WorldWideScience

Sample records for induce incomplete maturation

  1. Cannabinoids induce incomplete maturation of cultured human leukemia cells

    Murison, G.; Chubb, C.B.H.; Maeda, S.; Gemmell, M.A.; Huberman, E.

    1987-08-01

    Monocyte maturation markers were induced in cultured human myeloblastic ML-2 leukemia cells after treatment for 1-6 days with 0.03-30 ..mu..M ..delta../sup 9/-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC), the major psychoactive component of marijuana. After a 2-day or longer treatment, 2- to 5-fold increases were found in the percentages of cells exhibiting reactivity with either the murine OKM1 monoclonal antibody of the Leu-M5 monoclonal antibody, staining positively for nonspecific esterase activity, and displaying a promonocyte morphology. The increases in these differentiation markers after treatment with 0.03-1 ..mu..M THC were dose dependent. At this dose range, THC did not cause an inhibition of cell growth. The THC-induced cell maturation was also characterized by specific changes in the patterns of newly synthesized proteins. The THC-induced differentiation did not, however, result in cells with a highly developed mature monocyte phenotype. However, treatment of these incompletely matured cells with either phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate of 1..cap alpha..,25-dihydroxycholecalciferol, which are inducers of differentiation in myeloid leukemia cells (including ML-2 cells), produced cells with a mature monocyte morphology. The ML-2 cell system described here may be a useful tool for deciphering critical biochemical events that lead to the cannabinoid-induced incomplete cell differentiation of ML-2 cells and other related cell types. Findings obtained from this system may have important implications for studies of cannabinoid effects on normal human bone-marrow progenitor cells.

  2. Effect of Wujia Shenghua capsule on uterine bleeding following medically-induced incomplete abortion in rats during early pregnancy

    Liu, Haiyang; Ma, Wei; Liu, Qi; Wang, Fashan; Cao, Ling; Li, TieNan; Zhang, Ning; Geng, Fang

    2015-01-01

    The Wujia Shenghua capsule (WSC) is derived from Sheng-Hua-Tang, a well-known traditional Chinese medicine compound prescription that has been widely applied during the postpartum period in Chinese communities for a number of years. The aim of the present study was to investigate the effect of WSC on uterine bleeding following medically-induced incomplete abortion in rats during early pregnancy. Incomplete abortions were induced in Wistar rats during early pregnancy using mifepristone combine...

  3. Dimer formation of receptor activator of nuclear factor κB induces incomplete osteoclast formation

    Receptor activator of nuclear factor κB-ligand (RANKL) transduces a differentiation signal appropriate to osteoclasts likely through induction a receptor homotrimer; however, biological importance of RANK-trimerizarion is unknown. To address the signaling mechanism of the RANK receptor, we analyzed the effect of two different types of homodimer inducers RANK-TM-FKBP36v and hEpoR-RANK-TM on osteoclastogenesis. Dimerizing component FKBP36v or extracellular portion of human erythropoietin receptor (hEpoR) was fused to RANK lacking the extracellular domain, and the dimerization of this fusion protein was induced by addition of the chemical inducer of dimerization AP20187 or erythropoietin, respectively. Such treatment resulted in induction of TRAP-activity, a marker of osteoclast in a dose dependent manner, with an efficiency equivalent to that of induction by RANKL. However, dimerized-RANK-induced osteoclasts showed relatively low levels of multinucleation, pit forming activity, and expression of calcitonin receptor and cathepsin K, compared with osteoclasts which were induced in the presence of RANKL. As expression of nuclear factor of activated T cells 1 (NFATc1) was also reduced in dimerized-RANK-induced osteoclasts, RANK oligomerization by RANKL is a critical event to generate fully matured osteoclasts through upregulation of NFATc1

  4. Induced maturation of hepatic progenitor cells in vitro

    Y. Bi

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Hepatic progenitor cells (HPCs are a potential cell source for liver cell transplantation but do not function like mature liver cells. We sought an effective and reliable method to induce HPC maturation. An immortalized HP14.5 albumin promoter-driven Gaussian luciferase (ALB-GLuc cell line was established from HPCs isolated from fetal mouse liver of post coitus day 14.5 mice to investigate the effect of induction factors on ALB promoter. HP14.5 parental cells were cultured in DMEM with different combinations of 2% horse serum (HS, 0.1 µM dexamethasone (DEX, 10 ng/mL hepatic growth factor (HGF, and/or 20 ng/mL fibroblast growth factor 4 (FGF4. Trypan blue and crystal violet staining were used to assess cell proliferation with different induction conditions. Expression of hepatic markers was measured by semi-quantitative RT-PCR, Western blot, and immunofluorescence. Glycogen storage and metabolism were detected by periodic acid-Schiff and indocyanine green (ICG staining. GLuc activity indicated ALB expression. The combination of 2% HS+0.1 µM Dex+10 ng/mL HGF+20 ng/mL FGF4 induced the highest ALB-GLuc activity. Cell proliferation decreased in 2% HS but increased by adding FGF4. Upon induction, and consistent with hepatocyte development, DLK, AFP, and CK19 expression decreased, while ALB, CK18, and UGT1A expression increased. The maturity markers tyrosine aminotransferase and apolipoprotein B were detected at days 3 and 6 post-induction, respectively. ICG uptake and glycogen synthesis were detectable at day 6 and increased over time. Therefore, we demonstrated that HPCs were induced to differentiate into functional mature hepatocytes in vitro, suggesting that factor-treated HPCs may be further explored as a means of liver cell transplantation.

  5. Steroidogenic and maturation-inducing potency of native gonadotropic hormones in female chub mackerel, Scomber japonicus

    Ohga Hirofumi

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The gonadotropins (GtHs, follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH and luteinizing hormone (LH are produced in the pituitary gland and regulates gametogenesis through production of gonadal steroids. However, respective roles of two GtHs in the teleosts are still incompletely characterized due to technical difficulties in the purification of native GtHs. Methods Native FSH and LH were purified from the pituitaries of adult chub mackerel, Scomber japonicus by anion-exchange chromatography and immunoblotting using specific antisera. The steroidogenic potency of the intact chub mackerel FSH (cmFSH and LH (cmLH were evaluated in mid- and late-vitellogenic stage follicles by measuring the level of gonadal steroids, estradiol-17beta (Ε2 and 17,20beta-dihydroxy-4-pregnen-3-one (17,20beta-P. In addition, we evaluated the maturation-inducing potency of the GtHs on same stage follicles. Results Both cmFSH and cmLH significantly stimulated E2 production in mid-vitellogenic stage follicles. In contrast, only LH significantly stimulated the production of 17,20beta-P in late-vitellogenic stage follicles. Similarly, cmLH induced final oocyte maturation (FOM in late-vitellogenic stage follicles. Conclusions Present results indicate that both FSH and LH may regulate vitellogenic processes, whereas only LH initiates FOM in chub mackerel.

  6. Scintigraphic diagnosis of stress-induced incomplete fractures of the proximal tibia

    Incomplete stress fractures of the proximal tibial diaphysis can be diagnosed by bone scintigraphy. The scintigraphic appearance of incomplete rather than complete tibial stress fractures is apparently reported for the first time in this article. With no treatment other than restricted activity, this injury heals rapidly and completely in 4 to 6 weeks. The major threat to the patient's welfare is unfounded suspicion of tumor or infection which may lead to biopsy or inappropriate therapy

  7. Electrophysiological Profiles of Induced Neurons Converted Directly from Adult Human Fibroblasts Indicate Incomplete Neuronal Conversion

    Koppensteiner, Peter; Boehm, Stefan

    2014-01-01

    Abstract The direct conversion of human fibroblasts to neuronal cells, termed human induced neuronal (hiN) cells, has great potential for future clinical advances. However, previous studies have not provided an in-depth analysis of electrophysiological properties of adult fibroblast-derived hiN cultures. We have examined the electrophysiological profile of hiN cells by measuring passive and active membrane properties, as well as spontaneous and evoked neurotransmission. We found that hiN cells exhibited passive membrane properties equivalent to perinatal rodent neurons. In addition, 30% of hiN cells were incapable of action potential (AP) generation and did not exhibit rectifying membrane currents, and none of the cells displayed firing patterns of typical glutamatergic pyramidal neurons. Finally, hiN cells exhibited neither spontaneous nor evoked neurotransmission. Our results suggest that current methods used to produce hiN cells provide preparations in which cells do not achieve the cellular properties of fully mature neurons, rendering these cells inadequate to investigate pathophysiological mechanisms. PMID:25437871

  8. No-capture breakup and incomplete fusion reactions induced by stable weakly bound nucleus 9Be

    Seyyedi, S. A.

    2016-06-01

    The reactions including the stable weakly bound nucleus 9Be have been studied using the classical trajectory model accompanied with the experimental breakup function and the Aage-Winther interaction potential (AW95). In these calculations, the no-capture breakup and the incomplete fusion cross-sections as well as their competition at around the Coulomb barrier have been investigated. Our calculations showed that at a given far-Coulomb-barrier energy the incomplete fusion reaction in different distributions of angular momentum and energies can dominate the no-capture breakup reaction. This dominating process is reversed at the near-barrier energies.

  9. Microcracks induce osteoblast alignment and maturation on hydroxyapatite scaffolds

    Shu, Yutian

    Physiological bone tissue is a mineral/collagen composite with a hierarchical structure. The features in bone, such as mineral crystals, fibers, and pores can range from the nanometer to the centimeter in size. Currently available bone tissue scaffolds primarily address the chemical composition, pore size, and pore size distribution. While these design parameters are extensively investigated for mimicking bone function and inducing bone regeneration, little is known about microcracks, which is a prevalent feature found in fractured bone in vivo and associated with fracture healing and repair. Since the purpose of bone tissue engineering scaffold is to enhance bone regeneration, the coincidence of microcracks and bone densification should not be neglected but rather be considered as a potential parameter in bone tissue engineering scaffold design. The purpose of this study is to test the hypothesis that microcracks enhance bone healing. In vitro studies were designed to investigate the osteoblast (bone forming cells) response to microcracks in dense (94%) hydroxyapatite substrates. Microcracks were introduced using a well-established Vickers indentation technique. The results of our study showed that microcracks induced osteoblast alignment, enhanced osteoblast attachment and more rapid maturation. These findings may provide insight into fracture healing mechanism(s) as well as improve the design of bone tissue engineering orthopedic scaffolds for more rapid bone regeneration.

  10. Investigation of the influence of incomplete fusion on complete fusion of 16O induced reactions at moderate excitation energies

    Ahamad Tauseef

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available An attempt has been made to investigate for the reaction dynamics leading to incomplete fusion (ICF of heavy ions at moderate excitation energies, especially the influence of incomplete fusion on complete fusion (CF of 16O induced reactions at specific energies. Excitation functions (EFs of various reaction products populated via CF and/or ICF of 16O projectile with 45Sc target were measured at energies ≈3-7 MeV/nucleon, using recoil catcher technique followed by offline γ-ray spectroscopy. The measured EFs were compared with theoretical values obtained using the statistical model code PACE4. The experimentally measured EFs were in general found to be in good agreement with the theoretical predictions for non α-emitting channels in the present target projectile system. However, for α-emitting channels the measured EFs were higher than the predictions of the theoretical model codes, which may be credited to incomplete fusion reactions at these energies.

  11. Coombs Antiglobulin Test Using Brucella abortus 99 as Antigen To Detect Incomplete Antibodies Induced by B. abortus RB51 Vaccine in Cattle

    Ciuchini, Franco; Adone, Rosanna; Pasquali, Paolo

    2002-01-01

    This study showed that vaccination of cattle with Brucella abortus rough strain RB51 induces incomplete antibodies that can be detectable by a Coombs antiglobulin test using the B. abortus 99 smooth strain.

  12. Disruption of E-cadherin-mediated adhesion induces a functionally distinct pathway of dendritic cell maturation

    Jiang, Aimin; Bloom, Ona; Ono, Satoru; Cui, Weiguo; Unternaehrer, Juli; Jiang, Shan; Whitney, J. Andrew; Connolly, John; Banchereau, Jacques; Mellman, Ira

    2007-01-01

    The maturation of dendritic cells (DCs) following exposure to microbial products or inflammatory mediators plays a critical role in initiating the immune response. We now find that maturation can also occur under steady state conditions, triggered by alterations in E-cadherin-mediated DC-DC adhesion. Selective disruption of these interactions induces the typical features of DC maturation including the upregulation of costimulatory molecules, MHC class II, and chemokine receptors. These events...

  13. Drug-induced acute pancreatitis: A rare manifestation of an incomplete "dapsone syndrome"

    Anup K Das

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Drug-induced acute pancreatitis (AP is under-reported, and a large number of drugs are listed as offenders, but are often overlooked. Knowledge about the possible association of medications in causing AP is important, and needs a high index of suspicion, especially with drugs that have been reported to be the etiology only rarely. Dapsone, a commonly used drug, can cause various hypersensitivity reactions including AP collectively called "dapsone syndrome." Here, we report dapsone-induced AP in a young man. Our case shows certain dissimilarities like associated acute renal failure and acute hemolysis not previously described.

  14. Temperature Cycles Induce Early Maturation in Channel Catfish

    A major impediment in improvement of channel catfish by selective breeding is that a high percent of fish do not spawn until the third year. If the generation time could be shortened, genetic improvement could be achieved at a faster rate. The conditions that lead to sexual maturation in fish have...

  15. Platycodon grandiflorum polysaccharide induces dendritic cell maturation via TLR4 signaling.

    Park, Mi Jeong; Ryu, Hwa Sun; Kim, Ji Sung; Lee, Hong Kyung; Kang, Jong Soon; Yun, Jieun; Kim, Sung Yeon; Lee, Mi Kyeong; Hong, Jin Tae; Kim, Youngsoo; Han, Sang-Bae

    2014-10-01

    Dendritic cell (DC) maturation is critical for initiation of the adoptive immune response. DC maturation is often attenuated in several pathological conditions including cancer. In this study, we report the effect of Platycodon grandiflorum polysaccharide (PG) on DC maturation. PG induced phenotypic maturation of DCs, as proved by the increase in the expression of CD40, CD80, CD86, and major histocompatibility complex (MHC)-I/II on the cell surface. PG also induced functional maturation of DCs, as proved by elevated production of interleukin (IL)-12, tumor necrosis factor-α, IL-1β, IL-6, IL-10, and interferon-β, and by enhanced allogeneic T cell stimulation ability of PG-treated DCs. PG efficiently induced maturation of DCs from C3H/HeN mice, which have normal Toll-like receptor-4 (TLR4), but not that of DCs from C3H/HeJ mice, which have mutated TLR4, suggesting that TLR4 might be one of the PG receptors in DCs. In line with TLR4 activation, PG increased the phosphorylation of ERK, p38, and JNK, and the nuclear translocation of p-c-Jun, p-CREB, and c-Fos. PG also activated NF-κB signaling, as evidenced by degradation of IκBα/β and nuclear translocation of p65 and p50. In summary, our data suggest that PG induces DC maturation by activating MAPK and NF-κB signaling downstream of TLR4. PMID:25019244

  16. Incomplete fusion reactions

    Various aspects of the mechanism of heavy-ion induced reactions in the range of bombarding energies from a few to about 20 MeV/A are reviewed with special emphasis on the reactions for very asymmetric systems. Results of the experimental studies of binary reactions and particularly of the incomplete fusion reactions (selected by means of various coincidence techniques)are discussed. A model of generalized critical angular momentum is formulated. The model explains essential features of the incomplete fusion reactions and predicts that particular reaction channels are localized in well defined regions of angular momenta. An extension of this model (the sum-rule model) is also proposed in attempt to consistently describe the complete fusion reactions, incomplete fusion reactions and multibody reactions in the framework of statistical competition constrained by the angular momentum limitations. (author)

  17. The basic helix-loop-helix transcription factor, Mist1, induces maturation of mouse fetal hepatoblasts.

    Chikada, Hiromi; Ito, Keiichi; Yanagida, Ayaka; Nakauchi, Hiromitsu; Kamiya, Akihide

    2015-01-01

    Hepatic stem/progenitor cells, hepatoblasts, have a high proliferative ability and can differentiate into mature hepatocytes and cholangiocytes. Therefore, these cells are considered to be useful for regenerative medicine and drug screening for liver diseases. However, it is problem that in vitro maturation of hepatoblasts is insufficient in the present culture system. In this study, a novel regulator to induce hepatic differentiation was identified and the molecular function of this factor was examined in embryonic day 13 hepatoblast culture with maturation factor, oncostatin M and extracellular matrices. Overexpression of the basic helix-loop-helix type transcription factor, Mist1, induced expression of mature hepatocytic markers such as carbamoyl-phosphate synthetase1 and several cytochrome P450 (CYP) genes in this culture system. In contrast, Mist1 suppressed expression of cholangiocytic markers such as Sox9, Sox17, Ck19, and Grhl2. CYP3A metabolic activity was significantly induced by Mist1 in this hepatoblast culture. In addition, Mist1 induced liver-enriched transcription factors, CCAAT/enhancer-binding protein α and Hepatocyte nuclear factor 1α, which are known to be involved in liver functions. These results suggest that Mist1 partially induces mature hepatocytic expression and function accompanied by the down-regulation of cholangiocytic markers. PMID:26456005

  18. Induced Maturation and Spawning by Sex Pheromones in Female Mudskipper(Boleophthalmus pectinirostris)

    Zhao Weihong; Hong Wanshu; Zhang Qiyong; Jiang Xinxin; Wu Dingxun

    2003-01-01

    Maturation of the 4th phase oocytes of mudskipper is induced in vitro by sex pheromones, the extract of ovary, testis and seminal vesicle, oxytocini and deoxycorticosterone ( DOC ). Maturation rates ofoocytes are related to pheromones and their dosages. The single use of prostaglandin E1(PGE 1) is not effective in the induction of maturation, but the combination of PGE1 with HCG promotes oocyte maturation rates.Maturation is induced by injections of the extract of the ovary at dosages of 0.01 cm3/a fish,seminal vesicle extract at dosages of 0.1 cm3/a fish, testis extract at dosage of 0.1 cm3/a fish, or PGE1 at dosage of 10μ g/fish, respectively. Among them, seminal vesicle extract is the most effective in the induction of maturation. The artificial nests, with the extract of the ovary,testis or seminal vesicle inside, attract more heterosexual mudskippers than homosexual mudskippers to enter. Especially, the extract of seminal vesicle is the most effective in attracting females. Female mudskippers could be induced to spawn by the extracts of ovary,testis and seminal vesicle placed inside both the ceramic and sponge nests. More spawned eggs and higher fertilization rates are observed in the ceramic nests than in the sponge ones.

  19. Maturation of Lesions Induced by Myocardial Cavitation-Enabled Therapy.

    Lu, Xiaofang; Miller, Douglas L; Dou, Chunyan; Zhu, Yiying I; Fabiilli, Mario L; Owens, Gabe E; Kripfgans, Oliver D

    2016-07-01

    Myocardial contrast echocardiography at enhanced therapeutic parameters may be a novel means of tissue reduction therapy, as for hypertrophic cardiomyopathy. Dahl/SS rats were anesthetized and treated with high-amplitude pulsed ultrasound guided by 10-MHz ultrasound images. Contrast microbubbles were infused via the tail vein during intermittent pulse-burst exposure at 4 MPa. A sham group, a low-impact group (group A, 5 cycle pulses with Gaussian modulation and 1:4 trigger for 5 min) and a high-impact group (group B, 10 cycle pulses with 4-ms square modulation and 1:8 trigger for 10 min) were tested. The higher exposure used in group B yielded more substantial injury than the lower exposure in group A. Treated rats in both groups A and B had significant increases in wall thickness measured by echocardiography the next day, which returned to normal by the end of 6 wk. Six weeks after ultrasound exposure, heart tissue samples exhibited tissue fibrosis in Masson's trichrome stained histology. Maturation of lesions involved fibrosis replacement, preserving structural tissue integrity. This study indicates that myocardial injury noted previously progresses into permanent loss of myocardial tissue that may be sufficient for possible hypertrophic cardiomyopathy therapy. More research is needed to define the treatment parameters required for symptomatic relief for hypertrophic cardiomyopathy. PMID:27087693

  20. Apoptosis of matured T lymphocytes induced by mouse sertoli cells in cocultures in vitro

    LIU Yang; LIN Zi-hao; ZHU Xiao-hai; LIU Shan-rong

    2001-01-01

    Objective: To study whether mouse sertoli cells can induce the apoptosis of matured T lymphocytes in cocultures in vitro. Methods: With TUNEL, DNA electrophoresis, eleetro-mierography and flow cytometry, we examined the apoptosis and its rates of mouse matured T lymphocytes in control group (T lymphocytes only), group A (T lymphocytes + culture medium of sertoli cells), group B (T lymphocytes + sertoli cells). Results: Under electro-micrography, chromatin condensation, karyopyknosis, karyorhexis and apoptotic body were observed in some T lymphocytes in 3 groups; some nucleuses were stained dark blue with TUNEL; a typical DNA ladder was found with DNA electrophoresis. The apoptotic rates of T lymphocytes in group A and B were significantly higher than that in control group (P<0.01). The apoptotic rate of T lymphocytes in group B was significantly higher than that in group A (P<0.01). Conclusion: In coculture condition in vitro,mouse sertoli cells can induce the apoptosis of matured T lymphocytes.

  1. A requirement for fatty acid oxidation in the hormone-induced meiotic maturation of mouse oocytes.

    Valsangkar, Deepa; Downs, Stephen M

    2013-08-01

    We have previously shown that fatty acid oxidation (FAO) is required for AMP-activated protein kinase (PRKA)-induced maturation in vitro. In the present study, we have further investigated the role of this metabolic pathway in hormone-induced meiotic maturation. Incorporating an assay with (3)H-palmitic acid as the substrate, we first examined the effect of PRKA activators on FAO levels. There was a significant stimulation of FAO in cumulus cell-enclosed oocytes (CEO) treated with 5-aminoimidazole-4-carboxamide ribonucleotide (AICAR) and RSVA405. In denuded oocytes (DO), AICAR stimulated FAO only in the presence of carnitine, the molecule that facilitates fatty acyl CoA entry into the mitochondria. The carnitine palmitoyltransferase 1 activator C75 successfully stimulated FAO in CEO. All three of these activators trigger germinal vesicle breakdown. Meiotic resumption induced by follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) or amphiregulin was completely inhibited by the FAO inhibitors etomoxir, mercaptoacetate, and malonyl CoA. Importantly, FAO was increased in CEO stimulated by FSH and epidermal growth factor, and this increase was blocked by FAO inhibitors. Moreover, compound C, a PRKA inhibitor, prevented the FSH-induced increase in FAO. Both carnitine and palmitic acid augmented hormonal induction of maturation. In a more physiological setting, etomoxir eliminated human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG)-induced maturation in follicle-enclosed oocytes. In addition, CEO and DO from hCG-treated mice displayed an etomoxir-sensitive increase in FAO, indicating that this pathway was stimulated during in vivo meiotic resumption. Taken together, our data indicate that hormone-induced maturation in mice requires a PRKA-dependent increase in FAO. PMID:23863407

  2. Fisheries-induced evolutionary changes in maturation reaction norms in North Sea sole Solea solea

    Mollet, F.M.; Kraak, S.B.M.; Rijnsdorp, A.D.

    2007-01-01

    Age and size at maturation decreased in several commercially exploited fish stocks, which, according to life history theory, may be due to fisheries-induced evolutionary change. However, the observed changes may also represent a plastic response to environmental variability. To disentangle phenotypi

  3. Casein kinase G may be the target of spermine during progesterone-induced oocyte maturation

    LIRUNSHENG; JIAKETSO

    1993-01-01

    Casein kinase G (CKG) with more than 2500-fold enrichraent was purified from Bufo bufo gargarizans ovaries. The catalytic activity of the enzyme was found to be associated with its 42 kD subunit, and its 26 kD subunit was found to be the major tsrget for the enzyme autophos phorylation. Each fuU-grown oocyte contained 1.9 units of CKG corresponding to an intracellular concentration of 93 nM. After injecting an amount of 0,38 units of the enzyme into the oocyte, approximately 50% of the progesterone-induoed maturation was inhibited. The inhibitory effect was enhanced in oocytes pretreated with spermine, which was consistent with the results that the enzyme was activated in vitro in the presence of spermine, The MPF-induced oocyte maturation was delayed and even prohibited in the kinase-microinjected oocytes. A 55 kD oocyte protein was identified as an suhstrate of CKG both in vivo and in vitro, and the enhancement of the 55 kD protein phosphory[ation was associated with kinase inhibition on maturation and on protein synthesis in kinase-microinjected oocytes. As the endogenous spermine level decreased in the course of progesteroneinduced oocyte maturation. 55 kD protein was dephosphorylated, Heparin, a specific inhibitor of CKG, potentiated the progesterone-induced oocyte maturation. Altogether the experimental reSults indicated Strongly that CKG may be the physiological target of spermine.

  4. Complement protein C1q induces maturation of human dendritic cells

    Cosmor, E; Bajtay, Z; Sándor, N;

    2007-01-01

    absence of antibodies, we undertook to investigate whether this complement protein has an impact on various functions of human DCs. Maturation of monocyte-derived immature DCs (imMDCs) cultured on immobilized C1q was followed by monitoring expression of CD80, CD83, CD86, MHCII and CCR7. The functional......Maturation of dendritic cells (DCs) is known to be induced by several stimuli, including microbial products, inflammatory cytokines and immobilized IgG, as demonstrated recently. Since immune complexes formed in vivo also contain C1q, moreover apoptotic cells and several pathogens fix C1q in the...... activity of the cells was assessed by measuring cytokine secretion and their ability to activate allogeneic T lymphocytes. Cytokine production by T cells co-cultured with C1q-matured DCs was also investigated. C1q, but not the structurally related mannose-binding lectin was found to bind to imMDC in a dose...

  5. pH-induced stability switching of the bacteriophage HK97 maturation pathway.

    May, Eric R; Arora, Karunesh; Brooks, Charles L

    2014-02-26

    Many viruses undergo large-scale conformational changes during their life cycles. Blocking the transition from one stage of the life cycle to the next is an attractive strategy for the development of antiviral compounds. In this work, we have constructed an icosahedrally symmetric, low-energy pathway for the maturation transition of bacteriophage HK97. By conducting constant-pH molecular dynamics simulations on this pathway, we identify which residues are contributing most significantly to shifting the stability between the states along the pathway under differing pH conditions. We further analyze these data to establish the connection between critical residues and important structural motifs which undergo reorganization during maturation. We go on to show how DNA packaging can induce spontaneous reorganization of the capsid during maturation. PMID:24495192

  6. Investigation of complete and incomplete fusion dynamics of {sup 20}Ne induced reactions at energies above the Coulomb barrier

    Singh, D., E-mail: dsinghiuac@gmail.com [Centre for Applied Physics, Central University of Jharkhand, Ranchi-835 205 (India); Ali, R. [Department of Physics, G.F.(P.G.), College, Shahjahanpur-242 001 (India); Kumar, Harish; Ansari, M. Afzal [Department of Physics, Aligarh Muslim University, Aligarh-202 002 (India); Rashid, M. H.; Guin, R. [Variable Energy Cyclotron Centre, 1/AF, Bidhan Nagar, Kolkata-700 064 (India)

    2014-08-14

    Experiment has been performed to explore the complete and incomplete fusion dynamics in heavy ion collisions using stacked foil activation technique. The measurement of excitation functions of the evaporation residues produced in the {sup 20}Ne+{sup 165}Ho system at projectile energies ranges ≈ 4-8 MeV/nucleon have been done. Measured cumulative and direct cross-sections have been compared with the theoretical model code PACE-2, which takes into account only the complete fusion process. The analysis indicates the presence of contributions from incomplete fusion processes in some α-emission channels following the break-up of the projectile {sup 20}Ne in the nuclear field of the target nucleus {sup 165}Ho.

  7. Thidiazuron-induced high-frequency plant regeneration from leaf explants of Paulownia tomentosa mature trees

    CORREDOIRA, E.; Ballester, A.; Viéitez Martín, Ana María

    2008-01-01

    Attempts were made to study the effect of thidiazuron (TDZ) on adventitious shoot induction and plant development in Paulownia tomentosa explants derived from mature trees. Media with different concentrations of TDZ in combination with an auxin were used to induce adventitious shoot-buds in two explant types: basal leaf halves with the petiole attached (leaf explant) and intact petioles. Optimal shoot regeneration was obtained in leaf explants cultured on induction medium containing TDZ (22.7...

  8. Incomplete block designs

    Dey, Aloke

    2010-01-01

    This book presents a systematic, rigorous and comprehensive account of the theory and applications of incomplete block designs. All major aspects of incomplete block designs are considered by consolidating vast amounts of material from the literature - the classical incomplete block designs, like the balanced incomplete block (BIB) and partially balanced incomplete block (PBIB) designs. Other developments like efficiency-balanced designs, nested designs, robust designs, C-designs and alpha designs are also discussed, along with more recent developments in incomplete block designs for special t

  9. Incomplete Contracts and the Product Cycle

    Antras, Pol

    2005-01-01

    The incomplete nature of contracts governing international transactions limits the extent to which the production process can be fragmented across borders. In a dynamic, general-equilibrium Ricardian model of North-South trade, the incompleteness of international contracts is shown to lead to the emergence of product cycles. Because of contractual frictions, goods are initially manufactured in the North, where product development takes place. As the good matures and becomes more standardized,...

  10. Cooperative transcription activation by Nurr1 and Pitx3 induces embryonic stem cell maturation to the midbrain dopamine neuron phenotype

    Martinat, Cecile; Bacci, Jean-Jacques; Leete, Thomas;

    2006-01-01

    , Pitx3, Lmx1b, Engrailed-1, and Engrailed-2. However, none of these factors appear sufficient alone to induce the mature midbrain DA neuron phenotype in ES cell cultures in vitro, suggesting a more complex regulatory network. Here we show that Nurr1 and Pitx3 cooperatively promote terminal maturation...

  11. Cortical bone growth and maturational changes in dwarf rats induced by recombinant human growth hormone

    Martinez, D. A.; Orth, M. W.; Carr, K. E.; Vanderby, R. Jr; Vailas, A. C.

    1996-01-01

    The growth hormone (GH)-deficient dwarf rat was used to investigate recombinant human (rh) GH-induced bone formation and to determine whether rhGH facilitates simultaneous increases in bone formation and bone maturation during rapid growth. Twenty dwarf rats, 37 days of age, were randomly assigned to dwarf plus rhGH (GH; n = 10) and dwarf plus vehicle (n = 10) groups. The GH group received 1.25 mg rhGH/kg body wt two times daily for 14 days. Biochemical, morphological, and X-ray diffraction measurements were performed on the femur middiaphysis. rhGH stimulated new bone growth in the GH group, as demonstrated by significant increases (P GH group (P < 0.05). Our findings suggest that the processes regulating new collagen accretion, bone collagen maturation, and mean hydroxyapatite crystal size may be independently regulated during rapid growth.

  12. Comparative effects of mature coconut water (Cocos nucifera) and glibenclamide on some biochemical parameters in alloxan induced diabetic rats

    P. P. Preetha; V. Girija Devi; Rajamohan, T.

    2013-01-01

    In the present study, comparative effects of mature coconut water (Cocos nucifera L., Arecaceae) and glibenclamide in alloxan induced diabetic rats were evaluated. Diabetes mellitus was induced in Sprague-Dawly rats using alloxan monohydrate (150 mg kg-1 body weight). Treatment with lyophilized form of mature coconut water and glibenclamide in diabetic rats reduced the blood glucose and glycated hemoglobin along with improvement in plasma insulin level. Elevated levels of liver function enzym...

  13. Gamma rays induced variability in mature embryos of avocado (Persea americana Mill)

    Induced mutation and biotechnology techniques are current approaches used in plant breeding. At present work, the induced mutation and embryo zygotic culture techniques were used in order to characterize the radiosensitivity of avocado commercial varieties, Hass and California. The induced diversity in plant material was also evaluated in morphological seedling descriptors as: height seedling, diameter seedling neck, leaves number, length of principal root and secondary root number. The obtained results showed high susceptibility of both varieties to gamma rays. California was the higher sensitivity variety. Percentage of entire shoot induction showed clear dependence of radiation dose in both varieties. Thus dose range for mutagenesis was determined. In general, variation of morphological seedling descriptors not was clearly agreed to increase of radiation dose. In addition, the results suggested that variation in morphological seedling descriptors also could be depending of genotypes. The useful of mature embryo culture of avocado for improvement of breeding approaches in this crop, was discussed

  14. Deoxynivalenol exposure induces autophagy/apoptosis and epigenetic modification changes during porcine oocyte maturation.

    Han, Jun; Wang, Qiao-Chu; Zhu, Cheng-Cheng; Liu, Jun; Zhang, Yu; Cui, Xiang-Shun; Kim, Nam-Hyung; Sun, Shao-Chen

    2016-06-01

    Deoxynivalenol (DON) is a widespread trichothecene mycotoxin which contaminates agricultural staples and elicits a complex spectrum of toxic effects on humans and animals. It has been shown that DON impairs oocyte maturation, reproductive function and causes abnormal fetal development in mammals; however, the mechanisms remain unclear. In the present study, we investigate the possible reasons of the toxic effects of DON on porcine oocytes. Our results showed that DON significantly inhibited porcine oocyte maturation and disrupted meiotic spindle by reducing p-MAPK protein level, which caused retardation of cell cycle progression. In addition, up-regulated LC3 protein expression and aberrant Lamp2, LC3 and mTOR mRNA levels were observed with DON exposure, together with Annexin V-FITC staining assay analysis, these results indicated that DON treatment induced autophagy/apoptosis in porcine oocytes. We also showed that DON exposure increased DNA methylation level in porcine oocytes through altering DNMT3A mRNA levels. Histone methylation levels were also changed showing with increased H3K27me3 and H3K4me2 protein levels, and mRNA levels of their relative methyltransferase genes, indicating that epigenetic modifications were affected. Taken together, our results suggested that DON exposure reduced porcine oocytes maturation capability through affecting cytoskeletal dynamics, cell cycle, autophagy/apoptosis and epigenetic modifications. PMID:26988607

  15. Oligarchy and soft incompleteness

    Piggins, Ashley; Duddy, Conal

    2016-01-01

    The assumption that the social preference relation is complete is demanding. We distinguish between “hard” and “soft” incompleteness, and explore the social choice implications of the latter. Under soft incompleteness, social preferences can take values in the unit interval. We motivate interest in soft incompleteness by presenting a version of the strong Pareto rule that is suited to the context of a [0, 1]-valued social preference relation. Using a novel approach to the quasi-tr...

