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Sample records for induce incomplete maturation

  1. Cannabinoids induce incomplete maturation of cultured human leukemia cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Murison, G.; Chubb, C.B.H.; Maeda, S.; Gemmell, M.A.; Huberman, E.

    1987-08-01

    Monocyte maturation markers were induced in cultured human myeloblastic ML-2 leukemia cells after treatment for 1-6 days with 0.03-30 ..mu..M ..delta../sup 9/-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC), the major psychoactive component of marijuana. After a 2-day or longer treatment, 2- to 5-fold increases were found in the percentages of cells exhibiting reactivity with either the murine OKM1 monoclonal antibody of the Leu-M5 monoclonal antibody, staining positively for nonspecific esterase activity, and displaying a promonocyte morphology. The increases in these differentiation markers after treatment with 0.03-1 ..mu..M THC were dose dependent. At this dose range, THC did not cause an inhibition of cell growth. The THC-induced cell maturation was also characterized by specific changes in the patterns of newly synthesized proteins. The THC-induced differentiation did not, however, result in cells with a highly developed mature monocyte phenotype. However, treatment of these incompletely matured cells with either phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate of 1..cap alpha..,25-dihydroxycholecalciferol, which are inducers of differentiation in myeloid leukemia cells (including ML-2 cells), produced cells with a mature monocyte morphology. The ML-2 cell system described here may be a useful tool for deciphering critical biochemical events that lead to the cannabinoid-induced incomplete cell differentiation of ML-2 cells and other related cell types. Findings obtained from this system may have important implications for studies of cannabinoid effects on normal human bone-marrow progenitor cells.

  2. Plasmodium actin is incompletely folded by heterologous protein-folding machinery and likely requires the native Plasmodium chaperonin complex to enter a mature functional state.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olshina, Maya A; Baumann, Hella; Willison, Keith R; Baum, Jake

    2016-01-01

    Actin filament turnover underpins several processes in the life cycle of the malaria parasite, Plasmodium falciparum. Polymerization and depolymerization are especially important for gliding motility, a substrate-dependent form of cell movement that underpins the protozoan parasite's ability to disseminate and invade host cells. To date, given difficulties in extraction of native actins directly from parasites, much of our biochemical understanding of malarial actin has instead relied on recombinant protein extracted and purified from heterologous protein expression systems. Here, using in vitro transcription-translation methodologies and quantitative protein-binding assays, we explored the folding state of heterologously expressed P. falciparum actin 1 (PfACTI) with the aim of assessing the reliability of current recombinant-protein-based data. We demonstrate that PfACTI, when expressed in non-native systems, is capable of binding to and release from bacterial, yeast, and mammalian chaperonin complexes but appears to be incompletely folded. Characterization of the native Plasmodium folding machinery in silico, the chaperonin containing t-complex protein-1 complex, highlights key divergences between the different chaperonin systems that likely underpins this incomplete folded state. These results highlight the importance of characterizing actin's folded state and raise concerns about the interpretation of actin polymerization kinetics based solely on protein derived from heterologous expression systems.-Olshina, M. A., Baumann, H., Willison, K. R., Baum, J. Plasmodium actin is incompletely folded by heterologous protein-folding machinery and likely requires the native Plasmodium chaperonin complex to enter a mature functional state. PMID:26443825

  3. Brucella lipoproteins mimic dendritic cell maturation induced by Brucella abortus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zwerdling, Astrid; Delpino, M Victoria; Barrionuevo, Paula; Cassataro, Juliana; Pasquevich, Karina A; García Samartino, Clara; Fossati, Carlos A; Giambartolomei, Guillermo H

    2008-10-01

    Infection with Brucella abortus induces a pro-inflammatory response that drives T cell responses toward a Th1 profile. The mechanism by which this bacterium triggers this response is unknown. Dendritic cells (DC) are crucial mediators at the host-pathogen interface and are potent Th1-inducing antigen-presenting cells. Thus, we examined the mechanism whereby B. abortus stimulate human DC maturation. B. abortus-infected DC increased the expression of CD86, CD80, CCR7, CD83, MHCII, MHCI and CD40 and induced the production of TNF-alpha, IL-6, IL-10 and IL-12. Both phenomena were not dependent on bacterial viability since they were also induced by heat-killed B. abortus (HKBA). B. abortus LPS was unable to induce markers up-regulation or cytokine production. We next investigated the capacity of the outer membrane protein 19 (Omp19) as a B. abortus lipoprotein model to induce DC maturation. Lipidated Omp19 (L-Omp19), but not its unlipidated form, increased the expression of cell surface markers and the secretion of cytokines. L-Omp19-matured DC also have decreased endocytic activity and displayed enhanced T cell stimulatory activity in a MLR. Pre-incubation of DC with anti-TLR2 mAb blocked L-Omp19-mediated cytokine production. These results demonstrate that B. abortus lipoproteins can stimulate DC maturation providing a mechanism by which these bacteria generate a Th1-type immune response. PMID:18761420

  4. Investigation of the influence of incomplete fusion on complete fusion of 16O induced reactions at moderate excitation energies

    OpenAIRE

    Ahamad Tauseef; Ali Sabir; Kumar Kamal; Rizvi I. A.; Sharma Anjali; Dutt Sunil; Agarwal Avinash; Kumar Rakesh; Chaubey A. K.

    2012-01-01

    An attempt has been made to investigate for the reaction dynamics leading to incomplete fusion (ICF) of heavy ions at moderate excitation energies, especially the influence of incomplete fusion on complete fusion (CF) of 16O induced reactions at specific energies. Excitation functions (EFs) of various reaction products populated via CF and/or ICF of 16O projectile with 45Sc target were measured at energies ?3-7 MeV/nucleon, using recoil catcher technique followed by offline ?-ray spectroscopy...

  5. Induced maturation of hepatic progenitor cells in vitro

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Y., Bi; Y., He; J.Y., Huang; L., Xu; N., Tang; T.C., He; T., Feng.

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Hepatic progenitor cells (HPCs) are a potential cell source for liver cell transplantation but do not function like mature liver cells. We sought an effective and reliable method to induce HPC maturation. An immortalized HP14.5 albumin promoter-driven Gaussian luciferase (ALB-GLuc) ce [...] ll line was established from HPCs isolated from fetal mouse liver of post coitus day 14.5 mice to investigate the effect of induction factors on ALB promoter. HP14.5 parental cells were cultured in DMEM with different combinations of 2% horse serum (HS), 0.1 µM dexamethasone (DEX), 10 ng/mL hepatic growth factor (HGF), and/or 20 ng/mL fibroblast growth factor 4 (FGF4). Trypan blue and crystal violet staining were used to assess cell proliferation with different induction conditions. Expression of hepatic markers was measured by semi-quantitative RT-PCR, Western blot, and immunofluorescence. Glycogen storage and metabolism were detected by periodic acid-Schiff and indocyanine green (ICG) staining. GLuc activity indicated ALB expression. The combination of 2% HS+0.1 µM Dex+10 ng/mL HGF+20 ng/mL FGF4 induced the highest ALB-GLuc activity. Cell proliferation decreased in 2% HS but increased by adding FGF4. Upon induction, and consistent with hepatocyte development, DLK, AFP, and CK19 expression decreased, while ALB, CK18, and UGT1A expression increased. The maturity markers tyrosine aminotransferase and apolipoprotein B were detected at days 3 and 6 post-induction, respectively. ICG uptake and glycogen synthesis were detectable at day 6 and increased over time. Therefore, we demonstrated that HPCs were induced to differentiate into functional mature hepatocytes in vitro, suggesting that factor-treated HPCs may be further explored as a means of liver cell transplantation.

  6. Induced maturation of hepatic progenitor cells in vitro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. Bi

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Hepatic progenitor cells (HPCs are a potential cell source for liver cell transplantation but do not function like mature liver cells. We sought an effective and reliable method to induce HPC maturation. An immortalized HP14.5 albumin promoter-driven Gaussian luciferase (ALB-GLuc cell line was established from HPCs isolated from fetal mouse liver of post coitus day 14.5 mice to investigate the effect of induction factors on ALB promoter. HP14.5 parental cells were cultured in DMEM with different combinations of 2% horse serum (HS, 0.1 µM dexamethasone (DEX, 10 ng/mL hepatic growth factor (HGF, and/or 20 ng/mL fibroblast growth factor 4 (FGF4. Trypan blue and crystal violet staining were used to assess cell proliferation with different induction conditions. Expression of hepatic markers was measured by semi-quantitative RT-PCR, Western blot, and immunofluorescence. Glycogen storage and metabolism were detected by periodic acid-Schiff and indocyanine green (ICG staining. GLuc activity indicated ALB expression. The combination of 2% HS+0.1 µM Dex+10 ng/mL HGF+20 ng/mL FGF4 induced the highest ALB-GLuc activity. Cell proliferation decreased in 2% HS but increased by adding FGF4. Upon induction, and consistent with hepatocyte development, DLK, AFP, and CK19 expression decreased, while ALB, CK18, and UGT1A expression increased. The maturity markers tyrosine aminotransferase and apolipoprotein B were detected at days 3 and 6 post-induction, respectively. ICG uptake and glycogen synthesis were detectable at day 6 and increased over time. Therefore, we demonstrated that HPCs were induced to differentiate into functional mature hepatocytes in vitro, suggesting that factor-treated HPCs may be further explored as a means of liver cell transplantation.

  7. Contribution to the study of incomplete fusion reactions induced in heavy ion collisions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The objective of this research thesis work was to identify the mechanisms involved in incomplete fusion reactions, and more particularly to see whether projectile structure has an influence on the reaction, and to assess the level and width of the angular moment window associated with incomplete fusion alphas. The study focused on alpha emission by the 16O + 116,124Sn system. Various experimental data have been obtained: differential efficient cross sections for different incident energies, energy spectra of alphas and their evolution with respect to the angle, angular moments associated with fast alphas, coincidences between alphas and discrete gamma lines, measurement of circular polarization of gammas emitted in incomplete fusion reactions

  8. Investigation of the influence of incomplete fusion on complete fusion of 16O induced reactions at moderate excitation energies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahamad Tauseef

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available An attempt has been made to investigate for the reaction dynamics leading to incomplete fusion (ICF of heavy ions at moderate excitation energies, especially the influence of incomplete fusion on complete fusion (CF of 16O induced reactions at specific energies. Excitation functions (EFs of various reaction products populated via CF and/or ICF of 16O projectile with 45Sc target were measured at energies ?3-7 MeV/nucleon, using recoil catcher technique followed by offline ?-ray spectroscopy. The measured EFs were compared with theoretical values obtained using the statistical model code PACE4. The experimentally measured EFs were in general found to be in good agreement with the theoretical predictions for non ?-emitting channels in the present target projectile system. However, for ?-emitting channels the measured EFs were higher than the predictions of the theoretical model codes, which may be credited to incomplete fusion reactions at these energies.

  9. Scintigraphic diagnosis of stress-induced incomplete fractures of the proximal tibia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Incomplete stress fractures of the proximal tibial diaphysis can be diagnosed by bone scintigraphy. The scintigraphic appearance of incomplete rather than complete tibial stress fractures is apparently reported for the first time in this article. With no treatment other than restricted activity, this injury heals rapidly and completely in 4 to 6 weeks. The major threat to the patient's welfare is unfounded suspicion of tumor or infection which may lead to biopsy or inappropriate therapy

  10. Amyloid-? peptide induces mitochondrial dysfunction by inhibition of preprotein maturation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mossmann, Dirk; Vögtle, F-Nora; Taskin, Asli Aras; Teixeira, Pedro Filipe; Ring, Julia; Burkhart, Julia M; Burger, Nils; Pinho, Catarina Moreira; Tadic, Jelena; Loreth, Desiree; Graff, Caroline; Metzger, Friedrich; Sickmann, Albert; Kretz, Oliver; Wiedemann, Nils; Zahedi, René P; Madeo, Frank; Glaser, Elzbieta; Meisinger, Chris

    2014-10-01

    Most mitochondrial proteins possess N-terminal presequences that are required for targeting and import into the organelle. Upon import, presequences are cleaved off by matrix processing peptidases and subsequently degraded by the peptidasome Cym1/PreP, which also degrades Amyloid-beta peptides (A?). Here we find that impaired turnover of presequence peptides results in feedback inhibition of presequence processing enzymes. Moreover, A? inhibits degradation of presequence peptides by PreP, resulting in accumulation of mitochondrial preproteins and processing intermediates. Dysfunctional preprotein maturation leads to rapid protein degradation and an imbalanced organellar proteome. Our findings reveal a general mechanism by which A? peptide can induce the multiple diverse mitochondrial dysfunctions accompanying Alzheimer's disease. PMID:25176146

  11. Evidence of a Binary-Induced Spiral from an Incomplete Ring Pattern of CIT 6

    OpenAIRE

    Kim, Hyosun; Hsieh, I-Ta; Liu, Sheng-Yuan; Ronald E. Taam

    2013-01-01

    With the advent of high-resolution high-sensitivity observations, spiral patterns have been revealed around several asymptotic giant branch (AGB) stars. Such patterns can provide possible evidence for the existence of central binary stars embedded in outflowing circumstellar envelopes. Here, we suggest the viability of explaining the previously observed incomplete ring-like patterns with the spiral-shell structure due to the motion of (unknown) binary components viewed at an...

  12. Coombs Antiglobulin Test Using Brucella abortus 99 as Antigen To Detect Incomplete Antibodies Induced by B. abortus RB51 Vaccine in Cattle

    OpenAIRE

    Ciuchini, Franco; Adone, Rosanna; Pasquali, Paolo

    2002-01-01

    This study showed that vaccination of cattle with Brucella abortus rough strain RB51 induces incomplete antibodies that can be detectable by a Coombs antiglobulin test using the B. abortus 99 smooth strain.

  13. Evidence of a Binary-induced Spiral from an Incomplete Ring Pattern of CIT 6

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Hyosun; Hsieh, I.-Ta; Liu, Sheng-Yuan; Taam, Ronald E.

    2013-10-01

    With the advent of high-resolution high-sensitivity observations, spiral patterns have been revealed around several asymptotic giant branch (AGB) stars. Such patterns can provide possible evidence for the existence of central binary stars embedded in outflowing circumstellar envelopes. Here, we suggest the viability of explaining the previously observed incomplete ring-like patterns with the spiral-shell structure as being due to the motion of (unknown) binary components viewed at an inclination with respect to the orbital plane. We describe a method of extracting such spiral shells from an incomplete ring-like pattern to place constraints on the characteristics of the central binary stars. The use of gas kinematics is essential in facilitating detailed modeling for the three-dimensional structure of the circumstellar pattern. We show that a hydrodynamic radiative transfer model can reproduce the structure of the HC3N molecular line emission of the extreme carbon star, CIT 6. This method can be applied to other sources in the AGB phase and to the outer ring-like patterns of pre-planetary nebulae for probing the existence of embedded binary stars, which are highly anticipated with future observations using the Atacama Large Millimeter/submillimeter Array.

  14. Evidence of a Binary-Induced Spiral from an Incomplete Ring Pattern of CIT 6

    CERN Document Server

    Kim, Hyosun; Liu, Sheng-Yuan; Taam, Ronald E

    2013-01-01

    With the advent of high-resolution high-sensitivity observations, spiral patterns have been revealed around several asymptotic giant branch (AGB) stars. Such patterns can provide possible evidence for the existence of central binary stars embedded in outflowing circumstellar envelopes. Here, we suggest the viability of explaining the previously observed incomplete ring-like patterns with the spiral-shell structure due to the motion of (unknown) binary components viewed at an inclination with respect to the orbital plane. We describe a method of extracting such spiral-shells from an incomplete ring-like pattern to place constraints on the characteristics of the central binary stars. The use of gas kinematics is essential in facilitating a detailed modeling for the three-dimensional structure of the circumstellar pattern. We show that a hydrodynamic radiative transfer model can reproduce the structure of the HC3N molecular line emission of the extreme carbon star, CIT 6. This method can be applied to other sour...

  15. Excitation functions for some Ne induced reactions with Holmium: incomplete fusion vs complete fusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reactions induced by 20Ne are expected to be considerably more complex than those of 12C, and 16O. As a part of the ongoing program to understand CF and ICF reaction mechanisms, it is of great interest to see whether the same experimental technique yield similarly valuable information for 20Ne induced reactions. In this present work an attempt has been made to measure the excitation functions for fifteen evaporation residues (ERs) identified in the interaction of 20Ne + 165Ho system in the energy range 4 -7 MeV/A

  16. Incomplete fusion reactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Various aspects of the mechanism of heavy-ion induced reactions in the range of bombarding energies from a few to about 20 MeV/A are reviewed with special emphasis on the reactions for very asymmetric systems. Results of the experimental studies of binary reactions and particularly of the incomplete fusion reactions (selected by means of various coincidence techniques)are discussed. A model of generalized critical angular momentum is formulated. The model explains essential features of the incomplete fusion reactions and predicts that particular reaction channels are localized in well defined regions of angular momenta. An extension of this model (the sum-rule model) is also proposed in attempt to consistently describe the complete fusion reactions, incomplete fusion reactions and multibody reactions in the framework of statistical competition constrained by the angular momentum limitations. (author)

  17. The basic helix-loop-helix transcription factor, Mist1, induces maturation of mouse fetal hepatoblasts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chikada, Hiromi; Ito, Keiichi; Yanagida, Ayaka; Nakauchi, Hiromitsu; Kamiya, Akihide

    2015-01-01

    Hepatic stem/progenitor cells, hepatoblasts, have a high proliferative ability and can differentiate into mature hepatocytes and cholangiocytes. Therefore, these cells are considered to be useful for regenerative medicine and drug screening for liver diseases. However, it is problem that in vitro maturation of hepatoblasts is insufficient in the present culture system. In this study, a novel regulator to induce hepatic differentiation was identified and the molecular function of this factor was examined in embryonic day 13 hepatoblast culture with maturation factor, oncostatin M and extracellular matrices. Overexpression of the basic helix-loop-helix type transcription factor, Mist1, induced expression of mature hepatocytic markers such as carbamoyl-phosphate synthetase1 and several cytochrome P450 (CYP) genes in this culture system. In contrast, Mist1 suppressed expression of cholangiocytic markers such as Sox9, Sox17, Ck19, and Grhl2. CYP3A metabolic activity was significantly induced by Mist1 in this hepatoblast culture. In addition, Mist1 induced liver-enriched transcription factors, CCAAT/enhancer-binding protein ? and Hepatocyte nuclear factor 1?, which are known to be involved in liver functions. These results suggest that Mist1 partially induces mature hepatocytic expression and function accompanied by the down-regulation of cholangiocytic markers. PMID:26456005

  18. Listeria monocytogenes protein fraction induces dendritic cells maturation and T helper 1 immune responses.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Azad Saei

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Fully mature dendritic cells (DCs play pivotal role in inducing immune responses and converting naïve T lymphocytes into functional Th1 cells. We aimed to evaluate Listeria Monocytogenes-derived protein fractions to induce DC maturation and stimulating T helper (Th1 immune responses.In the present study, we fractionated Listeria Monocytogenes-derived proteins by adding of ammonium sulfate in a stepwise manner. DCs were also generated from C57BL/6 mice bone marrow precursor cells. Then, the effects of protein fractions on bone marrow derived DC (BMDC maturation were evaluated. In addition, we assessed the capacity of activated DCs to induce cytokine production and proliferation of lymphocytes.Listeria-derived protein fractions induced fully mature DCs expressing high costimulatory molecules such as CD80, CD86 and CD40. DCs that were activated by selected F3 fraction had low capacity to uptake exogenous antigens while secreted high levels of Interleukine (IL-12. Moreover, lymphocytes cultured with activated BMDCs produced high amounts of IFN-? and showed higher proliferation than control. Listeria derived protein fractions differently influenced DC maturation.In conclusion, Listeria protein activated-BMDCs can be used as a cell based vaccine to induce anti-tumor immune responses.

  19. The basic helix-loop-helix transcription factor, Mist1, induces maturation of mouse fetal hepatoblasts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chikada, Hiromi; Ito, Keiichi; Yanagida, Ayaka; Nakauchi, Hiromitsu; Kamiya, Akihide

    2015-01-01

    Hepatic stem/progenitor cells, hepatoblasts, have a high proliferative ability and can differentiate into mature hepatocytes and cholangiocytes. Therefore, these cells are considered to be useful for regenerative medicine and drug screening for liver diseases. However, it is problem that in vitro maturation of hepatoblasts is insufficient in the present culture system. In this study, a novel regulator to induce hepatic differentiation was identified and the molecular function of this factor was examined in embryonic day 13 hepatoblast culture with maturation factor, oncostatin M and extracellular matrices. Overexpression of the basic helix-loop-helix type transcription factor, Mist1, induced expression of mature hepatocytic markers such as carbamoyl-phosphate synthetase1 and several cytochrome P450 (CYP) genes in this culture system. In contrast, Mist1 suppressed expression of cholangiocytic markers such as Sox9, Sox17, Ck19, and Grhl2. CYP3A metabolic activity was significantly induced by Mist1 in this hepatoblast culture. In addition, Mist1 induced liver-enriched transcription factors, CCAAT/enhancer-binding protein ? and Hepatocyte nuclear factor 1?, which are known to be involved in liver functions. These results suggest that Mist1 partially induces mature hepatocytic expression and function accompanied by the down-regulation of cholangiocytic markers. PMID:26456005

  20. Investigation of the influence of incomplete fusion on complete fusion of 12C-induced reactions at ? 4-7.2 MeV/nucleon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this paper, we present the results of our investigation of reaction dynamics leading to incomplete fusion of heavy ions at moderate excitation energies, especially the influence of incomplete fusion on complete fusion of 12C -induced reactions at specific energies ? 4-7.2M eV/nucleon. Excitation functions of various reaction products populated via complete and/or incomplete fusions of a 12C projectile with 93Nb, 59Co and 52Cr targets were measured at several specific energies ? 4-7.2 MeV/nucleon, using a recoil catcher technique, followed by off-line ?-ray spectrometry. The measured excitation functions were compared with theoretical values obtained using the PACE4 statistical model code. For representative non-?-emitting channels in the 12C + 93Nb system, the experimentally measured excitation functions were, in general, found to be in good agreement with the theoretical predictions. However, for ?-emitting channels in the 12C + 93Nb, 12C + 59Co, and 12C + 52Cr systems, the measured excitation functions were higher than the predictions of the theoretical model code, which may be credited to incomplete fusion reactions at these energies. An attempt was made to estimate the incomplete fusion fraction for the present systems, which revealed that the fraction was sensitive to the projectile energy and mass asymmetry of the entrance channel. (orig.)

  1. Fibroblast and T cells conditioned media induce maturation dendritic cell and promote T helper immune response

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    Masoumeh Asadi

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Dendritic cells (DCs induce pathogen-specific T cell responses. We comprehensively studied the effects of addition of maturation stimulus, fibroblasts (fibroblast conditioned medium, PHA activated T cells (T cell conditioned medium, and mixture of fibroblast & PHA activated T cells (FCM-TCCM conditioned media on maturation of DCs. Monocytes were cultured with GM-CSF and IL-4 for five days. Maturation factors included MCM and TNF-α as control group. FCM and TCCM, or FCM-TCCM supernatant were considered as the treatment group. Tumor antigens were added at day five. Matured DCs were harvested at day seven. Phenotypic and functional analyses were carried out using anti (CD14, CD80, CD86, CD83 and HLA-DR monoclonal antibodies. Phagocytic activity, mixed lymphocyte reaction (MLR and cytokine production were also evaluated. At the end of culturing period, significantly fully matured DCs with large amount cytoplasm and copious dendritic projections were found in the presence of MCM, TNF-α with or without FCM, TCCM, FCM as well as TCCM. Flow cytometric analysis revealed that expression of CD14 decreased in particular in treated DCs, at the 5th day and expression of CD80, CD86 and HLA-DR was higher when FCM, TCCM, FCM plus TCCM were added to maturation factor. This study demonstrated that DCs matured with these methods had optimum function in comparison with either factor alone.

  2. Complement protein C1q induces maturation of human dendritic cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Csomor, Eszter; Bajtay, Zsuzsa; Sándor, Noémi; Kristóf, Katalin; Arlaud, Gérard J; Thiel, Steffen; Erdei, Anna

    2007-01-01

    Maturation of dendritic cells (DCs) is known to be induced by several stimuli, including microbial products, inflammatory cytokines and immobilized IgG, as demonstrated recently. Since immune complexes formed in vivo also contain C1q, moreover apoptotic cells and several pathogens fix C1q in the...

  3. Investigation of complete and incomplete fusion dynamics of 20Ne induced reactions at energies above the Coulomb barrier

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, D.; Ali, R.; Kumar, Harish; Ansari, M. Afzal; Rashid, M. H.; Guin, R.

    2014-08-01

    Experiment has been performed to explore the complete and incomplete fusion dynamics in heavy ion collisions using stacked foil activation technique. The measurement of excitation functions of the evaporation residues produced in the 20Ne+165Ho system at projectile energies ranges ? 4-8 MeV/nucleon have been done. Measured cumulative and direct cross-sections have been compared with the theoretical model code PACE-2, which takes into account only the complete fusion process. The analysis indicates the presence of contributions from incomplete fusion processes in some ?-emission channels following the break-up of the projectile 20Ne in the nuclear field of the target nucleus 165Ho.

  4. Investigation of contribution of incomplete fusion in the total fusion process induced by 9Be on 181Ta target at near barrier energies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kharab, Rajesh; Chahal, Rajiv; Kumar, Rajiv

    2016-02-01

    We have studied the relative contribution of incomplete fusion (ICF) and complete fusion (CF) in total fusion (TF) induced by 9Be on 181Ta target at energies in the vicinity of Coulomb barrier using classical dynamical model and Wong's formula in conjugation with energy dependent Woods-Saxon formula. It is found that at above barrier energies ICF contributes almost 30% in TF while at energies below the barrier qualitatively its contribution is much more than thirty percent.

  5. Complete and incomplete fusion studies in 7Li and 16O induced reactions on 51V by measurement of excitation functions and recoil ranges

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Excitation function and mean projected recoil ranges of nuclei produced in the 7Li and 16O induced reactions on 51V target were measured by conventional stacked foil and thick target and thick-recoil-catcher technique for bombarding energies E ? 50.0 MeV for 7Li ions and E?60.0-96.0 MeV for the 16O ions. The measured recoil ranges are converted to momentum transfer. The momentum transfer information was used to get clues about some aspects of the interaction such as complete and incomplete fusion reaction mechanism which correspond to full and reduced momentum transfer respectively. The measured excitation functions are compared with the calculation based on the statistical model which describes only equilibrium decay of the compound nucleus using the CASCADE code. The comparison of the CASCADE code with the measured excitation functions for the residue radioisotopes 51Cr and 54Mn for the 7Li + 51V system indicates the reaction mechanisms is complete fusion of 7Li with the target nucleus 51V. Similarly the comparison of the CASCADE code with the measured excitation functions of the residue radioisotopes for the system 16O + 51V indicates that the four reaction mechanisms (i) complete fusion of 16O, (ii) incomplete fusion of 12C, (iii) incomplete fusion of 8Be and (iv) incomplete fusion of 4He respectively with the target might be contributing to reaction cross sections. (author)

  6. Complement protein C1q induces maturation of human dendritic cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Csomor, Eszter; Bajtay, Zsuzsa

    2007-01-01

    Maturation of dendritic cells (DCs) is known to be induced by several stimuli, including microbial products, inflammatory cytokines and immobilized IgG, as demonstrated recently. Since immune complexes formed in vivo also contain C1q, moreover apoptotic cells and several pathogens fix C1q in the absence of antibodies, we undertook to investigate whether this complement protein has an impact on various functions of human DCs. Maturation of monocyte-derived immature DCs (imMDCs) cultured on immobilized C1q was followed by monitoring expression of CD80, CD83, CD86, MHCII and CCR7. The functional activity of the cells was assessed by measuring cytokine secretion and their ability to activate allogeneic T lymphocytes. Cytokine production by T cells co-cultured with C1q-matured DCs was also investigated. C1q, but not the structurally related mannose-binding lectin was found to bind to imMDC in a dose-dependent manner and induced NF-kappaB translocation to the nucleus. Immobilized C1q induced maturation of MDCs and enhanced secretion of IL-12 and TNF-alpha, moreover, elevated their T-cell stimulating capacity. As IFN-gamma levels were increased in supernatants of MDC-T cell co-cultures, our data suggest that C1q-induced DC maturation generates a Th1-type response. Interestingly, IL-10 levels were elevated by C1q-treated MDCs but not in the supernatant of their co-cultures with allogeneic T cells. Taken together, these results indicate that C1q-opsonized antigens may play a role in the induction and regulation of immune response. Moreover our data are relevant in view of the role of C1q in removal of apoptotic cells and the association between C1q-deficiency and autoimmunity.

