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1

Cannabinoids induce incomplete maturation of cultured human leukemia cells  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Monocyte maturation markers were induced in cultured human myeloblastic ML-2 leukemia cells after treatment for 1-6 days with 0.03-30 ..mu..M ..delta../sup 9/-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC), the major psychoactive component of marijuana. After a 2-day or longer treatment, 2- to 5-fold increases were found in the percentages of cells exhibiting reactivity with either the murine OKM1 monoclonal antibody of the Leu-M5 monoclonal antibody, staining positively for nonspecific esterase activity, and displaying a promonocyte morphology. The increases in these differentiation markers after treatment with 0.03-1 ..mu..M THC were dose dependent. At this dose range, THC did not cause an inhibition of cell growth. The THC-induced cell maturation was also characterized by specific changes in the patterns of newly synthesized proteins. The THC-induced differentiation did not, however, result in cells with a highly developed mature monocyte phenotype. However, treatment of these incompletely matured cells with either phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate of 1..cap alpha..,25-dihydroxycholecalciferol, which are inducers of differentiation in myeloid leukemia cells (including ML-2 cells), produced cells with a mature monocyte morphology. The ML-2 cell system described here may be a useful tool for deciphering critical biochemical events that lead to the cannabinoid-induced incomplete cell differentiation of ML-2 cells and other related cell types. Findings obtained from this system may have important implications for studies of cannabinoid effects on normal human bone-marrow progenitor cells.

Murison, G.; Chubb, C.B.H.; Maeda, S.; Gemmell, M.A.; Huberman, E.

1987-08-01

2

Cannabinoids induce incomplete maturation of cultured human leukemia cells.  

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Monocyte maturation markers were induced in cultured human myeloblastic ML-2 leukemia cells after treatment for 1-6 days with 0.03-30 microM delta 9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC), the major psychoactive component of marijuana. After a 2-day or longer treatment, 2- to 5-fold increases were found in the percentages of cells exhibiting reactivity with either the murine OKM1 monoclonal antibody or the Leu-M5 monoclonal antibody, staining positively for nonspecific esterase activity, and displaying a...

Murison, G.; Chubb, C. B.; Maeda, S.; Gemmell, M. A.; Huberman, E.

1987-01-01

3

Chronic incomplete atrioventricular block induced by radiofrequency catheter ablation  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

To determine if catheter ablation of the atrioventricular (AV) junction with radiofrequency energy can induce chronic incomplete (first- and second-degree) AV block to avoid the need for a permanent pacemaker, 20 closed-chest dogs were studied. Group 1 (10 dogs) received radiofrequency energy (750 kHz) with a fixed power setting (5 or 10 W) while increasing the pulse duration from 10 to 50 seconds for each application. Group 2 (10 dogs) received energy with a fixed pulse duration (20 or 30 seconds) while increasing the power setting from 5 to 10 W or from 10 to 20 W during each energy delivery. Radiofrequency energy was delivered between a chest-patch electrode and the distal electrode of a regular 7F tripolar His bundle catheter. For each application, the energy delivery was interrupted when (1) the PR interval prolonged (greater than 50%) or (2) second-degree or complete AV block occurred and persisted up to 5 seconds. The ablation procedure ended when there was (1) persistent PR prolongation (greater than 50%) or persistent second-degree AV block (lasting greater than 30 minutes) after ablation, (2) occurrence of two consecutive transient (less than 1 minute) complete AV blocks after each energy delivery, or (3) complete AV block (lasting greater than 2 minutes) after ablation. Of seven dogs in group 1 and five dogs in group 2 in which incomplete AV block was achieved 1 hour after the procedure, six in group 1 and five in group 2 remained in incomplete AV block 2-3 months after ablation. One dog in group 1 progressed into complete AV block. Of the remaining three dogs in group 1 and five dogs in group 2 in which complete AV block was initially achieved 1 hour after ablation, two in group 1 and four in group 2 continued to have complete AV block, whereas one in each group had AV conduction returned to incomplete at 1-2 months of follow-up.

Huang, S.K.; Bharati, S.; Graham, A.R.; Gorman, G.; Lev, M. (Tucson Veterans Administration Medical Center, AZ (USA))

1989-10-01

4

Investigation of the influence of incomplete fusion on complete fusion of 16O induced reactions at moderate excitation energies  

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An attempt has been made to investigate for the reaction dynamics leading to incomplete fusion (ICF) of heavy ions at moderate excitation energies, especially the influence of incomplete fusion on complete fusion (CF) of 16O induced reactions at specific energies. Excitation functions (EFs) of various reaction products populated via CF and/or ICF of 16O projectile with 45Sc target were measured at energies ?3-7 MeV/nucleon, using recoil catcher technique followed by offline ?-ray spectrosc...

Agarwal Avinash; Dutt Sunil; Sharma Anjali; Rizvi I. A.; Kumar Kamal; Ali Sabir; Ahamad Tauseef; Kumar Rakesh; Chaubey A. K.

2012-01-01

5

Analysis of ?-particle induced incomplete chromosome aberrations, using pan-centro metric and pan-telomeric DNA probes  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The aim of the present study has been the evaluation of the incompleteness of ?-particle induced chromosome aberrations by the simultaneous detection of all centromeres and telomeres present in human lymphocytes. For this purpose attached lymphocytes were irradiated at doses of 0.2, 0.5,0.7 and 1 Gy in a ''241Am source. FISH techniques were applied using pan-centromeric and pan-telomeric probes. All abnormal cells were digitalised and analysed using a Cytovision FISH workstation. A total of 378 incomplete chromosomes plus incomplete acentrics was found. Cases with more than 92 telomeres were not detected. The ratio between total incomplete elements and multicentrics was 1.00. The total number of acentric fragments was 822; 57% of then were complete fragments ace (+.+), 26% incomplete fragments ace (+,-), and 17% interstitial fragment ace (-.-). The percentage of incomplete aberrations is higher after high-LET than described for low-LET exposure. The results seem to indicate that compared to low-LET. after ?-particle exposure it is more likely to repair the centromere-containing elements. (Author) 30 refs

2004-01-01

6

Induced maturation of hepatic progenitor cells in vitro  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in english Hepatic progenitor cells (HPCs) are a potential cell source for liver cell transplantation but do not function like mature liver cells. We sought an effective and reliable method to induce HPC maturation. An immortalized HP14.5 albumin promoter-driven Gaussian luciferase (ALB-GLuc) ce [...] ll line was established from HPCs isolated from fetal mouse liver of post coitus day 14.5 mice to investigate the effect of induction factors on ALB promoter. HP14.5 parental cells were cultured in DMEM with different combinations of 2% horse serum (HS), 0.1 µM dexamethasone (DEX), 10 ng/mL hepatic growth factor (HGF), and/or 20 ng/mL fibroblast growth factor 4 (FGF4). Trypan blue and crystal violet staining were used to assess cell proliferation with different induction conditions. Expression of hepatic markers was measured by semi-quantitative RT-PCR, Western blot, and immunofluorescence. Glycogen storage and metabolism were detected by periodic acid-Schiff and indocyanine green (ICG) staining. GLuc activity indicated ALB expression. The combination of 2% HS+0.1 µM Dex+10 ng/mL HGF+20 ng/mL FGF4 induced the highest ALB-GLuc activity. Cell proliferation decreased in 2% HS but increased by adding FGF4. Upon induction, and consistent with hepatocyte development, DLK, AFP, and CK19 expression decreased, while ALB, CK18, and UGT1A expression increased. The maturity markers tyrosine aminotransferase and apolipoprotein B were detected at days 3 and 6 post-induction, respectively. ICG uptake and glycogen synthesis were detectable at day 6 and increased over time. Therefore, we demonstrated that HPCs were induced to differentiate into functional mature hepatocytes in vitro, suggesting that factor-treated HPCs may be further explored as a means of liver cell transplantation.

Y., Bi; Y., He; J.Y., Huang; L., Xu; N., Tang; T.C., He; T., Feng.

7

Investigation of the influence of incomplete fusion on complete fusion of 16O induced reactions at moderate excitation energies  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available An attempt has been made to investigate for the reaction dynamics leading to incomplete fusion (ICF of heavy ions at moderate excitation energies, especially the influence of incomplete fusion on complete fusion (CF of 16O induced reactions at specific energies. Excitation functions (EFs of various reaction products populated via CF and/or ICF of 16O projectile with 45Sc target were measured at energies ?3-7 MeV/nucleon, using recoil catcher technique followed by offline ?-ray spectroscopy. The measured EFs were compared with theoretical values obtained using the statistical model code PACE4. The experimentally measured EFs were in general found to be in good agreement with the theoretical predictions for non ?-emitting channels in the present target projectile system. However, for ?-emitting channels the measured EFs were higher than the predictions of the theoretical model codes, which may be credited to incomplete fusion reactions at these energies.

Ahamad Tauseef

2012-12-01

8

Respiratory syncytial virus induces interleukin-10 by human alveolar macrophages. Suppression of early cytokine production and implications for incomplete immunity.  

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Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) causes repeated infections thought to be due to an ineffective immune response. We examined the hypothesis that incomplete immunity may result, in part, from RSV-infected alveolar macrophage production of IL-10 which can interfere with the production of immunoregulatory cytokines. We also assessed whether RSV induced the expression of the 2',5' oligoadenylate (2-5A)-dependent RNase L, an endoribonuclease involved in the antiviral activities of interferons. Hu...

Panuska, J. R.; Merolla, R.; Rebert, N. A.; Hoffmann, S. P.; Tsivitse, P.; Cirino, N. M.; Silverman, R. H.; Rankin, J. A.

1995-01-01

9

The role of phosphatidylinositol signaling pathway in regulating serotonin-induced oocyte maturation in Mercenaria mercenaria  

Science.gov (United States)

Serotonin (5-HT) has been found to stimulate meiotic maturation of oocytes in many molluscs. During maturation, several signaling pathways are involved, especially the phosphatidylinositol and cAMP pathways. In order to examine the possible role of the phosphatidylinositol signaling pathway in regulating oocyte maturation in Mercenaria mercenaria, the effects of the activator/inhibitor of phospholipase (PLC) and protein kinase C (PKC) on serotonin-induced maturation were studied. Results show that high-concentrations of neomycin (inhibitor of PLC) blocked oocyte maturation, while 9, 10-dimethyl-1, 2-benzanthracene (DMBA, activator of PLC) promoted oocyte maturation in the presence of serotonin. It was also found that in the presence of serotonin, phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate (PMA, activator of PKC) inhibited oocyte maturation, while sphingosine (inhibitor of PKC) stimulated oocyte maturation. These results indicate that serotonin-induced oocyte maturation requires the activation of the phosphatidylinositol pathway. Decrease of PLC inhibited serotonin-induced oocyte maturation, whereas a decrease of PKC stimulated the maturation. Thus, our study indicates that serotonin promotes maturation of M. mercenaria oocytes through PLC stimulated increase in calcium ion concentration via inositol-1, 4, 5-trisphosphate (IP3) but not PKC.

Wang, Qing; Zhang, Tao

2011-05-01

10

Microcracks induce osteoblast alignment and maturation on hydroxyapatite scaffolds  

Science.gov (United States)

Physiological bone tissue is a mineral/collagen composite with a hierarchical structure. The features in bone, such as mineral crystals, fibers, and pores can range from the nanometer to the centimeter in size. Currently available bone tissue scaffolds primarily address the chemical composition, pore size, and pore size distribution. While these design parameters are extensively investigated for mimicking bone function and inducing bone regeneration, little is known about microcracks, which is a prevalent feature found in fractured bone in vivo and associated with fracture healing and repair. Since the purpose of bone tissue engineering scaffold is to enhance bone regeneration, the coincidence of microcracks and bone densification should not be neglected but rather be considered as a potential parameter in bone tissue engineering scaffold design. The purpose of this study is to test the hypothesis that microcracks enhance bone healing. In vitro studies were designed to investigate the osteoblast (bone forming cells) response to microcracks in dense (94%) hydroxyapatite substrates. Microcracks were introduced using a well-established Vickers indentation technique. The results of our study showed that microcracks induced osteoblast alignment, enhanced osteoblast attachment and more rapid maturation. These findings may provide insight into fracture healing mechanism(s) as well as improve the design of bone tissue engineering orthopedic scaffolds for more rapid bone regeneration.

Shu, Yutian

11

Evidence of a Binary-Induced Spiral from an Incomplete Ring Pattern of CIT 6  

CERN Document Server

With the advent of high-resolution high-sensitivity observations, spiral patterns have been revealed around several asymptotic giant branch (AGB) stars. Such patterns can provide possible evidence for the existence of central binary stars embedded in outflowing circumstellar envelopes. Here, we suggest the viability of explaining the previously observed incomplete ring-like patterns with the spiral-shell structure due to the motion of (unknown) binary components viewed at an inclination with respect to the orbital plane. We describe a method of extracting such spiral-shells from an incomplete ring-like pattern to place constraints on the characteristics of the central binary stars. The use of gas kinematics is essential in facilitating a detailed modeling for the three-dimensional structure of the circumstellar pattern. We show that a hydrodynamic radiative transfer model can reproduce the structure of the HC3N molecular line emission of the extreme carbon star, CIT 6. This method can be applied to other sour...

Kim, Hyosun; Liu, Sheng-Yuan; Taam, Ronald E

2013-01-01

12

Ischemia-induced depolarizations and associated hemodynamic responses in incomplete global forebrain ischemia in rats.  

Science.gov (United States)

Spontaneous depolarizations around the core are a consistent feature of focal cerebral ischemia, but the associated regional hemodynamic changes are heterogeneous. We determined how the features of depolarizations relate to subsequent cerebral blood flow (CBF) changes in global forebrain ischemia. Forebrain ischemia was produced in halothane-anesthetized rats (n=13) by common carotid artery occlusion and hypovolemic hypotension. Mean arterial blood pressure (MABP) was monitored via a femoral catheter. Specific illuminations allowed the capture of image sequences through a cranial window to visualize: changes in membrane potential (voltage-sensitive dye method); CBF (laser speckle contrast imaging); cerebral blood volume (intrinsic optical signal, IOS at 540-550nm); and hemoglobin deoxygenation (IOS at 620-640nm). A depolarization occurred (n=9) when CBF fell below 43.4±5% of control (41±4mmHg MABP), and propagated with a distinct wave front at a rate of 2.8mm/min. Depolarizations were either persistent (n=4), intermediate (n=3) or short, transient depolarization (n=2). Persistent and intermediate depolarizations were associated with sustained hypoperfusion (-11.7±5.1%) and transient hypoperfusion (-17.4±5.2, relative to CBF before depolarization). Short, transient depolarizations did not generate clear CBF responses. Depolarizations during incomplete global ischemia occurred at the lower limit of CBF autoregulation, propagated similar to spreading depolarization (SD), and the hemodynamic responses indicated inverse neurovascular coupling. Similar to SDs associated with focal stroke, the propagating event can be persistent or transient. PMID:24365459

Bere, Z; Obrenovitch, T P; Bari, F; Farkas, E

2014-02-28

13

Excitation functions for some Ne induced reactions with Holmium: incomplete fusion vs complete fusion  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Reactions induced by 20Ne are expected to be considerably more complex than those of 12C, and 16O. As a part of the ongoing program to understand CF and ICF reaction mechanisms, it is of great interest to see whether the same experimental technique yield similarly valuable information for 20Ne induced reactions. In this present work an attempt has been made to measure the excitation functions for fifteen evaporation residues (ERs) identified in the interaction of 20Ne + 165Ho system in the energy range 4 -7 MeV/A

2010-12-01

14

Respiratory syncytial virus induces interleukin-10 by human alveolar macrophages. Suppression of early cytokine production and implications for incomplete immunity.  

Science.gov (United States)

Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) causes repeated infections thought to be due to an ineffective immune response. We examined the hypothesis that incomplete immunity may result, in part, from RSV-infected alveolar macrophage production of IL-10 which can interfere with the production of immunoregulatory cytokines. We also assessed whether RSV induced the expression of the 2',5' oligoadenylate (2-5A)-dependent RNase L, an endoribonuclease involved in the antiviral activities of interferons. Human alveolar macrophages were exposed to medium (uninfected control), RSV, LPS, and RSV + LPS then were assessed for expression of the cytokines TNF-alpha, IL-1 beta, IL-8, IL-10, as well as 2-5A-dependent RNase L. LPS up-regulated the expression of protein and mRNA for all cytokines. RSV stimulated the protein levels of TNF-alpha, did not alter IL-1 beta, and decreased IL-8. RSV markedly stimulated protein expression of IL-10 and 2-5A-dependent RNase L. RSV had minor effects on the steady state mRNA levels of TNF-alpha, IL-1 beta, and IL-8, yet potently induced IL-10. Cells costimulated with RSV + LPS demonstrated reduced protein and mRNA levels of TNF-alpha, IL-1 beta, IL-8 but synergistically increased IL-10 levels compared to RSV- or LPS-activated cells. Kinetic analysis indicated that RSV induced a delayed and sustained increase in IL-10 transcripts. Furthermore, RSV-infected alveolar macrophage supernatants suppressed IL-1 beta and IL-8 production by LPS-stimulated alveolar macrophages as did recombinant IL-10. Anti-IL-10 neutralized these effects. These studies indicate that RSV is capable of suppressing production of early immunoregulatory cytokines through induction of IL-10 perhaps mediated by 2-5A-dependent RNase L (or other endoribonucleases) accounting for the ineffective immune response to this virus. PMID:7593633

Panuska, J R; Merolla, R; Rebert, N A; Hoffmann, S P; Tsivitse, P; Cirino, N M; Silverman, R H; Rankin, J A

1995-11-01

15

Investigation of the influence of incomplete fusion on complete fusion of 12C-induced reactions at ? 4-7.2 MeV/nucleon  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In this paper, we present the results of our investigation of reaction dynamics leading to incomplete fusion of heavy ions at moderate excitation energies, especially the influence of incomplete fusion on complete fusion of 12C -induced reactions at specific energies ? 4-7.2M eV/nucleon. Excitation functions of various reaction products populated via complete and/or incomplete fusions of a 12C projectile with 93Nb, 59Co and 52Cr targets were measured at several specific energies ? 4-7.2 MeV/nucleon, using a recoil catcher technique, followed by off-line ?-ray spectrometry. The measured excitation functions were compared with theoretical values obtained using the PACE4 statistical model code. For representative non-?-emitting channels in the 12C + 93Nb system, the experimentally measured excitation functions were, in general, found to be in good agreement with the theoretical predictions. However, for ?-emitting channels in the 12C + 93Nb, 12C + 59Co, and 12C + 52Cr systems, the measured excitation functions were higher than the predictions of the theoretical model code, which may be credited to incomplete fusion reactions at these energies. An attempt was made to estimate the incomplete fusion fraction for the present systems, which revealed that the fraction was sensitive to the projectile energy and mass asymmetry of the entrance channel. (orig.)

2011-12-01

16

Investigation of the influence of incomplete fusion on complete fusion of {sup 12}C-induced reactions at {approx} 4-7.2 MeV/nucleon  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

In this paper, we present the results of our investigation of reaction dynamics leading to incomplete fusion of heavy ions at moderate excitation energies, especially the influence of incomplete fusion on complete fusion of {sup 12}C -induced reactions at specific energies {approx} 4-7.2M eV/nucleon. Excitation functions of various reaction products populated via complete and/or incomplete fusions of a {sup 12}C projectile with {sup 93}Nb, {sup 59}Co and {sup 52}Cr targets were measured at several specific energies {approx} 4-7.2 MeV/nucleon, using a recoil catcher technique, followed by off-line {gamma}-ray spectrometry. The measured excitation functions were compared with theoretical values obtained using the PACE4 statistical model code. For representative non-{alpha}-emitting channels in the {sup 12}C + {sup 93}Nb system, the experimentally measured excitation functions were, in general, found to be in good agreement with the theoretical predictions. However, for {alpha}-emitting channels in the {sup 12}C + {sup 93}Nb, {sup 12}C + {sup 59}Co, and {sup 12}C + {sup 52}Cr systems, the measured excitation functions were higher than the predictions of the theoretical model code, which may be credited to incomplete fusion reactions at these energies. An attempt was made to estimate the incomplete fusion fraction for the present systems, which revealed that the fraction was sensitive to the projectile energy and mass asymmetry of the entrance channel. (orig.)

Amanuel, F.K. [INFN, Laboratori Nazionali di Legnaro, Legnaro (Padova) (Italy); Zelalem, B.; Chaubey, A.K. [Addis Ababa University, Department of Physics, P.O.Box 1176, Addis Ababa (Ethiopia); Agarwal, Avinash [Bareilly College, Department of Physics, Bareilly (India); Rizvi, I.A.; Maheshwari, Anjana; Ahmed, Tauseef [Aligarh Muslim University, Department of Physics, Aligarh (India)

2011-12-15

17

Dual therapeutic efficacy of vinblastine as a unique chemotherapeutic agent capable of inducing dendritic cell maturation  

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Our recent unbiased functional screen of 54 chemotherapeutic drugs unveiled striking heterogeneity in their effects on dendritic cells (DCs). Most notably, vinblastine (VBL) was found to induce phenotypic and functional maturation of DCs in vitro. Here we sought to determine whether VBL exhibits “dual” therapeutic efficacy in living animals by directly killing tumor cells and by boosting host immunity via DC maturation. Local injection of VBL in a low dose into the skin of C57BL/6 mice in...

Tanaka, Hiroaki; Matsushima, Hironori; Nishibu, Akiko; Clausen, Bjo?rn E.; Takashima, Akira

2009-01-01

18

The VP35 protein of Ebola virus impairs dendritic cell maturation induced by virus and lipopolysaccharide  

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Ebola virus causes rapidly progressive haemorrhagic fever, which is associated with severe immuosuppression. In infected dendritic cells (DCs), Ebola virus replicates efficiently and inhibits DC maturation without inducing cytokine expression, leading to impaired T-cell proliferation. However, the underlying mechanism remains unclear. In this study, we report that Ebola virus VP35 impairs the maturation of mouse DCs. When expressed in mouse immature DCs, Ebola virus VP35 prevents virus-stimul...

Jin, Huali; Yan, Zhipeng; Prabhakar, Bellur S.; Feng, Zongdi; Ma, Yijie; Verpooten, Dustin; Ganesh, Balaji; He, Bin

2010-01-01

19

Selective contribution of IFN-?/? signaling to the maturation of dendritic cells induced by double-stranded RNA or viral infection  

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A complex mechanism may be operational for dendritic cell (DC) maturation, wherein Toll-like receptor and other signaling pathways may be coordinated differently depending on the nature of the pathogens, in order for DC maturation to be most effective to a given threat. Here, we show that IFN-?/? signaling is selectively required for the maturation of DCs induced by double-stranded RNA or viral infection in vitro. Interestingly, the maturation is still observed in the absence of either of t...

2003-01-01

20

Neuronal peptides induce oocyte maturation and gamete spawning of sea cucumber, Apostichopus japonicus.  

Science.gov (United States)

Extracts prepared from tissues containing buccal ring nerve or longitudinal radial nerve of sea cucumber induce oocyte maturation and ovulation from ovarian tissues. We purified two small peptides, a pentapeptide and a heptapeptide, from the buccal tissues of Japanese common sea cucumber, Apostichopus japonicas. Both peptides induced oocyte maturation and gamete spawning. The pentapeptide was identified as NGIWYamide. This peptide induced in vitro germinal vesicle breakdown and ovulation of fully-grown oocytes at less than 1 pM and in vivo spawning at 10 nM. A synthetic derivative of the pentapeptide, NGLWYamide, was 10-100 times more potent compared to the natural NGIWYamide. The heptapeptide was less potent, inducing ovulation at 1 muM. NGIWYamide and NGLWYamide induced a characteristic spawning behavior when injected into sexually matured individuals. Mature eggs artificially spawned were fertilized, and developed normally and metamorphosed into young sea cucumbers. The details of the production and the mechanism of action of NGIWYamide are still unclear, but the high biopotency of the peptide will aid understanding of the neuronal and hormonal control of reproduction of sea cucumber. PMID:19059232

Kato, Shinichi; Tsurumaru, Saori; Taga, Makoto; Yamane, Tomoki; Shibata, Yasushi; Ohno, Kaoru; Fujiwara, Atushi; Yamano, Keisuke; Yoshikuni, Michiyasu

2009-02-01

 
 
 
 
21

Stock loans in incomplete markets  

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A stock loan is a contract whereby a stockholder uses shares as collateral to borrow money from a bank or financial institution. In Xia and Zhou (2007), this contract is modeled as a perpetual American option with a time varying strike and analyzed in detail within a risk--neutral framework. In this paper, we extend the valuation of such loans to an incomplete market setting, which takes into account the natural trading restrictions faced by the client. When the maturity of ...

Grasselli, Matheus R.; Velez, Cesar G.

2010-01-01

22

Prochloraz-induced oocyte maturation in rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss), a molecular and functional analysis.  

Science.gov (United States)

In the present study, we aimed at characterizing the effect of prochloraz, an imidazole fungicide, on the oocyte meiotic maturation process in a freshwater teleost species, the rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss). Full-grown post-vitellogenic ovarian follicles were incubated in vitro with prochloraz, Luteinizing Hormone (LH), or a combination of prochloraz and LH. The occurrence of oocyte maturation was assessed by monitoring germinal vesicle breakdown (GVBD) after 62-h in vitro incubation. Experiments were repeated in presence of actinomycin D, cycloheximide, or trilostane. The effect of prochloraz on the production of 17,20?-dihydroxy-4-pregnen-3-one (17,20?P), the natural maturation-inducing steroid, was quantified by radioimmunoassay. In addition, the effect of prochloraz on ovarian expression of 12 genes was monitored by real-time PCR. Prochloraz (10(-5)M) administered alone was able to induce 100% GVBD in the most responsive females. The occurrence of GVBD observed after prochloraz stimulation of follicles originating from various females was similar and highly correlated with the occurrence of GVBD observed after stimulation with low LH concentration. In addition, oocyte maturation induced by LH or prochloraz was totally inhibited by actinomycin D, cycloheximide, and trilostane. Similarly to LH, prochloraz was able to trigger 17,20?P production by the ovarian follicle. Finally, prochloraz induced the overexpression of genes participating in 17,20?P production, intercellular communication, and paracrine control of preovulatory follicular differentiation such as igf, igf2, connexin 43, and 20? hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase (hsbd20). Together, our results demonstrate that prochloraz administered alone is able to trigger oocyte maturation through the induction of specific genes, some of them being also triggered by LH. Finally, our results clearly indicate that the effects of prochloraz and LH on oocyte maturation are synergistic. PMID:20805220

Rime, Hélène; Nguyen, Thaovi; Bobe, Julien; Fostier, Alexis; Monod, Gilles

2010-11-01

23

Hericium erinaceum induces maturation of dendritic cells derived from human peripheral blood monocytes.  

Science.gov (United States)

Hericium erinaceum, a medicinal mushroom, has long been used as a therapeutic due to its immuno-regulating potentials eliciting anticarcinogenic and antimicrobial efficacies. Since maturation of dendritic cells (DC) is an important process in the initiation and regulation of immune responses, the ability of water-soluble components from H. erinaceum (WEHE) to regulate DC maturation was investigated. Immature DC were prepared by differentiating human peripheral blood CD14-positive cells with GM-CSF and IL-4. DC were stimulated with WEHE at 2-20 microg/mL for 48 h and subjected to flow cytometric analysis to determine the expression of indicative maturation markers. The endocytic capacity of WEHE-stimulated DC was examined by a Dextran-FITC uptake assay. An enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay was performed to examine the secretion of TNF-alpha and IL-12p40. DC stimulated with WEHE showed representative features upon DC maturation: enhanced expression of CD80, CD83 and CD86, and both MHC class I and II molecules, decreased endocytic capacity of DC, increased expression of CD205, and decreased expression of CD206. However, interestingly, WEHE could not induce the production of TNF-alpha and IL-12p40, whereas lipopolysaccharide substantially increased the production of both cytokines. Collectively, these results suggest that H. erinaceum induces the maturation of human DC, which might reinforce the host innate immune system. PMID:19441068

Kim, Sun Kyung; Son, Chang Gue; Yun, Cheol-Heui; Han, Seung Hyun

2010-01-01

24

Vasotocin induces final oocyte maturation and ovulation through the production of a maturation-inducing steroid in the catfish Heteropneustes fossilis.  

Science.gov (United States)

The study reports for the first time vasotocin (VT) induction of final oocyte maturation and ovulation through the production of the maturation-inducing steroid 17, 20?-dihydroxy-4-pregnen-3-one (MIS, 17, 20?-DP). Post-vitellogenic follicles of the catfish Heteropneustes fossilis were incubated with different concentrations of VT (1, 10, 100 and 1000 nM) for different time periods. Germinal vesicle breakdown [GVBD, as a marker of final oocyte maturation (FOM)] and ovulation were scored. In another series of experiments, the follicles were incubated with VT alone or in combination with VT receptor (V(1) and V(2)) antagonists, and GVBD and ovulation were increased with progesterone, 17-hydroxy-4-pregnene-3, 20-dione (17-P) and 17, 20?-DP levels. VT stimulated both GVBD and ovulation in a concentration and time-dependent manner, and the responses were inhibited to varying degrees in groups incubated with the VT receptor antagonists. The V(1) antagonist inhibited the responses by 2- to 3-fold and more than the V(2) antagonist, and the combination was more potent than the separate incubation. Progestins increased time-dependently in the VT groups and the fold increase was greater for the MIS. The VT-induced steroid stimulation was significantly inhibited to near the control levels in co-incubations with both V(1) and V(2) receptor antagonists, in the order 17, 20?-DP > 17-P > P(4). The inhibition by the V(1) receptor antagonist was greater than that with the V(2) blocker, and followed the same order of inhibition described above. The results suggest that VT induces FOM and ovulation mainly through the V(1) receptors. PMID:21827764

Singh, V; Joy, K P

2011-10-01

25

Complement protein C1q induces maturation of human dendritic cells  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Maturation of dendritic cells (DCs) is known to be induced by several stimuli, including microbial products, inflammatory cytokines and immobilized IgG, as demonstrated recently. Since immune complexes formed in vivo also contain C1q, moreover apoptotic cells and several pathogens fix C1q in the absence of antibodies, we undertook to investigate whether this complement protein has an impact on various functions of human DCs. Maturation of monocyte-derived immature DCs (imMDCs) cultured on immobilized C1q was followed by monitoring expression of CD80, CD83, CD86, MHCII and CCR7. The functional activity of the cells was assessed by measuring cytokine secretion and their ability to activate allogeneic T lymphocytes. Cytokine production by T cells co-cultured with C1q-matured DCs was also investigated. C1q, but not the structurally related mannose-binding lectin was found to bind to imMDC in a dose-dependent manner and induced NF-kappaB translocation to the nucleus. Immobilized C1q induced maturation of MDCs and enhanced secretion of IL-12 and TNF-alpha, moreover, elevated their T-cell stimulating capacity. As IFN-gamma levels were increased in supernatants of MDC-T cell co-cultures, our data suggest that C1q-induced DC maturation generates a Th1-type response. Interestingly, IL-10 levels were elevated by C1q-treated MDCs but not in the supernatant of their co-cultures with allogeneic T cells. Taken together, these results indicate that C1q-opsonized antigens may play a role in the induction and regulation of immune response. Moreover our data are relevant in view of the role of C1q in removal of apoptotic cells and the association between C1q-deficiency and autoimmunity.

Csomor, Eszter; Bajtay, Zsuzsa

2007-01-01

26

Continuous retinoic acid induces the differentiation of mature regulatory monocytes but fails to induce regulatory dendritic cells  

Science.gov (United States)

Background Myeloid cells (MC) have potent immunoregulatory abilities that can be therapeutically useful to treat inflammatory disease. However, the factors which promote regulatory myeloid cell differentiation remain poorly understood. We have previously shown that estriol (E3) induces mature regulatory dendritic cells in vivo. To determine whether additional steroid hormones could induce mature regulatory myeloid cells, we investigated the effects of retinoic acid (RA) on MCs. Retinoic acid is a steroid hormone important in regulating mucosal immunity in the gut and promoting myeloid differentiation. We hypothesized that the presence of RA during differentiation would promote the formation of mature regulatory myeloid cells (MCregs). Methods To determine RA’s ability to induce regulatory myeloid cells, we differentiated bone marrow progenitor cells with granulocytic-macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF) under the influence of RA. We found that day 7 MCs differentiated in the presence of RA had an increase in the percent positive and relative expression levels of both maturation (CD80, CD86, and MHCII) and inhibitory (PD-L1 and PD-L2) markers compared to control cells. Functionally, these day 7 RA MCs expressed increased intracellular IL-10, induced regulatory T cells in vitro compared to controls and suppressed the proliferation of responder immune cells even after inflammatory challenge with LPS. Conclusion RA induced mature regulatory myeloid cells that were suppressive and had a CD11b+ CD11c-Ly6C low/intermediate monocyte phenotype. Surprisingly, RA CD11c+ dendritic cells were not suppressive and could contribute to enhanced proliferation. These results suggest that continuous RA has unique effects on different myeloid populations during monopoeisis and dendropoiesis and promotes a population of regulatory monocytes.

2014-01-01

27

Coulomb-interaction induced incomplete shell filling in the hole system of InAs quantum dots  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

We have studied the hole charging spectra of self-assembled InAs quantum dots in perpendicular magnetic fields by capacitance-voltage spectroscopy. From the magnetic field dependence of the individual peaks we conclude that the s-like ground state is completely filled with two holes but that the fourfold degenerate p-shell is only half filled with two holes before the filling of the d-shell starts. The resulting six-hole ground state is highly polarized. This incomplete shel...

Reuter, D.; Kailuweit, P.; Wieck, A. D.; Zeitler, U.; Wibbelhoff, O. S.; Meier, C.; Lorke, A.; Maan, J. C.

2005-01-01

28

ENU-Induced Mutagenesis in Grass Carp (Ctenopharyngodon idellus) by Treating Mature Sperm  

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N-ethyl-N-nitrosourea (ENU) mutagenesis is a useful approach for genetic improvement of plants, as well as for inducing functional mutants in animal models including mice and zebrafish. In the present study, mature sperm of grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idellus) were treated with a range of ENU concentrations for 45 min, and then wild-type eggs were fertilized. The results indicated that the proportion of embryos with morphological abnormalities at segmentation stage or dead fry at hatching st...

Jiang, Xia-yun; Sun, Cheng-fei; Zhang, Quan-gen; Zou, Shu-ming

2011-01-01

29

Thidiazuron-induced high-frequency plant regeneration from leaf explants of Paulownia tomentosa mature trees  

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Attempts were made to study the effect of thidiazuron (TDZ) on adventitious shoot induction and plant development in Paulownia tomentosa explants derived from mature trees. Media with different concentrations of TDZ in combination with an auxin were used to induce adventitious shoot-buds in two explant types: basal leaf halves with the petiole attached (leaf explant) and intact petioles. Optimal shoot regeneration was obtained in leaf explants cultured on induction medium containing TDZ (22.7...

2008-01-01

30

Maturation-induces endothelial dysfunction via vascular inflammation in diabetic mice  

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We hypothesized that maturation-induced vascular inflammation produces endothelial dysfunction in type II diabetes and TNF? plays a key role in triggering inflammation in the development of diabetes. In control (Db/db) mice aged 6, 12, 18 and 24 weeks, sodium nitroprusside (SNP) and acetylcholine (ACh) induced dose-dependent vasodilation, and dilation to ACh was blocked by the NO synthase inhibitor NG-monomethyl-L-arginine. In type II diabetic (db/db) mice at age of 12, 18 and 24 weeks, ACh ...

Zhang, Cuihua; Park, Yoonjung; Picchi, Andrea; Potter, Barry J.

2008-01-01

31

Glucocorticoid-induced maturation of glycoprotein galactosylation and fucosylation processes in the rat small intestine.  

Science.gov (United States)

We determined the role of glucocorticoids in the maturation of glycoprotein galactosylation and fucosylation processes in the rat small intestine during postnatal development. Treatment of suckling rats with hydrocortisone (HC) increased activities of an O-glycan: galactosyltransferase, and of an alpha-1,2-fucosyltransferase, through transcriptional regulation of the FTB gene. The activities of a fucosyltransferase inhibitor and of the enzymes responsible for the synthesis and degradation of GDP-fucose were unaffected by the treatment, whereas a fall in the activity of alpha-L-fucosidase was observed. These changes were accompanied by the precocious appearance of alpha-1,2-fucose residues in complex glycan chains of brush-border membrane glycoproteins that normally appear after weaning, and with a trend to increase in alpha-1,2-fucose residues in mucins. Thus, treatment of suckling rats with hydrocortisone speeds up the maturation of glycoprotein galactosylation and fucosylation processes in the small intestine. The delayed increase in glucocorticoid levels induced by prolonged nursing, or the suppression of glucocorticoids by adrenalectomy (AD) before the normal rise in the hormone, both induced a delay in the increases in activities of the O-glycan: galactosyltransferase and alpha-1,2-fucosyltransferase observed normally after glucocorticoid enhancement. Thus, glucocorticoids might play at least a partial role in the maturation of glycoprotein glycosylation observed at weaning. PMID:12732286

Biol-N'garagba, Marie-Claire; Niepceron, Elodie; Mathian, Bruno; Louisot, Pierre

2003-03-01

32

Adolescent brain maturation, the endogenous cannabinoid system and the neurobiology of cannabis-induced schizophrenia.  

Science.gov (United States)

Cannabis use during adolescence increases the risk of developing psychotic disorders later in life. However, the neurobiological processes underlying this relationship are unknown. This review reports the results of a literature search comprising various neurobiological disciplines, ultimately converging into a model that might explain the neurobiology of cannabis-induced schizophrenia. The article briefly reviews current insights into brain development during adolescence. In particular, the role of the excitatory neurotransmitter glutamate in experience-dependent maturation of specific cortical circuitries is examined. The review also covers recent hypotheses regarding disturbances in strengthening and pruning of synaptic connections in the prefrontal cortex, and the link with latent psychotic disorders. In the present model, cannabis-induced schizophrenia is considered to be a distortion of normal late postnatal brain maturation. Distortion of glutamatergic transmission during critical periods may disturb prefrontal neurocircuitry in specific brain areas. Our model postulates that adolescent exposure to ?9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC), the primary psychoactive substance in cannabis, transiently disturbs physiological control of the endogenous cannabinoid system over glutamate and GABA release. As a result, THC may adversely affect adolescent experience-dependent maturation of neural circuitries within prefrontal cortical areas. Depending on dose, exact time window and duration of exposure, this may ultimately lead to the development of psychosis or schizophrenia. The proposed model provides testable hypotheses which can be addressed in future studies, including animal experiments, reanalysis of existing epidemiological data, and prospective epidemiological studies in which the role of the dose-time-effect relationship should be central. PMID:20624444

Bossong, Matthijs G; Niesink, Raymond J M

2010-11-01

33

The endothelial cell-produced antiangiogenic cytokine vascular endothelial growth inhibitor induces dendritic cell maturation.  

Science.gov (United States)

Angiogenesis is an essential component of chronic inflammation that is linked to carcinogenesis. In this study, we report that human vascular endothelial growth inhibitor (VEGI, TNF superfamily 15), an endothelial cell-produced antiangiogenic cytokine, induces mouse dendritic cell (DC) maturation, a critical event in inflammation-initiated immunity. VEGI-stimulated bone marrow-derived immature DCs display early activation of maturation signaling molecules NF-kappaB, STAT3, p38, and JNK, and cytoskeleton reorganization and dendrite formation. The activation signals are partially inhibited by using a neutralizing Ab against death domain-containing receptor-3 (DR3) or a truncated form of DR3 consisting of the extracellular domain, indicating an involvement of DR3 in the transmission of VEGI activity. A VEGI isoform, TL1A, does not induce similar activities under otherwise identical experimental conditions. Additionally, the cells reveal significantly enhanced expression of mature DC-specific marker CD83, secondary lymphoid tissue-directing chemokine receptor CCR7, the MHC class-II protein (MHC-II), and costimulatory molecules CD40, CD80, and CD86. Functionally, the cells exhibit decreased Ag endocytosis, increased cell surface distribution of MHC-II, and increased secretion of IL-12 and TNF. Moreover, VEGI-stimulated DCs are able to facilitate the differentiation of CD4+ naive T cells in cocultures. These findings suggest that the anticancer activity of VEGI arises from coupling the inhibition of endothelial cell growth with the promotion of the adaptive immune mechanisms through the stimulation of DC maturation. PMID:17785811

Tian, Fang; Grimaldo, Sammy; Fujita, Mitsugu; Fugita, Mitsugu; Cutts, Jonita; Vujanovic, Nikola L; Li, Lu-Yuan

2007-09-15

34

Role of PTGS2-generated PGE2 during gonadotrophin-induced bovine oocyte maturation and cumulus cell expansion.  

Science.gov (United States)

Prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) is an autocrine/paracrine factor which mediates gonadotrophin (Gn) stimulation of cumulus expansion and oocyte maturation in rodents. Its role in bovine oocyte maturation is less characterized. This study detected PTGS2 (COX2) and PGE synthases (PTGES1, PTGES2 and PTGES3) in bovine cumulus-oocyte complexes (COC). Only PTGS2 and PTGES1 expression changed during maturation. In Gn-free media, no cumulus expansion and ?45% nuclear maturation was achieved, while Gn-induced maturation showed full cumulus expansion (score 3) and ?87% maturation. PGE2 supplementation without Gn induced mild cumulus expansion (score 0.5-1) but increased nuclear maturation to levels similar to those obtained with Gn alone. In the presence of Gn, exogenous PGE2 did not affect expansion or nuclear maturation and subsequent embryo development. Treatment with PTGS2 selective inhibitor (NS398), PTGS2-specific siRNA or PTGER2-receptor antagonist (AH6809) resulted in ?20-25% reduction in nuclear maturation. NS398 and AH6809 did not affect cumulus expansion. Most oocytes not reaching metaphase of second meiosis (MII) following NS398, AH6809 and PTGS2-specific siRNA treatments were at MI. After longer maturation, NS398-treated oocytes had normal MII rate and uncompromised embryo development. PGE2 has a limited role in cumulus expansion in bovine COC but is important for the timing of Gn-induced nuclear maturation. We confirmed that genes involved in the synthesis of prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) are expressed by cumulus-oocyte complexes (or eggs) of cows and that PGE2 is synthesized during oocyte maturation in the presence of gonadotrophin hormones. When we inhibited synthesis of PGE2 or blocked its receptors, oocyte maturation, but not cumulus expansion, was compromised. Further investigation showed that oocyte maturation is delayed but not arrested when PGE2 synthesis is inhibited. On the other hand, addition of exogenous PGE2 induced a high maturation rate and mild cumulus expansion only in the absence of gonadotrophin stimulation, and had no effect in the presence of gonadotrophin. PMID:24447957

Marei, Waleed F; Abayasekara, D Robert E; Wathes, D Claire; Fouladi-Nashta, Ali A

2014-03-01

35

Incomplete Contracts and Signaling  

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This article Presents a principal-agent model in which asymmetric information leads to contractual incompleteness. I show that in the presence of transactions costs, incompleteness may act as a signal of the principal's type. Two types of transactions costs are considered: those incurred ex ante (drafting costs) and those incurred ex post (enforcement or verification costs). I prove that in the presence of either of these costs, asymmetric information leads to more contractual incompleteness ...

1992-01-01

36

Gamma rays induced variability in mature embryos of avocado (Persea americana Mill)  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Induced mutation and biotechnology techniques are current approaches used in plant breeding. At present work, the induced mutation and embryo zygotic culture techniques were used in order to characterize the radiosensitivity of avocado commercial varieties, Hass and California. The induced diversity in plant material was also evaluated in morphological seedling descriptors as: height seedling, diameter seedling neck, leaves number, length of principal root and secondary root number. The obtained results showed high susceptibility of both varieties to gamma rays. California was the higher sensitivity variety. Percentage of entire shoot induction showed clear dependence of radiation dose in both varieties. Thus dose range for mutagenesis was determined. In general, variation of morphological seedling descriptors not was clearly agreed to increase of radiation dose. In addition, the results suggested that variation in morphological seedling descriptors also could be depending of genotypes. The useful of mature embryo culture of avocado for improvement of breeding approaches in this crop, was discussed

2001-10-22

37

Human B cells induce dendritic cell maturation and favour Th2 polarization by inducing OX-40 ligand.  

Science.gov (United States)

Dendritic cells (DCs) play a critical role in immune homeostasis by regulating the functions of various immune cells, including T and B cells. Notably, DCs also undergo education on reciprocal signalling by these immune cells and environmental factors. Various reports demonstrated that B cells have profound regulatory functions, although only few reports have explored the regulation of human DCs by B cells. Here we demonstrate that activated but not resting B cells induce maturation of DCs with distinct features to polarize Th2 cells that secrete interleukin (IL)-5, IL-4 and IL-13. B-cell-induced maturation of DCs is contact dependent and implicates signalling of B-cell activation molecules CD69, B-cell-activating factor receptor, and transmembrane activator and calcium-modulating cyclophilin ligand interactor. Mechanistically, differentiation of Th2 cells by B-cell-matured DCs is dependent on OX-40 ligand. Collectively, our results suggest that B cells have the ability to control their own effector functions by enhancing the ability of human DCs to mediate Th2 differentiation. PMID:24910129

Maddur, Mohan S; Sharma, Meenu; Hegde, Pushpa; Stephen-Victor, Emmanuel; Pulendran, Bali; Kaveri, Srini V; Bayry, Jagadeesh

2014-01-01

38

Inducing Maturation of Monocyte-Derived Dendritic Cells on Human Epithelial Cell Feeder Layer  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Background: Nowadays, dendritic cells (DCs have a special place in cancer treatment strategies and they have been used for tumor immunotherapy as they can induce immune response against tumor cells. Researchers have been trying to generate efficient dendritic cells in vitro; therefore, this research was done to generate them for use in research and tumor immunotherapy. Methods: This study took place at Urmia University in 2010-2011 years. In this study plastic adherent monocytes were incubated with granulocyte-macrophage colony stimulating factor (GM-CSF and interleukin-4 (IL-4 for five days. Finally, fully matured and stable DCs were generated by 48 hours of incubation in a monocyte conditioned medium (MCM containing tumor necrosis factor-? (TNF-? and epithelial cells. Phenotypic and functional analysis were carried out by using anti-CD14, anti-CD80, anti-CD86, and anti-CD83 monoclonal antibodies, and by determining their phagocytic activity, mixed lymphocyte reaction (MLR and cytokine production, respectively. Results: Dendritic cells were produced with high levels of surface molecule, i.e. of CD80, CD83, CD86, HLA-DR, expression and low levels of CD14 expression. Dendritic cells showed efficient phagocytosis and ability to stimulate T-lymphocytes. Moreover, dendritic cells could secrete high levels of interleukin-12 (IL-12 cytokine which was depictive of their full maturation. Measurement of the produced cytokines showed the generation of type-1 dendritic cells (DC1. Conclusion: Our study showed that skin epithelial cells could induce maturation of monocyte-derived dendritic cells (DCs. This feeder layer led to the production of efficient dendritic cells with the ability to be used for tumor immunotherapy.

Delirezh N

2012-02-01

39

Butyrate-stable monosaccharide derivatives induce maturation and apoptosis in human acute myeloid leukaemia cells.  

Science.gov (United States)

The rapid degradation and subsequent lack of efficacy of n-butyric acid in vivo has been improved by the synthesis of monosaccharide stable pro-drugs of butyric acid. We studied the effects of D1 (O-n-butanoyl-2,3-O-isopropylidene-alpha-D-mannofuranoside), G1 (1-O-n-butanoyl-D,L-xylitol), and F1 (1-O-n-butanoyl 2,3-O-isopropylidene-D,L-xylitol) on the maturation and proliferation of AML cell lines HL 60 and FLG 29.1 and of purified blast cells from 10 cases of de novo acute myeloid leukaemia (AML). AML cell maturation was measured by surface antigen expression, morphology and cytochemistry. Toxicology in mice was also evaluated (DL50 1000 mg/kg). In HL 60 cells G1 and D1 increased the expression of CD15 and CD11a (presenting 62% of promyelo-metamyelocytes), and in 7/10 cases of primary AMLs that of CD11a, CD11b, CD15, and myeloperoxidase. D1, G1 and F1 induced a dose-dependent inhibition of tritiated thymidine uptake. Apoptosis (evaluated by flow cytometry and agarose gel electrophoresis) was induced in AML blasts by D1 and F1 (79% and 94% respectively for HL 60 cells) and, with less effect, by G1 (27%). The persistence of maturative and apoptotic activity in these new pro-drugs of butyric acid, hydrolysed only inside the tumour cell, suggests a possible use in differentiation therapy of myelodysplastic syndromes and AMLs. PMID:9633898

Santini, V; Scappini, B; Gozzini, A; Grossi, A; Villa, P; Ronco, G; Douillet, O; Pouillart, P; Bernabei, P A; Rossi Ferrini, P

1998-06-01

40

Streptococcus mutans Wall-Associated Protein A Promotes TLR4-Induced Dendritic Cell Maturation.  

Science.gov (United States)

Dendritic cells orchestrate innate and adaptive immune responses, which are central to establishing efficient responses to vaccination. Wall-associated protein A (WapA) of Streptococcus mutans was previously used as a vaccine in animal studies for immunization against dental caries. However, as a cell surface protein, whether WapA activates innate immune responses and the effects of WapA on DCs remain unclear. In this study, WapA was cloned into the GST fusion vector pEBG, which can be expressed efficiently in mammalian cells. We found that when added before stimulation with LPS, purified WapA-GST protein increased TLR4-induced NF-?B and MAPK signalling pathway activation. Pretreatment with WapA-GST also increased LPS-induced proinflammatory cytokine production by DCs, including IL-12, IL-6 and TNF-?. Furthermore, expression of the DC maturation markers CD80/86, CD40 and MHC II was also increased by WapA pretreatment. These data indicate that WapA is recognized by DCs and promotes DC maturation. PMID:24846569

Li, H; Wang, D

2014-08-01

 
 
 
 
41

Relating incomplete data and incomplete theory  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Assuming string theorists will not soon provide a compelling case for the primary theory underlying particle physics, the field will proceed as it has historically: with data stimulating and testing ideas. Ideally the soft supersymmetry breaking Lagrangian will be measured and its patterns will point to the underlying theory. But there are two new problems. First a matter of principle: the theory may be simplest at distance scales and in numbers of dimensions where direct experiments are not possible. Second a practical problem: in the foreseeable future (with mainly hadron collider data) too few observables can be measured to lead to direct connections between experiment and theory. In this paper we discuss and study these issues and consider ways to circumvent the problems, studying models to test methods. We propose a semiquantitative method for focusing and sharpening thinking when trying to relate incomplete data to incomplete theory, as will probably be necessary

2004-11-01

42

HIV-1 gp120 vaccine induces affinity maturation in both new and persistent antibody clonal lineages.  