  16. Regulation of recombinant human insulin-induced maturational events in Clarias batrachus (L.) oocytes in vitro.

    Hajra, Sudip; Das, Debabrata; Ghosh, Pritha; Pal, Soumojit; Nath, Poulomi; Maitra, Sudipta

    2016-04-01

    Regulation of insulin-mediated resumption of meiotic maturation in catfish oocytes was investigated. Insulin stimulation of post-vitellogenic oocytes promotes the synthesis of cyclin B, histone H1 kinase activation and a germinal vesicle breakdown (GVBD) response in a dose-dependent and duration-dependent manner. The PI3K inhibitor wortmannin abrogates recombinant human (rh)-insulin action on histone H1 kinase activation and meiotic G2-M1 transition in denuded and follicle-enclosed oocytes in vitro. While the translational inhibitor cycloheximide attenuates rh-insulin action, priming with transcriptional blocker actinomycin D prevents insulin-stimulated maturational response appreciably, albeit in low amounts. Compared with rh-insulin, human chorionic gonadotrophin (hCG) stimulation of follicle-enclosed oocytes in vitro triggers a sharp increase in 17α,20β-dihydroxy-4-pregnen-3-one (17α,20β-DHP) secreted in the incubation medium at 12 h. Interestingly, the insulin, but not the hCG-induced, maturational response shows less susceptibility to steroidogenesis inhibitors, trilostane or dl-aminoglutethimide. In addition, priming with phosphodiesterase inhibitor, 3-isobutyl-1-methylxanthine (IBMX) or cell-permeable dbcAMP or adenylyl cyclase activator forskolin reverses the action of insulin on meiotic G2-M1 transition. Conversely, the adenylyl cyclase inhibitor, SQ 22536, or PKA inhibitor H89 promotes the resumption of meiosis alone and further potentiates the GVBD response in the presence of rh-insulin. Furthermore, insulin-mediated meiotic maturation involves the down-regulation of endogenous protein kinase A (PKA) activity in a manner sensitive to PI3K activation, suggesting potential involvement of a cross-talk between cAMP/PKA and insulin-mediated signalling cascade in catfish oocytes in vitro. Taken together, these results suggest that rh-insulin regulation of the maturational response in C. batrachus oocytes involves down-regulation of PKA, synthesis of cyclin

  17. Reversal by Dithiothreitol Treatment of the Block in Murine Leukemia Virus Maturation Induced by Disulfide Cross-Linking

    Campbell, Stephen; Oshima, Masamichi; Mirro, Jane; Nagashima, Kunio; Rein, Alan

    2002-01-01

    We previously reported that if murine leukemia virus particles are produced in the presence of the mild oxidizing agent disulfide-substituted benzamide-2, they fail to undergo the normal process of virus maturation. We now show that treatment of these immature particles with a reducing agent (dithiothreitol) induces their maturation in vitro, as evidenced by proteolytic cleavage of Gag, Gag-Pol, and Env proteins and by their morphology. The identification of partial cleavage products in these...

  18. Complete and incomplete fusion competition in 11B-induced fission reaction on medium mass targets at intermediate energies

    Demekhina, N. A.; Karapetyan, G. S.; Balabekyan, A. R.

    2014-01-01

    The cross sections for the binary fission of 197Au, 181Ta and 209Bi targets induced by 11B ions were measured at intermediate energies. The fission products cross sections were studied by means of activation analysis in off-line regime observed gamma-ray spectra. The fission cross section is reconstructed on the basis of charge and mass distribution of the fission products.

  19. Coding deficits in noise-induced hidden hearing loss may stem from incomplete repair of ribbon synapses in the cochlea

    Lijuan eShi

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Recent evidence has shown that noise-induced damage to the synapse between inner hair cells (IHCs and type I afferent auditory nerve fibers (ANFs may occur in the absence of permanent threshold shift (PTS, and that synapses connecting IHCs with low spontaneous rate (SR ANFs are disproportionately affected. Due to the functional importance of low-SR ANF units for temporal processing and signal coding in noisy backgrounds, deficits in cochlear coding associated with noise-induced damage may result in significant difficulties with temporal processing and hearing in noise (i.e., hidden hearing loss. However, significant noise-induced coding deficits have not been reported at the single unit level following the loss of low-SR units. We have found evidence to suggest that some aspects of neural coding are not significantly changed with the initial loss of low-SR ANFs, and that further coding deficits arise in association with the subsequent reestablishment of the synapses. This suggests that synaptopathy in hidden hearing loss may be the result of insufficient repair of disrupted synapses, and not simply due to the loss of low-SR units. These coding deficits include decreases in driven spike rate for intensity coding as well as several aspects of temporal coding: spike latency, peak-to-sustained spike ratio and the recovery of spike rate as a function of click-interval.

  20. Coding Deficits in Noise-Induced Hidden Hearing Loss May Stem from Incomplete Repair of Ribbon Synapses in the Cochlea

    Shi, Lijuan; Chang, Yin; Li, Xiaowei; Aiken, Steven J.; Liu, Lijie; Wang, Jian

    2016-01-01

    Recent evidence has shown that noise-induced damage to the synapse between inner hair cells (IHCs) and type I afferent auditory nerve fibers (ANFs) may occur in the absence of permanent threshold shift (PTS), and that synapses connecting IHCs with low spontaneous rate (SR) ANFs are disproportionately affected. Due to the functional importance of low-SR ANF units for temporal processing and signal coding in noisy backgrounds, deficits in cochlear coding associated with noise-induced damage may result in significant difficulties with temporal processing and hearing in noise (i.e., “hidden hearing loss”). However, significant noise-induced coding deficits have not been reported at the single unit level following the loss of low-SR units. We have found evidence to suggest that some aspects of neural coding are not significantly changed with the initial loss of low-SR ANFs, and that further coding deficits arise in association with the subsequent reestablishment of the synapses. This suggests that synaptopathy in hidden hearing loss may be the result of insufficient repair of disrupted synapses, and not simply due to the loss of low-SR units. These coding deficits include decreases in driven spike rate for intensity coding as well as several aspects of temporal coding: spike latency, peak-to-sustained spike ratio and the recovery of spike rate as a function of click-interval. PMID:27252621

  1. Cortical bone growth and maturational changes in dwarf rats induced by recombinant human growth hormone

    Martinez, D. A.; Orth, M. W.; Carr, K. E.; Vanderby, R. Jr; Vailas, A. C.

    1996-01-01

    The growth hormone (GH)-deficient dwarf rat was used to investigate recombinant human (rh) GH-induced bone formation and to determine whether rhGH facilitates simultaneous increases in bone formation and bone maturation during rapid growth. Twenty dwarf rats, 37 days of age, were randomly assigned to dwarf plus rhGH (GH; n = 10) and dwarf plus vehicle (n = 10) groups. The GH group received 1.25 mg rhGH/kg body wt two times daily for 14 days. Biochemical, morphological, and X-ray diffraction measurements were performed on the femur middiaphysis. rhGH stimulated new bone growth in the GH group, as demonstrated by significant increases (P bone length (6%), middiaphyseal cross-sectional area (20%), and the amount of newly accreted bone collagen (28%) in the total pool of middiaphyseal bone collagen. Cortical bone density, mean hydroxyapatite crystal size, and the calcium and collagen contents (microgram/mm3) were significantly smaller in the GH group (P bone collagen maturation, and mean hydroxyapatite crystal size may be independently regulated during rapid growth.

  2. Matured Hop Bittering Components Induce Thermogenesis in Brown Adipose Tissue via Sympathetic Nerve Activity.

    Yumie Morimoto-Kobayashi

    Full Text Available Obesity is the principal symptom of metabolic syndrome, which refers to a group of risk factors that increase the likelihood of atherosclerosis. In recent decades there has been a sharp rise in the incidence of obesity throughout the developed world. Iso-α-acids, the bitter compounds derived from hops in beer, have been shown to prevent diet-induced obesity by increasing lipid oxidation in the liver and inhibition of lipid absorption from the intestine. Whereas the sharp bitterness induced by effective dose of iso-α-acids precludes their acceptance as a nutrient, matured hop bittering components (MHB appear to be more agreeable. Therefore, we tested MHB for an effect on ameliorating diet-induced body fat accumulation in rodents. MHB ingestion had a beneficial effect but, compared to iso-α-acids and despite containing structurally similar compounds, acted via different mechanisms to reduce body fat accumulation. MHB supplementation significantly reduced body weight gain, epididymal white adipose tissue weight, and plasma non-esterified free fatty acid levels in diet-induced obese mice. We also found that uncoupling protein 1 (UCP1 expression in brown adipose tissue (BAT was significantly increased in MHB-fed mice at both the mRNA and protein levels. In addition, MHB administration in rats induced the β-adrenergic signaling cascade, which is related to cAMP accumulation in BAT, suggesting that MHB could modulate sympathetic nerve activity innervating BAT (BAT-SNA. Indeed, single oral administration of MHB elevated BAT-SNA in rats, and this elevation was dissipated by subdiaphragmatic vagotomy. Single oral administration of MHB maintained BAT temperature at a significantly higher level than in control rats. Taken together, these findings indicate that MHB ameliorates diet-induced body fat accumulation, at least partly, by enhancing thermogenesis in BAT via BAT-SNA activation. Our data suggests that MHB is a useful tool for developing functional

  3. Development of early maturing and semi-dwarf in rice by induced mutations

    Crop improvement using classical induced mutagenesis is now well standardized. A large number of new promising varieties in different crops have successfully been developed world wide using both physical and chemical mutagenes. Domsia is one of the best quality and local rice variety in Iran, but it is tall and nearly late in maturity. The dry seeds of this variety were treated with gamma rays at doses 100, 200 and 300 Gy. The irradiated seeds were seeded in nursery, and then transplanted in main land. At the end of first year of experiment, main panicle of some randomly selected plants were harvested and planted as a panicle-to-row at M2 generation. A semi-dwarf mutant line and an early maturity mutant line were obtained from 300 and 100 Gy respectively, at M2 generation. These mutant lines were showed no segregation at next generations. The height of semi-dwarf mutant line was 60cm shorter than the control (165cm). The length reduction of internodes 2 through 5 caused the height reduction in semi-dwarf line. Reduction in length of internode closed to panicle was more significant than the other internodes. There was no significant difference in panicle length between semi-dwarf mutant lines and control. The number of tillers in semi-dwarf mutant line was significantly more than the control (No.12). The yields of semi-dwarf line were less than control, because of some sterility caused by gamma rays. We are recovering fertility by back crossing of this line with control. Also an early maturity mutant line with 15 days earlier than parent was obtained. The yield of this mutant line was not significantly different from the control. Some traits were studied in mutant lines at M7 generation, they are includes: plant height, number of culm, uppermost internode length, second internode length, flag leaf length and width, days to heading, days to maturity, panicle length, grain length and width, Spikelet fertility, number of grain in panicle, grain yield, 100-grain weight

  4. Lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus-induced immunosuppression: evidence for viral interference with T-cell maturation

    Thomsen, Allan Randrup; Bro-Jørgensen, K; Jensen, Birgitte Løkke

    1982-01-01

    Acute lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus (LCMV) infection is associated with general immunosuppression which develops during the second week of the infection and persists for several weeks. In the present study, the ability of LCMV-infected mice to mount a cytotoxic T-lymphocyte response was...... investigated in a transplantation assay, using LCMV-immunized mice as recipients. By this means it was possible to evaluate the T-cell responsiveness of the acutely infected mice separately. Our results revealed a marked depression of the T-cell function temporally related to immunosuppression in the intact...... that a numerical deficiency of immunocompetent T-cells due to viral interference with T-cell maturation plays an important role in LCMV-induced immunosuppression....

  5. Cortical bone growth and maturational changes in dwarf rats induced by recombinant human growth hormone

    Martinez, D. A.; Orth, M. W.; Carr, K. E.; Vanderby, R. Jr; Vailas, A. C.

    1996-01-01

    The growth hormone (GH)-deficient dwarf rat was used to investigate recombinant human (rh) GH-induced bone formation and to determine whether rhGH facilitates simultaneous increases in bone formation and bone maturation during rapid growth. Twenty dwarf rats, 37 days of age, were randomly assigned to dwarf plus rhGH (GH; n = 10) and dwarf plus vehicle (n = 10) groups. The GH group received 1.25 mg rhGH/kg body wt two times daily for 14 days. Biochemical, morphological, and X-ray diffraction measurements were performed on the femur middiaphysis. rhGH stimulated new bone growth in the GH group, as demonstrated by significant increases (P growth.

  6. Potentially probiotic bacteria induce efficient maturation but differential cytokine production in human monocyte-derived dendritic cells

    Sinikka Latvala; Taija E Pietil(a); Ville Veckman; Riina A Kekkonen; Soile Tynkkynen; Riitta Korpela; Ilkka Julkunen

    2008-01-01

    MM: To analyze the ability of nine different potentially probiotic bacteria to induce maturation and cytokine production in human monocyLe-derived dendritic cells (moDCs).METHODS: Cytokine production and maturation of moDCs in response to bacterial stimulation was analyzed with enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and flow cytometric analysis (FACS),respectively.The kinetics of mRNA expression of cytokine genes was determined by Northern blotting.The involvement of different signaling pathways in cytokine gene expression was studied using specific pharmacological signaling inhibitors.RESULTS: All studied bacteria induced the maturation of moDCs in a dose-dependent manner.More detailed analysis with S.thermophilus THS,B.breve Bb99,and L.lactis subsp,cremoris ARH74 indicated that these bacteria induced the expression of moDC maturation markers HLA class II and CD86 as efficiently as pathogenic bacteria.However,these bacteria differed in their ability to induce moDC cytokine gene expression.S.therrnophilus induced the expression of pro-inflammatory (TNF-a,IL-12,IL-6,and CCL20)and Th1 type (IL-12 and IFN-y) cytokines,while B.breve and L.lactis were also potent inducers of antiinflammatory IL-10.Mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) p38,phosphatidylinositol 3 (PI3) kinase,and nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-κB) signaling pathways were shown to be involved in bacteria-induced cytokine production.CONCLUSION: Our results indicate that potentially probiotic bacteria are able to induce moDC maturation,but their ability to induce cytokine gene expression varies significantly from one bacterial strain to another.

  7. M-CSF potently augments RANKL-induced resorption activation in mature human osteoclasts.

    Jason M Hodge

    Full Text Available Macrophage-CSF (M-CSF is critical for osteoclast (OC differentiation and is reported to enhance mature OC survival and motility. However, its role in the regulation of bone resorption, the main function of OCs, has not been well characterised. To address this we analysed short-term cultures of fully differentiated OCs derived from human colony forming unit-granulocyte macrophages (CFU-GM. When cultured on dentine, OC survival was enhanced by M-CSF but more effectively by receptor activator of NFκB ligand (RANKL. Resorption was entirely dependent on the presence of RANKL. Co-treatment with M-CSF augmented RANKL-induced resorption in a concentration-dependent manner with a (200-300% stimulation at 25 ng/mL, an effect observed within 4-6 h. M-CSF co-treatment also increased number of resorption pits and F-actin sealing zones, but not the number of OCs or pit size, indicating stimulation of the proportion of OCs activated. M-CSF facilitated RANKL-induced activation of c-fos and extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK 1/2 phosphorylation, but not NFκB nor nuclear factor of activated T-cells, cytoplasmic-1 (NFATc1. The mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase (MEK 1 inhibitor PD98059 partially blocked augmentation of resorption by M-CSF. Our results reveal a previously unidentified role of M-CSF as a potent stimulator of mature OC resorbing activity, possibly mediated via ERK upstream of c-fos.

  8. Observation and analysis of incomplete fusion reactions induced by (12C, 14N, 16O, 22Ne) ions

    The mechanism of the reactions induced by heavy ions has been studied. The experiments were concerned with incident channels which lead to the formation of intermediate nuclei with atomic mass (6412C, 14N, 16O, 22Ne) as projectiles respectively. The detection of light fragments (2< Z<12) is studied. A three solid-state-detector telescope, with associated electronics is used which allows the separation of reaction products according to their charge. The main features of deep inelastic collisions are discussed: large kinetic energy loss, and important nucleon transfer as a function of the angular detection. The time evolution of the reaction has been studied, then the results are compared with a scattering model suggested by Noremberg. A theoretical calculation based on both classical and statistical approaches giving the total cross-sections for any exit channel has been proposed

  9. Mycobacterium tuberculosislpdC, Rv0462, induces dendritic cell maturation and Th1 polarization

    Heo, Deok Rim [Department of Microbiology and Immunology, School of Medicine, Pusan National University, Beom-eo Ri, Mulgum Eop, Yangsan, Gyeongsangnam-do 626-770 (Korea, Republic of); Shin, Sung Jae; Kim, Woo Sik [Department of Microbiology, College of Medicine, Chungnam National University, Munwha-Dong, Jung-Ku, Daejeon 301-747 (Korea, Republic of); Noh, Kyung Tae; Park, Jin Wook; Son, Kwang Hee [Department of Microbiology and Immunology, School of Medicine, Pusan National University, Beom-eo Ri, Mulgum Eop, Yangsan, Gyeongsangnam-do 626-770 (Korea, Republic of); Park, Won Sun [Department of Physiology, Kangwon National University, School of Medicine, Chuncheon 200-701 (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Min-Goo [Department of Physiology, Korea University, College of Medicine, Anam-dong, Sungbuk-Gu, Seoul 136-705 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Daejin [Department of Anatomy, Chung-Ang University, College of Medicine, 221 Heuksuk-Dong, Dongjak-Ku, Seoul 156-756 (Korea, Republic of); Shin, Yong Kyoo [Department of Pharmacology, Chung-Ang University, College of Medicine, 221 Heuksuk-Dong, Dongjak-Ku, Seoul 156-756 (Korea, Republic of); Jung, In Duk, E-mail: jungid@pusan.ac.kr [Department of Microbiology and Immunology, School of Medicine, Pusan National University, Beom-eo Ri, Mulgum Eop, Yangsan, Gyeongsangnam-do 626-770 (Korea, Republic of); Research Institute of Convergence of Biomedical Science and Technology, Pusan National University Yangsan Hospital, Beom-eo Ri, Mulgum Eop, Yangsan, Gyeongsangnam-do 626-770 (Korea, Republic of); Park, Yeong-Min, E-mail: immunpym@pusan.ac.kr [Department of Microbiology and Immunology, School of Medicine, Pusan National University, Beom-eo Ri, Mulgum Eop, Yangsan, Gyeongsangnam-do 626-770 (Korea, Republic of); Research Institute of Convergence of Biomedical Science and Technology, Pusan National University Yangsan Hospital, Beom-eo Ri, Mulgum Eop, Yangsan, Gyeongsangnam-do 626-770 (Korea, Republic of)

    2011-08-05

    Highlights: {yields} Treatment with Rv0462 induces the expression of surface molecules and the production of cytokines in DCs. {yields} Rv0462 induces the activation of MAPKs. {yields} Rv0462-treated DCs enhances the proliferation of CD4{sup +} T cells. -- Abstract: Mycobacterium tuberculosis, the etiological factor of pulmonary tuberculosis, causes significant morbidity and mortality worldwide. Activation of host immune responses for containment of mycobacterial infections involves participation of innate immune cells, such as dendritic cells (DCs). In this study, we demonstrated that the gene encoding lipoamide dehydrogenase C (lpdC) from M. tuberculosis, Rv0462, induce maturation and activation of DCs involved in the MAPKs signaling pathway. Moreover, Rv0462-treated DCs activated naive T cells, polarized CD4{sup +} and CD8{sup +} T cells to secrete IFN-{gamma} in syngeneic mixed lymphocyte reactions, which would be expected to contribute to Th1 polarization of the immune response. Our results suggest that Rv0462 can contribute to the innate and adaptive immune responses during tuberculosis infection, and thus modulate the clinical course of tuberculosis.

  10. Mycobacterium tuberculosislpdC, Rv0462, induces dendritic cell maturation and Th1 polarization

    Highlights: → Treatment with Rv0462 induces the expression of surface molecules and the production of cytokines in DCs. → Rv0462 induces the activation of MAPKs. → Rv0462-treated DCs enhances the proliferation of CD4+ T cells. -- Abstract: Mycobacterium tuberculosis, the etiological factor of pulmonary tuberculosis, causes significant morbidity and mortality worldwide. Activation of host immune responses for containment of mycobacterial infections involves participation of innate immune cells, such as dendritic cells (DCs). In this study, we demonstrated that the gene encoding lipoamide dehydrogenase C (lpdC) from M. tuberculosis, Rv0462, induce maturation and activation of DCs involved in the MAPKs signaling pathway. Moreover, Rv0462-treated DCs activated naive T cells, polarized CD4+ and CD8+ T cells to secrete IFN-γ in syngeneic mixed lymphocyte reactions, which would be expected to contribute to Th1 polarization of the immune response. Our results suggest that Rv0462 can contribute to the innate and adaptive immune responses during tuberculosis infection, and thus modulate the clinical course of tuberculosis.

  11. Decomposition of incomplete fusion

    The velocity distribution of fusion-like products formed in the reaction 701 MeV 28Si+100Mo is decomposed into 26 incomplete fusion channels. The momentum deficit of the residue per nonevaporative mass unit is approximately equal to the beam momentum per nucleon. The yields of the incomplete fusion channels correlate with the Q-value for projectile fragmentation rather than that for incomplete fusion. The backward angle multiplicities of light particles and heavy ions increase with momentum transfer, however, the heavy ion multiplicities also depend on the extent of the fragmentation of the incomplete fusion channel. These data indicate that at fixed linear momentum transfer, increased fragmentation of the unfused component is related to a reduced transferred angular momentum. 22 refs., 6 figs., 1 tab

  12. Incomplete Delta Functions

    Gersten, A.

    1999-01-01

    By applying projection operators to state vectors of coordinates we obtain subspaces in which these states are no longer normalized according to Dirac's delta function but normalized according to what we call "incomplete delta functions". We show that this class of functions satisfy identities similar to those satisfied by the Dirac delta function. The incomplete delta functions may be employed advantageously in projected subspaces and in the link between functions defined on the whole space ...

  13. PKCδ and θ possibly mediate FSH-induced mouse oocyte maturation via NOX-ROS-TACE cascade signaling pathway.

    Qian Chen

    Full Text Available In mammals, gonadotropins stimulate oocyte maturation via the epidermal growth factor (EGF network, and the protein kinase C (PKC signaling pathway mediates this process. Tumor necrosis factor-α converting enzyme (TACE is an important protein responding to PKC activation. However, the detailed signaling cascade between PKC and TACE in follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH-induced oocyte maturation in vitro remains unclear. In this study, we found that rottlerin (mallotoxin, MTX, the inhibitor of PKC δ and θ, blocked FSH-induced maturation of mouse cumulus-oocyte complexes (COCs in vitro. We further clarified the relationship between two molecules downstream of PKC δ and θ and TACE in COCs: nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NADPH oxidase (NOX and its products, reactive oxygen species (ROS. We proved that the respective inhibitors of NOX, ROS and TACE could block FSH-stimulated oocyte maturation dose-dependently, but these inhibitory effects could be reversed partially by amphiregulin (Areg, an EGF family member. Notably, inhibition of PKC δ and θ prevented FSH-induced translocation of two cytosolic components of NOX, p47phox and p67phox, to the plasma membrane in cumulus cells. Moreover, FSH-induced TACE activity in cumulus cells was decreased markedly by inhibition of NOX and ROS. In conclusion, PKC δ and θ possibly mediate FSH-induced meiotic resumption in mouse COCs via NOX-ROS-TACE signaling pathway.

  14. Proinsulin atypical maturation and disposal induces extensive defects in mouse Ins2+/Akita β-cells.

    Qingxin Yuan

    Full Text Available Because of its low relative folding rate and plentiful manufacture in β-cells, proinsulin maintains a homeostatic balance of natively and plentiful non-natively folded states (i.e., proinsulin homeostasis, PIHO through the integration of maturation and disposal processes. PIHO is susceptible to genetic and environmental influences, and its disorder has been critically linked to defects in β-cells in diabetes. To explore this hypothesis, we performed polymerase chain reaction (PCR, metabolic-labeling, immunoblotting, and histological studies to clarify what defects result from primary disorder of PIHO in model Ins2(+/Akita β-cells. We used T antigen-transformed Ins2(+/Akita and control Ins2(+/+ β-cells established from Akita and wild-type littermate mice. In Ins2(+/Akita β-cells, we found no apparent defect at the transcriptional and translational levels to contribute to reduced cellular content of insulin and its precursor and secreted insulin. Glucose response remained normal in proinsulin biosynthesis but was impaired for insulin secretion. The size and number of mature insulin granules were reduced, but the size/number of endoplasmic reticulum, Golgi, mitochondrion, and lysosome organelles and vacuoles were expanded/increased. Moreover, cell death increased, and severe oxidative stress, which manifested as increased reactive oxygen species, thioredoxin-interacting protein, and protein tyrosine nitration, occurred in Ins2(+/Akita β-cells and/or islets. These data show the first clear evidence that primary PIHO imbalance induces severe oxidative stress and impairs glucose-stimulated insulin release and β-cell survival as well as producing other toxic consequences. The defects disclosed/clarified in model Ins2(+/Akita β-cells further support a role of the genetic and stress-susceptible PIHO disorder in β-cell failure and diabetes.

  15. Interferon-γ Added During Bacillus Calmette-Guerin Induced Dendritic Cell Maturation Stimulates Potent Th1 Immune Responses

    Pestano Linda A

    2003-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Dendritic cells (DC are increasingly prepared in vitro for use in immunotherapy trials. Mature DC express high levels of surface molecules needed for T cell activation and are superior at antigen-presentation than immature DC. Bacillus Calmette-Guerin (BCG is one of several products known to induce DC maturation, and interferon (IFN-γ has been shown to enhance the activity of DC stimulated with certain maturation factors. In this study, we investigated the use of IFN-γ in combination with the powerful maturation agent, BCG. The treatment of immature DC with IFN-γ plus BCG led to the upregulation of CD54, CD80, and CD86 in comparison with BCG treatment alone. In MLR or recall immune responses, the addition of IFN-γ at the time of BCG-treatment did not increase the number of antigen-specific T cells but enhanced the development of IFN-γ-producing Th1 cells. In primary immune responses, on the other hand, BCG and IFN-γ co-treated DC stimulated higher proportions of specific T cells as well as IFN-γ secretion by these T cells. Thus the use of IFN-γ during BCG-induced DC maturation differentially affects the nature of recall versus naïve antigen-specific T-cell responses. IFN-γ co-treatment with BCG was found to induce IL-12 and, in some instances, inhibit IL-10 secretion by DC. These findings greatly enhance the potential of BCG-matured dendritic cells for use in cancer immunotherapy.

  16. Soluble Jagged 1/Fc chimera protein induces the differentiation and maturation of bone marrow-derived dendritic cells

    XING FeiYue; LIU Jing; YU Zhe; JI YuHua

    2008-01-01

    A soluble Jagged 1/Fc chimera protein (Jagged 1/Fc) was directly used to induce differentiation and maturation of bone marrow-derived dendritic cells (DCs) in mice in vitro. A model of inducing and am-plifying DCs in vitro was established. The effect of Jagged 1/Fc on morphology of DCs induced by both rmGM-CSF and rmlL-4 was observed under a confocal microscope. A fluorescein-labeled monoclonal antibody staining combined with flow cytometry was applied to detect the effect of Jagged 1/Fc on the expression of CD11c, MHC-Ⅱ, CD86, CD80 and CD40 molecules on the surface of DCs. The results showed that Jagged 1/Fc did not affect the morphological properties of DC differentiation induced by both rmGM-CSF and rmlL-4. But it could promote the differentiation and maturation of DCs induced by both. The effect of it was strikingly different in the expression profile of co-stimulating molecules and the morphologic properties of DCs from lipopolysaccharide (LPS). The levels of MHC-Ⅱ and CD40 molecule expression on the surface of DCs stimulated by Jagged 1/Fc were significantly lower than those stimulated by LPS, and the level of CD80 expression on the surface of DCs induced by Jagged 1/Fc was near to that induced by LPS. Jagged 1/Fc had no influence on the expression of CD86 mole-cule on the surface of DCs. Jagged 1/Fc when used alone could not maintain the growth, differentiation and maturation of DCs. All the findings indicate that Jagged 1/Fc influences the differentiation and maturation of DCs, which is not markedly similar to LPS, providing important evidence for its devel-opment and application as a novel immunosuppressant.

  17. Information-theoretic incompleteness

    Chaitin, Gregory J

    1992-01-01

    In this mathematical autobiography, Gregory Chaitin presents a technical survey of his work and a nontechnical discussion of its significance. The volume is an essential companion to the earlier collection of Chaitin's papers Information, Randomness and Incompleteness, also published by World Scientific.The technical survey contains many new results, including a detailed discussion of LISP program size and new versions of Chaitin's most fundamental information-theoretic incompleteness theorems. The nontechnical part includes the lecture given by Chaitin in Gšdel's classroom at the University o

  18. Maturational and Non-Maturational Factors in Heritage Language Acquisition

    Moon, Ji Hye

    2012-01-01

    This dissertation aims to understand the maturational and non-maturational aspects of early bilingualism and language attrition in heritage speakers who have acquired their L1 incompletely in childhood. The study highlights the influential role of age and input dynamics in early L1 development, where the timing of reduction in L1 input and the…

  19. α-fetoprotein involvement during glucocorticoid-induced precocious maturation in rat colon

    Min Chen; Peng Sun; Xiao-Yan Liu; Dan Dong; Jun Du; Luo Gu; Ying-Bin Ge

    2011-01-01

    AIM: To investigate the role of α-fetoprotein (AFP), a cancer-associated fetal glycoprotein, in glucocorticoidinduced precocious maturation in rat colon. METHODS: Colons from suckling Sprague-Dawley rats were used in this study. Corticosterone acetate at a dose of 100 μg/g body weight was given to normal pups on days 7, 9 and 11 after birth to induce hypercorticoidism. Control animals were injected with identical volumes of normal saline. Some rats receiving corticosterone 7 d after birth were also treated with mifepristone (RU38486), a glucocorticoid cytoplasm receptor antagonist to investigate the effects of glucocorticoids (GCs). The morphological changes of the crypt depth and villous height of the villous zone in colon were observed as indices of colon maturation. Expression levels of AFP in colons were detected by reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction and Western blotting. To identify the cellular localization of AFP in developing rat colons, double-immunofluorescent staining was performed using antibodies to specific mesenchymal cell marker and AFP. RESULTS: Corticosterone increased the crypt depth and villous height in the colon of 8- and 10-d-old rats with hypercorticoidism compared with that in the control animals (120% in 8-d-old rats and 118% in 10-d-old rats in villous height, P = 0.021; 145% in 8-d-old rats and 124% in 10-d-old rats in crypt depth, P = 0.017). These increases were accompanied by an increase of AFP expression in both mRNA and protein (2.5-folds in 8-dold and 2.5-folds in 10-d-old rats higher than in control animals, P = 0.035; 1.8-folds in 8-d-old and 1.3-folds in 10-d-old rats higher than in control animals, P = 0.023). Increased crypt depth and villous height and increased expression of AFP in the colon of rats with hypercorticoidism were blocked by mifepristone. Both had positive staining for AFP or vimentin, and overlapped in mesenchymal cells at each tested colon.

  20. Invariant chain induces B cell maturation in a process that is independent of its chaperonic activity

    Matza, Didi; Lantner, Frida; Bogoch, Yoel; Flaishon, Liat; Hershkoviz, Rami; Shachar, Idit

    2002-01-01

    Early stages of B cell development take place in the bone marrow, resulting in formation of immature B cells, which migrate to the spleen for their final differentiation into mature cells. This final maturation step is essential for B cells to become responsive to antigens and to participate in the immune response. Previously, we showed that the MHC class II chaperone, invariant chain (Ii), controls the differentiation of B cells from the immature to the mature stage. In this study, by generating transgenic mice expressing truncated Ii lacking its luminal domain, we could dissect the chaperonin activity of Ii from its role in B cell maturation. We demonstrate in vivo that Ii N-terminal domain is directly involved in the maturation of B cells and is sufficient to promote B cell differentiation. PMID:11867743

  1. Production in Incomplete Markets

    Crès, Hervé; Tvede, Mich

    Abstract In the present paper we study voting-based corporate control in a general equilibrium model with incomplete financial markets. Since voting takes place in a multi-dimensional setting, super-majority rules are needed to ensure existence of equilibrium. In a linear-quadratic setup we show...

  2. Production in incomplete markets

    Crès, Hervé; Tvede, Mich

    2009-01-01

    In the present paper we study voting-based corporate control in a general equilibrium model with incomplete financial markets. Since voting takes place in a multi-dimensional setting, super-majority rules are needed to ensure existence of equilibrium. In a linear-quadratic setup we show that the...