  7. Thyroid hormone does not induce maturation of embryonic chicken cardiomyocytes in vitro

    Science.gov (United States)

    Svensson Holm, Ann?Charlotte B.; Lindgren, Isa; Österman, Hanna; Altimiras, Jordi

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Fetal cardiac growth in mammalian models occurs primarily by cell proliferation (hyperplasia). However, most cardiomyocytes lose the ability to proliferate close to term and heart growth continues by increasing cell size (hypertrophy). In mammals, the thyroid hormone triiodothyronine (T3) is an important driver of this process. Chicken cardiomyocytes, however, keep their proliferating ability long after hatching but little information is available on the mechanisms controlling cell growth and myocyte maturation in the chicken heart. Our aim was to study the role of T3 on proliferation and differentiation of embryonic chicken cardiomyocytes (ECCM), enzymatically isolated from 19?day?old embryos and to compare the effects to those of insulin?like growth factor?1 (IGF?1) and phenylephrine (PE). Hyperplasia was measured using a proliferation assay (MTS) and hypertrophy/multinucleation was analyzed morphologically by phalloidin staining of F?actin and nuclear staining with DAPI. We show that IGF?1 induces a significant increase in ECCM proliferation (30%) which is absent with T3 and PE. PE induced both hypertrophy (61%) and multinucleation (41%) but IGF?1 or T3 did not. In conclusion, we show that T3 does not induce maturation or proliferation of cardiomyocytes, while IGF?1 induces cardiomyocyte proliferation and PE induces maturation of cardiomyocytes. PMID:25501434

  8. Spontaneous and LH-induced maturation in Bufo arenarum oocytes: importance of gap junctions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toranzo, G Sánchez; Oterino, J; Zelarayán, L; Bonilla, F; Bühler, M I

    2007-02-01

    It has been demonstrated in Bufo arenarum that fully grown oocytes are capable of meiotic resumption in the absence of a hormonal stimulus if they are deprived of their follicular envelopes. This event, called spontaneous maturation, only takes place in oocytes collected during the reproductive period, which have a metabolically mature cytoplasm. In Bufo arenarum, progesterone acts on the oocyte surface and causes modifications in the activities of important enzymes, such as a decrease in the activity of adenylate cyclase (AC) and the activation of phospholipase C (PLC). PLC activation leads to the formation of diacylglycerol (DAG) and inositol triphosphate (IP(3)), second messengers that activate protein kinase C (PKC) and cause an increase in intracellular Ca(2+). Recent data obtained from Bufo arenarum show that progesterone-induced maturation causes significant modifications in the level and composition of neutral lipids and phospholipids of whole fully grown ovarian oocytes and of enriched fractions in the plasma membrane. In amphibians, the luteinizing hormone (LH) is responsible for meiosis resumption through the induction of progesterone production by follicular cells. The aim of this work was to study the importance of gap junctions in the spontaneous and LH-induced maturation in Bufo arenarum oocytes. During the reproductive period, Bufo arenarum oocytes are capable of undergoing spontaneous maturation in a similar way to mammalian oocytes while, during the non-reproductive period, they exhibit the behaviour that is characteristic of amphibian oocytes, requiring progesterone stimulation for meiotic resumption (incapable oocytes). This different ability to mature spontaneously is coincident with differences in the amount and composition of the phospholipids in the oocyte membranes. Capable oocytes exhibit in their membranes higher quantities of phospholipids than incapable oocytes, especially of PC and PI, which are precursors of second messengers such as DAG and IP(3). The uncoupling of the gap junctions with 1-octanol or halothane fails to induce maturation in follicles from the non-reproductive period, whose oocytes are incapable of maturing spontaneously. However, if the treatment is performed during the reproductive period, with oocytes capable of undergoing spontaneous maturation, meiosis resumption occurs in high percentages, similar to those obtained by manual defolliculation. Interestingly, results show that LH is capable of inducing GVBD in both incapable oocytes and in oocytes capable of maturing spontaneously as long as follicle cells are present, which would imply the need for a communication pathway between the oocyte and the follicle cells. This possibility was analysed by combining LH treatment with uncoupling agents such as 1-octanol or halothane. Results show that maturation induction with LH requires a cell-cell coupling, as the uncoupling of the gap junctions decreases GVBD percentages. Experiments with LH in the presence of heparin, BAPTA/AM and theophylline suggest that the hormone could induce GVBD by means of the passage of IP(3) or Ca(2+) through the gap junctions, which would increase the Ca(2+) level in the oocyte cytoplasm and activate phosphodiesterase (PDE), thus contributing to the decrease in cAMP levels and allowing meiosis resumption. PMID:17391547

  9. Incomplete fusion reaction in /sup 14/N induced reaction at 10-15 MeV/A

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In heavy-ion reactions with lower bombarding energies, complete fusion characterized by full momentum transfer is a dominant part of the total reaction cross section. As increasing bombarding energies (above 10 MeV/A), incomplete fusion process becomes more and more important, where energetic light particles are considered to be emitted before the remaining nuclei fuse together. In order to investigate the incomplete fusion process, the authors have measured i) inclusive light particle emission in the reactions of /sup 93/Nb + /sup 14/N at 132, 159, and 208 MeV, and ii) the magnitude of linear momentum transferred to the target in coincidence with light particles in the reaction of /sup 232/Th + /sup 14/N at 208 MeV

  10. Investigation of complete and incomplete fusion dynamics of {sup 20}Ne induced reactions at energies above the Coulomb barrier

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Singh, D., E-mail: dsinghiuac@gmail.com [Centre for Applied Physics, Central University of Jharkhand, Ranchi-835 205 (India); Ali, R. [Department of Physics, G.F.(P.G.), College, Shahjahanpur-242 001 (India); Kumar, Harish; Ansari, M. Afzal [Department of Physics, Aligarh Muslim University, Aligarh-202 002 (India); Rashid, M. H.; Guin, R. [Variable Energy Cyclotron Centre, 1/AF, Bidhan Nagar, Kolkata-700 064 (India)

    2014-08-14

    Experiment has been performed to explore the complete and incomplete fusion dynamics in heavy ion collisions using stacked foil activation technique. The measurement of excitation functions of the evaporation residues produced in the {sup 20}Ne+{sup 165}Ho system at projectile energies ranges ? 4-8 MeV/nucleon have been done. Measured cumulative and direct cross-sections have been compared with the theoretical model code PACE-2, which takes into account only the complete fusion process. The analysis indicates the presence of contributions from incomplete fusion processes in some ?-emission channels following the break-up of the projectile {sup 20}Ne in the nuclear field of the target nucleus {sup 165}Ho.

  11. Thidiazuron-induced high-frequency plant regeneration from leaf explants of Paulownia tomentosa mature trees

    OpenAIRE

    Corredoira, E.; Ballester, A.; Viéitez Martín, Ana María

    2008-01-01

    Attempts were made to study the effect of thidiazuron (TDZ) on adventitious shoot induction and plant development in Paulownia tomentosa explants derived from mature trees. Media with different concentrations of TDZ in combination with an auxin were used to induce adventitious shoot-buds in two explant types: basal leaf halves with the petiole attached (leaf explant) and intact petioles. Optimal shoot regeneration was obtained in leaf explants cultured on induction medium containing TDZ (22.7...

  12. Panobinostat (LBH589)-induced acetylation of tubulin impairs megakaryocyte maturation and platelet formation

    OpenAIRE

    Iancu-Rubin, Camelia; Gajzer, David; Mosoyan, Goar; Feller, Faye; Mascarenhas, John; Hoffman, Ronald

    2012-01-01

    Drug-induced thrombocytopenia often results from dysregulation of normal megakaryocytopoiesis. In this study, we investigated the mechanisms responsible for thrombocytopenia associated with the use of Panobinostat (LBH589), a histone deacetylase inhibitor (HDACi) with promising anti-cancer activities. The effects of LBH589 were tested on the cellular and molecular aspects of megakaryocytopoiesis by utilizing an ex vivo system in which mature megakaryocytes (MK) and platelets were generated fr...

  13. Mature T-lineage leukemia with growth factor-induced multilineage differentiation

    OpenAIRE

    1989-01-01

    We report an acute T-lymphoblastic leukemia with a predominantly mature CD3+ CD7+ WT31+ phenotype that was induced to differentiate into different cell lineages by various recombinant human growth factors. In the presence of IL-3 or GM-CSF, the leukemic cells gave rise to myeloid and monocytic cells including terminally differentiated, partially functional, segmented neutrophilic granulocytes as assessed by morphologic, cytochemical, immunophenotypic, and functional criteria. In the presence ...

  14. Complement protein C1q induces maturation of human dendritic cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cosmor, E; Bajtay, Z; Sándor, N; Kristóf, K; Arlaud, GJ; Thiel, Steffen; Erdei, A

    2007-01-01

    -dependent manner and induced NF-kappaB translocation to the nucleus. Immobilized C1q induced maturation of MDCs and enhanced secretion of IL-12 and TNF-alpha, moreover, elevated their T-cell stimulating capacity. As IFN-gamma levels were increased in supernatants of MDC-T cell co-cultures, our data suggest that C1......Maturation of dendritic cells (DCs) is known to be induced by several stimuli, including microbial products, inflammatory cytokines and immobilized IgG, as demonstrated recently. Since immune complexes formed in vivo also contain C1q, moreover apoptotic cells and several pathogens fix C1q in the...... activity of the cells was assessed by measuring cytokine secretion and their ability to activate allogeneic T lymphocytes. Cytokine production by T cells co-cultured with C1q-matured DCs was also investigated. C1q, but not the structurally related mannose-binding lectin was found to bind to imMDC in a dose...

  15. Incomplete block designs

    CERN Document Server

    Dey, Aloke

    2010-01-01

    This book presents a systematic, rigorous and comprehensive account of the theory and applications of incomplete block designs. All major aspects of incomplete block designs are considered by consolidating vast amounts of material from the literature - the classical incomplete block designs, like the balanced incomplete block (BIB) and partially balanced incomplete block (PBIB) designs. Other developments like efficiency-balanced designs, nested designs, robust designs, C-designs and alpha designs are also discussed, along with more recent developments in incomplete block designs for special t

  16. Maturation of murine bone marrow dendritic cells induced by acidic Ginseng polysaccharides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zuozhou; Meng, Jingjuan; Xia, Yanjie; Meng, Yiming; Du, Lin; Zhang, Zhenjie; Wang, Enhua; Shan, Fengping

    2013-02-01

    In this study, we report that a acidic polysaccharide (AGP) isolated from a Chinese medicinal herb, named Ginseng (Panax giseng C.A. Meyer), induces maturation of bone marrow dendritic cells (BMDCs) via concrete changes both inside and outside BMDCs. The impacts of AGP on BMDCs were assessed with use of conventional scanning electronic microscopy (SEM), transmission electronic microscopy (TEM) for morphology, flow cytometry (FCM) for key surface molecules, cytochemistry assay, FITC-dextran, bio-assay for phagocytosis and enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) for production of cytokines. Our results elucidated that PPS promoted maturation of BMDCs via changes as reflected by the down-regulation of acid phosphatase (ACP) activity inside the BMDCs, which occurs when phagocytosis of BMDCs to antigen decreased, while antigen presentation increased upon maturation, higher expression of key surface molecules of MHC II, CD80, CD86, CD83, and CD40, and releasing higher level of cytokines IL-12 and low level of TNF-?. Our study suggest that AGP play marked immunostimulating role on the maturation of murine BMDCs through precise regulation of phagocytosis and enzyme activities inside the BMDCs. PMID:23164755

  17. Exopolysaccharide Produced by Lactobacillus Plantarum Induces Maturation of Dendritic Cells in BALB/c Mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Yanjun; Dong, Wei; Wan, Keyu; Zhang, Ligang; Li, Chun; Zhang, Lili; Liu, Ning

    2015-01-01

    Lactobacillus plantarum (L. plantarum) exopolysaccharide (EPS) is an important bioactive component in fermented functional foods. However, there is a lack of data concerning the effects of L. plantarum EPS on maturation of mouse dendritic cells (DCs). In this study, we purified L. plantarum EPS and examined its effects on cytokines production by dendritic cells in serum and intestinal fluid of BALB/c mice, then investigated its effects on phenotypic and functional maturation of mouse bone marrow-derived dendritic cells (BMDCs). Cytokines (nitric oxide, IL-12p70, IL-10 and RANTES) in serum and intestinal fluid were analyzed by enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) after the mice received EPS for 2, 5 and 7 days, respectively. DCs derived from bone marrow of BALB/c mouse were treated with EPS, then the phenotypic maturation of BMDCs was analyzed using flow cytometer and the functional maturation of BMDCs was analyzed by ELISA, and, lastly, mixed lymphocyte proliferation was performed. We found the molecular weight of purified EPS was approximately 2.4×106 Da and it was composed of ribose, rhamnose, arabinose, xylose, mannose, glucose and galactose in a molar ratio of 2:1:1:10:4:205:215. We observed that L. plantarum EPS enriched production of nitric oxide, IL-12p70 and RANTES, and decreased the secretion of IL-10 in the serum or intestinal fluid as well as in the supernatant of DCs treated with the EPS. The EPS also up-regulated the expression of MHC II and CD86 on DCs surface and promoted T cells to proliferate in vitro. Our data provide direct evidence to suggest that L. plantarum EPS can effectively induce maturation of DCs in mice. PMID:26599612

  18. Impact of laccase enzyme inducers on solid waste compost maturity and stability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nadeem, Amana; Baig, Shahjahan; Iqbal, Khalid; Sheikh, Nadeem

    2014-01-01

    The influence of inducers of laccase produced by Pleurotus ostreatus-P1 on the physicochemical properties of solid waste compost was investigated. In order to examine the degree of humification and time period for maturity and stability of compost, three different treatments (T: laccase; T1: laccase+CuSO4; and T2: laccase+CuSO4+CaCl2) were inoculated on solid waste in the initial stage of the composting process. During the composting process, the carbon nitrogen ratio (C/N), nitrate ([Formula: see text]), ammonium nitrogen ([Formula: see text]), cation exchange capacity (CEC), humic acid (HA) and fulvic acid (FA) humification rate (HR), Humification Index (HI), and degree of polymerization (DP) were assessed for the evaluation of compost maturity and stability, and it was found that T2 treatment C/N, CEC, and HI was greater, 46.8%, 37.2%, and 38.46%, respectively, than T at the end of the maturation phase. Optimum degree of maturity was also appraised by the Germination Index, 98.25% was attained by T2, whereas 88.65% and 71.23% by T1 and T, respectively. Significant Pearson correlation was also found between compost characteristics such as C/N, CEC, HA, FA, DP, HI, and HR. In addition, also obstinate the mineralization's of nitrogen under laboratory incubation, using soil amended by 50 and 100 kg-N/ha and examined an increasing trend in nitrogen mineralization with the application rate. Moreover, it was concluded that the laccase inducers increase the disintegration and humification process during solid waste composting. PMID:25244141

  19. Gamma rays induced variability in mature embryos of avocado (Persea americana Mill)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Induced mutation and biotechnology techniques are current approaches used in plant breeding. At present work, the induced mutation and embryo zygotic culture techniques were used in order to characterize the radiosensitivity of avocado commercial varieties, Hass and California. The induced diversity in plant material was also evaluated in morphological seedling descriptors as: height seedling, diameter seedling neck, leaves number, length of principal root and secondary root number. The obtained results showed high susceptibility of both varieties to gamma rays. California was the higher sensitivity variety. Percentage of entire shoot induction showed clear dependence of radiation dose in both varieties. Thus dose range for mutagenesis was determined. In general, variation of morphological seedling descriptors not was clearly agreed to increase of radiation dose. In addition, the results suggested that variation in morphological seedling descriptors also could be depending of genotypes. The useful of mature embryo culture of avocado for improvement of breeding approaches in this crop, was discussed

  20. Caspase-activated ROCK-1 allows erythroblast terminal maturation independently of cytokine-induced Rho signaling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gabet, A-S; Coulon, S; Fricot, A; Vandekerckhove, J; Chang, Y; Ribeil, J-A; Lordier, L; Zermati, Y; Asnafi, V; Belaid, Z; Debili, N; Vainchenker, W; Varet, B; Hermine, O; Courtois, G

    2011-04-01

    Stem cell factor (SCF) and erythropoietin are strictly required for preventing apoptosis and stimulating proliferation, allowing the differentiation of erythroid precursors from colony-forming unit-E to the polychromatophilic stage. In contrast, terminal maturation to generate reticulocytes occurs independently of cytokine signaling by a mechanism not fully understood. Terminal differentiation is characterized by a sequence of morphological changes including a progressive decrease in cell size, chromatin condensation in the nucleus and disappearance of organelles, which requires transient caspase activation. These events are followed by nucleus extrusion as a consequence of plasma membrane and cytoskeleton reorganization. Here, we show that in early step, SCF stimulates the Rho/ROCK pathway until the basophilic stage. Thereafter, ROCK-1 is activated independently of Rho signaling by caspase-3-mediated cleavage, allowing terminal maturation at least in part through phosphorylation of the light chain of myosin II. Therefore, in this differentiation system, final maturation occurs independently of SCF signaling through caspase-induced ROCK-1 kinase activation. PMID:21072057

  1. Interferon-? Added During Bacillus Calmette-Guerin Induced Dendritic Cell Maturation Stimulates Potent Th1 Immune Responses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pestano Linda A

    2003-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Dendritic cells (DC are increasingly prepared in vitro for use in immunotherapy trials. Mature DC express high levels of surface molecules needed for T cell activation and are superior at antigen-presentation than immature DC. Bacillus Calmette-Guerin (BCG is one of several products known to induce DC maturation, and interferon (IFN-? has been shown to enhance the activity of DC stimulated with certain maturation factors. In this study, we investigated the use of IFN-? in combination with the powerful maturation agent, BCG. The treatment of immature DC with IFN-? plus BCG led to the upregulation of CD54, CD80, and CD86 in comparison with BCG treatment alone. In MLR or recall immune responses, the addition of IFN-? at the time of BCG-treatment did not increase the number of antigen-specific T cells but enhanced the development of IFN-?-producing Th1 cells. In primary immune responses, on the other hand, BCG and IFN-? co-treated DC stimulated higher proportions of specific T cells as well as IFN-? secretion by these T cells. Thus the use of IFN-? during BCG-induced DC maturation differentially affects the nature of recall versus naïve antigen-specific T-cell responses. IFN-? co-treatment with BCG was found to induce IL-12 and, in some instances, inhibit IL-10 secretion by DC. These findings greatly enhance the potential of BCG-matured dendritic cells for use in cancer immunotherapy.

  2. Comparative effects of mature coconut water (Cocos nucifera) and glibenclamide on some biochemical parameters in alloxan induced diabetic rats

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    P. P., Preetha; V., Girija Devi; T., Rajamohan.

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available In the present study, comparative effects of mature coconut water (Cocos nucifera L., Arecaceae) and glibenclamide in alloxan induced diabetic rats were evaluated. Diabetes mellitus was induced in Sprague-Dawly rats using alloxan monohydrate (150 mg kg-1 body weight). Treatment with lyophilized form [...] of mature coconut water and glibenclamide in diabetic rats reduced the blood glucose and glycated hemoglobin along with improvement in plasma insulin level. Elevated levels of liver function enzymes markers like alkaline phosphatase, serum glutamate oxaloacetate transaminase and serum glutamate pyruvate transaminase in diabetic rats were significantly reduced on treatment with mature coconut water. In addition to this, diabetic rats showed altered levels of blood urea, serum creatinine, albumin, albumin/globulin ratio which were significantly improved by treatment with mature coconut water and glibenclamide. Activities of nitric oxide synthase in liver and plasma L-arginine were reduced significantly in alloxan induced diabetic rats while treatment with mature coconut water reversed these changes. The overall results show that mature coconut water has significant beneficial effects in diabetic rats and its effects were comparable to that of glibenclamide, a well known antidiabetic drug.

  3. Glia maturation factor induces interleukin-33 release from astrocytes: implications for neurodegenerative diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kempuraj, Duraisamy; Khan, Mohammad Moshahid; Thangavel, Ramasamy; Xiong, Zhi; Yang, Evert; Zaheer, Asgar

    2013-06-01

    Neurodegenerative diseases such as Alzheimer's disease (AD), Parkinson's disease (PD) and Multiple sclerosis (MS) involve activation of glial cells and release of inflammatory mediators leading to death of neurons. Glia maturation factor (GMF) is up-regulated in the central nervous system (CNS) in these neurodegenerative diseases. Interleukin-33 (IL-33) is highly expressed constitutively in the CNS. We have treated mouse astrocytes, mixed culture with glial cells and neurons, and only neurons with GMF and/or IL-33 in vitro. Both GMF and IL-33-induced chemokine (C-C motif) ligand 2 (CCL2) release in a dose and time-dependent manner. We report that GMF induced IL-33 release, and that IL-33 augments GMF-induced tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-?) release from mouse astrocytes. IL-33 induces CCL2, TNF-? and nitric oxide release through phosphorylation of ERK in mouse astrocytes. Incubation of mixed culture containing glial cells and neurons or only neuronal culture with IL-33 reduced the number of neurons positive for microtubule-associated protein 2. In conclusion, IL-33 augments GMF-mediated neuroinflammation and may provide a new drug target for neurodegenerative and autoimmune diseases. PMID:23397250

  4. Complete and incomplete fusion competition in 11B-induced fission reaction on medium mass targets at intermediate energies

    CERN Document Server

    Demekhina, N A; Balabekyan, A R

    2014-01-01

    The cross sections for the binary fission of 197Au, 181Ta and 209Bi targets induced by 11B ions were measured at intermediate energies. The fission products cross sections were studied by means of activation analysis in off-line regime observed gamma-ray spectra. The fission cross section is reconstructed on the basis of charge and mass distribution of the fission products.

  5. Complete and Incomplete Fusion Competition in 11B-INDUCED Fission Reactions on 197Au at the Intermediate Energy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demekhina, N. A.; Karapetyan, G. S.; Balabekyan, A. R.

    2015-06-01

    Above Coulomb barrier cross sections of fission fragment production were measured in reactions of 11B with 197Au target. Induced-activity method was used for measurement the fission decay channel of the composite nuclei. Systematic of the fission fragment charge and mass distributions was used for fission cross section calculation. Fission fraction of the composite nuclei decay was compared with PACE-4 mode calculations. Estimated suppression for fission fraction followed the complete fusion have been obtained 35%.

  6. Updating with incomplete observations

    CERN Document Server

    De Cooman, G; Zaffalon, Marco

    2003-01-01

    Currently, there is renewed interest in the problem, raised by Shafer in 1985, of updating probabilities when observations are incomplete (or set-valued). This is a fundamental problem, and of particular interest for Bayesian networks. Recently, Grunwald and Halpern have shown that commonly used updating strategies fail here, except under very special assumptions. We propose a new rule for updating probabilities with incomplete observations. Our approach is deliberately conservative: we make no or weak assumptions about the so-called incompleteness mechanism that produces incomplete observations. We model our ignorance about this mechanism by a vacuous lower prevision, a tool from the theory of imprecise probabilities, and we derive a new updating rule using coherence arguments. In general, our rule produces lower posterior probabilities, as well as partially determinate decisions. This is a logical consequence of the ignorance about the incompleteness mechanism. We show how the new rule can properly address ...

  7. Maturation of osteoblast-like SaoS2 induced by carbon nanotubes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Osteogenic maturation of the osteoblast is crucial for bone formation. In this study, multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) and graphite (GP) were pressed as compacts. The greater ability of carbon nanotubes to adsorb proteins, compared with graphite, was shown. Human osteoblast-like SaoS2 cells were cultured and the cell response to the two kinds of compacts was compared in vitro. Meanwhile, we used cell culture on the culture plate as a control. Assays for osteonectin, osteopontin and osteocalcin gene expression, total protein (TP) amount, alkaline phosphatase activity (ALP) and DNA of cells cultured on the samples were done. During the conventional culture, significantly higher osteonectin, osteopontin and osteocalcin gene expression level, ALP/DNA and TP/DNA on carbon nanotubes were found. To confirm the hypothesis that the larger amount of specific proteins adsorbed on the carbon nanotubes was crucial for this, the compacts were pre-soaked in culture medium having additional recombinant human bone morphogenetic protein-2 (rhBMP-2) before cell culture. Compared with GP, osteonectin, osteopontin and osteocalcin gene expression level, ALP/DNA and TP/DNA of the cells tested increased more on the MWCNTs after the compacts were pre-soaked in the culture medium with rhBMP-2. The results indicated that the carbon nanotubes might induce osteogenic maturation of the osteoblast by adsorbing more specific proteins.

  8. Maturation of osteoblast-like SaoS2 induced by carbon nanotubes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li Xiaoming; Uo, Motohiro; Akasaka, Tsukasa; Abe, Shigeaki; Watari, Fumio [Department of Biomedical Materials and Engineering, Graduate School of Dental Medicine, Hokkaido University, Kita Ku Kita 13, Nishi 7, Sapporo 060-8586 (Japan); Gao Hong [Division of Applied Bioscience, Graduate School of Agriculture, Hokkaido University, Sapporo 060-8586 (Japan); Sato, Yoshinori [Graduate School of Environmental Studies, Tohoku University, Sendai (Japan); Feng Qingling; Cui Fuzhai, E-mail: x.m.li@hotmail.co [Key Laboratory of Advanced Materials, Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China)

    2009-02-15

    Osteogenic maturation of the osteoblast is crucial for bone formation. In this study, multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) and graphite (GP) were pressed as compacts. The greater ability of carbon nanotubes to adsorb proteins, compared with graphite, was shown. Human osteoblast-like SaoS2 cells were cultured and the cell response to the two kinds of compacts was compared in vitro. Meanwhile, we used cell culture on the culture plate as a control. Assays for osteonectin, osteopontin and osteocalcin gene expression, total protein (TP) amount, alkaline phosphatase activity (ALP) and DNA of cells cultured on the samples were done. During the conventional culture, significantly higher osteonectin, osteopontin and osteocalcin gene expression level, ALP/DNA and TP/DNA on carbon nanotubes were found. To confirm the hypothesis that the larger amount of specific proteins adsorbed on the carbon nanotubes was crucial for this, the compacts were pre-soaked in culture medium having additional recombinant human bone morphogenetic protein-2 (rhBMP-2) before cell culture. Compared with GP, osteonectin, osteopontin and osteocalcin gene expression level, ALP/DNA and TP/DNA of the cells tested increased more on the MWCNTs after the compacts were pre-soaked in the culture medium with rhBMP-2. The results indicated that the carbon nanotubes might induce osteogenic maturation of the osteoblast by adsorbing more specific proteins.

  9. Relating incomplete data and incomplete theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Assuming string theorists will not soon provide a compelling case for the primary theory underlying particle physics, the field will proceed as it has historically: with data stimulating and testing ideas. Ideally the soft supersymmetry breaking Lagrangian will be measured and its patterns will point to the underlying theory. But there are two new problems. First a matter of principle: the theory may be simplest at distance scales and in numbers of dimensions where direct experiments are not possible. Second a practical problem: in the foreseeable future (with mainly hadron collider data) too few observables can be measured to lead to direct connections between experiment and theory. In this paper we discuss and study these issues and consider ways to circumvent the problems, studying models to test methods. We propose a semiquantitative method for focusing and sharpening thinking when trying to relate incomplete data to incomplete theory, as will probably be necessary

  10. Mycobacterium tuberculosislpdC, Rv0462, induces dendritic cell maturation and Th1 polarization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heo, Deok Rim [Department of Microbiology and Immunology, School of Medicine, Pusan National University, Beom-eo Ri, Mulgum Eop, Yangsan, Gyeongsangnam-do 626-770 (Korea, Republic of); Shin, Sung Jae; Kim, Woo Sik [Department of Microbiology, College of Medicine, Chungnam National University, Munwha-Dong, Jung-Ku, Daejeon 301-747 (Korea, Republic of); Noh, Kyung Tae; Park, Jin Wook; Son, Kwang Hee [Department of Microbiology and Immunology, School of Medicine, Pusan National University, Beom-eo Ri, Mulgum Eop, Yangsan, Gyeongsangnam-do 626-770 (Korea, Republic of); Park, Won Sun [Department of Physiology, Kangwon National University, School of Medicine, Chuncheon 200-701 (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Min-Goo [Department of Physiology, Korea University, College of Medicine, Anam-dong, Sungbuk-Gu, Seoul 136-705 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Daejin [Department of Anatomy, Chung-Ang University, College of Medicine, 221 Heuksuk-Dong, Dongjak-Ku, Seoul 156-756 (Korea, Republic of); Shin, Yong Kyoo [Department of Pharmacology, Chung-Ang University, College of Medicine, 221 Heuksuk-Dong, Dongjak-Ku, Seoul 156-756 (Korea, Republic of); Jung, In Duk, E-mail: jungid@pusan.ac.kr [Department of Microbiology and Immunology, School of Medicine, Pusan National University, Beom-eo Ri, Mulgum Eop, Yangsan, Gyeongsangnam-do 626-770 (Korea, Republic of); Research Institute of Convergence of Biomedical Science and Technology, Pusan National University Yangsan Hospital, Beom-eo Ri, Mulgum Eop, Yangsan, Gyeongsangnam-do 626-770 (Korea, Republic of); Park, Yeong-Min, E-mail: immunpym@pusan.ac.kr [Department of Microbiology and Immunology, School of Medicine, Pusan National University, Beom-eo Ri, Mulgum Eop, Yangsan, Gyeongsangnam-do 626-770 (Korea, Republic of); Research Institute of Convergence of Biomedical Science and Technology, Pusan National University Yangsan Hospital, Beom-eo Ri, Mulgum Eop, Yangsan, Gyeongsangnam-do 626-770 (Korea, Republic of)

    2011-08-05

    Highlights: {yields} Treatment with Rv0462 induces the expression of surface molecules and the production of cytokines in DCs. {yields} Rv0462 induces the activation of MAPKs. {yields} Rv0462-treated DCs enhances the proliferation of CD4{sup +} T cells. -- Abstract: Mycobacterium tuberculosis, the etiological factor of pulmonary tuberculosis, causes significant morbidity and mortality worldwide. Activation of host immune responses for containment of mycobacterial infections involves participation of innate immune cells, such as dendritic cells (DCs). In this study, we demonstrated that the gene encoding lipoamide dehydrogenase C (lpdC) from M. tuberculosis, Rv0462, induce maturation and activation of DCs involved in the MAPKs signaling pathway. Moreover, Rv0462-treated DCs activated naive T cells, polarized CD4{sup +} and CD8{sup +} T cells to secrete IFN-{gamma} in syngeneic mixed lymphocyte reactions, which would be expected to contribute to Th1 polarization of the immune response. Our results suggest that Rv0462 can contribute to the innate and adaptive immune responses during tuberculosis infection, and thus modulate the clinical course of tuberculosis.

  11. Mycobacterium tuberculosislpdC, Rv0462, induces dendritic cell maturation and Th1 polarization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: ? Treatment with Rv0462 induces the expression of surface molecules and the production of cytokines in DCs. ? Rv0462 induces the activation of MAPKs. ? Rv0462-treated DCs enhances the proliferation of CD4+ T cells. -- Abstract: Mycobacterium tuberculosis, the etiological factor of pulmonary tuberculosis, causes significant morbidity and mortality worldwide. Activation of host immune responses for containment of mycobacterial infections involves participation of innate immune cells, such as dendritic cells (DCs). In this study, we demonstrated that the gene encoding lipoamide dehydrogenase C (lpdC) from M. tuberculosis, Rv0462, induce maturation and activation of DCs involved in the MAPKs signaling pathway. Moreover, Rv0462-treated DCs activated naive T cells, polarized CD4+ and CD8+ T cells to secrete IFN-? in syngeneic mixed lymphocyte reactions, which would be expected to contribute to Th1 polarization of the immune response. Our results suggest that Rv0462 can contribute to the innate and adaptive immune responses during tuberculosis infection, and thus modulate the clinical course of tuberculosis.