Science.gov (United States)

Most antibodies that broadly neutralize HIV-1 are highly somatically mutated in antibody clonal lineages that persist over time. Here, we describe the analysis of human antibodies induced during an HIV-1 vaccine trial (GSK PRO HIV-002) that used the clade B envelope (Env) gp120 of clone W6.1D (gp120(W6.1D)). Using dual-color antigen-specific sorting, we isolated Env-specific human monoclonal antibodies (MAbs) and studied the clonal persistence of antibodies in the setting of HIV-1 Env vaccination. We found evidence of V(H) somatic mutation induced by the vaccine but only to a modest level (3.8% ± 0.5%; range 0 to 8.2%). Analysis of 34 HIV-1-reactive MAbs recovered over four immunizations revealed evidence of both sequential recruitment of naïve B cells and restimulation of previously recruited memory B cells. These recombinant antibodies recapitulated the anti-HIV-1 activity of participant serum including pseudovirus neutralization and antibody-dependent cell-mediated cytotoxicity (ADCC). One antibody (3491) demonstrated a change in specificity following somatic mutation with binding of the inferred unmutated ancestor to a linear C2 peptide while the mutated antibody reacted only with a conformational epitope in gp120 Env. Thus, gp120(W6.1D) was strongly immunogenic but over four immunizations induced levels of affinity maturation below that of broadly neutralizing MAbs. Improved vaccination strategies will be needed to drive persistent stimulation of antibody clonal lineages to induce affinity maturation that results in highly mutated HIV-1 Env-reactive antibodies. PMID:22553329

Moody, M Anthony; Yates, Nicole L; Amos, Joshua D; Drinker, Mark S; Eudailey, Joshua A; Gurley, Thaddeus C; Marshall, Dawn J; Whitesides, John F; Chen, Xi; Foulger, Andrew; Yu, Jae-Sung; Zhang, Ruijun; Meyerhoff, R Ryan; Parks, Robert; Scull, Julia Cavanaugh; Wang, Lu; Vandergrift, Nathan A; Pickeral, Joy; Pollara, Justin; Kelsoe, Garnett; Alam, S Munir; Ferrari, Guido; Montefiori, David C; Voss, Gerald; Liao, Hua-Xin; Tomaras, Georgia D; Haynes, Barton F

2012-07-01

43

Acidic polysaccharides isolated from Phellinus linteus induce phenotypic and functional maturation of murine dendritic cells.  

Science.gov (United States)

Acidic polysaccharides (PL) isolated from Phellinus linteus are known to stimulate the proliferation of T lymphocytes and humoral immune functions to act as a polyclonal activator of B cells, and to inhibit tumor growth and metastasis. However, little is known about their immunomodulating effects or the effects of its mechanisms on murine bone marrow (BM)-derived dendritic cells (DC). In this study, it profoundly increased CD80, CD86, MHC I, and MHC II expression in murine, GM-CSF and IL-4 stimulated, BM-derived myeloid DC. The ability of unstimulated DC to uptake dextran was higher than that of PL- or LPS-stimulated DC. We analyzed the concentration of IL-12 secreted by DC using flow cytometry and ELISA. Untreated DC secreted a low concentration of IL-12, while PL- or LPS-stimulated DC secreted higher levels of IL-12 than untreated DC. There were no remarkable differences in the concentrations of IL-12 produced by PL- or LPS-stimulated DC. However, polymyxin B (PB; an LPS inhibitor) effectively inhibited the surface molecules and IL-12 production induced by LPS, but had no effect on the PL in DC. PL-treated DC were much more potent antigen-presenting cells in allogeneic immune response than untreated DC. PL treatment not only formed morphologically mature DC but also induced predominant migration to lymphoid tissues. Moreover, the inhibitors of protein tyrosine kinase (PTK) or protein kinase C (PKC) significantly blocked the expression of surface molecules and IL-12 production in PL-stimulated DC. Treatment of DC with PL directly induced PKC activity and phosphorylated PTK. Furthermore, CD11b and/or CD18 partially mediated PL-induced DC maturation. PMID:14637158

Park, Soon-Kew; Kim, Gi-Young; Lim, Jae-Young; Kwak, Jong-Young; Bae, Yoe-Sik; Lee, Jae-Dong; Oh, Yang-Hyo; Ahn, Soon-Cheol; Park, Yeong-Min

2003-12-12

44

Comparative effects of mature coconut water (Cocos nucifera) and glibenclamide on some biochemical parameters in alloxan induced diabetic rats  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in english In the present study, comparative effects of mature coconut water (Cocos nucifera L., Arecaceae) and glibenclamide in alloxan induced diabetic rats were evaluated. Diabetes mellitus was induced in Sprague-Dawly rats using alloxan monohydrate (150 mg kg-1 body weight). Treatment with lyophilized form [...] of mature coconut water and glibenclamide in diabetic rats reduced the blood glucose and glycated hemoglobin along with improvement in plasma insulin level. Elevated levels of liver function enzymes markers like alkaline phosphatase, serum glutamate oxaloacetate transaminase and serum glutamate pyruvate transaminase in diabetic rats were significantly reduced on treatment with mature coconut water. In addition to this, diabetic rats showed altered levels of blood urea, serum creatinine, albumin, albumin/globulin ratio which were significantly improved by treatment with mature coconut water and glibenclamide. Activities of nitric oxide synthase in liver and plasma L-arginine were reduced significantly in alloxan induced diabetic rats while treatment with mature coconut water reversed these changes. The overall results show that mature coconut water has significant beneficial effects in diabetic rats and its effects were comparable to that of glibenclamide, a well known antidiabetic drug.

P. P., Preetha; V., Girija Devi; T., Rajamohan.

45

Interferon-? Added During Bacillus Calmette-Guerin Induced Dendritic Cell Maturation Stimulates Potent Th1 Immune Responses  

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Full Text Available Abstract Dendritic cells (DC are increasingly prepared in vitro for use in immunotherapy trials. Mature DC express high levels of surface molecules needed for T cell activation and are superior at antigen-presentation than immature DC. Bacillus Calmette-Guerin (BCG is one of several products known to induce DC maturation, and interferon (IFN-? has been shown to enhance the activity of DC stimulated with certain maturation factors. In this study, we investigated the use of IFN-? in combination with the powerful maturation agent, BCG. The treatment of immature DC with IFN-? plus BCG led to the upregulation of CD54, CD80, and CD86 in comparison with BCG treatment alone. In MLR or recall immune responses, the addition of IFN-? at the time of BCG-treatment did not increase the number of antigen-specific T cells but enhanced the development of IFN-?-producing Th1 cells. In primary immune responses, on the other hand, BCG and IFN-? co-treated DC stimulated higher proportions of specific T cells as well as IFN-? secretion by these T cells. Thus the use of IFN-? during BCG-induced DC maturation differentially affects the nature of recall versus naïve antigen-specific T-cell responses. IFN-? co-treatment with BCG was found to induce IL-12 and, in some instances, inhibit IL-10 secretion by DC. These findings greatly enhance the potential of BCG-matured dendritic cells for use in cancer immunotherapy.

Pestano Linda A

2003-10-01

46

Comparative effects of mature coconut water (Cocos nucifera and glibenclamide on some biochemical parameters in alloxan induced diabetic rats  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In the present study, comparative effects of mature coconut water (Cocos nucifera L., Arecaceae and glibenclamide in alloxan induced diabetic rats were evaluated. Diabetes mellitus was induced in Sprague-Dawly rats using alloxan monohydrate (150 mg kg-1 body weight. Treatment with lyophilized form of mature coconut water and glibenclamide in diabetic rats reduced the blood glucose and glycated hemoglobin along with improvement in plasma insulin level. Elevated levels of liver function enzymes markers like alkaline phosphatase, serum glutamate oxaloacetate transaminase and serum glutamate pyruvate transaminase in diabetic rats were significantly reduced on treatment with mature coconut water. In addition to this, diabetic rats showed altered levels of blood urea, serum creatinine, albumin, albumin/globulin ratio which were significantly improved by treatment with mature coconut water and glibenclamide. Activities of nitric oxide synthase in liver and plasma L-arginine were reduced significantly in alloxan induced diabetic rats while treatment with mature coconut water reversed these changes. The overall results show that mature coconut water has significant beneficial effects in diabetic rats and its effects were comparable to that of glibenclamide, a well known antidiabetic drug.

P. P. Preetha

2013-06-01

47

Mannan-binding lectin regulates dendritic cell maturation and cytokine production induced by lipopolysaccharide  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background Mannan-binding lectin (MBL is a pattern-recognition molecule present in serum, which is involved in the innate immune defense by activating complement and promoting opsonophagocytosis. Dendritic cells (DCs are professional antigen presenting cells (APCs that are crucial for the initiation of adaptive immunity. Lipopolysaccharide (LPS has been shown to be a strong activator of the inflammatory response and immune regulation. We first examined whether MBL modulated LPS-induced cellular responses, then investigated possible mechanisms of its inhibitory effect. Results MBL at higher concentrations (10-20 ?g/ml significantly attenuated LPS-induced maturation of monocyte-derived DCs (MDCs and production of proinflammatory cytokines (e.g., IL-12 and TNF-?, and inhibited their ability to activate allogeneic T lymphocytes. It bound to immature MDCs at physiological calcium concentrations, and was optimal at supraphysiological calcium concentrations. MBL also bound directly to immature MDCs and attenuated the binding of LPS to the cell surfaces, resulting in decreased LPS-induced nuclear factor-?B (NF-?B activity in these cells. Conclusion All these data suggest that MBL could affect the functions of DCs by modifying LPS-induced cellular responses. This study supports an important role for MBL in the regulation of adaptive immune responses and inflammatory responses.

Zhang Liyun

2011-01-01

48

Advanced glycation end products promote heart failure through inducing the immune maturation of dendritic cells.  

Science.gov (United States)

Advanced glycation end products (AGEs) and dendritic cells (DCs) are believed to play a key role in the development and progression of cardiovascular diseases. However, their role and interactive mechanism remain uncertain. The aim of the present study is to investigate the mechanism of AGE- and DC-mediated heart failure. Time- and dose-dependent western blot and immunohistochemical analysis showed a significant upregulation in the expression of AGEs, receptor for AGEs (RAGE), and OX-62. Further hemodynamic and echocardiogram analysis revealed that AGEs mediate cardiac failure. Treatment with pioglitazone improved heart function by decreasing the expression of AGEs and OX-62 in the rats with myocardial infarction (MI) plus diabetes. AGEs induced the maturation of DCs in both time- and concentration-dependent manner with upregulation in RAGE and dendritic markers. Further, coculture of cardiomyocytes with DCs in the presence of AGEs significantly upregulated hypertrophy-associated genes as determined by real-time PCR. In conclusion, the present study shows clear evidence that AGEs promote heart failure via the maturation of DCs. In addition, inhibition of AGEs by pioglitazone alleviates accumulation of DCs and thus improves heart function. PMID:24610037

Cao, Weiwei; Chen, Jianwen; Chen, Yanfang; Chen, Xi; Liu, Peiqing

2014-04-01

49

Maturation of osteoblast-like SaoS2 induced by carbon nanotubes  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Osteogenic maturation of the osteoblast is crucial for bone formation. In this study, multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) and graphite (GP) were pressed as compacts. The greater ability of carbon nanotubes to adsorb proteins, compared with graphite, was shown. Human osteoblast-like SaoS2 cells were cultured and the cell response to the two kinds of compacts was compared in vitro. Meanwhile, we used cell culture on the culture plate as a control. Assays for osteonectin, osteopontin and osteocalcin gene expression, total protein (TP) amount, alkaline phosphatase activity (ALP) and DNA of cells cultured on the samples were done. During the conventional culture, significantly higher osteonectin, osteopontin and osteocalcin gene expression level, ALP/DNA and TP/DNA on carbon nanotubes were found. To confirm the hypothesis that the larger amount of specific proteins adsorbed on the carbon nanotubes was crucial for this, the compacts were pre-soaked in culture medium having additional recombinant human bone morphogenetic protein-2 (rhBMP-2) before cell culture. Compared with GP, osteonectin, osteopontin and osteocalcin gene expression level, ALP/DNA and TP/DNA of the cells tested increased more on the MWCNTs after the compacts were pre-soaked in the culture medium with rhBMP-2. The results indicated that the carbon nanotubes might induce osteogenic maturation of the osteoblast by adsorbing more specific proteins.

2009-02-01

50

Potentially probiotic bacteria induce efficient maturation but differential cytokine production in human monocyte-derived dendritic cells  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available AIM: To analyze the ability of nine different potentially probiotic bacteria to induce maturation and cytokine production in human monocyte-derived dendritic cells (moDCs.METHODS: Cytokine production and maturation of moDCs in response to bacterial stimulation was analyzed with enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA and flow cytometric analysis (FACS, respectively. The kinetics of mRNA expression of cytokine genes was determined by Northern blotting. The involvement of different signaling pathways in cytokine gene expression was studied using specific pharmacological signaling inhibitors.RESULTS: All studied bacteria induced the maturation of moDCs in a dose-dependent manner. More detailed analysis with S. thermophilus THS, B. breve Bb99, and L. lactis subsp. cremoris ARH74 indicated that these bacteria induced the expression of moDC maturation markers HLA class II and CD86 as efficiently as pathogenic bacteria. However, these bacteria differed in their ability to induce moDC cytokine gene expression. S. thermophilus induced the expression of pro-inflammatory (TNF-?, IL-12, IL-6, and CCL20 and Th1 type (IL-12 and IFN-? cytokines, while B. breve and L. lactis were also potent inducers of anti-inflammatory IL-10. Mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK p38, phosphatidylinositol 3 (PI3 kinase, and nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-?B signaling pathways were shown to be involved in bacteria-induced cytokine production.CONCLUSION: Our results indicate that potentially probiotic bacteria are able to induce moDC maturation, but their ability to induce cytokine gene expression varies significantly from one bacterial strain to another.

Sinikka Latvala, Taija E Pietilä, Ville Veckman, Riina A Kekkonen, Soile Tynkkynen, Riitta Korpela, Ilkka Julkunen

2008-03-01

51

Mycobacterium tuberculosislpdC, Rv0462, induces dendritic cell maturation and Th1 polarization.  

Science.gov (United States)

Mycobacterium tuberculosis, the etiological factor of pulmonary tuberculosis, causes significant morbidity and mortality worldwide. Activation of host immune responses for containment of mycobacterial infections involves participation of innate immune cells, such as dendritic cells (DCs). In this study, we demonstrated that the gene encoding lipoamide dehydrogenase C (lpdC) from M. tuberculosis, Rv0462, induce maturation and activation of DCs involved in the MAPKs signaling pathway. Moreover, Rv0462-treated DCs activated naïve T cells, polarized CD4(+) and CD8(+) T cells to secrete IFN-? in syngeneic mixed lymphocyte reactions, which would be expected to contribute to Th1 polarization of the immune response. Our results suggest that Rv0462 can contribute to the innate and adaptive immune responses during tuberculosis infection, and thus modulate the clinical course of tuberculosis. PMID:21782792

Heo, Deok Rim; Shin, Sung Jae; Kim, Woo Sik; Noh, Kyung Tae; Park, Jin Wook; Son, Kwang Hee; Park, Won Sun; Lee, Min-Goo; Kim, Daejin; Shin, Yong Kyoo; Jung, In Duk; Park, Yeong-Min

2011-08-01

52

Immunomodulatory derivatives induce PU.1 down-regulation, myeloid maturation arrest, and neutropenia.  

Science.gov (United States)

The immunomodulatory drugs (IMiDs) lenalidomide and pomalidomide yield high response rates in patients with multiple myeloma, but the use of IMiDs in multiple myeloma is associated with neutropenia and increased risk for venous thromboembolism (VTE) by mechanisms that are unknown. We show that IMiDs down-regulate PU.1, a key transcription factor involved in granulocyte differentiation in vitro and in patients treated with lenalidomide. Loss of PU.1 results in transient maturation arrest with medullary accumulation of immature myeloid precursors and subsequent neutropenia. Accumulation of promyelocytes leads to high levels of the platelet aggregation agonist, cathepsin G stored in the azurophilic granules of promyelocytes. High levels of cathepsin G subsequently may increase the risk of VTE. To our knowledge, this is the first report investigating the underlying mechanism of IMiD-induced neutropenia and increased risk of VTE in multiple myeloma. PMID:19965623

Pal, Rekha; Monaghan, Sara A; Hassett, Andrea Cortese; Mapara, Markus Y; Schafer, Peter; Roodman, G David; Ragni, Margaret V; Moscinski, Lynn; List, Alan; Lentzsch, Suzanne

2010-01-21

53

Mycobacterium tuberculosislpdC, Rv0462, induces dendritic cell maturation and Th1 polarization  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Highlights: ? Treatment with Rv0462 induces the expression of surface molecules and the production of cytokines in DCs. ? Rv0462 induces the activation of MAPKs. ? Rv0462-treated DCs enhances the proliferation of CD4+ T cells. -- Abstract: Mycobacterium tuberculosis, the etiological factor of pulmonary tuberculosis, causes significant morbidity and mortality worldwide. Activation of host immune responses for containment of mycobacterial infections involves participation of innate immune cells, such as dendritic cells (DCs). In this study, we demonstrated that the gene encoding lipoamide dehydrogenase C (lpdC) from M. tuberculosis, Rv0462, induce maturation and activation of DCs involved in the MAPKs signaling pathway. Moreover, Rv0462-treated DCs activated naive T cells, polarized CD4+ and CD8+ T cells to secrete IFN-? in syngeneic mixed lymphocyte reactions, which would be expected to contribute to Th1 polarization of the immune response. Our results suggest that Rv0462 can contribute to the innate and adaptive immune responses during tuberculosis infection, and thus modulate the clinical course of tuberculosis.

2011-08-05

54

Mycobacterium tuberculosislpdC, Rv0462, induces dendritic cell maturation and Th1 polarization  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Highlights: {yields} Treatment with Rv0462 induces the expression of surface molecules and the production of cytokines in DCs. {yields} Rv0462 induces the activation of MAPKs. {yields} Rv0462-treated DCs enhances the proliferation of CD4{sup +} T cells. -- Abstract: Mycobacterium tuberculosis, the etiological factor of pulmonary tuberculosis, causes significant morbidity and mortality worldwide. Activation of host immune responses for containment of mycobacterial infections involves participation of innate immune cells, such as dendritic cells (DCs). In this study, we demonstrated that the gene encoding lipoamide dehydrogenase C (lpdC) from M. tuberculosis, Rv0462, induce maturation and activation of DCs involved in the MAPKs signaling pathway. Moreover, Rv0462-treated DCs activated naive T cells, polarized CD4{sup +} and CD8{sup +} T cells to secrete IFN-{gamma} in syngeneic mixed lymphocyte reactions, which would be expected to contribute to Th1 polarization of the immune response. Our results suggest that Rv0462 can contribute to the innate and adaptive immune responses during tuberculosis infection, and thus modulate the clinical course of tuberculosis.

Heo, Deok Rim [Department of Microbiology and Immunology, School of Medicine, Pusan National University, Beom-eo Ri, Mulgum Eop, Yangsan, Gyeongsangnam-do 626-770 (Korea, Republic of); Shin, Sung Jae; Kim, Woo Sik [Department of Microbiology, College of Medicine, Chungnam National University, Munwha-Dong, Jung-Ku, Daejeon 301-747 (Korea, Republic of); Noh, Kyung Tae; Park, Jin Wook; Son, Kwang Hee [Department of Microbiology and Immunology, School of Medicine, Pusan National University, Beom-eo Ri, Mulgum Eop, Yangsan, Gyeongsangnam-do 626-770 (Korea, Republic of); Park, Won Sun [Department of Physiology, Kangwon National University, School of Medicine, Chuncheon 200-701 (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Min-Goo [Department of Physiology, Korea University, College of Medicine, Anam-dong, Sungbuk-Gu, Seoul 136-705 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Daejin [Department of Anatomy, Chung-Ang University, College of Medicine, 221 Heuksuk-Dong, Dongjak-Ku, Seoul 156-756 (Korea, Republic of); Shin, Yong Kyoo [Department of Pharmacology, Chung-Ang University, College of Medicine, 221 Heuksuk-Dong, Dongjak-Ku, Seoul 156-756 (Korea, Republic of); Jung, In Duk, E-mail: jungid@pusan.ac.kr [Department of Microbiology and Immunology, School of Medicine, Pusan National University, Beom-eo Ri, Mulgum Eop, Yangsan, Gyeongsangnam-do 626-770 (Korea, Republic of); Research Institute of Convergence of Biomedical Science and Technology, Pusan National University Yangsan Hospital, Beom-eo Ri, Mulgum Eop, Yangsan, Gyeongsangnam-do 626-770 (Korea, Republic of); Park, Yeong-Min, E-mail: immunpym@pusan.ac.kr [Department of Microbiology and Immunology, School of Medicine, Pusan National University, Beom-eo Ri, Mulgum Eop, Yangsan, Gyeongsangnam-do 626-770 (Korea, Republic of); Research Institute of Convergence of Biomedical Science and Technology, Pusan National University Yangsan Hospital, Beom-eo Ri, Mulgum Eop, Yangsan, Gyeongsangnam-do 626-770 (Korea, Republic of)

2011-08-05

55

Rhizobia can induce nodules in white clover by "hijacking" mature cortical cells activated during lateral root development.  

Science.gov (United States)

We examined a range of responses of root cortical cells to Rhizobium sp. inoculation to investigate why rhizobia preferentially nodulate legume roots in the zone of emerging root hairs, but generally fail to nodulate the mature root. We tested whether the inability to form nodules in the mature root is due to a lack of plant flavonoids to induce the bacterial genes required for nodulation or a failure of mature cortical cells to respond to Rhizobium spp. When rhizobia were inoculated in the zone of emerging root hairs, changes in beta-glucuronidase (GUS) expression from an auxin-responsive promoter (GH3), expression from three chalcone synthase promoters, and the accumulation of specific flavonoid compounds occurred in cortical cells prior to nodule formation. Rhizobia failed to induce these responses when inoculated in the mature root, even when co-inoculated with nod gene-inducing flavonoids. However, mature root hairs remained responsive to rhizobia and could support infection thread formation. This suggests that a deficiency in signal transduction is the reason for nodulation failure in the mature root. However, nodules could be initiated in the mature root at sites of lateral root emergence. A comparison between lateral root and nodule formation showed that similar patterns of GH3:gusA expression, chalcone synthase gene expression, and accumulation of a particular flavonoid compound occurred in the cortical cells involved in both processes. The results suggest that rhizobia can "hijack" cortical cells next to lateral root emergence sites because some of the early responses required for nodule formation have already been activated by the plant in those cells. PMID:10659707

Mathesius, U; Weinman, J J; Rolfe, B G; Djordjevic, M A

2000-02-01

56

Planning with Incomplete Information  

CERN Multimedia

Planning is a natural domain of application for frameworks of reasoning aboutactions and change. In this paper we study how one such framework, the LanguageE, can form the basis for planning under (possibly) incomplete information. Wedefine two types of plans: weak and safe plans, and propose a planner, calledthe E-Planner, which is often able to extend an initial weak plan into a safeplan even though the (explicit) information available is incomplete, e.g. forcases where the initial state is not completely known. The E-Planner is basedupon a reformulation of the Language E in argumentation terms and a naturalproof theory resulting from the reformulation. It uses an extension of thisproof theory by means of abduction for the generation of plans and adoptsargumentation-based techniques for extending weak plans into safe plans. Weprovide representative examples illustrating the behaviour of the E-Planner, inparticular for cases where the status of fluents is incompletely known.

Kakas, A C; Toni, F; Kakas, Antonis; Miller, Rob; Toni, Francesca

2000-01-01

57

On certain incomplete statistics  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The foundations of the incomplete statistics recently proposed by Wang is rediscussed in the context of the canonical statistical ensemble. It is found that the incomplete normalization condition, ?pqi=1 (i=1,...,w), where pi is the probability of a given microstate, is not compatible with the entropic non-extensive formula proposed by Tsallis. It is proved that the entropic function proposed by Wang must be written as Sq=-kB?pi2q-1lnqpi, whereas the form proposed by Tsallis namely, Sq=-kB?piqlnqpi, is directly associated with the standard normalization condition (?ipi=1)

2004-03-01

58

Information-theoretic incompleteness  

CERN Document Server

In this mathematical autobiography, Gregory Chaitin presents a technical survey of his work and a nontechnical discussion of its significance. The volume is an essential companion to the earlier collection of Chaitin's papers Information, Randomness and Incompleteness, also published by World Scientific.The technical survey contains many new results, including a detailed discussion of LISP program size and new versions of Chaitin's most fundamental information-theoretic incompleteness theorems. The nontechnical part includes the lecture given by Chaitin in Gšdel's classroom at the University o

Chaitin, Gregory J

1992-01-01

59

Selective contribution of IFN-/ signaling to the maturation of dendritic cells induced by double-stranded RNA or viral infection  

Science.gov (United States)

A complex mechanism may be operational for dendritic cell (DC) maturation, wherein Toll-like receptor and other signaling pathways may be coordinated differently depending on the nature of the pathogens, in order for DC maturation to be most effective to a given threat. Here, we show that IFN-/ signaling is selectively required for the maturation of DCs induced by double-stranded RNA or viral infection in vitro. Interestingly, the maturation is still observed in the absence of either of the two target genes of IFN-/, TLR3 and PKR (double-stranded-RNA-dependent protein kinase R), indicating the complexity of the IFN-/-induced transcriptional program in DCs. We also show that the DCs stimulated in vivo by these agents can migrate into the T cell zone of the spleen but fail to mature without the IFN signal. The immune system may have acquired the selective utilization of this cytokine system, which is essential for innate antiviral immunity, to effectively couple with the induction of adaptive immunity.

Honda, Kenya; Sakaguchi, Shinya; Nakajima, Chigusa; Watanabe, Ai; Yanai, Hideyuki; Matsumoto, Misako; Ohteki, Toshiaki; Kaisho, Tsuneyasu; Takaoka, Akinori; Akira, Shizuo; Seya, Tsukasa; Taniguchi, Tadatsugu

2003-09-01

60

Recombinant Adenovirus Induces Maturation of Dendritic Cells via an NF-?B-Dependent Pathway  

Science.gov (United States)

Recombinant adenovirus (rAd) infection is one of the most effective and frequently employed methods to transduce dendritic cells (DC). Contradictory results have been reported recently concerning the influence of rAd on the differentiation and activation of DC. In this report, we show that, as a result of rAd infection, mouse bone marrow-derived immature DC upregulate expression of major histocompatibility complex class I and II antigens, costimulatory molecules (CD40, CD80, and CD86), and the adhesion molecule CD54 (ICAM-1). rAd-transduced DC exhibited increased allostimulatory capacity and levels of interleukin-6 (IL-6), IL-12p40, IL-15, gamma interferon, and tumor necrosis factor alpha mRNAs, without effects on other immunoregulatory cytokine transcripts such as IL-10 or IL-12p35. These effects were not related to specific transgenic sequences or to rAd genome transcription. The rAd effect correlated with a rapid increase (1 h) in the NF-?B–DNA binding activity detected by electrophoretic mobility shift assays. rAd-induced DC maturation was blocked by the proteasome inhibitor N?-p-tosyl-l-lysine chloromethyl ketone (TLCK) or by infection with rAd-I?B, an rAd-encoding the dominant-negative form of I?B. In vivo studies showed that after intravenous administration, rAds were rapidly entrapped in the spleen by marginal zone DC that mobilized to T-cell areas, a phenomenon suggesting that rAd also induced DC differentiation in vivo. These findings may explain the immunogenicity of rAd and the difficulties in inducing long-term antigen-specific T-cell hyporesponsiveness with rAd-transduced DC.

Morelli, Adrian E.; Larregina, Adriana T.; Ganster, Raymond W.; Zahorchak, Alan F.; Plowey, Jeffrey M.; Takayama, Takuya; Logar, Alison J.; Robbins, Paul D.; Falo, Louis D.; Thomson, Angus W.

2000-01-01

 
 
 
 
61

The timing of the restitution of chromosome breaks induced by x-rays in the mature sperm of Drosophila melanogaster  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Drosophila melanogaster males with marked X and Y chromosomes were irradiated and mature sperm sampled by mating the males to females carrying attached-X chromosomes. Induced loss and partial loss of the paternal sex chromosomes was studied. F1 females were scored according to their phenotype and transmitted fragments were analyzed genetically. Half of the exceptional F1 females could be scored as 'partial losses'. Of the apparent total loss exceptions tested, half were carrying detectable fragments. 21% of the transmissible fragments were carrying a duplication of a paternal chromosome tip. This frequency is an under-estimate because only 6 of the 10 chromosome tips were marked in such a way that duplications could be detected. In addition, the markers used were located near, but not at the chromosome ends. These data are interpreted as indicating that a high proportion of the chromosome loss and partial loss induced by irradiation of mature sperm is a consequence of chromatid rearrangements arising from chromosome breaks which stay open until replication. It is suggested that during the transition from sperm head to mature pronucleus, repair of breaks and chromosome replication are two processes that occur in overlapping time intervals. It is therefore possible for chromosome breaks induced in mature sperm to give rise to chromosome and chromatid rearrangements

1976-01-01

62

Protein phosphorylation during 5-hydroxytryptamine-induced maturation of Spisula oocytes  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Maturation was induced in Spisula oocytes with 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT) creatinine sulfate at a final concentration of 5 ?M. After 10 and 30 min of treatment, oocytes were homogenized and the cytosolic and particulate fractions were prepared. The fractions were incubated with [?-32P]GTP and [?-32P]ATP. The phosphorylated proteins were analyzed by sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. The radioactivity in the gels was determined by autoradiography. With [?-32P]GTP a marked increase in the radiolabeling of proteins with an estimated Mr of 47,000 and 20,000 in the cytosolic and particulate fractions, respectively, was demonstrated with the 5-HT-treated oocytes, whereas no stimulation was demonstrable with the use of [?-32P]ATP. A significant increase in GTP-mediated protein phosphorylation occurred within 10 min after 5-HT treatment before the occurrence of germinal vesicle breakdown, suggesting that this post-translation modification of proteins is an early action of the neurotransmitter in the induction of meiotic reinitiation in oocytes

1988-01-01

63

Bone and hormonal changes induced by skeletal unloading in the mature male rat  

Science.gov (United States)

To determine whether the rat hindlimb elevation model can be used to study the effects of spaceflight and loss of gravitational loading on bone in the adult animal, and to examine the effects of age on bone responsiveness to mechanical loading, we studied 6-mo-old rats subjected to hindlimb elevation for up to 5 wk. Loss of weight bearing in the adult induced a mild hypercalcemia, diminished serum 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D, decreased vertebral bone mass, and blunted the otherwise normal increase in femoral mass associated with bone maturation. Unloading decreased osteoblast numbers and reduced periosteal and cancellous bone formation but had no effect on bone resorption. Mineralizing surface, mineral apposition rate, and bone formation rate decreased during unloading. Our results demonstrate the utility of the adult rat hindlimb elevation model as a means of simulating the loss of gravitational loading on the skeleton, and they show that the effects of nonweight bearing are prolonged and have a greater relative effect on bone formation in the adult than in the young growing animal.

Dehority, W.; Halloran, B. P.; Bikle, D. D.; Curren, T.; Kostenuik, P. J.; Wronski, T. J.; Shen, Y.; Rabkin, B.; Bouraoui, A.; Morey-Holton, E.

1999-01-01

64

Earliness in maturity and semi dwarf-ness in barley induced through mutation  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In Tanzania barley is used for malting, and to accelerate the release of new varieties, breeding strategies have been on improvement of existing cultivars. Under the project 'Enhanced Crop Productivity through Radiation URT/5/023' three barley varieties; Bima, Kusini and 8519 were treated with chemical mutagens. The cultivars were treated for three hours with 1.0mM NaN3 followed by three hours in 0.5mM MNH. From M2 generation individual plants showing earliness and semi dwarf-ness were selected. Evaluation of selected lines has been going on, agronomic the lines look similar to the mother cultivars except for the induced traits and now they are at M6 generation. The release of new promising cultivars (direct or after hybridization) in the near future is possible. Earliness in maturity helps as an escape mechanism to drought and semi dwarf-ness is important to avoid lodging in more humid and fertile areas. (author)

2008-08-12

65

Cooperative transcription activation by Nurr1 and Pitx3 induces embryonic stem cell maturation to the midbrain dopamine neuron phenotype  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Midbrain dopamine (DA) neurons play a central role in the regulation of voluntary movement, and their degeneration is associated with Parkinson's disease. Cell replacement therapies, and in particular embryonic stem (ES) cell-derived DA neurons, offer a potential therapeutic venue for Parkinson's disease. We sought to identify genes that can potentiate maturation of ES cell cultures to the midbrain DA neuron phenotype. A number of transcription factors have been implicated in the development of midbrain DA neurons by expression analyses and loss-of-function knockout mouse studies, including Nurr1, Pitx3, Lmx1b, Engrailed-1, and Engrailed-2. However, none of these factors appear sufficient alone to induce the mature midbrain DA neuron phenotype in ES cell cultures in vitro, suggesting a more complex regulatory network. Here we show that Nurr1 and Pitx3 cooperatively promote terminal maturation to the midbrain DA neuron phenotype in murine and human ES cell cultures.

Martinat, Cecile; Bacci, Jean-Jacques

2006-01-01

66

Prenatal immune activation induces maturation-dependent alterations in the prefrontal GABAergic transcriptome.  

Science.gov (United States)

Neuronal dysfunctions in the cortical GABAergic system have been widely documented in neuropsychiatric disorders with prenatal infectious etiologies, including schizophrenia. At least some of these abnormalities may stem from transcriptional impairments in the GABAergic transcriptome. However, the extent to which prenatal exposure to immune challenge can induce long-term alterations in GABAergic gene transcription remains largely elusive. Here, we use an established mouse model of prenatal immune activation induced by maternal gestational administration of the viral mimetic poly(I:C) (= polyriboinosinic-polyribocytidilic acid) to demonstrate that prenatal immune activation causes maturation-dependent alterations in prefrontal GABAergic gene expression. The spectrum of abnormalities included altered mRNA expression levels of enzymes regulating ?-aminobutyric acid (GABA) biosynthesis (glutamic acid decarboxylase 65-kDa [GAD65] and GAD67), vesicular GABA transporter (VGAT), alpha-subunits of the GABA(A) receptor (?2, ?3, ?4, and ?5), and the chloride transporters sodium-potassium-chloride cotransporter 1 and potassium-chloride cotransporter 2. Additional western blot analyses confirmed the deficits in prefrontal GAD65/GAD67 and VGAT expression at the protein level. Intriguingly, the prefrontal GABAergic transcriptome was found to be more strongly affected in adult compared with peripubertal offspring born to immune-challenged mothers, and these age-dependent changes in GABAergic gene expression were paralleled by an adult onset of working memory deficiency. Collectively, our data emphasize a critical impact of prenatal immune-related insults on long-term GABAergic changes relevant to neuropsychiatric disorders with prenatal infectious etiologies, especially for those with delayed onset in early adulthood. PMID:23328159

Richetto, Juliet; Calabrese, Francesca; Riva, Marco A; Meyer, Urs

2014-03-01

67

On certain incomplete statistics  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The foundations of the incomplete statistics recently proposed by Wang is rediscussed in the context of the canonical statistical ensemble. It is found that the incomplete normalization condition, {sigma}p{sup q}{sub i}=1 (i=1,...,w), where p{sub i} is the probability of a given microstate, is not compatible with the entropic non-extensive formula proposed by Tsallis. It is proved that the entropic function proposed by Wang must be written as S{sub q}=-k{sub B}{sigma}p{sub i}{sup 2q-1}ln{sub q}p{sub i}, whereas the form proposed by Tsallis namely, S{sub q}=-k{sub B}{sigma}p{sub i}{sup q}ln{sub q}p{sub i}, is directly associated with the standard normalization condition ({sigma}{sub i}p{sub i}=1)

Lima, J.A.S. E-mail: limajas@dfte.ufrn.br; Bezerra, J.R. E-mail: zero@dfte.ufrn.br; Silva, R. E-mail: rsilva@uern.br

2004-03-01

68

Iterative incomplete factorization methods  

CERN Document Server

This book is devoted to numerical methods for solving sparse linear algebra systems of very large dimension which arise in the implementation of the mesh approximations of the partial differential equations. Incomplete factorization is the basis of the wide class of preconditioning interative processes with acceleration by conjugate gradients or the Chebyshev technique. Different kinds of explicit and implicit algorithms are considered. Theoretical grounds of correctness and estimates of the convergence velocity of iterations are presented. Together with the results of experimental investigati

Il'in, VP

1992-01-01

69

Production of canine soluble CD40 ligand to induce maturation of monocyte derived dendritic cells for cancer immunotherapy.  

Science.gov (United States)

CD40 ligand (CD40L) expressed by activated T cells is shown to induce maturation of immature dendritic cells (DCs) and this maturation is a vital part in DC based tumor immunotherapy. We constructed an expression vector by cloning the extracellular domain of canine CD40L fused to the signal sequence of canine IL-12p40. When PBMCs were incubated with canine granulocyte-macrophage (GM) -CSF and IL-4, expression of CD86 was significantly elevated, but the majority of cells displayed the morphology of immature DCs. Following addition of the expressed canine soluble CD40L (csCD40L) to the DC-inducing culture, the cell morphology shifted to that of mature DCs, and expression of CD80, CD86, MHC class II and CD1a was significantly enhanced. This morphological change and enhancement of expression was observed even when the csCD40L was present only in the second half period of the culture. Furthermore, the csCD40L caused a significant increase in IL-12 production from DCs. These results show that the csCD40L significantly promotes the maturation and activation of canine monocyte derived DCs. PMID:24144681

Wijewardana, Viskam; Sugiura, Kikuya; Yahata, Mana; Akazawa, Takashi; Wijesekera, Daluthgamage Patsy H; Imamoto, Shigeki; Hatoya, Shingo; Inoue, Norimitsu; Inaba, Toshio

2013-11-15

70

Modulation of phenotypic and functional maturation of murine bone-marrow-derived dendritic cells (BMDCs) induced by cadmium chloride.  

Science.gov (United States)

Cadmium (Cd(2+)) has been classified as a type I human carcinogen by the International Agency for Research on Cancer. In the present study, we are going to report for the first time on the detailed modulation of phenotypic and functional maturation of murine bone marrow-derived dendritic cells (BMDCs) induced by cadmium chloride. Dendritic cells (DCs) are major modulators in the whole immune system. One dynamic field of research is the manipulation of DCs as pharmacological targets to screen novel biological modifiers for the treatment of tumor, inflammatory and autoimmune disorders. Phenotypic and functional maturation of BMDCs was evaluated by phase-contrast light microscope for primary cultures, flow cytometry (FCM) for important DC markers, reverse-transcriptase PCR and enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) for cytokines. Cd(2+)-induced BMDC death was also performed by comet assay. Our results elucidated that Cd(2+) suppressed maturation of BMDCs via changes as reflected by the decreased expression of key surface molecules such as MHCII and CD40, and also by releasing the lower level of IL-12p70. The change of expression of other co-stimulatory molecules such as CD86 and CD80 was not so significant. However, it was found that cadmium promotes releasing a higher level of IL-23 from BMDCs. So from our study, it can be concluded that cadmium may be one of the potent immunosuppressive agents through the blockage of DC maturation and function. PMID:24583143

Chakraborty, Kaustav; Chatterjee, Soumya; Bhattacharyya, Arindam

2014-05-01

71

In vitro maturation (IVM as a new technique to treat polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS and induce pregnancy in Indonesia  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Aim: To assesse the success of inducing pregnancies in the treatment of PCOS (Poly Cystic Ovary Syndrome cases with in vitro maturation as a newly application technique in Indonesia.Methods This paper is a report of 7 cases in Indonesia that used the newly developed technique. There were 7 cases confi rmed PCOS, in which 1 patient with a history of OHSS (Ovary Hyper Stimulation Syndrome in a previous IVF procedure and 1 patient with PCOS characteristics, suspected hyper responder, in the Family Hospital from January to May of 2009. Follicular induction was performed with a minimum dose, primming with HCG 10.000 IU, on the 10th day and 40 hours later ovum pick up was  performed, followed by in vitro maturation. Subsequently, insemination was performed and the inseminated follicle was assessed. Well qualifi ed embryos then transferred them into the uterus. We then performed assessment of pregnancy biochemically, by the presence of embryonic sac and embryonic heart beat.Results: We have performed the IVM (In Vitro Maturation technique in the Family Hospital, West Jakarta, along with the TRB team of the Family Hospital in seven PCOS cases. From these patients, we have found 156 antral follicles (average of 22 follicles per patient, 82 oocytes, and after maturation, 61  nature oocytes (75 %. In three cases, in vitro fertilization was performed, while in 4 cases ICSI (In Cystoplasmic Sperm Infection was performed. In these serial cases we obtained 41 embryos, and 22 fertilized embryos were transferred. Of 7 cases, we achieved two successful pregnancies (29%.Conclusion: In vitro maturation is an alternative procedures in solving infertility problems for PCOS patients with lower risk of OHSS and more cost effective than conventional IVF. (Med J Indones 2009; 18: 269-75Keywords: pregnancy, PCOS, in vitro maturation

Soegiharto Soebijanto

2009-11-01

72

In vitro maturation (IVM) as a new technique to treat polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) and induce pregnancy in Indonesia  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Aim: To assesse the success of inducing pregnancies in the treatment of PCOS (Poly Cystic Ovary Syndrome) cases with in vitro maturation as a newly application technique in Indonesia.Methods This paper is a report of 7 cases in Indonesia that used the newly developed technique. There were 7 cases confi rmed PCOS, in which 1 patient with a history of OHSS (Ovary Hyper Stimulation Syndrome) in a previous IVF procedure and 1 patient with PCOS characteristics, suspected ...

Soegiharto Soebijanto

2009-01-01

73

Study of complete and incomplete fusion in reactions induced by 12C and 16O ions below 7 MeV/nucleon energies  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

With a view to study the complete fusion, incomplete fusion and pre-equilibrium emission, a program of precise measurement and analysis of excitation functions (EFs) and recoil range distribution (RRD) of residues for various projectile-target combinations has been undertaken

2003-12-01

74

The nature of X-ray-induced mutations in mature sperm and spermatogonial cells of Drosophila melanogaster  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Mutations at four X-linked visible loci (yellow, white, vermilion and forked) induced by X-irradiation of mature sperm and spermatogonial cells were analysed genetically and cytogenetically. In addition, a fraction of the intragenic vermilion mutations was analysed molecularly. Males of two wild-type strains (Amherst M56i and Berlin-K) were used. A total of 332,651 chromosomes of irradiated mature sperm and 311,567 of irradiated spermatogonial cells were scored. The ratio of F[sub 1] female sterile, F[sub 2] male lethal and F[sub 2] male viable mutations in mature sperm and spermatogonial cells is very similar. The cytogenetic analysis shows equal fractions of multilocus deletions and translocations among the mutations recovered from both stages of spermatogenesis. These data strongly suggest that the spectrum of X-ray mutations is similar in mature sperm and spermatogonial cells, including multilocus deletions and chromosome rearrangements. The molecular analysis of a number of intragenic vermilion mutations showed the presence of three small deletions (1-10 bp), one insertion of two nucleotides and seven single nucleotide changes.

Eeken, J.C.J.; de Jong, A.W.M.; Loos, M.; Vreeken, C.; Romeyn, R.; Pastink, A.; Lohman, P.H.M. (J.A. Cohen Institute, Interuniversity Research Institute for Radiopathology and Radiation Protection, Leiden (Netherlands))

1994-05-01

75

Characterization of early events involved in human dendritic cell maturation induced by sensitizers: cross talk between MAPK signalling pathways.  

Science.gov (United States)

Dendritic cells (DCs), efficient-antigen presenting cells play an important role in initiating and regulating immune responses. DC maturation following exposure to nickel or DNCB induced an up-regulation of phenotypic markers and inflammatory cytokine secretion. Early intracellular mechanisms involved in DC maturation required to be precise. To address this purpose, DCs derived from human monocytes were treated with sensitizers (nickel, DNCB or thimerosal) in comparison with an irritant (SDS). Our data confirming the up-regulation of CD86, CD54 and cytokine secretion (IL-8 and TNFalpha) induced by sensitizers but not by SDS, signalling transduction involved in DC maturation was investigated using these chemicals. Kinase activity measurement was assessed using two new sensitive procedures (Facetrade mark and CBA) requiring few cells. SDS did not induce changes in signalling pathways whereas NiSO(4), DNCB and thimerosal markedly activated p38 MAPK and JNK, in contrast Erk1/2 phosphorylation was completely inhibited by DNCB or thimerosal and only activated by nickel. A pre-treatment with p38 MAPK inhibitor (SB203580) suppressed Erk1/2 inhibition induced by DNCB or thimerosal demonstrating a direct interaction between p38 MAPK and Erk1/2. A pre-treatment with an antioxidant, N-acetyl-L-cysteine (NAC) markedly reduced Erk1/2 inhibition and p38 MAPK phosphorylation induced by DNCB and thimerosal, suggesting a direct activation of p38 MAPK via an oxidative stress and a regulation of MAPK signalling pathways depending on chemicals. Because of a high sensitivity of kinase activity measurements, these procedures will be suitable for weak or moderate sensitizer screening. PMID:18495191

Trompezinski, Sandra; Migdal, Camille; Tailhardat, Magalie; Le Varlet, Béatrice; Courtellemont, Pascal; Haftek, Marek; Serres, Mireille

2008-08-01

76

Characterization of early events involved in human dendritic cell maturation induced by sensitizers: Cross talk between MAPK signalling pathways  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Dendritic cells (DCs), efficient-antigen presenting cells play an important role in initiating and regulating immune responses. DC maturation following exposure to nickel or DNCB induced an up-regulation of phenotypic markers and inflammatory cytokine secretion. Early intracellular mechanisms involved in DC maturation required to be precise. To address this purpose, DCs derived from human monocytes were treated with sensitizers (nickel, DNCB or thimerosal) in comparison with an irritant (SDS). Our data confirming the up-regulation of CD86, CD54 and cytokine secretion (IL-8 and TNF?) induced by sensitizers but not by SDS, signalling transduction involved in DC maturation was investigated using these chemicals. Kinase activity measurement was assessed using two new sensitive procedures (FaceTM and CBA) requiring few cells. SDS did not induce changes in signalling pathways whereas NiSO4, DNCB and thimerosal markedly activated p38 MAPK and JNK, in contrast Erk1/2 phosphorylation was completely inhibited by DNCB or thimerosal and only activated by nickel. A pre-treatment with p38 MAPK inhibitor (SB203580) suppressed Erk1/2 inhibition induced by DNCB or thimerosal demonstrating a direct interaction between p38 MAPK and Erk1/2. A pre-treatment with an antioxidant, N-acetyl-L-cysteine (NAC) markedly reduced Erk1/2 inhibition and p38 MAPK phosphorylation induced by DNCB and thimerosal, suggesting a direct activation of p38 MAPK via an oxidative stress and a regulation of MAPK signalling pathways depending on chemicals. Because of a high sensitivity of kinase activity measurements, these procedures will be suitable for weak or moderate sensitizer screening

2008-08-01

77

Maturation of Shark Single-Domain (IgNAR) Antibodies: Evidence for Induced-Fit Binding  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Sharks express an unusual heavy-chain isotype called IgNAR, whose variable regions bind antigen as independent soluble domains. To further probe affinity maturation of the IgNAR response, we structurally characterized the germline and somatically matured versions of a type II variable (V) region, both in the presence and absence of its antigen, hen egg-white lysozyme. Despite a disulfide bond linking complementarity determining regions (CDRs) 1 and 3, both germline and somatically matured V regions displayed significant structural changes in these CDRs upon complex formation with antigen. Somatic mutations in the IgNAR V region serve to increase the number of contacts with antigen, as reflected by a tenfold increase in affinity, and one of these mutations appears to stabilize the CDR3 region. In addition, a residue in the HV4 loop plays an important role in antibody-antigen interaction, consistent with the high rate of somatic mutations in this non-CDR loop.

Stanfield, R.L.; Dooley, H.; Verdino, P.; Flajnik, M.F.; Wilson, I.A.; /Scripps Res. Inst. /Maryland U.

2007-07-13

78

Physicalism, Behaviorism and Incompleteness  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The content of this paper contains four parts. (1 First, physicalism gives the enlightenments to behaviorism: mind-body identity, objectivity like physics and completeness of reduction. (2 Secondly, there are difficulties which behaviorist could not overcome—both the reduction of the theory and the terms are unreliable, and the strict distinction between introspective method and inter-subjective method is also untenable. (3 Thirdly, It has inevitable incompleteness in one theory no matter what it claims due to the limitations of human cognition. (4 Finally, the author concludes that we should treat various theories in a "both this and that" but "either this or that" way. Therefore, we should admit the contribution of behaviorism and its model philosophy—physicalism, although they has failed in seeking for completeness.

Tao Li

2011-04-01

79

A new model of radiation-induced myelopathy: A comparison of the response of mature and immature pigs  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The purpose was development of an experimental model of radiation-induced myelopathy in the pig which would facilitate the study of the effects of clinically relevant treatment volumes. The effects of local spinal cord irradiation, to a standard 10 X 5 cm field, have been evaluated in mature (37-42.5 weeks) and immature (15.5-23 weeks) pigs. Irradiation was with single doses of 60Co ?rays at a dose-rate of 0.21-0.65 Gy/min. The incidence of paralysis was used as an endpoint. Irradiation of mature animals resulted in the development of frank paralysis with animals showing combined parenchymal and vascular pathologic changes in their white matter. These lesions, in common with those seen in patients, had a clear evidence of an inflammatory component. The latency for paralysis was short, 7.5-16.5 weeks, but within the wide range reported for patients. However, it was shorter than that reported in other large animal models. The ED50 value (±SE) for paralysis was 27.02±0.36 Gy, similar to that in rats taking into account dose-rate factors. The irradiation of immature pigs only resulted in transient neurological changes after doses comparable to those used in the mature animals, ED50 value (±SE) 26.09±0.37 Gy. The reasons for these transient neurological symptoms are uncertain. A reliable experimental model of radiation-induced myelopathy has been developed for mature pigs. This model is suitable for the study of clinically relevant volume effects. 39 refs., 4 figs., 1 tab

1994-07-01

80

Probiotic Bacteria Induce Maturation of Intestinal Claudin 3 Expression and Barrier Function  

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An immature intestinal epithelial barrier may predispose infants and children to many intestinal inflammatory diseases, such as infectious enteritis, inflammatory bowel disease, and necrotizing enterocolitis. Understanding the factors that regulate gut barrier maturation may yield insight into strategies to prevent these intestinal diseases. The claudin family of tight junction proteins plays an important role in regulating epithelial paracellular permeability. Previous reports demonstrate th...

Patel, Ravi M.; Myers, Loren S.; Kurundkar, Ashish R.; Maheshwari, Akhil; Nusrat, Asma; Lin, Patricia W.

2012-01-01

 
 
 
 
81

Incomplete periacetabular acetabuloplasty  

Science.gov (United States)

Background Residual acetabular dysplasia is one of the most common complications after treatment for developmental dysplasia of the hip. The acetabular growth response after reduction of a dislocated hip varies. The options are to wait and add a redirectional osteotomy as a secondary procedure at an older age, or to perform a primary acetabuloplasty at the time of the open reduction to stimulate acetabular development. We present the early results of such a procedure—open reduction and an incomplete periacetabular acetabuloplasty—as a one-stop procedure for developmental dysplasia of the hip. Patients and methods We retrospectively reviewed the results obtained with 55 hips (in 48 patients, 43 of them girls) treated between September 2004 and February 2011. This cohort included late presentations and failures of nonoperative treatment and excluded unsuccessful previous surgical treatment (including closed reductions), neuromuscular disease, and other teratological conditions. Patients were treated once the ossific nucleus was present or when they reached one year of age. 31 cases were late presentations while 17 represented failures of nonoperative treatment. The mean age of the patients at surgery was 1.3 (0.6–2.6) years. The mean follow-up period was 4 (2–8) years. According to the IHDI classification, 1 was grade I, 9 were grade II, 13 were grade III, and 32 were grade IV. Results The mean acetabular index fell from 38 (23–49) preoperatively to 21 (10–27) at the last follow-up. There were no infections, nerve palsies, or graft extrusions. None of the cases required secondary surgery for residual acetabular dysplasia. 8 patients developed avascular necrosis (AVN) of grade II or more. The incidence of AVN was significantly associated with previous, failed nonoperative treatment. 1 patient developed coxa magna requiring shelf arthroplasty 4 years after the index procedure and 1 patient with lateral growth arrest required medial screw epiphysiodesis. Interpretation This incomplete periacetabular acetabuloplasty is a reliable adjunct to open reductions, and it is followed by a rapid acetabular growth response that avoids secondary pelvic procedures. It is a one-stop surgery with predictable outcome that can be performed in 0.5- to 2.5-year-old children.

