ESA)). The following established physiological concepts were used to evaluate the AAR METHODS: (1) AAR size is always ? infarct size (IS); (2) in transmural infarcts AAR size=IS; (3) correlation between AAR size and IS increases as infarct transmurality increases; and (4) myocardial salvage ((AAR-IS)/AAR×100) is inversely related to infarct transmurality. Results Overall, 65%, 87%, 76%, 87% and 97% of patients using the Aldrich, BARI, APPROACH, T2-weighted hyperintensity and ESA methods obeyed the concept that AAR size is ?IS. In patients with transmural infarcts (n=22), Bland-Altman analysis showed poor agreement (wide 95% limits of agreement) between AAR size and IS for the BARI, Aldrich and APPROACH methods (95% CI -22.9 to 29.6, 95% CI -28.3 to 21.3 and 95% CI -16.9 to 20.0, respectively) and better agreement for T2-weighted hyperintensity and ESA (95% CI -6.9 to 16.6 and 95% CI -4.3 to 18.0, respectively). Increasing correlation between AAR size and IS with increasing infarct transmurality was observed for the APPROACH, T2-weighted hyperintensity and ESA methods, with ESA having the highest correlation (r=0.93, p<0.001). The percentage of patients within a narrow margin (±30%) of the inverse line of identity between salvage extent and infarct transmurality was 56%, 76%, 65%, 77% and 92% for the Aldrich, BARI, APPROACH, T2-weighted hyperintensity and ESA methods, respectively, where higher percentages represent better concordance with the concept that the extent of salvage should be inversely related to infarct transmurality. Conclusions For measuring AAR, cardiovascular magnetic resonance methods are better than angiographic methods, which are better than electrocardiographic methods. Overall, ESA performed best for measuring AAR in vivo. PMID:21930725

Versteylen, Mathijs O; Bekkers, Sebastiaan C A M; Smulders, Martijn W; Winkens, Bjorn; Mihl, Casper; Winkens, Mark H M; Leiner, Tim; Waltenberger, Johannes L; Kim, Raymond J; Gorgels, Anton P M

2012-01-01

151

Prehypertension, Hypertension, and the Risk of Acute Myocardial Infarction in HIV-Infected and -Uninfected Veterans  

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Background.?Compared to uninfected people, human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)–infected individuals may have an increased risk of acute myocardial infarction (AMI). Currently, HIV-infected people are treated to the same blood pressure (BP) goals (<140/90 or <130/80 mm Hg) as their uninfected counterparts. Whether HIV-infected people with elevated BP have excess AMI risk compared to uninfected people is not known. This study examines whether the association between elevated BP and AMI risk differs by HIV status. Methods.?The Veterans Aging Cohort Study Virtual Cohort (VACS VC) consists of HIV-infected and -uninfected veterans matched 1:2 on age, sex, race/ethnicity, and clinical site. For this analysis, we analyzed 81 026 people with available BP data from VACS VC, who were free of cardiovascular disease at baseline. BP was the average of the 3 routine outpatient clinical measurements performed closest to baseline (first clinical visit after April 2003). BP categories used in the analyses were based on criteria of the Seventh Report of the Joint National Committee on Prevention, Detection, Evaluation, and Treatment of High Blood Pressure. Analyses were performed using Cox proportional hazards regression. Results.?Over 5.9 years (median), 860 incident AMIs occurred. Low/high prehypertensive and untreated/treated hypertensive HIV-infected individuals had increased AMI risk compared to uninfected, untreated normotensive individuals (hazard ratio [HR], 1.60 [95% confidence interval {CI}, 1.07–2.39]; HR, 1.81 [95% CI, 1.22–2.68]; HR, 2.57 [95% CI, 1.76–3.76]; and HR, 2.76 [95% CI, 1.90–4.02], respectively). Conclusions.?HIV, prehypertensive BP, and hypertensive BP were associated with an increased risk of AMI in a cohort of HIV-infected and -uninfected veterans. Future studies should prospectively investigate whether HIV interacts with BP to further increase AMI risk. PMID:24065316

Armah, Kaku A.; Chang, Chung-Chou H.; Baker, Jason V.; Ramachandran, Vasan S.; Budoff, Matthew J.; Crane, Heidi M.; Gibert, Cynthia L.; Goetz, Matthew B.; Leaf, David A.; McGinnis, Kathleen A.; Oursler, Krisann K.; Rimland, David; Rodriguez-Barradas, Maria C.; Sico, Jason J.; Warner, Alberta L.; Hsue, Priscilla Y.; Kuller, Lewis H.; Justice, Amy C.; Freiberg, Matthew S.

2014-01-01

152

Using decision trees to manage hospital readmission risk for acute myocardial infarction, heart failure, and pneumonia.  

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To improve healthcare quality and reduce costs, the Affordable Care Act places hospitals at financial risk for excessive readmissions associated with acute myocardial infarction (AMI), heart failure (HF), and pneumonia (PN). Although predictive analytics is increasingly looked to as a means for measuring, comparing, and managing this risk, many modeling tools require data inputs that are not readily available and/or additional resources to yield actionable information. This article demonstrates how hospitals and clinicians can use their own structured discharge data to create decision trees that produce highly transparent, clinically relevant decision rules for better managing readmission risk associated with AMI, HF, and PN. For illustrative purposes, basic decision trees are trained and tested using publically available data from the California State Inpatient Databases and an open-source statistical package. As expected, these simple models perform less well than other more sophisticated tools, with areas under the receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve (or AUC) of 0.612, 0.583, and 0.650, respectively, but achieve a lift of at least 1.5 or greater for higher-risk patients with any of the three conditions. More importantly, they are shown to offer substantial advantages in terms of transparency and interpretability, comprehensiveness, and adaptability. By enabling hospitals and clinicians to identify important factors associated with readmissions, target subgroups of patients at both high and low risk, and design and implement interventions that are appropriate to the risk levels observed, decision trees serve as an ideal application for addressing the challenge of reducing hospital readmissions. PMID:25160603

Hilbert, John P; Zasadil, Scott; Keyser, Donna J; Peele, Pamela B

2014-12-01

153

New evidence from the CAPRICORN Trial: the role of carvedilol in high-risk, post-myocardial infarction patients.  

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The CAPRICORN (Carvedilol Post-Infarct Survival Control in Left Ventricular Dysfunction) trial established that the beta-blocker carvedilol reduces the risk of death in patients with left ventricular dysfunction post myocardial infarction, whether or not the infarct is complicated by clinical heart failure. Thus, the utility of the beta-blocker carvedilol is confirmed in the modern era as an adjunct to revascularization, angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors, aspirin, and statins. In addition, the results prompt us to review the prior studies of beta-blockers postinfarction. Critical review of CAPRICORN and earlier beta-blocker studies suggests that specific beta-blockers should be matched to specific clinical scenarios. The COMET (Carvedilol or Metoprolol European Trial) study reinforces this view by establishing that beta-blockers are not simply interchangeable agents. PMID:14564231

Sackner-Bernstein, Jonathan D

2003-01-01

154

Risk factors and in-hospital outcomes in stroke and myocardial infarction patients  

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Full Text Available Abstract Background Acute stroke (AS and acute myocardial infarction (AMI share major risk factors such as age, gender, and high blood pressure. The main objective of this study was to compare vascular risk factor profiles with in-hospital outcomes in AS and AMI patients. Methods We evaluated 486 consecutive patients who were admitted to Bjelovar General Hospital with diagnoses of AS (ischaemic stroke or intracerebral haemorrhage; N = 380 or AMI (N = 106 during a one year period. The frequency of risk factors and in-patient mortality rates were assessed in both groups. For statistical analysis we used t-tests and ?2 tests. Results AS patients were significantly older than AMI patients: the mean age for AS patients was 68.9 ± 9.1 years, and for AMI patients was 62.8 ± 11.7 years (p Conclusions We found that age at the time of presentation was a significant differentiating factor between patients with AS and AMI. The only exceptions were women, whose ages at the onset of AS and AMI were similar. In contrast, patients who died did not differ significantly in age. We observed significantly higher inpatient mortality for men (when adjusted for age than for women with AS. The five-fold higher in-patient mortality rate in women than in men with AMI is most likely to have resulted from other factors related to treatment.

Ivanusa Zrinka

2004-07-01

155

Particulate and vapor phase constituents of cigarette mainstream smoke and risk of myocardial infarction.  

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On pharmacological and compositional grounds, cigarette mainstream smoke (MS) aerosol can be broadly categorized as consisting of the following constituents: carbon monoxide, other vapor phase components, particulate matter ('tar') and nicotine. The relative risk of coronary artery disease for smoking 20 cigarettes per day has been estimated by meta-analysis of five large prospective epidemiology studies to be 1.78. These four major smoke components are simultaneously delivered to the active smoker as a complex aerosol composed of several billion semi-liquid particles per cm(3) within the mixture of combustion gases. Fractional attribution of the 78% increase in reported risk to a given constituent is problematic because of the complex mixture. However, a significant literature exists which suggests that some general statements regarding smoke constituent-associated risks for development or exacerbation of myocardial infarction are supportable. First, the atherogenic potential of MS is associated with the particulate and vapor phases and not with CO. Nicotine might exert an indirect effect on atherosclerotic plaque development by increasing shear forces in main conduction arteries. Similarly, the thrombogenic potential is associated primarily with the particulate and vapor phases and also possibly with nicotine via platelet aggregation. Vasoconstriction probably results from the actions of nicotine and hypoxia from carbon monoxide. Finally, the arrhythmia-inducing potential may result from catecholamine release following nicotine exposure, with a questionable contribution from carbon monoxide. PMID:11583703

Smith, C J; Fischer, T H

2001-10-01

156

Early Risk stratification for Arrhythmic death in Patients with ST-Elevation Myocardial Infarction  

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Full Text Available Background: Sudden cardiac death is a leading cause of death in patients with ST-elevation myocardial infarction (MI. According to high cost of modern therapeutic modalities it is of paramount importance to define protocols for risk stratification of post-MI patients before considering expensive devices such as implantable cardioverter-defibrillator.Methods: One hundred and thirty seven patients with acute ST-elevation MI were selected and underwent echocardiographic study, holter monitoring and signal-averaged electrocardiography (SAECG. Then, the patients were followed for 12 ±3 months.Results: During follow-up, 13 deaths (9.5% occurred; nine cases happened as sudden cardiac death (6.6%. The effect of ejection fraction (EF less than 40% on occurrence of arrhythmic events was significant (P<0.001. Sensitivity and positive predictive value of EF<40% was 100% and 76.95% respectively. Although with lesser sensitivity and predictive power than EF<40%, abnormal heart rate variability (HRV and SAECG had also significant effects on occurrence of sudden death (P=0.02 and P=0.003 respectively. Nonsustained ventricular tachycardia was not significantly related to risk of sudden death in this study (P=0.20.Conclusions: This study indicated that EF less than 40% is the most powerful predictor of sudden cardiac death in post MI patients. Abnormal HRV and SAECG are also important predictors and can be added to EF for better risk stratification.

Mohammad Ali Sadr-Ameli

2007-01-01

157

Derivation and Validation of the Denver Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) Risk Score for Targeted HIV Screening  

OpenAIRE

Targeted screening remains an important approach to human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) testing. The authors aimed to derive and validate an instrument to accurately identify patients at risk for HIV infection, using patient data from a metropolitan sexually transmitted disease clinic in Denver, Colorado (1996–2008). With multivariable logistic regression, they developed a risk score from 48 candidate variables using newly identified HIV infection as the outcome. Validation was performed usi...

Haukoos, Jason S.; Lyons, Michael S.; Lindsell, Christopher J.; Hopkins, Emily; Bender, Brooke; Rothman, Richard E.; Hsieh, Yu-hsiang; Maclaren, Lynsay A.; Thrun, Mark W.; Sasson, Comilla; Byyny, Richard L.

2012-01-01

158

Comparison of accuracy of diabetes risk score and components of the metabolic syndrome in assessing risk of incident type 2 diabetes in Inter99 cohort  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Given the increasing worldwide incidence of diabetes, methods to assess diabetes risk which would identify those at highest risk are needed. We compared two risk-stratification approaches for incident type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM); factors of metabolic syndrome (MetS) and a previously developed diabetes risk score, PreDx® Diabetes Risk Score (DRS). DRS assesses 5 yr risk of incident T2DM based on the measurement of 7 biomarkers in fasting blood.

Shafizadeh, Tracy B; Moler, Edward J

2011-01-01

159

Escores de risco nas intervenções em valvopatia / Risk scores in valvular heart disease interventions  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese Os escores de risco utilizados assistencialmente em clínica de valvopatia já apresentam validações em todo mundo, entretanto, os dados não são homogêneos. As características epidemiológicas de cada população requerem uma validação local dessas ferramentas de risco. A troca valvar percutânea, que já [...] é uma realidade em doença valvar (principalmente na estenose aórtica), está indicada em pacientes com risco cirúrgico elevado ou considerado proibitivo. Os estudos com essa nova estratégia de tratamento utilizam os escores de risco como um dos critérios de inclusão e são escassos trabalhos que utilizam tais ferramentas como preditoras de risco. Os escores de risco depois de validados em suas respectivas populações vieram para somar com a prática clínica (individualização da conduta) na definição da conduta em clínica de valvopatia. Abstract in english The risk scores used as assistance agents in valve diseases are validated worldwide; however, the data are not homogeneous. The epidemiological characteristics of each population require local validation of these risk tools. The percutaneous valve replacement, which is a reality in valvular diseases [...] (especially aortic stenosis), is indicated for patients with high or prohibitive surgical risk. Studies with this new treatment strategy use risk scores as criteria for inclusion and there are few studies that use such tools as predictors of risk. The risk scores, after due validation in their relevant populations, are combined with clinical practice (individualization of conduct) in the definition of the conduct to be adopted in the clinical practice of valvular heart disease.

Ricardo, Casalino; Flávio, Tarassoutchi.

2012-05-01

160

Glyburide increases risk in patients with diabetes mellitus after emergent percutaneous intervention for myocardial infarction - A nationwide study  

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BACKGROUND: Sulfonylureas have been linked to an increased cardiovascular risk by inhibition of myocardial preconditioning. Whether individual sulfonylureas affect outcomes in diabetic patients after emergent percutaneous coronary intervention for myocardial infarction is unknown. METHODS: All Danish patients receiving glucose-lowering drugs admitted with myocardial infarction between 1997 and 2006 who underwent emergent percutaneous coronary intervention were identified from national registers. Multivariable Cox proportional hazards models were used to analyze the risk of cardiovascular mortality and morbidity associated with sulfonylureas. RESULTS: A total of 926 patients were included and 163 (17.6%) patients died during the first year of which 155 (16.7%) were cardiovascular deaths. The most common treatment was sulfonylureas which were received by 271 (29.3%) patients, and 129 (13.9%) received metformin. Cox proportional hazard regression analyses adjusted for age, sex, calendar year, comorbidity and concomitant pharmacotherapy showed an increased risk of cardiovascular mortality (hazard ratio [HR] 2.91, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.26-6.72 ; p=0.012), cardiovascular mortality and nonfatal myocardial infarction (HR 2.69 , 95% CI 1.21-6.00; p=0.016), and all-cause mortality (HR 2.46, 95% CI 1.11-5.47; p=0.027), respectively, with glyburide compared to metformin. CONCLUSIONS: Glyburide is associated with increased cardiovascular mortality and morbidity in patients with diabetes mellitus undergoing emergent percutaneous coronary intervention after myocardial infarction. Early reperfusion therapy is the mainstay in modern treatment of myocardial infarction and the time may have come to discard glyburide in favour of sulfonylureas that do not appear to confer increased cardiovascular risk.

JØrgensen, C H; Gislason, G H

2011-01-01

161

Autism risk assessment in siblings of affected children using sex-specific genetic scores  

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Full Text Available Abstract Background The inheritance pattern in most cases of autism is complex. The risk of autism is increased in siblings of children with autism and previous studies have indicated that the level of risk can be further identified by the accumulation of multiple susceptibility single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs allowing for the identification of a higher-risk subgroup among siblings. As a result of the sex difference in the prevalence of autism, we explored the potential for identifying sex-specific autism susceptibility SNPs in siblings of children with autism and the ability to develop a sex-specific risk assessment genetic scoring system. Methods SNPs were chosen from genes known to be associated with autism. These markers were evaluated using an exploratory sample of 480 families from the Autism Genetic Resource Exchange (AGRE repository. A reproducibility index (RI was proposed and calculated in all children with autism and in males and females separately. Differing genetic scoring models were then constructed to develop a sex-specific genetic score model designed to identify individuals with a higher risk of autism. The ability of the genetic scores to identify high-risk children was then evaluated and replicated in an independent sample of 351 affected and 90 unaffected siblings from families with at least 1 child with autism. Results We identified three risk SNPs that had a high RI in males, two SNPs with a high RI in females, and three SNPs with a high RI in both sexes. Using these results, genetic scoring models for males and females were developed which demonstrated a significant association with autism (P = 2.2 × 10-6 and 1.9 × 10-5, respectively. Conclusions Our results demonstrate that individual susceptibility associated SNPs for autism may have important differential sex effects. We also show that a sex-specific risk score based on the presence of multiple susceptibility associated SNPs allow for the identification of subgroups of siblings of children with autism who have a significantly higher risk of autism.

Carayol Jerome

2011-10-01

162

What does my patient's coronary artery calcium score mean? Combining information from the coronary artery calcium score with information from conventional risk factors to estimate coronary heart disease risk  

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Full Text Available Abstract Background The coronary artery calcium (CAC score is an independent predictor of coronary heart disease. We sought to combine information from the CAC score with information from conventional cardiac risk factors to produce post-test risk estimates, and to determine whether the score may add clinically useful information. Methods We measured the independent cross-sectional associations between conventional cardiac risk factors and the CAC score among asymptomatic persons referred for non-contrast electron beam computed tomography. Using the resulting multivariable models and published CAC score-specific relative risk estimates, we estimated post-test coronary heart disease risk in a number of different scenarios. Results Among 9341 asymptomatic study participants (age 35–88 years, 40% female, we found that conventional coronary heart disease risk factors including age, male sex, self-reported hypertension, diabetes and high cholesterol were independent predictors of the CAC score, and we used the resulting multivariable models for predicting post-test risk in a variety of scenarios. Our models predicted, for example, that a 60-year-old non-smoking non-diabetic women with hypertension and high cholesterol would have a 47% chance of having a CAC score of zero, reducing her 10-year risk estimate from 15% (per Framingham to 6–9%; if her score were over 100, however (a 17% chance, her risk estimate would be markedly higher (25–51% in 10 years. In low risk scenarios, the CAC score is very likely to be zero or low, and unlikely to change management. Conclusion Combining information from the CAC score with information from conventional risk factors can change assessment of coronary heart disease risk to an extent that may be clinically important, especially when the pre-test 10-year risk estimate is intermediate. The attached spreadsheet makes these calculations easy.

Pletcher Mark J

2004-08-01

163

Risk of myocardial infarction and overall mortality in survivors of venous thromboembolism  

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Full Text Available Abstract Background Venous thromboembolism (VTE and thromboembolic arterial diseases are usually considered to be distinct entities, but there is evidence to suggest that these disorders may be linked. The aim of this study was to determine whether a diagnosis of VTE increases the long-term risk of myocardial infarction (MI. Methods The incidence rate (IR and relative risk (RR of MI in a cohort of patients with a diagnosis of VTE (n = 4890 compared with that of a control cohort without prior VTE (n = 43 382 were evaluated in the UK General Practice Research Database (GPRD. Death during follow-up was also determined. Patients were followed for up to 8 years (mean of 3 years. Results The IR of MI per 1000 person-years was 4.1 (95% CI: 3.1–5.3 for the VTE cohort and 3.5 (95% CI: 3.2–3.8 for the control cohort. The IR of MI was highest in the first year after the VTE episode, but overall differences between the two cohorts were not significant (RR of MI associated with VTE: 1.2; 95% CI: 0.9–1.6. The risk of death was higher in the VTE cohort than the control cohort, even after adjustment for cancer, heart failure and ischaemic heart disease (RR: 2.4; 95% CI: 2.2–2.6, particularly during the first year after VTE (RR: 3.8; 95% CI: 3.4–4.3. Conclusion A VTE episode does not significantly increase the risk of MI, but does increase the risk of death, particularly in the first year following VTE diagnosis.

Wallander Mari-Ann

2008-08-01

164

Computed tomography coronary artery calcium scoring: review of evidence base and cost-effectiveness in cardiovascular risk prediction.  

Science.gov (United States)

Cardiovascular risk factor-scoring algorithms may fall short in identifying asymptomatic individuals who will subsequently suffer a coronary event. It is generally thought that evaluation of the extent of the atherosclerotic plaque and total plaque burden can improve cardiovascular risk stratification. In the last decade, there has been an increasing interest in coronary calcium scoring by computed tomography. By determining the calcium score, an estimate of the total amount of coronary plaque is obtained. Numerous studies have shown that the calcium score predicts coronary heart disease. Recently, the calcium score was shown to improve risk stratification beyond cardiovascular risk factors, especially in those individuals deemed to be at intermediate risk. So far, only limited data exist on the cost-effectiveness of coronary calcium scoring in asymptomatic populations. PMID:22914123

Vliegenthart, Rozemarijn; Morris, Pamela B

2012-09-01

165

Association of Cardiovascular Risk Using Nonlinear Heart Rate Variability Measures with the Framingham Risk Score in a Rural Population  

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Full Text Available Cardiovascular risk can be calculated using the Framingham cardiovascular disease (CVD risk score and provides a risk stratification from mild to very high CVD risk percentage over 10 years. This equation represents a complex interaction between age, gender, cholesterol status, blood pressure, diabetes status and smoking. Heart rate variability (HRV is a measure of how the autonomic nervous system modulates the heart rate. HRV measures are sensitive to age, gender, disease status such as diabetes and hypertension and processes leading to atherosclerosis. We investigated whether HRV measures are a suitable, simple, noninvasive alternative to differentiate between the four main Framingham associated CVD risk categories. In this study we applied the tone-entropy (T-E algorithm and complex correlation measure (CCM for analysis of heart rate variability obtained from 20 minute ECG recordings and correlated the HRV score with the stratification results using the Framingham risk equation. Both entropy and CCM had significant analysis of variance (ANOVA results (F172, 3 = 9.51; <0.0001. Bonferroni post hoc analysis indicated a significant difference between mild, high and very high cardiac risk groups applying tone-entropy (p<0.01. CCM detected a difference in temporal dynamics of the RR intervals between the mild and very high CVD risk groups (p<0.01. Our results indicate a good agreement between the T-E and CCM algorithm and the Framingham CVD risk score, suggesting that this algorithm may be of use for initial screening of cardiovascular risk as it is noninvasive, economical and easy to use in clinical practice.

HerbertFJelinek

2013-07-01

166

Utility of Framingham risk score in urban emergency department patients with asymptomatic hypertension.  

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Hypertension (HTN) is the primary population-attributable risk for the development of heart failure (HF); a disease with devastating consequences particularly in urban centers where morbidity and mortality are more pronounced. The Framingham Risk Profile (FRP) is widely used to quantify risk for cardiovascular disease (CVD), but its applicability in an urban population who utilize the emergency department (ED) for primary care is unknown. The objective of this study is to evaluate FRP scores in ED patients with asymptomatic HTN and subclinical hypertensive heart disease (SHHD). This is a substudy of a prospective randomized clinical trial designed to evaluate optimal blood pressure (BP) targets. Eligible patients were screened with echocardiography for the presence of SHHD and FRP scores were calculated. One hundred forty-nine patients enrolled in the study, 133 (89.2%) of whom had detectable SHHD. Mean [SD] calculated FRP scores were statistically similar for patients with SHHD versus those without (general CVD: 20.2 [8.5] vs. 15.6 [8.7]; P = 0.13 and HF calibrated: 2.4 [1.0] vs. 1.8 [1.0]; P = 0.12) corresponding to a calculated risk of 15%-30% for subsequent development of CVD. The HF-specific risk score for patients with SHHD was 2.4, which equates to a 2.5% risk of HF development in 10 years. The FRP correctly identified those with SHHD as high-risk for general CVD but appeared to underestimate the likelihood of HF. Recalibration of the HF adjustment factor and inclusion of additional data elements such as echocardiography is needed to enhance applicability of the FRP in this setting. PMID:25062396

Brody, Aaron M; Flack, John M; Ference, Brian A; Levy, Phillip D

2014-09-01

167

Exome sequencing identifies rare LDLR and APOA5 alleles conferring risk for myocardial infarction.  

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Myocardial infarction (MI), a leading cause of death around the world, displays a complex pattern of inheritance. When MI occurs early in life, genetic inheritance is a major component to risk. Previously, rare mutations in low-density lipoprotein (LDL) genes have been shown to contribute to MI risk in individual families, whereas common variants at more than 45 loci have been associated with MI risk in the population. Here we evaluate how rare mutations contribute to early-onset MI risk in the population. We sequenced the protein-coding regions of 9,793 genomes from patients with MI at an early age (?50 years in males and ?60 years in females) along with MI-free controls. We identified two genes in which rare coding-sequence mutations were more frequent in MI cases versus controls at exome-wide significance. At low-density lipoprotein receptor (LDLR), carriers of rare non-synonymous mutations were at 4.2-fold increased risk for MI; carriers of null alleles at LDLR were at even higher risk (13-fold difference). Approximately 2% of early MI cases harbour a rare, damaging mutation in LDLR; this estimate is similar to one made more than 40 years ago using an analysis of total cholesterol. Among controls, about 1 in 217 carried an LDLR coding-sequence mutation and had plasma LDL cholesterol > 190 mg dl(-1). At apolipoprotein A-V (APOA5), carriers of rare non-synonymous mutations were at 2.2-fold increased risk for MI. When compared with non-carriers, LDLR mutation carriers had higher plasma LDL cholesterol, whereas APOA5 mutation carriers had higher plasma triglycerides. Recent evidence has connected MI risk with coding-sequence mutations at two genes functionally related to APOA5, namely lipoprotein lipase and apolipoprotein C-III (refs 18, 19). Combined, these observations suggest that, as well as LDL cholesterol, disordered metabolism of triglyceride-rich lipoproteins contributes to MI risk. PMID:25487149

Do, Ron; Stitziel, Nathan O; Won, Hong-Hee; Jørgensen, Anders Berg; Duga, Stefano; Angelica Merlini, Pier; Kiezun, Adam; Farrall, Martin; Goel, Anuj; Zuk, Or; Guella, Illaria; Asselta, Rosanna; Lange, Leslie A; Peloso, Gina M; Auer, Paul L; Girelli, Domenico; Martinelli, Nicola; Farlow, Deborah N; DePristo, Mark A; Roberts, Robert; Stewart, Alexander F R; Saleheen, Danish; Danesh, John; Epstein, Stephen E; Sivapalaratnam, Suthesh; Hovingh, G Kees; Kastelein, John J; Samani, Nilesh J; Schunkert, Heribert; Erdmann, Jeanette; Shah, Svati H; Kraus, William E; Davies, Robert; Nikpay, Majid; Johansen, Christopher T; Wang, Jian; Hegele, Robert A; Hechter, Eliana; Marz, Winfried; Kleber, Marcus E; Huang, Jie; Johnson, Andrew D; Li, Mingyao; Burke, Greg L; Gross, Myron; Liu, Yongmei; Assimes, Themistocles L; Heiss, Gerardo; Lange, Ethan M; Folsom, Aaron R; Taylor, Herman A; Olivieri, Oliviero; Hamsten, Anders; Clarke, Robert; Reilly, Dermot F; Yin, Wu; Rivas, Manuel A; Donnelly, Peter; Rossouw, Jacques E; Psaty, Bruce M; Herrington, David M; Wilson, James G; Rich, Stephen S; Bamshad, Michael J; Tracy, Russell P; Cupples, L Adrienne; Rader, Daniel J; Reilly, Muredach P; Spertus, John A; Cresci, Sharon; Hartiala, Jaana; Tang, W H Wilson; Hazen, Stanley L; Allayee, Hooman; Reiner, Alex P; Carlson, Christopher S; Kooperberg, Charles; Jackson, Rebecca D; Boerwinkle, Eric; Lander, Eric S; Schwartz, Stephen M; Siscovick, David S; McPherson, Ruth; Tybjaerg-Hansen, Anne; Abecasis, Goncalo R; Watkins, Hugh; Nickerson, Deborah A; Ardissino, Diego; Sunyaev, Shamil R; O'Donnell, Christopher J; Altshuler, David; Gabriel, Stacey; Kathiresan, Sekar

2015-02-01

168

The East London glaucoma prediction score:web-based validation of glaucoma risk screening tool  

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Full Text Available AIM:It is difficult for Optometrists and General Practitioners to know which patients are at risk. The East London glaucoma prediction score (ELGPS is a web based risk calculator that has been developed to determine Glaucoma risk at the time of screening. Multiple risk factors that are available in a low tech environment are assessed to provide a risk assessment. This is extremely useful in settings where access to specialist care is difficult. Use of the calculator is educational. It is a free web based service. Data capture is user specific.METHOD:The scoring system is a web based questionnaire that captures and subsequently calculates the relative risk for the presence of Glaucoma at the time of screening. Three categories of patient are described:Unlikely to have Glaucoma; Glaucoma Suspect and Glaucoma. A case review methodology of patients with known diagnosis is employed to validate the calculator risk assessment.RESULTS:Data from the patient records of 400 patients with an established diagnosis has been captured and used to validate the screening tool. The website reports that the calculated diagnosis correlates with the actual diagnosis 82% of the time. Biostatistics analysis showed:Sensitivity = 88%; Positive predictive value = 97%; Specificity = 75%.CONCLUSION:Analysis of the first 400 patients validates the web based screening tool as being a good method of screening for the at risk population. The validation is ongoing. The web based format will allow a more widespread recruitment for different geographic, population and personnel variables.

Cook Stephen

2013-02-01

169

Lifestyle variables and the risk of myocardial infarction in the General Practice Research Database  

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Full Text Available Abstract Background The primary objective of this study is to estimate the association between body mass index (BMI and the risk of first acute myocardial infarction (AMI. As a secondary objective, we considered the association between other lifestyle variables, smoking and heavy alcohol use, and AMI risk. Methods This study was conducted in the general practice research database (GPRD which is a database based on general practitioner records and is a representative sample of the United Kingdom population. We matched cases of first AMI as identified by diagnostic codes with up to 10 controls between January 1st, 2001 and December 31st, 2005 using incidence density sampling. We used multiple imputation to account for missing data. Results We identified 19,353 cases of first AMI which were matched on index date, GPRD practice and age to 192,821 controls. There was a modest amount of missing data in the database, and the patients with missing data had different risks than those with recorded values. We adjusted our analysis for each lifestyle variable jointly and also for age, sex, and number of hospitalizations in the past year. Although a record of underweight (BMI 2 did not alter the risk for AMI (adjusted odds ratio (OR: 1.00; 95% confidence interval (CI: 0.87–1.11 when compared with normal BMI (18.0–24.9 kg/m2, obesity (BMI ?30 kg/m2 predicted an increased risk (adjusted OR: 1.41; 95% CI: 1.35–1.47. A history of smoking also predicted an increased risk of AMI (adjusted OR: 1.81; 95% CI: 1.75–1.87 as did heavy alcohol use (adjusted OR: 1.15; 95% CI: 1.06–1.26. Conclusion This study illustrates that obesity, smoking and heavy alcohol use, as recorded during routine care by a general practitioner, are important predictors of an increased risk of a first AMI. In contrast, low BMI does not increase the risk of a first AMI.

Brophy James M

2007-12-01

170

Genetic Variation in ABCG1 and Risk of Myocardial Infarction and Ischemic Heart Disease  

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OBJECTIVE: ATP binding cassette transporter G1 (ABCG1) facilitates cholesterol efflux from macrophages to mature high-density lipoprotein particles. Whether genetic variation in ABCG1 affects risk of atherosclerosis in humans remains to be determined. METHODS AND RESULTS: We resequenced the core promoter and coding regions of ABCG1 in 380 individuals from the general population. Next, we genotyped 10 237 individuals from the Copenhagen City Heart Study for the identified variants and determined the effect on lipid and lipoprotein levels and on risk of myocardial infarction (MI) and ischemic heart disease (IHD). g.-376C>T, g.-311T>A, and Ser630Leu predicted risk of MI in the Copenhagen City Heart Study, with hazard ratios of 2.2 (95% confidence interval: 1.2-4.3), 1.7 (1.0-2.9), and 7.5 (1.9-30), respectively. These results were confirmed for g.-376C>T in a case-control study comprising 4983 independently ascertained IHD cases and 7489 controls. Expression levels of ABCG1 mRNA were decreased by approximately 40% in g.-376C>T heterozygotes versus noncarriers (probability values: 0.005-0.009). Finally, in vitro specificity protein 1 (Sp1) bound specifically to a putative Sp1 binding site at position -382 to -373 in the ABCG1 promoter, and the presence of the -376 T allele reduced binding and transactivation of the promoter by Sp1. CONCLUSIONS: This is the first report of a functional variant in ABCG1 that associates with increased risk of MI and IHD in the general population.

Schou, Jesper; Frikke-Schmidt, Ruth

2012-01-01

171

Abacavir and risk of myocardial infarction in HIV-infected patients on highly active antiretroviral therapy: a population-based nationwide cohort study  

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Objective The aim of the study was to examine whether exposure to abacavir increases the risk for myocardial infarction (MI). Design, setting and subjects This was a prospective nationwide cohort study which included all Danish HIV-infected patients on highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) from 1995 to 2005 (N=2952). Data on hospitalization for MI and comorbidity were obtained from Danish medical databases. Hospitalization rates for MI after HAART initiation were calculated for patients who used abacavir and those who did not. We used Cox's regression to compute incidence rate ratios (IRR) as a measure of relative risk for MI, while controlling for potential confounders (as separate variables and via propensity score) including comorbidity. Main outcome Relative risk of hospitalization with MI in abacavir users compared with abacavir nonusers. Results Hospitalization rates for MI were 2.4/1000 person-years (PYR) [95% confidence interval (CI) 1.7-3.4] for abacavir nonusers and 5.7/1000 PYR (95% CI 4.1-7.9) for abacavir users. The risk of MI increased after initiation of abacavir [unadjusted IRR=2.22 (95% CI 1.31-3.76); IRR adjusted for confounders=2.00 (95% CI 1.10-3.64); IRR adjusted for propensity score=2.00 (95% CI 1.07-3.76)]. This effect was also observed among patients initiating abacavir within 2 years after the start of HAART and among patients who started abacavir as part of a triple nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor (NRTI) regimen. Conclusions We confirmed the association between abacavir use and increased risk of MI. Further studies are needed to control for potential confounding not measured in research to date.

Obel, N; Farkas, Dk

2009-01-01

172

To Construct A Forecasting Model of the Anthropometric Chronic Disease Risk Factor Score  

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Full Text Available Background: Many health indices have a relationship with anthropometric indices. Thisresearch attempts to provide a new measurement: a chronic disease risk factorscore built into the regression model. This new model will help peoplevisualize their health status and get multiple information during the processof the healthy examination.Methods: Data from 8,034 subjects were collected from the data bank of the HealthExamination Center in Chang Gung Memorial Hospital. Related anthropometricindices and biochemical factors were selected and used to construct aregression model. The anthropometric indices used were body mass index,waist hip ratio, waist hip area ratio, health index, waist leg ratio and trunk legratio. Biochemical data included blood pressure, glucose, triglyceride, cholesteroland uric acid, combined to form an anthropometric chronic diseaserisk factor score.Results: Subjects under 45 years of age had the highest chronic disease risk factorscore, and were selected to construct a regression model. The R-square ofthis model is 0.355; its predictive error is near 12%. After verification with atesting group, the regression model could be used to predict health status.Conclusion: The purpose of this study was to develop a new anthropometric chronic diseaserisk factor score by combining anthropometric indices and biochemicaldata. A multiple regression model was used to illustrate health status viaanthropometric chronic disease risk factor scores for the subjects participatingin the health examination. The results show that the chronic disease riskfactor score is useful for prescribing relevant medical treatment as well as forother research.