  3. Bacillus amyloliquefaciens SQR9 induces dendritic cell maturation and enhances the immune response against inactivated avian influenza virus.

    Huang, Lulu; Qin, Tao; Yin, YinYan; Gao, Xue; Lin, Jian; Yang, Qian; Yu, Qinghua

    2016-01-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the stimulatory effects of Bacillus amyloliquefaciens SQR9 on dendritic cells (DCs) and to verify its ability to enhance the immune response by modulating DC maturation. The results demonstrated that B. amyloliquefaciens SQR9 can adhere to the nasal epithelium and be taken up by DCs in the nasal mucosa, thereby inducing DC maturation and resulting in increased CD80, CD86, CD40 and MHCII expression and cytokine secretion. The frequencies of CD4(+) and CD8(+) T cells and CD69(+) memory T cells were increased in spleens after nasal immunization with virus plus B. amyloliquefaciens SQR9 compared to immunization with inactivated H9N2 AIV alone. Moreover, the levels of sIgA in the nasal cavity, the trachea, and the lung and the levels of IgG, IgG1, and IgG2a in serum were significantly increased in mice administered WIV plus SQR9 compared to mice administered H9N2 WIV alone. The results of this study demonstrated that B. amyloliquefaciens SQR9 can stimulate DC maturation to effectively induce an immune response. In conclusion, an effective immune response may result from the uptake of H9N2 by DCs in the nasal mucosa, thereby stimulating DC maturation and migration to cervical lymph nodes to initiate immune response. PMID:26892720

  4. Alcohol Increases Liver Progenitor Populations and Induces Disease Phenotypes in Human IPSC-Derived Mature Stage Hepatic Cells.

    Tian, Lipeng; Deshmukh, Abhijeet; Prasad, Neha; Jang, Yoon-Young

    2016-01-01

    Alcohol consumption has long been a global problem affecting human health, and has been found to influence both fetal and adult liver functions. However, how alcohol affects human liver development and liver progenitor cells remains largely unknown. Here, we used human induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) as a model to examine the effects of alcohol, on multi-stage hepatic cells including hepatic progenitors, early and mature hepatocyte-like cells derived from human iPSCs. While alcohol has little effect on endoderm development from iPSCs, it reduces formation of hepatic progenitor cells during early hepatic specification. The proliferative activities of early and mature hepatocyte-like cells are significantly decreased after alcohol exposure. Importantly, at a mature stage of hepatocyte-like cells, alcohol treatment increases two liver progenitor subsets, causes oxidative mitochondrial injury and results in liver disease phenotypes (i.e., steatosis and hepatocellular carcinoma associated markers) in a dose dependent manner. Some of the phenotypes were significantly improved by antioxidant treatment. This report suggests that fetal alcohol exposure may impair generation of hepatic progenitors at early stage of hepatic specification and decrease proliferation of fetal hepatocytes; meanwhile alcohol injury in post-natal or mature stage human liver may contribute to disease phenotypes. This human iPSC model of alcohol-induced liver injury can be highly valuable for investigating alcoholic injury in the fetus as well as understanding the pathogenesis and ultimately developing effective treatment for alcoholic liver disease in adults. PMID:27570479

  5. Bacillus amyloliquefaciens SQR9 induces dendritic cell maturation and enhances the immune response against inactivated avian influenza virus

    Huang, Lulu; Qin, Tao; Yin, YinYan; Gao, Xue; Lin, Jian; Yang, Qian; Yu, Qinghua

    2016-01-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the stimulatory effects of Bacillus amyloliquefaciens SQR9 on dendritic cells (DCs) and to verify its ability to enhance the immune response by modulating DC maturation. The results demonstrated that B. amyloliquefaciens SQR9 can adhere to the nasal epithelium and be taken up by DCs in the nasal mucosa, thereby inducing DC maturation and resulting in increased CD80, CD86, CD40 and MHCII expression and cytokine secretion. The frequencies of CD4+ and CD8+ T cells and CD69+ memory T cells were increased in spleens after nasal immunization with virus plus B. amyloliquefaciens SQR9 compared to immunization with inactivated H9N2 AIV alone. Moreover, the levels of sIgA in the nasal cavity, the trachea, and the lung and the levels of IgG, IgG1, and IgG2a in serum were significantly increased in mice administered WIV plus SQR9 compared to mice administered H9N2 WIV alone. The results of this study demonstrated that B. amyloliquefaciens SQR9 can stimulate DC maturation to effectively induce an immune response. In conclusion, an effective immune response may result from the uptake of H9N2 by DCs in the nasal mucosa, thereby stimulating DC maturation and migration to cervical lymph nodes to initiate immune response. PMID:26892720

  6. Endotoxin-induced nitric oxide production rescues airway growth and maturation in atrophic fetal rat lung explants

    Inflammation induces premature maturation of the fetal lung but the signals causing this effect remain unclear. We determined if nitric oxide (NO) synthesis, evoked by Escherichia coli lipopolysaccharide (LPS, 2 μg ml-1), participated in this process. Fetal rat lung airway surface complexity rose 2.5-fold over 96 h in response to LPS and was associated with increased iNOS protein expression and activity. iNOS inhibition by N6-(1-iminoethyl)-L-lysine-2HCl (L-NIL) abolished this and induced airway atrophy similar to untreated explants. Surfactant protein-C (SP-C) expression was also induced by LPS and abolished by L-NIL. As TGFβ suppresses iNOS activity, we determined if feedback regulation modulated NO-dependent maturation. LPS induced TGFβ1 release and SMAD4 nuclear translocation 96 h after treatment. Treatment of explants with a blocking antibody against TGFβ1 sustained NO production and airway morphogenesis whereas recombinant TGFβ1 antagonized these effects. Feedback regulation of NO synthesis by TGFβ may, thus, modulate airway branching and maturation of the fetal lung

  7. Evasion of peptide, but not lipid antigen presentation, through pathogen-induced dendritic cell maturation

    Hava, David L.; van der Wel, Nicole ,; Cohen, Nadia; Dascher, Christopher C.; Houben, Diane; León, Luis; Agarwal, Sandeep; Sugita, Masahiko; van Zon, Maaike; Kent, Sally C.; Shams, Homayoun; Peters, Peter J.; Brenner, Michael B.

    2008-01-01

    Dendritic cells (DC) present lipid and peptide antigens to T cells on CD1 and MHC Class II (MHCII), respectively. The relative contribution of these systems during the initiation of adaptive immunity after microbial infection is not characterized. MHCII molecules normally acquire antigen and rapidly traffic from phagolysosomes to the plasma membrane as part of DC maturation, whereas CD1 molecules instead continually recycle between these sites before, during, and after DC maturation. We find ...

  8. Godel's Incompleteness Phenomenon - Computationally

    Salehi, Saeed

    2012-01-01

    We argue that Godel's completeness theorem is equivalent to completability of consistent theories, and Godel's incompleteness theorem is equivalent to the fact that this completion is not constructive, in the sense that there are some consistent and recursively enumerable theories which cannot be extended to any complete and consistent and recursively enumerable theory. Though any consistent and decidable theory can be extended to a complete and consistent and decidable theory. Thus deduction...

  9. Informationally Incomplete Quantum Tomography

    Teo, Yong Siah; Rehacek, Jaroslav; Hradil, Zdenek

    2013-01-01

    In quantum-state tomography on sources with quantum degrees of freedom of large Hilbert spaces, inference of quantum states of light for instance, a complete characterization of the quantum states for these sources is often not feasible owing to limited resources. As such, the concepts of informationally incomplete state estimation becomes important. These concepts are ideal for applications to quantum channel/process tomography, which typically requires a much larger number of measurement se...

  10. BIF. Balanced Incomplete Decomposition

    Tůma, Miroslav

    Liberec : Technical University, 2008. s. 129-130. ISBN 978-80-7372-298-2. [SNA '08 - Seminar on numerical analysis: modelling and simulation of challenging engineering problems. 28.01.2008-01.02.2008, Liberec] R&D Projects: GA AV ČR 1ET400300415; GA AV ČR IAA100300802 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10300504 Keywords : preconditioning * sparse linear systems * incomplete decomposition * iterative methods Subject RIV: BA - General Mathematics

  11. In vitro maturation (IVM as a new technique to treat polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS and induce pregnancy in Indonesia

    Soegiharto Soebijanto

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Aim: To assesse the success of inducing pregnancies in the treatment of PCOS (Poly Cystic Ovary Syndrome cases with in vitro maturation as a newly application technique in Indonesia.Methods This paper is a report of 7 cases in Indonesia that used the newly developed technique. There were 7 cases confi rmed PCOS, in which 1 patient with a history of OHSS (Ovary Hyper Stimulation Syndrome in a previous IVF procedure and 1 patient with PCOS characteristics, suspected hyper responder, in the Family Hospital from January to May of 2009. Follicular induction was performed with a minimum dose, primming with HCG 10.000 IU, on the 10th day and 40 hours later ovum pick up was  performed, followed by in vitro maturation. Subsequently, insemination was performed and the inseminated follicle was assessed. Well qualifi ed embryos then transferred them into the uterus. We then performed assessment of pregnancy biochemically, by the presence of embryonic sac and embryonic heart beat.Results: We have performed the IVM (In Vitro Maturation technique in the Family Hospital, West Jakarta, along with the TRB team of the Family Hospital in seven PCOS cases. From these patients, we have found 156 antral follicles (average of 22 follicles per patient, 82 oocytes, and after maturation, 61  nature oocytes (75 %. In three cases, in vitro fertilization was performed, while in 4 cases ICSI (In Cystoplasmic Sperm Infection was performed. In these serial cases we obtained 41 embryos, and 22 fertilized embryos were transferred. Of 7 cases, we achieved two successful pregnancies (29%.Conclusion: In vitro maturation is an alternative procedures in solving infertility problems for PCOS patients with lower risk of OHSS and more cost effective than conventional IVF. (Med J Indones 2009; 18: 269-75Keywords: pregnancy, PCOS, in vitro maturation

  12. Biological features of an early-maturity mutant of sweet sorghum induced by carbon ions irradiation and its genetic polymorphism

    Dong, Xicun; Li, Wenjian

    2012-08-01

    It is well known that heavy ions irradiation is characterized by a high linear energy transfer (LET) and relative biological effectiveness (RBE). These characters are believed to increase mutation frequency and mutation spectrum of plants or mammalian cells irradiated by heavy ions. Here we describe an early-maturity mutant of sweet sorghum induced by carbon ion irradiation. The growth period of this mutant was shortened by about 20 days compared to the wild type. The proline content of the mutant was increased by 11.05% while the malondialdehyde content was significantly lower than that of wild type. In addition, the RAPD analysis indicated that the percentage of polymorphism between the mutant KFJT-1 and the control KFJT-CK reached 5.26%. The gain of early-maturity might solve the problem in the northwest region of China where seeds of sweet sorghum cannot be mature because of early frost. The early-maturity mutant may be important for future space cultivation.

  13. Maturation of Shark Single-Domain (IgNAR) Antibodies: Evidence for Induced-Fit Binding

    Stanfield, R.L.; Dooley, H.; Verdino, P.; Flajnik, M.F.; Wilson, I.A.; /Scripps Res. Inst. /Maryland U.

    2007-07-13

    Sharks express an unusual heavy-chain isotype called IgNAR, whose variable regions bind antigen as independent soluble domains. To further probe affinity maturation of the IgNAR response, we structurally characterized the germline and somatically matured versions of a type II variable (V) region, both in the presence and absence of its antigen, hen egg-white lysozyme. Despite a disulfide bond linking complementarity determining regions (CDRs) 1 and 3, both germline and somatically matured V regions displayed significant structural changes in these CDRs upon complex formation with antigen. Somatic mutations in the IgNAR V region serve to increase the number of contacts with antigen, as reflected by a tenfold increase in affinity, and one of these mutations appears to stabilize the CDR3 region. In addition, a residue in the HV4 loop plays an important role in antibody-antigen interaction, consistent with the high rate of somatic mutations in this non-CDR loop.

  14. Improved Balanced Incomplete Factorization

    Bru, R.; Marín, J.; Mas, J.; Tůma, Miroslav

    2010-01-01

    Roč. 31, č. 5 (2010), s. 2431-2452. ISSN 0895-4798 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAA100300802 Grant ostatní: GA AV ČR(CZ) M100300902 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10300504 Source of funding: I - inštitucionálna podpora na rozvoj VO Keywords : preconditioned iterative methods * sparse matrices * incomplete decomposition s * approximate inverses * Sherman-Morrison formula * nonsymmetric matrices Subject RIV: BA - General Mathematics Impact factor: 1.725, year: 2010

  15. Cell alignment induced by anisotropic electrospun fibrous scaffolds alone has limited effect on cardiomyocyte maturation.

    Han, Jingjia; Wu, Qingling; Xia, Younan; Wagner, Mary B; Xu, Chunhui

    2016-05-01

    Enhancing the maturation of human pluripotent stem cell-derived cardiomyocytes (hPSC-CMs) will facilitate their applications in disease modeling and drug discovery. Previous studies suggest that cell alignment could enhance hPSC-CM maturation; however, the robustness of this approach has not been well investigated. To this end, we examined if the anisotropic orientation of hPSC-CMs imposed by the underlying aligned fibers within a 3D microenvironment could improve the maturation of hPSC-CMs. Enriched hPSC-CMs were cultured for two weeks on Matrigel-coated anisotropic (aligned) and isotropic (random) polycaprolactone (PCL) fibrous scaffolds, as well as tissue culture polystyrenes (TCPs) as a control. As expected, hPSC-CMs grown on the two types of fibrous scaffolds exhibited anisotropic and isotropic orientations, respectively. Similar to cells on TCPs, hPSC-CMs cultured on these scaffolds expressed CM-associated proteins and were pharmacologically responsive to adrenergic receptor agonists, a muscarinic agonist, and a gap junction uncoupler in a dose-dependent manner. Although hPSC-CMs grown on anisotropic fibrous scaffolds displayed the highest expression of genes encoding a number of sarcomere proteins, calcium handling proteins and ion channels, their calcium transient kinetics were slower than cells grown on TCPs. These results suggest that electrospun anisotropic fibrous scaffolds, as a single method, have limited effect on improving the maturation of hPSC-CMs. PMID:27131761

  16. Cell alignment induced by anisotropic electrospun fibrous scaffolds alone has limited effect on cardiomyocyte maturation

    Han, Jingjia; Wu, Qingling; Xia, Younan; Wagner, Mary B; Xu, Chunhui

    2016-01-01

    Enhancing the maturation of human pluripotent stem cell-derived cardiomyocytes (hPSC-CMs) will facilitate their applications in disease modeling and drug discovery. Previous studies suggest that cell alignment could enhance hPSC-CM maturation; however, the robustness of this approach has not been well investigated. To this end, we examined if the anisotropic orientation of hPSC-CMs imposed by the underlying aligned fibers within a 3D microenvironment could improve the maturation of hPSC-CMs. Enriched hPSC-CMs were cultured for two weeks on Matrigel-coated anisotropic (aligned) and isotropic (random) polycaprolactone (PCL) fibrous scaffolds, as well as tissue culture polystyrenes (TCPs) as a control. As expected, hPSC-CMs grown on the two types of fibrous scaffolds exhibited anisotropic and isotropic orientations, respectively. Similar to cells on TCPs, hPSC-CMs cultured on these scaffolds expressed CM-associated proteins and were pharmacologically responsive to adrenergic receptor agonists, a muscarinic agonist, and a gap junction uncoupler in a dose-dependent manner. Although hPSC-CMs grown on anisotropic fibrous scaffolds displayed the highest expression of genes encoding a number of sarcomere proteins, calcium handling proteins and ion channels, their calcium transient kinetics were slower than cells grown on TCPs. These results suggest that electrospun anisotropic fibrous scaffolds, as a single method, have limited effect on improving the maturation of hPSC-CMs. PMID:27131761

  17. Cell alignment induced by anisotropic electrospun fibrous scaffolds alone has limited effect on cardiomyocyte maturation

    Jingjia Han

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Enhancing the maturation of human pluripotent stem cell-derived cardiomyocytes (hPSC-CMs will facilitate their applications in disease modeling and drug discovery. Previous studies suggest that cell alignment could enhance hPSC-CM maturation; however, the robustness of this approach has not been well investigated. To this end, we examined if the anisotropic orientation of hPSC-CMs imposed by the underlying aligned fibers within a 3D microenvironment could improve the maturation of hPSC-CMs. Enriched hPSC-CMs were cultured for two weeks on Matrigel-coated anisotropic (aligned and isotropic (random polycaprolactone (PCL fibrous scaffolds, as well as tissue culture polystyrenes (TCPs as a control. As expected, hPSC-CMs grown on the two types of fibrous scaffolds exhibited anisotropic and isotropic orientations, respectively. Similar to cells on TCPs, hPSC-CMs cultured on these scaffolds expressed CM-associated proteins and were pharmacologically responsive to adrenergic receptor agonists, a muscarinic agonist, and a gap junction uncoupler in a dose-dependent manner. Although hPSC-CMs grown on anisotropic fibrous scaffolds displayed the highest expression of genes encoding a number of sarcomere proteins, calcium handling proteins and ion channels, their calcium transient kinetics were slower than cells grown on TCPs. These results suggest that electrospun anisotropic fibrous scaffolds, as a single method, have limited effect on improving the maturation of hPSC-CMs.

  18. A new model of radiation-induced myelopathy: A comparison of the response of mature and immature pigs

    The purpose was development of an experimental model of radiation-induced myelopathy in the pig which would facilitate the study of the effects of clinically relevant treatment volumes. The effects of local spinal cord irradiation, to a standard 10 X 5 cm field, have been evaluated in mature (37-42.5 weeks) and immature (15.5-23 weeks) pigs. Irradiation was with single doses of 60Co γrays at a dose-rate of 0.21-0.65 Gy/min. The incidence of paralysis was used as an endpoint. Irradiation of mature animals resulted in the development of frank paralysis with animals showing combined parenchymal and vascular pathologic changes in their white matter. These lesions, in common with those seen in patients, had a clear evidence of an inflammatory component. The latency for paralysis was short, 7.5-16.5 weeks, but within the wide range reported for patients. However, it was shorter than that reported in other large animal models. The ED50 value (±SE) for paralysis was 27.02±0.36 Gy, similar to that in rats taking into account dose-rate factors. The irradiation of immature pigs only resulted in transient neurological changes after doses comparable to those used in the mature animals, ED50 value (±SE) 26.09±0.37 Gy. The reasons for these transient neurological symptoms are uncertain. A reliable experimental model of radiation-induced myelopathy has been developed for mature pigs. This model is suitable for the study of clinically relevant volume effects. 39 refs., 4 figs., 1 tab

  19. Experimental investigation of changes in methane adsorption of bitumen-free Woodford Shale with thermal maturation induced by hydrous pyrolysis

    Hu, Haiyan; Zhang, Tongwei; Wiggins-Camacho, Jaclyn D.; Ellis, Geoffrey S.; Lewan, Michael D.; Zhang, Xiayong

    2014-01-01

    This study quantifies the effects of organic-matter (OM) thermal maturity on methane (CH4) sorption, on the basis of five samples that were artificially matured through hydrous pyrolysis achieved by heating samples of immature Woodford Shale under five different time–temperature conditions. CH4-sorption isotherms at 35 °C, 50 °C, and 65 °C, and pressures up to 14 MPa on dry, solvent-extracted samples of the artificially matured Woodford Shale were measured. The results showed that CH4-sorption capacity, normalized to TOC, varied with thermal maturity, following the trend: maximum oil (367 °C) > oil cracking (400 °C) > maximum bitumen/early oil (333 °C) > early bitumen (300 °C) > immature stage (130 °C). The Langmuir constants for the samples at maximum-oil and oil-cracking stages are larger than the values for the bitumen-forming stages. The total pore volume, determined by N2 physisorption at 77 K, increases with increased maturation: mesopores, 2–50 nm in width, were created during the thermal conversion of organic-matter and a dramatic increase in porosity appeared when maximum-bitumen and maximum-oil generation stages were reached. A linear relationship between thermal maturity and Brunauer–Emmett–Teller (BET) surface area suggests that the observed increase in CH4-sorption capacity may be the result of mesopores produced during OM conversion. No obvious difference is observed in pore-size distribution and pore volume for samples with pores 2 physisorption at 273 K. The isosteric heat of adsorption and the standard entropy for artificially matured samples ranged from 17.9 kJ mol−1 to 21.9 kJ mol−1 and from −85.4 J mol−1 K−1 to −101.8 J mol−1 K−1, respectively. These values are similar to the values of immature Woodford kerogen concentrate previously observed, but are larger than naturally matured organic-rich shales. High-temperature hydrous pyrolysis might have induced Lewis acid sites on both organic and mineral surfaces

  20. Farnesyl transferase inhibitors induce extended remissions in transgenic mice with mature B cell lymphomas

    Refaeli Yosef

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background We have used a mouse model based on overexpression of c-Myc in B cells genetically engineered to be self-reactive to test the hypothesis that farnesyl transferase inhibitors (FTIs can effectively treat mature B cell lymphomas. FTIs are undergoing clinical trials to treat both lymphoid and non-lymphoid malignancies and we wished to obtain evidence to support the inclusion of B cell lymphomas in future trials. Results We report that two FTIs, L-744,832 and SCH66336, blocked the growth of mature B cell lymphoma cells in vitro and in vivo. The FTI treatment affected the proliferation and survival of the transformed B cells to a greater extent than naïve B cells stimulated with antigen. In syngeneic mice transplanted with the transgenic lymphoma cells, L-744,832 treatment prevented the growth of the tumor cells and the morbidity associated with the resulting lymphoma progression. Tumors that arose from transplantation of the lymphoma cells regressed with as little as three days of treatment with L-744,832 or SCH66336. Treatment of these established lymphomas with L-744,832 for seven days led to long-term remission of the disease in approximately 25% of animals. Conclusion FTI treatment can block the proliferation and survival of self-reactive transformed B cells that overexpress Myc. In mice transplanted with mature B cell lymphomas, we found that FTI treatment led to regression of disease. FTIs warrant further consideration as therapeutic agents for mature B cell lymphomas and other lymphoid tumors.

  1. Glia Maturation Factor Deficiency Suppresses 1-Methyl-4-Phenylpyridinium-Induced Oxidative Stress in Astrocytes

    Khan, Mohammad Moshahid; Kempuraj, Duraisamy; Zaheer, Smita; Zaheer, Asgar

    2014-01-01

    Inflammation is closely intertwined with pathogenesis of Parkinson's disease (PD). Increasing evidence suggests that inhibition of glia-mediated inflammation might represent a promising therapeutic target for PD. Glia maturation factor (GMF), an inflammatory protein, predominantly localized in astrocytes is previously isolated, sequenced and cloned in our laboratory. In the present investigation, we demonstrate that GMF-deficiency in astrocytes upregulates the antioxidant status and limit the...

  2. pH-Induced Stability Switching of the Bacteriophage HK97 Maturation Pathway

    May, Eric R.; Arora, Karunesh; Brooks, Charles L.

    2014-01-01

    Many viruses undergo large-scale conformational changes during their life cycles. Blocking the transition from one stage of the life cycle to the next is an attractive strategy for the development of antiviral compounds. In this work, we have constructed an icosahedrally symmetric, low-energy pathway for the maturation transition of bacteriophage HK97. By conducting constant-pH molecular dynamics simulations on this pathway, we identify which residues are contributing most significantly to sh...

  3. The role of DCs in the immunopathogenesis of chronic HBV infection and the methods of inducing DCs maturation.

    Sun, Hai-Hua; Zhou, Dong-Fang; Zhou, Jun-Ying

    2016-01-01

    Chronic hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection is the result of an inadequate immune response towards the virus. Dendritic cells (DCs), as the most efficient professional antigen-presenting cells (APCs), possess the strongest antigen presenting the effect in the body and can stimulate the initial T cell activation and proliferation. DCs of patients with chronic HBV infection are impaired, resulting in more tolerogenic rather than immunogenic responses, which may contribute to viral persistence. Recently, numerous methods have been developed to induce DCs maturation. To date, recombinant human granulocyte-macrophage colony stimulating factor (rhGM-CSF) combined with interleukin-4 (rhIL-4) has been a classic culture combination to DCs. The recently classified type III interferon group interferon-λ (IFN-λ) displays antiviral, antitumor, and immunoregulatory activity. In our laboratory, we demonstrate that IFN-λ1 combined with rhGM-CSF and rhIL-4 can significantly increase the expression of DC surface molecules and the secretion of interleukin-12 (IL-12) and interferon-γ (IFN-γ) in patients with chronic hepatitis B infection. In this review, we emphasize on the role of DCs in the immunopathogenesis of chronic HBV infection. Importantly, we systematic review that the latest update in the current status of knowledge on the methods of inducing DCs maturation in anti-HBV immunity. What's more, we conclude that IFN-λ1 combined with GM-CSF and IL-4 can induce DCs maturation, which could become a possibility to be applied to the autologus dendritic cell vaccine to treat chronic hepatitis B. PMID:26104380

  4. Maturation of shark single-domain (IgNAR) antibodies: evidence for induced-fit binding.

    Stanfield, Robyn L; Dooley, Helen; Verdino, Petra; Flajnik, Martin F; Wilson, Ian A

    2007-03-23

    Sharks express an unusual heavy-chain isotype called IgNAR, whose variable regions bind antigen as independent soluble domains. To further probe affinity maturation of the IgNAR response, we structurally characterized the germline and somatically matured versions of a type II variable (V) region, both in the presence and absence of its antigen, hen egg-white lysozyme. Despite a disulfide bond linking complementarity determining regions (CDRs) 1 and 3, both germline and somatically matured V regions displayed significant structural changes in these CDRs upon complex formation with antigen. Somatic mutations in the IgNAR V region serve to increase the number of contacts with antigen, as reflected by a tenfold increase in affinity, and one of these mutations appears to stabilize the CDR3 region. In addition, a residue in the HV4 loop plays an important role in antibody-antigen interaction, consistent with the high rate of somatic mutations in this non-CDR loop. PMID:17258766

  5. Short-term environmental enrichment exposure induces proliferation and maturation of doublecortin-positive cells in the prefrontal cortex

    Chunling Fan; Mengqi Zhang; Lei Shang; Ngobe Akume Cynthia; Zhi Li; Zhenyu Yang; Dan Chen; Jufang Huang; Kun Xiong

    2014-01-01

    Previous studies have demonstrated that doublecortin-positive immature neurons exist pre-dominantly in the superficial layer of the cerebral cortex of adult mammals such as guinea pigs, and these neurons exhibit very weak properties of self-proliferation during adulthood under physiological conditions. To verify whether environmental enrichment has an impact on the proliferation and maturation of these immature neurons in the prefrontal cortex of adult guinea pigs, healthy adult guinea pigs were subjected to short-term environmental enrichment. Animals were allowed to play with various cognitive and physical stimulating objects over a period of 2 weeks, twice per day, for 60 minutes each. Immunolfuorescence staining results indicated that the number of doublecortin-positive cells in layer II of the prefrontal cortex was signiifcantly increased after short-term environmental enrichment exposure. In addition, these doublecortin-positive cells co-expressed 5-bromo-2-deoxyuridine (a marker of cell prolifera-tion), c-Fos (a marker of cell viability) and NeuN (a marker of mature neurons). Experimental ifndings showed that short-term environmental enrichment can induce proliferation, activation and maturation of doublecortin-positive cells in layer II of the prefrontal cortex of adult guinea pigs.

  6. Retinoic acid and dexamethasone induce differentiation and maturation of somatotroph cells at different stages in vitro

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the role of retinoic acid (RA) and/or dexamethasone and growth hormone releasing hormone (GHRH) in the induction of somatotroph cell differentiation. Immunohistochemistry, radioimmunoassay, 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-1,2-y1)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide assay, and immune electron microscopy were employed to determine the effect of incubation with these constituents on the differentiation into somatotrophs of cells isolated from the rat embryonic pituitary gland. RA administration increased the proportion of growth hormone (GH) positive somatotroph cells and GH secretion in embryonic pituitary cells (P0.05). However, addition of GHRH to treatment with RA plus dexamethasone significantly increased both the proportion of somatotroph cells and the secretion of GH compared to treatment with RA or dexamethasone alone or RA plus dexamethasone (P<0.01). RA promoted the early differentiation of somatotroph cells, dexamethasone promoted the differentiation and maturation of somatotroph cells and in addition, RA, dexamethasone and GHRH together exerted synergistic effects that markedly promoted somatotroph cell differentiation, maturation and GH secretion. (author)

  7. Role of LRP1 and ERK and cAMP Signaling Pathways in Lactoferrin-Induced Lipolysis in Mature Rat Adipocytes

    Ikoma-Seki, Keiko; Nakamura, Kanae; MORISHITA, Satoru; Ono, Tomoji; Sugiyama, Keikichi; Nishino, Hoyoku; Hirano, Hisashi; MURAKOSHI, Michiaki

    2015-01-01

    Lactoferrin (LF) is a multifunctional glycoprotein present in milk. A clinical study showed that enteric-coated bovine LF tablets decrease visceral fat accumulation. Furthermore, animal studies revealed that ingested LF is partially delivered to mesenteric fat, and in vitro studies showed that LF promotes lipolysis in mature adipocytes. The aim of the present study was to determine the mechanism underlying the induction of lipolysis in mature adipocytes that is induced by LF. To address this ...

  8. Non-catalytic site HIV-1 integrase inhibitors disrupt core maturation and induce a reverse transcription block in target cells.

    Mini Balakrishnan

    Full Text Available HIV-1 integrase (IN is the target for two classes of antiretrovirals: i the integrase strand-transfer inhibitors (INSTIs and ii the non-catalytic site integrase inhibitors (NCINIs. NCINIs bind at the IN dimer interface and are thought to interfere primarily with viral DNA (vDNA integration in the target cell by blocking IN-vDNA assembly as well as the IN-LEDGF/p75 interaction. Herein we show that treatment of virus-producing cells, but not of mature virions or target cells, drives NCINI antiviral potency. NCINIs target an essential late-stage event in HIV replication that is insensitive to LEDGF levels in the producer cells. Virus particles produced in the presence of NCINIs displayed normal Gag-Pol processing and endogenous reverse transcriptase activity, but were defective at initiating vDNA synthesis following entry into the target cell. NCINI-resistant virus carrying a T174I mutation in the IN dimer interface was less sensitive to the compound-induced late-stage effects, including the reverse transcription block. Wild-type, but not T174I virus, produced in the presence of NCINIs exhibited striking defects in core morphology and an increased level of IN oligomers that was not observed upon treatment of mature cell-free particles. Collectively, these results reveal that NCINIs act through a novel mechanism that is unrelated to the previously observed inhibition of IN activity or IN-LEDGF interaction, and instead involves the disruption of an IN function during HIV-1 core maturation and assembly.

  9. Non-catalytic site HIV-1 integrase inhibitors disrupt core maturation and induce a reverse transcription block in target cells.

    Balakrishnan, Mini; Yant, Stephen R; Tsai, Luong; O'Sullivan, Christopher; Bam, Rujuta A; Tsai, Angela; Niedziela-Majka, Anita; Stray, Kirsten M; Sakowicz, Roman; Cihlar, Tomas

    2013-01-01

    HIV-1 integrase (IN) is the target for two classes of antiretrovirals: i) the integrase strand-transfer inhibitors (INSTIs) and ii) the non-catalytic site integrase inhibitors (NCINIs). NCINIs bind at the IN dimer interface and are thought to interfere primarily with viral DNA (vDNA) integration in the target cell by blocking IN-vDNA assembly as well as the IN-LEDGF/p75 interaction. Herein we show that treatment of virus-producing cells, but not of mature virions or target cells, drives NCINI antiviral potency. NCINIs target an essential late-stage event in HIV replication that is insensitive to LEDGF levels in the producer cells. Virus particles produced in the presence of NCINIs displayed normal Gag-Pol processing and endogenous reverse transcriptase activity, but were defective at initiating vDNA synthesis following entry into the target cell. NCINI-resistant virus carrying a T174I mutation in the IN dimer interface was less sensitive to the compound-induced late-stage effects, including the reverse transcription block. Wild-type, but not T174I virus, produced in the presence of NCINIs exhibited striking defects in core morphology and an increased level of IN oligomers that was not observed upon treatment of mature cell-free particles. Collectively, these results reveal that NCINIs act through a novel mechanism that is unrelated to the previously observed inhibition of IN activity or IN-LEDGF interaction, and instead involves the disruption of an IN function during HIV-1 core maturation and assembly. PMID:24040198

  10. Ectopic expression of neurogenin 2 alone is sufficient to induce differentiation of embryonic stem cells into mature neurons.

    Eva C Thoma

    Full Text Available Recent studies show that combinations of defined key developmental transcription factors (TFs can reprogram somatic cells to pluripotency or induce cell conversion of one somatic cell type to another. However, it is not clear if single genes can define a cell̀s identity and if the cell fate defining potential of TFs is also operative in pluripotent stem cells in vitro. Here, we show that ectopic expression of the neural TF Neurogenin2 (Ngn2 is sufficient to induce rapid and efficient differentiation of embryonic stem cells (ESCs into mature glutamatergic neurons. Ngn2-induced neuronal differentiation did not require any additional external or internal factors and occurred even under pluripotency-promoting conditions. Differentiated cells displayed neuron-specific morphology, protein expression, and functional features, most importantly the generation of action potentials and contacts with hippocampal neurons. Gene expression analyses revealed that Ngn2-induced in vitro differentiation partially resembled neurogenesis in vivo, as it included specific activation of Ngn2 target genes and interaction partners. These findings demonstrate that a single gene is sufficient to determine cell fate decisions of uncommitted stem cells thus giving insights into the role of key developmental genes during lineage commitment. Furthermore, we present a promising tool to improve directed differentiation strategies for applications in both stem cell research and regenerative medicine.