  12. Observation and analysis of incomplete fusion reactions induced by (12C, 14N, 16O, 22Ne) ions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The mechanism of the reactions induced by heavy ions has been studied. The experiments were concerned with incident channels which lead to the formation of intermediate nuclei with atomic mass (6412C, 14N, 16O, 22Ne) as projectiles respectively. The detection of light fragments (2< Z<12) is studied. A three solid-state-detector telescope, with associated electronics is used which allows the separation of reaction products according to their charge. The main features of deep inelastic collisions are discussed: large kinetic energy loss, and important nucleon transfer as a function of the angular detection. The time evolution of the reaction has been studied, then the results are compared with a scattering model suggested by Noremberg. A theoretical calculation based on both classical and statistical approaches giving the total cross-sections for any exit channel has been proposed

  13. Reduced Connexin26 in the Mature Cochlea Increases Susceptibility to Noise-Induced Hearing Lossin Mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Xing-Xing; Chen, Sen; Xie, Le; Ji, Yu-Zi; Wu, Xia; Wang, Wen-Wen; Yang, Qi; Yu, Jin-Tao; Sun, Yu; Lin, Xi; Kong, Wei-Jia

    2016-01-01

    Connexin26 (Cx26, encoded by GJB2) mutations are the most common cause of non-syndromic deafness. GJB2 is thought to be involved in noise-induced hearing loss (NIHL). However, the role of Cx26 in NIHL is still obscure. To explore the association between Cx26 and NIHL, we established a Cx26 knockdown (KD) mouse model by conditional knockdown of Cx26 at postnatal day 18 (P18), and then we observed the auditory threshold and morphologic changes in these mice with or without noise exposure. The Cx26 KD mice did not exhibit substantial hearing loss and hair cell degeneration, while the Cx26 KD mice with acoustic trauma experienced higher hearing loss than simple noise exposure siblings and nearly had no recovery. Additionally, extensive outer hair cell loss and more severe destruction of the basal organ of Corti were observed in Cx26 KD mice after noise exposure. These data indicate that reduced Cx26 expression in the mature mouse cochlea may increase susceptibility to noise-induced hearing loss and facilitate the cell degeneration in the organ of Corti. PMID:26927086

  14. A clinically approved oral vaccine against pneumotropic bacteria induces the terminal maturation of CD83+ immunostimulatory dendritic cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zelle-Rieser, C; Ramoner, R; Bartsch, G; Thurnher, M

    2001-02-01

    Dendritic cells (DCs) are important antigen-presenting cells of the immune system that have attracted interest as cellular adjuvants to induce immunity in clinical settings. We have investigated the effects of Broncho-Vaxom, an oral vaccine composed of lysates from eight pneumotropic bacteria, on human monocyte-derived dendritic cells (moDCs). Broncho-Vaxom induced the terminal maturation of CD83+ moDCs. MoDCs stimulated with Broncho-Vaxom displayed a phenotype of activated DCs with high levels of major histocompatibility complex (MHC) molecules and increased levels of adhesion and co-stimulatory molecules. In addition, moDCs activated with Broncho-Vaxom exhibited enhanced T cell-stimulatory capacity in the allogeneic mixed leukocyte reaction. Broncho-Vaxom at 100 microg/ml was as potent as TNF-alpha at 1000 U/ml in activating human moDCs. Neither LPS-like activity nor bacterial DNA was found to be responsible for the maturation-inducing activity of Broncho-Vaxom, suggesting that Broncho-Vaxom contains other bacterial factors that are capable of inducing the terminal maturation of moDCs. In DC-based immunotherapy, Broncho-Vaxom could be used as a stimulus of DC maturation, which meets the standards of good manufacturing practice (GMP). In addition, vaccination with Broncho-Vaxom-loaded moDCs may be an attractive treatment option in preventing recurrent airway infection in predisposed individuals. PMID:11222915

  15. Planning with Incomplete Information

    CERN Document Server

    Kakas, A C; Toni, F; Kakas, Antonis; Miller, Rob; Toni, Francesca

    2000-01-01

    Planning is a natural domain of application for frameworks of reasoning aboutactions and change. In this paper we study how one such framework, the LanguageE, can form the basis for planning under (possibly) incomplete information. Wedefine two types of plans: weak and safe plans, and propose a planner, calledthe E-Planner, which is often able to extend an initial weak plan into a safeplan even though the (explicit) information available is incomplete, e.g. forcases where the initial state is not completely known. The E-Planner is basedupon a reformulation of the Language E in argumentation terms and a naturalproof theory resulting from the reformulation. It uses an extension of thisproof theory by means of abduction for the generation of plans and adoptsargumentation-based techniques for extending weak plans into safe plans. Weprovide representative examples illustrating the behaviour of the E-Planner, inparticular for cases where the status of fluents is incompletely known.

  16. The timing of the restitution of chromosome breaks induced by x-rays in the mature sperm of Drosophila melanogaster

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Drosophila melanogaster males with marked X and Y chromosomes were irradiated and mature sperm sampled by mating the males to females carrying attached-X chromosomes. Induced loss and partial loss of the paternal sex chromosomes was studied. F1 females were scored according to their phenotype and transmitted fragments were analyzed genetically. Half of the exceptional F1 females could be scored as 'partial losses'. Of the apparent total loss exceptions tested, half were carrying detectable fragments. 21% of the transmissible fragments were carrying a duplication of a paternal chromosome tip. This frequency is an under-estimate because only 6 of the 10 chromosome tips were marked in such a way that duplications could be detected. In addition, the markers used were located near, but not at the chromosome ends. These data are interpreted as indicating that a high proportion of the chromosome loss and partial loss induced by irradiation of mature sperm is a consequence of chromatid rearrangements arising from chromosome breaks which stay open until replication. It is suggested that during the transition from sperm head to mature pronucleus, repair of breaks and chromosome replication are two processes that occur in overlapping time intervals. It is therefore possible for chromosome breaks induced in mature sperm to give rise to chromosome and chromatid rearrangements

  17. Glia maturation factor deficiency suppresses 1-methyl-4-phenylpyridinium-induced oxidative stress in astrocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Mohammad Moshahid; Kempuraj, Duraisamy; Zaheer, Smita; Zaheer, Asgar

    2014-08-01

    Inflammation is closely intertwined with pathogenesis of Parkinson's disease (PD). Increasing evidence suggests that inhibition of glia-mediated inflammation might represent a promising therapeutic target for PD. Glia maturation factor (GMF), an inflammatory protein, predominantly localized in astrocytes is previously isolated, sequenced and cloned in our laboratory. In the present investigation, we demonstrate that GMF-deficiency in astrocytes upregulates the antioxidant status and limit the extent of lipid peroxidation and production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) along with diminished nuclear factor-?B-mediated inflammatory responses in 1-methyl-4-phenylpyridinium (MPP(+))-induced toxicity. Primary astrocytes obtained from wild-type (Wt) and GMF-deficient (GMF-KO) mice were treated with 5, 10, and 20 ?M MPP(+) for 24, 48, and 72 h in vitro. Our results show decreased release of ROS and increased level of glutathione in astrocytes obtained from GMF-KO mice when compared to astrocytes derived from Wt mice following MPP(+) treatment. Additionally, we found decreased activity of NF-?B, and reduced levels of proinflammatory tumor necrosis factor- ?, interleukin-1? (IL-1?), IL-17, IL-33, and chemokine (C-C motif) ligand 2 (CCL2) in GMF-KO astrocytes when compared to Wt astrocytes. Our overall results suggest that GMF-KO astrocytes are significantly resistant to MPP(+) toxicity when compared to Wt astrocytes. PMID:24430624

  18. Bone and hormonal changes induced by skeletal unloading in the mature male rat

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dehority, W.; Halloran, B. P.; Bikle, D. D.; Curren, T.; Kostenuik, P. J.; Wronski, T. J.; Shen, Y.; Rabkin, B.; Bouraoui, A.; Morey-Holton, E.

    1999-01-01

    To determine whether the rat hindlimb elevation model can be used to study the effects of spaceflight and loss of gravitational loading on bone in the adult animal, and to examine the effects of age on bone responsiveness to mechanical loading, we studied 6-mo-old rats subjected to hindlimb elevation for up to 5 wk. Loss of weight bearing in the adult induced a mild hypercalcemia, diminished serum 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D, decreased vertebral bone mass, and blunted the otherwise normal increase in femoral mass associated with bone maturation. Unloading decreased osteoblast numbers and reduced periosteal and cancellous bone formation but had no effect on bone resorption. Mineralizing surface, mineral apposition rate, and bone formation rate decreased during unloading. Our results demonstrate the utility of the adult rat hindlimb elevation model as a means of simulating the loss of gravitational loading on the skeleton, and they show that the effects of nonweight bearing are prolonged and have a greater relative effect on bone formation in the adult than in the young growing animal.

  19. Information-theoretic incompleteness

    CERN Document Server

    Chaitin, Gregory J

    1992-01-01

    In this mathematical autobiography, Gregory Chaitin presents a technical survey of his work and a nontechnical discussion of its significance. The volume is an essential companion to the earlier collection of Chaitin's papers Information, Randomness and Incompleteness, also published by World Scientific.The technical survey contains many new results, including a detailed discussion of LISP program size and new versions of Chaitin's most fundamental information-theoretic incompleteness theorems. The nontechnical part includes the lecture given by Chaitin in Gšdel's classroom at the University o

  20. Experimental investigation of changes in methane adsorption of bitumen-free Woodford Shale with thermal maturation induced by hydrous pyrolysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Haiyan; Zhang, Tongwei; Wiggins-Camacho, Jaclyn D.; Ellis, Geoffrey S.; Lewan, Michael D.; Zhang, Xiayong

    2014-01-01

    This study quantifies the effects of organic-matter (OM) thermal maturity on methane (CH4) sorption, on the basis of five samples that were artificially matured through hydrous pyrolysis achieved by heating samples of immature Woodford Shale under five different time–temperature conditions. CH4-sorption isotherms at 35 °C, 50 °C, and 65 °C, and pressures up to 14 MPa on dry, solvent-extracted samples of the artificially matured Woodford Shale were measured. The results showed that CH4-sorption capacity, normalized to TOC, varied with thermal maturity, following the trend: maximum oil (367 °C) > oil cracking (400 °C) > maximum bitumen/early oil (333 °C) > early bitumen (300 °C) > immature stage (130 °C). The Langmuir constants for the samples at maximum-oil and oil-cracking stages are larger than the values for the bitumen-forming stages. The total pore volume, determined by N2 physisorption at 77 K, increases with increased maturation: mesopores, 2–50 nm in width, were created during the thermal conversion of organic-matter and a dramatic increase in porosity appeared when maximum-bitumen and maximum-oil generation stages were reached. A linear relationship between thermal maturity and Brunauer–Emmett–Teller (BET) surface area suggests that the observed increase in CH4-sorption capacity may be the result of mesopores produced during OM conversion. No obvious difference is observed in pore-size distribution and pore volume for samples with pores 2 physisorption at 273 K. The isosteric heat of adsorption and the standard entropy for artificially matured samples ranged from 17.9 kJ mol?1 to 21.9 kJ mol?1 and from ?85.4 J mol?1 K?1 to ?101.8 J mol?1 K?1, respectively. These values are similar to the values of immature Woodford kerogen concentrate previously observed, but are larger than naturally matured organic-rich shales. High-temperature hydrous pyrolysis might have induced Lewis acid sites on both organic and mineral surfaces, resulting to some extent, in chemical interactions between the adsorption site and the methane C–H bonds. The formation of abundant mesopores (2–50 nm) within organic matter during organic-matter thermal maturation makes a great contribution to the increase in both BET surface area and pore volume, and a significant increase in 2–6 nm pores occurs at maximum-oil-generation and oil-cracking to gas, ultimately controlling the methane-adsorption capacity. Therefore, consideration of pore-size effects and thermal maturity is very important for gas in place (GIP) prediction in organic-rich shales.

  1. Defined MicroRNAs Induce Aspects of Maturation in Mouse and Human Embryonic-Stem-Cell-Derived Cardiomyocytes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Desy S. Lee

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Pluripotent-cell-derived cardiomyocytes have great potential for use in research and medicine, but limitations in their maturity currently constrain their usefulness. Here, we report a method for improving features of maturation in murine and human embryonic-stem-cell-derived cardiomyocytes (m/hESC-CMs. We found that coculturing m/hESC-CMs with endothelial cells improves their maturity and upregulates several microRNAs. Delivering four of these microRNAs, miR-125b-5p, miR-199a-5p, miR-221, and miR-222 (miR-combo, to m/hESC-CMs resulted in improved sarcomere alignment and calcium handling, a more negative resting membrane potential, and increased expression of cardiomyocyte maturation markers. Although this could not fully phenocopy all adult cardiomyocyte characteristics, these effects persisted for two months following delivery of miR-combo. A luciferase assay demonstrated that all four miRNAs target ErbB4, and siRNA knockdown of ErbB4 partially recapitulated the effects of miR-combo. In summary, a combination of miRNAs induced via endothelial coculture improved ESC-CM maturity, in part through suppression of ErbB4 signaling.

  2. Defined MicroRNAs Induce Aspects of Maturation in Mouse and Human Embryonic-Stem-Cell-Derived Cardiomyocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Desy S; Chen, Jyh-Hong; Lundy, David J; Liu, Chung-Hung; Hwang, Shiaw-Min; Pabon, Lil; Shieh, Ru-Chi; Chen, Chien-Chang; Wu, Sheng-Nan; Yan, Yu-Ting; Lee, Sho-Tone; Chiang, Po-Min; Chien, Shu; Murry, Charles E; Hsieh, Patrick C H

    2015-09-29

    Pluripotent-cell-derived cardiomyocytes have great potential for use in research and medicine, but limitations in their maturity currently constrain their usefulness. Here, we report a method for improving features of maturation in murine and human embryonic-stem-cell-derived cardiomyocytes (m/hESC-CMs). We found that coculturing m/hESC-CMs with endothelial cells improves their maturity and upregulates several microRNAs. Delivering four of these microRNAs, miR-125b-5p, miR-199a-5p, miR-221, and miR-222 (miR-combo), to m/hESC-CMs resulted in improved sarcomere alignment and calcium handling, a more negative resting membrane potential, and increased expression of cardiomyocyte maturation markers. Although this could not fully phenocopy all adult cardiomyocyte characteristics, these effects persisted for two months following delivery of miR-combo. A luciferase assay demonstrated that all four miRNAs target ErbB4, and siRNA knockdown of ErbB4 partially recapitulated the effects of miR-combo. In summary, a combination of miRNAs induced via endothelial coculture improved ESC-CM maturity, in part through suppression of ErbB4 signaling. PMID:26365191

  3. Platelets, after exposure to a high shear stress, induce IL-10-producing, mature dendritic cells in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hagihara, Masao; Higuchi, Ayako; Tamura, Noriko; Ueda, Yoko; Hirabayashi, Kaori; Ikeda, Yasuo; Kato, Shunichi; Sakamoto, Shinji; Hotta, Tomomitsu; Handa, Shunnosuke; Goto, Shinya

    2004-05-01

    There is evidence for immune system involvement in atherogenesis. In the present study the effect of platelets on dendritic cells (DC), an important immunologic regulator, was examined in vitro. Platelet-rich plasma, after exposure to shear stress, was added to human monocyte-derived immature DC, which were then examined for surface Ag expression, allogeneic T lymphocyte stimulatory activity, and cytokine production. After exposure, the number of anti-CD40 ligand (anti-CD40L) and anti-P-selectin IgG molecules bound per platelet was increased. These activated platelets induced DC maturation, as revealed by significant up-regulation of CD83, CD80, and CD86 Ags. The addition of platelets in the presence of IFN-gamma plus LPS significantly enhanced IL-10 production from immature DC. After platelet addition, mature DC provoked a significant proliferation of allogeneic naive T lymphocytes. These activated T cells showed lower IFN-gamma production than those stimulated by LPS- and IFN-gamma-treated DC. CD40L on the platelet surface was not involved in maturation of DC, as mAb to CD40L failed to block maturation. The effect of platelets was observed even if platelets and DC were separated using large pore-sized membranes or when platelets were depleted from plasma by centrifugation. Furthermore, it was abrogated after the depletion of protein fraction. Thus, soluble protein factors excreted from activated platelets contribute to IL-10-producing DC maturation. PMID:15100268

  4. Production in Incomplete Markets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Crès, Hervé; Tvede, Mich

    Abstract In the present paper we study voting-based corporate control in a general equilibrium model with incomplete financial markets. Since voting takes place in a multi-dimensional setting, super-majority rules are needed to ensure existence of equilibrium. In a linear-quadratic setup we show...

  5. Production in incomplete markets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Crès, Hervé; Tvede, Mich

    In the present paper we study voting-based corporate control in a general equilibrium model with incomplete financial markets. Since voting takes place in a multi-dimensional setting, super-majority rules are needed to ensure existence of equilibrium. In a linear-quadratic setup we show that the...

  6. Kurt Gödel, completeness, incompleteness.

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Hájek, Petr

    2007-01-01

    Ro?. 82, ?. 1 (2007), 012005_1-012005_4. E-ISSN 1742-6596. [Brno Kurt Gödel Days. Brno, 25.04.2007-28.04.2007] R&D Projects: GA AV ?R IAA100300503 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10300504 Keywords : Kurt Gödel * completeness * incompleteness Subject RIV: BA - General Mathematics

  7. Bacillus amyloliquefaciens SQR9 induces dendritic cell maturation and enhances the immune response against inactivated avian influenza virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Lulu; Qin, Tao; Yin, YinYan; Gao, Xue; Lin, Jian; Yang, Qian; Yu, Qinghua

    2016-01-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the stimulatory effects of Bacillus amyloliquefaciens SQR9 on dendritic cells (DCs) and to verify its ability to enhance the immune response by modulating DC maturation. The results demonstrated that B. amyloliquefaciens SQR9 can adhere to the nasal epithelium and be taken up by DCs in the nasal mucosa, thereby inducing DC maturation and resulting in increased CD80, CD86, CD40 and MHCII expression and cytokine secretion. The frequencies of CD4(+) and CD8(+) T cells and CD69(+) memory T cells were increased in spleens after nasal immunization with virus plus B. amyloliquefaciens SQR9 compared to immunization with inactivated H9N2 AIV alone. Moreover, the levels of sIgA in the nasal cavity, the trachea, and the lung and the levels of IgG, IgG1, and IgG2a in serum were significantly increased in mice administered WIV plus SQR9 compared to mice administered H9N2 WIV alone. The results of this study demonstrated that B. amyloliquefaciens SQR9 can stimulate DC maturation to effectively induce an immune response. In conclusion, an effective immune response may result from the uptake of H9N2 by DCs in the nasal mucosa, thereby stimulating DC maturation and migration to cervical lymph nodes to initiate immune response. PMID:26892720

  8. The antagonism of histamine-induced tracheal and bronchial muscle contraction by diphenhydramine: effect of maturation.

    OpenAIRE

    Douglas, J. S.; Duncan, P. G.; Mukhopadhyay, A

    1984-01-01

    Airway reactivity in spontaneously breathing unanaesthetized female guinea-pigs was significantly reduced as a consequence of maturation. Threshold doses to histamine (% w/v base) were 0.08% +/- .01 and 0.27% +/- .04 in immature (110 g +/- 2; 1 week old) and mature (837 g +/- 29; 4 months old) animals, respectively. The potency of 2-(2-thiazolyl) ethylamine in tracheal tissues from mature animals was significantly less than that in tissues from immature animals (5.06 +/- .03 vs 5.26 +/- .07)....

  9. In vitro maturation (IVM as a new technique to treat polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS and induce pregnancy in Indonesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soegiharto Soebijanto

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Aim: To assesse the success of inducing pregnancies in the treatment of PCOS (Poly Cystic Ovary Syndrome cases with in vitro maturation as a newly application technique in Indonesia.Methods This paper is a report of 7 cases in Indonesia that used the newly developed technique. There were 7 cases confi rmed PCOS, in which 1 patient with a history of OHSS (Ovary Hyper Stimulation Syndrome in a previous IVF procedure and 1 patient with PCOS characteristics, suspected hyper responder, in the Family Hospital from January to May of 2009. Follicular induction was performed with a minimum dose, primming with HCG 10.000 IU, on the 10th day and 40 hours later ovum pick up was  performed, followed by in vitro maturation. Subsequently, insemination was performed and the inseminated follicle was assessed. Well qualifi ed embryos then transferred them into the uterus. We then performed assessment of pregnancy biochemically, by the presence of embryonic sac and embryonic heart beat.Results: We have performed the IVM (In Vitro Maturation technique in the Family Hospital, West Jakarta, along with the TRB team of the Family Hospital in seven PCOS cases. From these patients, we have found 156 antral follicles (average of 22 follicles per patient, 82 oocytes, and after maturation, 61  nature oocytes (75 %. In three cases, in vitro fertilization was performed, while in 4 cases ICSI (In Cystoplasmic Sperm Infection was performed. In these serial cases we obtained 41 embryos, and 22 fertilized embryos were transferred. Of 7 cases, we achieved two successful pregnancies (29%.Conclusion: In vitro maturation is an alternative procedures in solving infertility problems for PCOS patients with lower risk of OHSS and more cost effective than conventional IVF. (Med J Indones 2009; 18: 269-75Keywords: pregnancy, PCOS, in vitro maturation

  10. Ascophyllan purified from Ascophyllum nodosum induces Th1 and Tc1 immune responses by promoting dendritic cell maturation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Wei; Du, Jiang-Yuan; Jiang, Zedong; Okimura, Takasi; Oda, Tatsuya; Yu, Qing; Jin, Jun-O

    2014-07-01

    Marine-derived sulfated polysaccharides have been shown to possess certain anti-virus, anti-tumor, anti-inflammatory and anti-coagulant activities. However, the in vivo immunomodulatory effects of marine-derived pure compounds have been less well characterized. In this study, we investigated the effect of ascophyllan, a sulfated polysaccharide purified from Ascophyllum nodosum, on the maturation of mouse dendritic cells (DCs) in vitro and in vivo. Ascophyllan induced up-regulation of co-stimulatory molecules and production of pro-inflammatory cytokines in bone marrow-derived DCs (BMDCs). Moreover, in vivo administration of ascophyllan promotes up-regulation of CD40, CD80, CD86, MHC class I and MHC class II and production of IL-6, IL-12 and TNF-α in spleen cDCs. Interestingly, ascophyllan induced a higher degree of co-stimulatory molecule up-regulation and pro-inflammatory cytokine production than fucoidan, a marine-derived polysaccharide with well-defined effect for promoting DC maturation. Ascophyllan also promoted the generation of IFN-γ-producing Th1 and Tc1 cells in the presence of DCs in an IL-12-dependent manner. Finally, myeloid differentiation primary response 88 (MyD88) signaling pathway was essential for DC maturation induced by ascophyllan. Taken together, these results demonstrate that ascophyllan induces DC maturation, and consequently enhances Th1 and Tc1 responses in vivo. This knowledge could facilitate the development of novel therapeutic strategies to combat infectious diseases and cancer. PMID:25026264

  11. Ascophyllan Purified from Ascophyllum nodosum Induces Th1 and Tc1 Immune Responses by Promoting Dendritic Cell Maturation

    OpenAIRE

    Wei Zhang; Jiang-Yuan Du; Zedong Jiang; Takasi Okimura; Tatsuya Oda; Qing Yu; Jun-O Jin

    2014-01-01

    Marine-derived sulfated polysaccharides have been shown to possess certain anti-virus, anti-tumor, anti-inflammatory and anti-coagulant activities. However, the in vivo immunomodulatory effects of marine-derived pure compounds have been less well characterized. In this study, we investigated the effect of ascophyllan, a sulfated polysaccharide purified from Ascophyllum nodosum, on the maturation of mouse dendritic cells (DCs) in vitro and in vivo. Ascophyllan induced up-regulation of co-stim...

  12. Ascophyllan Purified from Ascophyllum nodosum Induces Th1 and Tc1 Immune Responses by Promoting Dendritic Cell Maturation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei Zhang

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Marine-derived sulfated polysaccharides have been shown to possess certain anti-virus, anti-tumor, anti-inflammatory and anti-coagulant activities. However, the in vivo immunomodulatory effects of marine-derived pure compounds have been less well characterized. In this study, we investigated the effect of ascophyllan, a sulfated polysaccharide purified from Ascophyllum nodosum, on the maturation of mouse dendritic cells (DCs in vitro and in vivo. Ascophyllan induced up-regulation of co-stimulatory molecules and production of pro-inflammatory cytokines in bone marrow-derived DCs (BMDCs. Moreover, in vivo administration of ascophyllan promotes up-regulation of CD40, CD80, CD86, MHC class I and MHC class II and production of IL-6, IL-12 and TNF-α in spleen cDCs. Interestingly, ascophyllan induced a higher degree of co-stimulatory molecule up-regulation and pro-inflammatory cytokine production than fucoidan, a marine-derived polysaccharide with well-defined effect for promoting DC maturation. Ascophyllan also promoted the generation of IFN-γ-producing Th1 and Tc1 cells in the presence of DCs in an IL-12-dependent manner. Finally, myeloid differentiation primary response 88 (MyD88 signaling pathway was essential for DC maturation induced by ascophyllan. Taken together, these results demonstrate that ascophyllan induces DC maturation, and consequently enhances Th1 and Tc1 responses in vivo. This knowledge could facilitate the development of novel therapeutic strategies to combat infectious diseases and cancer.

  13. Minimizing incomplete automata

    OpenAIRE

    Béal, Marie-Pierre; Crochemore, Maxime

    2008-01-01

    We develop a O(m log n)-time and O(k + n + m)-space algorithm for minimizing incomplete deterministic automata, where n is the number of states, m the number of edges, and k the size of the alphabet. Minimization reduces to the partial Functional coarsest partition problem. Our algorithm is a slight variant of Hopcroft's algorithm for minimizing deterministic complete automata.

  14. Godel's Incompleteness Phenomenon - Computationally

    OpenAIRE

    Salehi, Saeed

    2012-01-01

    We argue that Godel's completeness theorem is equivalent to completability of consistent theories, and Godel's incompleteness theorem is equivalent to the fact that this completion is not constructive, in the sense that there are some consistent and recursively enumerable theories which cannot be extended to any complete and consistent and recursively enumerable theory. Though any consistent and decidable theory can be extended to a complete and consistent and decidable theory. Thus deduction...

  15. Physicalism, Behaviorism and Incompleteness

    OpenAIRE

    Tao Li

    2011-01-01

    The content of this paper contains four parts. (1) First, physicalism gives the enlightenments to behaviorism: mind-body identity, objectivity like physics and completeness of reduction. (2) Secondly, there are difficulties which behaviorist could not overcome—both the reduction of the theory and the terms are unreliable, and the strict distinction between introspective method and inter-subjective method is also untenable. (3) Thirdly, It has inevitable incompleteness in one theory no matter ...

  16. The nature of X-ray-induced mutations in mature sperm and spermatogonial cells of Drosophila melanogaster

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mutations at four X-linked visible loci (yellow, white, vermilion and forked) induced by X-irradiation of mature sperm and spermatogonial cells were analysed genetically and cytogenetically. In addition, a fraction of the intragenic vermilion mutations was analysed molecularly. Males of two wild-type strains (Amherst M56i and Berlin-K) were used. A total of 332,651 chromosomes of irradiated mature sperm and 311,567 of irradiated spermatogonial cells were scored. The ratio of F1 female sterile, F2 male lethal and F2 male viable mutations in mature sperm and spermatogonial cells is very similar. The cytogenetic analysis shows equal fractions of multilocus deletions and translocations among the mutations recovered from both stages of spermatogenesis. These data strongly suggest that the spectrum of X-ray mutations is similar in mature sperm and spermatogonial cells, including multilocus deletions and chromosome rearrangements. The molecular analysis of a number of intragenic vermilion mutations showed the presence of three small deletions (1-10 bp), one insertion of two nucleotides and seven single nucleotide changes

  17. Maturation of Shark Single-Domain (IgNAR) Antibodies: Evidence for Induced-Fit Binding

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stanfield, R.L.; Dooley, H.; Verdino, P.; Flajnik, M.F.; Wilson, I.A.; /Scripps Res. Inst. /Maryland U.

    2007-07-13

    Sharks express an unusual heavy-chain isotype called IgNAR, whose variable regions bind antigen as independent soluble domains. To further probe affinity maturation of the IgNAR response, we structurally characterized the germline and somatically matured versions of a type II variable (V) region, both in the presence and absence of its antigen, hen egg-white lysozyme. Despite a disulfide bond linking complementarity determining regions (CDRs) 1 and 3, both germline and somatically matured V regions displayed significant structural changes in these CDRs upon complex formation with antigen. Somatic mutations in the IgNAR V region serve to increase the number of contacts with antigen, as reflected by a tenfold increase in affinity, and one of these mutations appears to stabilize the CDR3 region. In addition, a residue in the HV4 loop plays an important role in antibody-antigen interaction, consistent with the high rate of somatic mutations in this non-CDR loop.