Yi-Chou Chuang

2006-04-01

173

A Bayesian Framework for Automated Cardiovascular Risk Scoring on Standard Lumbar Radiographs  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

We present a fully automated framework for scoring a patients risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD) and mortality from a standard lateral radiograph of the lumbar aorta. The framework segments abdominal aortic calcifications for computing a CVD risk score and performs a survival analysis to validate the score. Since the aorta is invisible on X-ray images, its position is reasoned from (1) the shape and location of the lumbar vertebrae and (2) the location, shape, and orientation of potential calcifications. The proposed framework follows the principle of Bayesian inference, which has several advantages in the complex task of segmenting aortic calcifications. Bayesian modeling allows us to compute CVD risk scores conditioned on the seen calcifications by formulating distributions, dependencies, and constraints on the unknown parameters. We evaluate the framework on two datasets consisting of 351 and 462 standard lumbar radiographs, respectively. Promising results indicate that the framework has potential applications in diagnosis, treatment planning, and the study of drug effects related to CVD.

Petersen, Peter Kersten; Ganz, Melanie

2011-01-01

174

Risk scoring systems for adults admitted to the emergency department: a systematic review  

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Full Text Available Abstract Background Patients referred to a medical admission unit (MAU represent a broad spectrum of disease severity. In the interest of allocating resources to those who might potentially benefit most from clinical interventions, several scoring systems have been proposed as a triaging tool. Even though most scoring systems are not meant to be used on an individual level, they can support the more inexperienced doctors and nurses in assessing the risk of deterioration of their patients. We therefore performed a systematic review on the level of evidence of literature on scoring systems developed or validated in the MAU. We hypothesized that existing scoring systems would have a low level of evidence and only few systems would have been externally validated. Methods We conducted a systematic search using Medline, EMBASE and the Cochrane Library, according to the PRISMA guidelines, on scoring systems developed to assess medical patients at admission. The primary endpoints were in-hospital mortality or transfer to the intensive care unit. Studies derived for only a single or few diagnoses were excluded. The ability to identify patients at risk (discriminatory power and agreement between observed and predicted outcome (calibration along with the method of derivation and validation (application on a new cohort were extracted. Results We identified 1,655 articles. Thirty were selected for further review and 10 were included in this review. Eight systems used vital signs as variables and two relied mostly on blood tests. Nine systems were derived using regression analysis and eight included patients admitted to a MAU. Six systems used in-hospital mortality as their primary endpoint. Discriminatory power was specified for eight of the scoring systems and was acceptable or better in five of these. The calibration was only specified for four scoring systems. In none of the studies impact analysis or inter-observer reliability were analyzed. None of the systems reached the highest level of evidence. Conclusions None of the 10 scoring systems presented in this article are perfect and all have their weaknesses. More research is needed before the use of scoring systems can be fully implemented to the risk assessment of acutely admitted medical patients.

Knudsen Torben

2010-02-01

175

Genetic risk score and acute skin toxicity after breast radiation therapy.  

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Genetic predisposition has been shown to affect the severity of skin complications in breast cancer patients after radiotherapy. Limited data exist regarding the use of a genetic risk score (GRS) for predicting risk of tissue radiosensitivity. We evaluated the impact of different single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in genes related to DNA repair mechanisms and oxidative stress response combined in a GRS on acute adverse effects induced by breast radiation therapy (RT). Skin toxicity was scored according to the Radiation Therapy Oncology Group (RTOG) criteria in 59 breast cancer patients who received RT. After genotyping, a multilocus GRS was constructed by summing the number of risk alleles. The hazard ratio (HR) for GSTM1 was 2.4 (95% confidence intervals [CI]=1.1-5.3, p=0.04). The other polymorphisms were associated to an increased adverse radiosensitivity, although they did not reach statistical significance. GRS predicted roughly 40% risk for acute skin toxicity per risk allele (HR 1.37, 95% CI=1.1-1.76, p<0.01). Patients in the top tertile had a fivefold higher risk of skin reaction (HR 5.1, 95% CI=1.2-22.8, p=0.03). Our findings demonstrate that the joint effect of SNPs from oxidative stress and DNA damage repair genes may be a promising approach to identify patients with a high risk of skin reaction after breast RT. PMID:25099761

Borghini, Andrea; Vecoli, Cecilia; Mercuri, Antonella; Petruzzelli, Maria Fonte; D'Errico, Maria Patrizia; Portaluri, Maurizio; Andreassi, Maria Grazia

2014-09-01

176

Puntaje de detección de riesgo nutricional para mortalidad en pacientes críticamente enfermos: NSRR: Nutritional Score Risk Research / Nutritional score risk for mortality in critically ill patients: NSRR: Nutritional Score Risk Research  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Spain | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish Objetivo: El objetivo principal del estudio fue la validación de un puntaje en la valoración nutricional al momento de llegar a la Unidad de Cuidados Intensivos (UCI) con o sin enfermedad previa, con el fin de establecer riesgos nutricionales de muerte desde el ingreso. Diseño: Se realizó un estudio [...] descriptivo, prospectivo, observacional de carácter transversal de abril del 2004 a diciembre del 2006. Ámbito: El estudio fue realizado en UCI. Pacientes y participantes: Para el estudio se lograron encuestar 228 pacientes. Las encuestas eran realizadas al familiar cercano que vivía con el paciente, en aquel momento que el familiar mostrar no convivencia con el paciente y/o desconocimiento de su patrón de ingesta de alimentos durante el diario la encuesta era descartada. Se seleccionaron al azar con patologías críticas (sepsis, trauma, pacientes neurocríticos, pacientes médicos, obstétricas críticas, etc.) en dos unidades de cuidados intensivos. Intervenciones: Interrogatorio a familiares. Variables de interés: El puntaje escogido fue el Nutritional Score Risk (NSR) el cual es elaborado para pacientes mayores de 65 años, puntaje que es ahora modificado para ser utilizado en las unidades de cuidados intensivos en forma práctica, viable, rápida, clara y útil en la obtención de resultados. Resultados: Nuestro estudio demostró que las alteraciones del NSR se pueden observar en todas las edades, establecido por no haber una correlación directa entre la edad y el NSR encontrado (r = 0,15, p = 0,018), además se encontró que el sufrir enfermedades crónicas que alteren las condiciones de ingesta alimentaria adecuada es un parámetro aislado significativo para incrementar la probabilidad de muerte al ingreso a la UCI (p = 0,002). Conclusiones: El NSR mostró que pacientes con un puntaje alto al ingresar por alguna patología aguda se encuentran en riesgo nutricional de morir. Abstract in english Aim: The aim of our study has been applying a nutritional score risk to mortality in a group of patients who are in the Intensive Care Unit with or without previous disease. Setting: Patients and interventions: a prospective randomized study is designed. Place: At the intensive care units. Patients: [...] 228 admitted patients since april 2004 to december 2006 were included. The surveys were filled by the near relative who lived with the patient and/or ignorance of its pattern of food ingestion during the newspaper the survey was discarded. Critically ill patients were selected at random with pathologies (neurocritical, sepsis, trauma, patients, obstetrics critics, etc.) in 2 units of adult intensive cares. Interventions: Dialogue with the families. Variables: The selected nutritional score (NSR) which is elaborated for greater patients of 65 years now is modifid to be used in intensive care unit, it is a questionnaire that can be very useful in the detection of initial nutritional risk of the critically ill patients. Results: Our study demonstrated that the alterations of the NSR can be observed in all ages, established by not having a direct correlation between the age and the found NSR (r = 0,15, p = 0,018). This supports the concept of use of the NSR in the adult ages that are admitted in the intensive care unit. In addition, was found that suffering chronic diseases that alter the conditions of ingestion if would feed suitable is an isolated parameter significant to increase the death probability if the patient is in the ICU (p =0,002). Conclusion: Patients with a high NSR at admittion to the intensive care unit for acute pathology are under risk to mortality by nutritional risk.

A. M., Marín Ramírez; C., Rendon; E., Valencia.

2008-10-01

177

Extreme lipoprotein(a) levels and risk of myocardial infarction in the general population : the Copenhagen City Heart Study  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Elevated lipoprotein(a) levels are associated with myocardial infarction (MI) in some but not all studies. Limitations of previous studies include lack of risk estimates for extreme lipoprotein(a) levels, measurements in long-term frozen samples, no correction for regression dilution bias, and lack of absolute risk estimates in the general population. We tested the hypothesis that extreme lipoprotein(a) levels predict MI in the general population, measuring levels shortly after sampling, correcting for regression dilution bias, and calculating hazard ratios and absolute risk estimates.

Kamstrup, Pia R; Benn, Marianne

2008-01-01

178

Risk Score based on microRNA expression signature is independent prognostic classifier of glioblastoma patients.  

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Glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) is the most malignant primary brain tumor. The prognosis of GBM patients varies considerably and the histopathological examination is not sufficient for individual risk estimation. MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are small, non-coding RNAs that function as post-transcriptional regulators of gene expression and were repeatedly proved to play important roles in pathogenesis of GBM. In our study, we performed global miRNA expression profiling of 58 glioblastoma tissue samples obtained during surgical resections and 10 non-tumor brain tissues. The subsequent analysis revealed 28 significantly deregulated miRNAs in GBM tissue, which were able to precisely classify all examined samples. Correlation with clinical data led to identification of six-miRNA signature significantly associated with progression free survival [hazard ratio (HR) 1.98, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.33-2.94, P < 0.001] and overa+ll survival (HR 2.86, 95% CI 1.91-4.29, P < 0.001). O(6)-methylguanine-DNA methyltransferase methylation status was evaluated as reference method and Risk Score based on six-miRNA signature indicated significant superiority in prediction of clinical outcome in GBM patients. Multivariate Cox analysis indicated that the Risk Score based on six-miRNA signature is an independent prognostic classifier of GBM patients. We suggest that the Risk Score presents promising prognostic algorithm with potential for individualized treatment decisions in clinical management of GBM patients. PMID:25322872

Sana, Jiri; Radova, Lenka; Lakomy, Radek; Kren, Leos; Fadrus, Pavel; Smrcka, Martin; Besse, Andrej; Nekvindova, Jana; Hermanova, Marketa; Jancalek, Radim; Svoboda, Marek; Hajduch, Marian; Slampa, Pavel; Vyzula, Rostislav; Slaby, Ondrej

2014-12-01

179

Analysis of Surgical Site Infection after Musculoskeletal Tumor Surgery: Risk Assessment Using a New Scoring System  

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Surgical site infection (SSI) has not been extensively studied in musculoskeletal tumors (MST) owing to the rarity of the disease. We analyzed incidence and risk factors of SSI in MST. SSI incidence was evaluated in consecutive 457 MST cases (benign, 310 cases and malignant, 147 cases) treated at our institution. A detailed analysis of the clinical background of the patients, pre- and postoperative hematological data, and other factors that might be associated with SSI incidence was performed for malignant MST cases. SSI occurred in 0.32% and 12.2% of benign and malignant MST cases, respectively. The duration of the surgery (P = 0.0002) and intraoperative blood loss (P = 0.0005) was significantly more in the SSI group than in the non-SSI group. We established the musculoskeletal oncological surgery invasiveness (MOSI) index by combining 4 risk factors (blood loss, operation duration, preoperative chemotherapy, and the use of artificial materials). The MOSI index (0–4 points) score significantly correlated with the risk of SSI, as demonstrated by an SSI incidence of 38.5% in the group with a high score (3-4 points). The MOSI index score and laboratory data at 1 week after surgery could facilitate risk evaluation and prompt diagnosis of SSI. PMID:24672281

Nagano, Satoshi; Yokouchi, Masahiro; Setoguchi, Takao; Sasaki, Hiromi; Shimada, Hirofumi; Kawamura, Ichiro; Ishidou, Yasuhiro; Kamizono, Junichi; Yamamoto, Takuya; Kawamura, Hideki; Komiya, Setsuro

2014-01-01

180

SNPs in microRNA binding sites in 3'-UTRs of RAAS genes influence arterial blood pressure and risk of myocardial infarction  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

We hypothesized that single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) located in microRNA (miR) binding sites in genes of the renin angiotensin aldosterone system (RAAS) can influence blood pressure and risk of myocardial infarction.

Nossent, Anne Yaël; Hansen, Jakob Liebe

2011-01-01

181

Post-operative acute kidney injury and five-year risk of death, myocardial infarction, and stroke among elective cardiac surgical patients : a cohort study  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

The prognostic impact of acute kidney injury (AKI) on long-term clinical outcomes remains controversial. We examined the five-year risk of death, myocardial infarction, and stroke after elective cardiac surgery complicated by AKI.

Hansen, Malene Kærslund; Gammelager, Henrik

2013-01-01

182

Framingham Coronary Heart Disease Risk Score Can be Predicted from Structural Brain Images in Elderly Subjects  

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Recent literature has presented evidence that cardiovascular risk factors (CVRF) play an important role on cognitive performance in elderly individuals, both those who are asymptomatic and those who suffer from symptoms of neurodegenerative disorders. Findings from studies applying neuroimaging methods have increasingly reinforced such notion. Studies addressing the impact of CVRF on brain anatomy changes have gained increasing importance, as recent papers have reported gray matter loss predominantly in regions traditionally affected in Alzheimer’s disease (AD) and vascular dementia in the presence of a high degree of cardiovascular risk. In the present paper, we explore the association between CVRF and brain changes using pattern recognition techniques applied to structural MRI and the Framingham score (a composite measure of cardiovascular risk largely used in epidemiological studies) in a sample of healthy elderly individuals. We aim to answer the following questions: is it possible to decode (i.e., to learn information regarding cardiovascular risk from structural brain images) enabling individual predictions? Among clinical measures comprising the Framingham score, are there particular risk factors that stand as more predictable from patterns of brain changes? Our main findings are threefold: (i) we verified that structural changes in spatially distributed patterns in the brain enable statistically significant prediction of Framingham scores. This result is still significant when controlling for the presence of the APOE 4 allele (an important genetic risk factor for both AD and cardiovascular disease). (ii) When considering each risk factor singly, we found different levels of correlation between real and predicted factors; however, single factors were not significantly predictable from brain images when considering APOE4 allele presence as covariate. (iii) We found important gender differences, and the possible causes of that finding are discussed. PMID:25520654

Rondina, Jane Maryam; Squarzoni, Paula; Souza-Duran, Fabio Luis; Tamashiro-Duran, Jaqueline Hatsuko; Scazufca, Marcia; Menezes, Paulo Rossi; Vallada, Homero; Lotufo, Paulo A.; de Toledo Ferraz Alves, Tania Correa; Busatto Filho, Geraldo

2014-01-01

183

Predicting early death after cardiovascular surgery by using the Texas Heart Institute Risk Scoring Technique (THIRST).  

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Preoperative risk-prediction models are an important tool in contemporary surgical practice. We developed a risk-scoring technique for predicting in-hospital death for cardiovascular surgery patients. From our institutional database, we obtained data on 21,120 patients admitted from 1995 through 2007. The outcome of interest was early death (in-hospital or within 30 days of surgery). To identify mortality predictors, multivariate logistic regression was performed on data from 14,030 patients from 1995 through 2002 and risk scores were computed to stratify patients (low-, medium-, and high-risk). A recalibrated model was then created from the original risk scores and validated on data from 7,090 patients from 2003 through 2007. Significant predictors of death included urgent surgery within 48 hours of admission, advanced age, renal insufficiency, repeat coronary artery bypass grafting, repeat aortic aneurysm repair, concomitant aortic aneurysm or left ventricular aneurysm repair with coronary bypass or valvular surgery, and preoperative intra-aortic balloon pump support. Because the original model overpredicted death for operations performed from 2003 through 2007, this was adjusted for by applying the recalibrated model. Applying the recalibrated model to the validation set revealed predicted mortality rates of 1.7%, 4.2%, and 13.4% and observed rates of 1.1%, 5.1%, and 13%, respectively. Because our model discriminates risk groups by using preoperative clinical criteria alone, it can be a useful bedside tool for identifying patients at greater risk of early death after cardiovascular surgery, thereby facilitating clinical decision-making. The model can be recalibrated for use in other types of patient populations. PMID:23678213

Sanon, Saurabh; Lee, Vei-Vei; Elayda, MacArthur A; Gondi, Sreedevi; Livesay, James J; Reul, George J; Wilson, James M

2013-01-01

184

A population-based case-cohort study of the risk of myocardial infarction following radiation therapy for breast cancer.  

OpenAIRE

OBJECTIVE: To describe the risk of acute myocardial infarction (AMI) after radiation therapy (RT) for breast cancer (BrCa) in an exposed population. METHODS: We identified and validated cases of AMI (vAMI), by electrocardiographic or enzyme criteria, among all 6680 women who received post-operative RT following lumpectomy or mastectomy, within 12 months following diagnosis of BrCa between 1982 and 1988 in Ontario, Canada. We identified women without vAMI whose death certification was ascribed...

Paszat, Lf; Vallis, Ka; Benk, Vm; Groome, Pa; Mackillop, Wj; Wielgosz, A.

2007-01-01

185

Risk of venous thromboembolism and myocardial infarction associated with factor V Leiden and prothrombin mutations and blood type  

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ABO blood type locus has been reported to be an important genetic determinant of venous and arterial thrombosis in genome-wide association studies. We tested the hypothesis that ABO blood type alone and in combination with mutations in factor V Leiden R506Q and prothrombin G20210A is associated with the risk of venous thromboembolism and myocardial infarction in the general population.

Sode, Birgitte F; Allin, Kristine H

2013-01-01

186

Predicting PTSD using the New York Risk Score with genotype data: potential clinical and research opportunities  

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Full Text Available Joseph A Boscarino,1,2 H Lester Kirchner,3,4 Stuart N Hoffman,5 Porat M Erlich1,4 1Center for Health Research, Geisinger Clinic, Danville, 2Department of Psychiatry, Temple University School of Medicine, Philadelphia, 3Division of Medicine, Geisinger Clinic, Danville, 4Department of Medicine, Temple University School of Medicine, Philadelphia, 5Department of Neurology, Geisinger Clinic, Danville, PA, USA Background: We previously developed a post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD screening instrument, ie, the New York PTSD Risk Score (NYPRS, that was effective in predicting PTSD. In the present study, we assessed a version of this risk score that also included genetic information. Methods: Utilizing diagnostic testing methods, we hierarchically examined different prediction variables identified in previous NYPRS research, including genetic risk-allele information, to assess lifetime and current PTSD status among a population of trauma-exposed adults. Results: We found that, in predicting lifetime PTSD, the area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUC for the Primary Care PTSD Screen alone was 0.865. When we added psychosocial predictors from the original NYPRS to the model, including depression, sleep disturbance, and a measure of health care access, the AUC increased to 0.902, which was a significant improvement (P = 0.0021. When genetic information was added in the form of a count of PTSD risk alleles located within FKBP, COMT, CHRNA5, and CRHR1 genetic loci (coded 0–6, the AUC increased to 0.920, which was also a significant improvement (P = 0.0178. The results for current PTSD were similar. In the final model for current PTSD with the psychosocial risk factors included, genotype resulted in a prediction weight of 17 for each risk allele present, indicating that a person with six risk alleles or more would receive a PTSD risk score of 17 × 6 = 102, the highest risk score for any of the predictors studied. Conclusion: Genetic information added to the NYPRS helped improve the accuracy of prediction results for a screening instrument that already had high AUC test results. This improvement was achieved by increasing PTSD prediction specificity. Further research validation is advised. Keywords: post-traumatic stress disorder, psychological trauma, diagnostic screening, test development, genotype, single nucleotide polymorphism

Boscarino JA

2013-04-01

187

Predicting survival in heart failure : a risk score based on 39 372 patients from 30 studies  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

AimsUsing a large international database from multiple cohort studies, the aim is to create a generalizable easily used risk score for mortality in patients with heart failure (HF).Methods and resultsThe MAGGIC meta-analysis includes individual data on 39 372 patients with HF, both reduced and preserved left-ventricular ejection fraction (EF), from 30 cohort studies, six of which were clinical trials. 40.2% of patients died during a median follow-up of 2.5 years. Using multivariable piecewise Poisson regression methods with stepwise variable selection, a final model included 13 highly significant independent predictors of mortality in the following order of predictive strength: age, lower EF, NYHA class, serum creatinine, diabetes, not prescribed beta-blocker, lower systolic BP, lower body mass, time since diagnosis, current smoker, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, male gender, and not prescribed ACE-inhibitor or angiotensin-receptor blockers. In preserved EF, age was more predictive and systolic BP wasless predictive of mortality than in reduced EF. Conversion into an easy-to-use integer risk score identified a very marked gradient in risk, with 3-year mortality rates of 10 and 70% in the bottom quintile and top decile of risk, respectively.ConclusionIn patients with HF of both reduced and preserved EF, the influences of readily available predictors of mortality can be quantified in an integer score accessible by an easy-to-use website www.heartfailurerisk.org. The score has the potential for widespread implementation in a clinical setting.

Pocock, Stuart J; Ariti, Cono A

2012-01-01

188

A risk score development for diabetic retinopathy screening in Isfahan-Iran  

OpenAIRE

  • BACKGROUND: The purpose of this study was to develop a simple risk score as screening tool for retinopathy in type II diabetic patients.
  • METHODS: A cross-sectional study was carried out recruiting 3734  atients with type II diabetes in an outpatient clinic in Isfahan ndocrinology and Metabolism Research Center (IEMRC), Iran. The logistic regression was used as a model to predict diabetic...

    Sayed Mohsen Hosseini; Maracy, M. R.; Amini, M.

    2009-01-01

189

Hair cortisol and the risk for acute myocardial infarction in adult men.  

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Acute stress is increasingly recognized as a precipitant of acute myocardial infarction (AMI). However, the role of chronic stress in developing AMI is less clear. We have developed a method to measure cortisol in hair, which allows longitudinal assessment of cortisol levels prior to an acute event. We aimed to evaluate the hypothesis that chronic stress, as assessed by hair cortisol content, is associated with the development of AMI. A prospective case-control study included 56 patients admitted to hospital with AMI and 56 control patients, admitted to internal medicine wards for other indications. An enzyme immunoassay technique was used to measure cortisol in the most proximal 3 cm of hair, considered to represent the most recent 3 months of exposure. Median hair cortisol contents (range) were 295.3 (105.4-809.3)ng/g in AMI patients and 224.9 (76.58-949.9)ng/g in controls (p = 0.006, Mann-Whitney U-test). After controlling for other risk factors for AMI using multiple logistic regression, log-transformed hair cortisol content remained the strongest predictor (OR 17.4, 95% CI 2.15-140.5; p = 0.007). We demonstrated elevated hair cortisol concentrations in patients with AMI. This suggests that chronic stress, as assessed by increased hair cortisol in the 3 months prior to the event, may be a contributing factor for AMI. PMID:20812871

Pereg, David; Gow, Rachel; Mosseri, Morris; Lishner, Michael; Rieder, Michael; Van Uum, Stan; Koren, Gideon

2011-01-01

190

Platelet Gene Expression as a Biomarker Risk Stratification Tool in Acute Myocardial Infarction: A Pilot Investigation  

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Full Text Available Platelets play a major role in the pathophysiology of acute myocardial infarction (AMI. Recent evidence reveals megakaryocyte-derived platelet pre-mRNA is spliced to mRNA and then translated into functional proteins in response to external stimulation. An exon microarray analyzes pre-mRNA alternative splicing and is thus applicable for studying gene expression in the anucleate platelet. We hypothesized a subset of megakaryocyte/platelet genes exists that are significantly over or underexpressed in AMI compared with stable coronary artery disease (CAD, yielding a gene expression profile for further study. Microarray analysis employing platelet mRNA was used to generate gene expression data in the above two patient groups. Unsupervised hierarchical clustering has revealed an expression profile that includes 95 over- or under-expressed genes depicted in a heat map where separation of both sets takes place. This preliminary study reveals a platelet-based gene expression signature that differentiates between AMI and stable CAD, and further study may yield a prognostic tool for a future AMI event in atherosclerosis risk factor-based subsets of CAD patients.

David C. Calverley

2010-07-01

191

Demographic determinants of risk, colon distribution and density scores of diverticular disease  

OpenAIRE

AIM: To investigate associations between ethni95% CIty, age and sex and the risk, colon distribution and density scores of diverticular disease (DD).METHODS: Barium enemas were examined in 1000 patients: 410 male, 590 female; 760 whites, 62 Asians, 44 black africans (BAs), and 134 other blacks (OBs). Risks and diverticula density of left-sided DD (LSDD) and right-sided-component DD (RSCDD = right-sided DD + right and left DD + Pan-DD) were compared using logistic regression.RESULTS: Four hund...

Mark Golder, Irina Chis Ster

2011-01-01

192

Pre-operative risk scores for the prediction of outcome in elderly people who require emergency surgery  

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Full Text Available Abstract Background The decision on whether to operate on a sick elderly person with an intra-abdominal emergency is one of the most difficult in general surgery. A predictive risk-score would be of great value in this situation. Methods A Medline search was performed to identify those predictive risk-scores relevant to sick elderly patients in whom emergency surgery might be life-saving. Results Many of the risk scores for surgical patients include the operative findings or require tests which are not available in the acute situation. Most of the relevant studies include younger patients and elective surgery. The Glasgow Aneurysm Score and Hardman Index are specific to ruptured aortic aneurysm while the Boey Score and the Hacetteppe Score are specific to perforated peptic ulcer. The Reiss Index and Fitness Score can be used pre-operatively if the elements of the score can be completed in time. The ASA score, which includes a significant element of subjective clinical judgement, can be augmented with factors such as age and urgency of surgery but no test has a negative predictive value sufficient to recommend against surgical intervention without clinical input. Conclusion Risk scores may be helpful in sick elderly patients needing emergency abdominal surgery but an experienced clinical opinion is still essential.

Bates Tom

2007-06-01

193

Impact of Primary Gleason Grade on Risk Stratification for Gleason Score 7 Prostate Cancers  

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Purpose: To evaluate the primary Gleason grade (GG) in Gleason score (GS) 7 prostate cancers for risk of non-organ-confined disease with the goal of optimizing radiotherapy treatment option counseling. Methods: One thousand three hundred thirty-three patients with pathologic GS7 were identified in the Duke Prostate Center research database. Clinical factors including age, race, clinical stage, prostate-specific antigen at diagnosis, and pathologic stage were obtained. Data were stratified by prostate-specific antigen and clinical stage at diagnosis into adapted D’Amico risk groups. Univariate and multivariate analyses were performed evaluating for association of primary GG with pathologic outcome. Results: Nine hundred seventy-nine patients had primary GG3 and 354 had GG4. On univariate analyses, GG4 was associated with an increased risk of non-organ-confined disease. On multivariate analysis, GG4 was independently associated with seminal vesicle invasion (SVI) but not extracapsular extension. Patients with otherwise low-risk disease and primary GG3 had a very low risk of SVI (4%). Conclusions: Primary GG4 in GS7 cancers is associated with increased risk of SVI compared with primary GG3. Otherwise low-risk patients with GS 3+4 have a very low risk of SVI and may be candidates for prostate-only radiotherapy modalities.

194

Genetic risk score predicting accelerated progression from mild cognitive impairment to Alzheimer's disease.  

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Aside from APOE, the genetic factors that influence the progression from mild cognitive impairment (MCI) to Alzheimer's disease (AD) remain largely unknown. We assessed whether a genetic risk score (GRS), based on eight non-APOE genetic variants previously associated with AD risk in genome-wide association studies, is associated with either risk of conversion or with rapid progression from MCI to AD. Among 288 subjects with MCI, follow-up (mean 26.3 months) identified 118 MCI-converters to AD and 170 MCI-nonconverters. We genotyped ABCA7 rs3764650, BIN1 rs744373, CD2AP rs9296559, CLU rs1113600, CR1 rs1408077, MS4A4E rs670139, MS4A6A rs610932, and PICALM rs3851179. For each subject we calculated a cumulative GRS, defined as the number of risk alleles (range 0-16) with each allele weighted by the AD risk odds ratio. GRS was not associated with risk of conversion from MCI to AD. However, MCI-converters to AD harboring six or more risk alleles (second and third GRS tertiles) progressed twofold more rapidly to AD when compared with those with less than six risk alleles (first GRS tertile). Our GRS is a first step toward development of prediction models for conversion from MCI to AD that incorporate aggregate genetic factors. PMID:23180304

Rodríguez-Rodríguez, E; Sánchez-Juan, P; Vázquez-Higuera, J L; Mateo, I; Pozueta, A; Berciano, J; Cervantes, S; Alcolea, D; Martínez-Lage, P; Clarimón, J; Lleó, A; Pastor, P; Combarros, O

2013-05-01

195

Polygenic risk, stressful life events and depressive symptoms in older adults: a polygenic score analysis.  

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Background. Previous studies suggest that the relationship between genetic risk and depression may be moderated by stressful life events (SLEs). The goal of this study was to assess whether SLEs moderate the association between polygenic risk of major depressive disorder (MDD) and depressive symptoms in older adults. Method. We used logistic and negative binomial regressions to assess the associations between polygenic risk, SLEs and depressive symptoms in a sample of 8761 participants from the Health and Retirement Study. Polygenic scores were derived from the Psychiatric Genomics Consortium genome-wide association study of MDD. SLEs were operationalized as a dichotomous variable indicating whether participants had experienced at least one stressful event during the previous 2 years. Depressive symptoms were measured using an eight-item Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale subscale and operationalized as both a dichotomous and a count variable. Results. The odds of reporting four or more depressive symptoms were over twice as high among individuals who experienced at least one SLE (odds ratio 2.19, 95% confidence interval 1.86-2.58). Polygenic scores were significantly associated with depressive symptoms (? = 0.21, p ? 0.0001), although the variance explained was modest (pseudo r 2 = 0.0095). None of the interaction terms for polygenic scores and SLEs was statistically significant. Conclusions. Polygenic risk and SLEs are robust, independent predictors of depressive symptoms in older adults. Consistent with an additive model, we found no evidence that SLEs moderated the association between common variant polygenic risk and depressive symptoms. PMID:25488392

Musliner, K L; Seifuddin, F; Judy, J A; Pirooznia, M; Goes, F S; Zandi, P P

2014-12-01

196

Electro-mechanical characteristics of myocardial infarction border zones and ventricular arrhythmic risk: novel insights from grid-tagged cardiac magnetic resonance imaging  

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To investigate whether grid-tag myocardial strain evaluation can characterise 'border-zone' peri-infarct region and identify patients at risk of ventricular arrhythmia as the peri-infarct myocardial zone may represent an important contributor to ventricular arrhythmia following ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI). Forty-five patients with STEMI underwent cardiac magnetic resonance (CMR) imaging on days 3 and 90 following primary percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI). Circumferential peak circumferential systolic strain (CS) and strain rate (CSR) were calculated from grid-tagged images. Myocardial segments were classified into 'infarct', 'border-zone', 'adjacent' and 'remote' regions by late-gadolinium enhancement distribution. The relationship between CS and CSR and these distinct myocardial regions was assessed. Ambulatory Holter monitoring was performed 14 days post myocardial infarction (MI) to estimate ventricular arrhythmia risk via evaluation of heart-rate variability (HRV). We analysed 1,222 myocardial segments. Remote and adjacent regions had near-normal parameters of CS and CSR. Border-zone regions had intermediate CS (-9.0 ± 4.6 vs -5.9 ± 7.4, P < 0.001) and CSR (-86.4 ± 33.3 vs -73.5 ± 51.4, P < 0.001) severity compared with infarct regions. Patients with 'border-zone' peri-infarct regions had reduced very-low-frequency power on HRV analysis, which is a surrogate for ventricular arrhythmia risk (P = 0.03). Grid-tagged CMR-derived myoca= 0.03). Grid-tagged CMR-derived myocardial strain accurately characterises the mechanical characteristics of 'border-zone' peri-infarct region. Presence of 'border-zone' peri-infarct region correlated with a surrogate marker of heightened arrhythmia risk following STEMI. (orig.)

197

Total sitting time and risk of myocardial infarction, coronary heart disease and all-cause mortality in a prospective cohort of Danish adults  

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Evidence suggests that sitting time is adversely associated with health risks. However, previous epidemiological studies have mainly addressed mortality whereas little is known of the risk of coronary heart disease. This study aimed to investigate total sitting time and risk of myocardial infarction, coronary heart disease incidence and all-cause mortality.

Petersen, Christina BjØrk; Bauman, Adrian

2014-01-01

198

Applicability of Two International Risk Scores in Cardiac Surgery in a Reference Center in Brazil  

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Background The applicability of international risk scores in heart surgery (HS) is not well defined in centers outside of North America and Europe. Objective To evaluate the capacity of the Parsonnet Bernstein 2000 (BP) and EuroSCORE (ES) in predicting in-hospital mortality (IHM) in patients undergoing HS at a reference hospital in Brazil and to identify risk predictors (RP). Methods Retrospective cohort study of 1,065 patients, with 60.3% patients underwent coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG), 32.7%, valve surgery and 7.0%, CABG combined with valve surgery. Additive and logistic scores models, the area under the ROC (Receiver Operating Characteristic) curve (AUC) and the standardized mortality ratio (SMR) were calculated. Multivariate logistic regression was performed to identify the RP. Results Overall mortality was 7.8%. The baseline characteristics of the patients were significantly different in relation to BP and ES. AUCs of the logistic and additive BP were 0.72 (95% CI, from 0.66 to 0.78 p = 0.74), and of ES they were 0.73 (95% CI; 0.67 to 0.79 p = 0.80). The calculation of the SMR in BP was 1.59 (95% CI; 1.27 to 1.99) and in ES, 1.43 (95% CI; 1.14 to 1.79). Seven RP of IHM were identified: age, serum creatinine > 2.26 mg/dL, active endocarditis, systolic pulmonary arterial pressure > 60 mmHg, one or more previous HS, CABG combined with valve surgery and diabetes mellitus. Conclusion Local scores, based on the real situation of local populations, must be developed for better assessment of risk in cardiac surgery. PMID:25004415

Garofallo, Silvia Bueno; Machado, Daniel Pinheiro; Rodrigues, Clarissa Garcia; Bordim, Odemir; Kalil, Renato A. K.; Portal, Vera Lúcia

2014-01-01

199

Measurement of coronary sinus blood flow after first anterior myocardial infarction transthoracic echocardiography and its correlation with wall motion scoring lndex  

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The aim of this study was measurement of Coronary Sinus Blood Flow (CSBF) and Coronary Sinus Velocity time Integral (CSVTI) via transthoracic echocardiography (TTE) in patients with acute myocardial infarction (AMI) in association with left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF), wall motion scoring index (WMSI) and in-hospital mortality. Twenty patients with anterior AMI and 20 healthy individuals as controls, were studied in 6 months period in 2005 in Madani Heart Center in Tabriz, Iran. All received same drugs for AMI treatment (e.g. fibrinolytic). CSBF, CSVTI, WMSI and tissue Doppler imaging (TDI) data were obtained via TTE and compared between the two groups. Baseline variables were similar between two groups (p>0.05). CSBF in AMI group was 287.8 +- 128 ml/min and 415 +- 127 ml/min in control group (p=0.001). CSVTI was significantly lower in AMI group than control group (11.16 +- 2.85 and 17.56 +- 2.72 mm, respectively; p = 0.003). There was significant correlation between CSBF and LVEF (r = 0.52, p= 0.01), WMSI (r -0.77, p = 0.0001) and in-hospital mortality (r=0.58 p= 0.03), also between CSVTI and LVEF (r = 0.85, p = 0.0001), WMSI (r = -0.57, p = 0.0009) and in hospital-mortality rate (r = 0.69, p = 0.02). CSBF and CSVTI had good correlation with TDI findings: Em (peak early diastolic velocity in the myocardium) and Sm (peak systolic velocity in the myocardium). Our study demonstrated good correlation between measured CSBF and CSVTI by 2D, Doppler TTE and LVEF, WF and CSVTI by 2D, Doppler TTE and LVEF, WMSI, in-hospital mortality and also TDI findings; also we found that CSBF and CSVTI were independent predictors in AMI patients. (author)

200

A simple score for estimating the long-term risk of fracture in patients with multiple sclerosis  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Objective: To derive a simple score for estimating the long-term risk of osteoporotic and hip fracture in individual patients with MS. Methods: Using the UK General Practice Research Database linked to the National Hospital Registry (1997-2008), we identified patients with incident MS (n = 5,494). They were matched 1:6 by year of birth, sex, and practice with patients without MS (control subjects). Cox proportional hazards models were used to calculate the long-term risk of osteoporotic and hip fracture. We fitted the regression model with general and specific risk factors, and the final Cox model was converted into integer risk scores. Results: In comparison with the FRAX calculator, our risk score contains several new risk factors that have been linked with fracture, which include MS, use of antidepressants, use of anticonvulsants, history of falling, and history of fatigue. We estimated the 5- and 10-year risks of osteoporotic and hip fracture in relation to the risk score. The C-statistic was moderate (0.67) for the prediction of osteoporotic fracture and excellent (0.89) for the prediction of hip fracture. Conclusion: This is the first clinical risk score for fracture risk estimation involving MS as a risk factor. Neurology (R) 2012;79:922-928

Bazelier, M. T.; van Staa, T. P.

