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1

Cannabinoids induce incomplete maturation of cultured human leukemia cells  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Monocyte maturation markers were induced in cultured human myeloblastic ML-2 leukemia cells after treatment for 1-6 days with 0.03-30 ..mu..M ..delta../sup 9/-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC), the major psychoactive component of marijuana. After a 2-day or longer treatment, 2- to 5-fold increases were found in the percentages of cells exhibiting reactivity with either the murine OKM1 monoclonal antibody of the Leu-M5 monoclonal antibody, staining positively for nonspecific esterase activity, and displaying a promonocyte morphology. The increases in these differentiation markers after treatment with 0.03-1 ..mu..M THC were dose dependent. At this dose range, THC did not cause an inhibition of cell growth. The THC-induced cell maturation was also characterized by specific changes in the patterns of newly synthesized proteins. The THC-induced differentiation did not, however, result in cells with a highly developed mature monocyte phenotype. However, treatment of these incompletely matured cells with either phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate of 1..cap alpha..,25-dihydroxycholecalciferol, which are inducers of differentiation in myeloid leukemia cells (including ML-2 cells), produced cells with a mature monocyte morphology. The ML-2 cell system described here may be a useful tool for deciphering critical biochemical events that lead to the cannabinoid-induced incomplete cell differentiation of ML-2 cells and other related cell types. Findings obtained from this system may have important implications for studies of cannabinoid effects on normal human bone-marrow progenitor cells.

Murison, G.; Chubb, C.B.H.; Maeda, S.; Gemmell, M.A.; Huberman, E.

1987-08-01

2

Mature cystic teratoma of the fallopian tube associated with incomplete uterine mediastinum: A case report and literature review.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Neoplasms of the fallopian tube are extremely uncommon. In addition, the incidence of a mature teratoma of the fallopian tube with incomplete uterine mediastinum is extremely low. In the current case report, we present a case of mature cystic teratoma of the fallopian tube with incomplete uterine mediastinum in a 23-year-old female. This mass was noted on computed tomography (CT) scan and sonographic examination. The patient underwent left salpingectomy and uterine septum incision during surgery. One year later, the individual became pregnant.

Li S; Fang X; Chen J; Xia X

2013-07-01

3

Brucella lipoproteins mimic dendritic cell maturation induced by Brucella abortus.  

Science.gov (United States)

Infection with Brucella abortus induces a pro-inflammatory response that drives T cell responses toward a Th1 profile. The mechanism by which this bacterium triggers this response is unknown. Dendritic cells (DC) are crucial mediators at the host-pathogen interface and are potent Th1-inducing antigen-presenting cells. Thus, we examined the mechanism whereby B. abortus stimulate human DC maturation. B. abortus-infected DC increased the expression of CD86, CD80, CCR7, CD83, MHCII, MHCI and CD40 and induced the production of TNF-alpha, IL-6, IL-10 and IL-12. Both phenomena were not dependent on bacterial viability since they were also induced by heat-killed B. abortus (HKBA). B. abortus LPS was unable to induce markers up-regulation or cytokine production. We next investigated the capacity of the outer membrane protein 19 (Omp19) as a B. abortus lipoprotein model to induce DC maturation. Lipidated Omp19 (L-Omp19), but not its unlipidated form, increased the expression of cell surface markers and the secretion of cytokines. L-Omp19-matured DC also have decreased endocytic activity and displayed enhanced T cell stimulatory activity in a MLR. Pre-incubation of DC with anti-TLR2 mAb blocked L-Omp19-mediated cytokine production. These results demonstrate that B. abortus lipoproteins can stimulate DC maturation providing a mechanism by which these bacteria generate a Th1-type immune response. PMID:18761420

Zwerdling, Astrid; Delpino, M Victoria; Barrionuevo, Paula; Cassataro, Juliana; Pasquevich, Karina A; Garc燰 Samartino, Clara; Fossati, Carlos A; Giambartolomei, Guillermo H

2008-08-12

4

Brucella lipoproteins mimic dendritic cell maturation induced by Brucella abortus.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Infection with Brucella abortus induces a pro-inflammatory response that drives T cell responses toward a Th1 profile. The mechanism by which this bacterium triggers this response is unknown. Dendritic cells (DC) are crucial mediators at the host-pathogen interface and are potent Th1-inducing antigen-presenting cells. Thus, we examined the mechanism whereby B. abortus stimulate human DC maturation. B. abortus-infected DC increased the expression of CD86, CD80, CCR7, CD83, MHCII, MHCI and CD40 and induced the production of TNF-alpha, IL-6, IL-10 and IL-12. Both phenomena were not dependent on bacterial viability since they were also induced by heat-killed B. abortus (HKBA). B. abortus LPS was unable to induce markers up-regulation or cytokine production. We next investigated the capacity of the outer membrane protein 19 (Omp19) as a B. abortus lipoprotein model to induce DC maturation. Lipidated Omp19 (L-Omp19), but not its unlipidated form, increased the expression of cell surface markers and the secretion of cytokines. L-Omp19-matured DC also have decreased endocytic activity and displayed enhanced T cell stimulatory activity in a MLR. Pre-incubation of DC with anti-TLR2 mAb blocked L-Omp19-mediated cytokine production. These results demonstrate that B. abortus lipoproteins can stimulate DC maturation providing a mechanism by which these bacteria generate a Th1-type immune response.

Zwerdling A; Delpino MV; Barrionuevo P; Cassataro J; Pasquevich KA; Garc燰 Samartino C; Fossati CA; Giambartolomei GH

2008-10-01

5

Dimer formation of receptor activator of nuclear factor ?B induces incomplete osteoclast formation  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Receptor activator of nuclear factor ?B-ligand (RANKL) transduces a differentiation signal appropriate to osteoclasts likely through induction a receptor homotrimer; however, biological importance of RANK-trimerizarion is unknown. To address the signaling mechanism of the RANK receptor, we analyzed the effect of two different types of homodimer inducers RANK-TM-FKBP36v and hEpoR-RANK-TM on osteoclastogenesis. Dimerizing component FKBP36v or extracellular portion of human erythropoietin receptor (hEpoR) was fused to RANK lacking the extracellular domain, and the dimerization of this fusion protein was induced by addition of the chemical inducer of dimerization AP20187 or erythropoietin, respectively. Such treatment resulted in induction of TRAP-activity, a marker of osteoclast in a dose dependent manner, with an efficiency equivalent to that of induction by RANKL. However, dimerized-RANK-induced osteoclasts showed relatively low levels of multinucleation, pit forming activity, and expression of calcitonin receptor and cathepsin K, compared with osteoclasts which were induced in the presence of RANKL. As expression of nuclear factor of activated T cells 1 (NFATc1) was also reduced in dimerized-RANK-induced osteoclasts, RANK oligomerization by RANKL is a critical event to generate fully matured osteoclasts through upregulation of NFATc1.

2004-12-03

6

Investigation of the influence of incomplete fusion on complete fusion of 16O induced reactions at moderate excitation energies  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available An attempt has been made to investigate for the reaction dynamics leading to incomplete fusion (ICF) of heavy ions at moderate excitation energies, especially the influence of incomplete fusion on complete fusion (CF) of 16O induced reactions at specific energies. Excitation functions (EFs) of various reaction products populated via CF and/or ICF of 16O projectile with 45Sc target were measured at energies ?3-7 MeV/nucleon, using recoil catcher technique followed by offline ?-ray spectroscopy. The measured EFs were compared with theoretical values obtained using the statistical model code PACE4. The experimentally measured EFs were in general found to be in good agreement with the theoretical predictions for non ?-emitting channels in the present target projectile system. However, for ?-emitting channels the measured EFs were higher than the predictions of the theoretical model codes, which may be credited to incomplete fusion reactions at these energies.

Agarwal Avinash; Dutt Sunil; Sharma Anjali; Rizvi I. A.; Kumar Kamal; Ali Sabir; Ahamad Tauseef; Kumar Rakesh; Chaubey A. K.

2012-01-01

7

Induced maturation of hepatic progenitor cells in vitro  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Abstract in english Hepatic progenitor cells (HPCs) are a potential cell source for liver cell transplantation but do not function like mature liver cells. We sought an effective and reliable method to induce HPC maturation. An immortalized HP14.5 albumin promoter-driven Gaussian luciferase (ALB-GLuc) cell line was established from HPCs isolated from fetal mouse liver of post coitus day 14.5 mice to investigate the effect of induction factors on ALB promoter. HP14.5 (more) parental cells were cultured in DMEM with different combinations of 2% horse serum (HS), 0.1 然 dexamethasone (DEX), 10 ng/mL hepatic growth factor (HGF), and/or 20 ng/mL fibroblast growth factor 4 (FGF4). Trypan blue and crystal violet staining were used to assess cell proliferation with different induction conditions. Expression of hepatic markers was measured by semi-quantitative RT-PCR, Western blot, and immunofluorescence. Glycogen storage and metabolism were detected by periodic acid-Schiff and indocyanine green (ICG) staining. GLuc activity indicated ALB expression. The combination of 2% HS+0.1 然 Dex+10 ng/mL HGF+20 ng/mL FGF4 induced the highest ALB-GLuc activity. Cell proliferation decreased in 2% HS but increased by adding FGF4. Upon induction, and consistent with hepatocyte development, DLK, AFP, and CK19 expression decreased, while ALB, CK18, and UGT1A expression increased. The maturity markers tyrosine aminotransferase and apolipoprotein B were detected at days 3 and 6 post-induction, respectively. ICG uptake and glycogen synthesis were detectable at day 6 and increased over time. Therefore, we demonstrated that HPCs were induced to differentiate into functional mature hepatocytes in vitro, suggesting that factor-treated HPCs may be further explored as a means of liver cell transplantation.

Bi, Y.; He, Y.; Huang, J.Y.; Xu, L.; Tang, N.; He, T.C.; Feng, T.

2013-07-01

8

Induced maturation of hepatic progenitor cells in vitro.  

Science.gov (United States)

Hepatic progenitor cells (HPCs) are a potential cell source for liver cell transplantation but do not function like mature liver cells. We sought an effective and reliable method to induce HPC maturation. An immortalized HP14.5 albumin promoter-driven Gaussian luciferase (ALB-GLuc) cell line was established from HPCs isolated from fetal mouse liver of post coitus day 14.5 mice to investigate the effect of induction factors on ALB promoter. HP14.5 parental cells were cultured in DMEM with different combinations of 2% horse serum (HS), 0.1 然 dexamethasone (DEX), 10 ng/mL hepatic growth factor (HGF), and/or 20 ng/mL fibroblast growth factor 4 (FGF4). Trypan blue and crystal violet staining were used to assess cell proliferation with different induction conditions. Expression of hepatic markers was measured by semi-quantitative RT-PCR, Western blot, and immunofluorescence. Glycogen storage and metabolism were detected by periodic acid-Schiff and indocyanine green (ICG) staining. GLuc activity indicated ALB expression. The combination of 2% HS+0.1 然 Dex+10 ng/mL HGF+20 ng/mL FGF4 induced the highest ALB-GLuc activity. Cell proliferation decreased in 2% HS but increased by adding FGF4. Upon induction, and consistent with hepatocyte development, DLK, AFP, and CK19 expression decreased, while ALB, CK18, and UGT1A expression increased. The maturity markers tyrosine aminotransferase and apolipoprotein B were detected at days 3 and 6 post-induction, respectively. ICG uptake and glycogen synthesis were detectable at day 6 and increased over time. Therefore, we demonstrated that HPCs were induced to differentiate into functional mature hepatocytes in vitro, suggesting that factor-treated HPCs may be further explored as a means of liver cell transplantation. PMID:23903683

Bi, Y; He, Y; Huang, J Y; Xu, L; Tang, N; He, T C; Feng, T

2013-07-16

9

Induced maturation of hepatic progenitor cells in vitro.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Hepatic progenitor cells (HPCs) are a potential cell source for liver cell transplantation but do not function like mature liver cells. We sought an effective and reliable method to induce HPC maturation. An immortalized HP14.5 albumin promoter-driven Gaussian luciferase (ALB-GLuc) cell line was established from HPCs isolated from fetal mouse liver of post coitus day 14.5 mice to investigate the effect of induction factors on ALB promoter. HP14.5 parental cells were cultured in DMEM with different combinations of 2% horse serum (HS), 0.1 然 dexamethasone (DEX), 10 ng/mL hepatic growth factor (HGF), and/or 20 ng/mL fibroblast growth factor 4 (FGF4). Trypan blue and crystal violet staining were used to assess cell proliferation with different induction conditions. Expression of hepatic markers was measured by semi-quantitative RT-PCR, Western blot, and immunofluorescence. Glycogen storage and metabolism were detected by periodic acid-Schiff and indocyanine green (ICG) staining. GLuc activity indicated ALB expression. The combination of 2% HS+0.1 然 Dex+10 ng/mL HGF+20 ng/mL FGF4 induced the highest ALB-GLuc activity. Cell proliferation decreased in 2% HS but increased by adding FGF4. Upon induction, and consistent with hepatocyte development, DLK, AFP, and CK19 expression decreased, while ALB, CK18, and UGT1A expression increased. The maturity markers tyrosine aminotransferase and apolipoprotein B were detected at days 3 and 6 post-induction, respectively. ICG uptake and glycogen synthesis were detectable at day 6 and increased over time. Therefore, we demonstrated that HPCs were induced to differentiate into functional mature hepatocytes in vitro, suggesting that factor-treated HPCs may be further explored as a means of liver cell transplantation.

Bi Y; He Y; Huang JY; Xu L; Tang N; He TC; Feng T

2013-08-01

10

Induced maturation of hepatic progenitor cells in vitro  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Abstract in english Hepatic progenitor cells (HPCs) are a potential cell source for liver cell transplantation but do not function like mature liver cells. We sought an effective and reliable method to induce HPC maturation. An immortalized HP14.5 albumin promoter-driven Gaussian luciferase (ALB-GLuc) cell line was established from HPCs isolated from fetal mouse liver of post coitus day 14.5 mice to investigate the effect of induction factors on ALB promoter. HP14.5 (more) parental cells were cultured in DMEM with different combinations of 2% horse serum (HS), 0.1 然 dexamethasone (DEX), 10 ng/mL hepatic growth factor (HGF), and/or 20 ng/mL fibroblast growth factor 4 (FGF4). Trypan blue and crystal violet staining were used to assess cell proliferation with different induction conditions. Expression of hepatic markers was measured by semi-quantitative RT-PCR, Western blot, and immunofluorescence. Glycogen storage and metabolism were detected by periodic acid-Schiff and indocyanine green (ICG) staining. GLuc activity indicated ALB expression. The combination of 2% HS+0.1 然 Dex+10 ng/mL HGF+20 ng/mL FGF4 induced the highest ALB-GLuc activity. Cell proliferation decreased in 2% HS but increased by adding FGF4. Upon induction, and consistent with hepatocyte development, DLK, AFP, and CK19 expression decreased, while ALB, CK18, and UGT1A expression increased. The maturity markers tyrosine aminotransferase and apolipoprotein B were detected at days 3 and 6 post-induction, respectively. ICG uptake and glycogen synthesis were detectable at day 6 and increased over time. Therefore, we demonstrated that HPCs were induced to differentiate into functional mature hepatocytes in vitro, suggesting that factor-treated HPCs may be further explored as a means of liver cell transplantation.

Bi, Y.; He, Y.; Huang, J.Y.; Xu, L.; Tang, N.; He, T.C.; Feng, T.

2013-08-01

11

Demecolcine-induced enucleation of sheep meiotically maturing oocytes.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The objective of this study was to investigate the possible effect of demecolcine, a microtubule-disrupting reagent, on induced enucleation (IE) of sheep meiotically maturing oocytes. Immunofluorescent staining with anti-tubulin antibodies was used to examine the spindle status of the oocytes. When the oocytes with intact germinal vesicles (GV) were cultured in the medium containing various concentrations of demecolcine (0.01 to 0.4 microg.mL-1) for 20 to 22 h, the spindle microtubule organization and first polar body (PB1) extrusion were inhibited by demecolcine in a dose-dependent manner. The highest IE rate (58.1%) was from the treatment with 0.04 microg.mL-1 demecolcine. Demecolcine treatment applied after germinal vesicle breakdown (GVBD) or at metaphase (M) yielded a PB1 extrusion rate and IE efficiency similar to the treatment applied at the onset of maturation. Analysis by immunofluorescence showed that both nonspindle microtubules and spindle microtubules were significantly disorganized by demecolcine. Combination treatment with demecolcine and cycloheximide (CHX) or 6-dimethylaminopurine (6-DMAP) led to single pronuclear formation rather than PB1 extrusion. When demecolcine-treated oocytes were transferred into demecolcine-free medium, the ability to extrude PB1 was quickly restored and a 72.1% IE rate was obtained following such treatment. These results demonstrate that demecolcine can be used as a potential reagent for induced enucleation of sheep meiotically maturing oocytes and may greatly facilitate research in nuclear transfer.

Hou J; Lei T; Liu L; Cui X; An X; Chen Y

2006-03-01

12

Evidence of a Binary-Induced Spiral from an Incomplete Ring Pattern of CIT 6  

CERN Multimedia

With the advent of high-resolution high-sensitivity observations, spiral patterns have been revealed around several asymptotic giant branch (AGB) stars. Such patterns can provide possible evidence for the existence of central binary stars embedded in outflowing circumstellar envelopes. Here, we suggest the viability of explaining the previously observed incomplete ring-like patterns with the spiral-shell structure due to the motion of (unknown) binary components viewed at an inclination with respect to the orbital plane. We describe a method of extracting such spiral-shells from an incomplete ring-like pattern to place constraints on the characteristics of the central binary stars. The use of gas kinematics is essential in facilitating a detailed modeling for the three-dimensional structure of the circumstellar pattern. We show that a hydrodynamic radiative transfer model can reproduce the structure of the HC3N molecular line emission of the extreme carbon star, CIT 6. This method can be applied to other sour...

Kim, Hyosun; Liu, Sheng-Yuan; Taam, Ronald E

2013-01-01

13

Microcracks induce osteoblast alignment and maturation on hydroxyapatite scaffolds  

Science.gov (United States)

Physiological bone tissue is a mineral/collagen composite with a hierarchical structure. The features in bone, such as mineral crystals, fibers, and pores can range from the nanometer to the centimeter in size. Currently available bone tissue scaffolds primarily address the chemical composition, pore size, and pore size distribution. While these design parameters are extensively investigated for mimicking bone function and inducing bone regeneration, little is known about microcracks, which is a prevalent feature found in fractured bone in vivo and associated with fracture healing and repair. Since the purpose of bone tissue engineering scaffold is to enhance bone regeneration, the coincidence of microcracks and bone densification should not be neglected but rather be considered as a potential parameter in bone tissue engineering scaffold design. The purpose of this study is to test the hypothesis that microcracks enhance bone healing. In vitro studies were designed to investigate the osteoblast (bone forming cells) response to microcracks in dense (94%) hydroxyapatite substrates. Microcracks were introduced using a well-established Vickers indentation technique. The results of our study showed that microcracks induced osteoblast alignment, enhanced osteoblast attachment and more rapid maturation. These findings may provide insight into fracture healing mechanism(s) as well as improve the design of bone tissue engineering orthopedic scaffolds for more rapid bone regeneration.

Shu, Yutian

14

Insights into Eyestalk Ablation Mechanism to Induce Ovarian Maturation in the Black Tiger Shrimp  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Eyestalk ablation is commonly practiced in crustacean to induce ovarian maturation in captivity. The molecular mechanism of the ablation has not been well understood, preventing a search for alternative measures to induce ovarian maturation in aquaculture. This is the first study to employ cDNA micr...

Uawisetwathana, Umaporn; Leelatanawit, Rungnapa; Klanchui, Amornpan; Prommoon, Juthatip; Klinbunga, Sirawut; Karoonuthaisiri, Nitsara

15

Excitation functions for some Ne induced reactions with Holmium: incomplete fusion vs complete fusion  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Reactions induced by 20Ne are expected to be considerably more complex than those of 12C, and 16O. As a part of the ongoing program to understand CF and ICF reaction mechanisms, it is of great interest to see whether the same experimental technique yield similarly valuable information for 20Ne induced reactions. In this present work an attempt has been made to measure the excitation functions for fifteen evaporation residues (ERs) identified in the interaction of 20Ne + 165Ho system in the energy range 4 -7 MeV/A

2010-01-01

16

Incomplete fusion reactions  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Various aspects of the mechanism of heavy-ion induced reactions in the range of bombarding energies from a few to about 20 MeV/A are reviewed with special emphasis on the reactions for very asymmetric systems. Results of the experimental studies of binary reactions and particularly of the incomplete fusion reactions (selected by means of various coincidence techniques)are discussed. A model of generalized critical angular momentum is formulated. The model explains essential features of the incomplete fusion reactions and predicts that particular reaction channels are localized in well defined regions of angular momenta. An extension of this model (the sum-rule model) is also proposed in attempt to consistently describe the complete fusion reactions, incomplete fusion reactions and multibody reactions in the framework of statistical competition constrained by the angular momentum limitations. (author)

1983-01-01

17

Harvest-induced maturation evolution under different life-history trade-offs and harvesting regimes  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Abstract The potential of harvesting to induce adaptive changes in exploited populations is now increasingly recognized. While early studies predicted that elevated mortalities among larger individuals select for reduced maturation size, recent theoretical studies have shown conditions under...

18

Probiotic bacteria induce maturation of intestinal claudin 3 expression and barrier function.  

Science.gov (United States)

An immature intestinal epithelial barrier may predispose infants and children to many intestinal inflammatory diseases, such as infectious enteritis, inflammatory bowel disease, and necrotizing enterocolitis. Understanding the factors that regulate gut barrier maturation may yield insight into strategies to prevent these intestinal diseases. The claudin family of tight junction proteins plays an important role in regulating epithelial paracellular permeability. Previous reports demonstrate that rodent intestinal barrier function matures during the first 3 weeks of life. We show that murine paracellular permeability markedly decreases during postnatal maturation, with the most significant change occurring between 2 and 3 weeks. Here we report for the first time that commensal bacterial colonization induces intestinal barrier function maturation by promoting claudin 3 expression. Neonatal mice raised on antibiotics or lacking the toll-like receptor adaptor protein MyD88 exhibit impaired barrier function and decreased claudin 3 expression. Furthermore, enteral administration of either live or heat-killed preparations of the probiotic Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG accelerates intestinal barrier maturation and induces claudin 3 expression. However, live Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG increases mortality. Taken together, these results support a vital role for intestinal flora in the maturation of intestinal barrier function. Probiotics may prevent intestinal inflammatory diseases by regulating intestinal tight junction protein expression and barrier function. The use of heat-killed probiotics may provide therapeutic benefit while minimizing adverse effects. PMID:22155109

Patel, Ravi M; Myers, Loren S; Kurundkar, Ashish R; Maheshwari, Akhil; Nusrat, Asma; Lin, Patricia W

2011-12-05

19

Probiotic bacteria induce maturation of intestinal claudin 3 expression and barrier function.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

An immature intestinal epithelial barrier may predispose infants and children to many intestinal inflammatory diseases, such as infectious enteritis, inflammatory bowel disease, and necrotizing enterocolitis. Understanding the factors that regulate gut barrier maturation may yield insight into strategies to prevent these intestinal diseases. The claudin family of tight junction proteins plays an important role in regulating epithelial paracellular permeability. Previous reports demonstrate that rodent intestinal barrier function matures during the first 3 weeks of life. We show that murine paracellular permeability markedly decreases during postnatal maturation, with the most significant change occurring between 2 and 3 weeks. Here we report for the first time that commensal bacterial colonization induces intestinal barrier function maturation by promoting claudin 3 expression. Neonatal mice raised on antibiotics or lacking the toll-like receptor adaptor protein MyD88 exhibit impaired barrier function and decreased claudin 3 expression. Furthermore, enteral administration of either live or heat-killed preparations of the probiotic Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG accelerates intestinal barrier maturation and induces claudin 3 expression. However, live Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG increases mortality. Taken together, these results support a vital role for intestinal flora in the maturation of intestinal barrier function. Probiotics may prevent intestinal inflammatory diseases by regulating intestinal tight junction protein expression and barrier function. The use of heat-killed probiotics may provide therapeutic benefit while minimizing adverse effects.

Patel RM; Myers LS; Kurundkar AR; Maheshwari A; Nusrat A; Lin PW

2012-02-01

20

SOCS2 influences LPS induced human monocyte-derived dendritic cell maturation  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Dendritic cells (DCs) are highly specific antigen presenting cells, which link innate and adaptive immune responses and participate in protecting hosts from invading pathogens. DCs can be generated in vitro by culturing human monocytes with GM-CSF and IL-4 followed by LPS induced DC maturation. We set out to study the suppressor of cytokine signaling (SOCS) proteins during maturation and activation of human monocyte-derived DCs from peripheral blood in vitro. We found that the expression of SOCS2 mRNA and protein is dramatically up-regulated during DC maturation. Silencing of SOCS2 using siRNA, inhibited DC maturation as evidenced by a decreased expression of maturation markers such as CD83, co-stimulatory molecules CD40, CD86 and HLA-DR. Furthermore, silencing of SOCS2 decreased LPS induced activation of MAP kinases (SAKP/JNK, p38, ERK), IRF3, decreased the translocation of the NF-kappaB transcription factor and reduced downstream gene mRNA expression. These results suggest a role for SOCS2 in the MyD88-dependent and -independent TLR4 signaling pathways. In conclusion, our results demonstrate that SOCS2 is required for appropriate TLR4 signaling in maturating human DCs via both the MyD88-dependent and -independent signaling pathway.

Hu, Jin; Winqvist, Ola

2009-01-01

 
 
 
 
21

Topological Incompleteness and Order Incompleteness of the Lambda Calculus  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

A model of the untyped lambda calculus induces a lambda theory, i.e., a congruencerelation on -terms closed under ff- and fi-conversion. A semantics (= class of models)of the lambda calculus is incomplete if there exists a lambda theory which is not inducedby any model in the semantics. In this paper we introduce a new technique to provethe incompleteness of a wide range of lambda calculus semantics, including the stronglystable one, whose incompleteness had been conjectured by Bastonero-Gouy [6, 7] andby Berline [9]. The main results of the paper are a topological incompleteness theoremand an order incompleteness theorem. In the first one we show the incompleteness of thelambda calculus semantics given in terms of topological models whose topology satisfies aproperty of connectedness. In the second one we prove the incompleteness of the class ofpartially ordered models with finitely many connected components w.r.t. the Alexandrofftopology. A further result of the paper is a proof of the completeness of the semantics ofthe lambda calculus given in terms of topological models whose topology is non-trivialand metrizable.

Antonino Salibra

22

Neuronal peptides induce oocyte maturation and gamete spawning of sea cucumber, Apostichopus japonicus.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Extracts prepared from tissues containing buccal ring nerve or longitudinal radial nerve of sea cucumber induce oocyte maturation and ovulation from ovarian tissues. We purified two small peptides, a pentapeptide and a heptapeptide, from the buccal tissues of Japanese common sea cucumber, Apostichopus japonicas. Both peptides induced oocyte maturation and gamete spawning. The pentapeptide was identified as NGIWYamide. This peptide induced in vitro germinal vesicle breakdown and ovulation of fully-grown oocytes at less than 1 pM and in vivo spawning at 10 nM. A synthetic derivative of the pentapeptide, NGLWYamide, was 10-100 times more potent compared to the natural NGIWYamide. The heptapeptide was less potent, inducing ovulation at 1 muM. NGIWYamide and NGLWYamide induced a characteristic spawning behavior when injected into sexually matured individuals. Mature eggs artificially spawned were fertilized, and developed normally and metamorphosed into young sea cucumbers. The details of the production and the mechanism of action of NGIWYamide are still unclear, but the high biopotency of the peptide will aid understanding of the neuronal and hormonal control of reproduction of sea cucumber.

Kato S; Tsurumaru S; Taga M; Yamane T; Shibata Y; Ohno K; Fujiwara A; Yamano K; Yoshikuni M

2009-02-01

23

Neuronal peptides induce oocyte maturation and gamete spawning of sea cucumber, Apostichopus japonicus.  

Science.gov (United States)

Extracts prepared from tissues containing buccal ring nerve or longitudinal radial nerve of sea cucumber induce oocyte maturation and ovulation from ovarian tissues. We purified two small peptides, a pentapeptide and a heptapeptide, from the buccal tissues of Japanese common sea cucumber, Apostichopus japonicas. Both peptides induced oocyte maturation and gamete spawning. The pentapeptide was identified as NGIWYamide. This peptide induced in vitro germinal vesicle breakdown and ovulation of fully-grown oocytes at less than 1 pM and in vivo spawning at 10 nM. A synthetic derivative of the pentapeptide, NGLWYamide, was 10-100 times more potent compared to the natural NGIWYamide. The heptapeptide was less potent, inducing ovulation at 1 muM. NGIWYamide and NGLWYamide induced a characteristic spawning behavior when injected into sexually matured individuals. Mature eggs artificially spawned were fertilized, and developed normally and metamorphosed into young sea cucumbers. The details of the production and the mechanism of action of NGIWYamide are still unclear, but the high biopotency of the peptide will aid understanding of the neuronal and hormonal control of reproduction of sea cucumber. PMID:19059232

Kato, Shinichi; Tsurumaru, Saori; Taga, Makoto; Yamane, Tomoki; Shibata, Yasushi; Ohno, Kaoru; Fujiwara, Atushi; Yamano, Keisuke; Yoshikuni, Michiyasu

2008-11-19

24

A requirement for Fatty Acid oxidation in the hormone-induced meiotic maturation of mouse oocytes.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

We have previously shown that fatty acid oxidation (FAO) is required for AMP-activated protein kinase (PRKA)-induced maturation in vitro. In the present study, we have further investigated the role of this metabolic pathway in hormone-induced meiotic maturation. Incorporating an assay with (3)H-palmitic acid as the substrate, we first examined the effect of PRKA activators on FAO levels. There was a significant stimulation of FAO in cumulus cell-enclosed oocytes (CEO) treated with 5-aminoimidazole-4-carboxamide ribonucleotide (AICAR) and RSVA405. In denuded oocytes (DO), AICAR stimulated FAO only in the presence of carnitine, the molecule that facilitates fatty acyl CoA entry into the mitochondria. The carnitine palmitoyltransferase 1 activator C75 successfully stimulated FAO in CEO. All three of these activators trigger germinal vesicle breakdown. Meiotic resumption induced by follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) or amphiregulin was completely inhibited by the FAO inhibitors etomoxir, mercaptoacetate, and malonyl CoA. Importantly, FAO was increased in CEO stimulated by FSH and epidermal growth factor, and this increase was blocked by FAO inhibitors. Moreover, compound C, a PRKA inhibitor, prevented the FSH-induced increase in FAO. Both carnitine and palmitic acid augmented hormonal induction of maturation. In a more physiological setting, etomoxir eliminated human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG)-induced maturation in follicle-enclosed oocytes. In addition, CEO and DO from hCG-treated mice displayed an etomoxir-sensitive increase in FAO, indicating that this pathway was stimulated during in vivo meiotic resumption. Taken together, our data indicate that hormone-induced maturation in mice requires a PRKA-dependent increase in FAO.

Valsangkar D; Downs SM

2013-01-01

25

A requirement for fatty acid oxidation in the hormone-induced meiotic maturation of mouse oocytes.  

Science.gov (United States)

We have previously shown that fatty acid oxidation (FAO) is required for AMP-activated protein kinase (PRKA)-induced maturation in vitro. In the present study, we have further investigated the role of this metabolic pathway in hormone-induced meiotic maturation. Incorporating an assay with (3)H-palmitic acid as the substrate, we first examined the effect of PRKA activators on FAO levels. There was a significant stimulation of FAO in cumulus cell-enclosed oocytes (CEO) treated with 5-aminoimidazole-4-carboxamide ribonucleotide (AICAR) and RSVA405. In denuded oocytes (DO), AICAR stimulated FAO only in the presence of carnitine, the molecule that facilitates fatty acyl CoA entry into the mitochondria. The carnitine palmitoyltransferase 1 activator C75 successfully stimulated FAO in CEO. All three of these activators trigger germinal vesicle breakdown. Meiotic resumption induced by follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) or amphiregulin was completely inhibited by the FAO inhibitors etomoxir, mercaptoacetate, and malonyl CoA. Importantly, FAO was increased in CEO stimulated by FSH and epidermal growth factor, and this increase was blocked by FAO inhibitors. Moreover, compound C, a PRKA inhibitor, prevented the FSH-induced increase in FAO. Both carnitine and palmitic acid augmented hormonal induction of maturation. In a more physiological setting, etomoxir eliminated human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG)-induced maturation in follicle-enclosed oocytes. In addition, CEO and DO from hCG-treated mice displayed an etomoxir-sensitive increase in FAO, indicating that this pathway was stimulated during in vivo meiotic resumption. Taken together, our data indicate that hormone-induced maturation in mice requires a PRKA-dependent increase in FAO. PMID:23863407

Valsangkar, Deepa; Downs, Stephen M

2013-08-29

26

Developmental regulation of Ca2+ and K+ currents during hormone-induced maturation of starfish oocytes.  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Changes in the electrical properties of starfish oocytes during hormone-induced maturation (the reinitiation of meiosis prior to fertilization) were studied by using the voltage-clamp technique. Three voltage-dependent ionic currents dominate the current-voltage relation of the immature oocyte: an i...

Moody, W J; Lansman, J B

27

Insights into eyestalk ablation mechanism to induce ovarian maturation in the black tiger shrimp.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Eyestalk ablation is commonly practiced in crustacean to induce ovarian maturation in captivity. The molecular mechanism of the ablation has not been well understood, preventing a search for alternative measures to induce ovarian maturation in aquaculture. This is the first study to employ cDNA microarray to examine effects of eyestalk ablation at the transcriptomic level and pathway mapping analysis to identify potentially affected biological pathways in the black tiger shrimp (Penaeus monodon). Microarray analysis comparing between gene expression levels of ovaries from eyestalk-intact and eyestalk-ablated brooders revealed 682 differentially expressed transcripts. Based on Hierarchical clustering of gene expression patterns, Gene Ontology annotation, and relevant functions of these differentially expressed genes, several gene groups were further examined by pathway mapping analysis. Reverse-transcriptase quantitative PCR analysis for some representative transcripts confirmed microarray data. Known reproductive genes involved in vitellogenesis were dramatically increased during the ablation. Besides these transcripts expected to be induced by the ablation, transcripts whose functions involved in electron transfer mechanism, immune responses and calcium signal transduction were significantly altered following the ablation. Pathway mapping analysis revealed that the activation of gonadotropin-releasing hormone signaling, calcium signaling, and progesterone-mediated oocyte maturation pathways were putatively crucial to ovarian maturation induced by the ablation. These findings shed light on several possible molecular mechanisms of the eyestalk ablation effect and allow more focused investigation for an ultimate goal of finding alternative methods to replace the undesirable practice of the eyestalk ablation in the future.

Uawisetwathana U; Leelatanawit R; Klanchui A; Prommoon J; Klinbunga S; Karoonuthaisiri N

2011-01-01

28

Insights into eyestalk ablation mechanism to induce ovarian maturation in the black tiger shrimp.  

Science.gov (United States)

Eyestalk ablation is commonly practiced in crustacean to induce ovarian maturation in captivity. The molecular mechanism of the ablation has not been well understood, preventing a search for alternative measures to induce ovarian maturation in aquaculture. This is the first study to employ cDNA microarray to examine effects of eyestalk ablation at the transcriptomic level and pathway mapping analysis to identify potentially affected biological pathways in the black tiger shrimp (Penaeus monodon). Microarray analysis comparing between gene expression levels of ovaries from eyestalk-intact and eyestalk-ablated brooders revealed 682 differentially expressed transcripts. Based on Hierarchical clustering of gene expression patterns, Gene Ontology annotation, and relevant functions of these differentially expressed genes, several gene groups were further examined by pathway mapping analysis. Reverse-transcriptase quantitative PCR analysis for some representative transcripts confirmed microarray data. Known reproductive genes involved in vitellogenesis were dramatically increased during the ablation. Besides these transcripts expected to be induced by the ablation, transcripts whose functions involved in electron transfer mechanism, immune responses and calcium signal transduction were significantly altered following the ablation. Pathway mapping analysis revealed that the activation of gonadotropin-releasing hormone signaling, calcium signaling, and progesterone-mediated oocyte maturation pathways were putatively crucial to ovarian maturation induced by the ablation. These findings shed light on several possible molecular mechanisms of the eyestalk ablation effect and allow more focused investigation for an ultimate goal of finding alternative methods to replace the undesirable practice of the eyestalk ablation in the future. PMID:21915325

Uawisetwathana, Umaporn; Leelatanawit, Rungnapa; Klanchui, Amornpan; Prommoon, Juthatip; Klinbunga, Sirawut; Karoonuthaisiri, Nitsara

2011-09-07

29

Chromosome condensation induced by geminivirus infection of mature plant cells.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Tomato golden mosaic virus (TGMV) is a geminivirus that replicates its single-stranded DNA genome through double-stranded DNA intermediates in nuclei of differentiated plant cells using host replication machinery. We analyzed the distribution of viral and plant DNA in nuclei of infected leaves using fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH). TGMV-infected nuclei showed up to a sixfold increase in total volume and displayed a variety of viral DNA accumulation patterns. The most striking viral DNA patterns were bright, discrete intranuclear compartments, but diffuse nuclear localization was also observed. Quantitative and spatial measurements of high resolution 3-dimensional image data revealed that these compartments accounted for 1-18% of the total nuclear volume or 2-45% of the total nuclear FISH signals. In contrast, plant DNA was concentrated around the nuclear periphery. In a significant number of nuclei, the peripheral chromatin was organized as condensed prophase-like fibers. A combination of FISH analysis and indirect immunofluorescence with viral coat protein antibodies revealed that TGMV virions are associated with the viral DNA compartments. However, the coat protein antibodies failed to cross react with some large viral DNA inclusions, suggesting that encapsidation may occur after significant viral DNA accumulation. Infection by a TGMV mutant with a defective coat protein open reading frame resulted in fewer and smaller viral DNA-containing compartments. Nevertheless, nuclei infected with the mutant virus increased in size and in some cases showed chromosome condensation. Together, these results established that geminivirus infection alters nuclear architecture and can induce plant chromatin condensation characteristic of cells arrested in early mitosis.

Bass HW; Nagar S; Hanley-Bowdoin L; Robertson D

2000-04-01

30

Repression of Osteoblast Maturation by ERR? Accounts for Bone Loss Induced by Estrogen Deficiency  

Science.gov (United States)

ERR? is an orphan member of the nuclear receptor family, the complete inactivation of which confers resistance to bone loss induced by ageing and estrogen withdrawal to female mice in correlation with increased bone formation in vivo. Furthermore ERR? negatively regulates the commitment of mesenchymal cells to the osteoblast lineage ex vivo as well as later steps of osteoblast maturation. We searched to determine whether the activities of ERR? on osteoblast maturation are responsible for one or both types of in vivo induced bone loss. To this end we have generated conditional knock out mice in which the receptor is normally present during early osteoblast differentiation but inactivated upon osteoblast maturation. Bone ageing in these animals was similar to that observed for control animals. In contrast conditional ERR?KO mice were completely resistant to bone loss induced by ovariectomy. We conclude that the late (maturation), but not early (commitment), negative effects of ERR? on the osteoblast lineage contribute to the reduced bone mineral density observed upon estrogen deficiency.

Gallet, Marlene; Saidi, Soraya; Hay, Eric; Photsavang, Johann; Marty, Caroline; Sailland, Juliette; Carnesecchi, Julie; Tribollet, Violaine; Barenton, Bruno; Forcet, Christelle; Birling, Marie-Christine; Sorg, Tania; Chassande, Olivier; Cohen-Solal, Martine; Vanacker, Jean-Marc

2013-01-01

31

Repression of osteoblast maturation by ERR? accounts for bone loss induced by estrogen deficiency.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

ERR? is an orphan member of the nuclear receptor family, the complete inactivation of which confers resistance to bone loss induced by ageing and estrogen withdrawal to female mice in correlation with increased bone formation in vivo. Furthermore ERR? negatively regulates the commitment of mesenchymal cells to the osteoblast lineage ex vivo as well as later steps of osteoblast maturation. We searched to determine whether the activities of ERR? on osteoblast maturation are responsible for one or both types of in vivo induced bone loss. To this end we have generated conditional knock out mice in which the receptor is normally present during early osteoblast differentiation but inactivated upon osteoblast maturation. Bone ageing in these animals was similar to that observed for control animals. In contrast conditional ERR?KO mice were completely resistant to bone loss induced by ovariectomy. We conclude that the late (maturation), but not early (commitment), negative effects of ERR? on the osteoblast lineage contribute to the reduced bone mineral density observed upon estrogen deficiency.

Gallet M; Sa骾i S; Ha E; Photsavang J; Marty C; Sailland J; Carnesecchi J; Tribollet V; Barenton B; Forcet C; Birling MC; Sorg T; Chassande O; Cohen-Solal M; Vanacker JM

2013-01-01

32

Complement protein C1q induces maturation of human dendritic cells  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Maturation of dendritic cells (DCs) is known to be induced by several stimuli, including microbial products, inflammatory cytokines and immobilized IgG, as demonstrated recently. Since immune complexes formed in vivo also contain C1q, moreover apoptotic cells and several pathogens fix C1q in the absence of antibodies, we undertook to investigate whether this complement protein has an impact on various functions of human DCs. Maturation of monocyte-derived immature DCs (imMDCs) cultured on immobilized C1q was followed by monitoring expression of CD80, CD83, CD86, MHCII and CCR7. The functional activity of the cells was assessed by measuring cytokine secretion and their ability to activate allogeneic T lymphocytes. Cytokine production by T cells co-cultured with C1q-matured DCs was also investigated. C1q, but not the structurally related mannose-binding lectin was found to bind to imMDC in a dose-dependent manner and induced NF-kappaB translocation to the nucleus. Immobilized C1q induced maturation of MDCs and enhanced secretion of IL-12 and TNF-alpha, moreover, elevated their T-cell stimulating capacity. As IFN-gamma levels were increased in supernatants of MDC-T cell co-cultures, our data suggest that C1q-induced DC maturation generates a Th1-type response. Interestingly, IL-10 levels were elevated by C1q-treated MDCs but not in the supernatant of their co-cultures with allogeneic T cells. Taken together, these results indicate that C1q-opsonized antigens may play a role in the induction and regulation of immune response. Moreover our data are relevant in view of the role of C1q in removal of apoptotic cells and the association between C1q-deficiency and autoimmunity.

Csomor, Eszter; Bajtay, Zsuzsa

2007-01-01

33

Bougainvillea spectabilis incomplete girdling promoting blossom method  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The invention relates to a bougainvillea glabra incomplete girdling flower forcing method. By using a technique proposal of conducting an incomplete girdling vertically by a width of 10 to 15mm at main trunk of round leaf mature tree bougainvillea glabra, and remaining 1/12 to 1/15 of perimeter of bark around a cut, thus a crown of the bougainvillea glabra tree flowers in a large quantity after February to March, and tree vigor is stronger than before.

DEFU LIANG

34

The role of heat shock protein (hsp70) in dendritic cell maturation: hsp70 induces the maturation of immature dendritic cells but reduces DC differentiation from monocyte precursors.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Members of the heat shock protein (hsp70) family are either constitutively expressed (hsc70) or can be induced by hyperthermic stress (hsp70). Recombinant hsp70 (rhsp70) stimulates cytokine production from monocytes and enhances NK cell proliferation and cytotoxicity. Here we demonstrate that rhsp70 binds to immature dendritic cells (DC) derived from monocyte precursors and induces their maturation as evidenced by an increase in CD40, CD86 and CD83 expression. Immature DC stimulated to mature with rhsp70 show an enhanced ability to present tyrosinase peptide to specific CTL. Mature DC did not bind rhsp70, suggesting a down-regulation in the expression of its receptor. When rhsp70 was added to monocyte precursors at the same time as GM-CSF and IL-4 it reduced the differentiation of monocytes into DC as shown by a decrease in the level of CD40, CD83, CD86 and HLA-DR expression and an increase in CD14 expression. The constitutively expressed hsc70 had neither a stimulatory effect on the maturation of immature DC nor did it reduce the differentiation of monocytes into DC. These findings demonstrate the specific ability of rhsp70 to induce the maturation of immature DC. Therefore rhsp70 may be useful for its adjuvant like properties in DC based immunotherapy of certain tumors.

Kuppner MC; Gastpar R; Gelwer S; N飉sner E; Ochmann O; Scharner A; Issels RD

2001-05-01

35

The role of heat shock protein (hsp70) in dendritic cell maturation: hsp70 induces the maturation of immature dendritic cells but reduces DC differentiation from monocyte precursors.  

Science.gov (United States)

Members of the heat shock protein (hsp70) family are either constitutively expressed (hsc70) or can be induced by hyperthermic stress (hsp70). Recombinant hsp70 (rhsp70) stimulates cytokine production from monocytes and enhances NK cell proliferation and cytotoxicity. Here we demonstrate that rhsp70 binds to immature dendritic cells (DC) derived from monocyte precursors and induces their maturation as evidenced by an increase in CD40, CD86 and CD83 expression. Immature DC stimulated to mature with rhsp70 show an enhanced ability to present tyrosinase peptide to specific CTL. Mature DC did not bind rhsp70, suggesting a down-regulation in the expression of its receptor. When rhsp70 was added to monocyte precursors at the same time as GM-CSF and IL-4 it reduced the differentiation of monocytes into DC as shown by a decrease in the level of CD40, CD83, CD86 and HLA-DR expression and an increase in CD14 expression. The constitutively expressed hsc70 had neither a stimulatory effect on the maturation of immature DC nor did it reduce the differentiation of monocytes into DC. These findings demonstrate the specific ability of rhsp70 to induce the maturation of immature DC. Therefore rhsp70 may be useful for its adjuvant like properties in DC based immunotherapy of certain tumors. PMID:11465118

Kuppner, M C; Gastpar, R; Gelwer, S; N飉sner, E; Ochmann, O; Scharner, A; Issels, R D

2001-05-01

36

L-carnitine improves hydrogen peroxide-induced impairment of nuclear maturation in porcine oocytes.  

Science.gov (United States)

We investigated the effect of oxidative stress induced by hydrogen peroxide (H2 O2 ) on lipid peroxide (LPO) level and nuclear maturation in porcine oocytes cultured with or without cumulus cells. After 22?h of pre-culture, oocytes with attached cumulus cells (COC group) or denuded oocytes (DO group) were cultured with H2 O2 , and intra-oocyte H2 O2 and LPO levels were quantitatively analyzed using immunofluorescence. This is the first report evaluating LPO levels in porcine oocytes. After H2 O2 supplementation, the DO group showed severe accumulation of H2 O2 and LPO in the oocytes. Similarly, while inhibition of progression of nuclear maturation was observed in both groups, the effect was more severe in the DO group. These results demonstrate that cumulus cells reduce the accumulation of H2 O2 stress in oocytes. Furthermore, we attempted to reduce the oxidative stress by H2 O2 with L-carnitine, a H2 O2 scavenger. L-carnitine decreased H2 O2 and LPO levels in the oocytes in both groups, and improvement in the progression of impaired nuclear maturation was observed. These effects were different by the presence of cumulus cells. Our results provide that L-carnitine is useful for alleviating H2 O2 -induced oxidative stress by reducing LPO levels and improving the progression of nuclear maturation. PMID:23607575

Yazaki, Takako; Hiradate, Yuki; Hoshino, Yumi; Tanemura, Kentaro; Sato, Eimei

2012-12-17

37

Maturation of murine bone marrow dendritic cells induced by acidic Ginseng polysaccharides.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

In this study, we report that a acidic polysaccharide (AGP) isolated from a Chinese medicinal herb, named Ginseng (Panax giseng C.A. Meyer), induces maturation of bone marrow dendritic cells (BMDCs) via concrete changes both inside and outside BMDCs. The impacts of AGP on BMDCs were assessed with use of conventional scanning electronic microscopy (SEM), transmission electronic microscopy (TEM) for morphology, flow cytometry (FCM) for key surface molecules, cytochemistry assay, FITC-dextran, bio-assay for phagocytosis and enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) for production of cytokines. Our results elucidated that PPS promoted maturation of BMDCs via changes as reflected by the down-regulation of acid phosphatase (ACP) activity inside the BMDCs, which occurs when phagocytosis of BMDCs to antigen decreased, while antigen presentation increased upon maturation, higher expression of key surface molecules of MHC II, CD80, CD86, CD83, and CD40, and releasing higher level of cytokines IL-12 and low level of TNF-?. Our study suggest that AGP play marked immunostimulating role on the maturation of murine BMDCs through precise regulation of phagocytosis and enzyme activities inside the BMDCs.

Wang Z; Meng J; Xia Y; Meng Y; Du L; Zhang Z; Wang E; Shan F

2013-02-01

38

Pressure-induced maturation of endothelial cells on newborn mouse carotid arteries.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Experiments investigated maturation of endothelial function in the postnatal period. Carotid arteries isolated from newborn (postnatal day 1, P1) to P21 mice were assessed in myographs at transmural pressure (PTM) of 20 mmHg (P1 blood pressure, BP). Acetylcholine was ineffective in P1 but powerfully dilated P7 arteries, whereas NO-donor DEA-NONOate caused similar dilation at P1 and P7. Dilation to acetylcholine at P7 was abolished by inhibition of NO synthase (NOS) (l-NAME) or of phosphoinositide-3-kinase (PI3K) (wortmannin, LY294002). Endothelial NOS (eNOS) expression decreased in P7 compared with P1 arteries, although acetylcholine increased PO4-eNOS-Ser(1177) in P7 but not in P1 arteries. Endothelial maturation may therefore reflect increased signaling through PI3K, Akt, and eNOS. Systemic BP increases dramatically in the early postnatal period. After exposing P1 arteries to transient increased PTM (50 mmHg, 60 min), acetylcholine caused powerful dilation and increased PO4-eNOS-Ser(1177). Pressure-induced rescue of acetylcholine dilation was abolished by PI3K or NOS inhibition. Transient increased PTM did not affect dilation at P7, or dilation to NO-donor in P1 arteries. Width of endothelial adherens junctions (VE-cadherin immunofluorescence) increased significantly from P1 to P7, and in P1 arteries exposed to transient increased PTM. A function-blocking antibody to VE-cadherin reduced the pressure-induced rescue of acetylcholine responses at P1, and the dilation to acetylcholine in P7 arteries. Therefore, maturation of newborn endothelium dilator function may be induced by increasing BP in the postnatal period. Furthermore, this may be mediated by VE-cadherin signaling at adherens junctions. Interruption of this maturation pathway may contribute to developmental and adult vascular diseases.

Flavahan S; Mozayan MM; Lindgren I; Flavahan NA

2013-08-01

39

New model for the genesis and maturation of viroplasms induced by fijiviruses in insect vector cells.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Plant reoviruses are thought to replicate and assemble within cytoplasmic, nonmembranous structures called viroplasms. Here, we established continuous cell cultures of the white-backed planthopper (Sogatella furcifera Horv嫢h) to investigate the mechanisms for the genesis and maturation of the viroplasm induced by Southern rice black-streaked dwarf virus (SRBSDV), a fijivirus in the family Reoviridae, during infection of its insect vector. Electron and confocal microscopy revealed that the viroplasm consisted of a granular region, where viral RNAs and nonstructural proteins P6 and P9-1 accumulated, and a filamentous region, where viral RNAs, progeny cores, viral particles, as well as nonstructural proteins P5 and P6 accumulated. Our results suggested that the filamentous viroplasm matrix was the site for the assembly of progeny virions. Because viral RNAs were produced by assembled core particles within the filamentous viroplasm matrix, we propose that these viral RNAs might be transported to the granular viroplasm matrix. P5 formed filamentous inclusions and P9-1 formed granular inclusions in the absence of viral infection, suggesting that the filamentous and granular viroplasm matrices were formed primarily by P5 and P9-1, respectively. P6 was apparently recruited in the whole viroplasm matrix by direct interaction with P9-1 and P5. Thus, the present results suggested that P5, P6, and P9-1 are collectively required for the genesis and maturation of the filamentous and granular viroplasm matrix induced by SRBSDV infection. Based on these results, we propose a new model to explain the genesis and maturation of the viroplasms induced by fijiviruses in insect vector cells.

Mao Q; Zheng S; Han Q; Chen H; Ma Y; Jia D; Chen Q; Wei T

2013-06-01

40

Chemotherapy-induced neuronal maturation in sinonasal teratocarcinosarcoma--a unique observation.  

Science.gov (United States)

Sinonasal teratocarcinosarcoma (SNTCS) is a rare and highly malignant tumour with combined features of a teratoma and carcinosarcoma. We report the first case of a SNTCS in 23 year old male treated with neo-adjuvant chemotherapy followed by cranio-facial resection. The resection specimen displayed cellular maturation in the neuroectodermal component. The patient presented with a short history of nasal obstruction, epistaxis and headache. On imaging, a bone destroying lesion of left paranasal sinuses and nasal cavity was identified. The diagnosis of SNTCS could be offered only on the third biopsy which showed heterogeneous admixture of primitive neuroectodermal, epithelial and mesenchymal elements. An adequate sampling with high index of suspicion is needed to catch hold this rare tumor. Tumor was excised after 4 cycles of neo-adjuvant chemotherapy. On microscopic examination, it showed similar epithelial and mesenchymal components as the pretreatment biopsies. However, the primitive neuroectodermal component displayed extensive neuronal maturation. The undifferentiated neuroectodermal cells were completely absent in the post chemotherapy specimen. This case throws light on the morphologic evidence of chemotherapy induced maturation in the neuroectodermal component within SNTCS, an event hitherto not reported in the literature in case of SNTCS. PMID:20596986

Kane, Shubhada V; Karpate, Arti A; Bal, Munita; Juvekar, S L; Pai, Prathmesh S

2008-12-04

 
 
 
 
41

Chemotherapy-induced neuronal maturation in sinonasal teratocarcinosarcoma--a unique observation.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Sinonasal teratocarcinosarcoma (SNTCS) is a rare and highly malignant tumour with combined features of a teratoma and carcinosarcoma. We report the first case of a SNTCS in 23 year old male treated with neo-adjuvant chemotherapy followed by cranio-facial resection. The resection specimen displayed cellular maturation in the neuroectodermal component. The patient presented with a short history of nasal obstruction, epistaxis and headache. On imaging, a bone destroying lesion of left paranasal sinuses and nasal cavity was identified. The diagnosis of SNTCS could be offered only on the third biopsy which showed heterogeneous admixture of primitive neuroectodermal, epithelial and mesenchymal elements. An adequate sampling with high index of suspicion is needed to catch hold this rare tumor. Tumor was excised after 4 cycles of neo-adjuvant chemotherapy. On microscopic examination, it showed similar epithelial and mesenchymal components as the pretreatment biopsies. However, the primitive neuroectodermal component displayed extensive neuronal maturation. The undifferentiated neuroectodermal cells were completely absent in the post chemotherapy specimen. This case throws light on the morphologic evidence of chemotherapy induced maturation in the neuroectodermal component within SNTCS, an event hitherto not reported in the literature in case of SNTCS.

Kane SV; Karpate AA; Bal M; Juvekar SL; Pai PS

2009-03-01

42

Relating Incomplete Data and Incomplete Theory  

CERN Multimedia

Assuming string theorists will not soon provide a compelling case for the primary theory underlying particle physics, the field will proceed as it has historically: with data stimulating and testing ideas. Ideally the soft supersymmetry breaking Lagrangian will be measured and its patterns will point to the underlying theory. But there are two new problems. First a matter of principle: the theory may be simplest at distance scales and in numbers of dimensions where direct experiments are not possible. Second a practical problem: in the foreseeable future (with mainly hadron collider data) too few observables can be measured to lead to direct connections between experiment and theory. In this paper we discuss and study these issues and consider ways to circumvent the problems, studying models to test methods. We propose a semi-quantitative method for focusing and sharpening thinking when trying to relate incomplete data to incomplete theory, as will probably be necessary.