  18. Study of complete and incomplete fusion in reactions induced by 12C and 16O ions below 7 MeV/nucleon energies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    With a view to study the complete fusion, incomplete fusion and pre-equilibrium emission, a program of precise measurement and analysis of excitation functions (EFs) and recoil range distribution (RRD) of residues for various projectile-target combinations has been undertaken

  19. Characterization of early events involved in human dendritic cell maturation induced by sensitizers: Cross talk between MAPK signalling pathways

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dendritic cells (DCs), efficient-antigen presenting cells play an important role in initiating and regulating immune responses. DC maturation following exposure to nickel or DNCB induced an up-regulation of phenotypic markers and inflammatory cytokine secretion. Early intracellular mechanisms involved in DC maturation required to be precise. To address this purpose, DCs derived from human monocytes were treated with sensitizers (nickel, DNCB or thimerosal) in comparison with an irritant (SDS). Our data confirming the up-regulation of CD86, CD54 and cytokine secretion (IL-8 and TNF?) induced by sensitizers but not by SDS, signalling transduction involved in DC maturation was investigated using these chemicals. Kinase activity measurement was assessed using two new sensitive procedures (FaceTM and CBA) requiring few cells. SDS did not induce changes in signalling pathways whereas NiSO4, DNCB and thimerosal markedly activated p38 MAPK and JNK, in contrast Erk1/2 phosphorylation was completely inhibited by DNCB or thimerosal and only activated by nickel. A pre-treatment with p38 MAPK inhibitor (SB203580) suppressed Erk1/2 inhibition induced by DNCB or thimerosal demonstrating a direct interaction between p38 MAPK and Erk1/2. A pre-treatment with an antioxidant, N-acetyl-L-cysteine (NAC) markedly reduced Erk1/2 inhibition and p38 MAPK phosphorylation induced by DNCB and thimerosal, suggesting a direct activation of p38 MAPK via an oxidative stress and a regulation of MAPK signalling pathways depending on chemicals. Because of a high sensitivity of kinase activity measurements, these procedures will be suitable for weak or moderate sensitizer screening

  20. Collagen induces maturation of human monocyte-derived dendritic cells by signaling through osteoclast-associated receptor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schultz, Heidi S; Nitze, Louise M; Zeuthen, Louise H; Keller, Pernille; Gruhler, Albrecht; Pass, Jesper; Chen, Jianhe; Guo, Li; Fleetwood, Andrew J; Hamilton, John A; Berchtold, Martin W; Panina, Svetlana

    2015-04-01

    Osteoclast-associated receptor (OSCAR) is widely expressed on human myeloid cells. Collagen types (Col)I, II, and III have been described as OSCAR ligands, and ColII peptides can induce costimulatory signaling in receptor activator for NF-?B-dependent osteoclastogenesis. In this study, we isolated collagen as an OSCAR-interacting protein from the membranes of murine osteoblasts. We have investigated a functional outcome of the OSCAR-collagen interaction in human monocyte-derived dendritic cells (DCs). OSCAR engagement by ColI/II-induced activation/maturation of DCs is characterized by upregulation of cell surface markers and secretion of cytokines. These collagen-matured DCs (Col-DCs) were efficient drivers of allogeneic and autologous naive T cell proliferation. The T cells expanded by Col-DCs secreted cytokines with no clear T cell polarization pattern. Global RNA profiling revealed that multiple proinflammatory mediators, including cytokines and cytokine receptors, components of the stable immune synapse (namely CD40, CD86, CD80, and ICAM-1), as well as components of TNF and TLR signaling, are transcriptional targets of OSCAR in DCs. Our findings indicate the existence of a novel pathway by which extracellular matrix proteins locally drive maturation of DCs during inflammatory conditions, for example, within synovial tissue of rheumatoid arthritis patients, where collagens become exposed during tissue remodeling and are thus accessible for interaction with infiltrating precursors of DCs. PMID:25725106

  1. On Incomplete Symmetric Decompositions.

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    T?ma, Miroslav

    Ostrava : Ústav geoniky AV ?R, 2014 - (Blaheta, R.; Starý, J.; Sysalová, D.). s. 74-75 ISBN 978-80-86407-47-0. [Modelling 2014. 02.06.2014-06.06.2014, Rožnov pod Radhošt?m] R&D Projects: GA ?R GA13-06684S; GA ?R(CZ) GAP108/11/0853 Grant ostatní: EPSRC EP/I013067/1 Institutional support: RVO:67985807 Keywords : preconditioning * sparse linear systems * incomplete decompositions * preconditioned iterative methods * symmetric and positive definite matrices Subject RIV: BA - General Mathematics

  2. CASPASE-ACTIVATED ROCK-1 ALLOWS ERYTHROBLAST TERMINAL MATURATION INDEPENDENTLY OF CYTOKINE-INDUCED RHO SIGNALING

    OpenAIRE

    COURTOIS, Genevieve; Gabet, Anne Sophie; Coulon, Severine; Vandekerckhove, Julie; Fricot, Aurelie; Ribeil, Jean-Antoine; Belaid, Zakia; Asnafi, Vahid; Chang, YunHua; Lordier, Larissa; Debili, Najet; Zermati, Yael; Vainchenker, William; Varet, Bruno; Hermine, Olivier

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Stem cell factor (SCF) and erythropoietin (EPO) are strictly required for preventing apoptosis and stimulating proliferation, allowing the differentiation of erythroid precursors from CFU-E to the polychromatophilic stage. In contrast, terminal maturation to generate reticulocytes occurs independently of cytokine signaling by a mechanism not fully understood. Terminal differentiation is characterized by a sequence of morphological changes including a progressive decrease i...

  3. A new model of radiation-induced myelopathy: A comparison of the response of mature and immature pigs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The purpose was development of an experimental model of radiation-induced myelopathy in the pig which would facilitate the study of the effects of clinically relevant treatment volumes. The effects of local spinal cord irradiation, to a standard 10 X 5 cm field, have been evaluated in mature (37-42.5 weeks) and immature (15.5-23 weeks) pigs. Irradiation was with single doses of 60Co ?rays at a dose-rate of 0.21-0.65 Gy/min. The incidence of paralysis was used as an endpoint. Irradiation of mature animals resulted in the development of frank paralysis with animals showing combined parenchymal and vascular pathologic changes in their white matter. These lesions, in common with those seen in patients, had a clear evidence of an inflammatory component. The latency for paralysis was short, 7.5-16.5 weeks, but within the wide range reported for patients. However, it was shorter than that reported in other large animal models. The ED50 value (±SE) for paralysis was 27.02±0.36 Gy, similar to that in rats taking into account dose-rate factors. The irradiation of immature pigs only resulted in transient neurological changes after doses comparable to those used in the mature animals, ED50 value (±SE) 26.09±0.37 Gy. The reasons for these transient neurological symptoms are uncertain. A reliable experimental model of radiation-induced myelopathy has been developed for mature pigs. This model is suitable for the study of clinically relevant volume effects. 39 refs., 4 figs., 1 tab

  4. The types and genetic analysis of radiation induced early maturity mutants of rice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Observation and correlation analysis were made for 50 early mutant lines,The early mutant lines fall into late type of early-maturity rice, and early type of mid- maturity rice, some of which are valuable as materials of rice breeding.With shorter growing period, the mutants have less inter-nodes and leaf numbers on main culm, shorter leaf and panicle length, and less filled grains and yield per plant, but have higher Protein content.Among 20 traits observed, 7 were significantly correlated with the length of growing period.The genetic parameter analysis for the mutant lines indicates that the length of growing period, plant height, grain number per panicle, 1000-grain weight have high heritability, Non-filled grain rate, secondary branch, number of panicle, grain number per panicle have larger genetic coefficient of variation and larger gain of selection

  5. Farnesyl transferase inhibitors induce extended remissions in transgenic mice with mature B cell lymphomas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Refaeli Yosef

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background We have used a mouse model based on overexpression of c-Myc in B cells genetically engineered to be self-reactive to test the hypothesis that farnesyl transferase inhibitors (FTIs can effectively treat mature B cell lymphomas. FTIs are undergoing clinical trials to treat both lymphoid and non-lymphoid malignancies and we wished to obtain evidence to support the inclusion of B cell lymphomas in future trials. Results We report that two FTIs, L-744,832 and SCH66336, blocked the growth of mature B cell lymphoma cells in vitro and in vivo. The FTI treatment affected the proliferation and survival of the transformed B cells to a greater extent than naïve B cells stimulated with antigen. In syngeneic mice transplanted with the transgenic lymphoma cells, L-744,832 treatment prevented the growth of the tumor cells and the morbidity associated with the resulting lymphoma progression. Tumors that arose from transplantation of the lymphoma cells regressed with as little as three days of treatment with L-744,832 or SCH66336. Treatment of these established lymphomas with L-744,832 for seven days led to long-term remission of the disease in approximately 25% of animals. Conclusion FTI treatment can block the proliferation and survival of self-reactive transformed B cells that overexpress Myc. In mice transplanted with mature B cell lymphomas, we found that FTI treatment led to regression of disease. FTIs warrant further consideration as therapeutic agents for mature B cell lymphomas and other lymphoid tumors.

  6. Maturation of the proteasome core particle induces an affinity switch that controls regulatory particle association

    OpenAIRE

    Wani, Prashant S.; Rowland, Michael A.; Ondracek, Alex; Deeds, Eric J.; Roelofs, Jeroen,

    2015-01-01

    Proteasome assembly is a complex process, requiring 66 subunits distributed over several subcomplexes to associate in a coordinated fashion. Ten proteasome-specific chaperones have been identified that assist in this process. For two of these, the Pba1-Pba2 dimer, it is well established that they only bind immature core particles (CP) in vivo. In contrast, the regulatory particle (RP) utilizes the same binding surface but only interacts with the mature CP in vivo. It is unclear how these bind...

  7. The role of DCs in the immunopathogenesis of chronic HBV infection and the methods of inducing DCs maturation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Hai-Hua; Zhou, Dong-Fang; Zhou, Jun-Ying

    2016-01-01

    Chronic hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection is the result of an inadequate immune response towards the virus. Dendritic cells (DCs), as the most efficient professional antigen-presenting cells (APCs), possess the strongest antigen presenting the effect in the body and can stimulate the initial T cell activation and proliferation. DCs of patients with chronic HBV infection are impaired, resulting in more tolerogenic rather than immunogenic responses, which may contribute to viral persistence. Recently, numerous methods have been developed to induce DCs maturation. To date, recombinant human granulocyte-macrophage colony stimulating factor (rhGM-CSF) combined with interleukin-4 (rhIL-4) has been a classic culture combination to DCs. The recently classified type III interferon group interferon-? (IFN-?) displays antiviral, antitumor, and immunoregulatory activity. In our laboratory, we demonstrate that IFN-?1 combined with rhGM-CSF and rhIL-4 can significantly increase the expression of DC surface molecules and the secretion of interleukin-12 (IL-12) and interferon-? (IFN-?) in patients with chronic hepatitis B infection. In this review, we emphasize on the role of DCs in the immunopathogenesis of chronic HBV infection. Importantly, we systematic review that the latest update in the current status of knowledge on the methods of inducing DCs maturation in anti-HBV immunity. What's more, we conclude that IFN-?1 combined with GM-CSF and IL-4 can induce DCs maturation, which could become a possibility to be applied to the autologus dendritic cell vaccine to treat chronic hepatitis B. J. Med. Virol. 88:13-20, 2016. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:26104380

  8. Recombinant Lactobacillus plantarum induces immune responses to cancer testis antigen NY-ESO-1 and maturation of dendritic cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mobergslien, Anne; Vasovic, Vlada; Mathiesen, Geir; Fredriksen, Lasse; Westby, Phuong; Eijsink, Vincent Gh; Peng, Qian; Sioud, Mouldy

    2015-11-01

    Given their safe use in humans and inherent adjuvanticity, Lactic Acid Bacteria may offer several advantages over other mucosal delivery strategies for cancer vaccines. The objective of this study is to evaluate the immune responses in mice after oral immunization with Lactobacillus (L) plantarum WCFS1 expressing a cell-wall anchored tumor antigen NY-ESO-1. And to investigate the immunostimulatory potency of this new candidate vaccine on human dendritic cells (DCs). L. plantarum displaying NY-ESO-1 induced NY-ESO-1 specific antibodies and T-cell responses in mice. By contrast, L. plantarum displaying conserved proteins such as heat shock protein-27 and galectin-1, did not induce immunity, suggesting that immune tolerance to self-proteins cannot be broken by oral administration of L. plantarum. With respect to immunomodulation, immature DCs incubated with wild type or L. plantarum-NY-ESO-1 upregulated the expression of co-stimulatory molecules and secreted a large amount of interleukin (IL)-12, TNF-?, but not IL-4. Moreover, they upregulated the expression of immunosuppressive factors such as IL-10 and indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase. Although L. plantarum-matured DCs expressed inhibitory molecules, they stimulated allogeneic T cells in-vitro. Collectively, the data indicate that L. plantarum-NY-ESO-1 can evoke antigen-specific immunity upon oral administration and induce DC maturation, raising the potential of its use in cancer immunotherapies. PMID:26185907

  9. Repair capacity of fertilized mouse eggs for X-ray damage induced in sperm and mature oocytes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To study the repair capacity of fertilized mouse eggs for X-ray damage induced in sperm and mature oocytes, the potentiating effects of 3 well-known repair inhibitors, arabinofuranosyl cytosine (ara-C), 3-aminobenzamide (3AB) and caffeine, on the frequency of induced chromosome aberrations were examined in eggs fertilized with X-irradiated sperm or in eggs irradiated with X-rays at the mature oocyte stage immediately before fertilization. Gametic treatment, fertilization and embryo culture wer carried out in vitro. Ara-C treatment was done only in the pre-DNA replication period, while treatment with 3AB and caffeine was continuous from fertilization to the first-cleavage metaphase. The induction of chromosome aberrations by exposing sperm or oocytes to X-rays was remarkably potentiated by post-treatment incubation in the presence of each of the 3 inhibitors. This result indicates the possibility that X-ray damage induced in sperm or oocytes is reparable in the fertilized eggs and that various types of repair processes are involved. (author). 39 refs.; 3 figs.; 5 tabs

  10. Involvement of Polycomb Repressive Complex 2 in Maturation of Induced Pluripotent Stem Cells during Reprogramming of Mouse and Human Fibroblasts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khazaie, Niusha; Massumi, Mohammad; Wee, Ping; Salimi, Mahdieh; Mohammadnia, Abdulshakour; Yaqubi, Moein

    2016-01-01

    Induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) provide a reliable source for the study of regenerative medicine, drug discovery, and developmental biology. Despite extensive studies on the reprogramming of mouse and human fibroblasts into iPSCs, the efficiency of reprogramming is still low. Here, we used a bioinformatics and systems biology approach to study the two gene regulatory waves governing the reprogramming of mouse and human fibroblasts into iPSCs. Our results revealed that the maturation phase of reprogramming was regulated by a more complex regulatory network of transcription factors compared to the initiation phase. Interestingly, in addition to pluripotency factors, the polycomb repressive complex 2 (PRC2) members Ezh2, Eed, Jarid2, Mtf2, and Suz12 are crucially recruited during the maturation phase of reprogramming. Moreover, we found that during the maturation phase of reprogramming, pluripotency factors, via the expression and induction of PRC2 complex members, could silence the lineage-specific gene expression program and maintain a ground state of pluripotency in human and mouse naïve iPSCs. The findings obtained here provide us a better understanding of the gene regulatory network (GRN) that governs reprogramming, and the maintenance of the naïve state of iPSCs. PMID:26938987

  11. Uncoupling of induced protein processing from maturation in dendritic cells exposed to a highly antigenic preparation from a helminth parasite

    OpenAIRE

    Marshall, Fraser A.; Edward J. Pearce

    2008-01-01

    Toll-like receptor (TLR) ligands induce dendritic cell (DC) maturation. During this process cells initiate proteolytic degradation of internalized protein antigens into peptides that complex with MHC II, and simultaneously increase expression of costimulatory molecules and of cytokines such as IL-6, IL-12 and IL-23. In these ways, TLR-activated DCs are able to activate naïve Th cells and initiate Th1 and Th17 responses, and TLR-ligands thus serve as adjuvants for these types of responses. In ...

  12. Physicalism, Behaviorism and Incompleteness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tao Li

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available The content of this paper contains four parts. (1 First, physicalism gives the enlightenments to behaviorism: mind-body identity, objectivity like physics and completeness of reduction. (2 Secondly, there are difficulties which behaviorist could not overcome—both the reduction of the theory and the terms are unreliable, and the strict distinction between introspective method and inter-subjective method is also untenable. (3 Thirdly, It has inevitable incompleteness in one theory no matter what it claims due to the limitations of human cognition. (4 Finally, the author concludes that we should treat various theories in a "both this and that" but "either this or that" way. Therefore, we should admit the contribution of behaviorism and its model philosophy—physicalism, although they has failed in seeking for completeness.

  13. Angular momentum population in incomplete fusion reactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    It has been established that several reaction mechanisms occur in heavy ion-induced reactions having projectile energy below 10 MeV/A. Among these mechanisms, dominant ones are complete fusion, deep-inelastic collision and quasi-elastic collision. As the projectile energy increases to 5-10 MeV/A and above, incomplete fusion reactions start competing with complete fusion reactions. In incomplete fusion reactions, projectile breaks up into two fragments before fusing with the target. After the break-up, one part of the projectile completely fuses with the target while the other escapes at forward angle as a spectator. Such reactions are also known as breakup fusion or massive transfer reactions. In recent years, the incomplete-fusion reaction mechanism has attracted considerable attention as it can be used to produce states at higher angular momentum in relatively neutron-rich nuclei

  14. Permanent alveolar remodeling in canine lung induced by high-altitude residence during maturation

    OpenAIRE

    Ravikumar, Priya; Bellotto, Dennis J.; Johnson, Robert L.; Hsia, Connie C.W.

    2009-01-01

    Young canines born at sea level (SL) and raised for 5 mo at high altitude (HA, 3,800 m), followed by return to SL before somatic maturation, showed enhanced alveolar gas exchange and diffusing capacity at rest and exercise that persisted into adulthood (McDonough P, Dane DM, Hsia CC, Yilmaz C, Johnson RL Jr. J Appl Physiol 100: 474–81, 2006; Hsia CCW, Johnson RL Jr, McDonough P, Dane DM, Hurst MD, Fehmel JL, Wagner HE, Wagner PD. J Appl Physiol 102: 1448–55, 2007). To examine the associated s...

  15. Maturation of the proteasome core particle induces an affinity switch that controls regulatory particle association

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wani, Prashant S.; Rowland, Michael A.; Ondracek, Alex; Deeds, Eric J.; Roelofs, Jeroen

    2015-01-01

    Proteasome assembly is a complex process, requiring 66 subunits distributed over several subcomplexes to associate in a coordinated fashion. Ten proteasome-specific chaperones have been identified that assist in this process. For two of these, the Pba1-Pba2 dimer, it is well established that they only bind immature core particles (CP) in vivo. In contrast, the regulatory particle (RP) utilizes the same binding surface but only interacts with the mature CP in vivo. It is unclear how these binding events are regulated. Here, we show that Pba1-Pba2 binds tightly to immature CP, preventing RP binding. Changes in the CP that occur upon maturation significantly reduce its affinity for Pba1-Pba2, enabling the RP to displace the chaperone. Mathematical modeling indicates that this “affinity switch” mechanism has likely evolved to improve assembly efficiency by preventing the accumulation of stable, non-productive intermediates. Our work thus provides mechanistic insights into a crucial step in proteasome biogenesis. PMID:25812915

  16. Processing Of Incomplete Data Set

    OpenAIRE

    Mahesh Babanrao Shelke; K.B. Badade

    2013-01-01

    A large number of Data Sets are available, but they are incomplete in nature so that they cannot be used for real applications. These incomplete data sets are produced due to various reasons like system failure, privacy of data, incomplete input, time delay in system, lack of available resources. As common examples Weather data sets, sensor image data sets, Measurement Reflection in Agriculture Data Sets. For these cases we use conceptual data reconstruction by using statistical models of mul...

  17. The PPAR?/? Agonist GW0742 Induces Early Neuronal Maturation of Cortical Post-Mitotic Neurons: Role of PPAR?/? in Neuronal Maturation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benedetti, Elisabetta; Di Loreto, Silvia; D'Angelo, Barbara; Cristiano, Loredana; d'angelo, Michele; Antonosante, Andrea; Fidoamore, Alessia; Golini, Raffaella; Cinque, Benedetta; Cifone, Maria Grazia; Ippoliti, Rodolfo; Giordano, Antonio; Cimini, Annamaria

    2016-03-01

    Increasing evidences support that signaling lipids participate in synaptic plasticity and cell survival, and that the lipid signaling is closely associated with neuronal differentiation, learning, and memory and with pathologic events, such as epilepsy and Alzheimer's disease. The Peroxisome Proliferator-Activated Receptors (PPAR) are strongly involved in the fatty acid cell signaling, as many of the natural lypophylic compounds are PPAR ligands. We have previously shown that PPAR?/? is the main isotype present in cortical neuron primary cultures and that during neuronal maturation, PPAR?/? is gradually increased and activated. To get more insight into the molecular mechanism by which PPAR?/? may be involved in neuronal maturation processes, in this work a specific PPAR?/? agonist, GW0742 was used administered alone or in association with a specific PPAR?/? antagonist, the GSK0660, and the parameters involved in neuronal differentiation and maturation were assayed. The data obtained demonstrated the strong involvement of PPAR?/? in neuronal maturation, triggering the agonist an anticipation of neuronal differentiation, and the antagonist abolishing the observed effects. These effects appear to be mediated by the activation of BDNF pathway. J. Cell. Physiol. 231: 597-606, 2016. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:26206209

  18. THYROID HORMONE TREATED ASTROCYTES INDUCE MATURATION OF CEREBRAL CORTICAL NEURONS THROUGH MODULATION OF PROTEOGLYCAN LEVELS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mauro Sérgio Gonçalves Pavão

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Proper brain neuronal circuitry formation and synapse development is dependent on specific cues, either genetic or epigenetic, provided by the surrounding neural environment. Within these signals, thyroid hormones (T3 and T4 play crucial role in several steps of brain morphogenesis including proliferation of progenitor cells, neuronal differentiation, maturation, migration, and synapse formation. The lack of thyroid hormones during childhood is associated with several impair neuronal connections, cognitive deficits, and mental disorders. Many of the thyroid hormones effects are mediated by astrocytes, although the mechanisms underlying these events are still unknown. In this work, we investigated the effect of 3, 5, 3’-triiodothyronine-treated (T3-treated astrocytes on cerebral cortex neuronal differentiation. Culture of neural progenitors from embryonic cerebral cortex mice onto T3-treated astrocyte monolayers yielded an increment in neuronal population, followed by enhancement of neuronal maturation, arborization and neurite outgrowth. In addition, real time PCR assays revealed an increase in the levels of the heparan sulfate proteoglycans, Glypican 1 (GPC-1 and Syndecans 3 e 4 (SDC-3 e SDC-4, followed by a decrease in the levels of the chondroitin sulfate proteoglycan, Versican. Disruption of glycosaminoglycan chains by chondroitinase AC or heparanase III completely abolished the effects of T3-treated astrocytes on neuronal morphogenesis. Our work provides evidence that astrocytes are key mediators of T3 actions on cerebral cortex neuronal development and identified potential molecules and pathways involved in neurite extension; which might eventually contribute to a better understanding of axonal regeneration, synapse formation and neuronal circuitry recover.

  19. A highly expressing Tet-inducible cell line recapitulates in situ developmental changes in prestin's Boltzmann characteristics and reveals early maturational events

    OpenAIRE

    Bian, Shumin; Koo, Bon W.; Kelleher, Stephen; Santos-Sacchi, Joseph; Navaratnam, Dhasakumar S.

    2010-01-01

    Prestin is the motor protein within the lateral membrane of outer hair cells (OHCs), and it is required for mammalian cochlear amplification. Expression of prestin precedes the onset of hearing in mice, and it has been suggested that prestin undergoes a functional maturation within the membrane coincident with the onset of hearing. We have developed a tetracycline-inducible prestin-expressing cell line that we have used to model prestin's functional maturation. We used prestin's voltage-depen...

  20. Chlorella sorokiniana-Induced Activation and Maturation of Human Monocyte-Derived Dendritic Cells through NF-?B and PI3K/MAPK Pathways

    OpenAIRE

    Nien-Tzu Chou; Chieh-Fang Cheng; Hsin-Chieh Wu; Chin-Pen Lai; Li-Tsen Lin; I-Horng Pan; Ching-Huai Ko

    2012-01-01

    Chlorella sorokiniana (CS) is a unicellular green alga. The extracts of Chlorella have been used as treatments for relieving hypertension and modulating immune response. The detailed mechanisms are not clear yet. In this study, we sought to study the molecular mechanisms for the polysaccharide fraction of CS-induced immune response. We pulsed dendritic cells (DCs) with CS and found that CS could maturate DCs. CS-maturated DC could activate naïve T cells and stimulate T-cell proliferation and ...

  1. A Modified Approach to Inducing Bone Marrow Stromal Cells to Differentiate into Cells with Mature Schwann Cell Phenotypes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yutian; Chen, Jianghai; Liu, Wei; Lu, Xiaocheng; Liu, Zhenyu; Zhao, Xiaobo; Li, Gongchi; Chen, Zhenbing

    2016-02-15

    Marrow stromal cells (MSCs) can be induced to differentiate into Schwann-like cells under classical induction conditions. However, cells derived from this method are unstable, exhibiting a low neurotrophin expression level after the induction conditions are removed. In Schwann cell (SC) culture, progesterone (PROG) enhances neurotrophic synthesis and myelination, specifically regulating the expression of the myelin protein zero (P0)- and peripheral myelin protein 22 (PMP22)-encoding genes by acting in concert or in synergy with insulin and glucocorticoids (GLUCs). In the present study, we investigated whether combined PROG, GLUC, and insulin therapy induced MSCs to differentiate into modified SC-like cells with phenotypes similar to those of mature SCs. After being cultured for 2 weeks in modified differentiation medium, the modified SC-like cells showed increased expression of P0 and PMP22. In addition, morphological and phenotypic characterizations were conducted over a period of over 2 weeks, and functional characteristics persisted for more than 3 weeks after the induction reagents were withdrawn. The transplantation of green fluorescent protein-labeled, modified SC-like cells into transected sciatic nerves with a 10-mm gap significantly increased the proliferation of the original SCs and improved axon regeneration and myelination compared with original BM-SCs. Immunostaining for P0 revealed that more of the transplanted modified SC-like cells retained the phenotypic characteristics of SCs. Taken together, these results reveal that the combined application of PROG, GLUC, and insulin induces MSCs to differentiate into cells with phenotypic, molecular, and functional properties of mature SCs. PMID:26670188

  2. Combinatorial polymer matrices enhance in vitro maturation of human induced pluripotent stem cell-derived cardiomyocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chun, Young Wook; Balikov, Daniel A; Feaster, Tromondae K; Williams, Charles H; Sheng, Calvin C; Lee, Jung-Bok; Boire, Timothy C; Neely, M Diana; Bellan, Leon M; Ess, Kevin C; Bowman, Aaron B; Sung, Hak-Joon; Hong, Charles C

    2015-10-01

    Cardiomyocytes derived from human induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSC-CMs) hold great promise for modeling human heart diseases. However, iPSC-CMs studied to date resemble immature embryonic myocytes and therefore do not adequately recapitulate native adult cardiomyocyte phenotypes. Since extracellular matrix plays an essential role in heart development and maturation in vivo, we sought to develop a synthetic culture matrix that could enhance functional maturation of iPSC-CMs in vitro. In this study, we employed a library of combinatorial polymers comprising of three functional subunits - poly-?-caprolacton (PCL), polyethylene glycol (PEG), and carboxylated PCL (cPCL) - as synthetic substrates for culturing human iPSC-CMs. Of these, iPSC-CMs cultured on 4%PEG-96%PCL (each % indicates the corresponding molar ratio) exhibit the greatest contractility and mitochondrial function. These functional enhancements are associated with increased expression of cardiac myosin light chain-2v, cardiac troponin I and integrin alpha-7. Importantly, iPSC-CMs cultured on 4%PEG-96%PCL demonstrate troponin I (TnI) isoform switch from the fetal slow skeletal TnI (ssTnI) to the postnatal cardiac TnI (cTnI), the first report of such transition in vitro. Finally, culturing iPSC-CMs on 4%PEG-96%PCL also significantly increased expression of genes encoding intermediate filaments known to transduce integrin-mediated mechanical signals to the myofilaments. In summary, our study demonstrates that synthetic culture matrices engineered from combinatorial polymers can be utilized to promote in vitro maturation of human iPSC-CMs through the engagement of critical matrix-integrin interactions. PMID:26204225

  3. Diagnosis of incomplete Kawasaki disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeong Jin Yu

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Several authors suggested that the clinical characteristics of incomplete presentation of Kawasaki disease are similar to those of complete presentation and that the 2 forms of presentation are not separate entities. Based on this suggestion, a diagnosis of incomplete Kawasaki disease in analogy to the findings of complete presentation is reasonable. Currently, the diagnosis of incomplete Kawasaki disease might be made in cases with fewer classical diagnostic criteria and with several compatible clinical, laboratory or echocardiographic findings on the exclusion of other febrile illness. Definition of incomplete presentation in which coronary artery abnormalities are included as a necessary condition, is restrictive and specific. The validity of the diagnostic criteria of incomplete presentation by the American Heart Association should be thoroughly tested in the immediate future.