2012-01-01

201

Risk reduction of brain infarction during carotid endarterectomy or stenting using sonolysis - Prospective randomized study pilot data  

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Sonolysis is a new therapeutic option for the acceleration of arterial recanalization. The aim of this study was to confirm risk reduction of brain infarction during endarterectomy (CEA) and stenting (CAS) of the internal carotid artery (ICA) using sonolysis with continuous transcranial Doppler (TCD) monitoring by diagnostic 2 MHz probe, additional interest was to assess impact of new brain ischemic lesions on cognitive functions. Methods: All consecutive patients 1/ with ICA stenosis >70%, 2/ indicated to CEA or CAS, 3/ with signed informed consent, were enrolled to the prospective study during 17 months. Patients were randomized into 2 groups: Group 1 with sonolysis during intervention and Group 2 without sonolysis. Neurological examination, assessment of cognitive functions and brain magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) were performed before and 24 hours after intervention in all patients. Occurrence of new brain infarctions (including infarctions >0.5 cm3), and the results of Mini-Mental State Examination, Clock Drawing and Verbal Fluency tests were statistically evaluated using T-test. Results: 97 patients were included into the study. Out of the 47 patients randomized to sonolysis group (Group 1) 25 underwent CEA (Group 1a) and 22 CAS (Group 1b). Out of the 50 patients randomized to control group (Group 2), 22 underwent CEA (Group 2a) and 28 CAS (Group 2b). New ischemic brain infarctions on follow up MRI were found in 14 (29.8%) patients in Group 1-4 (16.0%) in Group 1a and 10 (45.5%) in Group 1b. In Group 2, new ischemic brain infarctions were found in 18 (36.0%) patients-6 (27.3%) in Group 2a and 12 (42.9%) in Group 2b (p>0.05 in all cases). New ischemic brain infarctions >0.5 cm3 were found in 4 (8.5 %) patients in Group 1 and in 11 (22.0 %) patients in Group 2 (p= 0.017). No significant differences were found in cognitive tests results between subgroups (p>0.05 in all tests). Conclusion: Sonolysis seems to be effective in the prevention of large ischemic brain infarctions during CEA and CAS.

Kuliha, Martin; Školoudík, David; Martin Roubec, Martin; Herzig, Roman; Procházka, Václav; Jonszta, Tomáš; Kraj?a, Jan; Czerný, Dan; Hrbá?, Tomáš; Otáhal, David; Langová, Kate?ina

2012-11-01

202

Developing and Validating a Risk Score for Lower-Extremity Amputation in Patients Hospitalized for a Diabetic Foot Infection  

Science.gov (United States)

OBJECTIVE Diabetic foot infection is the predominant predisposing factor to nontraumatic lower-extremity amputation (LEA), but few studies have investigated which specific risk factors are most associated with LEA. We sought to develop and validate a risk score to aid in the early identification of patients hospitalized for diabetic foot infection who are at highest risk of LEA. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS Using a large, clinical research database (CareFusion), we identified patients hospitalized at 97 hospitals in the U.S. between 2003 and 2007 for culture-documented diabetic foot infection. Candidate risk factors for LEA included demographic data, clinical presentation, chronic diseases, and recent previous hospitalization. We fit a logistic regression model using 75% of the population and converted the model coefficients to a numeric risk score. We then validated the score using the remaining 25% of patients. RESULTS Among 3,018 eligible patients, 21.4% underwent an LEA. The risk factors most highly associated with LEA (P 11,000 per mm3. The model showed good discrimination (c-statistic 0.76) and excellent calibration (Hosmer-Lemeshow, P = 0.63). The risk score stratified patients into five groups, demonstrating a graded relation to LEA risk (P < 0.0001). The LEA rates (derivation and validation cohorts) were 0% for patients with a score of 0 and ~50% for those with a score of ?21. CONCLUSIONS Using a large, hospitalized population, we developed and validated a risk score that seems to accurately stratify the risk of LEA among patients hospitalized for a diabetic foot infection. This score may help to identify high-risk patients upon admission. PMID:21680728

Lipsky, Benjamin A.; Weigelt, John A.; Sun, Xiaowu; Johannes, Richard S.; Derby, Karen G.; Tabak, Ying P.

2011-01-01

203

Validation of a clinical risk-scoring algorithm for severe scrub typhus  

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Full Text Available Pamornsri Sriwongpan,1,2 Jayanton Patumanond,3 Pornsuda Krittigamas,4 Hutsaya Tantipong,5 Chamaiporn Tawichasri,6 Sirianong Namwongprom1,7 1Clinical Epidemiology Program, Faculty of Medicine, Chiang Mai University, Chiang Mai, 2Department of Social Medicine, Chiangrai Prachanukroh Hospital, Chiang Rai, 3Clinical Epidemiology Program, Faculty of Medicine, Thammasat University, Bangkok, 4Department of General Pediatrics, Nakornping Hospital, Chiang Mai, 5Department of Medicine, Chonburi Hospital, Chonburi, 6Clinical Epidemiology Society at Chiang Mai, Chiang Mai, 7Department of Radiology, Faculty of Medicine, Chiang Mai University, Chiang Mai, Thailand Objective: The aim of the study reported here was to validate the risk-scoring algorithm for prognostication of scrub typhus severity. Methods: The risk-scoring algorithm for prognostication of scrub typhus severity developed earlier from two general hospitals in Thailand was validated using an independent dataset of scrub typhus patients in one of the hospitals from a few years later. The predictive performances of the two datasets were compared by analysis of the area under the receiver-operating characteristic curve (AuROC. Classification of patients into non-severe, severe, and fatal cases was also compared. Results: The proportions of non-severe, severe, and fatal patients by operational definition were similar between the development and validation datasets. Patient, clinical, and laboratory profiles were also similar. Scores were similar in both datasets, both in terms of discriminating non-severe from severe and fatal patients (AuROC =88.74% versus 91.48%, P=0.324, and in discriminating fatal from severe and non-severe patients (AuROC =88.66% versus 91.22%, P=0.407. Over- and under-estimations were similar and were clinically acceptable. Conclusion: The previously developed risk-scoring algorithm for prognostication of scrub typhus severity performed similarly with the validation data and the first dataset. The scoring algorithm may help in the prognostication of patients according to their severity in routine clinical practice. Clinicians may use this scoring system to help make decisions about more intensive investigations and appropriate treatments. Keywords: severity, clinical prediction rule, algorithm, prognosis, Thailand

Sriwongpan P

2014-02-01

204

Early prediction of mortality in patients with acute myocardial infarction: a prospective study of clinical and radionuclide risk factors  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

To examine the prognostic value of early radionuclide imaging in patients with transmural acute myocardial infarction, 222 patients in Killip class I and II were studied prospectively within 24 hours of the onset of symptoms. The 30-day mortality rate for the entire group was 11% (25 of 222). Univariate analysis indicated that an initial radionuclide left ventricular ejection fraction (EF) of less than 0.30 was associated with the greatest relative risk (RR = 6.6), although the percent of abnormally contracting regions (RR = 3.9) and thallium-201 defect index (RR = 3.3) were also significant risk factors. Stepwise logistic regression indicated that addition of EF resulted in the greatest improvement over the best clinical model (Killip class and chest radiographic findings) for the prediction of 30-day mortality (chi 2 improvement = 12.8, p less than 0.0005). Using the optimal model for prediction of mortality (EF and Killip class), a high-risk group with a 30-day mortality rate of 39% (90-day mortality 47%) and a low-risk group with a 30-day mortality rate of 3% (90-day mortality 4%) was identified. In clinically stable patients with transmural acute myocardial infarction, early assessment of EF in conjunction with clinical evaluation, is a valuable method for early identification of high-risk subsets

205

The Pakistan Risk of Myocardial Infarction Study: a resource for the study of genetic, lifestyle and other determinants of myocardial infarction in South Asia.  

Science.gov (United States)

The burden of coronary heart disease (CHD) is increasing at a greater rate in South Asia than in any other region globally, but there is little direct evidence about its determinants. The Pakistan Risk of Myocardial Infarction Study (PROMIS) is an epidemiological resource to enable reliable study of genetic, lifestyle and other determinants of CHD in South Asia. By March 2009, PROMIS had recruited over 5,000 cases of first-ever confirmed acute myocardial infarction (MI) and over 5,000 matched controls aged 30-80 years. For each participant, information has been recorded on demographic factors, lifestyle, medical and family history, anthropometry, and a 12-lead electrocardiogram. A range of biological samples has been collected and stored, including DNA, plasma, serum and whole blood. During its next stage, the study aims to expand recruitment to achieve a total of about 20,000 cases and about 20,000 controls, and, in subsets of participants, to enrich the resource by collection of monocytes, establishment of lymphoblastoid cell lines, and by resurveying participants. Measurements in progress include profiling of candidate biochemical factors, assay of 45,000 variants in 2,100 candidate genes, and a genomewide association scan of over 650,000 genetic markers. We have established a large epidemiological resource for CHD in South Asia. In parallel with its further expansion and enrichment, the PROMIS resource will be systematically harvested to help identify and evaluate genetic and other determinants of MI in South Asia. Findings from this study should advance scientific understanding and inform regionally appropriate disease prevention and control strategies. PMID:19404752

Saleheen, Danish; Zaidi, Moazzam; Rasheed, Asif; Ahmad, Usman; Hakeem, Abdul; Murtaza, Muhammed; Kayani, Waleed; Faruqui, Azhar; Kundi, Assadullah; Zaman, Khan Shah; Yaqoob, Zia; Cheema, Liaquat Ali; Samad, Abdus; Rasheed, Syed Zahed; Mallick, Nadeem Hayat; Azhar, Muhammad; Jooma, Rashid; Gardezi, Ali Raza; Memon, Nazir; Ghaffar, Abdul; Fazal-ur-Rehman; Khan, Nadir; Shah, Nabi; Ali Shah, Asad; Samuel, Maria; Hanif, Farina; Yameen, Madiha; Naz, Sobia; Sultana, Aisha; Nazir, Aisha; Raza, Shehzad; Shazad, Muhammad; Nasim, Sana; Javed, Muhammad Ahsan; Ali, Syed Saadat; Jafree, Mehmood; Nisar, Muhammad Imran; Daood, Muhammad Salman; Hussain, Altaf; Sarwar, Nadeem; Kamal, Ayeesha; Deloukas, Panos; Ishaq, Muhammad; Frossard, Philippe; Danesh, John

2009-01-01

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Echocardiographic assessment of the impact of cardiovascular risk factors on left ventricular systolic function in patients with acute myocardial infarction  

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Conclusion: Since the proportion of patients with LV systolic dysfunction in patients with AMI remains relatively high, LV systolic function variables such as LVEF and LVESV should be echocardiographically evaluated in all patients with AMI. Since the post-infarction LV systolic function remains the single most important determinant of survival, treatment of AMI patients should be aimed at limitation of infarct size and prevention of ventricular dilation. Moreover, cardiovascular risk factors such as diabetes mellitus and smoking have a significant impact on the likelihood of impairment of LV systolic function in patients with AMI and hence could influence long-term prognosis. [Int J Res Med Sci 2014; 2(3.000: 1101-1106

Vijay Kumar Verma

2014-06-01

207

A COMBINED MOLECULAR-PATHOLOGICAL SCORE IMPROVES RISK STRATIFICATION OF THYROID PAPILLARY MICROCARCINOMA  

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Background Thyroid papillary microcarcinoma (TPMC) is an incidentally discovered papillary carcinoma that is ? 1.0 cm in size. Most TPMCs are indolent, whereas some behave aggressively. The aim of the study was to evaluate whether the combination of BRAF mutation and specific histopathological features allows risk stratification of TPMC. Methods A group of aggressive TPMC was selected based on the presence of lymph node metastasis or tumor recurrence. A group of non-aggressive tumors included TPMCs matched for age, gender, and tumor size, but with no extrathyroidal spread. Molecular analysis was performed and histological slides were scored for multiple histopathological criteria. A separate validation cohort of 40 TPMC was evaluated. Results BRAF mutation was detected in 77% of aggressive TPMC and 32% of non-aggressive tumors (p=0.001). Several histopathological features showed significant difference between the groups. Using multivariate regression analysis, a molecular-pathological (MP) score was developed that included BRAF status and three histopathological features: superficial tumor location, intraglandular tumor spread/multifocality, and tumor fibrosis. By adding the histologic criteria to BRAF status, sensitivity was increased from 77% to 96% and specificity from 68% to 80%. In the independent validation cohort, the MP score stratified tumors into low, moderate, and high risk groups, with the probability of lymph node metastases or tumor recurrence of 0, 20%, and 60%, respectively. Conclusions BRAF status together with several histopathological features allow clinical risk stratification of TPMC. The combined molecular-pathological risk stratification model is a better predictor of extrathyroidal tumor spread than either mutational or histopathological findings alone. PMID:21882177

Niemeier, Leo A.; Akatsu, Haruko Kuffner; Song, Chi; Carty, Sally E.; Hodak, Steven P.; Yip, Linwah; Ferris, Robert L.; Tseng, George C.; Seethala, Raja R.; LeBeau, Shane O.; Stang, Michael T.; Coyne, Christopher; Johnson, Jonas T.; Stewart, Andrew F.; Nikiforov, Yuri E.

2011-01-01

208

Job level risk assessment using task level strain index scores: a pilot study.  

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This paper explores 2 methods of modifying the Strain Index (SI) to assess the ergonomic risk of multi-task jobs. Twenty-eight automotive jobs (15 cases and 13 controls) were studied. The first method is based on the maximum task SI score, and the second method is modeled on the NIOSH Composite Lifting Index (CLI) algorithm, named cumulative assessment of risk to the distal upper extremity (CARD). Significant odds ratios of 11 (CI 1.7-69) and 24 (CI 2.4-240) were obtained using the modified maximum task and CARD, respectively. This indicates that modification of the SI may be useful in determining the risk of distal upper extremity injury associated with a multi-task job. PMID:15938764

Drinkaus, Phillip; Bloswick, Donald S; Sesek, Richard; Mann, Clay; Bernard, Thomas

2005-01-01

209

Relationship of hyperglycemia and prognosis in elderly acute myocardial infarction patients with high risk: a clinical study  

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Full Text Available Objective?To assess the influence of post-admission random hyperglycemia of elderly patients suffering from acute myocardial infarction (STEMI with elevation of ST segment on cardiac function, coronary perfusion, and the prognosis of one year later. Methods?A total of 137 STEMI patients aged over 75 years were enrolled in present study, including 69 cases of random blood glucose ?11mmol/L (hyperglycemia group and 68 cases of random blood glucose<11mmol/L (control group. All the subjects underwent percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI. The cardiac function before and after operation, postoperative coronary blood flow, serum brain natriuretic peptide (BNP and hypersensitive C reactive protein (hs-CRP values of all the patients were retrospectively analyzed. Patients were followed up for major adverse cardiac events (MACE within 12 months after operation. Results?After operation, the left ventricle ejection fraction (LVEF was significantly lower in hyperglycemia group than that in control group (42.64%±5.29% vs 54.13%±4.31%, P=0.031, the BNP and hs-CRP levels were significantly higher in hyperglycemia group than that in control group (619.53±145.77ng/L vs 489.46±159.63ng/L, P=0.035; 26.71±11.28mg/L vs 17.89±9.03mg/ L, P=0.023. The proportion of target coronary blood flow TIMI?2 was relatively higher, and the incidence of MACE in 12 months of follow-up was also higher in hyperglycemia group compared with that in control group (13.94% vs 2.94%, P=0.030; 19.35% vs 10.29%, P=0.031. Cox proportional hazards regression model showed that age (HR=1.03, 95% CI 1.001-1.043, P=0.009, symptom to door time (HR=1.74, 95% CI 1.005-2.102, P=0.039, KILLIP ?2 (HR=2.02, 95% CI 1.004-2.871, P=0.010, SYNTAX score (HR=2.88, 95% CI 1.105-2.906, P=0.008, hyperglycemia (HR=2.09, 95% CI 1.011-2.439, P=0.014 were the independent predictors of 12 months MACE. Conclusion?Elderly high risk STEMI patients with admission hyperglycemia have worse cardiac function, coronary blood flow and higher incidence of MACE after PCI therapy.

Yuan GAO

2013-07-01

210

A risk-scoring scheme for suicide attempts among patients with bipolar disorder in a Thai patient cohort  

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Full Text Available Chidchanok Ruengorn1,2, Kittipong Sanichwankul3, Wirat Niwatananun2, Suwat Mahatnirunkul3, Wanida Pumpaisalchai3, Jayanton Patumanond11Clinical Epidemiology Program, Faculty of Medicine, Chiang Mai University, Chiang Mai, Thailand; 2Department of Pharmaceutical Care, Faculty of Pharmacy, Chiang Mai University, Chiang Mai, Thailand; 3Suanprung Psychiatric Hospital, Chiang Mai, ThailandBackground: In Thailand, risk factors associated with suicide attempts in bipolar disorder (BD are rarely investigated, nor has a specific risk-scoring scheme to assist in the identification of BD patients at risk for attempting suicide been proposed.Objective: To develop a simple risk-scoring scheme to identify patients with BD who may be at risk for attempting suicide.Methods: Medical files of 489 patients diagnosed with BD at Suanprung Psychiatric Hospital between October 2006 and May 2009 were reviewed. Cases included BD patients hospitalized due to attempted suicide (n = 58, and seven controls were selected (per suicide case among BD in- and out-patients who did not attempt suicide, with patients being visited the same day or within 1 week of case study (n = 431. Broad sociodemographic and clinical factors were gathered and analyzed using multivariate logistic regression, to obtain a set of risk factors. Scores for each indicator were weighted, assigned, and summed to create a total risk score, which was divided into low, moderate, and high-risk suicide attempt groups.Results: Six statistically significant indicators associated with suicide attempts were included in the risk-scoring scheme: depression, psychotic symptom(s, number of previous suicide attempts, stressful life event(s, medication adherence, and BD treatment years. A total risk score (possible range -1.5 to 11.5 explained an 88.6% probability of suicide attempts based on the receiver operating characteristic (ROC analysis. Likelihood ratios of suicide attempts with low risk scores (below 2.5, moderate risk scores (2.5–8.0, and high risk scores (above 8.0 were 0.11 (95% CI 0.04–0.32, 1.72 (95% CI 1.41–2.10, and 19.0 (95% CI 6.17–58.16, respectively.Conclusion: The proposed risk-scoring scheme is BD-specific, comprising six key indicators for simple, routine assessment and classification of patients to three risk groups. Further validation is required before adopting this scheme in other clinical settings.Keywords: bipolar disorder, mood disorders, suicidal behavior, screening tool

Patumanond J

2012-04-01

211

Validation of the EBMT Risk Score for South Brazilian Patients Submitted to Allogeneic Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplantation.  

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Background. Allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) is still associated with a high transplant-related mortality rate. In 2009, the EBMT risk score was validated as a simple tool to predict the outcome after allogeneic HSCT for acquired hematological disorders. Objectives. The aim of this study was to validate the applicability of the EBMT risk score for allogeneic HSCT on South Brazilian patients. Methods. A retrospective observational study was performed based on patients' records and data base at Hospital de Clínicas de Porto Alegre, including all allogeneic transplants for malignant and severe aplastic anemia from 1994 to 2010. Patients were categorized according to EBMT risk score and overall survival (OS). Nonrelapse mortality (NRM) and relapse rate (RR) were analyzed. Results. There were 278 evaluable patients. OS, NRM, and RR at five years median followup were 48.7%, 40.7%, and 30.7%, respectively. The OS was 81.8% for risk score 0 and 0% for score 6 (P < 0.001), and NRM was 13.6% and 80% for risk scores 0 and 6, respectively (P = 0.001). Conclusion. The EBMT risk score can be utilized as a tool for clinical decision making before allogeneic HSCT for malignant hematological diseases and severe aplastic anemia at a single center in Brazil. PMID:24416593

Pitombeira, Beatriz Stela; Paz, Alessandra; Pezzi, Annelise; Amorin, Bruna; Valim, Vanessa; Laureano, Alvaro; Wieck, Andrea; Rigoni, Lisandra; Ottoni, Erica; Fisher, Gustavo; Daudt, Liane; Silla, Lucia

2013-01-01

212

Validation of the EBMT Risk Score for South Brazilian Patients Submitted to Allogeneic Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplantation  

Science.gov (United States)

Background. Allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) is still associated with a high transplant-related mortality rate. In 2009, the EBMT risk score was validated as a simple tool to predict the outcome after allogeneic HSCT for acquired hematological disorders. Objectives. The aim of this study was to validate the applicability of the EBMT risk score for allogeneic HSCT on South Brazilian patients. Methods. A retrospective observational study was performed based on patients' records and data base at Hospital de Clínicas de Porto Alegre, including all allogeneic transplants for malignant and severe aplastic anemia from 1994 to 2010. Patients were categorized according to EBMT risk score and overall survival (OS). Nonrelapse mortality (NRM) and relapse rate (RR) were analyzed. Results. There were 278 evaluable patients. OS, NRM, and RR at five years median followup were 48.7%, 40.7%, and 30.7%, respectively. The OS was 81.8% for risk score 0 and 0% for score 6 (P < 0.001), and NRM was 13.6% and 80% for risk scores 0 and 6, respectively (P = 0.001). Conclusion. The EBMT risk score can be utilized as a tool for clinical decision making before allogeneic HSCT for malignant hematological diseases and severe aplastic anemia at a single center in Brazil. PMID:24416593

Pitombeira, Beatriz Stela; Amorin, Bruna; Valim, Vanessa; Laureano, Alvaro; Rigoni, Lisandra; Ottoni, Érica; Fisher, Gustavo; Daudt, Liane; Silla, Lucia

2013-01-01

213

The importance of brain infarct size and location in predicting outcome after stroke.  

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Fifty-six consecutive elderly ( > or = 65 years) patients, admitted for acute stroke to a geriatric department were included in the study and underwent CT scanning. Functional status was graded according to the modified Rankin scale. Three patients had primary intra-cerebral haemorrhage, 22 deep hemispheric infarct, 17 had anterior circulation cortical infarcts, five had posterior circulation infarcts and in nine the CT scan was normal. Stroke risk factors were equally distributed among the different CT scan groups, and all three larger groups had similar rates of non-neurological major complications including death (41%). However, independence in ADL (Rankin 0-2) was observed in 72% of deep infarct survivors, but only 15% of the cortical infarct group (p = 0.00018). For the normal scan group, functional recovery was intermediate. In the cortical infarct group patients with an infarct of > or = 50 mm mean diameter (five cases) should worse functional recovery than did eight patients with small infarcts. The mean difference between pre- and post-stroke Rankin score (DR) was 3.4 for the larger infarct patients and 1.9 for the smaller infarct group (p = 0.027). Pearson correlation revealed a direct relationship between the infarction size and DR (p = 0.039). Such a relationship was not observed for the deep hemispheric group. PMID:8588543

Beloosesky, Y; Streifler, J Y; Burstin, A; Grinblat, J

1995-11-01

214

Risk evaluation for the development of cervical intraepithelial neoplasia: development and validation of risk-scoring schemes.  

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Cervical cancer screening guidelines do not comprehensively define what constitutes high risk. This study developed and validated simple risk-scoring schemes to improve Papanicolaou smear screening for women at high risk. Four cumulative risk score (CRS) schemes were derived respectively for the development of cervical intraepithelial neoplasia grade 1 (CIN1) and grade 2 or worse (CIN2+) using community-based case-control data (n = 1523). By calculating the area under the receiver operating characteristic (AU-ROC) curve, these schemes were validated in a Papanicolaou smear follow-up cohort (n = 967) and a hospital-based cytology screening population (n = 217). A high DNA load of high-risk human papillomavirus (HR-HPV) was the main predictor for CIN1 and CIN2+, although age, married status combined with the number of sexual partners, active and passive smoking and age at sexual debut also affected associated lesions. In the training set, only the HPV-testing-contained CIN2+ CRS scheme presented an excellent discrimination for identifying CIN2+ (AU-ROC = 0.866). Using a CRS cutoff value of 4 to identify CIN2+, the sensitivity and specificity of predicting CIN2+ for the 3- and 5-year follow-ups were 100% and 90.8%, and 83.3% and 90.4%, respectively, in the validation cohort. In the hospital-based validation population, the CRS scheme showed comparable discrimination for CIN2+ detection (sensitivity 88.2% and specificity 84.6%). Women with CRS ? 4 had a 5.4% and 9.1% of 3- and 5-year cumulative incidence, respectively, and a 40.5-fold hazard ratio of developing CIN2+. In conclusion, combined with HR-HPV testing and verified risk factors, a simple CRS scheme could effectively improve the implementation of CIN2+ screening. PMID:24841989

Lee, Chien-Hung; Peng, Chiung-Yu; Li, Ruei-Nian; Chen, Yu-Chieh; Tsai, Hsiu-Ting; Hung, Yu-Hsiu; Chan, Te-Fu; Huang, Hsiao-Ling; Lai, Tai-Cheng; Wu, Ming-Tsang

2015-01-15

215

Predictive and Incremental Validity of the Violence Risk Appraisal Guide Scores with Male and Female Jail Inmates  

OpenAIRE

The present study examines the predictive and incremental validity of Violence Risk Appraisal Guide scores in a sample of 328 male and 145 female jail inmates held on felony charges. Significant gender differences were observed in VRAG item and total score means, as well as in correlations between the VRAG and concurrent measures of aggression. VRAG scores significantly predicted institutional misconduct during incarceration and recidivism in the first year post-release for male inmates, but ...

Hastings, Mark E.; Krishnan, Shilpa; Tangney, June P.; Stuewig, Jeffrey

2011-01-01

216

Synergetic effects of cigarette smoking, systolic blood pressure, and psychosocial risk factors for lung cancer, cardiac infarct and apoplexy cerebri.  

Science.gov (United States)

With 1,353 inhabitants of a Yugoslavian town, a prospective investigation was carried out during the years 1965-1975. At the beginning, physical and psychosocial risk factors for cancer and other internal diseases were determined; during the next 10 years the incidence of these diseases was recorded. The strongest physical and psychosocial risk factors for lung cancer, cardiac infarct, and apoplexia cerebri were investigated with respect to 'synergetic' effects (interaction nonlinearities), i.e., a dependence of the effect of one variable upon the value of another. They were always present, and the efficacy of physical risk factors was always wholly dependent upon the presence of psychosocial risk factors, while the latter were sometimes quite effective even in the absence of physical ones. PMID:7280168

Grossarth-Maticek, R

1980-01-01

217

Risk stratification in cardiovascular disease primary prevention - scoring systems, novel markers, and imaging techniques.  

LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

The aim of this paper is to review and discuss current methods of risk stratification for cardiovascular disease (CVD) prevention, emerging biomarkers, and imaging techniques, and their relative merits and limitations. This report is based on discussions that took place among experts in the area during a special CardioVascular Clinical Trialists workshop organized by the European Society of Cardiology Working Group on Cardiovascular Pharmacology and Drug Therapy in September 2009. Classical risk factors such as blood pressure and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels remain the cornerstone of risk estimation in primary prevention but their use as a guide to management is limited by several factors: (i) thresholds for drug treatment vary with the available evidence for cost-effectiveness and benefit-to-risk ratios; (ii) assessment may be imprecise; (iii) residual risk may remain, even with effective control of dyslipidemia and hypertension. Novel measures include C-reactive protein, lipoprotein-associated phospholipase A(2) , genetic markers, and markers of subclinical organ damage, for which there are varying levels of evidence. High-resolution ultrasound and magnetic resonance imaging to assess carotid atherosclerotic lesions have potential but require further validation, standardization, and proof of clinical usefulness in the general population. In conclusion, classical risk scoring systems are available and inexpensive but have a number of limitations. Novel risk markers and imaging techniques may have a place in drug development and clinical trial design. However, their additional value above and beyond classical risk factors has yet to be determined for risk-guided therapy in CVD prevention.

Zannad, Faiez

2012-04-01

218

GENETIC ADDICTION RISK SCORE (GARS ANALYSIS: EXPLORATORY DEVELOPMENT OF POLYMORPHIC RISK ALLELES IN POLY-DRUG ADDICTED MALES  

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Full Text Available There is a need to classify patients at genetic risk for drug seeking behavior prior to or upon entry to residential and or non-residential chemical dependency programs. We have determined based on a literature review, that there are seven risk alleles associated with six candidate genes that were studied in this patient population of recovering poly-drug abusers. To determine risk severity of these 26 patients we calculated the percentage of prevalence of the risk alleles and provided a severity score based on percentage of these alleles. Subjects carry the following risk alleles: DRD2=A1; SLC6A3 (DAT =10R; DRD4=3R or 7R; 5HTTlRP = L or LA; MAO= 3R; and COMT=G. As depicted in table 2 low severity (LS = 1-36%; Moderate Severity =37-50%, and High severity = 51-100%. We studied two distinct ethnic populations group 1 consisted of 16 male Caucasian psycho stimulant addicts and group 2 consisted of 10 Chinese heroin addicted males. Based on this model the 16 subjects tested have at least one risk allele or 100%. Out of the 16 subjects we found 50% (8 HS; 31% (5 MS; and 19% LS (3 subjects. These scores are then converted to a fraction and then represented as a Genetic Addiction Risk Score (GARS whereby we found the average GARS to be: 0.28 low severity, 0.44 moderate severity and 0.58 high severity respectively. Therefore, using this GARS we found that 81% of the patients were at moderate to high risk for addictive behavior. Of particular interest we found that 56% of the subjects carried the DRD2 A1 allele (9/16. Out of the 9 Chinese heroin addicts [one patient not genotyped] (group 2 we found 11% (1 HS; 56% (5 MS; and 33% LS (3 subjects. These scores are then converted to a fraction and then represented as GARS whereby we found the average GARS to be: 0.28 Low Severity; 0.43 moderate severity and 0.54 high severity respectively. Therefore, using GARS we found that 67% of the patients were at moderate to high risk for addictive behavior. Of particular interest we found that 56% of the subjects carried the DRD2 A1 allele (5/9 similar to group 1. Statistical analysis revealed that the groups did not differ in terms of overall severity (67 vs. 81% in these two distinct populations. Combining these two independent study populations reveal that subjects entering a residential treatment facility for poly-drug abuse carry at least one risk allele (100%. We found 74% of the combined 25 subjects (Caucasian and Chinese had a moderate to high GARS. Confirmation of these exploratory results and development of mathematical predictive values of these risk alleles are necessary before any meaningful interpretation of these results are to be considered.

Kenneth Blum et al

2010-07-01

219

Predictive and Incremental Validity of the Violence Risk Appraisal Guide Scores with Male and Female Jail Inmates  

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The present study examines the predictive and incremental validity of Violence Risk Appraisal Guide scores in a sample of 328 male and 145 female jail inmates held on felony charges. Significant gender differences were observed in VRAG item and total score means, as well as in correlations between the VRAG and concurrent measures of aggression.…

Hastings, Mark E.; Krishnan, Shilpa; Tangney, June P.; Stuewig, Jeffrey

2011-01-01

220

[Acute mesenteric infarct. I. Identification of predisposing factors and definition of the criteria of "cautious clinical monitoring" of the main groups of patients at risk].  

Science.gov (United States)

On the basis of experience acquired through 11 cases of acute mesenteric infarction personally observed over a 10-year period (1-1-1978-31-12-1987) and on the basis of a review on the literature, the usefulness for the purposes of early diagnosis and consequent early treatment of monitoring the essential, typical biological and clinical parameters of patients at risk of acute mesenteric infarction are reported. PMID:2682364

Quaranta, L; Segre, D; Balestrino, E; Tavera, A; Cardona, R; Emmolo, I; Clerico, D; Abbo, L

1989-07-31

221

A score to predict short-term risk of COPD exacerbations (SCOPEX  

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Full Text Available Barry J Make,1 Göran Eriksson,2 Peter M Calverley,3 Christine R Jenkins,4 Dirkje S Postma,5 Stefan Peterson,6 Ollie Östlund,7 Antonio Anzueto8 1Division of Pulmonary Sciences and Critical Care Medicine, National Jewish Health, University of Colorado Denver School of Medicine, Denver, CO, USA; 2Department of Respiratory Medicine and Allergology, University Hospital, Lund, Sweden; 3Pulmonary and Rehabilitation Research Group, University Hospital Aintree, Liverpool, UK; 4George Institute for Global Health, The University of Sydney and Concord Clinical School, Woolcock Institute of Medical Research, Sydney, NSW, Australia; 5Department of Pulmonology, University of Groningen and GRIAC Research Institute, University Medical Center Groningen, Groningen, The Netherlands; 6StatMind AB, Lund, Sweden; 7Department of Medical Sciences and Uppsala Clinical Research Center, Uppsala University, Uppsala, Sweden; 8Department of Pulmonary/Critical Care, University of Texas Health Sciences Center and South Texas Veterans Healthcare System, San Antonio, TX, USA Background: There is no clinically useful score to predict chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD exacerbations. We aimed to derive this by analyzing data from three existing COPD clinical trials of budesonide/formoterol, formoterol, or placebo in patients with moderate-to-very-severe COPD and a history of exacerbations in the previous year. Methods: Predictive variables were selected using Cox regression for time to first severe COPD exacerbation. We determined absolute risk estimates for an exacerbation by identifying variables in a binomial model, adjusting for observation time, study, and treatment. The model was further reduced to clinically useful variables and the final regression coefficients scaled to obtain risk scores of 0–100 to predict an exacerbation within 6 months. Receiver operating characteristic (ROC curves and the corresponding C-index were used to investigate the discriminatory properties of predictive variables. Results: The best predictors of an exacerbation in the next 6 months were more COPD maintenance medications prior to the trial, higher mean daily reliever use, more exacerbations during the previous year, lower forced expiratory volume in 1 second/forced vital capacity ratio, and female sex. Using these risk variables, we developed a score to predict short-term (6-month risk of COPD exacerbations (SCOPEX. Budesonide/formoterol reduced future exacerbation risk more than formoterol or as-needed short-acting ß2-agonist (salbutamol. Conclusion: SCOPEX incorporates easily identifiable patient characteristics and can be readily applied in clinical practice to target therapy to reduce COPD exacerbations in patients at the highest risk. Keywords: chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, exacerbation, model, predictor, inhaled corticosteroids, bronchodilators 

Make BJ

2015-01-01

222

Influence of Androgen Deprivation Therapy on All-Cause Mortality in Men With High-Risk Prostate Cancer and a History of Congestive Heart Failure or Myocardial Infarction  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Purpose: It is unknown whether the excess risk of all-cause mortality (ACM) observed when androgen deprivation therapy (ADT) is added to radiation for men with prostate cancer and a history of congestive heart failure (CHF) or myocardial infarction (MI) also applies to those with high-risk disease. Methods and Materials: Of 14,594 men with cT1c-T3aN0M0 prostate cancer treated with brachytherapy-based radiation from 1991 through 2006, 1,378 (9.4%) with a history of CHF or MI comprised the study cohort. Of these, 22.6% received supplemental external beam radiation, and 42.9% received a median of 4 months of neoadjuvant ADT. Median age was 71.8 years. Median follow-up was 4.3 years. Cox multivariable analysis tested for an association between ADT use and ACM within risk groups, after adjusting for treatment factors, prognostic factors, and propensity score for ADT. Results: ADT was associated with significantly increased ACM (adjusted hazard ratio [AHR] = 1.76; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.32-2.34; p = 0.0001), with 5-year estimates of 22.71% with ADT and 11.62% without ADT. The impact of ADT on ACM by risk group was as follows: high-risk AHR = 2.57; 95% CI, 1.17-5.67; p = 0.019; intermediate-risk AHR = 1.75; 95% CI, 1.13-2.73; p = 0.012; low-risk AHR = 1.52; 95% CI, 0.96-2.43; p = 0.075). Conclusions: Among patients with a history of CHF or MI treated with brachytherapy-based radiation, ADT was associated with increased all-cause mortality, even for patients with high-risk disease. Although ADT has been shown in Phase III studies to improve overall survival in high-risk disease, the small subgroup of high-risk patients with a history of CHF or MI, who represented about 9% of the patients, may be harmed by ADT.