Bin彋ruy, Pierre; Nelson, B D; Wang, L T; Wang, T T; Bin彋ruy, Pierre; Nelson, Brent D.; Wang, Lian-Tao; Wang, Ting T.

2003-01-01

43

Inducing Maturation of Monocyte-Derived Dendritic Cells on Human Epithelial Cell Feeder Layer  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Background: Nowadays, dendritic cells (DCs) have a special place in cancer treatment strategies and they have been used for tumor immunotherapy as they can induce immune response against tumor cells. Researchers have been trying to generate efficient dendritic cells in vitro; therefore, this research was done to generate them for use in research and tumor immunotherapy. Methods: This study took place at Urmia University in 2010-2011 years. In this study plastic adherent monocytes were incubated with granulocyte-macrophage colony stimulating factor (GM-CSF) and interleukin-4 (IL-4) for five days. Finally, fully matured and stable DCs were generated by 48 hours of incubation in a monocyte conditioned medium (MCM) containing tumor necrosis factor-? (TNF-?) and epithelial cells. Phenotypic and functional analysis were carried out by using anti-CD14, anti-CD80, anti-CD86, and anti-CD83 monoclonal antibodies, and by determining their phagocytic activity, mixed lymphocyte reaction (MLR) and cytokine production, respectively. Results: Dendritic cells were produced with high levels of surface molecule, i.e. of CD80, CD83, CD86, HLA-DR, expression and low levels of CD14 expression. Dendritic cells showed efficient phagocytosis and ability to stimulate T-lymphocytes. Moreover, dendritic cells could secrete high levels of interleukin-12 (IL-12) cytokine which was depictive of their full maturation. Measurement of the produced cytokines showed the generation of type-1 dendritic cells (DC1). Conclusion: Our study showed that skin epithelial cells could induce maturation of monocyte-derived dendritic cells (DCs). This feeder layer led to the production of efficient dendritic cells with the ability to be used for tumor immunotherapy.

Ganji Bakhsh M; Nejati V; Asadi M; Delirezh N; Farokhi F

2012-01-01

44

Derivation of human induced pluripotent stem cells from patients with maturity onset diabetes of the young.  

Science.gov (United States)

Maturity onset diabetes of the young (MODY) is an autosomal dominant disease. Despite extensive research, the mechanism by which a mutant MODY gene results in monogenic diabetes is not yet clear due to the inaccessibility of patient samples. Induced pluripotency and directed differentiation toward the pancreatic lineage are now viable and attractive methods to uncover the molecular mechanisms underlying MODY. Here we report, for the first time, the derivation of human induced pluripotent stem cells (hiPSCs) from patients with five types of MODY: MODY1 (HNF4A), MODY2 (GCK), MODY3 (HNF1A), MODY5 (HNF1B), and MODY8 (CEL) with a polycistronic lentiviral vector expressing a Cre-excisable human "stem cell cassette" containing the four reprogramming factors OCT4, KLF4, SOX2, and CMYC. These MODY-hiPSCs morphologically resemble human pluripotent stem cells (hPSCs), express pluripotency markers OCT4, SOX2, NANOG, SSEA-4, and TRA-1-60, give rise to derivatives of the three germ layers in a teratoma assay, and are karyotypically normal. Overall, our MODY-hiPSCs serve as invaluable tools to dissect the role of MODY genes in the development of pancreas and islet cells and to evaluate their significance in regulating beta cell function. This knowledge will aid future attempts aimed at deriving functional mature beta cells from hPSCs. PMID:23306198

Teo, Adrian K K; Windmueller, Rebecca; Johansson, Bente B; Dirice, Ercument; Njolstad, Pal R; Tjora, Erling; Raeder, Helge; Kulkarni, Rohit N

2013-01-10

45

Derivation of human induced pluripotent stem cells from patients with maturity onset diabetes of the young.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Maturity onset diabetes of the young (MODY) is an autosomal dominant disease. Despite extensive research, the mechanism by which a mutant MODY gene results in monogenic diabetes is not yet clear due to the inaccessibility of patient samples. Induced pluripotency and directed differentiation toward the pancreatic lineage are now viable and attractive methods to uncover the molecular mechanisms underlying MODY. Here we report, for the first time, the derivation of human induced pluripotent stem cells (hiPSCs) from patients with five types of MODY: MODY1 (HNF4A), MODY2 (GCK), MODY3 (HNF1A), MODY5 (HNF1B), and MODY8 (CEL) with a polycistronic lentiviral vector expressing a Cre-excisable human "stem cell cassette" containing the four reprogramming factors OCT4, KLF4, SOX2, and CMYC. These MODY-hiPSCs morphologically resemble human pluripotent stem cells (hPSCs), express pluripotency markers OCT4, SOX2, NANOG, SSEA-4, and TRA-1-60, give rise to derivatives of the three germ layers in a teratoma assay, and are karyotypically normal. Overall, our MODY-hiPSCs serve as invaluable tools to dissect the role of MODY genes in the development of pancreas and islet cells and to evaluate their significance in regulating beta cell function. This knowledge will aid future attempts aimed at deriving functional mature beta cells from hPSCs.

Teo AK; Windmueller R; Johansson BB; Dirice E; Njolstad PR; Tjora E; Raeder H; Kulkarni RN

2013-02-01

46

HIV-1 gp120 vaccine induces affinity maturation in both new and persistent antibody clonal lineages.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Most antibodies that broadly neutralize HIV-1 are highly somatically mutated in antibody clonal lineages that persist over time. Here, we describe the analysis of human antibodies induced during an HIV-1 vaccine trial (GSK PRO HIV-002) that used the clade B envelope (Env) gp120 of clone W6.1D (gp120(W6.1D)). Using dual-color antigen-specific sorting, we isolated Env-specific human monoclonal antibodies (MAbs) and studied the clonal persistence of antibodies in the setting of HIV-1 Env vaccination. We found evidence of V(H) somatic mutation induced by the vaccine but only to a modest level (3.8% 0.5%; range 0 to 8.2%). Analysis of 34 HIV-1-reactive MAbs recovered over four immunizations revealed evidence of both sequential recruitment of na鴳e B cells and restimulation of previously recruited memory B cells. These recombinant antibodies recapitulated the anti-HIV-1 activity of participant serum including pseudovirus neutralization and antibody-dependent cell-mediated cytotoxicity (ADCC). One antibody (3491) demonstrated a change in specificity following somatic mutation with binding of the inferred unmutated ancestor to a linear C2 peptide while the mutated antibody reacted only with a conformational epitope in gp120 Env. Thus, gp120(W6.1D) was strongly immunogenic but over four immunizations induced levels of affinity maturation below that of broadly neutralizing MAbs. Improved vaccination strategies will be needed to drive persistent stimulation of antibody clonal lineages to induce affinity maturation that results in highly mutated HIV-1 Env-reactive antibodies.

Moody MA; Yates NL; Amos JD; Drinker MS; Eudailey JA; Gurley TC; Marshall DJ; Whitesides JF; Chen X; Foulger A; Yu JS; Zhang R; Meyerhoff RR; Parks R; Scull JC; Wang L; Vandergrift NA; Pickeral J; Pollara J; Kelsoe G; Alam SM; Ferrari G; Montefiori DC; Voss G; Liao HX; Tomaras GD; Haynes BF

2012-07-01

47

BMP2 induces osteoblast apoptosis in a maturation state and noggin-dependent manner.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Large doses of bone morphogenetic protein 2 (BMP2) are used clinically to induce bone formation in challenging bone defects. However, complications after treatment include swelling, ectopic bone formation, and adjacent bone resorption. While BMP2 can be effective, it is important to characterize the mechanism of the deleterious effects to optimize its use. The aim of this study was to determine the effect of BMP2 on apoptosis in osteoblast lineage cells and to determine the role of the BMP inhibitor Noggin in this process. Human mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs), immature osteoblast-like MG63 cells, and mature normal human osteoblasts (NHOst) were treated with BMP2. A model system of increased endogenous BMP signaling was created by silencing Noggin (shNOG-MG63). Finally, the BMP pathway regulating apoptosis in NHOst was examined using BMP signaling inhibitors (5Z-7-oxozeaenol, dorsomorphin, H-8). Apoptosis was characterized by caspase-3, BAX/BCL2, p53, and DNA fragmentation. BMP2 induced apoptosis in a cell-type dependent manner. While the effect was minor in MSCs, MG63 cells had modest increases and NHOst cells had robust increases apoptosis after BMP2 treatment. Apoptosis was significantly higher in shNOG-MG63 than MG63 cells. 5Z-7-oxozeaenol and dorsomorphin eliminated the BMP2-induced increase in DNA fragmentation in NHOst, suggesting roles for TAB/TAK1 and Smad signaling. These results indicate that the apoptotic effect of BMP2 is dependent on cell maturation state, inducing apoptosis in committed osteoblasts through Smad and TAB/TAK1 signaling, and is regulated by Noggin. Dose and delivery must be optimized in therapeutic applications of BMP2 to minimize complications.

Hyzy SL; Olivares-Navarrete R; Schwartz Z; Boyan BD

2012-10-01

48

Comparative effects of mature coconut water (Cocos nucifera) and glibenclamide on some biochemical parameters in alloxan induced diabetic rats  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Abstract in english In the present study, comparative effects of mature coconut water (Cocos nucifera L., Arecaceae) and glibenclamide in alloxan induced diabetic rats were evaluated. Diabetes mellitus was induced in Sprague-Dawly rats using alloxan monohydrate (150 mg kg-1 body weight). Treatment with lyophilized form of mature coconut water and glibenclamide in diabetic rats reduced the blood glucose and glycated hemoglobin along with improvement in plasma insulin level. Elevated levels of (more) liver function enzymes markers like alkaline phosphatase, serum glutamate oxaloacetate transaminase and serum glutamate pyruvate transaminase in diabetic rats were significantly reduced on treatment with mature coconut water. In addition to this, diabetic rats showed altered levels of blood urea, serum creatinine, albumin, albumin/globulin ratio which were significantly improved by treatment with mature coconut water and glibenclamide. Activities of nitric oxide synthase in liver and plasma L-arginine were reduced significantly in alloxan induced diabetic rats while treatment with mature coconut water reversed these changes. The overall results show that mature coconut water has significant beneficial effects in diabetic rats and its effects were comparable to that of glibenclamide, a well known antidiabetic drug.

Preetha, P. P.; Girija Devi, V.; Rajamohan, T.

2013-06-01

49

Short chain regioselectively hydrolyzed scleroglucans induce maturation of porcine dendritic cells.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Branched beta-1,3/1,6-glucans (scleroglucan) were produced by cultivation of Sclerotium rolfsii ATCC 15205. Regioselective hydrolysis at the beta-1,3-linkage of the cell-free and purified polysaccharide was performed in borosilicate glass bottles at pH 5, 121 degrees C, and 1 bar for 72 h. The mixture was divided into four molar mass fractions by stepwise cross-flow filtration using different cutoffs. In vitro studies revealed that scleroglucan hydrolysates with a low molar mass of less than 5 kDa significantly stimulated the activation and maturation of porcine monocyte derived dendritic cells (MoDC) by upregulation of CD40 and CD80/86 as well as by reduction of antigen uptake. MoDC treated with low molar mass scleroglucan showed a considerable increase in the amounts of secreted proinflammatory cytokine tumor necrosis factor alpha and stimulated the proliferation of lymphocytes. Therefore, scleroglucan molecules of low molecular weight are able to induce activation and maturation of porcine DC, which are key initiators of inflammatory and adaptive immune responses, and could provide improved protection against infectious diseases.

Bimczok D; Wrenger J; Schirrmann T; Rothk飆ter HJ; Wray V; Rau U

2009-02-01

50

Mitoxantrone induces natural killer cell maturation in patients with secondary progressive multiple sclerosis.  

Science.gov (United States)

Mitoxantrone is one of the few drugs approved for the treatment of progressive multiple sclerosis (MS). However, the prolonged use of this potent immunosuppressive agent is limited by the appearance of severe side effects. Apart from its general cytotoxic effect, the mode of action of mitoxantrone on the immune system is poorly understood. Thus, to develop safe therapeutic approaches for patients with progressive MS, it is essential to elucidate how mitoxantrone exerts it benefits. Accordingly, we initiated a prospective single-arm open-label study with 19 secondary progressive MS patients. We investigated long-term effects of mitoxantrone on patient peripheral immune subsets using flow cytometry. While we corroborate that mitoxantrone persistently suppresses B cells in vivo, we show for the first time that treatment led to an enrichment of neutrophils and immunomodulatory CD8(low) T cells. Moreover, sustained mitoxantrone applications promoted not only persistent NK cell enrichment but also NK cell maturation. Importantly, this mitoxantrone-induced NK cell maturation was seen only in patients that showed a clinical response to treatment. Our data emphasize the complex immunomodulatory role of mitoxantrone, which may account for its benefit in MS. In particular, these results highlight the contribution of NK cells to mitoxantrone efficacy in progressive MS. PMID:22768101

Chanvillard, Coralie; Millward, Jason M; Lozano, Marta; Hamann, Isabell; Paul, Friedemann; Zipp, Frauke; D顤r, Jan; Infante-Duarte, Carmen

2012-06-29

51

Maturation of osteoblast-like SaoS2 induced by carbon nanotubes  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Osteogenic maturation of the osteoblast is crucial for bone formation. In this study, multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) and graphite (GP) were pressed as compacts. The greater ability of carbon nanotubes to adsorb proteins, compared with graphite, was shown. Human osteoblast-like SaoS2 cells were cultured and the cell response to the two kinds of compacts was compared in vitro. Meanwhile, we used cell culture on the culture plate as a control. Assays for osteonectin, osteopontin and osteocalcin gene expression, total protein (TP) amount, alkaline phosphatase activity (ALP) and DNA of cells cultured on the samples were done. During the conventional culture, significantly higher osteonectin, osteopontin and osteocalcin gene expression level, ALP/DNA and TP/DNA on carbon nanotubes were found. To confirm the hypothesis that the larger amount of specific proteins adsorbed on the carbon nanotubes was crucial for this, the compacts were pre-soaked in culture medium having additional recombinant human bone morphogenetic protein-2 (rhBMP-2) before cell culture. Compared with GP, osteonectin, osteopontin and osteocalcin gene expression level, ALP/DNA and TP/DNA of the cells tested increased more on the MWCNTs after the compacts were pre-soaked in the culture medium with rhBMP-2. The results indicated that the carbon nanotubes might induce osteogenic maturation of the osteoblast by adsorbing more specific proteins.

2009-01-01

52

Maturation of osteoblast-like SaoS2 induced by carbon nanotubes  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Osteogenic maturation of the osteoblast is crucial for bone formation. In this study, multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) and graphite (GP) were pressed as compacts. The greater ability of carbon nanotubes to adsorb proteins, compared with graphite, was shown. Human osteoblast-like SaoS2 cells were cultured and the cell response to the two kinds of compacts was compared in vitro. Meanwhile, we used cell culture on the culture plate as a control. Assays for osteonectin, osteopontin and osteocalcin gene expression, total protein (TP) amount, alkaline phosphatase activity (ALP) and DNA of cells cultured on the samples were done. During the conventional culture, significantly higher osteonectin, osteopontin and osteocalcin gene expression level, ALP/DNA and TP/DNA on carbon nanotubes were found. To confirm the hypothesis that the larger amount of specific proteins adsorbed on the carbon nanotubes was crucial for this, the compacts were pre-soaked in culture medium having additional recombinant human bone morphogenetic protein-2 (rhBMP-2) before cell culture. Compared with GP, osteonectin, osteopontin and osteocalcin gene expression level, ALP/DNA and TP/DNA of the cells tested increased more on the MWCNTs after the compacts were pre-soaked in the culture medium with rhBMP-2. The results indicated that the carbon nanotubes might induce osteogenic maturation of the osteoblast by adsorbing more specific proteins.

Li Xiaoming; Uo, Motohiro; Akasaka, Tsukasa; Abe, Shigeaki; Watari, Fumio [Department of Biomedical Materials and Engineering, Graduate School of Dental Medicine, Hokkaido University, Kita Ku Kita 13, Nishi 7, Sapporo 060-8586 (Japan); Gao Hong [Division of Applied Bioscience, Graduate School of Agriculture, Hokkaido University, Sapporo 060-8586 (Japan); Sato, Yoshinori [Graduate School of Environmental Studies, Tohoku University, Sendai (Japan); Feng Qingling; Cui Fuzhai, E-mail: x.m.li@hotmail.co [Key Laboratory of Advanced Materials, Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China)

2009-02-15

53

Eco-genetic model to explore fishing-induced ecological and evolutionary effects on growth and maturation schedules.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Eco-genetic individual-based models involve tracking the ecological dynamics of simulated individual organisms that are in part characterized by heritable parameters. We developed an eco-genetic individual-based model to explore ecological and evolutionary interactions of fish growth and maturation schedules. Our model is flexible and allows for exploration of the effects of heritable growth rates (based on von Bertalanffy and biphasic growth patterns), heritable maturation schedules (based on maturation reaction norm concepts), or both on individual- and population-level traits. In baseline simulations with rather simple ecological trade-offs and over a relatively short time period (<200 simulation years), simulated male and female fish evolve differential genetic growth and maturation. Further, resulting patterns of genetically determined growth and maturation are influenced by mortality rate and density-dependent processes, and maturation and growth parameters interact to mediate the evolution of one another. Subsequent to baseline simulations, we conducted experimental simulations to mimic fisheries harvest with two size-limits (targeting large or small fish), an array of fishing mortality rates, and assuming a deterministic or stochastic environment. Our results suggest that fishing with either size-limit may induce considerable changes in life-history trait expression (maturation schedules and growth rates), recruitment, and population abundance and structure. However, targeting large fish would cause more adverse genetic effects and may lead to a population less resilient to environmental stochasticity.

Wang H; H??k TO

2009-08-01

54

Identification of maturation-inducing steroid in a freshwater perch Anabas testudineus and differential responses of intact follicles and denuded oocytes to cyclic AMP in oocyte maturation.  

Science.gov (United States)

Postvitellogenic follicles of freshwater perch Anabas testudineus incubated with [(3)H]pregnenolone as exogenous precursor produced several metabolites, including 17 alpha, 20 beta-dihydroxy-4-pregnen-3-one (DHP) and 5 beta-pregnane-3 alpha, 17 alpha,20 beta-triol (5 beta-3 alpha,17 alpha,20 beta-P). These were identified by chromatography, microchemical reactions, and crystallization to constant specific activity. Following stimulation with fish (perch) pituitary extract (FPE) there was significant high production of DHP and 5 beta-3 alpha,17 alpha,20 beta-P, concomitant with a high percentage of germinal vesicle breakdown (GVBD). Inhibitor of steroidogenesis (trilostane) and inhibitors of protein synthesis (cycloheximide and actinomycin-D) completely blocked FPE-induced pregnenolone metabolism and oocyte maturation. The effectiveness of various C(21) steroids in inducing GVBD was examined. Results indicate that DHP was the most potent inducer of GVBD than other structurally related C(21) steroids. In intact follicles, FPE-stimulated production of DHP was shown to be mediated through the adenylate cyclase-cAMP pathway. Addition of IBMX or forskolin, which increases the endogenous cAMP level, as well as directly supplementing dbcAMP to the incubation medium, had no inhibitory effect on DHP-induced GVBD in the intact follicles. But all these agents were shown to inhibit GVBD in fully denuded oocytes. This study provides evidence that DHP, produced by postvitellogenic follicles through the adenylate cyclase-cAMP pathway, is the maturation-inducing steroid in freshwater perch and that the role played by cAMP in the induction of GVBD in intact follicles is different from that in the denuded oocytes. J. Exp. Zool. 287:294-303, 2000. PMID:10951389

Bhattacharyya, S; Sen, U; Bhattacharyya, S P; Mukherjee, D

2000-09-01

55

Identification of maturation-inducing steroid in a freshwater perch Anabas testudineus and differential responses of intact follicles and denuded oocytes to cyclic AMP in oocyte maturation.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Postvitellogenic follicles of freshwater perch Anabas testudineus incubated with [(3)H]pregnenolone as exogenous precursor produced several metabolites, including 17 alpha, 20 beta-dihydroxy-4-pregnen-3-one (DHP) and 5 beta-pregnane-3 alpha, 17 alpha,20 beta-triol (5 beta-3 alpha,17 alpha,20 beta-P). These were identified by chromatography, microchemical reactions, and crystallization to constant specific activity. Following stimulation with fish (perch) pituitary extract (FPE) there was significant high production of DHP and 5 beta-3 alpha,17 alpha,20 beta-P, concomitant with a high percentage of germinal vesicle breakdown (GVBD). Inhibitor of steroidogenesis (trilostane) and inhibitors of protein synthesis (cycloheximide and actinomycin-D) completely blocked FPE-induced pregnenolone metabolism and oocyte maturation. The effectiveness of various C(21) steroids in inducing GVBD was examined. Results indicate that DHP was the most potent inducer of GVBD than other structurally related C(21) steroids. In intact follicles, FPE-stimulated production of DHP was shown to be mediated through the adenylate cyclase-cAMP pathway. Addition of IBMX or forskolin, which increases the endogenous cAMP level, as well as directly supplementing dbcAMP to the incubation medium, had no inhibitory effect on DHP-induced GVBD in the intact follicles. But all these agents were shown to inhibit GVBD in fully denuded oocytes. This study provides evidence that DHP, produced by postvitellogenic follicles through the adenylate cyclase-cAMP pathway, is the maturation-inducing steroid in freshwater perch and that the role played by cAMP in the induction of GVBD in intact follicles is different from that in the denuded oocytes. J. Exp. Zool. 287:294-303, 2000.

Bhattacharyya S; Sen U; Bhattacharyya SP; Mukherjee D

2000-09-01

56

Optimality of incomplete markets  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

In a static exchange economy where the traders? initial endowments are risky, the optimality of the financial structure is studied when markets are incomplete. Only financial structures with the same number of assets are compared. A market structure is optimal, when, in a particular economy, it yiel...

Demange, G.; Laroque, G.

57

Plasmodium falciparum-derived uric acid precipitates induce maturation of dendritic cells.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Malaria is characterized by cyclical fevers and high levels of inflammation, and while an early inflammatory response contributes to parasite clearance, excessive and persistent inflammation can lead to severe forms of the disease. Here, we show that Plasmodium falciparum-infected erythrocytes contain uric acid precipitates in the cytoplasm of the parasitophorous vacuole, which are released when erythrocytes rupture. Uric acid precipitates are highly inflammatory molecules that are considered a danger signal for innate immunity and are the causative agent in gout. We determined that P. falciparum-derived uric acid precipitates induce maturation of human dendritic cells, increasing the expression of cell surface co-stimulatory molecules such as CD80 and CD86, while decreasing human leukocyte antigen-DR expression. In accordance with this, uric acid accounts for a significant proportion of the total stimulatory activity induced by parasite-infected erythrocytes. Moreover, the identification of uric acid precipitates in P. falciparum- and P. vivax-infected erythrocytes obtained directly from malaria patients underscores the in vivo and clinical relevance of our findings. Altogether, our data implicate uric acid precipitates as a potentially important contributor to the innate immune response to Plasmodium infection and may provide a novel target for adjunct therapies.

van de Hoef DL; Coppens I; Holowka T; Ben Mamoun C; Branch O; Rodriguez A

2013-01-01

58

Differential Effect of B Lymphocyteinduced Maturation Protein (Blimp-1) Expression on Cell Fate during B Cell Development  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The B lymphocyteinduced maturation protein (Blimp-1) upregulates the expression of syndecan-1 and J chain and represses that of c-myc. We have transfected Blimp-1 into two sublines of the BCL1 B cell lymphoma that represent distinct stages of B cell development in secondary lymphoid tissues. Afte...

Messika, Eric J.; Lu, Peter S.; Sung, Yen-Jen; Yao, Tony; Chi, Jen-Tsan; Chien, Yueh-hsiu; Davis, Mark M.

59

Murine corneal stroma cells inhibit LPS-induced dendritic cell maturation partially through TGF-?2 secretion in vitro.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

PURPOSE: The peripheral cornea contains mature and immature resident dendritic cells (DCs) while the central cornea is exclusively equipped with immature DCs. There must be some factors that cause immature DCs. This study investigated whether corneal stroma cells (CSCs) inhibit DC maturation by secreting cytokines. METHODS: The messenger ribonucleic acid (mRNA) and protein level of transforming growth factor beta 2 (TGF-?(2)) was analyzed using reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Immature DCs were induced to mature in the presence of lipopolysaccharide (LPS) and with concentrations of CSC culture supernatant (containing and not containing neutralizing TGF-?(2) antibodies). Then, the DC phenotypic and functional maturation were analyzed. RESULTS: CSCs exhibited positive expressions of TGF-?(2) mRNA and secreted high concentrations of TGF-?(2) protein. In the presence of LPS, DCs, which were treated with a CSC culture supernatant, displayed reduced expressions of cluster of differentiation 80 (CD80), CD86, and major histocompatibility complex II (MHC II) in a dose-dependent manner. Moreover, treated DCs showed lower T-cell stimulation capacity and a higher endocytosis function. However, these phenotypic and functional modifications were partially reversed after the application of neutralizing TGF-?(2) antibodies. CONCLUSIONS: This study demonstrates that CSCs can partially inhibit LPS-induced DC maturation through TGF-?(2) secretion in vitro.

Lu JM; Song XJ; Wang HF; Li XL; Zhang XR

2012-01-01

60

High glucose induces upregulation of scavenger receptors and promotes maturation of dendritic cells.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

BACKGROUND: Both hyperglycaemia and dendritic cells (DCs) play causative roles in atherosclerosis. However, whether they interact in atherosclerosis remains uncertain. Therefore, we examined whether high glucose could regulate the expression of scavenger receptors responsible for oxidised low-density lipoprotein (oxLDL) uptake in DCs, a critical step in atherogenesis. In addition, we investigated the impact of glucose on DC maturation regarding changes in phenotype and cytokine secretion. METHODS: Immature DCs were cultured with different concentrations of glucose (5.5 mmol/L, 15 mmol/L, 30 mmol/L) in the absence or presence of N-acetylcysteine (NAC), SB203580 or Bay11-7082 for 24 hours. We used 30 mmol/L mannitol as a high-osmolarity control treatment. The expression of the scavenger receptors SR-A, CD36 and LOX-1 was determined by real-time PCR and western blot analysis. Furthermore, DCs were incubated with DiI-labelled oxLDL. The DiI-oxLDL-incorporated fraction was investigated by flow cytometry analysis. The intracellular production of ROS in DCs was measured by dichlorodihydrofluorescein (DCF) fluorescence using confocal microscopy. Finally, flow cytometry analysis was used to investigate immunophenotypic protein expression (CD83 and CD86). Supernatant cytokine measurements were used for immune function assays. RESULTS: The incubation of DCs with glucose enhanced, in a dose-dependent manner, the gene and protein expression of SR-A, CD36 and LOX-1. This effect was partially abolished by NAC, SB203580 and Bay11-7082. Incubation of DCs with mannitol (30 mmol/L) did not enhance these scavenger receptors' expression. High glucose upregulated the production of ROS and expression of p38 MAPK in DCs. NAC partially reversed p38 MAPK upregulation. High glucose increased the oxLDL-uptake capacity of DCs. Blockage of the scavenger receptors SR-A and CD36 reduced oxLDL uptake, but blockage of LOX-1 did not. Furthermore, high-glucose (15 mmol/L or 30 mmol/L) treatment increased CD86 and CD83 in DCs. High glucose also increased IL-6 and IL-12 secretion and decreased IL-10 secretion. CONCLUSION: High glucose can increase the expression of the scavenger receptors SR-A, CD36 and LOX-1, which can increase the oxLDL-uptake capacity of DCs. High glucose induces a proinflammatory cytokine profile in human DCs, leading to DC maturation. These results support the hypothesis that atherosclerosis is aggravated by hyperglycaemia-induced DC activation and oxLDL uptake.

Lu H; Yao K; Huang D; Sun A; Zou Y; Qian J; Ge J

2013-05-01

 
 
 
 
61

?-fetoprotein involvement during glucocorticoid-induced precocious maturation in rat colon  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available AIM: To investigate the role of ?-fetoprotein (AFP), a cancer-associated fetal glycoprotein, in glucocorticoid-induced precocious maturation in rat colon. METHODS: Colons from suckling Sprague-Dawley rats were used in this study. Corticosterone acetate at a dose of 100 ?g/g body weight was given to normal pups on days 7, 9 and 11 after birth to induce hypercorticoidism. Control animals were injected with identical volumes of normal saline. Some rats receiving corticosterone 7 d after birth were also treated with mifepristone (RU38486), a glucocorticoid cytoplasm receptor antagonist to investigate the effects of glucocorticoids (GCs). The morphological changes of the crypt depth and villous height of the villous zone in colon were observed as indices of colon maturation. Expression levels of AFP in colons were detected by reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction and Western blotting. To identify the cellular localization of AFP in developing rat colons, double-immunofluorescent staining was performed using antibodies to specific mesenchymal cell marker and AFP. RESULTS: Corticosterone increased the crypt depth and villous height in the colon of 8- and 10-d-old rats with hypercorticoidism compared with that in the control animals (120% in 8-d-old rats and 118% in 10-d-old rats in villous height, P = 0.021; 145% in 8-d-old rats and 124% in 10-d-old rats in crypt depth, P = 0.017). These increases were accompanied by an increase of AFP expression in both mRNA and protein (2.5-folds in 8-d-old and 2.5-folds in 10-d-old rats higher than in control animals, P = 0.035; 1.8-folds in 8-d-old and 1.3-folds in 10-d-old rats higher than in control animals, P = 0.023). Increased crypt depth and villous height and increased expression of AFP in the colon of rats with hypercorticoidism were blocked by mifepristone. Both had positive staining for AFP or vimentin, and overlapped in mesenchymal cells at each tested colon. CONCLUSION: GCs promote the development of rat colon. AFP appears to be involved, in part, in mediating the effects of GCs in the developmental colon.

Min Chen; Peng Sun; Xiao-Yan Liu; Dan Dong; Jun Du; Luo Gu; Ying-Bin Ge

2011-01-01

62

Iterative incomplete factorization methods  

CERN Multimedia

This book is devoted to numerical methods for solving sparse linear algebra systems of very large dimension which arise in the implementation of the mesh approximations of the partial differential equations. Incomplete factorization is the basis of the wide class of preconditioning interative processes with acceleration by conjugate gradients or the Chebyshev technique. Different kinds of explicit and implicit algorithms are considered. Theoretical grounds of correctness and estimates of the convergence velocity of iterations are presented. Together with the results of experimental investigati

Il'in, VP

1992-01-01

63

Treadmill and wheel exercise alleviate lipopolysaccharide-induced short-term memory impairment by enhancing neuronal maturation in rats.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Lipopolysaccharide (LPS) is an endotoxin derived from Gram?negative bacteria, which induces brain inflammation. LPS?induced brain inflammation deteriorates hippocampus?dependent cognitive deficits. In the present study, we investigated the effects of forced treadmill exercise and voluntary wheel exercise on short?term memory in relation to neuronal maturation in LPS?induced brain inflammation of rats. Brain inflammation in rats was induced by an injection of LPS into the cerebral ventricle. Short?term memory was evaluated using a step?down avoidance task. Cell proliferation in the hippocampal dentate gyrus was determined by 5?bromo?2'?deoxyuridine (BrdU), a marker of new cells, immunohistochemistry. Western blot analysis for the determination of doublecortin (DCX), a marker of immature neurons and neuronal nuclear antigen (NeuN), a marker of mature neurons, was performed. In the present study, LPS?induced brain inflammation impaired short?term memory by increasing DCX expression and suppressing NeuN expression. These results suggest that LPS?induced brain inflammation disturbs neuronal maturation. The number of BrdU?positive cells in the hippocampal dentate gyrus was increased by LPS injection. This increase in the number of BrdU?positive cells can be ascribed to the increase in the number of of immature neurons following LPS injection. On the other hand, forced treadmill exercise and voluntary wheel exercise improved brain inflammation?induced short?term memory impairment by suppressing DCX expression and increasing NeuN expression, enhancing neuronal maturation. Forced treadmill exercise and voluntary wheel exercise showed similar efficacy. From these results, it can be inferred that forced treadmill exercise and voluntary wheel exercise may improve memory function deteriorated by brain inflammation.

Kim SE; Ko IG; Park CY; Shin MS; Kim CJ; Jee YS

2013-01-01

64

Glucocorticoids inhibit dendritic cell maturation induced by Toll-like receptor 7 and Toll-like receptor 8.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

GCs are widely prescribed to treat inflammatory disorders and autoimmune and allergic diseases. Their anti-inflammatory and immunosuppressive effects may be related, in part, to their ability to control the maturation and functions of DCs. Here, we report that GCs inhibit the maturation of human CD34-DCs induced by the TLR7 agonist imiquimod and the TLR8 agonist 3M-002. GCs down-regulate the expression of CD86, CD40, CD83, CCR7, and HLA-DR on DCs and inhibit IL-6 and IL-12p40 production by DCs following TLR7 and TLR8 stimulation. This inhibitory effect is abolished by RU486, suggesting a role for GR transcriptional activity. Our results also show that GCs do not affect TLR-mediated DNA-binding activity of NF-?Bp65. We observe that GCs control the activation of JNK induced by TLR agonists, without affecting its upstream MKK4. However, p38MAPK activation is not affected by GCs. Concomitantly to JNK inhibition, we observe the induction of the DUSP MKP-1 but not of other DUSPs by GCs. However, although silencing of MKP-1 in DCs reverses GC-mediated JNK inhibition, no significant effect on GC-induced inhibition of DC maturation was evidenced. Our results show that GCs alter DC maturation in response to TLR7 or TLR8 through a mechanism involving GR transcriptional activity.

Larang A; Antonios D; Pallardy M; Kerdine-R闣er S

2012-01-01

65

The timing of the restitution of chromosome breaks induced by x-rays in the mature sperm of Drosophila melanogaster  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Drosophila melanogaster males with marked X and Y chromosomes were irradiated and mature sperm sampled by mating the males to females carrying attached-X chromosomes. Induced loss and partial loss of the paternal sex chromosomes was studied. F1 females were scored according to their phenotype and transmitted fragments were analyzed genetically. Half of the exceptional F1 females could be scored as 'partial losses'. Of the apparent total loss exceptions tested, half were carrying detectable fragments. 21% of the transmissible fragments were carrying a duplication of a paternal chromosome tip. This frequency is an under-estimate because only 6 of the 10 chromosome tips were marked in such a way that duplications could be detected. In addition, the markers used were located near, but not at the chromosome ends. These data are interpreted as indicating that a high proportion of the chromosome loss and partial loss induced by irradiation of mature sperm is a consequence of chromatid rearrangements arising from chromosome breaks which stay open until replication. It is suggested that during the transition from sperm head to mature pronucleus, repair of breaks and chromosome replication are two processes that occur in overlapping time intervals. It is therefore possible for chromosome breaks induced in mature sperm to give rise to chromosome and chromatid rearrangements

1976-01-01

66

Protein phosphorylation during 5-hydroxytryptamine-induced maturation of Spisula oocytes  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Maturation was induced in Spisula oocytes with 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT) creatinine sulfate at a final concentration of 5 ?M. After 10 and 30 min of treatment, oocytes were homogenized and the cytosolic and particulate fractions were prepared. The fractions were incubated with [?-32P]GTP and [?-32P]ATP. The phosphorylated proteins were analyzed by sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. The radioactivity in the gels was determined by autoradiography. With [?-32P]GTP a marked increase in the radiolabeling of proteins with an estimated Mr of 47,000 and 20,000 in the cytosolic and particulate fractions, respectively, was demonstrated with the 5-HT-treated oocytes, whereas no stimulation was demonstrable with the use of [?-32P]ATP. A significant increase in GTP-mediated protein phosphorylation occurred within 10 min after 5-HT treatment before the occurrence of germinal vesicle breakdown, suggesting that this post-translation modification of proteins is an early action of the neurotransmitter in the induction of meiotic reinitiation in oocytes

1988-01-01

67

Cooperative transcription activation by Nurr1 and Pitx3 induces embryonic stem cell maturation to the midbrain dopamine neuron phenotype  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Midbrain dopamine (DA) neurons play a central role in the regulation of voluntary movement, and their degeneration is associated with Parkinson's disease. Cell replacement therapies, and in particular embryonic stem (ES) cell-derived DA neurons, offer a potential therapeutic venue for Parkinson's disease. We sought to identify genes that can potentiate maturation of ES cell cultures to the midbrain DA neuron phenotype. A number of transcription factors have been implicated in the development of midbrain DA neurons by expression analyses and loss-of-function knockout mouse studies, including Nurr1, Pitx3, Lmx1b, Engrailed-1, and Engrailed-2. However, none of these factors appear sufficient alone to induce the mature midbrain DA neuron phenotype in ES cell cultures in vitro, suggesting a more complex regulatory network. Here we show that Nurr1 and Pitx3 cooperatively promote terminal maturation to the midbrain DA neuron phenotype in murine and human ES cell cultures.

Martinat, Cecile; Bacci, Jean-Jacques

2006-01-01

68

RAC protein induces enzymatic access to the maturing 3'-end of the 25S rRNA in Schizosaccharomyces pombe.  

Science.gov (United States)

In Schizosaccharomyces pombe, interdependency between steps in the processing of the rRNAs is mediated by a large protein complex (RAC) which interacts with the non-conserved transcribed spacers. The RAC complex exhibits no nuclease activity but dramatically alters the efficiency and specificity of Pac1 nuclease cleavage, leading to the removal of the 3' external transcribed spacers (3'ETS) in the maturation of the 3'ETS region. In this study modification exclusion and S1 nuclease were used to probe the RAC protein binding site and any subsequent structural changes in the maturing region. The results indicate that, as previously observed with the ITS1 and ITS2 regions, the upper helical region in the highly conserved extended terminal hairpin constitutes a protein binding site. In turn, this interaction induces a conformational change which affords access to nuclease at the 3'-end of the maturing 25S rRNA sequence. PMID:18222117

Spasov, Krasimir; Nazar, Ross N

2008-01-24

69

Maturation of Murine Bone Marrow-Derived Dendritic Cells Induced by Radix Glycyrrhizae Polysaccharide  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Radix Glycyrrhizae polysaccharide (GP), the most important component of Radix Glycyrrhizae, has been reported to have many immunopharmacological activities. However, the mechanism by which GP affects dendritic cells (DCs) has not been elucidated. In this study, we investigated the effect of GP on murine bone marrow-derived DCs and the potential pathway through which GP exerts this effect. Mononuclear cells (MNCs) were isolated from murine bone marrow and induced to become DCs by culturing with GM-CSF and IL-4. Six days later, DCs were divided into three groups: control group, GP group and LPS group. After 48 h of treatment, phenotypic figures and antigen uptake ability were determined by FACS analysis. The proliferation of DC-stimulated allogenic CD3+ T cells was detected by WST-1. IL-12 p70 and IFN-?, which are secreted by DCs and CD3+ T cells respectively, were quantified by ELISA. Additionally, IL-12 p40 mRNA expression was determined by real-time PCR. Alterations in TLR4-related signaling pathways were examined by performing an antibody neutralization experiment. Treatment of DCs with GP resulted in the enhanced expression of the cell surface molecules CD80, CD86 and MHC I-A/I-E. GP also increased the production of IL-12 p70 by DCs in a time-dependent manner. The endocytosis of FITC-dextran by DCs was suppressed by GP administration. Furthermore, GP-treated DCs enhanced both the proliferation and IFN-? secretion of allogenic CD3+ T cells. Finally, the effects of GP on DCs were partially reduced by using inhibitors of TLR4, NF-?B, p38 MAPK or JNK. In conclusion, GP can induce the maturation of DCs, and does so, in part, by regulating a TLR4-related signaling pathway.

Xiaobing Li; Xiaojuan He; Biao Liu; Li Xu; Cheng Lu; Hongyan Zhao; Xuyan Niu; Shilin Chen; Aiping Lu

2012-01-01

70

Endotoxin-induced nitric oxide production rescues airway growth and maturation in atrophic fetal rat lung explants  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Inflammation induces premature maturation of the fetal lung but the signals causing this effect remain unclear. We determined if nitric oxide (NO) synthesis, evoked by Escherichia coli lipopolysaccharide (LPS, 2 ?g ml-1), participated in this process. Fetal rat lung airway surface complexity rose 2.5-fold over 96 h in response to LPS and was associated with increased iNOS protein expression and activity. iNOS inhibition by N6-(1-iminoethyl)-L-lysine-2HCl (L-NIL) abolished this and induced airway atrophy similar to untreated explants. Surfactant protein-C (SP-C) expression was also induced by LPS and abolished by L-NIL. As TGF? suppresses iNOS activity, we determined if feedback regulation modulated NO-dependent maturation. LPS induced TGF?1 release and SMAD4 nuclear translocation 96 h after treatment. Treatment of explants with a blocking antibody against TGF?1 sustained NO production and airway morphogenesis whereas recombinant TGF?1 antagonized these effects. Feedback regulation of NO synthesis by TGF? may, thus, modulate airway branching and maturation of the fetal lung.

2006-10-13

71

Incomplete Kawasaki disease.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

This is a report of a 4-year-old Hispanic boy who presented with skin changes to the lips and oral cavity, a generalized rash, edema of hands and feet, and peeling of the periungual areas of the fingers as well as to the groin and perianal areas. Fourteen days earlier, his 19-month-old brother was diagnosed and treated for Kawasaki disease. Upon laboratory investigation, our patient was found to have an elevated sedimentation rate, C-reactive protein, and serum ?-glutamyl transferase. Infectious disease and cardiology consultations subsequently diagnosed and treated our patient for incomplete Kawasaki disease.

Miller MM; Miller AH

2013-05-01

72

B lymphocyte-induced maturation protein 1 is a novel target gene of aryl hydrocarbon receptor.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

BACKGROUND: The aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR) is a ligand-activated transcription factor. When environmental pollutants, including chemical carcinogens, bind to AhR, the receptor translocates to nucleus and transcriptionally activates target genes including drug metabolizing enzymes such as P450s. Recent studies have shown that AhR mediates various responses, including cellular growth, differentiation, immune system and development. OBJECTIVE: In this study, we investigated the physiological function of AhR in skin. METHODS: Distribution of AhR in murine skin was examined by immunohistochemistry. Expression of a target gene which is transcriptionally activated by AhR is analysed by RT-PCR. RESULTS: We found that AhR co-localizes with the transcriptional repressor B lymphocyte maturation protein 1 (Blimp1) in sebaceous gland. In this report, we show that expression of Blimp1 is induced by treatment with AhR ligands, such as methylcolanthrene (MC) in sebocyte and keratinocyte cell lines. Exposure to ultraviolet B, which has been reported to generate AhR ligand intracellularly, also increased Blimp1 mRNA. This ligand-dependent induction of Blimp1 requires the expression of both AhR and ARNT, since transfection of siRNA specific to either AhR or ARNT significantly reduced Blimp1 mRNA in response to MC. Analysis using kinase inhibitors revealed that ligand-dependent induction of Blimp1, but not that of CYP1A1, is inhibited by staurosporine. TPA, a potent activator of protein kinase C, increased Blimp1 mRNA but not CYP1A1. CONCLUSION: These data indicate that Blimp1 is a novel AhR-target gene in epidermal keratinocyte and sebocyte.

Ikuta T; Ohba M; Zouboulis CC; Fujii-Kuriyama Y; Kawajiri K

2010-06-01

73

Ultrastructural maturation of human-induced pluripotent stem cell-derived cardiomyocytes in a long-term culture.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

BACKGROUND: In the short- to mid-term, cardiomyocytes generated from human-induced pluripotent stem cells (hiPSC-CMs) have been reported to be less mature than those of adult hearts. However, the maturation process in a long-term culture remains unknown. METHODS AND RESULTS: A hiPSC clone generated from a healthy control was differentiated into CMs through embryoid body (EB) formation. The ultrastructural characteristics and gene expressions of spontaneously contracting EBs were analyzed through 1-year of culture after cardiac differentiation was initiated. The 14-day-old EBs contained a low number of myofibrils, which lacked alignment, and immature high-density Z-bands lacking A-, H-, I-, and M-bands. Through the long-term culture up to 180 days, the myofibrils became more tightly packed and formed parallel arrays accompanied by the appearance of mature Z-, A-, H-, and I-bands, but not M-bands. Notably, M-bands were finally detected in 360-day-old EBs. The expression levels of the M-band-specific genes in hiPSC-CMs remained lower in comparison with those in the adult heart. Immunocytochemistry indicated increasing number of MLC2v-positive/MLC2a-negative cells with decreasing number of MLC2v/MLC2a double-positive cells, indicating maturing of ventricular-type CMs. CONCLUSIONS: The structural maturation process of hiPSC-CMs through 1-year of culture revealed ultrastructural sarcomeric changes accompanied by delayed formation of M-bands. Our study provides new insight into the maturation process of hiPSC-CMs.?

Kamakura T; Makiyama T; Sasaki K; Yoshida Y; Wuriyanghai Y; Chen J; Hattori T; Ohno S; Kita T; Horie M; Yamanaka S; Kimura T

2013-01-01

74

Targeting antigens to CD180 rapidly induces antigen-specific IgG, affinity maturation, and immunological memory.  

Science.gov (United States)

Antigen (Ag) targeting is an efficient way to induce immune responses. Ag is usually coupled to an antibody (Ab) specific for a receptor expressed on dendritic cells (DCs), and then the Ag-anti-receptor is inoculated with an adjuvant. Here we report that targeting Ag to a receptor expressed on both B cells and DCs, the TLR orphan receptor CD180, in the absence of adjuvant rapidly induced IgG responses that were stronger than those induced by Ag in alum. Ag conjugated to anti-CD180 (Ag-?CD180) induced affinity maturation and Ab responses that were partially T cell independent, as Ag-specific IgGs were generated in CD40- and T cell-deficient mice. After preimmunization with Ag-?CD180 and boosting with soluble Ag, both WT and CD40 knockout (KO) mice rapidly produced Ag-specific IgG-forming cells, demonstrating that Ag-anti-CD180 induces immunological memory. The potent adjuvant effect of Ag-?CD180 required Ag to be coupled to anti-CD180 and the responsive B cells to express both CD180 and an Ag-specific B cell receptor. Surprisingly, CD180 Ag targeting also induced IgG Abs in BAFF-R KO mice lacking mature B cells and in mice deficient in interferon signaling. Targeting Ag to CD180 may be useful for therapeutic vaccination and for vaccinating the immune compromised. PMID:24019553

Chaplin, Jay W; Chappell, Craig P; Clark, Edward A

2013-09-09

75

Enhancing functional maturity before preterm birth.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Enhancing functional maturity of the high-risk preterm fetus is aimed at decreasing the life-threatening neonatal disorders that increase the burden of chronic disease. A course of antenatal glucocorticoids before 35 weeks of pregnancy substitutes endogenous activation of the hypothalamic-adrenal axis that spontaneously enhances functional maturity and augments cytokine-induced preterm lung maturity. It is the main fetal therapy that decreases the functional prematurity-related neonatal morbidity in the era of surfactant therapy. Tocolytic agents potentiate the effect of glucocorticoids on the fetus. Repeating an antenatal glucocorticoid course may be recommended if the preterm fetus remains undelivered for more than 7 days and very preterm birth is imminent. However, the follow-up results are still incomplete, and available preliminary studies warn against adverse neurological and metabolic consequences following several antenatal repeat courses of glucocorticoids. Administration of glucocorticoids after 34 weeks of pregnancy may be considered in selected high-risk cases, preferably with documented lung immaturity. We recommend delaying elective delivery in low-risk pregnancies without established lung maturity until 40 weeks, unless labor starts earlier. In a selected high-risk population 17alpha-hydroxyprogesterone acetate decreases the prematurity rate. However, this drug has a limited impact on functional maturity of the preterm fetus and its effects on the development of the child remain to be studied further.

Hallman M; Peltoniemi O; Kari MA

2010-06-01

76

The nature of X-ray-induced mutations in mature sperm and spermatogonial cells of Drosophila melanogaster  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en]Mutations at four X-linked visible loci (yellow, white, vermilion and forked) induced by X-irradiation of mature sperm and spermatogonial cells were analysed genetically and cytogenetically. In addition, a fraction of the intragenic vermilion mutations was analysed molecularly. Males of two wild-type strains (Amherst M56i and Berlin-K) were used. A total of 332,651 chromosomes of irradiated mature sperm and 311,567 of irradiated spermatogonial cells were scored. The ratio of F1 female sterile, F2 male lethal and F2 male viable mutations in mature sperm and spermatogonial cells is very similar. The cytogenetic analysis shows equal fractions of multilocus deletions and translocations among the mutations recovered from both stages of spermatogenesis. These data strongly suggest that the spectrum of X-ray mutations is similar in mature sperm and spermatogonial cells, including multilocus deletions and chromosome rearrangements. The molecular analysis of a number of intragenic vermilion mutations showed the presence of three small deletions (1-10 bp), one insertion of two nucleotides and seven single nucleotide changes

1994-05-01

77

Reversal of glucose-induced inhibition of newborn rat liver mitochondrial maturation by administration of alkylxanthines at birth.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

A glucose injection given immediately after birth delays the maturation which normally occurs in rat liver mitochondria and which increases the rate of ATP synthesis coupled to succinate oxidation from a low value at birth to the adult value a few hours after birth [R. Meister, J. Comte, L. Baggetto, C. Godinot and D. C. Gautheron, Biochim. biophys. Acta 722, 36 (1983)]. Alkylxanthine (pentoxifylline, HWA 285) administration at birth has no effect on the maturation of mitochondria prepared from 2-hr-old rat livers while DBcAMP administration increases their RCR and their rate of ATP synthesis. On the contrary, both alkylxanthines and DBcAMP reverse the glucose-induced inhibition of mitochondrial maturation. This DBcAMP effect cannot be mimicked by butyrate and is therefore related to cAMP. The cAMP content of rat liver increases during this postnatal period in both control and glucose-treated rats, although glucose administration tends to decrease the level of cAMP. Alkylxanthine administration restores after 2 hr the cAMP level in glucose-treated animals. The variations of RCR could not be completely correlated with the level of cAMP. The possible involvement of other factors in the mitochondrial maturation and the glucose effect is discussed.

Comte J; Meister R; Baggetto LG; Godinot C; Gautheron DC

1986-07-01

78

Physicalism, Behaviorism and Incompleteness  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The content of this paper contains four parts. (1) First, physicalism gives the enlightenments to behaviorism: mind-body identity, objectivity like physics and completeness of reduction. (2) Secondly, there are difficulties which behaviorist could not overcomeboth the reduction of the theory and the terms are unreliable, and the strict distinction between introspective method and inter-subjective method is also untenable. (3) Thirdly, It has inevitable incompleteness in one theory no matter what it claims due to the limitations of human cognition. (4) Finally, the author concludes that we should treat various theories in a "both this and that" but "either this or that" way. Therefore, we should admit the contribution of behaviorism and its model philosophyphysicalism, although they has failed in seeking for completeness.

Tao Li

2011-01-01

79

Mature T-cell lymphomagenesis induced by retroviral insertional activation of Janus kinase 1.  

Science.gov (United States)

Retroviral vectors (RVs) are powerful tools in clinical gene therapy. However, stable genomic integration of RVs can be oncogenic, as reported in several animal models and in clinical trials. Previously, we observed that T-cell receptor (TCR) polyclonal mature T cells are resistant to transformation after gammaretroviral transfer of (proto-)oncogenes, whereas TCR-oligoclonal T cells were transformable in the same setting. Here, we describe the induction of a mature T-cell lymphoma (MTCL) in TCR-oligoclonal OT-I transgenic T cells, transduced with an enhanced green fluorescent protein (EGFP)-encoding gammaretroviral vector. The tumor cells were of a mature T-cell phenotype and serially transplantable. Integration site analysis revealed a proviral hit in Janus kinase 1 (Jak1), which resulted in Jak1 overexpression and Jak/STAT-pathway activation, particularly via signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3). Specific inhibition of Jak1 markedly delayed tumor growth. A systematic meta-analysis of available gene expression data on human mature T-cell lymphomas/leukemias confirmed the relevance of Jak/STAT overexpression in sporadic human T-cell tumorigenesis. To our knowledge, this is the first study to describe RV-associated insertional mutagenesis in mature T cells. PMID:23609016

Heinrich, Tim; Rengstl, Benjamin; Muik, Alexander; Petkova, Mina; Schmid, Frederike; Wistinghausen, Robin; Warner, Kathrin; Crispatzu, Giuliano; Hansmann, Martin-Leo; Herling, Marco; von Laer, Dorothee; Newrzela, Sebastian

2013-04-23

80

Characterization of early events involved in human dendritic cell maturation induced by sensitizers: Cross talk between MAPK signalling pathways  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Dendritic cells (DCs), efficient-antigen presenting cells play an important role in initiating and regulating immune responses. DC maturation following exposure to nickel or DNCB induced an up-regulation of phenotypic markers and inflammatory cytokine secretion. Early intracellular mechanisms involved in DC maturation required to be precise. To address this purpose, DCs derived from human monocytes were treated with sensitizers (nickel, DNCB or thimerosal) in comparison with an irritant (SDS). Our data confirming the up-regulation of CD86, CD54 and cytokine secretion (IL-8 and TNF?) induced by sensitizers but not by SDS, signalling transduction involved in DC maturation was investigated using these chemicals. Kinase activity measurement was assessed using two new sensitive procedures (FaceTM and CBA) requiring few cells. SDS did not induce changes in signalling pathways whereas NiSO4, DNCB and thimerosal markedly activated p38 MAPK and JNK, in contrast Erk1/2 phosphorylation was completely inhibited by DNCB or thimerosal and only activated by nickel. A pre-treatment with p38 MAPK inhibitor (SB203580) suppressed Erk1/2 inhibition induced by DNCB or thimerosal demonstrating a direct interaction between p38 MAPK and Erk1/2. A pre-treatment with an antioxidant, N-acetyl-L-cysteine (NAC) markedly reduced Erk1/2 inhibition and p38 MAPK phosphorylation induced by DNCB and thimerosal, suggesting a direct activation of p38 MAPK via an oxidative stress and a regulation of MAPK signalling pathways depending on chemicals. Because of a high sensitivity of kinase activity measurements, these procedures will be suitable for weak or moderate sensitizer screening.

2008-08-01

 
 
 
 
81

N-hexane Alters the Maturation of Oocytes and Induces Apoptosis in Mice.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

OBJECTIVE: This study was aimed to determine the effects of n-hexane on the maturation of mouse oocytes. METHODS: Cell culture was used to observe the maturation of mouse oocytes and CLSM was employed to determine their apoptosis. RESULTS: Germinal vesicle breakdown (GVBD) and extrusion of the first polar body in mouse oocytes were significantly inhibited by n-hexane. After fertilization, the number of eggs in the mouse was significantly reduced by n-hexane. Mitochondrial membrane potentials (??m) were altered in mouse oocytes that were leading to apoptosis of the oocytes. CONCLUSION: N-hexane might have affected the maturation of oocytes, causing alteration of ??m and leading to apoptosis which maybe one of the most important mechanisms.