2014-01-01

82

Bounded rationality and incomplete contracts  

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This paper explores the link between boundedly rational behaviour and incomplete contracts. The bounded rationality of the agents in our world is embodied in a constraint that the contracts they write must be algorithmic in nature. We start with a definition of contract incompleteness that seems both appealing and widely applicable. Our first task is then to show that, by itself, the algorithmic nature of contracts is not enough to generate genuinely incomplete contracts in equilibrium. As in...

2000-01-01

83

Repair capacity of fertilized mouse eggs for X-ray damage induced in sperm and mature oocytes  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

To study the repair capacity of fertilized mouse eggs for X-ray damage induced in sperm and mature oocytes, the potentiating effects of 3 well-known repair inhibitors, arabinofuranosyl cytosine (ara-C), 3-aminobenzamide (3AB) and caffeine, on the frequency of induced chromosome aberrations were examined in eggs fertilized with X-irradiated sperm or in eggs irradiated with X-rays at the mature oocyte stage immediately before fertilization. Gametic treatment, fertilization and embryo culture wer carried out in vitro. Ara-C treatment was done only in the pre-DNA replication period, while treatment with 3AB and caffeine was continuous from fertilization to the first-cleavage metaphase. The induction of chromosome aberrations by exposing sperm or oocytes to X-rays was remarkably potentiated by post-treatment incubation in the presence of each of the 3 inhibitors. This result indicates the possibility that X-ray damage induced in sperm or oocytes is reparable in the fertilized eggs and that various types of repair processes are involved. (author). 39 refs.; 3 figs.; 5 tabs

1989-01-01

84

Farnesyl transferase inhibitors induce extended remissions in transgenic mice with mature B cell lymphomas  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background We have used a mouse model based on overexpression of c-Myc in B cells genetically engineered to be self-reactive to test the hypothesis that farnesyl transferase inhibitors (FTIs can effectively treat mature B cell lymphomas. FTIs are undergoing clinical trials to treat both lymphoid and non-lymphoid malignancies and we wished to obtain evidence to support the inclusion of B cell lymphomas in future trials. Results We report that two FTIs, L-744,832 and SCH66336, blocked the growth of mature B cell lymphoma cells in vitro and in vivo. The FTI treatment affected the proliferation and survival of the transformed B cells to a greater extent than naïve B cells stimulated with antigen. In syngeneic mice transplanted with the transgenic lymphoma cells, L-744,832 treatment prevented the growth of the tumor cells and the morbidity associated with the resulting lymphoma progression. Tumors that arose from transplantation of the lymphoma cells regressed with as little as three days of treatment with L-744,832 or SCH66336. Treatment of these established lymphomas with L-744,832 for seven days led to long-term remission of the disease in approximately 25% of animals. Conclusion FTI treatment can block the proliferation and survival of self-reactive transformed B cells that overexpress Myc. In mice transplanted with mature B cell lymphomas, we found that FTI treatment led to regression of disease. FTIs warrant further consideration as therapeutic agents for mature B cell lymphomas and other lymphoid tumors.

Refaeli Yosef

2008-05-01

85

Classical aversive conditioning induces increased expression of mature-BDNF in the hippocampus and amygdala of pigeons.  

Science.gov (United States)

The expression of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), which is found in the pro-BDNF, truncated-BDNF and mature-BDNF isoforms, changes with learning. Mature-BDNF shows a peak of late expression in the hippocampus that is involved in the persistence of aversive memory in rodents. However, the role of BDNF in the hippocampal synaptic mechanisms involved in the classical conditioning aversive memory in birds still needs clarification. This study investigated the late expression of BDNF in the hippocampus and amygdala of pigeons trained with tone-shock conditioning and the effects of intra-hippocampal infusion of anisomycin (Ani) in these changes. Seven days after implantation of intra-hippocampal microcannulae, adult pigeons trained with three tone-shock pairings were assigned to one of three groups: Conditioning and Ani (CondANI), Conditioning and saline vehicle (CondSAL) and Conditioning only (Cond). NAIVE group had no treatment or conditioning. Homogenates of tissues from the hippocampus and amygdala, obtained 12h after training, were used to determine the content of mature-BDNF, truncated-BDNF and pro-BDNF using Western blotting. Higher values for mature-BDNF than for truncated- and pro-BDNF content were seen in the hippocampus of Cond and CondSAL birds, but not in the hippocampus of CondANI or NAIVE birds (p<0.05). The values of mature-BDNF in the amygdala of all the three conditioned groups were higher than those observed for truncated- and pro-BDNF (p<0.05), which indicates that the activation of this protein in the amygdala was not affected by the infusion of Ani in the hippocampus. The data indicate that the tone-shock conditioning induced the activation of molecular pathways of BDNF in the hippocampus and amygdala of the pigeons. The decreases in the content of truncated- and pro-BDNF isoforms found in conditioned pigeons may suggest cleavage mechanisms induced by the training. Our data confirm previous observations of rodent studies and extend these observations to pigeons, revealing that, in spite of the anatomical differences between the hippocampus of rodents and pigeons, there are functional and molecular mechanisms that are conservative between the species. PMID:24121128

Faria, R S; Sartori, C R; Canova, F; Ferrari, E A M

2013-12-26

86

Oxidized beta2-glycoprotein I induces human dendritic cell maturation and promotes a T helper type 1 response.  

Science.gov (United States)

The human plasma protein beta2-glycoprotein I (beta2-GPI) is the most common target for antiphospholipid antibodies associated with thrombotic events in chronic disorders related to endothelial cell dysfunction. Crucial information is needed to clarify why this self-abundant protein is targeted by autoimmune responses. In this study, we investigated whether oxidative modification of beta2-GPI, either spontaneous in culture wells or induced by treatment with H2O2, renders this self-protein able to activate immature monocyte-derived dendritic cells (DCs) from healthy human donors. Oxidized beta2-GPI caused DCs to mature so that CD83 appeared and CD80, CD86, human leukocyte antigen-D region related (HLA-DR), and CD40 increased. The interaction between oxidized beta2-GPI and DCs specifically stimulated these cells to secrete interleukin 12 (IL-12), IL-1beta, IL-6, IL-8, tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-alpha), and IL-10. Oxidized beta2-GPI-stimulated DCs had increased allostimulatory ability and primed naive T lymphocytes, thus inducing T helper 1 (Th1) polarization. The interaction between oxidized beta2-GPI and DCs involved interleukin-1 receptor associated kinase (IRAK) phosphorylation and nuclear factor kappaB (NFkappaB) activation. Pretreatment of beta2-GPI with the antioxidant alpha-tocopherol prevented DC maturation. These findings show that human oxidized beta2-GPI, probably by interacting with a member of the Toll-like receptor (TLR) family, causes DCs to mature. Because this key beta2-GPI function requires oxidative modification, in several chronic disorders related to endothelial cell dysfunction oxidative stress might trigger the "autoimmune spiral." PMID:16099886

Buttari, Brigitta; Profumo, Elisabetta; Mattei, Vincenzo; Siracusano, Alessandra; Ortona, Elena; Margutti, Paola; Salvati, Bruno; Sorice, Maurizio; Riganò, Rachele

2005-12-01

87

Signaling Adaptor Protein SH2B1 Enhances Neurite Outgrowth and Accelerates the Maturation of Human Induced Neurons.  

Science.gov (United States)

Recent advances in somatic cell reprogramming have highlighted the plasticity of the somatic epigenome, particularly through demonstrations of direct lineage reprogramming of adult mouse and human fibroblasts to induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) and induced neurons (iNs) under defined conditions. However, human cells appear to be less plastic and have a higher epigenetic hurdle for reprogramming to both iPSCs and iNs. Here, we show that SH2B adaptor protein 1? (SH2B1) can enhance neurite outgrowth of iNs reprogrammed from human fibroblasts as early as day 14, when combined with miR124 and transcription factors BRN2 and MYT1L (IBM) under defined conditions. These SH2B1-enhanced iNs (S-IBM) showed canonical neuronal morphology, and expressed multiple neuronal markers, such as TuJ1, NeuN, and synapsin, and functional proteins for neurotransmitter release, such as GABA, vGluT2, and tyrosine hydroxylase. Importantly, SH2B1 accelerated mature process of functional neurons and exhibited action potentials as early as day 14; without SH2B1, the IBM iNs do not exhibit action potentials until day 21. Our data demonstrate that SH2B1 can enhance neurite outgrowth and accelerate the maturation of human iNs under defined conditions. This approach will facilitate the application of iNs in regenerative medicine and in vitro disease modeling. PMID:24736401

Hsu, Yi-Chao; Chen, Su-Liang; Wang, Ya-Jean; Chen, Yun-Hsiang; Wang, Dan-Yen; Chen, Linyi; Chen, Chia-Hsiang; Chen, Hwei-Hsien; Chiu, Ing-Ming

2014-06-01

88

Diagnosis of incomplete Kawasaki disease  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Several authors suggested that the clinical characteristics of incomplete presentation of Kawasaki disease are similar to those of complete presentation and that the 2 forms of presentation are not separate entities. Based on this suggestion, a diagnosis of incomplete Kawasaki disease in analogy to the findings of complete presentation is reasonable. Currently, the diagnosis of incomplete Kawasaki disease might be made in cases with fewer classical diagnostic criteria and with several compatible clinical, laboratory or echocardiographic findings on the exclusion of other febrile illness. Definition of incomplete presentation in which coronary artery abnormalities are included as a necessary condition, is restrictive and specific. The validity of the diagnostic criteria of incomplete presentation by the American Heart Association should be thoroughly tested in the immediate future.

Jeong Jin Yu

2012-03-01

89

Incomplete Fusion Reactions.  

Science.gov (United States)

Various aspects of the mechanism of heavy-ion induced reactions in the range of bombarding energies from a few to about 20 MeV/A are reviewed with special emphasis on the reactions for very asymmetric systems. Results of the experimental studies of binary...

K. Siwek-Wilczynska

1983-01-01

90

Arabidopsis LEAFY COTYLEDON2 induces maturation traits and auxin activity: Implications for somatic embryogenesis  

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LEAFY COTYLEDON2 (LEC2) is a central regulator of embryogenesis sufficient to induce somatic cells to form embryos when expressed ectopically. Here, we analyze the cellular processes induced by LEC2, a B3 domain transcription factor, that may underlie its ability to promote somatic embryogenesis. We show auxin-responsive genes are induced after LEC2 activation in seedlings. Genes encoding enzymes involved in auxin biosynthesis, YUC2 and YUC4, are activated within 1 h after induction of LEC2 a...

Stone, Sandra L.; Braybrook, Siobhan A.; Paula, Stephanie L.; Kwong, Linda W.; Meuser, Jonathan; Pelletier, Julie; Hsieh, Tzung-fu; Fischer, Robert L.; Goldberg, Robert B.; Harada, John J.

2008-01-01

91

Growth dynamics and cytoskeleton organization during stem maturation and gravity-induced stem bending in Zea mays L  

Science.gov (United States)

Characterization of gravitropic bending in the maize stem pulvinus, a tissue that functions specifically in gravity responses, demonstrates that the pulvinus is an ideal system for studying gravitropism. Gravistimulation during the second of three developmental phases of the pulvinus induces a gradient of cell elongation across the non-growing cells of the pulvinus, with the most elongation occurring on the lower side. This cell elongation is spatially and temporally separated from normal internodal cell elongation. The three characterized growth phases in the pulvinus correspond closely to a specialized developmental sequence in which structural features typical of cells not fully matured are retained while cell maturation occurs in surrounding internodal and nodal tissue. For example, the lignification of supporting tissue and rearrangement of transverse microtubules to oblique that occur in the internode when cell elongation ceases are delayed for up to 10 d in the adjacent cells of the pulvinus, and only occurs as a pulvinus loses its capacity to respond to gravistimulation. Gravistimulation does not modify this developmental sequence. Neither wall lignification nor rearrangement of transverse microtubules occurs in the rapidly elongating lower side or non-responsive upper side of the pulvinus until the pulvinus loses the capacity to bend further. Gravistimulation does, however, lead to the formation of putative pit fields within the expanding cells of the pulvinus.

Collings, D. A.; Winter, H.; Wyatt, S. E.; Allen, N. S.; Davies, E. (Principal Investigator)

1998-01-01

92

Virus Maturation  

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We examined virus maturation of selected non-enveloped and enveloped ssRNA viruses; retroviruses; bacteriophages and herpes virus. Processes associated with maturation in the RNA viruses range from subtle (noda and picornaviruses) to dramatic (tetraviruses and togaviruses). The elaborate assembly and maturation pathway of HIV is discussed in contrast to the less sophisticated but highly efficient processes associated with togaviruses. Bacteriophage assembly and maturation are discussed in gen...

Veesler, David; Johnson, John E.

2012-01-01

93

SMAC Mimetic BV6 Induces Cell Death in Monocytes and Maturation of Monocyte-Derived Dendritic Cells  

Science.gov (United States)

Background Compounds mimicking the inhibitory effect of SMAC / DIABLO on X-linked inhibitor of apoptosis (XIAP) have been developed with the aim to achieve sensitization for apoptosis of tumor cells resistant due to deregulated XIAP expression. It turned out that SMAC mimetics also have complex effects on the NF?B system and TNF signaling. In view of the overwhelming importance of the NF?B transcription factors in the immune system, we analyzed here the effects of the SMAC mimetic BV6 on immune cells. Principal Findings BV6 induced apoptotic and necrotic cell death in monocytes while T-cells, dendritic cells and macrophages were largely protected against BV6-induced cell death. In immature dendritic cells BV6 treatment resulted in moderate activation of the classical NF?B pathway, but it also diminished the stronger NF?B-inducing effect of TNF and CD40L. Despite its inhibitory effect on TNF- and CD40L signaling, BV6 was able to trigger maturation of immature DCs as indicated by upregulation of CD83, CD86 and IL12. Significance The demonstrated effects of SMAC mimetics on immune cells may complicate the development of tumor therapeutic concepts based on these compounds but also arise the possibility to exploit them for the development of immune stimulatory therapies.

Holtz, Philipp; Kapp, Markus; Grigoleit, Gotz Ulrich; Schmuck, Carsten; Wajant, Harald; Siegmund, Daniela

2011-01-01

94

Acute steroid-induced myopathy during lung Maturation in a patient with threatened preterm Delivery  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Myopathy caused by steroids is a serious and unusual side effect related with administration of high doses of steroids. In this article we had reported a possible deleterious and serious effect on the mother health when steroids are used in the treatment of preterm childbirth. The case of a pregnant patient of 28 gestational week that consults to the emergency department with signs of preterm birth, receives tocolysis and lung maturation with Betametasona (12 mg the first day and 12 mg at 24 hours after first dose; thereafter, patient refer dizziness and blurry vision, which progress rapidly to pain in lower limbs, with weakness, being generalized then to four limbs, for acute weakness and imminence of respiratory failure the patient was transferred to the intensive care unit (ICU for respiratory vigilance, possible ventilatory support and study of this weakness. Myopathy caused by steroids is generally related with high doses of steroids. These patients, present a clinical typical picture characterized by widespread weakness of four extremities, muscular atrophy, normal CK or moderately high and myopathic changes in the EMG, the clinical presentation improves slowly. This report invite us to questioning the apparent innocuousness of steroids in pulmonary maturity and the dose of the same one, as well as to using them well in agreement to the indication of the same one keeping in mind the risk - benefit of the medicine.RESUMENLa miopatía causada por esteroides es un efecto secundario grave muy poco frecuente asociado a la administración de dosis altas de esteroides. Se reportan los posibles efectos deletéreos sobre la salud materna que puede tener la administración de corticosteroides frente al riesgo de un parto pretérmino. Se presenta el caso de una paciente gestante de 28 semanas que consulta al servicio de urgencia por infección de vías urinarias y amenaza de parto pretérmino, que recibe uteroinhibicion y maduración pulmonar con Betametasona (12 mg primer día y 12 mg a las 24 horas de primera dosis; luego de segunda dosis de maduración pulmonar la paciente refiere vértigo y visión borrosa, la cual progresó rápidamente a dolor, con pérdida de fuerza muscular en miembros inferiores, generalizándose luego a las cuatro extremidades, por lo que ante la inminencia de falla respiratoria se traslada a unidad de cuidados intermedios para vigilancia ventilatoria y estudio de miopatía.Discusión: La miopatía por esteroides, se produce con dosis altas de corticoides. Estos pacientes, presentan un cuadro clínico típico caracterizado por debilidad generalizada de las cuatro extremidades, atrofia muscular, CK normal o moderadamente elevada y cambios miopáticos en el EMG, el cuadro clínico mejora aunque de forma lenta. Conclusiones: Este reporte nos invita a cuestionar la aparente inocuidad de los esteroides en maduración pulmonar y la dosis de la misma, así como a utilizarlos bien de acuerdo a la indicación del mismo teniendo en cuenta el riesgo – beneficio del medicamento.

Rojas-Suarez José Antonio

2010-06-01

95

Whey protein processing influences formula-induced gut maturation in preterm pigs.  

Science.gov (United States)

Immaturity of the gut predisposes preterm infants to nutritional challenges potentially leading to clinical complications such as necrotizing enterocolitis. Feeding milk formulas is associated with greater risk than fresh colostrum or milk, probably due to loss of bioactive proteins (e.g., immunoglobulins, lactoferrin, insulin-like growth factor, transforming growth factor-?) during industrial processing (e.g., pasteurization, filtration, spray-drying). We hypothesized that the processing method for whey protein concentrate (WPC) would affect gut maturation in formula-fed preterm pigs used as a model for preterm infants. Fifty-five caesarean-delivered preterm pigs were distributed into 4 groups given 1 of 4 isoenergetic diets: formula containing conventional WPC (filtration, multi-pasteurization, standard spray-drying) (CF); formula containing gently treated WPC (reduced filtration and pasteurization, gentle spray-drying) (GF); formula containing minimally treated WPC (rennet precipitation, reduced filtration, heat treatment <40°C, freeze-drying) (MF); and bovine colostrum (used as a positive reference group) (BC). Relative to CF, GF, and MF pigs, BC pigs had greater villus heights, lactose digestion, and absorption and lower gut permeability (P < 0.05). MF and BC pigs had greater plasma citrulline concentrations than CF and GF pigs and intestinal interleukin-8 was lower in BC pigs than in the other groups (P < 0.05). MF pigs had lower concentrations of intestinal claudin-4, cleaved caspase-3, and phosphorylated c-Jun than CF pigs (P < 0.05). The conventional and gently treated WPCs had similar efficacy in stimulating proliferation of porcine intestinal epithelial cells. We conclude that processing of WPC affects intestinal structure, function, and integrity when included in formulas for preterm pigs. Optimization of WPC processing technology may be important to preserve the bioactivity and nutritional value of formulas for sensitive newborns. PMID:24047702

Li, Yanqi; Østergaard, Mette V; Jiang, Pingping; Chatterton, Dereck E W; Thymann, Thomas; Kvistgaard, Anne S; Sangild, Per T

2013-12-01

96

Tripeptidyl Peptidase II Promotes Maturation of Caspase-1 in Shigella flexneri-Induced Macrophage Apoptosis  

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The invasive enteropathogenic bacterium Shigella flexneri activates apoptosis in macrophages. Shigella-induced apoptosis requires caspase-1. We demonstrate here that tripeptidyl peptidase II (TPPII), a cytoplasmic, high-molecular-weight protease, participates in the apoptotic pathway triggered by Shigella. The TPPII inhibitor Ala-Ala-Phe-chloromethylketone (AAF-cmk) and clasto-lactacystin ?-lactone (lactacystin), an inhibitor of both TPPII and the proteasome, protected macrophages from Shige...

2000-01-01

97

OM197-MP-AC induces the maturation of human dendritic cells and promotes a primary T cell response.  

Science.gov (United States)

Dendritic cell (DC) maturation is critical for the induction of antigen-specific T lymphocyte responses and may be essential for the development of human vaccines relying on T cell immunity. We investigated the effects on human DC of OM-197, a synthetic pseudodipeptide derived from amino acids, linked to three fatty acid chains and devoid of endotoxin properties. OM-197 upregulated the expression of HLA-DR, CD80, CD86, CD83, CD40 and CD54 at the surface of myeloid DC naturally present in blood as well as of DC generated in vitro from monocytes using IL-4 and GM-CSF. OM-197 also induced the release of IL-12 and TNF-alpha from DC. Finally, DC incubated with OM-197 after pulsing with hepatitis B surface antigen (HBs Ag) induced in vitro expansion of IFN-gamma-secreting HBs Ag-specific CD4(+) T lymphocytes from naive individuals. Taken together, these data identify OM-197 as a potential vaccine adjuvant for the induction of Th1-type responses. PMID:12639819

Byl, B; Libin, M; Bauer, J; Martin, O R; De Wit, D; Davies, G; Goldman, M; Willems, F

2003-03-01

98

HIV-1 gp120 Vaccine Induces Affinity Maturation in both New and Persistent Antibody Clonal Lineages  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Most antibodies that broadly neutralize HIV-1 are highly somatically mutated in antibody clonal lineages that persist over time. Here, we describe the analysis of human antibodies induced during an HIV-1 vaccine trial (GSK PRO HIV-002) that used the clade B envelope (Env) gp120 of clone W6.1D (gp120W6.1D). Using dual-color antigen-specific sorting, we isolated Env-specific human monoclonal antibodies (MAbs) and studied the clonal persistence of antibodies in the setting of HIV-1 Env vaccinati...

Moody, M. Anthony; Yates, Nicole L.; Amos, Joshua D.; Drinker, Mark S.; Eudailey, Joshua A.; Gurley, Thaddeus C.; Marshall, Dawn J.; Whitesides, John F.; Chen, Xi; Foulger, Andrew; Yu, Jae-sung; Zhang, Ruijun; Meyerhoff, R. Ryan; Parks, Robert; Scull, Julia Cavanaugh

2012-01-01

99

Relative effects of estradiol-17beta (E2), catecholestrogens and clomiphene citrate on in vitro oocyte maturation in the catfish Heteropneustes fossilis (Bloch) and E2 inhibition of 2-hydroxyestradiol-induced maturation.  

Science.gov (United States)

In vitro effects of estradiol-17beta (E(2)), the catecholestrogens 2-hydroxyE(2) (2-OHE(2)) and 2-methoxyE(2), and the nonsteroidal antiestrogen clomiphene citrate (clomid) on oocyte maturation were investigated in the catfish Heteropneustes fossilis. Incubation of postvitellogenic follicles with 2-OHE(2) induced germinal vesicle breakdown (GVBD; 86% at 5 microM for 30 h) and progression of meiosis up to metaphase II, as evident from the presence of Hoechst stained metaphase chromosomes and anti-alpha-tubulin-positive bipolar spindles. The response was both concentration (1, 2.5, 5, 10, and 20 microM)- and duration (0, 3, 6, 12, 24, and 30 h)-dependent. The diameter of the follicles increased and about 20% follicles elicited ovulation. Incubation of the follicles with clomid (20 microM) induced only about 29-35% GVBD at 30 h. This might be due to the dual properties of clomid with estrogenic (cis-isomer) and antiestrogenic (trans-isomer) actions or due to estrogen receptor binding dynamics. Incubations of the follicles with E(2) or 2-methoxyE(2) did not induce oocyte maturation. The higher concentrations of 2-methoxyE(2) caused degenerative changes in the follicles. In competition studies, E(2) inhibited the GVBD response of 2-OHE(2) (5 microM) significantly in a concentration (1, 5, 10, and 20 microM) or duration (2, 4, and 6 h)-dependent manner after pre-incubation with 20 microM E(2) (P<0.001, one-way ANOVA, P<0.05, Newman-Keuls' test). The results show that 2-OHE(2) induces maturational activity while the parent estrogen is a strong inhibitor, alone or in combination with 2-OHE(2). PMID:16455086

Mishra, A; Joy, K P

2006-06-01

100

Hemin-induced transcriptional activation of the HSP70 gene during erythroid maturation in K562 cells is due to a heat shock factor-mediated stress response.  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Hemin-induced differentiation of the human erythroleukemia cell line K562 results in the expression and accumulation of erythroid-specific gene products such as embryonic and fetal hemoglobins and the elevated synthesis of the major heat shock protein HSP70. This activity was suggested to represent activation of a heat shock gene during erythroid maturation independent of stress induction. In this study, we demonstrate that hemin induces the transcription of two members of the human HSP70 gen...

Theodorakis, N. G.; Zand, D. J.; Kotzbauer, P. T.; Williams, G. T.; Morimoto, R. I.

1989-01-01

 
 
 
 
101

Microinjection of pp60v-src into Xenopus oocytes increases phosphorylation of ribosomal protein S6 and accelerates the rate of progesterone-induced meiotic maturation.  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Microinjection of purified pp60v-src into Xenopus oocytes caused the phosphorylation of ribosomal protein S6 on serine residues and also increased total protein phosphorylation, with almost a two-fold increase in the percentage of phosphotyrosine present. In addition, pp60v-src accelerated the time course of progesterone-induced oocyte maturation, suggesting that the biochemical pathway influenced by pp60v-src is related to that induced by progesterone.

Spivack, J. G.; Erikson, R. L.; Maller, J. L.

1984-01-01

102

Quantization of singular systems and incomplete motions  

CERN Document Server

The need for a mathematically rigorous quantization procedure of singular spaces and incomplete motions is pointed out in connection with quantum cosmology. We put our previous suggestion for such a procedure, based on the theory of induced representations of C*-algebras, in the light of L. Schwartz' theory of Hilbert subspaces. This turns out to account for the freedom in the induction procedure, at the same time providing a basis for generalized eigenfunction expansions pertinent to the needs of quantum cosmology. Reinforcing our previous proposal for the wave-function of the Universe, we are now able to add a concrete prescription for its calculation.

Landsman, N P

1998-01-01

103

Protein-induced changes during the maturation process of human dendritic cells: A 2-D DIGE approach  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Dendritic cells (DCs) are unique antigen presenting cells, which upon maturation change from a specialized antigen-capturing cell towards a professional antigen presenting cells. In this study, a 2-D DIGE analysis of immature and mature DCs was performed, to identify proteins changing in expression upon maturation. The protein expression profile of immature and mature DCs, derived from CD14+ peripheral blood monocytes was investigated using two pH ranges (pH 4-7 and 6-9) (n = 4). Ninety one differentially expressed spots (p

Hansen, Kasper Lage; Hansen, Daniel Aaen

2008-01-01

104

Unconventional Maturation of Dendritic Cells Induced by Particles from the Laminated Layer of Larval Echinococcus granulosus.  

Science.gov (United States)

The larval stage of the cestode parasite Echinococcus granulosus causes hydatid disease in humans and livestock. This infection is characterized by the growth in internal organ parenchymae of fluid-filled structures (hydatids) that elicit surprisingly little inflammation in spite of their massive size and persistence. Hydatids are protected by a millimeter-thick layer of mucin-based extracellular matrix, termed the laminated layer (LL), which is thought to be a major factor determining the host response to the infection. Host cells can interact both with the LL surface and with materials that are shed from it to allow parasite growth. In this work, we analyzed the response of dendritic cells (DCs) to microscopic pieces of the native mucin-based gel of the LL (pLL). In vitro, this material induced an unusual activation state characterized by upregulation of CD86 without concomitant upregulation of CD40 or secretion of cytokines (interleukin 12 [IL-12], IL-10, tumor necrosis factor alpha [TNF-?], and IL-6). When added to Toll-like receptor (TLR) agonists, pLL-potentiated CD86 upregulation and IL-10 secretion while inhibiting CD40 upregulation and IL-12 secretion. In vivo, pLL also caused upregulation of CD86 and inhibited CD40 upregulation in DCs. Contrary to expectations, oxidation of the mucin glycans in pLL with periodate did not abrogate the effects on cells. Reduction of disulfide bonds, which are known to be important for LL structure, strongly diminished the impact of pLL on DCs without altering the particulate nature of the material. In summary, DCs respond to the LL mucin meshwork with a "semimature" activation phenotype, both in vitro and in vivo. PMID:24842926

Casaravilla, Cecilia; Pittini, Alvaro; Rückerl, Dominik; Seoane, Paula I; Jenkins, Stephen J; MacDonald, Andrew S; Ferreira, Ana M; Allen, Judith E; Díaz, Alvaro

2014-08-01

105

The Icsbp locus is a common proviral insertion site in mature B-cell lymphomas/plasmacytomas induced by exogenous murine leukemia virus  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

ICSBP (interferon consensus sequence binding protein)/IRF8 (interferon regulatory factor 8) is an interferon gamma-inducible transcription factor expressed predominantly in hematopoietic cells, and down-regulation of this factor has been observed in chronic myelogenous leukemia and acute myeloid leukemia in man. By screening about 1200 murine leukemia virus (MLV)-induced lymphomas, we found proviral insertions at the Icsbp locus in 14 tumors, 13 of which were mature B-cell lymphomas or plasmacytomas. Only one was a T-cell lymphoma, although such tumors constituted about half of the samples screened. This indicates that the Icsbp locus can play a specific role in the development of mature B-lineage malignancies. Two proviral insertions in the last Icsbp exon were found to act by a poly(A)-insertion mechanism. The remaining insertions were found within or outside Icsbp. Since our results showed expression of Icsbp RNA and protein in all end-stage tumor samples, a simple tumor suppressor function of ICSBP is not likely. Interestingly, proviral insertions at Icsbp have not been reported from previous extensive screenings of mature B-cell lymphomas induced by endogenous MLVs. We propose that ICSBP might be involved in an early modulation of an immune response to exogenous MLVs that might also play a role in proliferation of the mature B-cell lymphomas

2006-09-01

106

Progressive behavioral changes during the maturation of rats with early radiation-induced hypoplasia of fascia dentata granule cells  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Localized exposure of the neonatal rat brain to X-rays produces neuronal hypoplasia specific to the granule cell layer of the hippocampal dentate gyrus. This brain damage causes locomotor hyperactivity, slowed acquisition of passive avoidance tasks and long bouts of spontaneous turning (without reversals) in a bowl apparatus. Here we report how these behavioral deficits change as a function of subject aging and behavioral test replications. Portions of the neonatal rat cerebral hemispheres were X-irradiated in order to selectively damage the granule cells of the dentate gyrus. The brains of experimental animals received a fractionated dose of X rays (13 Gy total) over postnatal days 1 to 16 and control animals were sham-irradiated. Rats between the ages of 71-462 days were tested 3 separate times on each of the following 3 behavioral tests: (1) spontaneous locomotion, (2) passive avoidance acquisition, and (3) spontaneous circling in a large plastic hemisphere. Rats with radiation-induced damage to the fascia dentata exhibited long bouts of slow turns without reversals. Once they began, irradiated subjects perseverated in turning to an extent significantly greater than sham-irradiated control subjects. This irradiation effect was significant during all test series. Moreover, in time, spontaneous perseverative turning was significantly potentiated in rats with hippocampal damage but increased only slightly in controls. Early radiation exposure produced locomotor hyperactivity in young rats. While activity levels of controls remained fairly stable throughout the course of the experiment, the hyperactivity of the irradiated animals decreased significantly as they matured

1989-01-01

107

Human beta-defensin 3 induces maturation of human langerhans cell-like dendritic cells: an antimicrobial peptide that functions as an endogenous adjuvant.  

Science.gov (United States)

Human beta-defensins (hBDs) are antimicrobial peptides that have an important role in innate immune responses at epithelial barriers such as the skin. However, the role that hBDs have in initiating cellular immune responses that contribute to antigen-specific adaptive immunity is not well understood. Here we show that one member of the hBD family, hBD3, can induce maturation and T-helper type 1 skewing function in human Langerhans cell-like dendritic cells (LC-DCs). Specifically, hBD3 potently induces phenotypic maturation of LC-DCs, including increased expression of CCR7, which mediates functional chemotactic responses to CCL19 and CCL21. hBD3-stimulated LC-DCs induce strong proliferation of and IFN-? secretion by naive human T cells. hBD3 also induces phenotypic maturation of primary human skin-migratory DCs derived from human skin explants. These results suggest an important role for hBD3 in inducing DC activation, migration, and polarization. Thus, hBD3 contributes to the integration of innate and adaptive immune responses in the skin, and may be a useful adjuvant for skin immunization and an important factor in the pathophysiology of inflammatory skin diseases. PMID:22951718

Ferris, Laura K; Mburu, Yvonne K; Mathers, Alicia R; Fluharty, Eric R; Larregina, Adriana T; Ferris, Robert L; Falo, Louis D

2013-02-01

108

Polyamine-induced modulation of genes involved in ethylene biosynthesis and signalling pathways and nitric oxide production during olive mature fruit abscission  

Science.gov (United States)

After fruit ripening, many fruit-tree species undergo massive natural fruit abscission. Olive (Olea europaea L.) is a stone-fruit with cultivars such as Picual (PIC) and Arbequina (ARB) which differ in mature fruit abscission potential. Ethylene (ET) is associated with abscission, but its role during mature fruit abscission remains largely uncharacterized. The present study investigates the possible roles of ET and polyamine (PA) during mature fruit abscission by modulating genes involved in the ET signalling and biosynthesis pathways in the abscission zone (AZ) of both cultivars. Five ET-related genes (OeACS2, OeACO2, OeCTR1, OeERS1, and OeEIL2) were isolated in the AZ and adjacent cells (AZ–AC), and their expression in various olive organs and during mature fruit abscission, in relation to interactions between ET and PA and the expression induction of these genes, was determined. OeACS2, OeACO2, and OeEIL2 were found to be the only genes that were up-regulated in association with mature fruit abscission. Using the inhibition of ET and PA biosynthesis, it is demonstrated that OeACS2 and OeEIL2 expression are under the negative control of PA while ET induces their expression in AZ–AC. Furthermore, mature fruit abscission depressed nitric oxide (NO) production present mainly in the epidermal cells and xylem of the AZ. Also, NO production was differentially responsive to ET, PA, and different inhibitors. Taken together, the results indicate that PA-dependent ET signalling and biosynthesis pathways participate, at least partially, during mature fruit abscission, and that endogenous NO and 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid maintain an inverse correlation, suggesting an antagonistic action of NO and ET in abscission signalling.

Parra-Lobato, Maria C.; Gomez-Jimenez, Maria C.

2011-01-01

109

Polyamine-induced modulation of genes involved in ethylene biosynthesis and signalling pathways and nitric oxide production during olive mature fruit abscission.  

Science.gov (United States)

After fruit ripening, many fruit-tree species undergo massive natural fruit abscission. Olive (Olea europaea L.) is a stone-fruit with cultivars such as Picual (PIC) and Arbequina (ARB) which differ in mature fruit abscission potential. Ethylene (ET) is associated with abscission, but its role during mature fruit abscission remains largely uncharacterized. The present study investigates the possible roles of ET and polyamine (PA) during mature fruit abscission by modulating genes involved in the ET signalling and biosynthesis pathways in the abscission zone (AZ) of both cultivars. Five ET-related genes (OeACS2, OeACO2, OeCTR1, OeERS1, and OeEIL2) were isolated in the AZ and adjacent cells (AZ-AC), and their expression in various olive organs and during mature fruit abscission, in relation to interactions between ET and PA and the expression induction of these genes, was determined. OeACS2, OeACO2, and OeEIL2 were found to be the only genes that were up-regulated in association with mature fruit abscission. Using the inhibition of ET and PA biosynthesis, it is demonstrated that OeACS2 and OeEIL2 expression are under the negative control of PA while ET induces their expression in AZ-AC. Furthermore, mature fruit abscission depressed nitric oxide (NO) production present mainly in the epidermal cells and xylem of the AZ. Also, NO production was differentially responsive to ET, PA, and different inhibitors. Taken together, the results indicate that PA-dependent ET signalling and biosynthesis pathways participate, at least partially, during mature fruit abscission, and that endogenous NO and 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid maintain an inverse correlation, suggesting an antagonistic action of NO and ET in abscission signalling. PMID:21633085

Parra-Lobato, Maria C; Gomez-Jimenez, Maria C

2011-08-01

110

2-Hydroxyestradiol-17beta-induced oocyte maturation in catfish (Heteropneustes fossilis) involves protein kinase C and its interaction with protein phosphatases.  

Science.gov (United States)

In vitro effects of phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate (PMA), a protein kinase C (PKC) activator, calphostin C (PKC inhibitor) and okadaic acid [OA, a protein phosphatase (PP; PP1 and PP2A) inhibitor] on 2-hydroxyestradiol-17beta (2-OHE(2))-induced oocyte maturation were investigated in the catfish Heteropneustes fossilis. Incubations of postvitellogenic follicles with PMA or OA alone did not induce oocyte maturation. However, co-incubations with 2-OHE(2) and PMA (0.05, 0.5 and 5 microM) or 2-OHE(2) and OA (0.5, 1.0 or 2.0 microM) increased germinal vesicle breakdown (GVBD) significantly over that of 2-OHE(2). Incubation of follicles with calphostin C elicited varied effects on GVBD, low (0.005 and 0.01 microM) and high (5.0 and 10.0 microM) concentrations did not affect GVBD, but medium concentrations (0.05, 0.1, 0.5, 1.0 and 2.5 microM) stimulated it. The medium concentrations elicited a biphasic stimulatory response with peak GVBD at 0.1 microM (54%). Calphostin C (>or=2.5 microM) inhibited the 2-OHE(2)-induced GVBD in a concentration-dependent manner during the 24 h incubation. Pre- or post-treatment with calphostin C inhibited the steroid-induced GVBD only at 6 h. In co-incubation studies, both PMA and OA reversed the inhibitory effect of calphostin C: the former partially and the latter fully. The results of the present study show that PKC appears to modulate the 2-OHE(2)-induced oocyte maturation. The OA-sensitive PP may be involved in the PKC modulation of steroid-induced oocyte maturation. PMID:16730203

Mishra, Abha; Joy, Keerikkattil Paily

2006-08-01

111

Nicotine-induced Disturbances of Meiotic Maturation in Cultured Mouse Oocytes: Alterations of Spindle Integrity and Chromosome Alignment  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract We investigated whether nicotine exposure in vitro of mouse oocytes affects spindle and chromosome function during meiotic maturation (M-I and M-II. Oocytes in germinal vesicle (GV stage were cultured in nicotine for 8 h or for 16 h, to assess effects in M-I and in metaphase II (M-II. The latter culture setting used the three protocols: 8 h nicotine then 8 h medium (8N + 8M; 16 h nicotine (16N; 8 h medium then 8 h nicotine (8M + 8N. Non-toxic concentrations of nicotine at 1.0, 2.5, 5.0 and 10.0 mmol/L were used. Spindle-chromosome configurations were analyzed with wide-field optical sectioning microscopy. In 8 h cultures, nicotine exposure resulted in dose-related increased proportions of M-I oocytes with defective spindle-chromosome configurations. A dose-related delayed entry into anaphase I was also detected. In 16 h cultures, nicotine exposure for the first 8 h (8N + 8M, or for 16 h (16N, resulted in dose- and time-related increased proportions of oocytes arrested in M-I (10 mmol/L; 8 h: 53.2%, controls 9.6%; 16 h: 87.6%, controls 8.5%. Defects in M-I spindles and chromosomes caused M-I arrest leading to dose-related decreased proportions of oocytes that reached metaphase-II (10 mmol/L 8 h: 46.8%, controls 90.4%;16 h: 12.4%, controls 91.5%. A delayed anaphase-I affected the normal timing of M-II, leading to abnormal oocytes with dispersed chromosomes, or with double spindles and no polar body. Nicotine exposure during the second 8 h (8M + 8N resulted in dose-related, increased proportions of M-II oocytes with defective spindles and chromosomes (10 mmol/L: 42.9%, controls 2.0%. Nicotine has no adverse effects on GV break down, but induces spindle and chromosome defects compromising oocyte meiotic maturation and development.

Zenzes Maria

2004-09-01

112

Uncertainty, incompleteness, chance, and design  

CERN Document Server

The 20th century has revealed two important limitations of scientific knowledge. On the one hand, the combination of Poincar\\'e's nonlinear dynamics and Heisenberg's uncertainty principle leads to a world picture where physical reality is, in many respects, intrinsically undetermined. On the other hand, G\\"odel's incompleteness theorems reveal us the existence of mathematical truths that cannot be demonstrated. More recently, Chaitin has proved that, from the incompleteness theorems, it follows that the random character of a given mathematical sequence cannot be proved in general (it is 'undecidable'). I reflect here on the consequences derived from the indeterminacy of the future and the undecidability of randomness, concluding that the question of the presence or absence of finality in nature is fundamentally outside the scope of the scientific method.

Sols, Fernando

2013-01-01

113

Equilibrium Pricing in Incomplete Markets  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Given exogenously the price process of some asets, we constrain the price process of other assets, which are characterised by their final pay-offs. We deal with an incomplete market framework in a discrete time model and assume the existence of the equilibrium. In this setup, we derive restrictions on the state-price deflators and these restrictions do not depend on a particular choice of utility function. A stochastic volatility model is numerically investigated as an example. Our approach l...

Bizid, Abdelhamid; Jouini, Elye?s

2005-01-01

114

Bilateral incomplete superficial palmar arch  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available A rare variation of bilateral incomplete palmar arch was observed during routine dissection of a cadaver. Ulnar arteries gave rise to two common palmar digital arteries supplying the ring and little fingers and one proper palmar digital artery, which supplied ulnar side of little finger. Radial artery gave rise to two common palmar digital arteries that supplied the remaining fingers. Right side also had a palmar carpal branch from deep palmar arch.

Lakshmiprabha R

2009-08-01

115

Incomplete markets and monetary policy  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

We consider an extension of a general equilibrium model with incomplete markets that considers cash-in-advance constraints. The total amount of money is supplied by an authority, which produces at no cost and lends money to agents at short term nominal rates of interest, meeting the demand. Agents have initial nominal claims, which in the aggregate, are the counterpart of an initial public debt. The authority covers its expenditures, including initial debt, through public revenues which consi...

Gourdel, Pascal; Triki, Leila

2005-01-01

116

Incomplete intestinal absorption of fructose.  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Intestinal D-fructose absorption in 31 children was investigated using measurements of breath hydrogen. Twenty five children had no abdominal symptoms and six had functional bowel disorders. After ingestion of fructose (2 g/kg bodyweight), 22 children (71%) showed a breath hydrogen increase of more than 10 ppm over basal values, indicating incomplete absorption: the increase averaged 53 ppm, range 12 to 250 ppm. Four of these children experienced abdominal symptoms. Three of the six children ...

Kneepkens, C. M.; Vonk, R. J.; Fernandes, J.

1984-01-01

117

Time dependence of cisplatin-induced duplex dissociation of 15-mer RNAs and mature miR-146a.  

Science.gov (United States)

The kinetics for the binding of cisplatin to duplex RNAs, two fully complementary model systems and mature miR-146a, exhibits a linear dependence on cisplatin concentration and results in duplex dissociation at 38 °C. PMID:24030097

Polonyi, Christopher; Elmroth, Sofi K C

2013-11-14

118

Mouse Oocytes Enable LH-Induced Maturation of the Cumulus-Oocyte Complex via Promoting EGF Receptor-Dependent Signaling  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

LH triggers the maturation of the cumulus-oocyte complex (COC), which is followed by ovulation. These ovarian follicular responses to LH are mediated by epidermal growth factor (EGF)-like growth factors produced by granulosa cells and require the participation of oocyte-derived paracrine factors. However, it is not clear how oocytes coordinate with the EGF receptor (EGFR) signaling to achieve COC maturation. The aim of the present study was to test the hypothesis that oocytes promote the expr...

Su, You-qiang; Sugiura, Koji; Li, Qinglei; Wigglesworth, Karen; Matzuk, Martin M.; Eppig, John J.

2010-01-01

119

Lycium barbarum polysaccharides induce Toll-like receptor 2- and 4-mediated phenotypic and functional maturation of murine dendritic cells via activation of NF-?B.  

Science.gov (United States)

Dendritic cells (DCs) are potent antigen?presenting cells that play pivotal roles in the initiation of primary immune responses. Lycium barbarum polysaccharides (LBPs) are known to have a variety of immunomodulatory functions. However, the cellular and molecular mechanisms underlying their therapeutic effects are poorly understood. In this study, we report that LBPs induce phenotypic and functional maturation of DCs. LBPs upregulated DC expression of I?A/I?E and CD11c, enhanced DC allostimulatory activity and induced IL?12p40 production. Furthermore, the activity of LBPs on DCs was significantly reduced by treating the cells with anti?TLR2 or anti?TLR4 antibody prior to LBPs, indicating that both are possible receptors of LBPs. Maturation of DCs by LBPs was able to directly activate the nuclear transcription factor NF??B p65. The results revealed that LBP stimulation induces the phenotypic and functional maturation of DCs via TLR2- and/or TLR4-mediated NF??B signaling pathways. PMID:23904044

Zhu, Jie; Zhang, Yuanyuan; Shen, Yueshuang; Zhou, Huanqin; Yu, Xiaomei

2013-10-01

120

Utility maximization in incomplete markets  

CERN Document Server

We consider the problem of utility maximization for small traders on incomplete financial markets. As opposed to most of the papers dealing with this subject, the investors' trading strategies we allow underly constraints described by closed, but not necessarily convex, sets. The final wealths obtained by trading under these constraints are identified as stochastic processes which usually are supermartingales, and even martingales for particular strategies. These strategies are seen to be optimal, and the corresponding value functions determined simply by the initial values of the supermartingales. We separately treat the cases of exponential, power and logarithmic utility.

Hu, Y; Müller, M; Hu, Ying; Imkeller, Peter; Muller, Matthias

2005-01-01

 
 
 
 
121

An Incomplete Pentalogy of Cantrell  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Pentalogy of Cantrell is a rare entity of congenital defects involving the abdominal wall,sternum, diaphragm, pericardium and heart. The complete pentalogy and its variants havebeen described in the literature. We report a 47-day-old girl with an incomplete pentalogy ofCantrell presenting with congenital absence of the sternum, congenital heart defects, and anepigastric hernia. Two even rarer expressions of this disorder, tricuspid atresia type IIc andasymmetric kidneys, were also found. The patient was successfully managed with palliativepulmonary artery banding as preparation for a modified Fontan operation when she is older.We report this rare case, and discuss the pathologic findings and surgical strategy.

David Mishaly

2008-06-01

122

Steroid-induced oocyte maturation in Indian shad Tenualosa ilisha (Hamilton, 1822) is dependent on phosphatidylinositol 3 kinase but not MAP kinase activation.  

Science.gov (United States)

Fully grown fish and amphibian oocytes exposed to a maturation-inducing steroid (MIS) activates multiple signal transduction pathways, leading to formation and activation of maturation-promoting factor (MPF) and induction of germinal vesicle breakdown (GVBD). The present study was to investigate if phosphatidylinositol 3 kinase (PI3 kinase) and mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAP kinase) activation are required for naturally occurring MIS, 17?,20?-dihydroxy-4-pregnen-3-one (17,20?-P)-induced cdc2 activation and oocyte maturation (OM) in Tenualosa ilisha. We observed that17,20?-P-induced OM was significantly inhibited by PI3 kinase inhibitors Wortmannin and LY29400. 17,20?-P was shown to activate PI3 kinase maximally at 90min and cdc2 kinase at 16h of treatment. Relative involvement of PI3 kinase, MAP kinase and cdc2 kinase in 17,20?-P-induced OM was examined. MAP kinase was rapidly phosphorylated and activated (60-120min) after MIS treatment and this response preceded the activation of cdc2 kinase by several hours. A selective inhibitor of MAP kinase (MEK), PD98059, sufficiently blocked the phosphorylation and activation of MAP kinase. Inhibition of MAP kinase activity using PD98059 however, had no effect on MIS-induced cdc2 kinase activation and GVBD. These results demonstrate that activation of the PI3 kinase is required for 17,20?-P-induced cdc2 kinase activation and OM in T. ilisha. MAP kinase although was activated in response to 17,20?-P and PI3 kinase activation, it is not necessary for cdc2 activation and OM in this species. PMID:24726901

Pramanick, Kousik; Kundu, Sourav; Paul, Sudipta; Mallick, Buddhadev; Roy Moulik, Sujata; Pal, Puja; Mukherjee, Dilip

2014-06-01

123

The Incomplete Superficial Palmar Arch  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Introduction: Superficial palmar arch (SPA is dominant vascular structure in palm of hand. In present study we described a case of Ulnar / Radiopalmar pattern of incomplete SPA in an Iranian cadaver. When the SPA is complete, the superficial palmer branches of the radial artery contribute to the ulnar artery. In incomplete type of SPA, there was no anastomosis between the ulnar and radial arteries (UA, RA. Case Report: In the present case, the brachial artery divided into RA and UA at the cubital fossa. There was no anastomosis between radial and ulnar arteries (RA, UA in the palm of the hand. UA gave three palmar digital arteries; proper palmar digital artery and two common palmar digital arteries. RA gave proper palmar digital artery and arteria princeps pollicis. Conclusion: Knowledge of anatomical variation of SPA is important for the hand surgical interventions and this is a very rare variation which can be easily tested clinically by Allen’s test. Keywords: Superficial palmar arch, Ulnar artery, Radial artery

Anneh Mohammad Gharravi

2013-04-01

124

NO2 inhalation induces maturation of pulmonary CD11c+ cells that promote antigenspecific CD4+ T cell polarization  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background Nitrogen dioxide (NO2 is an air pollutant associated with poor respiratory health, asthma exacerbation, and an increased likelihood of inhalational allergies. NO2 is also produced endogenously in the lung during acute inflammatory responses. NO2 can function as an adjuvant, allowing for allergic sensitization to an innocuous inhaled antigen and the generation of an antigen-specific Th2 immune response manifesting in an allergic asthma phenotype. As CD11c+ antigen presenting cells are considered critical for naïve T cell activation, we investigated the role of CD11c+ cells in NO2-promoted allergic sensitization. Methods We systemically depleted CD11c+ cells from transgenic mice expressing a simian diphtheria toxin (DT receptor under of control of the CD11c promoter by administration of DT. Mice were then exposed to 15 ppm NO2 followed by aerosolized ovalbumin to promote allergic sensitization to ovalbumin and were studied after subsequent inhaled ovalbumin challenges for manifestation of allergic airway disease. In addition, pulmonary CD11c+ cells from wildtype mice were studied after exposure to NO2 and ovalbumin for cellular phenotype by flow cytometry and in vitro cytokine production. Results Transient depletion of CD11c+ cells during sensitization attenuated airway eosinophilia during allergen challenge and reduced Th2 and Th17 cytokine production. Lung CD11c+ cells from wildtype mice exhibited a significant increase in MHCII, CD40, and OX40L expression 2 hours following NO2 exposure. By 48 hours, CD11c+MHCII+ DCs within the mediastinal lymph node (MLN expressed maturation markers, including CD80, CD86, and OX40L. CD11c+CD11b- and CD11c+CD11b+ pulmonary cells exposed to NO2 in vivo increased uptake of antigen 2 hours post exposure, with increased ova-Alexa 647+ CD11c+MHCII+ DCs present in MLN from NO2-exposed mice by 48 hours. Co-cultures of ova-specific CD4+ T cells from naïve mice and CD11c+ pulmonary cells from NO2-exposed mice produced IL-1, IL-12p70, and IL-6 in vitro and augmented antigen-induced IL-5 production. Conclusions CD11c+ cells are critical for NO2-promoted allergic sensitization. NO2 exposure causes pulmonary CD11c+ cells to acquire a phenotype capable of increased antigen uptake, migration to the draining lymph node, expression of MHCII and co-stimulatory molecules required to activate naïve T cells, and secretion of polarizing cytokines to shape a Th2/Th17 response.