  4. Early maturation and distinct tau pathology in induced pluripotent stem cell-derived neurons from patients with MAPT mutations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iovino, Mariangela; Agathou, Sylvia; González-Rueda, Ana; Del Castillo Velasco-Herrera, Martin; Borroni, Barbara; Alberici, Antonella; Lynch, Timothy; O'Dowd, Sean; Geti, Imbisaat; Gaffney, Daniel; Vallier, Ludovic; Paulsen, Ole; Káradóttir, Ragnhildur Thóra; Spillantini, Maria Grazia

    2015-11-01

    Tauopathies, such as Alzheimer's disease, some cases of frontotemporal dementia, corticobasal degeneration and progressive supranuclear palsy, are characterized by aggregates of the microtubule-associated protein tau, which are linked to neuronal death and disease development and can be caused by mutations in the MAPT gene. Six tau isoforms are present in the adult human brain and they differ by the presence of 3(3R) or 4(4R) C-terminal repeats. Only the shortest 3R isoform is present in foetal brain. MAPT mutations found in human disease affect tau binding to microtubules or the 3R:4R isoform ratio by altering exon 10 splicing. We have differentiated neurons from induced pluripotent stem cells derived from fibroblasts of controls and patients with N279K and P301L MAPT mutations. Induced pluripotent stem cell-derived neurons recapitulate developmental tau expression, showing the adult brain tau isoforms after several months in culture. Both N279K and P301L neurons exhibit earlier electrophysiological maturation and altered mitochondrial transport compared to controls. Specifically, the N279K neurons show abnormally premature developmental 4R tau expression, including changes in the 3R:4R isoform ratio and AT100-hyperphosphorylated tau aggregates, while P301L neurons are characterized by contorted processes with varicosity-like structures, some containing both alpha-synuclein and 4R tau. The previously unreported faster maturation of MAPT mutant human neurons, the developmental expression of 4R tau and the morphological alterations may contribute to disease development. PMID:26220942

  5. Glycans from Fasciola hepatica Modulate the Host Immune Response and TLR-Induced Maturation of Dendritic Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez, Ernesto; Noya, Verónica; Cervi, Laura; Chiribao, María Laura; Brossard, Natalie; Chiale, Carolina; Carmona, Carlos; Giacomini, Cecilia; Freire, Teresa

    2015-12-01

    Helminths express various carbohydrate-containing glycoconjugates on their surface, and they release glycan-rich excretion/secretion products that can be very important in their life cycles, infection and pathology. Recent evidence suggests that parasite glycoconjugates could play a role in the evasion of the immune response, leading to a modified Th2-polarized immune response that favors parasite survival in the host. Nevertheless, there is limited information about the nature or function of glycans produced by the trematode Fasciola hepatica, the causative agent of fasciolosis. In this paper, we investigate whether glycosylated molecules from F. hepatica participate in the modulation of host immunity. We also focus on dendritic cells, since they are an important target of immune-modulation by helminths, affecting their activity or function. Our results indicate that glycans from F. hepatica promote the production of IL-4 and IL-10, suppressing IFN? production. During infection, this parasite is able to induce a semi-mature phenotype of DCs expressing low levels of MHCII and secrete IL-10. Furthermore, we show that parasite glycoconjugates mediate the modulation of LPS-induced maturation of DCs since their oxidation restores the capacity of LPS-treated DCs to secrete high levels of the pro-inflammatory cytokines IL-6 and IL-12/23p40 and low levels of the anti-inflammatory cytokine IL-10. Inhibition assays using carbohydrates suggest that the immune-modulation is mediated, at least in part, by the recognition of a mannose specific-CLR that signals by recruiting the phosphatase Php2. The results presented here contribute to the understanding of the role of parasite glycosylated molecules in the modulation of the host immunity and might be useful in the design of vaccines against fasciolosis. PMID:26720149

  6. Dynamics of incomplete fusion-fission reactions

    OpenAIRE

    Crouzen, Paulus Caorlus Nicolaas,

    1988-01-01

    Fifty years after its first observation, nuclear fission is still a lively field of research. The contemporary interest in this well established phenomenon is mainly related to heavy-ion physics, where fission provides a valuable means for the study of reaction mechanisms. Until recently, most of the experiments on heavy-ion induced fission reactions were inclusive and often could not distinguish between complete and incomplete fusion. The present thesis work, however, was specifically focuss...

  7. Risk sharing and retrading in incomplete markets

    OpenAIRE

    Gottardi, Piero

    2013-01-01

    At a competitive equilibrium of an incomplete-markets economy agents’ marginal valuations for the tradable assets are equalized ex-ante. We characterize the finest partition of the state space conditional on which this equality holds for any economy. This leads naturally to a necessary and sufficient condition on information that would induce agents to retrade, if such information was to become publicly available after the initial round of trade.

  8. Dynamic feedback circuits function as a switch for shaping a maturation-inducing steroid pulse in Drosophila

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller, Morten Erik; Danielsen, Erik Thomas; Herder, Rachel; O'Connor, Michael B.; Rewitz, Kim Furbo

    2013-01-01

    Steroid hormones trigger the onset of sexual maturation in animals by initiating genetic response programs that are determined by steroid pulse frequency, amplitude and duration. Although steroid pulses coordinate growth and timing of maturation during development, the mechanisms generating these...

  9. Tripeptidyl Peptidase II Promotes Maturation of Caspase-1 in Shigella flexneri-Induced Macrophage Apoptosis

    OpenAIRE

    Hilbi, Hubert; Puro, Robyn J.; Zychlinsky, Arturo

    2000-01-01

    The invasive enteropathogenic bacterium Shigella flexneri activates apoptosis in macrophages. Shigella-induced apoptosis requires caspase-1. We demonstrate here that tripeptidyl peptidase II (TPPII), a cytoplasmic, high-molecular-weight protease, participates in the apoptotic pathway triggered by Shigella. The TPPII inhibitor Ala-Ala-Phe-chloromethylketone (AAF-cmk) and clasto-lactacystin ?-lactone (lactacystin), an inhibitor of both TPPII and the proteasome, protected macrophages from Shigel...

  10. Akt activation induces hypertrophy without contractile phenotypic maturation in airway smooth muscle

    OpenAIRE

    Ma, Lan; Brown, Melanie; Kogut, Paul; Serban, Karina; Li, Xiaojing; McConville, John; Chen, Bohao; Bentley, J Kelley; Marc B. Hershenson; Dulin, Nickolai; SOLWAY, Julian; Camoretti-Mercado, Blanca

    2011-01-01

    Airway smooth muscle (ASM) hypertrophy is a cardinal feature of severe asthma, but the underlying molecular mechanisms remain uncertain. Forced protein kinase B/Akt 1 activation is known to induce myocyte hypertrophy in other muscle types, and, since a number of mediators present in asthmatic airways can activate Akt signaling, we hypothesized that Akt activation could contribute to ASM hypertrophy in asthma. To test this hypothesis, we evaluated whether Akt activation occurs naturally within...

  11. Updating beliefs with incomplete observations

    CERN Document Server

    de Cooman, G; Cooman, Gert de; Zaffalon, Marco

    2003-01-01

    Currently, there is renewed interest in the problem, raised by Shafer in 1985, of updating probabilities when observations are incomplete. This is a fundamental problem in general, and of particular interest for Bayesian networks. Recently, Grunwald and Halpern have shown that commonly used updating strategies fail in this case, except under very special assumptions. In this paper we propose a new method for updating probabilities with incomplete observations. Our approach is deliberately conservative: we make no assumptions about the so-called incompleteness mechanism that associates complete with incomplete observations. We model our ignorance about this mechanism by a vacuous lower prevision, a tool from the theory of imprecise probabilities, and we use only coherence arguments to turn prior into posterior probabilities. In general, this new approach to updating produces lower and upper posterior probabilities and expectations, as well as partially determinate decisions. This is a logical consequence of th...

  12. Variation in eating quality of early maturing mutant lines of rice induced by space technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Variations in eating quality of 9 mutant lines derived from single season indica rice variety Jingxian 89 by the treatment of space technique were investigated. The result indicated that the exterior quality of some mutant lines including grain shape and endosperm appearance changed obviously. AAC was induced into three categories: low, moderate and high AAC. Alkali spreading value and starch viscosity of most mutant lines were significantly worse than those of the original parent. However, the gel consistence of mutant lines was similar or improved obviously. Except SP501, major agronomic traits of mutant lines were worse than those of the control, but one thousand grains weight increased obviously

  13. Suppression of glia maturation factor expression prevents 1-methyl-4-phenylpyridinium (MPP?)-induced loss of mesencephalic dopaminergic neurons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, M M; Zaheer, S; Nehman, J; Zaheer, A

    2014-09-26

    Inflammation mediated by glial activation appears to play a critical role in the pathogenesis of Parkinson disease (PD). Glia maturation factor (GMF), a proinflammatory protein predominantly localized in the central nervous system was isolated, sequenced and cloned in our laboratory. We have previously demonstrated immunomodulatory and proinflammatory functions of GMF, but its involvement in 1-methyl-4-phenylpyridinium (MPP(+)), active metabolite of classical parkinsonian toxin 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine (MPTP), inducing loss of dopaminergic (DA) neurons has not been studied. Here we show that altered expression of GMF has direct consequences on the production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-?B)- mediated production of inflammatory mediators by MPP(+). We examined MPP(+)-induced DA neuronal loss in primary cultures of mouse mesencephalic neurons/glia obtained from GMF-deficient (GMF knockout (GMF-KO)) and GMF-containing wild-type (Wt) mice. We demonstrate that deficiency of GMF in GMF-KO neurons/glia led to decreased production of ROS and downregulation of NF-?B-mediated production of tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-?) and interleukin-1beta (IL-1?) as compared to Wt neurons/glia. Additionally, overexpression of GMF induced DA neurodegeneration, whereas GMF downregulation by GMF-specific shRNA protected DA neurons from MPP-induced toxicity. Subsequently, GMF deficiency ameliorates antioxidant balance, as evidenced by the decreased level of lipid peroxidation, less ROS production along with increased level of glutathione; and attenuated the DA neuronal loss via the downregulation of NF-?B-mediated inflammatory responses. In conclusion, our overall data indicate that GMF modulates oxidative stress and release of deleterious agents by MPP(+) leading to loss of DA neurons. Our study provides new insights into the potential role of GMF and identifies targets for therapeutic interventions in neurodegenerative diseases. PMID:25016212

  14. Suppression of glia maturation factor expression prevents 1-methyl-4-phenylpyridinium (MPP+)-induced loss of mesencephalic dopaminergic neurons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Mohammad Moshahid; Zaheer, Smita; Nehman, John; Zaheer, Asgar

    2014-01-01

    Inflammation mediated by glial activation appears to play critical role in the pathogenesis of Parkinson disease (PD). Glia maturation factor (GMF), a proinflammatory protein predominantly localized in the central nervous system was isolated, sequenced and cloned in our laboratory. We have previously demonstrated an immunomodulatory and proinflammatory functions for GMF, but its involvement in 1-methyl-4-phenylpyridinium (MPP+), active metabolite of classical parkinsonian toxin MPTP, induced loss of dopaminergic neurons have not been studied. Here we show that altered expression of GMF has direct consequences on the production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and NF-?B mediated production of inflammatory mediators by MPP+. We examined MPP+- induced dopaminergic neuronal loss in primary cultures of mouse mesencephalic neuron/glia obtained from GMF-deficient (GMF-KO) and GMF-containing wild type (Wt) mice. We demonstrate that deficiency of GMF in GMF-KO neuron/glia led to decrease production of ROS and downregulation of NF-?B mediated production of TNF-? and IL-1? as compare to Wt neuron/glia. Additionally, overexpression of GMF induced dopaminergic neurodegeneration, whereas GMF downregulation by GMF-specific shRNA protected dopaminergic neurons from MPP-induced toxicity. Subsequently, GMF deficiency ameliorates antioxidant balance, as evidenced by the decreased level of lipid peroxidation, less ROS production along with increased level of glutathione; and attenuated the dopaminergic neuronal loss via the downregulation of NF-?B mediated inflammatory responses. In conclusion, our overall data indicate that GMF modulates oxidative stress and release of deleterious agents by MPP+ leading to loss of dopaminergic neurons. Our study provides new insights into the potential role of GMF and identifies targets for therapeutic interventions in neurodegenerative diseases. PMID:25016212

  15. Unravelling the T-cell-mediated autoimmune attack on CNS myelin in a new primate EAE model induced with MOG34-56 peptide in incomplete adjuvant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jagessar, S Anwar; Heijmans, Nicole; Blezer, Erwin L A; Bauer, Jan; Blokhuis, Jeroen H; Wubben, Jacqueline A M; Drijfhout, Jan W; van den Elsen, Peter J; Laman, Jon D; Hart, Bert A 't

    2012-01-01

    Induction of experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE) has been documented in common marmosets using peptide 34-56 from human myelin/oligodendrocyte glycoprotein (MOG(34-56) ) in incomplete Freund's adjuvant (IFA). Here, we report that this EAE model is associated with widespread demyelination of grey and white matter. We performed an in-depth analysis of the specificity, MHC restriction and functions of the activated T cells in the model, which likely cause EAE in an autoantibody-independent manner. T-cell lines isolated from blood and lymphoid organs of animals immunized with MOG(34-56) displayed high production of IL-17A and specific lysis of MOG(34-56) -pulsed EBV B-lymphoblastoid cells as typical hallmarks. Cytotoxicity was directed at the epitope MOG(40-48) presented by the non-classical MHC class Ib allele Caja-E, which is orthologue to HLA-E and is expressed in non-inflamed brain. In vivo activated T cells identified by flow cytometry in cultures with MOG(34-56,) comprised CD4(+) CD56(+) and CD4(+) CD8(+) CD56(+) T cells. Furthermore, phenotypical analysis showed that CD4(+) CD8(+) CD56(+) T cells also expressed CD27, but CD16, CD45RO, CD28 and CCR7 were absent. These results show that, in the MOG34-56/IFA marmoset EAE model, a Caja-E-restricted population of autoreactive cytotoxic T cells plays a key role in the process of demyelination in the grey and white matter. PMID:21928277

  16. Skill formation under incomplete information

    OpenAIRE

    Weinschenk, Philipp

    2010-01-01

    We consider an economic model of child development with multiple stages. Due to incomplete information, parents are not able to tailor their investments to their child’s type when the child is young. We show that incomplete information weakens the importance of early investments in children when inter-stage investments are easily substitutable, but strengthens them when substitution is difficult. The latter case is empirically relevant.

  17. Skill formation under incomplete information

    OpenAIRE

    Weinschenk, Philipp

    2010-01-01

    We consider an economic model of child development with multiple stages. Due to incomplete information, parents are not able to tailor their investments to their child's type when the child is young. We show that incomplete information weakens the importance of early investments in children when inter-stage investments are easily substitutable, but strengthens them when substitution is difficult. The latter case is empirically relevant.

  18. Incomplete information and correlated electrons

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, Qiuping A.

    2002-01-01

    Although G\\"odel's incompleteness theorem made mathematician recognize that no axiomatic system could completely prove its correctness and that there is an eternal hole between our knowledge and the world, physicists so far continue to work on the approaches based on the hypothesis to completely or approximately know the systems of interest. In this paper, however, I review the recent development of a different approach, a statistical theory based upon the notion of incomplete information. Th...

  19. Reduced Connexin26 in the Mature Cochlea Increases Susceptibility to Noise-Induced Hearing Loss in Mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xing-Xing Zhou

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Connexin26 (Cx26, encoded by GJB2 mutations are the most common cause of non-syndromic deafness. GJB2 is thought to be involved in noise-induced hearing loss (NIHL. However, the role of Cx26 in NIHL is still obscure. To explore the association between Cx26 and NIHL, we established a Cx26 knockdown (KD mouse model by conditional knockdown of Cx26 at postnatal day 18 (P18, and then we observed the auditory threshold and morphologic changes in these mice with or without noise exposure. The Cx26 KD mice did not exhibit substantial hearing loss and hair cell degeneration, while the Cx26 KD mice with acoustic trauma experienced higher hearing loss than simple noise exposure siblings and nearly had no recovery. Additionally, extensive outer hair cell loss and more severe destruction of the basal organ of Corti were observed in Cx26 KD mice after noise exposure. These data indicate that reduced Cx26 expression in the mature mouse cochlea may increase susceptibility to noise-induced hearing loss and facilitate the cell degeneration in the organ of Corti.

  20. Establishment of maturity-onset diabetes of the young-induced pluripotent stem cells from a Japanese patient.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yabe, Shigeharu G; Iwasaki, Naoko; Yasuda, Kazuki; Hamazaki, Tatsuo S; Konno, Masamitsu; Fukuda, Satsuki; Takeda, Fujie; Kasuga, Masato; Okochi, Hitoshi

    2015-09-01

    Maturity-onset diabetes of the young (MODY) is a heterozygous monogenic diabetes; more than 13 disease genes have been identified. However, the pathogenesis of MODY is not fully understood, because the pancreatic ?-cells of the patients are inaccessable. Therefore, we attempted to establish MODY patient-derived induced pluripotent stem cells (MODY-iPS) cells to investigate the pathogenic mechanism of MODY by inducing pancreatic ?-cells. We established MODY5-iPS cells from a Japanese patient with MODY5 (R177X), and confirmed that MODY5-iPS cells possessed the characteristics of pluripotent stem cells. In the course of differentiation from MODY5-iPS cells into pancreatic ?-cells, we examined the disease gene, HNF1B messenger ribonucleic acid. We found that the amount of R177X mutant transcripts was much less than that of wild ones, but they increased after adding cycloheximide to the medium. These results suggest that these R177X mutant messenger ribonucleic acids are disrupted by nonsense-mediated messenger ribonucleic acid decay in MODY-iPS cells during the developmental stages of pancreatic ?-cells. PMID:26417411

  1. Effect of Vitamin D on basal and Luteinizing Hormone (LH) induced testosterone production and mitochondrial dehydrogenase activity in cultured Leydig cells from immature and mature rams.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Yang; Jin, Hui; Chen, Jianwei; Jiang, Xiaolong; Li, Pengfei; Ren, Youshe; Liu, Wenzhong; Yao, Jianbo; Folger, Joseph K; Smith, George W; Lv, Lihua

    2015-07-01

    The objectives of this study were to investigate the potential effects of 1?,25-(OH)2VD3 (biologically active form of Vitamin D) on basal and LH-induced testosterone production and mitochondrial dehydrogenase activity in Leydig cells from immature and mature rams cultured in vitro. Leydig cells were isolated from testes of immature and mature rams, treated without (control) or with increasing concentrations of LH (1, 10, 100ng/ml) and/or 1?,25-(OH)2VD3 (1, 10, 100nM). After 24h, concentrations of testosterone in culture media were measured. After 96h, mitochondrial dehydrogenase activity in Leydig cells were measured. In immature and mature ram Leydig cells, treatment with 10 and 100ng/ml LH increased testosterone production and mitochondrial dehydrogenase activity. Treatment with 1?,25-(OH)2VD3 in the absence of LH did not increase testosterone production, but 10 and 100nM 1?,25-(OH)2VD3 increased LH induced testosterone production for both immature and mature ram Leydig cells. Treatment with all doses of 1?,25-(OH)2VD3 in the absence of LH and 10 and 100ng/ml LH in the absence of 1?,25-(OH)2VD3 increased mitochondrial dehydrogenase activity for cultured Leydig cells from immature and mature rams and 1 and 10nM 1?,25-(OH)2VD3 treatment enhanced the LH induced increase in mitochondrial dehydrogenase activity. Result demonstrate Vitamin D3 induced regulation of function of Leydig cells from immature and mature rams cultured in the presence or absence of LH and support a potential role for Vitamin D3 in regulation of gonadal function in rams. PMID:26024964

  2. Hemin-induced transcriptional activation of the HSP70 gene during erythroid maturation in K562 cells is due to a heat shock factor-mediated stress response.

    OpenAIRE

    Theodorakis, N G; Zand, D J; Kotzbauer, P T; G.T. Williams; Morimoto, R I

    1989-01-01

    Hemin-induced differentiation of the human erythroleukemia cell line K562 results in the expression and accumulation of erythroid-specific gene products such as embryonic and fetal hemoglobins and the elevated synthesis of the major heat shock protein HSP70. This activity was suggested to represent activation of a heat shock gene during erythroid maturation independent of stress induction. In this study, we demonstrate that hemin induces the transcription of two members of the human HSP70 gen...

  3. Protein-induced changes during the maturation process of human dendritic cells: A 2-D DIGE approach

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ferreira, Gb; Overbergh, L

    2008-01-01

    Dendritic cells (DCs) are unique antigen presenting cells, which upon maturation change from a specialized antigen-capturing cell towards a professional antigen presenting cells. In this study, a 2-D DIGE analysis of immature and mature DCs was performed, to identify proteins changing in expression upon maturation. The protein expression profile of immature and mature DCs, derived from CD14+ peripheral blood monocytes was investigated using two pH ranges (pH 4-7 and 6-9) (n = 4). Ninety one differentially expressed spots (p

  4. Protein-induced changes during the maturation process of human dendritic cells: A 2-D DIGE approach

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ferreira, Gb; Overbergh, L; Hansen, Kasper Lage; D'Hertog, W; Hansen, Daniel Aaen; Maris, M; Moreau, Y; Workman, Christopher; Waelkens, E; Mathieu, C

    2008-01-01

    Dendritic cells (DCs) are unique antigen presenting cells, which upon maturation change from a specialized antigen-capturing cell towards a professional antigen presenting cells. In this study, a 2-D DIGE analysis of immature and mature DCs was performed, to identify proteins changing in expressi...... upon maturation. The protein expression profile of immature and mature DCs, derived from CD14+ peripheral blood monocytes was investigated using two pH ranges (pH 4-7 and 6-9) (n = 4). Ninety one differentially expressed spots (p...

  5. The Icsbp locus is a common proviral insertion site in mature B-cell lymphomas/plasmacytomas induced by exogenous murine leukemia virus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    ICSBP (interferon consensus sequence binding protein)/IRF8 (interferon regulatory factor 8) is an interferon gamma-inducible transcription factor expressed predominantly in hematopoietic cells, and down-regulation of this factor has been observed in chronic myelogenous leukemia and acute myeloid leukemia in man. By screening about 1200 murine leukemia virus (MLV)-induced lymphomas, we found proviral insertions at the Icsbp locus in 14 tumors, 13 of which were mature B-cell lymphomas or plasmacytomas. Only one was a T-cell lymphoma, although such tumors constituted about half of the samples screened. This indicates that the Icsbp locus can play a specific role in the development of mature B-lineage malignancies. Two proviral insertions in the last Icsbp exon were found to act by a poly(A)-insertion mechanism. The remaining insertions were found within or outside Icsbp. Since our results showed expression of Icsbp RNA and protein in all end-stage tumor samples, a simple tumor suppressor function of ICSBP is not likely. Interestingly, proviral insertions at Icsbp have not been reported from previous extensive screenings of mature B-cell lymphomas induced by endogenous MLVs. We propose that ICSBP might be involved in an early modulation of an immune response to exogenous MLVs that might also play a role in proliferation of the mature B-cell lymphomas

  6. Stochastic incompleteness of quantum mechanics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This article brings out in as conceptually clear terms as possible what seems to be a major incompleteness in the probability theory of particles offered by classical quantum mechanics. The exact nature of this incompleteness is illustrated by consideration of some simple quantum-mechanical examples. In addition, these examples are contrasted with the fundamental assumptions of Brownian motion in classical physics on the one hand, and with a controversey of a deecade ago in mathematical physchology. The central claim is that clasical quantum mechanics is radically incomplete in its probabilistic account of the motion of particles. In the last part of the article the time-dependent joint distribution of position and momentum of the linear harmonic oscillator is derived, and it is shown how the apparently physically paradoxical statistical independence of position and momentum has a natural explanation. The explanation is given within the framework of the non-quantum-mechanical stochastic theory constructed for such oscillators. (Auth.)

  7. Progressive behavioral changes during the maturation of rats with early radiation-induced hypoplasia of fascia dentata granule cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Localized exposure of the neonatal rat brain to X-rays produces neuronal hypoplasia specific to the granule cell layer of the hippocampal dentate gyrus. This brain damage causes locomotor hyperactivity, slowed acquisition of passive avoidance tasks and long bouts of spontaneous turning (without reversals) in a bowl apparatus. Here we report how these behavioral deficits change as a function of subject aging and behavioral test replications. Portions of the neonatal rat cerebral hemispheres were X-irradiated in order to selectively damage the granule cells of the dentate gyrus. The brains of experimental animals received a fractionated dose of X rays (13 Gy total) over postnatal days 1 to 16 and control animals were sham-irradiated. Rats between the ages of 71-462 days were tested 3 separate times on each of the following 3 behavioral tests: (1) spontaneous locomotion, (2) passive avoidance acquisition, and (3) spontaneous circling in a large plastic hemisphere. Rats with radiation-induced damage to the fascia dentata exhibited long bouts of slow turns without reversals. Once they began, irradiated subjects perseverated in turning to an extent significantly greater than sham-irradiated control subjects. This irradiation effect was significant during all test series. Moreover, in time, spontaneous perseverative turning was significantly potentiated in rats with hippocampal damage but increased only slightly in controls. Early radiation exposure produced locomotor hyperactivity in young rats. While activity levels of controls remained fairly stable throughout the course of the experiment, the hyperactivity of the irradiated animals decreased significantly as they matured

  8. Metabolomic changes in follicular fluid induced by soy isoflavones administered to rats from weaning until sexual maturity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Female Wistar rats at 21 days of age were treated with one of three concentrations of soy isoflavones (SIF) (50, 100 or 200 mg/kg body weight, orally, once per day) from weaning until sexual maturity (3 months) in order to evaluate the influence of SIF on ovarian follicle development. After treatment, the serum sex hormone levels and enumeration of ovarian follicles of the ovary were measured. The metabolic profile of follicular fluid was determined using HPLC-MS. Principal component analysis (PCA) and partial least-squares-discriminant analysis (PLS-DA) was used to identify differences in metabolites and reveal useful toxic biomarkers. The results indicated that modest doses of SIF affect ovarian follicle development, as demonstrated by decreased serum estradiol levels and increases in both ovarian follicle atresia and corpora lutea number in the ovary. SIF treatment-related metabolic alterations in follicular fluid were also found in the PCA and PLS-DA models. The 24 most significantly altered metabolites were identified, including primary sex hormones, amino acids, fatty acids and metabolites involved in energy metabolism. These findings may indicate that soy isoflavones affect ovarian follicle development by inducing metabolomic variations in the follicular fluid. - Highlights: ? Modest doses of soy isoflavones (SIF) do affect ovarian follicle development. ? SIF treatment-related metabolic alterations in follicular fluid were found. ? The 24 most significantly altered metabolites were identified

  9. Insulin-like growth factor-1 receptor in mature osteoblasts is required for periosteal bone formation induced by reloading.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kubota, Takuo; Elalieh, Hashem Z; Saless, Neema; Fong, Chak; Wang, Yongmei; Babey, Muriel; Cheng, Zhiqiang; Bikle, Daniel D

    2013-11-01

    Skeletal loading and unloading has a pronounced impact on bone remodeling, a process also regulated by insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-1) signaling. Skeletal unloading leads to resistance to the anabolic effect of IGF-1, while reloading after unloading restores responsiveness to IGF-1. However, a direct study of the importance of IGF-1 signaling in the skeletal response to mechanical loading remains to be tested. In this study, we assessed the skeletal response of osteoblast-specific Igf-1 receptor deficient (Igf-1r(-/-) ) mice to unloading and reloading. The mice were hindlimb unloaded for 14 days and then reloaded for 16 days. Igf-1r(-/-) mice displayed smaller cortical bone and diminished periosteal and endosteal bone formation at baseline. Periosteal and endosteal bone formation decreased with unloading in Igf-1r(+/+) mice. However, the recovery of periosteal bone formation with reloading was completely inhibited in Igf-1r(-/-) mice, although reloading-induced endosteal bone formation was not hampered. These changes in bone formation resulted in the abolishment of the expected increase in total cross-sectional area with reloading in Igf-1r(-/-) mice compared to the control mice. These results suggest that the Igf-1r in mature osteoblasts has a critical role in periosteal bone formation in the skeletal response to mechanical loading. PMID:23976802

  10. Metabolomic changes in follicular fluid induced by soy isoflavones administered to rats from weaning until sexual maturity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Wenxiang [Department of Nutrition and Health Care, School of Public Health, Fujian Medical University, Fuzhou, Fujian (China); Zhang, Wenchang, E-mail: wenchang2002@sina.com [Department of Occupational and Environmental Health, School of Public Health, Fujian Medical University, Fuzhou, Fujian (China); Liu, Jin [Department of Occupational and Environmental Health, School of Public Health, Fujian Medical University, Fuzhou, Fujian (China); Sun, Yan [Center for Reproductive Medicine, Teaching Hospital of Fujian Medical University, Fujian Maternity and Child Health Hospital, Fuzhou, Fujian (China); Li, Yuchen; Li, Hong; Xiao, Shihua; Shen, Xiaohua [Department of Occupational and Environmental Health, School of Public Health, Fujian Medical University, Fuzhou, Fujian (China)

    2013-06-15

    Female Wistar rats at 21 days of age were treated with one of three concentrations of soy isoflavones (SIF) (50, 100 or 200 mg/kg body weight, orally, once per day) from weaning until sexual maturity (3 months) in order to evaluate the influence of SIF on ovarian follicle development. After treatment, the serum sex hormone levels and enumeration of ovarian follicles of the ovary were measured. The metabolic profile of follicular fluid was determined using HPLC-MS. Principal component analysis (PCA) and partial least-squares-discriminant analysis (PLS-DA) was used to identify differences in metabolites and reveal useful toxic biomarkers. The results indicated that modest doses of SIF affect ovarian follicle development, as demonstrated by decreased serum estradiol levels and increases in both ovarian follicle atresia and corpora lutea number in the ovary. SIF treatment-related metabolic alterations in follicular fluid were also found in the PCA and PLS-DA models. The 24 most significantly altered metabolites were identified, including primary sex hormones, amino acids, fatty acids and metabolites involved in energy metabolism. These findings may indicate that soy isoflavones affect ovarian follicle development by inducing metabolomic variations in the follicular fluid. - Highlights: ? Modest doses of soy isoflavones (SIF) do affect ovarian follicle development. ? SIF treatment-related metabolic alterations in follicular fluid were found. ? The 24 most significantly altered metabolites were identified.

  11. The shape of incomplete preferences

    CERN Document Server

    Nau, R

    2006-01-01

    Incomplete preferences provide the epistemic foundation for models of imprecise subjective probabilities and utilities that are used in robust Bayesian analysis and in theories of bounded rationality. This paper presents a simple axiomatization of incomplete preferences and characterizes the shape of their representing sets of probabilities and utilities. Deletion of the completeness assumption from the axiom system of Anscombe and Aumann yields preferences represented by a convex set of state-dependent expected utilities, of which at least one must be a probability/utility pair. A strengthening of the state-independence axiom is needed to obtain a representation purely in terms of a set of probability/utility pairs.

  12. Maturation of human dendritic cells by monocyte-conditioned medium is dependent upon trace amounts of lipopolysaccharide inducing tumour necrosis factor alpha

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nersting, Jacob; Svenson, Morten

    2003-01-01

    We investigated the ability of monocyte-conditioned medium (MCM), generated by monocytes cultured on plastic-immobilised immunoglobulin, to stimulate maturation of human monocyte-derived dendritic cells (DC). Earlier reports suggest that MCM is a strong inducer of irreversible DC maturation, whereas we find, that adding a small amount of lipopolysaccharide (LPS) to the MCM-generating cultures is required for the production of a DC-stimulatory MCM. Moreover, compared with addition of LPS directly to the DC cultures, stimulation via MCM cultures increases by several fold the DC-stimulatory potency of LPS. Maturation by this procedure is mediated mainly by tumour necrosis factor alpha secreted from monocytes during the medium-conditioning period.