Liu J; Huang L; Sun Y; Li YC; Zhu JL; Wang WX; Zhang WC

2013-09-01

82

Maturation of Shark Single-Domain (IgNAR) Antibodies: Evidence for Induced-Fit Binding  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Sharks express an unusual heavy-chain isotype called IgNAR, whose variable regions bind antigen as independent soluble domains. To further probe affinity maturation of the IgNAR response, we structurally characterized the germline and somatically matured versions of a type II variable (V) region, both in the presence and absence of its antigen, hen egg-white lysozyme. Despite a disulfide bond linking complementarity determining regions (CDRs) 1 and 3, both germline and somatically matured V regions displayed significant structural changes in these CDRs upon complex formation with antigen. Somatic mutations in the IgNAR V region serve to increase the number of contacts with antigen, as reflected by a tenfold increase in affinity, and one of these mutations appears to stabilize the CDR3 region. In addition, a residue in the HV4 loop plays an important role in antibody-antigen interaction, consistent with the high rate of somatic mutations in this non-CDR loop.

Stanfield, R.L.; Dooley, H.; Verdino, P.; Flajnik, M.F.; Wilson, I.A.; /Scripps Res. Inst. /Maryland U.

2007-07-13

83

Morphological and immunocytochemical analyses on the effects of diet-induced hypocalcemia on enamel maturation in the rat incisor.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

During the maturation stage of amelogenesis, the loss of matrix proteins combined with an accentuated but regulated influx of calcium and phosphate ions into the enamel layer results in the "hardest" tissue of the body. The aim of the present investigation was to examine the effects of chronic hypocalcemia on the maturation of enamel. Twenty-one-day old male Wistar rats were given a calcium-free diet and deionized water for 28 days, while control animals received a normal chow. The rats were perfused with aldehyde and the mandibular incisors were processed for histochemical and ultrastructural analyses and for postembedding colloidal gold immunolabeling with antibodies to amelogenin, ameloblastin, and albumin. The maturation stage enamel organ in hypocalcemic rats exhibited areas with an apparent increase in cell number and the presence of cyst-like structures. In both cases the cells expressed signals for ameloblastin and amelogenin. The content of the cysts was periodic acid-Schiff- and periodic acid-silver nitrate-methanamine-positive and immunolabeled for amelogenin, ameloblastin, and albumin. Masses of a similar material were also found at the enamel surface in depressions of the ameloblast layer. In addition, there were accumulations of glycoproteinaceous matrix at the interface between ameloblasts and enamel. In decalcified specimens, the superficial portion of the enamel matrix sometimes exhibited the presence of tubular crystal "ghosts." The basal lamina, normally separating ameloblasts and enamel during the maturation stage, was missing in some areas. Enamel crystals extended within membrane invaginations at the apical surface of ameloblasts in these areas. Immunolabeling for amelogenin, ameloblastin, and albumin over enamel was variable and showed a heterogeneous distribution. In contrast, enamel in control rats exhibited a homogeneous labeling for amelogenin, a concentration of ameloblastin at the surface, and weak reactivity for albumin. These results suggest that diet-induced chronic hypocalcemia interferes with both cellular and extracellular events during enamel maturation.

Nanci A; Mocetti P; Sakamoto Y; Kunikata M; Lozupone E; Bonucci E

2000-08-01

84

Thidiazuron-induced shoot organogenesis from mature leaf explants of scented Pelargonium capitatum cultivars  

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Shoot organogenesis from mature leaf tissues of two scented Pelargonium capitatum cultivars, 'Attar of Roses' and 'Atomic Snowflake', grown in the greenhouse, were optimized in the presence of thidiazuron (TDZ). The protocol involved preculture of leaf sections on basal Murashige and Skoog (MS) medi...

Arshad, Muhammad; Silvestre, J廨獽e; Merlina, Georges; Dumat, Camille; Pinelli, Eric; Kallerhoff, Jean

85

High amounts of fluoride induce apoptosis/cell death in matured ameloblast-like LS8 cells by downregulating Bcl-2.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

OBJECTIVE: Excessive fluoride intake during enamel formation may result in enamel fluorosis and apoptosis is regarded to be involved in the process by an unclear mechanism. We hypothesize that excessive fluoride might cause apoptosis in the ameloblasts and fluoride-induced apoptosis varies with the maturation stages of ameloblasts. METHODS: We set up an in vitro differentiation model of ameloblasts by using retinoic acid (RA) and dexamethasone (DEX) to induce the maturation of mouse ameloblast-like LS8 cells. RESULTS: The mRNA and protein levels of two enamel matrix proteins and two enamel proteinases were downregulated and upregulated, respectively, in the RA/DEX induced cells, indicating RA/DEX induced cells possessed the characteristics of matured ameloblasts. The strengthened endocytosis function and decreased intracellular pH value inside RA/DEX treated ameloblasts confirmed the maturation inducing effect of RA/DEX on ameloblasts. Excessive fluoride inhibited cell proliferation of ameloblasts within 72h. High amounts of fluoride also induced more apoptosis/dead cells and reduced the expression of Bcl-2, but to a different degree in the non-induced cells and RA/DEX induced cells. CONCLUSIONS: We inferred that high doses of fluoride may easily target the transitional/early maturation ameloblasts and cause apoptosis or cell death. Bcl-2 might be involved in this process.

Yang T; Zhang Y; Li Y; Hao Y; Zhou M; Dong N; Duan X

2013-09-01

86

Repair capacity of fertilized mouse eggs for X-ray damage induced in sperm and mature oocytes  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en]To study the repair capacity of fertilized mouse eggs for X-ray damage induced in sperm and mature oocytes, the potentiating effects of 3 well-known repair inhibitors, arabinofuranosyl cytosine (ara-C), 3-aminobenzamide (3AB) and caffeine, on the frequency of induced chromosome aberrations were examined in eggs fertilized with X-irradiated sperm or in eggs irradiated with X-rays at the mature oocyte stage immediately before fertilization. Gametic treatment, fertilization and embryo culture wer carried out in vitro. Ara-C treatment was done only in the pre-DNA replication period, while treatment with 3AB and caffeine was continuous from fertilization to the first-cleavage metaphase. The induction of chromosome aberrations by exposing sperm or oocytes to X-rays was remarkably potentiated by post-treatment incubation in the presence of each of the 3 inhibitors. This result indicates the possibility that X-ray damage induced in sperm or oocytes is reparable in the fertilized eggs and that various types of repair processes are involved. (author). 39 refs.; 3 figs.; 5 tabs

1989-01-01

87

Establishment of a new method to induce the differentiation of embryonic pancreatic cells into mature endocrine cells.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

OBJECTIVE: To establish a new culture method to induce the differentiation of embryonic pancreatic cells into mature endocrine cells. METHODS: Mouse embryos at day 12.5 were used and embryonic pancreata were isolated. The isolated embryonic pancreata were cultured on the filter for 7 days, which floated in the dish containing medium. During culture, the expression of pancreas duodenum homeobox-1 (PDX-1), a pancreatic stem cell marker, was examined at day 1. The expression of neurogenin 3 (Ngn3), a pancreatic progenitor cell marker, was examined at day 3. The expressions of endocrine and exocrine markers, insulin, glucagon, and carboxypeptidase (CPA) were examined at day 7 by immunohistochemistry. The kinetics of pancreatic marker expression during culture was assayed by real-time PCR. RESULTS: Many pancreatic stem cells still existed in embryonic pancreata cultured for 1 day; meanwhile, these pancreatic stem cells proliferated in high rate. A large amount of pancreatic progenitor cells were found in embryonic pancreata cultured for 3 days.Pancreatic stem/progenitor cells differentiated into mature endocrine and exocrine cells in embryonic pancreata after having been cultured for 7 days. Furthermore, the expression pattern of pancreatic marker is consistent with that in vivo. CONCLUSION: We successfully established a new culture method, with which embryonic pancreatic cells can efficiently differentiate into mature endocrine cell.

Chen F; Ma FX; Chi Y; Zhao QJ; Yang SG; Lu SH; Han ZC

2012-08-01

88

A primer on meiotic resumption in starfish oocytes: the proposed signaling pathway triggered by maturation-inducing hormone.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

This short review updates the maturation-inducing hormonal signaling in starfish oocytes. In this system, the activation of cyclin B-Cdc2 kinase (Cdk1) that leads to meiotic resumption does not require new protein synthesis. The key intracellular mediator after hormonal stimulation by 1-methyladenine is the protein kinase Akt/PKB, which in turn directly downregulates Myt1 and upregulates Cdc25 toward the activation of cyclin B-Cdc2. Mitotic kinases including Aurora, Plk1 and Greatwall are activated downstream of cyclin B-Cdc2. The starfish oocyte thus provides a simple model system for the study of meiotic resumption.

Kishimoto T

2011-10-01

89

Intraperitoneal kisspeptin-10 administration induces dose-dependent degenerative changes in maturing rat testes.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

AIMS: Kisspeptin, a peptide secreted by hypothalamic neurons, is a critical regulator of reproduction and puberty but its role in the regulation of gonadal maturation in sexually immature males is elusive. The present study investigated the effects of 12 days of pulsatile kisspeptin administration on gonadotropins and testosterone release and maturation of immature male gonads. MAIN METHODS: Kisspeptin-10 was administered intraperitoneally at different dosage concentrations (1 ?g, 1 ng, and 10 pg) to 5 weeks old prepubertal male rats, twice daily for 12 days. Plasma LH, FSH and testosterone concentrations were measured through competitive-binding radioimmunoassay. Spermatogenesis was studied mainly at stage VII of the spermatogenic cycle through light and electron microscopy. KEY FINDINGS: At the end of the treatments plasma LH and testosterone concentrations were reduced significantly at 1ng and 1?g kisspeptin doses (P<0.05; P<0.01). Type A spermatogonia, preleptotene spermatocytes, pachytene spermatocytes, step 7 spermatids, elongated spermatids and daily sperm production decreased significantly (P<0.05). Sertoli cell efficiency and total support capacity of Sertoli cells were reduced at all doses (P<0.05). Meiotic index decreased (P<0.05) at 1 ?g dose only, whereas coefficient of mitosis increased at 1 ng and 1 ?g (P<0.01) kisspeptin doses. Histologically, degeneration of seminiferous tubules was evident showing tubular necrosis, multinucleated giant cell formation, intratubular vacuolization, widened lumen and deshaped germ cells. Marked ultrastructural changes characterized by thin basal laminae, enlarged intratubular spaces, abnormal acrosome and disrupted germ cells were noticeable. SIGNIFICANCE: In conclusion long-term kisspeptin-10 administration negatively regulates gonadal maturation in prepubertal testes.

Ramzan F; Qureshi IZ

2011-01-01

90

The epidemiology of incomplete abortion in South Africa. National Incomplete Abortion Reference Group.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

OBJECTIVE: To describe the epidemiology of incomplete abortion (spontaneous miscarriage and illegally induced) in South Africa. DESIGN: Multicentre, prospective, descriptive study. SETTING: Fifty-six public hospitals in nine provinces (a stratified, random sample of all hospitals treating gynaecological emergencies). PATIENTS: All women of gestation under 22 weeks who presented with incomplete abortion during the 2-week study period. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Incidence of, morbidity associated with and mortality from incomplete abortion. MAIN RESULTS: An estimated 44686 (95% CI 35633-53709) women per year were admitted to South Africa's public hospitals with incomplete abortion. An estimated 425 (95% CI 78-735) women die in public hospitals from complications of abortion. Fifteen per cent (95% CI 13-18) of patients have severe morbidity while a further 19% (95% CI 16-22) have moderate morbidity, as assessed by categories designed for the study which largely reflect infection. There were marked inter-provincial differences and inter-age group differences in trimester of presentation and proportion of patients with appreciable morbidity. CONCLUSIONS: Incomplete abortions and, in particular, unsafe abortions are an important cause of mortality and morbidity in South Africa. The methods used in this study underestimate the true incidence for reasons that are discussed. A high priority should be given to the prevention of unsafe abortion.

Rees H; Katzenellenbogen J; Shabodien R; Jewkes R; Fawcus S; McIntyre J; Lombard C; Truter H

1997-04-01

91

Lead-induced changes in ovarian follicular development and maturation in mice  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Lead, a potent reproductive toxicant in humans and experimental animals, was used to detect the morphological basis of ovarian toxicity in mice by counting the various stages of follicular development using different doses of lead acetate (0, 2, 4 or 8 mg/kg/d) for 60 d (5 d/wk) by oral gavage. Our results revealed that while small and medium follicles were significantly affected even at the lowest dose (2 mg), the large follicles were affected mostly at the highest dose. Atresia even in the medium follicles reflected the extent of damage caused by lead. These finding correlated well with increased blood lead levels. Therefore, lead seems to affect the follicular development and maturation, if mice are exposed to sufficiently high concentrations of metal through the oral route. 26 refs., 4 figs., 3 tabs.

Junaid, M.; Chowdhuri, D.K.; Narayan, R. [Industrial Toxicology Research Centre, Lucknow (India)] [and others

1997-01-01

92

Thyroid hormone treated astrocytes induce maturation of cerebral cortical neurons through modulation of proteoglycan levels  

Science.gov (United States)

Proper brain neuronal circuitry formation and synapse development is dependent on specific cues, either genetic or epigenetic, provided by the surrounding neural environment. Within these signals, thyroid hormones (T3 and T4) play crucial role in several steps of brain morphogenesis including proliferation of progenitor cells, neuronal differentiation, maturation, migration, and synapse formation. The lack of thyroid hormones during childhood is associated with several impair neuronal connections, cognitive deficits, and mental disorders. Many of the thyroid hormones effects are mediated by astrocytes, although the mechanisms underlying these events are still unknown. In this work, we investigated the effect of 3, 5, 3?-triiodothyronine-treated (T3-treated) astrocytes on cerebral cortex neuronal differentiation. Culture of neural progenitors from embryonic cerebral cortex mice onto T3-treated astrocyte monolayers yielded an increment in neuronal population, followed by enhancement of neuronal maturation, arborization and neurite outgrowth. In addition, real time PCR assays revealed an increase in the levels of the heparan sulfate proteoglycans, Glypican 1 (GPC-1) and Syndecans 3 e 4 (SDC-3 e SDC-4), followed by a decrease in the levels of the chondroitin sulfate proteoglycan, Versican. Disruption of glycosaminoglycan chains by chondroitinase AC or heparanase III completely abolished the effects of T3-treated astrocytes on neuronal morphogenesis. Our work provides evidence that astrocytes are key mediators of T3 actions on cerebral cortex neuronal development and identified potential molecules and pathways involved in neurite extension; which might eventually contribute to a better understanding of axonal regeneration, synapse formation, and neuronal circuitry recover.

Dezonne, Romulo S.; Stipursky, Joice; Araujo, Ana P. B.; Nones, Jader; Pavao, Mauro S. G.; Porcionatto, Marimelia; Gomes, Flavia C. A.

2013-01-01

93

Thyroid hormone treated astrocytes induce maturation of cerebral cortical neurons through modulation of proteoglycan levels.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Proper brain neuronal circuitry formation and synapse development is dependent on specific cues, either genetic or epigenetic, provided by the surrounding neural environment. Within these signals, thyroid hormones (T3 and T4) play crucial role in several steps of brain morphogenesis including proliferation of progenitor cells, neuronal differentiation, maturation, migration, and synapse formation. The lack of thyroid hormones during childhood is associated with several impair neuronal connections, cognitive deficits, and mental disorders. Many of the thyroid hormones effects are mediated by astrocytes, although the mechanisms underlying these events are still unknown. In this work, we investigated the effect of 3, 5, 3'-triiodothyronine-treated (T3-treated) astrocytes on cerebral cortex neuronal differentiation. Culture of neural progenitors from embryonic cerebral cortex mice onto T3-treated astrocyte monolayers yielded an increment in neuronal population, followed by enhancement of neuronal maturation, arborization and neurite outgrowth. In addition, real time PCR assays revealed an increase in the levels of the heparan sulfate proteoglycans, Glypican 1 (GPC-1) and Syndecans 3 e 4 (SDC-3 e SDC-4), followed by a decrease in the levels of the chondroitin sulfate proteoglycan, Versican. Disruption of glycosaminoglycan chains by chondroitinase AC or heparanase III completely abolished the effects of T3-treated astrocytes on neuronal morphogenesis. Our work provides evidence that astrocytes are key mediators of T3 actions on cerebral cortex neuronal development and identified potential molecules and pathways involved in neurite extension; which might eventually contribute to a better understanding of axonal regeneration, synapse formation, and neuronal circuitry recover.

Dezonne RS; Stipursky J; Araujo AP; Nones J; Pav緌 MS; Porcionatto M; Gomes FC

2013-01-01

94

Ectopic expression of neurogenin 2 alone is sufficient to induce differentiation of embryonic stem cells into mature neurons.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Recent studies show that combinations of defined key developmental transcription factors (TFs) can reprogram somatic cells to pluripotency or induce cell conversion of one somatic cell type to another. However, it is not clear if single genes can define a cell?s identity and if the cell fate defining potential of TFs is also operative in pluripotent stem cells in vitro. Here, we show that ectopic expression of the neural TF Neurogenin2 (Ngn2) is sufficient to induce rapid and efficient differentiation of embryonic stem cells (ESCs) into mature glutamatergic neurons. Ngn2-induced neuronal differentiation did not require any additional external or internal factors and occurred even under pluripotency-promoting conditions. Differentiated cells displayed neuron-specific morphology, protein expression, and functional features, most importantly the generation of action potentials and contacts with hippocampal neurons. Gene expression analyses revealed that Ngn2-induced in vitro differentiation partially resembled neurogenesis in vivo, as it included specific activation of Ngn2 target genes and interaction partners. These findings demonstrate that a single gene is sufficient to determine cell fate decisions of uncommitted stem cells thus giving insights into the role of key developmental genes during lineage commitment. Furthermore, we present a promising tool to improve directed differentiation strategies for applications in both stem cell research and regenerative medicine.

Thoma EC; Wischmeyer E; Offen N; Maurus K; Sir幯 AL; Schartl M; Wagner TU

2012-01-01

95

Ectopic expression of neurogenin 2 alone is sufficient to induce differentiation of embryonic stem cells into mature neurons.  

Science.gov (United States)

Recent studies show that combinations of defined key developmental transcription factors (TFs) can reprogram somatic cells to pluripotency or induce cell conversion of one somatic cell type to another. However, it is not clear if single genes can define a cell?s identity and if the cell fate defining potential of TFs is also operative in pluripotent stem cells in vitro. Here, we show that ectopic expression of the neural TF Neurogenin2 (Ngn2) is sufficient to induce rapid and efficient differentiation of embryonic stem cells (ESCs) into mature glutamatergic neurons. Ngn2-induced neuronal differentiation did not require any additional external or internal factors and occurred even under pluripotency-promoting conditions. Differentiated cells displayed neuron-specific morphology, protein expression, and functional features, most importantly the generation of action potentials and contacts with hippocampal neurons. Gene expression analyses revealed that Ngn2-induced in vitro differentiation partially resembled neurogenesis in vivo, as it included specific activation of Ngn2 target genes and interaction partners. These findings demonstrate that a single gene is sufficient to determine cell fate decisions of uncommitted stem cells thus giving insights into the role of key developmental genes during lineage commitment. Furthermore, we present a promising tool to improve directed differentiation strategies for applications in both stem cell research and regenerative medicine. PMID:22719915

Thoma, Eva C; Wischmeyer, Erhard; Offen, Nils; Maurus, Katja; Sir幯, Anna-Leena; Schartl, Manfred; Wagner, Toni U

2012-06-13

96

The inducible effect of LBP on maturation of dendritic cells and the related immune signaling pathways in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC).  

Science.gov (United States)

Objective: To investigate the effect of LBP on differentiation and maturation of healthy human peripheral blood-derived dendritic cells cultured in different tumor microenvironment in vitro, and discuss the molecular and immunological mechanisms of LBP in treatment of tumor. Methods: In this study, we procured the peripheral blood-derived dendritic cells precursor cell by the Density gradient centrifugation method, and used the tumor-cell supernatant to prepare conditioned medium. The GM-CSF and IL-4 induced DCs precursor cell differentiation to DCs, the TNF-? promoted the immature DCs developed to mature DCs. In this way, we detected the influence of LBP on the expressions of surface molecules of DCs cultured in different environments, and especially on the role of related-immunity and NF-?B activity. Results: In LBP-treated group, the molecular phenotype of DCs, its capacity to stimulate allogeneic lymphocyte proliferation, and the levels of IL-12p70 and IFN-? secretion were higher than the untreated group (p hepG2.2.15 group higher than the hepG2 group. Conclusion: LBP could increase the expression of the phenotype of DCs, the secretion of IL-12p70 and IFN-? in MLR, and enhance the NF-?B expression, especially in the virus-related group, suggesting LBP plays the anti-tumor role stronger in the virus-related environment and this phenomenon correlates with the NF-?B signaling pathway. PMID:22640039

Chen, Jing-Rui; Li, En-Qing; Dai, Cong-Qi; Yu, Bin; Wu, Xian-Lin; Huang, Chun-Rong; Chen, Xiao-Yin

2012-07-01

97

The Trypanosoma brucei gambiense Secretome Impairs Lipopolysaccharide-Induced Maturation, Cytokine Production, and Allostimulatory Capacity of Dendritic Cells.  

Science.gov (United States)

Trypanosoma brucei gambiense, a parasitic protozoan belonging to kinetoplastids, is the main etiological agent of human African trypanosomiasis (HAT), or sleeping sickness. One major characteristic of this disease is the dysregulation of the host immune system. The present study demonstrates that the secretome (excreted-secreted proteins) of T. b. gambiense impairs the lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced maturation of murine dendritic cells (DCs). The upregulation of major histocompatibility complex class II, CD40, CD80, and CD86 molecules, as well as the secretion of cytokines such as tumor necrosis factor alpha, interleukin-10 (IL-10), and IL-6, which are normally released at high levels by LPS-stimulated DCs, is significantly reduced when these cells are cultured in the presence of the T. b. gambiense secretome. Moreover, the inhibition of DC maturation results in the loss of their allostimulatory capacity, leading to a dramatic decrease in Th1/Th2 cytokine production by cocultured lymphocytes. These results provide new insights into a novel efficient immunosuppressive mechanism directly involving the alteration of DC function which might be used by T. b. gambiense to interfere with the host immune responses in HAT and promote the infectious process. PMID:23798533

Garz鏮, Edwin; Holzmuller, Philippe; Bras-Gon蓷lves, Rachel; Vincendeau, Philippe; Cuny, G廨ard; Lemesre, Jean Loup; Geiger, Anne

2013-06-24

98

Concanavalin-A induces granulosa cell death and inhibits FSH-mediated follicular growth and ovarian maturation in female rats.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Reproductive success stems from a finely regulated balance between follicular maturation and atresia, in which the role of carbohydrate structure is poorly understood. Here, we describe for the first time a fraction of purified recombinant human FSH that is capable of bringing about the cell death of granulosa cells and preventing follicular maturation in a rat model. Further analysis by mass spectrometry revealed the presence of the lectin Concanavalin-A (Con-A) within this fraction of recombinant FSH. Using both the fractionated FSH and Con-A, the observed cell death was predominantly located to the granulosa cells. Ex vivo culture of rat follicles demonstrated that follicle degeneration occurred and resulted in the release of a denuded and deteriorated oocyte. Moreover, in vivo experiments confirmed an increase in atresia and a corresponding reduction confined to follicle in early antral stage. As a mechanism of action, Con-A reduces ovarian proliferation, Von Willebrand staining, and angiogenesis. Based on the observation that Con-A may induce granulosa cell death followed by follicle death, our results further demonstrate that follicular carbohydrate moiety is changing under the influence of FSH, which may allow a carbohydrate-binding lectin to increase granulosa cell death. The physiological consequences of circulating lectin-like molecules remain to be determined. However, our results suggest a potential exploitation of carbohydrate binding in fertility and ovarian cancer treatment. This work may shed light on a key role of carbohydrates in the still obscure physiological process of follicular selection and atresia.

Velasquez EV; R甐s M; Ortiz ME; Lizama C; Nu鎑z E; Abramovich D; Orge F; Oliva B; Orellana R; Villalon M; Moreno RD; Tesone M; Rokka A; Corthals G; Croxatto HB; Parborell F; Owen GI

2013-05-01

99

Concanavalin-A induces granulosa cell death and inhibits FSH-mediated follicular growth and ovarian maturation in female rats.  

Science.gov (United States)

Reproductive success stems from a finely regulated balance between follicular maturation and atresia, in which the role of carbohydrate structure is poorly understood. Here, we describe for the first time a fraction of purified recombinant human FSH that is capable of bringing about the cell death of granulosa cells and preventing follicular maturation in a rat model. Further analysis by mass spectrometry revealed the presence of the lectin Concanavalin-A (Con-A) within this fraction of recombinant FSH. Using both the fractionated FSH and Con-A, the observed cell death was predominantly located to the granulosa cells. Ex vivo culture of rat follicles demonstrated that follicle degeneration occurred and resulted in the release of a denuded and deteriorated oocyte. Moreover, in vivo experiments confirmed an increase in atresia and a corresponding reduction confined to follicle in early antral stage. As a mechanism of action, Con-A reduces ovarian proliferation, Von Willebrand staining, and angiogenesis. Based on the observation that Con-A may induce granulosa cell death followed by follicle death, our results further demonstrate that follicular carbohydrate moiety is changing under the influence of FSH, which may allow a carbohydrate-binding lectin to increase granulosa cell death. The physiological consequences of circulating lectin-like molecules remain to be determined. However, our results suggest a potential exploitation of carbohydrate binding in fertility and ovarian cancer treatment. This work may shed light on a key role of carbohydrates in the still obscure physiological process of follicular selection and atresia. PMID:23515285

Velasquez, Ethel V; R甐s, Mariana; Ortiz, Mar燰 Elena; Lizama, Carlos; Nu鎑z, Elizabeth; Abramovich, Dalhia; Orge, Felipe; Oliva, Barbara; Orellana, Ren嫕; Villalon, Manuel; Moreno, Ricardo D; Tesone, Marta; Rokka, Anne; Corthals, Garry; Croxatto, Horacio B; Parborell, Fernanda; Owen, Gareth I

2013-03-20

100

Central memory CD4 T cells are associated with incomplete restoration of the CD4 T cell pool after treatment-induced long-term undetectable HIV viraemia.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

OBJECTIVES: It is unclear to what extent T cell reconstitution may be possible in HIV-1-infected individuals on continuous successful highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART). Herein, we analysed distinct phenotypic markers of immune recovery in patients with undetectable viraemia for 8 years, taking as reference untreated patients and healthy controls. METHODS: Seventy-two subjects were examined: 28 HIV-1+ patients on successful long-term HAART, 24 HIV-1+ untreated viraemic patients and 20 age-matched healthy controls. Analysis of naive and memory CD4 and CD8 T cells was combined with measurements of activation status (expression of CD38) and with thymic function (expression of CD31). Statistical significance was determined by non-parametric tests. RESULTS: After long-term HAART, the majority of parameters were normalized compared with age-matched control values, including T cell activation and thymic function. However, absolute counts of naive and central memory CD4 T cells remained below normal levels. The only parameters significantly associated with CD4 counts at the end of follow-up were the pre-HAART CD4 count (????SD?=?0.54??0.16, P?=?0.003) and the level of CD4 central memory cells at the end of follow-up (???SD?=?1.18??0.23, P?350 cells/mm(3) reached a complete normalization of CD4 counts. CONCLUSIONS: Even after long-term successful HAART, complete CD4 restoration may be attainable only in patients starting therapy with moderately high CD4 counts, prompting early initiation of antiretroviral therapy. Incomplete CD4 restoration may be associated with a defective restoration of central memory CD4 T cells, a cell subset with a pivotal role in T cell homeostasis.

Rall鏮 N; Sempere-Ortells JM; Soriano V; Benito JM

2013-07-01

 
 
 
 
101

Performance of Early Maturing Strains of Cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.) Developed Through Induced Mutation and Hybridization  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Two early maturing mutant strains viz. AENB-10/87 AENS-18/87, and a hybrid strain AEH-2/90 along with two commercial varieties; NIAB-78 and Rehmani were evaluated in zonal varietal trials. Genotype AENB-10/87 produced the highest seed cotton (2270 kg ha -1) yield over all environments followed by AENB-18/87 (2193 kg ha -1) and had the high regression coefficient (b=1.106 and 1.108, respectively) and deviation from regression (S2d) value (1551.305 and 2759.45, respectively) showed specific adaptation to poor environments. NIAB-78 with comparatively better yield had b value close to unity and lowest (S2d) value indicating wide adaptability over the environments. The data indicated that AENB-10/87 followed by AENS-18/87 produced significantly higher seed cotton yield than AEH-2/90 and Rehmani at 3 out of four sites and ranked 1st and 2nd, respectively when averaged over all sites. AENB-10/87 also produced significantly higher number of bolls/plant, seed cotton yield/plant and ginning outturn percentage (GOT%) than the commercial varieties, whereas, it was at par with NIAB-78 in case of boll weight and staple length.

Muhammad Mureed Kandhro; Sawan Laghari; Mahboob Ali Sial; Ghulam Shah Nizamani

2002-01-01

102

AFLP analysis of early maturing rice mutants induced by ion bean mediated  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en]AFLP marker technique was used to study the two stable heritable early maturing mutant lines C (08-5-121-6-1) and D (08-5-121-6-2) which were developed by N+ ion beam mediated maize total DNA into rice Yujing 6.10 pairs of selective primers with high polymorphic bands were selected from 64 pairs of AFLP primers. The results showed that the similarity ratio of amplified bands in mutant lines (C and D) and negative control B (Yujing 6) with the positive control A(maize Zhengdan 14) were 15.7%, 16.2% and 11.6%, respectively, which indicated that the amplified bands between mutant lines and control Yujing 6 had significant differences. Compared with negative control, 50 and 58 AFLP polymorphic bands were amplified in each mutant line, with 25 and 35 new bands, 19 and 15 absent bands in each mutant line respectively. Besides, there were 6 and 8 target bands that also presented in maize were detected in two mutant lines C and D, which revealed that the similarity of genome DNA in mutant lines compared with maize were higher than that of negative control rice. (authors)

2010-01-01

103

Whatever their differentiation status, human progenitor derived - or mature - endothelial cells induce osteoblastic differentiation of bone marrow stromal cells.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Association of the bone-forming osteoblasts (OBs) and vascular endothelial cells (ECs) into a biomaterial composite provides a live bone graft substitute that can repair the bone defect when implanted. An intimate functional relationship exists between these cell types. This communication is crucial to the coordinated cell behaviour necessary for bone development and remodelling. Previous studies have shown that direct co-culture of primary human osteoprogenitors (HOPs) with primary human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) stimulates HOPs differentiation and induces tubular-like networks. The present work aims to test the use of human bone marrow stromal cells (HBMSCs) co-cultured with human endothelial progenitor cells in order to assess whether progenitor-derived ECs (PDECs) could support osteoblastic differentiation as mature ECs do. Indeed, data generated from the literature by different laboratories considering these co-culture systems appear difficult to compare. Monocultures of HUVECs, HOPs, HBMSCs (in a non-orientated lineage), PDECs (from cord blood) were used as controls and four combinations of co-cultures were undertaken: HBMSCs-PDECs, HBMSCs-HUVECs, HOPs-PDECs, HOPs-HUVECs with ECs (mature or progenitor) for 6 h to 7 days. At the end of the chosen co-culture time, intracellular alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity was detected in HOPs and HBMSCs and quantified in cell extracts. Quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) of ALP was performed over time and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) was measured. After 21 days, calcium deposition was observed, comparing mono- and co-cultures. We confirm that ECs induce osteoblastic differentiation of mesenchymal stem cells in vitro. Moreover, HUVECs can be replaced by PDECs, the latter being of great interest in tissue engineering.

Th嶵aud NB; Siadous R; Bareille R; Remy M; Daculsi R; Am嶮嶪 J; Bordenave L

2012-11-01

104

Whatever their differentiation status, human progenitor derived - or mature - endothelial cells induce osteoblastic differentiation of bone marrow stromal cells.  

Science.gov (United States)

Association of the bone-forming osteoblasts (OBs) and vascular endothelial cells (ECs) into a biomaterial composite provides a live bone graft substitute that can repair the bone defect when implanted. An intimate functional relationship exists between these cell types. This communication is crucial to the coordinated cell behaviour necessary for bone development and remodelling. Previous studies have shown that direct co-culture of primary human osteoprogenitors (HOPs) with primary human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) stimulates HOPs differentiation and induces tubular-like networks. The present work aims to test the use of human bone marrow stromal cells (HBMSCs) co-cultured with human endothelial progenitor cells in order to assess whether progenitor-derived ECs (PDECs) could support osteoblastic differentiation as mature ECs do. Indeed, data generated from the literature by different laboratories considering these co-culture systems appear difficult to compare. Monocultures of HUVECs, HOPs, HBMSCs (in a non-orientated lineage), PDECs (from cord blood) were used as controls and four combinations of co-cultures were undertaken: HBMSCs-PDECs, HBMSCs-HUVECs, HOPs-PDECs, HOPs-HUVECs with ECs (mature or progenitor) for 6 h to 7 days. At the end of the chosen co-culture time, intracellular alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity was detected in HOPs and HBMSCs and quantified in cell extracts. Quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) of ALP was performed over time and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) was measured. After 21 days, calcium deposition was observed, comparing mono- and co-cultures. We confirm that ECs induce osteoblastic differentiation of mesenchymal stem cells in vitro. Moreover, HUVECs can be replaced by PDECs, the latter being of great interest in tissue engineering. PMID:22740324

Th嶵aud, N B; Siadous, R; Bareille, R; Remy, M; Daculsi, R; Am嶮嶪, J; Bordenave, L

2012-06-28

105

Acute steroid-induced myopathy during lung Maturation in a patient with threatened preterm Delivery  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Myopathy caused by steroids is a serious and unusual side effect related with administration of high doses of steroids. In this article we had reported a possible deleterious and serious effect on the mother health when steroids are used in the treatment of preterm childbirth. The case of a pregnant patient of 28 gestational week that consults to the emergency department with signs of preterm birth, receives tocolysis and lung maturation with Betametasona (12 mg the first day and 12 mg at 24 hours after first dose); thereafter, patient refer dizziness and blurry vision, which progress rapidly to pain in lower limbs, with weakness, being generalized then to four limbs, for acute weakness and imminence of respiratory failure the patient was transferred to the intensive care unit (ICU) for respiratory vigilance, possible ventilatory support and study of this weakness. Myopathy caused by steroids is generally related with high doses of steroids. These patients, present a clinical typical picture characterized by widespread weakness of four extremities, muscular atrophy, normal CK or moderately high and myopathic changes in the EMG, the clinical presentation improves slowly. This report invite us to questioning the apparent innocuousness of steroids in pulmonary maturity and the dose of the same one, as well as to using them well in agreement to the indication of the same one keeping in mind the risk - benefit of the medicine.RESUMENLa miopat燰 causada por esteroides es un efecto secundario grave muy poco frecuente asociado a la administraci鏮 de dosis altas de esteroides. Se reportan los posibles efectos delet廨eos sobre la salud materna que puede tener la administraci鏮 de corticosteroides frente al riesgo de un parto pret廨mino. Se presenta el caso de una paciente gestante de 28 semanas que consulta al servicio de urgencia por infecci鏮 de v燰s urinarias y amenaza de parto pret廨mino, que recibe uteroinhibicion y maduraci鏮 pulmonar con Betametasona (12 mg primer d燰 y 12 mg a las 24 horas de primera dosis); luego de segunda dosis de maduraci鏮 pulmonar la paciente refiere v廨tigo y visi鏮 borrosa, la cual progres r嫚idamente a dolor, con p廨dida de fuerza muscular en miembros inferiores, generaliz嫕dose luego a las cuatro extremidades, por lo que ante la inminencia de falla respiratoria se traslada a unidad de cuidados intermedios para vigilancia ventilatoria y estudio de miopat燰.Discusi鏮: La miopat燰 por esteroides, se produce con dosis altas de corticoides. Estos pacientes, presentan un cuadro cl璯ico t甑ico caracterizado por debilidad generalizada de las cuatro extremidades, atrofia muscular, CK normal o moderadamente elevada y cambios miop嫢icos en el EMG, el cuadro cl璯ico mejora aunque de forma lenta. Conclusiones: Este reporte nos invita a cuestionar la aparente inocuidad de los esteroides en maduraci鏮 pulmonar y la dosis de la misma, as como a utilizarlos bien de acuerdo a la indicaci鏮 del mismo teniendo en cuenta el riesgo beneficio del medicamento.

Rojas-Suarez Jos Antonio; Arrieta-L鏕ez Elizabeth; Miranda-Quintero Jesid E; Fern嫕dez-Mercado Juan Carlos; De la Ossa-Mercado Olga

2010-01-01

106

Whey Protein Processing Influences Formula-Induced Gut Maturation in Preterm Pigs.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Immaturity of the gut predisposes preterm infants to nutritional challenges potentially leading to clinical complications such as necrotizing enterocolitis. Feeding milk formulas is associated with greater risk than fresh colostrum or milk, probably due to loss of bioactive proteins (e.g., immunoglobulins, lactoferrin, insulin-like growth factor, transforming growth factor-?) during industrial processing (e.g., pasteurization, filtration, spray-drying). We hypothesized that the processing method for whey protein concentrate (WPC) would affect gut maturation in formula-fed preterm pigs used as a model for preterm infants. Fifty-five caesarean-delivered preterm pigs were distributed into 4 groups given 1 of 4 isoenergetic diets: formula containing conventional WPC (filtration, multi-pasteurization, standard spray-drying) (CF); formula containing gently treated WPC (reduced filtration and pasteurization, gentle spray-drying) (GF); formula containing minimally treated WPC (rennet precipitation, reduced filtration, heat treatment <40蚓, freeze-drying) (MF); and bovine colostrum (used as a positive reference group) (BC). Relative to CF, GF, and MF pigs, BC pigs had greater villus heights, lactose digestion, and absorption and lower gut permeability (P < 0.05). MF and BC pigs had greater plasma citrulline concentrations than CF and GF pigs and intestinal IL-8 was lower in BC pigs than in the other groups (P < 0.05). MF pigs had lower concentrations of intestinal claudin-4, cleaved caspase-3, and phosphorylated c-Jun than CF pigs (P < 0.05). The conventional and gently treated WPCs had similar efficacy in stimulating proliferation of porcine intestinal epithelial cells. We conclude that processing of WPC affects intestinal structure, function, and integrity when included in formulas for preterm pigs. Optimization of WPC processing technology may be important to preserve the bioactivity and nutritional value of formulas for sensitive newborns.

Li Y; Ostergaard MV; Jiang P; Chatterton DE; Thymann T; Kvistgaard AS; Sangild PT

2013-09-01

107

A helminth glycan induces APC maturation via alternative NF-kappa B activation independent of I kappa B alpha degradation.  

Science.gov (United States)

Activation of APCs via TLRs leads to activation of NF-kappaB, a key transcription factor in cells of the immune system most often associated with induction of Th1-type and proinflammatory responses. The neoglycoconjugate lacto-N-fucopentaose III (12-25 molecules)-dextran (LNFPIII-Dex) activates dendritic cells (DCs) via TLR4, as does LPS. However, unlike LPS, LNFPIII-Dex-activated cells induce Th2-type CD4+ T cell responses. This observation led us to ask whether LNFPIII-activated APCs were differentially activating NF-kappaB, and if so, could this partly account for how DCs mature in response to these two different pathogen-associated molecular patterns (PAMPs). In this study, we show that LNFPIII-Dex stimulation of APCs induces rapid, but transient NF-kappaB translocation and activity in the nucleus, in comparison with the persistent activation induced by LPS. We then demonstrate that transient vs persistent NF-kappaB activation has important implications in the development of the APC phenotype, showing that the second wave of NF-kappaB translocation in response to LPS is required for production of the proinflammatory mediator NO. In contrast to LPS, LNFPIII-stimulated APCs that only transiently activate NF-kappaB do not induce degradation of the known IkappaB family members or production of NO. However, cells stimulated with LNFPIII rapidly accumulate p50, suggesting that an alternative p105 degradation-dependent mechanism is primarily responsible for NF-kappaB activation downstream of LNFPIII. Finally, we show that while NF-kappaB translocation in LNFPIII-stimulated APCs is transient, it is required for the development of the DC 2 phenotype, confirming a crucial and multifaceted role for NF-kappaB in innate immune responses. PMID:16081774

Thomas, Paul G; Carter, Michele R; Da'dara, Akram A; DeSimone, Tiffany M; Harn, Donald A

2005-08-15

108

Inhaled nitric oxide alleviates hyperoxia suppressed phosphatidylcholine synthesis in endotoxin-induced injury in mature rat lungs  

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Full Text Available Abstract Background We investigated efficacy of inhaled nitric oxide (NO) in modulation of metabolism of phosphatidylcholine (PC) of pulmonary surfactant and in anti-inflammatory mechanism of mature lungs with inflammatory injury. Methods Healthy adult rats were divided into a group of lung inflammation induced by i.v. lipopolysaccharides (LPS) or a normal control (C) for 24 h, and then exposed to: room air (Air), 95% oxygen (O), NO (20 parts per million, NO), both O and NO (ONO) as subgroups, whereas [3H]-choline was injected i.v. for incorporation into PC of the lungs which were processed subsequently at 10 min, 4, 8, 12 and 24 h, respectively, for measurement of PC synthesis and proinflammatory cytokine production. Results LPS-NO subgroup had the lowest level of labeled PC in total phospholipids and disaturated PC in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid and lung tissue (decreased by 4659%), along with the lowest activity of cytidine triphosphate: phosphocholine cytidylyltransferase (-1418%) in the lungs, compared to all other subgroups at 4 h (p Conclusion In LPS-induced lung inflammation in association with hyperoxia, depressed PC synthesis and enhanced proinflammatory cytokine production may be alleviated by iNO. NO alone only transiently suppressed the PC synthesis as a result of lower activity of cytidylyltransferase.

Gong Xiaohui; Guo Chunbao; Huang Shibing; Sun Bo

2006-01-01

109

The inducible effect of LBP on maturation of dendritic cells and the related immune signaling pathways in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC).  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Objective: To investigate the effect of LBP on differentiation and maturation of healthy human peripheral blood-derived dendritic cells cultured in different tumor microenvironment in vitro, and discuss the molecular and immunological mechanisms of LBP in treatment of tumor. Methods: In this study, we procured the peripheral blood-derived dendritic cells precursor cell by the Density gradient centrifugation method, and used the tumor-cell supernatant to prepare conditioned medium. The GM-CSF and IL-4 induced DCs precursor cell differentiation to DCs, the TNF-? promoted the immature DCs developed to mature DCs. In this way, we detected the influence of LBP on the expressions of surface molecules of DCs cultured in different environments, and especially on the role of related-immunity and NF-?B activity. Results: In LBP-treated group, the molecular phenotype of DCs, its capacity to stimulate allogeneic lymphocyte proliferation, and the levels of IL-12p70 and IFN-? secretion were higher than the untreated group (p < 0.05), with statistical significance. Meanwhile the expression of NF-?B of the DCs in the medium treated by the LBP was higher than the untreated group (p < 0.05), also with statistical significance. Between the two different tumor microenvironment groups, the cell nucleus protein NF-?B expression is obviously different, the hepG2.2.15 group higher than the hepG2 group. Conclusion: LBP could increase the expression of the phenotype of DCs, the secretion of IL-12p70 and IFN-? in MLR, and enhance the NF-?B expression, especially in the virus-related group, suggesting LBP plays the anti-tumor role stronger in the virus-related environment and this phenomenon correlates with the NF-?B signaling pathway.

Chen JR; Li EQ; Dai CQ; Yu B; Wu XL; Huang CR; Chen XY

2012-07-01

110

The inducible effect of LBP on maturation of dendritic cells and the related immune signaling pathways in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC).  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Objective: To investigate the effect of LBP on differentiation and maturation of healthy human peripheral blood-derived dendritic cells cultured in different tumor microenvironment in vitro, and discuss the molecular and immunological mechanisms of LBP in treatment of tumor. Methods: In this study, we procured the peripheral blood-derived dendritic cells precursor cell by the Density gradient centrifugation method, and used the tumor-cell supernatant to prepare conditioned medium. The GM-CSF and IL-4 induced DCs precursor cell differentiation to DCs, the TNF-? promoted the immature DCs developed to mature DCs. In this way, we detected the influence of LBP on the expressions of surface molecules of DCs cultured in different environments, and especially on the role of related-immunity and NF-?B activity. Results: In LBP-treated group, the molecular phenotype of DCs, its capacity to stimulate allogeneic lymphocyte proliferation, and the levels of IL-12p70 and IFN-? secretion were higher than the untreated group (p <0.05), with statistical significance. Meanwhile the expression of NF-?B of the DCs in the medium treated by the LBP was higher than the untreated group (p <0.05), also with statistical significance. Between the two different tumor microenvironment groups, the cell nucleus protein NF-?B expression is obviously different, the hepG2.2.15 group higher than the hepG2 group. Conclusion: LBP could increase the expression of the phenotype of DCs, the secretion of IL-12p70 and IFN-? in MLR, and enhance the NF-?B expression, especially in the virus-related group, suggesting LBP plays the anti-tumor role stronger in the virus-related environment and this phenomenon correlates with the NF-?B signaling pathway.

Chen JR; Li EQ; Dai CQ; Yu B; Wu XL; Huang CR; Chen XY

2012-04-01

111

Mouse Oocytes Enable LH-Induced Maturation of the Cumulus-Oocyte Complex via Promoting EGF Receptor-Dependent Signaling  

Science.gov (United States)

LH triggers the maturation of the cumulus-oocyte complex (COC), which is followed by ovulation. These ovarian follicular responses to LH are mediated by epidermal growth factor (EGF)-like growth factors produced by granulosa cells and require the participation of oocyte-derived paracrine factors. However, it is not clear how oocytes coordinate with the EGF receptor (EGFR) signaling to achieve COC maturation. The aim of the present study was to test the hypothesis that oocytes promote the expression of EGFR by cumulus cells, thus enabling them to respond to the LH-induced EGF-like peptides. Egfr mRNA and protein expression were dramatically reduced in cumulus cells of mutant mice deficient in the production of the oocyte-derived paracrine factors growth differentiation factor 9 (GDF9) and bone morphogenetic protein 15 (BMP15). Moreover, microsurgical removal of oocytes from wild-type COCs dramatically reduced expression of Egfr mRNA and protein, and these levels were restored by either coculture with oocytes or treatment with recombinant GDF9 or GDF9 plus recombinant BMP15. Blocking Sma- and Mad-related protein (SMAD)2/3 phosphorylation in vitro inhibited Egfr expression in wild-type COCs and in GDF9-treated wild-type cumulus cells, and conditional deletion of Smad2 and Smad3 genes in granulosa cells in vivo resulted in the reduction of Egfr mRNA in cumulus cells. These results indicate that oocytes promote expression of Egfr in cumulus cells, and a SMAD2/3-dependent pathway is involved in this process. At least two oocyte-derived growth factors, GDF9 and BMP15, are required for EGFR expression by cumulus cells.

Su, You-Qiang; Sugiura, Koji; Li, Qinglei; Wigglesworth, Karen; Matzuk, Martin M.; Eppig, John J.

2010-01-01

112

Oxysterols induce transition of monocytic cells to phenotypically mature dendritic cell-like cells.  

Science.gov (United States)

Dendritic cells (DCs) activate adaptive immune responses in atherosclerotic plaques; however, the origin of DCs is in question. We attempted to determine whether cholesterol or its oxide forms, which are detected in abundance in atheromatous lesions, could induce differentiation or transition of monocytic cells to DCs. Treatment of THP-1 cells with 27-hydroxycholesterol (27OH-Chol) and 7?-hydroxycholesterol (7?OH-Chol) resulted in an increase in the numbers of adherent cells, and, in contrast to PMA, decreased uptake of FITC-conjugated dextran. In addition, treatment with 27OH-Chol and 7?OH-Chol induced expression of mDC-specific molecules, including CD40, CD80, CD83, and CD88. Of the two oxysterols, 27OH-Chol enhanced expression of MHC class I and II molecules as well as CCR7. However, treatment with an identical concentration of cholesterol and 7-ketocholesterol did not influence adherence, uptake of FITC-conjugated dextran, and expression of the aforementioned molecules. This is the first study to report on change of monocytic cells by oxysterols to phenotypically atypical cells with some characteristics of mDCs detected in atherosclerotic lesions. We propose that a certain type of oxysterol would contribute to immune responses in atherosclerotic lesions by enhancing expression of multiple CD molecules as well as MHC molecules by monocytic cells. PMID:23876312

Son, Yonghae; Kim, Sun-Mi; Lee, Sae-A; Eo, Seong-Kug; Kim, Koanhoi

2013-07-20

113

Microfilament-mediated surface change in starfish oocytes in response to 1-methyladenine: implications for identifying the pathway and receptor sites for maturation-inducing hormones  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Oocytes of the starfish Pisaster ochraceus exhibit an early response to 1-methyladenine (the maturation-inducing hormone), which is described for the first time. In this response approximately 6,500 spikelike surface projections, much larger than microvilli, emerge transiently from oocytes stripped ...

114

Uncertainty, incompleteness, chance, and design  

CERN Multimedia

The 20th century has revealed two important limitations of scientific knowledge. On the one hand, the combination of Poincar\\'e's nonlinear dynamics and Heisenberg's uncertainty principle leads to a world picture where physical reality is, in many respects, intrinsically undetermined. On the other hand, G\\"odel's incompleteness theorems reveal us the existence of mathematical truths that cannot be demonstrated. More recently, Chaitin has proved that, from the incompleteness theorems, it follows that the random character of a given mathematical sequence cannot be proved in general (it is 'undecidable'). I reflect here on the consequences derived from the indeterminacy of the future and the undecidability of randomness, concluding that the question of the presence or absence of finality in nature is fundamentally outside the scope of the scientific method.

Sols, Fernando

2013-01-01

115

Overcoming incomplete information in NLP  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

A new methodology for overcoming incomplete informationavailable for current natural language parsers will be presented in thispaper. Although our aim is more ambitious, in this paper, we will focuson incomplete descriptions of the subcategorization classes of verbs andwill sketch a proposal for overcoming the same problem for other syntacticcategories. We assume a hierarchical multi-agent system architecturewhere each bottom-layer agent has a specialised knowledge #perspective# about the problems a given feature #e.g. verb subcategorization# ofa syntactic category mayhave. Each agent has a declarative descriptionof those problems and can #nd better solutions for the parsing problemonce it has got an explanation for it. We are assuming logic based diagnosisagents. Each theoretically plausible hypothesis found must thenbe statistically validated. The pruning obtained and the ordering of validatedhypothesis leads then to a learning problem that must be solvedin order to enable a natural evolution of parsers #and their lexicons#.

J. G. Pereira Lopes

116

The Incomplete Factorization Multigraph Algorithm  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

We present a new family of multigraph algorithms, ILU-MG, based upon an incompletesparse matrix factorization using a particular ordering and allowing a limited amount offill-in. While much of the motivation for multigraph comes from multigrid ideas, ILU-MG is distinctlydifferent from algebraic multilevel methods. The graph of the sparse matrix A is recursivelycoarsened by eliminating vertices using a graph model similar to Gaussian elimination. Incompletefactorizations are obtained by allowing only the fill-in generated by the vertex parents associatedwith each vertex. Multigraph is numerically compared with algebraic multigrid on some examplesarising from discretizations of partial differential equations on unstructured grids.Key words. hierarchical basis, algebraic multigrid, incomplete LU factorization.AMS subject classifications. 65M55, 65N551. Introduction. In this paper, we present a new family of multigraph algorithms,ILU-MG, based upon an incomplete sparse matri...

Randolph E. Bank; R. Kent Smith

117

Analysis of visible mutations induced by X-rays and ethylmethanesulfonate in mature spermatozoa of rosophila melanogaster  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The spectrum of recessive visible mutations in the chromosome 2 induced by X-rays and ethylmethanesulphonate (EMS) in mature spermatazoa Drosophila melanogaster has been studied. It has been found that under the effect of both mutants in the line mei-9sup(LI) all 5 analyzed genes mutate, in the line D-32 - only 4. In case of comparison of mutation frequencies of the same gene in two different lines as a result of ethylmethanesulfonate treatment it has been found that mei-9sup(LI) mutation frequency of j, pr, cn genes for certain differs from that in the line D-32, for b, vg genes no reliable differences have been found. In the course of X-ray treatment the above differences have been revealed only for gene b. In the line D-32 mutation frequency of b, vg genes differs from control (in the course of EMS treatment) and j, pr, vg genes (under X-ray effect); in the line mei-9sup(LI)-mutation frequency of all 5 genes (under X-ray effect) and 4 out of 5 genes (in case of EMS treatment).

1985-01-01

118

Insulin-like growth factor-1 receptor in mature osteoblasts is required for periosteal bone formation induced by reloading.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Skeletal loading and unloading has a pronounced impact on bone remodeling, a process also regulated by insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-1) signaling. Skeletal unloading leads to resistance to the anabolic effect of IGF-1, while reloading after unloading restores responsiveness to IGF-1. However, a direct study of the importance of IGF-1 signaling in the skeletal response to mechanical loading remains to be tested. In this study, we assessed the skeletal response of osteoblast-specific Igf-1 receptor deficient (Igf-1r(-/-) ) mice to unloading and reloading. The mice were hindlimb unloaded for 14 days and then reloaded for 16 days. Igf-1r(-/-) mice displayed smaller cortical bone and diminished periosteal and endosteal bone formation at baseline. Periosteal and endosteal bone formation decreased with unloading in Igf-1r(+/+) mice. However, the recovery of periosteal bone formation with reloading was completely inhibited in Igf-1r(-/-) mice, although reloading-induced endosteal bone formation was not hampered. These changes in bone formation resulted in the abolishment of the expected increase in total cross-sectional area with reloading in Igf-1r(-/-) mice compared to the control mice. These results suggest that the Igf-1r in mature osteoblasts has a critical role in periosteal bone formation in the skeletal response to mechanical loading.

Kubota T; Elalieh HZ; Saless N; Fong C; Wang Y; Babey M; Cheng Z; Bikle DD

2013-11-01

119

Nongenomic steroid- and ceramide-induced maturation in amphibian oocytes involves functional caveolae-like microdomains associated with a cytoskeletal environment.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Stimulation of full-grown amphibian oocytes with progesterone initiates a nontranscriptional signaling pathway that converges in the activation of Cdc2/cyclin B and reentry into meiosis. We observed that cholesterol depletion mediated by methyl-beta-cyclodextrin (MbetaCD) inhibited meiotic maturation, suggesting involvement of membrane rafts. In the present study, we further characterized caveolae-like membranes from Rhinella arenarum oocytes biochemically and functionally. The identification by mass spectrometry of a nonmuscle myosin heavy-chain associated with caveolar membranes showed evidence of direct involvement of the underlying cytoskeletal environment in the structure of oocyte rafts. Biophysical analysis using the fluorescent probe Laurdan revealed that MbetaCD-mediated cholesterol depletion affected membrane lipid order. In line with this finding, cholesterol removal also affected the localization of the raft marker lipid GM1. Results demonstrated that ceramide is an effective inducer of maturation that alters the distribution of the raft markers caveolin-1, SRC, and GM1, while progesterone seems not to affect membrane microdomain integrity. Cholesterol depletion had a greater effect on ceramide-induced maturation, thus suggesting that ceramide is an inducer more vulnerable to changes in the plasma membrane. MbetaCD treatment delayed tyrosine phosphorylation and MAPK activation in progesterone-induced maturation. Functional studies regarding tyrosine phosphorylation raise the possibility that the hormone receptor is located in the nonraft membrane in the absence of ligand and that it translocates to the caveola when it binds to progesterone. The presence of raft markers and the finding of signaling molecules from MAPK cascade functionally associated to oocyte light membranes suggest that this caveolae-rich fraction efficiently recreates, in part, maturation signaling.