Nguyen, Paul L., E-mail: pnguyen@LROC.harvard.edu [Department of Radiation Oncology, Dana Farber Cancer Institute and Brigham and Women' s Hospital, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA (United States); Chen, Ming-Hui [Department of Statistics, University of Connecticut, Storrs, CT (United States); Beckman, Joshua A. [Department of Cardiology, Brigham and Women' s Hospital, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA (United States); Beard, Clair J.; Martin, Neil E. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Dana Farber Cancer Institute and Brigham and Women' s Hospital, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA (United States); Choueiri, Toni K. [Lank Center for Genitourinary Oncology, Dana-Farber Cancer Institute, Boston, MA (United States); Hu, Jim C. [Division of Urologic Surgery, Brigham and Women' s/Faulkner Hospital, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA (United States); Hoffman, Karen E. [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Texas M. D. Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, TX (United States); Dosoretz, Daniel E. [21st Century Oncology, Fort Myers, FL (United States); Moran, Brian J. [Chicago Prostate Center, Westmont, IL (United States); Salenius, Sharon A. [21st Century Oncology, Fort Myers, FL (United States); Braccioforte, Michelle H. [Chicago Prostate Center, Westmont, IL (United States); Kantoff, Philip W. [Lank Center for Genitourinary Oncology, Dana-Farber Cancer Institute, Boston, MA (United States); D' Amico, Anthony V. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Dana Farber Cancer Institute and Brigham and Women' s Hospital, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA (United States); Ennis, Ronald D. [Department of Radiation Oncology, St. Luke' s-Roosevelt and Beth Israel Hospitals, Continuum Cancer Centers of New York, Albert Einstein College of Medicine, New York, NY (Israel)

2012-03-15

223

Validation of the EBMT Risk Score for South Brazilian Patients Submitted to Allogeneic Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplantation  

OpenAIRE

Background. Allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) is still associated with a high transplant-related mortality rate. In 2009, the EBMT risk score was validated as a simple tool to predict the outcome after allogeneic HSCT for acquired hematological disorders. Objectives. The aim of this study was to validate the applicability of the EBMT risk score for allogeneic HSCT on South Brazilian patients. Methods. A retrospective observational study was performed based on patients'...

Beatriz Stela Pitombeira; Alessandra Paz; Annelise Pezzi; Bruna Amorin; Vanessa Valim; Alvaro Laureano; Andrea Wieck; Lisandra Rigoni; Érica Ottoni; Gustavo Fisher; Liane Daudt; Lucia Silla

2013-01-01

224

[Pilot study comparing the results of two scores with nutritional risk screening in the elderly].  

Science.gov (United States)

Frailty in the elderly develops under the combined action of physiological aging, chronic diseases and life context. Malnutrition is often the cause or consequence and engenders physiological alterations due to decreased food consumption, the ability to eat and access to food. The objective of this study is to analyze, in a rehabilitation and treatment center for the elderly, the results of two scores of nutritional risk screening, the Nutritional Risk Screening (NRS) and the Mini Nutritional Assessment Short Form (MNA-SF) validated in the elderly and taking into account the clinical signs of fragility. In this study, the MNA-SF has a higher sensitivity and is the reference tool for routine screening in this population. PMID:24383286

Reinert, Raphaël; Gachet, Anouk; Fischer, Clare; Pitteloud, Fanny; Jeannot, Emilien; Bosshard Taroni, Wanda

2013-11-13

225

Risk factors for myocardial infarction case fatality and stroke case fatality in type 2 diabetes: UKPDS 66.  

OpenAIRE

OBJECTIVE: Patients with diabetes have a higher case fatality rate in myocardial infarction (MI) or stroke than those without diabetes: that is, MI and stroke are more often fatal if diabetes is present. We investigated whether the risk of MI or stroke being fatal in type 2 diabetes can be estimated using information available around the time diabetes is diagnosed. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS: Analyses were based on 674 cases of MI (351 fatal) that occurred in 597 of 5,102 U.K. Prospective Di...

Stevens, Rj; Coleman, Rl; Adler, Ai; Stratton, Im; Matthews, Dr; Holman, Rr

2004-01-01

226

Duration of clopidogrel treatment and risk of mortality and recurrent myocardial infarction among 11 680 patients with myocardial infarction treated with percutaneous coronary intervention: a cohort study  

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Full Text Available Abstract Background The optimal duration of clopidogrel treatment after percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI is unclear. We studied the risk of death or recurrent myocardial infarction (MI in relation to 6- and 12-months clopidogrel treatment among MI patients treated with PCI. Methods Using nationwide registers of hospitalizations and drug dispensing from pharmacies we identified 11 680 patients admitted with MI, treated with PCI and clopidogrel. Clopidogrel treatment was categorized in a 6-months and a 12-months regimen. Rates of death, recurrent MI or a combination of both were analyzed by the Kaplan Meier method and Cox proportional hazards models. Bleedings were compared between treatment regimens. Results The Kaplan Meier analysis indicated no benefit of the 12-months regimen compared with the 6-months in all endpoints. The Cox proportional hazards analysis confirmed these findings with hazard ratios for the 12-months regimen (the 6-months regimen used as reference for the composite endpoint of 1.01 (confidence intervals 0.81-1.26 and 1.24 (confidence intervals 0.95-1.62 for Day 0-179 and Day 180-540 after discharge. Bleedings occurred in 3.5% and 4.1% of the patients in the 6-months and 12-months regimen (p = 0.06. Conclusions We found comparable rates of death and recurrent MI in patients treated with 6- and 12-months' clopidogrel. The potential benefit of prolonged clopidogrel treatment in a real-life setting remains uncertain.

Køber Lars

2010-01-01

227

Validity evaluation of recently published diabetes risk scoring models in a general Chinese population.  

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The study aimed to assess the validity of some recently published diabetes risk scoring models in a general Chinese population. In 2007, there was a re-examination of 711 individuals who were originally examined in 1992. Since 24 individuals had diabetes in 1992, 687 individuals were available for analysis. Validity was assessed with area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AROC), and we assessed seven prospective and four cross-sectional models. When applied to our population, AROCs tended to be higher in Asian models than in non-Asian models (average AROCs 0.694±0.034 vs. 0.667±0.040, p=0.258), and those tended to be higher in prospective models than in cross-sectional models (average AROCs 0.695±0.028 vs. 0.652±0.042, p=0.072). A prospective model from Taiwan performed best (AROC 0.749; 95% CI 0.691-0.807). In conclusion, diabetes risk scoring models could not always be generalized from one population to another before validation. Asian models might be more suitable for Asian populations than non-Asian models, and prospective models might be more suitable for predicting future diabetes than cross-sectional models. When applied to our population, a prospective model from Taiwan performed best, and widespread application might be considered in the population. PMID:22129653

He, Sen; Chen, Xiaoping; Cui, Kaijun; Peng, Yong; Liu, Kai; Lv, Zhengbing; Yang, Rui; Zhou, Xiaoyan

2012-02-01

228

Paleolithic and Mediterranean diet pattern scores and risk of incident, sporadic colorectal adenomas.  

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The Western dietary pattern is associated with higher risk of colorectal neoplasms. Evolutionary discordance could explain this association. We investigated associations of scores for 2 proposed diet patterns, the "Paleolithic" and the Mediterranean, with incident, sporadic colorectal adenomas in a case-control study of colorectal polyps conducted in Minnesota (1991-1994). Persons with no prior history of colorectal neoplasms completed comprehensive questionnaires prior to elective, outpatient endoscopy; of these individuals, 564 were identified as cases and 1,202 as endoscopy-negative controls. An additional group of community controls frequency-matched on age and sex (n = 535) was also recruited. Both diet scores were calculated for each participant and categorized into quintiles, and associations were estimated using unconditional logistic regression. The multivariable-adjusted odds ratios comparing persons in the highest quintiles of the Paleolithic and Mediterranean diet scores relative to the lowest quintiles were, respectively, 0.71 (95% confidence interval (CI): 0.50, 1.02; Ptrend = 0.02) and 0.74 (95% CI: 0.54, 1.03; Ptrend = 0.05) when comparing cases with endoscopy-negative controls and 0.84 (95% CI: 0.56, 1.26; Ptrend = 0.14) and 0.77 (95% CI: 0.53, 1.11; Ptrend = 0.13) when comparing cases with community controls. These findings suggest that greater adherence to the Paleolithic diet pattern and greater adherence to the Mediterranean diet pattern may be similarly associated with lower risk of incident, sporadic colorectal adenomas. PMID:25326623

Whalen, Kristine A; McCullough, Marji; Flanders, W Dana; Hartman, Terryl J; Judd, Suzanne; Bostick, Roberd M

2014-12-01

229

Life events as risk factors for myocardial infarction: a pilot case-control study in Kolkata, India.  

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This case-control study was conducted in the Cardiology Department of Medical College, Kolkata, India, during 2000-2001, to explore the link between stressful life events and subsequent myocardial infarction (MI). One hundred consecutive confirmed MI patients were selected as a case group. One hundred age-, sex- and income-matched controls were selected from visitors other than relatives who attended these patients. The subjects were interviewed and asked to rate 61 life events with a number between 0 and 20. They also noted which of these they had experienced in the last one year. The main exposure variables included life events as per E.S. Paykel, smoking, alcohol consumption, chewing of tobacco, marital status, literacy, employment, and monthly per-capita income. The results showed that an MI patient was likely to experience 4.16 stressful life events, which were twice as much as the control group (2.24). The total stress score was the highest for serious personal illness followed by illness of family members and unemployment for the MI patients. For the controls, conflict between husband and wife, death of friends, and personal illness had the highest total stress score. The mean stress score for the MI patients was 35.5 compared to 17.35 among the controls. The MI subjects were more likely to have experienced stressful life events than the controls. PMID:16117364

Haldar, Anima; Saha, Subhashis; Mandal, Sankar; Haldar, Santanu; Mundle, Malay; Mitra, S P

2005-06-01

230

Cardiovascular Risk Factors in Normolipidemic Acute Myocardial Infarct Patients on Admission – Do Dietary Fruits and Vegetables Offer Any Benefits?  

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Full Text Available Background: Myocardial Infarction (MI is a leading cause of death in India. Whether dietary vitamins could reduce risk of cardiovascular disease among Indians is still not clear and very few studies have addressed the association between dietary vitamin acting as an antioxidant or pro-oxidant and its effect on risk reduction or aggravation in normolipidemic AMI patients. Objective: The goal of the current study was to address the association between dietary vitamin and cardiovascular risk in normolipidemic acute myocardial infarct patients compared with healthy controls. Design: Dietary intake of vitamins was assessed by 131 food frequency questionnaire items in both AMI patients and age/sex-matched controls. The associated changes in risk factors due to antioxidant vitamins intake was also assessed in normolipidemic acute myocardial patients and was compared with controls. Results: Dietary intake of vitamin A, B1, B2, B3 was significantly higher in AMI patients compared to healthy controls but the intake of vitamin C was significantly higher in controls compared to AMI patients. Even though the vitamins intake was higher in patients, the associated cardiovascular risk factors were not reduced compared to controls. The total cholesterol, LDL-c, TAG were significantly higher (p<0.001 in AMI patients except HDL-c which was significantly higher (p<0.001 in controls. The endogenous antioxidants were found to be significantly lowered in patients compared to controls in spite of higher vitamin intake. Similarly the enzymatic antioxidants were also significantly lowered in patients. The mean serum Lipoprotein (a malondialdehyde (MDA and conjugated diene (CD levels in patients were significantly elevated compared with controls. The levels of caeruloplasmin, C-reactive protein, fibrinogen, ischemia-modified albumin were significantly higher but arylesterase activities were lowered in patients. Conclusion: Diets rich in vegetables and fruits do not seem to reduce the cardiovascular risk in normolipidemic AMI patients among Indians and Sri Lankans.

Arun Kumar

2010-10-01

231

A quantitative climate-match score for risk-assessment screening of reptile and amphibian introductions.  

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Assessing climatic suitability provides a good preliminary estimate of the invasive potential of a species to inform risk assessment. We examined two approaches for bioclimatic modeling for 67 reptile and amphibian species introduced to California and Florida. First, we modeled the worldwide distribution of the biomes found in the introduced range to highlight similar areas worldwide from which invaders might arise. Second, we modeled potentially suitable environments for species based on climatic factors in their native ranges, using three sources of distribution data. Performance of the three datasets and both approaches were compared for each species. Climate match was positively correlated with species establishment success (maximum predicted suitability in the introduced range was more strongly correlated with establishment success than mean suitability). Data assembled from the Global Amphibian Assessment through NatureServe provided the most accurate models for amphibians, while ecoregion data compiled by the World Wide Fund for Nature yielded models which described reptile climatic suitability better than available point-locality data. We present three methods of assigning a climate-match score for use in risk assessment using both the mean and maximum climatic suitabilities. Managers may choose to use different methods depending on the stringency of the assessment and the available data, facilitating higher resolution and accuracy for herpetofaunal risk assessment. Climate-matching has inherent limitations and other factors pertaining to ecological interactions and life-history traits must also be considered for thorough risk assessment. PMID:19582397

van Wilgen, Nicola J; Roura-Pascual, Núria; Richardson, David M

2009-09-01

232

Dutch women with a low birth weight have an increased risk of myocardial infarction later in life: a case control study  

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Full Text Available Abstract Background To investigate whether low birth weight increases the risk of myocardial infarction later in life in women. Methods Nationwide population-based case-control study. Patients and controls: 152 patients with a first myocardial infarction before the age of 50 years in the Netherlands. 568 control women who had not had a myocardial infarction stratified for age, calendar year of the index event, and area of residence. Results Birth weight in the patient group was significantly lower than in control women (3214 vs. 3370 gram, mean difference -156.3 gram (95%CI -9.5 to -303.1. The odds ratio for myocardial infarction, associated with a birth weight lower than 3000 gram (20th percentile in controls compared to higher than 3000 gram was 1.7 (95%CI 1.1–2.7, while the odds ratio for myocardial infarction for children with a low birth weight ( Conclusions Low birth weight is associated with an increased risk of myocardial infarction before age of 50 in Dutch women.

Rosendaal Frits R

2005-01-01

233

A composite scoring of genotypes discriminates coronary heart disease risk beyond conventional risk factors in the Boston Puerto Rican Health Study  

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Background: Few studies have examined the usefulness of genetic scores to identify subjects at increased risk for coronary heart disease (CHD). Using a genetic predisposition score (GPS), integrating the additive associations of a set of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) with CHD, we examined t...

234

Cardiovascular risk prediction in the general population with use of suPAR, CRP, and Framingham Risk Score  

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BACKGROUND: The inflammatory biomarkers soluble urokinase plasminogen activator receptor (suPAR) and C-reactive protein (CRP) independently predict cardiovascular disease (CVD). The prognostic implications of suPAR and CRP combined with Framingham Risk Score (FRS) have not been determined. METHODS: From 1993 to 1994, baseline levels of suPAR and CRP were obtained from 2315 generally healthy Danish individuals (mean [SD] age: 53.9 [10.6] years) who were followed for the composite outcome of ischemic heart disease, stroke and CVD mortality. RESULTS: During a median follow-up of 12.7years, 302 events were recorded. After adjusting for FRS, women with suPAR levels in the highest tertile had a 1.74-fold (95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.08-2.81, p=0.027) and men a 2.09-fold (95% CI: 1.37-3.18, p20%) risk categories, respectively. This was reflected in a significant improvement of C statistics for men (p=0.034) and borderline significant for women (p=0.054), while the integrated discrimination improvement was highlysignificant (P?0.001) for both genders. CONCLUSIONS: suPAR provides prognostic information of CVD risk beyond FRS and improves risk prediction substantially when combined with CRP in this setting.

Lyngbæk, Stig; Marott, Jacob L

2013-01-01

235

Association of uric acid genetic risk score with blood pressure: the Rotterdam study.  

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High levels of serum uric acid are associated with hypertension in observational studies. The aim of this study was to investigate the association of uric acid gene variants with blood pressure. We studied 5791 participants aged ?55 years from the Rotterdam Study. Thirty gene variants identified for serum uric acid level were used to compile genetic risk score (GRS). We used linear regression models to investigate the association of the uric acid GRS with systolic and diastolic blood pressure in the whole study population and separately in participants with and without comorbidities and medication use. In the age- and sex-adjusted model, each SD increase in uric acid GRS was associated with 0.75 mm Hg lower systolic blood pressure (95% confidence interval, -1.31 to -0.19) and 0.42 mm Hg lower diastolic blood pressure (95% confidence interval, -0.72 to -0.13). The association did not attenuate after further adjustment for antihypertensive medication use and conventional cardiovascular risk factors. In subgroup analysis, the association of uric acid GRS with systolic blood pressure was significantly stronger in participants (n=885) on diuretic treatment (P for interaction, 0.007). In conclusion, we found that higher uric acid GRS is associated with lower systolic and diastolic blood pressure. Diuretics treatment may modify the association of uric acid genetic risk score and systolic blood pressure. Our study suggests that genome wide association study's findings can be associated with an intermediate factor or have a pleiotropic role and, therefore, should be applied for Mendelian Randomization with caution. PMID:25185132

Sedaghat, Sanaz; Pazoki, Raha; Uitterlinden, Andre G; Hofman, Albert; Stricker, Bruno H Ch; Ikram, M Arfan; Franco, Oscar H; Dehghan, Abbas

2014-11-01

236

Use of ABCD2 risk scoring system to determine the short-term stroke risk in patients presenting to emergency department with transient ischaemic attack  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Objective: To determine the 3-day stroke risk of patients presenting to emergency department with transient ischaemic attack, and to evaluate the predictive value of ABCD2 (Age, Blood pressure, Clinical features, Duration of symptoms and Diabetes) score for these patients. Methods: The prospective study was conducted on patients with diagnosis of transient ischaemic attack who were divided into low (0-3 points), medium (4-5 points) and high (6-7 points) risk groups according to their ABCD2 scores. The sensitivity of the scoring system on estimation of the risk of stroke in 3 days was evaluated through receiver operating characteristic curve. SPSS 15 was used for data analysis. Results: Of the 64 patients in the study, none of the low-risk group had stroke. Stroke was present in 4 of 33 (12.12%) medium-risk patients, while there were 4 in 18 (22.22%) in the high-risk group. Sensitivity and specificity of each ABCD2 score for 3rd day stroke risk was calculated. In the receiver operating curve generated by these calculations, the c statistics was determined as 0.76 (95% CI: 0.64, 0.86; p<0.01) and the most appropriate cut-off score to dichotomise the study group was determined as 4. Conclusions: In transient ischaemic attack patients with an ABCD2 score of four or higher had a markedly increased short-term stroke risk, while those with a lower score were quite safe. It is appropriate to hospitalise patients with a score of four or more and investigate for underlying causr more and investigate for underlying cause and initiate treatment. (author)

237

Influence of health-related quality of life on time from symptom onset to hospital arrival and the risk of readmission in patients with myocardial infarction  

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Background Despite increased awareness of the importance of early treatment in acute myocardial infarction (AMI), the delay from symptom onset to hospital arrival is still too long and rehospitalisations are frequent. Little is known about how health-related quality of life (HRQL) affects delay time and the frequency of readmissions. Method We used quality registers to investigate whether patients’ HRQL has any impact on delay time with a new AMI, and on the rate of readmissions during the first year. Patients with AMI readmissions was evaluated among those who had an additional AMI and a new 1-year follow-up registration (n=216). Results Patients who reported poor total health status (EQ-VAS ?50), compared to those who reported EQ-VAS 81–100, had tripled risk to delay ?2?h from symptom onset to hospital arrival (adjusted OR 3.01, 95% CI 1.43 to 6.34). Patients scoring EQ-VAS ?50 had also a higher risk of readmissions in the univariate analysis (OR 3.08, 95% CI 1.71 to 5.53). However, the correlation did not remain significant after adjustment (OR 1.99, 95% CI 0.90 to 4.38). EQ-index was not independently associated with delay time or readmissions. Conclusions Aspects of total health status post-AMI were independently associated with delay time to hospital arrival in case of a new AMI. However, the influence of total health status on the risk of readmissions was less clear. PMID:25525504

Henriksson, Catrin; Larsson, Margareta; Herlitz, Johan; Karlsson, Jan-Erik; Wernroth, Lisa; Lindahl, Bertil

2014-01-01

238

Clinical features and risk factors of cerebral infarction after mild head trauma under 18 months of age.  

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Mild head trauma can cause cerebral infarction in children younger than 18 months of age, yet the pathogenesis, clinical characteristics, and risk factors are not fully understood. Data of 16 cases between August 2008 and September 2011, including clinical manifestations and imaging and laboratory findings were collected and analyzed. All patients had the history of mild head trauma. The median age of the cohort was 13.5 months (range 6 months to 18 months). All children developed neurologic symptoms and signs within 72 hours after trauma, 62.5% (10/16) within 30 minutes. The first symptoms included hemiparesis (9/16), facial paresis (4/16), and convulsion (6/16). Overall, 93.75% (15/16) of the lesions were in the basal ganglia region. Two risk factors were identified, basal ganglia calcification in 10 and cytomegalovirus infection in eight. After conservative therapy, the neurologic deficits recovered to some extent. Cerebral infarction after mild head trauma in children younger than 18 months of age may take place, especially under the circumstances of basal ganglia calcification or cytomegalovirus infection. PMID:23419473

Yang, Feng-Hua; Wang, Hua; Zhang, Jun-Mei; Liang, Hong-Yuan

2013-03-01

239

Demographic determinants of risk, colon distribution and density scores of diverticular disease  

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AIM: To investigate associations between ethnicity, age and sex and the risk, colon distribution and density scores of diverticular disease (DD). METHODS: Barium enemas were examined in 1000 patients: 410 male, 590 female; 760 whites, 62 Asians, 44 black africans (BAs), and 134 other blacks (OBs). Risks and diverticula density of left-sided DD (LSDD) and right-sided-component DD (RSCDD = right-sided DD + right and left DD + Pan-DD) were compared using logistic regression. RESULTS: Four hundred and forty-seven patients had DD (322 LSDD and 125 RSCDD). Adjusted risks: (1) LSDD: each year increase in age increased the odds by 6% (95% CI: 5-8, SE: 0.8%, P < 0.001); Asians: odds ratio (OR): 0.23 (95% CI: 0.10-0.53, SE: 0.1, P ? 0.001) and OBs: OR: 0.25 (95% CI: 0.14-0.43, SE: 0.07, P ? 0.001) appeared protected vs Whites; (2) RSCDD: each year increase in age increased the odds by 4% (95% CI: 2-6, SE: 1%, P < 0.001); females were 0.60 times (95% CI: 0.40-0.90, SE: 0.12, P = 0.01) less likely than males to have RSCDD; BAs were 3.51 times (95% CI: 1.70-7.24, SE: 1.30, P < 0.001) more likely than Whites to have RSCDD; and (3) DD density scores: each year increase in age increased the odds of high-density scores by 4% (95% CI: 1-6, SE: 1%, P < 0.001); RSCDD was 2.77 times (95% CI: 1.39-3.32, SE: 0.67, P < 0.001) more likely to be of high density than LSDD. No further significant differences were found in the adjusted models. CONCLUSION: Right colonic DD might be more common and has higher diverticula density in the west than previously reported. BAs appear predisposed to DD, whereas other ethnic differences appear conserved following migration. PMID:21448352

Golder, Mark; Ster, Irina Chis; Babu, Pratusha; Sharma, Amita; Bayat, Muhammad; Farah, Abdulkadir

2011-01-01

240

Ten-year absolute risk of osteoporotic fractures according to BMD T score at menopause: the Danish Osteoporosis Prevention Study  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

In the non-HRT arms of the DOPS study, 10-year fracture risk was higher at each level of T score than predicted by the Kanis algorithm. Under-reporting of fractures in registers and inclusion of HRT users are probable explanations for inappropriately low fracture risk estimates for younger women. INTRODUCTION: International recommendations highlight the importance of absolute fracture risk in establishing intervention thresholds. The available estimates of long-term risk have been derived by combining relative risks from meta-analyses with U.S. normative BMD data and Swedish fracture incidence records. We validated the 2001 Kanis risk algorithm using incident fractures observed in untreated women in the first 10 years of the Danish Osteoporosis Prevention Study (DOPS). Comparisons were also made with the relative risks derived from a recent meta-analysis of 12 cohort studies. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We analyzed DXA of the spine and hip from 872 women who were enrolled in the non-hormone replacement therapy (HRT) arms of the study and had not received HRT, bisphosphonates, or raloxifene. We collected verified reports of fractures at each visit. We focused on fractures of the hip, spine, shoulder, and forearm to provide risks comparable with the Kanis algorithm. Accordingly, asymptomatic radiographic vertebral fractures were not included. RESULTS: Seventy-eight women (9%) sustained relevant fractures. The risk of fracture increased by 1.32 (95% CI, 1.02; 1.70) for each unit decrease in femoral neck T score and by 1.30 (95% CI, 1.06; 1.58) for each unit decrease in lumbar spine T score at baseline. Absolute fracture risk was higher than expected from the Kanis algorithm at all T score levels. The difference was greatest for participants in the higher range of T scores. At T = -1, the observed risk was 10.9% as opposed to an expected risk of 5.7%. Relative risk gradients were similar to those of the recent meta-analysis. CONCLUSIONS: In healthy women, examined in the first year or two after menopause, 10-year fracture risk was higher at each level of BMD T score than expected from the model by Kanis et al. Inclusion of HRT users in the cohorts used may have led to higher BMD values and lower absolute fracture risk in the Kanis model. These longitudinal data can be used directly in estimating absolute fracture risk in untreated north European women from BMD at menopause.

Abrahamsen, Bo; Vestergaard, Peter

2006-01-01

241

Could symptoms and risk factors diagnose COPD? Development of a Diagnosis Score for COPD  

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Full Text Available Pascale Salameh,1 Georges Khayat,2 Mirna Waked31Faculties of Pharmacy and of Public Health, Lebanese University, Beirut, 2Faculty of Medicine, Hôtel Dieu de France Hospital, Beirut and Saint Joseph University, Beirut, 3Faculty of Medicine, Saint George Hospital, Beirut and Balamand University, Beirut, LebanonBackground: Diagnosing chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD without spirometry is still a challenge. Our objective in this study was to develop a scale for diagnosis of COPD.Methods: Data were taken from a cross-sectional epidemiological study. After reducing chronic respiratory symptoms, a logistic regression was used to select risk factors for and symptoms of COPD. The rounded coefficients generated a Diagnosis Score for COPD (DS-COPD, which was dichotomized and differentiated between COPD and other individuals with respiratory symptoms.Results: We constructed a tool for COPD diagnosis with good properties, comprising 12 items. The area under the curve was 0.849; the positive predictive value was 76% if the DS-COPD was >20 and the negative predictive value was 97% if the DS-COPD was <10. A DS-COPD of 10–19 represented a zone mostly suggestive of no COPD (77%. The score was also inversely correlated with forced expiratory volume in 1 second/forced vital capacity.Conclusion: In this study, a tool for diagnosis of COPD was constructed with good properties for use in the epidemiological setting, mainly in cases of low or high scoring. It would be of particular interest in the primary care setting, where spirometry may not be available. Prospective studies and application in clinical settings would be necessary to validate this scale further.Keywords: diagnosis, scale, development, spirometry

Salameh P

2012-09-01

242

Ten-year absolute risk of osteoporotic fractures according to BMD T score at menopause : the Danish Osteoporosis Prevention Study  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

In the non-HRT arms of the DOPS study, 10-year fracture risk was higher at each level of T score than predicted by the Kanis algorithm. Under-reporting of fractures in registers and inclusion of HRT users are probable explanations for inappropriately low fracture risk estimates for younger women. INTRODUCTION: International recommendations highlight the importance of absolute fracture risk in establishing intervention thresholds. The available estimates of long-term risk have been derived by combining relative risks from meta-analyses with U.S. normative BMD data and Swedish fracture incidence records. We validated the 2001 Kanis risk algorithm using incident fractures observed in untreated women in the first 10 years of the Danish Osteoporosis Prevention Study (DOPS). Comparisons were also made with the relative risks derived from a recent meta-analysis of 12 cohort studies. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We analyzed DXA of the spine and hip from 872 women who were enrolled in the non-hormone replacement therapy (HRT) arms of the study and had not received HRT, bisphosphonates, or raloxifene. We collected verified reports of fractures at each visit. We focused on fractures of the hip, spine, shoulder, and forearm to provide risks comparable with the Kanis algorithm. Accordingly, asymptomatic radiographic vertebral fractures were not included. RESULTS: Seventy-eight women (9%) sustained relevant fractures. The risk of fracture increased by 1.32 (95% CI, 1.02; 1.70) for each unit decrease in femoral neck T score and by 1.30 (95% CI, 1.06; 1.58) for each unit decrease in lumbar spine T score at baseline. Absolute fracture risk was higher than expected from the Kanis algorithm at all T score levels. The difference was greatest for participants in the higher range of T scores. At T = -1, the observed risk was 10.9% as opposed to an expected risk of 5.7%. Relative risk gradients were similar to those of the recent meta-analysis. CONCLUSIONS: In healthy women, examined in the first year or two after menopause, 10-year fracturerisk was higher at each level of BMD T score than expected from the model by Kanis et al. Inclusion of HRT users in the cohorts used may have led to higher BMD values and lower absolute fracture risk in the Kanis model. These longitudinal data can be used directly in estimating absolute fracture risk in untreated north European women from BMD at menopause.

Abrahamsen, Bo; Vestergaard, Peter

2006-01-01

243

Seed Implant Retention Score Predicts the Risk of Prolonged Urinary Retention After Prostate Brachytherapy  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Purpose: To risk-stratify patients for urinary retention after prostate brachytherapy according to a novel seed implant retention score (SIRS). Patients and Methods: A total of 835 patients underwent transperineal prostate seed implant from March 1993 to January 2007; 197 patients had 125I and 638 patients had 103Pd brachytherapy. Four hundred ninety-four patients had supplemental external-beam radiation. The final downsized prostate volume was used for the 424 patients who had neoadjuvant hormone therapy. Retention was defined as reinsertion of a Foley catheter after the implant. Results: Retention developed in 7.4% of patients, with an average duration of 6.7 weeks. On univariate analysis, implant without supplemental external-beam radiation (10% vs. 5.6%; p = 0.02), neoadjuvant hormone therapy (9.4% vs. 5.4%; p = 0.02), baseline ?-blocker use (12.5% vs. 6.3%; p = 0.008), and increased prostate volume (13.4% vs. 6.9% vs. 2.9%, >45 cm3, 25-45 cm3, 3; p = 0.0008) were significantly correlated with increased rates of retention. On multivariate analysis, implant without supplemental external-beam radiation, neoadjuvant hormone therapy, baseline ?-blocker use, and increased prostate volume were correlated with retention. A novel SIRS was modeled as the combined score of these factors, ranging from 0 to 5. There was a significant correlation between the SIRS and retention (p < 0.0001). The rates of retention wn (p < 0.0001). The rates of retention were 0, 4%, 5.6%, 9%, 20.9%, and 36.4% for SIRS of 0 to 5, respectively. Conclusions: The SIRS may identify patients who are at high risk for prolonged retention after prostate brachytherapy. A prospective validation study of the SIRS is planned.

244

Platelet Gene Expression as a Biomarker Risk Stratification Tool in Acute Myocardial Infarction: A Pilot Investigation  

OpenAIRE

Platelets play a major role in the pathophysiology of acute myocardial infarction (AMI). Recent evidence reveals megakaryocyte-derived platelet pre-mRNA is spliced to mRNA and then translated into functional proteins in response to external stimulation. An exon microarray analyzes pre-mRNA alternative splicing and is thus applicable for studying gene expression in the anucleate platelet. We hypothesized a subset of megakaryocyte/platelet genes exists that are significantly over or underexpres...

Calverley, David C.; Casserly, Ivan P.; Choudhury, Qamrul G.; Phang, Tzu L.; Bifeng Gao; Messenger, John C.; Geraci, Mark W.

2010-01-01

245

Postpartum thromboembolism: Severe events might be preventable using a new risk score model  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Pelle G Lindqvist1,3, Jelena Torsson2, Åsa Almqvist1, Ola Björgell21Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology; 2Radiology, Malmö University Hospital, Lund University, Malmö, Sweden; 3Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Karolinska Hospital, Huddinge, SwedenBackground: Pregnancy-related venous thromboembolism (VTE is a major cause of maternal morbidity and mortality. A new risk assessment model for VTE in relation to pregnancy has been introduced in Sweden. We wished to determine the proportion of preventable VTE cases if the model had been in use and make a brief cost-benefit analysis.Methods: A hospital-based retrospective case-control study of all postpartum thromboembolic instances of deep venous thrombosis and pulmonary embolisms during a 16-year period. Large anamnestic risk factors at the time of delivery were assessed. We correlated the findings with the new Swedish guidelines for thromboprophylaxis.Results: We found 37 cases of postpartum VTE during the study period. Nineteen of all VTE cases (51% and eight out of eleven of cases of pulmonary embolism (73% had two or more large anamnestic risk factors, ie, they would have been subjected to thromboprophylaxis if the new guidelines had been used. The cost of each preventable VTE was lower than treating a VTE.Conclusion: Approximately one-half of postpartum VTE cases and 70% of pulmonary emboli cases have at least two large risk factors and might be preventable using the new algorithm. From the perspective of the health care system the new recommendations appears to be cost-effective.Keywords: thromboprophylaxis, low molecular weight heparin, scoring system, health care financing, ultrasonography, phlebography

Pelle G Lindqvist

2008-08-01

246

Use of the CRIB (clinical risk index for babies) score in prediction of neonatal mortality and morbidity.  

OpenAIRE

A prospective study of the outcome of care of a regional cohort of very low birthweight (< 1500 g) and very preterm (< 32 weeks) infants was carried out. Its aims were to assess the ability of the CRIB (clinical risk index for babies) score, rather than gestational age or birthweight, to predict mortality before hospital discharge, neurological morbidity, and length of stay, and to access CRIB score as an indicator of neonatal intensive care performance. 676 live births fulfilled the criteria...

Courcy-wheeler, R. H.; Wolfe, C. D.; Fitzgerald, A.; Spencer, M.; Goodman, J. D.; Gamsu, H. R.

1995-01-01

247

Early stroke risk and ABCD2 score performance in tissue- vs time-defined TIA: a multicenter study.  

OpenAIRE

OBJECTIVES: Stroke risk immediately after TIA defined by time-based criteria is high, and prognostic scores (ABCD2 and ABCD3-I) have been developed to assist management. The American Stroke Association has proposed changing the criteria for the distinction between TIA and stroke from time-based to tissue-based. Research using these definitions is lacking. In a multicenter observational cohort study, we have investigated prognosis and performance of the ABCD2 score in TIA, subcategorized as ti...

Giles, Mf; Albers, Gw; Amarenco, P.; Arsava, Em; Asimos, Aw; Ay, H.; Calvet, D.; Coutts, Sb; Cucchiara, Bl; Demchuk, Am; Johnston, Sc; Kelly, Pj; Kim, As; Labreuche, J.; Lavallee, Pc

2011-01-01

248

The effect of leisure-time physical activity on the risk of acute myocardial infarction depending on Body Mass Index: a population-based case-control study  

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Full Text Available Abstract Background High body mass index (BMI and lack of physical activity have been recognized as important risk factors for coronary heart disease. The aim of the present study was to evaluate whether leisure-time physical activity compensates for the increased risk of acute myocardial infarction associated with overweight and obesity. Methods Data from the SHEEP (Stockholm Heart Epidemiology Program study were used. The SHEEP study is a large Swedish population-based case-control study, comprising 1204 male and 550 female cases, and 1538 male and 777 female controls, conducted in Stockholm County, Sweden, during the period 1992–1994. Odds ratios (OR, together with 95 % confidence intervals (95% CI, were calculated using unconditional logistic regression, as estimates of the relative risks. Results Regular leisure-time physical activity was associated with a decreased risk of myocardial infarction among lean, normal-weight and overweight subjects, but not among obese subjects. Obese (BMI ? 30 and physically active persons had an almost twofold risk of myocardial infarction, compared with normal-weight and sedentary persons (OR 1.85, 95% CI 1.07–3.18. The results were similar for men and women. Conclusion While regular leisure-time physical activity seems to provide protection against myocardial infarction among lean, normal-weight and overweight subjects, this does not appear to be the case in obese subjects.