  13. Maturation of human dendritic cells by monocyte-conditioned medium is dependent upon trace amounts of lipopolysaccharide inducing tumour necrosis factor alpha

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nersting, Jacob; Svenson, Morten; Andersen, Vagn; Bendtzen, Klaus

    2003-01-01

    We investigated the ability of monocyte-conditioned medium (MCM), generated by monocytes cultured on plastic-immobilised immunoglobulin, to stimulate maturation of human monocyte-derived dendritic cells (DC). Earlier reports suggest that MCM is a strong inducer of irreversible DC maturation......, whereas we find, that adding a small amount of lipopolysaccharide (LPS) to the MCM-generating cultures is required for the production of a DC-stimulatory MCM. Moreover, compared with addition of LPS directly to the DC cultures, stimulation via MCM cultures increases by several fold the DC......-stimulatory potency of LPS. Maturation by this procedure is mediated mainly by tumour necrosis factor alpha secreted from monocytes during the medium-conditioning period....

  14. Nicotine-induced Disturbances of Meiotic Maturation in Cultured Mouse Oocytes: Alterations of Spindle Integrity and Chromosome Alignment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zenzes Maria

    2004-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract We investigated whether nicotine exposure in vitro of mouse oocytes affects spindle and chromosome function during meiotic maturation (M-I and M-II. Oocytes in germinal vesicle (GV stage were cultured in nicotine for 8 h or for 16 h, to assess effects in M-I and in metaphase II (M-II. The latter culture setting used the three protocols: 8 h nicotine then 8 h medium (8N + 8M; 16 h nicotine (16N; 8 h medium then 8 h nicotine (8M + 8N. Non-toxic concentrations of nicotine at 1.0, 2.5, 5.0 and 10.0 mmol/L were used. Spindle-chromosome configurations were analyzed with wide-field optical sectioning microscopy. In 8 h cultures, nicotine exposure resulted in dose-related increased proportions of M-I oocytes with defective spindle-chromosome configurations. A dose-related delayed entry into anaphase I was also detected. In 16 h cultures, nicotine exposure for the first 8 h (8N + 8M, or for 16 h (16N, resulted in dose- and time-related increased proportions of oocytes arrested in M-I (10 mmol/L; 8 h: 53.2%, controls 9.6%; 16 h: 87.6%, controls 8.5%. Defects in M-I spindles and chromosomes caused M-I arrest leading to dose-related decreased proportions of oocytes that reached metaphase-II (10 mmol/L 8 h: 46.8%, controls 90.4%;16 h: 12.4%, controls 91.5%. A delayed anaphase-I affected the normal timing of M-II, leading to abnormal oocytes with dispersed chromosomes, or with double spindles and no polar body. Nicotine exposure during the second 8 h (8M + 8N resulted in dose-related, increased proportions of M-II oocytes with defective spindles and chromosomes (10 mmol/L: 42.9%, controls 2.0%. Nicotine has no adverse effects on GV break down, but induces spindle and chromosome defects compromising oocyte meiotic maturation and development.

  15. Quantization of singular systems and incomplete motions

    CERN Document Server

    Landsman, N P

    1998-01-01

    The need for a mathematically rigorous quantization procedure of singular spaces and incomplete motions is pointed out in connection with quantum cosmology. We put our previous suggestion for such a procedure, based on the theory of induced representations of C*-algebras, in the light of L. Schwartz' theory of Hilbert subspaces. This turns out to account for the freedom in the induction procedure, at the same time providing a basis for generalized eigenfunction expansions pertinent to the needs of quantum cosmology. Reinforcing our previous proposal for the wave-function of the Universe, we are now able to add a concrete prescription for its calculation.

  16. Improvement of efficient in vitro regeneration potential of mature callus induced from Malaysian upland rice seed (Oryza sativa cv. Panderas).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohd Din, Abd Rahman Jabir; Iliyas Ahmad, Fauziah; Wagiran, Alina; Abd Samad, Azman; Rahmat, Zaidah; Sarmidi, Mohamad Roji

    2016-01-01

    A new and rapid protocol for optimum callus production and complete plant regeneration has been assessed in Malaysian upland rice (Oryza sativa) cv. Panderas. The effect of plant growth regulator (PGR) on the regeneration frequency of Malaysian upland rice (cv. Panderas) was investigated. Mature seeds were used as a starting material for callus induction experiment using various concentrations of 2,4-D and NAA. Optimal callus induction frequency at 90% was obtained on MS media containing 2,4-D (3 mg L(-1)) and NAA (2 mg L(-1)) after 6 weeks while no significant difference was seen on tryptophan and glutamine parameters. Embryogenic callus was recorded as compact, globular and light yellowish in color. The embryogenic callus morphology was further confirmed with scanning electron microscopy (SEM) analysis. For regeneration, induced calli were treated with various concentrations of Kin (0.5-1.5 mg L(-1)), BAP, NAA and 0.5 mg L(-1) of TDZ. The result showed that the maximum regeneration frequency (100%) was achieved on MS medium containing BAP (0.5 mg L(-1)), Kin (1.5 mg L(-1)), NAA (0.5 mg L(-1)) and TDZ (0.5 mg L(-1)) within four weeks. Developed shoots were successfully rooted on half strength MS free hormone medium and later transferred into a pot containing soil for acclimatization. This cutting-edge finding is unique over the other existing publishable data due to the good regeneration response by producing a large number of shoots. PMID:26858569

  17. Effects of repeated anesthesia by thiopental in neonatal period on PTZ-induced convulsions and pain responses during maturation in rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fatemeh Faghih Majidi

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: General anesthetics during critical periods of brain development may cause some seriousmalformations or side effects. Anesthetic drugs can involve in the brain development and synaptogenesis atthe critical period of development. There are some controversy with regards the effects of(neurodegenerative or neuroprotective barbiturates on brain. The aim of the present study was toinvestigate the possible relation between repeated induced thiopental (a GABAA agonist anesthesia at thepostnatal period and pentylentetrazol-induced convulsions and pain responses in adult in the Wistar rats.Materials and methods: 40 male neonate rats were divided into experimental and sham groups. Theexperimental group (n=20 was deeply anesthetized with thiopental (30 mg/kg daily during 10 to 20-daysof post- natal period and physiologic serum was used for sham animals. After maturation of male rats, thePTZ-induced seizures were induced by daily interapritoneally injection of PTZ (45 mg/kg, and thelatency of the appearance of generalized epileptiform behaviors was recorded. Pain responses were alsoevaluated using tail-flick and formalin tests.Results: No significant differences were found in the lantency of the appearance of behaviouralconvulsions and pain sensitivity between experimental and sham groups.Conclusion: Our findings indicate that prior exposure to thiopental during nenonatal stage has no effectson PTZ-induced seizures and also pain responses after maturation. Developmental compensatorymechanisms may protect the brian against the possible damage that induced by repeated thipopental duringneonatal period.

  18. Uncertainty, incompleteness, chance, and design

    CERN Document Server

    Sols, Fernando

    2013-01-01

    The 20th century has revealed two important limitations of scientific knowledge. On the one hand, the combination of Poincar\\'e's nonlinear dynamics and Heisenberg's uncertainty principle leads to a world picture where physical reality is, in many respects, intrinsically undetermined. On the other hand, G\\"odel's incompleteness theorems reveal us the existence of mathematical truths that cannot be demonstrated. More recently, Chaitin has proved that, from the incompleteness theorems, it follows that the random character of a given mathematical sequence cannot be proved in general (it is 'undecidable'). I reflect here on the consequences derived from the indeterminacy of the future and the undecidability of randomness, concluding that the question of the presence or absence of finality in nature is fundamentally outside the scope of the scientific method.

  19. Transition Complexity of Incomplete DFAs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuan Gao

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we consider the transition complexity of regular languages based on the incomplete deterministic finite automata. A number of results on Boolean operations have been obtained. It is shown that the transition complexity results for union and complementation are very different from the state complexity results for the same operations. However, for intersection, the transition complexity result is similar to that of state complexity.

  20. Monetary Shocks Under Incomplete Markets

    OpenAIRE

    Algan, Yann; Allais, Olivier; Challe, Edouard; Ragot, Xavier

    2012-01-01

    This paper provides a systematic quantification of the short-run effects of monetary policy shocks under incomplete markets. Our framework of analysis is the benchmark flexible-price neoclassical growth model with infinitely-lived and ex ante identical individuals, which we augment with i. uninsurable idiosyncratic labor income shocks; ii. a liquidity motive for holding real money balances (via a money-in-the-utility specification); and iii. aggregate shocks to the rate of money growth. We ca...

  1. An Incomplete Definition of Reality

    OpenAIRE

    Boris DeWiel

    2013-01-01

    A reality may be defined incompletely as a perpetuating pattern of relations. This definition denies the name of reality to an utter and totalistic patternlessness, like a primal patternless stuff, because a patternless all-ness would be indistinguishable from a patternless nothingness. If reality began from a chaos or patternless stuff, it became a reality only when it became patterned. If there are orders of reality with perpetuating relations between them, as in Cartesian interactive subst...

  2. Phase Transitions for Gödel Incompleteness

    OpenAIRE

    Weiermann, Andreas

    2009-01-01

    Gödel's first incompleteness result from 1931 states that there are true assertions about the natural numbers which do not follow from the Peano axioms. Since 1931 many researchers have been looking for natural examples of such assertions and breakthroughs have been obtained in the seventies by Jeff Paris (in part jointly with Leo Harrington and Laurie Kirby) and Harvey Friedman who produced first mathematically interesting independence results in Ramsey theory (Paris) and well-order an...

  3. Incomplete intestinal absorption of fructose.

    OpenAIRE

    Kneepkens, C M; Vonk, R.J.; Fernandes, J

    1984-01-01

    Intestinal D-fructose absorption in 31 children was investigated using measurements of breath hydrogen. Twenty five children had no abdominal symptoms and six had functional bowel disorders. After ingestion of fructose (2 g/kg bodyweight), 22 children (71%) showed a breath hydrogen increase of more than 10 ppm over basal values, indicating incomplete absorption: the increase averaged 53 ppm, range 12 to 250 ppm. Four of these children experienced abdominal symptoms. Three of the six children ...

  4. Regulation of murine oocyte meiosis: evidence for a gonadotropin- induced, cAMP-dependent reduction in a maturation inhibitor

    OpenAIRE

    1984-01-01

    We have developed an assay that can detect relative changes in the amount of a non-cAMP inhibitor of maturation present in cumulus cells (Eppig et al., 1983, Dev. Biol., 100:39-49). Using this assay in which accelerated maturation of a group of treated cumulus cell-oocyte complexes relative to untreated complexes indicates a decrease in the amount of inhibitor, results of the experiments described here suggest a possible relationship between elevation of cAMP levels and subsequent decreased a...

  5. Boosting high-intensity focused ultrasound-induced anti-tumor immunity using a sparse-scan strategy that can more effectively promote dendritic cell maturation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhong Pei

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The conventional treatment protocol in high-intensity focused ultrasound (HIFU therapy utilizes a dense-scan strategy to produce closely packed thermal lesions aiming at eradicating as much tumor mass as possible. However, this strategy is not most effective in terms of inducing a systemic anti-tumor immunity so that it cannot provide efficient micro-metastatic control and long-term tumor resistance. We have previously provided evidence that HIFU may enhance systemic anti-tumor immunity by in situ activation of dendritic cells (DCs inside HIFU-treated tumor tissue. The present study was conducted to test the feasibility of a sparse-scan strategy to boost HIFU-induced anti-tumor immune response by more effectively promoting DC maturation. Methods An experimental HIFU system was set up to perform tumor ablation experiments in subcutaneous implanted MC-38 and B16 tumor with dense- or sparse-scan strategy to produce closely-packed or separated thermal lesions. DCs infiltration into HIFU-treated tumor tissues was detected by immunohistochemistry and flow cytometry. DCs maturation was evaluated by IL-12/IL-10 production and CD80/CD86 expression after co-culture with tumor cells treated with different HIFU. HIFU-induced anti-tumor immune response was evaluated by detecting growth-retarding effects on distant re-challenged tumor and tumor-specific IFN-?-secreting cells in HIFU-treated mice. Results HIFU exposure raised temperature up to 80 degrees centigrade at beam focus within 4 s in experimental tumors and led to formation of a well-defined thermal lesion. The infiltrated DCs were recruited to the periphery of lesion, where the peak temperature was only 55 degrees centigrade during HIFU exposure. Tumor cells heated to 55 degrees centigrade in 4-s HIFU exposure were more effective to stimulate co-cultured DCs to mature. Sparse-scan HIFU, which can reserve 55 degrees-heated tumor cells surrounding the separated lesions, elicited an enhanced anti-tumor immune response than dense-scan HIFU, while their suppressive effects on the treated primary tumor were maintained at the same level. Flow cytometry analysis showed that sparse-scan HIFU was more effective than dense-scan HIFU in enhancing DC infiltration into tumor tissues and promoting their maturation in situ. Conclusion Optimizing scan strategy is a feasible way to boost HIFU-induced anti-tumor immunity by more effectively promoting DC maturation.

  6. Incomplete property rights and overinvestment

    OpenAIRE

    Amegashie, J. Atsu

    2009-01-01

    I consider a model in which an asset owner must decide how much to invest in his asset mindful of the fact that an encroacher’s valuation of the asset is increasing in the asset owner’s investment. Due to incomplete property rights, the encroacher and asset owner engage in a contest over the control of the asset after investment has taken place. A standard result is that the asset owner will underinvest in the asset relative to the first-best level of investment when property rights are compl...

  7. An Incomplete Pentalogy of Cantrell

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Mishaly

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Pentalogy of Cantrell is a rare entity of congenital defects involving the abdominal wall,sternum, diaphragm, pericardium and heart. The complete pentalogy and its variants havebeen described in the literature. We report a 47-day-old girl with an incomplete pentalogy ofCantrell presenting with congenital absence of the sternum, congenital heart defects, and anepigastric hernia. Two even rarer expressions of this disorder, tricuspid atresia type IIc andasymmetric kidneys, were also found. The patient was successfully managed with palliativepulmonary artery banding as preparation for a modified Fontan operation when she is older.We report this rare case, and discuss the pathologic findings and surgical strategy.

  8. Incomplete Contract and Divisional Structures

    OpenAIRE

    Bao, Te; Wang, Yongqin

    2009-01-01

    In this paper we want to analyze the internal divisional structure within an organi- zation in the framework of incomplete contract theory. We use the framework of Aghion and Tirole (1997) and define the managerial control structure as \\sequence of search". A key feature of this paper which differentiate it from other works in the literature is that we add add an ex post bargaining phase in which the managers can agree on the project which maximize their joint private benefit. Our model shows...

  9. Utility maximization in incomplete markets

    CERN Document Server

    Hu, Y; Müller, M; Hu, Ying; Imkeller, Peter; Muller, Matthias

    2005-01-01

    We consider the problem of utility maximization for small traders on incomplete financial markets. As opposed to most of the papers dealing with this subject, the investors' trading strategies we allow underly constraints described by closed, but not necessarily convex, sets. The final wealths obtained by trading under these constraints are identified as stochastic processes which usually are supermartingales, and even martingales for particular strategies. These strategies are seen to be optimal, and the corresponding value functions determined simply by the initial values of the supermartingales. We separately treat the cases of exponential, power and logarithmic utility.

  10. Incomplete fusion in heavy ion reactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A brief review of the literature on incomplete fusion reactions is presented along with the theoretical models proposed to explain the process. The dependence of the probability of incomplete fusion on entrance channel mass asymmetry, as well as the angular momenta involved in incomplete fusion reaction are discussed. The need to obtain a global picture of incomplete fusion and deep inelastic collision is emphasised. (author). 28 refs., 4 figs

  11. Dynamic feedback circuits function as a switch for shaping a maturation-inducing steroid pulse in Drosophila

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    MØller, Morten Erik; Danielsen, Erik Thomas

    2013-01-01

    Steroid hormones trigger the onset of sexual maturation in animals by initiating genetic response programs that are determined by steroid pulse frequency, amplitude and duration. Although steroid pulses coordinate growth and timing of maturation during development, the mechanisms generating these pulses are not known. Here we show that the ecdysone steroid pulse that drives the juvenile-adult transition in Drosophila is determined by feedback circuits in the prothoracic gland (PG), the major steroid-producing tissue of insect larvae. These circuits coordinate the activation and repression of hormone synthesis, the two key parameters determining pulse shape (amplitude and duration). We show that ecdysone has a positive-feedback effect on the PG, rapidly amplifying its own synthesis to trigger pupariation as the onset of maturation. During the prepupal stage, a negative-feedback signal ensures the decline in ecdysone levels required to produce a temporal steroid pulse that drives developmental progression to adulthood. The feedback circuits rely on a developmental switch in the expression of Broad isoforms that transcriptionally activate or silence components in the ecdysone biosynthetic pathway. Remarkably, our study shows that the same well-defined genetic program that stimulates a systemic downstream response to ecdysone is also utilized upstream to set the duration and amplitude of the ecdysone pulse. Activation of this switch-like mechanism ensures a rapid, self-limiting PG response that functions in producing steroid oscillations that can guide the decision to terminate growth and promote maturation.

  12. Alcohol-induced decrease in muscle protein synthesis associated with increased binding of mTOR and raptor: Comparable effects in young and mature rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vary Thomas C

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Acute alcohol (EtOH intoxication decreases muscle protein synthesis via inhibition of mTOR-dependent translation initiation. However, these studies have been performed in relatively young rapidly growing rats in which muscle protein accretion is more sensitive to growth factor and nutrient stimulation. Furthermore, some in vivo-produced effects of EtOH vary in an age-dependent manner. The hypothesis tested in the present study was that young rats will show a more pronounced decrement in muscle protein synthesis than older mature rats in response to acute EtOH intoxication. Methods Male F344 rats were studied at approximately 3 (young or 12 (mature months of age. Young rats were injected intraperitoneally with 75 mmol/kg of EtOH, and mature rats injected with either 75 or 90 mmol/kg EtOH. Time-matched saline-injected control rats were included for both age groups. Gastrocnemius protein synthesis and the activity of the mTOR pathway were assessed 2.5 h after EtOH using [3H]-labeled phenylalanine and the phosphorylation of various protein factors known to regulate peptide-chain initiation. Results Blood alcohol levels (BALs were lower in mature rats compared to young rats after administration of 75 mmol/kg EtOH (154 ± 23 vs 265 ± 24 mg/dL. However, injection of 90 mmol/kg EtOH in mature rats produced BALs comparable to that of young rats (281 ± 33 mg/dL. EtOH decreased muscle protein synthesis similarly in both young and high-dose EtOH-treated mature rats. The EtOH-induced changes in both groups were associated with a concomitant reduction in 4E-BP1 phosphorylation, and redistribution of eIF4E between the active eIF4E·eIF4G and inactive eIF4E·4EBP1 complex. Moreover, EtOH increased the binding of mTOR with raptor in a manner which appeared to be AMPK- and TSC-independent. In contrast, although muscle protein synthesis was unchanged in mature rats given low-dose EtOH, compared to control values, the phosphorylation of rpS6 and eIF4G was decreased. Conclusion These data indicate that muscle protein synthesis is equally sensitive to the inhibitory effects of EtOH in young rapidly growing rats and older mature rats which are growing more slowly, but that mature rats must be given a relatively larger dose of EtOH to achieve the same BAL. Based on the differential response in mature rats to low- and high-dose EtOH, the decreased protein synthesis was associated with a reduction in mTOR activity which was selectively mediated via a reduction in 4E-BP1 phosphorylation and an increase in mTOR·raptor formation.

  13. The incorporation of myo-inositol into phosphatidylinositol derivatives is stimulated during hormone-induced meiotic maturation of amphibian oocytes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The incorporation of myo-[3H]inositol into phosphatidylinositol and its phosphorylated derivatives was studied by microinjection of the radioactive precursor into Xenopus laevis oocytes. Induction of meiotic maturation of the oocytes by treatment with either progesterone one or insulin resulted in a significant increase in the incorporation of myo-[3H]inositol into the phospholipid fraction. This increase occurred 3-6 h after hormonal treatment, a time coincident with the start of the breakdown of the nuclear envelope, and requires protein synthesis. The effect of progesterone and insulin contrasts with the effect of acetylcholine, which acts through a muscarinic receptor causing the activation of phospholipase C, since the latter effector causes an increase in myo-[3H]inositol incorporation, which is more rapid and does not require protein synthesis. These results suggest that the meiotic maturation process is connected with changes in inositol metabolism in the amphibian oocyte

  14. The incorporation of myo-inositol into phosphatidylinositol derivatives is stimulated during hormone-induced meiotic maturation of amphibian oocytes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carrasco, D.; Allende, C.C.; Allende, J.E. (Universidad de Chile, Casilla, Santiago (Chile))

    1990-12-01

    The incorporation of myo-({sup 3}H)inositol into phosphatidylinositol and its phosphorylated derivatives was studied by microinjection of the radioactive precursor into Xenopus laevis oocytes. Induction of meiotic maturation of the oocytes by treatment with either progesterone one or insulin resulted in a significant increase in the incorporation of myo-({sup 3}H)inositol into the phospholipid fraction. This increase occurred 3-6 h after hormonal treatment, a time coincident with the start of the breakdown of the nuclear envelope, and requires protein synthesis. The effect of progesterone and insulin contrasts with the effect of acetylcholine, which acts through a muscarinic receptor causing the activation of phospholipase C, since the latter effector causes an increase in myo-({sup 3}H)inositol incorporation, which is more rapid and does not require protein synthesis. These results suggest that the meiotic maturation process is connected with changes in inositol metabolism in the amphibian oocyte.

  15. X-ray induced dominant lethal mutations in mature and immature oocytes of guinea-pigs and golden hamsters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The induction of dominant lethal mutations by doses of 100-400 rad X-rays in oocytes of the guinea-pig and golden hamster was studied using criteria of embryonic mortality. For both species higher yields were obtained from mature than from immature oocytes. Data on fertility indicated that in the golden hamster immature oocytes were more sensitive to killing by X-rays than mature oocytes but that the converse was true in the guinea-pig. The dose-response relationship for mutation to dominant lethals in pre-ovulatory oocytes of guinea-pigs and golden hamsters was linear, both when based on pre- and post-implantation loss only. The rate per unit dose was higher for the golden hamster, and the old golden hamsters were possibly slightly more sensitive than young ones

  16. Cooperative transcription activation by Nurr1 and Pitx3 induces embryonic stem cell maturation to the midbrain dopamine neuron phenotype

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Martinat, Cecile; Bacci, Jean-Jacques; Leete, Thomas; Kim, Jongpil; Vanti, William B; Newman, Amy H; Cha, Joo H; Gether, Ulrik; Wang, Honggang; Abeliovich, Asa

    2006-01-01

    Midbrain dopamine (DA) neurons play a central role in the regulation of voluntary movement, and their degeneration is associated with Parkinson's disease. Cell replacement therapies, and in particular embryonic stem (ES) cell-derived DA neurons, offer a potential therapeutic venue for Parkinson's disease. We sought to identify genes that can potentiate maturation of ES cell cultures to the midbrain DA neuron phenotype. A number of transcription factors have been implicated in the development of ...

  17. AML1-ETO Inhibits Maturation of Multiple Lymphohematopoietic Lineages and Induces Myeloblast Transformation in Synergy with ICSBP Deficiency

    OpenAIRE

    Schwieger, Maike; Löhler, Jürgen; Friel, Jutta; Scheller, Marina; Horak, Ivan; Stocking, Carol

    2002-01-01

    The translocation (8;21), generating the AML1-ETO fusion protein, is one of the most frequent chromosomal abnormalities associated with acute myelogenous leukemia (AML). To elucidate its role in oncogenesis, bone marrow (BM) cells were infected with a retroviral vector carrying AML1-ETO and transplanted into mice. In contrast to previous transgenic mouse models, we show that AML1-ETO directly stimulates granulopoiesis, suppresses erythropoiesis, and impairs the maturation of myeloid, B, and T...

  18. Proteolytic cleavage of proBDNF into mature BDNF in the basolateral amygdala is necessary for defeat-induced social avoidance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dulka, Brooke N; Ford, Ellen C; Lee, Melissa A; Donnell, Nathaniel J; Goode, Travis D; Prosser, Rebecca; Cooper, Matthew A

    2016-04-01

    Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) is essential for memory processes. The present study tested whether proteolytic cleavage of proBDNF into mature BDNF (mBDNF) within the basolateral amygdala (BLA) regulates the consolidation of defeat-related memories. We found that acute social defeat increases the expression of mBDNF, but not proBDNF, in the BLA/central amygdala. We also showed that blocking plasmin in the BLA with microinjection of α2-antiplasmin immediately following social defeat decreases social avoidance 24 h later. These data suggest the proteolytic cleavage of BDNF in the BLA is necessary for defeat-induced social avoidance. PMID:26980783

  19. ENAM mutations with incomplete penetrance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seymen, F; Lee, K-E; Koruyucu, M; Gencay, K; Bayram, M; Tuna, E B; Lee, Z H; Kim, J-W

    2014-10-01

    Amelogenesis imperfecta (AI) is a genetic disease affecting tooth enamel formation. AI can be an isolated entity or a phenotype of syndromes. To date, more than 10 genes have been associated with various forms of AI. We have identified 2 unrelated Turkish families with hypoplastic AI and performed mutational analysis. Whole-exome sequencing identified 2 novel heterozygous nonsense mutations in the ENAM gene (c.454G>T p.Glu152* in family 1, c.358C>T p.Gln120* in family 2) in the probands. Affected individuals were heterozygous for the mutation in each family. Segregation analysis within each family revealed individuals with incomplete penetrance or extremely mild enamel phenotype, in spite of having the same mutation with the other affected individuals. We believe that these findings will broaden our understanding of the clinical phenotype of AI caused by ENAM mutations. PMID:25143514

  20. Role of LRP1 and ERK and cAMP Signaling Pathways in Lactoferrin-Induced Lipolysis in Mature Rat Adipocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ikoma-Seki, Keiko; Nakamura, Kanae; Morishita, Satoru; Ono, Tomoji; Sugiyama, Keikichi; Nishino, Hoyoku; Hirano, Hisashi; Murakoshi, Michiaki

    2015-01-01

    Lactoferrin (LF) is a multifunctional glycoprotein present in milk. A clinical study showed that enteric-coated bovine LF tablets decrease visceral fat accumulation. Furthermore, animal studies revealed that ingested LF is partially delivered to mesenteric fat, and in vitro studies showed that LF promotes lipolysis in mature adipocytes. The aim of the present study was to determine the mechanism underlying the induction of lipolysis in mature adipocytes that is induced by LF. To address this question, we used proteomics techniques to analyze protein expression profiles. Mature adipocytes from primary cultures of rat mesenteric fat were collected at various times after exposure to LF. Proteomic analysis revealed that the expression levels of hormone-sensitive lipase (HSL), which catalyzes the rate-limiting step of lipolysis, were upregulated and that HSL was activated by protein kinase A within 15 min after the cells were treated with LF. We previously reported that LF increases the intracellular concentration of cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP), suggesting that LF activates the cAMP signaling pathway. In this study, we show that the expression level and the activity of the components of the extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) signaling pathway were upregulated. Moreover, LF increased the activity of the transcription factor cAMP response element binding protein (CREB), which acts downstream in the cAMP and ERK signaling pathways and regulates the expression levels of adenylyl cyclase and HSL. Moreover, silencing of the putative LF receptor low-density lipoprotein receptor-related protein 1 (LRP1) attenuated lipolysis in LF-treated adipocytes. These results suggest that LF promoted lipolysis in mature adipocytes by regulating the expression levels of proteins involved in lipolysis through controlling the activity of cAMP/ERK signaling pathways via LRP1. PMID:26506094

  1. Item calibration in incomplete testing designs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Norman D. Verhelst

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available This study discusses the justifiability of item parameter estimation in incomplete testing designs in item response theory. Marginal maximum likelihood (MML as well as conditional maximum likelihood (CML procedures are considered in three commonly used incomplete designs: random incomplete, multistage testing and targeted testing designs. Mislevy and Sheenan (1989 have shown that in incomplete designs the justifiability of MML can be deduced from Rubin's (1976 general theory on inference in the presence of missing data. Their results are recapitulated and extended for more situations. In this study it is shown that for CML estimation the justification must be established in an alternative way, by considering the neglected part of the complete likelihood. The problems with incomplete designs are not generally recognized in practical situations. This is due to the stochastic nature of the incomplete designs which is not taken into account in standard computer algorithms. For that reason, incorrect uses of standard MML- and CML-algorithms are discussed.

  2. LA GLOBALIZACIÓN INCOMPLETA / INCOMPLETE GLOBALIZATION

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Alberto, Romero; Mary A, Vera-Colina.

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available El objetivo de este artículo es analizar el proceso de globalización, sus determinantes y los factores que limitan sus alcances. Metodológicamente, el trabajo se basa en una exhaustiva revisión documental crítica sobre el tema, complementada con el análisis de indicadores macroeconómicos de diferent [...] es países. Los resultados muestran la creciente desigualdad económica y social entre las regiones, en el marco de un proceso globalizador basado en un patrón de acumulación capitalista, que tiende a profundizar esos desequilibrios. La globalización se caracteriza como incompleta, por el despliegue limitado de su potencial para lograr una distribución más equitativa y sustentable no solo en lo económico, sino también en las esferas científica, tecnológica, ambiental, política y social. Abstract in english The aim of this document is to analyze the process of globa-lization, its determinants and the factors limiting its scope. Methodologically, the work is based on a comprehensive critical literature review on the subject, supplemented with the analysis of macroeconomic indicators in different countri [...] es. The results show the growing economic and social inequality between regions, as part of a process of globalization based on a pattern of capitalist accumulation, which tends to exacerbate these imbalances. Glo-balization is characterized as incomplete, because of the limited deployment potential to achieve a more equitable and sustainable development, not only economically, but also in scientific, tech-nological, environmental, political and social issues.