Buschiazzo J; Alonso TS; Biscoglio M; Antollini SS; Bonini IC

2011-10-01

120

Maturation of human dendritic cells by monocyte-conditioned medium is dependent upon trace amounts of lipopolysaccharide inducing tumour necrosis factor alpha  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

We investigated the ability of monocyte-conditioned medium (MCM), generated by monocytes cultured on plastic-immobilised immunoglobulin, to stimulate maturation of human monocyte-derived dendritic cells (DC). Earlier reports suggest that MCM is a strong inducer of irreversible DC maturation, whereas we find, that adding a small amount of lipopolysaccharide (LPS) to the MCM-generating cultures is required for the production of a DC-stimulatory MCM. Moreover, compared with addition of LPS directly to the DC cultures, stimulation via MCM cultures increases by several fold the DC-stimulatory potency of LPS. Maturation by this procedure is mediated mainly by tumour necrosis factor alpha secreted from monocytes during the medium-conditioning period.

Nersting, Jacob; Svenson, Morten

2003-01-01

 
 
 
 
121

Activation of both protein kinase A (PKA) type I and PKA type II isozymes is required for retinoid-induced maturation of acute promyelocytic leukemia cells.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Acute promyelocytic leukemia (APL) is characterized by granulopoietic differentiation arrest at the promyelocytic stage. In most cases, this defect can be overcome by treatment with all-trans-retinoic acid (ATRA), leading to complete clinical remission. Cyclic AMP signaling has a key role in retinoid treatment efficacy: it enhances ATRA-induced maturation in ATRA-sensitive APL cells (including NB4 cells) and restores it in some ATRA-resistant cells (including NB4-LR1 cells). We show that the two cell types express identical levels of the C? catalytic subunit and comparable global cAMP-dependent protein kinase A (PKA) enzyme activity. However, the maturation-resistant NB4-LR1 cells have a PKA isozyme switch: compared with the NB4 cells, they have decreased content of the juxtanuclearly located PKA regulatory subunit II? and PKA regulatory subunit II?, and a compensatory increase of the generally cytoplasmically distributed PKA-RI?. Furthermore, the PKA regulatory subunit II exists mainly in the less cAMP-responsive nonautophosphorylated state in the NB4-LR1 cells. By the use of isozyme-specific cAMP analog pairs, we show that both PKA-I and PKA-II must be activated to achieve maturation in NB4-LR1 as well as NB4 cells. Therefore, special attention should be paid to activating not only PKA-I but also PKA-II in attempts to enhance ATRA-induced APL maturation in a clinical setting.

Nguyen E; Gausdal G; Varennes J; Pendino F; Lanotte M; D鷭keland SO; S嶲al-Bendirdjian E

2013-05-01

122

[Calcium oscillations induced by lindane in peritoneal macrophages of mice: control by the maturation stage of the macrophage].  

Science.gov (United States)

Mouse resident peritoneal macrophages loaded with Fluo-3 were examined for changes in cytosolic calcium concentration ([Ca2+]i) after stimulation with gamma-hexachlorocyclohexane (Lindane or gamma-HCCH). These studies, realized on macrophage populations, or single cells, by digital imaging microscopy, sought to determine the role of calcium influx on cyclical changes according to maturation stages of macrophages. Single cell analysis of [Ca2+]i changes in macrophages, after gamma-HCCH exposure in 600 microM extracellular calcium, demonstrated that: 1) these [Ca2+]i variations were asynchronous oscillations with the same frequency (1.7 min-1), and 2) these [Ca2+]i variations in macrophages were not at the same [Ca2+]i level. This heterogeneity could be correlated to a cell size partition of the macrophage population (10.1 +/- 0.44 and 11.45 +/- 0.43 microns). In the presence of 100 microM calcium, gamma-HCCH induced a calcium influx into the two subpopulations, but the calcium oscillations appeared only in small macrophages. In the largest ones, [Ca2+]i slowly decreased back down to the basal level. The cell size variation could be correlated to a phenotypic heterogeneity, linked to the differenciation stage of the cell. Peroxydase activity showed that small macrophages were in fact exudate macrophages and the largest ones were resident macrophages. Inhibition of the oscillatory patterns by a decrease in the extracellular calcium concentration ([Ca2+]ext) or by lanthanum chloride (LaCl3) addition is indicative of the important role of calcium influx in the triggering of oscillations. The calcium influx was transient and induced inositol phosphate (InsP3) production in macrophages. The maintainance of these calcium oscillations depended on calcium mobilization from intracellular calcium stores by InsP3, since neomycin and 8-(diethylamino) octyl 3,4,5-trimethoxybenzoate (TMB-8) abolished the oscillations. gamma-HCCH induced a transient calcium entry which triggered phospholipase C activation and the associated [Ca2+]i oscillations. However, we showed that differences in cell responses were observed in relationship with the differentiation stage of the mouse peritoneal macrophages, and with the extracellular calcium concentration. PMID:11833466

Pinelli, E; Pipy, B; Teissi, J; Gabriel, B

2001-01-01

123

Comparative analysis of targeted differentiation of human induced pluripotent stem cells (hiPSCs) and human embryonic stem cells reveals variability associated with incomplete transgene silencing in retrovirally derived hiPSC lines.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Functional hepatocytes, cardiomyocytes, neurons, and retinal pigment epithelial (RPE) cells derived from human embryonic stem cells (hESCs) or human induced pluripotent stem cells (hiPSCs) could provide a defined and renewable source of human cells relevant for cell replacement therapies, drug discovery, toxicology testing, and disease modeling. In this study, we investigated the differences between the differentiation potentials of three hESC lines, four retrovirally derived hiPSC lines, and one hiPSC line derived with the nonintegrating Sendai virus technology. Four independent protocols were used for hepatocyte, cardiomyocyte, neuronal, and RPE cell differentiation. Overall, cells differentiated from hESCs and hiPSCs showed functional similarities and similar expression of genes characteristic of specific cell types, and differences between individual cell lines were also detected. Reactivation of transgenic OCT4 was detected specifically during RPE differentiation in the retrovirally derived lines, which may have affected the outcome of differentiation with these hiPSCs. One of the hiPSC lines was inferior in all directions, and it failed to produce hepatocytes. Exogenous KLF4 was incompletely silenced in this cell line. No transgene expression was detected in the Sendai virus-derived hiPSC line. These findings highlight the problems related to transgene expression in retrovirally derived hiPSC lines.

Toivonen S; Ojala M; Hyysalo A; Ilmarinen T; Rajala K; Pekkanen-Mattila M; 曩nismaa R; Lundin K; Palgi J; Weltner J; Trokovic R; Silvennoinen O; Skottman H; Narkilahti S; Aalto-Set鄟 K; Otonkoski T

2013-02-01

124

Uniform approximation by incomplete polynomials  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available For any 繡 with 0<繡<1, it is known that, for the set of all incomplete polynomials of type 繡, i.e, {p(x)=璽k=snakxk:s璽瞼繡璽n}, to have the Weierstrass property on [a繡,1], it is necessary that 繡2璽瞻a繡璽瞻1. In this paper, we show that the above inequalities are essentially sufficient as well.

E. B. Saff; R. S. Varga

1978-01-01

125

Reconstruction tomography from incomplete projections  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en]In some instances, reconstruction radionuclide tomography must be carried out from projections that do not include projection values for all portions of the object to be reconstructed. This may occur, for example, when the field of view of the detector is limited, or when an opaque foreign body is present within the object. The effects of such incomplete projections upon reconstructions of computer-simulated phantoms were studied, using iterative and convolution methods. Several methods for reducing the resulting artifacts and inaccuracies are discussed

1975-04-17

126

Incomplete Kochen-Specker coloring  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A particular incomplete Kochen-Specker coloring, suggested by Appleby [Stud. Hist. Philos. Mod. Phys. 36, 1 (2005)] in dimension three, is generalized to arbitrary dimension. We investigate its effectivity as a function of dimension, using two different measures. A limit is derived for the fraction of the sphere that can be colored using the generalized Appleby construction as the number of dimensions approaches infinity. The second, and physically more relevant measure of effectivity, is to look at the fraction of properly colored ON bases. Using this measure, we derive a ''lower bound for the upper bound'' in three and four real dimensions.

2007-01-01

127

Early vessel destabilization mediated by Angiopoietin-2 and subsequent vessel maturation via Angiopoietin-1 induce functional neovasculature after ischemia.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

BACKGROUND: We assessed whether Angiopoietin-2 (Ang2), a Tie2 ligand and partial antagonist of Angiopoietin-1 (Ang1), is required for early vessel destabilization during postischemic angiogenesis, when combined with vascular growth factors. METHODS: In vitro, matrigel co-cultures assessed endothelial-cell tube formation and pericyte recruitment after stimulation of VEGF-A, Apelin (APLN), Ang1 with or without Ang2. In a murine hindlimb ischemia model, adeno-associated virus (rAAV, 310(12) virusparticles) transduction of VEGF-A, APLN and Ang1 with or without Ang2 (continuous or early expression d0-3) was performed intramuscularly (d-14). Femoral artery ligation was performed at d0, followed by laser doppler perfusion meassurements (LDI) 7 and 14. At d7 (early timepoint) and d14 (late timepoint), histological analysis of capillary/muscle fiber ratio (CMF-R, PECAM-1) and pericyte/capillary ratio (PC-R, NG2) was performed. RESULTS: In vitro, VEGF-A, APLN and Ang1 induced ring formation, but only APLN and Ang1 recruited pericytes. Ang2 did not affect tube formation by APLN, but reduced pericyte recruitment after APLN or Ang1 overexpression. In vivo, rAAV.VEGF-A did not alter LDI-perfusion at d14, consistent with an impaired PC-R despite a rise in CMF-R. rAAV.APLN improved perfusion at d14, with or without continuous Ang2, increasing CMF-R and PC-R. rAAV.Ang1 improved perfusion at d14, when combined with rAAV.Ang2 (d0-3), accompanied by an increased CMF-R and PC-R. CONCLUSION: The combination of early vessel destabilization (Ang2 d0-3) and continuous Ang1 overexpression improves hindlimb perfusion, pointing to the importance of early vessel destabilization and subsequent vessel maturation for enhanced therapeutic neovascularization.

Qin D; Trenkwalder T; Lee S; Chillo O; Deindl E; Kupatt C; Hinkel R

2013-01-01

128

Time dependence of cisplatin-induced duplex dissociation of 15-mer RNAs and mature miR-146a.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The kinetics for the binding of cisplatin to duplex RNAs, two fully complementary model systems and mature miR-146a, exhibits a linear dependence on cisplatin concentration and results in duplex dissociation at 38 蚓.

Polonyi C; Elmroth SK

2013-09-01

129

Time dependence of cisplatin-induced duplex dissociation of 15-mer RNAs and mature miR-146a.  

Science.gov (United States)

The kinetics for the binding of cisplatin to duplex RNAs, two fully complementary model systems and mature miR-146a, exhibits a linear dependence on cisplatin concentration and results in duplex dissociation at 38 蚓. PMID:24030097

Polonyi, Christopher; Elmroth, Sofi K C

2013-09-13

130

Time dependence of cisplatin-induced duplex dissociation of 15-mer RNAs and mature miR-146a.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The kinetics for the binding of cisplatin to duplex RNAs, two fully complementary model systems and mature miR-146a, exhibits a linear dependence on cisplatin concentration and results in duplex dissociation at 38 蚓.

Polonyi C; Elmroth SK

2013-11-01

131

Lycium barbarum polysaccharides induce Toll?like receptor 2? and 4?mediated phenotypic and functional maturation of murine dendritic cells via activation of NF??B.  

Science.gov (United States)

Dendritic cells (DCs) are potent antigen?presenting cells that play pivotal roles in the initiation of primary immune responses. Lycium barbarum polysaccharides (LBPs) are known to have a variety of immunomodulatory functions. However, the cellular and molecular mechanisms underlying their therapeutic effects are poorly understood. In this study, we report that LBPs induce phenotypic and functional maturation of DCs. LBPs upregulated DC expression of I?A/I?E and CD11c, enhanced DC allostimulatory activity and induced IL?12p40 production. Furthermore, the activity of LBPs on DCs was significantly reduced by treating the cells with anti?TLR2 or anti?TLR4 antibody prior to LBPs, indicating that both are possible receptors of LBPs. Maturation of DCs by LBPs was able to directly activate the nuclear transcription factor NF??B p65. The results revealed that LBP stimulation induces the phenotypic and functional maturation of DCs via TLR2- and/or TLR4-mediated NF??B signaling pathways. PMID:23904044

Zhu, Jie; Zhang, Yuanyuan; Shen, Yueshuang; Zhou, Huanqin; Yu, Xiaomei

2013-07-31

132

Lycium barbarum polysaccharides induce Toll?like receptor 2? and 4?mediated phenotypic and functional maturation of murine dendritic cells via activation of NF??B.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Dendritic cells (DCs) are potent antigen?presenting cells that play pivotal roles in the initiation of primary immune responses. Lycium barbarum polysaccharides (LBPs) are known to have a variety of immunomodulatory functions. However, the cellular and molecular mechanisms underlying their therapeutic effects are poorly understood. In this study, we report that LBPs induce phenotypic and functional maturation of DCs. LBPs upregulated DC expression of I?A/I?E and CD11c, enhanced DC allostimulatory activity and induced IL?12p40 production. Furthermore, the activity of LBPs on DCs was significantly reduced by treating the cells with anti?TLR2 or anti?TLR4 antibody prior to LBPs, indicating that both are possible receptors of LBPs. Maturation of DCs by LBPs was able to directly activate the nuclear transcription factor NF??B p65. The results revealed that LBP stimulation induces the phenotypic and functional maturation of DCs via TLR2- and/or TLR4-mediated NF??B signaling pathways.

Zhu J; Zhang Y; Shen Y; Zhou H; Yu X

2013-10-01

133

[Incomplete Digeorge syndrome (author's transl)  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

A newborn with multiple malformations, recurrent infections and hypocalcemic tetany is presented. The malformations included: Facial asymmetry, micrognathia, epicantus, low set nose, peculiar ears, club-feet and heart disease. The immunologic work-up disclosed a cellular immunodeficiency, but normal humoral immunity, and a diagnosis of "incomplete DiGeorge syndrome" was made. No thymus, nor parathyroid glands were found at autopsy. The disagreement between the analytical data and the pathological findings of "complete DiGeorge syndrome" are discussed. The existence of vestigial ectopic thymus not found in the dissected organs is considered the most likely hypothesis. Finally some considerations are made about a possible role of the rubeola virus on its etiology and the actual therapeutic possibilities.

Alvarez Su嫫ez I; Pe鎙 Carri鏮 A; Ruiz Villaespesa A; Barrio Castellano R; Font嫕 G; Gracia R; Ojeda JA

1976-07-01

134

Mild incomplete cleft lip repair.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Of all the methods for repair of the unilateral cleft lip, none has gained as much popularity as the rotation advancement. Limitation of the technique leads to various modifications. It is well known that different cleft lip patients have different deformities. However, the modifications are always focused on nasal symmetry and alar base position. We found out that some microform incomplete cleft lip patients have distinctive appearance, of which the cleft located on the lower upper lip, nasal deformity is mild, and distinctive appearance presents a terrace before the peak on cleft side where it is always marked no. 9 according to rotation-advancement principle. We describe an individual technique to repair this kind of condition, which is different from Millard rotation-advancement principle. The design marking of the technique is around the cleft, and no additional incisions are located on the white lip and nasal base.

Chen J; Shen W; Jie C

2012-07-01

135

An Incompleteness Theorem via Abstraction  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

ionAlan Bundy1, Fausto Giunchiglia2;3, Adolfo Villafiorita4;5and Toby Walsh2;51. Mathematical Reasoning Group, Dept of AI, University of Edinburgh2. Mechanized Reasoning Group, IRST3. DISA, University of Trento4. Istituto di Informatica, University of Ancona5. Mechanized Reasoning Group, DIST, University of GenoaApril 13, 1996AbstractWe demonstrate the use of abstraction in aiding the construction of an interestingand difficult example in a proof checking system. This experiment demonstrates thatabstraction can make proofs easier to comprehend and to verify mechanically. To supportsuch proof checking, we have developed a formal theory of abstraction and added facilitiesfor using abstraction to the GETFOL proof checking system.1 IntroductionThis paper describes an experiment in which we use abstraction to aid the constructionof a simplified proof of Godel's first incompleteness theorem. We show that this useof abstraction makes the proof more ac...

Alan Bundy; Fausto Giunchiglia; Adolfo Villafiorita

136

BCR-crosslinking induces a transcription of protein phosphatase component G5PR that is required for mature B-cell survival  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en]BCR-crosslinking triggers activation-induced cell death (AICD) selectively in the restricted stage of B-cell differentiation. We examined the transcription of a protein phosphatase subunit G5PR in immature and mature B-cells, because absence of this factor augmented cell sensitivity to AICD, associated with increased activation of JNK and Bim. BCR-crosslinking-induced G5pr transcription in AICD-resistant mature splenic IgMloIgDhi B-cells but not in AICD susceptible immature IgMhiIgDlo B-cells. Thus, G5pr induction correlated with the prevention of AICD; High in mature splenic CD23hi B-cells but low in immature B-cells of neonatal mice, sub-lethally irradiated mice, or xid mice. Lack of G5pr upregulation was associated with the prolonged activation of JNK. The G5pr cDNA transfection protected an immature B-cell line WEHI-231 from BCR-mediated AICD. The differential expression of G5PR might be responsible for the antigen-dependent selection of B-cells

2006-02-03

137

A relaxin-like peptide purified from radial nerves induces oocyte maturation and ovulation in the starfish, Asterina pectinifera  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Gonad-stimulating substance (GSS) of starfish is the only known invertebrate peptide hormone responsible for final gamete maturation, rendering it functionally analogous to the vertebrate luteinizing hormone (LH). Here, we purified GSS of starfish, Asterina pectinifera, from radial nerves and determ...

Mita, Masatoshi; Yoshikuni, Michiyasu; Ohno, Kaoru; Shibata, Yasushi; Paul-Prasanth, Bindhu; Pitchayawasin, Suthasinee

138

Thermoanalytical and histological study of intra-articular papain-induced degradation and repair of rabbit cartilage. II. Mature animals.  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The effect of papain treatment on the cartilage tissue of the knee joint of mature rabbits was studied by histological and thermoanalytical methods. Changes taking place in the composition of cartilage in the course of ageing were shown. As a result of papain treatment a significant irreversible des...

Farkas, T; Bihari-Varga, M; Bir, T

139

Cryptococcus gattii is killed by dendritic cells, but evades adaptive immunity by failing to induce dendritic cell maturation.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

During adaptive immunity to pathogens, dendritic cells (DCs) capture, kill, process, and present microbial Ags to T cells. Ag presentation is accompanied by DC maturation driven by appropriate costimulatory signals. However, current understanding of the intricate regulation of these processes remains limited. Cryptococcus gattii, an emerging fungal pathogen in the Pacific Northwest of Canada and the United States, fails to stimulate an effective immune response in otherwise healthy hosts leading to morbidity or death. Because immunity to fungal pathogens requires intact cell-mediated immunity initiated by DCs, we asked whether C. gattii causes dysregulation of DC functions. C. gattii was efficiently bound and internalized by human monocyte-derived DCs, trafficked to late phagolysosomes, and killed. Yet, even with this degree of DC activation, the organism evaded pathways leading to DC maturation. Despite the ability to recognize and kill C. gattii, immature DCs failed to mature; there was no increased expression of MHC class II, CD86, CD83, CD80, and CCR7, or decrease of CD11c and CD32, which resulted in suboptimal T cell responses. Remarkably, no increase in TNF-? was observed in the presence of C. gattii. However, addition of recombinant TNF-? or stimulation that led to TNF-? production restored DC maturation and restored T cell responses. Thus, despite early killing, C. gattii evades DC maturation, providing a potential explanation for its ability to infect immunocompetent individuals. We have also established that DCs retain the ability to recognize and kill C. gattii without triggering TNF-?, suggesting independent or divergent activation pathways among essential DC functions.

Huston SM; Li SS; Stack D; Timm-McCann M; Jones GJ; Islam A; Berenger BM; Xiang RF; Colarusso P; Mody CH

2013-07-01

140

Cryptococcus gattii is killed by dendritic cells, but evades adaptive immunity by failing to induce dendritic cell maturation.  

Science.gov (United States)

During adaptive immunity to pathogens, dendritic cells (DCs) capture, kill, process, and present microbial Ags to T cells. Ag presentation is accompanied by DC maturation driven by appropriate costimulatory signals. However, current understanding of the intricate regulation of these processes remains limited. Cryptococcus gattii, an emerging fungal pathogen in the Pacific Northwest of Canada and the United States, fails to stimulate an effective immune response in otherwise healthy hosts leading to morbidity or death. Because immunity to fungal pathogens requires intact cell-mediated immunity initiated by DCs, we asked whether C. gattii causes dysregulation of DC functions. C. gattii was efficiently bound and internalized by human monocyte-derived DCs, trafficked to late phagolysosomes, and killed. Yet, even with this degree of DC activation, the organism evaded pathways leading to DC maturation. Despite the ability to recognize and kill C. gattii, immature DCs failed to mature; there was no increased expression of MHC class II, CD86, CD83, CD80, and CCR7, or decrease of CD11c and CD32, which resulted in suboptimal T cell responses. Remarkably, no increase in TNF-? was observed in the presence of C. gattii. However, addition of recombinant TNF-? or stimulation that led to TNF-? production restored DC maturation and restored T cell responses. Thus, despite early killing, C. gattii evades DC maturation, providing a potential explanation for its ability to infect immunocompetent individuals. We have also established that DCs retain the ability to recognize and kill C. gattii without triggering TNF-?, suggesting independent or divergent activation pathways among essential DC functions. PMID:23740956

Huston, Shaunna M; Li, Shu Shun; Stack, Danuta; Timm-McCann, Martina; Jones, Gareth J; Islam, Anowara; Berenger, Byron M; Xiang, Richard F; Colarusso, Pina; Mody, Christopher H

2013-06-05

 
 
 
 
141

Alcohol-induced decrease in muscle protein synthesis associated with increased binding of mTOR and raptor: Comparable effects in young and mature rats  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background Acute alcohol (EtOH) intoxication decreases muscle protein synthesis via inhibition of mTOR-dependent translation initiation. However, these studies have been performed in relatively young rapidly growing rats in which muscle protein accretion is more sensitive to growth factor and nutrient stimulation. Furthermore, some in vivo-produced effects of EtOH vary in an age-dependent manner. The hypothesis tested in the present study was that young rats will show a more pronounced decrement in muscle protein synthesis than older mature rats in response to acute EtOH intoxication. Methods Male F344 rats were studied at approximately 3 (young) or 12 (mature) months of age. Young rats were injected intraperitoneally with 75 mmol/kg of EtOH, and mature rats injected with either 75 or 90 mmol/kg EtOH. Time-matched saline-injected control rats were included for both age groups. Gastrocnemius protein synthesis and the activity of the mTOR pathway were assessed 2.5 h after EtOH using [3H]-labeled phenylalanine and the phosphorylation of various protein factors known to regulate peptide-chain initiation. Results Blood alcohol levels (BALs) were lower in mature rats compared to young rats after administration of 75 mmol/kg EtOH (154 23 vs 265 24 mg/dL). However, injection of 90 mmol/kg EtOH in mature rats produced BALs comparable to that of young rats (281 33 mg/dL). EtOH decreased muscle protein synthesis similarly in both young and high-dose EtOH-treated mature rats. The EtOH-induced changes in both groups were associated with a concomitant reduction in 4E-BP1 phosphorylation, and redistribution of eIF4E between the active eIF4E搪IF4G and inactive eIF4E4EBP1 complex. Moreover, EtOH increased the binding of mTOR with raptor in a manner which appeared to be AMPK- and TSC-independent. In contrast, although muscle protein synthesis was unchanged in mature rats given low-dose EtOH, compared to control values, the phosphorylation of rpS6 and eIF4G was decreased. Conclusion These data indicate that muscle protein synthesis is equally sensitive to the inhibitory effects of EtOH in young rapidly growing rats and older mature rats which are growing more slowly, but that mature rats must be given a relatively larger dose of EtOH to achieve the same BAL. Based on the differential response in mature rats to low- and high-dose EtOH, the decreased protein synthesis was associated with a reduction in mTOR activity which was selectively mediated via a reduction in 4E-BP1 phosphorylation and an increase in mTOR斟aptor formation.

Lang Charles H; Pruznak Anne M; Nystrom Gerald J; Vary Thomas C

2009-01-01

142

Martingale Pricing Measures In Incomplete  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

We propose a new framework for analyzing pricing theory for incompletemarkets and contingent claims, using conjugate duality and optimization theory. Variousstatements in the literature of the fundamental theorem of asset pricing give conditionsunder which an essentially arbitrage-free market is equivalent to the existence of anequivalent martingale measure, and a formula for the fair price of a contingent claim asan expectation with respect to such a measure. In the setting of incomplete markets, thefair price is not attainable as such a particular expectation, but rather as a supremumover an infinite set of equivalent martingale measures. Here, we consider the problem asa stochastic program and derive pricing results for quite general discrete time processes.It is shown that in its most general form, the martingale pricing measure is attainableif it is permitted to be finitely additive. This setup also gives rise to a natural wayof analyzing models with risk preferences, spreads and margin constraints, and otherproblem variants. We consider a discrete time, multi-stage, infinite probability spacesetting and derive the basic results of arbitrage pricing in this framework.

Alan King; Lisa Korf

143

RcsB-BglJ-mediated activation of Cascade operon does not induce the maturation of CRISPR RNAs in E. coli K12.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Prokaryotic immunity against foreign nucleic acids mediated by clustered, regularly interspaced, short palindromic repeats (CRISPR) depends on the expression of the CRISPR-associated (Cas) proteins and the formation of small CRISPR RNAs (crRNAs). The crRNA-loaded Cas ribonucleoprotein complexes convey the specific recognition and inactivation of target nucleic acids. In E. coli K12, the maturation of crRNAs and the interference with target DNA is performed by the Cascade complex. The transcription of the Cascade operon is tightly repressed through H-NS-dependent inhibition of the Pcas promoter. Elevated levels of the LysR-type regulator LeuO induce the Pcas promoter and concomitantly activate the CRISPR-mediated immunity against phages. Here, we show that the Pcas promoter can also be induced by constitutive expression of the regulator BglJ. This activation is LeuO-dependent as heterodimers of BglJ and RcsB activate leuO transcription. Each transcription factor, LeuO or BglJ, induced the transcription of the Cascade genes to comparable amounts. However, the maturation of the crRNAs was activated in LeuO but not in BglJ-expressing cells. Studies on CRISPR promoter activities, transcript stabilities, crRNA processing and Cascade protein levels were performed to answer the question why crRNA maturation is defective in BglJ-expressing cells. Our results demonstrate that the activation of Cascade gene transcription is necessary but not sufficient to turn on the CRISPR-mediated immunity and suggest a more complex regulation of the type I-E CRISPR-Cas system in E. coli.

Arslan Z; Stratmann T; Wurm R; Wagner R; Schnetz K; Pul U

2013-05-01

144

Effects of cardiotrophin-1 on differentiation and maturation of rat bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells induced with 5-azacytidine in vitro.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

BACKGROUND: Cardiotrophin-1 (CT-1) is a cytokine involved in the growth and survival of cardiac cells that stimulates cardiomyogenesis in pluripotent murine embryonic stem (ES) cells. But it is not known whether CT-1 is responsible for the fate of differentiated bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells (BMMSCs). METHODS: We investigated the effects of CT-1 on differentiation and maturation of BMMSCs in vitro induced with 5-azacytidine. BMMSCs isolated from femur of rats were induced by CT-1 only, by 5-azacytidine with or without CT-1,and an untreated control group was also set. After 4 weeks of induced culturing, we observed the levels of alpha-cardiac actin and troponin-I by immunohistochemical staining, the ultrastructure of induce-cultured BMMSCs, and the expression of GATA4, Nkx2.5, beta-myosin heavy chain (beta-MHC) and alpha-cardiac actin mRNA by real time RT-PCR analysis. RESULTS: Differentiated BMMSCs treated by 5-azacytidine and CT-1 distinctly showed formations of myofilaments and myotube-like structures-morphological characteristics of myocyte like cells, and spontaneous contraction of a few cells was observed. The protein levels of alpha-cardiac actin and troponin-T were significantly higher than control. Furthermore, mRNA expression of GATA4, Nkx2.5, alpha-cardiac actin and beta-MHC was increased remarkably. CONCLUSIONS: This study suggests that induced culturing of BMMSCs in the presence of 5-azacytidine combined with CT-1 can enhance cardiomyocytic characteristics. CT-1 upregulates the expression of GATA4, Nkx2-5, alpha-cardiac actin and beta-MHC mRNA, and rapidly promotes the differentiation and maturation of cardiomyocyte-like cells differentiated from BMMSCs induced with 5-azacytidine.

Xinyun C; Zhi Z; Bin Z; Li R; Yucheng C; Yafei Y; Tingjie Z; Shengfu L

2010-08-01

145

The incorporation of myo-inositol into phosphatidylinositol derivatives is stimulated during hormone-induced meiotic maturation of amphibian oocytes  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The incorporation of myo-({sup 3}H)inositol into phosphatidylinositol and its phosphorylated derivatives was studied by microinjection of the radioactive precursor into Xenopus laevis oocytes. Induction of meiotic maturation of the oocytes by treatment with either progesterone one or insulin resulted in a significant increase in the incorporation of myo-({sup 3}H)inositol into the phospholipid fraction. This increase occurred 3-6 h after hormonal treatment, a time coincident with the start of the breakdown of the nuclear envelope, and requires protein synthesis. The effect of progesterone and insulin contrasts with the effect of acetylcholine, which acts through a muscarinic receptor causing the activation of phospholipase C, since the latter effector causes an increase in myo-({sup 3}H)inositol incorporation, which is more rapid and does not require protein synthesis. These results suggest that the meiotic maturation process is connected with changes in inositol metabolism in the amphibian oocyte.

Carrasco, D.; Allende, C.C.; Allende, J.E. (Universidad de Chile, Casilla, Santiago (Chile))

1990-12-01

146

Influence of water temperature on induced reproduction by hypophysation, sex steroids concentrations and final oocyte maturation of the "curimata-pacu" Prochilodus argenteus (Pisces: Prochilodontidae).  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Most fishes with commercial importance from the S緌 Francisco basin are migratory and do not complete the reproductive cycle in lentic environments, such as hydroelectric plant reservoirs, hence natural stocks are declining and there is an urgent need to reduce the pressure of fishing on those wild populations. Therefore, studies on reproductive biology and its relationship with endocrine and environmental factors are key to improving the cultivation techniques of Brazilian fish species. This study examined the influence of water temperature on sex steroid concentrations (testosterone, 17?-estradiol and 17?-hydroxyprogesterone), spawning efficiency, fecundity, fertilisation rate, larval abnormality rates and involvement of the cytoskeleton during the final oocyte maturation of Prochilodus argenteus under experimental conditions. The results of our study showed that in captivity, sex steroid plasma concentrations and spawning performance of P. argenteus were clearly different for fish kept in water with different temperature regimes. In lower water temperature (23蚓), it was observed that: 33% of females did not ovulate, fecundity was lower and vitellogenic oocytes after the spawning induction procedure exhibited a smaller diameter. Moreover, concentrations of 17?-estradiol and 17?-hydroxyprogesterone were lower and there was a delay in the final oocyte maturation and, consequently, ovulation and spawning. Our experiments showed direct influence of water temperature in the process of induced spawning of P. argenteus. Changes in water temperature also suggest the tubulin involvement in the nuclear dislocation process and the possible action of actin filaments in the release of polar bodies during final oocyte maturation of P. argenteus.

Arantes FP; Santos HB; Rizzo E; Sato Y; Bazzoli N

2011-07-01

147

Influence of water temperature on induced reproduction by hypophysation, sex steroids concentrations and final oocyte maturation of the "curimat-pacu" Prochilodus argenteus (Pisces: Prochilodontidae).  

Science.gov (United States)

Most fishes with commercial importance from the S緌 Francisco basin are migratory and do not complete the reproductive cycle in lentic environments, such as hydroelectric plant reservoirs, hence natural stocks are declining and there is an urgent need to reduce the pressure of fishing on those wild populations. Therefore, studies on reproductive biology and its relationship with endocrine and environmental factors are key to improving the cultivation techniques of Brazilian fish species. This study examined the influence of water temperature on sex steroid concentrations (testosterone, 17?-estradiol and 17?-hydroxyprogesterone), spawning efficiency, fecundity, fertilisation rate, larval abnormality rates and involvement of the cytoskeleton during the final oocyte maturation of Prochilodus argenteus under experimental conditions. The results of our study showed that in captivity, sex steroid plasma concentrations and spawning performance of P. argenteus were clearly different for fish kept in water with different temperature regimes. In lower water temperature (23蚓), it was observed that: 33% of females did not ovulate, fecundity was lower and vitellogenic oocytes after the spawning induction procedure exhibited a smaller diameter. Moreover, concentrations of 17?-estradiol and 17?-hydroxyprogesterone were lower and there was a delay in the final oocyte maturation and, consequently, ovulation and spawning. Our experiments showed direct influence of water temperature in the process of induced spawning of P. argenteus. Changes in water temperature also suggest the tubulin involvement in the nuclear dislocation process and the possible action of actin filaments in the release of polar bodies during final oocyte maturation of P. argenteus. PMID:21501616

Arantes, F墎io P; Santos, H幨io B; Rizzo, Elizete; Sato, Yoshimi; Bazzoli, Nilo

2011-04-08

148

Sensitivity analysis for continuous incomplete longitudinal outcomes  

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Even though models for incomplete longitudinal data are in common use, they are surrounded with problems, largely due to the untestable nature of the assumptions one has to make regarding the missingness mechanism. Two extreme views on how to deal with this problem are (1) to avoid incomplete data a...

MOLENBERGHS, Geert; THIJS, Herbert; Kenward, Michael; VERBEKE, Geert

149

Kolmogorov Complexity and the Second Incompleteness Theorem  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

: We shall prove the secondincompleteness theorem via Kolmogorov complexity.0. IntroductionKolmogorov complexity is a measure of the quantity of information in nite objects.Roughly speaking, the Kolmogorov complexity of a number n, denoted byK(n), is the size of a program which generates n, and n is called random if n K(n).Kolmogorov showed in 1960's that the set of nonrandom numbers is recursively enumerablebut not recursive, and this is a version of Godel's rst incompleteness theorem(cf. Odifreddi [8]). Chaitin also gave information-theoretic formulation of therst incompleteness theorem in terms of Kolmogorov complexity. Relations betweenKolmogorov complexity and the first incompleteness theorem have been discussedin many places (cf. Li and Vitanyi [7]).Our purpose is to show that Kolmogorov complexity also leads to the secondincompleteness theorem. While Godel's proof of the rst incompleteness theorembrings the second incompleteness theorem, Kolmogorov's pr...

Makoto Kikuchi

150

Synthesizing Robust Plans under Incomplete Domain Models  

CERN Multimedia

Most current planners assume complete domain models and focus on generating correct plans. Unfortunately, domain modeling is a laborious and error-prone task. While domain experts cannot guarantee completeness, often they are able to circumscribe the incompleteness of the model by providing annotations as to which parts of the domain model may be incomplete. In such cases, the goal should be to generate plans that are robust with respect to any known incompleteness of the domain. In this paper, we first introduce annotations expressing the knowledge of the domain incompleteness, and formalize the notion of plan robustness with respect to an incomplete domain model. We then propose an approach to compiling the problem of finding robust plans to the conformant probabilistic planning problem. We present experimental results with Probabilistic-FF, a state-of-the-art planner, showing the promise of our approach.

Nguyen, Tuan; Do, Minh

2011-01-01

151

Herpes simplex virus 2 (HSV-2) prevents dendritic cell maturation, induces apoptosis, and triggers release of proinflammatory cytokines: potential links to HSV-HIV synergy.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Herpes simplex virus 2 (HSV-2) may cause frequent recurrences, highlighting its ability to evade host defense. This study tested the hypothesis that HSV-2 interferes with dendritic cell (DC) function as an escape mechanism, which may contribute to enhanced HIV replication in coinfected populations. Immature monocyte-derived human DCs were exposed to live or UV-inactivated HSV-2 or lipopolysaccharide. Little or no increase in the maturation marker CD83 was observed in response to HSV-2 and HSV-2 exposed DCs were impaired in their ability to present antigen (influenza) to T cells. Exposure to UV-inactivated virus stimulated a modest, but significant increase in CD83, suggesting that viral gene expression contributes to the block in DC maturation. The functional impairment of HSV-2-exposed DCs could be partially attributed to the induction of apoptosis. Live and inactivated HSV-2 triggered an increase in the number of early and late apoptotic cells in both the infected and bystander cell populations; apoptosis was associated with a decrease in cellular FLICE-inhibitory protein (c-FLIP). Paradoxically, HSV-2 induced Akt phosphorylation, which typically promotes DC maturation and survival. Despite these aberrant responses, live and inactivated HSV-2 induced the release of cytokines into culture supernatants, which were sufficient to activate HIV-1 replication in latently infected U1 cells. Together, these findings suggest that in the presence of overt or subclinical HSV-2, the function of mucosal DCs would be impaired. These responses may allow HSV to escape immune surveillance but may also promote HIV infection and contribute to the epidemiological link between HIV and HSV.

Stefanidou M; Ramos I; Mas Casullo V; Tr廧anier JB; Rosenbaum S; Fernandez-Sesma A; Herold BC

2013-02-01

152

Bone marrow stromal cell transdifferentiation into oligodendrocyte-like cells using triiodothyronine as a inducer with expression of platelet-derived growth factor ? as a maturity marker.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

BACKGROUND: The present study investigated the functional maturity of oligodendrocyte derived from rat bone marrow stromal cells (BMSC). METHODS: The BMSC were isolated from female Sprague-Dawley rats and evaluated for different markers, such as fibronectin, CD106, CD90, Oct-4 and CD45. Transdifferentiation of OLC from BMSC was obtained by exposing the BMSC to DMSO and 1 然 all-trans-retinoic acid during the pre-induction stage and then induced by heregulin (HRG), platelet-derived growth factor AA (PDGFR-alpha), fibroblast growth factor and T3. The neuroprogenitor cells (NPC) were evaluated for nestin, neurofilament 68, neurofilament 160 and glial fibrillary acidic protein gene expression using immunocytochemistry. The OLC were assessed by immunocytochemistry for O4, oligo2, O1 and MBP marker and gene expression of PDGFR-alpha was examined by RT-PCR. RESULTS: Our results showed that the fibronectin, CD106, CD90, CD45 and Oct-4 were expressed after the fourth passage. Also, the yield of OLC differentiation was about 71% when using the O1, O4 and oligo2 markers. Likewise, the expression of PDGFR-alpha in pre-oligodendrocytes was noticed, while MBP expression was detected in oligodendrocyte after 6 days of the induction. CONCLUSION: The conclusion of the study showed that BMSC can be induced to transdifferentiate into mature OLC.

Abbaszadeh HA; Tiraihi T; Delshad AR; Saghedi Zadeh M; Taheri T

2013-04-01

153

Polysaccharide purified from Polyporus umbellatus (Per) Fr induces the activation and maturation of murine bone-derived dendritic cells via toll-like receptor 4.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

In this study, we report that a polysaccharide isolated from a Chinese medicinal herb, Zhu Ling (the sclerotium of Polyporus umbellatus (Per) Fr), induces phenotypic and functional maturation of murine bone-derived dendritic cells (BMDCs). Treatment of BMDCs with Polyporus polysaccharide (PPS) resulted in enhanced cell-surface expression of CD86, as well as enhanced production of both interleukin (IL)-12 p40 and IL-10 in a dose-dependent manner. In addition, treatment of BMDCs with PPS resulted in increased T cell-stimulatory capacity and decreased phagocytic ability. PPS-induced production of IL-12 p40 was inhibited by monoclonal antibodies to Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4). Flow cytometric analysis showed that fluorescence-labeled PPS (f-PPS) bound specifically to BMDCs. This binding was blocked by both unlabeled PPS and anti-TLR4, but not by anti-TLR2 and anti-CR3 monoclonal antibodies. Taken together, our data show that PPS promotes the activation and maturation of murine BMDCs via TLR4.

Li X; Xu W; Chen J

2010-01-01

154

Polysaccharide purified from Polyporus umbellatus (Per) Fr induces the activation and maturation of murine bone-derived dendritic cells via toll-like receptor 4.  

Science.gov (United States)

In this study, we report that a polysaccharide isolated from a Chinese medicinal herb, Zhu Ling (the sclerotium of Polyporus umbellatus (Per) Fr), induces phenotypic and functional maturation of murine bone-derived dendritic cells (BMDCs). Treatment of BMDCs with Polyporus polysaccharide (PPS) resulted in enhanced cell-surface expression of CD86, as well as enhanced production of both interleukin (IL)-12 p40 and IL-10 in a dose-dependent manner. In addition, treatment of BMDCs with PPS resulted in increased T cell-stimulatory capacity and decreased phagocytic ability. PPS-induced production of IL-12 p40 was inhibited by monoclonal antibodies to Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4). Flow cytometric analysis showed that fluorescence-labeled PPS (f-PPS) bound specifically to BMDCs. This binding was blocked by both unlabeled PPS and anti-TLR4, but not by anti-TLR2 and anti-CR3 monoclonal antibodies. Taken together, our data show that PPS promotes the activation and maturation of murine BMDCs via TLR4. PMID:20673883

Li, Xinqun; Xu, Wen; Chen, Jun

2010-07-14

155

Prophylactic nailing of incomplete atypical femoral fractures.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

INTRODUCTION: Recent reports have described the occurrence of low-energy subtrochanteric and femoral shaft fractures associated with long-term bisphosphonate use. Although information regarding the surgical treatment of these atypical femoral fractures is increasing, it is unclear if the preventive operation is useful in incomplete fractures. This study examined the results of preventive intramedullary nailing for incomplete atypical femoral fractures. MATERIAL AND METHODS: A retrospective search was conducted for patients older than 50 years receiving bisphosphonate therapy, with incomplete, nondisplaced fractures in either the subtrochanteric or diaphyseal area of the femur. Seventeen patients with a total of 20 incomplete, non-displaced lesions were included. The mean duration of bisphosphonate use was 50.5 months. Eleven of the 17 (64.7%) patients had complete or incomplete fractures on the contralateral femur. All were treated with prophylactic fixation of an intramedullary (IM) nail. The minimum followup was 12 months. RESULTS: All cases healed with a mean period of 14.3 weeks. Nineteen of the 20 cases healed with the dissolution of incomplete fractures of the lateral aspect. A complete fracture developed at the time of nailing in one patient, but it healed with callus bridging. CONCLUSION: IM nailing appears to be a reliable way of preventing the progress of incomplete atypical femoral fractures.

Oh CW; Oh JK; Park KC; Kim JW; Yoon YC

2013-01-01

156

Brain maturation and epilepsy.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

At full term, both glutamate and gamma-amino-butyric acid (GABA) are excitatory; cortical synapses are beginning to appear, there is little myelin in the cerebral hemispheres, and long tracts hardly start to develop. Neonatal myoclonic encephalopathy can result from premature activation of N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) transmission. Benign neonatal seizures and migrating partial seizures in infancy could involve excessive or premature excitability of deep cortical layers. Benign rolandic epilepsy and continuous spike waves in slow sleep are consistent with an excess of both excitatory and inhibitory cortical synapses. West and Lennox-Gastaut syndromes express age-related diffuse cortical hyperexcitability, the pattern depending on the age of occurrence; synchronization of spikes is becoming possible with maturation of the myelin. Idiopathic generalized epilepsy is itself modulated by maturation that causes frontal hyperexcitability generating myoclonic-astatic seizures, between the ages of infantile and juvenile myoclonic epilepsies. Physiological delay of hippocampo-neocortical pathways maturation could account for the delayed occurrence of mesial temporal epilepsy following infantile damage, whereas premature maturation could contribute to fronto-temporal damage characteristic of fever-induced epileptic encephalopathy in school-age children, a dramatic school-age epileptic encephalopathy.

Dulac O; Milh M; Holmes GL

2013-01-01

157

INSULIN-LIKE GROWTH FACTOR-I INDUCES OOCYTE MATURATIONAL COMPETENCE BUT NOT MEIOTIC RESUMPTION IN WHITE BASS (MORONE CHRYSOPS) FOLLICLES IN VITRO: EVIDENCE FOR THE RAPID EVOLUTION OF INSULIN-LIKE GROWTH FACTOR ACTION  

Science.gov (United States)

A combination of recombinant human (rh) insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF-I) (25 nM) and the maturation-inducing hormone (MIH), 17,20',21-trihydroxy-4-pregnen-3-one (20'-S; 72.5 nM), induced germinal vesicle breakdown (GVBD) in ovarian follicles of white bass incubated in vitro, whereas a four times...

158

Prolactin and bromocriptine induced changes in liver, adipose tissue and blood lipids of mature male bonnet monkeys, Macaca radiata (Geoffroy).  

Science.gov (United States)

Effects of prolactin and bromocriptine on neutral and phospholipids of liver, adipose tissue and serum were studied in mature male bonnet monkeys. Hyperprolactinemia (ovine prolactin, 250 micrograms/kg body weight/day, i.p. for 30 days) elevated hepatic total lipids and phospholipids and decreased total and free cholesterol. While triacyl glycerol accumulated, mono-and diacyl glycerols diminished in liver and adipose tissues of prolactin treated monkeys. Concentrations of all phospholipid fractions, except sphingomyelin and cardiolipin in adipose tissue accrued in both tissues. Serum triacylglycerol, phosphatidyl ethanolamine, phosphatidyl choline and phosphatidyl inositol showed a significant increase in hyperprolactinaemic monkeys. Bromocriptine (1 mg/kg body weight/day for 30 days) treatment reduced serum phospholipids without altering hepatic or adipose tissue lipids. The present study indicates that hyperprolactinaemia leads to hyperlipidemia due to accretion of hepatic and adipose tissue triacyl glycerol and certain phospholipid fractions. Bromocriptine has a specific inhibitory effect on serum phospholipids. PMID:7951570

Aruldhas, M M; Thampi, L T; Kumari, T M; Govindarajulu, P

1994-04-01

159

Prolactin and bromocriptine induced changes in liver, adipose tissue and blood lipids of mature male bonnet monkeys, Macaca radiata (Geoffroy).  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Effects of prolactin and bromocriptine on neutral and phospholipids of liver, adipose tissue and serum were studied in mature male bonnet monkeys. Hyperprolactinemia (ovine prolactin, 250 micrograms/kg body weight/day, i.p. for 30 days) elevated hepatic total lipids and phospholipids and decreased total and free cholesterol. While triacyl glycerol accumulated, mono-and diacyl glycerols diminished in liver and adipose tissues of prolactin treated monkeys. Concentrations of all phospholipid fractions, except sphingomyelin and cardiolipin in adipose tissue accrued in both tissues. Serum triacylglycerol, phosphatidyl ethanolamine, phosphatidyl choline and phosphatidyl inositol showed a significant increase in hyperprolactinaemic monkeys. Bromocriptine (1 mg/kg body weight/day for 30 days) treatment reduced serum phospholipids without altering hepatic or adipose tissue lipids. The present study indicates that hyperprolactinaemia leads to hyperlipidemia due to accretion of hepatic and adipose tissue triacyl glycerol and certain phospholipid fractions. Bromocriptine has a specific inhibitory effect on serum phospholipids.

Aruldhas MM; Thampi LT; Kumari TM; Govindarajulu P

1994-04-01

160

Physiological changes associated with senescence and abscission in mature citrus fruit induced by 5-chloro-3-methyl-4-nitro-1H-pyrazole and ethephon application  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

This research compares effects of the compound 5-chloro-3-methyl-4-nitro-1H-pyrazole (CMNP), a plant growth regulator that selectively promotes abscission in mature citrus fruit (Citrus sinensis), and the ethylene-releasing agent ethephon (2-chloroethylphosphonic acid). Application of CMNP and ethephon to mature citrus fruit reduced fruit detachment force and changed peel color from green to orange. More total chlorophyll was extracted from flavedo in early season (November) than late season (January), and both compounds caused a similar reduction in chlorophyll. In contrast, total carotenoid content was similar in November and January. Both abscission compounds increased total carotenoids, but induction was greater in January, and CMNP was more effective in both months. Phospholipase A2 (PLA2) activity increased after CMNP but not ethephon application. Electrolyte leakage increased 2 h after CMNP treatment, and total protein content was reduced by 50% after 72 h. Ethephon caused only minor changes in electrolyte leakage and total protein content. Inhibition of PLA2 activity with aristolochic acid did not reduce leakage but inhibited total protein loss and reduced visual peel damage associated with CMNP. Ultrastructural observations indicated decreased number, and length of starch grains 3 h after CMNP treatment. A transient increase in soluble sugars was measured 3 h after CMNP application. Ethephon had little effect on soluble sugar content and changes in starch grains. Collectively, the results indicate that CMNP and ethephon induced color change in peel and advanced mature fruit abscission. However, CMNP but not ethephon promoted other physiological changes associated with senescence.

Alferez Fernando; Pozo Luis; Burns JacquelineK

2006-05-01

 
 
 
 
161

The Conformal Pseudodistance and Null Geodesic Incompleteness  

CERN Document Server

We clarify the relationship between the null geodesic completeness of an Einstein Lorentz manifold and its conformal Kobayashi pseudodistance. We show that an Einstein manifold has at least one incomplete null geodesic if its pseudodistancfe is nontrivial. If its pseudodistance is nondegenerate, all of its null geodesics must be incomplete. Thus an Einstein manifold (M,g) has no complete null geodesic if there is a "physical metric" in the conformal class of g satisfying the null convergence and null generic conditions.

Markowitz, Michael J

2011-01-01

162

Quantum Bertrand duopoly of incomplete information  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

We study Bertrand's duopoly of incomplete information. It is found that the effect of quantum entanglement on the outcome of the game is dramatically changed by the uncertainty of information. In contrast with the case of complete information where the outcome increases with entanglement, when information is incomplete the outcome is maximized at some finite entanglement. As a consequence, information and entanglement are both crucial factors that determine the properties of a quantum oligopoly.

Qin Gan [Hefei National Laboratory for Physical Science at Microscale and Department of Modern Physics, University of Science and Technology of China, Hefei, 230026 (China); Chen Xi [Hefei National Laboratory for Physical Science at Microscale and Department of Modern Physics, University of Science and Technology of China, Hefei, 230026 (China); Sun Min [Hefei National Laboratory for Physical Science at Microscale and Department of Modern Physics, University of Science and Technology of China, Hefei, 230026 (China); Du Jiangfeng [Hefei National Laboratory for Physical Science at Microscale and Department of Modern Physics, University of Science and Technology of China, Hefei, 230026 (China)

2005-05-13

163

Topological effects of data incompleteness of gene regulatory networks  

CERN Document Server

The topological analysis of biological networks has been a prolific topic in network science during the last decade. A persistent problem with this approach is the inherent uncertainty and noisy nature of the data. One of the cases in which this situation is more marked is that of transcriptional regulatory networks (TRNs) in bacteria. The datasets are incomplete because regulatory pathways associated to a relevant fraction of bacterial genes remain unknown. Furthermore, direction, strengths and signs of the links are sometimes unknown or simply overlooked. Finally, the experimental approaches to infer the regulations are highly heterogeneous, in a way that induces the appearance of systematic experimental-topological correlations. And yet, the quality of the available data increases constantly. In this work we capitalize on these advances to point out the influence of data (in)completeness and quality on some classical results on topological analysis of TRNs, specially regarding modularity at different level...

Sanz, J; Borge-Holthoefer, J; Moreno, Y

2012-01-01

164

The role of surface charge density in cationic liposome-promoted dendritic cell maturation and vaccine-induced immune responses.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Cationic liposomes have emerged as a novel adjuvant and antigen delivery system to enhance vaccine efficacy. However, the role of surface charge density in cationic liposome-regulated immune responses has not yet been elucidated. In the present study, we prepared a series of DOTAP/DOPC cationic liposomes with different surface densities by incorporating varying amounts of DOPC (a neutral lipid) into DOTAP (a cationic lipid). The results showed that DOTAP/DOPC cationic liposome-regulated immune responses relied on the surface charge density, and might occur through ROS signaling. The liposomes with a relatively high charge density, such as DOTAP/DOPC 5:0 and 4:1 liposomes, potently enhanced dendritic cell maturation, ROS generaion, antigen uptake, as well as the production of OVA-specific IgG2a and IFN-?. In contrast, low-charge liposomes, such as DOTAP/DOPC 1:4 liposome, failed to promote immune responses even at high concentrations, confirming that the immunoregulatory effect of cationic liposomes is mostly attributable to their surface charge density. Moreover, the DOTAP/DOPC 1:4 liposome suppressed anti-OVA antibody responses in vivo. Overall, maintaining an appropriate surface charge is crucial for optimizing the adjuvant effect of cationic liposomes and enhancing the efficacy of liposome-based vaccines.

Ma Y; Zhuang Y; Xie X; Wang C; Wang F; Zhou D; Zeng J; Cai L

2011-05-01

165

Apoptotic-cell-derived membrane vesicles induce an alternative maturation ofhuman dendritic cells which is disturbed in SLE.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The clearance of apoptotic cells occurs in a non-inflammatory context. Defects in this clearance process have been linked to the emergence of human autoimmune diseases like systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). A characteristic of apoptotic cell death is the shedding of membrane coated vesicles from the cellular surfaces. Those vesicles have recently been recognized as mediators of intercellular communication or as adjuvant in the pathogenesis of autoimmune diseases. We analyzed the interactions between these apoptotic cell-derived membrane vesicles and professional antigen presenting cells. These vesicles were engulfed by monocyte-derived dendritic cells (mDC) and stimulated their maturation towards a phenotype comprising an upregulation of CD80, CD83, CD86, and a remarkable downregulation of MHC class II molecules. We observed only a minor release of proinflammatory cytokines from these mDC when compared to LPS stimulation. mDC stimulated by apoptotic vesicles did not cause significant T-cell expansion. Interestingly, when compared to normal healthy donors SLE patients-derived dendritic cells showed a significantly different phenotype lacking the downregulation of MHC class II, which correlated to disease activity.

Fehr EM; Spoerl S; Heyder P; Herrmann M; Bekeredjian-Ding I; Blank N; Lorenz HM; Schiller M

2013-02-01

166

The role of surface charge density in cationic liposome-promoted dendritic cell maturation and vaccine-induced immune responses  

Science.gov (United States)

Cationic liposomes have emerged as a novel adjuvant and antigen delivery system to enhance vaccine efficacy. However, the role of surface charge density in cationic liposome-regulated immune responses has not yet been elucidated. In the present study, we prepared a series of DOTAP/DOPC cationic liposomes with different surface densities by incorporating varying amounts of DOPC (a neutral lipid) into DOTAP (a cationic lipid). The results showed that DOTAP/DOPC cationic liposome-regulated immune responses relied on the surface charge density, and might occur through ROS signaling. The liposomes with a relatively high charge density, such as DOTAP/DOPC 5 : 0 and 4 : 1 liposomes, potently enhanced dendritic cell maturation, ROS generaion, antigen uptake, as well as the production of OVA-specific IgG2a and IFN-?. In contrast, low-charge liposomes, such as DOTAP/DOPC 1 : 4 liposome, failed to promote immune responses even at high concentrations, confirming that the immunoregulatory effect of cationic liposomes is mostly attributable to their surface charge density. Moreover, the DOTAP/DOPC 1 : 4 liposome suppressed anti-OVA antibody responses in vivo. Overall, maintaining an appropriate surface charge is crucial for optimizing the adjuvant effect of cationic liposomes and enhancing the efficacy of liposome-based vaccines.