Reuterwall Christina

2006-12-01

249

Nonfasting cholesterol and triglycerides and association with risk of myocardial infarction and total mortality: the Copenhagen City Heart Study with 31 years of follow-up  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Abstract. Langsted A, Freiberg JJ, Tybjaerg-Hansen A, Schnohr P, Jensen GB, Nordestgaard BG (Herlev Hospital, Herlev; University of Copenhagen; Bispebjerg Hospital; and Rigshospitalet, Copenhagen Ø, Denmark) Nonfasting cholesterol and triglycerides and association with risk of myocardial infarction and total mortality: the Copenhagen City Heart Study with 31 years of follow-up. J Intern Med 2010; doi: 10.1111/j.1365-2796.2010.02333.x. Objectives. We compared the ability of very high levels of nonfasting cholesterol and triglycerides to predict risk of myocardial infarction and total mortality. Design. Prospective study from 1976 to 1978 until 2007. Setting. Danish general population. Participants. Randomly selected population of 7581 women and 6391 men, of whom 768 and 1151 developed myocardial infarction and 4398 and 4416 died, respectively. Participation rate was 72%, and follow-up was 100% complete. Less than 2% of participants were taking lipid-lowering therapy. Results. Compared to women with cholesterol

Langsted, A; Freiberg, J J

2011-01-01

250

The Risk Assessment Score in acute whiplash injury predicts outcome and reflects bio-psycho-social factors  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

ABSTRACT: Study Design. 1-year prospective study of 141 acute whiplash patients (WLP) and 40 acute ankle injured controlsObjective. This study investigates a priori determined potential risk factors in order to develop a risk assessment tool, for which the expediency was examinedSummary of Background Data. The Whiplash Associated Disorders (WAD) grading system that emerged from The Quebec Task-force-on-Whiplash has been of limited value for predicting work-related recovery and for explaining bio-psychosocial disability after whiplash and new predictive factors e.g. risk criteria that comprehensively differentiate acute WLP in a bio-psycho-social manner are needed.Methods. Consecutively 141 acute WLP and 40 ankle injured recruited from emergency units were examined after 1 week, 1, 3, 6, 12 months obtaining neck/head VAS score, number-of-non-painful complaints, epidemiological, social, psychological data and neurological examination, active neck mobility, and furthermore muscle tenderness and pain response, strength and duration of neck muscles. Risk factors derived (reduced CROM, intense neckpain/headache, multiple non-pain complaints) were applied in a Risk Assessment Score and divided into 7 risk-strata.Results. A ROC curve for the Risk Assessment Score and 1-year work disability showed an area of 0.90. Risk strata and number of sick days showed a log-linear relationship. In stratum 1 full recovery was encountered, but for high risk patients in stratum 6 only 50% and 7 only 20% had returned to work after 1-yr (p <5.4 * 10). Strength measures, psychophysical pain measurements and psychological and social data (reported elsewhere) showed significant relation to risk strata.Conclusion. The Risk Assessment score is suggested as a valuable tool for grading WLP early after injury. It has reasonable screening power for encountering work disability and reflects the bio-psycho-social nature of whiplash injuries.

Kasch, Helge; Qerama, Erisela

2011-01-01

251

A prospective evaluation of the CD14 C(-260)T gene polymorphism and the risk of myocardial infarction.  

Science.gov (United States)

The T allele at position -260 of the CD14 lipopolysaccharide receptor gene (CD14) has recently been hypothesized to be a risk factor for myocardial infarction (MI). However, no prospective data relating this polymorphism to risk of future MI are available. In the physicians' health study (PHS), 14916 apparently healthy men were followed over a 12-year period for incident MI. Employing a nested case-control study design, the CD14 C(-260)T polymorphism was evaluated among 387 study participants who developed MI (cases) and among an equal number of age- and smoking-matched study participants who remained free of vascular diseases during follow-up (controls). All observed genotype frequencies were in Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium. However, the allele and genotype distributions of the CD14 polymorphism were similar among cases and controls, both in the total cohort and in all subgroups evaluated. Furthermore, no evidence of association was observed assuming additive, dominant, or recessive mode of inheritance. For example, the relative risk of future MI in a comparison of homozygous mutants to homozygous wild types was 1.00 (95% CI=0.7-1.5; P=0.9). In this large prospective study, the CD14 C(-260)T gene polymorphism was not associated with risks of future MI. Thus, in contrast to prior studies, these data indicate that screening for CD14 C(-260)T genotypes is unlikely to be a useful tool for risk assessment. PMID:11257272

Zee, R Y; Lindpaintner, K; Struk, B; Hennekens, C H; Ridker, P M

2001-02-15

252

Application of the pediatric risk of mortality (PRISM score and determination of mortality risk factors in a tertiary pediatric intensive care unit  

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Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: To establish disease severity at admission can be performed by way of the mortality prognostic. Nowadays the prognostic scores make part of quality control and research. The Pediatric Risk of Mortality is one of the scores used in the pediatric intensive care units. OBJECTIVES: The purpose of this study is the utilization of the pediatric risk of mortality to determine mortality risk factors in a tertiary pediatric intensive care units. METHODS: Retrospective cohort study, in a period of one year, at a general tertiary pediatric intensive care unit. The pediatric risk of mortality scores corresponding to the first 24 hours of hospitalization were recorded; additional data were collected to characterize the study population. RESULTS: 359 patients were included; the variables that were found to be risk factors for death were multiple organ dysfunction syndrome, mechanical ventilation, use of vasoactive drugs, hospital-acquired infection, parenteral nutrition and duration of hospitalization (p < 0,0001. Fifty-four patients (15% died; median pediatric risk of mortality score was significantly lower in patients who survived (p=0,0001. The ROC curve yielded a value of 0.76 (CI 95% 0,69-0,83 and the calibration was shown to be adequate. DISCUSSION: It is imperative for pediatric intensive care units to implement strict quality controls to identify groups at risk of death and to ensure the adequacy of treatment. Although some authors have shown that the PRISM score overestimates mortality and that it is not appropriate in specific pediatric populations, in this study pediatric risk of mortality showed satisfactory discriminatory performance in differentiating between survivors and non-survivors. CONCLUSIONS: The pediatric risk of mortality score showed adequate discriminatory capacity and thus constitutes a useful tool for the assessment of prognosis for pediatric patients admitted to a tertiary pediatric intensive care units.

Graziela Araujo Costa

2010-01-01

253

QT dispersion as a risk factor for sudden cardiac death and fatal myocardial infarction in a coronary risk population.  

OpenAIRE

OBJECTIVE: To test in a prospective study the hypothesis that increased QT dispersion in resting 12-lead ECG is a predictor of sudden cardiac death. DESIGN: A nested case-control study during a mean (SD) follow up time of 6.5 (2.8) years. SETTING: A prospective, placebo controlled, coronary prevention trial with gemfibrozil among dyslipidaemic middle aged men in primary (occupational) health care units: the Helsinki heart study. PATIENTS: 24 victims of fatal myocardial infarction, 48 victims ...

Ma?ntta?ri, M.; Oikarinen, L.; Manninen, V.; Viitasalo, M.

1997-01-01

254

Genetic Addiction Risk Score (GARS): molecular neurogenetic evidence for predisposition to Reward Deficiency Syndrome (RDS).  

Science.gov (United States)

We have published extensively on the neurogenetics of brain reward systems with reference to the genes related to dopaminergic function in particular. In 1996, we coined "Reward Deficiency Syndrome" (RDS), to portray behaviors found to have gene-based association with hypodopaminergic function. RDS as a useful concept has been embraced in many subsequent studies, to increase our understanding of Substance Use Disorder (SUD), addictions, and other obsessive, compulsive, and impulsive behaviors. Interestingly, albeit others, in one published study, we were able to describe lifetime RDS behaviors in a recovering addict (17 years sober) blindly by assessing resultant Genetic Addiction Risk Score (GARS™) data only. We hypothesize that genetic testing at an early age may be an effective preventive strategy to reduce or eliminate pathological substance and behavioral seeking activity. Here, we consider a select number of genes, their polymorphisms, and associated risks for RDS whereby, utilizing GWAS, there is evidence for convergence to reward candidate genes. The evidence presented serves as a plausible brain-print providing relevant genetic information that will reinforce targeted therapies, to improve recovery and prevent relapse on an individualized basis. The primary driver of RDS is a hypodopaminergic trait (genes) as well as epigenetic states (methylation and deacetylation on chromatin structure). We now have entered a new era in addiction medicine that embraces the neuroscience of addiction and RDS as a pathological condition in brain reward circuitry that calls for appropriate evidence-based therapy and early genetic diagnosis and that requires further intensive investigation. PMID:24878765

Blum, Kenneth; Oscar-Berman, Marlene; Demetrovics, Zsolt; Barh, Debmalya; Gold, Mark S

2014-12-01

255

Polymorphisms in glutathione S-transferase are risk factors for perioperative acute myocardial infarction after cardiac surgery: a preliminary study.  

Science.gov (United States)

In the present study we explored glutathione S-transferase (GST) polymorphisms in selected patients who experienced accelerated myocardial injury following open heart surgery and compared these to a control group of patients without postoperative complications. 758 Patients were enrolled from which 132 patients were selected to genotype analysis according to exclusion criteria. Patients were divided into the following groups: Group I: control patients (n = 78) without and Group II.: study patients (n = 54) with evidence of perioperative myocardial infarction. Genotyping for GSTP1 A (Ile105Ile/Ala113Ala), B (Ile105Val/Ala113Ala) and C (Ile105Val/Ala113Val) alleles was performed by using real-time-PCR. The heterozygous AC allele was nearly three times elevated (18.5 vs. 7.7 %) in the patients who suffered postoperative myocardial infarction compared to controls. Contrary, we found allele frequency of 14.1 % for homozygous BB allele in the control group whereas no such allele combination was present in the study group. These preliminary results may suggest the protective role for the B and C alleles during myocardial oxidative stress whereas the A allele may represent predisposing risk for cellular injury in patients undergoing cardiac surgery. PMID:24435850

Kovacs, Viktória; Gasz, Balazs; Balatonyi, Borbala; Jaromi, Luca; Kisfali, Peter; Borsiczky, Balazs; Jancso, Gabor; Marczin, Nandor; Szabados, Sandor; Melegh, Bela; Nasri, Alotti; Roth, Elisabeth

2014-04-01

256

The value of the CHA2DS2-VASc score for refining stroke risk stratification in patients with atrial fibrillation with a CHADS2 score 0-1 : a nationwide cohort study  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

North American and European guidelines on atrial fibrillation (AF) are conflicting regarding the classification of patients at low/intermediate risk of stroke. We aimed to investigate if the CHA2DS2-VASc score improved risk stratification of AF patients with a CHADS2 score of 0-1. Using individual-level-linkage of nationwide Danish registries 1997-2008, we identified patients discharged with AF having a CHADS2 score of 0-1 and not treated with vitamin K antagonist or heparin. In patients with a CHADS2 score of 0, 1, and 0-1, rates of stroke/ thromboembolism were determined according to CHA2DS2-VASc score, and the risk associated with increasing CHA2DS2-VASc score was estimated in Cox regression models adjusted for year of inclusion and antiplatelet therapy. The value of adding the extra CHA2DS2-VASc risk factors to the CHADS2 score was evaluated by c-statistics, Net Reclassification Improvement (NRI) and Integrated Discrimination Improvement (IDI). We included 47,576 patients with a CHADS2 score of 0-1, from these 7,536 (15.8%) were CHA2DS2-VASc score=0, 10,062 (21.2%) were CHA2DS2-VASc score=1, 14,310 (30.1%) were CHA2DS2-VASc score=2, 14,188 (29.8%) were CHA2DS2-VASc score=3, and 1,480 (3.1%) were CHA2DS2-VASc score=4. Of the cohort with a CHADS2 score of 0-1, the stroke/thromboembolism rate per 100 person-years increased with increasing CHA2DS2-VASc score (95% confidence interval): 0.84 (0.65-1.08), 1.79 (1.53-2.09), 3.67 (3.34-4.03), 5.75 (5.33-6.21), and 8.18 (6.68-10.02) at one year follow-up with CHA2DS2-VASc scores of 0, 1, 2, 3, and 4, respectively. Patients with a CHADS2 score=0 were not all 'low risk', with one-year event rates ranging from 0.84 (CHA2DS2-VASc score=0) to 3.2 (CHA2DS2-VASc score=3). Results from Cox regression analyses, NRI, and IDI confirmed the improved predictive ability of the CHA2DS2-VASc score in the AF patients who have a CHADS2 score of 0-1. In conclusion, the CHA2DS2-VASc provides critical information on risk of stroke in AF patients with a CHADS2 score of 0-1 that can aid a decision of using anticoagulation. Even in patients categorised as 'low risk' using a CHADS2 score=0, the CHA2DS2-VASc score significantly improved the predictive value of the CHADS2 score alone and a CHA2DS2-VASc score=0 could clearly identify 'truly low risk' subjects. Use of the CHA2DS2-VASc score would significantly improve classification of AF patients at low and intermediate risk of stroke, compared to the commonly used CHADS2 score.

Olesen, Jonas Bjerring; Torp-Pedersen, Christian

2012-01-01

257

Antipsychotics and risk of first-time hospitalization for myocardial infarction: a population-based case-control study  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Background. Use of antipsychotics has been linked with an adverse cardiovascular risk factor profile and an increased risk of dysrhythmia and sudden cardiac death. However, detailed data on the association between use of antipsychotics and development of atherosclerotic disease are limited. Objective. To examine risk of hospitalization for myocardial infarction (MI) amongst users of antipsychotics compared with non-users. Design and subjects. A population-based case-control study using data from hospital discharge registries in the counties of North Jutland, Viborg and Aarhus, Denmark, and the Danish Civil Registration System. We identified 21 377 cases of first-time hospitalization for MI and 106 885 sex- and age-matched non-MI population controls in the period 1992-2004. All prescriptions for antipsychotics filled prior to the date of admission for MI were retrieved from population-based prescription databases. We used conditional logistic regression to adjust for a wide range of covariates. Results. Current users of atypical [adjusted relative risk: 0.98, 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.88-1.09] and typical antipsychotics (adjusted relative risk: 0.99, 95% CI: 0.96-1.03) had no increased overall risk of being admitted to hospital for MI when compared with non-users of antipsychotics. These findings were consistent in all examined subgroups. Further, we found no association between the cumulative dose of antipsychotics and the risk of hospitalization for MI. Conclusion. These findings do not support the hypothesis that use of antipsychotics and in particular atypical antipsychotics is associated with increased risk of MI

Nakagawa, S; Pedersen, Lene

2006-01-01

258

Ethnicity and acute myocardial infarction: risk profile at presentation, access to hospital management, and outcome in Norway  

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Full Text Available M Abdelnoor,1,2 J Eritsland,2 C Brunborg,1 S Halvorsen21Unit of Biostatistics and Epidemiology, 2Department of Cardiology, Oslo University Hospital Ullevaal, Oslo, NorwayBackground: Previous studies in North America have shown ethnic variation in the presentation of acute myocardial infarction (AMI, and sex and racial differences in the management and outcome of AMI. In the present study, our aim was to investigate the risk profile of AMI for patients with minority background compared with indigenous Norwegians, at hospital presentation, and to investigate racial differences in hospital care and outcomes.Patients and methods: A dual-design study was adopted: a cross-sectional study to examine ethnic differences of risk prevalence at hospital presentation and a cohort study to estimate access to angiography, percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI, and hospital and long-term mortality. From a study population of 3105 patients with AMI presenting at Oslo University Hospital between January 1, 2006 and December 31, 2007, we identified 147 cases of AMI in patients with minority background and selected a random sample of 588 indigenous Norwegians with AMI as controls. Prognostic and explanatory strategies were used in the analysis.Results: Compared with indigenous Norwegians with AMI, AMI patients with minority background suffered their AMI 10 years younger, were generally male, were twice as likely to be smokers, three times as likely to have type 2 diabetes, had lower high-density lipoprotein levels. This group also had 50% less history of hypertension. In terms of hospital care, AMI patients with minority background had shorter times from onset of symptoms to PCI and the same frequency of access to angiography and acute PCI as indigenous Norwegians when adjusting for the confounding effect of age, sex, and nature of myocardial infarction with or without ST elevation.Conclusion: At presentation to hospital, patients with minority background had a higher risk profile and a shorter time from onset of symptoms to admission to catheterization laboratory than indigenous Norwegians, but the same access to angiography and acute PCI during hospitalization.Keywords: ethnicity, myocardial infarction, presentation, management, outcome

Abdelnoor M

2012-08-01

259

Evaluation of an empiric risk screening score to identify acute and early HIV-1 infection among MSM in Coastal Kenya.  

OpenAIRE

We evaluated the University of North Carolina-Malawi Risk Screening Score (UMRSS) for detection of acute and early HIV-1 infection (AEHI) in a cohort of Kenyan MSM with approximately 8% annual HIV-1 incidence. Three components of the UMRSS (fever, diarrhea, and discordant rapid HIV tests) were also independent predictors of AEHI in our cohort. The predictive ability (area under the receiver operating characteristic curve, AUC) of the UMRSS was 0.79. A cohort-derived risk score consisting of s...

Wahome, E.; Fegan, G.; Okuku, Hs; Mugo, P.; Price, MA; Mwashigadi, G.; Thiong O, A.; Graham, Sm; Sanders, Ej

2013-01-01

260

Puntaje de riesgo para morbilidad y mortalidad en pacientes sometidos a intervencionismo coronario percutáneo Morbimortality risk score in patients submitted to percutaneous coronary intervention  

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Full Text Available El objetivo principal de este estudio observacional, fue establecer un puntaje de riesgo para morbilidad y mortalidad intrahospitalaria en pacientes sometidos a intervención coronaria percutánea luego de sufrir alguno de los siguientes síndromes coronarios agudos: angina inestable, infarto agudo del miocardio sin elevación del segmento ST o infarto agudo del miocardio con elevación del segmento ST. Se realizó una recolección de datos clínicos y demográficos a partir de 1.310 pacientes atendidos en la clínica, entre 2003 a 2006, de manera retro-prospectiva, con el fin de elaborar un puntaje válido para la población colombiana. Esto se realizó mediante una base de datos de múltiples variables pre-procedimiento (antecedentes personales, variables intra-procedimiento (tiempo transcurrido desde la hora de la consulta al servicio de urgencias hasta el momento del cateterismo, número de vasos enfermos entre otros y variables post-procedimientos (complicaciones de morbi-mortalidad. Luego, el análisis de los datos se llevó a cabo mediante un modelo de regresión logística, para determinar cuáles de los factores de riesgo fueron estadísticamente significativos para causar alguno de los resultados evaluados. Los principales resultados evaluados fueron: muerte, eventos hematológicos adversos y estancia hospitalaria. Luego del análisis se encontró que los principales factores relacionados con la morbi-mortalidad de los pacientes fueron el tipo de paciente (o tipo de síndrome coronario sufrido, su edad y su estado hemodinámico al ingreso (presencia de shock cardiogénico. A partir de estos resultados, se desarrolló el puntaje de riesgo a través de las variables pre-operatorias e intra-operatorias.The main objective of this observational study was to establish a mortality risk score for intra-hospital morbidity and mortality in patients submitted to percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI after having suffered one of the following acute coronary syndromes: unstable angina (UA, acute myocardial infarction without ST elevation (NSTEMI or acute myocardial infarct with ST elevation (STEMI. Clinical and demographic data of 1,300 patients treated in the clinic between 2003 and 2006 were recollected in a retrospective way with the aim of obtaining a valid risk score for the Colombian population. This was realized through a data base of multiple pre-procedure variables (personal antecedents, intra-procedure variables (time elapsed since the arrival to ER to the moment of catheterization and number of diseased vessels among others and post-procedure variables (morbimortality complications. Data analysis was then performed through a logistic regression model in order to determine which risk factors were statistically significant in causing some of the results evaluated. The principal results evaluated were death, adverse hematological events and hospital stay; after the analysis we found that the main factors related to patients’ morbimortality, were the type of patient (or the type of coronary syndrome suffered, age and homodynamic state at admission (presence of cardiogenic shock. From these results a risk score through pre-procedure, post-procedure and intra-hospital variables was developed.

Andrés Fernández

2008-04-01

261

Modelo predictivo de "score" de calcio alto en pacientes con factores de riesgo cardiovascular Predictive model of high calcium score in patients with cardiovascular risk factors  

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Full Text Available Introducción: a través de múltiples estudios, se ha encontrado que el "score" de calcio coronario es un buen predictor de enfermedad coronaria, en individuos asintomáticos con uno o más factores de riesgo cardiovascular. Por ello sería ideal realizar esta prueba para estratificar su riesgo, pero esto no es posible en la mayoría de los casos por motivos de índole económica. El modelo que se presenta permite predecir la probabilidad de que un paciente tenga un score de calcio coronario alto, a partir de sus factores de riesgo cardiovascular. Lo novedoso del modelo es que también involucra factores "protectores" que disminuyen dicha probabilidad. Métodos: estudio de casos y controles, en pacientes asintomáticos con factores de riesgo cardiovascular, a quienes se les realizó un PCC. Los casos son pacientes con score de calcio coronario por encima del percentil 75 para su edad y género; la relación control:caso es 2:1. Resultados: las edades oscilaron entre 35 y 75 años; el 14,4% eran de género femenino, el 44,4% tenían historia familiar de CHD, el 34,4% eran hipertensos, el 38,9% colesterol total elevado, el 24,4% colesterol HDL por debajo de 40 mg/dL, el 33,3% colesterol LDL por encima de 160 mg/dL, el 25,6% fumaban, el 23,3% eran sedentarios, el 13,3% consumían licor periódicamente, el 15,6% eran obesos (IMC>30, el 18,9% realizaban ejercicio de manera periódica y 34,4% tomaba estatinas. Los factores de riesgo cardiovascular que se correlacionaron con el score de calcio coronario alto, se consignan en la tabla 1. En el modelo de regresión logística se incluyen los factores que tienen un valor de p tabla 2. La expresión para el modelo sería: Los valores de ci son 1, si el factor está presente y 0 si no lo está. Conclusiones: el anterior modelo no pretende reemplazar la estratificación con el modelo de Framingham, al contrario, es un complemento que permite orientar al médico tratante sobre si es recomendable realizar la prueba del score de calcio coronario a un paciente con factores de riesgo cardiovascular. Se puede observar que muchos de los factores de riesgo que se correlacionan con un valor elevado de "score" de calcio coronario pueden ser modificables: cesar el hábito de fumar o realizar ejercicio.Introduction: it has been found through multiple studies that coronary calcium score is a good predictor of coronary disease in asymptomatic individuals with one or more cardiovascular risk factors; therefore it would be ideal to perform this test in order to stratify its risk, but due to economic factors this is not possible in most cases. The model presented allows predicting the probability that a patient may have a high coronary calcium score by means of his cardiovascular risk factors. The originality of the model is that it also comprises "protector" factors that diminish such probability. Methods: study of cases and controls in asymptomatic patients with cardiovascular risk factors to whom a PCC had been performed. The cases are patients with coronary calcium score greater than percentile 75 for his age and gender; the control case relationship is 2:1. Results: ages ranged between 35 and 75 years; 14.4% were female; 44.4% had family history of CHD; 34.4% were hypertensive; 38.9% had high total cholesterol; 24.4% had HDL cholesterol under 40 mg/dl; 33.3% had LDL cholesterol greater than 160 mg/dl; 25.6% were cigarette smokers; 23.3% were sedentary; 13.3% were periodical alcohol consumers; 15.6% were obese (BMI > 30; 18.9% exercised periodically and 34.4% received statins. Cardiovascular risk factors correlated with high coronary calcium score are recorded in table 1. In the logistic regression model, factors having a p table 2 are obtained. Expression for the model would be: The values of ci values are 1, if the factor is present and 0 if it is not. Conclusions: this model does not pretend to replace stratification through Framinghan model; on the contrary, it is a complement that allows the physician to realize if the coronary calcium score test is recommended for patie

Gloria Franco

2007-12-01

262

Renal Impairment Predicts Long-Term Mortality Risk after Acute Myocardial Infarction  

OpenAIRE

Renal function predicts mortality after acute myocardial infarction (AMI), but it is unknown whether the prognostic importance of renal function persists over time. This study examined how the association between renal function and mortality changed in the 10 yr after AMI in a cohort of patients. In 118,753 patients (age ?65 yr) from the Cooperative Cardiovascular Project, mean Cockcroft-Gault creatinine clearance was 55 ± 24 ml/min and estimated GFR was 57 ± 21 ml/min per 1.73 m2 at base...

Smith, Grace L.; Masoudi, Frederick A.; Shlipak, Michael G.; Krumholz, Harlan M.; Parikh, Chirag R.

2008-01-01

263

Endothelial nitric oxide synthase gene polymorphisms and the risk of acute myocardial infarction in a South Indian population.  

Science.gov (United States)

Myocardial infarction (MI) is a complex multi-factorial, polygenic disorder which results from an interaction between a person's genetic makeup and various environmental factors. Nitric oxide (NO), a potent vasodilator produced by endothelial cells, plays an important role in the regulation of blood pressure, regional blood flow and also inhibits platelet aggregation, vascular smooth muscle cell proliferation and leukocyte adhesion to vascular endothelium. Our aim was to analyze the association of NOS3 (endothelial nitric oxide synthase 3) 894G>T and -786T>C gene polymorphisms and MI risk in the South Indian population. A total of 287 MI patients, 279 risk control patients and 321 healthy controls were recruited for the retrospective study. Genotyping was done using polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP). There was no significant association observed between NOS3 894G>T, -786T>C polymorphisms and MI. A significant difference was observed in the distribution of GT genotype of the NOS3 894G>T polymorphism between the cases and the risk controls (p = 0.05) but the odds ratio (0.6) did not show risk for MI. The present study showed lack of association between NOS3 gene polymorphisms and MI in South Indian population. PMID:23108994

Arun Kumar, Annan Sudarsan; Umamaheswaran, Gurusamy; Padmapriya, Ramamoorthy; Balachandar, Jayaraman; Adithan, Chandrasekaran

2013-02-01

264

Modelo predictivo de "score" de calcio alto en pacientes con factores de riesgo cardiovascular / Predictive model of high calcium score in patients with cardiovascular risk factors  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Colombia | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish Introducción: a través de múltiples estudios, se ha encontrado que el "score" de calcio coronario es un buen predictor de enfermedad coronaria, en individuos asintomáticos con uno o más factores de riesgo cardiovascular. Por ello sería ideal realizar esta prueba para estratificar su riesgo, pero est [...] o no es posible en la mayoría de los casos por motivos de índole económica. El modelo que se presenta permite predecir la probabilidad de que un paciente tenga un score de calcio coronario alto, a partir de sus factores de riesgo cardiovascular. Lo novedoso del modelo es que también involucra factores "protectores" que disminuyen dicha probabilidad. Métodos: estudio de casos y controles, en pacientes asintomáticos con factores de riesgo cardiovascular, a quienes se les realizó un PCC. Los casos son pacientes con score de calcio coronario por encima del percentil 75 para su edad y género; la relación control:caso es 2:1. Resultados: las edades oscilaron entre 35 y 75 años; el 14,4% eran de género femenino, el 44,4% tenían historia familiar de CHD, el 34,4% eran hipertensos, el 38,9% colesterol total elevado, el 24,4% colesterol HDL por debajo de 40 mg/dL, el 33,3% colesterol LDL por encima de 160 mg/dL, el 25,6% fumaban, el 23,3% eran sedentarios, el 13,3% consumían licor periódicamente, el 15,6% eran obesos (IMC>30), el 18,9% realizaban ejercicio de manera periódica y 34,4% tomaba estatinas. Los factores de riesgo cardiovascular que se correlacionaron con el score de calcio coronario alto, se consignan en la tabla 1. En el modelo de regresión logística se incluyen los factores que tienen un valor de p tabla 2. La expresión para el modelo sería: Los valores de ci son 1, si el factor está presente y 0 si no lo está. Conclusiones: el anterior modelo no pretende reemplazar la estratificación con el modelo de Framingham, al contrario, es un complemento que permite orientar al médico tratante sobre si es recomendable realizar la prueba del score de calcio coronario a un paciente con factores de riesgo cardiovascular. Se puede observar que muchos de los factores de riesgo que se correlacionan con un valor elevado de "score" de calcio coronario pueden ser modificables: cesar el hábito de fumar o realizar ejercicio. Abstract in english Introduction: it has been found through multiple studies that coronary calcium score is a good predictor of coronary disease in asymptomatic individuals with one or more cardiovascular risk factors; therefore it would be ideal to perform this test in order to stratify its risk, but due to economic f [...] actors this is not possible in most cases. The model presented allows predicting the probability that a patient may have a high coronary calcium score by means of his cardiovascular risk factors. The originality of the model is that it also comprises "protector" factors that diminish such probability. Methods: study of cases and controls in asymptomatic patients with cardiovascular risk factors to whom a PCC had been performed. The cases are patients with coronary calcium score greater than percentile 75 for his age and gender; the control case relationship is 2:1. Results: ages ranged between 35 and 75 years; 14.4% were female; 44.4% had family history of CHD; 34.4% were hypertensive; 38.9% had high total cholesterol; 24.4% had HDL cholesterol under 40 mg/dl; 33.3% had LDL cholesterol greater than 160 mg/dl; 25.6% were cigarette smokers; 23.3% were sedentary; 13.3% were periodical alcohol consumers; 15.6% were obese (BMI > 30); 18.9% exercised periodically and 34.4% received statins. Cardiovascular risk factors correlated with high coronary calcium score are recorded in table 1. In the logistic regression model, factors having a p table 2 are obtained. Expression for the model would be: The values of ci values are 1, if the factor is present and 0 if it is not. Conclusions: this model does not pretend to replace stratification through Framinghan model; on the contrary, it is a complement tha

Gloria, Franco; Samuel, Jaramillo; José Victor, de Fex; Lina M, Sierra.

2007-12-01

265

Consideration of QRS complex in addition to ST-segment abnormalities in the estimated "risk region" during acute anterior myocardial infarction  

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The myocardial area at risk (MaR) has been estimated in patients with acute myocardial infarction (AMI) by using ST segment-based electrocardiographic (ECG) methods. As the process from ischemia to infarction progresses, the ST-segment deviation is typically replaced by QRS abnormalities causing a falsely low estimated total MaR if determined by using ST segment-based methods. The purpose of this study was to investigate if consideration of the abnormalities in the QRS complex, in addition to those in the ST segment, provides a more accurate estimated total MaR during anterior AMI than by considering the ST segment alone.

van Hellemond, Irene E G; Bouwmeester, Sjoerd

2011-01-01

266

Myocardial area at risk after ST-elevation myocardial infarction measured with the late gadolinium enhancement after scar remodeling and T2-weighted cardiac magnetic resonance imaging  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

To evaluate the myocardial area at risk (AAR) measured by the endocardial surface area (ESA) method on late gadolinium enhancement (LGE) cardiovascular magnetic resonance (CMR) when applied after scar remodeling (3 months after index infarction) compared to T2-weighted CMR imaging. One hundred and sixty nine patients with ST-elevation myocardial infarction, treated with primary percutaneous coronary intervention, underwent one CMR within 1 week after index treatment to determine the AAR with T2-weighted imaging and a second scan 3 months after to measure AAR with the ESA method. There was a moderate correlation between the two methods (r = 0.86; P 

LØnborg, Jacob; EngstrØm, Thomas

2011-01-01

267

Knowledge of modifiable risk factors of heart disease among patients with acute myocardial infarction in Karachi, Pakistan: a cross sectional study  

OpenAIRE

Abstract Background Knowledge is an important pre-requisite for implementing both primary as well as secondary preventive strategies for cardiovascular disease (CVD). There are no estimates of the level of knowledge of risk factor of heart disease in patients with CVD. We estimated the level of knowledge of modifiable risk factors and determined the factors associated with good level of knowledge among patients presenting with their first acute myocardial infarction (AMI) in ...

Rasool Syed I; Faruqui Azhar M; Jafar Tazeen H; Jafary Fahim H; Khan Muhammad S; Hatcher Juanita; Chaturvedi Nish

2006-01-01

268

Development of a risk score for low back pain in office workers - a cross-sectional study  

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Full Text Available Abstract Background Low back pain (LBP is common among office workers and is the most common cause of work-related disability in people under 45 years of age. The aetiology of LBP is widely accepted to be multi-factorial. Prognostic research into office workers at risk of developing LBP has received limited attention. The aims of this study were to develop a risk score to identify office workers likely to have LBP and to evaluate its predictive power. Methods 397 office workers filled out a self-administered questionnaire and underwent physical examination. The questionnaire gathered data on individual, work-related physical and psychosocial data as well as the presence of low back pain in the previous 4 weeks. The physical examination included measurement of body weight, height, waist circumference, hamstrings length, spinal scoliosis, spinal curve, Backache Index and lumbar stability. Logistic regression was used to select significant factors associated with LBP to build a risk score. The coefficients from the logistic regression model were transformed into the components of a risk score. Results The model included six items: previous history of working as an office worker, years of work experience, continuous standing for >2 hrs/d, frequency of forward bending during work day, chair having lumbar support and Backache Index outcome. The risk score for LBP in office workers (The Back pain Risk score for Office Workers: The BROW was built with a risk score ranging from 0 to 9. A cut-off score of ?4 had a sensitivity of 80% and a specificity of 58%. The positive predictive value and negative predictive values were 70% each. Conclusions The BROW is easy and quick to administer. It appears to have reasonable sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value and negative predictive values for the cut-off point of ?4. The BROW is a promising tool for use to identify office workers in need of early interventions. Further prospective study is needed to validate the predictive performance of the BROW.

Moolkay Patriya

2011-01-01

269

Improved cognition after control of risk factors for multi-infarct dementia  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A cohort of 52 patients (30 men and 22 women) with multi-infarct dementia (MID) has been followed up prospectively for a mean interval of 22.2 months. Clinical course has been documented by serial history taking and interviews and neurological, medical, and psychological examinations, and correlated with measurements of cerebral blood flow. The clinical course and cognitive performance have been compared with those of age-matched normal volunteers and patients with Alzheimer's disease. Patients with MID were subdivided into hypertensive and normotensive groups, and also into those displaying stabilized or improved cognition and those whose condition deteriorated. Among hypertensive patients with MID, improved cognition and clinical course correlated with control of systolic blood pressure within upper limits of normalf (135 to 150 mm Hg), but if systolic blood pressure was reduced below this level, patients with MID deteriorated. Among normotensive patients with MID, improved cognition was associated with cessation of smoking cigarettes

270

Clinical discriminators between acute brain hemorrhage and infarction: a practical score for early patient identification / Características clínicas diferenciais entre hemorragia e infarto cerebral: uma escala prática para identificação precoce do paciente  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in portuguese Novas perspectivas no tratamento do acidente vascular cerebral (AVC) requerem um método de triagem rápido para seleção dos pacientes. Nosso objetivo foi criar uma escala com informações clínicas simples para diferenciar hematoma intra-parenquimatoso (HEM) entre os pacientes com AVC. Estudamos 1.273 [...] pacientes com AVC isquêmico (INF) e 237 com HEM do Stroke Data Bank. Variáveis independentes para o diagnóstico de INF e HEM foram determinadas pela análise de regressão logística e utilizadas para criar uma escala. Através da curva ROC foi escolhido o nível de corte para discriminar HEM ( Abstract in english New treatments for acute stroke require a rapid triage system, which minimizes treatment delays and maximizes selection of eligible patients. Our aim was to create a score for assessing the probability of brain hemorrhage among patients with acute stroke based upon clinical information. Of 1805 pati [...] ents in the Stroke Data Bank, 1273 had infarction (INF) and 237 had parenchymatous hemorrhage (HEM) verified by CT. INF and HEM discriminators were determined by logistic regression and used to create a score. ROC curve was used to choose the cut-point for predicting HEM (score

Ayrton R., Massaro; Ralph L., Sacco; Milberto, Scaff; J.P., Mohr.