Suratt Benjamin T

2010-07-01

125

Boosting high-intensity focused ultrasound-induced anti-tumor immunity using a sparse-scan strategy that can more effectively promote dendritic cell maturation  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background The conventional treatment protocol in high-intensity focused ultrasound (HIFU therapy utilizes a dense-scan strategy to produce closely packed thermal lesions aiming at eradicating as much tumor mass as possible. However, this strategy is not most effective in terms of inducing a systemic anti-tumor immunity so that it cannot provide efficient micro-metastatic control and long-term tumor resistance. We have previously provided evidence that HIFU may enhance systemic anti-tumor immunity by in situ activation of dendritic cells (DCs inside HIFU-treated tumor tissue. The present study was conducted to test the feasibility of a sparse-scan strategy to boost HIFU-induced anti-tumor immune response by more effectively promoting DC maturation. Methods An experimental HIFU system was set up to perform tumor ablation experiments in subcutaneous implanted MC-38 and B16 tumor with dense- or sparse-scan strategy to produce closely-packed or separated thermal lesions. DCs infiltration into HIFU-treated tumor tissues was detected by immunohistochemistry and flow cytometry. DCs maturation was evaluated by IL-12/IL-10 production and CD80/CD86 expression after co-culture with tumor cells treated with different HIFU. HIFU-induced anti-tumor immune response was evaluated by detecting growth-retarding effects on distant re-challenged tumor and tumor-specific IFN-?-secreting cells in HIFU-treated mice. Results HIFU exposure raised temperature up to 80 degrees centigrade at beam focus within 4 s in experimental tumors and led to formation of a well-defined thermal lesion. The infiltrated DCs were recruited to the periphery of lesion, where the peak temperature was only 55 degrees centigrade during HIFU exposure. Tumor cells heated to 55 degrees centigrade in 4-s HIFU exposure were more effective to stimulate co-cultured DCs to mature. Sparse-scan HIFU, which can reserve 55 degrees-heated tumor cells surrounding the separated lesions, elicited an enhanced anti-tumor immune response than dense-scan HIFU, while their suppressive effects on the treated primary tumor were maintained at the same level. Flow cytometry analysis showed that sparse-scan HIFU was more effective than dense-scan HIFU in enhancing DC infiltration into tumor tissues and promoting their maturation in situ. Conclusion Optimizing scan strategy is a feasible way to boost HIFU-induced anti-tumor immunity by more effectively promoting DC maturation.

Zhong Pei

2010-01-01

126

The consequences of incomplete disclosure  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The disclosure requirements imposed on Canadian public companies are discussed. The basis of the capital market system in Canada is the integrity of full and true disclosure of all material facts in a prospectus and continuous disclosure of material changes and information, including financial results. Securities regulators have the right to report to the appropriate law enforcement agencies any company director who intentionally files misleading financial statements or press releases. The fundamental policy of Canadian stock exchanges is that all persons investing in securities listed on an exchange have equal access to information that may affect their investment decisions. Canadian stock exchanges have developed by-laws, rules and regulations relating to listed companies disclosure obligations, breach of which may lead to suspension of trading, delisting of the securities of the offending issuer, and substantial fines. Details of civil and criminal liability, current and proposed, for incomplete or inaccurate disclosure under Canadian securities legislation are explained. 59 refs.

Macfarlane, J.H. [Osler Hoskin and Harcourt, Calgary, AB (Canada)

1998-12-01

127

The consequences of incomplete disclosure  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The disclosure requirements imposed on Canadian public companies are discussed. The basis of the capital market system in Canada is the integrity of full and true disclosure of all material facts in a prospectus and continuous disclosure of material changes and information, including financial results. Securities regulators have the right to report to the appropriate law enforcement agencies any company director who intentionally files misleading financial statements or press releases. The fundamental policy of Canadian stock exchanges is that all persons investing in securities listed on an exchange have equal access to information that may affect their investment decisions. Canadian stock exchanges have developed by-laws, rules and regulations relating to listed companies disclosure obligations, breach of which may lead to suspension of trading, delisting of the securities of the offending issuer, and substantial fines. Details of civil and criminal liability, current and proposed, for incomplete or inaccurate disclosure under Canadian securities legislation are explained. 59 refs

1998-10-29

128

Reconstruction tomography from incomplete projections  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The findings reported are equally applicable to the fields of radiology and nuclear medicine, but the data discussed was aquired with scintillation cameras. Incomplete projections are obtained when the field of view of the detector is limited or when an opaque object lies within the field of view. It is possible to carry out reconstructions from such projections by extimating the missing projection values. A preferable method in most instances, however, appears to be the additive ART iterative method, modified to ignore the missing projection values. When the field of view is limited, one can use knowledge of the true outline of the density or radioactivity distribution to obtain improved reconstructions, by trimming the margin of the reconstruction array at the beginning of, or during, iterative reconstruction. The modified additive ART method, utilizing such trimming, appears to be clearly superior to any other method for reconstruction from projections which cover a limited field of view

1977-01-01

129

Dynamic feedback circuits function as a switch for shaping a maturation-inducing steroid pulse in Drosophila  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Steroid hormones trigger the onset of sexual maturation in animals by initiating genetic response programs that are determined by steroid pulse frequency, amplitude and duration. Although steroid pulses coordinate growth and timing of maturation during development, the mechanisms generating these pulses are not known. Here we show that the ecdysone steroid pulse that drives the juvenile-adult transition in Drosophila is determined by feedback circuits in the prothoracic gland (PG), the major steroid-producing tissue of insect larvae. These circuits coordinate the activation and repression of hormone synthesis, the two key parameters determining pulse shape (amplitude and duration). We show that ecdysone has a positive-feedback effect on the PG, rapidly amplifying its own synthesis to trigger pupariation as the onset of maturation. During the prepupal stage, a negative-feedback signal ensures the decline in ecdysone levels required to produce a temporal steroid pulse that drives developmental progression to adulthood. The feedback circuits rely on a developmental switch in the expression of Broad isoforms that transcriptionally activate or silence components in the ecdysone biosynthetic pathway. Remarkably, our study shows that the same well-defined genetic program that stimulates a systemic downstream response to ecdysone is also utilized upstream to set the duration and amplitude of the ecdysone pulse. Activation of this switch-like mechanism ensures a rapid, self-limiting PG response that functions in producing steroid oscillations that can guide the decision to terminate growth and promote maturation.

Møller, Morten Erik; Danielsen, Erik Thomas

2013-01-01

130

2-Hydroxyestradiol-17beta-induced oocyte maturation: involvement of cAMP-protein kinase A and okadaic acid-sensitive protein phosphatases, and their interplay in oocyte maturation in the catfish Heteropneustes fossilis.  

Science.gov (United States)

In Heteropneustes fossilis, in vitro incubation of postvitellogenic follicles with 2-hydroxyestradiol-17beta (2-OHE2, 5 micromol l(-1)) decreased significantly the total cAMP level, concomitant with germinal vesicle breakdown (GVBD). The incubation of the follicles with cAMP or cAMP-elevating drugs [phosphodiesterase (PDE) inhibitors], such as IBMX (3-isobutyl-1-methyl-xanthine), theophylline and caffeine, inhibited the 2-OHE2-induced GVBD in a concentration-dependent manner. The magnitude of the response varied: both cAMP and IBMX were effective at all concentrations (0.1-2.0 mmol l(-1)), followed by theophylline (0.5-2.0 mmol l(-1)) and caffeine (1-2.0 mmol l(-1)). The protein kinase A (PKA) inhibitor H89 stimulated oocyte maturation in a concentration-dependent manner. However, when co-incubated with 2-OHE2 for 24 h it produced a biphasic effect: low concentrations (0.1 and 1.0 micromol l(-1)) did not alter the 2-OHE2-induced GVBD, but high concentrations (5 and 10 micromol l(-1)) inhibited it. The incubation of the follicles with H89 lowered the inhibitory effect of IBMX on the 2-OHE2-induced GVBD. The incubation of the follicles with okadaic acid (OA), a protein phosphatase 1 and 2A inhibitor did not affect GVBD but when co-incubated with 2-OHE2, it enhanced the GVBD response. OA reversed the inhibitory effect of IBMX. The results suggest that OA may overcome the inhibition of 2-OHE2-induced GVBD by IBMX at a step distal to the cAMP-PKA pathway. PMID:16788039

Mishra, A; Joy, K P

2006-07-01

131

Item calibration in incomplete testing designs  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This study discusses the justifiability of item parameter estimation in incomplete testing designs in item response theory. Marginal maximum likelihood (MML as well as conditional maximum likelihood (CML procedures are considered in three commonly used incomplete designs: random incomplete, multistage testing and targeted testing designs. Mislevy and Sheenan (1989 have shown that in incomplete designs the justifiability of MML can be deduced from Rubin's (1976 general theory on inference in the presence of missing data. Their results are recapitulated and extended for more situations. In this study it is shown that for CML estimation the justification must be established in an alternative way, by considering the neglected part of the complete likelihood. The problems with incomplete designs are not generally recognized in practical situations. This is due to the stochastic nature of the incomplete designs which is not taken into account in standard computer algorithms. For that reason, incorrect uses of standard MML- and CML-algorithms are discussed.

Norman D. Verhelst

2011-01-01

132

RcsB-BglJ-mediated activation of Cascade operon does not induce the maturation of CRISPR RNAs in E. coli K12.  

Science.gov (United States)

Prokaryotic immunity against foreign nucleic acids mediated by clustered, regularly interspaced, short palindromic repeats (CRISPR) depends on the expression of the CRISPR-associated (Cas) proteins and the formation of small CRISPR RNAs (crRNAs). The crRNA-loaded Cas ribonucleoprotein complexes convey the specific recognition and inactivation of target nucleic acids. In E. coli K12, the maturation of crRNAs and the interference with target DNA is performed by the Cascade complex. The transcription of the Cascade operon is tightly repressed through H-NS-dependent inhibition of the Pcas promoter. Elevated levels of the LysR-type regulator LeuO induce the Pcas promoter and concomitantly activate the CRISPR-mediated immunity against phages. Here, we show that the Pcas promoter can also be induced by constitutive expression of the regulator BglJ. This activation is LeuO-dependent as heterodimers of BglJ and RcsB activate leuO transcription. Each transcription factor, LeuO or BglJ, induced the transcription of the Cascade genes to comparable amounts. However, the maturation of the crRNAs was activated in LeuO but not in BglJ-expressing cells. Studies on CRISPR promoter activities, transcript stabilities, crRNA processing and Cascade protein levels were performed to answer the question why crRNA maturation is defective in BglJ-expressing cells. Our results demonstrate that the activation of Cascade gene transcription is necessary but not sufficient to turn on the CRISPR-mediated immunity and suggest a more complex regulation of the type I-E CRISPR-Cas system in E. coli. PMID:23392250

Arslan, Zihni; Stratmann, Thomas; Wurm, Reinhild; Wagner, Rolf; Schnetz, Karin; Pul, Ümit

2013-05-01

133

Lycopene suppresses the lipopolysaccharide-induced phenotypic and functional maturation of murine dendritic cells through inhibition of mitogen-activated protein kinases and nuclear factor-?B  

Science.gov (United States)

Dendritic cells (DC) are the most potent of antigen-presenting cells. The most important function of DC is to initiate the immune response by presenting antigens to naïve T lymphocytes. Currently, little is known about the basic action of lycopene in murine bone marrow (BM)-derived DC. In the present study, we have revealed that lycopene significantly attenuates the phenotypic and functional maturation of murine BM-DC, especially in lipopolysaccharide-induced DC maturation. We found that lycopene down-regulates the expression of costimulatory molecules (CD80 and CD86) and major histocompatibility complex type II molecules. We also determined that lycopene-treated DC were poor stimulators of naïve allogeneic T-cell proliferation and induced lower levels of interleukin-2 in responding T cells. They also exhibited impaired interleukin-12 production. Additionally, lycopene was able to inhibit mitogen-activated protein kinases, such as ERK1/2, p38 and JNK, and the transcription factor, nuclear factor-?B. Assessment of the in vivo effects of lycopene may reveal an inability to induce a normal cell-mediated immune response, despite the ability of the cells to migrate to the spleen. This data provides new insight into the immunopharmacology of lycopene and suggests a novel approach to the manipulation of DC for therapeutic application.

Kim, Gi-Young; Kim, Jong-Hyun; Ahn, Soon-Cheol; Lee, Hee-Jeong; Moon, Dong-Oh; Lee, Chang-Min; Park, Yeong-Min

2004-01-01

134

The incorporation of myo-inositol into phosphatidylinositol derivatives is stimulated during hormone-induced meiotic maturation of amphibian oocytes  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The incorporation of myo-({sup 3}H)inositol into phosphatidylinositol and its phosphorylated derivatives was studied by microinjection of the radioactive precursor into Xenopus laevis oocytes. Induction of meiotic maturation of the oocytes by treatment with either progesterone one or insulin resulted in a significant increase in the incorporation of myo-({sup 3}H)inositol into the phospholipid fraction. This increase occurred 3-6 h after hormonal treatment, a time coincident with the start of the breakdown of the nuclear envelope, and requires protein synthesis. The effect of progesterone and insulin contrasts with the effect of acetylcholine, which acts through a muscarinic receptor causing the activation of phospholipase C, since the latter effector causes an increase in myo-({sup 3}H)inositol incorporation, which is more rapid and does not require protein synthesis. These results suggest that the meiotic maturation process is connected with changes in inositol metabolism in the amphibian oocyte.

Carrasco, D.; Allende, C.C.; Allende, J.E. (Universidad de Chile, Casilla, Santiago (Chile))

1990-12-01

135

X-ray induced dominant lethal mutations in mature and immature oocytes of guinea-pigs and golden hamsters  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The induction of dominant lethal mutations by doses of 100-400 rad X-rays in oocytes of the guinea-pig and golden hamster was studied using criteria of embryonic mortality. For both species higher yields were obtained from mature than from immature oocytes. Data on fertility indicated that in the golden hamster immature oocytes were more sensitive to killing by X-rays than mature oocytes but that the converse was true in the guinea-pig. The dose-response relationship for mutation to dominant lethals in pre-ovulatory oocytes of guinea-pigs and golden hamsters was linear, both when based on pre- and post-implantation loss only. The rate per unit dose was higher for the golden hamster, and the old golden hamsters were possibly slightly more sensitive than young ones

1975-01-01

136

The incorporation of myo-inositol into phosphatidylinositol derivatives is stimulated during hormone-induced meiotic maturation of amphibian oocytes  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The incorporation of myo-[3H]inositol into phosphatidylinositol and its phosphorylated derivatives was studied by microinjection of the radioactive precursor into Xenopus laevis oocytes. Induction of meiotic maturation of the oocytes by treatment with either progesterone one or insulin resulted in a significant increase in the incorporation of myo-[3H]inositol into the phospholipid fraction. This increase occurred 3-6 h after hormonal treatment, a time coincident with the start of the breakdown of the nuclear envelope, and requires protein synthesis. The effect of progesterone and insulin contrasts with the effect of acetylcholine, which acts through a muscarinic receptor causing the activation of phospholipase C, since the latter effector causes an increase in myo-[3H]inositol incorporation, which is more rapid and does not require protein synthesis. These results suggest that the meiotic maturation process is connected with changes in inositol metabolism in the amphibian oocyte

1990-01-01

137

Influence of water temperature on induced reproduction by hypophysation, sex steroids concentrations and final oocyte maturation of the "curimatã-pacu" Prochilodus argenteus (Pisces: Prochilodontidae).  

Science.gov (United States)

Most fishes with commercial importance from the São Francisco basin are migratory and do not complete the reproductive cycle in lentic environments, such as hydroelectric plant reservoirs, hence natural stocks are declining and there is an urgent need to reduce the pressure of fishing on those wild populations. Therefore, studies on reproductive biology and its relationship with endocrine and environmental factors are key to improving the cultivation techniques of Brazilian fish species. This study examined the influence of water temperature on sex steroid concentrations (testosterone, 17?-estradiol and 17?-hydroxyprogesterone), spawning efficiency, fecundity, fertilisation rate, larval abnormality rates and involvement of the cytoskeleton during the final oocyte maturation of Prochilodus argenteus under experimental conditions. The results of our study showed that in captivity, sex steroid plasma concentrations and spawning performance of P. argenteus were clearly different for fish kept in water with different temperature regimes. In lower water temperature (23°C), it was observed that: 33% of females did not ovulate, fecundity was lower and vitellogenic oocytes after the spawning induction procedure exhibited a smaller diameter. Moreover, concentrations of 17?-estradiol and 17?-hydroxyprogesterone were lower and there was a delay in the final oocyte maturation and, consequently, ovulation and spawning. Our experiments showed direct influence of water temperature in the process of induced spawning of P. argenteus. Changes in water temperature also suggest the tubulin involvement in the nuclear dislocation process and the possible action of actin filaments in the release of polar bodies during final oocyte maturation of P. argenteus. PMID:21501616

Arantes, Fábio P; Santos, Hélio B; Rizzo, Elizete; Sato, Yoshimi; Bazzoli, Nilo

2011-07-01

138

Seasonal changes in sexual maturity and fecundity, and HCG-induced breeding of the catfish, Heterobranchus longifilis val. (claridae), reared in Ebrie Lagoon (Ivory Coast)  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Oocyte maturation and ovulation were induced with human chorionic gonadotropin (HCG) in the African catfish, #Heterobranchus longifilis$. Females with a mean oocyte diameter of at least 1.1 mm were used. 100 % ovulation was obtained after a single intramuscular HCG injection of between 1.0 and 2.5 I.U./g body weight ; a lower dose led to high variability in individual response. Latency time depended more on temperature than on the hormone dose. Eggs could be stripped within 14 h of a dose of ...

Legendre, Marc

1986-01-01

139

Nonspecific activation of murine lymphocytes. IV. Proliferation of a distinct, late maturing lymphocyte subpopulation induced by 2-mercaptoethanol  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The lymphocyte subpopulations that are activated by 2-ME, LPS, poly IC, and PPD were studied in terms of their maturational characteristics. Attempts to stimulate hepatic and splenic lymphoid cells from mice of different ages with these mitogens demonstrated a well ordered sequence for the emergency of mitogen responsiveness in C3H mice: reactivity to LPS and Poly IC was observed early in maturation and was followed by that to PPD, and finally by the development of responsiveness to 2-ME. The same sequence appeared when the mitogen responsiveness of lethally irradiated, fetal liver-reconstituted syngeneic adult recipients was examined. The mitogenic action of 2-ME was dissociated from its ability to enhance lymphocyte reactivity to other mitogens in mice too young to respond to 2-ME as a mitogen. Experiments in which additivity of responses was assayed by adding mitogens to culture singly or conjointly indicated that LPS and Poly IC activate nearly identical B lymphocyte subpopulations, whereas PPD stimulates a subset of cells distinct from that which is responsive to the former two mitogens. The mitogen responsiveness of CBA/N mice, relative to normal CBA/WEHI mice, was shown to decrease as a function of the maturity of the subpopulation of lymphocytes activated. The CBA/N mouse was shown to be unresponsive to stimulation by 2-ME

1978-01-01

140

Incompletely compacted equilibrated ordinary chondrites  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

We document the size distributions and locations of voids present within five highly porous equilibrated ordinary chondrites using high-resolution synchrotron X-ray microtomography ({mu}CT) and helium pycnometry. We found total porosities ranging from {approx}10 to 20% within these chondrites, and with {mu}CT we show that up to 64% of the void space is located within intergranular voids within the rock. Given the low (S1-S2) shock stages of the samples and the large voids between mineral grains, we conclude that these samples experienced unusually low amounts of compaction and shock loading throughout their entire post accretionary history. With Fe metal and FeS metal abundances and grain size distributions, we show that these chondrites formed naturally with greater than average porosities prior to parent body metamorphism. These materials were not 'fluffed' on their parent body by impact-related regolith gardening or events caused by seismic vibrations. Samples of all three chemical types of ordinary chondrites (LL, L, H) are represented in this study and we conclude that incomplete compaction is common within the asteroid belt.

Sasso, M.R.; Macke, R.J.; Boesenberg, J.S.; Britt, D.T.; Rovers, M.L.; Ebel, D.S.; Friedrich, J.M.; (Fordham)

2010-01-22

 
 
 
 
141

LA GLOBALIZACIÓN INCOMPLETA / INCOMPLETE GLOBALIZATION  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Colombia | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish El objetivo de este artículo es analizar el proceso de globalización, sus determinantes y los factores que limitan sus alcances. Metodológicamente, el trabajo se basa en una exhaustiva revisión documental crítica sobre el tema, complementada con el análisis de indicadores macroeconómicos de diferent [...] es países. Los resultados muestran la creciente desigualdad económica y social entre las regiones, en el marco de un proceso globalizador basado en un patrón de acumulación capitalista, que tiende a profundizar esos desequilibrios. La globalización se caracteriza como incompleta, por el despliegue limitado de su potencial para lograr una distribución más equitativa y sustentable no solo en lo económico, sino también en las esferas científica, tecnológica, ambiental, política y social. Abstract in english The aim of this document is to analyze the process of globa-lization, its determinants and the factors limiting its scope. Methodologically, the work is based on a comprehensive critical literature review on the subject, supplemented with the analysis of macroeconomic indicators in different countri [...] es. The results show the growing economic and social inequality between regions, as part of a process of globalization based on a pattern of capitalist accumulation, which tends to exacerbate these imbalances. Glo-balization is characterized as incomplete, because of the limited deployment potential to achieve a more equitable and sustainable development, not only economically, but also in scientific, tech-nological, environmental, political and social issues.

Alberto, Romero; Mary A, Vera-Colina.

142

Nano-Stenciled RGD-Gold Patterns That Inhibit Focal Contact Maturation Induce Lamellipodia Formation in Fibroblasts  

Science.gov (United States)

Cultured fibroblasts adhere to extracellular substrates by means of cell-matrix adhesions that are assembled in a hierarchical way, thereby gaining in protein complexity and size. Here we asked how restricting the size of cell-matrix adhesions affects cell morphology and behavior. Using a nanostencil technique, culture substrates were patterned with gold squares of a width and spacing between 250 nm and 2 µm. The gold was functionalized with RGD peptide as ligand for cellular integrins, and mouse embryo fibroblasts were plated. Limiting the length of cell-matrix adhesions to 500 nm or less disturbed the maturation of vinculin-positive focal complexes into focal contacts and fibrillar adhesions, as indicated by poor recruitment of ?5-integrin. We found that on sub-micrometer patterns, fibroblasts spread extensively, but did not polarize. Instead, they formed excessive numbers of lamellipodia and a fine actin meshwork without stress fibers. Moreover, these cells showed aberrant fibronectin fibrillogenesis, and their speed of directed migration was reduced significantly compared to fibroblasts on 2 µm square patterns. Interference with RhoA/ROCK signaling eliminated the pattern-dependent differences in cell morphology. Our results indicate that manipulating the maturation of cell-matrix adhesions by nanopatterned surfaces allows to influence morphology, actin dynamics, migration and ECM assembly of adhering fibroblasts.

Lutz, Roman; Pataky, Kristopher; Gadhari, Neha; Marelli, Mattia; Brugger, Juergen; Chiquet, Matthias

2011-01-01

143

Bone-like mineral nucleating Peptide nanofibers induce differentiation of human mesenchymal stem cells into mature osteoblasts.  

Science.gov (United States)

A bone implant should integrate to the tissue through a bone-like mineralized interface, which requires increased osteoblast activity at the implant-tissue boundary. Modification of the implant surface with synthetic bioinstructive cues facilitates on-site differentiation of progenitor stem cells to functional mature osteoblasts and results in subsequent mineralization. Inspired by the bioactive domains of the bone extracellular matrix proteins and the mussel adhesive proteins, we synthesized peptide nanofibers to promote bone-like mineralization on the implant surface. Nanofibers functionalized with osteoinductive collagen I derived Asp-Gly-Glu-Ala (DGEA) peptide sequence provide an advantage in initial adhesion, spreading, and early commitment to osteogenic differentiation for mesenchymal stem cells (hMSCs). In this study, we demonstrated that this early osteogenic commitment, however, does not necessarily guarantee a priority for maturation into functional osteoblasts. Similar to natural biological cascades, early commitment should be further supported with additional signals to provide a long-term effect on differentiation. Here, we showed that peptide nanofibers functionalized with Glu-Glu-Glu (EEE) sequence enhanced mineralization abilities due to osteoinductive properties for late-stage differentiation of hMSCs. Mussel-inspired functionalization not only enables robust immobilization on metal surfaces, but also improves bone-like mineralization under physiologically simulated conditions. The multifunctional osteoinductive peptide nanofiber biointerfaces presented here facilitate osseointegration for long-term clinical stability. PMID:24878392

Ceylan, Hakan; Kocabey, Samet; Unal Gulsuner, Hilal; Balcik, Ozlem S; Guler, Mustafa O; Tekinay, Ayse B

2014-07-14

144

Market maturity  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The power sector in the Philipines provides one of the most mature independent power markets in Asia. Over the past five years, National Power Corp. (NPC), the government owned utility, has actively invited the power sector into power generation. Distribution has remained in the hands of private and rural cooperative utilities. Private utilities have been operating as full requirements customers of NPC while the growth in capacity additions by independent power producers (IPPs) has outpaced NPC`s for the second year in a row. With a recovering economy and regulatory reform proceeding, the outlook for independent power remains strong through the end of the decade. The Philipine Congress is now reviewing draft legislation that will decentralize NPC and begin the process of privatization and market-based reforms throughout the country`s power sector.

Meade, B.; Bowden, S.; Ellis, M

1995-02-01

145

Incomplete Behçet's syndrome with unusual manifestations.  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

We report a case of incomplete Behçet's syndrome with two major criteria plus interstitial pneumonia. The patient had also hypoplastic bone marrow and disseminated intravascular coagulation developed during the terminal stage.

Akog?lu, T.; Paydas?, S.; Sarpel, S.; Tunali, N.; Tuncer, I.

1987-01-01

146

Major differences in the frequencies of radiation-induced malformations and eye color mutants in mature oocytes of the wasp Dahlbominus  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A comparison of the effects of ? radiation over the range of exposures from 15.5 to 125 R on the production of malformations and eye color mutations in mature oocytes of Dahlbominus revealed several major differences in the two sorts of response. At all exposures, total malformations of all sorts appeared in larger numbers than eye color mutants, and the doubling dose for malformations was at least six times higher. It was concluded that the majority of the induced malformations in Dahlbominus may arise by a process other than point mutation, e.g., through nondisjunction, and that the genetic hazard from low doses for this type of injury will not be severe. (U.S.)

1975-01-01

147

Influence of a mouse female genotype on the incidence of dominant lethal mutations induced by ionizing radiation in mature germ cells of CBA males  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

CBA male mice were exposed to 60Co-?-rays (5.5 Gy) and mated with CBA, A/He, AKR, C57BL/6, C57BL/Mib and BALB/c females. The yield of dominant lethal mutations (DLM) induced by radiation in mature germ cells was estimated. It was established that the yield of DLM depends on the genotype of a female: a maximum yield of DLM was registered in CBA, A/He and C57BL/6 females, and a minimum yield, in C57BL/Mib females. It is assumed that different yields of DLM in females of different lines might be related to different effectiveness of repair of premutational damages to spermia chromosomes by the enzymatic systems of female gametes

1981-01-01

148

Quantum Bertrand duopoly of incomplete information  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

We study Bertrand's duopoly of incomplete information. It is found that the effect of quantum entanglement on the outcome of the game is dramatically changed by the uncertainty of information. In contrast with the case of complete information where the outcome increases with entanglement, when information is incomplete the outcome is maximized at some finite entanglement. As a consequence, information and entanglement are both crucial factors that determine the properties of a quantum oligopoly.

Qin Gan [Hefei National Laboratory for Physical Science at Microscale and Department of Modern Physics, University of Science and Technology of China, Hefei, 230026 (China); Chen Xi [Hefei National Laboratory for Physical Science at Microscale and Department of Modern Physics, University of Science and Technology of China, Hefei, 230026 (China); Sun Min [Hefei National Laboratory for Physical Science at Microscale and Department of Modern Physics, University of Science and Technology of China, Hefei, 230026 (China); Du Jiangfeng [Hefei National Laboratory for Physical Science at Microscale and Department of Modern Physics, University of Science and Technology of China, Hefei, 230026 (China)

2005-05-13

149

Quantum Bertrand duopoly of incomplete information  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

We study Bertrand's duopoly of incomplete information. It is found that the effect of quantum entanglement on the outcome of the game is dramatically changed by the uncertainty of information. In contrast with the case of complete information where the outcome increases with entanglement, when information is incomplete the outcome is maximized at some finite entanglement. As a consequence, information and entanglement are both crucial factors that determine the properties of a quantum oligopoly

2005-05-13

150

Detection of radiation-induced hydrocarbons in Camembert irradiated before and after the maturing process-comparison of florisil column chromatography and on-line coupled liquid chromatography-gas chromatography  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The influence of the maturing process on the detection of radiation-induced volatile hydrocarbons in the fat of Camembert has been investigated. Two analytical methods for separation of the hydrocarbon fraction from the lipid were applied: Florisil column chromatography with subsequent gas chromatographic-mass spectrometric (GC-MS) determination as well as on-line coupled liquid chromatography-GC-MS. The maturing process had no influence on the detection of radiation-induced volatiles. Comparable results were achieved with both analytical methods. However, preference is given to the more effective on-line coupled LC-GC method. 17 refs., 5 figs., 2 tabs.

Schulzki, G.; Spiegelberg, A.; Schreiber, G.A. [Federal Institute for Health Protection of Consumers and Veterinary Medicine, Berlin (Germany)] [and others

1995-02-01

151

Two B3 domain transcriptional repressors prevent sugar-inducible expression of seed maturation genes in Arabidopsis seedlings  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

During development of plant seeds, embryos import nutrients and store massive amounts of reserves. Seed reserves are rapidly degraded and mobilized to support seedling development after germination. HIGH-LEVEL EXPRESSION OF SUGAR-INDUCIBLE GENE 2 (HSI2) of Arabidopsis thaliana is a B3 DNA-binding domain protein that represses the transcription of sugar-inducible reporter gene. Although disruption of HSI2 or HSI2-Like 1 (HSL1) did not affect growth, seeds with disruption of both HSI2 and HSL1 ...

Tsukagoshi, Hironaka; Morikami, Atsushi; Nakamura, Kenzo

2007-01-01

152

Molecular and functional characterization of catfish (Heteropneustes fossilis) aquaporin-1b: changes in expression during ovarian development and hormone-induced follicular maturation.  

Science.gov (United States)

The oocytes of the freshwater catfish Heteropneustes fossilis hydrate during hormone-induced meiotic maturation. To investigate if this process may be mediated by aquaporins (AQPs), as it occurs in marine fish producing highly hydrated eggs, the cloning of ovarian AQPs in catfish was carried out. Using degenerate primers for conserved domains of the major intrinsic protein (MIP) family, and 5' and 3'end amplification procedures, a full-length cDNA encoding for an AQP1-like protein was isolated. The predicted protein showed the typical six transmembrane domains and two Asn-Pro-Ala (NPA) motifs conserved among the members of the AQP superfamily. Phylogenetic analysis indicated that the catfish AQP clustered with the teleost-specific aquaporin-1b subfamily, and accordingly it was termed HfAqp1b. Heterologous expression in Xenopus laevis oocytes indicated that HfAqp1b encoded for a functional AQP, water permeability being enhanced by cAMP. Site-directed mutagenesis revealed that cAMP induced the translocation of HfAqp1b into the oocyte plasma membrane most likely through the phosphorylation of HfAqp1b Ser(227). In adult catfish, hfaqp1b transcripts were detected exclusively in ovary and brain and showed significant seasonal variations; in the ovary, hfaqp1b was maximally expressed during the pre-spawning period, whereas in the brain the highest expression was detected during spawning. In vitro stimulation of isolated catfish ovarian follicles with vasotocin (VT) or human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG), which induce oocyte maturation and hydration, elevated the hfaqp1b transcript levels after 6 or 16 h of incubation, respectively. These results suggest that HfAqp1b may play a role during VT- and hCG-induced oocyte hydration in catfish, and that VT may regulate HfAqp1b at the transcriptional and post-translational level in a manner similar to the vasopressin-dependent mammalian AQP2. PMID:20937280

Chaube, Radha; Chauvigné, François; Tingaud-Sequeira, Angèle; Joy, Keerikkattil P; Acharjee, Arup; Singh, Varsha; Cerdà, Joan

2011-01-01

153

Delay of Postnatal Maturation Sensitizes the Mouse Prostate to Testosterone-Induced Pronounced Hyperplasia : Protective Role of Estrogen Receptor-?  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The role of estrogens in the etiology of prostate cancer is controversial. To demonstrate the specific effects of estrogens and androgens on the development of the prostatic epithelial hyperplasia, we used luteinizing hormone receptor knockout mice (LuRKO), which are resistant to pituitary regulation mediated by luteinizing hormone, lack postnatal androgen production, and have rudimentary accessory sex glands, the growth of which can be induced with exogenous androgen replacement. This model ...

Savolainen, Saija; Pakarainen, Tomi; Huhtaniemi, Ilpo; Poutanen, Matti; Ma?kela?, Sari

2007-01-01

154

49 CFR 529.4 - Requirements for incomplete automobile manufacturers.  

Science.gov (United States)

... false Requirements for incomplete automobile manufacturers. 529.4 Section 529...TRANSPORTATION MANUFACTURERS OF MULTISTAGE AUTOMOBILES § 529.4 Requirements for incomplete automobile manufacturers. (a) Except as...

2010-10-01

155

Herpes simplex virus type 1 ICP0 induces CD83 degradation in mature dendritic cells independent of its E3 ubiquitin ligase function.  

Science.gov (United States)

Mature dendritic cells (mDCs) are the most potent antigen-presenting cells known today, as they are the only antigen-presenting cells able to induce naïve T-cells. Therefore, they play a crucial role during the induction of effective antiviral immune responses. Interestingly, the surface molecule CD83 expressed on mDCs is targeted by several viruses. As CD83 has been shown to exert co-stimulatory functions on mDCs, its downmodulation represents a viral immune escape mechanism. Mechanistically, it has been shown that herpes simplex virus type 1 infection leads to proteasomal degradation of CD83, resulting in a strongly diminished T-cell stimulatory capacity of the infected mDC. Previous data suggest that the viral immediate-early protein ICP0 (infected-cell protein 0) plays an important role in this process. In the present study, we showed that ICP0 is sufficient to induce CD83 degradation in the absence of any other viral factor. However, the mechanism of ICP0-mediated CD83 degradation is not yet understood. Here, we provide evidence that ubiquitination of lysine residues is, despite the published E3 ubiquitin ligase activity of ICP0, not necessary for CD83 degradation. This finding was underlined by the observation that expression of an ICP0 mutant lacking the E3 ubiquitin ligase domain in mDCs still induced CD83 degradation. Finally, inhibition of E1 activating enzyme using the specific inhibitor 4[4-(5-nitro-furan-2-ylmethylene)-3.5-dioxo-pyrazolidin-1-yl]-benzoic acid ethyl ester did not prevent CD83 degradation. Taken together, our data provide strong evidence that ICP0 alone induces CD83 degradation independent of its E3 ubiquitin ligase function and of the ubiquitin machinery. PMID:24643878

Heilingloh, Christiane S; Mühl-Zürbes, Petra; Steinkasserer, Alexander; Kummer, Mirko

2014-06-01

156

Seizure induces activation of multiple subtypes of neural progenitors and growth factors in hippocampus with neuronal maturation confined to dentate gyrus  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Adult hippocampal neurogenesis is altered in response to different physiological and pathological stimuli. GFAP+ve/nestin+ve radial glial like Type-1 progenitors are considered to be the resident stem cell population in adult hippocampus. During neurogenesis these Type-1 progenitors matures to GFAP-ve/nestin+ve Type-2 progenitors and then to Type-3 neuroblasts and finally differentiates into granule cell neurons. In our study, using pilocarpine-induced seizure model, we showed that seizure initiated activation of multiple progenitors in the entire hippocampal area such as DG, CA1 and CA3. Seizure induction resulted in activation of two subtypes of Type-1 progenitors, Type-1a (GFAP+ve/nestin+ve/BrdU+ve) and Type-1b (GFAP+ve/nestin+ve/BrdU-ve). We showed that majority of Type-1b progenitors were undergoing only a transition from a state of dormancy to activated form immediately after seizures rather than proliferating, whereas Type-1a showed maximum proliferation by 3 days post-seizure induction. Type-2 (GFAP-ve/nestin+ve/BrdU+ve) progenitors were few compared to Type-1. Type-3 (DCX+ve) progenitors showed increased expression of immature neurons only in DG region by 3 days after seizure induction indicating maturation of progenitors happens only in microenvironment of DG even though progenitors are activated in CA1 and CA3 regions of hippocampus. Also parallel increase in growth factors expression after seizure induction suggests that microenvironmental niche has a profound effect on stimulation of adult neural progenitors.

2010-03-19

157

Seizure induces activation of multiple subtypes of neural progenitors and growth factors in hippocampus with neuronal maturation confined to dentate gyrus  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Adult hippocampal neurogenesis is altered in response to different physiological and pathological stimuli. GFAP{sup +ve}/nestin{sup +ve} radial glial like Type-1 progenitors are considered to be the resident stem cell population in adult hippocampus. During neurogenesis these Type-1 progenitors matures to GFAP{sup -ve}/nestin{sup +ve} Type-2 progenitors and then to Type-3 neuroblasts and finally differentiates into granule cell neurons. In our study, using pilocarpine-induced seizure model, we showed that seizure initiated activation of multiple progenitors in the entire hippocampal area such as DG, CA1 and CA3. Seizure induction resulted in activation of two subtypes of Type-1 progenitors, Type-1a (GFAP{sup +ve}/nestin{sup +ve}/BrdU{sup +ve}) and Type-1b (GFAP{sup +ve}/nestin{sup +ve}/BrdU{sup -ve}). We showed that majority of Type-1b progenitors were undergoing only a transition from a state of dormancy to activated form immediately after seizures rather than proliferating, whereas Type-1a showed maximum proliferation by 3 days post-seizure induction. Type-2 (GFAP{sup -ve}/nestin{sup +ve}/BrdU{sup +ve}) progenitors were few compared to Type-1. Type-3 (DCX{sup +ve}) progenitors showed increased expression of immature neurons only in DG region by 3 days after seizure induction indicating maturation of progenitors happens only in microenvironment of DG even though progenitors are activated in CA1 and CA3 regions of hippocampus. Also parallel increase in growth factors expression after seizure induction suggests that microenvironmental niche has a profound effect on stimulation of adult neural progenitors.

Indulekha, Chandrasekharan L.; Sanalkumar, Rajendran [Neuro Stem Cell Biology Laboratory, Department of Neurobiology, Rajiv Gandhi Center for Biotechnology, Thiruvananthapuram, Kerala 695 014 (India); Thekkuveettil, Anoopkumar [Molecular Medicine, Biomedical Technology Wing, Sree Chitra Thirunal Institute for Medical Sciences and Technology, Thiruvananthapuram, Kerala (India); James, Jackson, E-mail: jjames@rgcb.res.in [Neuro Stem Cell Biology Laboratory, Department of Neurobiology, Rajiv Gandhi Center for Biotechnology, Thiruvananthapuram, Kerala 695 014 (India)

2010-03-19

158

Pak2 is required for actin cytoskeleton remodeling, TCR signaling, and normal thymocyte development and maturation  

Science.gov (United States)

The molecular mechanisms that govern thymocyte development and maturation are incompletely understood. The P21-activated kinase 2 (Pak2) is an effector for the Rho family GTPases Rac and Cdc42 that regulate actin cytoskeletal remodeling, but its role in the immune system remains poorly understood. In this study, we show that T-cell specific deletion of Pak2 gene in mice resulted in severe T cell lymphopenia accompanied by marked defects in development, maturation, and egress of thymocytes. Pak2 was required for pre-TCR ?-selection and positive selection. Surprisingly, Pak2 deficiency in CD4 single positive thymocytes prevented functional maturation and reduced expression of S1P1 and KLF2. Mechanistically, Pak2 is required for actin cytoskeletal remodeling triggered by TCR. Failure to induce proper actin cytoskeletal remodeling impaired PLC?1 and Erk1/2 signaling in the absence of Pak2, uncovering the critical function of Pak2 as an essential regulator that governs the actin cytoskeleton-dependent signaling to ensure normal thymocyte development and maturation. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.02270.001

Phee, Hyewon; Au-Yeung, Byron B; Pryshchep, Olga; O'Hagan, Kyle Leonard; Fairbairn, Stephanie Grace; Radu, Maria; Kosoff, Rachelle; Mollenauer, Marianne; Cheng, Debra; Chernoff, Jonathan; Weiss, Arthur

2014-01-01

159

CIMGS: An incomplete orthogonal factorization preconditioner  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This paper introduces, analyzes, and tests a preconditioning method for conjugate gradient (CG) type iterative methods. The authors start by examining incomplete Gram-Schmidt factorization (IGS) methods in order to motivate the new preconditioner. They show that the IGS family is more stable than IC, and they successfully factor any full rank matrix. Furthermore, IGS preconditioners are at least as effective in accelerating convergence of CG type iterative methods as the incomplete Cholesky (IC) preconditioner. The drawback of IGS methods are their high cost of factorization. This motivates finding a new algorithm, CIMGS, which can generate the same factor in a more efficient way.

Wang, X.; Bramley, R. [Indiana Univ., Bloomington, IN (United States); Gallivan, K. [Univ. of Illinois, Urbana, IL (United States)

1994-12-31

160

Adaptive schemes for incomplete quantum process tomography  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

We propose an iterative algorithm for incomplete quantum process tomography with the help of quantum state estimation. The algorithm, which is based on the combined principles of maximum likelihood and maximum entropy, yields a unique estimator for an unknown quantum process when one has less than a complete set of linearly independent measurement data to specify the quantum process uniquely. We apply this iterative algorithm adaptively in various situations and so optimize the amount of resources required to estimate a quantum process with incomplete data.

Teo, Yong Siah [Centre for Quantum Technologies, National University of Singapore, Singapore 117543 (Singapore); NUS Graduate School for Integrative Sciences and Engineering, Singapore 117597 (Singapore); Englert, Berthold-Georg [Centre for Quantum Technologies, National University of Singapore, Singapore 117543 (Singapore); Department of Physics, National University of Singapore, Singapore 117542 (Singapore); Rehacek, Jaroslav; Hradil, Zdenek [Department of Optics, Palacky University, 17. listopadu 12, CZ-77146 Olomouc (Czech Republic)

2011-12-15

 
 
 
 
161

Quantum Stackelberg duopoly with incomplete information  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

We investigate the quantum version of the Stackelberg duopoly with incomplete information, especially how the quantum entanglement affects the first-mover advantage in the classical form. It is found that while positive entanglement enhances the first-mover advantage beyond the classical limit, the advantage is dramatically suppressed by negative entanglement. Moreover, despite that positive quantum entanglement improves the first-mover's tolerance for the informational incompleteness, the quantum effect does not change the basic fact that Firm A's lack of complete information of Firm B's unit cost is eradicating the first-mover advantage

2005-10-10

162

Optimizing Arteriovenous Fistula Maturation  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Autogenous arteriovenous fistulas are the preferred vascular access in patients undergoing hemodialysis. Increasing fistula prevalence depends on increasing fistula placement, improving the maturation of fistula that fail to mature and enhancing the long-term patency of mature fistula. Percutaneous methods for optimizing arteriovenous fistula maturation will be reviewed.

Zangan, Steven M.; Falk, Abigail

2009-01-01

163

Polyamine-induced modulation of genes involved in ethylene biosynthesis and signalling pathways and nitric oxide production during olive mature fruit abscission  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

After fruit ripening, many fruit-tree species undergo massive natural fruit abscission. Olive (Olea europaea L.) is a stone-fruit with cultivars such as Picual (PIC) and Arbequina (ARB) which differ in mature fruit abscission potential. Ethylene (ET) is associated with abscission, but its role during mature fruit abscission remains largely uncharacterized. The present study investigates the possible roles of ET and polyamine (PA) during mature fruit abscission by modulating genes involved in ...

2011-01-01

164

Odor-induced sexual maturation and expression of c-fos in the olfactory system of juvenile female mice.  

Science.gov (United States)

Exposure to the urine or soiled bedding odors of novel adult males is known to accelerate puberty in juvenile female mice. To determine what part of the olfactory system is activated by these odors, the expression of c-fos in the main olfactory bulb (MOB) and the accessory olfactory bulb (AOB) of juvenile female mice was examined after their exposure to male-soiled bedding, peppermint odor or their own bedding. Fos-like immunoreactivity was found throughout the AOB of the juvenile female mice exposed to the bedding odors of adult males for 3 h. In contrast, dense staining was found in the granular cell layer of the MOB of mice exposed to peppermint odors for 3 h, whereas mice exposed to their own bedding failed to show immunostaining in the AOB and only slight or no staining in the MOB. These results indicate that social odors stimulate the expression of c-fos in the AOB while non-social odors activate the MOB. This method allows the identification of individual cells activated by the different odors and will be useful in locating other areas of the brain involved in the neuroendocrine changes underlying odor-induced precocious puberty. PMID:8403368

Schellinck, H M; Smyth, C; Brown, R; Wilkinson, M

1993-07-16

165

Isobaric ratios of fragments emitted in incomplete fusion reactions  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The emission of light fragments with energies ?1A MeV from asymmetric "1"4N induced reactions at 14A MeV and 32A MeV has been studied. The overall energy- and angular dependence of the isobaric "3H/"3He and "6He/"6Li ratios is understood in terms of standard statistical emission processes from an incomplete fusion source and an intermediate source only if the effective Coulomb barriers are reduced much more than the normal quantum penetration accounts for

1995-05-01

166

Prune belly syndrome associated with incomplete VACTERL  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

A Prune Belly syndrome with VATER/VACTERL association is an extremely rare. They are either stillborn or die within few days of life, only few such cases have been reported in literature. We are presenting here a male neonate of Prune Belly syndrome associated with incomplete VACTERL with brief review of literature.

Ghritlaharey R; Gupta Gaurav; Kushwaha A; Chanchlani R

2007-01-01

167

Prune belly syndrome associated with incomplete VACTERL  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available A Prune Belly syndrome with VATER/VACTERL association is an extremely rare. They are either stillborn or die within few days of life, only few such cases have been reported in literature. We are presenting here a male neonate of Prune Belly syndrome associated with incomplete VACTERL with brief review of literature.

Ghritlaharey R

2007-01-01

168

Fractional exclusion statistics with incomplete information  

CERN Multimedia

We introduce the hypothesis of incomplete information into the fractional exclusion statistics in order to apply the latter to some correlated heavy fermion systems. It is shown that the actual inexplicit distribution function of FES may be replaced by an equivalent explicit one of which the form does not change with $\\alpha$ value.

Wang, Q A

2002-01-01

169

Some remarks about Russellian incomplete symbols  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The paper aims at presenting a new interpretation of Russell's On Denoting. It focuses on the theory of incomplete symbol, and on Russell's use of the scope operator. Its conclusion is that Russell gives here the elements of a new conception of symbolism, which moves him away from Frege's theory of the ideography.

Gandon, Sebastien

2007-01-01

170

Randomly incomplete spectra and intermediate statistics  

CERN Document Server

By randomly removing a fraction of levels from a given spectrum a model is constructed that describes a crossover from this spectrum to a Poisson spectrum. The formalism is applied to the transitions towards Poisson from random matrix theory (RMT) spectra and picket fence spectra. It is shown that the Fredholm determinant formalism of RMT extends naturally to describe incomplete RMT spectra.

Bohigas, O

2006-01-01

171

Matrix-M(TM) Adjuvant Induces Local Recruitment, Activation and Maturation of Central Immune Cells in Absence of Antigen  

Science.gov (United States)

Saponin-based adjuvants are widely used to enhance humoral and cellular immune responses towards vaccine antigens, although it is not yet completely known how they mediate their stimulatory effects. The aim of this study was to elucidate the mechanism of action of adjuvant Matrix-M™ without antigen and Alum was used as reference adjuvant. Adjuvant Matrix-M™ is comprised of 40 nm nanoparticles composed of Quillaja saponins, cholesterol and phospholipid. BALB/c mice were subcutaneously injected once with, 3, 12 or 30 µg of Matrix-M™, resulting in recruitment of leukocytes to draining lymph nodes (dLNs) and spleen 48 h post treatment. Flow cytometry analysis identified CD11b+ Gr-1high granulocytes as the cell population increasing most in dLNs and spleen. Additionally, dendritic cells, F4/80int cells, T-, B- and NK-cells were recruited to dLNs and in spleen the number of F4/80int cells, and to some extent, B cells and dendritic cells, increased. Elevated levels of early activation marker CD69 were detected on T-, B- and NK-cells, CD11b+ Gr-1high cells, F4/80int cells and dendritic cells in dLNs. In spleen CD69 was mainly up-regulated on NK cells. B cells and dendritic cells in dLNs and spleen showed an increased expression of the co-stimulatory molecule CD86 and dendritic cells in dLNs expressed elevated levels of MHC class II. The high-dose (30 µg) of Matrix-M™ induced detectable serum levels of IL-6 and MIP-1? 4 h post administration, most likely representing spillover of locally produced cytokines. A lesser increase of IL-6 in serum after administration of 12 µg Matrix-M™ was also observed. In conclusion, early immunostimulatory properties were demonstrated by Matrix-M™ alone, as therapeutic doses resulted in a local transient immune response with recruitment and activation of central immune cells to dLNs. These effects may play a role in enhancing uptake and presentation of vaccine antigens to elicit a competent immune response.

Reimer, Jenny M.; Karlsson, Karin H.; Lovgren-Bengtsson, Karin; Magnusson, Sofia E.; Fuentes, Alexis; Stertman, Linda

2012-01-01

172

Matrix-M™ adjuvant induces local recruitment, activation and maturation of central immune cells in absence of antigen.  