Ma, Yifan; Zhuang, Yan; Xie, Xiaofang; Wang, Ce; Wang, Fei; Zhou, Dongmei; Zeng, Jianqiang; Cai, Lintao

2011-05-01

167

The endoplasmic reticulum stress induced by highly expressed OsrAAT reduces seed size via pre-mature programmed cell death.  

Science.gov (United States)

The high accumulation of a recombinant protein in rice endosperm causes endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress and in turn dramatically affects endogenous storage protein expression, protein body morphology and seed phenotype. To elucidate the molecular mechanisms underlying these changes in transgenic rice seeds, we analyzed the expression profiles of endogenous storage proteins, ER stress-related and programmed cell death (PCD)-related genes in transgenic lines with different levels of Oryza sativa recombinant alpha antitrypsin (OsrAAT) expression. The results indicated that OsrAAT expression induced the ER stress and that the strength of the ER stress was dependent on OsrAAT expression levels. It in turn induced upregulation of the expression of the ER stress response genes and downregulation of the expression of the endogenous storage protein genes in rice endosperm. Further experiments showed that the ER stress response upregulated the expression of PCD-related genes to disturb the rice endosperm development and induced pre-mature PCD. As consequence, it resulted in decrease of grain weight and size. The mechanisms for the detriment seed phenotype in transgenic lines with high accumulation of the recombinant protein were elucidated. PMID:23564402

Zhang, Liping; Jiang, Daiming; Pang, Jianlei; Chen, Rong; Wang, Xianghong; Yang, Daichang

2013-04-08

168

The microRNA-9/B-lymphocyte-induced maturation protein-1/IL-2 axis is differentially regulated in progressive HIV infection.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The fine control of T-cell differentiation and its impact on HIV disease states is poorly understood. In this study, we demonstrate that B-lymphocyte-induced maturation protein-1 (Blimp-1/Prdm1) is highly expressed in CD4(+) T cells from chronically HIV-infected (CHI) patients compared to cells from long-term nonprogressors or healthy controls. Stimulation through the T-cell receptor in the presence of IL-2 induces Blimp-1 protein expression. We show here that Blimp-1 levels are translationally regulated by microRNA-9 (miR-9). Overexpression of miR-9 induces Blimp-1 repression, restoring IL-2 secretion in CD4(+) T cells via reduction in the binding of Blimp-1 to the il-2 promoter. In CHI patients where IL-2 expression is reduced and there is generalized T-cell dysfunction, we show differential expression of both miR-9 and Blimp-1 in CD4(+) cells compared with levels in long-term nonprogressors. These data identify a novel miR-9/Blimp-1/IL-2 axis that is dysregulated in progressive HIV infection.

Seddiki N; Phetsouphanh C; Swaminathan S; Xu Y; Rao S; Li J; Sutcliffe EL; Denyer G; Finlayson R; Gelgor L; Cooper DA; Zaunders J; Kelleher AD

2013-02-01

169

Two B3 domain transcriptional repressors prevent sugar-inducible expression of seed maturation genes in Arabidopsis seedlings  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

During development of plant seeds, embryos import nutrients and store massive amounts of reserves. Seed reserves are rapidly degraded and mobilized to support seedling development after germination. HIGH-LEVEL EXPRESSION OF SUGAR-INDUCIBLE GENE 2 (HSI2) of Arabidopsis thaliana is a B3 DNA-binding do...

Tsukagoshi, Hironaka; Morikami, Atsushi; Nakamura, Kenzo

170

INCUBATION TEMPERATURE AND EGGSHELL CONDUCTANCE EFFECTS ON THE INTESTINAL MATURATION AND THYROID FUNCTION IN COMMERCIAL TURKEY POULTS HATCHING FROM AN INDUCED MOLTED FLOCK  

Science.gov (United States)

Eggshell conductance (G) and egg white (EW) affect livability. Poor viability may be related to intestinal maturation and thyroid function of the neonate. The objectives of this study were to test if incubator temperature and G determine poult maturity. Maturation was assessed by measuring body w...

171

Early maturing mutations as germplasm stocks for barley breeding  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en]A total of 102 early maturing mutations have been isolated after various treatments of seeds or plants with ionizing radiations or chemicals from a barley cultivar 'Chikurin Ibaraki 1' or its mutants. Fifty of them were evaluated as regards responses to internal physiological factors. The mutants were found to have a mutational alteration in vernalization and/or photoperiodic response. Earliness in a narrow sense was not noticeably changed. The original genotype is a winter and long-day type. By mutation four different degrees of change in vernalization requirement i.e. complete (V1) and incomplete (V2) spring habit and winter habit with reduced requirement to varying degrees (V3, V4) have been produced. Photoperiodic response was also changed into at least three types i.e. complete (P1) and incomplete (P2) loss of sensitivity to short photoperiod and a slight reduction in critical daylength for heading. P1 and P2 type mutants were all characterized by marked earliness in heading time in field. Thirty seven mutants were located in seven separate loci. Allelism test of the mutated genes to spontaneous ones revealed that the genes carried by P1 type mutants were all allelic to an earliness gene ea sub(k) on chromosome 5 and the gene involved in P2 type mutants to ea7 on chromosome 6. On the contrary, the gene commonly involved in all V1 type mutants and one V2 type mutant was not allelic to spring habit gene Sh2 or Sh3. It seemed likely that the gene was not allelic to, either, but closely linked with sh on chromosome 4. The diversity in terms of genetic and physiological properties of the early maturing mutants arising from common ancestry emphasizes the importance of induced mutation in broadening of germplasm of barley breeding. (author)

1985-01-01

172

Nonsurgical technique for incomplete earlobe cleft repair.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

BACKGROUND: Earlobe cleft is a common problem caused by the wearing of jewelry or decorative objects. Incomplete earlobe clefts are usually bilateral and are often converted to complete clefts as part of the surgical repair procedure. OBJECTIVE: We present a nonsurgical procedure for incomplete earlobe cleft repair using trichloroacetic acid 90%. METHODS AND MATERIALS: We assessed 32 patients with a total of 53 earlobes to be noninvasively repaired. RESULTS: Complete treatment varied from 2 to 50 days, an average of 15 days between the first and last application of trichloroacetic acid 90%. No recurrences were observed during 1 year of follow-up. All of the clefts were totally repaired, and all of the patients were satisfied with the aesthetic results. CONCLUSIONS: Considering the surgical limitations, the noninvasive procedure described here may be considered to be a good option for incomplete earlobe cleft repair because of its good functional and cosmetic results, low cost, minimum risk, and easy application.

de Mendon蓷 MC; de Oliveira AR; Arajo JM; Silva Md; Gamonal A

2009-03-01

173

Heat Shock Proteins Regulate Activation-Induced Proteasomal Degradation of the Mature Phosphorylated Form of Protein Kinase C.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Although alterations in stimulus-induced degradation of PKC have been implicated in disease, mechanistic understanding of this process remains limited. Evidence supports the existence of both proteasomal and lysosomal mechanisms of PKC processing. An established pathway involves rate-limiting priming site dephosphorylation of the activated enzyme and proteasomal clearance of the dephosphorylated protein. However, here we show that agonists promote downregulation of endogenous PKC? with minimal accumulation of a non-phosphorylated species in multiple cell types. Furthermore, proteasome and lysosome inhibitors predominantly protect fully phosphorylated PKC?, pointing to this form as a substrate for degradation. Failure to detect substantive dephosphorylation of activated PKC? was not due to rephosphorylation since inhibition of Hsp70/Hsc70, which is required for re-priming, had only a minor effect on agonist-induced accumulation of non-phosphorylated protein. Thus, PKC degradation can occur in the absence of dephosphorylation. Further analysis revealed novel functions for Hsp70/Hsc70 and Hsp90 in control of agonist-induced PKC? processing. These chaperones help to maintain phosphorylation of activated PKC?, but have opposing effects on degradation of the phosphorylated protein: Hsp90 is protective, whereas Hsp70/Hsc70 activity is required for proteasomal processing of this species. Notably, downregulation of non-phosphorylated PKC? shows little Hsp70/Hsc70 dependence, arguing that phosphorylated and non-phosphorylated species are differentially targeted for proteasomal degradation. Finally, lysosomal processing of activated PKC? is not regulated by phosphorylation or Hsps. Collectively, these data demonstrate that phosphorylated PKC? is a direct target for agonist-induced proteasomal degradation via an Hsp-regulated mechanism, and highlight the existence of a novel pathway of PKC desensitization in cells.

Lum MA; Balaburski GM; Murphy ME; Black AR; Black JD

2013-07-01

174

Incomplete colonoscopy: maximizing completion rates of gastroenterologists.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

BACKGROUND: Cecal intubation is one of the goals of a quality colonoscopy; however, many factors increasing the risk of incomplete colonoscopy have been implicated. The implications of missed pathology and the demand on health care resources for return colonoscopies pose a conundrum to many physicians. The optimal course of action after incomplete colonoscopy is unclear. OBJECTIVES: To assess endoscopic completion rates of previously incomplete colonoscopies, the methods used to complete them and the factors that led to the previous incomplete procedure. METHODS: All patients who previously underwent incomplete colonoscopy (2005 to 2010) and were referred to St Paul's Hospital (Vancouver, British Columbia) were evaluated. Colonoscopies were re-attempted by a single endoscopist. Patient charts were reviewed retrospectively. RESULTS: A total of 90 patients (29 males) with a mean ( SD) age of 58 13.2 years were included in the analysis. Thirty patients (33%) had their initial colonoscopy performed by a gastroenterologist. Indications for initial colonoscopy included surveillance or screening (23%), abdominal pain (15%), gastrointestinal bleeding (29%), change in bowel habits or constitutional symptoms (18%), anemia (7%) and chronic diarrhea (8%). Reasons for incomplete colonoscopy included poor preparation (11%), pain or inadequate sedation (16%), tortuous colon (30%), diverticular disease (6%), obstructing mass (6%) and stricturing disease (10%). Reasons for incomplete procedures in the remaining 21% of patients were not reported by the referring physician. Eighty-seven (97%) colonoscopies were subsequently completed in a single attempt at the institution. Seventy-six (84%) colonoscopies were performed using routine manoeuvres, patient positioning and a variable-stiffness colonoscope (either standard or pediatric). A standard 160 or 180 series Olympus gastroscope (Olympus, Japan) was used in five patients (6%) to navigate through sigmoid diverticular disease; a pediatric colonoscope was used in six patients (7%) for similar reasons. Repeat colonoscopy on the remaining three patients (3%) failed: all three required surgery for strictures (two had obstructing malignant masses and one had a severe benign obstructing sigmoid diverticular stricture). CONCLUSION: Most patients with previous incomplete colonoscopy can undergo a successful repeat colonoscopy at a tertiary care centre with instruments that are readily available to most gastroenterologists. Other modalities for evaluation of the colon should be deferred until a second attempt is made at an expert centre.

Brahmania M; Park J; Svarta S; Tong J; Kwok R; Enns R

2012-09-01

175

CIMGS: An incomplete orthogonal factorization preconditioner  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This paper introduces, analyzes, and tests a preconditioning method for conjugate gradient (CG) type iterative methods. The authors start by examining incomplete Gram-Schmidt factorization (IGS) methods in order to motivate the new preconditioner. They show that the IGS family is more stable than IC, and they successfully factor any full rank matrix. Furthermore, IGS preconditioners are at least as effective in accelerating convergence of CG type iterative methods as the incomplete Cholesky (IC) preconditioner. The drawback of IGS methods are their high cost of factorization. This motivates finding a new algorithm, CIMGS, which can generate the same factor in a more efficient way.

Wang, X.; Bramley, R. [Indiana Univ., Bloomington, IN (United States); Gallivan, K. [Univ. of Illinois, Urbana, IL (United States)

1994-12-31

176

Quantum Stackelberg duopoly with incomplete information  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

We investigate the quantum version of the Stackelberg duopoly with incomplete information, especially how the quantum entanglement affects the first-mover advantage in the classical form. It is found that while positive entanglement enhances the first-mover advantage beyond the classical limit, the advantage is dramatically suppressed by negative entanglement. Moreover, despite that positive quantum entanglement improves the first-mover's tolerance for the informational incompleteness, the quantum effect does not change the basic fact that Firm A's lack of complete information of Firm B's unit cost is eradicating the first-mover advantage.

2005-10-10

177

Preconditioning by incomplete block cyclic reduction  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Iterative methods for solving linear systems arising from the discretization of elliptic/parabolic partial differential equations require the use of preconditioners to gain increased rates of convergence. Preconditioners arising from incomplete factorizations have been shown to be very effective. However, the recursiveness of these methods can offset these gains somewhat on a vector processor. In this paper, an incomplete factorization based on block cyclic reduction is developed. It is shown that under block diagonal dominance conditions the off-diagonal terms decay quadratically, yielding more effective algorithms.

Rodrigue, G.; Wolitzer, D.

1984-04-01

178

Preconditioning by incomplete block cyclic reduction  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Iterative methods for solving linear systems arising from the discretization of elliptic/parabolic partial differential equations require the use of pre-conditioners to gain increased rates of convergence. Preconditioners arising from incomplete factorizations have been shown to be very effective. However, the recursiveness of these methods can offset these gains somewhat on a parallel processor. In this paper, an incomplete factorization based on block cyclic reduction is developed. It is shown that under block diagonal dominance conditions the off-diagonal terms decay quadratically, yielding more effective algorithms.

Rodrigue, G.; Wolitzer, D.

1982-09-01

179

Adaptive schemes for incomplete quantum process tomography  

CERN Document Server

We propose an iterative algorithm for incomplete quantum process tomography, with the help of quantum state estimation, based on the combined principles of maximum-likelihood and maximum-entropy. The algorithm yields a unique estimator for an unknown quantum process when one has less than a complete set of linearly independent measurement data to specify the quantum process uniquely. We apply this iterative algorithm adaptively in various situations and so optimize the amount of resources required to estimate the quantum process with incomplete data.

Teo, Yong Siah; Rehacek, Jaroslav; Hradil, Zdenek

2011-01-01

180

Cochlear implant in incomplete partition type I.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

In this investigation, we report on 4 patients affected by incomplete partition type I submitted to cochlear implant at our institutions. Preoperative, surgical, mapping and follow-up issues as well as results in cases with this complex malformation are described. The cases reported in the present study confirm that cochlear implantation in patients with incomplete partition type I may be challenging for cochlear implant teams. The results are variable, but in many cases satisfactory, and are mainly related to the surgical placement of the electrode and residual neural nerve fibres. Moreover, in some cases the association of cochlear nerve abnormalities and other disabilities may significantly affect results.

Berrettini S; Forli F; De Vito A; Bruschini L; Quaranta N

2013-02-01

 
 
 
 
181

Metronomic administration of the drug GMX1777, a cellular NAD synthesis inhibitor, results in neuroblastoma regression and vessel maturation without inducing drug resistance.  

Science.gov (United States)

High-risk neuroblastoma is a rapidly growing tumor with a survival rate below 50%. A new treatment strategy is to administer chemotherapeutic drugs metronomically, i.e., at lower doses and frequent intervals. The aim of the study was to investigate the effects of GMX1777, a chemotherapeutic drug affecting cellular energy metabolism, in a mouse model for high-risk neuroblastoma. Female SCID mice were injected s.c. with MYCN-amplified human neuroblastoma cells and randomized to either treatment with GMX1777 or vehicle. In some animals, treatment was discontinued allowing tumor relapse. Treatment response was evaluated using the pediatric preclinical testing program (PPTP). Immunohistochemistry and qRT-PCR was performed on tumor cryosections to investigate the microscopic and molecular changes in tumors in response to GMX1777. Despite an increase in vessel density, tumor regression and a high group response score according to PPTP criteria was induced by GMX1777 without inducing drug resistance. Treatment resulted in inhibition of tumor cell proliferation, vessel maturation, reduced hypoxia, increased infiltration of MHC class II negative macrophages and expansion of the nonvascular stromal compartment. Decreased stromal VEGF-A and PDGF-B mRNA in response to treatment together with the structural data suggest a "deactivation" or "silencing" of the tumor stroma as a paracrine entity. In conclusion, GMX1777 was highly efficient against high-risk neuroblastoma xenografts through modulation of both the tumor cell and stromal compartment. PMID:20112275

Fuchs, Dieter; Rodriguez, Alejandro; Eriksson, Sara; Christofferson, Rolf; Sundberg, Christian; Azarbayjani, Faranak

2010-06-15

182

Comprehensive bounded asymptotic solutions for incomplete contacts in partial slip  

Science.gov (United States)

Solutions for the traction distributions and corresponding sub-surface state of stress adjacent to the edge of an incomplete contact suffering partial slip are found. The effects of frictional shakedown and a synchronously varying in-plane tension on the solution are found in closed form. The value of the asymptote, and its characterisation by just three independent parameters is illustrated by applying it to the finite problem of a rigid, tilted punch pressed onto a half-plane, and suffering partial slip induced by the application of in-plane tension.

Dini, D.; Sackfield, A.; Hills, D. A.

2005-02-01

183

Incomplete quantum state estimation: a comprehensive study  

CERN Multimedia

We present a detailed account of quantum state estimation by joint maximization of the likelihood and the entropy. After establishing the algorithms for both perfect and imperfect measurements, we apply the procedure to data from simulated and actual experiments. We demonstrate that the realistic situation of incomplete data from imperfect measurements can be handled successfully.

Teo, Yong Siah; Englert, Berthold-Georg; Rehacek, Jaroslav; Hradil, Zdenek

2012-01-01

184

Radiological incomplete thymus involution in systemic sclerosis.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

OBJECTIVE: Thymus plays a crucial role in immune system homeostasis, and thymic abnormalities have been previously reported in many autoimmune diseases, including SSc. The aim of this study is to evaluate the frequency of radiological thymus abnormalities in SSc patients and its relationship with various clinical and laboratory features. METHODS: Sixty-three female SSc patients (diffuse/limited: 49/14), all having pulmonary high-resolution CT (HRCT) scans, taken previously for evaluating lung involvement were included. At the time of the scans, mean age and disease duration of the patients were 50.1 +/- 8.5 and 10.2 +/- 7.8 years, respectively. As the control group, 45 age-matched female patients, having normal pulmonary HRCT scans taken previously for evaluating non-specific symptoms, were included. RESULTS: Frequency of incomplete thymus involution was significantly higher in SSc patients (12/63; 19%) compared with the control group (2/45; 4.4%; P = 0.022). In SSc patients with pulmonary fibrosis, incomplete thymus involution was significantly lower (3/38; 7.9%) than those without pulmonary fibrosis (9/25; 36%; P = 0.007). CONCLUSION: The present study shows significantly higher frequency of radiological incomplete thymus involution in SSc compared with normal controls. Furthermore, less common occurrence of pulmonary fibrosis in SSc patients with incomplete thymus involution deserves attention. These findings may have some implications regarding the possible role of thymic abnormalities at least in some patients with SSc.

Oksel F; Tarhan F; Bayraktaro?lu S; Sava? R; Yargucu F; Keser G

2009-07-01

185

Prune belly syndrome associated with incomplete VACTERL  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

A Prune Belly syndrome with VATER/VACTERL association is an extremely rare. They are either stillborn or die within few days of life, only few such cases have been reported in literature. We are presenting here a male neonate of Prune Belly syndrome associated with incomplete VACTERL with brief revi...

Ghritlaharey R; Gupta Gaurav; Kushwaha A; Chanchlani R

186

Prune belly syndrome associated with incomplete VACTERL  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available A Prune Belly syndrome with VATER/VACTERL association is an extremely rare. They are either stillborn or die within few days of life, only few such cases have been reported in literature. We are presenting here a male neonate of Prune Belly syndrome associated with incomplete VACTERL with brief review of literature.

Ghritlaharey R; Gupta Gaurav; Kushwaha A; Chanchlani R

2007-01-01

187

Inducers of G-protein coupled estrogen receptor (GPER) in endometriosis: potential implications for macrophages and follicle maturation.  

Science.gov (United States)

Endometriosis is an estrogen dependent chronic inflammation and thus a condition of stress. Though the G-protein coupled estrogen receptor (GPER) has been shown to be up-regulated in ovarian endometriosis, insights involved in inducing this receptor expression are largely elusive. Therefore, this study investigated whether stress-related factors (ACTH, prednisolone) or inflammatory factors (IL-1?, TNF?, and PGE(2)) factors may affect GPER. To further link GPER to endometriosis pathophysiology it was tracked in macrophages and follicles of endometriotic ovaries. This study found GPER expression to be modulated by stress-related hormones as well as inflammation and to be up-regulated in endometriosis-associated macrophages. At the same time, follicles of ovaries affected by endometriosis presented significantly reduced GPER positivity when compared to controls, suggesting a possible way by which endometriosis may affect folliculogenesis. The multiple roles of GPER as presented herein make it a promising future candidate for targeted molecular endometriosis treatment. PMID:23432876

Heublein, Sabine; Vrekoussis, Thomas; Kuhn, Christina; Friese, Klaus; Makrigiannakis, Antonis; Mayr, Doris; Lenhard, Miriam; Jeschke, Udo

2013-03-01

188

Inducers of G-protein coupled estrogen receptor (GPER) in endometriosis: potential implications for macrophages and follicle maturation.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Endometriosis is an estrogen dependent chronic inflammation and thus a condition of stress. Though the G-protein coupled estrogen receptor (GPER) has been shown to be up-regulated in ovarian endometriosis, insights involved in inducing this receptor expression are largely elusive. Therefore, this study investigated whether stress-related factors (ACTH, prednisolone) or inflammatory factors (IL-1?, TNF?, and PGE(2)) factors may affect GPER. To further link GPER to endometriosis pathophysiology it was tracked in macrophages and follicles of endometriotic ovaries. This study found GPER expression to be modulated by stress-related hormones as well as inflammation and to be up-regulated in endometriosis-associated macrophages. At the same time, follicles of ovaries affected by endometriosis presented significantly reduced GPER positivity when compared to controls, suggesting a possible way by which endometriosis may affect folliculogenesis. The multiple roles of GPER as presented herein make it a promising future candidate for targeted molecular endometriosis treatment.

Heublein S; Vrekoussis T; Kuhn C; Friese K; Makrigiannakis A; Mayr D; Lenhard M; Jeschke U

2013-03-01

189

Protective effects of melatonin and Glycyrrhiza glabra extract on ochratoxin A--induced damages on testes in mature rats.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The effect of Glycyrrhiza glabra extract (GgE) as a natural antioxidant and melatonin (MEL) on ochratoxin A (OTA)-induced histopathological damages on the testes and oxidative stress was evaluated in male rats. The animals were assigned into four groups (n = 8) including control and test groups. The rats in control group received saline and the animals in the test groups received (200 痢/kg) of OTA, (15 mg/kg) of MEL + (200 痢/kg) OTA and (100 mg/kg) of GgE + (200 痢/kg) OTA, respectively, during 28 consecutive days. The serum total antioxidant power (TAOP) and total thiol molecules (TTM) production were assessed. Moreover, histopathological and histochemical studies were also performed. The results showed that the TAOP and TTM were decreased in OTA-exposed rats, while the animals that received MEL + OTA or GgE + OTA showed an enhancement in the serum TAOP and TTM levels. Histopathological analyses demonstrated that in OTA-exposed rats, the testicular degeneration, seminiferous tubule atrophy, dissociation of germinative epithelium, vasodilatation with vascular thrombosis, perivascular immune cell infiltration, hypertrophied leydic cells, giant cell formation, and negative tubular differentiation index (TDI) were observed. Surprisingly, both the biochemical and histopathological examinations showed that MEL and GgE, albeit with some differences, exerted a protective effect on OTA-induced damages. In conclusion, this data suggest that OTA contamination in animal feeds and human foods could cause reproductive abnormalities. Our data also indicate that OTA, at least partly by interfering in oxidative stress system, exerts its toxic effects on testes whereas MEL and GgE with antioxidant properties could fairly protect rats against OTA toxic effects.

Malekinejad H; Mirzakhani N; Razi M; Cheraghi H; Alizadeh A; Dardmeh F

2011-02-01

190

Neutrophils induce the maturation of immature dendritic cells: a regulatory role of neutrophils in adaptive immune responses.  

Science.gov (United States)

Th1-type immune cytokines are essential to establish adaptive immunity against various microbial pathogens, including Escherichia coli, which cause most urinary tract infections (UTIs). Dendritic cells (DCs) are vital to initiate Th1 immunity, while neutrophils, also referred to here as polymorphonuclear leukocytes (PMN) are reported to be involved in Th1 immunity initiation by secreting several chemokines and cytokines. We found that lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-triggered PMN (LPS-PMN) in vitro induced strong up-regulation of DCs surface markers CD40, CD80, MHC-II (Iab), and CD86 either by secreting soluble factors, such as TNF-alpha, or by PMN-DC cellular contact. LPS-PMN also stimulated DCs to produce IL-12 and TNF-alpha. Furthermore, purified DCs activated by LPS-PMN were able to present specific antigen to T cells and drive Th1 differentiation by producing large amount of IFN-gamma but low amount of IL-4. Our results suggest a regulatory role of PMN for DCs function in adaptive immune responses, thereby providing a link between innate and adaptive immunity. PMID:17558715

Xiaoxiao, Wan; Sibiao, Yue; Xiaopeng, Xiong; Ping, Zheng; Gang, Chen

2007-01-01

191

Migration and differentiation of mouse embryonic stem cells transplanted into mature cochlea of rats with aminoglycoside-induced hearing loss.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

CONCLUSION: Mouse embryonic stem cells (ESCs) transplanted into the scala tympani are able to migrate in the cochlea of rats deafened with aminoglycoside and partly restore the structure of sensory epithelia of the inner ear. OBJECTIVES: To explore the migration and differentiation of enhanced green fluorescence protein (EGFP)-expressing ESCs by transplanting them into the scala tympani of rats with amikacin sulfate-induced hearing loss. METHODS: Adult Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats were deafened with amikacin sulfate. Mouse ESCs expressing EGFP (EGFP-ESCs) were transplanted into the scala tympani. The migration and differentiation were observed at different time points. RESULTS: EGFP-ESCs transplanted into normal cochlea did not migrate, but those in the amikacin-damaged cochlea could survive and migrate into the scala media and the vestibular cisterna. For the first time, we observed that the EGFP-ESCs migrated into the scala media, took the place of the organ of Corti, and formed a structure just like the cochlear tunnel. Some grafted stem cells even expressed myosin VIIa, the molecular marker of hair cells. Some nerve fibers reached to the bottom of the hair cell-like cells. The ESCs migrated into the vestibule and restored the sensory epithelia of the ampullary crest. The number of the transplanted ESCs reduced over the 6 week period of the study.

Zhao LD; Li L; Wu N; Li DK; Ren LL; Guo WW; Sun JH; Liu HZ; Chen ZT; Xing GQ; Yang SM

2013-02-01

192

Primary and secondary sexual characters in alternative reproductive tactics of Chinook salmon: Associations with androgens and the maturation-inducing steroid.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The proximate mechanisms that underlie the evolution of within-sex variation in mating behavior, sexual characters and reproductive investment patterns are still poorly understood. Species exhibiting alternative reproductive tactics (ARTs) are ideal model systems to examine these mechanisms. Chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) exhibits two distinct ARTs: hooknoses, which are large males that establish spawning dominance hierarchies via intense male-male competition and jacks, which are smaller precocious sneaking males that steal fertilizations via sperm competition. In this study, we examine plasma testosterone (T), 11-ketotestosterone (11-KT) and maturation-inducing steroid (MIS; 17?,20?-dihydroxy-4-pregnen-3-one) profiles of spawning hooknoses and jacks. Furthermore, we examine relationships between androgens and primary (gonad mass, gonadosomatic index and sperm traits) and secondary (total mass, body size, hump depth and kype length) sexual characters. Relationships between MIS and sperm traits are also examined. We found that hooknoses and jacks did not significantly differ in terms of plasma T, 11-KT or MIS concentrations. Moreover, we found significant positive relationships between levels of both androgens within each ART. There were no significant relationships between androgens, MIS and sperm traits. T and 11-KT concentrations co-varied positively with gonad investment and kype length in jacks. In hooknoses, 11-KT concentration was positively related to total mass, hump depth and condition factor. Overall, these findings suggest that there are differential androgen effects for each of the ARTs in Chinook salmon.

Butts IA; Love OP; Farwell M; Pitcher TE

2012-02-01

193

NKT cell-TCR expression activates conventional T cells in vivo, but is largely dispensable for mature NKT cell biology.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Natural killer T (NKT) cell development depends on recognition of self-glycolipids via their semi-invariant V?14i-TCR. However, to what extent TCR-mediated signals determine identity and function of mature NKT cells remains incompletely understood. To address this issue, we developed a mouse strain allowing conditional V?14i-TCR expression from within the endogenous Tcr? locus. We demonstrate that na鴳e T cells are activated upon replacement of their endogenous TCR repertoire with V?14i-restricted TCRs, but they do not differentiate into NKT cells. On the other hand, induced TCR ablation on mature NKT cells did not affect their lineage identity, homeostasis, or innate rapid cytokine secretion abilities. We therefore propose that peripheral NKT cells become unresponsive to and thus are independent of their autoreactive TCR.

Vahl JC; Heger K; Knies N; Hein MY; Boon L; Yagita H; Polic B; Schmidt-Supprian M

2013-06-01

194

NKT cell-TCR expression activates conventional T cells in vivo, but is largely dispensable for mature NKT cell biology.  

Science.gov (United States)

Natural killer T (NKT) cell development depends on recognition of self-glycolipids via their semi-invariant V?14i-TCR. However, to what extent TCR-mediated signals determine identity and function of mature NKT cells remains incompletely understood. To address this issue, we developed a mouse strain allowing conditional V?14i-TCR expression from within the endogenous Tcr? locus. We demonstrate that na鴳e T cells are activated upon replacement of their endogenous TCR repertoire with V?14i-restricted TCRs, but they do not differentiate into NKT cells. On the other hand, induced TCR ablation on mature NKT cells did not affect their lineage identity, homeostasis, or innate rapid cytokine secretion abilities. We therefore propose that peripheral NKT cells become unresponsive to and thus are independent of their autoreactive TCR. PMID:23853545

Vahl, J Christoph; Heger, Klaus; Knies, Nathalie; Hein, Marco Y; Boon, Louis; Yagita, Hideo; Polic, Bojan; Schmidt-Supprian, Marc

2013-06-18

195

NKT Cell-TCR Expression Activates Conventional T Cells in Vivo, but Is Largely Dispensable for Mature NKT Cell Biology  

Science.gov (United States)

Natural killer T (NKT) cell development depends on recognition of self-glycolipids via their semi-invariant V?14i-TCR. However, to what extent TCR-mediated signals determine identity and function of mature NKT cells remains incompletely understood. To address this issue, we developed a mouse strain allowing conditional V?14i-TCR expression from within the endogenous Tcr? locus. We demonstrate that na鴳e T cells are activated upon replacement of their endogenous TCR repertoire with V?14i-restricted TCRs, but they do not differentiate into NKT cells. On the other hand, induced TCR ablation on mature NKT cells did not affect their lineage identity, homeostasis, or innate rapid cytokine secretion abilities. We therefore propose that peripheral NKT cells become unresponsive to and thus are independent of their autoreactive TCR.

Vahl, J. Christoph; Heger, Klaus; Knies, Nathalie; Hein, Marco Y.; Boon, Louis; Yagita, Hideo; Polic, Bojan; Schmidt-Supprian, Marc

2013-01-01

196

Effect of stress during handling, seawater acclimation, confinement, and induced spawning on plasma ion levels and somatolactin-expressing cells in mature female Liza ramada.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The present experiments were designed to determine the effect of different stress factors; handling, seawater acclimation, confinement, and induced spawning on plasma cortisol, hydro mineral balance as well as changes in size, number and integrated intensity of somatolactin (SL)-expressing cells in Liza ramada mature females confined to fresh water ponds. The plasma levels of cortisol, PO(4)(3-), Na(+), and K(+) were higher, while Ca(2+) and Mg(2+) were lower than controls during transportation without anesthesia. By using clove oil (5 mg L(-1)) as an anesthetic during transportation, the plasma cortisol, PO(4) (3-), Na(+), and K(+) were similar to controls, while Ca(2+) and Mg(2+) were higher. During seawater acclimation, the plasma cortisol and minerals were significantly higher except Na(+) which was lower than controls. In addition, during induction of spawning, the plasma levels of cortisol, PO(4)(3-), Na(+), K(+), and Mg(2+) were significantly higher than controls. The SL-producing cells are located in the pars intermedia (PI) bordering the neurohypophysis. The stress affected the number, size, and immunostaining of SL-expressing cells. During seawater acclimation, the size and the integrated intensity of SL immunoreactivity were lower, but the number of these cells was higher than controls. Furthermore, the number, size, and the integrated intensity of SL immunoreactivity were significantly lower than controls during handling and after spawning, which was opposite to confinement. The response of SL-expressing cells in PI in parallel with changes in cortisol and hydro mineral balance induced by stress support the possible role of SL in the adaptive response of fish to stress.

Khalil NA; Hashem AM; Ibrahim AA; Mousa MA

2012-08-01

197

Real Options And Preemption Under Incomplete Information  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

This paper introduces incomplete information and preemption into an equilibriummodel of #rms facing real investment decisions. The optimal investmentstrategy may lie anywhere between the zero-NPV trigger level and the optimalstrategy of a monopolist, depending on the distribution of competitors' costsand the implied fear of preemption. Our model implies that the equity returnsof #rms which hold real options and are subject to preemption will containjumps and positiveskewness.JEL Nos.: D82, C73, G13.Keywords: Real Options, Preemption,Incomplete Information.#We thank participants in seminars at INSEAD, the LSE, UCLA, Birkbeck College, the Universitiesof Amsterdam, Cambridge, Durham, Oxford, Stockholm, Warwick, Vienna, the 1997 ColumbiaReal Options Conference and the 1997 EFA and AFA meetings for their comments and BernardDumas, Steven Grenadier, Marcus Miller and Anne Sibert, for valuable suggestions. This researchwas supported by the ESRC under grant R000234575...

Bart Lambrecht; William Perraudin

198

An incomplete factorization preconditioner for adaptive filtering  

Science.gov (United States)

A method for deriving an incomplete QR factorization preconditioner for adaptive filtering is proposed. The method combines a recursive inverse QR factorization with a dropping strategy. Inverse QR factorization is more efficient compared to conventional factorization methods in that it avoids direct computation of the inverse. By realizing the factorization using a series of Givens rotation, a direct calculation of the inverse Cholesky factor is possible through the use of matrix inversion lemma and some algebraic manipulation of the Givens parameters. A dropping strategy is designed to create sparseness in the inverse Cholesky factor therefore minimizing the computational complexity of the resulting algorithm. Simulation shows that the incomplete inverse Cholesky factor derived in this paper is able to reduce the spectral condition number of the autocorrelation matrix of the problem.

Ahmad, N. A.; Javed, S.

2012-09-01

199

Lossy Channel Games under Incomplete Information  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In this paper we investigate lossy channel games under incomplete information, where two players operate on a finite set of unbounded FIFO channels and one player, representing a system component under consideration operates under incomplete information, while the other player, representing the component's environment is allowed to lose messages from the channels. We argue that these games are a suitable model for synthesis of communication protocols where processes communicate over unreliable channels. We show that in the case of finite message alphabets, games with safety and reachability winning conditions are decidable and finite-state observation-based strategies for the component can be effectively computed. Undecidability for (weak) parity objectives follows from the undecidability of (weak) parity perfect information games where only one player can lose messages.

Rayna Dimitrova; Bernd Finkbeiner

2013-01-01

200

Pricing And Hedging In Incomplete Markets  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

We present a new approach for positioning, pricing, and hedging in incomplete markets, which bridges standard arbitrage pricing and expected utility maximization. Our approach for determining whether to undertake a particular position involves specifying a set of probability measures and associated floors which expected payoffs must exceed in order that the hedged and financed investment be acceptable. By assuming that the liquid assets are priced so that each portfolio of them has negative expected return under at least one measure, we derive a counterpart to the first fundamental theorem of asset pricing. We also derive a counterpart to the second fundamental theorem, which leads to unique derivative security pricing and hedging even though markets are incomplete. For products that are not spanned by the liquid assets of the economy, we show how our methodology provides more realistic bid-ask spreads.

Peter Carr; H Elyette Geman; B. Madan

 
 
 
 
201

Model for incomplete reconnection in sawtooth crashes.  

Science.gov (United States)

A model for incomplete reconnection in sawtooth crashes is presented. The reconnection inflow during the crash phase of sawteeth self-consistently convects the high pressure core toward the reconnection site, raising the pressure gradient there. Reconnection shuts off if the diamagnetic drift speed at the reconnection site exceeds a threshold, which may explain incomplete reconnection. The relaxation of magnetic shear after reconnection stops may explain the destabilization of ideal interchange instabilities reported previously. Proof-of-principle two-fluid simulations confirm this basic picture. Predictions of the model compare favorably to data from the Mega Ampere Spherical Tokamak. Applications to transport modeling of sawteeth are discussed. The results should apply across tokamaks, including ITER. PMID:22243083

Beidler, M T; Cassak, P A

2011-12-13

202

Model for Incomplete Reconnection in Sawtooth Crashes  

CERN Document Server

A model for incomplete reconnection in sawtooth crashes is presented. The reconnection inflow during the crash phase of sawteeth self-consistently convects the high pressure core toward the reconnection site, raising the pressure gradient there. Reconnection shuts off if the diamagnetic drift speed at the reconnection site exceeds a threshold, which may explain incomplete reconnection. The relaxation of magnetic shear after reconnection stops may explain the destabilization of ideal interchange instabilities reported previously. Proof-of-principle two-fluid simulations confirm this basic picture. Predictions of the model compare favorably to data from the Mega Ampere Spherical Tokamak. Applications to transport modeling of sawteeth are discussed. The results should apply across tokamaks, including ITER.

Beidler, Matthew T

2011-01-01

203

Model for incomplete reconnection in sawtooth crashes.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

A model for incomplete reconnection in sawtooth crashes is presented. The reconnection inflow during the crash phase of sawteeth self-consistently convects the high pressure core toward the reconnection site, raising the pressure gradient there. Reconnection shuts off if the diamagnetic drift speed at the reconnection site exceeds a threshold, which may explain incomplete reconnection. The relaxation of magnetic shear after reconnection stops may explain the destabilization of ideal interchange instabilities reported previously. Proof-of-principle two-fluid simulations confirm this basic picture. Predictions of the model compare favorably to data from the Mega Ampere Spherical Tokamak. Applications to transport modeling of sawteeth are discussed. The results should apply across tokamaks, including ITER.

Beidler MT; Cassak PA

2011-12-01

204

Stochastic approximation boosting for incomplete data problems.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Boosting is a powerful approach to fitting regression models. This article describes a boosting algorithm for likelihood-based estimation with incomplete data. The algorithm combines boosting with a variant of stochastic approximation that uses Markov chain Monte Carlo to deal with the missing data. Applications to fitting generalized linear and additive models with missing covariates are given. The method is applied to the Pima Indians Diabetes Data where over half of the cases contain missing values.

Sexton J; Laake P

2009-12-01

205

Incomplete discoid lateral meniscus: a case report.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The variations of lateral meniscus include pathologic entities which vary in size, shape and attachment. In this manuscript, we report a case of discoid lateral meniscus which was observed in an embalmed fetal cadaver. It was an incomplete variety of the discoid meniscus and observed on the right side knee. The clinical implication of this discoid meniscus has been emphasized along with the review of literature. The morphological and embryologic details of the discoid lateral menisci are discussed.

Murlimanju BV; Nair N; Ganesan S; Krishnamurthy A

2013-07-01

206

Quantum Mechanics: Incomplete and Non Local Theory  

CERN Multimedia

We will show for undergraduate and graduate students of physics that Quantum Mechanics is an incomplete and non-local theory. The problem of non-locality is discussed by analyzing the Bell's theorem where are considered correlations between measurements results performed on physical systems that are far apart, but that interacted in the past. The experimental violations of Bell's theorem show a very general result thatquantum phenomena are nonlocal and that, inevitably, Quantum Mechanics is non-local.

Cattani, M

2011-01-01

207

High performance liquid chromatographic separation of steroids from ovarian follicles of fresh water perch Anabas testudineus: identification and characterization of the maturation-inducing hormone.  

Science.gov (United States)

Accurate separation and identification of steroids from the postvitellogenic ovarian follicles of Indian climbing perch Anabas testudineus was performed by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) and specific radioimmunoassay (RIA). The steroids from such follicles, incubated in Cortland's saline with or without homologous fish pituitary extract (FPE), were extracted with dichloromethane and separated on a micro Bondapak C(18) column. Identification of the HPLC fractions was further confirmed by thin layer chromatography. As HPLC peaks for 17 alpha, 20 beta-dihydroxy-4-pregnen-3-one (DHP) and testosterone (T) were close, clear separation of these steroids and accurate measurement of their quantities was achieved by RIA of HPLC fractions using specific antibodies. Altogether, nine eluted fractions in the FPE-untreated and ten in FPE-treated samples were obtained. Of these, six were identified as: 5 beta-pregnan-3 alpha,17 alpha,20 beta-triol (5 beta-3 alpha,17 alpha,20 beta-P); DHP; T; 17 alpha-hydroxyprogesterone (17 alpha-P(4)); progesterone (P(4)); and androstenedione (AD). Three fractions from untreated and four from FPE-treated samples, however, remained unidentified. Of all the HPLC fractions examined for their relative maturational inducing (MI) potency on full grown (postvitellogenic) ovarian follicles of perch, the fraction identified as DHP was found to be the most effective inducer of germinal vesicle breakdown (GVBD) both at low and high concentrations. Fractions identified as 5 beta-3 alpha, 17 alpha, 20 beta-P and 17alpha-P(4) could induce only 32% and 20% GVBD at their highest concentration, while none of the unidentified fractions showed any MI activity. FPE caused increased production of DHP, testosterone, and 5 beta-3 alpha, 17 alpha, 20 beta-P. The qualitative differences between the fractions obtained from FPE-treated samples and those from FPE-untreated samples were only the appearance of a new polar metabolite of unknown function. The present study showed that, as a single steroid, DHP was the most potent MIH for A. testudineus. PMID:12115939

Bhattacharyya, Sanghamitra; Sen, Utpal; Bhattacharyya, Sachi Prasad; Mukherjee, Dilip

2002-05-01

208

High performance liquid chromatographic separation of steroids from ovarian follicles of fresh water perch Anabas testudineus: identification and characterization of the maturation-inducing hormone.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Accurate separation and identification of steroids from the postvitellogenic ovarian follicles of Indian climbing perch Anabas testudineus was performed by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) and specific radioimmunoassay (RIA). The steroids from such follicles, incubated in Cortland's saline with or without homologous fish pituitary extract (FPE), were extracted with dichloromethane and separated on a micro Bondapak C(18) column. Identification of the HPLC fractions was further confirmed by thin layer chromatography. As HPLC peaks for 17 alpha, 20 beta-dihydroxy-4-pregnen-3-one (DHP) and testosterone (T) were close, clear separation of these steroids and accurate measurement of their quantities was achieved by RIA of HPLC fractions using specific antibodies. Altogether, nine eluted fractions in the FPE-untreated and ten in FPE-treated samples were obtained. Of these, six were identified as: 5 beta-pregnan-3 alpha,17 alpha,20 beta-triol (5 beta-3 alpha,17 alpha,20 beta-P); DHP; T; 17 alpha-hydroxyprogesterone (17 alpha-P(4)); progesterone (P(4)); and androstenedione (AD). Three fractions from untreated and four from FPE-treated samples, however, remained unidentified. Of all the HPLC fractions examined for their relative maturational inducing (MI) potency on full grown (postvitellogenic) ovarian follicles of perch, the fraction identified as DHP was found to be the most effective inducer of germinal vesicle breakdown (GVBD) both at low and high concentrations. Fractions identified as 5 beta-3 alpha, 17 alpha, 20 beta-P and 17alpha-P(4) could induce only 32% and 20% GVBD at their highest concentration, while none of the unidentified fractions showed any MI activity. FPE caused increased production of DHP, testosterone, and 5 beta-3 alpha, 17 alpha, 20 beta-P. The qualitative differences between the fractions obtained from FPE-treated samples and those from FPE-untreated samples were only the appearance of a new polar metabolite of unknown function. The present study showed that, as a single steroid, DHP was the most potent MIH for A. testudineus.

Bhattacharyya S; Sen U; Bhattacharyya SP; Mukherjee D

2002-05-01

209

Correlation between Al(3+) -induced thermal stability and inhibition of fibrillation of N-terminal domain of the hydrogenase maturation factor.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Fibrillation can be induced in proteins by altering solvent conditions. Stabilization of the protofibrillar structure arrests formation of longer fibers. Thermal stability and fibrillation of N-terminal domain of the hydrogenase maturation factor (HypF-N) were studied in the presence of a series of metal ions. Only Al(3+) was able to reverse the thermal denaturation of HypF-N upon heating. On being exposed to denaturing conditions, the native protein formed fibrillar structure under moderately denaturing conditions, whereas in the presence of Al(3+) , the protein was found to retain its native conformation. Under strongly denaturing conditions, only Al(3+) was able to stabilize the protein in the fibrillar state. Spectrofluorimetric analysis revealed that Al(3+) alone was able to stabilize the partially unfolded intermediate state of HypF-N. Based on the similarity in observations, we propose a link between reversal of thermal instability of HypF-N and its ability to form an intermediate structure in the presence of Al(3+) . Al(3+) stabilizes the partially unfolded state in the N?I?U equilibrium so that upon heating, the three-dimensional structure of the protein is not lost completely. Kinetic analysis confirmed that Al(3+) interacts with an early structure on the aggregation landscape and delays fibrillation. Under mildly denaturing state, HypF-N is able to recover its native conformation in the presence of Al(3+) and under strongly denaturing conditions, the protein does not acquire a completely disordered structure. Instead, it forms an ordered ?-sheet-rich structure. 2013 BioFactors, 2013.

Sutariya NM; Prasad S; Athavale DA; Bhavsar RD; Roy I

2013-07-01

210

B lymphocyte-induced maturation protein 1 (BLIMP-1) attenuates autoimmune diabetes in NOD mice by suppressing Th1 and Th17 cells.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

AIMS/HYPOTHESIS: Recent reports indicate that B lymphocyte-induced maturation protein 1 (BLIMP-1), encoded by the Prdm1 gene, expands its control over T cells and is associated with susceptibility to colitis in mice with T cell-specific BLIMP-1 deficiency. In this study, we aimed to investigate the potential role of BLIMP-1 in regulating autoimmune diabetes and T helper type 17 (Th17) cells. METHODS: We generated T cell-specific Blimp1 (also known as Prdm1) transgenic (Tg) or conditional knockout (CKO) NOD mice, in which Blimp1 is overexpressed or deleted in T cells, respectively. By side-by-side analysing these Tg or CKO mice, we further dissected the potential mechanisms of BLIMP-1-mediated modulation on autoimmune diabetes. RESULTS: Overproduction of BLIMP-1 in T cells significantly attenuated insulitis and the incidence of diabetes in NOD mice. Consistent with these results, the diabetogenic effect of splenocytes was remarkably impaired in Blimp1 Tg mice. Moreover, overproduction of BLIMP-1 repressed the proliferation and activation of lymphocytes and enhanced the function of regulatory T cells (Tregs) in NOD mice. In contrast, mice lacking BLIMP-1 in T cells markedly increased Th1 and Th17 cells, and developed highly proliferative and activated lymphocytes. Strikingly, overexpansion of Th1 and Th17 cells in CKO mice was significantly reduced by introducing a Blimp1 transgene, reinforcing the emerging role of BLIMP-1 in autoimmunity. CONCLUSIONS/INTERPRETATION: We conclude that BLIMP-1 orchestrates a T cell-specific modulation of autoimmunity by affecting lymphocyte proliferation and activation, Th1 and Th17 cell differentiation, and Treg function. Our results provide a theoretical basis for developing BLIMP-1-manipulated therapies for autoimmune diabetes.

Lin MH; Chou FC; Yeh LT; Fu SH; Chiou HY; Lin KI; Chang DM; Sytwu HK

2013-01-01

211

Molecular mechanism of oocyte maturation.  

Science.gov (United States)

Maturation of vertebrate oocytes is regulated by maturation inducing hormone (MIH), which is progesterone in all vertebrates except in fish, where it is 17alpha, 20beta dihydroxy progesterone. Once the full growth of the oocytes is achieved, they arrest at prophase of meiosis I. MIH releases oocytes from this arrest. MIH promotes the formation of a dimeric protein kinase complex known as maturation promoting factor (MPF), the regulatory component of which is cyclin B and the catalytic component is cell division cycle (Cdc2) kinase. This complex is activated by phosphorylation at Thrl61 but remains inactive due to the inhibitory phosphorylation at Thrl4 and Tyrl5. MIH stimulates Cdc25, a dual specific phosphatase, that dephosphorylates both Thrl4 and Tyrl5 and converts pre- or inactive MPF to active MPF. Germinal vesicle break down (GVBD) is the marker of oocyte maturation. In an Indian freshwater perch, Anabas testudineus, MIH induced GVBD between 18-20 h. MIH induced oocytes extract in SDS-PAGE showed over-expression of a 30 kDa protein, which is confirmed to be cyclin B by using both monoclonal and polyclonal anti-cyclin B antibodies from various sources. The size of cyclin B in other vertebrates including mammals lies between 46-55 kDa. We have cloned cyclin B gene from perch oocyte and found it to contain the domains required for its function and immunological recognition. We also cloned Cdkl gene, which is very similar to other vertebrates Cdkl. Perch oocyte Cdc25 is overexpressed prior to GVBD converting inactive MPF to active MPF that affect GVBD. The objective of this overview is to deal with the molecular regulation of MPF activation which causes final maturation of oocytes. PMID:17566260

Bhattacharya, Samir; Basu, Dipanjan; Ak, Navneet; Priyadarshini, Anamika

2007-01-01

212

Molecular mechanism of oocyte maturation.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Maturation of vertebrate oocytes is regulated by maturation inducing hormone (MIH), which is progesterone in all vertebrates except in fish, where it is 17alpha, 20beta dihydroxy progesterone. Once the full growth of the oocytes is achieved, they arrest at prophase of meiosis I. MIH releases oocytes from this arrest. MIH promotes the formation of a dimeric protein kinase complex known as maturation promoting factor (MPF), the regulatory component of which is cyclin B and the catalytic component is cell division cycle (Cdc2) kinase. This complex is activated by phosphorylation at Thrl61 but remains inactive due to the inhibitory phosphorylation at Thrl4 and Tyrl5. MIH stimulates Cdc25, a dual specific phosphatase, that dephosphorylates both Thrl4 and Tyrl5 and converts pre- or inactive MPF to active MPF. Germinal vesicle break down (GVBD) is the marker of oocyte maturation. In an Indian freshwater perch, Anabas testudineus, MIH induced GVBD between 18-20 h. MIH induced oocytes extract in SDS-PAGE showed over-expression of a 30 kDa protein, which is confirmed to be cyclin B by using both monoclonal and polyclonal anti-cyclin B antibodies from various sources. The size of cyclin B in other vertebrates including mammals lies between 46-55 kDa. We have cloned cyclin B gene from perch oocyte and found it to contain the domains required for its function and immunological recognition. We also cloned Cdkl gene, which is very similar to other vertebrates Cdkl. Perch oocyte Cdc25 is overexpressed prior to GVBD converting inactive MPF to active MPF that affect GVBD. The objective of this overview is to deal with the molecular regulation of MPF activation which causes final maturation of oocytes.

Bhattacharya S; Basu D; Ak N; Priyadarshini A

2007-01-01

213

Extensive Generalization of Statistical Mechanics Based on Incomplete Information Theory  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Statistical mechanics is generalized on the basis of an additive information theory for incomplete probability distributions. The incomplete normalization is used to obtain generalized entropy . The concomitant incomplete statistical mechanics is applied to some physical systems in order to show the effect of the incompleteness of information. It is shown that this extensive generalized statistics can be useful for the correlated electron systems in weak coupling regime.

Qiuping A. Wang

2003-01-01

214

Pluripotent stem cells from maturing oocytes.  

Science.gov (United States)

Abstract Embryonic stem cells are mostly derived from mature oocytes that were either fertilized or activated parthenogenetically and then reached the blastocyst stage. From the cell cycle perspective, fertilization or activation induces the exit from meiosis, decondensation of oocyte chromosomes, and the entry into mitosis. Decondensation of oocyte chromatin with subsequent formation of nuclei can be, however, induced at any postgerminal vesicle breakdown meiotic maturation stage. In this article, we discuss the possibility of cleavage of transformed maturing oocytes and whether they can reach the blastocyst stage, from which pluripotent stem cell lines could be derived. PMID:23961764

Langerova, Alena; Fulka, Helena; Fulka, Josef

2013-08-20

215

Pluripotent stem cells from maturing oocytes.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Abstract Embryonic stem cells are mostly derived from mature oocytes that were either fertilized or activated parthenogenetically and then reached the blastocyst stage. From the cell cycle perspective, fertilization or activation induces the exit from meiosis, decondensation of oocyte chromosomes, and the entry into mitosis. Decondensation of oocyte chromatin with subsequent formation of nuclei can be, however, induced at any postgerminal vesicle breakdown meiotic maturation stage. In this article, we discuss the possibility of cleavage of transformed maturing oocytes and whether they can reach the blastocyst stage, from which pluripotent stem cell lines could be derived.

Langerova A; Fulka H; Fulka J Jr

2013-10-01

216

Incomplete Cholesky factorizations with limited memory  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The authors propose an incomplete Cholesky factorization for the solution of large-scale trust region subproblems and positive definite systems of linear equations. This factorization depends on a parameter p that specifies the amount of additional memory (in multiples of n the dimension of the problem) that is available; there is no need to specify a drop tolerance. The numerical results show that the number of conjugate gradient iterations and the computing time are reduced dramatically for small values of p. They also show that in contrast with drop tolerance strategies, the new approach is more stable in terms of number of iterations and memory requirements.

Lin, C.J.; More, J.J.

1999-09-01

217

Generalized Bayesian updating of incompletely specified distributions  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This paper discusses methods for performing Bayesian-type inference on large but incompletely specified multi-variate binary distributions. The inference mechanism preserves the information contained in any known correlations among events, does not require disjoint events, and reduces to Bayes rule in any situation where this rule could be applied. Applications of the methods are shown to the expert systems paradigm of artificial intelligence and to the Bayesian hierarchical inference paradigm of decision theory. The results constitute a theoretical foundation and provide a calculus for dealing with sets of component marginal distributions from an unknown larger distribution so as to provide a theoretically justified method of inference. 11 references.

Lemmer, J.F.

1983-08-01

218

Goedel incompleteness theorems and the limits of their applicability. I  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This is a survey of results related to the Goedel incompleteness theorems and the limits of their applicability. The first part of the paper discusses Goedel's own formulations along with modern strengthenings of the first incompleteness theorem. Various forms and proofs of this theorem are compared. Incompleteness results related to algorithmic problems and mathematically natural examples of unprovable statements are discussed. Bibliography: 68 titles.