  11. Attenuated Leishmania induce pro-inflammatory mediators and influence leishmanicidal activity by p38 MAPK dependent phagosome maturation in Leishmania donovani co-infected macrophages.

    Banerjee, Somenath; Bose, Dipayan; Chatterjee, Nabanita; Das, Subhadip; Chakraborty, Sreeparna; Das, Tanya; Saha, Krishna Das

    2016-01-01

    Promastigote form of Leishmania, an intracellular pathogen, delays phagosome maturation and resides inside macrophages. But till date limited study has been done to manipulate the phagosomal machinery of macrophages to restrict Leishmania growth. Attenuated Leishmania strain exposed RAW 264.7 cells showed a respiratory burst and enhanced production of pro-inflammatory mediators. The augmentation of pro-inflammatory activity is mostly attributed to p38 MAPK and p44/42 MAPK. In our study, these activated macrophages are found to induce phagosome maturation when infected with pathogenic Leishmania donovani. Increased co-localization of carboxyfluorescein succinimidyl ester labeled pathogenic L. donovani with Lysosome was found. Moreover, increased co-localization was observed between pathogenic L. donovani and late phagosomal markers viz. Rab7, Lysosomal Associated Membrane Protein 1, Cathepsin D, Rab9, and V-ATPase which indicate phagosome maturation. It was also observed that inhibition of V-type ATPase caused significant hindrance in attenuated Leishmania induced phagosome maturation. Finally, it was confirmed that p38 MAPK is the key player in acidification and maturation of phagosome in attenuated Leishmania strain pre-exposed macrophages. To our knowledge, this study for the first time reported an approach to induce phagosome maturation in L. donovani infected macrophages which could potentiate short-term prophylactic response in future. PMID:26928472

  12. Matured Hop Bittering Components Induce Thermogenesis in Brown Adipose Tissue via Sympathetic Nerve Activity

    Morimoto-Kobayashi, Yumie; Ohara, Kazuaki; Takahashi, Chika; Kitao, Sayoko; Wang, Guanying; Taniguchi, Yoshimasa; Katayama, Mikio; Nagai, Katsuya

    2015-01-01

    Obesity is the principal symptom of metabolic syndrome, which refers to a group of risk factors that increase the likelihood of atherosclerosis. In recent decades there has been a sharp rise in the incidence of obesity throughout the developed world. Iso-α-acids, the bitter compounds derived from hops in beer, have been shown to prevent diet-induced obesity by increasing lipid oxidation in the liver and inhibition of lipid absorption from the intestine. Whereas the sharp bitterness induced by...

  13. Behavioral experience induces zif268 expression in mature granule cells but suppresses its expression in immature granule cells

    Kylie A. Huckleberry

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Thousands of neurons are born each day in the dentate gyrus (DG, but many of these cells die before reaching maturity. Both death and survival of adult-born neurons are regulated by neuronal activity in DG. The immediate-early gene (IEG zif268 is an important mediator of these effects, as its expression is induced by neural activity and knockout of zif268 impairs survival of adult-born neurons (Veyrac et al., 2013. Despite the apparent importance of zif268 for adult neurogenesis, its behavior-induced expression has not been fully characterized in adult-born neurons. Here we characterize behavior-evoked expression of zif268 in mature and newborn dentate granule cells (DGCs. In the general granule cell population, zif268 expression peaked 1 hour after novel environment exposure and returned to baseline by 8 hours post-exposure. However, in the doublecortin-positive (DCX+ immature neurons, zif268 expression was suppressed relative to home cage for at least 8 hours post-exposure. We next determined that exposure to water maze training, an enriched environment, or a novel environment caused approximately equal suppression of zif268 expression in DCX+ cells and approximately equal activation of zif268 in the general DGC population and in 6-week-old adult-born neurons. Finally, we asked whether zif268 suppression varied as a function of age within the DCX+ population, which ranges in age from 0 to approximately 4 weeks. Novel environment exposure had no significant effect on zif268 expression in 2- or 4-week-old BrdU-labeled neurons, but it significantly suppressed zif268 expression in 3-week-old neurons. In summary, behavioral experience transiently activated expression of zif268 in mature DGCs but caused a more long-lasting suppression of zif268 expression in immature, adult-born DGCs. We hypothesize that zif268 suppression inhibits memory-related synaptic plasticity in immature DGCs or mediates learning-induced apoptosis of immature adult

  14. Growth dynamics and cytoskeleton organization during stem maturation and gravity-induced stem bending in Zea mays L

    Collings, D. A.; Winter, H.; Wyatt, S. E.; Allen, N. S.; Davies, E. (Principal Investigator)

    1998-01-01

    Characterization of gravitropic bending in the maize stem pulvinus, a tissue that functions specifically in gravity responses, demonstrates that the pulvinus is an ideal system for studying gravitropism. Gravistimulation during the second of three developmental phases of the pulvinus induces a gradient of cell elongation across the non-growing cells of the pulvinus, with the most elongation occurring on the lower side. This cell elongation is spatially and temporally separated from normal internodal cell elongation. The three characterized growth phases in the pulvinus correspond closely to a specialized developmental sequence in which structural features typical of cells not fully matured are retained while cell maturation occurs in surrounding internodal and nodal tissue. For example, the lignification of supporting tissue and rearrangement of transverse microtubules to oblique that occur in the internode when cell elongation ceases are delayed for up to 10 d in the adjacent cells of the pulvinus, and only occurs as a pulvinus loses its capacity to respond to gravistimulation. Gravistimulation does not modify this developmental sequence. Neither wall lignification nor rearrangement of transverse microtubules occurs in the rapidly elongating lower side or non-responsive upper side of the pulvinus until the pulvinus loses the capacity to bend further. Gravistimulation does, however, lead to the formation of putative pit fields within the expanding cells of the pulvinus.

  15. Interleukin-10 inhibits lipopolysaccharide induced miR-155 precursor stability and maturation.

    Sylvia T Cheung

    Full Text Available The anti-inflammatory cytokine interleukin-10 (IL-10 is essential for attenuating the inflammatory response, which includes reducing the expression of pro-inflammatory microRNA-155 (miR-155 in lipopolysaccharide (LPS activated macrophages. miR-155 enhances the expression of pro-inflammatory cytokines such as TNFα and suppresses expression of anti-inflammatory molecules such as SOCS1. Therefore, we examined the mechanism by which IL-10 inhibits miR-155. We found that IL-10 treatment did not affect the transcription of the miR-155 host gene nor the nuclear export of pre-miR-155, but rather destabilized both pri-miR-155 and pre-miR-155 transcripts, as well as interfered with the final maturation of miR-155. This inhibitory effect of IL-10 on miR-155 expression involved the contribution of both the STAT3 transcription factor and the phosphoinositol phosphatase SHIP1. This is the first report showing evidence that IL-10 regulates miRNA expression post-transcriptionally.

  16. Human Truncated Tau Induces Mature Neurofibrillary Pathology in a Mouse Model of Human Tauopathy.

    Zimova, Ivana; Brezovakova, Veronika; Hromadka, Tomas; Weisova, Petronela; Cubinkova, Veronika; Valachova, Bernadeta; Filipcik, Peter; Jadhav, Santosh; Smolek, Tomas; Novak, Michal; Zilka, Norbert

    2016-09-01

    Alzheimer's disease (AD) represents the most common neurodegenerative disorder. Several animal models have been developed in order to test pathophysiological mechanisms of the disease and to predict effects of pharmacological interventions. Here we examine the molecular and behavioral features of R3m/4 transgenic mice expressing human non-mutated truncated tau protein (3R tau, aa151-391) that were previously used for efficacy testing of passive tau vaccine. The mouse model reliably recapitulated crucial histopathological features of human AD, such as pre-tangles, neurofibrillary tangles, and neuropil threads. The pathology was predominantly located in the brain stem. Transgenic mice developed mature sarkosyl insoluble tau complexes consisting of mouse endogenous and human truncated and hyperphosphorylated forms of tau protein. The histopathological and biochemical features were accompanied by significant sensorimotor impairment and reduced lifespan. The sensorimotor impairment was monitored by a highly sensitive, fully-automated tool that allowed us to assess early deficit in gait and locomotion. We suggest that the novel transgenic mouse model can serve as a valuable tool for analysis of the therapeutic efficacy of tau vaccines for AD therapy. PMID:27567836

  17. Role of arachidonic acid and protein kinase C during maturation-inducing hormone-dependent meiotic resumption and ovulation in ovarian follicles of Atlantic croaker

    Patino, R.; Yoshizaki, G.; Bolamba, D.; Thomas, P.

    2003-01-01

    The roles of arachidonic acid (AA) and protein kinase C (PKC) during in vitro maturation-inducing hormone (MIH)-dependent meiotic resumption (maturation) and ovulation were studied in ovarian follicles of Atlantic croaker (Micropogonias undulatus). The requirement for cyclooxygenase (COX) metabolites of AA was examined using a nonspecific COX inhibitor, indomethacin (IM), as well as two COX products, prostaglandin (PG) F2?? and PGE2, whereas the role of lipoxygenase (LOX) was investigated using a specific LOX inhibitor, nordihydroguaiaretic acid (NDGA). The involvement of PKC was examined using phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate (PMA), a PKC activator, as well as GF109203X (GF), a specific inhibitor of PKC and 1-(5-isoquin- olinesulfonyl)-2-methylpiperazine (H7), nonspecific inhibitor of protein kinases. Genomic mechanisms were examined with the transcription-inhibitor actinomycin D (ActD) and the functionality of heterologous (oocyte-granulosa) gap junctions (GJ) with a dye transfer assay. The AA (100 ??M) and PGF2?? (5 ??M) did not induce maturation, and NDGA (10 ??M) did not affect MIH-dependent maturation. However, IM (100 ??M) partially inhibited MIH-dependent maturation. Conversely, AA and both PGs induced, and IM and NDGA inhibited, MIH-dependent ovulation in matured follicles. The PMA (1 ??g/ml) did not induce maturation but caused ovulation in matured follicles, whereas PKC inhibitors (GF, 5 ??M; H7, 50??M) did not affect MIH-dependent maturation but inhibited MIH- and PMA-dependent ovulation. The PMA-dependent ovulation was inhibited by IM but not by NDGA. In addition, ActD (5 ??M) blocked MIH-dependent, but not PMA-dependent, ovulation, and PGF2?? restored MIH-dependent ovulation in ActD-blocked follicles. The AA and PGs did not induce, and GF did not inhibit, MIH-dependent heterologous GJ uncoupling. In conclusion, AA and PKC mediate MIH-dependent ovulation but not meiotic resumption or heterologous GJ uncoupling in croaker follicles, but a permissive role

  18. ERK1 and ERK2 are involved in recruitment and maturation of human mesenchymal stem cells induced to adipogenic differentiation

    Elisabetta Donzelli; Caterina Lucchini; Elisa Ballarini; Arianna Scuteri; Fabrizio Carini; Giovanni Tredici; Mariarosaria Miloso

    2011-01-01

    Adipocytes' biology and the mechanisms that control adipogenesis have gained importance because of the need to develop therapeutic strategies to control obesity and the related pathologies. Human mesenchymal stem cells (hMSCs), undifferentiated stem cells present in the bone marrow that are physiological precursors of adipocytes, were induced to adipogenic differentiation. The molecular mechanisms on the basis of the adipogenesis were evaluated, focusing on the MAPKinases ERK1 and ERK2, which are involved in many biological and cellular processes. ERK1 and ERK2 phosphorylation was reduced with different timing and intensity for the two isoforms in treated hMSCs in comparison with control cells until day 10 and then at 14-28 days, it reached the level of untreated cultures. The total amount of ERK1 was also decreased up to day 10 and then was induced to the level of untreated cultures, whereas the expression of ERK2 was not changed following adipogenic induction. Treatment with the specific ERK1/2 inhibitor U0126 during the whole differentiation period hampered hMSCs' adipogenic differentiation, as lipid droplets appeared in very few cells and were reduced in number and size. When U0126 was administered only during the initial phase of differentiation, the number of hMSCs recruited to adipogenesis was reduced while, when it was administered later, hMSCs did not acquire a mature adipocytic phenotype. ERK1 and ERK2 are important for hMSC adipogenic differentiation since any alteration to the correct timing of their phosphorylation affects either the recruitment into the differentiation program and the extent of their maturation.

  19. Early maturation and distinct tau pathology in induced pluripotent stem cell-derived neurons from patients with MAPT mutations.

    Iovino, Mariangela; Agathou, Sylvia; González-Rueda, Ana; Del Castillo Velasco-Herrera, Martin; Borroni, Barbara; Alberici, Antonella; Lynch, Timothy; O'Dowd, Sean; Geti, Imbisaat; Gaffney, Daniel; Vallier, Ludovic; Paulsen, Ole; Káradóttir, Ragnhildur Thóra; Spillantini, Maria Grazia

    2015-11-01

    Tauopathies, such as Alzheimer's disease, some cases of frontotemporal dementia, corticobasal degeneration and progressive supranuclear palsy, are characterized by aggregates of the microtubule-associated protein tau, which are linked to neuronal death and disease development and can be caused by mutations in the MAPT gene. Six tau isoforms are present in the adult human brain and they differ by the presence of 3(3R) or 4(4R) C-terminal repeats. Only the shortest 3R isoform is present in foetal brain. MAPT mutations found in human disease affect tau binding to microtubules or the 3R:4R isoform ratio by altering exon 10 splicing. We have differentiated neurons from induced pluripotent stem cells derived from fibroblasts of controls and patients with N279K and P301L MAPT mutations. Induced pluripotent stem cell-derived neurons recapitulate developmental tau expression, showing the adult brain tau isoforms after several months in culture. Both N279K and P301L neurons exhibit earlier electrophysiological maturation and altered mitochondrial transport compared to controls. Specifically, the N279K neurons show abnormally premature developmental 4R tau expression, including changes in the 3R:4R isoform ratio and AT100-hyperphosphorylated tau aggregates, while P301L neurons are characterized by contorted processes with varicosity-like structures, some containing both alpha-synuclein and 4R tau. The previously unreported faster maturation of MAPT mutant human neurons, the developmental expression of 4R tau and the morphological alterations may contribute to disease development. PMID:26220942

  20. Glycans from Fasciola hepatica Modulate the Host Immune Response and TLR-Induced Maturation of Dendritic Cells.

    Rodríguez, Ernesto; Noya, Verónica; Cervi, Laura; Chiribao, María Laura; Brossard, Natalie; Chiale, Carolina; Carmona, Carlos; Giacomini, Cecilia; Freire, Teresa

    2015-12-01

    Helminths express various carbohydrate-containing glycoconjugates on their surface, and they release glycan-rich excretion/secretion products that can be very important in their life cycles, infection and pathology. Recent evidence suggests that parasite glycoconjugates could play a role in the evasion of the immune response, leading to a modified Th2-polarized immune response that favors parasite survival in the host. Nevertheless, there is limited information about the nature or function of glycans produced by the trematode Fasciola hepatica, the causative agent of fasciolosis. In this paper, we investigate whether glycosylated molecules from F. hepatica participate in the modulation of host immunity. We also focus on dendritic cells, since they are an important target of immune-modulation by helminths, affecting their activity or function. Our results indicate that glycans from F. hepatica promote the production of IL-4 and IL-10, suppressing IFNγ production. During infection, this parasite is able to induce a semi-mature phenotype of DCs expressing low levels of MHCII and secrete IL-10. Furthermore, we show that parasite glycoconjugates mediate the modulation of LPS-induced maturation of DCs since their oxidation restores the capacity of LPS-treated DCs to secrete high levels of the pro-inflammatory cytokines IL-6 and IL-12/23p40 and low levels of the anti-inflammatory cytokine IL-10. Inhibition assays using carbohydrates suggest that the immune-modulation is mediated, at least in part, by the recognition of a mannose specific-CLR that signals by recruiting the phosphatase Php2. The results presented here contribute to the understanding of the role of parasite glycosylated molecules in the modulation of the host immunity and might be useful in the design of vaccines against fasciolosis. PMID:26720149

  1. Acute steroid-induced myopathy during lung Maturation in a patient with threatened preterm Delivery

    Rojas-Suarez José Antonio

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Myopathy caused by steroids is a serious and unusual side effect related with administration of high doses of steroids. In this article we had reported a possible deleterious and serious effect on the mother health when steroids are used in the treatment of preterm childbirth. The case of a pregnant patient of 28 gestational week that consults to the emergency department with signs of preterm birth, receives tocolysis and lung maturation with Betametasona (12 mg the first day and 12 mg at 24 hours after first dose; thereafter, patient refer dizziness and blurry vision, which progress rapidly to pain in lower limbs, with weakness, being generalized then to four limbs, for acute weakness and imminence of respiratory failure the patient was transferred to the intensive care unit (ICU for respiratory vigilance, possible ventilatory support and study of this weakness. Myopathy caused by steroids is generally related with high doses of steroids. These patients, present a clinical typical picture characterized by widespread weakness of four extremities, muscular atrophy, normal CK or moderately high and myopathic changes in the EMG, the clinical presentation improves slowly. This report invite us to questioning the apparent innocuousness of steroids in pulmonary maturity and the dose of the same one, as well as to using them well in agreement to the indication of the same one keeping in mind the risk - benefit of the medicine.RESUMENLa miopatía causada por esteroides es un efecto secundario grave muy poco frecuente asociado a la administración de dosis altas de esteroides. Se reportan los posibles efectos deletéreos sobre la salud materna que puede tener la administración de corticosteroides frente al riesgo de un parto pretérmino. Se presenta el caso de una paciente gestante de 28 semanas que consulta al servicio de urgencia por infección de vías urinarias y amenaza de parto pretérmino, que recibe uteroinhibicion y maduración pulmonar con

  2. Whey protein processing influences formula-induced gut maturation in preterm pigs.

    Li, Yanqi; Østergaard, Mette V; Jiang, Pingping; Chatterton, Dereck E W; Thymann, Thomas; Kvistgaard, Anne S; Sangild, Per T

    2013-12-01

    Immaturity of the gut predisposes preterm infants to nutritional challenges potentially leading to clinical complications such as necrotizing enterocolitis. Feeding milk formulas is associated with greater risk than fresh colostrum or milk, probably due to loss of bioactive proteins (e.g., immunoglobulins, lactoferrin, insulin-like growth factor, transforming growth factor-β) during industrial processing (e.g., pasteurization, filtration, spray-drying). We hypothesized that the processing method for whey protein concentrate (WPC) would affect gut maturation in formula-fed preterm pigs used as a model for preterm infants. Fifty-five caesarean-delivered preterm pigs were distributed into 4 groups given 1 of 4 isoenergetic diets: formula containing conventional WPC (filtration, multi-pasteurization, standard spray-drying) (CF); formula containing gently treated WPC (reduced filtration and pasteurization, gentle spray-drying) (GF); formula containing minimally treated WPC (rennet precipitation, reduced filtration, heat treatment colostrum (used as a positive reference group) (BC). Relative to CF, GF, and MF pigs, BC pigs had greater villus heights, lactose digestion, and absorption and lower gut permeability (P < 0.05). MF and BC pigs had greater plasma citrulline concentrations than CF and GF pigs and intestinal interleukin-8 was lower in BC pigs than in the other groups (P < 0.05). MF pigs had lower concentrations of intestinal claudin-4, cleaved caspase-3, and phosphorylated c-Jun than CF pigs (P < 0.05). The conventional and gently treated WPCs had similar efficacy in stimulating proliferation of porcine intestinal epithelial cells. We conclude that processing of WPC affects intestinal structure, function, and integrity when included in formulas for preterm pigs. Optimization of WPC processing technology may be important to preserve the bioactivity and nutritional value of formulas for sensitive newborns. PMID:24047702

  3. Elevated level of pro inflammatory cytokine and chemokine expression in chicken bone marrow and monocyte derived dendritic cells following LPS induced maturation.

    Kalaiyarasu, Semmannan; Bhatia, Sandeep; Mishra, Niranjan; Sood, Richa; Kumar, Manoj; SenthilKumar, D; Bhat, Sushant; Dass Prakash, M

    2016-09-01

    The study was designed to characterize and compare chicken bone marrow and peripheral blood monocyte derived dendritic cells (chBM-DC and chMoDC) and to evaluate inflammatory cytokine and chemokine alterations in response upon LPS stimulation. Typical morphology was observed in DCs from 48h of culture using recombinant chicken GM-CSF and IL-4. Maturation of DCs with LPS (1μg/ml) showed significant up regulation of mRNA of surface markers (CD40, CD80, CD83, CD86, MHC-II and DC-LAMP (CD208)), pro-inflammatory cytokines (IL-1β, IL-6, TNF-α (LITAF)), iNOS, chemokine CXCli2 and TLRs4 and 15. Basal level of TLR1 mRNA expression was higher followed by TLR15 in both DCs irrespective of their origin. Expression of iNOS and CXCLi2 mRNA in mature DCs of both origins were higher than other surface molecules and cytokines studied. Hence, its level of expression can also be used as an additional maturation marker for LPS induced chicken dendritic cell maturation along with CD83 and CD40. LPS matured DCs of both origins upregulated IL-12 and IFN-γ. Based on CD40 and CD83 mRNA expression, it was observed that LPS induced the maturation in both DCs, but chMoDCs responded better in expression of surface markers and inflammatory mediator genes. PMID:27344111

  4. Prenatal Immune Activation Induces Maturation-Dependent Alterations in the Prefrontal GABAergic Transcriptome

    Richetto, J; Calabrese, F; M.A. RIVA; Meyer, U.

    2014-01-01

    Neuronal dysfunctions in the cortical GABAergic system have been widely documented in neuropsychiatric disorders with prenatal infectious etiologies, including schizophrenia. At least some of these abnormalities may stem from transcriptional impairments in the GABAergic transcriptome. However, the extent to which prenatal exposure to immune challenge can induce long-term alterations in GABAergic gene transcription remains largely elusive. Here, we use an established mouse model of prenatal im...

  5. Tripeptidyl Peptidase II Promotes Maturation of Caspase-1 in Shigella flexneri-Induced Macrophage Apoptosis

    Hilbi, Hubert; Puro, Robyn J.; Zychlinsky, Arturo

    2000-01-01

    The invasive enteropathogenic bacterium Shigella flexneri activates apoptosis in macrophages. Shigella-induced apoptosis requires caspase-1. We demonstrate here that tripeptidyl peptidase II (TPPII), a cytoplasmic, high-molecular-weight protease, participates in the apoptotic pathway triggered by Shigella. The TPPII inhibitor Ala-Ala-Phe-chloromethylketone (AAF-cmk) and clasto-lactacystin β-lactone (lactacystin), an inhibitor of both TPPII and the proteasome, protected macrophages from Shigel...

  6. Akt activation induces hypertrophy without contractile phenotypic maturation in airway smooth muscle

    Ma, Lan; Brown, Melanie; Kogut, Paul; Serban, Karina; Li, Xiaojing; McConville, John; Chen, Bohao; Bentley, J. Kelley; Hershenson, Marc B.; Dulin, Nickolai; Solway, Julian; Camoretti-Mercado, Blanca

    2011-01-01

    Airway smooth muscle (ASM) hypertrophy is a cardinal feature of severe asthma, but the underlying molecular mechanisms remain uncertain. Forced protein kinase B/Akt 1 activation is known to induce myocyte hypertrophy in other muscle types, and, since a number of mediators present in asthmatic airways can activate Akt signaling, we hypothesized that Akt activation could contribute to ASM hypertrophy in asthma. To test this hypothesis, we evaluated whether Akt activation occurs naturally within...

  7. Incomplete information and correlated electrons

    Wang, Qiuping A.

    2002-01-01

    Although G\\"odel's incompleteness theorem made mathematician recognize that no axiomatic system could completely prove its correctness and that there is an eternal hole between our knowledge and the world, physicists so far continue to work on the approaches based on the hypothesis to completely or approximately know the systems of interest. In this paper, however, I review the recent development of a different approach, a statistical theory based upon the notion of incomplete information. Th...

  8. Estimation of incomplete multinomial data

    Credeur, K. R.

    1980-01-01

    Program estimates cell probabilities for data observed to fall in one of two or more categories when exact category cannot be determined. Data are assumed to be randomly incomplete. Estimation minimizes risk of quadratic loss. Program should be useful in projects where multinomial data is analyzed, but where observations are sometimes incomplete. Program is in FORTRAN IV and Assembler for batch execution on CYBER 173.

  9. Altruistic Behavior Under Incomplete Information

    Bolle, Friedel; Kritikos, Alexander S.

    2004-01-01

    Models to the issue of altruism which rely on externalities of well-being are rarely used explicitly. In this paper we compare such utility-based approaches with the standard approach on altruism which is based on externalities of income. Testable differences of both types of models are derived in the case of incomplete information. More specifically, applied to the Dictator Game and the Impunity Game both played under incomplete information, the utility-based based approach predicts dictator...

  10. Variation in eating quality of early maturing mutant lines of rice induced by space technique

    Variations in eating quality of 9 mutant lines derived from single season indica rice variety Jingxian 89 by the treatment of space technique were investigated. The result indicated that the exterior quality of some mutant lines including grain shape and endosperm appearance changed obviously. AAC was induced into three categories: low, moderate and high AAC. Alkali spreading value and starch viscosity of most mutant lines were significantly worse than those of the original parent. However, the gel consistence of mutant lines was similar or improved obviously. Except SP501, major agronomic traits of mutant lines were worse than those of the control, but one thousand grains weight increased obviously

  11. Induced Pluripotent Stem Cells from Familial Alzheimer's Disease Patients Differentiate into Mature Neurons with Amyloidogenic Properties

    Mahairaki, Vasiliki; Ryu, Jiwon; PETERS, ANN; Chang, Qing; Li, Tong; Park, Tea Soon; Burridge, Paul W; Talbot, Conover C.; Asnaghi, Laura; Lee J Martin; Zambidis, Elias T.; Koliatsos, Vassilis E.

    2014-01-01

    Although the majority of Alzheimer's disease (AD) cases are sporadic, about 5% of cases are inherited in an autosomal dominant pattern as familial AD (FAD) and manifest at an early age. Mutations in the presenilin 1 (PSEN1) gene account for the majority of early-onset FAD. Here, we describe the generation of virus-free human induced pluripotent stem cells (hiPSCs) derived from fibroblasts of patients harboring the FAD PSEN1 mutation A246E and fibroblasts from healthy age-matched controls usin...

  12. Evidence of a hemolymph-born factor that induces onset of maturation in Manduca sexta larvae.

    Helm, Bryan R; Davidowitz, Goggy

    2015-07-01

    Insect metamorphosis is a complex developmental transition determined and coordinated by hormonal signaling that begins at a critical weight late in the larval phase of life. Even though this hormonal signaling is well understood in insects, the internal factors that are assessed at the critical weight and that drive commitment to metamorphosis have remained unresolved in most species. The critical weight may represent either an autonomous decision by the neuroendocrine system without input from other developing larval tissues, or an assessment of developmental thresholds occurring throughout the body that are then integrated by the neuroendocrine tissues. The latter hypothesis predicts that there could be one or more developmental threshold signals that originate from developing tissues and ultimately induce the onset of metamorphosis. However, there is no evidence for such a signal in the organisms for which the critical weight is well described. Here we test for the evidence of this factor in Manduca sexta (Lepidoptera: Sphingidae) by transferring hemolymph from individuals that are either post- or pre-critical weight into pre-critical weight 5(th) instar larvae. We found that hemolymph from a post-critical weight donor induces a shortening of development time, though the mass at pupation is unaffected. This suggests that metamorphic commitment occurring at the critical weight is at least partially coordinated by signaling from developing tissues via a hemolymph-borne signaling factor. PMID:25958164

  13. 5-Azacytidine induces early stage apoptosis and promotes in vitro maturation by changing chromosomal construction in murine oocytes.

    Zhao, F Y; Shao, C P; Li, Y; Ma, W Y; Tian, N; Zheng, J H

    2013-06-01

    As an anticancer drug, 5-azacytidine (5-AzaC) has been widely used to treat various cancers. To investigate the effect of 5-AzaC on mouse oocytes cultured in vitro, we have performed morphological and molecular biology studies to examine the behavior of chromosomes and oocyte development. In 5-AzaC-treated oocytes, chromosomes were decondensed and unstable. The mRNA levels of Caspase3, Caspase8, and Caspase9 increased with the occurrence of early stage apoptosis in oocytes following 5-AzaC treatment. Furthermore, the mRNA levels of Gdf9 and Bmp15 also increased with the corresponding morphological changes in 5-AzaC-treated oocytes. In conclusion, 5-AzaC not only induced early apoptosis through both extrinsic and intrinsic pathways, but also had a positive effect on the developmental competence of mouse oocytes during in vitro maturation. These effects may be due to changes in chromosomal construction induced by DNA hypomethylation. PMID:23395740

  14. IL-1α induces CD11b(low) alveolar macrophage proliferation and maturation during granuloma formation.

    Huaux, François; Lo Re, Sandra; Giordano, Giulia; Uwambayinema, Francine; Devosse, Raynal; Yakoub, Yousof; Panin, Nadtha; Palmai-Pallag, Mihaly; Rabolli, Virginie; Delos, Monique; Marbaix, Etienne; Dauguet, Nicolas; Couillin, Isabelle; Ryffel, Bernhard; Renauld, Jean-Christophe; Lison, Dominique

    2015-04-01

    Macrophages play a central role in immune and tissue responses of granulomatous lung diseases induced by pathogens and foreign bodies. Circulating monocytes are generally viewed as central precursors of these tissue effector macrophages. Here, we provide evidence that granulomas derive from alveolar macrophages serving as a local reservoir for the expansion of activated phagocytic macrophages. By exploring lung granulomatous responses to silica particles in IL-1-deficient mice, we found that the absence of IL-1α, but not IL-1β, was associated with reduced CD11b(high) phagocytic macrophage accumulation and fewer granulomas. This defect was associated with impaired alveolar clearance and resulted in the development of pulmonary alveolar proteinosis (PAP). Reconstitution of IL-1α(-/-) mice with recombinant IL-1α restored lung clearance functions and the pulmonary accumulation of CD11b(high) phagocytic macrophages. Mechanistically, IL-1α induced the proliferation of CD11b(low) alveolar macrophages and differentiated these cells into CD11b(high) macrophages which perform critical phagocytic functions and organize granuloma. We newly discovered here that IL-1α triggers lung responses requiring macrophage proliferation and maturation from tissue-resident macrophages. PMID:25421226

  15. Metabolomic changes in follicular fluid induced by soy isoflavones administered to rats from weaning until sexual maturity

    Female Wistar rats at 21 days of age were treated with one of three concentrations of soy isoflavones (SIF) (50, 100 or 200 mg/kg body weight, orally, once per day) from weaning until sexual maturity (3 months) in order to evaluate the influence of SIF on ovarian follicle development. After treatment, the serum sex hormone levels and enumeration of ovarian follicles of the ovary were measured. The metabolic profile of follicular fluid was determined using HPLC-MS. Principal component analysis (PCA) and partial least-squares-discriminant analysis (PLS-DA) was used to identify differences in metabolites and reveal useful toxic biomarkers. The results indicated that modest doses of SIF affect ovarian follicle development, as demonstrated by decreased serum estradiol levels and increases in both ovarian follicle atresia and corpora lutea number in the ovary. SIF treatment-related metabolic alterations in follicular fluid were also found in the PCA and PLS-DA models. The 24 most significantly altered metabolites were identified, including primary sex hormones, amino acids, fatty acids and metabolites involved in energy metabolism. These findings may indicate that soy isoflavones affect ovarian follicle development by inducing metabolomic variations in the follicular fluid. - Highlights: ► Modest doses of soy isoflavones (SIF) do affect ovarian follicle development. ► SIF treatment-related metabolic alterations in follicular fluid were found. ► The 24 most significantly altered metabolites were identified

  16. A novel role for RGMa in modulation of bone marrow-derived dendritic cells maturation induced by lipopolysaccharide.

    Xu, Xuxu; Gao, Yan; Shan, Fengping; Feng, Juan

    2016-04-01

    Repulsive guidance molecule a (RGMa) is known to mediate immune responses and has been indicated to modulates T cell activation and autoimmune diseases by dendritic cells (DCs), which hints its significant function in the latter cells. The aim of our study, therefore, was to evaluate the function of RGMa in DC maturation. We found that small interfering RNA (siRNA) successfully silenced the expression of RGMa in DCs. Even after LPS stimulation, RGMa-silenced DCs displayed an immature morphology, characterized by small, round cells with a few cell processes and organelles, and many pinocytotic vesicles. In the presence of LPS, RGMa siRNA transfection markedly reduced levels of CD80, CD86, CD40, and MHC II expression, as well as the secretion of IL-12p70 and TNF-α. With LPS treatment, RGMa siRNA-transfected DCs also showed increased levels of IL-10 and endocytosis. Moreover, in the presence of LPS, RGMa siRNA-transfected DCs displayed a low ability to induce T cell proliferation and differentiation, compared with negative control (NTi)-transfected or control DCs (p<0.05 for both). We conclude that after LPS stimulation, RGMa siRNA-transfected DCs show immunoregulatory and tolerogenic characteristics, which provides new insights into the immune system. PMID:26896667

  17. Metabolomic changes in follicular fluid induced by soy isoflavones administered to rats from weaning until sexual maturity

    Wang, Wenxiang [Department of Nutrition and Health Care, School of Public Health, Fujian Medical University, Fuzhou, Fujian (China); Zhang, Wenchang, E-mail: wenchang2002@sina.com [Department of Occupational and Environmental Health, School of Public Health, Fujian Medical University, Fuzhou, Fujian (China); Liu, Jin [Department of Occupational and Environmental Health, School of Public Health, Fujian Medical University, Fuzhou, Fujian (China); Sun, Yan [Center for Reproductive Medicine, Teaching Hospital of Fujian Medical University, Fujian Maternity and Child Health Hospital, Fuzhou, Fujian (China); Li, Yuchen; Li, Hong; Xiao, Shihua; Shen, Xiaohua [Department of Occupational and Environmental Health, School of Public Health, Fujian Medical University, Fuzhou, Fujian (China)

    2013-06-15

    Female Wistar rats at 21 days of age were treated with one of three concentrations of soy isoflavones (SIF) (50, 100 or 200 mg/kg body weight, orally, once per day) from weaning until sexual maturity (3 months) in order to evaluate the influence of SIF on ovarian follicle development. After treatment, the serum sex hormone levels and enumeration of ovarian follicles of the ovary were measured. The metabolic profile of follicular fluid was determined using HPLC-MS. Principal component analysis (PCA) and partial least-squares-discriminant analysis (PLS-DA) was used to identify differences in metabolites and reveal useful toxic biomarkers. The results indicated that modest doses of SIF affect ovarian follicle development, as demonstrated by decreased serum estradiol levels and increases in both ovarian follicle atresia and corpora lutea number in the ovary. SIF treatment-related metabolic alterations in follicular fluid were also found in the PCA and PLS-DA models. The 24 most significantly altered metabolites were identified, including primary sex hormones, amino acids, fatty acids and metabolites involved in energy metabolism. These findings may indicate that soy isoflavones affect ovarian follicle development by inducing metabolomic variations in the follicular fluid. - Highlights: ► Modest doses of soy isoflavones (SIF) do affect ovarian follicle development. ► SIF treatment-related metabolic alterations in follicular fluid were found. ► The 24 most significantly altered metabolites were identified.