Science.gov (United States)

Saponin-based adjuvants are widely used to enhance humoral and cellular immune responses towards vaccine antigens, although it is not yet completely known how they mediate their stimulatory effects. The aim of this study was to elucidate the mechanism of action of adjuvant Matrix-M™ without antigen and Alum was used as reference adjuvant. Adjuvant Matrix-M™ is comprised of 40 nm nanoparticles composed of Quillaja saponins, cholesterol and phospholipid. BALB/c mice were subcutaneously injected once with, 3, 12 or 30 µg of Matrix-M™, resulting in recruitment of leukocytes to draining lymph nodes (dLNs) and spleen 48 h post treatment. Flow cytometry analysis identified CD11b(+) Gr-1(high) granulocytes as the cell population increasing most in dLNs and spleen. Additionally, dendritic cells, F4/80(int) cells, T-, B- and NK-cells were recruited to dLNs and in spleen the number of F4/80(int) cells, and to some extent, B cells and dendritic cells, increased. Elevated levels of early activation marker CD69 were detected on T-, B- and NK-cells, CD11b(+) Gr-1(high) cells, F4/80(int) cells and dendritic cells in dLNs. In spleen CD69 was mainly up-regulated on NK cells. B cells and dendritic cells in dLNs and spleen showed an increased expression of the co-stimulatory molecule CD86 and dendritic cells in dLNs expressed elevated levels of MHC class II. The high-dose (30 µg) of Matrix-M™ induced detectable serum levels of IL-6 and MIP-1? 4 h post administration, most likely representing spillover of locally produced cytokines. A lesser increase of IL-6 in serum after administration of 12 µg Matrix-M™ was also observed. In conclusion, early immunostimulatory properties were demonstrated by Matrix-M™ alone, as therapeutic doses resulted in a local transient immune response with recruitment and activation of central immune cells to dLNs. These effects may play a role in enhancing uptake and presentation of vaccine antigens to elicit a competent immune response. PMID:22844480

Reimer, Jenny M; Karlsson, Karin H; Lövgren-Bengtsson, Karin; Magnusson, Sofia E; Fuentes, Alexis; Stertman, Linda

2012-01-01

173

Respiratory sensitizer hexamethylene diisocyanate inhibits SOD 1 and induces ERK-dependent detoxifying and maturation pathways in dendritic-like cells.  

Science.gov (United States)

Respiratory allergy to low-molecular-weight chemicals is a current concern in the context of occupational health, and a certified method to identify respiratory allergens is still under investigation. The aim of this work was to unveil some of the poorly understood initial molecular events and toxicity pathways underlying respiratory sensitization, which might be crucial to disclosing the key building blocks of new testing strategies and may contribute to the development of a valid in vitro method for the identification of respiratory allergens. Immortalized human dendritic cell (DC)-like THP-1 cells were exposed to the respiratory allergen hexamethylene diisocyanate (HDI) for 6h, and the activation of several signaling pathways was analyzed. Mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP) alterations, superoxide anion (O2(-)) production, and gene expression modulation in HDI-treated cells were also evaluated. According to our results, HDI induces O2(-) increase (P cell; and CD83 (P cells exposed to a respiratory allergen, such as cell detoxification, migration, and maturation. PMID:24742817

Silva, Ana; Nunes, Carla; Martins, João; Dinis, Teresa C P; Lopes, Celeste; Neves, Bruno; Cruz, Teresa

2014-07-01

174

Primary and secondary sexual characters in alternative reproductive tactics of Chinook salmon: Associations with androgens and the maturation-inducing steroid  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

The proximate mechanisms that underlie the evolution of within-sex variation in mating behavior, sexual characters and reproductive investment patterns are still poorly understood. Species exhibiting alternative reproductive tactics (ARTs) are ideal model systems to examine these mechanisms. Chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) exhibits two distinct ARTs: hooknoses, which are large males that establish spawning dominance hierarchies via intense maleâ??male competition and jacks, which are smaller precocious sneaking males that steal fertilizations via sperm competition. In this study, we examine plasma testosterone (T), 11-ketotestosterone (11-KT) and maturation-inducing steroid (MIS; 17α,20β-dihydroxy-4-pregnen-3-one) profiles of spawning hooknoses and jacks. Furthermore, we examine relationships between androgens and primary (gonad mass, gonadosomatic index and sperm traits) and secondary (total mass, body size, hump depth and kype length) sexual characters. Relationships between MIS and sperm traits arealso examined. We found that hooknoses and jacks did not significantly differ in terms of plasma T, 11-KT or MIS concentrations. Moreover, we found significant positive relationships between levels of both androgens within each ART. There were no significant relationships between androgens, MIS and sperm traits. T and 11-KT concentrations co-varied positively with gonad investment and kype length in jacks. In hooknoses, 11-KT concentration was positively related to total mass, hump depth and condition factor. Overall, these findings suggest that there are differential androgen effects for each of the ARTs in Chinook salmon.

Butts, Ian A.E.; Love, Oliver P.

2012-01-01

175

Incomplete Laplace integrals - uniform asymptotic expansion with application to the incomplete beta function  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The analytical approach of Temme (1983 and 1985), based on uniform asymptotic expansions, is extended to an additional class of incomplete Laplace integrals. The terminology is introduced; the construction of the formal series is explained; representations for the remainders are derived; the asymptotic nature of the expansions is explored; and error bounds are determined. Numerical results are presented for the case of the incomplete beta function. 14 references.

Temme, N.M.

1987-11-01

176

Sensor Robot Planning in Incomplete Environment  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Aiming at the former formalized methods of robot planning should give the environment state, can not obtain the new knowledge of the environment. In order to improve the reason ability for obtaining new knowledge of the environment state, the actions in the process of planning such as external action and sensing action are formalized. A formalized reasoning method—CPNI (Colored Petri Net for Planning in incomplete environment based on two kinds of actions is proposed, and the reasoning rule as Fluent Calculus in incomplete environment is applied. Robot planning experiment is modeled and simulated by using the tool CPNTools and the result shows the state knowledge of the door and the action sequence to reach the goal can be generated automatically in the CPNI net system.

Yufeng Yao

2011-03-01

177

UNILATERAL INCOMPLETE SUPERFICIAL PALMAR ARCH VARIATION  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In this case report, we want to present a truly incomplete superficial palmar arch on right side which is not completed by any of the branches of radial or median artery. On the left side of the same individual, the SPA is classical, completed by superficial branch of radial artery. The areria nervi mediana is not participating in arch formation on both the sides. Four palmar digital branches: digital branch to medial side of little finger and three common palmar digital arteries to the adjacent sides of medial four digits are seen arising from incomplete palmar arch. Awareness of the variation among the individual patient’s both hands need to be well thought-out during hand surgeries.

Rejeena P Raj, Anju Balaji More* and Kunjumon PC

2014-01-01

178

Advanced incomplete factorization algorithms for Stiltijes matrices  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The modern numerical methods for solving the linear algebraic systems Au = f with high order sparse matrices A, which arise in grid approximations of multidimensional boundary value problems, are based mainly on accelerated iterative processes with easily invertible preconditioning matrices presented in the form of approximate (incomplete) factorization of the original matrix A. We consider some recent algorithmic approaches, theoretical foundations, experimental data and open questions for incomplete factorization of Stiltijes matrices which are {open_quotes}the best{close_quotes} ones in the sense that they have the most advanced results. Special attention is given to solving the elliptic differential equations with strongly variable coefficients, singular perturbated diffusion-convection and parabolic equations.

Il`in, V.P. [Siberian Division RAS, Novosibirsk (Russian Federation)

1996-12-31

179

Maturity and maturity models in lean construction  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In recent years there has been an increasing interest in maturity models in management-related disciplines; which reflects a growing recognition that becoming more mature and having a model to guide the route to maturity can help organisations in managing major transformational change. Lean Construction (LC is an increasingly important improvement approach that organisations seek to embed. This study explores how to apply the maturity models to LC. Hence the attitudes, opinions and experiences of key industry informants with high levels of knowledge of LC were investigated. To achieve this, a review of maturity models was conducted, and data for the analysis was collected through a sequential process involving three methods. First a group interview with seven key informants. Second a follow up discussion with the same individuals to investigate some of the issues raised in more depth. Third an online discussion held via LinkedIn in which members shared their views on some of the results. Overall, we found that there is a lack of common understanding as to what maturity means in LC, though there is general agreement that the concept of maturity is a suitable one to reflect the path of evolution for LC within organisations.

Claus Nesensohn

2014-03-01

180

Past incompleteness of a bouncing multiverse  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

According to classical GR, Anti-de Sitter (AdS) bubbles in the multiverse terminate in big crunch singularities. It has been conjectured, however, that the fundamental theory may resolve these singularities and replace them by nonsingular bounces. This may have important implications for the beginning of the multiverse. Geodesics in cosmological spacetimes are known to be past-incomplete, as long as the average expansion rate along the geodesic is positive, but it is not cle...

Vilenkin, Alexander; Zhang, Jun

2014-01-01

 
 
 
 
181

Sensor Robot Planning in Incomplete Environment  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Aiming at the former formalized methods of robot planning should give the environment state, can not obtain the new knowledge of the environment. In order to improve the reason ability for obtaining new knowledge of the environment state, the actions in the process of planning such as external action and sensing action are formalized. A formalized reasoning method—CPNI (Colored Petri Net for Planning in incomplete environment) based on two kinds of actions is proposed, and the reasoning rul...

Shan Zhong; Zhihua Yin; Xudong Yin; Yufeng Yao

2011-01-01

182

Endogenous Trading Constraints with Incomplete Asset Markets  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This paper endogenizes the borrowing constraints on capital in a production economy with incomplete markets. We find that these limits get looser with income, a property that is consistent with US data on credit limits. The framework with endogenous limits is then used to study the effects of a revenue neutral tax reform that eliminates capital income taxes. Our results illustrate that it is very important to take into account the effects of tax policies on the limits. Throughout the transiti...

Abraham, Arpad; Carceles-poveda, Eva

2010-01-01

183

Some examples of incomplete space-times  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

An example is given of a space-time which is timelike and spacelike complete but null incomplete. An example is also given of a space-time which is geodesically complete but contains an inextendible timelike curve of bounded acceleration and finite length. These two examples may be modified so that in each case they become globally hyperbolic and retain the stated properties. All of the examples are conformally equivalent to open subsets of the two-dimensional Minkowski space. (author)

1976-01-01

184

Capital income taxation when markets are incomplete  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

In this paper we investigate the welfare effects of capital income taxation in a standard one commodity general equilibrium model with incomplete markets (GEI) and production. We consider a competitive economy of two periods with uncertainty over a finite number S of possible states of nature revealed in the second period. One perishable commodity is traded on (S + 1) spot markets, there are 1 1 of consumer types. Secur...

2000-01-01

185

Theory of demand in incomplete markets  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

We develop the theory of demand for commodities and assets facing incompletely insurable uncertainty. First, a Slutsky matrix decomposes into substitution and income effects the derivative of demand with respect to prices and yield structure. Next, we identify the Slutsky matrix’s properties. The Slutsky matrix can be perturbed arbitrarily, subject only to preserving these properties, by perturbing the underlying utility’s Hessian, while fixing point demand and marginal utility. The key r...

Turner, Sergio

2005-01-01

186

Quantum Mechanics: Incomplete and Non Local Theory  

CERN Document Server

We will show for undergraduate and graduate students of physics that Quantum Mechanics is an incomplete and non-local theory. The problem of non-locality is discussed by analyzing the Bell's theorem where are considered correlations between measurements results performed on physical systems that are far apart, but that interacted in the past. The experimental violations of Bell's theorem show a very general result thatquantum phenomena are nonlocal and that, inevitably, Quantum Mechanics is non-local.

Cattani, M

2011-01-01

187

[Incomplete penile amputation: diagnostic and therapeutic challenge].  

Science.gov (United States)

Traumatic penile amputation is a severe injury associated with a potential for multidisciplinary dysfunction. Since such injuries are rare, diagnostic and therapeutic experience is minimal. While complete penile amputation is a straight-forward diagnosis, incomplete amputations are not as evident and diagnosis may be delayed. The therapeutic endpoint includes restoration of an acceptable appearance of the phallus and a urethral meatus that allows normal voiding. Other objectives include re-establishment of sexual potency and fertility. As in other amputations, the treatment of choice is meticulous microsurgical replantation, including re-anastomosis of dorsal and cavernosal arteries, the deep dorsal vein, the urethra and nerves, as well as suturing the tunica albuginea. While appropriate cosmetic results and normal voiding can be achieved in most cases, potency is less frequently achieved due to neurological deficit leading to impaired erection and loss of sensation. Penile amputation is thus a complex therapeutic challenge, as meticulous anatomic reconstruction of blood vessels and nerves is essential for restoration of function. Since incomplete penile amputation may be overlooked when other more obvious injuries draw attention, this injury should be suspected in all cases of penetrating injury of the male genitalia. We present a 17-year-old man who sustained an incomplete penile amputation in a traffic accident. PMID:9451890

Leibovici, D; Yaffe, B; Zisman, A

1997-12-01

188

Dynamic Network Formation with Incomplete Information  

CERN Document Server

How do networks form and what is their ultimate topology? Most of the literature that addresses these questions assumes complete information: agents know in advance the value of linking to other agents, even with agents they have never met and with whom they have had no previous interaction (direct or indirect). This paper addresses the same questions under what seems to us to be the much more natural assumption of incomplete information: agents do not know in advance -- but must learn -- the value of linking to agents they have never met. We show that the assumption of incomplete information has profound implications for the process of network formation and the topology of networks that ultimately form. Under complete information, the networks that form and are stable typically have a star, wheel or core-periphery form, with high-value agents in the core. Under incomplete information, the presence of positive externalities (the value of indirect links) implies that a much wider collection of network topologi...

Song, Yangbo

2013-01-01

189

Comparison of bioactive compounds content, free radical scavenging and anti-acne inducing bacteria activities of extracts from the mangosteen fruit rind at two stages of maturity.  

Science.gov (United States)

Contents of bioactive components, free radical scavenging and anti-acne producing bacteria activities of young and mature fruit rind extracts of mangosteen were compared. The young fruit rind extract contained significantly higher contents of phenolics and tannins and promoted higher free radical scavenging activity than the mature fruit rind extract, while the later extract contained higher contents of flavonoids and alpha-mangostin xanthone and gave higher anti-acne producing bacteria activity than the young fruit rind extract. Thus, the young and mature stages of mangosteen fruit rind should be beneficial for further development of antioxidant and anti-acne pharmaceutical preparations, respectively. PMID:19524646

Pothitirat, Werayut; Chomnawang, Mullika Traidej; Supabphol, Roongtawan; Gritsanapan, Wandee

2009-10-01

190

Coordinated Development of Voltage-Gated Na+ and K+ Currents Regulates Functional Maturation of Forebrain Neurons Derived from Human Induced Pluripotent Stem Cells  

Science.gov (United States)

Like embryonic stem (ES) cells, human induced pluripotent stem (hiPS) cells can differentiate into neuronal cells. However, it is unclear how their exquisite neuronal function is electrophysiologically coordinated during differentiation and whether they are functionally identical to human ES cell-derived neurons. In this study, we differentiated hiPS and ES cells into pyramidal-like neurons and conducted electrophysiological characterization over the 4-week terminal differentiation period. The human neuron-like cells express forebrain pyramidal cell markers NeuN, neurofilament, the microtubule-associated protein 2 (MAP2), the paired box protein Pax-6 (PAX6), Tuj1, and the forkhead box protein G1 (FoxG1). The size of developing neurons increased continuously during the 4-week culture, and cell-resting membrane potentials (RMPs) underwent a negative shift from ?40 to ?70?mV. Expression of the muscarinic receptor-modulated K+ currents (IM) participated in the development of cell RMPs and controlled excitability. Immature neurons at week 1 could only fire abortive action potentials (APs) and the frequency of AP firing progressively increased with neuronal maturation. Interestingly, the developmental change of voltage-gated Na+ current (INa) did not correlate with the change in the AP firing frequency. On the other hand, the transient outward K+ current (IA), but not the delayed rectifier current (IK) contributed to the high frequency firing of APs. Synaptic activities were observed throughout the 4-week development. These morphological and electrophysiological features were almost identical between iPS and ES cell-derived neurons. This is the first systematic investigation showing functional evidence that hiPS cell-derived neurons possess similar neuronal activities as ES cell-derived neurons. These data support that iPS cell-derived neural progenitor cells have the potential for replacing lost neurons in cell-based therapy.

Song, Mingke; Mohamad, Osama; Chen, Dongdong

2013-01-01

191

Postsynaptic Neuroligin1 regulates presynaptic maturation.  

Science.gov (United States)

Presynaptic nerve terminals pass through distinct stages of maturation after their initial assembly. Here we show that the postsynaptic cell adhesion molecule Neuroligin1 regulates key steps of presynaptic maturation. Presynaptic terminals from Neuroligin1-knockout mice remain structurally and functionally immature with respect to active zone stability and synaptic vesicle pool size, as analyzed in cultured hippocampal neurons. Conversely, overexpression of Neuroligin1 in immature neurons, that is within the first 5 days after plating, induced the formation of presynaptic boutons that had hallmarks of mature boutons. In particular, Neuroligin1 enhanced the size of the pool of recycling synaptic vesicles, the rate of synaptic vesicle exocytosis, the fraction of boutons responding to depolarization, as well as the responsiveness of the presynaptic release machinery to phorbol ester stimulation. Moreover, Neuroligin1 induced the formation of active zones that remained stable in the absence of F-actin, another hallmark of advanced maturation. Acquisition of F-actin independence of the active zone marker Bassoon during culture development or induced via overexpression of Neuroligin1 was activity-dependent. The extracellular domain of Neuroligin1 was sufficient to induce assembly of functional presynaptic terminals, while the intracellular domain was required for terminal maturation. These data show that induction of presynaptic terminal assembly and maturation involve mechanistically distinct actions of Neuroligins, and that Neuroligin1 is essential for presynaptic terminal maturation. PMID:19628693

Wittenmayer, Nina; Körber, Christoph; Liu, Huisheng; Kremer, Thomas; Varoqueaux, Frederique; Chapman, Edwin R; Brose, Nils; Kuner, Thomas; Dresbach, Thomas

2009-08-11

192

Estimate of true incomplete exchanges using fluorescence in situ hybridization with telomere probes  

Science.gov (United States)

PURPOSE: To study the frequency of true incomplete exchanges in radiation-induced chromosome aberrations. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Human lymphocytes were exposed to 2 Gy and 5 Gy of gamma-rays. Chromosome aberrations were studied using the fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) technique with whole chromosome-specific probes, together with human telomere probes. Chromosomes 2 and 4 were chosen in the present study. RESULTS: The percentage of incomplete exchanges was 27% when telomere signals were not considered. After excluding false incomplete exchanges identified by the telomere signals, the percentage of incomplete exchanges decreased to 11%. Since telomere signals appear on about 82% of the telomeres, the percentage of true incomplete exchanges should be even lower and was estimated to be 3%. This percentage was similar for chromosomes 2 and 4 and for doses of both 2 Gy and 5 Gy. CONCLUSIONS: The percentage of true incomplete exchanges is significantly lower in gamma-irradiated human lymphocytes than the frequencies reported in the literature.

Wu, H.; George, K.; Yang, T. C.

1998-01-01

193

16 CFR 1061.11 - Incomplete or insufficient applications.  

Science.gov (United States)

...false Incomplete or insufficient applications. 1061.11 Section 1061.11 Commercial Practices CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY...GENERAL APPLICATIONS FOR EXEMPTION FROM PREEMPTION § 1061.11 Incomplete or insufficient...

2010-01-01

194

Generalizations of incomplete elliptic integrals of first and second kinds  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In this paper, we obtain analytical solutions of incomplete elliptic integrals of first and second kinds. Further, we generalize these incomplete elliptic integrals in the forms of multiple series identities involving bounded multiple sequences.

M. I. Qureshi

2012-12-01

195

Extensive Generalization of Statistical Mechanics Based on Incomplete Information Theory  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Statistical mechanics is generalized on the basis of an additive information theory for incomplete probability distributions. The incomplete normalization is used to obtain generalized entropy . The concomitant incomplete statistical mechanics is applied to some physical systems in order to show the effect of the incompleteness of information. It is shown that this extensive generalized statistics can be useful for the correlated electron systems in weak coupling regime.

Qiuping A. Wang

2003-06-01

196

A new version of an old modal incompleteness theorem  

CERN Document Server

Thomason \\cite{Thomason74} showed that a certain modal logic $\\mathbf{L}\\subset \\mathbf{S4}$ is incomplete with respect to Kripke semantics. Later Gerson \\cite{Gerson75} showed that $\\mathbf{L}$ is also incomplete with respect to neighborhood semantics. In this paper we show that $\\mathbf{L}$ is in fact incomplete with respect to any class of complete Boolean algebras with operators, i.e. that it is completely incomplete.

Vosmaer, Jacob

2012-01-01

197

Influence of a one-neutron-excess projectile on low-energy incomplete fusion  

Science.gov (United States)

Background: Incomplete fusion has been found to be an important contributor in light heavy-ion (A ?20) induced reactions even at slightly above barrier energies. Purpose: For better insight into the dynamics of incomplete fusion, the onset and influence of incomplete fusion need to be investigated in terms of projectile energy (Elab) and entrance channel mass-asymmetry (?A). A rich set of experimental data on incomplete fusion may be useful to correlate the probability of incomplete fusion with the various entrance channel parameters and eventually to develop a theoretical model code for the same. Presently, there is no theoretical model available which can explain low-energy incomplete fusion data consistently. Methods: The excitation functions of complete and incomplete fusion residues populated in the C13+Tm169 system have been measured using the recoil-catcher activation technique followed by offline ? spectroscopy. The evaporation residues have been identified on the basis of characteristic ? lines and confirmed through the decay-curve analysis. Results: The excitation functions of xn and pxn channels are found to be in good agreement with the statistical model code pace4; this suggests the population of these channels via complete fusion. Some residues are found to have a contribution from their higher charge isobar precursor decay. The precursor contribution has been deduced from the cumulative cross section using the standard successive radioactive decay formulations. The excitation functions of ?-emitting channels are observed to be significantly enhanced as compared to the statistical model code pace4. This enhancement may be attributed to the contribution from incomplete fusion. The incomplete fusion strength function for C13+Tm169 is compared with that obtained in the C12+Tm169 system. It has been found that the one-neutron (1n) excess projectile C13 (as compared to C12) results in a less incomplete fusion contribution due to its relatively large negative alpha-Q value. Recently proposed "alpha-Q-value systematics" seems to explain incomplete fusion data.

Sharma, Vijay R.; Yadav, Abhishek; Singh, Pushpendra P.; Singh, Devendra P.; Gupta, Sunita; Sharma, M. K.; Bala, Indu; Kumar, R.; Murlithar, S.; Singh, B. P.; Prasad, R.

2014-02-01

198

Trichinella spiralis antigens prime mixed Th1/Th2 response but do not induce de novo generation of Foxp3+ T cells in vitro  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Many parasitic helminth infections induce Th2-type immune responses and engage the regulatory network. In this study, we specifically investigated the influence of antigens derived from different life stages of the helminth Trichinella spiralis on the polarization of naive CD4+ T cells by dendritic cells. Results obtained from C57BL/6 mice showed that T. spiralis derived antigens have the capacity to induce bone marrow-derived dendritic cells to acquire an incompletely mature phenotype that p...

Ilic, N.; Worthington, J. J.; Gruden-movsesijan, A.; Travis, M. A.; Sofronic-milosavljevic, L.; Grencis, R. K.

2011-01-01

199

Time, Incompleteness and Singularity in Quantum Cosmology  

CERN Document Server

In this paper we extend our 2007 paper, Comparative Quantum Cosmology: Causality, Singularity, and Boundary Conditions, arXiv:0710.5046 to include consideration of universal expansion, various implications of extendibility and incompleteness in spacetime metrics and, absent the treatment of Feynman diagrams, the use of Penning trap dynamics as explained by Ferdandez and Velazquez to describe the Hamiltonians of space-times with no characteristic upper or lower bound and to compare the above with Peter Lynds' conjecture on the specialness of initial conditions in inflationary theory in quantum cosmology.

Fellman, Philip V; Carmichael, Christine; Manus, Alexandru; Attig, Dawna Lee

2009-01-01

200

Stochastic optimization problems under incomplete information  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Many problems related with reliability and inventory control and its applications lead to optimization of functionals depending on some probability function F(x), which is not completely known. The information about F(x) is restricted to the knowledge of some of its initial moments only. In the present work a short survey of some known results on optimal problems for technical maintenance is given as well as a brief review of the author`s and other results on optimal control of unreliable process. Some problems of the Warranty analysis and stochastic inventory models with incomplete demand information are given.

Dimitrov, B.; Green, D. Jr.

1994-12-31

 
 
 
 
201

Entropy, heat, and G\\"odel incompleteness  

CERN Multimedia

Irreversible phenomena, such as the production of entropy and heat, arise from fundamental reversible dynamics because the forward dynamics is too complex, in the sense that it becomes impossible to provide the necessary information to keep track of the dynamics. On a heuristic level, this is well captured by coarse graining. We suggest that on a fundamental level the impossibility to provide the necessary information might be related to the incompleteness results of G\\"odel. This would hold interesting implications for both, mathematics and physics.

Schlesinger, Karl-Georg

2014-01-01

202

Goedel incompleteness theorems and the limits of their applicability. I  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This is a survey of results related to the Goedel incompleteness theorems and the limits of their applicability. The first part of the paper discusses Goedel's own formulations along with modern strengthenings of the first incompleteness theorem. Various forms and proofs of this theorem are compared. Incompleteness results related to algorithmic problems and mathematically natural examples of unprovable statements are discussed. Bibliography: 68 titles.

2011-01-25

203

Robust pulmonary lobe segmentation against incomplete fissures  

Science.gov (United States)

As important anatomical landmarks of the human lung, accurate lobe segmentation may be useful for characterizing specific lung diseases (e.g., inflammatory, granulomatous, and neoplastic diseases). A number of investigations showed that pulmonary fissures were often incomplete in image depiction, thereby leading to the computerized identification of individual lobes a challenging task. Our purpose is to develop a fully automated algorithm for accurate identification of individual lobes regardless of the integrity of pulmonary fissures. The underlying idea of the developed lobe segmentation scheme is to use piecewise planes to approximate the detected fissures. After a rotation and a global smoothing, a number of small planes were fitted using local fissures points. The local surfaces are finally combined for lobe segmentation using a quadratic B-spline weighting strategy to assure that the segmentation is smooth. The performance of the developed scheme was assessed by comparing with a manually created reference standard on a dataset of 30 lung CT examinations. These examinations covered a number of lung diseases and were selected from a large chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) dataset. The results indicate that our scheme of lobe segmentation is efficient and accurate against incomplete fissures.

Gu, Suicheng; Zheng, Qingfeng; Siegfried, Jill; Pu, Jiantao

2012-02-01

204

An immunomodulatory protein, Ling Zhi-8, induced activation and maturation of human monocyte-derived dendritic cells by the NF-kappaB and MAPK pathways.  

Science.gov (United States)

Ganoderma lucidum, an oriental medicinal mushroom, has been widely used in Asia to promote health and longevity. LZ-8 is a protein derived from the fungus G. lucidum and has immunomodulatory capacities. In this study, we investigated the immune modulatory effects of rLZ-8 on human monocyte-derived DCs. Treatment of DC with rLZ-8 resulted in the enhanced cell-surface expression of CD80, CD86, CD83, and HLA-DR, as well as the enhanced production of IL-12 p40, IL-10, and IL-23, and the capacity for endocytosis was suppressed in DCs. In addition, treatment of DCs with rLZ-8 resulted in an enhanced, naïve T cell-stimulatory capacity and increased, naïve T cell secretion of IFN-gamma and IL-10. Neutralization with antibodies against TLR4 inhibited the rLZ-8-induced production of IL-12 p40 and IL-10 in DCs. rLZ-8 can stimulate TLR4 or TLR4/MD2-transfected HEK293 cells to produce IL-8. These results suggested an important role for TLR4 in signaling DCs upon incubation with rLZ-8. Further study showed that rLZ-8 was able to augment IKK, NF-kappaB activity, and also IkappaBalpha and MAPK phosphorylation. Further, inhibition of NF-kappaB by helenalin prevented the effects of rLZ-8 in the expression of CD80, CD86, CD83, and HLA-DR and production of IL-12 p40 and IL-10 in various degrees. To confirm the in vitro data, we investigated the effect of rLZ-8 further on antigen-specific antibody and cytokine production in BALB/c mice. Immunization with OVA/rLZ-8 showed that the anti-OVA IgG2a, IFN-gamma, and IL-2 were increased significantly compared with OVA alone in BALB/c mice. In conclusion, our experiments demonstrated that rLZ-8 can effectively promote the activation and maturation of immature DCs, preferring a Th1 response, suggesting that rLZ-8 may possess a potential effect in regulating immune responses. PMID:19498044

Lin, Yu-Li; Liang, Yu-Chih; Tseng, Yu-Shan; Huang, Hsin-Yi; Chou, Shu-Yu; Hseu, Ruey-Shyang; Huang, Ching-Tsan; Chiang, Bor-Luen

2009-10-01

205

Incomplete Brillouin-zone spectra and controlled Bragg reflection with ionic-type photonic lattices  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

We demonstrate ionic-type photonic lattices consisting of alternating positive and negative lattice potentials akin to those of ionic crystals in solids. A modified geometrical structure factor is developed for describing Bragg scattering in these non-Bravais photonic lattices. We show that lattice reconfiguration leads to incomplete Brillouin zone spectra due to selective band-gap closures. Experimentally, incomplete Brillouin zone spectra and associated Bragg-reflection suppression are observed in such ionic-type lattices optically induced in a bulk nonlinear crystal. Our experimental results agree well with our theoretical analysis.

2010-04-01

206

Enhanced photoabsorption efficiency of incomplete nanoshells.  

Science.gov (United States)

The rather low scattering or extinction efficiency of small nanoparticles, metallic and otherwise, is significantly enhanced when they are adsorbed on a larger core particle. But the photoabsorption by particles with varying surface area fractions on a larger core particle is found to be limited by saturation. It is found that the core-shell particle can have a lower absorption efficiency than a dielectric core with its surface partially nucleated with absorbing particles-an "incomplete nanoshell" particle. We have both numerically and experimentally studied the optical efficiencies of titania (TiO2) nucleated in various degrees on silica (SiO2) nanospheres. We show that optimal surface nucleation over cores of appropriate sizes and optical properties will have a direct impact on the applications exploiting the absorption and scattering properties of such composite particles. PMID:23988933

Venkatapathi, Murugesan; Dastidar, Sudipta G; Bharath, P; Roy, Arindam; Ghosh, Anupam

2013-09-01

207

A Regulatory Network for Coordinated Flower Maturation  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

For self-pollinating plants to reproduce, male and female organ development must be coordinated as flowers mature. The Arabidopsis transcription factors AUXIN RESPONSE FACTOR 6 (ARF6) and ARF8 regulate this complex process by promoting petal expansion, stamen filament elongation, anther dehiscence, and gynoecium maturation, thereby ensuring that pollen released from the anthers is deposited on the stigma of a receptive gynoecium. ARF6 and ARF8 induce jasmonate production, which in turn trigge...

2012-01-01

208

Regulatory perspective on incomplete control rod insertions  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The incomplete control rod insertions experienced at South Texas Unit 1 and Wolf Creek are of safety concern to the NRC staff because they represent potential precursors to loss of shutdown margin. Even before it was determined if these events were caused by the control rods or by the fuel there was an apparent correlation of the problem with high burnup fuel. It was determined that there was also a correlation between high burnup and high drag forces as well as with rod drop time histories and lack of rod recoil. The NRC staff initial actions were aimed at getting a perspective on the magnitude of the problem as far as the number of plants and the amount of fuel that could be involved, as well as the safety significance in terms of shutdown margin. As tests have been performed and data has been analyzed the focus has shifted more toward understanding the problem and the ways to eliminate it. At this time the staff's understanding of the phenomena is that it was a combination of factors including burnup, power history and temperature. The problem appears to be very sensitive to these factors, the interaction of which is not clearly understood. The model developed by Westinghouse provides a possible explanation but there is not sufficient data to establish confidence levels and sensitivity studies involving the key parameters have not been done. While several fixes to the problem have been discussed, no definitive fixes have been proposed. Without complete understanding of the phenomena, or fixes that clearly eliminate the problem the safety concern remains. The safety significance depends on the amount of shutdown margin lost due to incomplete insertion of the control rods. Were the control rods to stick high in the core, the reactor could not be shutdown by the control rods and other means such as emergency boration would be required

1997-01-01

209

Regulatory perspective on incomplete control rod insertions  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The incomplete control rod insertions experienced at South Texas Unit 1 and Wolf Creek are of safety concern to the NRC staff because they represent potential precursors to loss of shutdown margin. Even before it was determined if these events were caused by the control rods or by the fuel there was an apparent correlation of the problem with high burnup fuel. It was determined that there was also a correlation between high burnup and high drag forces as well as with rod drop time histories and lack of rod recoil. The NRC staff initial actions were aimed at getting a perspective on the magnitude of the problem as far as the number of plants and the amount of fuel that could be involved, as well as the safety significance in terms of shutdown margin. As tests have been performed and data has been analyzed the focus has shifted more toward understanding the problem and the ways to eliminate it. At this time the staff`s understanding of the phenomena is that it was a combination of factors including burnup, power history and temperature. The problem appears to be very sensitive to these factors, the interaction of which is not clearly understood. The model developed by Westinghouse provides a possible explanation but there is not sufficient data to establish confidence levels and sensitivity studies involving the key parameters have not been done. While several fixes to the problem have been discussed, no definitive fixes have been proposed. Without complete understanding of the phenomena, or fixes that clearly eliminate the problem the safety concern remains. The safety significance depends on the amount of shutdown margin lost due to incomplete insertion of the control rods. Were the control rods to stick high in the core, the reactor could not be shutdown by the control rods and other means such as emergency boration would be required.

Chatterton, M.

1997-01-01

210

EMOTIONAL MATURITY AMONG ADOLECENTS  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The present study was conducted to know the Emotional Maturity amongadolescents in relation to some personal background variables. The sample of this studyconsisted of 200 graduates (100 Arts & 100 Science students studying in Dharwad city.Yeshvir Singh and Mahesh Bhargava's Emotional Maturity scale was administered onthem to measure the Emotional Maturity. The data collected was subjected to statisticalanalysis in terms of Mean, SD, and 't' ratio. The findings show that, Science students arehaving significantly high Emotional Maturity than the Arts students. Where as there isno significant difference in Emotional Maturity of Boys and Girl adolescents,adolescents those who are coming from rural and urban area and adolescents those whobelongs to Scheduled Caste, Scheduled Tribes and General merit.

S.G.JADHAV

2013-02-01

211

Organic maturity, hydrous pyrolysis and elastic properties in shales  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This works focuses on organic-rich shales (ORS), their maturity behavior and the geological and mechanical changes involved. The objective of this work is to investigate the mechanical changes in ORS over time and to help in constructing effective rock models. The ORS were treated as composite materials and their mechanical properties were calculated accordingly. Ten rock samples obtained from different locations and depths in the Bakken region were investigated in this work. Some of the samples were later subjected to a synthetic maturing process. Elastic properties were investigated before and after maturing, and FESEM imaging was performed during the course of this work. Results showed that elasticity modulus increased in naturally matured rocks. Moreover, synthetically maturing the samples caused the modulus to increase in already mature samples and to decrease in less mature samples. Finally, FESEM images were used to analyze kerogen texture changes, it was shown that kerogen particles became smaller and isolated in natural or induced maturing.

Zargari, S.; Prasad, M.; Mba, K. C.; Mattson, E. D. [Society of Petroleum Engineers (Canada)

2011-07-01

212

Dengue Hemorrhagic Fever-Associated Immunomediators Induced via Maturation of Dengue Virus Nonstructural 4B Protein in Monocytes Modulate Endothelial Cell Adhesion Molecules and Human Microvascular Endothelial Cells Permeability  

Science.gov (United States)

We previously demonstrated that dengue virus (DENV) nonstructural 4B protein (NS4B) induced dengue hemorrhagic fever (DHF)-associated immunomediators in THP-1 monocytes. Moreover, cleavage of NS4AB polyprotein by the NS2B3 protease, significantly increased immunomediator production to levels found after DENV infection. In this report using primary human microvascular endothelial cells (HMVEC) transwell permeability model and HMVEC monolayer, we demonstrate that the immunomediators secreted in the supernatants of DENV-infected monocytes increase HMVEC permeability and expression of ICAM-1, VCAM-1 and E-selectin. Moreover, maturation of NS4B via cleavage of 2KNS4B is sufficient to induce immunomediators that cause HMVEC phenotypic changes, which appear to be synergistically induced by TNF? and IL-8. These data suggest that therapies targeting the maturation steps of NS4B, particularly 2KNS4B processing, may reduce overall DHF-associated immunomediator levels, thereby reducing DHF-associated morbidity and mortality. Alternatively, TNF? inhibitors may be a valid intervention strategy during the later stages of infection to prevent DHF progression.

Kelley, James F.; Kaufusi, Pakieli H.; Nerurkar, Vivek R.

2012-01-01

213

Plasmodium falciparum-Infected Erythrocytes and beta-Hematin Induce Partial Maturation of Human Dendritic Cells and Increase Their Migratory Ability in Response to Lymphoid Chemokines  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Acute and chronic Plasmodium falciparum infections alter the immune competence of the host possibly through changes in dendritic cell (DC) functionality. DCs are the most potent activators of T cells, and migration is integral to their function. Mature DCs express lymphoid chemokine receptors (CCRs), expression of which enables them to migrate to the lymph nodes, where they encounter naive T cells. The present study aimed to investigate the impact of the synthetic analog to malaria parasite p...

Giusti, Pablo; Urban, Britta C.; Frascaroli, Giada; Albrecht, Letusa; Tinti, Anna; Troye-blomberg, Marita; Varani, Stefania

2011-01-01

214

Mass-asymmetry effects on incomplete fusion fraction  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In the present work, to explore the dynamics of incomplete fusion fraction (%FICF) with mass-asymmetry (AT/(AT+AP)), incomplete fusion fractions of different projectile-target combinations has been studied. The variation of %FICF with the normalized projectile energy is also studied. The percentage fraction of incomplete fusion (%FICF) for the 16O+45Sc and 12C+59Co systems has been calculated

2013-12-01

215

Incomplete resistance to coffee leaf rust (Hemileia vastatrix)  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Incomplete resistance to coffee leaf rust ( Hemileia vastatrix ) may be of value in obtaining durable resistance, which is of great importance for the perennial coffee crop. Methods were developed to assess incomplete resistance to coffee leaf rust by using illustrated scales ranging from 0 to 9 (Chapter 1). A laboratory screening method, which uses leaf disks, has been standardized. The method is satisfactory for the assessment of complete and incomplete resistance (Chapter 2). Resist...

1983-01-01

216

Gibbs' theorem for open systems with incomplete statistics  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Gibbs' theorem, which is originally intended for canonical ensembles with complete statistics has been generalized to open systems with incomplete statistics. As a result of this generalization, it is shown that the stationary equilibrium distribution of inverse power law form associated with the incomplete statistics has maximum entropy even for open systems with energy or matter influx. The renormalized entropy definition given in this paper can also serve as a measure of self-organization in open systems described by incomplete statistics.

2009-10-15

217

Goedel incompleteness theorems and the limits of their applicability. I  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This is a survey of results related to the Goedel incompleteness theorems and the limits of their applicability. The first part of the paper discusses Goedel's own formulations along with modern strengthenings of the first incompleteness theorem. Various forms and proofs of this theorem are compared. Incompleteness results related to algorithmic problems and mathematically natural examples of unprovable statements are discussed. Bibliography: 68 titles.

Beklemishev, Lev D [Steklov Mathematical Institute, Russian Academy of Sciences, Moscow (Russian Federation)

2011-01-25

218

10 CFR 782.7 - Incomplete notice of infringement.  

Science.gov (United States)

...ENERGY CLAIMS FOR PATENT AND COPYRIGHT INFRINGEMENT Requirements and Procedures...7 Incomplete notice of infringement. (a) If a communication alleging patent or copyright infringement is received that...

2010-01-01

219

The Surprise Examination Paradox and the Second Incompleteness Theorem  

CERN Document Server

We give a new proof for Godel's second incompleteness theorem, based on Kolmogorov complexity, Chaitin's incompleteness theorem, and an argument that resembles the surprise examination paradox. We then go the other way around and suggest that the second incompleteness theorem gives a possible resolution of the surprise examination paradox. Roughly speaking, we argue that the flaw in the derivation of the paradox is that it contains a hidden assumption that one can prove the consistency of the mathematical theory in which the derivation is done; which is impossible by the second incompleteness theorem.

Kritchman, Shira

2010-01-01

220

CAREER MATURITY OF ADOLESCENTS IN RELATION TO THEIR EMOTIONAL MATURITY  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The present study attempts to study the relationship between career maturity and emotional maturity of adolescents. It also purports to find out difference between male and female, urban and rural in terms of career maturity and emotional maturity. The simple random sample consists of 240 students selected from twelve schools of Faridabad district. The results revealed a negative relationship between career maturity and emotional maturity. It was also found that male adolescents were better than female adolescents and urban adolescents were better than rural adolescents with regard their career maturity and emotional maturity.

Ms. Rita Saini,

 
 
 
 
221

Robust Localization from Incomplete Local Information  

CERN Multimedia

We consider the problem of localizing wireless devices in an ad-hoc network embedded in a d-dimensional Euclidean space. Obtaining a good estimation of where wireless devices are located is crucial in wireless network applications including environment monitoring, geographic routing and topology control. When the positions of the devices are unknown and only local distance information is given, we need to infer the positions from these local distance measurements. This problem is particularly challenging when we only have access to measurements that have limited accuracy and are incomplete. We consider the extreme case of this limitation on the available information, namely only the connectivity information is available, i.e., we only know whether a pair of nodes is within a fixed detection range of each other or not, and no information is known about how far apart they are. Further, to account for detection failures, we assume that even if a pair of devices is within the detection range, it fails to detect t...

Karbasi, Amin

2011-01-01

222

Three-dimensional reconstruction from incomplete projections  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In some instances, three-dimensional reconstruction must be carried out from projections that do not include projection values for all portions of the object to be reconstructed. This may occur, for example, when the field of view of the detector is limited, or when an opaque foreign body is present within the object. The effects of such incomplete projections upon reconstructions of computer-simulated phantoms were studied, using iterative and convolution methods. Several methods for reducing the resulting antifacts and inaccuracies were investigated. With a limited field of view, when missing projection values were equated to zero a ring of very high reconstruction values was produced, effectively shrinking the region of useful reconstruction. This artifact was eliminated with the convolution method by equating missing projection values to the outermost given projection values. Better reconstructions were obtained with a modified iterative method, in which missing projection values were ignored. Such reconstructions were further improved by applying a priori knowledge of the true outline of the object. Opaque foreign bodies cast many linear shadows across the reconstruction. These were reduced by filling in missing projection values by linear interpolation. Similar results were obtained with the modified iterative method

1976-01-01

223

Incomplete and complete fusion at intermediate energies  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The authors have begun a radiochemical study of the variation of complete and incomplete fusion processes with increasing projectile energy in the reaction of intermediate energy heavy ions with neutron-rich rare earth nuclei. (These nuclei have been selected to minimize fission and to lead to products suitable for detection by radiochemical techniques.) Specifically, the authors have measured the yields, differential range spectra and angular distributions for near and trans-target residues produced in the interaction of 137 MeV (8.6 MeV/nucleon) and 307 MeV (19.1 MeV/nucleon) 16O (at the LBL 88-Inch Cyclotron), 418 MeV (34.8 MeV/nucleon) 12C (at the Michigan State University superconducting cyclotron) and 1032 MeV (86 MeV/nucleon) 12C (at the CERN SC synchrocyclotron) with 150Nd, 154Sm and 176Yb. From these measured distributions, the authors have deduced isobaric yields and invariant velocity spectra

1984-08-01

224

Analyzing Incomplete Discrete Longitudinal Clinical Trial Data  

CERN Document Server

Commonly used methods to analyze incomplete longitudinal clinical trial data include complete case analysis (CC) and last observation carried forward (LOCF). However, such methods rest on strong assumptions, including missing completely at random (MCAR) for CC and unchanging profile after dropout for LOCF. Such assumptions are too strong to generally hold. Over the last decades, a number of full longitudinal data analysis methods have become available, such as the linear mixed model for Gaussian outcomes, that are valid under the much weaker missing at random (MAR) assumption. Such a method is useful, even if the scientific question is in terms of a single time point, for example, the last planned measurement occasion, and it is generally consistent with the intention-to-treat principle. The validity of such a method rests on the use of maximum likelihood, under which the missing data mechanism is ignorable as soon as it is MAR. In this paper, we will focus on non-Gaussian outcomes, such as binary, categorica...

Jansen, I; Molenberghs, G; Verbeke, G; Mallinckrodt, C; Jansen, Ivy; Beunckens, Caroline; Molenberghs, Geert; Verbeke, Geert; Mallinckrodt, Craig

2006-01-01

225

Extending Prolog with Incomplete Fuzzy Information  

CERN Document Server

Incomplete information is a problem in many aspects of actual environments. Furthermore, in many sceneries the knowledge is not represented in a crisp way. It is common to find fuzzy concepts or problems with some level of uncertainty. There are not many practical systems which handle fuzziness and uncertainty and the few examples that we can find are used by a minority. To extend a popular system (which many programmers are using) with the ability of combining crisp and fuzzy knowledge representations seems to be an interesting issue. Our first work (Fuzzy Prolog) was a language that models $\\mathcal{B}([0,1])$-valued Fuzzy Logic. In the Borel algebra, $\\mathcal{B}([0,1])$, truth value is represented using unions of intervals of real numbers. This work was more general in truth value representation and propagation than previous works. An interpreter for this language using Constraint Logic Programming over Real numbers (CLP(${\\cal R}$)) was implemented and is available in the Ciao system. Now, we enhance our...

Munoz-Hernandez, S; Munoz-Hernandez, Susana; Vaucheret, Claudio

2005-01-01

226

Skyline Sets Queries for Incomplete Data  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available With the increase of data volume, advanced query operators, such as skyline queries, are necessary inorder to help users to handle the huge amount of available data by identifying a set of interesting dataobjects. Skyline queries help us to filter unnecessary information efficiently and provide us clues forvarious decision making tasks.Most of the existing skyline algorithms cannot preserve individual’s privacy and are not well suited fordata with outliers and frequently updated data. Considering these issues, earlier we have proposed skylinesets queries from databases where all dimensions are available for all data items and considered anefficient algorithm for computing convex skyline sets. In this paper, we use that idea for skyline sets queriesfor incomplete data and propose a method, namely, RBSSQ. RBSSQ method uses a replacement-basedapproach and is applicable to the databases having any number of missing dimensions in the databaseobjects. We have conducted several experiments in terms of computational cost and found that ourproposed method can efficiently compute skyline sets from data items with missing values.

Mohammad Shamsul Arefin

2012-11-01

227

Incomplete pneumolysin oligomers form membrane pores.  

Science.gov (United States)

Pneumolysin is a member of the cholesterol-dependent cytolysin (CDC) family of pore-forming proteins that are produced as water-soluble monomers or dimers, bind to target membranes and oligomerize into large ring-shaped assemblies comprising approximately 40 subunits and approximately 30 nm across. This pre-pore assembly then refolds to punch a large hole in the lipid bilayer. However, in addition to forming large pores, pneumolysin and other CDCs form smaller lesions characterized by low electrical conductance. Owing to the observation of arc-like (rather than full-ring) oligomers by electron microscopy, it has been hypothesized that smaller oligomers explain smaller functional pores. To investigate whether this is the case, we performed cryo-electron tomography of pneumolysin oligomers on model lipid membranes. We then used sub-tomogram classification and averaging to determine representative membrane-bound low-resolution structures and identified pre-pores versus pores by the presence of membrane within the oligomeric curve. We found pre-pore and pore forms of both complete (ring) and incomplete (arc) oligomers and conclude that arc-shaped oligomeric assemblies of pneumolysin can form pores. As the CDCs are evolutionarily related to the membrane attack complex/perforin family of proteins, which also form variably sized pores, our findings are of relevance to that class of proteins as well. PMID:24759615

Sonnen, Andreas F-P; Plitzko, Jürgen M; Gilbert, Robert J C

2014-01-01

228

MATURATION OF POPCORN SEEDS  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The objective of this study was to analyze the maturation process of the popcorn seeds DFT 2 (selection cycle 2. At approximately 30 days after full blooming, when about 50% of the plants exhibited receptive silks, the first harvest of the seeds was accomplished. The other harvests were accomplished at 7-day intervals until seeds reached approximately 12% moisture content (wet basis, which occurred upon the 10th harvesting. Just after each harvest, the seeds were manually husked, to determine their moisture content and the weight of the dry matter. Also the development of the black layer was visually evaluated. After the last harvesting, the seeds were evaluated for retention on sieves, germination and vigor (modified cold, accelerated aging and electric conductivity tests. The popcorn seeds reach the maximum dry matter weight (mass maturity 68 days after flowering, and the physiological maturity of the seeds (maximum germination and vigor achieves it from 62 to 68 days after blooming. The seeds show humidity in the grade from 17 to 20%, for occasion of the physiological maturity and mass maturity. The black layer is an efficient visual characteristic to identify the physiological maturity of the seeds.

ANDRÉIA MÁRCIA SANTOS DE SOUZA DAVID

2003-12-01

229

A Clinical Study on Management of Incomplete Abortion by Manual Vacuum Aspiration (MVA  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Background: Abortion is an important social and public health issue. In Bangladesh complication from unsafe abortion is one of the leading causes of maternal mortality. It is a serious health problem. World Health Organisation estimates that 14% of maternal deaths which occur every year in the countries of South Asia including Bangladesh are due to abortion. Study shows manual vacuum aspiration procedure is safe and effective in incomplete abortion. Very few clinical trials were carried out in Bangladesh to assess the safety and effectivity of manual vacuum aspiration in managing incomplete abortion. Objective: To find out the outcome of manual vacuum aspiration in the management of patients of incomplete abortion. Materials and Methods: This observational descriptive study was conducted in the department of Obstetrics & Gynaecology, Dhaka Medical College & Hospital from June to December, 2004. One hundred cases of diagnosed incomplete abortion up to 12 weeks of gestation were managed by manual vacuum aspiration during this period. A data recording sheet was designed for this purpose. Haemodynamically stable patients with no history of induced abortion and fever were enrolled. Results: Procedure time of manual vacuum aspiration was short, average duration was 7 minutes. Bleeding was minimum (20-30 mL in 67% cases and weighted mean was 29.80 mL. Eighty three percent patients were stable during the procedure and only 3% needed blood transfusion. Nonnarcotic analgesics were used in 59% cases and 33% needed only proper counselling. Average duration of hospital stay was 2 hours. Effectiveness of the procedure was about 98% with very low post procedure complication rate (2%. Conclusion: MVA procedure is a safe and effective technique of uterine evacuation in incomplete abortion. It is quick, less expensive, effective and less painful. Hospital stay and chance of perforation of uterus is less. So this procedure should be considered by health care system in Bangladesh for improving treatment of incomplete abortion to reduce both maternal morbidity and mortality.

Arifa Akter Jahan

2012-07-01

230

Does the Incomplete Information Matter with Export Quotas?  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This study investigates whether or not incomplete information matters when the government adopts the export quotas in intervening in the oligopolistic export markets. Incomplete information the government has is about the unit-production cost of the domestic firm. It is shown first that quotas optimal under full information (full-information policy result in Stackelberg outcome, the best outcome in a non-cooperative setting from the domestic firm`s point of view. When the full-information policy is implemented in the presence of incomplete information, it is found that no cost-type has an incentive to misrepresent itself as the other type. This means that full-information outcome will be achieved with incomplete information. Hence, incomplete information does not matter in the case of export quotas. This result, however, does not carry over to the case of more than one domestic firm.