2002-06-01

271

A risk score for predicting 30-day mortality in heart failure patients undergoing non-cardiac surgery  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

BACKGROUND: Heart failure is an established risk factor for poor outcomes in patients undergoing non-cardiac surgery, yet risk stratification remains a clinical challenge. We developed an index for 30-day mortality risk prediction in this particular group. METHODS AND RESULTS: All individuals with heart failure undergoing non-cardiac surgery between October 23 2004 and October 31 2011 were included from Danish administrative registers (n?=?16?827). In total, 1787 (10.6%) died within 30?days. In a simple risk score based on the variables from the revised cardiac risk index, plus age, gender, acute surgery, and body mass index category the following variables predicted mortality (points): male gender (1), age 56-65?years (2), age 66-75?years (4), age 76-85?years (5), or age >85?years (7), being underweight (4), normal weight (3), or overweight (1), undergoing acute surgery (5), undergoing high-risk procedures (intra-thoracic, intra-abdominal, or suprainguinal aortic) (3), having renal disease (1), cerebrovascular disease (1), and use of insulin (1). The c-statistic was 0.79 and calibration was good. Mortality risk ranged from 50% for a score ?20. Internal validation by bootstrapping (1000 re-samples) provided c-statistic of 0.79. A more complex risk score based on stepwise logistic regression including 24 variables at P?risk for perioperative mortality.

Andersson, Charlotte; Gislason, Gunnar H

2014-01-01

272

The progress of interrelationship between myocardial perfusion imaging and coronary artery calcium score in cardiac risk assessment  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Coronary heart disease (CHD) is a common and frequently occurring disease which seriously threaten the health of human beings. So diagnosing CHD early and assessing the cardiac risk accurately and non-invasively that is a clinical problem which is urgent need for solving. Although the effectiveness of risk assessment algorithms have been proved by lots of clinical trials, but still has some limitations. The combination of myocardial perfusion imaging and coronary artery calcium score is promising in CHD diagnosis and cardiac risk assessment. (authors)

273

Using SAT scores to identify students at risk in introductory physics  

Science.gov (United States)

Our previous research has shown a strong correlation between individual students’ pre-instruction scores on Lawson’s Test of Reasoning Ability and their normalized gains on the FCI. These results have been replicated by researchers at Edward Little High School in Maine, at the University of Colorado, and at the University of Central Florida. We now find that SAT scores also provide a strong correlation with FCI gains. The advantage of using SAT scores is that one does not have to administer another test; these scores are usually readily available through the registrar’s office.

Coletta, Vincent P.; Phillips, J.

2006-12-01

274

Coronary artery calcium score. Influence of the reconstruction interval on cardiac risk stratification in asymptomatic patients using dual-source computed tomography  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

To evaluate the impact of the reconstruction interval on coronary calcium score and cardiac risk stratification using dual-source computed tomography (DSCT). Materials and Methods: DSCT coronary calcium scoring was performed in 61 consecutive patients, and five data sets per patient were reconstructed within diastole (50 - 70 % of the R-R interval). The Agatston score, volumetric score and the relative variability were assessed for all reconstructions. To assess the individual cardiovascular risk, patients were assigned to risk groups based on age and gender-matched percentile ranks. Results: The mean Agatston score was 184.8±377.9 (relative variability 47%±52%). The mean volumetric score was 164.4±310.1 (relative variability 49%±58%). There was a negative correlation between the total Agatston score and the relative variability (r = -0.37; p < 0.01). Depending on the reconstruction interval used, 18 predominantly young patients were assigned to more than one risk group. Conclusion: Despite the increased temporal resolution of DSCT examinations, the Agatston and volumetric scores depend on the reconstruction time within the cardiac cycle. The fact that the greatest relative variability for both the Agatston score and the volumetric score was found in young patients with small amounts of coronary calcium may result in different treatment strategies for young patients depending on the reconstruction used. Therefore, more accurate risk stratification may require the e risk stratification may require the analysis of multiple reconstruction intervals. (orig.)

275

Risk stratification of cardiovascular events in hypertensive patients with asymptomatic or symptomatic lacunar infarcts by 24-hour ambulatory blood pressure monitoring  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Our goal was to investigate the utility of 24-hour ambulatory blood pressure monitoring (ABPM) for the risk stratification of cardiovascular events in hypertensive patients with asymptomatic or symptomatic lacunar infarcts. A total of 175 hypertensive patients with MRI evidence of asymptomatic or symptomatic lacunar infarcts (92 men, mean age of 69±11 years old) were studied. Patients with symptomatic infarctions were included whose events occurred more than 6 months after the onset. ABPM was performed in all patients in the outpatient clinic. Parameters obtained from ABPM were related to the composite outcome which consisted of all death and fatal or non-fatal cardiovascular events by using the Cox proportional hazard model. Mean follow-up period was 4.8 years and the composite outcome was recorded in 38 patients. 34 of them (89%) had recurrence of lacunar infarcts. Significant association between sleep-time lowest systolic blood pressure and composite outcome was demonstrated by multivariate Cox hazard analyses (heart rate (HR) 1.025, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.011-1.039, p<0.001). The risk for composite outcome in patients with the highest tertile of sleep-time lowest systolic blood pressure (?133 mmHg) was significantly elevated when compared to the lowest tertile (<132 mmHg, HR 3.93, 95% CI 1.57-9.86, p=0.004). Sleep-time lowest systolic blood pressure in ABPM may be a useful parameter for the risk stratification of future cardiovascular events in hypertenuture cardiovascular events in hypertensive patients with asymptomatic or symptomatic lacunar infarcts, especially for the recurrence of these events. (author)

276

State level correlations between high heart attack and stroke symptomology knowledge scores and CVD risk factors and mortality rates  

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Full Text Available Introduction: In 2008, cardiovascular disease (CVD accounted for one in three deaths in the United States. Epidemiological analyses suggest that two or more risk factors are the indicator of high risk and/or poor CVD outcomes. Knowledge of heart attack and stroke symptomology has been the focus of much research based on the assumption that accurate identification of an event is critical to reducing time to treatment. There is a paucity of research showing a clear association between knowledge of heart attack and stroke symptomology, risk factors, and mortality rates. In this study, we hypothesized that high stroke and heart attack symptomology knowledge scores would correspond to lower stroke or CVD mortality rankings as well as to a lower prevalence of two or more CVD risk factors. Methods: State was the unit of analysis used to examine data from two different sources and combined into a customized database. The first source was a multiyear Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance Survey (BRFSS heart attack and stroke symptom knowledge module database. CVD and stroke mortality data used came from the American Heart Association’s (AHA 2012 Heart Disease and Stroke Statistics Update. Spearman’s Rho was the test statistic. Results: A moderate negative correlation was found between high heart attack and stroke symptom knowledge scores and the percentage of adults with two or more CVD or stroke risk factors. Likewise, a similar correlation resulted from the two variables, high heart attack and stroke symptoms knowledge score and CVD mortality rank. Conclusions: This study demonstrated a significant relationship between high heart attack and stroke symptom knowledge and lower CVD mortality rates and lower prevalence of two or more CVD risk factors at the state level. Our findings suggest that it is important to continue education efforts regarding heart attack and stroke symptom knowledge. Pharmacists are one group of health care providers who could enhance the needed public health education efforts.

Mary Nawal Lutfiyya

2013-09-01

277

The Value of the European Society of Cardiology Guidelines for Refining Stroke Risk Stratification in Patients With Atrial Fibrillation Categorized as Low Risk Using the Anticoagulation and Risk Factors in Atrial Fibrillation Stroke Score : A Nationwide Cohort Study  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

BACKGROUND: Our objective was to determine stroke and thromboembolism event rates in patients with atrial fibrillation (AF) classified as "low risk" using the Anticoagulation and Risk Factors in Atrial Fibrillation (ATRIA) score and to ascertain event rates in this group in relation to the stroke risk assessment advocated in the 2012 European Society of Cardiology (ESC) guidelines (based on the CHA2DS2-VASc [congestive heart failure, hypertension, age ? 75 years, diabetes, previous stroke/transient ischemic attack, vascular disease, age 65 to 74 years, sex category] score). We tested the hypothesis that the stroke risk assessment scheme advocated in the ESC guidelines would be able to further refine stroke risk stratification in the low-risk category defined by the ATRIA score. METHODS: In our cohort of 207,543 incident patients with AF from 1999 to 2012, we identified 72,452 subjects who had an ATRIA score of 0 to 5 (low risk). RESULTS: Even among these patients categorized as low risk using the ATRIA score, the 1-year stroke/thromboembolic event rate ranged from 1.13 to 36.94 per 100 person-years, when subdivided by CHA2DS2-VASc scores. In patients with an ATRIA score 0 to 5, C statistics at 1 year follow-up in the Cox regression model were significantly improved from 0.626 (95% CI, 0.612-0.640) to 0.665 (95% CI, 0.651-0.679) when the CHA2DS2-VASc score was used for categorizing stroke risk instead of the ATRIA score (P < .001). CONCLUSIONS: Patients categorized as low risk using an ATRIA score 0 to 5 are not necessarily low risk, with 1-year event rates as high as 36.94 per 100 person-years. Thus, the stroke risk stratification scheme recommended in the ESC guidelines (based on the CHA2DS2-VASc score) would be best at identifying the "truly low risk" subjects with AF who do not need any antithrombotic therapy.

Lip, Gregory Y H; Nielsen, Peter BrØnnum

2014-01-01

278

Trombo auricular derecho con riesgo embólico durante infarto agudo de miocardio / Right auricular thrombus with embolic risk during myocardial acute infarction  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Cuba | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish Un trombo móvil en la aurícula derecha implica un riesgo elevado de embolismo pulmonar y la presencia del mismo en un paciente con fibrilación auricular en el curso de un infarto agudo de miocardio, es infrecuente. Se presentó una paciente con infarto agudo de miocardio, fibrilación auricular y trom [...] bo móvil en aurícula derecha con riesgo embólico pulmonar, que desapareció luego de tratamiento antiagregante plaquetario y anticoagulante. Abstract in english A mobile thrombus into the right auricle leads to a high risk of pulmonary embolism and its presence in a patient with auricular fibrillation during a acute myocardial infarction is uncommon. This is the case of a female patient presenting with acute myocardial infarction, auricular fibrillation and [...] a mobile thrombus in right auricle with risk of pulmonary embolism, which disappeared after platelet, anticoagulant and anti-aggregating treatment.

Amaury, Flores Sánchez; Damaris, Hernández-Veliz; Biolkis, Zorio Valdés; María Beatriz, Cabalé Vilariño.

2012-03-01

279

Olson method for locating and calculating the extent of transmural ischemic areas at risk of infarction  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

OBJECTIVES: The purpose of this study is to present a new and improved method for translating the electrocardiographic changes of acute myocardial ischemia into a display which reflects the location and extent of the ischemic area and the associated culprit coronary artery. This method could be automated to present a graphic image of the ischemic area in a manner understandable by all levels of caregivers; from emergency transport personnel to the consulting cardiologist. BACKGROUND: Current methods for the ECG diagnosis of ST elevated myocardial infarction (STEMI) are criteria driven, and complex, and beyond the interpretive capability of many caregivers. New methods are needed to accurately diagnose the presence of acute transmural myocardial ischemia in order to accelerate a patient's clinical "door to balloon time." The proposed new method could potentially provide the information needed to accomplish this objective. METHODS: The new method improves the precision of diagnosis and quantification of ischemia by normalizing the ST segment inputs from the standard 12 lead ECG, transforming these into a three dimensional vector representation of the ischemia at the electrical center of the heart. The myocardial areas likely to be involved in this ischemia are separately analyzed to assess the probability that they contributed to this event. The source of the ischemia is revealed as a specific region of the heart, and the likely location of the associated culprit coronary artery. Seventy 12 lead ECGs from subjects with known single artery occlusion in one of the three main coronary arteries were selected to test this new method. Graphic plots of the distribution of ischemia as indicated by the method are consistent with the known occlusion. The analysis of the distribution of ischemic areas in the myocardium reveals that the relationships between leads with either ST elevation or ST depression, provide critical information improving the current method.

Olson, Charles W; Wagner, Galen S

2014-01-01

280

Health care index score and risk of death following tuberculosis diagnosis in HIV-positive patients  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

To assess health care utilisation for patients co-infected with TB and HIV (TB-HIV), and to develop a weighted health care index (HCI) score based on commonly used interventions and compare it with patient outcome.

Podlekareva, D N; Grint, D

2013-01-01

281

Application of the pediatric risk of mortality (PRISM) score and determination of mortality risk factors in a tertiary pediatric intensive care unit  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in english INTRODUCTION: To establish disease severity at admission can be performed by way of the mortality prognostic. Nowadays the prognostic scores make part of quality control and research. The Pediatric Risk of Mortality is one of the scores used in the pediatric intensive care units. OBJECTIVES: The pur [...] pose of this study is the utilization of the pediatric risk of mortality to determine mortality risk factors in a tertiary pediatric intensive care units. METHODS: Retrospective cohort study, in a period of one year, at a general tertiary pediatric intensive care unit. The pediatric risk of mortality scores corresponding to the first 24 hours of hospitalization were recorded; additional data were collected to characterize the study population. RESULTS: 359 patients were included; the variables that were found to be risk factors for death were multiple organ dysfunction syndrome, mechanical ventilation, use of vasoactive drugs, hospital-acquired infection, parenteral nutrition and duration of hospitalization (p

Graziela Araujo, Costa; Arthur F., Delgado; Alexandre, Ferraro; Thelma Suely, Okay.

1087-10-01

282

High lifetime risk of cardiovascular disease vs low 10-year Framingham risk score in HIV-infected subjects under ART in Spain: the Coronator study  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Purpose: Due to the relative low age of HIV-infected patients, Framingham risk score (FRS usually estimates a low CVD risk. Lifetime risk estimations use the risk of developing CVD over the course of an individual's remaining lifetime and may be useful in communicating the risk of CVD to young patients. Our aim is to estimate the lifetime risk of CVD in a representative sample of HIV patients under antiretroviral therapy in Spain. Methods: Cross-sectional analysis in 10 HIV units across Spain, including information on demographics, HIV disease status, treatment history and cardiovascular risk factors of subject under ART. Lifetime CVD risk was calculated with the method of Berry et al, which classifies the lifetime risk in five mutually exclusive categories: 1. All risk factors are optimal; 2. At least one risk factor is not optimal; 3. At least one risk factor is elevated; 4. One major risk factor is present; and 5. Two or more major risk factors are present. Risk factors included are cholesterol level, blood pressure, diabetes and tobacco smoking. We grouped these five categories in two major groups, low-risk (groups 1+2+3 and high-risk category (groups 4+5. We calculated the prevalence of having a high lifetime risk, and its crude and aOR (adjusted by age, sex, place of origin, education level, transmission category, time since HIV diagnosis, CDC stage, current and nadir CD4 count, HCV coinfection, time on current and total ART, being on the first ART regimen, and PI vs. NNRTI regimen. Results: We included 839 subjects free of previous CVD disease: 72% men, median age 45.6y, median CD4 count 598 cells, median time since HIV diagnosis 11y, median time on ART 6.3y, 87% had undetectable VL. Estimated 10-year CVD risk was low (<5% in 78% of the patients, and intermediate (5–10% in 20%. Lifetime risk estimation shows a high risk profile for 71.4% of the population studied (?1 major risk factors. Factors significantly and independently associated with an increased lifetime risk were older age, non-Spanish origin and longer time on ART. Adjusted OR for patients on ART longer than 10 years (vs<5 years was 2.2 [95% CI 1.13–4.34]. No relationship was found with current or nadir CD4 lymphocyte counts, CDC stage C, HCV confection or type of ART. Conclusions: There are significant disparities between the low 10y CVD risk estimated with FRS and the elevated lifetime risk in HIV patients on ART. Prolonged ART is associated with an increased CVD lifetime risk.

C Miralles

2012-11-01

283

Risk Prediction Scores for Recurrence and Progression of Non-Muscle Invasive Bladder Cancer: An International Validation in Primary Tumours  

Science.gov (United States)

Objective We aimed to determine the validity of two risk scores for patients with non-muscle invasive bladder cancer in different European settings, in patients with primary tumours. Methods We included 1,892 patients with primary stage Ta or T1 non-muscle invasive bladder cancer who underwent a transurethral resection in Spain (n?=?973), the Netherlands (n?=?639), or Denmark (n?=?280). We evaluated recurrence-free survival and progression-free survival according to the European Organisation for Research and Treatment of Cancer (EORTC) and the Spanish Urological Club for Oncological Treatment (CUETO) risk scores for each patient and used the concordance index (c-index) to indicate discriminative ability. Results The 3 cohorts were comparable according to age and sex, but patients from Denmark had a larger proportion of patients with the high stage and grade at diagnosis (p<0.01). At least one recurrence occurred in 839 (44%) patients and 258 (14%) patients had a progression during a median follow-up of 74 months. Patients from Denmark had the highest 10-year recurrence and progression rates (75% and 24%, respectively), whereas patients from Spain had the lowest rates (34% and 10%, respectively). The EORTC and CUETO risk scores both predicted progression better than recurrence with c-indices ranging from 0.72 to 0.82 while for recurrence, those ranged from 0.55 to 0.61. Conclusion The EORTC and CUETO risk scores can reasonably predict progression, while prediction of recurrence is more difficult. New prognostic markers are needed to better predict recurrence of tumours in primary non-muscle invasive bladder cancer patients. PMID:24905984

Vedder, Moniek M.; Márquez, Mirari; de Bekker-Grob, Esther W.; Calle, Malu L.; Dyrskjøt, Lars; Kogevinas, Manoils; Segersten, Ulrika; Malmström, Per-Uno; Algaba, Ferran; Beukers, Willemien; Ørntoft, Torben F.; Zwarthoff, Ellen; Real, Francisco X.; Malats, Nuria; Steyerberg, Ewout W.

2014-01-01

284

Cardioprotective medication use and risk factor control among US adults with unrecognized myocardial infarction: the REasons for Geographic And Racial Differences in Stroke (REGARDS) study  

OpenAIRE

Emily B Levitan,1 Christopher Gamboa,1 Monika M Safford,2 Dana V Rizk,3 Todd M Brown,4 Elsayed Z Soliman,5 Paul Muntner11Department of Epidemiology, 2Division of Preventive Medicine, 3Division of Nephrology, 4Division of Cardiology, University of Alabama at Birmingham, Birmingham, AL, USA; 5Epidemiological Cardiology Research Center, Wake Forest University School of Medicine, Winston Salem, NC, USABackground: Individuals with unrecognized myocardial infarction (UMI) have similar risks for car...

Eb, Levitan; Gamboa C; Mm, Safford; Dv, Rizk; Tm, Brown; Ez, Soliman; Muntner P

2013-01-01

285

Effect of serum lipid level change on 10-year coronary heart risk distribution estimated by means of seven different coronary risk scores during one-year treatment  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Introduction. This study was done in order to evaluate the effect of serum levels of total cholesterol, triglycerides, low-density lipoprotein- cholesterol and high-density lipoprotein-cholesterol on 10-year coronary heart disease risk distribution change. Material and Methods. This study included 110 subjects of both genders (71 female and 39 male, aged 29 to 73, treated at the Outpatient Department of Atherosclerosis Prevention, Centre for Laboratory Medicine, Clinical Centre Vojvodina. The 10-year coronary heart disease risk was estimated on first examination and after one-year treatment by means of Framingham, PROCAM and SCORE coronary risk scores and their modifications (Framingham Adult Treatment Panel III, Framingham Weibul, PROCAM NS and PROCAM Cox Hazards. Age, gender, systolic and diastolic blood pressure, smoking, positive family history and left ventricular hypertrophy are risk factors involved in the estimation of coronary heart disease besides lipid parameters. Results. There were no significant differences in nutritional status, smoking habits, systolic and diastolic pressure, and no development of diabetes mellitus or cardiovascular incidents during oneyear follow. However, a significant reduction in cholesterol level (p<0.001, triglycerides (p<0.001, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (p<0.001 and an increase in high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (p<0.02 was present although therapeutic target values were not achieved. In addition, a significant increase was observed in the category of low 10-year coronary heart disease risk (Framingham- p<0.001; Framingham ATP III- p<0.001; Framingham Weibul- p<0.001; PROCAM- p<0.05; PROCAM NSp< 0.05; PROCAM Cox Hazards- p<0.001; SCORE- p<0.001 and a reduction in high-risk category (Framingham- p<0.001; Framingham ATP III- p<0.005; Framingham Weibul- p<0.005; PROCAM- p<0.001; PROCAM NS-p<0.001; PROCAM Cox Hazards- p<0.001; SCORE- p<0.005 in comparison with the risk at the beginning of the study. Conclusion. Our results show that the correction of lipid level after one-year treatment leads to a significant redistribution of 10-year coronary heart disease risk estimated by means of seven different coronary risk scores. This should stimulate patients and doctors to persist in prevention measures.

Eremi?-Koji? Nevena

2014-01-01

286

Risk of Death and Recurrent Ventricular Arrhythmias in Survivors of Cardiac Arrest Concurrent With Acute Myocardial Infarction  

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Full Text Available Aims Cardiac arrest (CA is an indication for defibrillator (ICD implantation unless it occurs in the context of an acute myocardial infarction (AMI. We investigated the ventricular arrhythmia (VA-free survival of patients resuscitated from CA in the setting of AMI.Methods We reviewed a database of 1600 AMI and CA survivors from which 48 patients were identified as having concurrent CA and AMI (CA+AMI group. Those patients were matched by age, gender, race, and left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF to 96 patients with AMI but no CA (AMI group and 48 patients with CA but no AMI (CA group.Results Patients and controls were followed for 3.9±3.2 years. Patients in the 3 groups had similar baseline characteristics (age 63±14 yrs, 78% men, 98% white, 53% with CAD, LVEF 33±14%. The 5-year VA-free survival was 67%, 92%, and 80% for the CA+AMI, AMI, and CA groups, respectively, p<0.001. Conclusions Patients with concurrent CA and AMI are at high risk of recurrent VA, with VA-free survival rates significantly worse than those of patients with AMI but no CA, and comparable to those of patients with CA outside the context of an AMI. Accordingly, these patients should be considered for ICD implantation.

Ish Singla

2008-02-01

287

Risk-based priority scoring for Brookhaven National Laboratory environmental restoration programs  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This report describes the process of estimating the risk associated with environmental restoration programs under the Brookhaven National Laboratory Office of Environmental Restoration. The process was part of an effort across all Department of Energy facilities to provide a consistent framework to communicate risk information about the facilities to senior managers in the DOE Office of Environmental Management to foster understanding of risk activities across programs. the risk evaluation was a qualitative exercise. Categories considered included: Public health and safety; site personnel safety and health; compliance; mission impact; cost-effective risk management; environmental protection; inherent worker risk; environmental effects of clean-up; and social, cultural, political, and economic impacts

288

Risk-based priority scoring for Brookhaven National Laboratory environmental restoration programs  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This report describes the process of estimating the risk associated with environmental restoration programs under the Brookhaven National Laboratory Office of Environmental Restoration. The process was part of an effort across all Department of Energy facilities to provide a consistent framework to communicate risk information about the facilities to senior managers in the DOE Office of Environmental Management to foster understanding of risk activities across programs. the risk evaluation was a qualitative exercise. Categories considered included: Public health and safety; site personnel safety and health; compliance; mission impact; cost-effective risk management; environmental protection; inherent worker risk; environmental effects of clean-up; and social, cultural, political, and economic impacts.

Morris, S.C.; Meinhold, A.F.

1995-05-01

289

Clinical discriminators between acute brain hemorrhage and infarction: a practical score for early patient identification Características clínicas diferenciais entre hemorragia e infarto cerebral: uma escala prática para identificação precoce do paciente  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available New treatments for acute stroke require a rapid triage system, which minimizes treatment delays and maximizes selection of eligible patients. Our aim was to create a score for assessing the probability of brain hemorrhage among patients with acute stroke based upon clinical information. Of 1805 patients in the Stroke Data Bank, 1273 had infarction (INF and 237 had parenchymatous hemorrhage (HEM verified by CT. INF and HEM discriminators were determined by logistic regression and used to create a score. ROC curve was used to choose the cut-point for predicting HEM (score Novas perspectivas no tratamento do acidente vascular cerebral (AVC requerem um método de triagem rápido para seleção dos pacientes. Nosso objetivo foi criar uma escala com informações clínicas simples para diferenciar hematoma intra-parenquimatoso (HEM entre os pacientes com AVC. Estudamos 1.273 pacientes com AVC isquêmico (INF e 237 com HEM do Stroke Data Bank. Variáveis independentes para o diagnóstico de INF e HEM foram determinadas pela análise de regressão logística e utilizadas para criar uma escala. Através da curva ROC foi escolhido o nível de corte para discriminar HEM (<= 2 , com sensibilidade de 76%, especificidade de 83%. Foi realizada validação externa utilizando os pacientes do estudo NOMASS. Embora o uso de uma escala de fácil aplicação pelas equipes de emergência não possa substituir os métodos de imagem na diferenciação entre INF e HEM para a indicação de trombolítico, a escala proposta pode ser útil para selecionar pacientes para estudos clínicos e tratamento pré-hospitalar, alertar técnicos de tomografia e as equipes médicas sobre a chegada de pacientes, contribuindo para reduzir atrasos cruciais no tratamento.

Ayrton R. Massaro

2002-06-01

290

Fatty acid desaturase gene variants, cardiovascular risk factors, and myocardial infarction in the costa rica study  

Science.gov (United States)

Genetic variation in fatty acid desaturases (FADS) has previously been linked to long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) in adipose tissue and cardiovascular risk. The goal of our study was to test associations between six common FADS polymorphisms (rs174556, rs3834458, rs174570, rs2524299, r...

291

Development and validation of a bedside risk score for MRSA among patients hospitalized with complicated skin and skin structure infections  

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Full Text Available Abstract Background Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA is a frequent cause of complicated skin and skin structure infections (cSSSI. Patients with MRSA require different empiric treatment than those with non-MRSA infections, yet no accurate tools exist to aid in stratifying the risk for a MRSA cSSSI. We sought to develop a simple bedside decision rule to tailor empiric coverage more accurately. Methods We conducted a large multicenter (N=62 hospitals retrospective cohort study in a US-based database between April 2005 and March 2009. All adult initial admissions with ICD-9-CM codes specific to cSSSI were included. Patients admitted with MRSA vs. non-MRSA were compared with regard to baseline demographic, clinical and hospital characteristics. We developed and validated a model to predict the risk of MRSA, and compared its performance via sensitivity, specificity and other classification statistics to the healthcare-associated (HCA infection risk factors. Results Of the 7,183 patients with cSSSI, 2,387 (33.2% had MRSA. Factors discriminating MRSA from non-MRSA were age, African-American race, no evidence of diabetes mellitus, cancer or renal dysfunction, and prior history of cardiac dysrhythmia. The score ranging from 0 to 8 points exhibited a consistent dose–response relationship. A MRSA score of 5 or higher was superior to the HCA classification in all characteristics, while that of 4 or higher was superior on all metrics except specificity. Conclusions MRSA is present in 1/3 of all hospitalized cSSSI. A simple bedside risk score can help discriminate the risk for MRSA vs. other pathogens with improved accuracy compared to the HCA definition.

Zilberberg Marya D

2012-07-01

292

Towards an Evidence Based Score Card for Aligning Risk Management and Sustainability Goals for Essential NORM Industries: Case Study - Phosphates  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Approaches to regulating NORM industries risk suffering blight from over-conservative methodologies, whether based on worst case models, extreme event scenarios or unmediated application of the precautionary principle: the outcome can be a significant overestimation of risk and a consequent penalty on both producers and consumers in terms of access to and affordability of the intermediate and end products those industries provide. In particular, for historical reasons derived perhaps from the potentially distracting regulatory focus on what is usually trace radioactivity in products and by-products containing NORM, there is a damaging tendency to seek risk management models and best practices from nuclear industries in general rather than from those sectors to which the end products of NORM industries are specifically aligned. This risk is particularly visible in the phosphate sector, an industry now pivotal to long term security and sustainability in both food production and energy supply, plant based or nuclear. Premised on a companion paper which sets out the theory of 'constructive regulation', presented in 2008 at the 12th International Congress of the International Radiation Protection Association, Buenos Aires, this paper proposes the use of an evidence based score carding system to ensure the future alignment of risk management and sustainability goals for NORM industries, starting with phosphates. The score card elements are broken out into three primary catents are broken out into three primary categories along the lines defined in the concept of triple bottom line performance measurement, comprising economic, social and environmental elements. The question is put as to what role constructive regulation and best practices can play in ensuring that the outcome of the regulatory process is the preservation and enhancement of the capability of these industries to deliver sustainable returns to the customers and stakeholders who depend on them. Score carding will facilitate transparent, objective decision making and effective performance monitoring in both the short and long term, as measured against triple bottom line expectations. (author)

293

Development and validation of a risk score for hospitalization for heart failure in patients with Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus  

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Full Text Available Abstract Background There are no risk scores available for predicting heart failure in Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM. Based on the Hong Kong Diabetes Registry, this study aimed to develop and validate a risk score for predicting heart failure that needs hospitalisation in T2DM. Methods 7067 Hong Kong Chinese diabetes patients without history of heart failure, and without history and clinical evidence of coronary heart disease at baseline were analyzed. The subjects have been followed up for a median period of 5.5 years. Data were randomly and evenly assigned to a training dataset and a test dataset. Sex-stratified Cox proportional hazard regression was used to obtain predictors of HF-related hospitalization in the training dataset. Calibration was assessed using Hosmer-Lemeshow test and discrimination was examined using the area under receiver's operating characteristic curve (aROC in the test dataset. Results During the follow-up, 274 patients developed heart failure event/s that needed hospitalisation. Age, body mass index (BMI, spot urinary albumin to creatinine ratio (ACR, HbA1c, blood haemoglobin (Hb at baseline and coronary heart disease during follow-up were predictors of HF-related hospitalization in the training dataset. HF-related hospitalization risk score = 0.0709 × age (year + 0.0627 × BMI (kg/m2 + 0.1363 × HbA1c(% + 0.9915 × Log10(1+ACR (mg/mmol - 0.3606 × Blood Hb(g/dL + 0.8161 × CHD during follow-up (1 if yes. The 5-year probability of heart failure = 1-S0(5EXP{0.9744 × (Risk Score - 2.3961}. Where S0(5 = 0.9888 if male and 0.9809 if female. The predicted and observed 5-year probabilities of HF-related hospitalization were similar (p > 0.20 and the adjusted aROC was 0.920 for 5 years of follow-up. Conclusion The risk score had adequate performance. Further validations in other cohorts of patients with T2DM are needed before clinical use.

Lam Christopher W

2008-04-01

294

Detection of lipid-core plaques by intracoronary near-infrared spectroscopy identifies high risk of periprocedural myocardial infarction.  

LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

BACKGROUND: Percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) is associated with periprocedural myocardial infarction (MI) in 3% to 15% of cases (depending on the definition used). In many cases, these MIs result from distal embolization of lipid-core plaque (LCP) constituents. Prospective identification of LCP with catheter-based near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) may predict an increased risk of periprocedural MI and facilitate development of preventive measures. METHODS AND RESULTS: The present study analyzed the relationship between the presence of a large LCP (detected by NIRS) and periprocedural MI. Patients with stable preprocedural cardiac biomarkers undergoing stenting were identified from the COLOR Registry, an ongoing prospective observational study of patients undergoing NIRS before PCI. The extent of LCP in the treatment zone was calculated as the maximal lipid-core burden index (LCBI) measured by NIRS for each of the 4-mm longitudinal segments in the treatment zone. A periprocedural MI was defined as new cardiac biomarker elevation above 3x upper limit of normal. A total of 62 patients undergoing stenting met eligibility criteria. A large LCP (defined as a maxLCBI(4 mm) >\\/=500) was present in 14 of 62 lesions (22.6%), and periprocedural MI was documented in 9 of 62 (14.5%) of cases. Periprocedural MI occurred in 7 of 14 patients (50%) with a maxLCBI(4 mm) >\\/=500, compared with 2 of 48 patients (4.2%) patients with a lower maxLCBI(4 mm) (P=0.0002). CONCLUSIONS: NIRS provides rapid, automated detection of extensive LCPs that are associated with a high risk of periprocedural MI, presumably due to embolization of plaque contents during coronary intervention.

Goldstein, James A

2012-02-01

295

Impacto do tipo de procedimento e do fator cirurgião na validação do EuroSCORE / Impact of type of procedure and surgeon on EuroSCORE operative risk validation  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese Objetivo: O EuroSCORE tem sido utilizado na estimativa de risco em cirurgia cardíaca, apesar de fatores importantes não serem considerados. O objetivo foi validar o EuroSCORE na predição de mortalidade em cirurgia cardiovascular num centro brasileiro, definindo a influência do tipo de procedimento [...] e da equipe cirúrgica responsável pelo paciente. Métodos: No período de janeiro de 2006 a junho de 2011, 2320 pacientes adultos consecutivos foram estudados. De acordo com o EuroSCORE aditivo, os pacientes foram divididos em risco baixo (escore 12). A relação entre a mortalidade observada (O) sobre a esperada (E) de acordo com o EuroSCORE logístico foi calculada para cada um dos grupos, procedimentos e cirurgiões com > de 150 operações, e analisada por regressão logística. Resultados: O EuroSCORE calibrou com a mortalidade observada (O/E=0,94; P Abstract in english Objective: EuroSCORE has been used in cardiac surgery operative risk assessment, despite important variables were not included. The objective of this study was to validate EuroSCORE on mortality prediction in a Brazilian cardiovascular surgery center, defining the influence of type of procedure and [...] surgical team. Methods: Between January 2006 and June 2011, 2320 consecutive adult patients were studied. According to additive EuroSCORE, patients were divided into low risk (score12). The relation between observed mortality (O) and expected mortality (E) according to logistic EuroSCORE was calculated for each of the groups, types of procedures and surgeons with > 150 operations, and analyzed by logistic regression. Results: EuroSCORE correlated to the observed mortality (O/E=0.94; P

Fernando A., Atik; Claudio Ribeiro da, Cunha.

2014-04-01

296

Family history of myocardial infarction as an independent risk factor for coronary heart disease.  

OpenAIRE

The hypothesis that a family history of heart attack before the age of 60 years is an independent risk factor for coronary heart disease was examined in a random sample of 1044 men aged 40-70. Data on personal and family history, smoking, weight, height, plasma lipid and lipoprotein concentrations, blood pressure, and resting and exercise electrocardiograms were collected according to the standard Lipid Research Clinics protocol. A history of heart attack in first degree relatives was ascerta...

Friedlander, Y.; Kark, J. D.; Stein, Y.

1985-01-01

297

Multivariable time-dependent analysis of the impact of azacitidine in patients with lower-risk myelodysplastic syndrome and unfavorable specific lower-risk score.  