  3. Mechanics of bacteriophage maturation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roos, Wouter H; Gertsman, Ilya; May, Eric R; Brooks, Charles L; Johnson, John E; Wuite, Gijs J L

    2012-02-14

    Capsid maturation with large-scale subunit reorganization occurs in virtually all viruses that use a motor to package nucleic acid into preformed particles. A variety of ensemble studies indicate that the particles gain greater stability during this process, however, it is unknown which material properties of the fragile procapsids change. Using Atomic Force Microscopy-based nano-indentation, we study the development of the mechanical properties during maturation of bacteriophage HK97, a ?-like phage of which the maturation-induced morphological changes are well described. We show that mechanical stabilization and strengthening occurs in three independent ways: (i) an increase of the Young's modulus, (ii) a strong rise of the capsid's ultimate strength, and (iii) a growth of the resistance against material fatigue. The Young's modulus of immature and mature capsids, as determined from thin shell theory, fit with the values calculated using a new multiscale simulation approach. This multiscale calculation shows that the increase in Young's modulus isn't dependent on the crosslinking between capsomers. In contrast, the ultimate strength of the capsids does increase even when a limited number of cross-links are formed while full crosslinking appears to protect the shell against material fatigue. Compared to phage ?, the covalent crosslinking at the icosahedral and quasi threefold axes of HK97 yields a mechanically more robust particle than the addition of the gpD protein during maturation of phage ?. These results corroborate the expected increase in capsid stability and strength during maturation, however in an unexpected intricate way, underlining the complex structure of these self-assembling nanocontainers. PMID:22308333

  4. PREDNISOLONE INDUCED DIABETES MELLITUS, HYPERTENSION AND MATURE CATARACT: SERIOUS ADVERSE EVENT AS A CONSEQUENCE OF IMPROPER SELF MEDICATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dr Rajesh Ashok Kamtane

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available The main objective of this article is to enlighten the serious consequence of incorrect self medication. Prednisolone is a corticosteroid drug useful for the treatment of a wide range of inflammatory and auto-immune conditions. Here, we report a case of 34 years old male patient who presented with complaints of non healing ulcer and diminution of vision in both eyes. On work up, he was found to have denovo diabetes mellitus, hypertension and development of mature cataract in both eyes as a consequence of prolonged use of prednisolone. After admission, his blood sugar level and bloog pressure was brought under control, predisolone was withdrawn gradually with tapering dose and then surgery for cataract was performed. There were no other systemic or ophthalmic diseases revealed by the patient. Hence, awareness regarding these adverse drug reactions with steroids and proper patient education on complications and side effects of such medications can minimize complications and help in better patient management.

  5. Debt renegotiation with incomplete contract

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Paulo de Melo, Jorge Neto.

    2005-09-01

    Full Text Available Um contrato de débito geralmente não inclui uma cláusula sobre renegociação. O direito de liquidar os ativos do tomador e as regras do processo são habitualmente estipuladas no contrato. Tal promessa de não renegociar não é crível, já que a renegociação pode mitigar a perda bruta de se liquidar toma [...] dores insolventes. Uma vez que o contrato inicial pode não considerar os procedimentos de renegociação, e esta pode, de fato, vir a ocorrer, este artigo investiga a razão de um contrato completo não ser ofertado. Mostra-se que o emprestador não precisa estipular os procedimentos de renegociação no contrato inicial porque ele é indiferente entre se comprometer ou não aos termos do contrato. Isto indica que um contrato completo dá ao emprestador o mesmo retorno esperado de um contrato incompleto, no qual os procedimentos de renegociação são determinados após a declaração de default. Abstract in english A debt contract usually does not include a provision about renegotiation. The right to seize the borrower’s asset and the rules of this process are usually stipulated in the contract. Such a promise not to renegotiate is not credible since renegotiation can mitigate the dead-weight loss of liquidati [...] ng insolvent borrowers. Once the initial contract may not consider the renegotiation procedure and renegotiation may occur, this paper investigates why a complete contract is not offered. It shows that the lender does not need to stipulate the renegotiation procedure on the initial contract because he is indifferent about committing or not to the terms of a contract. This indicates that a complete contract gives the lender the same expected return as an incomplete contract, in which the renegotiation process is determined after the occurrence of default.

  6. Debt renegotiation with incomplete contract

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulo de Melo Jorge Neto

    2005-09-01

    Full Text Available A debt contract usually does not include a provision about renegotiation. The right to seize the borrower’s asset and the rules of this process are usually stipulated in the contract. Such a promise not to renegotiate is not credible since renegotiation can mitigate the dead-weight loss of liquidating insolvent borrowers. Once the initial contract may not consider the renegotiation procedure and renegotiation may occur, this paper investigates why a complete contract is not offered. It shows that the lender does not need to stipulate the renegotiation procedure on the initial contract because he is indifferent about committing or not to the terms of a contract. This indicates that a complete contract gives the lender the same expected return as an incomplete contract, in which the renegotiation process is determined after the occurrence of default.Um contrato de débito geralmente não inclui uma cláusula sobre renegociação. O direito de liquidar os ativos do tomador e as regras do processo são habitualmente estipuladas no contrato. Tal promessa de não renegociar não é crível, já que a renegociação pode mitigar a perda bruta de se liquidar tomadores insolventes. Uma vez que o contrato inicial pode não considerar os procedimentos de renegociação, e esta pode, de fato, vir a ocorrer, este artigo investiga a razão de um contrato completo não ser ofertado. Mostra-se que o emprestador não precisa estipular os procedimentos de renegociação no contrato inicial porque ele é indiferente entre se comprometer ou não aos termos do contrato. Isto indica que um contrato completo dá ao emprestador o mesmo retorno esperado de um contrato incompleto, no qual os procedimentos de renegociação são determinados após a declaração de default.

  7. Inhibition of PGE2 and LTB4 production by dendritic cells induced by Paracoccidioides brasiliensis is associated with the non maturation of these cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reginaldo Keller Fernandes

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available The fungus Paracoccidioides brasiliensis is the etiological agent of paracoccidioidomycosis, a systemic mycosis endemic in Latin America. Dendritic cells (DCs play a crucial role in the detection of pathogens, triggering an initial response from the host as well as the instruction of the adaptive immune response. Mediators released by DCs, by an autocrine way, modulate their functions. Among these, we highlight the prostaglandins and leukotrienes. We therefore assessed whether human DCs produce PGE2 and LTB4 in response to fungus, the participation of recognition receptors of molecular patterns (PRRs in this production, as well as the modulating role of these eicosanoids on phenotypic maturation of these cells. Human immature DCs (CD14-/ CD1ahigh/CD83low derived from the differentiation of monocytes cultured with GM-CSF and IL-4 (7 days released substantial concentrations of PGE2 and LTB4 which increased significantly in the case of PGE2, with incubation with LPS for 1h, 2h, 4h, 8h, 12h, 18h, 24h or 48h. However, the levels of PGE2 and LTB4 were significantly inhibited after challenge with two different strains of the fungus. Assays using monoclonal antibodies to block PRRS showed the involvement of mannose receptor in PGE2 inhibition by the fungus. Additionally, phenotyping assays showed that after challenge with the fungus, DCs did not change their phenotype of immature cells to mature ones. Accordingly, we detected a clear association between inhibition of the production of PGE2 and LTB4 fungus and inability to induce maturation of DCs. Assays using exogenous PGE2 and LTB4 confirmed this association.

  8. Incomplete linear tibial fractures in two horses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Incomplete linear tibial fractures were identified in two horses with the aid of scintigraphy. Both horses were treated successfully by strict stall confinement, and both returned to normal athletic activity. Scintigraphy can be used to facilitate the generally difficult diagnosis of incomplete tibial fractures

  9. 19 CFR 4.75 - Incomplete manifest; incomplete export declarations; bond.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 15 CFR 30.24), the port director may accept in lieu thereof an incomplete manifest (referred to as a... export declarations. Not later than the fourth business day after clearance from each port in the vessel... 19 Customs Duties 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Incomplete manifest; incomplete...

  10. Major differences in the frequencies of radiation-induced malformations and eye color mutants in mature oocytes of the wasp Dahlbominus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A comparison of the effects of ? radiation over the range of exposures from 15.5 to 125 R on the production of malformations and eye color mutations in mature oocytes of Dahlbominus revealed several major differences in the two sorts of response. At all exposures, total malformations of all sorts appeared in larger numbers than eye color mutants, and the doubling dose for malformations was at least six times higher. It was concluded that the majority of the induced malformations in Dahlbominus may arise by a process other than point mutation, e.g., through nondisjunction, and that the genetic hazard from low doses for this type of injury will not be severe. (U.S.)

  11. Mycobacterium tuberculosis PE25/PPE41 protein complex induces activation and maturation of dendritic cells and drives Th2-biased immune responses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Wei; Bao, Yige; Chen, Xuerong; Burton, Jeremy; Gong, Xueli; Gu, Dongqing; Mi, Youjun; Bao, Lang

    2016-04-01

    Mycobacterium tuberculosis evades innate host immune responses by parasitizing macrophages and causes significant morbidity and mortality around the world. A mycobacterial antigen that can activate dendritic cells (DCs) and elicit effective host innate immune responses will be vital to the development of an effective TB vaccine. The M. tuberculosis genes PE25/PPE41 encode proteins which have been associated with evasion of the host immune response. We constructed a PE25/PPE41 complex gene via splicing by overlapping extension and expressed it successfully in E. coli. We investigated whether this protein complex could interact with DCs to induce effective host immune responses. The PE25/PPE41 protein complex induced maturation of isolated mouse DCs in vitro, increasing expression of cell surface markers (CD80, CD86 and MHC-II), thereby promoting Th2 polarization via secretion of pro-inflammatory cytokines IL-4 and IL-10. In addition, PE25/PPE41 protein complex-activated DCs induced proliferation of mouse CD4(+) and CD8(+) T cells, and a strong humoral response in immunized mice. The sera of five TB patients were also highly reactive to this antigen. These findings suggest that interaction of the PE25/PPE41 protein complex with DCs may be of great immunological significance. PMID:26318856

  12. Neurogenic maturation of human dental pulp stem cells following neurosphere generation induces morphological and electrophysiological characteristics of functional neurons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gervois, Pascal; Struys, Tom; Hilkens, Petra; Bronckaers, Annelies; Ratajczak, Jessica; Politis, Constantinus; Brône, Bert; Lambrichts, Ivo; Martens, Wendy

    2015-02-01

    Cell-based therapies are emerging as an alternative treatment option to promote functional recovery in patients suffering from neurological disorders, which are the major cause of death and permanent disability. The present study aimed to differentiate human dental pulp stem cells (hDPSCs) toward functionally active neuronal cells in vitro. hDPSCs were subjected to a two-step protocol. First, neuronal induction was acquired through the formation of neurospheres, followed by neuronal maturation, based on cAMP and neurotrophin-3 (NT-3) signaling. At the ultrastructural level, it was shown that the intra-spheral microenvironment promoted intercellular communication. hDPSCs grew out of the neurospheres in vitro and established a neurogenic differentiated hDPSC culture (d-hDPSCs) upon cAMP and NT-3 signaling. d-hDPSCs were characterized by the increased expression of neuronal markers such as neuronal nuclei, microtubule-associated protein 2, neural cell adhesion molecule, growth-associated protein 43, synapsin I, and synaptophysin compared with nondifferentiated hDPSCs. Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay demonstrated that the secretion of brain-derived neurotrophic factor, vascular endothelial growth factor, and nerve growth factor differed between d-hDPSCs and hDPSCs. d-hDPSCs acquired neuronal features, including multiple intercommunicating cytoplasmic extensions and increased vesicular transport, as shown by the electron microscopic observation. Patch clamp analysis demonstrated the functional activity of d-hDPSCs by the presence of tetrodotoxin- and tetraethyl ammonium-sensitive voltage-gated sodium and potassium channels, respectively. A subset of d-hDPSCs was able to fire a single action potential. The results reported in this study demonstrate that hDPSCs are capable of neuronal commitment following neurosphere formation, characterized by distinct morphological and electrophysiological properties of functional neuronal cells. PMID:25203005

  13. A CADASIL-mutated Notch 3 receptor exhibits impaired intracellular trafficking and maturation but normal ligand-induced signaling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karlström, Helena; Beatus, Paul; Dannaeus, Karin; Chapman, Gavin; Lendahl, Urban; Lundkvist, Johan

    2002-01-01

    Notch receptors are single transmembrane receptors that contain a large number of epidermal growth factor-like repeats (EGF repeats) in their extracellular domains. Mutations in the EGF repeats of the human Notch 3 receptor lead to the vascular dementia disease Cerebral Autosomal Dominant Arteriopathy with Subcortical Infarcts and Leukoencephalopathy (CADASIL). The vast majority of CADASIL mutations are missense mutations removing or inserting cysteine residues in the EGF repeats, but it is not yet clear whether these mutations primarily affect receptor trafficking, maturation, and/or signaling. To address this issue, we have generated and analyzed stable cell lines expressing either wild-type murine Notch 3 (mNotch 3) or the mutant mNotch 3R142C, which corresponds to the prevalent CADASIL form of Notch 3, Notch 3R141C in humans. We find that a lower proportion of mNotch 3R142C is expressed in the site 1-cleaved configuration, and that reduced amounts of mNotch 3R142C appear at the cell surface, as compared with wild-type mNotch 3. This observation is accompanied by a higher propensity for mNotch 3R142C to form intracellular aggregates, which may be a result of increased accumulation or slowed transport in the secretory pathway. In contrast to the impaired cell surface expression, mNotch 3R142C signals equally well in response to Delta 1 and Jagged 1 as wild-type mNotch 3. Taken together, these data suggest that trafficking and localization rather than signaling of mNotch 3 are affected in mNotch 3R142C. PMID:12482954

  14. Detection of radiation-induced hydrocarbons in Camembert irradiated before and after the maturing process-comparison of florisil column chromatography and on-line coupled liquid chromatography-gas chromatography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The influence of the maturing process on the detection of radiation-induced volatile hydrocarbons in the fat of Camembert has been investigated. Two analytical methods for separation of the hydrocarbon fraction from the lipid were applied: Florisil column chromatography with subsequent gas chromatographic-mass spectrometric (GC-MS) determination as well as on-line coupled liquid chromatography-GC-MS. The maturing process had no influence on the detection of radiation-induced volatiles. Comparable results were achieved with both analytical methods. However, preference is given to the more effective on-line coupled LC-GC method

  15. Collagen Induces Maturation of Human Monocyte-Derived Dendritic Cells by Signaling through Osteoclast-Associated Receptor

    OpenAIRE

    Schultz, Heidi S.; Nitze, Louise M.; Zeuthen, Louise H.; Keller, Pernille; Gruhler, Albrecht; Pass, Jesper; Chen, Jianhe; Guo, Li; Fleetwood, Andrew J.; Hamilton, John A; Berchtold, Martin W.; Panina, Svetlana

    2015-01-01

    Osteoclast-associated receptor (OSCAR) is widely expressed on human myeloid cells. Collagen types (Col)I, II, and III have been described as OSCAR ligands, and ColII peptides can induce costimulatory signaling in receptor activator for NF-?B–dependent osteoclastogenesis. In this study, we isolated collagen as an OSCAR-interacting protein from the membranes of murine osteoblasts. We have investigated a functional outcome of the OSCAR–collagen interaction in human monocyte-derived dendritic cel...

  16. Malformations and maturation disturbances after prenatal irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Risk estimates for prenatally exposed humans in view to malformations and maturation disturbances are incomplete despite numerous single cases being described. In this situation support from animal data has necessarily to be taken into consideration. Outlines of recent knowledge in the field of experimental radioembryology will be given. Possibilities and limits of the transfer of animal data to man will be discussed and correlated with new medical evaluations. The discussions are focussed on developmental defects of the central nervous system. (orig.)

  17. Methodological consequences of Gödel's incompleteness theorem

    OpenAIRE

    Podnieks, Karlis

    1992-01-01

    Published as: K. Podnieks. Methodological consequences of Gödel's incompleteness theorem. European Summer Meeting of the Association for Symbolic Logic, Berlin, 1989. The Journal of Symbolic Logic, Vol. 57, No. 1, March, 1992, pp.326-327

  18. Gödel’s Incompleteness Theorems and Physics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Newton C. A. da Costa

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper is a summary of a lecture in which I presented some remarks on Gödel’s incompleteness theorems and their meaning for the foundations of physics. The entire lecture will appear elsewhere.

  19. Angular momentum transfer in incomplete fusion

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    B S Tomar; K Surendra Babu; K Sudarshan; R Tripathi; A Goswami

    2005-02-01

    Isomeric cross-section ratios of evaporation residues formed in 12C+93Nb and 16O + 89Y reactions were measured by recoil catcher technique followed by off-line -ray spectrometry in the beam energy range of 55.7-77.5 MeV for 12C and 68-81 MeV for 16O. The isomeric cross-section ratios were resolved into that for complete and incomplete fusion reactions. The angular momentum of the intermediate nucleus formed in incomplete fusion was deduced from the isomeric cross-section ratio by considering the statistical de-excitation of the incompletely fused composite nucleus. The data show that incomplete fusion is associated with angular momenta slightly smaller than critical angular momentum for complete fusion, indicating the deeper interpenetration of projectile and target nuclei than that in peripheral collisions.

  20. Sulpiride-Induced Hyperprolactinemia in Mature Female Rats: Evidence for Alterations in The Reproductive System, Pituitary and Ovarian Hormones

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sara Mostafapour

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: The prevalence of hyperprolactinemia following administration of conventional antipsychotic drugs requires further investigation. The current study is designed to evaluate the effect of sulpiride (SPD-induced hyperprolactinemia on alterations to ovarian follicular growth, gonadotropins, and ovarian hormones and to analyze the extent of potential problems in mammary glands. Materials and Methods: A total of 40 albino Wistar rats were divided into four groups: control (no treatment, control-sham (0.3 ml olive oil, low dose SPD (20 mg/kg and high dose SPD (40 mg/kg. All compounds were intraperitoneally (IP administered for a period of 28 days. Results: After 28 days, we dissected the rats’ ovarian tissues, uterine horns and mammary glands which were sent for histological analyses. We counted the numbers of normal, atretic follicles and corpora lutea (CL. Serum levels of prolactin (PRL, estradiol, progesterone, follicle stimulating hormone (FSH and luteinizing hormone (LH were evaluated. SPD-administered animals showed sporadic follicular atresia in different sizes associated with higher numbers of CL on the ovaries. The mammary glands exhibited features of galactorrhea. There was remarkable (p<0.05 elevation in SPD-administered animals’ uterine horn endometrium, myometrium and perimetrium thicknesses. The serum levels of PRL and progesterone significantly (p<0.05 increased, while the serum concentration of estradiol, LH and FSH notably (p<0.05 decreased according to the SPD administered dose. No histological and biological changes occurred in control-sham animals. SPD-induced animals had unsuccessful attempts at mating and decreased pregnancy rates. Conclusion: The present findings suggest that SPD-induced disturbances depend on PRL level. In addition, an increased PRL level is largely dependent on the administered doses of SPD.

  1. Sulpiride-Induced Hyperprolactinemia in Mature Female Rats: Evidence for Alterations in The Reproductive System, Pituitary and Ovarian Hormones

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mostafapour, Sara; Zare, Samad; Sadrkhanlou, Rajab Ali; Ahmadi, Abbas; Razi, Mazdak

    2014-01-01

    Background The prevalence of hyperprolactinemia following administration of conven- tional antipsychotic drugs requires further investigation. The current study is designed to evaluate the effect of sulpiride (SPD)-induced hyperprolactinemia on alterations to ovarian follicular growth, gonadotropins, and ovarian hormones and to analyze the extent of potential problems in mammary glands. Materials and Methods A total of 40 albino Wistar rats were divided into four groups: control (no treatment), control-sham (0.3 ml olive oil), low dose SPD (20 mg/kg) and high dose SPD (40 mg/kg). All compounds were intraperitoneally (IP) administered for a period of 28 days. Results After 28 days, we dissected the rats’ ovarian tissues, uterine horns and mammary glands which were sent for histological analyses. We counted the numbers of normal, atretic follicles and corpora lutea (CL). Serum levels of prolactin (PRL), estradiol, progesterone, follicle stimulating hormone (FSH) and luteinizing hormone (LH) were evaluated. SPD-administered animals showed sporadic follicular atresia in different sizes associated with higher numbers of CL on the ovaries. The mammary glands exhibited features of galactorrhea. There was remarkable (p<0.05) elevation in SPD-administered animals’ uterine horn endometrium, myometrium and perimetrium thicknesses. The serum levels of PRL and progesterone significantly (p<0.05) increased, while the serum concentration of estradiol, LH and FSH notably (p<0.05) decreased according to the SPD administered dose. No histological and biological changes occurred in control-sham animals. SPD-induced animals had unsuccessful attempts at mating and decreased pregnancy rates. Conclusion The present findings suggest that SPD-induced disturbances depend on PRL level. In addition, an increased PRL level is largely dependent on the administered doses of SPD. PMID:25083185

  2. Maturity and maturity models in lean construction

    OpenAIRE

    Claus Nesensohn; David James Bryde; Edward Ochieng; Damian Fearon

    2014-01-01

    In recent years there has been an increasing interest in maturity models in management-related disciplines; which reflects a growing recognition that becoming more mature and having a model to guide the route to maturity can help organisations in managing major transformational change. Lean Construction (LC) is an increasingly important improvement approach that organisations seek to embed. This study explores how to apply the maturity models to LC. Hence the attitudes, opinions and experienc...

  3. Foreign market entry under incomplete contracts

    OpenAIRE

    Seidel, Tobias

    2010-01-01

    I show in this paper that incomplete contracts affect a firm’s decision about serving foreign customers through exports or local sales from an affiliated plant. When contracts between two agents within a firm are too costly to write, the share of multinational firms may be higher or lower compared to a world without contractual frictions. Incomplete contracts also provide a novel explanation for why horizontal multinational activity may increase when trade costs fall - a result that is at odd...

  4. Abstraction Refinement for Games with Incomplete Information

    OpenAIRE

    Dimitrova, Rayna; Finkbeiner, Bernd

    2008-01-01

    Counterexample-guided abstraction refinement (CEGAR) is used in automated software analysis to find suitable finite-state abstractions of infinite-state systems. In this paper, we extend CEGAR to games with incomplete information, as they commonly occur in controller synthesis and modular verification. The challenge is that, under incomplete information, one must carefully account for the knowledge available to the player: the strategy must not depend on information the ...

  5. Epistemological Consequences of the Incompleteness Theorems

    OpenAIRE

    Raguní, Giuseppe

    2016-01-01

    After highlighting the cases in which the semantics of a language cannot be mechanically reproduced (in which case it is called inherent), the main epistemological consequences of the first incompleteness Theorem for the two fundamental arithmetical theories are shown: the non-mechanizability for the truths of the first-order arithmetic and the peculiarities for the model of the second-order arithmetic. Finally, the common epistemological interpretation of the second incompleteness Theorem is...

  6. Quantum Bertrand duopoly of incomplete information

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We study Bertrand's duopoly of incomplete information. It is found that the effect of quantum entanglement on the outcome of the game is dramatically changed by the uncertainty of information. In contrast with the case of complete information where the outcome increases with entanglement, when information is incomplete the outcome is maximized at some finite entanglement. As a consequence, information and entanglement are both crucial factors that determine the properties of a quantum oligopoly

  7. Seizure induces activation of multiple subtypes of neural progenitors and growth factors in hippocampus with neuronal maturation confined to dentate gyrus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adult hippocampal neurogenesis is altered in response to different physiological and pathological stimuli. GFAP+ve/nestin+ve radial glial like Type-1 progenitors are considered to be the resident stem cell population in adult hippocampus. During neurogenesis these Type-1 progenitors matures to GFAP-ve/nestin+ve Type-2 progenitors and then to Type-3 neuroblasts and finally differentiates into granule cell neurons. In our study, using pilocarpine-induced seizure model, we showed that seizure initiated activation of multiple progenitors in the entire hippocampal area such as DG, CA1 and CA3. Seizure induction resulted in activation of two subtypes of Type-1 progenitors, Type-1a (GFAP+ve/nestin+ve/BrdU+ve) and Type-1b (GFAP+ve/nestin+ve/BrdU-ve). We showed that majority of Type-1b progenitors were undergoing only a transition from a state of dormancy to activated form immediately after seizures rather than proliferating, whereas Type-1a showed maximum proliferation by 3 days post-seizure induction. Type-2 (GFAP-ve/nestin+ve/BrdU+ve) progenitors were few compared to Type-1. Type-3 (DCX+ve) progenitors showed increased expression of immature neurons only in DG region by 3 days after seizure induction indicating maturation of progenitors happens only in microenvironment of DG even though progenitors are activated in CA1 and CA3 regions of hippocampus. Also parallel increase in growth factors expression after seizure induction suggests that microenvironmental niche has a profound effect on stimulation of adult neural progenitors.

  8. Seizure induces activation of multiple subtypes of neural progenitors and growth factors in hippocampus with neuronal maturation confined to dentate gyrus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Indulekha, Chandrasekharan L.; Sanalkumar, Rajendran [Neuro Stem Cell Biology Laboratory, Department of Neurobiology, Rajiv Gandhi Center for Biotechnology, Thiruvananthapuram, Kerala 695 014 (India); Thekkuveettil, Anoopkumar [Molecular Medicine, Biomedical Technology Wing, Sree Chitra Thirunal Institute for Medical Sciences and Technology, Thiruvananthapuram, Kerala (India); James, Jackson, E-mail: jjames@rgcb.res.in [Neuro Stem Cell Biology Laboratory, Department of Neurobiology, Rajiv Gandhi Center for Biotechnology, Thiruvananthapuram, Kerala 695 014 (India)

    2010-03-19

    Adult hippocampal neurogenesis is altered in response to different physiological and pathological stimuli. GFAP{sup +ve}/nestin{sup +ve} radial glial like Type-1 progenitors are considered to be the resident stem cell population in adult hippocampus. During neurogenesis these Type-1 progenitors matures to GFAP{sup -ve}/nestin{sup +ve} Type-2 progenitors and then to Type-3 neuroblasts and finally differentiates into granule cell neurons. In our study, using pilocarpine-induced seizure model, we showed that seizure initiated activation of multiple progenitors in the entire hippocampal area such as DG, CA1 and CA3. Seizure induction resulted in activation of two subtypes of Type-1 progenitors, Type-1a (GFAP{sup +ve}/nestin{sup +ve}/BrdU{sup +ve}) and Type-1b (GFAP{sup +ve}/nestin{sup +ve}/BrdU{sup -ve}). We showed that majority of Type-1b progenitors were undergoing only a transition from a state of dormancy to activated form immediately after seizures rather than proliferating, whereas Type-1a showed maximum proliferation by 3 days post-seizure induction. Type-2 (GFAP{sup -ve}/nestin{sup +ve}/BrdU{sup +ve}) progenitors were few compared to Type-1. Type-3 (DCX{sup +ve}) progenitors showed increased expression of immature neurons only in DG region by 3 days after seizure induction indicating maturation of progenitors happens only in microenvironment of DG even though progenitors are activated in CA1 and CA3 regions of hippocampus. Also parallel increase in growth factors expression after seizure induction suggests that microenvironmental niche has a profound effect on stimulation of adult neural progenitors.

  9. Incomplete fusion in 12C+160Gd collisions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The mechanism of the production of fast ?-particles in 12C induced reactions was studied over a wide range of bombarding energies (7.5-16.7 MeV/A) by measuring ?-? coincidences. Absolute cross sections for 160Gd(12C,?xn)sup(168-x)Er and 160Gd(12C,2?xn)sup(164-x)Dy reactions, as well as inclusive ?-particle production cross sections, have been determined. Depending on the bombarding energy, a fraction of 0.2-0.4 of the singles ?-particles can be explained as resulting from incomplete fusion reactions (12C,?) and (12C,2?) which correspond to a capture of '8Be' and '4He', respectively. The energy dependence of the cross sections for (12C,?) and (12C,2?) incomplete fusion as well as for (12C,3?) projectile breakup is given. (Auth.)

  10. Topological effects of data incompleteness of gene regulatory networks

    CERN Document Server

    Sanz, J; Borge-Holthoefer, J; Moreno, Y

    2012-01-01

    The topological analysis of biological networks has been a prolific topic in network science during the last decade. A persistent problem with this approach is the inherent uncertainty and noisy nature of the data. One of the cases in which this situation is more marked is that of transcriptional regulatory networks (TRNs) in bacteria. The datasets are incomplete because regulatory pathways associated to a relevant fraction of bacterial genes remain unknown. Furthermore, direction, strengths and signs of the links are sometimes unknown or simply overlooked. Finally, the experimental approaches to infer the regulations are highly heterogeneous, in a way that induces the appearance of systematic experimental-topological correlations. And yet, the quality of the available data increases constantly. In this work we capitalize on these advances to point out the influence of data (in)completeness and quality on some classical results on topological analysis of TRNs, specially regarding modularity at different level...

  11. Incomplete fusion in 16O+159Tb

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Vijay R.; Singh, Pushpendra P.; Shuaib, Mohd.; Yadav, Abhishek; Bala, Indu; Sharma, Manoj K.; Gupta, S.; Singh, D. P.; Kumar, R.; Muralithar, S.; Singh, R. P.; Singh, B. P.; Prasad, R.; Bhowmik, R. K.

    2016-02-01

    In heavy-ion induced reactions, incomplete fusion (ICF) has been found to be a process of greater importance and of distinct nature even at slightly above the barrier energies where complete fusion (CF) is supposed to be dominant. However, the studies are limited to a few projectile target combinations only. To confirm the distinctly different decay patterns observed in case of CF and ICF residues, and to understand the role of high ?-values in the onset of ICF, a particle-?-coincidence technique has been employed to measure spin-distributions and feeding intensity profiles of CF and ICF residues populated via xn / pxn / ?xn-channels in 16O+159Tb interactions at Elab ? 83.5 ± 1.5, 88.5 ± 1.5, 93.5 ± 1.5 and 97.6 ± 1.4 MeV. The Gamma Detector Array and the Charged Particles Detector Array have been used to detect prompt ?-rays in coincidence with charged particles (p and ?). CF-? and ICF-? channels have been identified from backward (B)- and forward (F)-?-gated-?-spectra, respectively. Reaction dependent decay patterns (thus, the feeding intensity profiles) have been observed in different ? emitting channels. The CF channels are found to be widely populated and strongly fed over a broad spin range. In case of ICF-? channels, narrow range feeding was observed only for high-spin states or the low spin states were not populated. The mean ?-values involved in the production of ICF- ?xn-channels are found to be higher than those involved in the production of CF- ?xn-channels associated with fusion-evaporation reactions.