2011-01-25

219

A sea urchin lectin, SUL-1, from the Toxopneustid sea urchin induces DC maturation from human monocyte and drives Th1 polarization in vitro  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The sea urchin Toxopneustes pileolus belonging to the family Toxopneustidae, they have well-developed globiferous pedicellariae with pharmacologically active substances. We have purified a novel sea urchin lectin-1 (SUL-1) from the large globiferous pedicellariae of T. pileolus. Dendritic cells (DC) are professional APC and play a pivotal role in controlling immune responses. This study investigated whether SUL-1 can drive DC maturation from human immature monocyte-derived DC in vitro. Human monocytes were cultured with GM-CSF and IL-4 for 6 days followed by another 1 day in the presence of SUL-1 or LPS. DC harvested on day 7 were examined using functional assays. The expression levels of CD1a, CD80, CD83, CD86 and HLA-DR as expressed by mean fluorescence intensity (MFI) on DC differentiated from immature DC after culture with 1.0 ?g/ml of SUL-1 for 1 day were enhanced and decreased endocytic activity. SUL-1-treated DC also displayed enhanced T cell stimulatory capacity in an MLR, as measured by T cell proliferation. Cell surface expression of CD80, CD83 and CD86 on SUL-1-treated DC was inhibited by anti-DC-SIGN mAb, while anti-DC-SIGN mAb had no influence on allogeneic T cell proliferation by SUL-1-treated DC. DC differentiated with SUL-1 induced the differentiation of naive T cell towards a helper T cell type 1 (Th1) response at DC/T (1:5) cells ratio depending on IL-12 secretion. In CTL assay, the production of IFN-? and 51Cr release on SUL-1-treated DC were more augmented than of immature DC or LPS-treated DC. SUL-1-treated DC expressed CCR7 and had a high migration to MIP-3?. Intracellular Ca2+ mobilization in SUL-1-treated DC was also induced by MIP-3?. These results suggest that SUL-1 bindings to DC-SIGN on surface of immature DC may lead to differentiate DC from immature DC. Moreover, it suggests that SUL-1 may be used on DC-based vaccines for cancer immunotherapy

2006-05-15

220

Short-term immobilization-induced cancellous bone loss is limited to regions undergoing high turnover and/or modeling in mature rats.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Estrogen and calcium deficiencies increase both bone resorption and formation, whereas immobilization mainly decreases bone formation. How these functionally different risk factors for bone loss interact in cancellous bone undergoing modeling or remodeling activity is not well understood. Mature (6-month-old) female rats were subjected to sham operation (sham), ovariectomy (ovx), dietary calcium deficiency (LoCa, 0.1% Ca), and sciatic and femoral denervation (IM), ovx+IM, or LoCa+IM for 4 weeks. The primary spongiosa, the region of active modeling within 1 mm of the growth plate, in ovx, LoCa, and IM groups showed a decrease in cancellous bone volume, trabecular number, and connectivity when compared to sham controls. Groups combining two risk factors exhibited additive changes when compared with single risk factor groups. In the secondary spongiosa, an area with little modeling activity, ovx and LoCa groups, as expected, lost bone. In contrast with the primary spongiosa, IM alone did not induce bone loss in the secondary spongiosa, and the groups with a combination of IM and ovx or IM and LoCa showed a greater bone loss than either ovx or LoCa alone. Ovx and LoCa groups showed increases in both bone formation rate and eroded surface in the secondary spongiosa, while IM groups showed a decrease in bone formation rate. Combining IM with either ovx or LoCa resulted in increased eroded surface. The effects on cortical bone were assessed at the tibio-fibular junction. A trend toward decreased percentage of cortical bone area and an increase in marrow cavity area were observed in the combined deficiency groups only. These changes were the result of a statistically significant increase in endosteal eroded surface in IM+ovx and IM+LoCa groups. Our results demonstrate that immobilization-induced bone loss is restricted to the primary spongiosa where most modeling events occur. However, the inhibitory effect of IM on bone formation in the secondary spongiosa is unmasked in remodeling sites when a high turnover state is provided by either estrogen or dietary calcium deficiency. These results suggest that the presence of a risk factor, such as immobilization, which in the short-term causes inhibition of bone formation, does not predispose the skeleton to rapid cancellous bone loss except when accompanied by modeling or high turnover.

Shen V; Liang XG; Birchman R; Wu DD; Healy D; Lindsay R; Dempster DW

1997-07-01

 
 
 
 
221

N-glycan maturation is crucial for cytokinin-mediated development and cellulose synthesis in Oryza sativa.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

To explore the physiological significance of N-glycan maturation in the plant Golgi apparatus, gnt1, a mutant with loss of N-acetylglucosaminyltransferase I (GnTI) function, was isolated in Oryza sativa. gnt1 exhibited complete inhibition of N-glycan maturation and accumulated high-mannose N-glycans. Phenotypic analyses revealed that gnt1 shows defective post-seedling development and incomplete cell wall biosynthesis, leading to symptoms such as failure in tiller formation, brittle leaves, reduced cell wall thickness, and decreased cellulose content. The developmental defects of gnt1 ultimately resulted in early lethality without transition to the reproductive stage. However, callus induced from gnt1 seeds could be maintained for periods, although it exhibited a low proliferation rate, small size, and hypersensitivity to salt stress. Shoot regeneration and dark-induced leaf senescence assays indicated that the loss of GnTI function results in reduced sensitivity to cytokinin in rice. Reduced expression of A-type O.sativa response regulators that are rapidly induced by cytokinins in gnt1 confirmed that cytokinin signaling is impaired in the mutant. These results strongly support the proposed involvement of N-glycan maturation in transport as well as in the function of membrane proteins that are synthesized via the endomembrane system.

Fanata WI; Lee KH; Son BH; Yoo JY; Harmoko R; Ko KS; Ramasamy NK; Kim KH; Oh DB; Jung HS; Kim JY; Lee SY; Lee KO

2013-03-01

222

The Impact of Incomplete Information on Games in Parallel Relay Networks  

CERN Multimedia

We consider the impact of incomplete information on incentives for node cooperation in parallel relay networks with one source node, one destination node, and multiple relay nodes. All nodes are selfish and strategic, interested in maximizing their own profit instead of the social welfare. We consider the practical situation where the channel state on any given relay path is not observable to the source or to the other relays. We examine different bargaining relationships between the source and the relays, and propose a framework for analyzing the efficiency loss induced by incomplete information. We analyze the source of the efficiency loss, and quantify the amount of inefficiency which results.

Xiao, Hongda

2011-01-01

223

Querying Incomplete Data over Extended ER Schemata  

CERN Multimedia

Since Chen's Entity-Relationship (ER) model, conceptual modeling has been playing a fundamental role in relational data design. In this paper we consider an extended ER (EER) model enriched with cardinality constraints, disjointness assertions, and is-a relations among both entities and relationships. In this setting, we consider the case of incomplete data, which is likely to occur, for instance, when data from different sources are integrated. In such a context, we address the problem of providing correct answers to conjunctive queries by reasoning on the schema. Based on previous results about decidability of the problem, we provide a query answering algorithm that performs rewriting of the initial query into a recursive Datalog query encoding the information about the schema. We finally show extensions to more general settings.

Cali, Andrea

2010-01-01

224

Optimal maintenance policies in incomplete repair models  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

We consider an incomplete repair model, that is, the impact of repair is not minimal as in the homogeneous Poisson process and not 'as good as new' as in renewal processes but lies between these boundary cases. The repairs are assumed to impact the failure intensity following a virtual age process of the general form proposed by Kijima. In previous works field data from an industrial setting were used to fit several models. In most cases the estimated rate of occurrence of failures was that of an underlying exponential distribution of the time between failures. In this paper, it is shown that there exist maintenance schedules under which the failure behavior of the failure-repair process becomes a homogeneous Poisson process.

Kahle, Waltraud [Institute of Mathematical Stochastics, Otto-von-Guericke-University, D-39016 Magdeburg (Germany)]. E-mail: waltraud.kahle@mathematik.uni-magdeburg.de

2007-05-15

225

On Dirac's incomplete analysis of gauge transformations  

CERN Document Server

Dirac's approach to gauge symmetries is discussed. We follow closely the steps that led him from his conjecture concerning the generators of gauge transformations {\\it at a given time} --to be contrasted with the common view of gauge transformations as maps from solutions of the equations of motion into other solutions-- to his decision to artificially modify the dynamics, substituting the extended Hamiltonian (including all first-class constraints) for the total Hamiltonian (including only the primary first-class constraints). We show in detail that Dirac's analysis was incomplete and, in completing it, we prove that the fulfilment of Dirac's conjecture --in the "non-pathological" cases-- does not imply any need to modify the dynamics. We give a couple of simple but significant examples.

Pons, J M

2004-01-01

226

Regulatory perspective on incomplete control rod insertions  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The incomplete control rod insertions experienced at South Texas Unit 1 and Wolf Creek are of safety concern to the NRC staff because they represent potential precursors to loss of shutdown margin. Even before it was determined if these events were caused by the control rods or by the fuel there was an apparent correlation of the problem with high burnup fuel. It was determined that there was also a correlation between high burnup and high drag forces as well as with rod drop time histories and lack of rod recoil. The NRC staff initial actions were aimed at getting a perspective on the magnitude of the problem as far as the number of plants and the amount of fuel that could be involved, as well as the safety significance in terms of shutdown margin. As tests have been performed and data has been analyzed the focus has shifted more toward understanding the problem and the ways to eliminate it. At this time the staff`s understanding of the phenomena is that it was a combination of factors including burnup, power history and temperature. The problem appears to be very sensitive to these factors, the interaction of which is not clearly understood. The model developed by Westinghouse provides a possible explanation but there is not sufficient data to establish confidence levels and sensitivity studies involving the key parameters have not been done. While several fixes to the problem have been discussed, no definitive fixes have been proposed. Without complete understanding of the phenomena, or fixes that clearly eliminate the problem the safety concern remains. The safety significance depends on the amount of shutdown margin lost due to incomplete insertion of the control rods. Were the control rods to stick high in the core, the reactor could not be shutdown by the control rods and other means such as emergency boration would be required.

Chatterton, M.

1997-01-01

227

The maturation-inducing hormone 17alpha,20beta-dihydroxy-4-pregnen-3-one regulates gene expression of inhibin betaA and bambi (bone morphogenetic protein and activin-membrane-bound inhibitor) in the rainbow trout ovary.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Transforming growth factor-beta (TGFbeta) superfamily members are important paracrine and autocrine regulators of ovarian development and steroidogenesis in mammals and birds, but their reproductive roles in fish are not well understood. The activin system, Tgfb, and bone morphogenetic protein 15 (Bmp15) participate in the regulation of follicle maturation in some fish species. In addition, transcript levels of TGFbeta superfamily members and their inhibitor, bambi (bmp and activin-membrane-bound inhibitor), change in the rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) ovary during reproductive development including the transition from vitellogenesis to follicle maturation. The objective of the present study was to determine if the maturation-inducing hormone (MIH) in trout, 17alpha,20beta-dihydroxy-4-pregnen-3-one, regulates gene expression of TGFbeta superfamily members and their inhibitors. Transcript levels of inhibin beta(A) subunit (inhba) were increased and bambi decreased in isolated follicles incubated overnight without hormones compared to abundance in freshly excised tissues from the same fish, suggesting systemic factors influenced transcript abundance. Incubation with MIH decreased inhba and increased bambi expression in a dose-dependant manner and MIH was the most potent steroid examined. The transcripts' responses to incubation with and without MIH were observed in maturationally competent follicles, which are follicles competent to resume meiosis in response to MIH, and incompetent follicles, although the responses to MIH were greater in competent follicles. In summary, MIH regulates inhba and bambi expression in a stage specific manner supporting a role for MIH regulation of the TGFbeta superfamily system and participation of the TGFbeta superfamily system in the regulation of follicle maturation in rainbow trout.

Lankford SE; Weber GM

2010-09-01

228

Induction of complete and incomplete chromosome aberrations by bleomycin in human lymphocytes  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Bleomycin (BLM) is a clastogenic compound, which due to the overdispersion in the cell distribution of induced dicentrics has been compared to the effect of high-LET radiation. Recently, it has been described that in fibroblast derived cell lines BLM induces incomplete chromosome elements more efficiently than any type of ionizing radiation. The objective of the present study was to evaluate in human lymphocytes the induction of dicentrics and incomplete chromosome elements by BLM. Peripheral blood samples have been treated with different concentrations of BLM. Two cytogenetic techniques were applied, fluorescence plus Giemsa (FPG) and FISH using pan-centromeric and pan-telomeric probes. The observed frequency of dicentric equivalents increases linearly with the BLM concentration, and for all BLM concentrations the distribution of dicentric equivalents was overdispersed. In the FISH study the ratio between total incomplete elements and multicentrics was 0.27. The overdispersion in the dicentric cell distribution, and the linear BLM-concentration dependence of dicentrics can be compared to the effect of high-LET radiation, on the contrary the ratio of incomplete elements and multicentrics is similar to the one induced by low-LET radiation ({approx}0.40). The elevated proportion of interstitial deletions in relation to total acentric fragments, higher than any type of ionizing radiation could be a characteristic signature of the clastogenic effect of BLM.

Benkhaled, L.; Xuncla, M.; Caballin, M.R. [Universitat Autonoma de Barcelona, Unitat d' Antropologia Biologica, Departament de Biologia Animal, Biologia Vegetal i Ecologia, E-08193 Bellaterra (Spain); Barrios, L. [Universitat Autonoma de Barcelona, Unitat de Biologia Cel.lular, Departament de Biologia Cel.lular, Fisiologia i Immunologia (Spain); Barquinero, J.F. [Universitat Autonoma de Barcelona, Unitat d' Antropologia Biologica, Departament de Biologia Animal, Biologia Vegetal i Ecologia, E-08193 Bellaterra (Spain)], E-mail: Francesc.Barquinero@uab.es

2008-01-01

229

Induction of complete and incomplete chromosome aberrations by bleomycin in human lymphocytes  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Bleomycin (BLM) is a clastogenic compound, which due to the overdispersion in the cell distribution of induced dicentrics has been compared to the effect of high-LET radiation. Recently, it has been described that in fibroblast derived cell lines BLM induces incomplete chromosome elements more efficiently than any type of ionizing radiation. The objective of the present study was to evaluate in human lymphocytes the induction of dicentrics and incomplete chromosome elements by BLM. Peripheral blood samples have been treated with different concentrations of BLM. Two cytogenetic techniques were applied, fluorescence plus Giemsa (FPG) and FISH using pan-centromeric and pan-telomeric probes. The observed frequency of dicentric equivalents increases linearly with the BLM concentration, and for all BLM concentrations the distribution of dicentric equivalents was overdispersed. In the FISH study the ratio between total incomplete elements and multicentrics was 0.27. The overdispersion in the dicentric cell distribution, and the linear BLM-concentration dependence of dicentrics can be compared to the effect of high-LET radiation, on the contrary the ratio of incomplete elements and multicentrics is similar to the one induced by low-LET radiation (?0.40). The elevated proportion of interstitial deletions in relation to total acentric fragments, higher than any type of ionizing radiation could be a characteristic signature of the clastogenic effect of BLM.

2008-01-01

230

Polyamine-induced modulation of genes involved in ethylene biosynthesis and signalling pathways and nitric oxide production during olive mature fruit abscission  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

After fruit ripening, many fruit-tree species undergo massive natural fruit abscission. Olive (Olea europaea L.) is a stone-fruit with cultivars such as Picual (PIC) and Arbequina (ARB) which differ in mature fruit abscission potential. Ethylene (ET) is associated with abscission, but its role durin...

Parra-Lobato, Maria C.; Gomez-Jimenez, Maria C.

231

Management of incomplete abortions at South African public hospitals. National Incomplete Abortion Study Reference Group.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

OBJECTIVE: The objective of this report was to review and describe the management of incomplete abortion by public sector hospitals. DESIGN: A descriptive study in which data were collected prospectively from routine hospital records on all women admitted with incomplete abortion to a stratified random sample of hospitals between 14 and 28 September 1994. SETTING: Public sector hospitals in South Africa. PATIENTS: Women with incomplete abortions. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Length of hospital stay, details of medical management, details of surgical management, determinants of the above. MAIN RESULTS: Data were collected on 803 patients from the 56 participating hospitals. Of these, 767 (95.9%) were in hospital for 1 day or more, and 753 (95.3%) women underwent evacuation of the uterus. Sharp curettage was the method employed in 726 (96.9%) and general anaesthesia was used for 601 (68%) of the women requiring uterine evacuation. Antibiotics were prescribed for 396 (49.5%) and blood transfusions were administered to 125 (17%) women. Statistical analysis showed length of stay to be longer in small hospitals (under 500 beds) and when the medical condition was more severe. Antibiotic usage and blood transfusion were more common with increasing severity and a low haemoglobin level on admission. However, some inappropriate management was identified with regard to both. MAIN CONCLUSIONS: It is suggested that uncomplicated incomplete abortion can be more effectively and safely managed using the manual vacuum aspiration technique with sedation/analgesia as an outpatient procedure. Attention should be directed at the introduction of this management routine at all types of hospital and to the ensuring of appropriate management of women with complicated abortion.

Fawcus S; McIntyre J; Jewkes RK; Rees H; Katzenellenbogen JM; Shabodien R; Lombard CJ; Truter H

1997-04-01

232

Gibbs' theorem for open systems with incomplete statistics  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Gibbs' theorem, which is originally intended for canonical ensembles with complete statistics has been generalized to open systems with incomplete statistics. As a result of this generalization, it is shown that the stationary equilibrium distribution of inverse power law form associated with the incomplete statistics has maximum entropy even for open systems with energy or matter influx. The renormalized entropy definition given in this paper can also serve as a measure of self-organization in open systems described by incomplete statistics.

2009-10-15

233

Goedel incompleteness theorems and the limits of their applicability. I  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This is a survey of results related to the Goedel incompleteness theorems and the limits of their applicability. The first part of the paper discusses Goedel's own formulations along with modern strengthenings of the first incompleteness theorem. Various forms and proofs of this theorem are compared. Incompleteness results related to algorithmic problems and mathematically natural examples of unprovable statements are discussed. Bibliography: 68 titles.

Beklemishev, Lev D [Steklov Mathematical Institute, Russian Academy of Sciences, Moscow (Russian Federation)

2011-01-25

234

The effect of incomplete information on the compromise effect  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Most research on the compromise effect focuses on how consumers make their decisions in a complete information scenario; however, consumers generally lack sufficient information when they make purchase decisions. This research aims to explore the compromise effect with incomplete information. Three studies were conducted to examine the research hypotheses. The main findings was that consumers are more likely to choose the middle option when they have incomplete information than when they have complete information. Further, the compromise effect decreases when consumers can choose to defer their decision in an incomplete information scenario. Finally, the compromise effect decreases when consumers are asked to infer missing attribute values from the incomplete information.

Shih-Chieh Chuang; Danny Tengti Kao; Yin-Hui Cheng; Chu-An Chou

2012-01-01

235

Scalable Tensor Factorizations for Incomplete Data  

CERN Multimedia

The problem of incomplete data - i.e., data with missing or unknown values - in multi-way arrays is ubiquitous in biomedical signal processing, network traffic analysis, bibliometrics, social network analysis, chemometrics, computer vision, communication networks, etc. We consider the problem of how to factorize data sets with missing values with the goal of capturing the underlying latent structure of the data and possibly reconstructing missing values (i.e., tensor completion). We focus on one of the most well-known tensor factorizations that captures multi-linear structure, CANDECOMP/PARAFAC (CP). In the presence of missing data, CP can be formulated as a weighted least squares problem that models only the known entries. We develop an algorithm called CP-WOPT (CP Weighted OPTimization) that uses a first-order optimization approach to solve the weighted least squares problem. Based on extensive numerical experiments, our algorithm is shown to successfully factorize tensors with noise and up to 99% missing d...

Acar, Evrim; Dunlavy, Daniel M; Morup, Morten

2010-01-01

236

Analyzing Incomplete Discrete Longitudinal Clinical Trial Data  

CERN Multimedia

Commonly used methods to analyze incomplete longitudinal clinical trial data include complete case analysis (CC) and last observation carried forward (LOCF). However, such methods rest on strong assumptions, including missing completely at random (MCAR) for CC and unchanging profile after dropout for LOCF. Such assumptions are too strong to generally hold. Over the last decades, a number of full longitudinal data analysis methods have become available, such as the linear mixed model for Gaussian outcomes, that are valid under the much weaker missing at random (MAR) assumption. Such a method is useful, even if the scientific question is in terms of a single time point, for example, the last planned measurement occasion, and it is generally consistent with the intention-to-treat principle. The validity of such a method rests on the use of maximum likelihood, under which the missing data mechanism is ignorable as soon as it is MAR. In this paper, we will focus on non-Gaussian outcomes, such as binary, categorica...

Jansen, I; Molenberghs, G; Verbeke, G; Mallinckrodt, C; Jansen, Ivy; Beunckens, Caroline; Molenberghs, Geert; Verbeke, Geert; Mallinckrodt, Craig

2006-01-01

237

Chaitin Omega Numbers, Solovay Machines, and Incompleteness  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Computably enumerable (c.e.) reals can be coded by Chaitin machines throughtheir halting probabilities. Tuning Solovay's construction of a Chaitin universal machinefor which ZFC (if arithmetically sound) cannot determine any single bit of thebinary expansion of its halting probability, we show that every c.e. random real is thehalting probability of a universal Chaitin machine for which ZFC cannot determinemore than its initial block of 1 bits---as soon as you get a 0 it's all over. Finally,a constructive version of Chaitin information-theoretic incompleteness theorem isproven.1 IntroductionWe will consider only reals in the unit interval (0, 1). A real # is computably enumerable(c.e.) if it is the limit of a computable, increasing, converging sequence of rationals. Incontrast with the case of a computable real, whose digits are given by a computablefunction, during the process of approximation of a c.e. real one may never know howclose one is to the final value. ...

Cristian S. Calude

238

Organic maturity, hydrous pyrolysis and elastic properties in shales  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This works focuses on organic-rich shales (ORS), their maturity behavior and the geological and mechanical changes involved. The objective of this work is to investigate the mechanical changes in ORS over time and to help in constructing effective rock models. The ORS were treated as composite materials and their mechanical properties were calculated accordingly. Ten rock samples obtained from different locations and depths in the Bakken region were investigated in this work. Some of the samples were later subjected to a synthetic maturing process. Elastic properties were investigated before and after maturing, and FESEM imaging was performed during the course of this work. Results showed that elasticity modulus increased in naturally matured rocks. Moreover, synthetically maturing the samples caused the modulus to increase in already mature samples and to decrease in less mature samples. Finally, FESEM images were used to analyze kerogen texture changes, it was shown that kerogen particles became smaller and isolated in natural or induced maturing.

Zargari, S.; Prasad, M.; Mba, K. C.; Mattson, E. D. [Society of Petroleum Engineers (Canada)

2011-07-01

239

A Clinical Study on Management of Incomplete Abortion by Manual Vacuum Aspiration (MVA)  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Background: Abortion is an important social and public health issue. In Bangladesh complication from unsafe abortion is one of the leading causes of maternal mortality. It is a serious health problem. World Health Organisation estimates that 14% of maternal deaths which occur every year in the countries of South Asia including Bangladesh are due to abortion. Study shows manual vacuum aspiration procedure is safe and effective in incomplete abortion. Very few clinical trials were carried out in Bangladesh to assess the safety and effectivity of manual vacuum aspiration in managing incomplete abortion. Objective: To find out the outcome of manual vacuum aspiration in the management of patients of incomplete abortion. Materials and Methods: This observational descriptive study was conducted in the department of Obstetrics & Gynaecology, Dhaka Medical College & Hospital from June to December, 2004. One hundred cases of diagnosed incomplete abortion up to 12 weeks of gestation were managed by manual vacuum aspiration during this period. A data recording sheet was designed for this purpose. Haemodynamically stable patients with no history of induced abortion and fever were enrolled. Results: Procedure time of manual vacuum aspiration was short, average duration was 7 minutes. Bleeding was minimum (20-30 mL) in 67% cases and weighted mean was 29.80 mL. Eighty three percent patients were stable during the procedure and only 3% needed blood transfusion. Nonnarcotic analgesics were used in 59% cases and 33% needed only proper counselling. Average duration of hospital stay was 2 hours. Effectiveness of the procedure was about 98% with very low post procedure complication rate (2%). Conclusion: MVA procedure is a safe and effective technique of uterine evacuation in incomplete abortion. It is quick, less expensive, effective and less painful. Hospital stay and chance of perforation of uterus is less. So this procedure should be considered by health care system in Bangladesh for improving treatment of incomplete abortion to reduce both maternal morbidity and mortality.

Sheuly Begum; Maliha Rashid; Arifa Akter Jahan

2012-01-01

240

CAREER MATURITY OF ADOLESCENTS IN RELATION TO THEIR EMOTIONAL MATURITY  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The present study attempts to study the relationship between career maturity and emotional maturity of adolescents. It also purports to find out difference between male and female, urban and rural in terms of career maturity and emotional maturity. The simple random sample consists of 240 students selected from twelve schools of Faridabad district. The results revealed a negative relationship between career maturity and emotional maturity. It was also found that male adolescents were better than female adolescents and urban adolescents were better than rural adolescents with regard their career maturity and emotional maturity.

Ms. Rita Saini,

2012-01-01

 
 
 
 
241

Protein syntehsis during soybean seed maturation  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The authors previous work has demonstrated that physiological and biochemical changes specifically associated with soybean seed maturation can be separated from events associated with seed development. The objective of this study was to determine if soybean seed metabolism is altered during maturation drying at the level of protein synthesis. Seed harvested 35 days after flowering (0% seedling growth) were induced to mature (100% seedling growth) through controlled dehydration. Proteins labeled with [35S]-methionine were extracted and analyzed by 1-D PAGE coupled with autoradiography and densitometry. Results show a 31 kD and 128 kD polypeptide synthesized de novo during dehydration and precocious maturation. The same two polypeptides are synthesized during natural dehydration and maturation (>60 days after flowering). Furthermore, these polypeptides persist during rehydration and germination of both precociously and naturally matured seed, but specifically disappear during early seedling growth. The authors are currently investigating the role of protein synthesis during soybean seed maturation and if it is required for establishment of a soybean seedling.

1987-01-01

242

Mycobacterium avium subspecies impair dendritic cell maturation.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Mycobacterium avium ssp. paratuberculosis (MAP) causes Johne's disease, a chronic, granulomatous enteritis of ruminants. Dendritic cells (DC) of the gut are ideally placed to combat invading mycobacteria; however, little is known about their interaction with MAP. Here, we investigated the interaction of MAP and the closely related M. avium ssp. avium (MAA) with murine DC and the effect of infected macrophages on DC maturation. The infection of DC with MAP or MAA induced DC maturation, which differed to that of LPS as maturation was accompanied by higher production of IL-10 and lower production of IL-12. Treatment of maturing DC with supernatants from mycobacteria-infected macrophages resulted in impaired DC maturation, leading to a semi-mature, tolerogenic DC phenotype expressing low levels of MHCII, CD86 and TNF-? after LPS stimulation. Though the cells were not completely differentiated they responded with an increased IL-10 and a decreased IL-12 production. Using recombinant cytokines we provide evidence that the semi-mature DC phenotype results from a combination of secreted cytokines and released antigenic mycobacterial components of the infected macrophage. Our results indicate that MAP and MAA are able to subvert DC function directly by infecting and indirectly via the milieu created by infected macrophages.

Basler T; Brumshagen C; Beineke A; Goethe R; B酳mer W

2013-01-01

243

About 'On certain incomplete statistics' by Lima et al  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Lima et al. recently claim that (Chaos, Solitons and Fractals 19 (2004) 1005) the entropy for the incomplete statistics based on the normalization ?ipiq=1 should be S=-?ipi2q-1lnqpi instead of S=-?ipiqlnqpi initially proposed by Wang. We indicate here that this conclusion is a result of erroneous use of temperature definition for the incomplete statistics.

2004-01-01

244

Incentives in Public and Privatized Firms under Incomplete Contracting Situations  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

It is argued that incentives for employees in the public service agencies will necessarily be weak because of the multiple dimensions of products, multiple principals, incomplete contract, and socializing. Some empirical studies refer to incomplete contracting situations as part of the cause of the ...

Takeshi Miyazaki

245

Does the Incomplete Information Matter with Export Quotas?  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This study investigates whether or not incomplete information matters when the government adopts the export quotas in intervening in the oligopolistic export markets. Incomplete information the government has is about the unit-production cost of the domestic firm. It is shown first that quotas optim...

Mehmet Yazici

246

Boundaries of reciprocity: incompleteness of information undermines cooperation.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Past research has revealed that people have a strong tendency to respond to others' cooperative behavior with cooperation and to others' noncooperative behavior with noncooperation. Yet it is unclear whether or not this tendency still holds when people have only incomplete information about their interaction partner's past behavior. To address this question, we designed a new paradigm - a coin allocation paradigm - in which participants were provided with incomplete information about another person's degree of cooperative behavior (i.e., coin allocations to the participant). Consistent with our hypotheses, two experiments revealed that incompleteness of information undermines both expectations about another person's cooperation as well as one's own cooperation. Moreover, complementary analyses indicated that the detrimental effects of incompleteness of information on cooperation were mediated by expectations of other's cooperation. We suggest that a relatively strong belief in self-interest serves to fill in the blanks when information is incomplete, which undermines expectations of other's cooperation as well as one's own cooperative behavior.

Vuolevi JH; Van Lange PA

2012-09-01

247

Effectiveness of Incomplete Myocardial Revascularization in Chronic Coronary Occlusions  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The aim of the investigation was to assess the effectiveness of incomplete and complete myocardial revascularization in patients with multivessel disease of coronary circulation combined with chronic total occlusion (CTO) localized in the right or left coronary artery.Material and methods. There were analyzed the results of interventions in 80 patients (60 male (75%) and 20 female (25%)) aged 3776 years (mean age 53.92.8 years) with CTO. Incomplete revascularization was performed in 40 patients, complete revascularization in 40 cases. Echocardiography findings of left ventricular function were compared in both groups before and after incomplete and complete endovascular revascularization.Results. Twelve months after incomplete and complete revascularization there was found significant improvement or normalization of left ventricular myocardial function in both groups compared to basic data. The results of incomplete myocardial revascularization one year after the intervention turned out to be as effective as those after CTO recanalization.

E.B. Shakhov; B.G. Alekyan

2012-01-01

248

Does the Incomplete Information Matter with Export Quotas?  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This study investigates whether or not incomplete information matters when the government adopts the export quotas in intervening in the oligopolistic export markets. Incomplete information the government has is about the unit-production cost of the domestic firm. It is shown first that quotas optimal under full information (full-information policy) result in Stackelberg outcome, the best outcome in a non-cooperative setting from the domestic firm`s point of view. When the full-information policy is implemented in the presence of incomplete information, it is found that no cost-type has an incentive to misrepresent itself as the other type. This means that full-information outcome will be achieved with incomplete information. Hence, incomplete information does not matter in the case of export quotas. This result, however, does not carry over to the case of more than one domestic firm.

Mehmet Yazici

2006-01-01

249

MATURATION OF POPCORN SEEDS  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The objective of this study was to analyze the maturation process of the popcorn seeds DFT 2 (selection cycle 2). At approximately 30 days after full blooming, when about 50% of the plants exhibited receptive silks, the first harvest of the seeds was accomplished. The other harvests were accomplished at 7-day intervals until seeds reached approximately 12% moisture content (wet basis), which occurred upon the 10th harvesting. Just after each harvest, the seeds were manually husked, to determine their moisture content and the weight of the dry matter. Also the development of the black layer was visually evaluated. After the last harvesting, the seeds were evaluated for retention on sieves, germination and vigor (modified cold, accelerated aging and electric conductivity tests). The popcorn seeds reach the maximum dry matter weight (mass maturity) 68 days after flowering, and the physiological maturity of the seeds (maximum germination and vigor) achieves it from 62 to 68 days after blooming. The seeds show humidity in the grade from 17 to 20%, for occasion of the physiological maturity and mass maturity. The black layer is an efficient visual characteristic to identify the physiological maturity of the seeds.

ANDR囗A M糠CIA SANTOS DE SOUZA DAVID; EDUARDO FONTES ARA渰O; GLAUCO VIEIRA MIRANDA; DENISE CUNHA FERNANDES DOS SANTOS DIAS; JO鬃 CARLOS CARDOSO GALV鬃; VER偡ICA CARNEIRO

2003-01-01

250

Human in vivo-induced spontaneous IgG-secreting cells from tonsil, blood and bone marrow exhibit different phenotype and functional level of maturation.  

Science.gov (United States)

The subset of human spontaneous IgG-secretion cells consists of mature B lymphocytes which are capable of active and high rate IgG production in vitro without the need for additional stimuli. Therefore, such a cell subset provides a useful model for studying the terminal stages of B-cell maturation. The present work analyses the phenotypic and functional characteristics of spontaneous IgG secreting cells obtained from tonsil, blood and bone marrow. The tonsilar cell subset was CD9+ CD20+ CD19+ CD38+/-, the blood cell subset CD9- CD20- CD19+ CD38+/- and bone marrow cells were CD9- CD20- CD19+/- CD38+. The three cell subsets required de novo RNA and protein synthesis for IgG secretion to occur. Tonsilar and blood, but not bone marrow, subsets also required DNA synthesis to undergo IgG secretion. Kinetics studies revealed that IgG production by tonsil and blood cells reached a plateau after 3 days of culture. In contrast, the bone marrow cell subset secreted IgG in a linear fashion for 2 weeks. These results indicate that spontaneous IgG-secreting cells from different organs exhibit functional and phenotypic heterogeneity. PMID:2037318

Brieva, J A; Rold嫕, E; De la Sen, M L; Rodriguez, C

1991-04-01

251

Human in vivo-induced spontaneous IgG-secreting cells from tonsil, blood and bone marrow exhibit different phenotype and functional level of maturation.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The subset of human spontaneous IgG-secretion cells consists of mature B lymphocytes which are capable of active and high rate IgG production in vitro without the need for additional stimuli. Therefore, such a cell subset provides a useful model for studying the terminal stages of B-cell maturation. The present work analyses the phenotypic and functional characteristics of spontaneous IgG secreting cells obtained from tonsil, blood and bone marrow. The tonsilar cell subset was CD9+ CD20+ CD19+ CD38+/-, the blood cell subset CD9- CD20- CD19+ CD38+/- and bone marrow cells were CD9- CD20- CD19+/- CD38+. The three cell subsets required de novo RNA and protein synthesis for IgG secretion to occur. Tonsilar and blood, but not bone marrow, subsets also required DNA synthesis to undergo IgG secretion. Kinetics studies revealed that IgG production by tonsil and blood cells reached a plateau after 3 days of culture. In contrast, the bone marrow cell subset secreted IgG in a linear fashion for 2 weeks. These results indicate that spontaneous IgG-secreting cells from different organs exhibit functional and phenotypic heterogeneity.

Brieva JA; Rold嫕 E; De la Sen ML; Rodriguez C

1991-04-01

252

TOPSIS-Based Consensus Model for Group Decision-Making with Incomplete Interval Fuzzy Preference Relations.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Due to the vagueness of real-world environments and the subjective nature of human judgments, it is natural for experts to estimate their judgements by using incomplete interval fuzzy preference relations. In this paper, based on the technique for order preference by similarity to ideal solution method, we present a consensus model for group decision-making (GDM) with incomplete interval fuzzy preference relations. To do this, we first define a new consistency measure for incomplete interval fuzzy preference relations. Second, a goal programming model is proposed to estimate the missing interval preference values and it is guided by the consistency property. Third, an ideal interval fuzzy preference relation is constructed by using the induced ordered weighted averaging operator, where the associated weights of characterizing the operator are based on the defined consistency measure. Fourth, a similarity degree between complete interval fuzzy preference relations and the ideal one is defined. The similarity degree is related to the associated weights, and used to aggregate the experts' preference relations in such a way that more importance is given to ones with the higher similarity degree. Finally, a new algorithm is given to solve the GDM problem with incomplete interval fuzzy preference relations, which is further applied to partnership selection in formation of virtual enterprises.

Liu F; Zhang WG

2013-09-01

253

HIFI: a computer code for projectile fragmentation accompanied by incomplete fusion  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A brief summary of a model proposed to describe projectile fragmentation accompanied by incomplete fusion and the instructions for the use of the computer code HIFI are given. The code HIFI calculates single inclusive spectra, coincident spectra and excitation functions resulting from particle-induced reactions. It is a multipurpose program which can calculate any type of coincident spectra as long as the reaction is assumed to take place in two steps.

1980-01-01

254

Incomplete specialty referral among children in community health centers.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

OBJECTIVE: To assess rates of incomplete specialty referral (referral not resulting in a specialist visit) and risk factors for incomplete referral in pediatric community health care centers. STUDY DESIGN: In this cross-sectional study, we used referral records and electronic health records to calculate rate of incomplete referral in 577 children referred from two health care centers in underserved communities to any of 19 pediatric specialties at an affiliated tertiary care center, over 7 months in 2008-2009. We used logistic regression to test the association of incomplete referral with child/family sociodemographic and health care system factors. RESULTS: Of the children, 30.2% had an incomplete referral. Incomplete referral rates were similar at the two health care centers, but varied from 10% to 73% according to specialty clinic type. In multivariate analysis, sociodemographic factors of older child age, public insurance status, and no chronic health conditions correlated with incomplete referral, as did health care system factors of surgical specialty clinic type, low patient volume, longer wait for visit, and appointment rescheduling. CONCLUSION: Almost one-third of children referred to specialists were unable to complete the referral in a timely manner. To improve specialty access, health care organizations and policymakers should target support to families with high-risk children and remediate problematic health care system features.

Zuckerman KE; Cai X; Perrin JM; Donelan K

2011-01-01

255

Incomplete combustion in nonadiabatic premixed gas flames  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The inward propagating spherical flame and burner stabilized Bunsen-type flame of low-Lewis-number premixtures are studied numerically. It is shown that reduction of the reaction rate induced by the flame stretch makes the flame vulnerable to the radiative heat losses which may well result in a partial or complete extinction of the flame. {copyright} {ital 1996 The American Physical Society.}

Kagan, L.; Sivashinsky, G. [School of Engineering, Tel-Aviv University, Ramat Aviv, Tel-Aviv 69978 (Israel)]|[School of Mathematical Sciences, Tel-Aviv University, Ramat Aviv, Tel-Aviv 69978 (Israel)]|[The Benjamin Levich Institute for Physico-Chemical Hydrodynamics, The City College of New York, New York, New York 10031 (United States)

1996-06-01

256

Incomplete excision of basal cell carcinoma: a prospective trial.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

BACKGROUND: As a measure of the standard of surgical care, incomplete excision of skin malignancy is an important clinical indicator, developed by the Royal Australasian College of Surgeons and the Australian Council on Healthcare Standards. Reported rates of incomplete excision of basal cell carcinoma vary widely (5 to 25 percent) among centers worldwide. This prospective study reports on the incidence of incomplete excision at a tertiary referral public hospital and determines the factors that may influence this. METHODS: From January of 2001 to December of 2002, 1214 basal cell carcinomas were excised at Peter MacCallum Cancer Centre. Data were collected prospectively and analyzed using the FileMaker Pro program and SPSS software. RESULTS: The overall percentage of incomplete excision was 11.2 percent for primary excisions. Risk factors for incomplete excision are the head site; morpheic, superficial, and infiltrative subtypes; lesions larger than 20 mm in diameter; the presence of multiple lesions; repair by skin graft; and recurrent and previously incompletely excised basal cell carcinomas. The type of anesthetic used did not affect outcome. There was no significant difference in the percentage of incomplete excision between consultants, registrars, and the clinical assistant, but this was probably attributable to the small number of cases performed by consultants at Peter MacCallum Cancer Centre. CONCLUSIONS: This is the largest prospective study of incomplete excision of basal cell carcinomas. The authors' result is within the range reported in the current literature but is higher than anticipated. Preoperative "red-flagging" of basal cell carcinomas most at risk of incomplete excision may lead to a better result.

Su SY; Giorlando F; Ek EW; Dieu T

2007-10-01

257

A pseudo-EM algorithm for clustering incomplete longitudinal data.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

A method for clustering incomplete longitudinal data, and gene expression time course data in particular, is presented. Specifically, an existing method that utilizes mixtures of multivariate Gaussian distributions with modified Cholesky-decomposed covariance structure is extended to accommodate incomplete data. Parameter estimation is carried out in a fashion that is similar to an expectation-maximization algorithm. We focus on the particular application of clustering incomplete gene expression time course data. In this application, our approach gives good clustering performance when compared to the results when there is no missing data. Possible extensions of this work are also suggested.

Shaikh M; McNicholas PD; Desmond AF

2010-01-01

258

A pseudo-EM algorithm for clustering incomplete longitudinal data.  

Science.gov (United States)

A method for clustering incomplete longitudinal data, and gene expression time course data in particular, is presented. Specifically, an existing method that utilizes mixtures of multivariate Gaussian distributions with modified Cholesky-decomposed covariance structure is extended to accommodate incomplete data. Parameter estimation is carried out in a fashion that is similar to an expectation-maximization algorithm. We focus on the particular application of clustering incomplete gene expression time course data. In this application, our approach gives good clustering performance when compared to the results when there is no missing data. Possible extensions of this work are also suggested. PMID:21969969

Shaikh, Mateen; McNicholas, Paul D; Desmond, Anthony F

2010-01-01

259

Incomplete spin reorientation in yttrium orthoferrite  

Science.gov (United States)

High-magnetic-field measurements of the magnetic moment of single crystals of yttrium orthoferrite were performed by torque and vibrating sample magnetometers. We investigated the magnetic states before and at the end of the field-induced spin reorientation and compared them with the theoretical predictions given by a macrospin model. The model describes the spin reorientation for low magnetic fields well. For high magnetic fields, the model predicts a 90? spin rotation while the experiments indicate that the magnetic moment only rotates by 80? for H=74 kOe and remains about 10? out of a crystallographic axis, up to the highest measured field (280 kOe). This suggests that the initial magnetic interactions are altered by the strain induced by the spin reorientation, leading to a symmetry change.

Scola, J.; Dumont, Y.; Keller, N.; Vall嶪, M.; Caputo, J.-G.; Sheikin, I.; Lejay, P.; Pautrat, A.

2011-09-01

260

Activated B cells modified by electroporation of multiple mRNAs encoding immune stimulatory molecules are comparable to mature dendritic cells in inducing in vitro antigen-specific T-cell responses.  

Science.gov (United States)

Ex-vivo-activated B cells are an alternative source of antigen-presenting cells (APCs) and a potential replacement for dendritic cells (DCs) in immunotherapy. However, the ability of ex-vivo-activated B cells to function as potent APCs has been a concern, especially when compared to DCs. Our study investigated whether modification of activated B cells with immune stimulatory molecules could enhance the ability of activated B cells to stimulate T cells. We show that murine splenic B cells, activated with a combination of Toll-like receptor agonist and agonistic anti-CD40, stimulated antigen-specific CD8+ T cells more efficiently than cells activated with Toll-like receptor agonist or anti-CD40 alone, probably by down-regulation of the immune regulatory cytokine interleukin-10 (IL-10). However, the activated B cells were still poor T-cell stimulators compared to mature DCs. Therefore, we modified the activated B cells by simultaneous electroporation of multiple messenger RNAs encoding costimulatory molecules (OX40L and 4-1BBL), cytokines (IL-12p35 and IL-12p40) and antigen. We found that de novo expression or overexpression of OX40L, 4-1BBL and IL-12p70 on activated B cells synergistically enhanced proliferation as well as IL-2 and interferon-gamma production by CD8+ T cells. Furthermore, the RNA-modified activated B cells induced antigen-specific cytotoxic T lymphocyte responses as efficiently as mature DCs in vitro. Unexpectedly, modified activated B cells were inferior to mature DCs at in vivo induction of CD8+ T-cell responses. In summary, activated B cells modified to express immune stimulatory molecules are a potent alternative to DCs in immunotherapy. PMID:18393968

Lee, Jaewoo; Dollins, Claudia M; Boczkowski, David; Sullenger, Bruce A; Nair, Smita

2008-04-03

 
 
 
 
261

Complete and incomplete fusion in transition energy range  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Some experiments investigating different interaction conditions (complete or incomplete fusion, hot points, deep inelastic collisions) in the transition energy range (20 MeV/A at 200 MeV/A) are exposed

1983-01-01

262

Hairpin Incompletion : An Extension of Bounded Hairpin Completion  

CERN Multimedia

Hairpin completion and its restricted variant called bounded hairpin completion are operations on formal languages, inspired by a hairpin formation in molecular biology. We introduce a new operation of this kind, called {\\it hairpin incompletion} which is in fact an extension of bounded hairpin completion. Further, the hairpin incompletion operation provides a formal language theoretic framework that models a bio-molecular technique nowadays known as Whiplash PCR. We study the closure properties of language families under both the operation and its iterated version. We show that a family of languages closed under intersection with regular sets, concatenation with regular sets, and finite union is closed under iterated hairpin incompletion, and that a family of languages containing all linear languages and closed under circular permutation, left derivative and substitution is also closed under iterated hairpin incompletion.

Okubo, Fumiya

2011-01-01

263

Incomplete fusion in the 19F+93Nb reaction  

Science.gov (United States)

The kinetic energy spectra and angular distributions of projectilelike fragments were measured by silicon based ?E-E telescopes in 95 MeV 19F+93Nb. The spectra of oxygen and nitrogen fragments show the existence of two reaction mechanisms, namely, quasielastic transfer and incomplete fusion reactions. On the other hand, the carbon and other lower Z fragments show broad Gaussian spectra indicative of incomplete fusion reactions only. The quasielastic transfer is explained in terms of the direct surface transfer model. The cross sections of complete and incomplete fusion channels agree with the calculations based on the sum-rule model. Recoil range distributions of evaporation residues formed in the 95 MeV 19F+93Nb reaction were measured using recoil catcher and off-line gamma-ray spectrometry. The results corroborate the binary nature of the incomplete fusion reactions.

Tomar, B. S.; Goswami, A.; Gubbi, G. K.; Reddy, A. V. R.; Manohar, S. B.; John, Bency; Kataria, S. K.

1998-12-01

264

Neural Control based on Incomplete Derivative PID Algorithm  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In the actual control, complete differential digital PID algorithms have been widely used. But the differential will amplify high-frequency noise. If the differential response is too sensitive, it is easy to cause the control process oscillation, incomplete PID control algorithms can overcome the differential oscillation. Incomplete derivative PID algorithm combined with neural network improves the system control quality, it has the important practical significance. The simulation shows it has good position tracking performance and high robustness.

QiZhi Wang; Xiaoxia Wang

2013-01-01

265

Complete and incomplete fusion of two-cluster nuclei  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en]We study the influence of the break-up process on the complete and incomplete fusion cross sections. This is done through the introduction of break-up and survival probabilities, which are evaluated with the help of an appropriate polarization potential. For incomplete fusion, we use a spectator model. As examples, we consider several light-heavy-ion collisions, where threshold effects play an interesting role. (author)

1997-01-01

266

MasterSlave doublescroll circuit incomplete synchronization  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The experimental study of the route from synchronization to desynchronization of a master-slave configuration of doublescrollcircuits, is presented. The parameter controlling the system synchronization was the coupling resistance between themaster-slave circuits. In the region between synchronization-desynchronization, it was shown that an intermediate regimeof incomplete synchronization emerged. The study of the related dynamics proved that this incomplete synchronization wasof the on-off intermittency kind.

I. M. Kyprianidis; Ch. K. Volos; S. G. Stavrinides; I. N. Stouboulos; A. N. Anagnostopoulos

2010-01-01

267

Some incomplete and boundedly complete families of discrete distributions  

CERN Multimedia

We present a general result giving us families of incomplete and boundedly complete families of discrete distributions. For such families, the classes of unbiased estimators of zero with finite variance and of parametric functions which will have uniformly minimum variance unbiased estimators with finite variance are explicitly characterized. The general result allows us to construct a large number of families of incomplete and boundedly complete families of discrete distributions. Several new examples of such families are described.

Purkayastha, Sumitra

2009-01-01

268

Incomplete Financial Markets and Jumps in Asset Prices  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

A dynamic pure-exchange general equilibrium model with uncertainty is studied. Fundamentals are supposed to depend continuously on states of nature. It is shown that: 1. if financial markets are complete, then asset prices vary continuously with states of nature, and; 2. if financial markets are incomplete, jumps in asset prices may be unavoidable. Consequently incomplete financial markets may increase volatility in asset prices significantly.

Cr鋊, Herv; Markeprand, Tobias Ejnar

2009-01-01

269

Unexpected show up of incomplete fusion at low projectile energies  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en]In this paper, some of the important findings of recent measurements performed to study incomplete fusion at low bombarding energies (i.e., E(lab) ? 4-7 MeV/nucleon) in 12C,16O+169Tm systems are briefly summarized. The spin-distributions of xn, pxn, ?xn/2?xn channels have been measured to probe entirely different ?-emission patterns (and feeding intensity profiles) during the de-excitation of complete and incomplete fusion objects. Incomplete fusion strength function has been deduced (from the analysis of experimental excitation functions in context of equilibrated compound nucleus decay) to achieve information of onset and strength of incomplete fusion in terms of various entrance channel parameters. Presence of incomplete fusion at slightly above barrier energies has been confirmed by the measurement of linear momentum distribution of heavy recoils. Present results conclusively demonstrate, the existence of incomplete fusion at low bombarding energies, its strong dependence on entrance channel parameters, and the possibility to populate high spin states. (authors)

2011-01-01

270

Unexpected show up of incomplete fusion at low projectile energies  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In this paper, some of the important ?ndings of recent measurements performed to study incomplete fusion at low bombarding energies (i.e., Elab ? 4-7 MeV/nucleon) in 12C, 16O+169Tm systems are brie?y summarized. The spin-distributions of xn, pxn, ?xn/2?xn- channels have been measured to probe entirely different ?-emission patterns (and feeding intensity pro?les) during the de-excitation of complete and incomplete fusion objects. Incomplete fusion strength function has been deduced (from the analysis of experimental excitation functions in context of equilibrated compound nucleus decay) to achieve information of onset and strength of incomplete fusion in terms of various entrance channel parameters. Presence of incomplete fusion at slightly above barrier energies has been con?rmed by the measurement of linear momentum distribution of heavy recoils. Present results conclusively demonstrate, the existence of incomplete fusion at low bombarding energies, its strong dependence on entrance channel parameters, and the possibility to populate high spin states.

Singh Pushpendra P.; Yadav Abhishek; Sharma Vijay R.; Singh D.P.; Gupta Unnati; Sharma Manoj K.; Kumar R.; Golda K.S.; Singh R.P.; Muralithar S.; Singh B.P.; Bhowmik R.K.; Prasad R.

2011-01-01

271

Evidence of reproductive disruption associated with neuroendocrine changes induced by UV-B filters, phtalates and nonylphenol during sexual maturation in rats of both gender.  

Science.gov (United States)

Endocrine disruptors (EDs) are exogenous substances or xenoestrogens natural or synthetic, capable of interacting with different systems and altering their normal hormonal regulation, being the reproductive system one of the most affected. EDs produce their effects not only by acting on nuclear steroid receptors, but also on membrane receptors, steroidal and non-steroidal synthetic enzymatic pathways and/or metabolism. The incorporation to the body depend on each EDs, which are liposoluble and easily deposited in the tissue; thus ensuring a prolonged accumulation and release, even when the exposure is not continuous. In addition to cross the placenta, EDs may act in the offspring during the reproductive system formation and maturation key stages and its regulatory mechanisms. The effects of EDs can be multiple, but most acts mediating estrogenic and/or antiandrogenic effect. Three groups of EDs are widely used: in plastics (phtalates), sunscreens (cinnamate and methylbenzylcamphor), and detergents (nonylphenol). In this paper we review the effects of the exposure to these environmental chemicals on the reproductive system and the possible mechanisms by which they occur, focusing in the hypothalamic-pituitary neuroendocrine mechanisms that regulate the reproductive system. PMID:23778080

Ponzo, Osvaldo J; Silvia, Carbone

2013-06-15

272

Evidence of reproductive disruption associated with neuroendocrine changes induced by UV-B filters, phtalates and nonylphenol during sexual maturation in rats of both gender.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Endocrine disruptors (EDs) are exogenous substances or xenoestrogens natural or synthetic, capable of interacting with different systems and altering their normal hormonal regulation, being the reproductive system one of the most affected. EDs produce their effects not only by acting on nuclear steroid receptors, but also on membrane receptors, steroidal and non-steroidal synthetic enzymatic pathways and/or metabolism. The incorporation to the body depend on each EDs, which are liposoluble and easily deposited in the tissue; thus ensuring a prolonged accumulation and release, even when the exposure is not continuous. In addition to cross the placenta, EDs may act in the offspring during the reproductive system formation and maturation key stages and its regulatory mechanisms. The effects of EDs can be multiple, but most acts mediating estrogenic and/or antiandrogenic effect. Three groups of EDs are widely used: in plastics (phtalates), sunscreens (cinnamate and methylbenzylcamphor), and detergents (nonylphenol). In this paper we review the effects of the exposure to these environmental chemicals on the reproductive system and the possible mechanisms by which they occur, focusing in the hypothalamic-pituitary neuroendocrine mechanisms that regulate the reproductive system.

Ponzo OJ; Silvia C

2013-09-01

273

Maturation of human iDCs by IL-18 plus PGE2, but not by each stimulus alone, induced migration toward CCL21 and the secretion of IL-12 and IFN-?.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Dendritic cells (DCs) are potent antigen-presenting cells that initiate the primary immune response and whose functional properties in vivo depend on the maturation stimulus. We describe the functional properties of human monocyte-derived DCs after the maturation of immature DCs (iDCs) for 2 days with LPS (100 ng/ml), PGE2 (1 ?g/ml), CD40L (1 ?g/ml) or IL-18 (200 ng/ml) and with CD40L+PGE2 and IL-18+PGE2 mixtures at the same concentrations as above. Neither IL-18 nor PGE2 alone stimulated IL-12 or IFN-? secretion. When administered simultaneously to 110(6)iDCs/ml, IL-18+PGE2 induced the secretion of 131.46.7 pg IL-12/ml and 35587 pg IFN-?/ml but there was no detectable IL-10 secretion. However, PGE2 alone stimulated the secretion of 20889 pg IL-10/ml whereas IL-18 alone did not stimulate the secretion of IL-10, IL-12, TNF-? or INF-?. When the mixture of CD40L+PGE2 was used, only migration toward CCL19 and CCL21 was induced. CD40L did not stimulate the secretion of IL-10, IL-12, TNF-? or IFN-? and did not stimulate migration toward CCL19 or CCL21. The extent of stimulation of T cell proliferation was essentially the same for all stimuli at the concentrations given above. New properties such as IL-12 and INF-? secretion and migration toward CCL21 emerged when a mixture of IL-18+PGE2 was employed. These data show that when the pairs of stimuli reported here were used simultaneously their effect was not additive. This system can be used to prepare mDCs with properties useful for cell therapy and also as a model to investigate the mechanisms of cytokine secretion and cell migration.

da Silva I; Gomes GG; Menezes CC; Palma PV; Orellana MD; Covas DT; Chammas R; Greene LJ

2013-02-01

274

Sublingual misoprostol versus standard surgical care for treatment of incomplete abortion in five sub-Saharan African countries  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Abstract Background In low-resource settings, where abortion is highly restricted and self-induced abortions are common, access to post-abortion care (PAC) services, especially treatment of incomplete terminations, is a priority. Standard post-abortion care has involved surgical int...