Science.gov (United States)

Scoring systems for lower-risk myelodysplastic syndrome (LR-MDS) recognize patients with a poorer than expected outcome. This study retrospectively analyzes the role of azacitidine in LR-MDS with adverse risk score and compared to an historical cohort treated with best supportive care or erythropoiesis-stimulating agents. Overall response to AZA was 40%. One and 2-year probabilities of survival were 62% and 45% for AZA vs. 25% and 11% (P=10(-4)). In a multivariable time-dependent analysis, response to AZA (CR/PR/HI) was associated with an improved survival (HR=0.234, 95% CI, 0.063-0.0863; P=0.029). Thrombocytopenia (<50×10(9)L(-1)) is confirmed as an adverse parameter in LR-MDS (HR=1.649, 95% CI, 1.012-2.687; P=0.045). PMID:25487012

Falantes, Jose; Delgado, Regina García; Calderón-Cabrera, Cristina; Márquez-Malaver, Francisco J; Valcarcel, David; de Miguel, Dunia; Bailén, Alicia; Bargay, Joan; Bernal, Teresa; González-Porras, Jose R; Tormo, Mar; Ramos, Fernando; Andreu, Rafael; Xicoy, Blanca; Nomdedeu, Benet; Brunet, Salut; Sánchez, Joaquín; Jurado, Antonio Fernández; Bonanad, Santiago; Pérez-Simón, Jose Antonio; Sanz, Guillermo

2015-01-01

298

Replacement tunnelled dialysis catheters for haemodialysis access: Same site, new site, or exchange — A multivariate analysis and risk score  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Aim: To identify variables related to complications following tunnelled dialysis catheter (TDC) replacement and stratifying the risk to reduce morbidity in patients with end-stage renal disease. Materials and methods: One hundred and forty TDCs (Split Cath, medCOMP) were replaced in 140 patients over a 5 year period. Multiple variables were retrospectively collected and analysed to stratify the risk and to predict patients who were more likely to suffer from complications. Multivariate regression analysis was used to identify variables predictive of complications. Results: There were six immediate complications, 42 early complications, and 37 late complications. Multivariate analysis revealed that variables significantly associated to complications were: female sex (p = 0.003; OR 2.9); previous TDC in the same anatomical position in the past (p = 0.014; OR 4.1); catheter exchange (p = 0.038; OR 3.8); haemoglobin 15 s (p = 0.002; OR 4.1); and C-reactive protein >50 mg/l (p = 0.007; OR 4.6). A high-risk score, which used the values from the multivariate analysis, predicted 100% of the immediate complications, 95% of the early complications, and 68% of the late complications. Conclusion: Patients can now be scored prior to TDC replacement. A patient with a high-risk score can be optimized to reduce the chance of complications. Further prospective studies to confirm that rotating the site studies to confirm that rotating the site of TDC reduces complications are warranted as this has implications for current guidelines.

299

Comparison of metabolic parameters and Framingham cardiovascular risk scores before and after in-hospital treatment with antipsychotics  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Background. The objective of this naturalistic study was to evaluate changes in the prevalence of metabolic syndrome (MetS and Framingham cardiovascular risk scores in adult with schizophrenia after inhospital treatment with antipsychotics. Methods. For 58 patients (36 women and 22 men the following data was acquired on admission and at discharge: body height and weight, waist circumference, cigarette smoking, total cholesterol, LDL cholesterol, HDL cholesterol, triglycerides (TGA, fasting plasma glucose (FPG, blood pressure, concomitant use of antidiabetic, antihypertensive and antihyperlipidemic medications. Results. Mean TGA levels increased significantly (140.32 mg/dL vs. 180.17 mg/dL, other parameters did not change. MetS prevalence on admission and at discharge did not differ significantly, irrespective of definition used (IDF: 50.00% vs. 60.34%; ATPIII: 39.66% vs. 43.10%; ATPIII A: 46.55% vs. 51.72%. Two cardiovascular risk scores were reduced at discharge: stroke, 10-year (4.10% vs. 3.46% and hypertension, 4-year (22.18% vs. 16.58%. Other Framingham risk scores did not change. Very high prevalence of abnormal body weight (up to 65%, abdominal obesity (63% in men and 89% in women, hypertension (>50% and lipid abnormalities (31-64% was found. Conclusions. We have found a very high rate of MetS in patients treated with antipsychotics. No metabolic parameters improved after hospital stay, while some worsened. This did not, however, result in increased risk of cardiovascular events. Abnormal body weight and lipid abnormalities were very common in our study population. Our results indicate that metabolic parameters should be monitored regularly, particularly in outpatient settings, and appropriate treatment should be introduced as soon as any signifand appropriate treatment should be introduced as soon as any significant changes are found.

Wysoki?ski, Adam

2014-03-01

300

Update of the German Diabetes Risk Score and external validation in the German MONICA/KORA study  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

AIMS: Several published diabetes prediction models include information about family history of diabetes. The aim of this study was to extend the previously developed German Diabetes Risk Score (GDRS) with family history of diabetes and to validate the updated GDRS in the Multinational MONItoring of trends and determinants in CArdiovascular Diseases (MONICA)/German Cooperative Health Research in the Region of Augsburg (KORA) study. METHODS: We used data from the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC)-Potsdam study for extending the GDRS, including 21,846 participants. Within 5 years of follow-up 492 participants developed diabetes. The definition of family history included information about the father, the mother and/or sibling/s. Model extension was evaluated by discrimination and reclassification. We updated the calculation of the score and absolute risks. External validation was performed in the MONICA/KORA study comprising 11,940 participants with 315 incident cases after 5 years of follow-up. RESULTS: The basic ROC-AUC of 0.856 (95%-CI: 0.842-0.870) was improved by 0.007 (0.003-0.011) when parent and sibling history was included in the GDRS. The net reclassification improvement was 0.110 (0.072-0.149), respectively. For the updated score we demonstrated good calibration across all tenths of risk. In MONICA/KORA, the ROC-AUC was 0.837 (0.819-0.855); regarding calibration we saw slight overestimation of absolute risks. CONCLUSIONS: Inclusion of the number of diabetes-affected parents and sibling history improved the prediction of type 2 diabetes. Therefore, we updated the GDRS algorithm accordingly. Validation in another German cohort study showed good discrimination and acceptable calibration for the vast majority of individuals.

Mühlenbruch, Kristin; Ludwig, Tonia

2014-01-01

301

Comparison of Accuracy of Diabetes Risk Score and Components of the Metabolic Syndrome in Assessing Risk of Incident Type 2 Diabetes in Inter99 Cohort  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Background: Given the increasing worldwide incidence of diabetes, methods to assess diabetes risk which would identify those at highest risk are needed. We compared two risk-stratification approaches for incident type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM); factors of metabolic syndrome (MetS) and a previously developed diabetes risk score, PreDxH Diabetes Risk Score (DRS). DRS assesses 5 yr risk of incident T2DM based on the measurement of 7 biomarkers in fasting blood. Methodology/Principal Findings: DRS was evaluated in baseline serum samples from 4,128 non-diabetic subjects in the Inter99 cohort (Danes aged 30–60) for whom diabetes outcomes at 5 years were known. Subjects were classified as having MetS based on the presence of at least 3 MetS risk factors in baseline clinical data. The sensitivity and false positive rate for predicting diabetes using MetS was compared to DRS. When the sensitivity was fixed to match MetS, DRS had a significantly lower false positive rate. Similarly, when the false positive rate was fixed to match MetS, DRS had a significantly higher specificity. In further analyses, subjects were classified by presence of 0–2, 3 or 4–5 risk factors with matching proportions of subjects distributed among three DRS groups. Comparison between the two risk stratification schemes, MetS risk factors and DRS, were evaluated using Net Reclassification Improvement (NRI). Comparing risk stratification by DRS to MetS factors in the total population, the NRI was 0.146 (p = 0.008) demonstrating DRS provides significantly improved stratification. Additionally, the relative risk of T2DM differed by 15 fold between the low and high DRS risk groups, but only 8-fold between the low and high risk MetS groups. Conclusions/Significance: DRS provides a more accurate assessment of risk for diabetes than MetS. This improved performance may allow clinicians to focus preventive strategies on those most in need of urgent intervention.

Shafizadeh, Tracy B; Moler, Edward J

2011-01-01

302

Haplotype Analysis of the ?2 Adrenergic Receptor Gene and Risk of Myocardial Infarction in Humans  

OpenAIRE

Polymorphisms in the ?2 adrenergic receptor (ADRB2), in particular G16R, Q27E, and T164I, have been implicated in the pathogenesis of cardiovascular and metabolic phenotypes. However, no prospective, genetic-epidemiological data are available on the risk of cardiovascular disease associated with these variants. Using DNA samples collected at baseline in a prospective cohort of 14,916 initially healthy American men, we evaluated the G16R, Q27E, and T164I polymorphisms among 523 individuals wh...

Zee, Robert Y. L.; Cook, Nancy R.; Reynolds, Rebecca; Cheng, Suzanne; Ridker, Paul M.

2005-01-01

303

Value and limitations of existing scores for the assessment of cardiovascular risk: a review for clinicians.  

LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

Atherosclerotic cardiovascular diseases (CVDs) are the biggest causes of death worldwide. In most people, CVD is the product of a number of causal risk factors. Several seemingly modest risk factors may, in combination, result in a much higher risk than an impressively raised single factor. For this reason, risk estimation systems have been developed to assist clinicians to assess the effects of risk factor combinations in planning management strategies. In this article, the performances of the major risk estimation systems are reviewed. Most perform usably well in populations that are similar to the one used to derive the system, and in other populations if calibrated to allow for different CVD mortality rates and different risk factor distributions. The effect of adding "new" risk factors to age, sex, smoking, lipid status, and blood pressure is usually small, but may help to appropriately reclassify some of those patients who are close to a treatment threshold to a more correct "treat\\/do not treat" category. Risk estimation in the young and old needs more research. Quantification of the hoped-for benefits of the multiple risk estimation approach in terms of improved outcomes is still needed. But, it is likely that the widespread use of such an approach will help to address the issues of both undertreatment and overtreatment.

Cooney, Marie Therese

2009-09-29

304

Consideration of QRS complex in addition to ST segment abnormalities in the estimation of the 'risk region' during acute inferior myocardial infarction  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

The myocardial area at risk (MaR) has been estimated in patients with acute myocardial infarction (AMI) by using ST segment based ECG methods. However, as the process from ischemia to infarction progresses, the ST segment deviation is typically replaced by QRS abnormalities, causing a falsely low estimation of the total MaR if determined by using ST segment based methods. A previous study showed the value of the consideration of the abnormalities in the QRS complex, in addition to those in the ST segment estimating the total MaR for patients with anterior AMI. The purpose of this study was to investigate the same method for patients with inferior AMI.

van Hellemond, Irene E. G.; Bouwmeester, Sjoerd

2013-01-01

305

A Risk Score based on histopathological features predicts higher risk of distant recurrence in premenopausal patients with lymph node-negative endocrine-responsive breast cancer  

Science.gov (United States)

SUMMARY Purpose To develop a Risk Score (RS) to predict distant recurrence among premenopausal women with node-negative endocrine-responsive early breast cancer. Methods The Cox model was used to develop the RS using clinical and histopathological features from 378 women participating in the IBCSG Trial VIII who received endocrine therapy alone or following chemotherapy. The performance of the resulting model was validated on a cohort of 1005 patients from a single institution who received endocrine therapy alone. Results In a multivariable analysis, the risk of distant recurrence was associated with tumor size, ER, Ki-67 and peritumoral vascular invasion. In the validation cohort, patients with high RS were at greater risk of distant recurrence compared to patients with low RS (HR, 17.41 ; 95% CI, 5.72 to 52.95). Conclusion In premenopausal women with node-negative endocrine-responsive early breast cancer, the RS identifies patients at higher risk of distant recurrence. PMID:22749924

Dellapasqua, Silvia; Bagnardi, Vincenzo; Regan, Meredith M.; Rotmensz, Nicole; Mastropasqua, Mauro G.; Viale, Giuseppe; Maiorano, Eugenio; Price, Karen N.; Gelber, Richard D.; Castiglione-Gertsch, Monica; Goldhirsch, Aron; Colleoni, Marco

2012-01-01

306

A polygenic risk score for breast cancer in women receiving tamoxifen or raloxifene on NSABP P-1 and P-2.  

Science.gov (United States)

Recent genetic studies have identified common variation in susceptibility loci that stratify lifetime risks of breast cancer and may inform prevention and screening strategies. However, whether these loci have similar implications for women treated with tamoxifen or raloxifene (SERMs) is unknown. We conducted a matched case-control study of 592 cases who developed breast cancer and 1,171 unaffected women from 32,859 participants on SERM therapy enrolled on NSABP P-1 and P-2 breast cancer prevention trials. We formed a quantitative polygenic risk score (PRS) using genotypes of 75 breast cancer-associated single nucleotide polymorphisms and examined the PRS as a risk factor for breast cancer among women treated with SERMs. The PRS ranged from 3.98 to 7.74, with a one-unit change associated with a 42 % increase in breast cancer (OR = 1.42; P = 0.0002). The PRS had a stronger association with breast cancer among high-risk women with no first-degree family history (OR = 1.62) compared to those with a positive family history (OR = 1.32) (P intx = 0.04). There was also suggestion that PRS was a stronger risk factor for ER-positive (OR = 1.59, P = 0.0002) than ER-negative (OR = 1.05, P = 0.84) breast cancer (P intx = 0.10). Associations did not differ by tamoxifen or raloxifene treatment, age at trial entry, 5-year predicted Gail model risk or other clinical variables. The PRS is a strong risk factor for ER-positive breast cancer in moderate to high-risk individuals treated with either tamoxifen or raloxifene for cancer prevention. These data suggest that common genetic variation informs risk of breast cancer in women receiving SERMs. PMID:25575444

Vachon, Celine M; Schaid, Daniel J; Ingle, James N; Wickerham, D Lawrence; Kubo, Michiaki; Mushiroda, Taisei; Goetz, Matthew P; Carlson, Erin E; Paik, Soonmyung; Wolmark, Norman; Nakamura, Yusuke; Wang, Liewei; Weinshilboum, Richard; Couch, Fergus J

2015-01-01

307

Validation of a modified clinical risk score to predict cancer-specific survival for stage II colon cancer  

Science.gov (United States)

Many patients with stage II colon cancer will die of their disease despite curative surgery. Therefore, identification of patients at high risk of poor outcome after surgery for stage II colon cancer is desirable. This study aims to validate a clinical risk score to predict cancer-specific survival in patients undergoing surgery for stage II colon cancer. Patients undergoing surgery for stage II colon cancer in 16 hospitals in the West of Scotland between 2001 and 2004 were identified from a prospectively maintained regional clinical audit database. Overall and cancer-specific survival rates up to 5 years were calculated. A total of 871 patients were included. At 5 years, cancer-specific survival was 81.9% and overall survival was 65.6%. On multivariate analysis, age ?75 years (hazard ratio (HR) 2.11, 95% confidence intervals (CI) 1.57–2.85; Pmodified simple clinical risk score for patients undergoing surgery for stage II colon cancer. The combination of these two universally documented clinical factors provides a solid foundation for the examination of the impact of additional clinicopathological and treatment factors on overall and cancer-specific survival. PMID:25487740

Oliphant, Raymond; Horgan, Paul G; Morrison, David S; McMillan, Donald C

2015-01-01

308

Venous infarctions  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Strokes of venous origin are relatively infrequent. They usually cause venous infarcts which can be observed in 2 main circumstances: cerebral thrombophlebitis or dural arteriovenous (AV) fistulae draining into cerebral veins. The authors study the CT and angiographic aspects of these venous infarcts and their evolution. Conventional angiography remains indispensible to confirm the diagnosis

309

Venous infarctions  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Strokes of venous origin are relatively infrequent. They usually cause venous infarcts which can be observed in 2 main circumstances: cerebral thrombophlebitis or dural arteriovenous (A.V.) fistulae drainging into cerebral veins. The authors study the CT and angiographic aspects of these venous infarcts and their evolution. Conventional angiography remains indispensable to confirm the diagnosis. (orig.)

310

Risk of myocardial infarction and death associated with the use of nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) among healthy individuals: a nationwide cohort study  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Use of some nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) is associated with increased cardiovascular risk in several patient groups, but whether this excess risk exists in apparently healthy individuals has not been clarified. Using a historical cohort design, we estimated the risk of death and myocardial infarction associated with the use of NSAIDs. Participants in the study were selected from the Danish population and were defined as healthy according to a history of no hospital admissions and no concomitant selected pharmacotherapy. The source population consisted of 4,614,807 individuals, of whom 1,028,437 were included in the study after applying selection criteria. Compared to no NSAID use, hazard ratios (95% confidence limits) for death/myocardial infarction were 1.01 (0.96-1.07) for ibuprofen, 1.63 (1.52-1.76) for diclofenac, 0.97 (0.83-1.12) for naproxen, 2.13 (1.89-2.41) for rofecoxib, and 2.01 (1.78-2.27) for celecoxib. A dose-dependent increase in cardiovascular risk was seen for selective COX-2 inhibitors and diclofenac. Caution should be exercised in NSAID use in all individuals, and particularly high doses should be avoided if possible.

FosbØl, E L; Gislason, G H

2009-01-01

311

Creation and validation of a simple venous thromboembolism risk scoring tool for thermally injured patients: analysis of the National Burn Repository.  

Science.gov (United States)

Venous thromboembolism (VTE) has been identified as a major patient safety issue. The authors report their use of the National Burn Repository (NBR) to create and validate a weighted risk scoring system for VTE. Adult patients with thermal injury from the NBR admitted between 1995 and 2009 were included. Independent variables were either known or could be derived at the time of admission, including TBSA burned, inhalation injury, gender, and age. The dependent variable was VTE, a composite variable of patients with deep venous thrombosis, and pulmonary embolus. The dataset was split into working and validation sets using a random number generator. Multivariable logistic regression identified independent predictors. ?-coefficients for independent predictors were used to generate a weighted risk score. The NBR contained 22,618 patients who met inclusion criteria. The working and validation sets were not statistically different for demographics or risk factors. In the working set, the presence of inhalation injury and increased TBSA were independent predictors of VTE. Adjusted ?-coefficients were used to generate a weighted risk score, which showed excellent discrimination for VTE in both the working (c-statistic 0.774) and the validation (c-statistic 0.750) sets. As risk score increased, a linear increase in observed VTE rate was demonstrated in both working and validation sets. The authors have created and validated a simple risk score model to predict VTE risk in thermally injured patients using the NBR. The model is based on risk factors that are easily identified during initial patient contact. PMID:21979848

Pannucci, Christopher John; Osborne, Nicholas H; Wahl, Wendy L

2012-01-01

312

Duration of Treatment With Nonsteroidal Anti-Inflammatory Drugs and Impact on Risk of Death and Recurrent Myocardial Infarction in Patients With Prior Myocardial Infarction: A Nationwide Cohort Study  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Background- Despite the fact that nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) are contraindicated among patients with established cardiovascular disease, many receive NSAID treatment for a short period of time. However, little is known about the association between NSAID treatment duration and risk of cardiovascular disease. We therefore studied the duration of NSAID treatment and cardiovascular risk in a nationwide cohort of patients with prior myocardial infarction (MI). Methods and Results- Patients =30 years of age who were admitted with first-time MI during 1997 to 2006 and their subsequent NSAID use were identified by individual-level linkage of nationwide registries of hospitalization and drug dispensing from pharmacies in Denmark. Risk of death and recurrent MI according to duration of NSAID treatment was analyzed by multivariable time-stratified Cox proportional-hazard models and by incidence rates per 1000 person-years. Of the 83 677 patients included, 42.3% received NSAIDs during follow-up. Therewere 35 257 deaths/recurrent MIs. Overall, NSAID treatment was significantly associated with an increased risk of death/recurrent MI (hazard ratio, 1.45; 95% confidence interval, 1.29 to 1.62) at the beginning of the treatment, and the risk persisted throughout the treatment course (hazard ratio, 1.55; 95% confidence interval, 1.46 to 1.64 after 90 days). Analyses of individual NSAIDs showed that the traditional NSAID diclofenac was associated with the highest risk (hazard ratio, 3.26; 95% confidence interval, 2.57 to 3.86 for death/MI at day 1 to 7 of treatment). Conclusions- Even short-term treatment with most NSAIDs was associated with increased risk of death and recurrent MI in patients with prior MI. Neither short- nor long-term treatment with NSAIDs is advised in this population, and any NSAID use should be limited from a cardiovascular safety point of view.

Schjerning Olsen, Anne-Marie; FosbØl, Emil L

2011-01-01

313

Bacteremic pneumococcal pneumonia: serotype distribution, antimicrobial susceptibility, severity scores, risk factors, and mortality in a single center in Chile  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in english AIMS: Bacteremic pneumococcal pneumonia (BPP) is a severe condition. To evaluate seasonal distribution, mortality, serotype frequencies, antimicrobial susceptibility, and different severity scores among patients with BPP. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Patients were identified by laboratory data and restr [...] icted to adulthood. Standard methods were used for serotyping and antimicrobial susceptibility. Risk factors were analyzed by univariate and multivariate methods. Severity scores (APACHE II, CURB-65 and CAP PIRO) were compared using ROC curves. RESULTS: Sixty events of community-acquired BPP occurred between 2005 and 2010. A seasonal pattern was detected. Mean age was 72.1 years old (81.4% >60 years). All had a predisposing factor. Previous influenza (3.3%) or pneumococcal immunization (1.7%) was infrequent. Admission to critical units was required by 51.7%. Twenty-two serotypes were identified among 59 strains. Only one strain had intermediate resistance to penicillin (1.7%). In-hospital mortality reached 33.3%. Multivariate analysis identified a CAP PIRO score>3 (OR 29.7; IC95 4.7-187), age >65 years (OR 42.1; IC95 2.2-796), and a platelet count

Alberto, Fica; Nicolás, Bunster; Felipe, Aliaga; Felipe, Olivares; Lorena, Porte; Stephanie, Braun; Jeannette, Dabanch; Juan Carlos, Hormázabal; Antonio, Hernández; María Guacolda, Benavides.

2014-04-01

314

Validação prospectiva do escore de risco dante pazzanese em síndrome coronariana aguda sem supradesnivelamento do segmento ST / Prospective validation of the dante pazzanese risk score in non-ST-segment elevation acute coronary syndrome  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese FUNDAMENTO: Em Síndrome Coronariana Aguda (SCA) sem Supradesnivelamento do segmento ST (SST) é importante estimar a probabilidade de eventos adversos. Para esse fim, as diretrizes recomendam modelos de estratificação de risco. O escore de risco Dante Pazzanese (escore DANTE) é um modelo simples de e [...] stratificação de risco, composto das variáveis: aumento da idade (0 a 9 pontos); antecedente de diabete melito (2 pontos) ou acidente vascular encefálico (4 pontos); não uso de inibidor da enzima conversora da angiotensina (1 ponto); elevação da creatinina (0 a 10 pontos); combinação de elevação da troponina e depressão do segmento ST (0 a 4 pontos). OBJETIVO: Validar o escore DANTE em pacientes com SCA sem SST. MÉTODOS: Estudo prospectivo, observacional, com inclusão de 457 pacientes, de setembro de 2009 a outubro de 2010. Os pacientes foram agrupados em: muito baixo, baixo, intermediário e alto risco de acordo com a pontuação do modelo original. A habilidade preditiva do escore foi avaliada pela estatística-C. RESULTADOS: Foram 291 (63,7%) homens e a média da idade 62,1 anos (11,04). Dezessete pacientes (3,7%) apresentaram o evento de morte ou (re)infarto em 30 dias. Ocorreu aumento progressivo na proporção do evento, com aumento da pontuação: muito baixo risco = 0,0%; baixo risco = 3,9%; risco intermediário = 10,9%; alto risco = 60,0%; p Abstract in english BACKGROUND: In non-ST-segment elevation acute coronary syndrome (ACS), the likelihood of adverse events should be estimated. Guidelines recommend risk stratification models for that purpose. The Dante Pazzanese risk score (DANTE score) is a simple risk stratification model composed with the followin [...] g variables: age increase (0 to 9 points); history of diabetes mellitus (2 points) or stroke (4 points); no use of angiotensin-converting-enzyme inhibitor (1 point); creatinine elevation (0 to 10 points); combination of troponin elevation and ST-segment depression (0 to 4 points). OBJECTIVE: To validate the DANTE score in patients with non-ST-segment elevation ACS. METHODS: Prospective, observational study including 457 patients, from September 2009 to October 2010. The patients were grouped in risk categories according to the original model score as follows: very low; low; intermediate; and high. The predictive ability of the score was assessed by using C-statistics. RESULTS: The sample comprised 291 (63.7%) men, the mean age being 62.1 years (SD=11.04). The event death or (re)infarction in 30 days was observed in 17 patients (3.7%). Progressive increase in the proportion of events was observed as the score increased: very low risk = 0.0%; low risk = 3.9%; intermediate risk = 10.9%; high risk = 60.0%; p

Elizabete Silva dos, Santos; Luiz, Minuzzo; Roberta de, Souza; Ari, Timerman.

2013-09-01

315

Prognostic significance of predischarge 2D-echocardiography after first transmural myocardial infarction.  

Science.gov (United States)

Predischarge two dimensional echocardiography (2D Echo) was performed in 45 survivors of first transmural myocardial infarction to assess its value in predicting major cardiac complications (MCC) during convalescence. Wall motion score was derived for each patient by analysing endocardial motion in 11 left ventricular segments. In 18 months follow up 11 of 14 patients (78%) who had major cardiac complications had wall motion score of at least 5. Wall motion score of less than 5 was present in 29 of the 31 (94%) of patients in asymptomatic group. Non-invasively obtained wall motion score helps in risk stratification of survivors of AMI. Wall motion score at predischarge 2D Echo or more identifies high risk cases from a relatively asymptomatic group (Killip Class I & II). PMID:2632534

Kumbla, D K; Parikh, J A; Shah, V K; Gandhi, M J

1989-11-01

316

Common Y402H variant in complement factor H gene is not associated with susceptibility to myocardial infarction and its related risk factors  

OpenAIRE

Abstract Recently, the genetic variant Y402H in complement factor H gene (CFH) was associated with increased risk for myocardial infarction (MI) in a prospective Caucasian cohort. In another nested case-control study, however, the CFH-Y402H variant did not carry susceptibility to MI. The aim of the present study was to test for association between the CFH-Y402H variant and MI in a large case-control sample with familial background for coronary artery disease (CAD). A total of 2,161...

Stark, Klaus; Neureuther, Katharina; Sedlacek, Kamil; Hengstenberg, Wibke; Fischer, Marcus; Baessler, Andrea; Wiedmann, Silke; Jeron, Andreas; Holmer, Stephan; Erdmann, Jeanette; Schunkert, Heribert; Hengstenberg, Christian

2007-01-01

317

Association of various risk factors with prognosis and hospitalization cost in Chinese patients with acute myocardial infarction: A clinical analysis of 627 cases  

Science.gov (United States)

Acute myocardial infarction (AMI) is the leading cause of morbidity and mortality in the developed world and is becoming increasingly more common in developing countries. The risk factors affecting the prognosis of Chinese patients may differ from those in other populations. This study was conducted to investigate the potential risk factors that may correlate with prognosis and hospitalization costs of Chinese AMI patients. A total of 627 hospitalized AMI patients were recruited and their general information and relevant laboratory parameters were collected. Accordingly, the patients were grouped into different subgroups and potential risk factors and their correlations with prognosis and hospitalization costs were analyzed. Age, high blood pressure, infarct location and percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) were the variables significantly associated with the differences in the prognosis of AMI patients (PAMI patients enrolled in this study may not be representative of all AMI patients in China. In addition, the prognosis of these patients was limited to their hospital stay. Therefore, long-term follow-up requires careful assessment.

WANG, PEINING; ZHANG, BIN; JIN, LIJUN; LIAO, HONGTAO; DONG, TAIMING

2015-01-01

318

Factores de riesgo coronarios asociados al infarto agudo del miocardio en el adulto mayor Coronary risk factors associated with the acute myocardial infarction in the elderly  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Se realizó un estudio observacional, analítico y retrospectivo, de tipo caso-control, de los adultos mayores con infarto agudo del miocardio, pertenecientes al área de salud Municipal de Santiago de Cuba, desde enero de 2006 hasta diciembre de 2011, a fin de identificar los factores de riesgo coronarios asociados al mismo. Se seleccionaron 33 casos y 2 controles por cada uno de ellos. Se calcularon el riesgo relativo a través de la razón de productos cruzados y el riesgo atribuible en expuestos porcentual como medida de impacto. El sedentarismo y la hipertensión arterial tuvieron una acentuada relación significativa de causalidad con el infarto agudo del miocardio y de forma moderada con el tabaquismo, no así los antecedentes familiares ni personales de cardiopatía isquémica, sexo, obesidad y diabetes mellitus.An observational, analytic and retrospective study of case-control type, of aged patients with acute myocardial infarction, belonging to the health Municipal area of Santiago de Cuba was carried out from January, 2006 to December, 2011, in order to identify the coronary risk factors associated with it. Thirty three cases and two controls for each were selected. The relative risk through the odds ratio and the attributable risk in percentage exposed as impact measure were calculated. Sedentarism and hypertension had a considerable significant causative relationship with acute myocardial infarction and in a moderate way with smoking habit. Family or personal history of ischemic cardiopathy, sex, obesity or diabetes mellitus had no relation with it.

Julia Tamara Alvarez Cortés

2013-01-01

319

Weighted Risk Score-Based Multifactor Dimensionality Reduction to Detect Gene-Gene Interactions in Nasopharyngeal Carcinoma  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Determining the complex relationships between diseases, polymorphisms in human genes and environmental factors is challenging. Multifactor dimensionality reduction (MDR has been proven to be capable of effectively detecting the statistical patterns of epistasis, although classification accuracy is required for this approach. The imbalanced dataset can cause seriously negative effects on classification accuracy. Moreover, MDR methods cannot quantitatively assess the disease risk of genotype combinations. Hence, we introduce a novel weighted risk score-based multifactor dimensionality reduction (WRSMDR method that uses the Bayesian posterior probability of polymorphism combinations as a new quantitative measure of disease risk. First, we compared the WRSMDR to the MDR method in simulated datasets. Our results showed that the WRSMDR method had reasonable power to identify high-order gene-gene interactions, and it was more effective than MDR at detecting four-locus models. Moreover, WRSMDR reveals more information regarding the effect of genotype combination on the disease risk, and the result was easier to determine and apply than with MDR. Finally, we applied WRSMDR to a nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC case-control study and identified a statistically significant high-order interaction among three polymorphisms: rs2860580, rs11865086 and rs2305806.

Chao-Feng Li

2014-06-01

320

Independent validation of the Nottingham Hip Fracture Score and identification of regional variation in patient risk within England.  

Science.gov (United States)

The Nottingham Hip Fracture Score (NHFS) was developed to assess the risk of death following a fracture of the hip, based on pre-operative patient characteristics. We performed an independent validation of the NHFS, assessed the degree of geographical variation that exists between different units within the United Kingdom and attempted to define a NHFS level that is associated with high risk of mortality. The NHFS was calculated retrospectively for consecutive patients presenting with a fracture of the hip to two hospitals in England. The observed 30-day mortality for each NHFS cohort was compared with that predicted by the NHFS using the Hosmer-Lemeshow test. The distribution of NHFS in the observed group was compared with data from other hospitals in the United Kingdom. The proportion of patients identified as high risk and the mortality within the high risk group were assessed for groups defined using different thresholds for the NHFS. In all 1079 hip fractures were included in the analysis, with a mean age of 83 years (60 to 105), 284 (26%) male. Overall 30-day mortality was 7.3%. The NHFS was a significant predictor of 30-day mortality. Statistically significant differences in the distribution of the NHFS were present between different units in England (p fracture of the hip. Cite this article: Bone Joint J 2015;96-B:100-3. PMID:25568421

Rushton, P R P; Reed, M R; Pratt, R K

2015-01-01

321

Changes in medical treatment six months after risk stratification with HeartScore and coronary artery calcification scanning of healthy middle-aged subjects  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Objectives: The aim was to examine and compare the impact of HeartScore and coronary artery calcification (CAC) score on subsequent changes in the use of medication. Methods: A total of 1156 healthy men and women, aged 50 or 60, had a baseline medical examination and a coronary artery CT-scan as a part of a screening programme. Using the European HeartScore, the total 10-year cardiovascular mortality risk was estimated (?5% risk was considered as high). Risk factors and CAC scores were reported to both the patients and their general practitioner. Six months after the screening, follow-up questionnaires addressing current medication were mailed to the participants. Results: A completed questionnaire was returned by 1075 (93%) subjects. At follow up, the overall use of prophylactic medication was significantly increased. Of those with CAC (n = 462) or high HeartScore (n = 233), 21 and 19%, respectively, received lipid-lowering treatment, while 25 and 32%, respectively, received antihypertensive treatment. In multivariate logistic regression analyses, the presence of CAC was associated with an increased use of lipid-lowering treatment (OR 2.2; 95% CI 1.2-4.0), while the presence of a high HeartScore was associated with an increased use of lipid-lowering (OR 2.9; 95% CI 1.6-5.5) and antihypertensive medication (OR 3.4; 95% CI 1.9-6.0). Conclusion: Knowledge of present cardiovascular risk factors like high HeartScore and/or CAC leads to beneficial changes in medication. However, at follow up only a minority of high-risk subjects did received prophylactic treatment. CAC score was not superior to HeartScore regarding these motivational outcomes.

SØrensen, Mette Hjortdal; Gerke, Oke

2012-01-01

322

A melanoma risk score in a Brazilian population / Um escore de risco para melanoma em uma população brasileira  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in portuguese FUNDAMENTOS: importantes fatores de risco para melanoma cutâneo são reconhecidos, mas escores padronizados para avaliação individual ainda precisam ser elaborados. OBJETIVOS: o objetivo deste estudo foi desenv [...] olver um escore de risco de melanoma cutâneo para uma amostra brasileira. MÉTODOS: verificar as estimativas dos principais fatores de risco para melanoma, derivado de uma meta-análise (estudo de base italiano) e, externamente, validar em uma população do sul do Brasil por um estudo caso-controle. Um total de 117 indivíduos foram avaliados. RESULTADOS: a variável com maior poder preditivo para o risco de melanoma cutâneo na população estudada foi a cor do cabelo (AUC: 0,71, IC 95%: 0,62-0,79). Outros fatores importantes para o modelo foram: sardas, queimaduras solares, e cor de pele e cor dos olhos. Adicionando outras variáveis, como os nevos comuns, elastose, história familiar e lesões pré-malignas não houve melhora da capacidade preditiva. CONCLUSÃO: A capacidade discriminatória do modelo proposto mostrou-se superior ou comparável aos modelos de risco anteriores propostos para melanoma cutâneo. Abstract in english BACKGROUND: Important risk factors for cutaneous melanoma (CM) are recognized, but standardized scores for individual assessment must still be developed. OBJECTIVES: The objective of this study was to develop [...] a risk score of CM for a Brazilian sample. METHODS: To verify the estimates of the main risk factors for melanoma, derived from a meta-analysis (Italian-based study), and externally validate them in a population in southern Brazil by means of a case-control study. A total of 117 individuals were evaluated. Different models were constructed combining the summary coefficients of different risk factors, derived from the meta-analysis, multiplied by the corresponding category of each variable for each participant according to a mathematical expression. RESULTS: the variable that best predicted the risk of CM in the studied population was hair color (AUC: 0.71; 95% CI: 0.62-0.79). Other important factors were freckles, sunburn episodes, and skin and eye color. Consideration of other variables such as common nevi, elastosis, family history, and premalignant lesions did not improve the predictive ability of the models. CONCLUSION: The discriminating capacity of the proposed model proved to be superior or comparable to that of previous risk models proposed for CM.

Lucio, Bakos; Simeona, Mastroeni; Renan Rangel, Bonamigo; Franco, Melchi; Paolo, Pasquini; Cristina, Fortes.

2013-04-01

323

A melanoma risk score in a Brazilian population Um escore de risco para melanoma em uma população brasileira  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Important risk factors for cutaneous melanoma (CM are recognized, but standardized scores for individual assessment must still be developed. OBJECTIVES: The objective of this study was to develop a risk score of CM for a Brazilian sample. METHODS: To verify the estimates of the main risk factors for melanoma, derived from a meta-analysis (Italian-based study, and externally validate them in a population in southern Brazil by means of a case-control study. A total of 117 individuals were evaluated. Different models were constructed combining the summary coefficients of different risk factors, derived from the meta-analysis, multiplied by the corresponding category of each variable for each participant according to a mathematical expression. RESULTS: the variable that best predicted the risk of CM in the studied population was hair color (AUC: 0.71; 95% CI: 0.62-0.79. Other important factors were freckles, sunburn episodes, and skin and eye color. Consideration of other variables such as common nevi, elastosis, family history, and premalignant lesions did not improve the predictive ability of the models. CONCLUSION: The discriminating capacity of the proposed model proved to be superior or comparable to that of previous risk models proposed for CM. FUNDAMENTOS: importantes fatores de risco para melanoma cutâneo são reconhecidos, mas escores padronizados para avaliação individual ainda precisam ser elaborados. OBJETIVOS: o objetivo deste estudo foi desenvolver um escore de risco de melanoma cutâneo para uma amostra brasileira. MÉTODOS: verificar as estimativas dos principais fatores de risco para melanoma, derivado de uma meta-análise (estudo de base italiano e, externamente, validar em uma população do sul do Brasil por um estudo caso-controle. Um total de 117 indivíduos foram avaliados. RESULTADOS: a variável com maior poder preditivo para o risco de melanoma cutâneo na população estudada foi a cor do cabelo (AUC: 0,71, IC 95%: 0,62-0,79. Outros fatores importantes para o modelo foram: sardas, queimaduras solares, e cor de pele e cor dos olhos. Adicionando outras variáveis, como os nevos comuns, elastose, história familiar e lesões pré-malignas não houve melhora da capacidade preditiva. CONCLUSÃO: A capacidade discriminatória do modelo proposto mostrou-se superior ou comparável aos modelos de risco anteriores propostos para melanoma cutâneo.