Mehmet Yazici

2006-01-01

231

Effectiveness of Incomplete Myocardial Revascularization in Chronic Coronary Occlusions  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The aim of the investigation was to assess the effectiveness of incomplete and complete myocardial revascularization in patients with multivessel disease of coronary circulation combined with chronic total occlusion (CTO localized in the right or left coronary artery.Material and methods. There were analyzed the results of interventions in 80 patients (60 male (75% and 20 female (25% aged 37–76 years (mean age 53.9±2.8 years with CTO. Incomplete revascularization was performed in 40 patients, complete revascularization — in 40 cases. Echocardiography findings of left ventricular function were compared in both groups before and after incomplete and complete endovascular revascularization.Results. Twelve months after incomplete and complete revascularization there was found significant improvement or normalization of left ventricular myocardial function in both groups compared to basic data. The results of incomplete myocardial revascularization one year after the intervention turned out to be as effective as those after CTO recanalization.

E.B. Shakhov

2012-12-01

232

Radiation Processes in an Incompletely Ionized Plasma  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The first part of the paper gives a simple analytical treatment of radiation transfer (line and recombination) in a plasma, assuming full frequency redistribution. A study is made of the effect of the type of kernel of the integral transport equation on the nature of its solutions and the corresponding physical characteristics of the main types of radiation transfer, true diffusion, ''trapping'' and free escape. Some approximate methods of solving the transport equation are analysed, and results are established which do not depend on the type of kernel. The difference between capture and true diffusion, which is known to amount to the difference in the relationship between photon escape time and the dimensions of the system, can also be formulated as the difference between two characteristic lengths, the diffusion length and the quenching length. The difference between diffusion and capture is marked only if there is strong non-equilibrium, and then it appears principally in the intermediate region of optical thicknesses corresponding to the ''pure scattering'' case. However, use of the photon escape time as a kind of phenomenological characteristic means that in this region, too, an approximate solution can be written in the ''invariant'' form. Radiation losses in the final volume of a non-equilibrium plasma are considered, and a relationship is derived between the optical thickness and the degree of non-equilibrium which delineates the regions of volume and surface emission. The range of applicability of the treatment in question is discussed in the light of recent works on related aspects of radiation transfer theory. The second part analyses the quasi-static (Holtzmark) approximation in the theory of Stark broadening' of spectral lines. The limits within which this approximation can be applied are discussed; these limits are imposed by dynamic effects caused both by thermal motion of the perturbing particles themselves and by some external quenching. The treatment is based on a more general approach which reveals the real range of applicability of the frequently used binary approach, and also yields a critical analysis of certain semi-intuitive, evident criteria for the quasi-static state which appear in the literature. Two types of criteria for the quasi-static state, ''modulation'' and ''quenching'', are compared. Some new relationships describing the influence of the dynamic effects mentioned above are given. The third part contains short reviews of a number of contemporary trends in the development of the theory of such phenomena as radiation processes in an incompletely ionized plasma, broadening of lines, radiation transfer, relaxation in multi-level systems, emission in a continuum, fluctuating microfields and certain thermodynamic effects. (author)

1968-04-01

233

Fusion of ubiquitin to HIV gag impairs human monocyte-derived dendritic cell maturation and reduces ability to induce gag T cell responses.  

Science.gov (United States)

The efficient induction of CD8 T cell immunity is dependent on the processing and presentation of antigen on MHC class I molecules by professional antigen presenting cells (APC). To develop an improved T cell vaccine for HIV we investigated whether fusing the ubiquitin gene to the N terminus of the HIV gag gene enhanced targeting to the proteasome resulting in better CD8 T cell responses. Human monocyte derived dendritic cells (moDC), transduced with adenovirus vectors carrying either ubiquitinated or non-ubiquitinated gag transgene constructs, were co-cultured with autologous naïve T cells and T cell responses were measured after several weekly cycles of stimulation. Despite targeting of the ubiquitin gag transgene protein to the proteasome, ubiquitination did not increase CD8 T cell immune responses and in some cases diminished responses to gag peptides. There were no marked differences in cytokines produced from ubiquitinated and non-ubiquitinated gag stimulated cultures or in the expression of inhibitory molecules on expanded T cells. However, the ability of moDC transduced with ubiquitinated gag gene to upregulate co-stimulatory molecules was reduced, whilst no difference in moDC maturation was observed with a control ubiquitinated and non-ubiquitinated MART gene. Furthermore moDC transduced with ubiquitinated gag produced more IL-10 than transduction with unmodified gag. Thus failure of gag ubiquitination to enhance CD8 responses may be caused by suppression of moDC maturation. These results indicate that when designing a successful vaccine strategy to target a particular cell population, attention must also be given to the effect of the vaccine on APCs. PMID:24505475

Herath, Shanthi; Benlahrech, Adel; Papagatsias, Timos; Athanasopoulos, Takis; Bouzeboudjen, Zineb; Hervouet, Catherine; Klavinskis, Linda; Meiser, Andrea; Kelleher, Peter; Dickson, George; Patterson, Steven

2014-01-01

234

Electric Transport Properties Modified by Incomplete Cycling on Heating (ICH) in TiNi Based Alloys  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The investigations till now performed on the Step-wise Martensite to Austenite Reversible Transformation (SMART) have identified the relevant key features both of the transformation itself and of the Incomplete Cycling on Heating (ICH), procedure required to induce the SMART. The SMART phenomenology, proved in several shape memory alloys, appears quite general, despite of the differences both in the kinetic and in the crystallographic characters of the thermoelastic martensitic transformation...

Airoldi, G.; Besseghini, S.; Riva, G.

1995-01-01

235

Incomplete spin reorientation in yttrium orthoferrite  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

High-magnetic-field measurements of the magnetic moment of single crystals of yttrium orthoferrite were performed by torque and vibrating sample magnetometers. We investigated the magnetic states before and at the end of the field-induced spin reorientation and compared them with the theoretical predictions given by a macrospin model. The model describes the spin reorientation for low magnetic fields well. For high magnetic fields, the model predicts a 90 degrees spin rotation while the exper...

Scola, J.; Dumont, Y.; Keller, N.; Vallee, M.; Caputo, J. -g; Sheikin, I.; Lejay, P.; Pautrat, A.

2011-01-01

236

Incomplete (bending) fractures of the mandibular condyle in children  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Incomplete, bending or bowing fractures of the mandibular condyle in children frequently go undetected. The reason is that the bending deformity often is subtle and passes for normal. This is especially true if the fractures are bilateral.

Ahrendt, D.; Swischuk, L.E.; Hayden, C.K. Jr.

1984-03-01

237

Incomplete Kloosterman sums and multiplicative inverses in short intervals  

CERN Document Server

We investigate the solubility of the congruence xy=1 (mod p), where p is a prime and x,y are restricted to lie in suitable short intervals. Our work relies on a mean value theorem for incomplete Kloosterman sums.

Browning, Tim

2012-01-01

238

Uma questão de incompletude / A matter of incompleteness  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Resumo Este artigo procura relacionar a incompletude da linguagem com a incompletude do sistema jurídico. Ambos lidam com a mobilidade. Para sustentar a nossa pesquisa, centramo-nos em teóricos da linguagem, tais como Santaella e Orlandi e teóricos do Direito como Castanheira Neves, Barak, Hart. Palavras-chaves: Incompletude. Linguagem. Sistema jurídico Abstract This article aims at relate the incompleteness of the language with the incompleteness of the legal system. And this incompleteness is due to the fact that both deal with mobility. To support our research, we focus on language theorists, such as Santaella and Orlandi and theorists of law as Castanheira Neves, Barak, Hart. Key words: Incompleteness. Language. Legal System

Mirian dos Santos

2012-08-01

239

Maturation of human iDCs by IL-18 plus PGE2, but not by each stimulus alone, induced migration toward CCL21 and the secretion of IL-12 and IFN-?.  

Science.gov (United States)

Dendritic cells (DCs) are potent antigen-presenting cells that initiate the primary immune response and whose functional properties in vivo depend on the maturation stimulus. We describe the functional properties of human monocyte-derived DCs after the maturation of immature DCs (iDCs) for 2 days with LPS (100 ng/ml), PGE2 (1 ?g/ml), CD40L (1 ?g/ml) or IL-18 (200 ng/ml) and with CD40L+PGE2 and IL-18+PGE2 mixtures at the same concentrations as above. Neither IL-18 nor PGE2 alone stimulated IL-12 or IFN-? secretion. When administered simultaneously to 1×10(6)iDCs/ml, IL-18+PGE2 induced the secretion of 131.4±6.7 pg IL-12/ml and 355±87 pg IFN-?/ml but there was no detectable IL-10 secretion. However, PGE2 alone stimulated the secretion of 208±89 pg IL-10/ml whereas IL-18 alone did not stimulate the secretion of IL-10, IL-12, TNF-? or INF-?. When the mixture of CD40L+PGE2 was used, only migration toward CCL19 and CCL21 was induced. CD40L did not stimulate the secretion of IL-10, IL-12, TNF-? or IFN-? and did not stimulate migration toward CCL19 or CCL21. The extent of stimulation of T cell proliferation was essentially the same for all stimuli at the concentrations given above. New properties such as IL-12 and INF-? secretion and migration toward CCL21 emerged when a mixture of IL-18+PGE2 was employed. These data show that when the pairs of stimuli reported here were used simultaneously their effect was not additive. This system can be used to prepare mDCs with properties useful for cell therapy and also as a model to investigate the mechanisms of cytokine secretion and cell migration. PMID:22784440

da Silva, Idalete; Gomes, Glauce G; Menezes, Camila C B O; Palma, Patrícia V B; Orellana, Maristela D; Covas, Dimas T; Chammas, Roger; Greene, Lewis J

2013-02-01

240

Filtering, control and fault detection with randomly occurring incomplete information  

CERN Multimedia

This book investigates the filtering, control and fault detection problems for several classes of nonlinear systems with randomly occurring incomplete information. It proposes new concepts, including RVNs, ROMDs, ROMTCDs, and ROQEs. The incomplete information under consideration primarily includes missing measurements, time-delays, sensor and actuator saturations, quantization effects and time-varying nonlinearities. The first part of this book focuses on the filtering, control and fault detection problems for several classes of nonlinear stochastic discrete-time systems and

Dong, Hongli; Gao, Huijun

2013-01-01

 
 
 
 
241

THE THEORIES OF INCOMPLETE CONTRACTS IN ANALYZING THE COMPANY  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Incomplete contracts theories have developed significantly in recent decades, although insistence for rigorous models left little room for empirical research. By formalizing and extending some results from other theories such as transaction costs, incomplete contracts theory tries to analyze the prudence displayed by the parties before the possible opportunistic behavior that would follow completing a contract, especially in the case of specific investments and how the insufficient contractua...

Pacala Anca

2012-01-01

242

Pareto optima and equilibria when preferences are incompletely known  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

An exchange economy in which agents have convex incomplete preferences defined by families of concave utility functions is considered. Sufficient conditions for the set of efficient allocations and equilibria to coincide with the set of efficient allocations and equilibria that result when each agent has a utility in her family are provided. Welfare theorems in an incomplete preferences framework therefore hold under these conditions and efficient allocations and equilibria are characterized ...

Carlier, Guillaume; Dana, Rose-anne

2013-01-01

243

Acute inflammation at a mandibular solitary horizontal incompletely impacted molar  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Acute inflammation is frequently seen in the elderly around incompletely impacted molars located apart from molars or premolars. To identify the factors causing acute inflammation in the solitary molars without second molars or without second and first molars, ages of patients and rates of acute inflammation in 75 horizontal incompletely impacted mandibular molars in contact or not in contact with molars in subjects 41 years old or older were studied using orthopantomographs. Acute inflammati...

2009-01-01

244

Incomplete nested dissection for solving n by n grid problems  

Science.gov (United States)

Nested dissection orderings are known to be very effective for solving sparse positive definite linear systems which arise from n by n grid problems. In this paper we consider incomplete nested dissection, an ordering which corresponds to the premature termination of nested dissection. Analyses of the arithmetic and storage requirements for incomplete nested dissection are given and the ordering is shown to be competitive with nested dissection with regard to arithmetic operations and superior to that ordering in storage requirements.

George, A.; Poole, W. G., Jr.; Voigt, R. G.

1978-01-01

245

The effect of incomplete information on the compromise effect  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Most research on the compromise effect focuses on how consumers make their decisions in a complete information scenario; however, consumers generally lack sufficient information when they make purchase decisions. This research aims to explore the compromise effect with incomplete information. Three studies were conducted to examine the research hypotheses. The main findings was that consumers are more likely to choose the middle option when they have incomplete information than when they have...

Shih-Chieh Chuang; Danny Tengti Kao; Yin-Hui Cheng; Chu-An Chou

2012-01-01

246

Is a decrease in cyclic AMP a necessary and sufficient signal for maturation of amphibian oocytes  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Acetylcholine rapidly lowered the intracellular levels of cyclic AMP in stage 5 and 6 Xenopus laevis oocytes. Acetylcholine alone did not induce oocyte maturation, though it did accelerate maturation induced by progesterone. The effect of acetylcholine on oocyte maturation was independent of extracellular calcium concentration. Adenosine increased cyclic AMP and abolished the progesterone-induced decrease in cyclic AMP levels in follicles and in denuded oocytes. This effect of adenosine was blocked by the Ra purinergic receptor antagonist, theophylline. Despite those effects, adenosine alone induced maturation in stage 6 oocytes and accelerated progesterone-induced maturation in both stage 5 and 6 cells. Adenosine also induced a significant increase in the rate of 45Ca efflux from oocytes in the presence and the absence of external calcium. We suggest that the activation of cell surface receptors involved in the release of calcium from cellular stores may induce or accelerate oocyte maturation independently of small changes in intracellular cyclic AMP concentration

1988-01-01

247

Complete and incomplete fusion reactions: measurement and analysis of excitation functions in 20Ne + 165Ho system  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In the present work an attempt have been made to identify the complete fusion and incomplete fusion channels, in 20Ne-induced reactions on 165Ho target in the energy region of 88-164 MeV, through the measurement of excitation functions for the production of various evaporation residues, using off-line ?-ray measurement activation technique

2006-12-11

248

Soluble factor(s) released by Concanavalin A activated lymph node lymphocytes induce proliferation and maturation of chronic lymphocytic leukaemia (CLL) B lymphocytes.  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

An active supernatant (Ly Con A) was prepared by stimulating the normal human lymph node lymphocytes with Concanavalin A (Con A). Peripheral blood lymphocytes (PBL) from 3 healthy subjects and from 8 patients with chronic lymphocytic leukaemia (CLL) were cultured in the presence of Con A and Ly Con A. The latter induced a significant DNA synthesis both in normal and CLL lymphocytes. A proliferative response was still present in CLL after T lymphocytes depletion. The Con A and Ly Con A treatme...

Matera, Lina; Massaia, Massimo; Pegoraro, Luigi

1984-01-01

249

Differences in Virus-Induced Cell Morphology and in Virus Maturation between MVA and Other Strains (WR, Ankara, and NYCBH) of Vaccinia Virus in Infected Human Cells  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Live recombinants based on attenuated modified vaccinia virus Ankara (MVA) are potential vaccine candidates against a broad spectrum of diseases and tumors. To better understand the efficacy of MVA as a human vaccine, we analyzed by confocal and electron microscopy approaches MVA-induced morphological changes and morphogenetic stages during infection of human HeLa cells in comparison to other strains of vaccinia virus (VV): the wild-type Western Reserve (WR), Ankara, and the New York City Boa...

Gallego-go?mez, Juan Carlos; Risco, Cristina; Rodri?guez, Dolores; Cabezas, Pilar; Guerra, Susana; Carrascosa, Jose? L.; Esteban, Mariano

2003-01-01

250

Lipid raft disruption protects mature neurons against amyloid oligomer toxicity  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Abstract A specific neuronal vulnerability to amyloid protein toxicity may account for brain susceptibility to protein misfolding diseases. To investigate this issue, we compared the effects induced by oligomers from salmon calcitonin (sCTOs), a neurotoxic amyloid protein, on cells of different histogenesis: mature and immature primary hippocampal neurons, primary astrocytes, MG63 osteoblasts and NIH-3T3 fibroblasts. In mature neurons, sCTOs increased apoptosis and induced neuritic...

2010-01-01

251

EF24 suppresses maturation and inflammatory response in dendritic cells  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Synthetic curcuminoid EF24 was studied for its effect on the maturation and inflammatory response in murine bone marrow derived immortalized JAWS II dendritic cells (DCs). EF24 reduced the expression of LPS-induced MHC class II, CD80 and CD86 molecules. It also abrogated the appearance of dendrites, a typical characteristic of mature DCs. These effects were accompanied by the inhibition of LPS-induced activation of transcription factor nuclear factor kappa-light-chain enhancer of activated B ...

Vilekar, Prachi; Awasthi, Shanjana; Natarajan, Aravindan; Anant, Shrikant; Awasthi, Vibhudutta

2012-01-01

252

XGef Mediates Early CPEB Phosphorylation during Xenopus Oocyte Meiotic Maturation  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Polyadenylation-induced translation is an important regulatory mechanism during metazoan development. During Xenopus oocyte meiotic progression, polyadenylation-induced translation is regulated by CPEB, which is activated by phosphorylation. XGef, a guanine exchange factor, is a CPEB-interacting protein involved in the early steps of progesterone-stimulated oocyte maturation. We find that XGef influences early oocyte maturation by directly influencing CPEB function. XGef and CPEB interact dur...

Marti?nez, Susana E.; Yuan, Lei; Lacza, Charlemagne; Ransom, Heather; Mahon, Gwendolyn M.; Whitehead, Ian P.; Hake, Laura E.

2005-01-01

253

Sublingual misoprostol versus standard surgical care for treatment of incomplete abortion in five sub-Saharan African countries  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background In low-resource settings, where abortion is highly restricted and self-induced abortions are common, access to post-abortion care (PAC services, especially treatment of incomplete terminations, is a priority. Standard post-abortion care has involved surgical intervention but can be hard to access in these areas. Misoprostol provides an alternative to surgical intervention that could increase access to abortion care. We sought to gather additional evidence regarding the efficacy of 400 mcg of sublingual misoprostol vs. standard surgical care for treatment of incomplete abortion in the environments where need for economical non-surgical treatments may be most useful. Methods A total of 860 women received either sublingual misoprostol or standard surgical care for treatment of incomplete abortion in a multi-site randomized trial. Women with confirmed incomplete abortion, defined as past or present history of vaginal bleeding during pregnancy and an open cervical os, were eligible to participate. Participants returned for follow-up one week later to confirm clinical status. If abortion was incomplete at that time, women were offered an additional follow-up visit or immediate surgical evacuation. Results Both misoprostol and surgical evacuation are highly effective treatments for incomplete abortion (misoprostol: 94.4%, surgical: 100.0%. Misoprostol treatment resulted in a somewhat lower chance of success than standard surgical practice (RR = 0.90; 95% CI: 0.89-0.92. Both tolerability of side effects and women’s satisfaction were similar in the two study arms. Conclusion Misoprostol, much easier to provide than surgery in low-resource environments, can be used safely, successfully, and satisfactorily for treatment of incomplete abortion. Focus should shift to program implementation, including task-shifting the provision of post-abortion care to mid- and low- level providers, training and assurance of drug availability. Trial registration This study has been registered at clinicaltrials.gov as NCT00466999 and NCT01539408

Shochet Tara

2012-11-01

254

Dendritic cells require a systemic type I interferon response to mature and induce CD4+ Th1 immunity with poly IC as adjuvant  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Relative to several other toll-like receptor (TLR) agonists, we found polyinosinic:polycytidylic acid (poly IC) to be the most effective adjuvant for Th1 CD4+ T cell responses to a dendritic cell (DC)–targeted HIV gag protein vaccine in mice. To identify mechanisms for adjuvant action in the intact animal and the polyclonal T cell repertoire, we found poly IC to be the most effective inducer of type I interferon (IFN), which was produced by DEC-205+ DCs, monocytes, and stromal cells. Antibo...

Longhi, M. Paula; Trumpfheller, Christine; Idoyaga, Juliana; Caskey, Marina; Matos, Ines; Kluger, Courtney; Salazar, Andres M.; Colonna, Marco; Steinman, Ralph M.

2009-01-01

255

Differentiation of thymocytes from CD3-CD4-CD8- through CD3-CD4-CD8+ into more mature stages induced by a thymic stromal cell clone.  

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We have investigated the capacity of our established thymic stromal cell clone (MRL104.8a) or its derived factor(s) to induce the differentiation of immature thymocytes. Culture of purified adult murine double-negative (CD4-CD8-, indicated here as CD4-8-) thymocytes on the MRL104.8a thymic stromal cell monolayer for 1 day resulted in the induction of an appreciable percentage of CD4-8+ thymocytes. A bone marrow-derived stromal cell monolayer or a L929 fibroblast monolayer failed to generate C...

Tatsumi, Y.; Kumanogoh, A.; Saitoh, M.; Mizushima, Y.; Kimura, K.; Suzuki, S.; Yagi, H.; Horiuchi, A.; Ogata, M.; Hamaoka, T.

1990-01-01

256

Exposure to Apoptotic Activated CD4+ T Cells Induces Maturation and APOBEC3G- Mediated Inhibition of HIV-1 Infection in Dendritic Cells  

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Dendritic cells (DCs) are activated by signaling via pathogen-specific receptors or exposure to inflammatory mediators. Here we show that co-culturing DCs with apoptotic HIV-infected activated CD4+ T cells (ApoInf) or apoptotic uninfected activated CD4+ T cells (ApoAct) induced expression of co-stimulatory molecules and cytokine release. In addition, we measured a reduced HIV infection rate in DCs after co-culture with ApoAct. A prerequisite for reduced HIV infection in DCs was activation of ...

2011-01-01

257

Exposure to Apoptotic Activated CD4(+) T Cells Induces Maturation and APOBEC3G-Mediated Inhibition of HIV-1 Infection in Dendritic Cells  

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Dendritic cells (DCs) are activated by signaling via pathogen-specific receptors or exposure to inflammatory mediators. Here we show that co-culturing DCs with apoptotic HIV-infected activated CD4(+) T cells (ApoInf) or apoptotic uninfected activated CD4(+) T cells (ApoAct) induced expression of co-stimulatory molecules and cytokine release. In addition, we measured a reduced HIV infection rate in DCs after co-culture with ApoAct. A prerequisite for reduced HIV infection in DCs was activation...

2011-01-01

258

Factors associated with incomplete colonoscopy at a Japanese academic hospital  

Science.gov (United States)

AIM: To evaluate significant risk factors for incomplete colonoscopy at a Japanese academic hospital. METHODS: A total of 11812 consecutive Japanese people were identified who underwent a colonoscopy at an academic hospital. A multiple logistic regression model was used to evaluate retrospectively the significant risk factors for incomplete colonoscopy. RESULTS: The cecal intubation rate was 95.0%. By univariate analysis, age, female sex, poor bowel cleansing, and a history of abdominal or pelvic surgery were significant risk factors for incomplete colonoscopy (P < 0.001). Moreover, age- and sex-adjusted analysis showed that significant risk factors for incomplete colonoscopy were female sex (OR = 1.38, 95%CI: 1.17-1.64, P = 0.0002), age ? 60 years old (OR = 1.44, 95%CI: 1.22-1.71, P < 0.0001), a history of prior abdominal or pelvic surgery (OR = 1.55, 95%CI: 1.28-1.86, P < 0.0001), poor bowel cleansing (OR = 4.64, 95%CI: 3.69-5.84, P < 0.0001), and inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) (OR = 1.48, 95%CI: 1.13-1.95, P = 0.0048). In Japanese men, by age-adjusted analysis, IBD (OR = 1.69, 95%CI: 1.18-2.43, P = 0.005) was an independent risk factor for incomplete colonoscopy. CONCLUSION: Several characteristics in the Japanese population were identified that could predict technical difficulty with colonoscopy.

Koido, Shigeo; Ohkusa, Toshifumi; Nakae, Kosaburo; Yokoyama, Tetsuji; Shibuya, Tomoyoshi; Sakamoto, Naoto; Uchiyama, Kan; Arakawa, Hiroshi; Osada, Taro; Nagahara, Akihito; Watanabe, Sumio; Tajiri, Hisao

2014-01-01

259

The problem of maturation  

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SUMMARY THE PROBLEM OF MATURATION IN THE BELL JAR BY SYLVIA PLATH AND THE CATCHER IN THE RYE BY J.D. SALINGER In my Master?s thesis I have focused The Bell Jar by Sylvia Plath and The Catcher in the Rye by J.D. Salinger. I have compared the situations of the two protagonists Esther Greenwood and Holden Caulfield as they are growing up in the postwar period of the 1950s, in the American northeast. I have written 3 chapters where I discuss the themes of societal struggles, death and the ...

Eik, Katrine

2007-01-01

260

Facioscapulohumeral dystrophy: incomplete suppression of a retrotransposed gene.  

Science.gov (United States)

Each unit of the D4Z4 macrosatellite repeat contains a retrotransposed gene encoding the DUX4 double-homeobox transcription factor. Facioscapulohumeral dystrophy (FSHD) is caused by deletion of a subset of the D4Z4 units in the subtelomeric region of chromosome 4. Although it has been reported that the deletion of D4Z4 units induces the pathological expression of DUX4 mRNA, the association of DUX4 mRNA expression with FSHD has not been rigorously investigated, nor has any human tissue been identified that normally expresses DUX4 mRNA or protein. We show that FSHD muscle expresses a different splice form of DUX4 mRNA compared to control muscle. Control muscle produces low amounts of a splice form of DUX4 encoding only the amino-terminal portion of DUX4. FSHD muscle produces low amounts of a DUX4 mRNA that encodes the full-length DUX4 protein. The low abundance of full-length DUX4 mRNA in FSHD muscle cells represents a small subset of nuclei producing a relatively high abundance of DUX4 mRNA and protein. In contrast to control skeletal muscle and most other somatic tissues, full-length DUX4 transcript and protein is expressed at relatively abundant levels in human testis, most likely in the germ-line cells. Induced pluripotent (iPS) cells also express full-length DUX4 and differentiation of control iPS cells to embryoid bodies suppresses expression of full-length DUX4, whereas expression of full-length DUX4 persists in differentiated FSHD iPS cells. Together, these findings indicate that full-length DUX4 is normally expressed at specific developmental stages and is suppressed in most somatic tissues. The contraction of the D4Z4 repeat in FSHD results in a less efficient suppression of the full-length DUX4 mRNA in skeletal muscle cells. Therefore, FSHD represents the first human disease to be associated with the incomplete developmental silencing of a retrogene array normally expressed early in development. PMID:21060811

Snider, Lauren; Geng, Linda N; Lemmers, Richard J L F; Kyba, Michael; Ware, Carol B; Nelson, Angelique M; Tawil, Rabi; Filippova, Galina N; van der Maarel, Silvère M; Tapscott, Stephen J; Miller, Daniel G

2010-10-01

 
 
 
 
261

New approach for evaluating incomplete and complete fusion cross sections with continuum-discretized coupled-channels method  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

We propose a new method for evaluating incomplete and complete fusion cross sections separately using the Continuum-Discretized Coupled-Channels method. This method is applied to analysis of the deuteron induced reaction on a 7Li target up to 50 MeV of the deuteron incident energy. Effects of deuteron breakup on this reaction are explicitly taken into account. Results of the method are compared with those of the Glauber model, and the difference between the two is discussed. It is found that the energy dependence of the incomplete fusion cross sections obtained by the present calculation is almost the same as that obtained by the Glauber model, while for the complete fusion cross section, the two models give markedly different energy dependence. We show also that a prescription for evaluating incomplete fusion cross sections proposed in a previous study gives much smaller result than an experimental value. (author)

2009-11-01

262

THE THEORIES OF INCOMPLETE CONTRACTS IN ANALYZING THE COMPANY  

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Full Text Available Incomplete contracts theories have developed significantly in recent decades, although insistence for rigorous models left little room for empirical research. By formalizing and extending some results from other theories such as transaction costs, incomplete contracts theory tries to analyze the prudence displayed by the parties before the possible opportunistic behavior that would follow completing a contract, especially in the case of specific investments and how the insufficient contractual protection measures can lead to inefficient levels of investment. Even the name - incomplete contracts theory- suggests that the main concern is to consider the limits of contracts, that the contracts fail to specify not only the investment ex ante, but also many other unforeseen items that may appear ex post, and that would be desirable to be introduced in such an arrangement. Explanations can be either the bounded rationality or excessive cost that would involve writing of such contracts.\\r\

Pacala Anca

2012-07-01

263

Are the Gödel incompleteness theorems limitative results for the neurosciences?  

Science.gov (United States)

There are many kinds of limitative results in the sciences, some of which are philosophical. I am interested in examining one kind of limitative result in the neurosciences that is mathematical-a result secured by the Gödel incompleteness theorems. I will view the incompleteness theorems as independence results, develop a connection with independence results in set theory, and then argue that work in the neurosciences (as well as in molecular, systems and synthetic biology) may well avoid these mathematical limitative results. In showing this, I argue that demonstrating that one cannot avoid them is a computational task that is beyond the computational capacities of finitary minds. Along the way, I reformulate three philosophical claims about the nature of consciousness in terms of the Gödel incompleteness theorems and argue that these precise reformulations of the claims can be disarmed. PMID:19669418

Buechner, Jeff

2010-01-01

264

ON TWO METHODS OF ANALYSING BALANCED INCOMPLETE BLOCK DESIGNS  

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Full Text Available The paper briefly discusses the balanced incomplete–block design (BIBD’s and further compares two methods of analyzing them-the classical and vector space analysis of variance (ANOVA methods. These methods are applied differently to the data arising from the balanced incomplete block designs (BIBD’s. The basic interest is to compare the performance of the two methods of analysis on the available data from National Root Crop Research Institute (N.R.C.R.I Umudike, Abia State. To achieve this, we shall consider treatment (adjusted, block (adjusted treatment (not adjusted in the classical ANOVA method and the vector space ANOVA method.  Block is adjusted to know if the experiment is symmetric balanced incomplete block design (SBIBD. The classical ANOVA method was easier to compute and more convenient to handle than the vector ANOVA method. The classical ANOVA method is found to be preferable to the vector space ANOVA method.

Chigozie Kelechi Acha

2012-11-01

265

Possible communicative cues to syntactic incompleteness in spoken dialogues  

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Full Text Available Due to the dynamic nature of dialogues, spoken utterances are often characterized by some degree of fragmentation. This fragmentation is directly reflected by the incompleteness of the syntactic structure of such utterances that represent a considerable challenge for automatic parsing. At the same time, syntactic incompleteness is also a reflection of some cognitive processes underlying the fragmentation of such an interaction. This fragmentation is often accompanied by a set of nonverbal gestures offering thereby the chance to attempt to find certain cues to these cognitive processes by studying the complex of aligning verbal and nonverbal elements. The present paper addresses the issue of the interaction of multimodal markers of conversation with the syntax of spoken utterances to find if certain communicative functions may be cues to the incompleteness of spoken syntax.

Hunyadi, László

2013-01-01

266

Incomplete scan geometries in fast X-ray scanners  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

If the data delivered by an X-ray scanner are not available in a complete grid of scan positions, the reconstructed pictures are degraded by artefacts which are due to the lack of information gathered. The most prominent examples of incomplete scan geometries are: the incomplete range of viewing directions; and the spatial restriction of X-ray irradiation to a region of interest. Both are caused by the requirement of sacrificing some characteristics of conventional scanner geometries, either to get a very rapid scan or a reduction of patient dose without increasing the picture noise. The implications of such restrictions will be described and pictures will be presented which are reconstructed from true scan data which have been made incomplete by means of simulations software. Under certain conditions, unavailable data can be replaced by artificially calculated ones in order to reduce the artefacts. (orig.)

1979-01-01

267

Incentives in Public and Privatized Firms under Incomplete Contracting Situations  

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Full Text Available It is argued that incentives for employees in the public service agencies will necessarily be weak because of the multiple dimensions of products, multiple principals, incomplete contract, and socializing. Some empirical studies refer to incomplete contracting situations as part of the cause of the diminishing of the public sector. This work investigates the effects of privatization and ownership shares on incentive schemes for employees who work for public or privatized firms under incomplete contracting situations. Two main results are obtained. First, the incentive intensity of public firms decreases as the government has more ownership shares, and the social benefit declines. Second, privatized firms offer their employees higher-powered incentive contracts than do public firms.

Takeshi Miyazaki

2012-08-01

268

Miniature Neurotransmission Regulates Drosophila Synaptic Structural Maturation  

Science.gov (United States)

Summary Miniature neurotransmission is the transsynaptic process where single synaptic vesicles spontaneously released from presynaptic neurons induce miniature postsynaptic potentials. Since their discovery over 60 years ago, miniature events have been found at every chemical synapse studied. However, the in vivo necessity for these small-amplitude events has remained enigmatic. Here, we show that miniature neurotransmission is required for the normal structural maturation of Drosophila glutamatergic synapses in a developmental role that is not shared by evoked neurotransmission. Conversely, we find that increasing miniature events is sufficient to induce synaptic terminal growth. We show that miniature neurotransmission acts locally at terminals to regulate synapse maturation via a Trio guanine nucleotide exchange factor (GEF) and Rac1 GTPase molecular signaling pathway. Our results establish that miniature neurotransmission, a universal but often-overlooked feature of synapses, has unique and essential functions in vivo.

Choi, Ben Jiwon; Imlach, Wendy L.; Jiao, Wei; Wolfram, Verena; Wu, Ying; Grbic, Mark; Cela, Carolina; Baines, Richard A.; Nitabach, Michael N.; McCabe, Brian D.

2014-01-01

269

Miniature neurotransmission regulates Drosophila synaptic structural maturation.  

Science.gov (United States)

Miniature neurotransmission is the transsynaptic process where single synaptic vesicles spontaneously released from presynaptic neurons induce miniature postsynaptic potentials. Since their discovery over 60 years ago, miniature events have been found at every chemical synapse studied. However, the in vivo necessity for these small-amplitude events has remained enigmatic. Here, we show that miniature neurotransmission is required for the normal structural maturation of Drosophila glutamatergic synapses in a developmental role that is not shared by evoked neurotransmission. Conversely, we find that increasing miniature events is sufficient to induce synaptic terminal growth. We show that miniature neurotransmission acts locally at terminals to regulate synapse maturation via a Trio guanine nucleotide exchange factor (GEF) and Rac1 GTPase molecular signaling pathway. Our results establish that miniature neurotransmission, a universal but often-overlooked feature of synapses, has unique and essential functions in vivo. PMID:24811381

Choi, Ben Jiwon; Imlach, Wendy L; Jiao, Wei; Wolfram, Verena; Wu, Ying; Grbic, Mark; Cela, Carolina; Baines, Richard A; Nitabach, Michael N; McCabe, Brian D

2014-05-01

270

Propolis inhibits osteoclast maturation.  

Science.gov (United States)

Propolis, a natural product produced by the honey bee, has been successfully used in medicine as an anti-inflammatory and antimicrobial agent. Traumatic injuries to the teeth, especially avulsion injuries, present a challenging situation for the clinician because of post-treatment complications, such as inflammatory and/or replacement resorption. Agents that reduce osteoclast numbers and activity may be useful in the treatment of traumatic injuries to the teeth. In this study, we evaluated propolis as an anti-resorptive agent. Calcitriol-stimulated mouse marrow cultures, which contain both osteoclasts and osteoblasts, were exposed to the ethanol extracts of propolis or vehicle control and stained for tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase (TRAP)-activity to identify osteoclasts. A significant, dose-dependent reduction in multinuclear TRAP+ cells was demonstrated, although the propolis treatment accommodated cell growth and survival (P RAW 264.7 osteoclast-like cells, suggesting that it exerts direct actions on osteoclast maturation. In summary, our data suggest that propolis inhibits late stages of osteoclast maturation including fusion of osteoclasts precursors to form giant cells and formation of actin rings. This supports the hypothesis that it may prove useful as a medicament to reduce resorption associated with traumatic injuries to the teeth. PMID:19843135

Pileggi, Roberta; Antony, Kathryn; Johnson, Kristie; Zuo, Jian; Shannon Holliday, L

2009-12-01

271

ON TWO METHODS OF ANALYSING BALANCED INCOMPLETE BLOCK DESIGNS  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The paper briefly discusses the balanced incomplete–block design (BIBD’s) and further compares two methods of analyzing them-the classical and vector space analysis of variance (ANOVA) methods. These methods are applied differently to the data arising from the balanced incomplete block designs (BIBD’s). The basic...

Chigozie Kelechi Acha

2012-01-01

272

Pricing the Option to Surrender in Incomplete Markets  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

New international accounting standards require insurers to reflect the value of embedded options and guarantees in their products. Pricing techniques based on the Black & Scholes paradigm are often used, however, the hypotheses underneath this model are rarely met. We propose a framework that encompasses the most known sources of incompleteness. We show that the surrender option, joined with a wide range of claims embedded in insurance contracts, can be priced through our tool, and deliver hedging portfolios to mitigate the risk arising from their positions. We provide extensive empirical analysis to highlight the effect of incompleteness on the fair value of the option.

Consiglio, Andrea; De Giovanni, Domenico

2007-01-01

273

Factors associated with incomplete small bowel capsule endoscopy studies  

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Full Text Available AIM: To identify patient risk factors associated with incomplete small bowel capsule endoscopy (CE studies.METHODS: Data from all CE procedures performed at St. Paul’s Hospital in Vancouver, British Columbia, Canada, between December 2001 and June 2008 were collected and analyzed on a retrospective basis. Data collection for complete and incomplete CE study groups included patient demographics as well as a number of potential risk factors for incomplete CE including indication for the procedure, hospitalization, diabetes mellitus with or without end organ damage, limitations in mobility, renal insufficiency, past history of bowel obstruction, abdominal surgery, abdominal radiation therapy and opiate use. Risk factors were analyzed using a univariable and multivariable logistic regression model.RESULTS: From a total of 535 CE procedures performed, 158 were incomplete (29.5%. The univariable analysis showed that CE procedures performed for overt gastrointestinal bleeding (P = 0.002, and for patients with a prior history of abdominal surgery (P = 0.023 or bowel obstruction (P = 0.023 were significantly associated with incomplete CE studies. Patients on opiate medications (P = 0.094 as well as hospitalized patients (P = 0.054 were not statistically significant, but did show a trend towards incomplete CE. The multivariable analysis showed that independent risk factors for an incomplete CE procedure include prior history of bowel obstruction [odds ratios (OR 2.77, P = 0.02, 95% confidence intervals (CI: 1.17-6.56] and procedures performed for gastrointestinal bleeding (Occult OR 2.04, P = 0.037, 95% CI: 1.04-4.02 and Overt OR 2.69, P = 0.002, 95% CI: 1.44-5.05. Patients with a prior history of abdominal surgery (OR 1.46, P = 0.068, 95% CI: 0.97-2.19, those taking opiate medications (OR 1.54, P = 0.15, 95% CI: 0.86-2.76 and hospitalized patients (OR 1.82, P = 0.124, 95% CI: 0.85-3.93 showed a trend towards statistical significance.CONCLUSION: We have identified a number of risk factors for incomplete CE procedures that can be used to risk-stratify patients and guide interventions to improve completion rates.

Mitchell M Lee, Andrew Jacques, Eric Lam, Ricky Kwok, Pardis Lakzadeh, Ajit Sandhar, Brandon Segal, Sigrid Svarta, Joanna Law, Robert Enns

2010-11-01

274

Contingent Claims in Incomplete Markets: A Case Study  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In this paper, we revisit pricing contingent claims in incomplete markets. While a lot have been done on pricing in incomplete markets, there is still a gap on the categorization of the payoffs. Some contingent claims are attainable while others will not be attainable. We address the question of which contingent claims belong to each group. We also propose a generalization of the equivalent martingale measures used for pricing, a generalization which includes those studied so far. We also provide some examples of how to price in each class and introduce important definitions.

Sure Mataramvura

2013-10-01

275

Incomplete reaction phenomenon in high strength bainitic steels  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Bainite forms by a displacive transformation mechanism and exhibits an incomplete reaction phenomenon. The kinetics and mechanism of bainite transformation have been studied in high-strength Fe-C-Si-Mn and Fe-C-Si-Ni steels using high-speed dilatometry. The new experiments reported here confirm the incomplete reaction phenomenon, with the bainite transformation stopping well before paraequilibrium is achieved. These results show that bainite probably grows without diffusion. but soon afterwards, excess carbon is partitioned into the residual austenite.

Ali, A.; Ahmed, M.; Hashmi, F.H.; Khan, A.Q. (Khan Research Lab., Rawalpindi (Pakistan). Metallurgy Div.)

1993-10-01

276

Incomplete chromosome exchanges are not fingerprints of high LET neutrons  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A new fluorescence in situ hybridisation (FISH) technique combining whole chromosome specific DNA libraries with pan-centromeric DNA and telomeric PNA probes was introduced to investigate the induction of chromosome exchanges in human lymphocytes after exposure to low (4 Gy X rays) and high (1 Gy neutrons) linear energy transfer radiation. This combination of probes allowed accurate detection of exchange aberrations involving the painted chromosomes and an unambiguous discrimination between complete and incomplete exchanges, as well as terminal and interstitial deletions. Data obtained in the present study using combined FISH assay with telomeres detection showed no differences between two types of radiation regarding the induction of incomplete exchanges. (author)

2001-06-01

277

Development of an in vitro culture method for stepwise differentiation of mouse embryonic stem cells and induced pluripotent stem cells into mature osteoclasts.  

Science.gov (United States)

The development of methods for differentiation of embryonic stem cells (ESCs) and induced pluripotent stem cell (iPSCs) into functional cells have helped to analyze the mechanism regulating cellular processes and to explore cell-based assays for drug discovery. Although several reports have demonstrated methods for differentiation of mouse ESCs into osteoclast-like cells, it remains unclear whether these methods are applicable for differentiation of iPSCs to osteoclasts. In this study, we developed a simple method for stepwise differentiation of mouse ESCs and iPSCs into bone-resorbing osteoclasts based upon a monoculture approach consisting of three steps. First, based on conventional hanging-drop methods, embryoid bodies (EBs) were produced from mouse ESCs or iPSCs. Second, EBs were cultured in medium supplemented with macrophage colony-stimulating factor (M-CSF), and differentiated to osteoclast precursors, which expressed CD11b. Finally, ESC- or iPSC-derived osteoclast precursors stimulated with receptor activator of nuclear factor-B ligand (RANKL) and M-CSF formed large multinucleated osteoclast-like cells that expressed tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase and were capable of bone resorption. Molecular analysis showed that the expression of osteoclast marker genes such as Nfatc1, Ctsk, and Acp5 are increased in a RANKL-dependent manner. Thus, our procedure is simple and easy and would be helpful for stem cell-based bone research. PMID:24366621

Nishikawa, Keizo; Iwamoto, Yoriko; Ishii, Masaru

2014-05-01

278

Regulation of STAT pathways and IRF1 during human dendritic cell maturation by TNF-? and PGE2  

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Maturation of dendritic cells (DCs) by TLR ligands induces expression of IFN-? and autocrine activation of IFN-inducible Stat1-dependent genes important for DC function. In this study, we analyzed the regulation of STAT signaling during maturation of human DCs by TNF-? and PGE2, which induced maturation of human DCs comparably with LPS but did not induce detectable IFN-? production or Stat1 tyrosine phosphorylation. Consistent with these results, TNF-? and PGE2 did not induce Stat1 DNA bi...

Hu, Yang; Park-min, Kyung-hyun; Yarilina, Anna; Ivashkiv, Lionel B.

2008-01-01

279

Endoscopic treatment of duodenal fistula after incomplete closure of ERCP-related duodenal perforation  

Science.gov (United States)

Endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP) is an important diagnostic and therapeutic modality for various pancreatic and biliary diseases. The most common ERCP-induced complication is pancreatitis, whereas hemorrhage, cholangitis, and perforation occur less frequently. Early recognition and prompt treatment of these complications may minimize the morbidity and mortality. One of the most serious complications is perforation. Although the incidence of duodenal perforation after ERCP has decreased to fibrin glue injection and positioning of endoclips. Our patient developed a secondary persistent duodenal fistula as a result of previous incomplete closure of duodenal perforation with hemoclips and an endoloop. The fistula was successfully repaired by additional clipping and fibrin glue injection.

Yu, Dong Wook; Hong, Man Yong; Hong, Seung Goun

2014-01-01

280

Endoscopic treatment of duodenal fistula after incomplete closure of ERCP-related duodenal perforation.  

Science.gov (United States)

Endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP) is an important diagnostic and therapeutic modality for various pancreatic and biliary diseases. The most common ERCP-induced complication is pancreatitis, whereas hemorrhage, cholangitis, and perforation occur less frequently. Early recognition and prompt treatment of these complications may minimize the morbidity and mortality. One of the most serious complications is perforation. Although the incidence of duodenal perforation after ERCP has decreased to fibrin glue injection and positioning of endoclips. Our patient developed a secondary persistent duodenal fistula as a result of previous incomplete closure of duodenal perforation with hemoclips and an endoloop. The fistula was successfully repaired by additional clipping and fibrin glue injection. PMID:24932379

Yu, Dong Wook; Hong, Man Yong; Hong, Seung Goun

2014-06-16

 
 
 
 
281

CFD - Mature Technology?  

Science.gov (United States)

Over the past 30 years, numerical methods and simulation tools for fluid dynamic problems have advanced as a new discipline, namely, computational fluid dynamics (CFD). Although a wide spectrum of flow regimes are encountered in many areas of science and engineering, simulation of compressible flow has been the major driver for developing computational algorithms and tools. This is probably due to a large demand for predicting the aerodynamic performance characteristics of flight vehicles, such as commercial, military, and space vehicles. As flow analysis is required to be more accurate and computationally efficient for both commercial and mission-oriented applications (such as those encountered in meteorology, aerospace vehicle development, general fluid engineering and biofluid analysis) CFD tools for engineering become increasingly important for predicting safety, performance and cost. This paper presents the author's perspective on the maturity of CFD, especially from an aerospace engineering point of view.

Kwak, Dochan

2005-01-01

282

Incomplete inversion of the hippocampus - a common developmental anomaly  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Incomplete inversion of the hippocampus, an imperfect fetal development, has been described in patients with epilepsy or severe midline malformations. We studied this condition in a nonepileptic population without obvious developmental anomalies. We analyzed the coronal MR images of 50 women and 50 men who did not have epilepsy. Twenty of them were healthy volunteers and 80 were patients without obvious intracranial developmental anomalies, intracranial masses, hydrocephalus or any condition affecting the temporal lobes. If the entire hippocampus (the head could not be evaluated) were affected, the incomplete inversion was classified as total, otherwise as partial. Incomplete inversion of the hippocampus was found in 19/100 subjects (9 women, 10 men). It was unilateral, always on the left side, in 13 subjects (4 women, 9 men): 9 were of the total type, 4 were partial. It was bilateral in six subjects (five women, one man): four subjects had total types bilaterally, two had a combination of total and partial types. The collateral sulcus was vertically oriented in all subjects with a deviating hippocampal shape. We conclude that incomplete inversion of the hippocampus is not an unusual morphologic variety in a nonepileptic population without other obvious intracranial developmental anomalies. (orig.)

2008-01-01

283

The Incomplete transformation phenomenon in Fe-C-Mo alloys  

Science.gov (United States)

The overall kinetics of isothermal transformation of austenite to bainite were studied with quantitative metallography and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) in a series of highpurity Fe-C-Mo alloys containing 0.06 to 0.27 wt pct C and 0.23 to 4.28 wt pct Mo at reaction temperatures mainly below that of the bay in the time-temperature-transformation (TTT) curve for initiation of transformation. Ferrite growth kinetics were also determined at temperatures slightly below that of the bay. The incomplete character of the bainite transformation was found to depend upon both the C and Mo concentrations; below threshold combinations of these elements, the incomplete reaction is absent. In cases in which the bainite reaction was incomplete, transformation of austenite resumed and went to completion following the initiation of Mo2C precipitation at ?: ? boundaries. The time of transformation stasis increased with the proportions of C and Mo in the alloy. Pearlite was not observed anywhere in the time-temperature-composition (TTC) region investigated. Ferrite growth kinetics at temperatures near the bay do not exhibit simple time laws; this behavior is attributed to a solute drag-like effect (SDLE). Extensive sympathetic nucleation of ferrite is observed at temperatures below that of the bay. The temperature and composition dependence of the incomplete reaction can be explained by a combination of the SDLE and the variation in the sympathetic nucleation rate of ferrite with temperature and the amount of transformation.

Reynolds, W. T.; Li, F. Z.; Shui, C. K.; Aaronson, H. I.

1990-06-01

284

Nonallelic heterogeneity in autosomal dominant retinitis pigmentosa with incomplete penetrance  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Retinitis pigmentosa is a group of retinal diseases in which photoreceptor cells throughout the retina degenerate. Although there is considerable genetic heterogeneity (autosomal dominant, autosomal recessive, and X-linked forms exist), there is a possibility that some clinically defined subtypes of the disease may be the result of mutations at the same locus. One possible clinically defined subtype is that of autosomal dominant retinitis pigmentosa (ADRP) with incomplete penetrance. Whereas in most families with ADRP, carriers can be clearly identified because of visual loss, ophthalmological findings, or abnormal electroretinograms (ERGs), in occasional families some obligate carriers are asymptomatic and have normal or nearly normal ERGs even late in life. A recent paper reported the mapping of the diseases locus in one pedigree (designated adRP7) with ADRP with incomplete penetrance to chromosome 7p. To test the idea that ADRP with incomplete penetrance may be genetically homogeneous, we have evaluated whether a different family with incomplete penetrance also has a disease gene linked to the same region. 4 refs., 1 fig., 1 tab.

Kim, S.K.; Berson, E.L.; Dryja, T.P. [Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA (United States)] [and others

1994-08-01

285

Risk Factors for Incomplete Immunization in Children with HIV Infection.  

Science.gov (United States)

OBJECTIVE: To document the immunization rates, factors associated with incomplete immunization, and missed opportunities for immunizations in children affected by HIV presenting for routine outpatient follow-up. METHODS: A cross-sectional study of immunization status of children affected by HIV presenting for routine outpatient care was conducted. RESULTS: Two hundred and six HIV affected children were enrolled. The median age of children in this cohort was 6 y. One hundred ninety seven of 206 children were HIV infected, nine were HIV exposed, but indeterminate. Fifty (25 %) children had incomplete immunizations per the Universal Immunization Program (UIP) of India. Hundred percent of children had received OPV. Ninety three percent of children got their UIP vaccines from a government clinic. Children with incomplete immunization were older, median age of 8 compared to 5 (p?=?0.003). Each year of maternal education increased the odds of having a child with complete UIP immunizations by 1.18 (p?=?0.008)-children of mothers with 6 y of education compared to those with no education were seven times more likely to have complete UIP vaccine status. The average number of visits to the clinic by an individual child in a year was 4. This represents 200 missed opportunities for immunizations. CONCLUSIONS: HIV infected children are at risk for incomplete immunization coverage though they regularly access medical care. Including routine immunizations, particularly catch-up immunizations in programs for HIV infected children maybe an effective way of protecting these children from vaccine preventable disease. PMID:23640700

Bhattacharya, Sangeeta Das; Bhattacharyya, Subhasish; Chatterjee, Devlina; Niyogi, Swapan Kumar; Chauhan, Nageshwar; Sudar, A

2013-05-01

286

Incomplete inversion of the hippocampus - a common developmental anomaly  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Incomplete inversion of the hippocampus, an imperfect fetal development, has been described in patients with epilepsy or severe midline malformations. We studied this condition in a nonepileptic population without obvious developmental anomalies. We analyzed the coronal MR images of 50 women and 50 men who did not have epilepsy. Twenty of them were healthy volunteers and 80 were patients without obvious intracranial developmental anomalies, intracranial masses, hydrocephalus or any condition affecting the temporal lobes. If the entire hippocampus (the head could not be evaluated) were affected, the incomplete inversion was classified as total, otherwise as partial. Incomplete inversion of the hippocampus was found in 19/100 subjects (9 women, 10 men). It was unilateral, always on the left side, in 13 subjects (4 women, 9 men): 9 were of the total type, 4 were partial. It was bilateral in six subjects (five women, one man): four subjects had total types bilaterally, two had a combination of total and partial types. The collateral sulcus was vertically oriented in all subjects with a deviating hippocampal shape. We conclude that incomplete inversion of the hippocampus is not an unusual morphologic variety in a nonepileptic population without other obvious intracranial developmental anomalies. (orig.)