  18. The Icsbp locus is a common proviral insertion site in mature B-cell lymphomas/plasmacytomas induced by exogenous murine leukemia virus

    ICSBP (interferon consensus sequence binding protein)/IRF8 (interferon regulatory factor 8) is an interferon gamma-inducible transcription factor expressed predominantly in hematopoietic cells, and down-regulation of this factor has been observed in chronic myelogenous leukemia and acute myeloid leukemia in man. By screening about 1200 murine leukemia virus (MLV)-induced lymphomas, we found proviral insertions at the Icsbp locus in 14 tumors, 13 of which were mature B-cell lymphomas or plasmacytomas. Only one was a T-cell lymphoma, although such tumors constituted about half of the samples screened. This indicates that the Icsbp locus can play a specific role in the development of mature B-lineage malignancies. Two proviral insertions in the last Icsbp exon were found to act by a poly(A)-insertion mechanism. The remaining insertions were found within or outside Icsbp. Since our results showed expression of Icsbp RNA and protein in all end-stage tumor samples, a simple tumor suppressor function of ICSBP is not likely. Interestingly, proviral insertions at Icsbp have not been reported from previous extensive screenings of mature B-cell lymphomas induced by endogenous MLVs. We propose that ICSBP might be involved in an early modulation of an immune response to exogenous MLVs that might also play a role in proliferation of the mature B-cell lymphomas

  19. Protein-induced changes during the maturation process of human dendritic cells: A 2-D DIGE approach

    Ferreira, Gb; Overbergh, L; Hansen, Kasper Lage; D'Hertog, W; Hansen, Daniel Aaen; Maris, M; Moreau, Y; Workman, Christopher; Waelkens, E; Mathieu, C

    2008-01-01

    Dendritic cells (DCs) are unique antigen presenting cells, which upon maturation change from a specialized antigen-capturing cell towards a professional antigen presenting cells. In this study, a 2-D DIGE analysis of immature and mature DCs was performed, to identify proteins changing in expressi...

  20. Nicotine-induced Disturbances of Meiotic Maturation in Cultured Mouse Oocytes: Alterations of Spindle Integrity and Chromosome Alignment

    Zenzes Maria

    2004-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract We investigated whether nicotine exposure in vitro of mouse oocytes affects spindle and chromosome function during meiotic maturation (M-I and M-II. Oocytes in germinal vesicle (GV stage were cultured in nicotine for 8 h or for 16 h, to assess effects in M-I and in metaphase II (M-II. The latter culture setting used the three protocols: 8 h nicotine then 8 h medium (8N + 8M; 16 h nicotine (16N; 8 h medium then 8 h nicotine (8M + 8N. Non-toxic concentrations of nicotine at 1.0, 2.5, 5.0 and 10.0 mmol/L were used. Spindle-chromosome configurations were analyzed with wide-field optical sectioning microscopy. In 8 h cultures, nicotine exposure resulted in dose-related increased proportions of M-I oocytes with defective spindle-chromosome configurations. A dose-related delayed entry into anaphase I was also detected. In 16 h cultures, nicotine exposure for the first 8 h (8N + 8M, or for 16 h (16N, resulted in dose- and time-related increased proportions of oocytes arrested in M-I (10 mmol/L; 8 h: 53.2%, controls 9.6%; 16 h: 87.6%, controls 8.5%. Defects in M-I spindles and chromosomes caused M-I arrest leading to dose-related decreased proportions of oocytes that reached metaphase-II (10 mmol/L 8 h: 46.8%, controls 90.4%;16 h: 12.4%, controls 91.5%. A delayed anaphase-I affected the normal timing of M-II, leading to abnormal oocytes with dispersed chromosomes, or with double spindles and no polar body. Nicotine exposure during the second 8 h (8M + 8N resulted in dose-related, increased proportions of M-II oocytes with defective spindles and chromosomes (10 mmol/L: 42.9%, controls 2.0%. Nicotine has no adverse effects on GV break down, but induces spindle and chromosome defects compromising oocyte meiotic maturation and development.

  1. CD28 co-stimulation via tumour-specific chimaeric receptors induces an incomplete activation response in Epstein–Barr virus-specific effector memory T cells

    Altvater, B; Pscherer, S; Landmeier, S; Niggemeier, V; Juergens, H; Vormoor, J; Rossig, C

    2006-01-01

    Expression of tumour antigen-specific chimaeric receptors in T lymphocytes can redirect their effector functions towards tumour cells. Integration of the signalling domains of the co-stimulatory molecule CD28 into chRec enhances antigen-specific proliferation of polyclonal human T cell populations. While CD28 plays an essential role in the priming of naive CD4+ T cells, its contribution to effector memory T cell responses is controversial. We compared the function of the chRec with and without the CD28 co-stimulatory domain, expressing it in peripheral blood T cells or Epstein–Barr virus (EBV)-specific T cell lines. The chimaeric T cell receptors contain an extracellular single-chain antibody domain, to give specificity against the tumour ganglioside antigen GD2. The transduced cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTL) maintained their specificity for autologous EBV targets and their capacity to proliferate after stimulation with EBV-infected B cells. Intracellular cytokine staining demonstrated efficient and comparable antigen-specific interferon (IFN)-γ secretion by CTL following engagement of both the native and the chimaeric receptor, independent of chimaeric CD28 signalling. Furthermore, tumour targets were lysed in an antigen-specific manner by both chRec. However, while antigen engagement by CD28ζ chRec efficiently induced expansion of polyclonal peripheral blood lymphocytes in an antigen-dependent manner, CD28 signalling did not induce proliferation of EBV–CTL in response to antigen-expressing tumour cells. Thus, the co-stimulatory requirement for the efficient activation response of antigen-specific memory cells cannot be mimicked simply by combining CD28 and ζ signalling. The full potential of this highly cytolytic T cell population for adoptive immunotherapy of cancer requires further exploration of their co-stimulatory requirements. PMID:16734614

  2. CD28 co-stimulation via tumour-specific chimaeric receptors induces an incomplete activation response in Epstein-Barr virus-specific effector memory T cells.

    Altvater, B; Pscherer, S; Landmeier, S; Niggemeier, V; Juergens, H; Vormoor, J; Rossig, C

    2006-06-01

    Expression of tumour antigen-specific chimaeric receptors in T lymphocytes can redirect their effector functions towards tumour cells. Integration of the signalling domains of the co-stimulatory molecule CD28 into chRec enhances antigen-specific proliferation of polyclonal human T cell populations. While CD28 plays an essential role in the priming of naive CD4(+) T cells, its contribution to effector memory T cell responses is controversial. We compared the function of the chRec with and without the CD28 co-stimulatory domain, expressing it in peripheral blood T cells or Epstein-Barr virus (EBV)-specific T cell lines. The chimaeric T cell receptors contain an extracellular single-chain antibody domain, to give specificity against the tumour ganglioside antigen G(D2). The transduced cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTL) maintained their specificity for autologous EBV targets and their capacity to proliferate after stimulation with EBV-infected B cells. Intracellular cytokine staining demonstrated efficient and comparable antigen-specific interferon (IFN)-gamma secretion by CTL following engagement of both the native and the chimaeric receptor, independent of chimaeric CD28 signalling. Furthermore, tumour targets were lysed in an antigen-specific manner by both chRec. However, while antigen engagement by CD28 zeta chRec efficiently induced expansion of polyclonal peripheral blood lymphocytes in an antigen-dependent manner, CD28 signalling did not induce proliferation of EBV-CTL in response to antigen-expressing tumour cells. Thus, the co-stimulatory requirement for the efficient activation response of antigen-specific memory cells cannot be mimicked simply by combining CD28 and zeta signalling. The full potential of this highly cytolytic T cell population for adoptive immunotherapy of cancer requires further exploration of their co-stimulatory requirements. PMID:16734614

  3. Matriculation Research Report: Incomplete Grades; Data & Analysis.

    Gerda, Joe

    The policy on incomplete grades at California's College of the Canyons states that incompletes may only be given under circumstances beyond students' control and that students must make arrangements with faculty prior to the end of the semester to clear the incomplete. Failure to complete an incomplete may result in an "F" grade. While incompletes…

  4. Incomplete Bivariate Fibonacci and Lucas -Polynomials

    Dursun Tasci

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available We define the incomplete bivariate Fibonacci and Lucas -polynomials. In the case =1, =1, we obtain the incomplete Fibonacci and Lucas -numbers. If =2, =1, we have the incomplete Pell and Pell-Lucas -numbers. On choosing =1, =2, we get the incomplete generalized Jacobsthal number and besides for =1 the incomplete generalized Jacobsthal-Lucas numbers. In the case =1, =1, =1, we have the incomplete Fibonacci and Lucas numbers. If =1, =1, =1, =⌊(−1/(+1⌋, we obtain the Fibonacci and Lucas numbers. Also generating function and properties of the incomplete bivariate Fibonacci and Lucas -polynomials are given.

  5. Early vessel destabilization mediated by Angiopoietin-2 and subsequent vessel maturation via Angiopoietin-1 induce functional neovasculature after ischemia.

    Di Qin

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: We assessed whether Angiopoietin-2 (Ang2, a Tie2 ligand and partial antagonist of Angiopoietin-1 (Ang1, is required for early vessel destabilization during postischemic angiogenesis, when combined with vascular growth factors. METHODS: In vitro, matrigel co-cultures assessed endothelial-cell tube formation and pericyte recruitment after stimulation of VEGF-A, Apelin (APLN, Ang1 with or without Ang2. In a murine hindlimb ischemia model, adeno-associated virus (rAAV, 3×10(12 virusparticles transduction of VEGF-A, APLN and Ang1 with or without Ang2 (continuous or early expression d0-3 was performed intramuscularly (d-14. Femoral artery ligation was performed at d0, followed by laser doppler perfusion meassurements (LDI 7 and 14. At d7 (early timepoint and d14 (late timepoint, histological analysis of capillary/muscle fiber ratio (CMF-R, PECAM-1 and pericyte/capillary ratio (PC-R, NG2 was performed. RESULTS: In vitro, VEGF-A, APLN and Ang1 induced ring formation, but only APLN and Ang1 recruited pericytes. Ang2 did not affect tube formation by APLN, but reduced pericyte recruitment after APLN or Ang1 overexpression. In vivo, rAAV.VEGF-A did not alter LDI-perfusion at d14, consistent with an impaired PC-R despite a rise in CMF-R. rAAV.APLN improved perfusion at d14, with or without continuous Ang2, increasing CMF-R and PC-R. rAAV.Ang1 improved perfusion at d14, when combined with rAAV.Ang2 (d0-3, accompanied by an increased CMF-R and PC-R. CONCLUSION: The combination of early vessel destabilization (Ang2 d0-3 and continuous Ang1 overexpression improves hindlimb perfusion, pointing to the importance of early vessel destabilization and subsequent vessel maturation for enhanced therapeutic neovascularization.

  6. Inducement of chromosome translocation with small alien segments by irradiating mature female gametes of the whole arm translocation line

    CHEN ShengWei; CHEN PeiDu; WANG XiuE

    2008-01-01

    Haynaldia villosa Schur. (syn. Dasypyrum villosum Candargy, 2n=14, VV) has been proved to be an Important genetic resource for wheat improvement. The development of translocation with small alien chromosome segments, especially interstitial translocation, will be helpful for better utilization of its useful genes. Up to now, most of the reported Triticum aestivum - H. villosa translocation lines are involved in a whole arm or large alien fragments. In this paper, we report a highly efficient approach for the creation of small chromosome segment translocation lines. Before flowering, the female gametes of wheat-H, villosa 6VS/6AL trsnslocation line were irradiated by 60Co-γ ray at 160 Rad/M dosage rate and three dosages (1600, 1920, 2240 Rad). Anthers were removed from the irradiated florets on the same day and the florets were pollinated with normal fresh pollens of T. aestivum cv. Chinese Spring after 2-3 days. Genomic in situ hybridization (GISH) at mitosis metaphase of root-tip cell of M1 plants was used to detect the chromosome structural changes involving 6VS of H. villosa. Among the 534 M1 plants screened, 97 plants contained small segment chromosome structural changes of 6VS, including 80 interstitial translocation chromosomes, 57 terminal translocation chromosomes and 55 deletion chromosomes. For the 2240 Rad dosage treatment, the inducement frequencies of interstitial translocation, terminal translocation and deletion were 21.02%, 14.01%, and 14.65%, respectively, which were much higher than those previously reported. The M2 seeds were obtained by bsckcrossing of 74 M1 plants involving 146 chromosomes structural changes of 6VS, and it was found that the structural aberrations in the M1 plants could be transmitted to their progenies. Irradiating mature female gametes of whole arm translocation is a new and highly efficient approach for creation of small segment chromosome structural changes, especially for interstitial translocations.

  7. Inducement of chromosome translocation with small alien segments by irradiating mature female gametes of the whole arm translocation line

    2008-01-01

    Haynaldia villosa Schur. (syn. Dasypyrum villosum Candargy, 2n=14, VV) has been proved to be an important genetic resource for wheat improvement. The development of translocation with small alien chromosome segments, especially interstitial translocation, will be helpful for better utilization of its useful genes. Up to now, most of the reported Triticum aestivum – H. villosa translocation lines are involved in a whole arm or large alien fragments. In this paper, we report a highly efficient approach for the creation of small chromosome segment translocation lines. Before flowering, the female gametes of wheat-H. villosa 6VS/6AL translocation line were irradiated by 60CO-γ ray at 160 Rad/M dosage rate and three dosages (1600, 1920, 2240 Rad). Anthers were removed from the irradiated florets on the same day and the florets were pollinated with normal fresh pollens of T. aestivum cv. Chinese Spring after 2-3 days. Genomic in situ hybridization (GISH) at mitosis metaphase of root-tip cell of M1 plants was used to detect the chromosome structural changes involving 6VS of H. villosa. Among the 534 M1 plants screened, 97 plants contained small segment chromosome structural changes of 6VS, including 80 interstitial translocation chromosomes, 57 terminal translocation chromosomes and 55 deletion chromosomes. For the 2240 Rad dosage treatment, the inducement frequencies of interstitial translo-cation, terminal translocation and deletion were 21.02%, 14.01%, and 14.65%, respectively, which were much higher than those previously reported. The M2 seeds were obtained by backcrossing of 74 M1 plants involving 146 chromosomes structural changes of 6VS, and it was found that the structural aberrations in the M1 plants could be transmitted to their progenies. Irradiating mature female gametes of whole arm translocation is a new and highly efficient approach for creation of small segment chromosome struc-tural changes, especially for interstitial translocations.

  8. Uncertainty, incompleteness, chance, and design

    Sols, Fernando

    2013-01-01

    The 20th century has revealed two important limitations of scientific knowledge. On the one hand, the combination of Poincar\\'e's nonlinear dynamics and Heisenberg's uncertainty principle leads to a world picture where physical reality is, in many respects, intrinsically undetermined. On the other hand, G\\"odel's incompleteness theorems reveal us the existence of mathematical truths that cannot be demonstrated. More recently, Chaitin has proved that, from the incompleteness theorems, it follows that the random character of a given mathematical sequence cannot be proved in general (it is 'undecidable'). I reflect here on the consequences derived from the indeterminacy of the future and the undecidability of randomness, concluding that the question of the presence or absence of finality in nature is fundamentally outside the scope of the scientific method.

  9. Influenza Virus–induced Dendritic Cell Maturation Is Associated with the Induction of Strong T Cell Immunity to a Coadministered, Normally Nonimmunogenic Protein

    Brimnes, Marie K.; Bonifaz, Laura; Steinman, Ralph M.; Moran, Thomas M.

    2003-01-01

    We evaluated the proposal that during microbial infection, dendritic cells (DCs) undergo maturation and present a mixture of peptides derived from the microbe as well as harmless environmental antigens. Mice were exposed to an aerosol of endotoxin free ovalbumin (OVA) in the absence or presence of influenza virus. In its absence, OVA failed to induce B and T cell responses and even tolerized, but with influenza, OVA-specific antibodies and CD8+ cytolytic T lymphocytes developed. With or witho...

  10. Incomplete intestinal absorption of fructose.

    Kneepkens, C M; Vonk, R J; Fernandes, J.

    1984-01-01

    Intestinal D-fructose absorption in 31 children was investigated using measurements of breath hydrogen. Twenty five children had no abdominal symptoms and six had functional bowel disorders. After ingestion of fructose (2 g/kg bodyweight), 22 children (71%) showed a breath hydrogen increase of more than 10 ppm over basal values, indicating incomplete absorption: the increase averaged 53 ppm, range 12 to 250 ppm. Four of these children experienced abdominal symptoms. Three of the six children ...

  11. Transition Complexity of Incomplete DFAs

    Yuan Gao; Kai Salomaa; Sheng Yu

    2010-01-01

    In this paper, we consider the transition complexity of regular languages based on the incomplete deterministic finite automata. A number of results on Boolean operations have been obtained. It is shown that the transition complexity results for union and complementation are very different from the state complexity results for the same operations. However, for intersection, the transition complexity result is similar to that of state complexity.

  12. IL-1β induces hypomyelination in the periventricular white matter through inhibition of oligodendrocyte progenitor cell maturation via FYN/MEK/ERK signaling pathway in septic neonatal rats.

    Xie, Di; Shen, Fengcai; He, Shaoru; Chen, Mengmeng; Han, Qianpeng; Fang, Ming; Zeng, Hongke; Chen, Chunbo; Deng, Yiyu

    2016-04-01

    Neuroinflammation elicited by microglia plays a key role in periventricular white matter (PWM) damage (PWMD) induced by infectious exposure. This study aimed to determine if microglia-derived interleukin-1β (IL-1β) would induce hypomyelination through suppression of maturation of oligodendrocyte progenitor cells (OPCs) in the developing PWM. Sprague-Dawley rats (1-day old) were injected with lipopolysaccharide (LPS) (1 mg/kg) intraperitoneally, following which upregulated expression of IL-1β and IL-1 receptor 1 (IL-1R1 ) was observed. This was coupled with enhanced apoptosis and suppressed proliferation of OPCs in the PWM. The number of PDGFR-α and NG2-positive OPCs was significantly decreased in the PWM at 24 h and 3 days after injection of LPS, whereas it was increased at 14 days and 28 days. The protein expression of Olig1, Olig2, and Nkx2.2 was significantly reduced, and mRNA expression of Tcf4 and Axin2 was upregulated in the developing PWM after LPS injection. The expression of myelin basic protein (MBP) and 2',3'-cyclic-nucleotide 3"-phosphodiesterase (CNPase) was downregulated in the PWM at 14 days and 28 days after LPS injection; this was linked to reduction of the proportion of myelinated axons and thinner myelin sheath as revealed by electron microscopy. Primary cultured OPCs treated with IL-1β showed the failure of maturation and proliferation. Furthermore, FYN/MEK/ERK signaling pathway was involved in suppression of maturation of primary OPCs induced by IL-1β administration. Our results suggest that following LPS injection, microglia are activated and produce IL-1β in the PWM in the neonatal rats. Excess IL-1β inhibits the maturation of OPCs via suppression of FYN/MEK/ERK phosphorylation thereby leading to axonal hypomyelination. PMID:26678483

  13. Reconstruction tomography from incomplete projections

    In some instances, reconstruction radionuclide tomography must be carried out from projections that do not include projection values for all portions of the object to be reconstructed. This may occur, for example, when the field of view of the detector is limited, or when an opaque foreign body is present within the object. The effects of such incomplete projections upon reconstructions of computer-simulated phantoms were studied, using iterative and convolution methods. Several methods for reducing the resulting artifacts and inaccuracies are discussed

  14. Boosting high-intensity focused ultrasound-induced anti-tumor immunity using a sparse-scan strategy that can more effectively promote dendritic cell maturation

    Zhong Pei

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The conventional treatment protocol in high-intensity focused ultrasound (HIFU therapy utilizes a dense-scan strategy to produce closely packed thermal lesions aiming at eradicating as much tumor mass as possible. However, this strategy is not most effective in terms of inducing a systemic anti-tumor immunity so that it cannot provide efficient micro-metastatic control and long-term tumor resistance. We have previously provided evidence that HIFU may enhance systemic anti-tumor immunity by in situ activation of dendritic cells (DCs inside HIFU-treated tumor tissue. The present study was conducted to test the feasibility of a sparse-scan strategy to boost HIFU-induced anti-tumor immune response by more effectively promoting DC maturation. Methods An experimental HIFU system was set up to perform tumor ablation experiments in subcutaneous implanted MC-38 and B16 tumor with dense- or sparse-scan strategy to produce closely-packed or separated thermal lesions. DCs infiltration into HIFU-treated tumor tissues was detected by immunohistochemistry and flow cytometry. DCs maturation was evaluated by IL-12/IL-10 production and CD80/CD86 expression after co-culture with tumor cells treated with different HIFU. HIFU-induced anti-tumor immune response was evaluated by detecting growth-retarding effects on distant re-challenged tumor and tumor-specific IFN-γ-secreting cells in HIFU-treated mice. Results HIFU exposure raised temperature up to 80 degrees centigrade at beam focus within 4 s in experimental tumors and led to formation of a well-defined thermal lesion. The infiltrated DCs were recruited to the periphery of lesion, where the peak temperature was only 55 degrees centigrade during HIFU exposure. Tumor cells heated to 55 degrees centigrade in 4-s HIFU exposure were more effective to stimulate co-cultured DCs to mature. Sparse-scan HIFU, which can reserve 55 degrees-heated tumor cells surrounding the separated lesions, elicited an

  15. Clinical Implications of Incomplete Pancreas Divisum

    Terumi Kamisawa; Yuyang Tu; Naoto Egawa; Kouji Tsuruta; Aatsutake Okamoto

    2006-01-01

    Context Incomplete pancreas divisum is a pancreatic anomaly that results in an inadequate communication between the ventral and dorsal pancreatic ducts. Although the relationship between complete pancreas divisum and pancreatitis has been contentious, clinical implications of incomplete pancreas divisum have not been noted. Objective This study was done to investigate the clinical significance of incomplete pancreas divisum. Patients and...

  16. Semantic Borders and Incomplete Understanding.

    Silva-Filho, Waldomiro J; Dazzani, Maria Virgínia

    2016-03-01

    In this article, we explore a fundamental issue of Cultural Psychology, that is our "capacity to make meaning", by investigating a thesis from contemporary philosophical semantics, namely, that there is a decisive relationship between language and rationality. Many philosophers think that for a person to be described as a rational agent he must understand the semantic content and meaning of the words he uses to express his intentional mental states, e.g., his beliefs and thoughts. Our argument seeks to investigate the thesis developed by Tyler Burge, according to which our mastery or understanding of the semantic content of the terms which form our beliefs and thoughts is an "incomplete understanding". To do this, we discuss, on the one hand, the general lines of anti-individualism or semantic externalism and, on the other, criticisms of the Burgean notion of incomplete understanding - one radical and the other moderate. We defend our understanding that the content of our beliefs must be described in the light of the limits and natural contingencies of our cognitive capacities and the normative nature of our rationality. At heart, anti-individualism leads us to think about the fact that we are social creatures, living in contingent situations, with important, but limited, cognitive capacities, and that we receive the main, and most important, portion of our knowledge simply from what others tell us. Finally, we conclude that this discussion may contribute to the current debate about the notion of borders. PMID:26111737

  17. X-ray induced dominant lethal mutations in mature and immature oocytes of guinea-pigs and golden hamsters

    The induction of dominant lethal mutations by doses of 100-400 rad X-rays in oocytes of the guinea-pig and golden hamster was studied using criteria of embryonic mortality. For both species higher yields were obtained from mature than from immature oocytes. Data on fertility indicated that in the golden hamster immature oocytes were more sensitive to killing by X-rays than mature oocytes but that the converse was true in the guinea-pig. The dose-response relationship for mutation to dominant lethals in pre-ovulatory oocytes of guinea-pigs and golden hamsters was linear, both when based on pre- and post-implantation loss only. The rate per unit dose was higher for the golden hamster, and the old golden hamsters were possibly slightly more sensitive than young ones

  18. Cooperative transcription activation by Nurr1 and Pitx3 induces embryonic stem cell maturation to the midbrain dopamine neuron phenotype

    Martinat, Cecile; Bacci, Jean-Jacques; Leete, Thomas; Kim, Jongpil; Vanti, William B.; Newman, Amy H.; Cha, Joo H.; Gether, Ulrik; Wang, Honggang; Abeliovich, Asa

    2006-01-01

    Midbrain dopamine (DA) neurons play a central role in the regulation of voluntary movement, and their degeneration is associated with Parkinson’s disease. Cell replacement therapies, and in particular embryonic stem (ES) cell-derived DA neurons, offer a potential therapeutic venue for Parkinson’s disease. We sought to identify genes that can potentiate maturation of ES cell cultures to the midbrain DA neuron phenotype. A number of transcription factors have been implicated in the development ...

  19. Myd88-Dependent In Vivo Maturation of Splenic Dendritic Cells Induced by Leishmania donovani and Other Leishmania Species

    De Trez, Carl; Brait, Maryse; Leo, Oberdan; Aebischer, Tony; Torrentera, Fabiola Aguilar; Carlier, Yves; Muraille, Eric

    2004-01-01

    The usual agent of visceral leishmaniasis in the Old World is Leishmania donovani, which typically produces systemic diseases in humans and mice. L. donovani has developed efficient strategies to infect and persist in macrophages from spleen and liver. Dendritic cells (DC) are sentinels of the immune system. Following recognition of evolutionary conserved microbial products, DC undergo a maturation process and activate antigen-specific naïve T cells. In the present report we provide new insig...

  20. The consequences of incomplete disclosure

    The disclosure requirements imposed on Canadian public companies are discussed. The basis of the capital market system in Canada is the integrity of full and true disclosure of all material facts in a prospectus and continuous disclosure of material changes and information, including financial results. Securities regulators have the right to report to the appropriate law enforcement agencies any company director who intentionally files misleading financial statements or press releases. The fundamental policy of Canadian stock exchanges is that all persons investing in securities listed on an exchange have equal access to information that may affect their investment decisions. Canadian stock exchanges have developed by-laws, rules and regulations relating to listed companies disclosure obligations, breach of which may lead to suspension of trading, delisting of the securities of the offending issuer, and substantial fines. Details of civil and criminal liability, current and proposed, for incomplete or inaccurate disclosure under Canadian securities legislation are explained. 59 refs

  1. Nonspecific activation of murine lymphocytes. IV. Proliferation of a distinct, late maturing lymphocyte subpopulation induced by 2-mercaptoethanol

    The lymphocyte subpopulations that are activated by 2-ME, LPS, poly IC, and PPD were studied in terms of their maturational characteristics. Attempts to stimulate hepatic and splenic lymphoid cells from mice of different ages with these mitogens demonstrated a well ordered sequence for the emergency of mitogen responsiveness in C3H mice: reactivity to LPS and Poly IC was observed early in maturation and was followed by that to PPD, and finally by the development of responsiveness to 2-ME. The same sequence appeared when the mitogen responsiveness of lethally irradiated, fetal liver-reconstituted syngeneic adult recipients was examined. The mitogenic action of 2-ME was dissociated from its ability to enhance lymphocyte reactivity to other mitogens in mice too young to respond to 2-ME as a mitogen. Experiments in which additivity of responses was assayed by adding mitogens to culture singly or conjointly indicated that LPS and Poly IC activate nearly identical B lymphocyte subpopulations, whereas PPD stimulates a subset of cells distinct from that which is responsive to the former two mitogens. The mitogen responsiveness of CBA/N mice, relative to normal CBA/WEHI mice, was shown to decrease as a function of the maturity of the subpopulation of lymphocytes activated. The CBA/N mouse was shown to be unresponsive to stimulation by 2-ME

  2. Proteolytic cleavage of proBDNF into mature BDNF in the basolateral amygdala is necessary for defeat-induced social avoidance.

    Dulka, Brooke N; Ford, Ellen C; Lee, Melissa A; Donnell, Nathaniel J; Goode, Travis D; Prosser, Rebecca; Cooper, Matthew A

    2016-04-01

    Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) is essential for memory processes. The present study tested whether proteolytic cleavage of proBDNF into mature BDNF (mBDNF) within the basolateral amygdala (BLA) regulates the consolidation of defeat-related memories. We found that acute social defeat increases the expression of mBDNF, but not proBDNF, in the BLA/central amygdala. We also showed that blocking plasmin in the BLA with microinjection of α2-antiplasmin immediately following social defeat decreases social avoidance 24 h later. These data suggest the proteolytic cleavage of BDNF in the BLA is necessary for defeat-induced social avoidance. PMID:26980783

  3. Role of inhibin and activin in the modulation of gonadotropin- and steroid-induced oocyte maturation in the teleost Fundulus heteroclitus

    Toussaint Gesulla

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Activin and inhibin are glycoproteins structurally related to the transforming growth factor-beta superfamily. These peptides were first described as factors that regulate the follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH at the pituitary level. The possible role of inhibin and activin, at the ovarian level, in mediating the stimulatory actions of a Fundulus pituitary extract (FPE and 17alpha,20beta-dihydroprogesterone (DHP on oocyte maturation was investigated in this study. Methods In vitro culture of ovarian follicles and induction of oocyte maturation were carried out in 75% Leibovitz L-15 medium. Follicles or denuded oocytes were exposed to FPE, inhibin, activin, ethanol vehicle (control group, or DHP. The competence of the follicles or denuded oocytes to respond to the hormones was assessed by scoring germinal vesicle breakdown (GVBD used as an indication of the reinitiation of meiosis or oocyte maturation. DHP level was measured by radioimmunoassay. Results Addition of FPE promoted the synthesis of DHP by the granulose cells of fully grown ovarian follicles and thus stimulated GVBD in the oocyte. Presence of porcine inhibin did not hinder the synthesis of DHP stimulated by FPE, although it did inhibit the subsequent GVBD in a dose-dependent manner, suggesting that the action of inhibin was at the oocyte level. Similarly to the findings with FPE, inhibin also blocked the DHP-induced GVBD in intact follicles, as well as the spontaneous and steroid-induced GVBD of denuded oocyte. Inhibin straightforwardly blocked the response to a low dose of DHP throughout the culture period, while higher doses of the steroid appeared to overcome the inhibitory effect especially at later times. In contrast to inhibin, recombinant human activin A significantly enhanced DHP-induced GVBD in a dose-dependent manner after 48 hr, although activin alone was not able to induce GVBD without the presence of the steroid. Conclusion Taking together with our

  4. An incompletely dominant suppressor for domi-nant earliness in rice

    2001-01-01

    @@An early maturing indica TGMS rice line 6442S-7 has completely dominant earliness mainly controlled by two dominant major genes, but heading dates of F1 progenies of 6442S-7 crossed with some of medium or late maturing varieties were close to the mid-parent values under long day [see CRRN,2000, 8(3): 3- 4].In this study, an incompletely dominant suppressor for the dominant earliness of 6442S-7 was detected.

  5. Human Vδ2+ γδ T cells differentially induce maturation, cytokine production and alloreactive T cell stimulation by dendritic cells and B cells

    Andreea ePetrasca; Doherty, Derek G.

    2014-01-01

    Human γδ T cells expressing the Vγ9Vδ2 T cell receptor can induce maturation of dendritic (DC) into antigen-presenting cells (APC) and B cells into antibody-secreting plasma cells. Since B cells are capable of presenting antigens to T cells, we investigated if Vγ9Vδ2 T cells can influence antigen presentation by these cells. We report that Vδ2 T cells induced expression of CD86, HLA-DR and CD40 by B cells and stimulated the release of IL-4, IL-6, TNF-α, and IgG, IgA and IgM. Vγ9Vδ2 T cells al...