Lucio Bakos

2013-04-01

324

Screening for type 2 diabetes mellitus in patients with mental illness: Application of a self-assessment score for diabetes mellitus risk.  

Science.gov (United States)

Various methods for diabetes risk assessment have been developed over a decade, but they were not evaluated in patients with mental illness. This study examined the feasibility and utility of a self-assessment score for type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM2) risk among patients with mental illness. DM2 risk was assessed by patients with mental illness as well as clinicians via a self-assessment questionnaire, and the resulting scores were compared to each other as well as with actual diagnosis. Of 100 patients, nine patients were newly revealed to have DM2 and 34 patients have pre-DM2. Patients tended to underreport risk factors - obesity and physical activity - so perceived to have lower risk. Sensitivity of the self-assessment score was different when used by patients and by clinicians despite correlation coefficient of 0.82. Based on positive predictive values, we may expect one out of two patients who have high scores actually have DM2 or pre-DM2. Also, the discrimination capability was reasonably high (AUC=0.79), comparable to its performance observed in general populations. The self-assessment score has potential as a simple and adjunct tool to identify a high risk group of DM2/pre-DM2 among persons with mental illness, especially, when used together with health care providers. PMID:25223258

Shin, Jinah K; Shortridge-Baggett, Lillie M; Sachmechi, Issac; Barron, Charles; Chiu, Ya-Lin; Bajracharya, Bhavana; Bang, Heejung

2014-12-30

325

A Hypertension Risk Score for Middle-Aged and Older Adults  

OpenAIRE

Determining which demographic and medical variables predict the development of hypertension could help clinicians stratify risk in both prehypertensive and nonhypertensive persons. Subject-level data from 2 community-based biracial cohorts were combined to ascertain the relationship between baseline characteristics and incident hypertension. Hypertension, defined as diastolic blood pressure ?90 mm Hg, systolic blood pressure ?140 mm Hg, or reported use of medication known to treat hyperte...

Kshirsagar, Abhijit V.; Chiu, Ya-lin; Bomback, Andrew S.; August, Phyllis A.; Viera, Anthony J.; Colindres, Romulo E.; Bang, Heejung

2010-01-01

326

To Construct A Forecasting Model of the Anthropometric Chronic Disease Risk Factor Score  

OpenAIRE

Background: Many health indices have a relationship with anthropometric indices. Thisresearch attempts to provide a new measurement: a chronic disease risk factorscore built into the regression model. This new model will help peoplevisualize their health status and get multiple information during the processof the healthy examination.Methods: Data from 8,034 subjects were collected from the data bank of the HealthExamination Center in Chang Gung Memorial Hospital. Related anthropometricindice...

Yi-Chou Chuang; Ming-Hsu Wang; Ding-Hau Huang; Chien-Hsin Yang; Jen-Der Lin

2006-01-01

327

Dual isotope thallium and indium antimyosin SPECT imaging to identify acute infarct patients at further ischemic risk  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Forty-two patients (28 men and 14 women) with acute myocardial infarction (35 Q, seven non-Q wave) were injected with 2.0 mCi indium 111-labeled antimyosin (AM) monoclonal antibody (111In AM) within 48 hours of the onset of chest pain. Forty-eight hours later (72-96 hours after onset of chest pain), patients were injected with 2.2 mCi thallium 201, and two sets of single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) images were obtained simultaneously using dual energy windows set for the 247 keV indium photopeak and the 70 keV thallium peak. Seventeen patients had repeat scans at 4 hours. 111In AM uptake and 201Tl defects were localized to one or more of 24 coronal and sagittal segments. Scans with only 201Tl defects and corresponding 111In AM uptake were classified as matches; scans with unmatched 201Tl defects in addition to matching regions corresponding to electrocardiographic infarct location were classified as mismatches; and scans with 201Tl and 111In AM uptake in the same segments were classified as overlap. Scan patterns were correlated with clinical evidence for residual ischemia occurring within 6 weeks of infarct and including infarct extension, recurrent angina, and positive predischarge low-level or 6-week symptom-limited stress tests and with coronary anatomy. Fourteen patients had only matching patterns (group 1), 23 had mismatches (group 2), and five had 201Tl-111In overlap as the predominant pattern. None of the patients in group 1 had previous myocarhe patients in group 1 had previous myocardial infarction; in each, the matched area corresponded to the Q wave location on electrocardiogram, and none had further in-hospital ischemic events or positive stress tests

328

Lymphotoxin-? Gene and Risk of Myocardial Infarction in 6,928 Cases and 2,712 Controls in the ISIS Case-Control Study  

Science.gov (United States)

Lymphotoxin-? (LTA) is a pro-inflammatory cytokine that plays an important role in the immune system and local inflammatory response. LTA is expressed in atherosclerotic plaques and has been implicated in the pathogenesis of atherosclerosis and coronary heart disease (CHD). Polymorphisms in the gene encoding lymphotoxin-? (LTA) on Chromosome 6p21 have been associated with susceptibility to CHD, but results in different studies appear to be conflicting. We examined the association of seven single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) across the LTA gene, and their related haplotypes, with risk of myocardial infarction (MI) in the International Study of Infarct Survival (ISIS) case-control study involving 6,928 non-fatal MI cases and 2,712 unrelated controls. The seven SNPs (including the rs909253 and rs1041981 SNPs previously implicated in the risk of CHD) were in strong linkage disequilibrium with each other and contributed to six common haplotypes. Some of the haplotypes for LTA were associated with higher plasma concentrations of C-reactive protein (p = 0.004) and lower concentrations of albumin (p = 0.023). However, none of the SNPs or related haplotypes were significantly associated with risk of MI. The results of the ISIS study were considered in the context of six previously published studies that had assessed this association, and this meta-analysis found no significant association with CHD risk using a recessive model and only a modest association using a dominant model (with narrow confidence intervals around these risk estimates). Overall, these studies provide reliable evidence that these common polymorphisms for the LTA gene are not strongly associated with susceptibility to coronary disease. PMID:16839190

Bennett, Derrick; Lewington, Sarah; Zondervan, Krina; Parish, Sarah; Palmer, Alison; Clark, Sarah; Cardon, Lon; Peto, Richard; Lathrop, Mark; Collins, Rory

2006-01-01

329

Lymphotoxin-alpha gene and risk of myocardial infarction in 6,928 cases and 2,712 controls in the ISIS case-control study.  

Science.gov (United States)

Lymphotoxin-alpha (LTA) is a pro-inflammatory cytokine that plays an important role in the immune system and local inflammatory response. LTA is expressed in atherosclerotic plaques and has been implicated in the pathogenesis of atherosclerosis and coronary heart disease (CHD). Polymorphisms in the gene encoding lymphotoxin-alpha (LTA) on Chromosome 6p21 have been associated with susceptibility to CHD, but results in different studies appear to be conflicting. We examined the association of seven single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) across the LTA gene, and their related haplotypes, with risk of myocardial infarction (MI) in the International Study of Infarct Survival (ISIS) case-control study involving 6,928 non-fatal MI cases and 2,712 unrelated controls. The seven SNPs (including the rs909253 and rs1041981 SNPs previously implicated in the risk of CHD) were in strong linkage disequilibrium with each other and contributed to six common haplotypes. Some of the haplotypes for LTA were associated with higher plasma concentrations of C-reactive protein (p = 0.004) and lower concentrations of albumin (p = 0.023). However, none of the SNPs or related haplotypes were significantly associated with risk of MI. The results of the ISIS study were considered in the context of six previously published studies that had assessed this association, and this meta-analysis found no significant association with CHD risk using a recessive model and only a modest association using a dominant model (with narrow confidence intervals around these risk estimates). Overall, these studies provide reliable evidence that these common polymorphisms for the LTA gene are not strongly associated with susceptibility to coronary disease. PMID:16839190

Clarke, Robert; Xu, Peng; Bennett, Derrick; Lewington, Sarah; Zondervan, Krina; Parish, Sarah; Palmer, Alison; Clark, Sarah; Cardon, Lon; Peto, Richard; Lathrop, Mark; Collins, Rory

2006-07-01

330

Genetic Risk Scores Associated with Baseline Lipoprotein Subfraction Concentrations Do Not Associate with Their Responses to Fenofibrate  

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Full Text Available Lipoprotein subclass concentrations are modifiable markers of cardiovascular disease risk. Fenofibrate is known to show beneficial effects on lipoprotein subclasses, but little is known about the role of genetics in mediating the responses of lipoprotein subclasses to fenofibrate. A recent genomewide association study (GWAS associated several single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs with lipoprotein measures, and validated these associations in two independent populations. We used this information to construct genetic risk scores (GRSs for fasting lipoprotein measures at baseline (pre-fenofibrate, and aimed to examine whether these GRSs also associated with the responses of lipoproteins to fenofibrate. Fourteen lipoprotein subclass measures were assayed in 817 men and women before and after a three week fenofibrate trial. We set significance at a Bonferroni corrected alpha <0.05 (p < 0.004. Twelve subclass measures changed with fenofibrate administration (each p = 0.003 to <0.0001. Mixed linear models which controlled for age, sex, body mass index (BMI, smoking status, pedigree and study-center, revealed that GRSs were associated with eight baseline lipoprotein measures (p < 0.004, however no GRS was associated with fenofibrate response. These results suggest that the mechanisms for changes in lipoprotein subclass concentrations with fenofibrate treatment are not mediated by the genetic risk for fasting levels.

Alexis C. Frazier-Wood

2014-08-01

331

Risk factors for clopidogrel resistance in patients with ischemic cerebral infarction and the correlation with ABCB1 gene rs1045642 polymorphism.  

Science.gov (United States)

The aim of the present study was to examine clopidogrel resistance (CR) in patients with ischemic cerebral infarction and its potential association with a single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP; rs1045642) in the ABCB1 gene. Patients with ischemic cerebral infarction received clopidogrel (75 mg/day) for 7 days and were then subjected to a turbidimetric assay to determine platelet aggregation. Patients were then divided into a CR group and a clopidogrel-sensitive (CS) group. Demographic and clinical data between the two groups were compared. Multivariate logistic regression analysis was performed to determine independent risk factors of CR. PCR products were sequenced to assess ABCB1 rs1045642 SNP genotype and allele frequencies in each group. In total, 303 patients were enrolled in the study; this included 51 CR cases (16.83%) and 252 CS cases (83.17%). Several parameters, including hypertension, diabetes, calcium channel blocker (CCB), ?-receptor blocking agent and proton pump inhibitor use, and creatinine, fasting blood glucose, homocysteine (HCY), high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hs-CRP) and triglyceride levels were significantly higher in the CR group than in the CS group. Diabetes, hs-CRP-increased use of CCBs, and use of ?-blockers were found to be independent risk factors for CR. However, ABCB1 gene rs1045642 polymorphism was not found to be an independent risk factor for CR. In conclusion, CR in ischemic stroke patients is associated with several independent risk factors, including diabetes, hs-CRP-increased use of CCBs, and use of ?-blockers. However, ABCB1 gene rs1045642 polymorphism has no correlation with CR. PMID:25452814

Su, Jun-Feng; Hu, Xiao-Hui; Li, Cheng-Yan

2015-01-01

332

Use of nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors and risk of myocardial infarction in HIV-infected patients enrolled in the D:A:D study: a multi-cohort collaboration.  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

BACKGROUND: Whether nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors increase the risk of myocardial infarction in HIV-infected individuals is unclear. Our aim was to explore whether exposure to such drugs was associated with an excess risk of myocardial infarction in a large, prospective observational cohort of HIV-infected patients. METHODS: We used Poisson regression models to quantify the relation between cumulative, recent (currently or within the preceding 6 months), and past use of zidovudine, didanosine, stavudine, lamivudine, and abacavir and development of myocardial infarction in 33 347 patients enrolled in the D:A:D study. We adjusted for cardiovascular risk factors that are unlikely to be affected by antiretroviral therapy, cohort, calendar year, and use of other antiretrovirals. FINDINGS: Over 157,912 person-years, 517 patients had a myocardial infarction. We found no associations between the rate of myocardial infarction and cumulative or recent use of zidovudine, stavudine, or lamivudine. By contrast, recent-but not cumulative-use of abacavir or didanosine was associated with an increased rate of myocardial infarction (compared with those with no recent use of the drugs, relative rate 1.90, 95% CI 1.47-2.45 [p=0.0001] with abacavir and 1.49, 1.14-1.95 [p=0.003] with didanosine); rates were not significantly increased in those who stopped these drugs more than 6 months previously compared with those who had never received these drugs. After adjustment for predicted 10-year risk of coronary heart disease, recent use of both didanosine and abacavir remained associated with increased rates of myocardial infarction (1.49, 1.14-1.95 [p=0.004] with didanosine; 1.89, 1.47-2.45 [p=0.0001] with abacavir). INTERPRETATION: There exists an increased risk of myocardial infarction in patients exposed to abacavir and didanosine within the preceding 6 months. The excess risk does not seem to be explained by underlying established cardiovascular risk factors and was not present beyond 6 months after drug cessation.

no-lastname, no-firstname; Sabin, Caroline A

2008-01-01

333

Risk of Death and Recurrent Ventricular Arrhythmias in Survivors of Cardiac Arrest Concurrent With Acute Myocardial Infarction  

OpenAIRE

Aims Cardiac arrest (CA) is an indication for defibrillator (ICD) implantation unless it occurs in the context of an acute myocardial infarction (AMI). We investigated the ventricular arrhythmia (VA)-free survival of patients resuscitated from CA in the setting of AMI.Methods We reviewed a database of 1600 AMI and CA survivors from which 48 patients were identified as having concurrent CA and AMI (CA+AMI group). Those patients were matched by age, gender, race, and left ...

Ish Singla; Haitham Hreybe; Samir Saba

2008-01-01

334

Reverse redistribution of thallium-201 represents a low-risk finding in thrombolysed patients following myocardial infarction  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The aim of the study was to evaluate the prevalence and clinical significance of reverse redistribution on thallium-201 imaging in post-myocardial infarction patients who have undergone thrombolytic therapy. Sixty-two patients aged 35-79 (mean 60) years with proven myocardial infarction who had undergone thrombolysis were studied 6 weeks post infarction. Standard stress and 4-h redistribution imaging was performed with 201Tl following treadmill exercise. Separate day rest injection of 201Tl was given after sublingual nitroglycerine; imaging was performed at 1 h. Planar images were acquired in three standard views and semiquantitative segmental analysis of the images was performed from the unprocessed images. All patients had radionuclide ventriculography for the assessment of left ventricular ejection fraction and wall motion abnormality. Thirty-three patients also had coronary angiography. 201Tl scintigraphy revealed fixed defects in 19 patients, reversible defects in 22, and reverse redistribution in 21. Those with reverse redistribution had a significantly higher exercise capacity (P 201Tl uptake in the region showing reverse redistribution, with rest injection of 201Tl following sublingual nitroglycerine, suggesting viable myocardium in that region. (orig./VHE)

335

Does the routine use of global coronary heart disease risk scores translate into clinical benefits or harms? A systematic review of the literature  

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Full Text Available Abstract Background Guidelines now recommend routine assessment of global coronary heart disease (CHD risk scores. We performed a systematic review to assess whether global CHD risk scores result in clinical benefits or harms. Methods We searched MEDLINE (1966 through June 13, 2007 for articles relevant to our review. Using predefined inclusion and exclusion criteria, we included studies of any design that provided physicians with global risk scores or allowed them to calculate scores themselves, and then measured clinical benefits and/or harms. Two reviewers reviewed potentially relevant studies for inclusion and resolved disagreement by consensus. Data from each article was then abstracted into an evidence table by one reviewer and the quality of evidence was assessed independently by two reviewers. Results 11 studies met criteria for inclusion in our review. Six studies addressed clinical benefits and 5 addressed clinical harms. Six studies were rated as "fair" quality and the others were deemed "methodologically limited". Two fair quality studies showed that physician knowledge of global CHD risk is associated with increased prescription of cardiovascular drugs in high risk (but not all patients. Two additional fair quality studies showed no effect on their primary outcomes, but one was underpowered and the other focused on prescribing of lifestyle changes, rather than drugs whose prescribing might be expected to be targeted by risk level. One of these aforementioned studies showed improved blood pressure in high-risk patients, but no improvement in the proportion of patients at high risk, perhaps due to the high proportion of participants with baseline risks significantly exceeding the risk threshold. Two fair quality studies found no evidence of harm from patient knowledge of global risk scores when they were accompanied by counseling, and optional or scheduled follow-up. Other studies were too methodologically limited to draw conclusions. Conclusion Our review provides preliminary evidence that physicians' knowledge of global CHD risk scores may translate into modestly increased prescribing of cardiovascular drugs and modest short-term reductions in CHD risk factors without clinical harm. Whether these results are replicable, and translate across other practice settings or into improved long-term CHD outcomes remains to be seen.

Crespo Eric

2008-03-01

336

Saturated fat intake modulates the association between an obesity genetic risk score and body mass index in two US populations.  

Science.gov (United States)

Combining multiple genetic variants related to obesity into a genetic risk score (GRS) might improve identification of individuals at risk of developing obesity. Moreover, characterizing gene-diet interactions is a research challenge to establish dietary recommendations to individuals with higher predisposition to obesity. Our objective was to analyze the association between an obesity GRS and body mass index (BMI) in the Genetics of Lipid Lowering Drugs and Diet Network (GOLDN) population, focusing on gene-diet interactions with total fat and saturated fatty acid (SFA) intake, and to replicate findings in the Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis (MESA) population. Cross-sectional analyses included 783 white US participants from GOLDN and 2,035 from MESA. Dietary intakes were estimated with validated food frequency questionnaires. Height and weight were measured. A weighted GRS was calculated on the basis of 63 obesity-associated variants. Multiple linear regression models adjusted by potential confounders were used to examine gene-diet interactions between dietary intake (total fat and SFA) and the obesity GRS in determining BMI. Significant interactions were found between total fat intake and the obesity GRS using these variables as continuous for BMI (P for interaction=0.010, 0.046, and 0.002 in GOLDN, MESA, and meta-analysis, respectively). These association terms were stronger when assessing interactions between SFA intake and GRS for BMI (P for interaction=0.005, 0.018, and fat intake mainly by limiting SFAs. PMID:24794412

Casas-Agustench, Patricia; Arnett, Donna K; Smith, Caren E; Lai, Chao-Qiang; Parnell, Laurence D; Borecki, Ingrid B; Frazier-Wood, Alexis C; Allison, Matthew; Chen, Yii-Der Ida; Taylor, Kent D; Rich, Stephen S; Rotter, Jerome I; Lee, Yu-Chi; Ordovás, José M

2014-12-01

337

Algorithmic scoring models  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This article is devoted to the analysis of different credit scoring modeling techniques which can be used for the large datasets processing. Credit scoring is a basis of the banking system. There are lots if information gathered in the banks’ databases which should be used in the scoring. This article describes the basic methods and technologies of scoring models development for the risk management of the banking system.

K. Nurlybayeva

2013-01-01

338

Algorithmic scoring models  

OpenAIRE

This article is devoted to the analysis of different credit scoring modeling techniques which can be used for the large datasets processing. Credit scoring is a basis of the banking system. There are lots if information gathered in the banks’ databases which should be used in the scoring. This article describes the basic methods and technologies of scoring models development for the risk management of the banking system.

Nurlybayeva, K.; Balakayeva, G.

2013-01-01

339

Risk markers of late high-degree atrioventricular block in patients with left ventricular dysfunction after an acute myocardial infarction: a CARISMA substudy  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

AIMS: High-degree atrioventricular block (HAVB) after acute myocardial infarction (AMI) is associated with increased risk of mortality. Risk markers and predictors of HAVB occurring after AMI are largely unknown. The aim of this study was to assess the predictive value of risk markers derived from a series of non-invasive and invasive tests for the development of HAVB documented by an implantable loop recorder (ILR) in late convalescent phases of an AMI. METHODS AND RESULTS: The study included 292 patients with AMI and subsequent left ventricular dysfunction without prior HAVB or implanted pacemaker. An ILR was implanted for continuous arrhythmia surveillance. Risk stratification testing was performed at inclusion and 6 weeks after AMI. The tests included echocardiography, electrocardiogram (ECG), 24 h Holter monitoring, and an invasive electrophysiological study. High-degree atrioventricular block was documented in 28 (10%) patients during a median follow-up of 2.0 (0.4-2.0) years. Heart rate variability (HRV) measures and non-sustained ventricular tachycardia occurring at the week 6 Holter monitoring were highly predictive of HAVB. Power law slope <-1.5 ms(2)/Hz was the most powerful HRV parameter (HR = 6.02 [2.08-17.41], P < 0.001). CONCLUSION: Late HAVB development in post-AMI patients with left ventricular dysfunction can be predicted by risk stratification tests. Measures of HRV reflecting autonomic dysfunction revealed the highest predictive capabilities.

Gang, Uffe Jakob Ortved; JØns, Christian

2011-01-01

340

Factores de riesgo para la ocurrencia de infarto agudo del miocardio en pacientes fumadores / Risk factors for occurrence of acute myocardial infarction in smokers patients  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Cuba | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish Introducción: las enfermedades cardiovasculares son la principal causa de muerte en diferentes países. Objetivo: evaluar el efecto de factores de riesgo en la ocurrencia del infarto agudo del miocardio en pacientes fumadores, en una población venezolana. Métodos: se realizó un estudio de casos y tes [...] tigos, la muestra se seleccionó de forma aleatoria y estuvo integrada por 70 casos y 70 testigos. Se estudiaron factores sociodemográficos y premórbidos y hábitos tóxicos. El análisis estádístico se basó en una estrategia univariada con la determinación del odd ratio para cada uno de los factores de riesgo hipotéticamente influyente y sus intervalos de confianza para el 95 %, finalmente, un estudio multivariado para determinar el valor independiente de cada uno de los factores de riesgos. Resultados: según el análisis univariado, todos los factores constituyeron riesgo para la aparición de la enfermedad. En el análisis multivariado, se encontró que la hipercolesterolemia elevó en 4,2 veces el riesgo de ocurrencia del infarto del miocardio (OR 4,20; IC 1,18-14,97) en la población de fumadores, seguido del tiempo de evolución del hábito de fumar (OR 3,60; IC 1,468,91) y del consumo de cigarrillos (OR 2,32; IC 1,02- 4,95). Conclusiones: la hipercolesterolemia tiene un efecto mayor sobre la posible ocurrencia de tener un infarto del miocardio que el del resto de los factores de riesgo estudiados en pacientes fumadores, de ahí que es el factor de mayor peso e importancia. Abstract in english Introduction: cardiovascular diseases are the main causes of death in many countries. Objective: to evaluate the occurrence of acute myocardial infarction in smoking patients in a Venezuelan population section. Methods: a case-control study was carried out with a randomly selected sample of 70 cases [...] and 70 controls. Sociodemographic and premorbid factors as well as toxic habits were studied. The statistical analysis was based on univariate strategy with odd ratios estimated for every hypothetically influential risk factor and their confidence intervals of 95 %. Finally, a multivariate study determined the independent value of each risk factor. Results: in the univariate analysis, all factors represented a risk for the onset of acute myocardial infarction. Hypercholesterolemia was the main risk factor in the multivariate analysis, since it increased the risk of myocardial infarction by 4.2 times (OR 4.20 CI 1.18- 14.97), followed by the length of the smoking habit (OR 3.60 CI 1.46 8.91) and the quantity of cigarettes smoked daily (OR 2.32; IC 1.02 4.95). Conclusions: hypercholesterolemia has greater effect on possible occurrence of myocardial infarction than the rest of risk factors studied in smoking patients; therefore it is the most significant factor.

José Antonio, González Pompa; José Manuel, González Pérez.

2013-12-01

341

Fatores de risco para infarto do miocárdio no Brasil: estudo FRICAS / Risk factors for acute myocardial infarction in Brazil (FRICAS study)  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese OBJETIVO: Determinar os fatores de risco para a ocorrência de infarto agudo do miocárdio (IAM) no Brasil. MÉTODOS: Estudo conduzido entre janeiro/94 e março/95, em 20 centros médicos no Brasil, constituído de casos, 299 pacientes com IAM e, controles, 292 indivíduos, identificados no mesmo centro qu [...] e os casos, e admitidos com largo espectro de doenças agudas, não relacionadas a fatores de risco conhecidos ou suspeitos para IAM. Os dados foram colhidos por meio de um questionário estruturado, preenchido pelo próprio paciente. Os efeitos das variáveis pesquisadas sobre a ocorrência de IAM foram estudadas em abordagens univariadas, considerando-se significativo p Abstract in english PURPOSE: To determine risk factors related to acute myocardial infarction (AMI) in Brazil. METHODS: Five hundred ninety one patients were selected in 20 medical centers in Brazil, between January/94 and March/95. Two-hundred-ninety-nine patients were cases, and 292 controls with a variety of acute d [...] iseases not related to the suspected or known risk factors for acute myocardial infarction. All data were collected through a structured questionnaire filled by the patients. The evaluation of the variables was done through univariate analysis with a significance level of 5%. RESULTS: The factors related to acute myocardial infarction were respectively to cases and controls: Hypercholesterolemia - 210.93±46.74mg/dl and 185.71±45.45mg/dl, (p=0.000); smoking - 41.69% and 27.20% (p=0.000); hypertension - 52.35% and 20.88% (p=0.000); diabetes - 19.70% and 9.93% (p=0.001); family history - related to the patient's father in 42.14% and 33.22% (p=0.025) and to the mother in 42.14% and 30.82% (p=0.007); socioeconomic level - 88.99% and 60.20% owned house (p=0.002); 44.45% and 33.21% owned car (p=0.010); physical activity - 56.83% and 48.28% had the habit of walking in the year prior to study entry (p=0.029); diet - 38.79% and 28.42% consumed canned food (p=0.013). The mean weight was 72.50±26.89kg and 69±12.26kg (p=0.0271). The mean height was 166.56±8.81cm and 166.66±8.47cm. CONCLUSION: This study confirmed the importance of hypercholesterolemia, hypertension, diabetes mellitus, overweight and family history as risk factors for acute myocardial infarction. There was a significant relation between socioeconomic level and the prevalence of acute myocardial infarction.

Marco Aurélio Dias da, Silva; Amanda G. M. R., Sousa; Hernan, Schargodsky.

1998-11-01

342

Factores de riesgo coronarios asociados al infarto agudo del miocardio en el adulto mayor / Coronary risk factors associated with the acute myocardial infarction in the elderly  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Cuba | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish Se realizó un estudio observacional, analítico y retrospectivo, de tipo caso-control, de los adultos mayores con infarto agudo del miocardio, pertenecientes al área de salud Municipal de Santiago de Cuba, desde enero de 2006 hasta diciembre de 2011, a fin de identificar los factores de riesgo corona [...] rios asociados al mismo. Se seleccionaron 33 casos y 2 controles por cada uno de ellos. Se calcularon el riesgo relativo a través de la razón de productos cruzados y el riesgo atribuible en expuestos porcentual como medida de impacto. El sedentarismo y la hipertensión arterial tuvieron una acentuada relación significativa de causalidad con el infarto agudo del miocardio y de forma moderada con el tabaquismo, no así los antecedentes familiares ni personales de cardiopatía isquémica, sexo, obesidad y diabetes mellitus. Abstract in english An observational, analytic and retrospective study of case-control type, of aged patients with acute myocardial infarction, belonging to the health Municipal area of Santiago de Cuba was carried out from January, 2006 to December, 2011, in order to identify the coronary risk factors associated with [...] it. Thirty three cases and two controls for each were selected. The relative risk through the odds ratio and the attributable risk in percentage exposed as impact measure were calculated. Sedentarism and hypertension had a considerable significant causative relationship with acute myocardial infarction and in a moderate way with smoking habit. Family or personal history of ischemic cardiopathy, sex, obesity or diabetes mellitus had no relation with it.

Julia Tamara, Alvarez Cortés; Vivian, Bello Hernández; Gipsy de los Ángeles, Pérez Hechavarría; Orlando, Antomarchi Duany; María Emilia, Bolívar Carrión.

2013-01-01

343

Risk prediction models for biochemical recurrence after radical prostatectomy using prostate-specific antigen and Gleason score  

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Full Text Available Many computer models for predicting the risk of prostate cancer have been developed including for prediction of biochemical recurrence (BCR. However, models for individual BCR free probability at individual time-points after a BCR free period are rare. Follow-up data from 1656 patients who underwent laparoscopic radical prostatectomy (LRP were used to develop an artificial neural network (ANN to predict BCR and to compare it with a logistic regression (LR model using clinical and pathologic parameters, prostate-specific antigen (PSA, margin status (R0/1, pathological stage (pT, and Gleason Score (GS. For individual BCR prediction at any given time after operation, additional ANN, and LR models were calculated every 6 months for up to 7.5 years of follow-up. The areas under the receiver operating characteristic (ROC curve (AUC for the ANN (0.754 and LR models (0.755 calculated immediately following LRP, were larger than that for GS (AUC: 0.715; P = 0.0015 and 0.001, pT or PSA (AUC: 0.619; P always <0.0001 alone. The GS predicted the BCR better than PSA (P = 0.0001, but there was no difference between the ANN and LR models (P = 0.39. Our ANN and LR models predicted individual BCR risk from radical prostatectomy for up to 10 years postoperative. ANN and LR models equally and significantly improved the prediction of BCR compared with PSA and GS alone. When the GS and ANN output values are combined, a more accurate BCR prediction is possible, especially in high-risk patients with GS ?7.

Xin-Hai Hu

2014-12-01

344

Smoking, alcohol consumption, physical activity, and family history and the risks of acute myocardial infarction and unstable angina pectoris: a prospective cohort study  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background Few studies investigated the association between smoking, alcohol consumption, or physical activity and the risk of unstable angina pectoris (UAP, while the strength of these associations may differ compared to other coronary diseases such as acute myocardial infarction (AMI. Therefore, we investigated whether the associations of these lifestyle factors with UAP differed from those with AMI. Additionally, we investigated whether these effects differed between subjects with and without a family history of myocardial infarction (MI. Methods The CAREMA study consists of 21,148 persons, aged 20-59 years at baseline and randomly sampled from the Maastricht region in 1987-1997. At baseline, all participants completed a self-administered questionnaire. After follow-up of maximally 16.9 years, 420 AMI and 274 UAP incident cases were registered. Incidence rate ratios (RRs were estimated using Cox proportional hazards models. Results For both diseases, smoking increased the risk while alcohol consumption was associated with a protective effect. Associations with both risk factors were stronger for AMI than UAP, although this difference was only statistically significant for smoking. In men, an inverse association was found with physical activity during leisure time which seemed to be stronger for the risk of UAP than of AMI. On the contrary, physical activity during leisure time was associated with an increased risk of both AMI and UAP in women which seemed to be weaker for UAP than for AMI. Except for occupational physical activity in women, no significant interactions on a multiplicative scale were found between the lifestyle factors and family history of MI. Nevertheless, the highest risks were found in subjects with both a positive family history and the most unfavorable level of the lifestyle factors. Conclusions The strength of the associations with the lifestyle factors did not differ between AMI and UAP, except for smoking. Furthermore, the effects of the lifestyle factors on the risk of both coronary diseases were similar for subjects with and without a positive family history.

Gorgels Anton PM

2011-03-01

345

Changes in physical activity in leisure time and the risk of myocardial infarction, ischemic heart disease, and all-cause mortality  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Physical activity is associated to a lower risk of mortality from all-causes and from coronary heart disease. The long-term effects of changes in physical activity on coronary heart disease are, however, less known. We examined the association between changes in leisure time physical activity and the risk of myocardial infarction (MI), ischemic heart disease (IHD), and all-cause mortality as well as changes in blood pressure in 4,487 men and 5,956 women in the Copenhagen City Heart Study. Physical activity was measured in 1976-1978 and 1981-1983 and participants were followed in nation-wide registers until 2009. Men who decreased physical activity by at least two levels and women who decreased by one level had a higher risk of MI relatively to an unchanged physical activity level (hazard ratio [HR] = 1.74, 95% confidence interval [95% CI]: 1.17-2.60 and HR = 1.30, 95% CI: 1.03-1.65). Similar associations were found for IHD although only significant in women. In all-cause mortality, men who increased physical activity had a lower risk and both men and women who reduced physical activity had a higher risk compared to an unchanged physical activity level. No association between changes in physical activity and blood pressure was observed. Findings from this prospective study suggest that changes in physical activity affect the risk of MI, IHD and all-cause mortality. A decrease in physical activity was associated to a higher risk of coronary heart disease.

Petersen, Christina BjØrk; GrØnbæk, Morten

2012-01-01

346

Transulnar sheathless percutaneous coronary intervention during bivalirudin infusion in high-risk elderly female with non-ST segment elevation myocardial infarction  

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Full Text Available Due to the ageing population and raised life expectancy, elderly patients are increasingly referred for percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI during acute coronary syndromes (ACS. Bleeding complications are not infrequent during ACS, occurring in 2-5% of patients with prognostic and economic consequences. In particular, periprocedural bleeding and vascular complications are associated with worse clinical outcome, prolonged hospital stay and increased short- and long-term mortality, especially in elderly patients with acute coronary syndromes. We report the case of an 83-year old female referred to our hospital because of non-ST segment elevation myocardial infarction with high bleeding risk and unsuitable radial artery undergoing transulnar sheathless PCI during bivalirudin infusion. The clinical, technical, pharmacological and prognostic implications are discussed.

Marina Mustilli

2012-06-01

347

¿Son aplicables las funciones SCORE y NCEP para el cálculo del riesgo cardiovascular en prevención primaria en la población argentina? / Can the SCORE and NCEP Function Charts be Applied in Primary Prevention to Estimate Cardiovascular Risk in the Argentine Population?  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Argentina | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish Introducción La estimación del riesgo cardiovascular en prevención primaria mediante ecuaciones elaboradas para tal fin permite optimizar la utilización de recursos disponibles en salud pública. Objetivos Evaluar el riesgo cardiovascular mediante la aplicación de las funciones SCORE y NCEP y analiza [...] r la concordancia entre ambas tablas en una población argentina. Material y métodos Se obtuvieron datos clínicos y bioquímicos de 234 personas adultas, de ambos sexos, que concurrieron al Servicio de Medicina Preventiva del Hospital Municipal de Bahía Blanca. Se definió el síndrome metabólico según criterios de la AHA y se determinó riesgo cardiovascular bajo según NCEP III Abstract in english Background The estimation of cardiovascular risk in primary prevention using equations specially developed for risk stratification allows optimizing the use of public health resources. Objectives To assess the cardiovascular risk using the SCORE and NCEP function charts and to analyze the agreement [...] between both charts in an Argentine population. Material and Methods We obtained clinical and biochemical data from 234 adult people of both genders who attended the Department of Preventive Medicine at the Hospital Municipal de Bahía Blanca. Metabolic syndrome was defined according to the AHA criteria and low cardiovascular risk was considered with NCEP III

Silvia F, Benozzi; Cristina A, Álvarez; Guillermo, Gómez Echeverría; Fernando, Perruzza; Graciela L, Pennacchiotti.

2010-08-01

348

Myocardial edema as detected by pre-contrast T1 and T2 MRI delineates area at risk associated with acute myocardial infarction  

Science.gov (United States)

Objectives To determine whether cardiac magnetic resonance (CMR) in vivo T1-mapping can measure myocardial area at risk (AAR) compared with microspheres or T2-mapping CMR. Background If T2-weighted CMR is abnormal in the AAR due to edema related to myocardial ischemia, then T1-weighted CMR should also be able to detect and accurately quantify AAR. Methods Dogs (n=9) underwent a 2 hour coronary occlusion followed by 4 hours of reperfusion. CMR of the left ventricle was performed for mapping of T1 and T2 prior to any contrast ad