Shochet Tara; Diop Ayisha; Gaye Alioune; Nayama Madi; Sall Aissata; Bukola Fawole; Blandine Thieba; Abiola Okunlola

275

Manejo est彋ico y endod鏮cico de dientes con formaci鏮 radicular incompleta/ Aesthetic and endodontic management of teeth with incomplete root formation  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Abstract in spanish La necrosis pulpar es una de las principales complicaciones de los traumatismos dentales lo que implica en un diente inmaduro la interrupci鏮 de la maduraci鏮 de la ra瞵 y el cierre apical. Una terapia llamada "apexificaci鏮" se requiere para inducir la formaci鏮 de una barrera calcificada apical permitiendo un relleno permanente y herm彋ico de la ra瞵. Numerosos materiales han sido recomendados para inducir apexificaci鏮 y conservar la est彋ica en dientes con (more) pices inmaduros como el mineral tri闛ido agregado (MTA), el hidr闛ido de calcio [Ca (OH)2], los postes de fibra de vidrio y entre los diversos materiales utilizados en pr鏒esis, la cer嫥ica que reproduce la apariencia de la dentici鏮 natural y tiene un comportamiento 鏕tico muy similar a la de los tejidos duros dentales. El presente caso reporta paciente masculino de 17 a隳s de edad con fractura coronaria complicada, conducto radicular expuesto a cavidad oral con formaci鏮 radicular incompleta. El objetivo del presente caso cl璯ico es describir la apexificaci鏮 como primera alternativa para mantener un diente til, utilizando la formaci鏮 de una barrera apical con mineral tri闛ido agregado (MTA) y recuperar la est彋ica del paciente. Conclusiones: La medicaci鏮 intraconducto adecuada para la inducci鏮 a la formaci鏮 de un cierre apical en un diente inmaduro o con formaci鏮 radicular incompleta, es de trascendental importancia para el 憖ito del proceso de apexificaci鏮 en donde juega un papel importante el MTA ya que en la actualidad es el material que brinda m嫳 ventajas en esta pr塶tica como inductor de dicho proceso. Abstract in english Pulpal necrosis is one of the main complications of dental trauma which implies an interruption of the root maturation and the apical closure of an immature tooth. Apexification is a therapy used for inducing the creation of an apical calcified barrier allowing a permanent filling of the root. Several materials have been recommended to induce apexification and preserve aesthetics in teeth with immature apex, such as mineral trioxide aggregate (MTA), calcium hydroxide [Ca (more) (OH)2], glass fiber posts, as well as the different materials used in prosthetic dentistry, ceramics that reproduce the appearance of the natural dentition and show an optic behavior very similar to the hard tissues of the teeth. This case reports a 17 year old male patient with a complicated crown fracture, exposed root canal in the oral cavity with incomplete root formation. The purpose of this clinical case is to describe the use of apexification as the first choice to keep a useful tooth, using the formation of an apical barrier with mineral trioxide aggregate (MTA) and recover the patient aesthetics. Conclusions: The appropriate intracanal medication for inducing the formation of an apical closure in an immature tooth or with an incomplete root formation, is of vital importance for the success of the process of apexification where MTA plays an important role due to the fact that right now is the material that gives more advantages in this particular practice as an inducer in that process.

D嫛ila Rodr璲uez, L.A.; Barcha Barreto, D.A.; Le鏮 Barrios, E.; Simancas Pallares, M.A.

2013-08-01

276

Interferon-? enhances promyelocytic leukemia protein expression in acute promyelocytic cells and cooperates with all-trans-retinoic acid to induce maturation of NB4 and NB4-R1 cells.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

In order to investigate the effect and mechanisms of interferon (IFN)-? in combination with all-trans-retinoic acid (ATRA) on NB4 cells [ATRA-sensitive acute promyelocytic leukemia (APL) cell line] and NB4-R1 cells (ATRA-resistant APL cell line) and to search for a novel approach to solve the problem of ATRA resistance in APL, we initially treated NB4 and NB4-R1 cells with IFN-?, ATRA and IFN-? in combination with ATRA, respectively. The cell proliferation was then tested by MTT assay, and the cell differentiation was tested through light microscopy, by NBT test and flow cytometry (FCM). The expression of promyelocytic leukemia (PML) protein was observed by indirect immune fluorescent test. Results showed that ATRA inhibited the growth of NB4 cells, however, it could not inhibit the growth of NB4-R1 cells. IFN-? inhibited the growth of both NB4 and NB4-R1 cells. Meanwhile, the growth inhibition effect of IFN-? in combination with ATRA on both NB4 and NB4-R1 cells was significantly stronger than that of any single drug treatment. The results of the NBT reduction test and CD11b antigen detection by FCM indicated that IFN-? induces the differentiation of NB4 and NB4-R1 cells to some extent. Moreover, the maturation degree of both NB4 and NB4-R1 cells induced by IFN-? in combination with ATRA was more significant than that of IFN-? or ATRA alone. After treatment with IFN-?, the number of fluorescent particles in NB4 and NB4-R1 cell nuclei was higher than those in the control group, which indicated that IFN-? may induce the expression of PML protein. Together, IFN-? augments the proliferation inhibition effect of ATRA on NB4 and NB4-R1 cells through enhancing the expression of PML protein. IFN-? in combination with ATRA not only strengthens the induction differentiation effect of ATRA on NB4 cells, but also can partially induce the maturation of NB4-R1 cells with ATRA resistance.

He P; Liu Y; Zhang M; Wang X; Xi J; Wu D; Li J; Cao Y

2012-05-01

277

Glycolytic metabolites are critical modulators of oocyte maturation and viability.  

Science.gov (United States)

The maturation of an oocyte into an egg is a key step in preparation for fertilization. In Xenopus, oocyte maturation is independent of transcription, being regulated at the level of translation and post-translational modifications of proteins. To identify factors involved in the maturation process we used two-dimensional differential gel electrophoresis to compare the proteome of oocytes and eggs. Protein abundance changes were observed in multiple cellular pathways during oocyte maturation. Most prominent was a general reduction in abundance of enzymes in the glycolytic pathway. Injection into oocytes of the glycolytic intermediates glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate, phosphoenolpyruvate and glucose-6-phosphate prevented oocyte maturation. Instead, these metabolites stimulated ROS production and subsequent apoptosis of the oocyte. In contrast, all other metabolites tested had no effect on oocyte maturation and did not induce apoptosis. These data suggest that a subset of glycolytic metabolites have the capacity to regulate oocyte viability. PMID:24167578

Berger, Lloyd; Wilde, Andrew

2013-10-22

278

Glycolytic metabolites are critical modulators of oocyte maturation and viability.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The maturation of an oocyte into an egg is a key step in preparation for fertilization. In Xenopus, oocyte maturation is independent of transcription, being regulated at the level of translation and post-translational modifications of proteins. To identify factors involved in the maturation process we used two-dimensional differential gel electrophoresis to compare the proteome of oocytes and eggs. Protein abundance changes were observed in multiple cellular pathways during oocyte maturation. Most prominent was a general reduction in abundance of enzymes in the glycolytic pathway. Injection into oocytes of the glycolytic intermediates glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate, phosphoenolpyruvate and glucose-6-phosphate prevented oocyte maturation. Instead, these metabolites stimulated ROS production and subsequent apoptosis of the oocyte. In contrast, all other metabolites tested had no effect on oocyte maturation and did not induce apoptosis. These data suggest that a subset of glycolytic metabolites have the capacity to regulate oocyte viability.

Berger L; Wilde A

2013-01-01

279

Recurrent maturing perineal lipoblastoma  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Lipoblastoma is a rare benign neoplasm of fetal adipose tissue that we see mostly in infants and young children less than 3 years of age. Most lipoblastomas occur on the extremities, trunk, head and neck, and various other organs have been described. We report a case of a recurrent perineal lipoblastoma in a 2.5-year-old boy, which showed maturation of the lipoblasts as compared to the primary tumor. (author)

2005-01-01

280

Recurrent maturing perineal lipoblastoma.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Lipoblastoma is a rare benign neoplasm of fetal adipose tissue that we see mostly in infants and young children less than 3 years of age. Most lipoblastomas occur on the extremities, trunk, head and neck, and various other organs have been described. We report a case of a recurrent perineal lipoblastoma in a 2.5-year-old boy, which showed maturation of the lipoblasts as compared to the primary tumor.

Al-Momani HM

2005-11-01

 
 
 
 
281

Incomplete caries removal: a systematic review and meta-analysis.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Increasing numbers of clinical trials have demonstrated the benefits of incomplete caries removal, in particular in the treatment of deep caries. This study systematically reviewed randomized controlled trials investigating one- or two-step incomplete compared with complete caries removal. Studies treating primary and permanent teeth with primary caries lesions requiring a restoration were analyzed. The following primary and secondary outcomes were investigated: risk of pulpal exposure, post-operative pulpal symptoms, overall failure, and caries progression. Electronic databases were screened for studies from 1967 to 2012. Cross-referencing was used to identify further articles. Odds ratios (OR) as effect estimates were calculated in a random-effects model. From 364 screened articles, 10 studies representing 1,257 patients were included. Meta-analysis showed risk reduction for both pulpal exposure (OR [95% CI] 0.31 [0.19-0.49]) and pulpal symptoms (OR 0.58 [0.31-1.10]) for teeth treated with one- or two-step incomplete excavation. Risk of failure seemed to be similar for both complete and incomplete excavation, but data for this outcome were of limited quality and inconclusive (OR 0.97 [0.64-1.46]). Based on reviewed studies, incomplete caries removal seems advantageous compared with complete excavation, especially in proximity to the pulp. However, evidence levels are currently insufficient for definitive conclusions because of high risk of bias within studies.

Schwendicke F; D顤fer CE; Paris S

2013-04-01

282

Paraparesis or incomplete paraplegia? How should we call it?  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

INTRODUCTION: The neurological examination terminologies and definitions of the status of spinal cord injured (SCI) patients are of great importance to establish scales and provide standard nomenclatures. There is a disagreement between the classical neurological terminology and the definitions of complete and incomplete paraplegia that have been proposed in traumatic spinal cord injured patients. OBJECTIVE: To discuss the adequacy and the impact of the terms incomplete paraplegia and paraparesis in current literature. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A review of the origin of the terms, definitions and nomenclatures applied by the most widespread assessment scales in traumatic SCI published in peer review papers was performed, searching the scales cited on the references of the latest American Spinal Injury Association classification (2002; available in http://www.asia-spinalinjury.org/ ) up to the first classification, described by Frankel et al. [14]. RESULTS: The term "incomplete paraplegia" has been used to define clinical situations classically described as "paraparesis". CONCLUSION: The terms "complete" and "incomplete" are adequately used to characterize the completeness of spinal cord lesion but inadequately used when associated to the term "plegia" as a qualifier. Therefore, patients with any preservation of motor strength below the injury level should be described as paraparetic and not as incomplete paraplegic.

Evangelista Santos Barcelos AC; Scardino FB; Patriota GC; Rotta JM; Botelho RV

2009-04-01

283

Sublingual misoprostol versus standard surgical care for treatment of incomplete abortion in five sub-Saharan African countries  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background In low-resource settings, where abortion is highly restricted and self-induced abortions are common, access to post-abortion care (PAC) services, especially treatment of incomplete terminations, is a priority. Standard post-abortion care has involved surgical intervention but can be hard to access in these areas. Misoprostol provides an alternative to surgical intervention that could increase access to abortion care. We sought to gather additional evidence regarding the efficacy of 400 mcg of sublingual misoprostol vs. standard surgical care for treatment of incomplete abortion in the environments where need for economical non-surgical treatments may be most useful. Methods A total of 860 women received either sublingual misoprostol or standard surgical care for treatment of incomplete abortion in a multi-site randomized trial. Women with confirmed incomplete abortion, defined as past or present history of vaginal bleeding during pregnancy and an open cervical os, were eligible to participate. Participants returned for follow-up one week later to confirm clinical status. If abortion was incomplete at that time, women were offered an additional follow-up visit or immediate surgical evacuation. Results Both misoprostol and surgical evacuation are highly effective treatments for incomplete abortion (misoprostol: 94.4%, surgical: 100.0%). Misoprostol treatment resulted in a somewhat lower chance of success than standard surgical practice (RR = 0.90; 95% CI: 0.89-0.92). Both tolerability of side effects and womens satisfaction were similar in the two study arms. Conclusion Misoprostol, much easier to provide than surgery in low-resource environments, can be used safely, successfully, and satisfactorily for treatment of incomplete abortion. Focus should shift to program implementation, including task-shifting the provision of post-abortion care to mid- and low- level providers, training and assurance of drug availability. Trial registration This study has been registered at clinicaltrials.gov as NCT00466999 and NCT01539408

Shochet Tara; Diop Ayisha; Gaye Alioune; Nayama Madi; Sall Aissata; Bukola Fawole; Blandine Thieba; Abiola Okunlola; Dao Blami; Olayinka Ogunbode; Winikoff Beverly

2012-01-01

284

Prednisolone alone, or in combination with estrogen or dietary calcium deficiency or immobilization, inhibits bone formation but does not induce bone loss in mature rats.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Glucocorticoid use has long been recognized as a risk factor for bone loss, resulting in an increased fracture incidence in humans. However, steroid-treated patients often present with other complications that predispose to bone loss, such as immobilization, and little is known about the interaction of these other risk factors for bone loss and glucocorticoids. In the present study, mature female rats were treated with prednisolone (Pred) or vehicle, in combination with ovariectomy (ovx), dietary calcium deficiency (LoCa), or right hind limb immobilization (IM). After 4 weeks of treatment, the rats were killed and the right tibia and tibiofibular junction were collected for quantitative histomorphometric analysis and the right femur was collected for bone mineral density (BMD) and mechanical strength determinations. As expected, ovx, LoCa, and IM decreased BMD in the distal femur and cancellous bone volume (CnBV/TV) in the proximal tibia. All Pred-treated groups responded with increases of BMD and CnBV/TV, when compared to their respective non-Pred treated groups. Mechanical strength testing of the cancellous bone of the distal femur reflected the changes in BMD and CnBV/TV. No differences in trabecular plate thickness were noted in any of the treatment groups. The Pred group showed a significant reduction in longitudinal growth rate, as well as bone formation rate (BFR/BS), in the proximal tibia when compared with their respective control groups, the latter indicated by a decrease in both mineralizing surface and mineral apposition rate. Most notably, osteoclast surface and urinary free pyridinoline, a bone resorption marker, increased significantly with each of the three risk factors. Pred treatment inhibited these increases but it did not exert significant reductions when used by itself. At the tibiofibular junction, there were no measurable changes in either total bone or cortical bone area. Endocortical BFR/BS were increased by ovx or LoCa but each was lowered by Pred treatment. Periosteal BFR/BS were increased by ovx and IM, and Pred exerted significant inhibition by itself and in combination with other risk factors. We conclude, therefore, that unlike the effects observed in humans treated with glucocorticoid, treatment of rats with prednisolone not only does not result in bone loss but may exert a protective effect on the skeleton through the inhibition of bone resorption.

Shen V; Birchman R; Liang XG; Wu DD; Lindsay R; Dempster DW

1997-10-01

285

Incomplete factorization technique for positive definite linear systems  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This paper describes a technique for solving the large sparse symmetric linear systems that arise from the application of finite element methods. The technique combines an incomplete factorization method called the shifted incomplete Cholesky factorization with the method of generalized conjugate gradients. The shifted incomplete Cholesky factorization produces a splitting of the matrix A that is dependent upon a parameter ..cap alpha... It is shown that if A is positive definite, then there is some ..cap alpha.. for which this splitting is possible and that this splitting is at least as good as the Jacobi splitting. The method is shown to be more efficient on a set of test problems than either direct methods or explicit iteration schemes.

Manteuffel, T.A.

1980-04-01

286

Incomplete factorization technique for positive definite linear systems  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This paper describes a technique for solving the large sparse symmetric linear systems that arise from the application of finite element methods. The technique combines an incomplete factorization method called the shifted incomplete Cholesky factorization with the method of generalized conjugate gradients. The shifted incomplete Cholesky factorization produces a splitting of the matrix A that is dependent upon a parameter ?. It is shown that if A is positive definite, then there is some ? for which this splitting is possible and that this splitting is at least as good as the Jacobi splitting. The method is shown to be more efficient on a set of test problems than either direct methods or explicit iteration schemes

1980-01-01

287

ON TWO METHODS OF ANALYSING BALANCED INCOMPLETE BLOCK DESIGNS  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The paper briefly discusses the balanced incompleteblock design (BIBDs) and further compares two methods of analyzing them-the classical and vector space analysis of variance (ANOVA) methods. These methods are applied differently to the data arising from the balanced incomplete block designs (BIBDs). The basic interest is to compare the performance of the two methods of analysis on the available data from National Root Crop Research Institute (N.R.C.R.I) Umudike, Abia State. To achieve this, we shall consider treatment (adjusted), block (adjusted) treatment (not adjusted) in the classical ANOVA method and the vector space ANOVA method. Block is adjusted to know if the experiment is symmetric balanced incomplete block design (SBIBD). The classical ANOVA method was easier to compute and more convenient to handle than the vector ANOVA method. The classical ANOVA method is found to be preferable to the vector space ANOVA method.

Chigozie Kelechi Acha

2012-01-01

288

Incomplete electronic relaxation and population upconversion in quantum dots  

CERN Document Server

We calculate the electronic relaxation of a single electron in a quantum dot with two electronic orbital states, and with the electronic coupling to the longitudinal optical modes of the lattice vibrations included in the multiple scattering approximation to the electronic self-energy. This model shows that there is an incomplete electronic relaxation from the excited state to the ground state and also the incomplete increase of the population of the excited state after resonantly exciting the ground state. These theoretical results are compared with very similar recent findings reported in experimental papers.

Kral, K; Zdenek, P

2003-01-01

289

Incomplete-Cholesky factorization by a matrix-partition algorithm  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Matrix-partition algorithms for solving tridiagonal systems of equations are highly adaptable to parallel processors. In this paper, a matrix-partition algorithm for generating a block-Cholesky factorization of a permuted form of a block tridiagonal system is presented. A preconditioning system based on an incomplete application of this algorithm is then described. Under certain dominance conditions, it is shown that the computations within a partition can be performed independently thus yielding a highly parallel incomplete-Cholesky factorization particularly suitable for multi-processing architectures.

Reiter, E.; Rodrigue, G.

1983-03-29

290

Additive habit formation: Consumption in incomplete markets with random endowments  

CERN Multimedia

We provide a detailed characterization of the optimal consumption stream for the additive habit-forming utility maximization problem, in a framework of general discrete-time incomplete markets and random endowments. This characterization allows us to derive the monotonicity and concavity of the optimal consumption as a function of wealth, for several important classes of incomplete markets and preferences. These results yield a deeper understanding of the fine structure of the optimal consumption and provide a further theoretical support for the classical conjectures of Keynes (1936).

Muraviev, Roman

2011-01-01

291

Low Complexity Models to improve Incomplete Sensitivities for Shape Optimization  

Science.gov (United States)

The present global platform for simulation and design of multi-model configurations treat shape optimization problems in aerodynamics. Flow solvers are coupled with optimization algorithms based on CAD-free and CAD-connected frameworks. Newton methods together with incomplete expressions of gradients are used. Such incomplete sensitivities are improved using reduced models based on physical assumptions. The validity and the application of this approach in real-life problems are presented. The numerical examples concern shape optimization for an airfoil, a business jet and a car engine cooling axial fan.

Stanciu, Mugurel; Mohammadi, Bijan; Moreau, St廧hane

2003-01-01

292

INCOMPLETE MARKETS AND FINANCIAL INSTABILITY. THE ROLE OF INFORMATION  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Considering the way that the world economy has evolved over the last 30-40 years, there was a transition from a predominant real economy to a predominant financial economy. Once, there were prevalent economic crises (when the real economy was important); today, the economies all around the world face prevalent financial crises; therefore, it is extremely important to study the role of financial markets, especially the incomplete markets feature (given by the imperfect information). The paper aims to analyze the relationship between imperfect information and incomplete financial markets and the way they are affecting the financial stability.

CRISTIAN IONESCU

2012-01-01

293

Incomplete Airy beams: finite energy from a sharp spectral cutoff.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

We present a mathematical analysis of the finite-energy Airy beam with a sharply truncated spectrum, which can be generated by a uniformly illuminated, finite-sized spatial light modulator, or windowed cubic phase mask. The resulting "incomplete Airy beam" is tractable mathematically, and differs from an infinite-energy Airy beam by an additional oscillating modulation and the decay of its fringes. Its propagation can be described explicitly using an incomplete Airy function, from which we derive simple expressions for the beam's total power and mean position. Asymptotic analysis reveals a simple connection between the cutoff and the region of the beam with Airy-like behavior.

Ring JD; Howls CJ; Dennis MR

2013-05-01

294

Pricing the Option to Surrender in Incomplete Markets  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

New international accounting standards require insurers to reflect the value of embedded options and guarantees in their products. Pricing techniques based on the Black & Scholes paradigm are often used, however, the hypotheses underneath this model are rarely met. We propose a framework that encompasses the most known sources of incompleteness. We show that the surrender option, joined with a wide range of claims embedded in insurance contracts, can be priced through our tool, and deliver hedging portfolios to mitigate the risk arising from their positions. We provide extensive empirical analysis to highlight the effect of incompleteness on the fair value of the option.

Consiglio, Andrea; De Giovanni, Domenico

2007-01-01

295

Skeletal maturity in myelodysplasia.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Incongruent skeletal age in 76 myelomeningocele patients was assessed by a single hand and wrist bone-age film. 28 per cent of patients were found to have a bone age of more than two standard deviations from their chronological age. 22 per cent had advanced skeletal age. Below eight years of age, only 11 per cent were advanced, but over this age 32 per cent showed skeletal maturity exceeding chronological age. Gender, neurological level, presence of hydrocephalus and number of shunt revisions did not correlate with the prevalence of advanced bone age.

Kalen V; Harding CR

1994-06-01

296

Skeletal maturity in myelodysplasia.  

Science.gov (United States)

Incongruent skeletal age in 76 myelomeningocele patients was assessed by a single hand and wrist bone-age film. 28 per cent of patients were found to have a bone age of more than two standard deviations from their chronological age. 22 per cent had advanced skeletal age. Below eight years of age, only 11 per cent were advanced, but over this age 32 per cent showed skeletal maturity exceeding chronological age. Gender, neurological level, presence of hydrocephalus and number of shunt revisions did not correlate with the prevalence of advanced bone age. PMID:8005364

Kalen, V; Harding, C R

1994-06-01

297

Partially balanced incomplete block designs associated with minimum perfect dominating sets of Clebsch graph  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available A dominating set $S$ of a graph $G$ is perfect if each vertex of G is dominated by exactly one vertex in $S$. We study the minimum perfect dominating sets in the Petersen graph and in the Clebsch graph. In this paper we show that every minimum perfect dominating set in the Petersen graph and the Clebsch graph induces $K_{1,3}$ and $C_4$ respectively. Further we establish that these classes of minimum perfect dominating sets of Clebsch graph form Partially Balanced Incomplete Block Designs with the parameters (16, 40, 10, 4, 1, 4).

Vinay Kumar; D. S. Nandappa; U. S. Mahabaleswar

2012-01-01

298

Risk-Sharing and Retrading in Incomplete Markets  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

At a competitive equilibrium of an incomplete-markets economy agents marginal valuations for the tradable assets are equalized ex-ante. We characterize the finest partition of the state space conditional on which this equality holds for any economy. This leads naturally to a necessary and sufficien...

GOTTARDI, Piero; RAHI, Rohit

299

On the macroeconomics of uncertainty and incomplete markets  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Presidential address for the Twelfth World Congress of the International Economic Association, summarising semi-formally the author?s recent work and concerns. Uncertainty and incomplete markets breed demand volatility as well as price and wage rigidities. The conjunction of these leads to multiple,...

Dreze, Jacques

300

ParIC : A Family of Parallel Incomplete Cholesky Preconditioners  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

A class of parallel incomplete factorization preconditionings for the solution of large linear systems is investigated. The approach may be regarded as a generalized domain decomposition method. Adjacent subdomains have to communicate during the setting up of the precon ditioner, and during the...

Magolu monga Made, Mardoch嶪; Vorst, H.A. van der

 
 
 
 
301

Adiabatic temperature rise of incompletely hydrated cement concrete  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The temperature rise of concrete during hardening is intimately related to the mix proportion, among which the cement content is a major factor. However, high-strength concrete mixes are often proportioned with low water contents which leads to incomplete hydration of cement contained therein. Hence...

Ng, PL; Ng, IYT; Kwan, AKH

302

Risk Factors for Incomplete Immunization in Children with HIV Infection.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

OBJECTIVE: To document the immunization rates, factors associated with incomplete immunization, and missed opportunities for immunizations in children affected by HIV presenting for routine outpatient follow-up. METHODS: A cross-sectional study of immunization status of children affected by HIV presenting for routine outpatient care was conducted. RESULTS: Two hundred and six HIV affected children were enrolled. The median age of children in this cohort was 6y. One hundred ninety seven of 206 children were HIV infected, nine were HIV exposed, but indeterminate. Fifty (25%) children had incomplete immunizations per the Universal Immunization Program (UIP) of India. Hundred percent of children had received OPV. Ninety three percent of children got their UIP vaccines from a government clinic. Children with incomplete immunization were older, median age of 8 compared to 5 (p?=?0.003). Each year of maternal education increased the odds of having a child with complete UIP immunizations by 1.18 (p?=?0.008)-children of mothers with 6y of education compared to those with no education were seven times more likely to have complete UIP vaccine status. The average number of visits to the clinic by an individual child in a year was 4. This represents 200 missed opportunities for immunizations. CONCLUSIONS: HIV infected children are at risk for incomplete immunization coverage though they regularly access medical care. Including routine immunizations, particularly catch-up immunizations in programs for HIV infected children maybe an effective way of protecting these children from vaccine preventable disease.

Bhattacharya SD; Bhattacharyya S; Chatterjee D; Niyogi SK; Chauhan N; Sudar A

2013-05-01

303

Limit Pricing with Incomplete Information: Answers to Frequently Asked Questions  

Science.gov (United States)

|Strategic pricing is an important and exciting topic in industrial organization and the economics of strategy. A wide range of texts use what has become a standard version of the Milgrom and Roberts (1982a) limit-pricing model to convey the essential ideas of strategic pricing under incomplete information. In addition to providing a formal, but

Sorenson, Timothy L.

2004-01-01

304

Root cause of incomplete control rod insertions at Westinghouse reactors  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Within the past year, incomplete RCCA insertions have been observed on high burnup fuel assemblies at two Westinghouse PWRs. Initial tests at the Wolf Creek site indicated that the direct cause of the incomplete insertions observed at Wolf Creek was excessive fuel assembly thimble tube distortion. Westinghouse committed to the NRC to perform a root cause analysis by the end of August, 1996. The root cause analysis process used by Westinghouse included testing at ten sites to obtain drag, growth and other characteristics of high burnup fuel assemblies. It also included testing at the Westinghouse hot cell of two of the Wolf Creek incomplete insertion assemblies. A mechanical model was developed to calculate the response of fuel assemblies when subjected to compressive loads. Detailed manufacturing reviews were conducted to determine if this was a manufacturing related issue. In addition, a review of available worldwide experience was performed. Based on the above, it was concluded that the thimble tube distortion observed on the Wolf Creek incomplete insertion assemblies was caused by unusual fuel assembly growth over and above what would typically be expected as a result of irradiation exposure. It was determined that the unusual growth component is a combination of growth due to oxide accumulation and accelerated growth, and would only be expected in high temperature plants on fuel assemblies that see long residence times and high power duties.

Ray, S. [Westinghouse, Monroeville, PA (United States)

1997-01-01

305

Optimal consumption and investment in incomplete markets with general constraints  

CERN Multimedia

We study an optimal consumption and investment problem in a possibly incomplete market with general, not necessarily convex, stochastic constraints. We give explicit solutions for investors with exponential, logarithmic and power utility. Our approach is based on martingale methods which rely on recent results on the existence and uniqueness of solutions to BSDEs with drivers of quadratic growth.

Cheridito, Patrick

2010-01-01

306

Inflation and output volatility under asymmetric incomplete information  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Abstract The assumption of asymmetric and incomplete information in a standard New Keynesian model creates strong incentives for monetary policy transparency. We assume that the central bank has better information about its objectives than the private sector, and that the private sector has ...

307

Incomplete and Asymmetric Surplus Information in Labor Relations  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Numerous laboratory experiments show that workers reciprocate to high wages with high effort, when there is perfect information on the surplus created. Recent field experiments, however, suggest that trust and reciprocity may be lower or absent when the information is incomplete. We report a lab...

Hennig-Schmidt, Heike; Rockenbach, Bettina; Sadrieh, Abdolkarim

308

New experimental evidence on the incomplete transformation phenomenon in steel  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In this work, the carbon distribution in austenite during isothermal bainite formation and the incomplete reaction phenomenon was analyzed by means of X-ray diffraction and atom-probe tomography in high-silicon, manganese-alloyed steels. The results provide new evidence on the temporary cessation of bainitic ferrite formation at abnormally low transformation temperatures.

2009-01-01

309

Statistical evaluations of current sampling procedures and incomplete core recovery  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This document develops two formulas that describe the effects of incomplete recovery on core sampling results for the Hanford waste tanks. The formulas evaluate incomplete core recovery from a worst-case (i.e.,biased) and best-case (i.e., unbiased) perspective. A core sampler is unbiased if the sample material recovered is a random sample of the material in the tank, while any sampler that preferentially recovers a particular type of waste over others is a biased sampler. There is strong evidence to indicate that the push-mode sampler presently used at the Hanford site is a biased one. The formulas presented here show the effects of incomplete core recovery on the accuracy of composition measurements, as functions of the vertical variability in the waste. These equations are evaluated using vertical variability estimates from previously sampled tanks (B110, U110, C109). Assuming that the values of vertical variability used in this study adequately describes the Hanford tank farm, one can use the formulas to compute the effect of incomplete recovery on the accuracy of an average constituent estimate. To determine acceptable recovery limits, we have assumed that the relative error of such an estimate should be no more than 20%

1994-01-01

310

Incomplete wetting of methane on graphite at low temperatures  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The wetting behaviour of methane on graphite has been studied by means of low energy electron diffraction and reflection high energy electron diffraction in the temperature range 14-40 K. Incomplete wetting, or crystallite formation, is detected over the entire temperature range for films with thick...

Krim, J.; Gay, J.M.; Suzanne, J.; Lerner, E.

311

A local influence sensitivity analysis for incomplete longitudinal depression data  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

In the analyses of incomplete longitudinal clinical trial data, there has been a shift, away from simple ad hoc methods that are valid only if the data are missing completely at random (MCAR), to more principled (likelihood-based or Bayesian) ignorable analyses, which are valid under the less restri...

Shen, SY; BEUNCKENS, Caroline; Mallinckrodt, C; MOLENBERGHS, Geert

312

Parametric models for incomplete continuous and categorical longitudinal studies data  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This paper reviews models for incomplete continuous and categorical longitudinal data. In terms of Rubin's classification of missing value processes we are specifically concerned with the problem of nonrandom missingness. A distinction is drawn between the classes of selection and pattern-mixture mo...

Kenward, Michael; MOLENBERGHS, Geert

313

Failure of incompletely excavated teeth--a systematic review.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

OBJECTIVES: When treating deep caries, one- and two-step incomplete caries removal reduce the risk of pulpal exposure. However, it is currently unclear if incompletely excavated teeth fail due to pulpal or rather non-pulpal complications. The present study systematically analysed how incompletely excavated teeth fail, and if certain tooth- or treatment-related factors may influence risk of failure. DATA: Clinical studies investigating clinical or radiologic failure after incomplete excavation of deep caries (depth >1/2 dentine thickness) were evaluated. Weighted annual failure rates (AFRs) were used to analyse frequency and mode of failures. Sub-analyses compared risk of failure in different groups of possible influencing factors. SOURCES: Electronic databases were screened and studies cross-referenced. Language was restricted to English and German. Grey literature was not evaluated. RESULTS: 19 studies with a median (Q25/75) follow-up of 24 (12/48) months were included. AFR was 3.8 (1.4/4.4)%. Eleven studies reported pulpal complications being the major reason for failure, and only 2 studies found more non-pulpal than pulpal failures. Sub-analyses found significantly lower risk of failure for teeth after one- compared with two-step excavation (Odds ratio [95% CI]=0.21 [0.08, 0.55]) and teeth with single- compared with multi-surface cavities (0.33 [0.16, 0.67]). Risk of bias differed widely between studies, and evidence levels were graded as very low. CONCLUSIONS: After incomplete removal of deep caries, pulpal failure was more common. One- compared with two-step excavation reduces risk of failure, and factors like number of restored surfaces seem to but influence failure, but limited evidence permits drawing definitive conclusions. CLINICAL SIGNIFICANCE: Growing evidence indicates that one-step incomplete excavation seems suitable to treat deep caries lesions, and might have advantages compared to two-step incomplete or complete caries removal. However, it is too early to recommend certain clinical strategies.

Schwendicke F; Meyer-Lueckel H; D顤fer C; Paris S

2013-07-01

314

Closed-Form Bounds to the Rice and Incomplete Toronto Functions and Incomplete Lipschitz-Hankel Integrals  

CERN Multimedia

This article provides novel analytical results for the Rice function, the incomplete Toronto function and the incomplete Lipschitz-Hankel Integrals. Firstly, upper and lower bounds are derived for the Rice function, $Ie(k,x)$. Secondly, explicit expressions are derived for the incomplete Toronto function, $T_{B}(m,n,r)$, and the incomplete Lipschitz-Hankel Integrals of the modified Bessel function of the first kind, $Ie_{\\mu,n}(a,z)$, for the case that $n$ is an odd multiple of 0.5 and $m \\geq n$. By exploiting these expressions, tight upper and lower bounds are subsequently proposed for both $T_{B}(m,n,r)$ function and $Ie_{\\mu,n}(a,z)$ integrals. Importantly, all new representations are expressed in closed-form whilst the proposed bounds are shown to be rather tight. Based on these features, it is evident that the offered results can be utilized effectively in analytical studies related to wireless communications. Indicative applications include, among others, the performance evaluation of digital communica...

Sofotasios, Paschalis C

2011-01-01

315

Surgical treatment improves clinical and functional outcomes for patients who sustain incomplete bisphosphonate-related femur fractures.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

OBJECTIVE: To describe the outcomes for patients treated at a single institution, who sustained incomplete bisphosphonate-induced femoral fractures. DESIGN: Retrospective review. SETTING: University-based academic medical center. PATIENTS: Thirty-one patients with 43 incomplete fractures met the inclusion criteria. INTERVENTION: Nonoperative management or surgical intervention for fractures with refractory symptoms or progression of fracture lucency on radiographs. MAIN OUTCOME MEASUREMENTS: Radiographic assessments and the Short Musculoskeletal Functional Assessment to gauge functional status. RESULTS: The cohort was all women with an average age of 69.2 (range: 46-92) years and had been treated with bisphosphonate therapy for an average of 9.1 (range: 5-20) years. The average healing time for all incomplete fractures was 9.4 (range: 1.5-36) months. Forty-nine percent of the fractures (21 of 43 fractures) were ultimately treated with surgery for impending complete fracture or failure of nonsurgical management. Of the incomplete fractures treated with surgery, 81% became pain free and 100% were radiographically healed at a mean of 7.1 (range: 1.5-12) months. In contrast, of the nonoperatively treated incomplete fractures, only 64% were pain free at latest follow-up, with only 18% of fractures demonstrating radiographic evidence of healing at an average of 11 (range: 6-24) months. Standardized dysfunction index from the Short Musculoskeletal Functional Assessment was better (19.7) in the surgical group than in the nonsurgical group (19.7 vs. 25.7, P = 0.0017). CONCLUSIONS: A higher percentage of patients treated surgically became asymptomatic and demonstrated radiographic evidence of healing earlier than those treated nonsurgically. Surgical intervention is effective for relief of symptoms when treating incomplete bisphosphonate-related femur fractures, and patients should be counseled to the potential benefits of prophylactic surgery. LEVEL OF EVIDENCE: Therapeutic Level III. See Instructions for Authors for a complete description of levels of evidence.

Egol KA; Park JH; Prensky C; Rosenberg ZS; Peck V; Tejwani NC

2013-06-01

316

Intracellular Regulation of Cross-Presentation during Dendritic Cell Maturation  

Science.gov (United States)

We have investigated the effect of different maturation stimuli on the ability of mature dendritic cells (DCs) to cross-present newly acquired particulate antigens. Cross-presentation was impaired in DCs matured by treatment with TNF-?, CpG and LPS, but was less affected upon CD40L-induced maturation. The difference could not be explained by decreased antigen uptake or translocation into the cytosol, but decreased cross-presentation ability did correlate with increased phagosomal/lysosomal acidification. Nevertheless, intra-phagosomal degradation of OVA was not increased in matured samples, suggesting that decreasing phagosomal pH may also regulate cross-presentation by a mechanism other than enhancing degradation.

Wagner, Claudia S.; Grotzke, Jeff; Cresswell, Peter

2013-01-01

317

Maturity-independent risk measures  

CERN Multimedia

The new notion of maturity-independent risk measures is introduced and contrasted with the existing risk measurement concepts. It is shown, by means of two examples, one set on a finite probability space and the other in a diffusion framework, that, surprisingly, some of the widely utilized risk measures cannot be used to build maturity-independent counterparts. We construct a large class of maturity-independent risk measures and give representative examples in both continuous- and discrete-time financial models.

Zariphopoulou, Thaleia

2007-01-01

318

Exposure to acute intermittent hypoxia augments somatic motor function in humans with incomplete spinal cord injury.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

BACKGROUND: Neural plasticity may contribute to motor recovery following spinal cord injury (SCI). In rat models of SCI with respiratory impairment, acute intermittent hypoxia (AIH) strengthens synaptic inputs to phrenic motor neurons, thereby improving respiratory function by a mechanism known as respiratory long-term facilitation. Similar intermittent hypoxia-induced facilitation may be feasible in somatic motor pathways in humans. OBJECTIVE: Using a randomized crossover design, the authors tested the hypothesis that AIH increases ankle strength in people with incomplete SCI. METHODS: Ankle strength was measured in 13 individuals with chronic, incomplete SCI before and after AIH. Voluntary ankle strength was estimated using changes in maximum isometric ankle plantar flexion torque generation and plantar flexor electromyogram activity following 15 low oxygen exposures (Fio(2) = 0.09, 1-minute intervals). Results were compared with trials where subjects received sham exposure to room air. RESULTS: AIH increased plantar flexion torque by 82 33% (P < .003) immediately following AIH and was sustained above baseline for more than 90 minutes (P < .007). Increased ankle plantar flexor electromyogram activity (P = .01) correlated with increased torque (r(2) = .5; P < .001). No differences in plantar flexion strength or electromyogram activity were observed in sham experiments. CONCLUSIONS: AIH elicits sustained increases in volitional somatic motor output in persons with chronic SCI. Thus, AIH has promise as a therapeutic tool to induce plasticity and enhance motor function in SCI patients.

Trumbower RD; Jayaraman A; Mitchell GS; Rymer WZ

2012-02-01

319

SWAP-70 restricts spontaneous maturation of dendritic cells.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Spontaneous maturation observed in dendritic cell (DC) cultures has been linked to their capacity to induce immune responses. Despite several recent studies, the mechanisms and signals triggering spontaneous maturation of DCs are largely unknown. We found that the absence of SWAP-70 causes spontaneous maturation of spleen- and bone marrow-derived DCs and, in vivo, of spleen-resident CD11c(+)CD11b(+)CD8?(-) DCs. Activation markers, cross-presentation of exogenous Ags, and activation of CD8(+) T cells are much increased in Swap-70(-/-) DCs. Spontaneous maturation of Swap-70(-/-) DCs depends on cell-cell contact and does not involve ?-catenin signaling. SWAP-70 is known to regulate integrin activity. Signaling through the integrin CD11b (?M) subunit increases spontaneous maturation of wild-type (wt), but not of Swap-70(-/-) DCs. Signaling through the CD18 (?2) subunit decreases spontaneous maturation of wt and Swap-70(-/-) DCs. Constitutive activation of RhoA in Swap-70(-/-) DCs was determined as a key mechanism causing the increased spontaneous maturation. Inhibition of RhoA early, but not late, in the activation process reduces spontaneous maturation in Swap-70(-/-) DCs to wt levels. Inhibition of RhoA activation during CD11b integrin activation had a significant effect only in Swap-70(-/-) but not in wt DCs. Together, our data suggest that integrin-mediated spontaneous maturation of wt DCs does not depend on active RhoA, whereas the increase in spontaneous maturation of Swap-70(-/-) DCs is supported by integrin CD11b and by hyperactive RhoA. Thus, SWAP-70 deficiency reveals two pathways that contribute to spontaneous maturation of DCs.

Oca鎙-Morgner C; G飆z A; Wahren C; Jessberger R

2013-06-01

320

ILUS: An Incomplete LU Preconditioner in Sparse Skyline Format  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Incomplete LU factorizations are among the most effective preconditioners forsolving general large, sparse linear systems arising from practical engineering problems.This paper shows how an ILU factorization may be easily computed in sparseskyline storage format, as opposed to traditional row-by-row schemes. This organizationof the factorization has many advantages, including its amenability whenthe original matrix is in skyline format, the ability to dynamically monitor the stabilityof the factorization, and the fact that factorizations may be produced withsymmetric structure. Numerical results are presented for Galerkin Finite Elementmatrices arising from the standard square lid-driven cavity problem.Key words. incomplete LU preconditioning, skyline format, stability, approximateinverse, lid-driven cavityWork supported in part by the National Science Foundation under grant NSF/CCR-9214116 and inpart by NASA under grant NAG2-904.ILUS 21 IntroductionThe cost-effect...

Edmond Chow; Yousef Saad

 
 
 
 
321

ILUS: An Incomplete LU Preconditioner in Sparse Skyline Format  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Incomplete LU factorizations are among the most effective preconditioners forsolving general large, sparse linear systems arising from practical engineering problems.This paper shows how an ILU factorization may be easily computed in sparseskyline storage format, as opposed to traditional row-by-row schemes. This organizationof the factorization has many advantages, including its amenability whenthe original matrix is in skyline format, the ability to dynamically monitor the stabilityof the factorization, and the fact that factorizations may be produced withsymmetric structure. Numerical results are presented for Galerkin Finite Elementmatrices arising from the standard square lid-driven cavity problem.Key words. incomplete LU preconditioning, skyline format, stability, approximateinverse, lid-driven cavityWork supported in part by the National Science Foundation under grant NSF/CCR-9214116 and inpart by NASA under grant NAG2-904.ILUS 21 IntroductionThe cost...

Edmond Chow; Yousef Saad

322

Bayesian Inference of Natural Rankings in Incomplete Competition Networks  

CERN Document Server

Competition between a complex system's constituents and a corresponding reward mechanism based on it have profound influence on the functioning, stability, and evolution of the system. But determining the dominance hierarchy or ranking among the constituent parts from the strongest to the weakest -- essential in determining reward or penalty -- is almost always an ambiguous task due to the incomplete nature of competition networks. Here we introduce ``Natural Ranking," a desirably unambiguous ranking method applicable to a complete (full) competition network, and formulate an analytical model based on the Bayesian formula inferring the expected mean and error of the natural ranking of nodes from an incomplete network. We investigate its potential and uses in solving issues in ranking by applying to a real-world competition network of economic and social importance.

Park, Juyong

2013-01-01

323

Endourological management in a newborn with incomplete bladder duplication.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

We report an unusual case of a newborn with incomplete bladder duplication and a complete sagittal septum. This malformation was associated with dysplasia of the right kidney, right cryptorchidism, single urethra, and no other genital or gastrointestinal anomalies. At birth, we found severe ureterohydronephrosis in a solitary left kidney caused by the collapse of the left bladder when the right bladder was filled. We performed a neonatal puncture of the bladder septum. At 3 months of life, the patient underwent complete resection of the septum by cystoscopy with monopolar electrocautery. There are no previously reported cases of a newborn with obstructed uropathy. This is the first reported case of incomplete bladder duplication with endourological management.

Parente A; Angulo JM; Romero R; Rivas S; Fanjul M; Tard墔uila AR; Lancharro A

2013-02-01

324

Correction of incomplete charge collection in CdTe detectors  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The characteristic of incomplete charge collection for several types of planar CdTe spectrometers has been studied both theoretically and experimentally. The aim was to develop a theoretical function for correcting the incomplete charge collection by correlating the charge collected with the position of interaction. We studied the dependence of this function on various parameters which characterize the crystal. Monte-Carlo calculations using the MCNP code were incorporated with a model function which included trapping and detrapping of the created charge. The calculations were utilized to determine the charge distribution and the risetime distribution for different detectors and irradiation configurations and for several photon energies. The charge correction function was correlated with experimental data to extract crystal parameters. It is shown that the correction function is useful when the detectors are operated at high electric fields where applying this function to experimental data improves the energy spectra significantly. ((orig.)).

1994-01-01

325

Correction of incomplete charge collection in CdTe detectors  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The characteristic of incomplete charge collection for several types of planar CdTe spectrometers has been studied both theoretically and experimentally. The aim was to develop a theoretical function for correcting the incomplete charge collection by correlating the charge collected with the position of interaction. We studied the dependence of this function on various parameters which characterize the crystal. Monte-Carlo calculations using the MCNP code were incorporated with a model function which included trapping and detrapping of the created charge. The calculations were utilized to determine the charge distribution and the risetime distribution for different detectors and irradiation configurations and for several photon energies. The charge correction function was correlated with experimental data to extract crystal parameters. It is shown that the correction function is useful when the detectors are operated at high electric fields where applying this function to experimental data improves the energy spectra significantly. ((orig.))

Eisen, Y. (Soreq NRC, Yavne, 81800 (Israel)); Horovitz, Y. (Soreq NRC, Yavne, 81800 (Israel))

1994-12-30

326

A Temporal Paraconsistent Relational Algebra for Incomplete and Inconsistent Information  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

We construct a framework for natural handlingof incomplete and inconsistent information in temporaldatabases. Central to this framework are structures that wecall time-varying paraconsistent relations, which are essentially4-valued relations that vary over time. For such structures,we present an algebra based on temporal semantics inwhich there is no explicit manipulation of time indices, yet itis rich enough to express recursive equations as queries. Thealgebra is a consistent extension of the relational algebra; itsupports basic algebraic equivalences, and has a well-definedformal semantics. We also provide many examples of queriesexpressed in this algebra. To our knowledge, our frameworkis the first treatment of inconsistent information in the contextof temporal databases.1 IntroductionOne limitation of the relational data model of Codd [7] isits lack of applicability to nonclassical situations. Theseare situations involving incompleteness, or more importantly,eve...

Rajiv Bagai; Mehmet A. Orgun

327

Incomplete-exclusion statistical mechanics in violent relaxation  

Science.gov (United States)

Violent relaxation was proposed half a century ago as responsible for non-collisional dynamics in gravitationally bound systems of extended celestial objects after reaching an equilibrium state that can be described thermodynamically. It is based on a complete spatial exclusion principle that formally leads to a distribution function resembling the Fermi distribution. We extend this theory to incomplete spatial exclusion by assuming that Fermi states can only be partially occupied. This is made possible by analogy to Fermi statistics. A new form of distribution function has been obtained. Formally it does not resemble the Fermi distribution. It consists of a difference of two Bose distributions but has the same properties as the Fermi distribution. Using it in the violent relaxation equation for the global gravitational potential extends the violent relaxation theory to incomplete exclusion. Though this refines violent relaxation theory, it does not resolve its basic deficiencies: the mass problem and those problems related to the mean field assumption.

Treumann, R. A.; Baumjohann, W.

2013-10-01

328

The Risky Value in the Capital Market of Incomplete Information  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Risk is everywhere, especially in the capital market of incomplete information, which is full of speculation, so it is particularly important for investors to define risk, identify risks, and control the investment activities with the application of risk value to. It is analyzed quantitatively on risk value in the paper, with the Knowledge of game theory, economics and mathematical statistics, on the basis of the explanation of risk and risk value.

Xuhong Tan; Mingjun Tan

2009-01-01

329

Incomplete Lineage Sorting: Consistent Phylogeny Estimation From Multiple Loci  

CERN Multimedia

We introduce a simple algorithm for reconstructing phylogenies from multiple gene trees in the presence of incomplete lineage sorting, that is, when the topology of the gene trees may differ from that of the species tree. We show that our technique is statistically consistent under standard stochastic assumptions, that is, it returns the correct tree given sufficiently many unlinked loci. We also show that it can tolerate moderate estimation errors.

Mossel, Elchanan

2008-01-01

330

An automatic ordering method for incomplete factorization iterative solvers  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The minimum discarded fill (MDF) ordering strategy for incomplete factorization iterative solvers is developed. MDF ordering is demonstrated for several model son-symmetric problems, as well as a water-flooding simulation which uses an unstructured grid. The model problems show a three to five fold decrease in the number of iterations compared to natural orderings. Greater than twofold improvement was observed for the waterflooding simulation. 26 refs., 7 figs., 3 tabs.

Forsyth, P.A.; Tang, W.P. (Waterloo Univ., ON (Canada). Dept. of Computer Science); D' Azevedo, E.F.D. (Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (USA))

1991-01-01

331

Approximation of the incomplete gamma function; ?2-tests  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Approximations, based on the application of ruin theory to pulse pile-up, are presented for the evaluation of the incomplete gamma function ?(a, x) for a > 1 and x > a; these approximations become particularly useful for a >>1, and hence for ?2-tests in high-statistics experiments with many degrees of freedom, where they are more efficient than the standard method of continued fractions. (author)

1992-01-01

332

Optimal portfolio selection and compression in an incomplete market  

CERN Document Server

We investigate an optimal investment problem with a general performance criterion which, in particular, includes discontinuous functions. Prices are modeled as diffusions and the market is incomplete. We find an explicit solution for the case of limited diversification of the portfolio, i.e. for the portfolio compression problem. By this we mean that an admissible strategies may include no more than m different stocks concurrently, where m may be less than the total number n of available stocks.

Dokuchaev, N; Dokuchaev, Nikolai; Haussmann, Ulrich

2001-01-01

333

Incomplete domain decomposition preconditioning for coarse mesh neutron diffusion problems  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Incomplete domain decomposition preconditioning for parallel implementation of the conjugate gradient-like methods is applied to solve the two-group, three-dimensional, coarse mesh finite differenced neutron diffusion equation on the PARAGON XP/S-10 parallel computer. The linear system resulting from implicit time differencing of the time-dependent neutron diffusion equation is solved by the preconditioned biconjugate gradient squared method without employing the fission source iteration. An efficient domain decomposition preconditioning scheme is constructed by taking advantage of strong diagonal dominance of the coarse mesh finite difference formulation. Simplifications are made in the incomplete LU factorization process to construct a preconditioner for a three dimensional subdomain and the coupling between subdomains is approximated by incorporating only the effect of the non-leakage terms of neighboring subdomains. The method is applied to quarter core and full core fixed source problems which are created from the IAEA three-dimensional benchmark problem. Results show that on a single processor the computation time for the preconditioned biconjugate gradient method is comparable to other conventional iteration methods such as Line-SOR and the cyclic Chebyshev semi-iterative method. The effectiveness of the incomplete domain decomposition preconditioning on a multi-processor is evidenced by the small increase in the number of iterations as the number of subdomains increases. Speedups up to 32.1 are achievable with 64 processing elements for a 34{times}34{times}36 full core three-dimensional problem.

Joo, H.G.; Downar, T.J. [Purdue Univ., West Lafayette, IN (United States)

1995-12-31

334

Acute inflammation at a mandibular solitary horizontal incompletely impacted molar  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Minoru Yamaoka, Yusuke Ono, Masahide Ishizuka, Yoko Hasumi-Nakayama, Ryosuke Doto, Kouichi Yasuda, Takashi Uematsu, Kiyofumi FurusawaOral and Maxillofacial Surgery, Matsumoto Dental University School of Dentistry, Shiojiri, Nagano, JapanAbstract: Acute inflammation is frequently seen in the elderly around incompletely impacted molars located apart from molars or premolars. To identify the factors causing acute inflammation in the solitary molars without second molars or without second and first molars, ages of patients and rates of acute inflammation in 75 horizontal incompletely impacted mandibular molars in contact or not in contact with molars in subjects 41 years old or older were studied using orthopantomographs. Acute inflammation was seen in nine third molars out of 48 third molars in contact with second molars (18.8%), whereas acute inflammation was seen in 11 molars out of 19 solitary molars without second molars or without first and second molars (57.9%) (p< 0.01). The mean age of 48 subjects with third molars in contact with the second molar was 50.42 7.62 years, and the mean age of 19 subjects with isolated molars was 65.16 10.41 years (p< 0.0001). These indicate that a solitary horizontal incompletely impacted molar leads more frequently to acute inflammation along with aging due to possible bone resorption resulting from teeth loss.Keywords: mandible, third molar, impaction, elderly, acute inflammation, solitary molar

Minoru Yamaoka; Yusuke Ono; Masahide Ishizuka; Yoko Hasumi-Nakayama; Ryosuke Doto; Kouichi Yasuda; Takashi Uematsu; Kiyofumi Furusawa

2009-01-01

335

Repair of bilateral incomplete cleft lip: techniques and outcomes.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

BACKGROUND: Primary repair of bilateral incomplete cleft lip appears to be uncomplicated but requires attention to technical details in the third dimension in anticipation of changes in the fourth dimension. METHODS: Direct anthropometry was used to document nasolabial dimensions before and immediately after repair in 51 infants with bilateral incomplete cleft lip. Technical details were analyzed in 48 patients; serial anthropometry was plotted in 22 male patients aged 2 to 20 years and compared to Farkas's normal growth lines. Revisions were also documented (n = 46). RESULTS: Nasal width was made narrow and widened to normal by adolescence. Nasal tip protrusion was elongated and grew parallel to normal. Columellar length was constructed above normal, lengthened slowly in childhood, and was slightly short by adulthood. The Cupid's bow was designed narrow, widened slightly, and maintained normal dimension in adulthood. The upper philtrum was tapered and remained less wide than the lower philtrum. Although maximum available cutaneous prolabium was used in repair, it was short postoperatively and philtral height failed to exhibit catchup growth. The median tubercle was constructed overly full, but growth frequently fell behind in adolescence; 39 percent of patients required secondary augmentation. Total upper labial height closely followed the normal growth curve. CONCLUSIONS: Serial anthropometry documented postoperative changes in nasolabial dimensions compared with normal growth lines. Repair of bilateral incomplete cleft lip requires primary correction of nasal and labial features based on their differential growth. CLINICAL QUESTION/LEVEL OF EVIDENCE: Therapeutic, IV.

Mulliken JB; Kim DC

2013-10-01

336

Experimental validation of incomplete data CT image reconstruction techniques  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

X-ray CT inspection of large metal parts is often limited by x-ray penetration problems along many of the ray paths required for a complete CT data set. In addition, because of the complex geometry of many industrial parts, manipulation difficulties often prevent scanning over some range of angles. CT images reconstructed from these incomplete data sets contain a variety of artifacts which limit their usefulness in part quality determination. Over the past several years, the authors' company has developed 2 new methods of incorporating a priori information about the parts under inspection to significantly improve incomplete data CT image quality. This work reviews the methods which were developed and presents experimental results which confirm the effectiveness of the techniques. The new methods for dealing with incomplete CT data sets rely on a priori information from part blueprints (in electronic form), outer boundary information from touch sensors, estimates of part outer boundaries from available x-ray data, and linear x-ray attenuation coefficients of the part. The two methods make use of this information in different fashions. The relative performance of the two methods in detecting various flaw types is compared. Methods for accurately registering a priori information with x-ray data are also described. These results are critical to a new industrial x-ray inspection cell built for inspection of large aircraft engine parts

1989-01-01

337

Incomplete milking has no detectable effect on somatic cell count but increased cell count appears to increase strip yield  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Milking regimes that can greatly shorten the milking duration of slow-milking cows to improve labour productivity can also result in less complete milking for some cows. There is also a common belief and limited experimental evidence that incomplete milking of subclinically infected cows can cause increased somatic cell count (SCC). To test for this possible detrimental effect of shorter milking regimes, 'complete' milking [to automatic cluster remover (ACR) setting of 300 mL/min] and 'incomplete' milking (to an ACR setting of 800 mL/min) were applied sequentially to 45 cows over 7 weeks. Incomplete milking resulted in an average of 0.3 L of extra milk being left in the udders, but there was no significant increase in quarter SCC in either infected or uninfected udder quarters. Change in SCC was not related to change in strip yield induced by incomplete milking treatment. In contrast, cow strip yield was positively related to SCC, or the number of infected quarters/cow, regardless of the applied ACR treatment. These apparently contradictory findings are reconciled by noting that infection causes both high strip yields (via uneven yielding quarters) and high SCC. It is concluded that, contrary to popular belief, high SCC, as an indicator of infection, causes high strip yield and that increasing strip yield does not increase cell count.