  6. Transferrin receptor number, synthesis, and endocytosis during erythropoietin-induced maturation of Friend virus-infected erythroid cells

    Erythropoietin (EP) responsive Friend virus-infected erythroid cells had 200,000 steady-state binding sites for transferrin at 370C when isolated from the spleens of Friend virus-infected mice. Upon culture of these cells with EP, the synthesis of transferrin receptors increased 4- to 7-fold and the number of transferrin-binding sites per cell doubled after 24 h. However, the rate of uptake of 59Fe from transferrin remained constant at approximately 35,000 atoms of 59Fe per minute per cell during this period in culture. The amount of 125I-transferrin internalized during the steady-state binding did not change during this culture period while the transferrin bound to the surface increased 3-fold. At all stages of erythroid maturation, the maximum rate of endocytosis was determined to be 18,000 molecules of transferrin per minute per cell, and the interval that 125I-transferrin remains in the interior of the cell was calculated to be 6.9 min. After 48 h of culture with EP, the number of steady-state transferrin-binding sites was reduced in part due to the sequestration of surface receptors within the cell. The uptake of iron from transferrin was limited by the level of endocytosis of transferrin during the initial phase of culture and the number of transferrin receptors at the cell surface during the latter stages of erythroid maturation of these cells

  7. Nano-stenciled RGD-gold patterns that inhibit focal contact maturation induce lamellipodia formation in fibroblasts.

    Lutz, Roman; Pataky, Kristopher; Gadhari, Neha; Marelli, Mattia; Brugger, Juergen; Chiquet, Matthias

    2011-01-01

    Cultured fibroblasts adhere to extracellular substrates by means of cell-matrix adhesions that are assembled in a hierarchical way, thereby gaining in protein complexity and size. Here we asked how restricting the size of cell-matrix adhesions affects cell morphology and behavior. Using a nanostencil technique, culture substrates were patterned with gold squares of a width and spacing between 250 nm and 2 µm. The gold was functionalized with RGD peptide as ligand for cellular integrins, and mouse embryo fibroblasts were plated. Limiting the length of cell-matrix adhesions to 500 nm or less disturbed the maturation of vinculin-positive focal complexes into focal contacts and fibrillar adhesions, as indicated by poor recruitment of α5-integrin. We found that on sub-micrometer patterns, fibroblasts spread extensively, but did not polarize. Instead, they formed excessive numbers of lamellipodia and a fine actin meshwork without stress fibers. Moreover, these cells showed aberrant fibronectin fibrillogenesis, and their speed of directed migration was reduced significantly compared to fibroblasts on 2 µm square patterns. Interference with RhoA/ROCK signaling eliminated the pattern-dependent differences in cell morphology. Our results indicate that manipulating the maturation of cell-matrix adhesions by nanopatterned surfaces allows to influence morphology, actin dynamics, migration and ECM assembly of adhering fibroblasts. PMID:21980465

  8. Heat Shock Proteins Regulate Activation-induced Proteasomal Degradation of the Mature Phosphorylated Form of Protein Kinase C*

    Lum, Michelle A.; Balaburski, Gregor M; Murphy, Maureen E.; Black, Adrian R.; Black, Jennifer D.

    2013-01-01

    Background: Mechanisms of activation-induced PKC down-regulation are poorly understood. A characterized pathway involves priming site dephosphorylation and degradation of the dephosphorylated species.

  9. Quantitative trait loci associated with tipburn, heat stress-induced physiological disorders, and maturity traits in crisphead lettuce.

    Jenni, Sylvie; Truco, Maria José; Michelmore, Richard W

    2013-09-28

    Crisphead lettuce (Lactuca sativa L.) crops exhibit several economically important, physiological disorders when grown in high temperature conditions. These include tipburn, rib discoloration, premature bolting, ribbiness, and internal rib cracking. We evaluated seven physiological disorders and three agronomic traits segregating in a recombinant inbred line (RIL) population consisting of 152 F7 RILs derived from an intra-specific cross between two crisphead cultivars, L. sativa cv. Emperor x L. sativa cv. El Dorado; evaluations were carried out at each of two parental maturities in one planting and at one intermediate maturity in a second planting in each of 2 years for a total of six evaluations. A genetic map was developed using 449 polymorphic SNP markers; it comprises 807 cM in 20 linkage groups that covered 51 % of the nine lettuce chromosomes. Composite interval mapping revealed a total of 36 significant QTLs for eight out of the ten traits evaluated. Significant QTLs were distributed in 11 linkage groups on seven of the chromosomes and accounted for up to 83 % of the phenotypic variation observed. The three largest QTLs for rib discoloration, which accounted individually for 7-21 % of the variation, were clustered with stem length, two with ribbiness and one with head firmness. Three major clusters of QTLs revealed pleiotropic effects or tight linkage between tipburn incidence and severity, head type, stem length, head firmness and ribbiness. One QTL, qTPB5.2, was detected in multiple trials and described 38-70 % of the variation in tipburn incidence. qTPB5.2 is, therefore, a useful candidate gene for breeding for tipburn resistance using marker-assisted selection. PMID:24078012

  10. Incomplete linear tibial fractures in two horses

    Incomplete linear tibial fractures were identified in two horses with the aid of scintigraphy. Both horses were treated successfully by strict stall confinement, and both returned to normal athletic activity. Scintigraphy can be used to facilitate the generally difficult diagnosis of incomplete tibial fractures

  11. Influence of water temperature on induced reproduction by hypophysation, sex steroids concentrations and final oocyte maturation of the "curimatã-pacu" Prochilodus argenteus (Pisces: Prochilodontidae).

    Arantes, Fábio P; Santos, Hélio B; Rizzo, Elizete; Sato, Yoshimi; Bazzoli, Nilo

    2011-07-01

    Most fishes with commercial importance from the São Francisco basin are migratory and do not complete the reproductive cycle in lentic environments, such as hydroelectric plant reservoirs, hence natural stocks are declining and there is an urgent need to reduce the pressure of fishing on those wild populations. Therefore, studies on reproductive biology and its relationship with endocrine and environmental factors are key to improving the cultivation techniques of Brazilian fish species. This study examined the influence of water temperature on sex steroid concentrations (testosterone, 17β-estradiol and 17α-hydroxyprogesterone), spawning efficiency, fecundity, fertilisation rate, larval abnormality rates and involvement of the cytoskeleton during the final oocyte maturation of Prochilodus argenteus under experimental conditions. The results of our study showed that in captivity, sex steroid plasma concentrations and spawning performance of P. argenteus were clearly different for fish kept in water with different temperature regimes. In lower water temperature (23°C), it was observed that: 33% of females did not ovulate, fecundity was lower and vitellogenic oocytes after the spawning induction procedure exhibited a smaller diameter. Moreover, concentrations of 17β-estradiol and 17α-hydroxyprogesterone were lower and there was a delay in the final oocyte maturation and, consequently, ovulation and spawning. Our experiments showed direct influence of water temperature in the process of induced spawning of P. argenteus. Changes in water temperature also suggest the tubulin involvement in the nuclear dislocation process and the possible action of actin filaments in the release of polar bodies during final oocyte maturation of P. argenteus. PMID:21501616

  12. Parathyroid Hormone Induces Bone Cell Motility and Loss of Mature Osteocyte Phenotype through L-Calcium Channel Dependent and Independent Mechanisms.

    Matthew Prideaux

    Full Text Available Parathyroid Hormone (PTH can exert both anabolic and catabolic effects on the skeleton, potentially through expression of the PTH type1 receptor (PTH1R, which is highly expressed in osteocytes. To determine the cellular and molecular mechanisms responsible, we examined the effects of PTH on osteoblast to osteocyte differentiation using primary osteocytes and the IDG-SW3 murine cell line, which differentiate from osteoblast to osteocyte-like cells in vitro and express GFP under control of the dentin matrix 1 (Dmp1 promoter. PTH treatment resulted in an increase in some osteoblast and early osteocyte markers and a decrease in mature osteocyte marker expression. The gene expression profile of PTH-treated Day 28 IDG-SW3 cells was similar to PTH treated primary osteocytes. PTH treatment induced striking changes in the morphology of the Dmp1-GFP positive cells in IDG-SW3 cultures and primary cells from Dmp1-GFP transgenic mice. The cells changed from a more dendritic to an elongated morphology and showed increased cell motility. E11/gp38 has been shown to be important for cell migration, however, deletion of the E11/gp38/podoplanin gene had no effect on PTH-induced motility. The effects of PTH on motility were reproduced using cAMP, but not with protein kinase A (PKA, exchange proteins activated by cAMP (Epac, protein kinase C (PKC or phosphatidylinositol-4,5-bisphosphonate 3-kinase (Pi3K agonists nor were they blocked by their antagonists. However, the effects of PTH were mediated through calcium signaling, specifically through L-type channels normally expressed in osteoblasts but decreased in osteocytes. PTH was shown to increase expression of this channel, but decrease the T-type channel that is normally more highly expressed in osteocytes. Inhibition of L-type calcium channel activity attenuated the effects of PTH on cell morphology and motility but did not prevent the downregulation of mature osteocyte marker expression. Taken together, these

  13. Debt renegotiation with incomplete contract

    Paulo de Melo Jorge Neto

    2005-09-01

    Full Text Available A debt contract usually does not include a provision about renegotiation. The right to seize the borrower’s asset and the rules of this process are usually stipulated in the contract. Such a promise not to renegotiate is not credible since renegotiation can mitigate the dead-weight loss of liquidating insolvent borrowers. Once the initial contract may not consider the renegotiation procedure and renegotiation may occur, this paper investigates why a complete contract is not offered. It shows that the lender does not need to stipulate the renegotiation procedure on the initial contract because he is indifferent about committing or not to the terms of a contract. This indicates that a complete contract gives the lender the same expected return as an incomplete contract, in which the renegotiation process is determined after the occurrence of default.Um contrato de débito geralmente não inclui uma cláusula sobre renegociação. O direito de liquidar os ativos do tomador e as regras do processo são habitualmente estipuladas no contrato. Tal promessa de não renegociar não é crível, já que a renegociação pode mitigar a perda bruta de se liquidar tomadores insolventes. Uma vez que o contrato inicial pode não considerar os procedimentos de renegociação, e esta pode, de fato, vir a ocorrer, este artigo investiga a razão de um contrato completo não ser ofertado. Mostra-se que o emprestador não precisa estipular os procedimentos de renegociação no contrato inicial porque ele é indiferente entre se comprometer ou não aos termos do contrato. Isto indica que um contrato completo dá ao emprestador o mesmo retorno esperado de um contrato incompleto, no qual os procedimentos de renegociação são determinados após a declaração de default.

  14. Effect of conservative treatments for incomplete induced abortion and the factors related to successful removal of the remnants%保守治疗人工流产术后残留效果及相关因素探讨

    诸葛听; 黄紫蓉; 李斌

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To study the effect of conservative treatments for abortive remnants of induced abortion, and probe into the influencing factors related to the successful removal of the remnants. Methods: A total of 101 patients with abortive remnants after induced abortion were selected by simple random sampling, and randomly divided into 4 groups, with 3 groups treated with different dosages of mifepristone (50 mg/d ×28d, 100 mg/d × 14d, and 200mg/d ×7d)and 1 control group. Based on the treatment outcomes, the patients were subgrouped into cured group and uncured group. The parameters of age, weight, gravidity, parity, bleeding time after treatment, baseline β-hCG (human chorionic gonadotrophin) levels, and the size of abortive remnants measured by B - mode ultrasonic diagnostic equipment were analyzed. Rank sum test and logistic regression method were used to analyze the correlated factors with successful treatment of abortive remnants of induced abortion with mifepristone. Results : The group with mifepristone 200mg/d × 7d showed the most effective results (P < 0. 05). Compared with the uncured group, cured group had lower levels of serum β -hCG, smaller abortive remnants, shorter bleeding time after treatment, greater resistance index of blood flow (P <0.05 for all above factors). Logistic regression analysis showed that dosage of mifepristone, baseline β - hCG, the average size of the abortive remnants, and resistance index of blood flow status of the remnant tissue were closely correlated to the treatment outcomes (P < 0.05). Conclusion: Mifepristone was effective in the treatment of incomplete induced abortion, and it was most effective when used at a short - term high dose. The baseline β - hCG, size of the abortive remnants and resistance index of bleed flow of the abortive remnants could predict the treatment outcomes.%目的:探讨影响人工流产术后残留保守治疗的相关因素,为临床有效诊断提供和治疗依据.方法:采用

  15. Brain-derived neurotrophic factor induces post-lesion transcommissural growth of olivary axons that develop normal climbing fibers on mature Purkinje cells.

    Dixon, Kirsty J; Sherrard, Rachel M

    2006-11-01

    In the adult mammalian central nervous system, reinnervation and recovery from trauma is limited. During development, however, post-lesion plasticity may generate alternate paths providing models to investigate factors that promote reinnervation to appropriate targets. Following unilateral transection of the neonatal rat olivocerebellar pathway, axons from the remaining inferior olive reinnervate the denervated hemicerebellum and develop climbing fiber arbors on Purkinje cells. However, the capacity to recreate this accurate target reinnervation in a mature system remains unknown. In rats lesioned on day 15 (P15) or 30 and treated with intracerebellar injection of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) or vehicle 24 h later, the morphology and organisation of transcommissural olivocerebellar reinnervation was examined using neuronal tracing and immunohistochemistry. In all animals BDNF, but not vehicle, induced transcommissural olivocerebellar axonal growth into the denervated hemicerebellum. The distribution of reinnervating climbing fibers was not confined to the injection sites but extended throughout the denervated hemivermis and, less densely, up to 3.5 mm into the hemisphere. Transcommissural olivocerebellar axons were organised into parasagittal microzones that were almost symmetrical to those in the right hemicerebellum. Reinnervating climbing fiber arbors were predominantly normal, but in the P30-lesioned group 10% were either branched within the molecular layer forming a smaller secondary arbor or were less branched, and in the P15 lesion group the reinnervating arbors extended their terminals almost to the pial surface and were larger than control arbors (P < 0.02). These results show that BDNF can induce transcommissural olivocerebellar reinnervation, which resembles developmental neuroplasticity to promote appropriate target reinnervation in a mature environment. PMID:16790241

  16. RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN OOCYTE MATURITY FOR FERTILIZATION AND PRE-OVULATORY FOLLICULAR FLUID HORMONE LEVELS IN INDUCED OVULATORYCY CLE

    LIUYong

    1989-01-01

    This paper describes the relationship between haman oocyte matarity for fcrtilization andpre-ovulalory follicular fluid hormone levels in induced ova]story cycle by trealmcm withclomiphenz+HMG or clomiphene+HMC+HCG. 32 hours after urine LH--surge or 34

  17. IL-36α induces maturation of Th1-inducing human MDDC and synergises with IFN-γ to induce high surface expression of CD14 and CD11c.

    Higgins, John; Mutamba, Shilla; Mahida, Yashwant; Barrow, Paul; Foster, Neil

    2015-04-01

    We show that IL-36α induced maturation of human MDDCs and stimulated differentiation of IFN-γ producing (Type 1) CD3+ lymphocytes but was not as effective as IL-36β in doing so. For the first time, we also show that IL-36α induced expression of CD14 by MDDCs and this was highly potentiated by co-cultured with IFN-γ. In contrast, lipopolysaccharide (LPS) did not increase CD14 expression by MDDCs, suggesting that if MDDCs represent a physiologically relevant population in vivo, they need to be stimulated by relevant inflammatory cytokines prior to CD14 expression and detection of LPS, expressed by Gram negative bacteria. IFN-γ synergised with IL-36α to restore the high levels of CD11c expression by MDDCs, which was reduced by culture with these cytokines in isolation. IL-36α/IFN-γ synergy also correlated with increased binding of the opsonic complement protein (iC3b) to MDDCs. However although IL-36α increased the phagocytic capacity of MDDCs for Salmonella Typhimurium 4/74 this was not synergistically increased by IFN-γ (P>0.05). In conclusion we report the hitherto unknown effects of IL-36α on the innate cell function of human MDDCs. PMID:25700962

  18. Interference Alignment with Incomplete CSIT Sharing

    De Kerret, Paul; Gesbert, David

    2012-01-01

    In this work, we study the impact of having only incomplete channel state information at the transmitters (CSIT) over the feasibility of interference alignment (IA) in a K-user MIMO interference channel (IC). Incompleteness of CSIT refers to the perfect knowledge at each transmitter (TX) of only a sub-matrix of the global channel matrix, where the sub-matrix is specific to each TX. This paper investigates the notion of IA feasibility for CSIT configurations being as incomplete as possible, as...

  19. The dynamics of carbon stored in xylem sapwood to drought-induced hydraulic stress in mature trees

    Yoshimura, Kenichi; Saiki, Shin-Taro; Yazaki, Kenichi; Ogasa, Mayumi Y.; Shirai, Makoto; Nakano, Takashi; Yoshimura, Jin; Ishida, Atsushi

    2016-01-01

    Climate-induced forest die-off is widespread in multiple biomes, strongly affecting the species composition, function and primary production in forest ecosystems. Hydraulic failure and carbon starvation in xylem sapwood are major hypotheses to explain drought-induced tree mortality. Because it is difficult to obtain enough field observations on drought-induced mortality in adult trees, the current understanding of the physiological mechanisms for tree die-offs is still controversial. However, the simultaneous examination of water and carbon uses throughout dehydration and rehydration processes in adult trees will contribute to clarify the roles of hydraulic failure and carbon starvation in tree wilting. Here we show the processes of the percent loss of hydraulic conductivity (PLC) and the content of nonstructural carbohydrates (NSCs) of distal branches in woody plants with contrasting water use strategy. Starch was converted to soluble sugar during PLC progression under drought, and the hydraulic conductivity recovered following water supply. The conversion of NSCs is strongly associated with PLC variations during dehydration and rehydration processes, indicating that stored carbon contributes to tree survival under drought; further carbon starvation can advance hydraulic failure. We predict that even slow-progressing drought degrades forest ecosystems via carbon starvation, causing more frequent catastrophic forest die-offs than the present projection. PMID:27079677

  20. The dynamics of carbon stored in xylem sapwood to drought-induced hydraulic stress in mature trees.

    Yoshimura, Kenichi; Saiki, Shin-Taro; Yazaki, Kenichi; Ogasa, Mayumi Y; Shirai, Makoto; Nakano, Takashi; Yoshimura, Jin; Ishida, Atsushi

    2016-01-01

    Climate-induced forest die-off is widespread in multiple biomes, strongly affecting the species composition, function and primary production in forest ecosystems. Hydraulic failure and carbon starvation in xylem sapwood are major hypotheses to explain drought-induced tree mortality. Because it is difficult to obtain enough field observations on drought-induced mortality in adult trees, the current understanding of the physiological mechanisms for tree die-offs is still controversial. However, the simultaneous examination of water and carbon uses throughout dehydration and rehydration processes in adult trees will contribute to clarify the roles of hydraulic failure and carbon starvation in tree wilting. Here we show the processes of the percent loss of hydraulic conductivity (PLC) and the content of nonstructural carbohydrates (NSCs) of distal branches in woody plants with contrasting water use strategy. Starch was converted to soluble sugar during PLC progression under drought, and the hydraulic conductivity recovered following water supply. The conversion of NSCs is strongly associated with PLC variations during dehydration and rehydration processes, indicating that stored carbon contributes to tree survival under drought; further carbon starvation can advance hydraulic failure. We predict that even slow-progressing drought degrades forest ecosystems via carbon starvation, causing more frequent catastrophic forest die-offs than the present projection. PMID:27079677

  1. Angular momentum transfer in incomplete fusion

    B S Tomar; K Surendra Babu; K Sudarshan; R Tripathi; A Goswami

    2005-02-01

    Isomeric cross-section ratios of evaporation residues formed in 12C+93Nb and 16O + 89Y reactions were measured by recoil catcher technique followed by off-line -ray spectrometry in the beam energy range of 55.7-77.5 MeV for 12C and 68-81 MeV for 16O. The isomeric cross-section ratios were resolved into that for complete and incomplete fusion reactions. The angular momentum of the intermediate nucleus formed in incomplete fusion was deduced from the isomeric cross-section ratio by considering the statistical de-excitation of the incompletely fused composite nucleus. The data show that incomplete fusion is associated with angular momenta slightly smaller than critical angular momentum for complete fusion, indicating the deeper interpenetration of projectile and target nuclei than that in peripheral collisions.

  2. Incomplete albinism in Discoglossus pictus (Otth, 1837

    Filippo Spadola

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available The authors present an incomplete albinism case in a Discoglossus pictus subject found in Sicily. This is the first note for Italian territory, the second for the species and the third for Discoglossus genus.

  3. Epistemological Consequences of the Incompleteness Theorems

    Raguní, Giuseppe

    2016-01-01

    After highlighting the cases in which the semantics of a language cannot be mechanically reproduced (in which case it is called inherent), the main epistemological consequences of the first incompleteness Theorem for the two fundamental arithmetical theories are shown: the non-mechanizability for the truths of the first-order arithmetic and the peculiarities for the model of the second-order arithmetic. Finally, the common epistemological interpretation of the second incompleteness Theorem is...

  4. Quantum Bertrand duopoly of incomplete information

    We study Bertrand's duopoly of incomplete information. It is found that the effect of quantum entanglement on the outcome of the game is dramatically changed by the uncertainty of information. In contrast with the case of complete information where the outcome increases with entanglement, when information is incomplete the outcome is maximized at some finite entanglement. As a consequence, information and entanglement are both crucial factors that determine the properties of a quantum oligopoly

  5. Quantum Bertrand duopoly of incomplete information

    Qin Gan [Hefei National Laboratory for Physical Science at Microscale and Department of Modern Physics, University of Science and Technology of China, Hefei, 230026 (China); Chen Xi [Hefei National Laboratory for Physical Science at Microscale and Department of Modern Physics, University of Science and Technology of China, Hefei, 230026 (China); Sun Min [Hefei National Laboratory for Physical Science at Microscale and Department of Modern Physics, University of Science and Technology of China, Hefei, 230026 (China); Du Jiangfeng [Hefei National Laboratory for Physical Science at Microscale and Department of Modern Physics, University of Science and Technology of China, Hefei, 230026 (China)

    2005-05-13

    We study Bertrand's duopoly of incomplete information. It is found that the effect of quantum entanglement on the outcome of the game is dramatically changed by the uncertainty of information. In contrast with the case of complete information where the outcome increases with entanglement, when information is incomplete the outcome is maximized at some finite entanglement. As a consequence, information and entanglement are both crucial factors that determine the properties of a quantum oligopoly.

  6. Quantum Bertrand duopoly of incomplete information

    Qin, Gan; Chen, Xi; Sun, Min; Du, Jiangfeng

    2005-05-01

    We study Bertrand's duopoly of incomplete information. It is found that the effect of quantum entanglement on the outcome of the game is dramatically changed by the uncertainty of information. In contrast with the case of complete information where the outcome increases with entanglement, when information is incomplete the outcome is maximized at some finite entanglement. As a consequence, information and entanglement are both crucial factors that determine the properties of a quantum oligopoly.

  7. Incomplete Derivative Markets and Portfolio Insurance

    Charalambos Aliprantis; Brown, Donald J; J. Werner

    1997-01-01

    We present necessary and sufficient conditions on the asset span of incomplete derivative markets for insuring marketed portfolios. If the asset span is finite dimensional there exists a polynomial-time algorithm for deciding if every marketed portfolio is insurable, moreover this algorithm computes the minimum cost insurance portfolio. In addition, we extend the Cox-Leland characterization of optimal portfolio insurance in complete derivative markets to asset spans of incomplete derivative m...

  8. Sulpiride-Induced Hyperprolactinemia in Mature Female Rats: Evidence for Alterations in The Reproductive System, Pituitary and Ovarian Hormones

    Sara Mostafapour

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: The prevalence of hyperprolactinemia following administration of conventional antipsychotic drugs requires further investigation. The current study is designed to evaluate the effect of sulpiride (SPD-induced hyperprolactinemia on alterations to ovarian follicular growth, gonadotropins, and ovarian hormones and to analyze the extent of potential problems in mammary glands. Materials and Methods: A total of 40 albino Wistar rats were divided into four groups: control (no treatment, control-sham (0.3 ml olive oil, low dose SPD (20 mg/kg and high dose SPD (40 mg/kg. All compounds were intraperitoneally (IP administered for a period of 28 days. Results: After 28 days, we dissected the rats’ ovarian tissues, uterine horns and mammary glands which were sent for histological analyses. We counted the numbers of normal, atretic follicles and corpora lutea (CL. Serum levels of prolactin (PRL, estradiol, progesterone, follicle stimulating hormone (FSH and luteinizing hormone (LH were evaluated. SPD-administered animals showed sporadic follicular atresia in different sizes associated with higher numbers of CL on the ovaries. The mammary glands exhibited features of galactorrhea. There was remarkable (p<0.05 elevation in SPD-administered animals’ uterine horn endometrium, myometrium and perimetrium thicknesses. The serum levels of PRL and progesterone significantly (p<0.05 increased, while the serum concentration of estradiol, LH and FSH notably (p<0.05 decreased according to the SPD administered dose. No histological and biological changes occurred in control-sham animals. SPD-induced animals had unsuccessful attempts at mating and decreased pregnancy rates. Conclusion: The present findings suggest that SPD-induced disturbances depend on PRL level. In addition, an increased PRL level is largely dependent on the administered doses of SPD.

  9. Multi-View Learning With Incomplete Views.

    Xu, Chang; Tao, Dacheng; Xu, Chao

    2015-12-01

    One underlying assumption of the conventional multi-view learning algorithms is that all examples can be successfully observed on all the views. However, due to various failures or faults in collecting and pre-processing the data on different views, we are more likely to be faced with an incomplete-view setting, where an example could be missing its representation on one view (i.e., missing view) or could be only partially observed on that view (i.e., missing variables). Low-rank assumption used to be effective for recovering the random missing variables of features, but it is disabled by concentrated missing variables and has no effect on missing views. This paper suggests that the key to handling the incomplete-view problem is to exploit the connections between multiple views, enabling the incomplete views to be restored with the help of the complete views. We propose an effective algorithm to accomplish multi-view learning with incomplete views by assuming that different views are generated from a shared subspace. To handle the large-scale problem and obtain fast convergence, we investigate a successive over-relaxation method to solve the objective function. Convergence of the optimization technique is theoretically analyzed. The experimental results on toy data and real-world data sets suggest that studying the incomplete-view problem in multi-view learning is significant and that the proposed algorithm can effectively handle the incomplete views in different applications. PMID:26469202

  10. Radiation combined with hyperthermia induces HSP70-dependent maturation of dendritic cells and release of pro-inflammatory cytokines by dendritic cells and macrophages

    Purpose: Hyperthermia (HT) treatment of cancer patients was revived over the last years and has been proven to be beneficiary for many cancer entities when applied temperature controlled in multimodal treatments. We examined whether a combination of ionizing irradiation (X-ray) and HT (41.5 °C; 1 h) can induce the release of heat shock protein (HSP) 70 by tumor cells and thereby lead to the activation of dendritic cells and macrophages. Material and methods: Extracellular HSP70 was detected in supernatants (SN) of treated colorectal tumor cells by ELISA. Maturation of dendritic cells (DC) after contact with the SN was measured by flow-cytometry. Phagocytosis assays were conducted to get hints about the immune stimulating potential of the tumor cells after the respective treatments. Results: An increased surface expression of HSP70 was observed after X-ray or X-ray plus HT while the amount of extracellular HSP70 was only increased when HT was given additionally. A high up-regulation of the co-stimulation molecule CD80 and the chemokine receptor CCR7 on DC was measured after contact with SN of X-ray plus HT treated cells. This was dependent on extracellular HSP70. Combined treatments further led to significantly increased phagocytosis rates of macrophages and DC and increased pro-inflammatory cytokine (IL-8 and IL-12) secretion. Conclusion: X-ray combined with HT induces HSP70 dependent activation of immune cells and might generate a tumor microenvironment beneficial for cure.

  11. Seizure induces activation of multiple subtypes of neural progenitors and growth factors in hippocampus with neuronal maturation confined to dentate gyrus

    Indulekha, Chandrasekharan L.; Sanalkumar, Rajendran [Neuro Stem Cell Biology Laboratory, Department of Neurobiology, Rajiv Gandhi Center for Biotechnology, Thiruvananthapuram, Kerala 695 014 (India); Thekkuveettil, Anoopkumar [Molecular Medicine, Biomedical Technology Wing, Sree Chitra Thirunal Institute for Medical Sciences and Technology, Thiruvananthapuram, Kerala (India); James, Jackson, E-mail: jjames@rgcb.res.in [Neuro Stem Cell Biology Laboratory, Department of Neurobiology, Rajiv Gandhi Center for Biotechnology, Thiruvananthapuram, Kerala 695 014 (India)

    2010-03-19

    Adult hippocampal neurogenesis is altered in response to different physiological and pathological stimuli. GFAP{sup +ve}/nestin{sup +ve} radial glial like Type-1 progenitors are considered to be the resident stem cell population in adult hippocampus. During neurogenesis these Type-1 progenitors matures to GFAP{sup -ve}/nestin{sup +ve} Type-2 progenitors and then to Type-3 neuroblasts and finally differentiates into granule cell neurons. In our study, using pilocarpine-induced seizure model, we showed that seizure initiated activation of multiple progenitors in the entire hippocampal area such as DG, CA1 and CA3. Seizure induction resulted in activation of two subtypes of Type-1 progenitors, Type-1a (GFAP{sup +ve}/nestin{sup +ve}/BrdU{sup +ve}) and Type-1b (GFAP{sup +ve}/nestin{sup +ve}/BrdU{sup -ve}). We showed that majority of Type-1b progenitors were undergoing only a transition from a state of dormancy to activated form immediately after seizures rather than proliferating, whereas Type-1a showed maximum proliferation by 3 days post-seizure induction. Type-2 (GFAP{sup -ve}/nestin{sup +ve}/BrdU{sup +ve}) progenitors were few compared to Type-1. Type-3 (DCX{sup +ve}) progenitors showed increased expression of immature neurons only in DG region by 3 days after seizure induction indicating maturation of progenitors happens only in microenvironment of DG even though progenitors are activated in CA1 and CA3 regions of hippocampus. Also parallel increase in growth factors expression after seizure induction suggests that microenvironmental niche has a profound effect on stimulation of adult neural progenitors.

  12. Seizure induces activation of multiple subtypes of neural progenitors and growth factors in hippocampus with neuronal maturation confined to dentate gyrus

    Adult hippocampal neurogenesis is altered in response to different physiological and pathological stimuli. GFAP+ve/nestin+ve radial glial like Type-1 progenitors are considered to be the resident stem cell population in adult hippocampus. During neurogenesis these Type-1 progenitors matures to GFAP-ve/nestin+ve Type-2 progenitors and then to Type-3 neuroblasts and finally differentiates into granule cell neurons. In our study, using pilocarpine-induced seizure model, we showed that seizure initiated activation of multiple progenitors in the entire hippocampal area such as DG, CA1 and CA3. Seizure induction resulted in activation of two subtypes of Type-1 progenitors, Type-1a (GFAP+ve/nestin+ve/BrdU+ve) and Type-1b (GFAP+ve/nestin+ve/BrdU-ve). We showed that majority of Type-1b progenitors were undergoing only a transition from a state of dormancy to activated form immediately after seizures rather than proliferating, whereas Type-1a showed maximum proliferation by 3 days post-seizure induction. Type-2 (GFAP-ve/nestin+ve/BrdU+ve) progenitors were few compared to Type-1. Type-3 (DCX+ve) progenitors showed increased expression of immature neurons only in DG region by 3 days after seizure induction indicating maturation of progenitors happens only in microenvironment of DG even though progenitors are activated in CA1 and CA3 regions of hippocampus. Also parallel increase in growth factors expression after seizure induction suggests that microenvironmental niche has a profound effect on stimulation of adult neural progenitors.

  13. Topological effects of data incompleteness of gene regulatory networks

    Sanz, J; Borge-Holthoefer, J; Moreno, Y

    2012-01-01

    The topological analysis of biological networks has been a prolific topic in network science during the last decade. A persistent problem with this approach is the inherent uncertainty and noisy nature of the data. One of the cases in which this situation is more marked is that of transcriptional regulatory networks (TRNs) in bacteria. The datasets are incomplete because regulatory pathways associated to a relevant fraction of bacterial genes remain unknown. Furthermore, direction, strengths and signs of the links are sometimes unknown or simply overlooked. Finally, the experimental approaches to infer the regulations are highly heterogeneous, in a way that induces the appearance of systematic experimental-topological correlations. And yet, the quality of the available data increases constantly. In this work we capitalize on these advances to point out the influence of data (in)completeness and quality on some classical results on topological analysis of TRNs, specially regarding modularity at different level...

  14. Testosterone deficiency induced by progressive stages of diabetes mellitus impairs glucose metabolism and favors glycogenesis in mature rat Sertoli cells.

    Rato, Luís; Alves, Marco G; Duarte, Ana I; Santos, Maria S; Moreira, Paula I; Cavaco, José E; Oliveira, Pedro F

    2015-09-01

    The incidence of type 2 diabetes mellitus and its prodromal stage, pre-diabetes, is rapidly increasing among young men, leading to disturbances in testosterone synthesis. However, the impact of testosterone deficiency induced by these progressive stages of diabetes on the metabolic behavior of Sertoli cells remains unknown. We evaluated the effects of testosterone deficiency associated with pre-diabetes and type 2 diabetes on Sertoli cells metabolism, by measuring (1) the expression and/or activities of glycolysis and glycogen metabolism-related proteins and (2) the metabolite secretion/consumption in Sertoli cells obtained from rat models of different development stages of the disease, to unveil the mechanisms by which testosterone deregulation may affect spermatogenesis. Glucose and pyruvate uptake were decreased in cells exposed to the testosterone concentration found in pre-diabetic rats (600nM), whereas the decreased testosterone concentrations found in type 2 diabetic rats (7nM) reversed this profile. Lactate production was not altered, although the expression and/or activity of lactate dehydrogenase and monocarboxylate transporter 4 were affected by progressive testosterone-deficiency. Sertoli cells exposed to type 2 diabetic conditions exhibited intracellular glycogen accumulation. These results illustrate that gradually reduced levels of testosterone, induced by progressive stages of diabetes mellitus, favor a metabolic reprogramming toward glycogen synthesis. Our data highlights a pivotal role for testosterone in the regulation of spermatogenesis metabolic support by Sertoli cells, particularly in individuals suffering from metabolic diseases. Such alterations may be in the basis of male subfertility/infertility associated with the progression of diabetes mellitus. PMID:26148570

  15. Incomplete fusion in 16O+159Tb

    Sharma, Vijay R.; Singh, Pushpendra P.; Shuaib, Mohd.; Yadav, Abhishek; Bala, Indu; Sharma, Manoj K.; Gupta, S.; Singh, D. P.; Kumar, R.; Muralithar, S.; Singh, R. P.; Singh, B. P.; Prasad, R.; Bhowmik, R. K.