Bajic, Dragan; Wang, Chen; Raininko, Raili [Uppsala University Hospital, Department of Radiology, Uppsala (Sweden); Kumlien, Eva; Mattsson, Peter [Uppsala University Hospital, Department of Neurology, Uppsala (Sweden); Lundberg, Staffan; Eeg-Olofsson, Orvar [Uppsala University Hospital, Department of Child Neurology, Uppsala (Sweden)

2008-01-15

287

Influence of the mass asymmetry on the incomplete fusion  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In the present work, a ratio of the incomplete fusion cross-section to the total cross-section (CF + ICF) has been measured, fraction for the 16O + 45Sc, 16O + 74Ge, 20Ne + 59Co and 20Ne + 165Ho systems at ? 3-8 MeV/ nucleon

2007-12-11

288

Incompleteness of Representation Theory: Hidden Symmetries and Quantum Nonintegrability  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Representation theory is shown to be incomplete in terms of enumerating all integrable limits of quantum systems. As a consequence, one can find exactly solvable Hamiltonians which have apparently strongly broken symmetry. The number of these hidden symmetries depends upon the realization of the Hamiltonian. copyright 1997 The American Physical Society

1997-07-01

289

Root cause of incomplete control rod insertions at Westinghouse reactors  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Within the past year, incomplete RCCA insertions have been observed on high burnup fuel assemblies at two Westinghouse PWRs. Initial tests at the Wolf Creek site indicated that the direct cause of the incomplete insertions observed at Wolf Creek was excessive fuel assembly thimble tube distortion. Westinghouse committed to the NRC to perform a root cause analysis by the end of August, 1996. The root cause analysis process used by Westinghouse included testing at ten sites to obtain drag, growth and other characteristics of high burnup fuel assemblies. It also included testing at the Westinghouse hot cell of two of the Wolf Creek incomplete insertion assemblies. A mechanical model was developed to calculate the response of fuel assemblies when subjected to compressive loads. Detailed manufacturing reviews were conducted to determine if this was a manufacturing related issue. In addition, a review of available worldwide experience was performed. Based on the above, it was concluded that the thimble tube distortion observed on the Wolf Creek incomplete insertion assemblies was caused by unusual fuel assembly growth over and above what would typically be expected as a result of irradiation exposure. It was determined that the unusual growth component is a combination of growth due to oxide accumulation and accelerated growth, and would only be expected in high temperature plants on fuel assemblies that see long residence times and high power duties.

Ray, S. [Westinghouse, Monroeville, PA (United States)

1997-01-01

290

Quantum estimation of states and operations from incomplete data  

Science.gov (United States)

We review minimum Kullback entropy principle for estimation of quantum states and operations and discuss its application to qubit and harmonic oscillator systems. In particular, we address the estimation of displacement and squeezing operations from incomplete data and show how to estimate the displacement or squeezing amplitude starting from photon-number resolving or on/off photodetection.

Olivares, S.; Paris, M. G. A.

2012-04-01

291

Effect of relative velocity on incomplete fusion dynamics  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In order to study the effect of relative velocity on incomplete fusion dynamics, experiments have been performed using 20Ne and 16O-ion beams delivered from VECC-machine (Kolkata) and 15UD Pelletron (New Delhi). The details of the experimental set-up are given elsewhere. Activation technique has been used for the present measurements

2013-12-01

292

Root cause of incomplete control rod insertions at Westinghouse reactors  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Within the past year, incomplete RCCA insertions have been observed on high burnup fuel assemblies at two Westinghouse PWRs. Initial tests at the Wolf Creek site indicated that the direct cause of the incomplete insertions observed at Wolf Creek was excessive fuel assembly thimble tube distortion. Westinghouse committed to the NRC to perform a root cause analysis by the end of August, 1996. The root cause analysis process used by Westinghouse included testing at ten sites to obtain drag, growth and other characteristics of high burnup fuel assemblies. It also included testing at the Westinghouse hot cell of two of the Wolf Creek incomplete insertion assemblies. A mechanical model was developed to calculate the response of fuel assemblies when subjected to compressive loads. Detailed manufacturing reviews were conducted to determine if this was a manufacturing related issue. In addition, a review of available worldwide experience was performed. Based on the above, it was concluded that the thimble tube distortion observed on the Wolf Creek incomplete insertion assemblies was caused by unusual fuel assembly growth over and above what would typically be expected as a result of irradiation exposure. It was determined that the unusual growth component is a combination of growth due to oxide accumulation and accelerated growth, and would only be expected in high temperature plants on fuel assemblies that see long residence times and high power duties

1997-01-01

293

Involvement of mitogen-activated protein kinase in 2-hydroxyestradiol-17beta-induced oocyte maturation in the catfish Heteropneustes fossilis and a note on possible interaction with protein phosphatases.  

Science.gov (United States)

Mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) was demonstrated in the postvitellogenic follicles (theca-granulosa and oocyte) of catfish by Western blotting using a polyclonal anti-rabbit serum, which recognized both ERK1 and ERK2. Two distinct protein bands resolved in the 46-48 kDa range of 12% SDS-PAGE were immunoblotted. Incubation of the follicles with 5 microM 2-OHE2 elicited GVBD significantly in a duration-dependent manner with a concomitant increase in the expression of MAPK (ERK1 and ERK2). Densitometric analysis of the immunoblots showed significant variations in the intensity of staining. The ERK1 expression increased significantly from 6 h onwards but the changes were less pronounced. On the other hand, ERK2 registered a sharp significant increase after 3h, which paralleled the GVBD response. The MEK inhibitor PD098059 alone did not induce GVBD. Co-incubation of the follicles with 2-OHE2 and PD098059 significantly inhibited the steroid-induced GVBD at all concentrations. Immunoblot analysis showed that PD098059 inhibited MAPK activity significantly compared to the 2-OHE2 group. The addition of okadaic acid (OA) in the incubation medium containing both 2-OHE2 and PD098059 reversed the inhibitory effect of the latter and GVBD was elevated significantly over that of the 2-OHE2 group but significantly lower than that of the 2-OHE2 + OA group. The results suggest an involvement of MAPK in meiotic maturation but the site(s) of action: oocyte, follicular envelope or both needs further investigation. PMID:16554054

Mishra, A; Joy, K P

2006-07-01

294

IL-15 regulates homeostasis and terminal maturation of NKT cells1  

Science.gov (United States)

Semi-invariant natural killer T (NKT) cells are thymus-derived innate lymphocytes that modulate microbial and tumour immunity as well as autoimmune diseases. These immunoregulatory properties of NKT cells are acquired during their development. Much has been learnt regarding the molecular and cellular cues that promote NKT cell development, yet how these cells are maintained in the thymus and the periphery and how they acquire functional competence are incompletely understood. We found that IL-15 induced several Bcl-2 family survival factors in thymic and splenic NKT cells in vitro. Yet, IL15-mediated thymic and peripheral NKT cell survival critically depended on Bcl-xL expression. Additionally, IL-15 regulated thymic developmental stage 2 (ST2) to ST3 lineage progression and terminal NKT cell differentiation. Global gene expression analyses and validation revealed that IL-15 regulated Tbx21 (T-bet) expression in thymic NKT cells. The loss of IL15 also resulted in poor expression of key effector molecules such as IFN-?, granzyme A and C as well as several NK cell receptors in NKT cells. Taken together, our findings reveal a critical role for IL-15 in NKT cell survival, which is mediated by Bcl-xL, and effector differentiation, which is consistent with a role of T-bet in regulating terminal maturation.

Gordy, Laura E.; Bezbradica, Jelena S.; Flyak, Andrew I.; Spencer, Charles T.; Dunkle, Alexis; Sun, Jingchun; Stanic, Aleksandar K.; Boothby, Mark R.; He, You-Wen; Zhao, Zhongming; Van Kaer, Luc; Joyce, Sebastian

2011-01-01

295

Purification and structural determination of an inhibitor of starfish oocyte maturation from a Bacillus species.  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Inhibitors of bacterial origins of starfish oocyte maturation were sought to obtain biologically active substances which act on either hormonal signal transduction or cell cycle regulation. An oocyte maturation-inhibiting substance found in culture fluid of a Bacillus species was purified to homogeneity. This substance possessed the nature of a detergent and specifically inhibited 1-methyladenine-induced oocyte maturation (50% inhibitory concentration, 3.3 microM) but not dithiothreitol-induc...

Toraya, T.; Maoka, T.; Tsuji, H.; Kobayashi, M.

1995-01-01

296

Gradual molecular evolution of a sex determination switch through incomplete penetrance of femaleness.  

Science.gov (United States)

Some genes regulate phenotypes that are either present or absent. They are often important regulators of developmental switches and are involved in morphological evolution. We have little understanding of the molecular mechanisms by which these absence/presence gene functions have evolved, because the phenotype and fitness of molecular intermediate forms are unknown. Here, we studied the sex-determining switch of 14 natural sequence variants of the csd gene among 76 genotypes of the honeybee (Apis mellifera). Heterozygous genotypes (different specificities) of the csd gene determine femaleness, while hemizygous genotypes (single specificity) determine maleness. Homozygous genotypes of the csd gene (same specificity) are lethal. We found that at least five amino acid differences and length variation between Csd specificities in the specifying domain (PSD) were sufficient to regularly induce femaleness. We estimated that, on average, six pairwise amino acid differences evolved under positive selection. We also identified a natural evolutionary intermediate that showed only three amino acid length differences in the PSD relative to its parental allele. This genotype showed an intermediate fitness because it implemented lethality regularly and induced femaleness infrequently (i.e., incomplete penetrance). We suggest incomplete penetrance as a mechanism through which new molecular switches can gradually and adaptively evolve. PMID:24316208

Beye, Martin; Seelmann, Christine; Gempe, Tanja; Hasselmann, Martin; Vekemans, Xavier; Fondrk, M Kim; Page, Robert E

2013-12-16

297

Consumption-Portfolio Optimization with Recursive Utility in Incomplete Markets  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

In an incomplete market, we study the optimal consumption-portfolio decision of an investor with recursive preferences of Epsteinâ??Zin type. Applying a classical dynamic programming approach, we formulate the associated Hamiltonâ??Jacobiâ??Bellman equation and provide a suitable verification theorem. The proof of this verification theorem is complicated by the fact that the Epsteinâ??Zin aggregator is non-Lipschitz, so standard verification results (e.g. in Duffie and Epstein, Econometrica 60, 393â??394, 1992) are not applicable. We provide new explicit solutions to the Bellman equation with Epsteinâ??Zin preferences in an incomplete market for non-unit elasticity of intertemporal substitution (EIS) and apply our verification result to prove that they solve the consumption-investment problem. We also compare our exact solutions to the Campbellâ??Shiller approximation and assess its accuracy.

Kraft, Holger; Seifried, Frank Thomas

2013-01-01

298

Incomplete nonextensive statistics and the zeroth law of thermodynamics  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

On the basis of the entropy of incomplete statistics (IS) and the joint probability factorization condition, two controversial problems existing in IS are investigated: one is what expression of the internal energy is reasonable for a composite system and the other is whether the traditional zeroth law of thermodynamics is suitable for IS. Some new equivalent expressions of the internal energy of a composite system are derived through accurate mathematical calculation. Moreover, a self-consistent calculation is used to expound that the zeroth law of thermodynamics is also suitable for IS, but it cannot be proven theoretically. Finally, it is pointed out that the generalized zeroth law of thermodynamics for incomplete nonextensive statistics is unnecessary and the nonextensive assumptions for the composite internal energy will lead to mathematical contradiction. (general)

2013-04-01

299

Calculating Weights Methods in Complete Matrices and Incomplete Matrices  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available It is well known that the Analytic Hierarchy Process (AHP of Saaty is one of the most powerful approach for decision aid in solving of a multi criteria decision making (MCDM problem. Several computing weights methods in AHP are analyzed. Based on least square method, three methods for calculating weights using the least the sum of squares of error criterion, the least the sum of error absolute value criterion and the least the error absolute value criterion are proposed. New least squares method is translated into linear system and Minimax method and absolute deviation method are translated into linear programming. New proposed methods can apply to the ranking estimation in incomplete AHP, which is very important to estimate incomplete comparisons data to have alternative’s weights. The computation methods and results are given through numerical examples.

Zaiyue Zhang

2010-03-01

300

Quantum Stackelberg Duopoly with Continuous Distributed Incomplete Information  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A general model of the quantum Stackelberg duopoly is constructed by introducing the 'minimal' quantum structure into the Stackelberg duopoly with continuous distributed incomplete information, where both players only know the continuous distribution of the competitor's unit cost. In this model, the cases with complete information, discrete distributed incomplete information, and continuous distributed asymmetric information are all involved. Because of different roles played by the total information uncertainty and the information asymmetry, the game exhibits some new interesting features, such as the total information uncertainty can counteract or improve the first-mover advantage according to the value of the quantum entanglement. What's more, this general model will be helpful for the government to reduce the abuses of oligopolistic competition and to improve the economic efficiency

2012-12-01

 
 
 
 
301

Quantum Stackelberg Duopoly with Continuous Distributed Incomplete Information  

Science.gov (United States)

A general model of the quantum Stackelberg duopoly is constructed by introducing the “minimal" quantum structure into the Stackelberg duopoly with continuous distributed incomplete information, where both players only know the continuous distribution of the competitor's unit cost. In this model, the cases with complete information, discrete distributed incomplete information, and continuous distributed asymmetric information are all involved. Because of different roles played by the total information uncertainty and the information asymmetry, the game exhibits some new interesting features, such as the total information uncertainty can counteract or improve the first-mover advantage according to the value of the quantum entanglement. What's more, this general model will be helpful for the government to reduce the abuses of oligopolistic competition and to improve the economic efficiency.

Wang, Xia; Hu, Cheng-Zheng

2012-12-01

302

Double-level Incomplete Spinal Cord Injuries: A case report  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Brown-Séquard Syndrome is a type of Incomplete Spinal Cord Injury characterized by a relatively greater ipsilateral loss of proprioception and motor function, with contralateral loss of pain and temperature sensations. The residual deficits in balance produced by such injury may render a person liable to fall that may result in vertebral fracture and another injury to the spinal cord. We present here a case who initially had Brown-Séquard Syndrome due to penetrating knife injury to the neck and later on developed Cauda Equina Syndrome (another Incomplete Spinal Cord Injury due to fractured LV1 following a fall. The fracture was fixed through Pedicle Screws and the patient underwent effective rehabilitation to gain maximum achievable independence in functional activities. [Cukurova Med J 2014; 39(2.000: 392-398

Saeed Bin Ayaz

2014-04-01

303

Diagnosis and treatment of incomplete occlusion of fallopian tube  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Incomplete occlusion of fallopian tube is a common cause for fallopian tubal infertility. However, the spontaneous intrauterine pregnancy rate may be increased after the patients receive appropriate diagnosis and treatment. Laparoscopy combined with hysteroscopy has been regarded to be a golden standard for diagnosis and treatment of fallopian tubal infertility, but its clinical application has been markedly limited due to its invasiveness and great expense. As the first-line screening technique, hysterosalpingography has been widely used to evaluate the fallopian tube patency. Selective salpingography and fallopian tube recanalization are more superior to hysterosalpingography in diagnosing and treating incomplete occlusion of fallopian tube. Selective salpingography and fallopian tube recanalization can even be on a par with laparoscopy, and moreover, can dynamically observe the fallopian tube function as well. As a safe and economical technique with fewer side-effects, selective salpingography plus fallopian tube recanalization has been more widely employed in clinical practice. (authors)

2011-08-01

304

Incomplete dicephalous conjoined twins: prenatal US and MRI findings  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The authors report a case of incomplete dicephali conjoined twins, with prenatal diagnostic by ultrasound scan and confirmed with nuclear magnetic resonance. In this case the fetus presented two complete heads and necks, two parallel columns up to the coccyx, one single body, two complete arms and two complete legs. Thorax and abdominal organs were not double, however the heart had more than four cavities. This abnormality appears when the zygote division happens after the day 14 from fertilization and it is unable to cause the fission, resulting in an incomplete division. This kind of conjoined twins have practically no chance of surviving, due to the large number of shared organs. The prenatal diagnosis is important to separate these cases from those with a chance of living with surgical intervention. (author)

2002-01-01

305

Incomplete capsular bag distension syndrome after neodymium:YAG capsulotomy.  

Science.gov (United States)

We report a 60-year-old man with incomplete capsular bag distension syndrome 2 years after neodymium:YAG (Nd:YAG) laser capsulotomy for capsule opacification, which developed from extracapsular cataract extraction with intraocular lens (IOL) implantation performed 4 years before presentation to our clinic. The patient reported floaters of 15 days duration. Slitlamp examination showed shallowing of the inferior and medial anterior chamber. Dilated pupil examination showed a peripheral capsular bag inferiorly and medially behind the IOL. The bag was distended and filled with turbid fluid. The central and superior capsule was absent as a result of the previous Nd:YAG treatment. The IOL lie over the anterior capsule, and peripheral capsule leaves' edges were adhered. An Nd:YAG laser puncture of the incomplete capsular bag resolved the condition. PMID:16565016

Agrawal, Shishir; Agrawal, Jaya; Agrawal, Trilok Prakash

2006-02-01

306

Comparison of incomplete burn condition between MELCOR and MAAP  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The ignition criteria and the completeness of combustion with and without ignition source are compared between MELCOR and MAAP, which are two representative severe accident analysis codes. While MELCOR uses a simple correlation to determine the ignition criteria, MAAP constructs a flammability limit diagram based on gas temperature and various gas mole fraction. If there is no ignition source, then both codes estimate only the complete combustion as long as the ignition criteria are satisfied. If the ignition source is available, the incomplete burn as well as the complete burn is allowed in the two codes. As the gas temperature increases, MAAP predicts combustion initiation at the lower fuel concentration and MAAP calculates a wider range of fuel concentration for the incomplete burn. Also, the default values set in MELCOR generates similar ignition criteria to MAAP for the gas temperature of 500K

1999-10-01

307

Comparison of incomplete burn condition between MELCOR and MAAP  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The ignition criteria and the completeness of combustion with and without ignition source are compared between MELCOR and MAAP, which are two representative severe accident analysis codes. While MELCOR uses a simple correlation to determine the ignition criteria, MAAP constructs a flammability limit diagram based on gas temperature and various gas mole fraction. If there is no ignition source, then both codes estimate only the complete combustion as long as the ignition criteria are satisfied. If the ignition source is available, the incomplete burn as well as the complete burn is allowed in the two codes. As the gas temperature increases, MAAP predicts combustion initiation at the lower fuel concentration and MAAP calculates a wider range of fuel concentration for the incomplete burn. Also, the default values set in MELCOR generates similar ignition criteria to MAAP for the gas temperature of 500K.

Kim, S. D.; Kim, D. H.; Park, J. H.; Park, S. Y.; Choi, Y. [KAERI, Taejon (Korea, Republic of)

1999-10-01

308

Melatonin Induces Follicle Maturation in Danio rerio  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Most organisms modulate their reproductive activity responding to day length by the nocturnal release of melatonin by the pineal gland. This hormone is also responsible for synchronizing reproduction with specific external environment stimuli in order to optimize reproductive success.

Carnevali, Oliana; Gioacchini, Giorgia; Maradonna, Francesca; Olivotto, Ike; Migliarini, Beatrice

2011-01-01

309

Can we make the second incompleteness theorem coordinate free?  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Is it possible to give a coordinate free formulation of the Second Incompleteness Theorem? We pursue one possible approach to this question. We show that (i) cutfree consistency for finitely axiomatized theories can be uniquely characterized modulo EA-provable equivalence, (ii) consistency for finitely axiomatized sequential theories can be uniquely characterized modulo EA-provable equivalence. The case of infinitely axiomatized ce theories is more delicate. We carefully dis...

Visser, A.

2008-01-01

310

A complete set of addition laws for incomplete Edwards curves  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Edwards curves were the first curves shown to have a complete addition law. However, the completeness of the addition law depends on the curve parameters and even a complete Edwards curve becomes incomplete over a quadratic field extension. This paper covers arbitrary Edwards curves and gives a set of two addition laws that for any pair of input points P(1). P(2) produce the sum P(1) + P(2). (C) 2010 Published by Elsevier Inc.

Bernstein, Dj; Lange, T.

2011-01-01

311

On Information Creation and Its Effect in Incomplete Financial Markets  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

“Thirst for information” existing in financial markets shows that information supply is insufficient and private information is value. Agents will select to acquire economic information under the market incentive mechanism. This is the basis of information creation in incomplete financial markets. Because the information supplies insufficiency in the financial markets is exogenous, information creation is natural exogenous. From this perspective, this paper thinks that information creatio...

Mingren Chen

2012-01-01

312

Value of Information in Competitive Economies with Incomplete Markets  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

We study the value of information in a competitive economy in which agents trade in asset markets to reallocate risk. We characterize the kinds of information that allow a welfare improvement when portfolios can be freely reallocated. We then compare competitive equilibria before and after a change in information. We show that generically, if markets are sufficiently incomplete, the welfare effects are completely arbitrary: there typically exist changes in information that make all agents bet...

2010-01-01

313

The Risky Value in the Capital Market of Incomplete Information  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Risk is everywhere, especially in the capital market of incomplete information, which is full of speculation, so it is particularly important for investors to define risk, identify risks, and control the investment activities with the application of risk value to. It is analyzed quantitatively on risk value in the paper, with the Knowledge of game theory, economics and mathematical statistics, on the basis of the explanation of risk and risk value.

2009-01-01

314

Value of information in competitive economies with incomplete markets  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

A substantial literature addresses the negative eect on welfare of the release of information in a competitive market economy. We show that the value of information in this setting is typically positive if asset markets are suciently incomplete. More specically, for any competitive equilibrium of a generic economy, we can nd a ner information structure such that an allocation that is resource feasible and measurable with respect to this information ex- post Pareto dominates the given equilibr...

2007-01-01

315

Einstein, incompleteness, and the epistemic view of quantum states  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Does the quantum state represent reality or our knowledge of reality? In making this distinction precise, we are led to a novel classification of hidden variable models of quantum theory. Indeed, representatives of each class can be found among existing constructions for two-dimensional Hilbert spaces. Our approach also provides a fruitful new perspective on arguments for the nonlocality and incompleteness of quantum theory. Specifically, we show that for models wherein the ...

Harrigan, Nicholas; Spekkens, Robert W.

2007-01-01

316

The Logical Dynamics of Information; Deacon’s “Incomplete Nature”  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

In his Incomplete Nature, Deacon extends a thermodynamic concept of energy to yield a description of complex processes in which absence plays a critical role in their emergence and evolution. Starting from a quantum-mechanical picture of energy as an energy-matter duality, the critical role of potential as well as actual properties of processes is also described in the new extension of logic to real phenomena, Logic in Reality (LIR), which I have proposed. Deacon shows how an interactive oper...

Brenner, Joseph E.

2012-01-01

317

Reasoning about Complex Actions with Incomplete Knowledge: A Modal Approach  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

In this paper we propose a modal approach for reasoning about dynamic domains in a logic programming setting. We present a logical framework for reasoning about actions in which modal inclusion axioms of the form p0 ? ? p1 p2 . . . pn ? allow procedures to be defined for building complex actions from elementary actions. The language is able to handle knowledge producing actions as well as actions which remove information. Incomplete states are represented by means of epistemic operators a...

Martelli, Alberto; Patti, Viviana; Baldoni, Matteo; Giordano, Laura

2001-01-01

318

Pareto improving social security reform when financial markets are incomplete!?  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This paper studies an overlapping generations model with stochastic production and incomplete markets to assess whether the introduction of an unfunded social security system leads to a Pareto improvement. When returns to capital and wages are imperfectly correlated a system that endows retired households with claims to labor income enhances the sharing of aggregate risk between generations. Our quantitative analysis shows that, abstracting from the capital crowding-out effect, the introducti...

Krueger, Dirk; Kubler, Felix

2005-01-01

319

Acute inflammation at a mandibular solitary horizontal incompletely impacted molar  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Minoru Yamaoka, Yusuke Ono, Masahide Ishizuka, Yoko Hasumi-Nakayama, Ryosuke Doto, Kouichi Yasuda, Takashi Uematsu, Kiyofumi FurusawaOral and Maxillofacial Surgery, Matsumoto Dental University School of Dentistry, Shiojiri, Nagano, JapanAbstract: Acute inflammation is frequently seen in the elderly around incompletely impacted molars located apart from molars or premolars. To identify the factors causing acute inflammation in the solitary molars without second molars or without second and fir...

2009-01-01

320

Optimal portfolio selection and compression in an incomplete market  

CERN Document Server

We investigate an optimal investment problem with a general performance criterion which, in particular, includes discontinuous functions. Prices are modeled as diffusions and the market is incomplete. We find an explicit solution for the case of limited diversification of the portfolio, i.e. for the portfolio compression problem. By this we mean that an admissible strategies may include no more than m different stocks concurrently, where m may be less than the total number n of available stocks.

Dokuchaev, N; Dokuchaev, Nikolai; Haussmann, Ulrich

2001-01-01

 
 
 
 
321

Pricing the Option to Surrender in Incomplete Markets  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

New international accounting standards require insurers to reflect the value of embedded options and guarantees in their products. Pricing techniques based on the Black & Scholes paradigm are often used, however, the hypotheses underneath this model are rarely met. We propose a framework that encompasses the most known sources of incompleteness. We show that the surrender option, joined with a wide range of claims embedded in insurance contracts, can be priced through our tool, and deliver he...

Consiglio, Andrea; Giovanni, Domenico

2007-01-01

322

Improvement of wheat in Zambia using incomplete resistance against rusts  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The programme of wheat improvement developed in Zambia used local facilities (finance, personnel, infrastructure), low budget, and few personnel. Incomplete resistance against rusts was used to obtain durable resistance.The abiotic conditions, socio-economic status of the farmers, cropping methods, economic aims of wheat production and the status of research are described. Pests and diseases are discussed including some which are yet of minor importance. Possible grain yield losses are estima...

Milliano, W. A. J.

1983-01-01

323

Seronegative conversion after incomplete benznidazole treatment in chronic Chagas disease.  

Science.gov (United States)

In 12-18% of adult patients, treatment with benznidazole for chronic Chagas disease has to be discontinued because of side-effects. We identified and analysed a cohort of 81 adult patients with three positive tests for Trypanosoma cruzi infection and serological monitoring following incomplete treatment with benznidazole for a median of 10 days. Twenty percent of these patients (16/81) met the criteria of cure, showing that the optimal schedule of benznidazole administration remains to be determined. PMID:22898619

Alvarez, M G; Vigliano, C; Lococo, B; Petti, M; Bertocchi, G; Viotti, R

2012-10-01

324

Distributed control systems with incomplete and uncertain information  

Science.gov (United States)

Scientific and engineering advances in wireless communication, sensors, propulsion, and other areas are rapidly making it possible to develop unmanned air vehicles (UAVs) with sophisticated capabilities. UAVs have come to the forefront as tools for airborne reconnaissance to search for, detect, and destroy enemy targets in relatively complex environments. They potentially reduce risk to human life, are cost effective, and are superior to manned aircraft for certain types of missions. It is desirable for UAVs to have a high level of intelligent autonomy to carry out mission tasks with little external supervision and control. This raises important issues involving tradeoffs between centralized control and the associated potential to optimize mission plans, and decentralized control with great robustness and the potential to adapt to changing conditions. UAV capabilities have been extended several ways through armament (e.g., Hellfire missiles on Predator UAVs), increased endurance and altitude (e.g., Global Hawk), and greater autonomy. Some known barriers to full-scale implementation of UAVs are increased communication and control requirements as well as increased platform and system complexity. One of the key problems is how UAV systems can handle incomplete and uncertain information in dynamic environments. Especially when the system is composed of heterogeneous and distributed UAVs, the overall system complexity is increased under such conditions. Presented through the use of published papers, this dissertation lays the groundwork for the study of methodologies for handling incomplete and uncertain information for distributed control systems. An agent-based simulation framework is built to investigate mathematical approaches (optimization) and emergent intelligence approaches. The first paper provides a mathematical approach for systems of UAVs to handle incomplete and uncertain information. The second paper describes an emergent intelligence approach for UAVs, again in handling incomplete and uncertain information. The third paper combines mathematical and emergent intelligence approaches.

Tang, Jingpeng

325

Objective and subjective expected utility with incomplete preferences  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This paper extends the expected utility models of decision making under risk and under uncertainty to include incomplete beliefs and tastes. The main results are two axiomatizations of the multi-prior expected multi-utility representations of preference relation under uncertainty, thereby resolving long standing open questions. The Knightian uncertainty model and expected multi-utility model with complete beliefs are obtained as special cases. In addition, the von Neumann-Morgenstern expected...

Galaabaatar, Tsogbadral; Karni, Edi

2010-01-01

326

Incomplete Lineage Sorting: Consistent Phylogeny Estimation From Multiple Loci  

CERN Multimedia

We introduce a simple algorithm for reconstructing phylogenies from multiple gene trees in the presence of incomplete lineage sorting, that is, when the topology of the gene trees may differ from that of the species tree. We show that our technique is statistically consistent under standard stochastic assumptions, that is, it returns the correct tree given sufficiently many unlinked loci. We also show that it can tolerate moderate estimation errors.

Mossel, Elchanan

2008-01-01

327

An automatic ordering method for incomplete factorization iterative solvers  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The minimum discarded fill (MDF) ordering strategy for incomplete factorization iterative solvers is developed. MDF ordering is demonstrated for several model son-symmetric problems, as well as a water-flooding simulation which uses an unstructured grid. The model problems show a three to five fold decrease in the number of iterations compared to natural orderings. Greater than twofold improvement was observed for the waterflooding simulation. 26 refs., 7 figs., 3 tabs.

Forsyth, P.A.; Tang, W.P. (Waterloo Univ., ON (Canada). Dept. of Computer Science); D' Azevedo, E.F.D. (Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (USA))

1991-01-01

328

Acute inflammation at a mandibular solitary horizontal incompletely impacted molar  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Minoru Yamaoka, Yusuke Ono, Masahide Ishizuka, Yoko Hasumi-Nakayama, Ryosuke Doto, Kouichi Yasuda, Takashi Uematsu, Kiyofumi FurusawaOral and Maxillofacial Surgery, Matsumoto Dental University School of Dentistry, Shiojiri, Nagano, JapanAbstract: Acute inflammation is frequently seen in the elderly around incompletely impacted molars located apart from molars or premolars. To identify the factors causing acute inflammation in the solitary molars without second molars or without second and first molars, ages of patients and rates of acute inflammation in 75 horizontal incompletely impacted mandibular molars in contact or not in contact with molars in subjects 41 years old or older were studied using orthopantomographs. Acute inflammation was seen in nine third molars out of 48 third molars in contact with second molars (18.8%, whereas acute inflammation was seen in 11 molars out of 19 solitary molars without second molars or without first and second molars (57.9% (p < 0.01. The mean age of 48 subjects with third molars in contact with the second molar was 50.42 ± 7.62 years, and the mean age of 19 subjects with isolated molars was 65.16 ± 10.41 years (p < 0.0001. These indicate that a solitary horizontal incompletely impacted molar leads more frequently to acute inflammation along with aging due to possible bone resorption resulting from teeth loss.Keywords: mandible, third molar, impaction, elderly, acute inflammation, solitary molar

Minoru Yamaoka

2009-04-01

329

Evaluating an Investment Project in an Incomplete Market  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Many studies on real options base their arguments upon the assumption thatsecurity market is complete to apply the risk-neutral valuation technique. However, whenthe market is incomplete, in which investment risk is not spanned by existing assets, theinvestor?s preferences are not risk-neutral, or management is refrained from certain tradingstrategies, there may exist no unique martingale price of uncertain income streams. In thispaper, a dynamic-programming framework for maximizing expected utility of an investor indiscrete time is presented to evaluate an investment opportunity in an incomplete market.It is suggested that certainty equivalent (CE could be applied to value such an investmentopportunity. We show that two approaches to certainty equivalent, i.e., the buying price andthe selling price approaches, are exactly equal in exponential utility, implying that CE is afair value for both the buyer and the seller in an incomplete market, subject to the degree ofrisk aversion. Therefore, the proposed approach, compared to other alternative approaches,is relatively intuitive and easy to apply. With the classic investment problem, it is shownthat the option embedded in a project is crucial in decision-making.

George Yungchih Wang

2012-06-01

330

Incomplete domain decomposition preconditioning for coarse mesh neutron diffusion problems  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Incomplete domain decomposition preconditioning for parallel implementation of the conjugate gradient-like methods is applied to solve the two-group, three-dimensional, coarse mesh finite differenced neutron diffusion equation on the PARAGON XP/S-10 parallel computer. The linear system resulting from implicit time differencing of the time-dependent neutron diffusion equation is solved by the preconditioned biconjugate gradient squared method without employing the fission source iteration. An efficient domain decomposition preconditioning scheme is constructed by taking advantage of strong diagonal dominance of the coarse mesh finite difference formulation. Simplifications are made in the incomplete LU factorization process to construct a preconditioner for a three dimensional subdomain and the coupling between subdomains is approximated by incorporating only the effect of the non-leakage terms of neighboring subdomains. The method is applied to quarter core and full core fixed source problems which are created from the IAEA three-dimensional benchmark problem. Results show that on a single processor the computation time for the preconditioned biconjugate gradient method is comparable to other conventional iteration methods such as Line-SOR and the cyclic Chebyshev semi-iterative method. The effectiveness of the incomplete domain decomposition preconditioning on a multi-processor is evidenced by the small increase in the number of iterations as the number of subdomains increases. Speedups up to 32.1 are achievable with 64 processing elements for a 34x34x36 full core three-dimensional problem

1995-05-04

331

Sublingual misoprostol versus standard surgical care for treatment of incomplete abortion in five sub-Saharan African countries  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Abstract Background In low-resource settings, where abortion is highly restricted and self-induced abortions are common, access to post-abortion care (PAC) services, especially treatment of incomplete terminations, is a priority. Standard post-abortion care has involved surgical intervention but can be hard to access in these areas. Misoprostol provides an alternative to surgical intervention that could increase access to abortion care. We sought to gather additional evidence...

Shochet Tara; Diop Ayisha; Gaye Alioune; Nayama Madi; Sall Aissata; Bukola Fawole; Blandine Thieba; Abiola Okunlola; Dao Blami; Olayinka Ogunbode; Winikoff Beverly

2012-01-01

332

Predictive Capability Maturity Model (PCMM).  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Predictive Capability Maturity Model (PCMM) is a communication tool that must include a dicussion of the supporting evidence. PCMM is a tool for managing risk in the use of modeling and simulation. PCMM is in the service of organizing evidence to help tell the modeling and simulation (M&S) story. PCMM table describes what activities within each element are undertaken at each of the levels of maturity. Target levels of maturity can be established based on the intended application. The assessment is to inform what level has been achieved compared to the desired level, to help prioritize the VU activities & to allocate resources.

Swiler, Laura Painton; Knupp, Patrick Michael; Urbina, Angel

2010-10-01

333

Active maturation-promoting factor is present in mature mouse oocytes  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Cytoplasmic extracts of meiotically mature mouse oocytes were injected into immature Xenopus laevis oocytes, which underwent germinal vesicle breakdown within 2 h. Germinal vesicle breakdown was not inhibited by incubation of the Xenopus oocytes in cycloheximide (20 micrograms/ml). Identically prepared extracts of meiotically immature mouse oocytes, arrested at the germinal vesicle stage by dibutyryl cyclic AMP (100 micrograms/ml), did not induce germinal vesicle breakdown in Xenopus oocytes....

1985-01-01

334

Decline of follicular oocyte maturation inhibitor coincident with maturation and achievement of fertilizability of oocytes recovered at midcycle of gonadotropin-treated women.  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

To examine whether a decline in follicular oocyte maturation inhibitor (OMI) is associated with attainment of oocyte maturation and fertilizability, OMI was measured in follicular fluid (FF) of 39 follicles of 20 normal women given human menopausal gonadotrophin and human chorionic gonadotrophin to induce follicular growth and maturation. Oocytes were aspirated per laparoscope, the fluid was saved, and the egg was observed, incubated, and inseminated with the husband's sperm. Concepti that de...

Channing, C. P.; Liu, C. Q.; Jones, G. S.; Jones, H.

1983-01-01

335

Xenopus oocyte maturation does not require new cyclin synthesis  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Progesterone induces fully grown, stage VI, Xenopus oocytes to pass through meiosis I and arrest in metaphase of meiosis II. Protein synthesis is required twice in this process: in order to activate maturation promoting factor (MPF) which induces meiosis I, and then again after the completion of meiosis I to reactivate MPF in order to induce meiosis II. We have used antisense oligonucleotides to destroy maternal stores of cyclin mRNAs, and demonstrate that new cyclin synthesis is not required...

1991-01-01

336

Structural and functional maturation of rat gastrointestinal barrier with thyroxine  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

It has been noted that the closure of the intestinal barrier to immunoglobulins is a normal maturational process in the rat. It has also been noted that the microvillus membrane (MVM) of newborn animals differs from adult MVM. The purpose of this study is to document whether thyroid hormone can induce closure in vivo in the rat and to relate this effect of thyroxine to the structural and functional maturation of the intestinal MVM. To assess closure, 2-wk-old rats were fed in rat immunoglobulin G (IgG), and serum antibody binding activity was measured 4 h later. The antibody binding activity of treated animals (T) was 1.5-2 times less than that of controls (C), indicating that thyroxine stimulates closure. The MVM similarly showed signs of maturation. Structural maturation was demonstrated by the lower fluidity of the thyroid-treated animals' membranes. Under the influence of thyroxine, the number of receptors on the MVM for IgG had decreased, while the K/sub a/ remained the same, demonstrating the functional maturation of the MVM. In conclusion, thryoid hormone can induce both structural and functional maturation of the intestinal MVM and can enhance the intestinal mucosal barrier by decreasing the penetration of antibodies

1987-01-01

337

The maturing of disabled adolescent  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The purpose of the study is to examine maturing of severely disabled adolescents. Maturing is defined in respect to development and creative processes. The processes take place in an environment, which comprises of cultural, social and economic environments. The study has been conducted with a qualitative research approach. The material of the study consists of interviews with nine adolescents and also experts have been consulted. As a frame for the interviews is a list of themes. The t...

Ahponen, Helena

2001-01-01

338

Assessing harvest maturity in nectarines  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The maturity at harvest of nectarines can be assessed with the novel technique of time-resolved reflectance spectroscopy (TRS) measuring the light absorption at 670 nm in the fruit flesh. A kinetic model was developed that links this absorption coefficient (¿a), expressed as the biological shift factor, to firmness decrease during ripening. The model thus includes the variations in maturity at harvest of the individual fruit. In non-linear regression analyses of data from four different seas...

2007-01-01

339

Incomplete screening flexible sigmoidoscopy associated with female sex, age, and increased risk of colorectal cancer  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Background: Several previous studies have found that females and older individuals are at greater risk of having incomplete flexible sigmoidoscopy. However, no prior study has reported the subsequent risk of colorectal cancer (CRC) following incomplete sigmoidoscopy.

2005-01-01

340

Observation of entrance channel mass-asymmetry effect on incomplete fusion reaction for 20Ne+165Ho system  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

An experiment has been performed to explore the incomplete fusion (ICF) reaction dynamics in heavy ion induced reactions. Excitation functions (EFs) for eighteen evaporation residues (ERs) produced in the system 20Ne+165Ho have been measured in the energy range ?88–164 MeV. Some of the ERs have significant contribution from precursor decay, which has been separated out from the measured cumulative cross-sections to get direct production cross-sections. Parameters of the statistical model code PACE-2 are optimized to reproduce the ERs populated in complete fusion reactions such as in xn and pxn channels. Using the same parameters, EFs for the residues produced in ?-particle(s) emission channels have been calculated. A significant enhancement in the measured EFs of the ERs produced in ?-particle(s) emission channels over the PACE-2 predictions have been observed which indicates the occurrence of incomplete fusion reaction process. In the ICF process the break-up of projectile 20Ne into 4He+16O and/or 8Be+12C takes place followed by fusion of one of the fragments with the target nucleus 165Ho. The present data analyses suggest that probability of incomplete fusion reaction increases with projectile energy. The ICF fraction FICF has been estimated and found to increase with increasing mass-asymmetry [AT/(AT+AP)] of the partners in entrance channel. It is also observed that critical angular momentum associated with incomplete fusion channels at higher projectile energy may be associated with ?-values lower than that of peripheral collisions, indicating that the incomplete fusion competes with complete fusion even at angular momentum values little lower than critical angular momentum.

2012-04-01

 
 
 
 
341

Introduction of misoprostol for the treatment of incomplete abortion beyond 12weeks of pregnancy in Benin.  

Science.gov (United States)

Improving the care of women who have undergone a spontaneous or induced abortion is an important step in reducing abortion-related morbidity and mortality. Both the International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics (FIGO) and the World Health Organization recommend the use of manual vacuum aspiration (MVA) and misoprostol rather than sharp curettage to treat incomplete abortion. MVA was introduced into the public healthcare service in Benin in 2006 and since 2008 misoprostol has been available in 3 large maternity hospitals. The present study opted to use an oral dose of 800?g and not to limit to pregnancies of up to 12weeks, but to include women with second trimester abortions. After 5years, results show that around three-quarters of the women treated with misoprostol at 13-18weeks of pregnancy required MVA to complete uterine evacuation and approximately one-quarter had severe bleeding, confirming that the indication of misoprostol for incomplete abortion should be limited to pregnancies of up to 12weeks. PMID:24800660

Adisso, Sosthène; Hounkpatin, Benjamin I B; Komongui, Gounnou D; Sambieni, Olivier; Perrin, René X

2014-07-01

342

Gamma knife radiosurgery for the treatment of recurrent seizures after incomplete anterior temporal lobectomy.  

Science.gov (United States)

To evaluate the efficacy and safety of gamma knife radiosurgery (GKS) in treating temporal lobe epilepsy, GKS was performed in four adult patients with recurrent complex partial seizures who underwent incomplete anterior temporal lobectomy (ATL) but were reluctant to undergo a second resective surgery. A marginal dose of 24.5-25Gy, corresponding to 65-70% isodose curve, was delivered to the treatment target that included the residual amygdala and the head and anterior body of the hippocampus. None of the patients had severe acute side effects but three patients had radiation-induced MRI signal changes around the target volume 13, 20, and 24 months after GKS, respectively. All four patients had significant seizure reduction during the first 6-month period and clinical efficacy persisted throughout the 2-year follow-up period. All of the patients also had improved neuropsychological profiles, including memory function and quality-of-life, compared to their pre-GKS conditions. In conclusion, the safety and clinical efficacy of GKS make it a reasonable and suitable therapeutic alternative for patients with recurrent seizures after incomplete ATL. A higher marginal dose of >25Gy and wider coverage may be more clinically beneficial but warrant further investigation. PMID:19505832

Yen, Der-Jen; Chung, Wen-Yuh; Shih, Yang-Hsin; Chen, Chien; Lirng, Jiing-Feng; Yiu, Chun-Hing; Yu, Hsiang-Yu; Su, Tung-Ping; Pan, David Hung-Chi

2009-09-01

343

Incomplete block factorization preconditioning for indefinite elliptic problems  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The application of the finite difference method to approximate the solution of an indefinite elliptic problem produces a linear system whose coefficient matrix is block tridiagonal and symmetric indefinite. Such a linear system can be solved efficiently by a conjugate residual method, particularly when combined with a good preconditioner. We show that specific incomplete block factorization exists for the indefinite matrix if the mesh size is reasonably small. And this factorization can serve as an efficient preconditioner. Some efforts are made to estimate the eigenvalues of the preconditioned matrix. Numerical results are also given.

Guo, Chun-Hua [Univ. of Calgary, Alberta (Canada)

1996-12-31

344

Incomplete block SSOR preconditionings for high order discretizations  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This paper considers the solution of linear algebraic systems Ax = b resulting from the p-version of the Finite Element Method (FEM) using PCG iterations. Contrary to the h-version, the p-version ensures the desired accuracy of a discretization not by refining an original finite element mesh but by introducing higher degree polynomials as additional basis functions which permits to reduce the size of the resulting linear system as compared with the h-version. The suggested preconditionings are the so-called Incomplete Block SSOR (IBSSOR) preconditionings.

Kolotilina, L. [Steklov Mathematical Institute, St. Petersburg (Russian Federation)

1994-12-31

345

Incomplete information and the closed-end fund discount  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

We model the closed-end fund discount/premium in a version of Merton’s (1978) asset pricing model with incomplete information. In this economy, investors trade only assets which they “ know about” . The model generates a closed-end fund discount or premium, depending on risk-aversion parameters. The fund share price reverts to the net asset value on open-ending of the fund. The discount/premium is a result of two economic forces: (1) the fund manager’s objective is to maximize expecte...

Barone-adesi, Giovanni; Kim, Youngsoo

2008-01-01

346

Identification of Moving Interaction Forces with Incomplete Velocity Information  

Science.gov (United States)

A new method to identify moving loads on a beam using measured vibration responses is studied for its possible application to identify axle loads when applied to the real bridge/vehicle interaction problem with road surface roughness and incomplete vehicle speed. Results from numerical studies on both a single and multi-span bridges and from laboratory experiment show that the method can identify individual axle loads travelling at non-uniform speed with small error. It can even identify the weight of the vehicle accurately when the vehicle brakes on top of the bridge deck.

ZHU, X. Q.; LAW, S. S.

2003-11-01

347

Conditioning analysis of incomplete Cholesky factorizations with orthogonal dropping  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The analysis of preconditioners based on incomplete Cholesky factorization in which the neglected (dropped) components are orthogonal to the approximations being kept is presented. General estimate for the condition number of the preconditioned system is given which only depends on the accuracy of individual approximations. The estimate is further improved if, for instance, only the newly computed rows of the factor are modified during each approximation step. In this latter case it is further shown to be sharp. The analysis is illustrated with some existing factorizations in the context of discretized elliptic partial differential equations.

Napov, Artem

2012-03-16

348

Incomplete Continuous-time Securities Markets with Stochastic Income Volatility  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

We derive closed-form solutions for the equilibrium interest rate and market price of risk processes in an incomplete continuous-time market with uncertainty generated by Brownian motions. The economy has a finite number of heterogeneous exponential utility investors, who receive partially unspanned income and can trade continuously. Countercyclical stochastic income volatility generates a countercyclical equilibrium market price of risk process and a procyclical equilibrium interest rate process. We show that when the investors' unspanned income volatility is countercyclical, the resulting equilibrium displays both lower interest rates and higher risk premia compared to the equilibrium in an otherwise identical complete market.

Christensen, Peter Ove; Larsen, Kasper

2014-01-01

349

The performance of hyperlexic children on an "incomplete words" task.  

Science.gov (United States)

Hyperlexic children were found to outperform normal controls in a task involving the ability to decipher "incomplete words", in which letter-identifying cues were made ambiguous through deletion. Superior performance was characterized by rapidity of response, fine-grained discrimination, and dependency upon the larger visual array. the rapid, complex syntheses achieved by the hyperlexic children is related to recent work involving the nature of visual information processing by the right hemisphere and to the suggestion that a unique form of reading may result from right hemispheric mediation. Finally, the possible process similarities relating hyperlexia to autism are discussed. PMID:7145082

Cobrinik, L

1982-01-01

350

Asset pricing puzzles explained by incomplete Brownian equilibria  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

We examine a class of Brownian based models which produce tractable incomplete equilibria. The models are based on finitely many investors with heterogeneous exponential utilities over intermediate consumption who receive partially unspanned income. The investors can trade continuously on a finite time interval in a money market account as well as a risky security. Besides establishing the existence of an equilibrium, our main result shows that the resulting equilibrium can display a lower risk-free rate and a higher risk premium relative to the usual Pareto efficient equilibrium in complete markets. Consequently, our model can simultaneously help explaining the risk-free rate and equity premium puzzles.

Christensen, Peter Ove; Larsen, Kasper

2010-01-01

351

A Short Guide to Gödel's Second Incompleteness Theorem  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The usual proof of Godel's second incompleteness theorem for weak theories like I Sigma 'subscript 1' is long and technically cumbersome. The details are rarely given in full and in most cases they are skipped altogether with dismissing vague sentences alluding to the reader's ability to fill them in. In the first part of this note we provide a guide through the main technical points of the usual proof of Godel's theorem for weak theories. In the second part we present a different and simpler...

Bagaria, Joan

2003-01-01

352

Information, randomness & incompleteness papers on algorithmic information theory  

CERN Document Server

The papers gathered in this book were published over a period of more than twenty years in widely scattered journals. They led to the discovery of randomness in arithmetic which was presented in the recently published monograph on "Algorithmic Information Theory" by the author. There the strongest possible version of Gödel's incompleteness theorem, using an information-theoretic approach based on the size of computer programs, was discussed. The present book is intended as a companion volume to the monograph and it will serve as a stimulus for work on complexity, randomness and unpredictabilit

Chaitin, Gregory J

1987-01-01

353

Dating of marine sediments by an incomplete mixing model  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A marine sediment core from the Kattegat area (Sweden) has been studied for dating purposes. The 137Cs and 210Pb profiles have been measured and described by a model of incomplete activity mixing. A time-dependent 137Cs flux function for the sediment has been constructed from atmospheric data and the 137Cs contents in water from the Sellafield nuclear reprocessing plant. It has been used as the 137Cs input function for our model. The results show that the model clearly reproduces the measured profile. (author)

1992-01-01

354

Program generator for the Incomplete Cholesky Conjugate Gradient (ICCG) method  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The Incomplete Cholesky Conjugate Gradient (ICCG) method has been found very effective for the solution of sparse systems of linear equations. Its implementation on a computer, however, requires a considerable amount of careful coding to achieve good machine efficiency. Furthermore, the resulting code is necessarily inflexible and cannot be easily adapted to different problems. We present in this paper a code generator GENIC which, given a small amount of information concerning the sparsity pattern and size of the system of equations, generates a solver package. This package, called SOLIC, is tailor made for a particular problem and can be easily incorporated into any user program

1978-01-01

355

Global stability of two models with incomplete treatment for tuberculosis  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Research highlights: Two tuberculosis models with incomplete treatment. Intuitive epidemiological interpretations for the basic reproduction numbers. Global dynamics of the two models. Strategies to control the spread of tuberculosis. - Abstract: Two tuberculosis (TB) models with incomplete treatment are investigated. It is assumed that the treated individuals may enter either the latent compartment due to the remainder of Mycobacterium tuberculosis or the infectious compartment due to the treatment failure. The first model is a simple one with treatment failure reflecting the current TB treatment fact in most countries with high tuberculosis incidence. The second model refines the simple one by dividing the latent compartment into slow and fast two kinds of progresses. This improvement can be used to describe the case that the latent TB individuals have been infected with some other chronic diseases (such as HIV and diabetes) which may weaken the immunity of infected individuals and shorten the latent period of TB. Both of the two models assume mass action incidence and exponential distributions of transfers between different compartments. The basic reproduction numbers of the two models are derived and their intuitive epidemiological interpretations are given. The global dynamics of two models are all proved by using Liapunov functions. At last, some strategies to control the spread of tuberculosis are discussed.