Clarke T; Cuthbertson EM; Greenall RK; Hannah MC; Shoesmith D

2008-01-01

338

Inpatient capsule endoscopy leads to frequent incomplete small bowel examinations  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available AIM: To examine the predictive factors of capsule endoscopy (CE) completion rate (CECR) including the effect of inpatient and outpatient status. METHODS: We identified 355 consecutive patients who completed CE at Rush University Medical Center between March 2003 and October 2005. Subjects for CE had either nothing by mouth or clear liquids for the afternoon and evening of the day before the procedure. CE exams were reviewed by two physicians who were unaware of the study hypotheses. After retrospective analysis, 21 cases were excluded due to capsule malfunction, prior gastric surgery, endoscopic capsule placement or insufficient data. Of the remaining 334 exams [264 out-patient (OP), 70 in-patient (IP)], CE indications, findings, location of the patients [IP vs OP and intensive care unit (ICU) vs general medical floor (GMF)] and gastrointestinal transit times were analyzed. Statistical analysis was completed using SPSS version 17 (Chicago, IL). Chi-square, t test or fisher exact-tests were used as appropriate. Multivariate logistic regression analysis was used to identify variables associated with incomplete CE exams. RESULTS: The mean age for the entire study population was 54.7 years. Sixty-one percent of the study population was female, and gender was not different between IPs vs OPs (P = 0.07). The overall incomplete CECR was 14% in our study. Overt obscure gastrointestinal bleeding (OGB) was significantly more common for the IP CE (P = 0.0001), while abdominal pain and assessment of IBD were more frequent indications for the OP CE exams (P = 0.002 and P = 0.01, respectively). Occult OGB was the most common indication and arteriovenous malformations were the most common finding both in the IPs and OPs. The capsule did not enter the small bowel (SB) in 6/70 IPs and 8/264 OPs (P = 0.04). The capsule never reached the cecum in 31.4% (22/70) of IP vs 9.5% (25/ 264) of OP examinations (P 0.05). Patient location (IP vs OP) and GTT were independent predictors of incomplete CE exams (P < 0.001 and P = 0.008, respectively). CONCLUSION: Incomplete CE is a multifactorial problem. Patient location and related factors such as severity of illness and sedentary status may contribute to incomplete exams.

Cemal Yazici; John Losurdo; Michael D Brown; Scott Oosterveen; Robert Rahimi; Ali Keshavarzian; Leila Bozorgnia; Ece Mutlu

2012-01-01

339

MDM2 regulates a novel form of incomplete neoplastic transformation of Theileria parva infected lymphocytes.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Our efforts are concerned with identifying features of incomplete malignant transformation caused by non viral pathogens. Theileria parva (T. parva) is a tick-transmitted protozoan parasite that can cause a fatal lymphoproliferative disease in cattle. The T. parva-infected lymphocytes display a transformed phenotype and proliferate in culture media like the other tumor cells, however those cells will return to normal after antiprotozoal treatment reflecting the incomplete nature of transformation. To identify signaling pathways involved in this form of transformation of T. parva-infected cells, we screened a library of anticancer compounds. Among these, TIBC, a specific inhibitor of MDM2, markedly inhibited proliferation of T. parva-infected lymphocytes and promoted apoptosis. Therefore we analyzed MDM2 function in T. parva-infected cells. Several T. parva-infected cell lines showed increased expression level of MDM2 with alternatively spliced isoforms compared to the lymphoma cells or ConA blasts. In addition, buparvaquone affected MDM2 expression in T. parva transformed cells. Moreover, p53 protein accumulation and function were impaired in T. parva-infected cells after cisplatin induced DNA damage despite the increased p53 transcription level. Finally, the treatment of T. parva-infected cells with boronic-chalcone derivatives TIBC restored p53 protein accumulation and induced Bax expression. These results suggest that the overexpression of MDM2 is closely linked to the inhibition of p53-dependent apoptosis of T. parva-infected lymphocytes. Aberrant expression of host lymphocyte MDM2 induced by cytoplasmic existence of T. parva, directly and/or indirectly, is associated with aspects of this type of transformation of T. parva-infected lymphocytes. This form of transformation shares features of oncogene induced malignant phenotype acquisition.

Hayashida K; Kajino K; Hattori M; Wallace M; Morrison I; Greene MI; Sugimoto C

2013-02-01

340

MDM2 regulates a novel form of incomplete neoplastic transformation of Theileria parva infected lymphocytes.  

Science.gov (United States)

Our efforts are concerned with identifying features of incomplete malignant transformation caused by non viral pathogens. Theileria parva (T. parva) is a tick-transmitted protozoan parasite that can cause a fatal lymphoproliferative disease in cattle. The T. parva-infected lymphocytes display a transformed phenotype and proliferate in culture media like the other tumor cells, however those cells will return to normal after antiprotozoal treatment reflecting the incomplete nature of transformation. To identify signaling pathways involved in this form of transformation of T. parva-infected cells, we screened a library of anticancer compounds. Among these, TIBC, a specific inhibitor of MDM2, markedly inhibited proliferation of T. parva-infected lymphocytes and promoted apoptosis. Therefore we analyzed MDM2 function in T. parva-infected cells. Several T. parva-infected cell lines showed increased expression level of MDM2 with alternatively spliced isoforms compared to the lymphoma cells or ConA blasts. In addition, buparvaquone affected MDM2 expression in T. parva transformed cells. Moreover, p53 protein accumulation and function were impaired in T. parva-infected cells after cisplatin induced DNA damage despite the increased p53 transcription level. Finally, the treatment of T. parva-infected cells with boronic-chalcone derivatives TIBC restored p53 protein accumulation and induced Bax expression. These results suggest that the overexpression of MDM2 is closely linked to the inhibition of p53-dependent apoptosis of T. parva-infected lymphocytes. Aberrant expression of host lymphocyte MDM2 induced by cytoplasmic existence of T. parva, directly and/or indirectly, is associated with aspects of this type of transformation of T. parva-infected lymphocytes. This form of transformation shares features of oncogene induced malignant phenotype acquisition. PMID:22981919

Hayashida, Kyoko; Kajino, Kiichi; Hattori, Masakazu; Wallace, Maura; Morrison, Ivan; Greene, Mark I; Sugimoto, Chihiro

2012-09-07

 
 
 
 
341

Involvement of PLA2, COX and LOX in Rhinella arenarum oocyte maturation.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Summary In Rhinella arenarum, progesterone is the physiological nuclear maturation inducer that interacts with the oocyte surface and starts a cascade of events that leads to germinal vesicle breakdown (GVBD). Polyunsaturated fatty acids and their metabolites produced through cyclooxygenase (COX) and lipoxygenase (LOX) pathways play an important role in reproductive processes. In amphibians, to date, the role of arachidonic acid (AA) metabolites in progesterone (P4)-induced oocyte maturation has not been clarified. In this work we studied the participation of three enzymes involved in AA metabolism - phospholipase A2 (PLA2), COX and LOX in Rhinella arenarum oocyte maturation. PLA2 activation induced maturation in Rhinella arenarum oocytes in a dose-dependent manner. Oocytes when treated with 0.08 ?M melittin showed the highest response (78 6% GVBD). In follicles, PLA2 activation did not significantly induce maturation at the assayed doses (12 3% GVBD). PLA2 inhibition with quinacrine prevented melittin-induced GVBD in a dose-dependent manner, however PLA2 inactivation did not affect P4-induced maturation. This finding suggests that PLA2 is not the only phospholipase involved in P4-induced maturation in this species. P4-induced oocyte maturation was inhibited by the COX inhibitors indomethacin and rofecoxib (65 3% and 63 3% GVBD, respectively), although COX activity was never blocked by their addition. Follicles showed a similar response following the addition of these inhibitors. Participation of LOX metabolites in maturation seems to be correlated with seasonal variation in ovarian response to P4. During the February to June period (low P4 response), LOX inhibition by nordihydroguaiaretic acid or lysine clonixinate increased maturation by up to 70%. In contrast, during the July to January period (high P4 response), LOX inhibition had no effect on hormone-induced maturation.

Ortiz ME; Bhler MI; Zelaray嫕 LI

2013-02-01

342

A class of incomplete orthogonal factorization methods. I: methods and theories  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

We study the solution of large sparse nonsingular and unsymmetric systems of linearequations. We present a class of incomplete orthogonal factorization methods basedon Givens rotations. These methods include: Incomplete Givens Orthogonalization(IGO-method) and Generalized Incomplete Givens Orthogonalization (GIGO-method),which drop entries from the incomplete orthogonal and upper triangular factors byposition; Threshold Incomplete Givens Orthogonalization (TIGO()-method), whichdrops entries dynamically by their magnitudes; and Generalized Threshold IncompleteGivens Orthogonalization (GTIGO(; p)-method), which drops entries dynamically byboth their magnitudes and positions. Theoretical analyses show that these methodscan produce a nonsingular sparse incomplete upper triangular factor and either acomplete orthogonal factor or a sparse nonsingular incomplete orthogonal factor for ageneral nonsingular matrix. Therefore, these methods can potentially generate efficientpreconditi...

Zhong-zhi Bai; Iain S. Duff; Andrew J. Wathen

343

A select set of opioid ligands induce up-regulation by promoting the maturation and stability of the rat kappa-opioid receptor in human embryonic kidney 293 cells.  

Science.gov (United States)

Ligand-induced regulation of the rat kappa-opioid receptor (rKOR) was investigated in human embryonic kidney 293 cells stably expressing the FLAG-tagged rKOR. Incubation of rKOR cells with naltrexone for 24 h increased the B(max) >3-fold, with no change in the affinity of [(3)H]diprenorphine. Two immunoreactive receptor species were present in cell lysates: naltrexone treatment caused a >3-fold increase in the 52-kDa species while decreasing the level of the 42-kDa species. Dynorphin(1-13), U69,593 [(5alpha,7alpha,8beta)-(+)-N-methyl-N-(7-[1-pyrrolidinyl]-1-oxaspiro[4,5]dec-8-yl)benzeneacetamide], or salvinorin A [2S,4aR,6aR,7R,9S,10aS, 10bR)-9-(acetyloxy)-2-(3-furanyl)dodecahydro-6a,10b-dimethyl-4,10-dioxo-2H-naphtho[2,1c]pyran-7-carboxylic acid methyl ester] treatment did not alter the level of immunoreactive rKOR protein, whereas etorphine, cyclazocine, naloxone, and naloxone methiodide increased the 52-kDa and decreased the 42-kDa rKOR bands. Receptor up-regulation was associated with an increase in the number of cell surface receptors and a 2-fold increase in the E(max) for guanosine 5'-O-(3-[(35)S]thio)triphosphate binding. Glycosidase digestion indicated that the 52- and 42-kDa receptors contained complex and high-mannose N-glycans, respectively, Pulse-chase analysis and glycosidase digestion sensitivities suggested that the 42-kDa rKOR species was a precursor of the 52-kDa species. Naltrexone did not alter rKOR mRNA levels or translational efficiency, and rKOR up-regulation was not inhibited by cycloheximide. Brefeldin A caused accumulation of intracellular rKOR intermediates, and coincubation with naltrexone increased the levels of the brefeldin-induced species significantly. These results suggest that select opioid ligands up-regulate rKOR by enhancing the rate of receptor folding and maturation and by protecting the receptor from degradation, resulting in an increase in the number of rKOR binding sites, immunoreactive protein, and functional receptors. PMID:17720886

Wannemacher, Kenneth M; Yadav, Prem N; Howells, Richard D

2007-08-24

344

Blink rate, incomplete blinks and computer vision syndrome.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

PURPOSE: Computer vision syndrome (CVS), a highly prevalent condition, is frequently associated with dry eye disorders. Furthermore, a reduced blink rate has been observed during computer use. The present study examined whether post task ocular and visual symptoms are associated with either a decreased blink rate or a higher prevalence of incomplete blinks. An additional trial tested whether increasing the blink rate would reduce CVS symptoms. METHODS: Subjects (N = 21) were required to perform a continuous 15-minute reading task on a desktop computer at a viewing distance of 50 cm. Subjects were videotaped during the task to determine their blink rate and amplitude. Immediately after the task, subjects completed a questionnaire regarding ocular symptoms experienced during the trial. In a second session, the blink rate was increased by means of an audible tone that sounded every 4 seconds, with subjects being instructed to blink on hearing the tone. RESULTS: The mean blink rate during the task without the audible tone was 11.6 blinks per minute (SD, 7.84). The percentage of blinks deemed incomplete for each subject ranged from 0.9 to 56.5%, with a mean of 16.1% (SD, 15.7). A significant positive correlation was observed between the total symptom score and the percentage of incomplete blinks during the task (p = 0.002). Furthermore, a significant negative correlation was noted between the blink score and symptoms (p = 0.035). Increasing the mean blink rate to 23.5 blinks per minute by means of the audible tone did not produce a significant change in the symptom score. CONCLUSIONS: Whereas CVS symptoms are associated with a reduced blink rate, the completeness of the blink may be equally significant. Because instructing a patient to increase his or her blink rate may be ineffective or impractical, actions to achieve complete corneal coverage during blinking may be more helpful in alleviating symptoms during computer operation.

Portello JK; Rosenfield M; Chu CA

2013-05-01

345

Balloon dacryocystoplasty: Incomplete versus complete obstruction of the nasolacrimal system  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Balloon dilatation of nasolacrimal drainage apparatus was attempted for the treatment of stenoses or obstructures of the nasolacrimal system in 49 eyes of 41 consecutive patients with complete obstructions and 16 eyes of 14 patients with incomplete obstructions. These two groups were compared with regards to the effectiveness of balloon dacryocystoplasty. All patients suffered from severe epiphora had already undergone multiple probings. A 0.018 inch hair or ball guide wire was introduced through the superior punctum into the inferior meatus of the nasal cavity and pulled out through the nasal aperture using a hemostat under nasal endoscopy. A deflated angiography balloon catheter was then introduced in a retrograde direction and dilated under fluoroscopic control. No major complications occurred in any of the patients. At 7 days after balloon dilatation, 25 of 49 eyes with complete obstruction demonstrated improvement in epiphora (initial success rate: 51.0%) and among them 17 eyes showed complete resolution of symptoms. Reocclusion occurred in 12 of the 25 eyes with initial improvement at the 2 months follow up. For the 16 eyes with incomplete obstruction, and improvement of epiphora was attained in 11 eyes (initial success rate 68.8%): 5 of these eyes showed complete resolution of epiphora, and 3 was failed to maintain initial improvement at the 2 month follow up. Although this study demonstrate that results of balloon dacryocystoplasty are not encouraging because of the high failure and recurrence rate, balloon dacryocystoplasty is a simple and safe nonsurgical technique that can be used to treat for obstructions of the nasolacrimal system. In addition, balloon dacryocystoplasty shows better results in incomplete obstruction than in complete obstruction than complete obstruction of the nasolacrimal system.

Lee, Jeong Min; Lee, Sang Hoon; Han, Young Min; Chung, Gyung Ho; Kim, Chong Soo; Choi, Ki Chul [Chung Ang University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Song, Ho Young [Asan Medical Center, University of Ulsan College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

1993-07-15

346

Observation of entrance channel mass-asymmetry effect on incomplete fusion reaction for 20Ne+165Ho system  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

An experiment has been performed to explore the incomplete fusion (ICF) reaction dynamics in heavy ion induced reactions. Excitation functions (EFs) for eighteen evaporation residues (ERs) produced in the system 20Ne+165Ho have been measured in the energy range ?88164 MeV. Some of the ERs have significant contribution from precursor decay, which has been separated out from the measured cumulative cross-sections to get direct production cross-sections. Parameters of the statistical model code PACE-2 are optimized to reproduce the ERs populated in complete fusion reactions such as in xn and pxn channels. Using the same parameters, EFs for the residues produced in ?-particle(s) emission channels have been calculated. A significant enhancement in the measured EFs of the ERs produced in ?-particle(s) emission channels over the PACE-2 predictions have been observed which indicates the occurrence of incomplete fusion reaction process. In the ICF process the break-up of projectile 20Ne into 4He+16O and/or 8Be+12C takes place followed by fusion of one of the fragments with the target nucleus 165Ho. The present data analyses suggest that probability of incomplete fusion reaction increases with projectile energy. The ICF fraction FICF has been estimated and found to increase with increasing mass-asymmetry [AT/(AT+AP)] of the partners in entrance channel. It is also observed that critical angular momentum associated with incomplete fusion channels at higher projectile energy may be associated with ?-values lower than that of peripheral collisions, indicating that the incomplete fusion competes with complete fusion even at angular momentum values little lower than critical angular momentum.

2012-04-01

347

Conditioning analysis of incomplete Cholesky factorizations with orthogonal dropping  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The analysis of preconditioners based on incomplete Cholesky factorization in which the neglected (dropped) components are orthogonal to the approximations being kept is presented. General estimate for the condition number of the preconditioned system is given which only depends on the accuracy of individual approximations. The estimate is further improved if, for instance, only the newly computed rows of the factor are modified during each approximation step. In this latter case it is further shown to be sharp. The analysis is illustrated with some existing factorizations in the context of discretized elliptic partial differential equations.

Napov, Artem

2012-03-16

348

Incomplete fusion versus breakup competition with weakly bound projectiles  

CERN Document Server

The importance of the breakup channel in the vicinity of the Coulomb barrier (1incomplete fusion components as significant as that from breakup process. Their strong coupling to total fusion is discussed within a comparison with predictions of continuum discretized coupled-channel calculations.

Souza, F A; Takahashi, J; Neto, R L; De Moura, M M; Suaide, A A P; Szanto, E M; Szanto de Toledo, A; Beck, C; Keeley, N; Carlin, N

2005-01-01

349

Asset pricing puzzles explained by incomplete Brownian equilibria  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

We examine a class of Brownian based models which produce tractable incomplete equilibria. The models are based on finitely many investors with heterogeneous exponential utilities over intermediate consumption who receive partially unspanned income. The investors can trade continuously on a finite time interval in a money market account as well as a risky security. Besides establishing the existence of an equilibrium, our main result shows that the resulting equilibrium can display a lower risk-free rate and a higher risk premium relative to the usual Pareto efficient equilibrium in complete markets. Consequently, our model can simultaneously help explaining the risk-free rate and equity premium puzzles.

Christensen, Peter Ove; Larsen, Kasper

2010-01-01

350

Knowledge and ignorance in incomplete quantum state tomography  

CERN Document Server

Quantum state reconstruction on a finite number of copies of a quantum system with informationally incomplete measurements does, as a rule, not yield a unique result. We derive a reconstruction scheme where both the likelihood and the von Neumann entropy functionals are maximized in order to systematically select the most-likely estimator with the largest entropy, that is the least-biased estimator, consistent with a given set of measurement data. This is equivalent to the joint consideration of our partial knowledge and ignorance about the ensemble to reconstruct its identity. An interesting structure of such estimators will also be explored.

Teo, Y S; Englert, B -G; Rehacek, J; Hradil, Z

2011-01-01

351

On the Incompleteness of Berger's List of Holonomy Representations  

CERN Multimedia

In 1955, Berger \\cite{Ber} gave a list of irreducible reductive representations which can occur as the holonomy of a torsion-free affine connection. This list was stated to be complete up to possibly a finite number of missing entries. In this paper, we show that there is, in fact, an infinite family of representations which are missing from this list, thereby showing the incompleteness of Berger's classification. Moreover, we develop a method to construct torsion-free connections with prescribed holonomy, and use it to give a complete description of the torsion-free affine connections with these new holonomies. We also deduce some striking facts about their global behaviour.

Chi, Q S; Schwachh鐪er, L J; Chi, Quo-Shin; Merkulov, Sergey A.; Schwachh鐪er, Lorenz J.

1995-01-01

352

Onset of incomplete momentum transfer in fusion-like processes  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Velocity spectra of evaporation residues from the reactions 16O + Al, Ca, and Ni have been measured at bombarding energies of 8.8, 13.6, and 19.6 MeV/u. Comparison with statistical model predictions shows clear evidence for the onset of incomplete momentum transfer at about 5 MeV/u above the interaction barrier. To first order, the results are similar for all targets, suggesting that the missing momentum is mainly associated with the projectile. The fraction of transferred linear momentum appears to decrease linearly with increasing relative velocity of the colliding nuclei at the barrier.

1983-01-01

353

Online Identification and Tracking of Subspaces from Highly Incomplete Information  

CERN Document Server

This work presents GROUSE (Grassmanian Rank-One Update Subspace Estimation), an efficient online algorithm for tracking subspaces from highly incomplete observations. GROUSE requires only basic linear algebraic manipulations at each iteration, and each subspace update can be performed in linear time in the dimension of the subspace. The algorithm is derived by analyzing incremental gradient descent on the Grassmannian manifold of subspaces. With a slight modification, GROUSE can also be used as an online incremental algorithm for the matrix completion problem of imputing missing entries of a low-rank matrix. GROUSE performs exceptionally well in practice both in tracking subspaces and as an online algorithm for matrix completion.

Balzano, Laura; Recht, Benjamin

2010-01-01

354

Program generator for the Incomplete Cholesky Conjugate Gradient (ICCG) method  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The Incomplete Cholesky Conjugate Gradient (ICCG) method has been found very effective for the solution of sparse systems of linear equations. Its implementation on a computer, however, requires a considerable amount of careful coding to achieve good machine efficiency. Furthermore, the resulting code is necessarily inflexible and cannot be easily adapted to different problems. We present in this paper a code generator GENIC which, given a small amount of information concerning the sparsity pattern and size of the system of equations, generates a solver package. This package, called SOLIC, is tailor made for a particular problem and can be easily incorporated into any user program

1978-01-01

355

The performance of hyperlexic children on an "incomplete words" task.  

Science.gov (United States)

Hyperlexic children were found to outperform normal controls in a task involving the ability to decipher "incomplete words", in which letter-identifying cues were made ambiguous through deletion. Superior performance was characterized by rapidity of response, fine-grained discrimination, and dependency upon the larger visual array. the rapid, complex syntheses achieved by the hyperlexic children is related to recent work involving the nature of visual information processing by the right hemisphere and to the suggestion that a unique form of reading may result from right hemispheric mediation. Finally, the possible process similarities relating hyperlexia to autism are discussed. PMID:7145082

Cobrinik, L

1982-01-01

356

The performance of hyperlexic children on an "incomplete words" task.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Hyperlexic children were found to outperform normal controls in a task involving the ability to decipher "incomplete words", in which letter-identifying cues were made ambiguous through deletion. Superior performance was characterized by rapidity of response, fine-grained discrimination, and dependency upon the larger visual array. the rapid, complex syntheses achieved by the hyperlexic children is related to recent work involving the nature of visual information processing by the right hemisphere and to the suggestion that a unique form of reading may result from right hemispheric mediation. Finally, the possible process similarities relating hyperlexia to autism are discussed.

Cobrinik L

1982-01-01

357

Incomplete block SSOR preconditionings for high order discretizations  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This paper considers the solution of linear algebraic systems Ax = b resulting from the p-version of the Finite Element Method (FEM) using PCG iterations. Contrary to the h-version, the p-version ensures the desired accuracy of a discretization not by refining an original finite element mesh but by introducing higher degree polynomials as additional basis functions which permits to reduce the size of the resulting linear system as compared with the h-version. The suggested preconditionings are the so-called Incomplete Block SSOR (IBSSOR) preconditionings.

Kolotilina, L. [Steklov Mathematical Institute, St. Petersburg (Russian Federation)

1994-12-31

358

Production in incomplete markets : expectations matter for political stability  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

In the present paper we study voting-based corporate control in a general equilibrium model with incomplete financial markets. Since voting takes place in a multi-dimensional setting, super-majority rules are needed to ensure existence of equilibrium. In a linear-quadratic setup we show that the endogenization of voting weights (given by portfolio holdings) can give rise to - through self-fulfilling expectations - dramatical political instability, i.e. Condorcet cycles of length two even for very high majority rules.

Cr鋊, Herv; Tvede, Mich

2009-01-01

359

Production in Incomplete Markets : Expectations Matter for Political Stability  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Abstract In the present paper we study voting-based corporate control in a general equilibrium model with incomplete financial markets. Since voting takes place in a multi-dimensional setting, super-majority rules are needed to ensure existence of equilibrium. In a linear-quadratic setup we show that the endogenization of voting weights (given by portfolio holdings) can give rise to - through selffulfilling expectations - dramatical political instability, i.e. Condorcet cycles of length two even for very high majority rules.

Cr鋊, Herv; Tvede, Mich

2009-01-01

360

Expectation-maximization estimators for incompletely observed data  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Expectation-maximization is a broadly applicable approach to the iterative computation of maximum likelihood estimates. Each iteration of expectation-maximization method consists of two steps: the expectation step and the maximization step. Expectation-maximization method is useful in a variety of problems where the maximum likelihood estimates are very difficult to find. The basic idea of expectation-maximization method is to relate incomplete data problems to complete data problems where estimation by maximum likelihood method is much simpler.

Vasi? Vladimir V.

2004-01-01

 
 
 
 
361

Analytical model for incomplete signal generation in semiconductor detectors  

Science.gov (United States)

Signal generation from semiconductor detectors has been modeled considering incomplete charge signal due to the charge trapping within a detector as well as to the ballistic deficit caused by insufficient charge collection time. The analytical formalism was experimentally confirmed with the charge collection efficiency of a planar mercuric iodide (HgI2) detector. The developed model is useful for the characterization of detector material properties such as the mobility and the lifetime, as well as the optimization of operation conditions such as the applied bias and the charge collection time.

Kim, Ho Kyung

2006-03-01

362

Incomplete block factorization preconditioning for indefinite elliptic problems  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The application of the finite difference method to approximate the solution of an indefinite elliptic problem produces a linear system whose coefficient matrix is block tridiagonal and symmetric indefinite. Such a linear system can be solved efficiently by a conjugate residual method, particularly when combined with a good preconditioner. We show that specific incomplete block factorization exists for the indefinite matrix if the mesh size is reasonably small. And this factorization can serve as an efficient preconditioner. Some efforts are made to estimate the eigenvalues of the preconditioned matrix. Numerical results are also given.

Guo, Chun-Hua [Univ. of Calgary, Alberta (Canada)

1996-12-31

363

Defective erythroid maturation in gelsolin mutant mice.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

BACKGROUND: During late differentiation, erythroid cells undergo profound changes involving actin filament remodeling. One of the proteins controlling actin dynamics is gelsolin, a calcium-activated actin filament severing and capping protein. Gelsolin-null (Gsn(-/-)) mice generated in a C57BL/6 background are viable and fertile.1 DESIGN AND METHODS: We analyzed the functional roles of gelsolin in erythropoiesis by: (i) evaluating gelsolin expression in murine fetal liver cells at different stages of erythroid differentiation (using reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction analysis and immunohistochemistry), and (ii) characterizing embryonic and adult erythropoiesis in Gsn(-/-) BALB/c mice (morphology and erythroid cultures). RESULTS: In the context of a BALB/c background, the Gsn(-/-) mutation causes embryonic death. Gsn(-/-) embryos show defective erythroid maturation with persistence of circulating nucleated cells. The few Gsn(-/-) mice reaching adulthood fail to recover from phenylhydrazine-induced acute anemia, revealing an impaired response to stress erythropoiesis. In in vitro differentiation assays, E13.5 fetal liver Gsn(-/-) cells failed to undergo terminal maturation, a defect partially rescued by Cytochalasin D, and mimicked by administration of Jasplakinolide to the wild-type control samples. CONCLUSIONS: In BALB/c mice, gelsolin deficiency alters the equilibrium between erythrocyte actin polymerization and depolymerization, causing impaired terminal maturation. We suggest a non-redundant role for gelsolin in terminal erythroid differentiation, possibly contributing to the Gsn(-/-) mice lethality observed in mid-gestation.

Cant C; Bos F; Bianchi P; Reali E; Colzani MT; Cant I; Barbarani G; Ottolenghi S; Witke W; Spinardi L; Ronchi AE

2012-07-01

364

Chyloabdomen in a mature cat.  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

A mature, castrated male cat presented with progressive lethargy and a severely distended abdomen. Abdominal radiographs, abdominocentesis, and evaluation of the fluid obtained led to a diagnosis of chyloabdomen. The underlying pathology, etiology, diagnosis, and treatment associated with this disea...

Nelson, K L

365

Structural and functional maturation of rat gastrointestinal barrier with thyroxine  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en]It has been noted that the closure of the intestinal barrier to immunoglobulins is a normal maturational process in the rat. It has also been noted that the microvillus membrane (MVM) of newborn animals differs from adult MVM. The purpose of this study is to document whether thyroid hormone can induce closure in vivo in the rat and to relate this effect of thyroxine to the structural and functional maturation of the intestinal MVM. To assess closure, 2-wk-old rats were fed in rat immunoglobulin G (IgG), and serum antibody binding activity was measured 4 h later. The antibody binding activity of treated animals (T) was 1.5-2 times less than that of controls (C), indicating that thyroxine stimulates closure. The MVM similarly showed signs of maturation. Structural maturation was demonstrated by the lower fluidity of the thyroid-treated animals' membranes. Under the influence of thyroxine, the number of receptors on the MVM for IgG had decreased, while the K/sub a/ remained the same, demonstrating the functional maturation of the MVM. In conclusion, thryoid hormone can induce both structural and functional maturation of the intestinal MVM and can enhance the intestinal mucosal barrier by decreasing the penetration of antibodies

1987-01-01

366

Structural and functional maturation of rat gastrointestinal barrier with thyroxine  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

It has been noted that the closure of the intestinal barrier to immunoglobulins is a normal maturational process in the rat. It has also been noted that the microvillus membrane (MVM) of newborn animals differs from adult MVM. The purpose of this study is to document whether thyroid hormone can induce closure in vivo in the rat and to relate this effect of thyroxine to the structural and functional maturation of the intestinal MVM. To assess closure, 2-wk-old rats were fed in rat immunoglobulin G (IgG), and serum antibody binding activity was measured 4 h later. The antibody binding activity of treated animals (T) was 1.5-2 times less than that of controls (C), indicating that thyroxine stimulates closure. The MVM similarly showed signs of maturation. Structural maturation was demonstrated by the lower fluidity of the thyroid-treated animals' membranes. Under the influence of thyroxine, the number of receptors on the MVM for IgG had decreased, while the K/sub a/ remained the same, demonstrating the functional maturation of the MVM. In conclusion, thryoid hormone can induce both structural and functional maturation of the intestinal MVM and can enhance the intestinal mucosal barrier by decreasing the penetration of antibodies.

Israel, E.J.; Pang, K.Y.; Harmatz, P.R.; Walker, W.A.

1987-06-01

367

Insights into thermonuclear supernovae from the incomplete silicon burning process  

CERN Multimedia

Type Ia supernova (SNIa) explosions synthesize a few tenths to several tenths of a solar mass, whose composition is the result of incomplete silicon burning that reaches peak temperatures of 4 GK to 5 GK. The elemental abundances are sensitive to the physical conditions in the explosion, making their measurement a promising clue to uncovering the properties of the progenitor star and of the explosion itself. Using a parameterized description of the thermodynamic history of matter undergoing incomplete silicon burning, we computed the final composition for a range of parameters wide enough to encompass current models of SNIa. Then, we searched for combinations of elemental abundances that trace the parameters values and are potentially measurable. For this purpose, we divide the present study into two epochs of SNIa, namely the optical epoch, from a few weeks to several months after the explosion, and the X-ray epoch, which refers to the time period in which the supernova remnant is young, starting one or two ...

Bravo, E

2012-01-01

368

Robust transmission/disequilibrium test for incomplete family genotypes.  

Science.gov (United States)

Several solutions have been proposed to extend the transmission disequilibrium test (TDT) to include cases with missing parental genotype. However, completion of the missing parental genotype may bias the test if the underlying missing data mechanism is informative. Furthermore, all these solutions resolve the problem of missing parental genotype, while offspring with missing genotypes are typically ignored. We propose here an extension to the TDT, called robust TDT (rTDT), able to handle incomplete genotypes on both parents and children and that does not rest on any assumption about the missing data mechanism. rTDT returns minimum and maximum values of TDT that are consistent with all the possible completions of the missing data. We also show that, in some situations, rTDT can achieve both greater power and greater significance than the popular TDT analysis of incomplete data. rTDT is applied to a database of markers of susceptibility to Crohn's disease and it shows that only 2 of the 11 markers originally associated with the phenotype do not depend on assumptions about the missing data mechanism. PMID:15611196

Sebastiani, Paola; Abad, Maria M; Alpargu, Glhan; Ramoni, Marco F

2004-12-01

369

Robust transmission/disequilibrium test for incomplete family genotypes.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Several solutions have been proposed to extend the transmission disequilibrium test (TDT) to include cases with missing parental genotype. However, completion of the missing parental genotype may bias the test if the underlying missing data mechanism is informative. Furthermore, all these solutions resolve the problem of missing parental genotype, while offspring with missing genotypes are typically ignored. We propose here an extension to the TDT, called robust TDT (rTDT), able to handle incomplete genotypes on both parents and children and that does not rest on any assumption about the missing data mechanism. rTDT returns minimum and maximum values of TDT that are consistent with all the possible completions of the missing data. We also show that, in some situations, rTDT can achieve both greater power and greater significance than the popular TDT analysis of incomplete data. rTDT is applied to a database of markers of susceptibility to Crohn's disease and it shows that only 2 of the 11 markers originally associated with the phenotype do not depend on assumptions about the missing data mechanism.

Sebastiani P; Abad MM; Alpargu G; Ramoni MF

2004-12-01

370

Global stability of two models with incomplete treatment for tuberculosis  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Research highlights: ? Two tuberculosis models with incomplete treatment. ? Intuitive epidemiological interpretations for the basic reproduction numbers. ? Global dynamics of the two models. ? Strategies to control the spread of tuberculosis. - Abstract: Two tuberculosis (TB) models with incomplete treatment are investigated. It is assumed that the treated individuals may enter either the latent compartment due to the remainder of Mycobacterium tuberculosis or the infectious compartment due to the treatment failure. The first model is a simple one with treatment failure reflecting the current TB treatment fact in most countries with high tuberculosis incidence. The second model refines the simple one by dividing the latent compartment into slow and fast two kinds of progresses. This improvement can be used to describe the case that the latent TB individuals have been infected with some other chronic diseases (such as HIV and diabetes) which may weaken the immunity of infected individuals and shorten the latent period of TB. Both of the two models assume mass action incidence and exponential distributions of transfers between different compartments. The basic reproduction numbers of the two models are derived and their intuitive epidemiological interpretations are given. The global dynamics of two models are all proved by using Liapunov functions. At last, some strategies to control the spread of tuberculosis are discussed.

2010-01-01

371

Global stability of two models with incomplete treatment for tuberculosis  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Research highlights: Two tuberculosis models with incomplete treatment. Intuitive epidemiological interpretations for the basic reproduction numbers. Global dynamics of the two models. Strategies to control the spread of tuberculosis. - Abstract: Two tuberculosis (TB) models with incomplete treatment are investigated. It is assumed that the treated individuals may enter either the latent compartment due to the remainder of Mycobacterium tuberculosis or the infectious compartment due to the treatment failure. The first model is a simple one with treatment failure reflecting the current TB treatment fact in most countries with high tuberculosis incidence. The second model refines the simple one by dividing the latent compartment into slow and fast two kinds of progresses. This improvement can be used to describe the case that the latent TB individuals have been infected with some other chronic diseases (such as HIV and diabetes) which may weaken the immunity of infected individuals and shorten the latent period of TB. Both of the two models assume mass action incidence and exponential distributions of transfers between different compartments. The basic reproduction numbers of the two models are derived and their intuitive epidemiological interpretations are given. The global dynamics of two models are all proved by using Liapunov functions. At last, some strategies to control the spread of tuberculosis are discussed.

Yang Yali, E-mail: yylhgr@126.co [Department of Applied Mathematics, Xi' an Jiaotong University, Xi' an 710049 (China) and Department of Applied Mathematics and Physics, Air Force Engineering University, Xi' an 710051 (China); Li Jianquan, E-mail: jianq_li@263.ne [Department of Applied Mathematics and Physics, Air Force Engineering University, Xi' an 710051 (China); Ma Zhien, E-mail: zhma@mail.xjtu.edu.c [Department of Applied Mathematics, Xi' an Jiaotong University, Xi' an 710049 (China); Liu Luju, E-mail: dahai20401095@yahoo.com.c [Department of Mathematics, Henan University of Science and Technology, Luoyang 471003 (China)

2010-12-15

372

Incomplete Gardner's syndrome with blepharoptosis as the first symptom.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Gardner's syndrome (GS) is an autosomal dominant form of polyposis characterized by the presence of multiple polyps in the colon together with osseous tumors and soft-tissue tumors, such as epidermoid cysts and lipomas. An osteoma is a benign, osteogenic tumor and may be sporadic or related to GS. Here, we present a patient with a giant sino-orbital osteoma and blepharoptosis as the only symptom of incomplete GS. A 74-year-old woman, with no previous history of trauma or ophthalmic surgery, presented with a 2 years history of right blepharoptosis without diplopia. The results of slit-lamp and fundoscopic examination were normal. Computed tomography showed a giant sino-orbital osteoma. With suspicion for GS, we thoroughly examined the patient and found no soft-tissue tumors. Fifteen years ago, the patient, who had a family history of colonic polyposis, underwent right colectomy and chemotherapy for adenocarcinoma. We report a case of incomplete GS with blepharoptosis as the first symptom.

Chatziralli IP; Papazisis L; Sergentanis TN

2013-04-01

373

Do predictors of incomplete Kawasaki disease exist for infants?  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Kawasaki disease (KD), an acute febrile vasculitis, is the most common cause of acquired heart disease in infants and young children. However, the diagnosis of infantile KD can be difficult or delayed due to vague clinical manifestations. This current study aimed to assess the clinical characteristics and cardiac complications of infantile KD. The study retrospectively reviewed the data of 242 patients with KD. The clinical, laboratory, and echocardiographic data between infants and older children were analyzed. The patients were divided into two groups: infants 12 months old or younger and children older than 12 months. The rate of incomplete KD was much more frequent in infants. During all phases, prohormone brain natriuretic peptide (Pro-BNP) levels were higher in infants, as was thrombocytosis. The coronary artery z-score was higher in infants at all phases of KD. On tissue Doppler imaging, the E/E' ratio (ratio of transmitral Doppler early filling velocity to tissue Doppler early diastolic mitral annular velocity) was higher at the septal and lateral annulus in infants. Infant patients with KD are at increased risk for the development of coronary abnormalities and diastolic dysfunction. Higher levels of Pro-BNP and thrombocytosis with diastolic echo parameters of a higher E/E' ratio can help to identify incomplete KD in infants.

No SJ; Kim DO; Choi KM; Eun LY

2013-02-01

374

Parametric study of the Incompletely Stirred Reactor modeling  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The Incompletely Stirred Reactor (ISR) is a generalization of the widely-used Perfectly Stirred Reactor (PSR) model and allows for incomplete mixing within the reactor. Its formulation is based on the Conditional Moment Closure (CMC) method. This model is applicable to nonpremixed combustion with strong recirculation such as in a gas turbine combustor primary zone. The model uses the simplifying assumptions that the conditionally-averaged reactive-scalar concentrations are independent of position in the reactor: this results in ordinary differential equations in mixture fraction space. The simplicity of the model permits the use of very complex chemical mechanisms. The effects of the detailed chemistry can be found while still including the effects of micromixing. A parametric study is performed here on an ISR for combustion of methane at overall stoichiometric conditions to investigate the sensitivity of the model to different parameters. The focus here is on emissions of nitric oxide and carbon monoxide. It is shown that the most important parameters in the ISR model are reactor residence time, the chemical mechanism and the core-averaged Probability Density Function (PDF). Using several different shapes for the core-averaged PDF, it is shown that use of a bimodal PDF with a low minimum at stoichiometric mixture fraction and a large variance leads to lower nitric oxide formation. The 'rich-plus-lean' mixing or staged combustion strategy for combustion is thus supported. (author)

Mobini, K. [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Shahid Rajaee University, Lavizan, Tehran (Iran); Bilger, R.W. [School of Aerospace, Mechanical and Mechatronic Engineering, University of Sydney, Sydney (Australia)

2009-09-15

375

Maturity Model of Software Product with Educational Maturity Model  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Software product line engineering is an inter-disciplinary concept. It spans the dimensions of business, architecture, process,and the organization. Similarly, Education System engineering is also an inter-disciplinary concept, which spans the dimensions of academic, infrastructure, facilities, administration etc. Some of the potential benefits of this approach includecontinuous improvements in System quality and adhering to global standards. The increasing competency in IT and Educational Sectors necessitates a process maturity evaluation methodology. Accordingly, this paper presents an organizational maturity model for Education system for evaluating the maturity of multi- dimension factors and attributes of an Education System. Assessment questionnaires and a rating methodology comprise the framework of this Educational maturity model. The objective and design of the questionnaires are to collect information about the Education system engineering process from the multi perspectives of academic, infrastructure, administration, facilities etc. Furthermore, we conducted one case study and reported the assessment results using the organizational maturity model presented in this paper.

R.Manjula; J.Vaideeswaran

2011-01-01

376

Isospin Dependence of Incomplete Fusion Reactions at 25 Mev/a  

CERN Multimedia

40Ca+40,48Ca,46Ti reactions at 25 MeV/A have been studied using the 4p CHIMERA detector. An isospin effect on the competition between incomplete fusion and dissipative binary reaction mechanisms has been observed. The probability of producing a compound system is observed to be lower in the case of N=Z colliding systems as compared to the case of reactions induced on the more neutron rich 48Ca target. Predictions based on CoMD-II calculations show that the competition between fusion-like and dissipative reactions, for the selected centrality, can strongly constraint the parameterization of symmetry energy and its density dependence in the nuclear equation of state.

Amorini, F; Giuliani, G; Papa, M; Agodi, C; Alba, R; Anzalone, A; Berceanu, I; Cavallaro, S; Chatterjee, M B; Coniglione, R; De Filippo, E; Di Pietro, A; Geraci, E; Grassi, L; Grzeszczuk, A; Figuera, P; La Guidara, E; Lanzalone, G; Neindre, N Le; Lombardo, I; Maiolino, C; Pagano, A; Pirrone, S; Politi, G; Pop, A; Porto, F; Rizzo, F; Russotto, P; Santonocito, D; Sapienza, P; Verde, G

2008-01-01

377

PA is instantiationally complete, but algorithmically incomplete: An alternative interpretation of Goedelian incompleteness under Church's Thesis that links formal logic and computability  

CERN Document Server

We define instantiational and algorithmic completeness for a formal language. We show that, in the presence of Church's Thesis, an alternative interpretation of Goedelian incompleteness is that Peano Arithmetic is instantiationally complete, but algorithmically incomplete. We then postulate a Provability Thesis that links Peano Arithmetic and effective algorithmic computability, just as Church's Thesis links Recursive Arithmetic and effective instantiational computability.

Anand, B S

2005-01-01

378

The value of incomplete mouse models of Alzheimer's disease  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

To study Alzheimer's disease (AD), a variety of mouse models has been generated through the overexpression of the amyloid precursor protein and/or the presenilins harboring one or several mutations found in familial AD. With aging, these mice develop several lesions similar to those of AD, including diffuse and neuritic amyloid deposits, cerebral amyloid angiopathy, dystrophic neurites and synapses, and amyloid-associated neuroinflammation. Other characteristics of AD, such as neurofibrillary tangles and nerve cell loss, are not satisfactorily reproduced in these models. Mouse models that recapitulate only specific aspects of AD pathogenesis are of great advantage when deciphering the complexity of the disease and can contribute substantially to diagnostic and therapeutic innovations. Incomplete mouse models have been key to the development of A?42-targeted therapies, as well as to the current understanding of the interrelationship between cerebral ?-amyloidosis and tau neurofibrillary lesions, and are currently being used to develop novel diagnostic agents for in vivo imaging. (orig.)

2008-01-01

379

Management of the patient with incomplete response to PPI therapy.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Proton pump inhibitors (PPIs) remove most of the acid from the gastroesophageal refluxate. However, PPIs do not eliminate reflux and the response of specific GERD symptoms to PPI therapy depends on the degree to which acid drives those symptoms. PPIs are progressively less effective for heartburn, regurgitation, chest pain and extra-oesophageal symptoms. Hence, with an incomplete PPI response, obtaining an accurate history, detailing which symptoms are 'refractory' and exactly what evidence exists linking these symptoms to GERD is paramount. Reflux can continue to cause symptoms despite PPI therapy because of persistent acid reflux or weakly acidic reflux. Given these possibilities, diagnostic testing (pH or pH-impedance monitoring) becomes essential. Antireflux surgery is an alternative in patients if a clear relationship is established between persistent symptoms, particularly regurgitation, and reflux. Treating visceral hypersensitivity may also benefit the subset of GERD patients whose symptoms are driven by this mechanism.

Kahrilas PJ; Boeckxstaens G; Smout AJ

2013-06-01

380

Management of the patient with incomplete response to PPI therapy.  

Science.gov (United States)

Proton pump inhibitors (PPIs) remove most of the acid from the gastroesophageal refluxate. However, PPIs do not eliminate reflux and the response of specific GERD symptoms to PPI therapy depends on the degree to which acid drives those symptoms. PPIs are progressively less effective for heartburn, regurgitation, chest pain and extra-oesophageal symptoms. Hence, with an incomplete PPI response, obtaining an accurate history, detailing which symptoms are 'refractory' and exactly what evidence exists linking these symptoms to GERD is paramount. Reflux can continue to cause symptoms despite PPI therapy because of persistent acid reflux or weakly acidic reflux. Given these possibilities, diagnostic testing (pH or pH-impedance monitoring) becomes essential. Antireflux surgery is an alternative in patients if a clear relationship is established between persistent symptoms, particularly regurgitation, and reflux. Treating visceral hypersensitivity may also benefit the subset of GERD patients whose symptoms are driven by this mechanism. PMID:23998978

Kahrilas, Peter J; Boeckxstaens, Guy; Smout, Andre J P M

2013-06-01

 
 
 
 
381

Research on Incomplete Transaction Footprints in Networked Software  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In networked software, interactive behaviors of software entities generate lots of behavioral footprints, some of them may lose tokens or tokens are useless. The paper studies the constructing process of State Transition Model (STM) in which the process of incomplete transactions are satisfied with Markov property, it is pointed that the STM are originally extracted from behavior log files generated by the runtime behaviors of networked software. The contributions of this paper are to mark the partly tokenized behavior footprints in the STM through Maximum Flow (MF) algorithm, then find the original source for each behavior footprint. The experiment results indicate that the maximum flow algorithm can accurately turn the partly tokenized behavior into complete footprint sequences.

Junfeng Man; Cheng Peng; Qianqian Li; Changyun Li

2013-01-01

382

An improved modeling technique for distribution feeders with incomplete information  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This paper proposes an improved technique for modeling of an electrical distribution system in the presence of incomplete information. By considering the different behavior and coincident factors of commercial and residential loads, this paper formulates a Ratio Factor technique to acquire an improved powerflow model. A load distribution relationship between the entire load and less than 50% of the total load on a feeder is also formulated. The technique only requires annual peak loads for each feeder and substation which are readily available. In addition, the method uses the results of the conventional technique and produces better results through a set of simple computation. It is shown that the accuracy of the new techniques is significantly better than the traditional technique.

Lee, Y.C. (Sierra Pacific Power Co., Reno, NV (United States)); Etezadi-Amoli, M. (Univ. of Nevada, Reno, NV (United States). Electrical Engineering Dept.)

1993-10-01

383

Stability of utility-maximization in incomplete markets  

CERN Multimedia

The effectiveness of utility-maximization techniques for portfolio management relies on our ability to estimate correctly the parameters of the dynamics of the underlying financial assets. In the setting of complete or incomplete financial markets, we investigate whether small perturbations of the market coefficient processes lead to small changes in the agent's optimal behavior derived from the solution of the related utility-maximization problems. Specifically, we identify the topologies on the parameter process space and the solution space under which utility-maximization is a continuous operation, and we provide a counterexample showing that our results are best possible, in a certain sense. A novel result about the structure of the solution of the utility-maximization problem where prices are modeled by continuous semimartingales is established as an offshoot of the proof of our central theorem.

Larsen, Kasper

2007-01-01

384

Corrected profile likelihood confidence interval for binomial paired incomplete data.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Clinical trials often use paired binomial data as their clinical endpoint. The confidence interval is frequently used to estimate the treatment performance. Tang et al. (2009) have proposed exact and approximate unconditional methods for constructing a confidence interval in the presence of incomplete paired binary data. The approach proposed by Tang et al. can be overly conservative with large expected confidence interval width (ECIW) in some situations. We propose a profile likelihood-based method with a Jeffreys' prior correction to construct the confidence interval. This approach generates confidence interval with a much better coverage probability and shorter ECIWs. The performances of the method along with the corrections are demonstrated through extensive simulation. Finally, three real world data sets are analyzed by all the methods. Statistical Analysis System (SAS) codes to execute the profile likelihood-based methods are also presented.

Pradhan V; Menon S; Das U

2013-01-01

385

Incomplete lineage sorting is common in extant gibbon genera.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

We sequenced reduced representation libraries by means of Illumina technology to generate over 1.5 Mb of orthologous sequence from a representative of each of the four extant gibbon genera (Nomascus, Hylobates, Symphalangus, and Hoolock). We used these data to assess the evolutionary relationships between the genera by evaluating the likelihoods of all possible bifurcating trees involving the four taxa. Our analyses provide weak support for a tree with Nomascus and Hylobates as sister taxa and with Hoolock and Symphalangus as sister taxa, though bootstrap resampling suggests that other phylogenetic scenarios are also possible. This uncertainty is due to short internal branch lengths and extensive incomplete lineage sorting across taxa. The true phylogenetic relationships among gibbon genera will likely require a more extensive whole-genome sequence analysis.

Wall JD; Kim SK; Luca F; Carbone L; Mootnick AR; de Jong PJ; Di Rienzo A

2013-01-01

386

Incomplete lineage sorting is common in extant gibbon genera.  

Science.gov (United States)

We sequenced reduced representation libraries by means of Illumina technology to generate over 1.5 Mb of orthologous sequence from a representative of each of the four extant gibbon genera (Nomascus, Hylobates, Symphalangus, and Hoolock). We used these data to assess the evolutionary relationships between the genera by evaluating the likelihoods of all possible bifurcating trees involving the four taxa. Our analyses provide weak support for a tree with Nomascus and Hylobates as sister taxa and with Hoolock and Symphalangus as sister taxa, though bootstrap resampling suggests that other phylogenetic scenarios are also possible. This uncertainty is due to short internal branch lengths and extensive incomplete lineage sorting across taxa. The true phylogenetic relationships among gibbon genera will likely require a more extensive whole-genome sequence analysis. PMID:23341974

Wall, Jeffrey D; Kim, Sung K; Luca, Francesca; Carbone, Lucia; Mootnick, Alan R; de Jong, Pieter J; Di Rienzo, Anna

2013-01-14

387

On Information Creation and Its Effect in Incomplete Financial Markets  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Thirst for information existing in financial markets shows that information supply is insufficient and private information is value. Agents will select to acquire economic information under the market incentive mechanism. This is the basis of information creation in incomplete financial markets. Because the information supplies insufficiency in the financial markets is exogenous, information creation is natural exogenous. From this perspective, this paper thinks that information creation has a practical base and a very important significance in financial economic field. The effect of information creation has dual character: the one is positive effect, which should improve market efficiency in long term; the other is negative effects, which should aggravate the market speculation and manipulation, cause financial bubble, and amplify financial risk in short term.

Mingren Chen

2012-01-01

388

Expurgated PPM Using Symmetric Balanced Incomplete Block Designs  

CERN Document Server

In this letter, we propose a new pulse position modulation (PPM) scheme, called expurgated PPM (EPPM), for application in peak power limited communication systems, such as impulse radio (IR) ultra wide band (UWB) systems and free space optical (FSO) communications. Using the proposed scheme, the constellation size and the bit-rate can be increased significantly in these systems. The symbols are obtained using symmetric balanced incomplete block designs (BIBD), forming a set of pair-wise equidistance symbols. The performance of Q-ary EPPM is better than any Q-ary pulse position-based modulation scheme with the same symbol length. Since the code is cyclic, the receiver for EPPM is simpler compared to multipulse PPM (MPPM).

Noshad, Mohammad

2012-01-01

389

On The Macroeconomics Of Uncertainty And Incomplete Markets  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Presidential address for the Twelfth World Congress of the InternationalEconomic Association, summarising semi-formally the author's recent workand concerns. Uncertainty and incomplete markets breed demand volatility aswell as price and wage rigidities. The conjunction of these leads to multiple,volatile supply-constrained equilibria, typically reflecting coordination failuresand apt to display persistence - as documented by three supporting theorems.Specific implications are linked to the conclusions that we should takecoordination failures seriously, try to obviate demand volatility and try to bypassprice and wage rigidities.*Presidential Address for the Twelfth World Congress of the International EconomicAssociation, Buenos Aires, August 1999; also presented as the second Kurt W.Rothschild Lecture, University of Linz, November 1999. I thank HeraclesPolemarchakis and Henri Sneessens for editorial comments.CONTENTS1. Macroeconomics, uncertainty and incomp...

Jacques H. Drze

390

Mass estimates for visual binaries with incomplete orbits  

CERN Multimedia

The problem of estimating the total mass of a visual binary when its orbit is incomplete is treated with Bayesian methods. The posterior mean of a mass estimator is approximated by a triple integral over orbital period, time of periastron and orbital eccentricity. This reduction to 3-D from the 7-D space defined by the conventional Campbell parameters is achieved by adopting the Thiele-Innes elements and exploiting the linearity with respect to the four Thiele-Innes constants. The formalism is tested on synthetic observational data covering a variable fraction of a model binary's orbit. The posterior mean of the mass estimator is numerically found to be unbiased when the data cover > 40% of the orbit.

Lucy, L B

2013-01-01

391

Endovascular treatment of remnants of intracranial aneurysms following incomplete clipping  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

We report clinical and angiographic findings in eight patients treated by the endovascular approach for an intracranial aneurysm remnant after incomplete surgical clipping. They were seven women and one man, mean age 38 years (range 14-50 years). In three, the remnant was responsible for a recurrent subarachnoid haemorrhage. All were treated by embolisation of the remnant using Guglielmi detachable coils. In two, a nondetachable balloon was inflated in front of the remnant during coil detachment because of a wide neck. Mean clinical and imaging follow-up was 19 months (range 12-24 months). Immediate angiography showed complete occlusion of the remnant and follow-up clinical examination showed good or excellent recovery in all patients. Imaging follow-up confirmed persistent occlusion of the remnant in all cases. (orig.)

Lubicz, B.; Leclerc, X.; Gauvrit, J.Y.; Pruvo, J.P. [EA 2691, Service de Neuroradiologie, Hopital Roger Salengro, CHRU Lille, Boulevard J. Leclercq, CHRU Lille, 59037 Cedex, Lille (France); Lejeune, J.P. [Service de Neuro-chirurgie, Hopital Roger Salengro, CHRU Lille, Boulevard J. Leclercq, 59037 Cedex, Lille (France)