    2016-02-01

    In heavy-ion induced reactions, incomplete fusion (ICF) has been found to be a process of greater importance and of distinct nature even at slightly above the barrier energies where complete fusion (CF) is supposed to be dominant. However, the studies are limited to a few projectile target combinations only. To confirm the distinctly different decay patterns observed in case of CF and ICF residues, and to understand the role of high ℓ-values in the onset of ICF, a particle-γ-coincidence technique has been employed to measure spin-distributions and feeding intensity profiles of CF and ICF residues populated via xn / pxn / αxn-channels in 16O+159Tb interactions at Elab ≈ 83.5 ± 1.5, 88.5 ± 1.5, 93.5 ± 1.5 and 97.6 ± 1.4 MeV. The Gamma Detector Array and the Charged Particles Detector Array have been used to detect prompt γ-rays in coincidence with charged particles (p and α). CF-α and ICF-α channels have been identified from backward (B)- and forward (F)-α-gated-γ-spectra, respectively. Reaction dependent decay patterns (thus, the feeding intensity profiles) have been observed in different α emitting channels. The CF channels are found to be widely populated and strongly fed over a broad spin range. In case of ICF-α channels, narrow range feeding was observed only for high-spin states or the low spin states were not populated. The mean ℓ-values involved in the production of ICF- αxn-channels are found to be higher than those involved in the production of CF- αxn-channels associated with fusion-evaporation reactions.

  16. Optimizing Arteriovenous Fistula Maturation

    Zangan, Steven M.; Falk, Abigail

    2009-01-01

    Autogenous arteriovenous fistulas are the preferred vascular access in patients undergoing hemodialysis. Increasing fistula prevalence depends on increasing fistula placement, improving the maturation of fistula that fail to mature and enhancing the long-term patency of mature fistula. Percutaneous methods for optimizing arteriovenous fistula maturation will be reviewed.

  17. Influence of mass-asymmetry on incomplete fusion

    During the last few decades, fusion process in heavy ion induced reaction at energies near and above the Coulomb barrier has been extensively studied. At energies not too much above the barrier, the fusion process plays an important role in reaction dynamics. The widely used model PACE-2, describes the fusion cross-section. While at higher energies, fusion process gives the way to incomplete fusion (ICF), where projectile fragmentation takes place and decreasing the reaction cross-section corresponding to the fusion. The ICF cross-section as a function of entrance channel mass asymmetry has been explained in terms of the model based on the interaction barrier, critical angular momentum and critical distance of approach. In case of ICF, an incompletely fused composite system is formed, where partial linear momentum of the projectile is given to the target nucleus and relatively less nucleonic degrees-of-freedom are involved as compared to CF. This incompletely fused composite system having less charge and mass in-comparison to completely fuse composite nucleus

  18. PDGF-C induces maturation of blood vessels in a model of glioblastoma and attenuates the response to anti-VEGF treatment.

    Emmanuelle di Tomaso

    Full Text Available Recent clinical trials of VEGF inhibitors have shown promise in the treatment of recurrent glioblastomas (GBM. However, the survival benefit is usually short-lived as tumors escape anti-VEGF therapies. Here we tested the hypothesis that Platelet Derived Growth Factor-C (PDGF-C, an isoform of the PDGF family, affects GBM progression independent of VEGF pathway and hinders anti-VEGF therapy.We first showed that PDGF-C is present in human GBMs. Then, we overexpressed or downregulated PDGF-C in a human GBM cell line, U87MG, and grew them in cranial windows in nude mice to assess vessel structure and function using intravital microscopy. PDGF-C overexpressing tumors had smaller vessel diameters and lower vascular permeability compared to the parental or siRNA-transfected tumors. Furthermore, vessels in PDGF-C overexpressing tumors had more extensive coverage with NG2 positive perivascular cells and a thicker collagen IV basement membrane than the controls. Treatment with DC101, an anti-VEGFR-2 antibody, induced decreases in vessel density in the parental tumors, but had no effect on the PDGF-C overexpressing tumors.These results suggest that PDGF-C plays an important role in glioma vessel maturation and stabilization, and that it can attenuate the response to anti-VEGF therapy, potentially contributing to escape from vascular normalization.

  19. Impacts of a GHG-induced climate change on crop yields: effects of acceleration in maturation, moisture stress and optimal temperature

    The present study involves using the Canadian Climate Centre (CCC) climate change scenario to evaluate the impacts of a CO2-induced climate change on agriculture in Quebec and vicinity. Climate change using the CCC General Circulating Model (GCM) data are fed into a crop model (FAO) so as to gauge the changes in agroclimatic factors such as growing season length and growing degree days, and subsequently potential yield changes for a variety of cereal (C3 and C4), leguminous, oleaginous, vegetable and special crops, for twelve major agricultural regions in southern Quebec. Our results show that depending upon the agricultural zone and crop type, yields may increase (ex. corn and sorghum by 20%) or decrease (ex. wheat and soybean by 20 to 30%). Also, these crop yield changes appear to be related to acceleration in maturation rates, mainly to change in moisture stress and to shifts in optimal thermal growth conditions. These possible shifts in agricultural production potentials would solicit the formulation of appropriate adaptation strategies. 77 refs., 6 figs., 5 tabs

  20. Pericoronal radiolucency associated with incomplete crown

    Nah, Kyung Soo [Dept. of Oral and Maxillofacial Radiology, School of Dentistry, Pusan National University, Yangsan (Korea, Republic of)

    2013-12-15

    The author experienced 8 cases of pericoronal radiolucency involving an incomplete tooth crown that had not developed to form the cemento-enamel junction, and the underdeveloped crown sometimes appeared to be floating within the radiolucency radiographically. The first impression was that these cystic lesions had odontogenic keratocysts, but half of them turned out to be dentigerous cysts histopathologically. There has been no report concerning odontogenic cysts involving an incompletely developed crown. The purpose of this paper is to report that dentigerous cysts may develop before the completion of the cemento-enamel junction of a developing crown.

  1. OAM beams from incomplete computer generated holograms

    Zambale, Niña Angelica F; Hermosa, Nathaniel

    2016-01-01

    In this letter we show that optical beams with orbital angular momentum (OAM) can be generated even with incomplete computer generated holograms (CGH). These holograms are made such that random portions of it do not contain any information. We observe that although the beams produced with these holograms are less intense, these beams maintain their shape and that their topological charges are not affected. Furthermore, we show that superposition of two or more beams can be created using separate incomplete CGHs interspersed together. Our result is significant especially since most method to generate beams with OAM for various applications rely on pixelated devices or optical elements with imperfections.

  2. Contractual Incompleteness, Unemployment, and Labour Market Segmentation

    Altmann, Steffen; Falk, Armin; Grunewald, Andreas;

    2014-01-01

    This article provides evidence that involuntary unemployment, and the segmentation of labour markets into firms offering "good" and "bad" jobs, may both arise as a consequence of contractual incompleteness.We provide a simple model that illustrates how unemployment and market segmentation may...... jointly emerge as part of a market equilibrium in environments where work effort is not third-party verifiable. Using experimental labour markets that differ only in the verifiability of effort, we demonstrate empirically that contractual incompleteness can cause unemployment and segmentation. Our data...

  3. CIMGS: An incomplete orthogonal factorization preconditioner

    Wang, X.; Bramley, R. [Indiana Univ., Bloomington, IN (United States); Gallivan, K. [Univ. of Illinois, Urbana, IL (United States)

    1994-12-31

    This paper introduces, analyzes, and tests a preconditioning method for conjugate gradient (CG) type iterative methods. The authors start by examining incomplete Gram-Schmidt factorization (IGS) methods in order to motivate the new preconditioner. They show that the IGS family is more stable than IC, and they successfully factor any full rank matrix. Furthermore, IGS preconditioners are at least as effective in accelerating convergence of CG type iterative methods as the incomplete Cholesky (IC) preconditioner. The drawback of IGS methods are their high cost of factorization. This motivates finding a new algorithm, CIMGS, which can generate the same factor in a more efficient way.

  4. Quantum Stackelberg duopoly with incomplete information

    We investigate the quantum version of the Stackelberg duopoly with incomplete information, especially how the quantum entanglement affects the first-mover advantage in the classical form. It is found that while positive entanglement enhances the first-mover advantage beyond the classical limit, the advantage is dramatically suppressed by negative entanglement. Moreover, despite that positive quantum entanglement improves the first-mover's tolerance for the informational incompleteness, the quantum effect does not change the basic fact that Firm A's lack of complete information of Firm B's unit cost is eradicating the first-mover advantage

  5. The empirical cost of optimal incomplete transportation

    del Barrio, Eustasio; Matrán, Carlos

    2013-01-01

    We consider the problem of optimal incomplete transportation between the empirical measure on an i.i.d. uniform sample on the $d$-dimensional unit cube $[0,1]^{d}$ and the true measure. This is a family of problems lying in between classical optimal transportation and nearest neighbor problems. We show that the empirical cost of optimal incomplete transportation vanishes at rate $O_{P}(n^{-1/d})$, where $n$ denotes the sample size. In dimension $d\\geq3$ the rate is the same as in classical op...

  6. Lactobacillus crispatus strain SJ-3C-US induces human dendritic cells (DCs) maturation and confers an anti-inflammatory phenotype to DCs.

    Eslami, Solat; Hadjati, Jamshid; Motevaseli, Elahe; Mirzaei, Reza; Farashi Bonab, Samad; Ansaripour, Bita; Khoramizadeh, Mohammad Reza

    2016-08-01

    Lactobacillus crispatus is one of the most predominant species in the healthy vagina microbiota. Nevertheless, the interactions between this commensal bacterium and the immune system are largely unknown. Given the importance of the dendritic cells (DCs) in the regulation of the immunity, this study was performed to elucidate the influence of vaginal isolated L. crispatus SJ-3C-US from healthy Iranian women on DCs, either directly by exposure of DCs to ultraviolet-inactivated (UVI) and heat-killed (HK) L. crispatus SJ-3C-US or indirectly to its cell-free supernatant (CFS), and the outcomes of immune response. In this work we showed that L. crispatus SJ-3C-US induced strong dose-dependent activation of dendritic cells and production of high levels of IL-10, whereas IL-12p70 production was induced at low level in an inverse dose-dependent manner. This stimulation skewed T cells polarization toward CD4(+) CD25(+) FOXP3(+) Treg cells and production of IL-10 in a dose-dependent manner in mixed leukocyte reaction (MLR) test. The mode of bacterial inactivation did not affect the DCs activation pattern, upon encounter with L. crispatus SJ-3C-US. Moreover, while DCs stimulated with CFS showed moderate phenotypic maturation and IL-10 production, it failed to skew T cells polarization toward CD4(+) CD25(+) FOXP3(+) regulatory T cells (Treg) and production of IL-10. This study showed that L. crispatus SJ-3C-US confers an anti-inflammatory phenotype to DCs through up-regulation of anti-inflammatory/regulatory IL-10 cytokine production and induction of CD4(+) CD25(+) FOXP3(+) T cells at optimal dosage. Our findings suggest that L. crispatus SJ-3C-US could be a potent candidate as protective probiotic against human immune-mediated pathologies, such as chronic inflammation, vaginitis or pelvic inflammatory disease (PID). PMID:27245496

  7. PIC (PRODUCTS OF INCOMPLETE COMBUSTION) ANALYSIS METHODS

    The report gives results of method evaluations for products of incomplete combustion (PICs): 36 proposed PICs were evaluated by previously developed gas chromatography/flame ionization detection (GC/FID) and gas chromatography/mass spectroscopy (GC/MS) methods. It also gives resu...

  8. CLAIM HEDGING IN AN INCOMPLETE MARKET

    SUN Wangui; WANG Chunfeng

    2005-01-01

    In this paper,we compare the performance of the optimal attainable payoffs (of a general claim) derived by the variance-optimal approach and the indifference argument under the mean-variance preference in an incomplete market.Both payoffs are expressed by the signed variance-optimal martingale measure.Our results are applied to the claim hedging under partial information.

  9. Full and Incomplete Fetal Alcohol Syndrome

    J Gordon Millichap

    2004-11-01

    Full Text Available The clinical features and hospitalization rates of children with full or incomplete fetal alcohol syndrome (FAS were compared in retrospective case-controlled studies of affected Northern Plains American Indian children attending Aberdeen Area Indian Health Service hospitals, South Dakota.

  10. The Evolution of Conventions under Incomplete Information

    Whitta-Jacobsen, Hans Jørgen; Jensen, Mogens; Sloth, Birgitte

    We formulate an evolutionary learning process in the spirit of Young (1993a) for games of incomplete information. The process involves trembles. For many games, if the amount of trembling is small, play will be in accordance with the games' (semi- strict) Bayesian equilibria most of the time. Thi...

  11. Quantum Games of Continuous Distributed Incomplete Information

    CHEN Xi; QIN Gan; ZHOU Xian-Yi; DU Jiang-Feng

    2005-01-01

    @@ We study two-player quantum games of incomplete information in which both the sides have partial information.The previous results of Du et al. [Phys. Rev. E 68 (2003) 016124] are incorporated in our more general formalism.Because of different roles played by the total information uncertainty and the information asymmetry, the game exhibits many interesting features.

  12. Aesthetic plastic correction of incomplete testicular feminization.

    Hinderer, U T

    1979-12-01

    Surgery was performed for feminization of ambiguous (male) external genitalia in 1973 on a patient with incomplete testicular feminization (familial male hermaphroditism of mixed variety). Rhinoplasty and augmentation of the chin, the malar region, the breasts were also performed not only to improve the patient's sexual role but to enhance the aesthetic appearance, as an aid in better phychosocial adaptation. PMID:24173991

  13. Human Induced Pluripotent Stem Cell-Derived Microvesicles Transmit RNAs and Proteins to Recipient Mature Heart Cells Modulating Cell Fate and Behavior.

    Bobis-Wozowicz, Sylwia; Kmiotek, Katarzyna; Sekula, Malgorzata; Kedracka-Krok, Sylwia; Kamycka, Elzbieta; Adamiak, Marta; Jankowska, Urszula; Madetko-Talowska, Anna; Sarna, Michal; Bik-Multanowski, Miroslaw; Kolcz, Jacek; Boruczkowski, Dariusz; Madeja, Zbigniew; Dawn, Buddhadeb; Zuba-Surma, Ewa K

    2015-09-01

    Microvesicles (MVs) are membrane-enclosed cytoplasmic fragments released by normal and activated cells that have been described as important mediators of cell-to-cell communication. Although the ability of human induced pluripotent stem cells (hiPSCs) to participate in tissue repair is being increasingly recognized, the use of hiPSC-derived MVs (hiPSC-MVs) in this regard remains unknown. Accordingly, we investigated the ability of hiPSC-MVs to transfer bioactive molecules including mRNA, microRNA (miRNA), and proteins to mature target cells such as cardiac mesenchymal stromal cells (cMSCs), and we next analyzed effects of hiPSC-MVs on fate and behavior of such target cells. The results show that hiPSC-MVs derived from integration-free hiPSCs cultured under serum-free and feeder-free conditions are rich in mRNA, miRNA, and proteins originated from parent cells; however, the levels of expression vary between donor cells and MVs. Importantly, we found that transfer of hiPSC components by hiPSC-MVs impacted on transcriptome and proteomic profiles of target cells as well as exerted proliferative and protective effects on cMSCs, and enhanced their cardiac and endothelial differentiation potential. hiPSC-MVs also transferred exogenous transcripts from genetically modified hiPSCs that opens new perspectives for future strategies to enhance MV content. We conclude that hiPSC-MVs are effective vehicles for transferring iPSC attributes to adult somatic cells, and hiPSC-MV-mediated horizontal transfer of RNAs and proteins to injured tissues may be used for therapeutic tissue repair. In this study, for the first time, we propose a new concept of use of hiPSCs as a source of safe acellular bioactive derivatives for tissue regeneration. PMID:26031404

  14. Maturity and maturity models in lean construction

    Claus Nesensohn

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available In recent years there has been an increasing interest in maturity models in management-related disciplines; which reflects a growing recognition that becoming more mature and having a model to guide the route to maturity can help organisations in managing major transformational change. Lean Construction (LC is an increasingly important improvement approach that organisations seek to embed. This study explores how to apply the maturity models to LC. Hence the attitudes, opinions and experiences of key industry informants with high levels of knowledge of LC were investigated. To achieve this, a review of maturity models was conducted, and data for the analysis was collected through a sequential process involving three methods. First a group interview with seven key informants. Second a follow up discussion with the same individuals to investigate some of the issues raised in more depth. Third an online discussion held via LinkedIn in which members shared their views on some of the results. Overall, we found that there is a lack of common understanding as to what maturity means in LC, though there is general agreement that the concept of maturity is a suitable one to reflect the path of evolution for LC within organisations.

  15. A sea urchin lectin, SUL-1, from the Toxopneustid sea urchin induces DC maturation from human monocyte and drives Th1 polarization in vitro.

    Takei, Masao; Nakagawa, Hideyuki

    2006-05-15

    The sea urchin Toxopneustes pileolus belonging to the family Toxopneustidae, they have well-developed globiferous pedicellariae with pharmacologically active substances. We have purified a novel sea urchin lectin-1 (SUL-1) from the large globiferous pedicellariae of T. pileolus. Dendritic cells (DC) are professional APC and play a pivotal role in controlling immune responses. This study investigated whether SUL-1 can drive DC maturation from human immature monocyte-derived DC in vitro. Human monocytes were cultured with GM-CSF and IL-4 for 6 days followed by another 1 day in the presence of SUL-1 or LPS. DC harvested on day 7 were examined using functional assays. The expression levels of CD1a, CD80, CD83, CD86 and HLA-DR as expressed by mean fluorescence intensity (MFI) on DC differentiated from immature DC after culture with 1.0 microg/ml of SUL-1 for 1 day were enhanced and decreased endocytic activity. SUL-1-treated DC also displayed enhanced T cell stimulatory capacity in an MLR, as measured by T cell proliferation. Cell surface expression of CD80, CD83 and CD86 on SUL-1-treated DC was inhibited by anti-DC-SIGN mAb, while anti-DC-SIGN mAb had no influence on allogeneic T cell proliferation by SUL-1-treated DC. DC differentiated with SUL-1 induced the differentiation of naïve T cell towards a helper T cell type 1 (Th1) response at DC/T (1:5) cells ratio depending on IL-12 secretion. In CTL assay, the production of IFN-gamma and 51Cr release on SUL-1-treated DC were more augmented than of immature DC or LPS-treated DC. SUL-1-treated DC expressed CCR7 and had a high migration to MIP-3beta. Intracellular Ca2+ mobilization in SUL-1-treated DC was also induced by MIP-3beta. These results suggest that SUL-1 bindings to DC-SIGN on surface of immature DC may lead to differentiate DC from immature DC. Moreover, it suggests that SUL-1 may be used on DC-based vaccines for cancer immunotherapy. PMID:16197973

  16. A sea urchin lectin, SUL-1, from the Toxopneustid sea urchin induces DC maturation from human monocyte and drives Th1 polarization in vitro

    The sea urchin Toxopneustes pileolus belonging to the family Toxopneustidae, they have well-developed globiferous pedicellariae with pharmacologically active substances. We have purified a novel sea urchin lectin-1 (SUL-1) from the large globiferous pedicellariae of T. pileolus. Dendritic cells (DC) are professional APC and play a pivotal role in controlling immune responses. This study investigated whether SUL-1 can drive DC maturation from human immature monocyte-derived DC in vitro. Human monocytes were cultured with GM-CSF and IL-4 for 6 days followed by another 1 day in the presence of SUL-1 or LPS. DC harvested on day 7 were examined using functional assays. The expression levels of CD1a, CD80, CD83, CD86 and HLA-DR as expressed by mean fluorescence intensity (MFI) on DC differentiated from immature DC after culture with 1.0 μg/ml of SUL-1 for 1 day were enhanced and decreased endocytic activity. SUL-1-treated DC also displayed enhanced T cell stimulatory capacity in an MLR, as measured by T cell proliferation. Cell surface expression of CD80, CD83 and CD86 on SUL-1-treated DC was inhibited by anti-DC-SIGN mAb, while anti-DC-SIGN mAb had no influence on allogeneic T cell proliferation by SUL-1-treated DC. DC differentiated with SUL-1 induced the differentiation of naive T cell towards a helper T cell type 1 (Th1) response at DC/T (1:5) cells ratio depending on IL-12 secretion. In CTL assay, the production of IFN-γ and 51Cr release on SUL-1-treated DC were more augmented than of immature DC or LPS-treated DC. SUL-1-treated DC expressed CCR7 and had a high migration to MIP-3β. Intracellular Ca2+ mobilization in SUL-1-treated DC was also induced by MIP-3β. These results suggest that SUL-1 bindings to DC-SIGN on surface of immature DC may lead to differentiate DC from immature DC. Moreover, it suggests that SUL-1 may be used on DC-based vaccines for cancer immunotherapy

  17. Quantum State Reconstruction From Incomplete Data

    Buzek, V; Derka, R; Adam, G; Wiedemann, H

    1998-01-01

    Knowing and guessing, these are two essential epistemological pillars in the theory of quantum-mechanical measurement. As formulated quantum mechanics is a statistical theory. In general, a priori unknown states can be completely determined only when measurements on infinite ensembles of identically prepared quantum systems are performed. But how one can estimate (guess) quantum state when just incomplete data are available (known)? What is the most reliable estimation based on a given measured data? What is the optimal measurement providing only a finite number of identically prepared quantum objects are available? These are some of the questions we address. We present several schemes for a reconstruction of states of quantum systems from measured data: (1) We show how the maximum entropy (MaxEnt) principle can be efficiently used for an estimation of quantum states on incomplete observation levels. (2) We show how Bayesian inference can be used for reconstruction of quantum states when only a finite number ...

  18. Advanced incomplete factorization algorithms for Stiltijes matrices

    Il`in, V.P. [Siberian Division RAS, Novosibirsk (Russian Federation)

    1996-12-31

    The modern numerical methods for solving the linear algebraic systems Au = f with high order sparse matrices A, which arise in grid approximations of multidimensional boundary value problems, are based mainly on accelerated iterative processes with easily invertible preconditioning matrices presented in the form of approximate (incomplete) factorization of the original matrix A. We consider some recent algorithmic approaches, theoretical foundations, experimental data and open questions for incomplete factorization of Stiltijes matrices which are {open_quotes}the best{close_quotes} ones in the sense that they have the most advanced results. Special attention is given to solving the elliptic differential equations with strongly variable coefficients, singular perturbated diffusion-convection and parabolic equations.

  19. An Intuitively Complete Analysis of Godel's Incompleteness

    Steinmetz, Jason W.

    2015-01-01

    A detailed and rigorous analysis of Godel's proof of his first incompleteness theorem is presented. The purpose of this analysis is two-fold. The first is to reveal what Godel actually proved to provide a clear and solid foundation upon which to base future research. The second is to construct a coherent explication of Godel's proof that is not only approachable by the non-specialist, but also brings to light the core principles underlying Godel's proof.

  20. Phase Transitions for Gödel Incompleteness

    Weiermann, Andreas

    2009-01-01

    Gödel's first incompleteness result from 1931 states that there are true assertions about the natural numbers which do not follow from the Peano axioms. Since 1931 many researchers have been looking for natural examples of such assertions and breakthroughs have been obtained in the seventies by Jeff Paris (in part jointly with Leo Harrington and Laurie Kirby) and Harvey Friedman who produced first mathematically interesting independence results in Ramsey theory (Paris) and well-order an...

  1. Essential Incompleteness of Arithmetic Verified by Coq

    O'Connor, Russell

    2005-01-01

    A constructive proof of the Goedel-Rosser incompleteness theorem has been completed using the Coq proof assistant. Some theory of classical first-order logic over an arbitrary language is formalized. A development of primitive recursive functions is given, and all primitive recursive functions are proved to be representable in a weak axiom system. Formulas and proofs are encoded as natural numbers, and functions operating on these codes are proved to be primitive recursive. The weak axiom sys...

  2. Cooperation Breakdowns under Incomplete Property Rights

    Jean-Pierre Tranchant

    2005-01-01

    In order to analyze conflict and cooperation between a State and a non ruling group in a general equilibrium, I unite pure rent-seeking models and economic models of conflict under an assumption of incomplete property rights. I show that a unique and globally stable Nash equilibrium exists in this game. Cooperation breakdowns appear to be twofold: generalized conflict driven by a collapse of the State and one- sided rebellion due to the coexistence between a strong State and a weak minority. ...

  3. Securitization and Real Investment in Incomplete Markets

    Vishal Gaur; Sridhar Seshadri; Subrahmanyam, Marti G.

    2011-01-01

    We study the impact of financial innovations on real investment decisions within the framework of an incomplete market economy comprised of firms, investors, and an intermediary. The firms face unique investment opportunities that arise in their business operations and can be undertaken at given reservation prices. The cash flows thus generated are not spanned by the securities traded in the financial market and cannot be valued uniquely. The intermediary purchases claims against these cash f...

  4. Derivatives of the Incomplete Beta Function

    Robert J. Boik

    1998-03-01

    Full Text Available The incomplete beta function is defined as where Beta(p, q is the beta function. Dutka (1981 gave a history of the development and numerical evaluation of this function. In this article, an algorithm for computing first and second derivatives of Ix,p,q with respect to p and q is described. The algorithm is useful, for example, when fitting parameters to a censored beta, truncated beta, or a truncated beta-binomial model.

  5. Derivatives of the Incomplete Beta Function

    Robison-Cox, James F.; Robert J. Boik

    1998-01-01

    The incomplete beta function is defined as where Beta(p, q) is the beta function. Dutka (1981) gave a history of the development and numerical evaluation of this function. In this article, an algorithm for computing first and second derivatives of Ix,p,q with respect to p and q is described. The algorithm is useful, for example, when fitting parameters to a censored beta, truncated beta, or a truncated beta-binomial model.

  6. Fuzzy sequential pattern mining in incomplete databases

    Fiot, Céline; Laurent, Anne; Teisseire, Maguelonne

    2008-01-01

    Recent widening of data mining application areas have lead to new issues. For instance, frequent sequence discovery techniques that were developed for customer behaviour analysis are now applied to analyse industrial or biological databases. Thus frequent sequence mining algorithm must be adapted to handle particular characteristics of these data. Among these specificities one should consider numerical attributes and incomplete data. In this paper, we propose a method for di...

  7. Theory of Demand in Incomplete Markets

    Turner, Sergio

    2006-01-01

    We develop the theory of demand for commodities and assets facing incompletely insurable uncertainty. First, a Slutsky matrix decomposes into substitution and income effects the derivative of demand with respect to prices and yield structure. Next, we identify the Slutsky matrix’s properties. The Slutsky matrix can be perturbed arbitrarily, subject only to preserving these properties, by perturbing the underlying utility’s Hessian, while fixing point demand and marginal utility. The key resul...

  8. Classification and data acquisition with incomplete data

    Williams, David P.

    In remote-sensing applications, incomplete data can result when only a subset of sensors (e.g., radar, infrared, acoustic) are deployed at certain regions. The limitations of single sensor systems have spurred interest in employing multiple sensor modalities simultaneously. For example, in land mine detection tasks, different sensor modalities are better-suited to capture different aspects of the underlying physics of the mines. Synthetic aperture radar sensors may be better at detecting surface mines, while infrared sensors may be better at detecting buried mines. By employing multiple sensor modalities to address the detection task, the strengths of the disparate sensors can be exploited in a synergistic manner to improve performance beyond that which would be achievable with either single sensor alone. When multi-sensor approaches are employed, however, incomplete data can be manifested. If each sensor is located on a separate platform ( e.g., aircraft), each sensor may interrogate---and hence collect data over---only partially overlapping areas of land. As a result, some data points may be characterized by data (i.e., features) from only a subset of the possible sensors employed in the task. Equivalently, this scenario implies that some data points will be missing features. Increasing focus in the future on using---and fusing data from---multiple sensors will make such incomplete-data problems commonplace. In many applications involving incomplete data, it is possible to acquire the missing data at a cost. In multi-sensor remote-sensing applications, data is acquired by deploying sensors to data points. Acquiring data is usually an expensive, time-consuming task, a fact that necessitates an intelligent data acquisition process. Incomplete data is not limited to remote-sensing applications, but rather, can arise in virtually any data set. In this dissertation, we address the general problem of classification when faced with incomplete data. We also address the

  9. Godel's Incompleteness Theorems and Platonic Metaphysics

    Mikovic, Aleksandar

    2015-01-01

    We argue by using Godel's incompletness theorems in logic that platonism is the best metaphysics for science. This is based on the fact that a natural law in a platonic metaphysics represents a timeless order in the motion of matter, while a natural law in a materialistic metaphysics can be only defined as a temporary order which appears at random in the chaotic motion of matter. Although a logical possibility, one can argue that this type of metaphysics is highly implausible. Given that mathematics fits naturally within platonism, we conclude that a platonic metaphysics is more preferable than a materialistic metaphysics.

  10. On problem of optimization under incomplete information

    Volf, Petr

    Karviná : Silesian University in Opava, School of Business Administration in Karviná, 2012 - (Ramík, J.; Stavárek, D.), s. 968-973 ISBN 978-80-7248-779-0. [30th International Conference Mathematical Methods in Economics 2012. Karviná (CZ), 11.09.2012-13.09.2012] R&D Projects: GA ČR GAP402/10/0956 Institutional support: RVO:67985556 Keywords : optimization * censored data * Fisher information * product-limit estimate Subject RIV: BB - Applied Statistics, Operational Research http://library.utia.cas.cz/separaty/2012/SI/volf-on problem of optimization under incomplete information.pdf

  11. Incomplete Dirac reduction of constrained Hamiltonian systems

    Chandre, C., E-mail: chandre@cpt.univ-mrs.fr

    2015-10-15

    First-class constraints constitute a potential obstacle to the computation of a Poisson bracket in Dirac’s theory of constrained Hamiltonian systems. Using the pseudoinverse instead of the inverse of the matrix defined by the Poisson brackets between the constraints, we show that a Dirac–Poisson bracket can be constructed, even if it corresponds to an incomplete reduction of the original Hamiltonian system. The uniqueness of Dirac brackets is discussed. The relevance of this procedure for infinite dimensional Hamiltonian systems is exemplified.

  12. Some results on resolvable incomplete block designs

    LIU; Minqian; FANG; Kaitai

    2005-01-01

    This paper is concerned with the uniformity of a certain kind of resolvable incomplete block (RIB for simplicity) design which is called the PRIB design here. A sufficient and necessary condition is obtained, under which a PRIB design is the most uniform in the sense of a discrete discrepancy measure, and the uniform PRIB design is shown to be connected. A construction method for such designs via a kind of U-type designs is proposed, and an existence result of these designs is given. This method sets up an important bridge between PRIB designs and U-type designs.

  13. Incomplete Dirac reduction of constrained Hamiltonian systems

    First-class constraints constitute a potential obstacle to the computation of a Poisson bracket in Dirac’s theory of constrained Hamiltonian systems. Using the pseudoinverse instead of the inverse of the matrix defined by the Poisson brackets between the constraints, we show that a Dirac–Poisson bracket can be constructed, even if it corresponds to an incomplete reduction of the original Hamiltonian system. The uniqueness of Dirac brackets is discussed. The relevance of this procedure for infinite dimensional Hamiltonian systems is exemplified

  14. Incomplete fusion in 12C+160Gd collisions

    The mechanism of the production of fast α-particles in 12C induced reactions was studied over a wide range of bombarding energies (7.5-16.7 MeV/A) by measuring α-γ coincidences. Absolute cross sections for 160Gd(12C,αxn)sup(168-x)Er and 160Gd(12C,2αxn)sup(164-x)Dy reactions, as well as inclusive α-particle production cross sections, have been determined. Depending on the bombarding energy, a fraction of 0.2-0.4 of the singles α-particles can be explained as resulting from incomplete fusion reactions (12C,α) and (12C,2α) which correspond to a capture of '8Be' and '4He', respectively. The energy dependence of the cross sections for (12C,α) and (12C,2α) incomplete fusion as well as for (12C,3α) projectile breakup is given. (Auth.)

  15. A new version of an old modal incompleteness theorem

    Vosmaer, Jacob

    2012-01-01

    Thomason \\cite{Thomason74} showed that a certain modal logic $\\mathbf{L}\\subset \\mathbf{S4}$ is incomplete with respect to Kripke semantics. Later Gerson \\cite{Gerson75} showed that $\\mathbf{L}$ is also incomplete with respect to neighborhood semantics. In this paper we show that $\\mathbf{L}$ is in fact incomplete with respect to any class of complete Boolean algebras with operators, i.e. that it is completely incomplete.

  16. Goedel incompleteness theorems and the limits of their applicability. I

    This is a survey of results related to the Goedel incompleteness theorems and the limits of their applicability. The first part of the paper discusses Goedel's own formulations along with modern strengthenings of the first incompleteness theorem. Various forms and proofs of this theorem are compared. Incompleteness results related to algorithmic problems and mathematically natural examples of unprovable statements are discussed. Bibliography: 68 titles.