Yang Yali, E-mail: yylhgr@126.co [Department of Applied Mathematics, Xi' an Jiaotong University, Xi' an 710049 (China) and Department of Applied Mathematics and Physics, Air Force Engineering University, Xi' an 710051 (China); Li Jianquan, E-mail: jianq_li@263.ne [Department of Applied Mathematics and Physics, Air Force Engineering University, Xi' an 710051 (China); Ma Zhien, E-mail: zhma@mail.xjtu.edu.c [Department of Applied Mathematics, Xi' an Jiaotong University, Xi' an 710049 (China); Liu Luju, E-mail: dahai20401095@yahoo.com.c [Department of Mathematics, Henan University of Science and Technology, Luoyang 471003 (China)

2010-12-15

356

Data repair method in incomplete free-surface measurement  

Science.gov (United States)

Measurement instrument such as coordinate measuring machine or laser scanner is widely applied in the modern industrial manufacturing to reconstruct the shapes of free-surface. However this reconstruction method is determined by the extraction integrity of the shape parameter in the measured part. Some problems occur frequently for the partial surface damage, measurement block, accessible extent, etc., and which result in the measured data incomplete. This paper presents a data repair method based on the gray model combined with neural network theory. The data of the defect surface is divided into different part and the new data sequence is generated. The accumulated generation operation is applied to the new sequence. The normalization processing can then be done before the gray accumulation generation input into the neural network model. The relevant factor sequence by accumulation generation of normalization processing is taken as the RBF neural network input, while the accumulated feature sequence is considered as the output of the network. The defect surface to be repaired is composed of point cloud data. The value of each point can be calculated in the three directions so that the output of the neural network also has three characteristic data. The simulation experimental results show this method can be applied easily in the data repair in the incomplete free-surface with a high accuracy.

Wang, Zhongyu; Li, Qiang; Yan, Hu; Wang, Qian

2013-10-01

357

Definite integrals of generalized certain class of incomplete elliptic integrals  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Elliptic- integral have their importance and potential in certain problems in radiation physics and nuclear technology, studies of crystallographic minimal surfaces, the theory of scattering of acoustic or electromagnetic waves by means of an elliptic disk, studies of elliptical crack problems in fracture mechanics. A number of earlier works on the subject contains remarkably large number of general families of elliptic- integrals and indeed also many definite integrals of such families with respect to their modulus (or complementary modulus are known to arise naturally. Motivated essentially by these and many other potential avenues of their applications, our aim here is to give a systematic account of the theory of a certain family of generalized incomplete elliptic integrals in a unique and generalized manner. The results established in this paper are of manifold generality and basic in nature. By making use of the familiar Riemann-Liouville fractional differ integral operators, we establish many explicit hypergeometric representations and apply these representation in deriving several definite integrals pertaining to their, not only with respect to the modulus (or complementary modulus, but also with respect to the amplitude of generalized incomplete elliptic integrals involved therein.

Ravi Shanker Dubey

2013-06-01

358

Fabrication of Stable Cartilage Framework for Microtia in Incomplete Synchondrosis  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The synchondrosis between the sixth and seventh costal cartilage is usually used for thebase frame in autogenous ear reconstruction. If the synchondrosis is loose, a variety ofmodifications can be devised. This report introduces new methods for these problems. Incases of incomplete synchondrosis, only the surface of the base block margin was smoothlytapered without carving for the removal of the conchal deepening. The secure fixation ofthe two segments (helix and antihelix to the base block using fine wire sutures gave stabilityto the unstable basal frame. After confirming that all the segments were assembled in onestable piece, the remaining conchal deepening of the basal framework was removed, and theouter lower portion of the basal cartilage was trimmed along its whole length. A total of 10consecutive patients with microtia, ranging from 8 to 13 years old, were treated from 2008 to2009. The follow-up period was 6 months to 2 years. Despite incomplete synchondrosis, thestable frameworks were constructed using the authors’ method and aesthetically acceptableresults were achieved. The proposed method can provide an easy way to make a stablecartilage framework regardless of the variable conditions of synchondrosis.

Byung Chae Cho

2012-03-01

359

Insights into thermonuclear supernovae from the incomplete silicon burning process  

CERN Multimedia

Type Ia supernova (SNIa) explosions synthesize a few tenths to several tenths of a solar mass, whose composition is the result of incomplete silicon burning that reaches peak temperatures of 4 GK to 5 GK. The elemental abundances are sensitive to the physical conditions in the explosion, making their measurement a promising clue to uncovering the properties of the progenitor star and of the explosion itself. Using a parameterized description of the thermodynamic history of matter undergoing incomplete silicon burning, we computed the final composition for a range of parameters wide enough to encompass current models of SNIa. Then, we searched for combinations of elemental abundances that trace the parameters values and are potentially measurable. For this purpose, we divide the present study into two epochs of SNIa, namely the optical epoch, from a few weeks to several months after the explosion, and the X-ray epoch, which refers to the time period in which the supernova remnant is young, starting one or two ...

Bravo, E

2012-01-01

360

Early maturity mutants from reirradiation of rice mutant MA03  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Rice mutant MA03 was obtained through induced mutation breeding programme on a popular rice variety c.v Mr52. It was a semidwarf mutant line with other useful attributes such as high yield and upright panicle. However, it was also disadvantaged by a long maturity period and a rounded grain shape which lowered its commercial grade. Therefore, the Mr52-derived induced mutant was subjected to another irradiation treatment to improve its characteristics further. At M4 generation 6 mutant lines with improved maturity period were selected. The second irradiation treatment had successfully improved the maturity period and reduced plant height of MA03 further but did not change the grain shape

1995-01-01

 
 
 
 
361

Human macrophage polarization in vitro: Maturation and activation methods compared.  

Science.gov (United States)

Macrophages form a heterogeneous cell population displaying multiple functions, and can be polarized into pro- (M1) or anti-inflammatory (M2) macrophages, by environmental factors. Their activation status reflects a beneficial or detrimental role in various diseases. Currently several in vitro maturation and activation protocols are used to induce an M1 or M2 phenotype. Here, the impact of different maturation factors (NHS, M-CSF, or GM-CSF) and activation methods (IFN-?/LPS, IL-4, dexamethason, IL-10) on the macrophage phenotype was determined. Regarding macrophage morphology, pro-inflammatory (M1) activation stimulated cell elongation, and anti-inflammatory (M2) activation induced a circular appearance. Activation with pro-inflammatory mediators led to increased CD40 and CD64 expression, whereas activation with anti-inflammatory factors resulted in increased levels of MR and CD163. Production of pro-inflammatory cytokines was induced by activation with IFN-?/LPS, and TGF-? production was enhanced by the maturation factors M-CSF and GM-CSF. Our data demonstrate that macrophage marker expression and cytokine production in vitro is highly dependent on both maturation and activation methods. In vivo macrophage activation is far more complex, since a plethora of stimuli are present. Hence, defining the macrophage activation status ex vivo on a limited number of markers could be indecisive. From this study we conclude that maturation with M-CSF or GM-CSF induces a moderate anti- or pro-inflammatory state respectively, compared to maturation with NHS. CD40 and CD64 are the most distinctive makers for human M1 and CD163 and MR for M2 macrophage activation and therefore can be helpful in determining the activation status of human macrophages ex vivo. PMID:24916404

Vogel, Daphne Y S; Glim, Judith E; Stavenuiter, Andrea W D; Breur, Marjolein; Heijnen, Priscilla; Amor, Sandra; Dijkstra, Christine D; Beelen, Robert H J

2014-09-01

362

Method for rapidly testing quality of incompletely charged electrochemical cells  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A method for rapidly testing rechargeable electrochemical cells following assembly which enables the testing of cells to be carried out in a substantially uncharged condition. Cells in the assembly line are energized with a constant current pulse applied to their electrodes via the cell terminals, the current being of sufficient magnitude and duration so as to develop an increased charge voltage between the cell terminals. The charge voltage so developed during the application of the current and while the electrodes of the cell are incompletely charged is then measured and compared with a predetermined zone of acceptable values for cell performance. Preferably, the developed charge voltage is permitted to stabilize prior to measurement. In addition, measurements of open circuit voltage are taken immediately before and after application of the current pulse.

Shah, R.V.

1983-03-15

363

Effect of projectile structure on incomplete fusion reaction dynamics  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

With the appearance of forward peaked ?-particles in the very first experimental observation, during early sixties by Britt and Quinton in the bombardment of 197Au and 209Bi by 12C, 14N and 16O projectiles at energies ? 10.5 MeV/nucleon, the incomplete fusion (ICF) of the projectile has become an important process. One of the characteristic features of the ICF reactions is the forward peaked out going alpha particles with the most probable energy corresponding to the beam velocity. Moreover, the studies of coincidence relationships between these particles and the discrete ?-rays of the heavy residues unambiguously proved that in these reactions outgoing alpha particles escape at forward angles carrying a significant part of the kinetic energy and angular momentum of the projectile while the remaining part fuses with the target. However, the influence of the projectile breakup on fusion is not yet well understood, thus continues to be an active area of investigations

2012-12-01

364

UNILATERAL VARIATION OF LUMBRICALS WITH AN INCOMPLETE SUPERFICIAL PALMAR ARCH  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Lumbricals as a part of intrinsic musculature of hand, are important for precise movements of digits. They perform flexion at metacarpo-phalangeal joints and extension at inter-phalangeal joints. During routine dissection of an adult male cadaver we observed a rare variation of lumbricals of the right hand. The first lumbrical was unusually arched, making a sinuous appearance instead of being linear. The other lumbricals were also showing a sinuous pattern. In addition, the second lumbrical was bipennate in origin. This variation was accompanied by an incomplete superficial palmar arch where the radial and ulnar sides of the arch were separated. Though it’s a case report but we can’t deny a role of evolution process of human being or any occupational impact for better proprioception for such a variation. Clinicians and surgeons should be aware of such variations of lumbricals and superficial palmar arch while dealing with hand surgeries.

Vrushali S. Kolte

2014-03-01

365

Treatment of traumatized teeth with incomplete apex – apexification  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Introduction and objective: Two cases reports of traumatized teethwith incomplete apexes and no tooth fracture. Case report: In thesecases, instrumentation should be performed with no pressure to thewalls due to the decreased thickness, therefore, the irrigating solution is fundamental to achieve ideal biomechanical preparation. Calcium hydroxide intracanal dressings between sessions were applied at 7 days,15 days, 3 changes every 30 days and a change after 3 months, until apical barrier formation, and sealing of the root canal with the single-gutta-percha point technique with Grossman’s cement. Conclusion:The used clinical protocol efficiently formed the calcified root barrier and biological and functional equilibrium was achieved guaranteeing the treatment success.

Melissa Andréia MARCHESAN

2008-04-01

366

Incomplete and complete fusion studies at intermediate energies. Part I  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Last year we began a study of complete and incomplete fusion processes in the reaction of intermediate energy heavy ions with n-rich rare earth nuclei. During the past year, we completed a preliminary analysis of some of the data from the first experiments, prepared a manuscript summarizing our findings and have continued studying these phenomena using heavier intermediate energy projectiles (at GANIL) and different energy, lower mass projectiles (at CERN). In the first experiments to be completed, we measured the yields, angular distributions and differential range spectra for individual target fragments from the interaction of 8.5 MeV/A 16O, 19 MeV/A 16O, 35 MeV/A 12C and 86 MeV/A 12C with 154Sm. From the measured data, fragment isobaric yields and velocity spectra were deduced. Data are compared to model predictions

1984-09-01

367

Parameter learning in MTE networks using incomplete data  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Bayesian networks with mixtures of truncated exponentials (MTEs) are gaining popularity as a flexible modelling framework for hybrid domains. MTEs support efficient and exact inference algorithms, but estimating an MTE from data has turned out to be a difficult task. Current methods suffer from a considerable computational burden as well as the inability to handle missing values in the training data. In this paper we describe an EM-based algorithm for learning the maximum likelihood parameters of an MTE network when confronted with incomplete data. In order to overcome the computational difficulties we make certain distributional assumptions about the domain being modeled, thus focusing on a subclass of the general class of MTE networks. Preliminary empirical results indicate that the proposed method offers results that are inline with intuition.

Fernández, Antonio; Langseth, Helge

368

Symmetry of interactions rules in incompletely connected random replicator ecosystems.  

Science.gov (United States)

The evolution of an incompletely connected system of species with speciation and extinction is investigated in terms of random replicators. It is found that evolving random replicator systems with speciation do become large and complex, depending on speciation parameters. Antisymmetric interactions result in large systems, whereas systems with symmetric interactions remain small. A co-dominating feature is within-species interaction pressure: large within-species interaction increases species diversity. Average fitness evolves in all systems, however symmetry and connectivity evolve in small systems only. Newcomers get extinct almost immediately in symmetric systems. The distribution in species lifetimes is determined for antisymmetric systems. The replicator systems investigated do not show any sign of self-organized criticality. The generalized Lotka-Volterra system is shown to be a tedious way of implementing the replicator system. PMID:24965155

Kärenlampi, Petri P

2014-06-01

369

A flexible acquisition cycle for incompletely defined fieldbus protocols.  

Science.gov (United States)

Real time data-acquisition from fieldbuses strongly depends on the network type and protocol used. Currently, there is an impressive number of fieldbuses, some of them are completely defined and others are incompletely defined. In those from the second category, the time variable, the main element in real-time data acquisition, does not appear explicitly. Examples include protocols such as Modbus ASCII/RTU, M-bus, ASCII character-based, and so on. This paper defines a flexible acquisition cycle based on the Master-Slave architecture that can be implemented on a Master station, called a Base Station Gateway (BSG). The BSG can add a timestamp for temporal location of data. It also presents a possible extension for the Modbus protocol, developed as simple and low cost solution based on existing hardware. PMID:24650922

Gaitan, Vasile-Gheorghita; Gaitan, Nicoleta-Cristina; Ungurean, Ioan

2014-05-01

370

Role of entrance channel parameters on incomplete fusion reaction dynamics  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In recent time the keen interest has been observed in the study of incomplete fusion (ICF) reactions and its dependence on various entrance channel parameters: projectile type/energy, angular momentum imparted to the system, alpha-Q-value of the projectile, mass asymmetry of the interacting partners etc. The fusion reaction proceeds for the energy of projectile capable of overcoming the fusion barrier resulting from the sum of repulsive Coulomb and attractive nuclear potentials. However, the breakup becomes an important process and influences the flux of fusion reactions. Further, the influence of the projectile breakup on fusion is not yet well understood, thus continues to be an active area of investigations. In view of the above facts, the excitation functions of several evaporated residues in the 16O + 115In at energies 4-7 MeV/nucleon have been measured. The influence of various entrance channel parameters on ICF reaction dynamics has been studied

2013-12-01

371

Mass estimates for visual binaries with incomplete orbits  

Science.gov (United States)

The problem of estimating the total mass of a visual binary when its orbit is incomplete is treated with Bayesian methods. The posterior mean of a mass estimator is approximated by a triple integral over orbital period, orbital eccentricity and time of periastron. This reduction to 3D from the 7D space defined by the conventional Campbell parameters is achieved by adopting the Thiele-Innes elements and exploiting the linearity with respect to the four Thiele-Innes constants. The formalism is tested on synthetic observational data covering a variable fraction of a model binary's orbit. The posterior mean of the mass estimator is numerically found to be unbiased when the data cover ?40% of the orbit.

Lucy, L. B.

2014-03-01

372

An imputation strategy for incomplete longitudinal ordinal data.  

Science.gov (United States)

A new quasi-imputation strategy for correlated ordinal responses is proposed by borrowing ideas from random number generation. The essential idea is collapsing ordinal levels to binary ones and converting correlated binary outcomes to multivariate normal outcomes in a sensible way so that re-conversion to the binary and then ordinal scale, after conducting multiple imputation, yields the original marginal distributions and correlations. This conversion process ensures that the correlations are transformed reasonably, which in turn allows us to take advantage of well-developed imputation techniques for Gaussian outcomes. We use the phrase 'quasi' because the original observations are not guaranteed to be preserved. We present an application using a data set from psychiatric research. We conclude that the proposed method may be a promising tool for handling incomplete longitudinal or clustered ordinal outcomes. PMID:18338313

Demirtas, Hakan; Hedeker, Donald

2008-09-10

373

Self-Financing, Replicating Hedging Strategies, an incomplete thermodynamic analogy  

CERN Document Server

In the theory of riskfree hedges in continuous time finance, one can start with the delta-hedge and derive the option pricing equation, or one can start with the replicating, self-financing hedging strategy and derive both the delta-hedge and the option pricing partial differential equation. Approximately reversible trading is implicitly assumed in both cases. The option pricing equation is not restricted to the standard Black-Scholes equation when nontrivial volatility is assumed, but produces option pricing in agreement with the empirical distribution for the right choice of volatility in a stochastic description of fluctuations. The replicating, self-financing hedging strategy provides us with an incomplete analogy with thermodynamics where liquidity plays the role of the heat bath, the absence of arbitrage is analgous to thermal equilibrium, but there is no role played by the entropy of the returns distribution, which cannot reach a maximum/equilibrium. We emphasize strongly that the no-arbitrage assumpti...

McCauley, J L

2002-01-01

374

Proclaiming the validity of systematics for low energy incomplete fusion  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The phenomenon of incomplete fusion (ICF) in heavy ion (HI) interactions may be considered to take place when the projectile breaks up near the vicinity of target nuclear field, into fragments, one of which fuses with the target nucleus forming an excited composite system which may eventually de-excite by particle and ? emission, while the other part of fragment moves into the forward direction without any interaction and acts as spectator. In order to explore the underlined issues, the EFs of 13C+169Tm (present work) and 12C+169Tm systems at energies ? 4-7 MeV/A have been compared to study convincingly the projectile structure effects on the ICF reaction dynamics

2013-12-01

375

Analysis of CMB polarization on an incomplete sky  

CERN Document Server

The full sky cosmic microwave background polarization field can be decomposed into 'electric' and 'magnetic' components. We analyse to what extent the electric/magnetic decomposition is feasible on an incomplete sky. Working in harmonic space we construct window functions that allow clean separation of the electric and magnetic modes from observations over only a portion of the sky. Our construction is exact for azimuthally symmetric patches, but should continue to perform well for arbitrary patches. From the window functions we obtain variables that allow for robust estimation of the magnetic component without risk of contamination from the probably much larger electric signal. The information lost due to removal of cross-contamination is about 15 per cent for forthcoming high resolution satellite surveys. For an azimuthally-symmetric patch, such as that obtained from survey missions when the galactic region is removed, the exactly-separated variables are fast to compute allowing us to estimate the magnetic ...

Lewis, A; Turok, N G; Lewis, Antony; Challinor, Anthony; Turok, Neil

2002-01-01

376

Applying incomplete statistics to nonextensive systems with different q indices  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The nonextensive statistics based on the q-entropy Sq=--bar i=1v(pi-piq)1-q has been so far applied to systems in which the q value is uniformly distributed. For the systems containing different q's, the applicability of the theory is still a matter of investigation. The difficulty is that the class of systems to which the theory can be applied is actually limited by the usual nonadditivity rule of entropy which is no more valid when the systems contain non uniform distribution of q values. In this paper, within the framework of the so called incomplete information theory, we propose a more general nonadditivity rule of entropy prescribed by the zeroth law of thermodynamics. This new nonadditivity generalizes in a simple way the usual one and can be proved to lead uniquely to the q-entropy

2005-06-01

377

Some remarks on marginally trapped surfaces and geodesic incompleteness  

CERN Document Server

In a recent paper, Eichmair, Galloway and Pollack have proved a Gannon-Lee-type singularity theorem based on the existence of marginally outer trapped surfaces (MOTS) on noncompact initial data sets for globally hyperbolic spacetimes. However, one might wonder whether the corresponding incomplete geodesics could still be complete in a possible non-globally hyperbolic extension of spacetime. In this note, some variants of that result are given with weaker causality assumptions, thus suggesting that the answer is generically negative, at least if the putative extension has no closed timelike curves. However, unlike in the case of MOTS, on which only the outgoing family of normal geodesics is constrained, we have found it necessary in our proofs to impose also a weak convergence condition on the ingoing family of normal geodesics. In other words, we consider marginally trapped surfaces (MTS) in chronological spacetimes, introducing the natural notion of a generic MTS. In particular, a Hawking-Penrose-type singul...

Silva, I P Costa e

2012-01-01

378

The value of incomplete mouse models of Alzheimer's disease  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

To study Alzheimer's disease (AD), a variety of mouse models has been generated through the overexpression of the amyloid precursor protein and/or the presenilins harboring one or several mutations found in familial AD. With aging, these mice develop several lesions similar to those of AD, including diffuse and neuritic amyloid deposits, cerebral amyloid angiopathy, dystrophic neurites and synapses, and amyloid-associated neuroinflammation. Other characteristics of AD, such as neurofibrillary tangles and nerve cell loss, are not satisfactorily reproduced in these models. Mouse models that recapitulate only specific aspects of AD pathogenesis are of great advantage when deciphering the complexity of the disease and can contribute substantially to diagnostic and therapeutic innovations. Incomplete mouse models have been key to the development of A?42-targeted therapies, as well as to the current understanding of the interrelationship between cerebral ?-amyloidosis and tau neurofibrillary lesions, and are currently being used to develop novel diagnostic agents for in vivo imaging. (orig.)

2008-03-01

379

Mature Cystic Teratoma of Liver  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available A four-year-old boy presented with constipation and mild abdominal distention for one year. Radiologic investigations showed a multiloculated cystic lesion in the caudate lobe of liver with focal calcification in the wall. The child underwent laparotomy with marsupialization of the cystic lesion. Histopathologic examination showed mature teratoma of liver.

Richa Gupta

2013-05-01

380

Maturation of the adolescent brain  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Mariam Arain, Maliha Haque, Lina Johal, Puja Mathur, Wynand Nel, Afsha Rais, Ranbir Sandhu, Sushil Sharma Saint James School of Medicine, Kralendijk, Bonaire, The Netherlands Abstract: Adolescence is the developmental epoch during which children become adults – intellectually, physically, hormonally, and socially. Adolescence is a tumultuous time, full of changes and transformations. The pubertal transition to adulthood involves both gonadal and behavioral maturation. Magnetic resonance...

Arain M; Haque M; Johal L; Mathur P; Nel W; Rais A; Sandhu R; Sharma S

2013-01-01

 
 
 
 
381

Normal brain maturation in MRI  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Normal brain maturation was evaluated with MR imaging of 36 neonate to-2-year-old patients. The myelination process in centrum semiovale was quantitatively assessed in 50 6-months- to 15-year-old children, and 40 adults aged 16-60 years. Imaging was performed with a 0.35 T superconducting MR unit using spin echo pulse sequences. On T1-weighted images, 3 stages of maturation could be observed: 1. neonates within 1 month; 2. 1-6 months-of-age; and 3. adult configuration after 6-7 months-of-age. Also on T2-weighted images 3 maturation stages could be defined: 1. neonatal pattern in the first 6 months of life; 2. signal inversion between 6-18 months; and 3. adult appearance after 18 months. Thus, the combination of T1- and T2-weighted images could lead us to the assessment of brain maturation in infants younger than 2 years. The myelination process in centrum semiovale was fast during the first 3 years followed by a slow progression until 20-30 years of age. (author). 14 refs.; 14 figs.; 2 tabs

1991-01-01

382

Mature Cystic Teratoma of Liver  

Science.gov (United States)

A four-year-old boy presented with constipation and mild abdominal distention for one year. Radiologic investigations showed a multiloculated cystic lesion in the caudate lobe of liver with focal calcification in the wall. The child underwent laparotomy with marsupialization of the cystic lesion. Histopathologic examination showed mature teratoma of liver.

Gupta, Richa; Bansal, Kalpana; Manchanda, Vivek

2013-01-01

383

A regulatory network for coordinated flower maturation.  

Science.gov (United States)

For self-pollinating plants to reproduce, male and female organ development must be coordinated as flowers mature. The Arabidopsis transcription factors AUXIN RESPONSE FACTOR 6 (ARF6) and ARF8 regulate this complex process by promoting petal expansion, stamen filament elongation, anther dehiscence, and gynoecium maturation, thereby ensuring that pollen released from the anthers is deposited on the stigma of a receptive gynoecium. ARF6 and ARF8 induce jasmonate production, which in turn triggers expression of MYB21 and MYB24, encoding R2R3 MYB transcription factors that promote petal and stamen growth. To understand the dynamics of this flower maturation regulatory network, we have characterized morphological, chemical, and global gene expression phenotypes of arf, myb, and jasmonate pathway mutant flowers. We found that MYB21 and MYB24 promoted not only petal and stamen development but also gynoecium growth. As well as regulating reproductive competence, both the ARF and MYB factors promoted nectary development or function and volatile sesquiterpene production, which may attract insect pollinators and/or repel pathogens. Mutants lacking jasmonate synthesis or response had decreased MYB21 expression and stamen and petal growth at the stage when flowers normally open, but had increased MYB21 expression in petals of older flowers, resulting in renewed and persistent petal expansion at later stages. Both auxin response and jasmonate synthesis promoted positive feedbacks that may ensure rapid petal and stamen growth as flowers open. MYB21 also fed back negatively on expression of jasmonate biosynthesis pathway genes to decrease flower jasmonate level, which correlated with termination of growth after flowers have opened. These dynamic feedbacks may promote timely, coordinated, and transient growth of flower organs. PMID:22346763

Reeves, Paul H; Ellis, Christine M; Ploense, Sara E; Wu, Miin-Feng; Yadav, Vandana; Tholl, Dorothea; Chételat, Aurore; Haupt, Ina; Kennerley, Brian J; Hodgens, Charles; Farmer, Edward E; Nagpal, Punita; Reed, Jason W

2012-02-01

384

Mast cell maturation is driven via a group III phospholipase A2-prostaglandin D2-DP1 receptor paracrine axis.  

Science.gov (United States)

Microenvironment-based alterations in phenotypes of mast cells influence the susceptibility to anaphylaxis, yet the mechanisms underlying proper maturation of mast cells toward an anaphylaxis-sensitive phenotype are incompletely understood. Here we report that PLA2G3, a mammalian homolog of anaphylactic bee venom phospholipase A2, regulates this process. PLA2G3 secreted from mast cells is coupled with fibroblastic lipocalin-type PGD2 synthase (L-PGDS) to provide PGD2, which facilitates mast-cell maturation via PGD2 receptor DP1. Mice lacking PLA2G3, L-PGDS or DP1, mast cell-deficient mice reconstituted with PLA2G3-null or DP1-null mast cells, or mast cells cultured with L-PGDS-ablated fibroblasts exhibited impaired maturation and anaphylaxis of mast cells. Thus, we describe a lipid-driven PLA2G3-L-PGDS-DP1 loop that drives mast cell maturation. PMID:23624557

Taketomi, Yoshitaka; Ueno, Noriko; Kojima, Takumi; Sato, Hiroyasu; Murase, Remi; Yamamoto, Kei; Tanaka, Satoshi; Sakanaka, Mariko; Nakamura, Masanori; Nishito, Yasumasa; Kawana, Momoko; Kambe, Naotomo; Ikeda, Kazutaka; Taguchi, Ryo; Nakamizo, Satoshi; Kabashima, Kenji; Gelb, Michael H; Arita, Makoto; Yokomizo, Takehiko; Nakamura, Motonao; Watanabe, Kikuko; Hirai, Hiroyuki; Nakamura, Masataka; Okayama, Yoshimichi; Ra, Chisei; Aritake, Kosuke; Urade, Yoshihiro; Morimoto, Kazushi; Sugimoto, Yukihiko; Shimizu, Takao; Narumiya, Shuh; Hara, Shuntaro; Murakami, Makoto

2013-06-01

385

Mast cell maturation is driven via a group III phospholipase A2-prostaglandin D2-DP1 receptor paracrine axis  

Science.gov (United States)

Microenvironment-based alterations in phenotypes of mast cells influence the susceptibility to anaphylaxis, yet the mechanisms underlying proper maturation of mast cells toward an anaphylaxis-sensitive phenotype are incompletely understood. Here we report that PLA2G3, a mammalian homolog of anaphylactic bee venom phospholipase A2, regulates this process. PLA2G3 secreted from mast cells is coupled with fibroblastic lipocalin-type PGD2 synthase (L-PGDS) to provide PGD2, which facilitates mast-cell maturation via PGD2 receptor DP1. Mice lacking PLA2G3, L-PGDS or DP1, mast cell–deficient mice reconstituted with PLA2G3-null or DP1-null mast cells, or mast cells cultured with L-PGDS–ablated fibroblasts exhibited impaired maturation and anaphylaxis of mast cells. Thus, we describe a lipid-driven PLA2G3–L-PGDS–DP1 loop that drives mast cell maturation.

Taketomi, Yoshitaka; Ueno, Noriko; Kojima, Takumi; Sato, Hiroyasu; Murase, Remi; Yamamoto, Kei; Tanaka, Satoshi; Sakanaka, Mariko; Nakamura, Masanori; Nishito, Yasumasa; Kawana, Momoko; Kambe, Naotomo; Ikeda, Kazutaka; Taguchi, Ryo; Nakamizo, Satoshi; Kabashima, Kenji; Gelb, Michael H.; Arita, Makoto; Yokomizo, Takehiko; Nakamura, Motonao; Watanabe, Kikuko; Hirai, Hiroyuki; Nakamura, Masataka; Okayama, Yoshimichi; Ra, Chisei; Aritake, Kosuke; Urade, Yoshihiro; Morimoto, Kazushi; Sugimoto, Yukihiko; Shimizu, Takao; Narumiya, Shuh; Hara, Shuntaro; Murakami, Makoto

2014-01-01

386

Neurophysiological correlates of auditory maturation.  

Science.gov (United States)

At the time of its birth, the auditory system of the cat is not completely developed. Anatomic maturity of the peripheral auditory system, ie, the cochlea, auditory nerve and cochlear nucleus, is attained at about two or three weeks of age. Physiological response properties of neural elements of the peripheral auditory system change radically during the first few weeks of life, with most measures of responsiveness to acoustic stimuli reaching adult status by the end of the third of fourth postnatal week. The physiological maturation of neural responses correlates well with the anatomic maturation of the auditory structures. At least one physiological response property, namely the ability of cochlear nucleus neurons to time their discharges in response to low-frequency tones, is not fully achieved until the sixth postnatal week or later. Although considerably less is known about the development of the central auditory system, it appears that it is in part dependent upon the maturation of more peripheral elements. Auditory evoked responses, for example, follow roughly the same developmental time course as do the majority of response properties of peripheral neurons. This implies that the central system is ready to function at birth, but that it must await the maturation of more peripheral elements before it can function properly. In contrast to that of the cat and other mammals, the auditory system of the human is relatively well advanced at birth. Certain aspects of brain development, such as dendritic aborization and axonal myelination, undergo considerable change postnatally. How these factors influence hearing is not known. PMID:6786164

Javel, E

1980-01-01

387

Tissue factor activity. A marker of alveolar macrophage maturation in rabbits. Effects of granulomatous pneumonitis.  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Experiments were carried out to examine relationships between alveolar macrophage maturity and amounts of tissue factor (Clotting Factor III) in these cells under physiologic conditions and during immunologically induced pneumonitis. Using discontinuous density gradient centrifugation, alveolar macrophages from healthy rabbits were rapidly isolated into five subpopulations at different stages of maturation, as demonstrated by morphologic and morphometric evaluation. Very large amounts of tiss...

Rothberger, H.; Mcgee, M. P.; Lee, T. K.

1984-01-01

388

Study on production of seed and seedling of green sturgeon. Determination on sensitivity of oocyte of green sturgeon (Bster) to ovule maturation inducing hormone, and on roe quality; Chozame no shubyo seisan ni kansuru kenkyu. Chozame (besuteru) no ranbo saibo no ranseijuku yuki horumon kanjusei to ranshitsu hantei  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Green sturgeons do not spawn naturally in the ordinary breeding environment. Hence obtaining fries requires stimulation of ovulation by hormone treatment. In order to raise hatching rate and perform stable seed and seedling production, it is necessary to establish a method to determine at high accuracy the optimal time of the hormone treatment. Therefore, discussions were given on a method to evaluate sensitivity to different ovule maturation inducing hormones (progesterone systems). As a result, an effective means to perform ovum collection of Bester efficiently was considered to be a method to determine the timing of hormone dosing by using the sensitivity of oocyte to ovule maturation inducing hormone, supported by the use of germinal vesicle breakdown (GVBD) as the parameter. The timing at which this hormone sensitivity is highest, that is, the timing at which GVBD is induced with the probability of 100% is the optimal timing for the hormone treatment. Roes with high hormone sensitivity tend to have higher hatching rate, whereas this tendency is useful to estimate the hatching rate. Individuals having roes with high hormone sensitivity show a trend of shortening the time required from the first hormone dosing to the ovulation. (NEDO)

Omoto, N.; Maebayashi, M. [Hokkaido Electric Power Co. Inc., Sapporo (Japan)

2000-03-24

389

Truly incomplete and complex exchanges in prematurely condensed chromosomes of human fibroblasts exposed in vitro to energetic heavy ions  

Science.gov (United States)

Confluent human fibroblast cells (AG1522) were irradiated with gamma rays, 490 MeV/nucleon silicon ions, or iron ions at either 200 or 500 MeV/nucleon. The cells were allowed to repair at 37 degrees C for 24 h after exposure, and a chemically induced premature chromosome condensation (PCC) technique was used to condense chromosomes in the G2 phase of the cell cycle. Incomplete and complex exchanges were analyzed in the irradiated samples. To verify that chromosomal breaks were truly unrejoined, chromosome aberrations were analyzed using a combination of whole-chromosome specific probes and probes specific for the telomere region of the chromosome. Results showed that the frequency of unrejoined chromosome breaks was higher after irradiation with the heavy ions of high LET, and consequently the ratio of incomplete to complete exchanges increased steadily with LET up to 440 keV/microm, the highest LET included in the present study. For samples exposed to 200 MeV/nucleon iron ions, chromosome aberrations were analyzed using the multicolor FISH (mFISH) technique, which allows identification of both complex and truly incomplete exchanges. Results of the mFISH study showed that 0.7 and 3 Gy iron ions produced similar ratios of complex to simple exchanges and incomplete to complete exchanges; these ratios were higher than those obtained after exposure to 6 Gy gamma rays. After 0.7 Gy of iron ions, most complex aberrations were found to involve three or four chromosomes, which is a likely indication of the maximum number of chromosome domains traversed by a single iron-ion track.

Wu, Honglu; Durante, Marco; Furusawa, Yoshiya; George, Kerry; Kawata, Tetsuya; Cucinotta, Francis A.

2003-01-01

390

Truly Incomplete and Complex Chromosomal Exchanges in Human Fibroblast Cells Exposed In Situ to Energetic Heavy Ions  

Science.gov (United States)

Confluent human fibroblast cells (AG 1522) were irradiated with gamma rays, 490 MeV/nucleon Si, or with Fe ions at either 200 or 500 MeV/nucleon. The cells were allowed to repair at 37 C for 24 hours after exposure, and a chemically induced premature chromosome condensation (PCC) technique was used to condense chromosomes in the G2 phase of the cell cycle. Incomplete and complex exchanges were analyzed in the irradiated samples. In order to verify that chromosomal breaks were truly unrejoined, chromosome aberrations were analyzed using a combination of whole chromosome specific probes and probes specific for the telomere region of the chromosome. Results showed that the frequency of unrejoined chromosome breaks was higher after high-LET radiation, and consequently, the ratio of incomplete to complete exchanges increased steadily with LET up to 440 keV/micron, the highest LET value in the present study. For samples exposed to 200 MeV/nucleon Fe ions, chromosome aberrations were analyzed using the multicolor FISH (mFISH) technique that allow identification of both complex and truly incomplete exchanges. Results of the mFISH study showed that 0.7 and 3 Gy dose of the Fe ions produced similar ratios of complex to simple exchanges and incomplete to complete exchanges, values for which were higher than those obtained after a 6 Gy gamma exposure. After 0.7 Gy of Fe ions, most complex aberrations were found to involve three or four chromosomes, which is a likely indication of the maximum number of chromosome domains traversed by a single Fe ion track.

Wu, Honglu; Durante, marco; Furusawa, Yoshiya; George, Kerry; Kawata, Tetsuya; Cucinotta, Francis A.

2003-01-01

391

Mature HIV-1 capsid structure by cryo-electron microscopy and all-atom molecular dynamics.  

Science.gov (United States)

Retroviral capsid proteins are conserved structurally but assemble into different morphologies. The mature human immunodeficiency virus-1 (HIV-1) capsid is best described by a 'fullerene cone' model, in which hexamers of the capsid protein are linked to form a hexagonal surface lattice that is closed by incorporating 12 capsid-protein pentamers. HIV-1 capsid protein contains an amino-terminal domain (NTD) comprising seven ?-helices and a ?-hairpin, a carboxy-terminal domain (CTD) comprising four ?-helices, and a flexible linker with a 310-helix connecting the two structural domains. Structures of the capsid-protein assembly units have been determined by X-ray crystallography; however, structural information regarding the assembled capsid and the contacts between the assembly units is incomplete. Here we report the cryo-electron microscopy structure of a tubular HIV-1 capsid-protein assembly at 8?Å resolution and the three-dimensional structure of a native HIV-1 core by cryo-electron tomography. The structure of the tubular assembly shows, at the three-fold interface, a three-helix bundle with critical hydrophobic interactions. Mutagenesis studies confirm that hydrophobic residues in the centre of the three-helix bundle are crucial for capsid assembly and stability, and for viral infectivity. The cryo-electron-microscopy structures enable modelling by large-scale molecular dynamics simulation, resulting in all-atom models for the hexamer-of-hexamer and pentamer-of-hexamer elements as well as for the entire capsid. Incorporation of pentamers results in closer trimer contacts and induces acute surface curvature. The complete atomic HIV-1 capsid model provides a platform for further studies of capsid function and for targeted pharmacological intervention. PMID:23719463

Zhao, Gongpu; Perilla, Juan R; Yufenyuy, Ernest L; Meng, Xin; Chen, Bo; Ning, Jiying; Ahn, Jinwoo; Gronenborn, Angela M; Schulten, Klaus; Aiken, Christopher; Zhang, Peijun

2013-05-30

392

A hierarchical nest survival model integrating incomplete temporally varying covariates  

Science.gov (United States)

Nest success is a critical determinant of the dynamics of avian populations, and nest survival modeling has played a key role in advancing avian ecology and management. Beginning with the development of daily nest survival models, and proceeding through subsequent extensions, the capacity for modeling the effects of hypothesized factors on nest survival has expanded greatly. We extend nest survival models further by introducing an approach to deal with incompletely observed, temporally varying covariates using a hierarchical model. Hierarchical modeling offers a way to separate process and observational components of demographic models to obtain estimates of the parameters of primary interest, and to evaluate structural effects of ecological and management interest. We built a hierarchical model for daily nest survival to analyze nest data from reintroduced whooping cranes (Grus americana) in the Eastern Migratory Population. This reintroduction effort has been beset by poor reproduction, apparently due primarily to nest abandonment by breeding birds. We used the model to assess support for the hypothesis that nest abandonment is caused by harassment from biting insects. We obtained indices of blood-feeding insect populations based on the spatially interpolated counts of insects captured in carbon dioxide traps. However, insect trapping was not conducted daily, and so we had incomplete information on a temporally variable covariate of interest. We therefore supplemented our nest survival model with a parallel model for estimating the values of the missing insect covariates. We used Bayesian model selection to identify the best predictors of daily nest survival. Our results suggest that the black fly Simulium annulus may be negatively affecting nest survival of reintroduced whooping cranes, with decreasing nest survival as abundance of S. annulus increases. The modeling framework we have developed will be applied in the future to a larger data set to evaluate the biting-insect hypothesis and other hypotheses for nesting failure in this reintroduced population; resulting inferences will support ongoing efforts to manage this population via an adaptive management approach. Wider application of our approach offers promise for modeling the effects of other temporally varying, but imperfectly observed covariates on nest survival, including the possibility of modeling temporally varying covariates collected from incubating adults.

Converse, Sarah J.; Royle, J. Andrew; Adler, Peter H.; Urbanek, Richard P.; Barzan, Jeb A.

2013-01-01

393

Finding the solution for incomplete small bowel capsule endoscopy  

Science.gov (United States)

AIM: To evaluate whether the use of real time viewer (RTV) and administration of domperidone to patients with delayed gastric passage of the capsule could reduce the rate of incomplete examinations (IE) and improve the diagnostic yield of small bowel capsule endoscopy (SBCE). METHODS: Prospective single center interventional study, from June 2012 to February 2013. Capsule location was systematically checked one hour after ingestion using RTV. If it remained in the stomach, the patient received 10 mg domperidone per os and the location of the capsule was rechecked after 30 min. If the capsule remained in the stomach a second dose of 10 mg of domperidone was administered orally. After another 30 min the position was rechecked and if the capsule remained in the stomach, it was passed into the duodenum by upper gastrointestinal (GI) endoscopy. The rate of IE and diagnostic yield of SBCE were compared with those of examinations performed before the use of RTV or domperidone in our Department (control group, January 2009 - May 2012). RESULTS: Both groups were similar regarding age, sex, indication, inpatient status and surgical history. The control group included 307 patients, with 48 (15.6%) IE. The RTV group included 82 patients, with 3 (3.7%) IE, P = 0.003. In the control group, average gastric time was significantly longer in patients with IE than in patients with complete examination of the small bowel (77 min vs 26 min, P = 0.003). In the RTV group, the capsule remained in the stomach one hour after ingestion in 14/82 patients (17.0%) vs 48/307 (15.6%) in the control group, P = 0.736. Domperidone did not significantly affect small bowel transit time (260 min vs 297 min, P = 0.229). The capsule detected positive findings in 39% of patients in the control group and 49% in the RTV group (P = 0.081). CONCLUSION: The use of RTV and selective administration of domperidone to patients with delayed gastric passage of the capsule significantly reduces incomplete examinations, with no effect on small bowel transit time or diagnostic yield.

Cotter, Jose; de Castro, Francisca Dias; Magalhaes, Joana; Moreira, Maria Joao; Rosa, Bruno

2013-01-01

394

Debt and incomplete financial markets: a case for nominal GDP targeting  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Financial markets are incomplete, thus for many agents borrowing is possible only by accepting a financial contract that specifies a fixed repayment. However, the future income that will repay this debt is uncertain, so risk can be inefficiently distributed. This paper argues that a monetary policy of nominal GDP targeting can improve the functioning of incomplete financial markets when incomplete contracts are written in terms of money. By insulating agents' nominal incomes from aggregate re...

Sheedy, Kevin D.

2013-01-01

395

An incomplete Hessian Newton minimization method and its application in a chemical database problem  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

To efficiently solve a large scale unconstrained minimization problem with a dense Hessian matrix, this paper proposes to use an incomplete Hessian matrix to define a new modified Newton method, called the incomplete Hessian Newton method (IHN). A theoretical analysis shows that IHN is convergent globally, and has a linear rate of convergence with a properly selected symmetric, positive definite incomplete Hessian matrix. It also shows that the Wolfe conditions hold in IHN with a line search ...

Xie, Dexuan; Ni, Qin

2009-01-01

396

Finite Hilbert transform with incomplete data: null-space and singular values  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Using the Gelfand–Graev formula, the interior problem of tomography reduces to the inversion of the finite Hilbert transform (FHT) from incomplete data. In this paper, we study several aspects of inverting the FHT when the data are incomplete. Using the Cauchy transform and an approach based on the Riemann–Hilbert problem, we derive a differential operator that commutes with the FHT. Our second result is the characterization of the null-space of the FHT in the case of incomplete data. Also, we derive the asymptotics of the singular values of the FHT in three different cases of incomplete data. (paper)

2012-10-01

397

HUMAN RESOURCES MANAGEMENT MATURITY MODEL.  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The paper provides an outline of a innovative concept – Human Resources Management Maturity Model(HRM MM), an empiric description of the model and its utility. HRM MM was developed by the author as a tool meantto solve a problem identified in a longitudinal research developed between 2004-2011 in the companies from SE areaof Romania (Chasovschi, 2004). This research has showed that Human Resource Management in most companies isfacing important weaknesses, in methodology and in instruments a...

2011-01-01

398

Chromosome transfer in mature oocytes  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

In this article, we describe detailed protocols for the isolation and transfer of spindle–chromosomal complexes between mature, metaphase II-arrested oocytes. In brief, the spindle–chromosomal complex is visualized using a polarized microscope and extracted into a membrane-enclosed karyoplast. Chromosomes are then reintroduced into an enucleated recipient egg (cytoplast), derived from another female, by karyoplast–cytoplast membrane fusion. Newly reconstructed oocytes consist of nuclear...

Tachibana, Masahito; Sparman, Michelle; Mitalipov, Shoukhrat

2010-01-01

399

Membrane remodeling during reticulocyte maturation  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The transition of reticulocytes into erythrocytes is accompanied by extensive changes in the structure and properties of the plasma membrane. These changes include an increase in shear resistance, loss of surface area, and acquisition of a biconcave shape. The processes by which these changes are effected have remained largely undefined. Here we examine how the expression of 30 distinct membrane proteins and their interactions change during murine reticulocyte maturation. We show that tubulin...

Liu, Jing; Guo, Xinhua; Mohandas, Narla; Chasis, Joel A.; An, Xiuli

2010-01-01

400

Improving parameter learning of Bayesian nets from incomplete data  

CERN Document Server

This paper addresses the estimation of parameters of a Bayesian network from incomplete data. The task is usually tackled by running the Expectation-Maximization (EM) algorithm several times in order to obtain a high log-likelihood estimate. We argue that choosing the maximum log-likelihood estimate (as well as the maximum penalized log-likelihood and the maximum a posteriori estimate) has severe drawbacks, being affected both by overfitting and model uncertainty. Two ideas are discussed to overcome these issues: a maximum entropy approach and a Bayesian model averaging approach. Both ideas can be easily applied on top of EM, while the entropy idea can be also implemented in a more sophisticated way, through a dedicated non-linear solver. A vast set of experiments shows that these ideas produce significantly better estimates and inferences than the traditional and widely used maximum (penalized) log-likelihood and maximum a posteriori estimates. In particular, if EM is adopted as optimization engine, the mode...

Corani, Giorgio

2011-01-01

 
 
 
 
401

The AI&M procedure for learning from incomplete data  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

We investigate methods for parameter learning from incomplete data that is not missing at random. Likelihood-based methods then require the optimization of a profile likelihood that takes all possible missingness mechanisms into account. Optimizing this profile likelihood poses two main difficulties: multiple (local) maxima, and its very high-dimensional parameter space. In this paper a new method is presented for optimizing the profile likelihood that addresses the second difficulty: in the proposed AI\\&M (adjusting imputation and maximization) procedure the optimization is performed by operations in the space of data completions, rather than directly in the parameter space of the profile likelihood. We apply the AI\\&M method to learning parameters for Bayesian networks. The method is compared against conservative inference, which takes into account each possible data completion, and against EM. The results indicate that likelihood-based inference is still feasible in the case of unknown missingness mechanisms, and that conservative inference is unnecessarily weak. On the other hand, our results also provide evidence that the EM algorithm is still quite effective when the data is not missing at random.

Jaeger, Manfred

2006-01-01

402

Incomplete carbon-oxygen detonation in Type Ia supernovae  

CERN Multimedia

Incomplete carbon-oxygen detonation with reactions terminating after burning of 12C in the leading 12C + 12C reaction (C-detonation) may occur in the low density outer layers of white dwarfs exploding as Type Ia supernovae (SNIa). Previous studies of carbon-oxygen detonation structure and stability at low densities were performed under the assumption that the "velocity" of a detonation wave derives from complete burning of carbon and oxygen to iron. In fact, at densities <10^6 g/cm3 the detonation in SNIa may release less than a half of the available nuclear energy. In this paper we study basic properties of such detonations. We find that the length of an unsupported steady-state C-detonation is 30-100 times greater than previously estimated, and that the decreased energy has a drastic effect on the detonation stability. In contrast to complete detonations which are one-dimensionally stable, C-detonations may be one-dimensionally unstable and propagate by periodically re-igniting themselves via spontaneous...

Domínguez, Inma

2011-01-01

403

Analysis of covariance with incomplete data via semiparametric model transformations.  

Science.gov (United States)

We propose a method for fitting semiparametric models such as the proportional hazards (PH), additive risks (AR), and proportional odds (PO) models. Each of these semiparametric models implies that some transformation of the conditional cumulative hazard function (at each t) depends linearly on the covariates. The proposed method is based on nonparametric estimation of the conditional cumulative hazard function, forming a weighted average over a range of t-values, and subsequent use of least squares to estimate the parameters suggested by each model. An approximation to the optimal weight function is given. This allows semiparametric models to be fitted even in incomplete data cases where the partial likelihood fails (e.g., left censoring, right truncation). However, the main advantage of this method rests in the fact that neither the interpretation of the parameters nor the validity of the analysis depend on the appropriateness of the PH or any of the other semiparametric models. In fact, we propose an integrated method for data analysis where the role of the various semiparametric models is to suggest the best fitting transformation. A single continuous covariate and several categorical covariates (factors) are allowed. Simulation studies indicate that the test statistics and confidence intervals have good small-sample performance. A real data set is analyzed. PMID:11315065

Grigoletto, M; Akritas, M G

1999-12-01

404

Incomplete turgor adjustment in Cladophora rupestrisunder fluctuating salinity regimes  

Science.gov (United States)

Turgor pressure fluctuates strongly in Cladophora rupestrissubjected to low salinities and shows only a small tendency to readjust to the normal value in full seawater (incomplete turgor adjustment). This was revealed by direct turgor pressure measurements and by chemical analyses of osmotic solutes after exposure of upper and lower shore Cladophorato the different salinity regimes occurring in the intertidal zone or representing steady state osmotic acclimation. The main internal osmotic solutes were K +, Cl -, amino acids, NO 3-and glycine betaine. Na +, SO 42-and PO 43-were of less importance. The sum of the charges on the cations was similar to that for the anions. K +, Cl -and, to a lesser extent, amino acids were responsible for limited turgor pressure adjustment which did occur. The concentrations of the major osmotic solutes were influenced not only by salinity but also by light: those of amino acids and NO 3-were increased while those of K +and Cl -were decreased under illumination. Cladophorapopulations from the upper and lower shore differed in their ability to restore internal K +and Cl -levels on transfer to full seawater after long term exposure to low salinity. This may indicate ecotypic variation.

Wiencke, Christian; Gorham, John; Tomos, Deri; Davenport, John

1992-04-01

405

On Ordinal Covering of Proposals Using Balanced Incomplete Block Designs  

CERN Multimedia

A frequently encountered problem in peer review systems is to facilitate pairwise comparisons of a given set of proposals by as few as referees as possible. In [8], it was shown that, if each referee is assigned to review k proposals then ceil{n(n-1)/k(k-1)} referees are necessary and ceil{n(2n-k)/k^2} referees are sufficient to cover all n(n-1)/2 pairs of n proposals. While the upper bound remains within a factor of 2 of the lower bound, it becomes relatively large for small values of k and the ratio of the upper bound to the lower bound is not less than 3/2 when 2 <= k <= n/2. In this paper, we show that, if sqrt(n) <= k <= n/2 then the upper and lower bounds can be made closer in that their ratio never exceeds 3/2. This is accomplished by a new method that assigns prop