  17. A new version of an old modal incompleteness theorem

    J. Vosmaer

    2010-01-01

    Thomason [5] showed that a certain modal logic L⊂ S4 is incomplete with respect to Kripke semantics. Later Gerson [3] showed that L is also incomplete with respect to neighborhood semantics. In this paper we show that L is in fact incomplete with respect to any class of complete Boolean algebras wit

  18. Proteolytic Cleavage of ProBDNF into Mature BDNF in the Basolateral Amygdala Is Necessary for Defeat-Induced Social Avoidance

    Dulka, Brooke N.; Ford, Ellen C.; Lee, Melissa A.; Donnell, Nathaniel J.; Goode, Travis D.; Prosser, Rebecca; Cooper, Matthew A.

    2016-01-01

    Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) is essential for memory processes. The present study tested whether proteolytic cleavage of proBDNF into mature BDNF (mBDNF) within the basolateral amygdala (BLA) regulates the consolidation of defeat-related memories. We found that acute social defeat increases the expression of mBDNF, but not proBDNF, in…

  19. The Flight from Maturity

    Gary B. Gorton; Andrew Metrick; Lei Xie

    2014-01-01

    Why did the failure of Lehman Brothers make the financial crisis dramatically worse? The financial crisis was a process of a build-up of risk during the crisis prior to the Lehman failure. Market participants tried to preserve an option or exit by shortening maturities - the "flight from maturity". With increasingly short maturities, lenders created the possibility of fast exit. The failure of Lehman Brothers was the tipping point of this build-up of systemic fragility. We produce a chronolog...

  20. Audit Maturity Model

    Bhattacharya Uttam

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Today it is crucial for organizations to pay even greater attention on quality management as the importance of this function in achieving ultimate business objectives is increasingly becoming clearer. Importance of the Quality Management (QM Function in achieving basic need by ensuring compliance with Capability Maturity Model Integrated (CMMI / International Organization for Standardization (ISO is a basic demand from business nowadays. However, QM Function and its processes need to be made much more mature to prevent delivery outages and to achieve business excellence through their review and auditing capability. Many organizations now face challenges in determining the maturity of the QM group along with the service offered by them and the right way to elevate the maturity of the same. The objective of this whitepaper is to propose a new model –the Audit Maturity Model (AMM which will provide organizations with a measure of their maturity in quality management in the perspective of auditing, along with recommendations for preventing delivery outage, and identifying risk to achieve business excellence. This will enable organizations to assess QM maturity higher than basic hygiene and will also help them to identify gaps and to take corrective actions for achieving higher maturity levels. Hence the objective is to envisage a new auditing model as a part of organisation quality management function which can be a guide for them to achieve higher level of maturity and ultimately help to achieve delivery and business excellence.

  1. Photochemically induced incomplete spinal cord injury in cat%光化学法诱导猫不完全脊髓损伤动物模型的建立

    王熠钊; 徐江; 许涛; 方征宇; 徐琦; 黄晓琳

    2010-01-01

    Objective To explore the potential of creating a cat model of spinal cord infarction initiated by a photochemical reaction in terms of the neuroethology, motor evoked potential, and morphological outcomes. Meth-ods Fifteen cats were divided into three groups at random. T_13 in the spinal cord was photochemically irradiated for 40 min, 60 min or 80 min in different groups. A photochemically-induced infarction was produced by intravenous in-jection of rose Bengal (35 mg/kg) combined with immediate cold light irradiation (3000 klx) of the spinal cord.Neuroethology changes were observed every day after the surgery far 21 days, and morphological changes were exam-ined at day 21, before which the motor evoked potential was examined and compared with measurements taken before injury. Results The spinal cord infarctions induced by intravenous injection of rose Bengal plus cold light irradia-tion for 40 min were stable by day 8, while the other two groups were stable by day 12. The size of the infarction area in the spinal cord was stable, while the neuroethology, electrophysiological and histopathological changes in the cats were significant. Conclusions All of the cats demonstrated decreased functional mobility after photochemically in-duced thrombosis of the spinal cord, with corresponding pathomorphological and electrophysiologic changes. The model of infarction was stable and reliable.%目的 观察光化学法诱导猫脊髓损伤后的神经行为学、运动诱发电位及形态学改变,为研究脊髓损伤后神经再生与功能重建建立动物模型.方法 将15只猫根据冷光源照射时间不同随机分为40 min组、60 min组和80 min组.手术暴露脊髓后,用35 mg/kg体重的玫瑰红静脉注射,联合应用强度为3000 klx的冷光源照射T_13脊髓节段.术后21 d内连续观察动物神经行为学改变;于术后第21天检测动物的运动诱发电位,并与术前结果 比较;取材观察动物脊髓组织形态学改变.结果 3

  2. Building Chaotic Model From Incomplete Time Series

    Siek, Michael; Solomatine, Dimitri

    2010-05-01

    This paper presents a number of novel techniques for building a predictive chaotic model from incomplete time series. A predictive chaotic model is built by reconstructing the time-delayed phase space from observed time series and the prediction is made by a global model or adaptive local models based on the dynamical neighbors found in the reconstructed phase space. In general, the building of any data-driven models depends on the completeness and quality of the data itself. However, the completeness of the data availability can not always be guaranteed since the measurement or data transmission is intermittently not working properly due to some reasons. We propose two main solutions dealing with incomplete time series: using imputing and non-imputing methods. For imputing methods, we utilized the interpolation methods (weighted sum of linear interpolations, Bayesian principle component analysis and cubic spline interpolation) and predictive models (neural network, kernel machine, chaotic model) for estimating the missing values. After imputing the missing values, the phase space reconstruction and chaotic model prediction are executed as a standard procedure. For non-imputing methods, we reconstructed the time-delayed phase space from observed time series with missing values. This reconstruction results in non-continuous trajectories. However, the local model prediction can still be made from the other dynamical neighbors reconstructed from non-missing values. We implemented and tested these methods to construct a chaotic model for predicting storm surges at Hoek van Holland as the entrance of Rotterdam Port. The hourly surge time series is available for duration of 1990-1996. For measuring the performance of the proposed methods, a synthetic time series with missing values generated by a particular random variable to the original (complete) time series is utilized. There exist two main performance measures used in this work: (1) error measures between the actual

  3. Glucocorticoid receptor translational isoforms underlie maturational stage-specific glucocorticoid sensitivities of dendritic cells in mice and humans

    Cao, Yun; Bender, Ingrid K.; Konstantinidis, Athanasios K.; Shin, Soon Cheon; Jewell, Christine M.; Cidlowski, John A; Schleimer, Robert P.; Lu, Nick Z.

    2013-01-01

    Mature, but not immature, dendritic cells are sensitive to glucocorticoid-induced apoptosis.Mature, but not immature, dendritic cells express proapoptotic glucocorticoid receptor translational isoforms.

  4. Traditional Chinese Medicine, the Zishen Yutai Pill, Ameliorates Precocious Endometrial Maturation Induced by Controlled Ovarian Hyperstimulation and Improves Uterine Receptivity via Upregulation of HOXA10

    Qi Gao; Lu Han; Xiumei Li; Xia Cai

    2015-01-01

    Controlled ovarian hyperstimulation (COH) is widely used in assisted reproductive technology (ART), but it often leads to precocious maturation of the endometrium such that it impairs embryonic implantation and limits pregnancy rates. Previous studies have shown the traditional Chinese medicine, the Zishen Yutai pill (ZYP), to be effective in treatment of threatened as well as recurrent miscarriages, and it can improve embryonic implantation rates in patients undergoing IVF treatment. In the ...

  5. Attenuated Leishmania induce pro-inflammatory mediators and influence leishmanicidal activity by p38 MAPK dependent phagosome maturation in Leishmania donovani co-infected macrophages

    Somenath Banerjee; Dipayan Bose; Nabanita Chatterjee; Subhadip Das; Sreeparna Chakraborty; Tanya Das; Krishna Das Saha

    2016-01-01

    Promastigote form of Leishmania, an intracellular pathogen, delays phagosome maturation and resides inside macrophages. But till date limited study has been done to manipulate the phagosomal machinery of macrophages to restrict Leishmania growth. Attenuated Leishmania strain exposed RAW 264.7 cells showed a respiratory burst and enhanced production of pro-inflammatory mediators. The augmentation of pro-inflammatory activity is mostly attributed to p38 MAPK and p44/42 MAPK. In our study, these...

  6. Incomplete melting of the Au(100) surface

    We study the high-temperature disordering of the reconstructed Au(100) surface by molecular dynamics simulation using a many-body interatomic potential. We find that the surface deconstructs at 0.8Tm in good agreement with experimental data, but proper surface melting does not occur close to the bulk melting point. Instead there is an in-plane disordering of the two topmost layers. The thickness of the disordered region remains constant with increasing temperature, indicating blocked, or incomplete, melting of the (100) crystalline substrate. An analysis of the structure reveals that crystalline and disordered islands coexist on two first surface layers for temperature between deconstruction and bulk melting. (author). 24 refs, 10 figs

  7. Light particle revelation on incomplete fusion reactions

    Incomplete fusion reactions have been studied through light particles emission in the reaction 116Sn + 16O at 125 MeV (ALICE facility in Orsay). We measured energy angular distributions and correlations between any two of these particles (α particles, protons, neutrons), while γ multiplicity measurements provide us fuller informations. From collected data, the following pictures can be drawn: - the only fast particles observed are α particles, while protons and neutrons seem to come only from statistical evaporation; - outgoing channels where two α particles are emitted cannot be solely explained by the sequential emission of 8Be → 2α: about half of the cross section proceeds from statistical evaporation of one α particle. Accordingly, 2αxn channels do not necessarily agree with high value of angular momentum in the entrance channel. From the study of experimental results in the yrast plane, we can assign a large width to the angular momentum distribution

  8. Competitive Spectrum Management with Incomplete Information

    Noam, Yair; Messer, Hagit

    2010-01-01

    This paper studies an interference interaction (game) between selfish and independent wireless communication systems in the same frequency band. Each system (player) has incomplete information about the other player's channel conditions. A trivial Nash equilibrium point in this game is where players mutually full spread (FS) their transmit spectrum and interfere with each other. This point may lead to poor spectrum utilization from a global network point of view and even for each user individually. In this paper, we provide a closed form expression for a non pure-FS epsilon-Nash equilibrium point; i.e., an equilibrium point where players choose FDM for some channel realizations and FS for the others. We show that operating in this non pure-FS epsilon-Nash equilibrium point increases each user's throughput and therefore improves the spectrum utilization, and demonstrate that this performance gain can be substantial. Finally, important insights are provided into the behaviour of selfish and rational wireless us...

  9. Thymic hormones in radiation-induced immunodeficiency. I. Induction of mature interleukin 1 responsive cell in the thymus by thymosin fraction 5

    The restorative effect of thymosin fraction 5 (TF5) on the thymus of gamma-irradiated mice was examined. Four different mouse strains were used in this study since earlier work determined that the degree of response to TF5 is strain dependent. The responsiveness to comitogenic effect of interleukin 1 (IL-1) was used to measure the rate of recovery of immunocompetent cells in the thymus, since only more mature PNA-, Lyt-1+-2- medullary cells respond to this monokine. Contrary to several earlier reports that radioresistant cells repopulating the thymus within the first 10 days after irradiation are mature, corticosteroid resistant, immunocompetent cells, the thymic cells from irradiated mice in all strains used had greatly reduced responses to IL-1. Daily intraperitoneal injections of TF5 increased significantly the responses of thymic cells to IL-1 in 10- to 13-weeks-old C57Bl/KsJ, C57Bl/6, C3H/HeJ, and DBA/1 mice. Older mice, 5 months or more in age, of DBA/1 strain did not respond to treatment with TF5. However, C3H/HeJ mice of the same age were highly responsive. In conclusion, (1) cells repopulating the thymus within 12 days after irradiation contain lower than normal fraction of mature IL-1 responsive cells, (2) thymic hormones increase the rate of recovery of immunocompetent cells in the thymus, and (3) the effect of thymic hormones is strain and age dependent

  10. In praise of the incomplete leader.

    Ancona, Deborah; Malone, Thomas W; Orlikowski, Wanda J; Senge, Peter M

    2007-02-01

    Today's top executives are expected to do everything right, from coming up with solutions to unfathomably complex problems to having the charisma and prescience to rally stakeholders around a perfect vision of the future. But no one leader can be all things to all people. It's time to end the myth of the complete leader, say the authors. Those at the top must come to understand their weaknesses as well as their strengths. Only by embracing the ways in which they are incomplete can leaders fill in the gaps in their knowledge with others' skills. The incomplete leader has the confidence and humility to recognize unique talents and perspectives throughout the organization--and to let those qualities shine. The authors' work studying leadership over the past six years has led them to develop a framework of distributed leadership. Within that model, leadership consists of four capabilities: sensemaking, relating, "visioning," and inventing. Sensemaking involves understanding and mapping the context in which a company and its people operate. A leader skilled in this area can quickly identify the complexities of a given situation and explain them to others. The second capability, relating, means being able to build trusting relationships with others through inquiring (listening with intention), advocating (explaining one's own point of view), and connecting (establishing a network of allies who can help a leader accomplish his or her goals). Visioning, the third capability, means coming up with a compelling image of the future. It is a collaborative process that articulates what the members of an organization want to create. Finally, inventing involves developing new ways to bring that vision to life. Rarely will a single person be skilled in all four areas. That's why it's critical that leaders find others who can offset their limitations and complement their strengths. Those who don't will not only bear the burden of leadership alone but will find themselves at the helm

  11. Regulatory perspective on incomplete control rod insertions

    Chatterton, M.

    1997-01-01

    The incomplete control rod insertions experienced at South Texas Unit 1 and Wolf Creek are of safety concern to the NRC staff because they represent potential precursors to loss of shutdown margin. Even before it was determined if these events were caused by the control rods or by the fuel there was an apparent correlation of the problem with high burnup fuel. It was determined that there was also a correlation between high burnup and high drag forces as well as with rod drop time histories and lack of rod recoil. The NRC staff initial actions were aimed at getting a perspective on the magnitude of the problem as far as the number of plants and the amount of fuel that could be involved, as well as the safety significance in terms of shutdown margin. As tests have been performed and data has been analyzed the focus has shifted more toward understanding the problem and the ways to eliminate it. At this time the staff`s understanding of the phenomena is that it was a combination of factors including burnup, power history and temperature. The problem appears to be very sensitive to these factors, the interaction of which is not clearly understood. The model developed by Westinghouse provides a possible explanation but there is not sufficient data to establish confidence levels and sensitivity studies involving the key parameters have not been done. While several fixes to the problem have been discussed, no definitive fixes have been proposed. Without complete understanding of the phenomena, or fixes that clearly eliminate the problem the safety concern remains. The safety significance depends on the amount of shutdown margin lost due to incomplete insertion of the control rods. Were the control rods to stick high in the core, the reactor could not be shutdown by the control rods and other means such as emergency boration would be required.

  12. NK Cell-Specific Gata3 Ablation Identifies the Maturation Program Required for Bone Marrow Exit and Control of Proliferation.

    Ali, Alaa Kassim; Oh, Jun Seok; Vivier, Eric; Busslinger, Meinrad; Lee, Seung-Hwan

    2016-02-15

    NK cells are innate lymphocytes capable of eliciting an innate immune response to pathogens. NK cells develop and become mature in the bone marrow (BM) before they migrate out to peripheral organs. Although the developmental program leading to mature NK cells has been studied in the context of several transcription factors, the stage-specific role of GATA3 in NK cell development has been incompletely understood. Using NKp46-Cre-Gata3(fl/fl) mice in which Gata3 deficiency was induced as early as the immature stage of NK cell differentiation, we demonstrated that GATA3 is required for the NK cell maturation beyond the CD27 single-positive stage and is indispensable for the maintenance of liver-resident NK cells. The frequencies of NK cells from NKp46-Cre-Gata3(fl/fl) mice were found higher in the BM but lower in peripheral organs compared with control littermates, indicating that GATA3 controls the maturation program required for BM egress. Despite the defect in maturation, upon murine CMV infection, NK cells from NKp46-Cre-Gata3(fl/fl) mice expanded vigorously, achieving NK cell frequencies surpassing those in controls and therefore provided comparable protection. The heightened proliferation of NK cells from NKp46-Cre-Gata3(fl/fl) mice was cell intrinsic and associated with enhanced upregulation of CD25 expression. Taken together, our results demonstrate that GATA3 is a critical regulator for NK cell terminal maturation and egress out of the BM and that immature NK cells present in the periphery of NKp46-Cre-Gata3(fl/fl) mice can rapidly expand and provide a reservoir of NK cells capable of mounting an efficient cytotoxic response upon virus infection. PMID:26773150

  13. Induction of complete and incomplete chromosome aberrations by bleomycin in human lymphocytes

    Bleomycin (BLM) is a clastogenic compound, which due to the overdispersion in the cell distribution of induced dicentrics has been compared to the effect of high-LET radiation. Recently, it has been described that in fibroblast derived cell lines BLM induces incomplete chromosome elements more efficiently than any type of ionizing radiation. The objective of the present study was to evaluate in human lymphocytes the induction of dicentrics and incomplete chromosome elements by BLM. Peripheral blood samples have been treated with different concentrations of BLM. Two cytogenetic techniques were applied, fluorescence plus Giemsa (FPG) and FISH using pan-centromeric and pan-telomeric probes. The observed frequency of dicentric equivalents increases linearly with the BLM concentration, and for all BLM concentrations the distribution of dicentric equivalents was overdispersed. In the FISH study the ratio between total incomplete elements and multicentrics was 0.27. The overdispersion in the dicentric cell distribution, and the linear BLM-concentration dependence of dicentrics can be compared to the effect of high-LET radiation, on the contrary the ratio of incomplete elements and multicentrics is similar to the one induced by low-LET radiation (∼0.40). The elevated proportion of interstitial deletions in relation to total acentric fragments, higher than any type of ionizing radiation could be a characteristic signature of the clastogenic effect of BLM

  14. Induction of complete and incomplete chromosome aberrations by bleomycin in human lymphocytes

    Benkhaled, L.; Xuncla, M.; Caballin, M.R. [Universitat Autonoma de Barcelona, Unitat d' Antropologia Biologica, Departament de Biologia Animal, Biologia Vegetal i Ecologia, E-08193 Bellaterra (Spain); Barrios, L. [Universitat Autonoma de Barcelona, Unitat de Biologia Cel.lular, Departament de Biologia Cel.lular, Fisiologia i Immunologia (Spain); Barquinero, J.F. [Universitat Autonoma de Barcelona, Unitat d' Antropologia Biologica, Departament de Biologia Animal, Biologia Vegetal i Ecologia, E-08193 Bellaterra (Spain)], E-mail: Francesc.Barquinero@uab.es

    2008-01-01

    Bleomycin (BLM) is a clastogenic compound, which due to the overdispersion in the cell distribution of induced dicentrics has been compared to the effect of high-LET radiation. Recently, it has been described that in fibroblast derived cell lines BLM induces incomplete chromosome elements more efficiently than any type of ionizing radiation. The objective of the present study was to evaluate in human lymphocytes the induction of dicentrics and incomplete chromosome elements by BLM. Peripheral blood samples have been treated with different concentrations of BLM. Two cytogenetic techniques were applied, fluorescence plus Giemsa (FPG) and FISH using pan-centromeric and pan-telomeric probes. The observed frequency of dicentric equivalents increases linearly with the BLM concentration, and for all BLM concentrations the distribution of dicentric equivalents was overdispersed. In the FISH study the ratio between total incomplete elements and multicentrics was 0.27. The overdispersion in the dicentric cell distribution, and the linear BLM-concentration dependence of dicentrics can be compared to the effect of high-LET radiation, on the contrary the ratio of incomplete elements and multicentrics is similar to the one induced by low-LET radiation ({approx}0.40). The elevated proportion of interstitial deletions in relation to total acentric fragments, higher than any type of ionizing radiation could be a characteristic signature of the clastogenic effect of BLM.

  15. The Role of Incompleteness in Commodity Futures Markets

    Takashi eKanamura

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper proposes a convenience yield-based pricing for commodity futures, which embeds incompleteness of commodity futures markets in convenience yields. By using the pricing method, we conduct empirical analyses of the prices of WTI crude oil, heating oil, and natural gas futures traded on the NYMEX in order to assess the incompleteness of energy futures markets. We show that the fluctuation from the incompleteness is partly driven by the fluctuation from convenience yields. In addition, it is shown that the incompleteness of natural gas futures market is more highlighted than the incompleteness of WTI crude oil and heating oil futures markets. We apply the implied market price of risk from the NYMEX data to pricing an Asian call option written on WTI crude oil futures. Finally, we try to apply the market incompleteness analysis to the post-crisis periods after 2009.

  16. Goedel incompleteness theorems and the limits of their applicability. I

    Beklemishev, Lev D [Steklov Mathematical Institute, Russian Academy of Sciences, Moscow (Russian Federation)

    2011-01-25

    This is a survey of results related to the Goedel incompleteness theorems and the limits of their applicability. The first part of the paper discusses Goedel's own formulations along with modern strengthenings of the first incompleteness theorem. Various forms and proofs of this theorem are compared. Incompleteness results related to algorithmic problems and mathematically natural examples of unprovable statements are discussed. Bibliography: 68 titles.

  17. The Surprise Examination Paradox and the Second Incompleteness Theorem

    Kritchman, Shira; Raz, Ran

    2010-01-01

    We give a new proof for Godel's second incompleteness theorem, based on Kolmogorov complexity, Chaitin's incompleteness theorem, and an argument that resembles the surprise examination paradox. We then go the other way around and suggest that the second incompleteness theorem gives a possible resolution of the surprise examination paradox. Roughly speaking, we argue that the flaw in the derivation of the paradox is that it contains a hidden assumption that one can prove the consistency of the...

  18. Gibbs' theorem for open systems with incomplete statistics

    Gibbs' theorem, which is originally intended for canonical ensembles with complete statistics has been generalized to open systems with incomplete statistics. As a result of this generalization, it is shown that the stationary equilibrium distribution of inverse power law form associated with the incomplete statistics has maximum entropy even for open systems with energy or matter influx. The renormalized entropy definition given in this paper can also serve as a measure of self-organization in open systems described by incomplete statistics.

  19. Skyline Sets Queries for Incomplete Data

    Mohammad Shamsul Arefin

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available With the increase of data volume, advanced query operators, such as skyline queries, are necessary inorder to help users to handle the huge amount of available data by identifying a set of interesting dataobjects. Skyline queries help us to filter unnecessary information efficiently and provide us clues forvarious decision making tasks.Most of the existing skyline algorithms cannot preserve individual’s privacy and are not well suited fordata with outliers and frequently updated data. Considering these issues, earlier we have proposed skylinesets queries from databases where all dimensions are available for all data items and considered anefficient algorithm for computing convex skyline sets. In this paper, we use that idea for skyline sets queriesfor incomplete data and propose a method, namely, RBSSQ. RBSSQ method uses a replacement-basedapproach and is applicable to the databases having any number of missing dimensions in the databaseobjects. We have conducted several experiments in terms of computational cost and found that ourproposed method can efficiently compute skyline sets from data items with missing values.

  20. Scalable tensor factorizations with incomplete data.

    Morup, Morten (Technical University of Denmark); Dunlavy, Daniel M. (Sandia National Laboratories, Albuquerque, NM); Acar, Evrim (Information Technologies Institute, Turkey); Kolda, Tamara Gibson

    2010-07-01

    The problem of incomplete data - i.e., data with missing or unknown values - in multi-way arrays is ubiquitous in biomedical signal processing, network traffic analysis, bibliometrics, social network analysis, chemometrics, computer vision, communication networks, etc. We consider the problem of how to factorize data sets with missing values with the goal of capturing the underlying latent structure of the data and possibly reconstructing missing values (i.e., tensor completion). We focus on one of the most well-known tensor factorizations that captures multi-linear structure, CANDECOMP/PARAFAC (CP). In the presence of missing data, CP can be formulated as a weighted least squares problem that models only the known entries. We develop an algorithm called CP-WOPT (CP Weighted OPTimization) that uses a first-order optimization approach to solve the weighted least squares problem. Based on extensive numerical experiments, our algorithm is shown to successfully factorize tensors with noise and up to 99% missing data. A unique aspect of our approach is that it scales to sparse large-scale data, e.g., 1000 x 1000 x 1000 with five million known entries (0.5% dense). We further demonstrate the usefulness of CP-WOPT on two real-world applications: a novel EEG (electroencephalogram) application where missing data is frequently encountered due to disconnections of electrodes and the problem of modeling computer network traffic where data may be absent due to the expense of the data collection process.

  1. Scalable Tensor Factorizations for Incomplete Data

    Acar, Evrim; Dunlavy, Daniel M; Morup, Morten

    2010-01-01

    The problem of incomplete data - i.e., data with missing or unknown values - in multi-way arrays is ubiquitous in biomedical signal processing, network traffic analysis, bibliometrics, social network analysis, chemometrics, computer vision, communication networks, etc. We consider the problem of how to factorize data sets with missing values with the goal of capturing the underlying latent structure of the data and possibly reconstructing missing values (i.e., tensor completion). We focus on one of the most well-known tensor factorizations that captures multi-linear structure, CANDECOMP/PARAFAC (CP). In the presence of missing data, CP can be formulated as a weighted least squares problem that models only the known entries. We develop an algorithm called CP-WOPT (CP Weighted OPTimization) that uses a first-order optimization approach to solve the weighted least squares problem. Based on extensive numerical experiments, our algorithm is shown to successfully factorize tensors with noise and up to 99% missing d...

  2. Measuring project portfolio management maturity

    Hänninen, Kirsti

    2016-01-01

    The thesis is researching portfolio management maturity in organizations that have project type of work. The objective of the thesis is to define what factors affect portfolio management maturity, how the maturity level can be evaluated and create a method for measuring current level of maturity. The thesis also provides maturity level improvement suggestions. Why is maturity measurement useful? The organizations that have project type of work often have some standardized practices. But t...

  3. Incomplete transformation of Ti-Ni-X ternary shape memory alloy

    HE Xiang-ming; ZHANG Shu-fang; LI Ming-sheng; DUO Shu-wang; XIANG Jun-huai; ZHANG Rong-fa

    2006-01-01

    If the reverse transformation of a shape memory alloy is arrested, a kinetic stop will appear in the next complete transformation. The kinetic stop temperature has a close relation with the previous arrest temperature. This kinetic stop can be regarded as a "memory" of the previous arrest temperature. This phenomenon is named temperature memory effect(TME). The TME induced by incomplete cycling in Ti-Ni-Nb and Ti-Ni-Cu alloys was systematically investigated by performing either a single incomplete cycle, or a sequence of incomplete cycles with different arrested temperatures. The results indicate that TME only exists in the heating process, and TME can occur both in B19'→B2 and B19→B2 reverse transformation during heating process. But, there is no evidence of TME during cooling in the Ti-Ni-X ternary alloys. And the reverse transformation temperature interval (Af-As) of the Ti44-Ni47-Nb9 alloy induced by TME can be significantly enlarged compared with that of the Ti-Ni-Cu alloy by performing multi-times incomplete transformation cycling with a decreasing order arrested temperature.

  4. A Clinical Study on Management of Incomplete Abortion by Manual Vacuum Aspiration (MVA

    Arifa Akter Jahan

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: Abortion is an important social and public health issue. In Bangladesh complication from unsafe abortion is one of the leading causes of maternal mortality. It is a serious health problem. World Health Organisation estimates that 14% of maternal deaths which occur every year in the countries of South Asia including Bangladesh are due to abortion. Study shows manual vacuum aspiration procedure is safe and effective in incomplete abortion. Very few clinical trials were carried out in Bangladesh to assess the safety and effectivity of manual vacuum aspiration in managing incomplete abortion. Objective: To find out the outcome of manual vacuum aspiration in the management of patients of incomplete abortion. Materials and Methods: This observational descriptive study was conducted in the department of Obstetrics & Gynaecology, Dhaka Medical College & Hospital from June to December, 2004. One hundred cases of diagnosed incomplete abortion up to 12 weeks of gestation were managed by manual vacuum aspiration during this period. A data recording sheet was designed for this purpose. Haemodynamically stable patients with no history of induced abortion and fever were enrolled. Results: Procedure time of manual vacuum aspiration was short, average duration was 7 minutes. Bleeding was minimum (20-30 mL in 67% cases and weighted mean was 29.80 mL. Eighty three percent patients were stable during the procedure and only 3% needed blood transfusion. Nonnarcotic analgesics were used in 59% cases and 33% needed only proper counselling. Average duration of hospital stay was 2 hours. Effectiveness of the procedure was about 98% with very low post procedure complication rate (2%. Conclusion: MVA procedure is a safe and effective technique of uterine evacuation in incomplete abortion. It is quick, less expensive, effective and less painful. Hospital stay and chance of perforation of uterus is less. So this procedure should be considered by health care

  5. Histology of salmonid testes during maturation.

    Dziewulska, Katarzyna; Domagała, Józef

    2003-03-01

    the cells completed spermatogenesis. At the end of maturation, vacuoles, up to 18.9 microm in final diameter (brown trout), appeared in the Sertoli cells. The vacuoles were visible in the lobule wall epithelium for a prolonged period of time. In most salmonid individuals examined, the reproductive cycles were observed to overlap. In some fish, the preparation for another cycle began very early, i.e., at the and of preceding spermatogenesis, which had not been observed before. Gonad maturation in some males was incomplete. PMID:14666143

  6. The Grade of Incomplete: A Brief Review and Comment.

    Counelis, James Steve

    Current policy on the distribution of incomplete grades designates such grades as indicating postponement of an examination and/or other assignment for some serious reason. The current policy of converting a grade of incomplete to F after some stated time interval is open to question. Current university policy on the automatic conversion of…

  7. Long Maturity Forward Rates

    Christiansen, Charlotte

    2001-01-01

    The paper aims to improve the knowledge of the empirical properties of the long maturity region of the forward rate curve. Firstly, the theoretical negative correlation between the slope at the long end of the forward rate curve and the term structure variance is recovered empirically and found to...... be statistically significant. Secondly, the expectations hypothesis is analyzed for the long maturity region of the forward rate curve using "forward rate" regressions. The expectations hypothesis is numerically close to being accepted but is statistically rejected. The findings provide mixed support...

  8. Radiation Processes in an Incompletely Ionized Plasma

    treatment is based on a more general approach which reveals the real range of applicability of the frequently used binary approach, and also yields a critical analysis of certain semi-intuitive, evident criteria for the quasi-static state which appear in the literature. Two types of criteria for the quasi-static state, ''modulation'' and ''quenching'', are compared. Some new relationships describing the influence of the dynamic effects mentioned above are given. The third part contains short reviews of a number of contemporary trends in the development of the theory of such phenomena as radiation processes in an incompletely ionized plasma, broadening of lines, radiation transfer, relaxation in multi-level systems, emission in a continuum, fluctuating microfields and certain thermodynamic effects. (author)

  9. Perinatal exposure to benzyl butyl phthalate induces alterations in neuronal development/maturation protein expression, estrogen responses, and fear conditioning in rodents.

    DeBartolo, Danielle; Jayatilaka, Sahani; Yan Siu, Nga; Rose, Melissa; Ramos, Raddy L; Betz, Adrienne J

    2016-02-01

    Phthalate exposure has recently been associated with behavioral actions that are linked to its endocrine-disrupting properties. The purpose of this study was to investigate the molecular, anatomical, and behavioral effects of indirect perinatal benzyl butyl phthalate (BBP) exposure in offspring of BBP-treated pregnant dams. In two separate experiments, we administered BBP (10.0 μg/ml) on food pellets to pregnant dams and examined the offspring. The first experiment revealed reproductive anatomical abnormalities linked to BBP's endocrine-disrupting properties, whereas histological analysis revealed preserved hippocampal neuronal migration. The second experiment demonstrated learning and memory impairments accompanied by molecular abnormalities in multiple brain regions. Offspring from BBP-treated dams had altered levels of several proteins important for neuronal circuitry formation, tissue development, and maturation. We suggest that BBP administration disrupts normal learning and that these effects could be related to alterations in brain development and result in a phenotype similar to that observed in neurodevelopmental disorders. PMID:26376073

  10. Maturation arrest of neutrophils-a possible reason for the leucopenia in sodium selenite induced sub-chronic selenosis in cow calves.

    Rampal, Satyavan; Kumar, Rakesh; Randhawa, Charanjit S; Sood, Naresh

    2008-01-01

    The effect of long-term administration of sodium selenite on leucocyte indices of peripheral blood of calves was determined. Nine calves, 9-12 months old, with an average body weight of 104kg were divided into three groups. Calves of groups 2 and 3 were administered with sodium selenite at 0.1 and 0.25mg/kg body weight for 98 consecutive days. The clinical signs characteristic of selenosis viz. alopecia, cracking of hooves, intradigital lesions and discoloration of hard palate, started appearing from 45 to 60 days onwards with high dose, whereas only subtle indications of toxicosis were observed in the low-dose group. The prolonged administration of sodium selenite produced a progressive and dose-dependent decline in the circulating leucocyte count with concomitant decline in the circulating neutrophil count. There was a high negative correlation (0.94) between blood selenium levels and neutrophils. Granulocyte/agranulocyte ratio was also significantly reduced in the treated animals. Evaluation of bone marrow smears revealed a decline in the myeloid to erythroid ratio. In addition, there was also maturation arrest of neutrophils at promyelocyte or myelocyte level as shown by differential granulocyte count in the bone marrow. The results indicated that host's immune response may be adversely affected. PMID:21783834