  12. A glyphosate-based herbicide induces necrosis and apoptosis in mature rat testicular cells in vitro, and testosterone decrease at lower levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clair, Emilie; Mesnage, Robin; Travert, Carine; Séralini, Gilles-Éric

    2012-03-01

    The major herbicide used worldwide, Roundup, is a glyphosate-based pesticide with adjuvants. Glyphosate, its active ingredient in plants and its main metabolite (AMPA) are among the first contaminants of surface waters. Roundup is being used increasingly in particular on genetically modified plants grown for food and feed that contain its residues. Here we tested glyphosate and its formulation on mature rat fresh testicular cells from 1 to 10000ppm, thus from the range in some human urine and in environment to agricultural levels. We show that from 1 to 48h of Roundup exposure Leydig cells are damaged. Within 24-48h this formulation is also toxic on the other cells, mainly by necrosis, by contrast to glyphosate alone which is essentially toxic on Sertoli cells. Later, it also induces apoptosis at higher doses in germ cells and in Sertoli/germ cells co-cultures. At lower non toxic concentrations of Roundup and glyphosate (1ppm), the main endocrine disruption is a testosterone decrease by 35%. The pesticide has thus an endocrine impact at very low environmental doses, but only a high contamination appears to provoke an acute rat testicular toxicity. This does not anticipate the chronic toxicity which is insufficiently tested, and only with glyphosate in regulatory tests. PMID:22200534

  13. Transgenic mice overexpressing glia maturation factor-?, an oxidative stress inducible gene, show premature aging due to Zmpste24 down-regulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Imai, Rika; Asai, Kanae; Hanai, Jun-ichi; Takenaka, Masaru

    2015-07-01

    Glia Maturation Factor-? (GMF), a brain specific protein, is induced by proteinuria in renal tubules. Ectopic GMF overexpression causes apoptosisin vitro via cellular vulnerability to oxidative stress. In order to examine the roles of GMF in non-brain tissue, we constructed transgenic mice overexpressing GMF (GMF-TG). The GMF-TG mice exhibited appearance phenotypes associated with premature aging. The GMF-TG mice also demonstrated short lifespans and reduced hair regrowth, suggesting an accelerated aging process. The production of an abnormal lamin A, a nuclear envelope protein, plays a causal role in both normal aging and accelerated aging diseases, known as laminopathies. Importantly, we identified the abnormal lamin A (prelamin A), accompanied by a down-regulation of a lamin A processing enzyme (Zmpste24) in the kidney of the GMF-TG mice. The GMF-TG mice showed accelerated aging in the kidney, compared with wild-type mice, showing increased TGF-?1, CTGF gene and serum creatinine. The gene expression of p21/waf1 was increased at an earlier stage of life, at 10 weeks, which was in turn down-regulated at a later stage, at 60 weeks. In conclusion, we propose that GMF-TG mice might be a novel mouse model of accelerated aging, due to the abnormal lamin A. PMID:26232943

  14. Elevated ?-synuclein caused by SNCA gene triplication impairs neuronal differentiation and maturation in Parkinson's patient-derived induced pluripotent stem cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliveira, L M A; Falomir-Lockhart, L J; Botelho, M G; Lin, K-H; Wales, P; Koch, J C; Gerhardt, E; Taschenberger, H; Outeiro, T F; Lingor, P; Schüle, B; Arndt-Jovin, D J; Jovin, T M

    2015-01-01

    We have assessed the impact of ?-synuclein overexpression on the differentiation potential and phenotypic signatures of two neural-committed induced pluripotent stem cell lines derived from a Parkinson's disease patient with a triplication of the human SNCA genomic locus. In parallel, comparative studies were performed on two control lines derived from healthy individuals and lines generated from the patient iPS-derived neuroprogenitor lines infected with a lentivirus incorporating a small hairpin RNA to knock down the SNCA mRNA. The SNCA triplication lines exhibited a reduced capacity to differentiate into dopaminergic or GABAergic neurons and decreased neurite outgrowth and lower neuronal activity compared with control cultures. This delayed maturation phenotype was confirmed by gene expression profiling, which revealed a significant reduction in mRNA for genes implicated in neuronal differentiation such as delta-like homolog 1 (DLK1), gamma-aminobutyric acid type B receptor subunit 2 (GABABR2), nuclear receptor related 1 protein (NURR1), G-protein-regulated inward-rectifier potassium channel 2 (GIRK-2) and tyrosine hydroxylase (TH). The differentiated patient cells also demonstrated increased autophagic flux when stressed with chloroquine. We conclude that a two-fold overexpression of ?-synuclein caused by a triplication of the SNCA gene is sufficient to impair the differentiation of neuronal progenitor cells, a finding with implications for adult neurogenesis and Parkinson's disease progression, particularly in the context of bioenergetic dysfunction. PMID:26610207

  15. Impacts of a GHG-induced climate change on crop yields: effects of acceleration in maturation, moisture stress and optimal temperature

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The present study involves using the Canadian Climate Centre (CCC) climate change scenario to evaluate the impacts of a CO2-induced climate change on agriculture in Quebec and vicinity. Climate change using the CCC General Circulating Model (GCM) data are fed into a crop model (FAO) so as to gauge the changes in agroclimatic factors such as growing season length and growing degree days, and subsequently potential yield changes for a variety of cereal (C3 and C4), leguminous, oleaginous, vegetable and special crops, for twelve major agricultural regions in southern Quebec. Our results show that depending upon the agricultural zone and crop type, yields may increase (ex. corn and sorghum by 20%) or decrease (ex. wheat and soybean by 20 to 30%). Also, these crop yield changes appear to be related to acceleration in maturation rates, mainly to change in moisture stress and to shifts in optimal thermal growth conditions. These possible shifts in agricultural production potentials would solicit the formulation of appropriate adaptation strategies. 77 refs., 6 figs., 5 tabs

  16. Influence of mass-asymmetry on incomplete fusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    During the last few decades, fusion process in heavy ion induced reaction at energies near and above the Coulomb barrier has been extensively studied. At energies not too much above the barrier, the fusion process plays an important role in reaction dynamics. The widely used model PACE-2, describes the fusion cross-section. While at higher energies, fusion process gives the way to incomplete fusion (ICF), where projectile fragmentation takes place and decreasing the reaction cross-section corresponding to the fusion. The ICF cross-section as a function of entrance channel mass asymmetry has been explained in terms of the model based on the interaction barrier, critical angular momentum and critical distance of approach. In case of ICF, an incompletely fused composite system is formed, where partial linear momentum of the projectile is given to the target nucleus and relatively less nucleonic degrees-of-freedom are involved as compared to CF. This incompletely fused composite system having less charge and mass in-comparison to completely fuse composite nucleus

  17. Modelling incomplete fusion dynamics of weakly bound nuclei at near-barrier energies

    OpenAIRE

    Diaz-Torres, Alexis(ECT, Villa Tambosi, Villazzano, Trento, I-38123, Italy)

    2010-01-01

    Abstract The classical dynamical model for reactions induced by weakly-bound nuclei at near-barrier energies is developed further. It allows a quantitative study of the role and importance of incomplete fusion dynamics in asymptotic observables, such as the population of high-spin states in reaction products as well as the angular distribution of direct alpha-production. Model calculations indicate that incomplete fusion is an effective mechanism for populating high-spin states, and its co...

  18. Pericoronal radiolucency associated with incomplete crown

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The author experienced 8 cases of pericoronal radiolucency involving an incomplete tooth crown that had not developed to form the cemento-enamel junction, and the underdeveloped crown sometimes appeared to be floating within the radiolucency radiographically. The first impression was that these cystic lesions had odontogenic keratocysts, but half of them turned out to be dentigerous cysts histopathologically. There has been no report concerning odontogenic cysts involving an incompletely developed crown. The purpose of this paper is to report that dentigerous cysts may develop before the completion of the cemento-enamel junction of a developing crown.

  19. Option Pricing Model for Incomplete Market

    CERN Document Server

    Fedotov, S; Fedotov, Sergei; Mikhailov, Sergei

    1998-01-01

    The problem of determining the European-style option price in the incomplete market has been examined within the framework of stochastic optimization. An analytic method based on the discrete dynamic programming equation (Bellman equation) has been developed that gives the general formalism for determining the option price and the optimal trading strategy (optimal control policy) that reduces total risk inherent in writing the option. The basic purpose of paper is to present an effective algorithm that can be used in practice. Keywords: option pricing, incomplete market, transaction costs, stochastic optimization, Bellman equation.

  20. Contractual Incompleteness, Unemployment, and Labour Market Segmentation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Altmann, Steffen; Falk, Armin

    2014-01-01

    This article provides evidence that involuntary unemployment, and the segmentation of labour markets into firms offering "good" and "bad" jobs, may both arise as a consequence of contractual incompleteness.We provide a simple model that illustrates how unemployment and market segmentation may jointly emerge as part of a market equilibrium in environments where work effort is not third-party verifiable. Using experimental labour markets that differ only in the verifiability of effort, we demonstrate empirically that contractual incompleteness can cause unemployment and segmentation. Our data are also consistent with the key channels through which the model explains the emergence of both phenomena. © The Author 2013.

  1. Pericoronal radiolucency associated with incomplete crown

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nah, Kyung Soo [Dept. of Oral and Maxillofacial Radiology, School of Dentistry, Pusan National University, Yangsan (Korea, Republic of)

    2013-12-15

    The author experienced 8 cases of pericoronal radiolucency involving an incomplete tooth crown that had not developed to form the cemento-enamel junction, and the underdeveloped crown sometimes appeared to be floating within the radiolucency radiographically. The first impression was that these cystic lesions had odontogenic keratocysts, but half of them turned out to be dentigerous cysts histopathologically. There has been no report concerning odontogenic cysts involving an incompletely developed crown. The purpose of this paper is to report that dentigerous cysts may develop before the completion of the cemento-enamel junction of a developing crown.

  2. CIMGS: An incomplete orthogonal factorization preconditioner

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, X.; Bramley, R. [Indiana Univ., Bloomington, IN (United States); Gallivan, K. [Univ. of Illinois, Urbana, IL (United States)

    1994-12-31

    This paper introduces, analyzes, and tests a preconditioning method for conjugate gradient (CG) type iterative methods. The authors start by examining incomplete Gram-Schmidt factorization (IGS) methods in order to motivate the new preconditioner. They show that the IGS family is more stable than IC, and they successfully factor any full rank matrix. Furthermore, IGS preconditioners are at least as effective in accelerating convergence of CG type iterative methods as the incomplete Cholesky (IC) preconditioner. The drawback of IGS methods are their high cost of factorization. This motivates finding a new algorithm, CIMGS, which can generate the same factor in a more efficient way.

  3. Numerical study on incomplete orthogonal factorization preconditioners

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bai, Zhong-Zhi; Duff, Iain S.; Yin, Jun-Feng

    2009-04-01

    We design, analyse and test a class of incomplete orthogonal factorization preconditioners constructed from Givens rotations, incorporating some dropping strategies and updating tricks, for the solution of large sparse systems of linear equations. Comprehensive accounts about how the preconditioners are coded, what storage is required and how the computation is executed for a given accuracy are presented. A number of numerical experiments show that these preconditioners are competitive with standard incomplete triangular factorization preconditioners when they are applied to accelerate Krylov subspace iteration methods such as GMRES and BiCGSTAB.

  4. Contractual Incompleteness, Unemployment, and Labour Market Segmentation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Altmann, Steffen; Falk, Armin; Grunewald, Andreas; Huffman, David

    2014-01-01

    This article provides evidence that involuntary unemployment, and the segmentation of labour markets into firms offering "good" and "bad" jobs, may both arise as a consequence of contractual incompleteness.We provide a simple model that illustrates how unemployment and market segmentation may...... jointly emerge as part of a market equilibrium in environments where work effort is not third-party verifiable. Using experimental labour markets that differ only in the verifiability of effort, we demonstrate empirically that contractual incompleteness can cause unemployment and segmentation. Our data...

  5. Quantum Stackelberg duopoly with incomplete information

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We investigate the quantum version of the Stackelberg duopoly with incomplete information, especially how the quantum entanglement affects the first-mover advantage in the classical form. It is found that while positive entanglement enhances the first-mover advantage beyond the classical limit, the advantage is dramatically suppressed by negative entanglement. Moreover, despite that positive quantum entanglement improves the first-mover's tolerance for the informational incompleteness, the quantum effect does not change the basic fact that Firm A's lack of complete information of Firm B's unit cost is eradicating the first-mover advantage

  6. Induction and inhibition of oocyte maturation by EDCs in zebrafish

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tokumoto Mika

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Oocyte maturation in lower vertebrates is triggered by maturation-inducing hormone (MIH, which acts on unidentified receptors on the oocyte surface and induces the activation of maturation-promoting factor (MPF in the oocyte cytoplasm. We previously described the induction of oocyte maturation in fish by an endocrine-disrupting chemical (EDC, diethylstilbestrol (DES, a nonsteroidal estrogen. Methods In this study, stimulatory and inhibitory effects of EDCs and natural steroids on oocyte maturation were examined in zebrafish. For effective agents, some details about the mechanism in induction or inhibition of maturation were examined. Possible groups of DES interacting with the MIH receptor are discussed based on relative potency of steroids to induce maturation. Results Among agents tested, tamoxifen (TAM and its metabolite 4-hydroxytamoxifen (4-OHT showed stimulatory activity similar to DES. The time courses of the change in germinal vesicle breakdown and an intracellular molecular event (the synthesis of cyclin B induced by TAM were indistinguishable from those induced by MIH. In contrast, pentachlorophenol (PCP had a potent inhibitory effect on MIH-induced oocyte maturation. PCP inhibited not only MIH-induced maturation but also DES- and TAM-induced maturation. Methoxychlor also inhibited maturation when oocytes were pre-treated with this agent. Conclusion These results suggest that EDCs act as agonists or antagonists in the induction of oocyte maturation in fish.

  7. Addition of interferon-alpha to a standard maturation cocktail induces CD38 up-regulation and increases dendritic cell function

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Trepiakas, Redas; Pedersen, Anders Elm; Met, Ozcan; Svane, Inge Marie

    2009-01-01

    Monocyte-derived dendritic cells (DCs) are used as adjuvant cells in cancer immunotherapy and have shown promising results. In order to obtain full functional capacity, these DCs need to be maturated, and the current "gold standard" for this process is maturation with TNF-alpha, IL-1beta, IL-6 and...

  8. Randomly incomplete spectra and intermediate statistics

    CERN Document Server

    Bohigas, O

    2006-01-01

    By randomly removing a fraction of levels from a given spectrum a model is constructed that describes a crossover from this spectrum to a Poisson spectrum. The formalism is applied to the transitions towards Poisson from random matrix theory (RMT) spectra and picket fence spectra. It is shown that the Fredholm determinant formalism of RMT extends naturally to describe incomplete RMT spectra.

  9. Local RNA structure alignment with incomplete sequence

    OpenAIRE

    Kolbe, Diana L.; Eddy, Sean R

    2009-01-01

    Motivation: Accuracy of automated structural RNA alignment is improved by using models that consider not only primary sequence but also secondary structure information. However, current RNA structural alignment approaches tend to perform poorly on incomplete sequence fragments, such as single reads from metagenomic environmental surveys, because nucleotides that are expected to be base paired are missing.

  10. PIC (PRODUCTS OF INCOMPLETE COMBUSTION) ANALYSIS METHODS

    Science.gov (United States)

    The report gives results of method evaluations for products of incomplete combustion (PICs): 36 proposed PICs were evaluated by previously developed gas chromatography/flame ionization detection (GC/FID) and gas chromatography/mass spectroscopy (GC/MS) methods. It also gives resu...

  11. 40 CFR 152.105 - Incomplete applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 23 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Incomplete applications. 152.105 Section 152.105 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) PESTICIDE PROGRAMS PESTICIDE REGISTRATION AND CLASSIFICATION PROCEDURES Agency Review of Applications § 152.105...

  12. Effect of dietary co-administration of sodium selenite on sodium arsenite-induced ovarian and uterine disorders in mature albino rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chattopadhyay, Sandip; Pal Ghosh, Sampa; Ghosh, Debidas; Debnath, Jogen

    2003-10-01

    The subchronic treatment of mature female Wistar-strain albino rats in diestrous phase with sodium arsenite at a dose of 0.4 ppm/100 g body weight/rat/day via drinking water for period of 28 days (seven estrous cycles) caused a significant reduction in the plasma levels of leutinizing hormone (LH), follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH), and estradiol along with a significant decrease in ovarian activities of delta five, 3 beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase (Delta5,3beta-HSD), and 17 beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase (17beta-HSD) followed by a reduction in ovarian and uterine peroxidase activities. A significant weight loss of the ovary and uterus was also observed after this treatment, along with a prolonged diestrous phase and a high accumulation of arsenic in the plasma and these organs. Moreover, sodium arsenite was also responsible for ovarian follicular and uterine cell degeneration characterized by a high number of regressing follicles and a reduction in the uterine luminal diameter, respectively, in comparison with the controls. A dietary supplementation of sodium selenite at the dose of 0.6 mg/100 g body weight/rat/day for a period of 28 days along with arsenic treatment minimized the gonadal weight loss significantly and increased the activities of the ovarian steroidogenic enzymes as well as the ovarian and uterine peroxidase at the control level. Selenium was also able to increase the plasma levels of LH, FSH, and estradiol toward the control level. Vaginal smears showed normal estrous cyclicity in sodium selenite-supplemented arsenic-treated rats along with lower arsenic levels in the plasma and gonadal tissue in comparison with arsenic-only-treated rats. Histological sections of ovary and uterine tissues in the control and experimental groups confirmed that sodium selenite supplementation was able to prevent arsenic-induced histopathological changes in the ovary and uterus. Plasma levels of norepinephrine and dopamine in the midbrain and diencephalon decreased significantly, whereas the serotonin level was increased significantly after 28 days of sodium arsenite treatment. All of these parameters were, in most cases, unchanged from the control level when sodium selenite was co-administered with sodium arsenite. Arsenic intoxication was also associated with increased liver weight and elevation in the activities of hepatic and renal acid phosphatase, alkaline phosphatase, and transaminases, but selenium co-administration was not able to change these toxic effects of arsenic. The results of our experiments indicate the significant protective action of sodium selenite on arsenic-induced toxicity in the female reproductive system, while there was no significant protective effect of selenium on arsenic-induced toxicity in other organs. PMID:12883085

  13. Incomplete proteasomal degradation of green fluorescent proteins in the context of tandem fluorescent protein timers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khmelinskii, Anton; Meurer, Matthias; Ho, Chi-Ting; Besenbeck, Birgit; Füller, Julia; Lemberg, Marius K; Bukau, Bernd; Mogk, Axel; Knop, Michael

    2016-01-15

    Tandem fluorescent protein timers (tFTs) report on protein age through time-dependent change in color, which can be exploited to study protein turnover and trafficking. Each tFT, composed of two fluorescent proteins (FPs) that differ in maturation kinetics, is suited to follow protein dynamics within a specific time range determined by the maturation rates of both FPs. So far, tFTs have been constructed by combining slower-maturing red fluorescent proteins (redFPs) with the faster-maturing superfolder green fluorescent protein (sfGFP). Toward a comprehensive characterization of tFTs, we compare here tFTs composed of different faster-maturing green fluorescent proteins (greenFPs) while keeping the slower-maturing redFP constant (mCherry). Our results indicate that the greenFP maturation kinetics influences the time range of a tFT. Moreover, we observe that commonly used greenFPs can partially withstand proteasomal degradation due to the stability of the FP fold, which results in accumulation of tFT fragments in the cell. Depending on the order of FPs in the timer, incomplete proteasomal degradation either shifts the time range of the tFT toward slower time scales or precludes its use for measurements of protein turnover. We identify greenFPs that are efficiently degraded by the proteasome and provide simple guidelines for the design of new tFTs. PMID:26609072

  14. Human Induced Pluripotent Stem Cell-Derived Microvesicles Transmit RNAs and Proteins to Recipient Mature Heart Cells Modulating Cell Fate and Behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bobis-Wozowicz, Sylwia; Kmiotek, Katarzyna; Sekula, Malgorzata; Kedracka-Krok, Sylwia; Kamycka, Elzbieta; Adamiak, Marta; Jankowska, Urszula; Madetko-Talowska, Anna; Sarna, Michal; Bik-Multanowski, Miroslaw; Kolcz, Jacek; Boruczkowski, Dariusz; Madeja, Zbigniew; Dawn, Buddhadeb; Zuba-Surma, Ewa K

    2015-09-01

    Microvesicles (MVs) are membrane-enclosed cytoplasmic fragments released by normal and activated cells that have been described as important mediators of cell-to-cell communication. Although the ability of human induced pluripotent stem cells (hiPSCs) to participate in tissue repair is being increasingly recognized, the use of hiPSC-derived MVs (hiPSC-MVs) in this regard remains unknown. Accordingly, we investigated the ability of hiPSC-MVs to transfer bioactive molecules including mRNA, microRNA (miRNA), and proteins to mature target cells such as cardiac mesenchymal stromal cells (cMSCs), and we next analyzed effects of hiPSC-MVs on fate and behavior of such target cells. The results show that hiPSC-MVs derived from integration-free hiPSCs cultured under serum-free and feeder-free conditions are rich in mRNA, miRNA, and proteins originated from parent cells; however, the levels of expression vary between donor cells and MVs. Importantly, we found that transfer of hiPSC components by hiPSC-MVs impacted on transcriptome and proteomic profiles of target cells as well as exerted proliferative and protective effects on cMSCs, and enhanced their cardiac and endothelial differentiation potential. hiPSC-MVs also transferred exogenous transcripts from genetically modified hiPSCs that opens new perspectives for future strategies to enhance MV content. We conclude that hiPSC-MVs are effective vehicles for transferring iPSC attributes to adult somatic cells, and hiPSC-MV-mediated horizontal transfer of RNAs and proteins to injured tissues may be used for therapeutic tissue repair. In this study, for the first time, we propose a new concept of use of hiPSCs as a source of safe acellular bioactive derivatives for tissue regeneration. PMID:26031404

  15. Maturity and maturity models in lean construction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claus Nesensohn

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available In recent years there has been an increasing interest in maturity models in management-related disciplines; which reflects a growing recognition that becoming more mature and having a model to guide the route to maturity can help organisations in managing major transformational change. Lean Construction (LC is an increasingly important improvement approach that organisations seek to embed. This study explores how to apply the maturity models to LC. Hence the attitudes, opinions and experiences of key industry informants with high levels of knowledge of LC were investigated. To achieve this, a review of maturity models was conducted, and data for the analysis was collected through a sequential process involving three methods. First a group interview with seven key informants. Second a follow up discussion with the same individuals to investigate some of the issues raised in more depth. Third an online discussion held via LinkedIn in which members shared their views on some of the results. Overall, we found that there is a lack of common understanding as to what maturity means in LC, though there is general agreement that the concept of maturity is a suitable one to reflect the path of evolution for LC within organisations.

  16. A sea urchin lectin, SUL-1, from the Toxopneustid sea urchin induces DC maturation from human monocyte and drives Th1 polarization in vitro

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The sea urchin Toxopneustes pileolus belonging to the family Toxopneustidae, they have well-developed globiferous pedicellariae with pharmacologically active substances. We have purified a novel sea urchin lectin-1 (SUL-1) from the large globiferous pedicellariae of T. pileolus. Dendritic cells (DC) are professional APC and play a pivotal role in controlling immune responses. This study investigated whether SUL-1 can drive DC maturation from human immature monocyte-derived DC in vitro. Human monocytes were cultured with GM-CSF and IL-4 for 6 days followed by another 1 day in the presence of SUL-1 or LPS. DC harvested on day 7 were examined using functional assays. The expression levels of CD1a, CD80, CD83, CD86 and HLA-DR as expressed by mean fluorescence intensity (MFI) on DC differentiated from immature DC after culture with 1.0 μg/ml of SUL-1 for 1 day were enhanced and decreased endocytic activity. SUL-1-treated DC also displayed enhanced T cell stimulatory capacity in an MLR, as measured by T cell proliferation. Cell surface expression of CD80, CD83 and CD86 on SUL-1-treated DC was inhibited by anti-DC-SIGN mAb, while anti-DC-SIGN mAb had no influence on allogeneic T cell proliferation by SUL-1-treated DC. DC differentiated with SUL-1 induced the differentiation of naive T cell towards a helper T cell type 1 (Th1) response at DC/T (1:5) cells ratio depending on IL-12 secretion. In CTL assay, the production of IFN-γ and 51Cr release on SUL-1-treated DC were more augmented than of immature DC or LPS-treated DC. SUL-1-treated DC expressed CCR7 and had a high migration to MIP-3β. Intracellular Ca2+ mobilization in SUL-1-treated DC was also induced by MIP-3β. These results suggest that SUL-1 bindings to DC-SIGN on surface of immature DC may lead to differentiate DC from immature DC. Moreover, it suggests that SUL-1 may be used on DC-based vaccines for cancer immunotherapy

  17. Mature Teachers Matter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berl, Patricia Scallan

    2005-01-01

    In this article, the author discusses the consequences of losing mature teachers due to voluntary separation or retirement and the mindset of a mature teacher that is different from younger teachers in a number of ways. Mature teachers are colleagues over 45 years of age possessing significant experience in the field. Future trends in teacher…

  18. Past incompleteness of a bouncing multiverse

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vilenkin, Alexander; Zhang, Jun, E-mail: vilenkin@cosmos.phy.tufts.edu, E-mail: jun.zhang@tufts.edu [Institute of Cosmology, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Tufts University, Medford, MA 02155 (United States)

    2014-06-01

    According to classical GR, Anti-de Sitter (AdS) bubbles in the multiverse terminate in big crunch singularities. It has been conjectured, however, that the fundamental theory may resolve these singularities and replace them by nonsingular bounces. This may have important implications for the beginning of the multiverse. Geodesics in cosmological spacetimes are known to be past-incomplete, as long as the average expansion rate along the geodesic is positive, but it is not clear that the latter condition is satisfied if the geodesic repeatedly passes through crunching AdS bubbles. We investigate this issue in a simple multiverse model, where the spacetime consists of a patchwork of FRW regions. The conclusion is that the spacetime is still past-incomplete, even in the presence of AdS bounces.

  19. Advanced incomplete factorization algorithms for Stiltijes matrices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Il`in, V.P. [Siberian Division RAS, Novosibirsk (Russian Federation)

    1996-12-31

    The modern numerical methods for solving the linear algebraic systems Au = f with high order sparse matrices A, which arise in grid approximations of multidimensional boundary value problems, are based mainly on accelerated iterative processes with easily invertible preconditioning matrices presented in the form of approximate (incomplete) factorization of the original matrix A. We consider some recent algorithmic approaches, theoretical foundations, experimental data and open questions for incomplete factorization of Stiltijes matrices which are {open_quotes}the best{close_quotes} ones in the sense that they have the most advanced results. Special attention is given to solving the elliptic differential equations with strongly variable coefficients, singular perturbated diffusion-convection and parabolic equations.

  20. Incomplete immune recovery in HIV infection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gaardbo, Julie C; Hartling, Hans J; Gerstoft, Jan; Poulsen, Susanne Dam

    2012-01-01

    Treatment of HIV-infected patients with highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) usually results in diminished viral replication, increasing CD4? cell counts, a reversal of most immunological disturbances, and a reduction in risk of morbidity and mortality. However, approximately 20% of all HIV...... tissue, perturbed frequencies of immune regulators such as regulatory T cells and Th17 cells, and increased immune activation, immunosenescence, and apoptosis. Importantly, INRs have an increased risk of morbidity and mortality compared to HIV-infected patients with an optimal immune reconstitution....... Additional treatment to HAART that may improve immune reconstitution has been investigated, but results thus far have proved disappointing. The reason for immunological nonresponse is incompletely understood. This paper summarizes the known and unknown factors regarding the incomplete immune reconstitution...

  1. Incomplete information, credibility and the core

    OpenAIRE

    Dutta, Bhaskar; Vohra, Rajiv

    2003-01-01

    An appropriate (interim) notion of the core for an economy with incomplete information depends on the amount of information that coalitions can share. The coarse and fine core, as originally defined by Wilson (1978), correspond to two polar cases, involving no information sharing and arbitrary information sharing, respectively. We propose a new core notion, the credible core, which incorporates incentive compatibility constraints, and is based on the idea that a coalition can coordinate its p...

  2. Godel's Incompleteness Theorems and Platonic Metaphysics

    OpenAIRE

    Mikovic, Aleksandar

    2015-01-01

    We argue by using Godel's incompletness theorems in logic that platonism is the best metaphysics for science. This is based on the fact that a natural law in a platonic metaphysics represents a timeless order in the motion of matter, while a natural law in a materialistic metaphysics can be only defined as a temporary order which appears at random in the chaotic motion of matter. Although a logical possibility, one can argue that this type of metaphysics is highly implausibl...

  3. Polarization study of incomplete fusion dynamics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Incomplete fusion reactions for 16O on 144Sm, 154Sm and 93Nb and 14N on 93Nb were studied using the Brookhaven tandem accelerator facility at energies from 95 to 140 MeV. Polarization of light charged particles from the reactions was studied by ? coincidence. Polarization is detected for ? particles but is near zero for protons. ? particle polarization shows energy dependence

  4. Essential Incompleteness of Arithmetic Verified by Coq

    OpenAIRE

    O'Connor, Russell

    2005-01-01

    A constructive proof of the Goedel-Rosser incompleteness theorem has been completed using the Coq proof assistant. Some theory of classical first-order logic over an arbitrary language is formalized. A development of primitive recursive functions is given, and all primitive recursive functions are proved to be representable in a weak axiom system. Formulas and proofs are encoded as natural numbers, and functions operating on these codes are proved to be primitive recursive. The weak axiom sys...

  5. Canonical distribution and incompleteness of quantum mechanics

    OpenAIRE

    Skrebnev, V. A.

    2012-01-01

    The paper discusses the physical groundlessness of the models used for the derivation of canonical distribution and provides the experimental data demonstrating the incompleteness of quantum mechanics. The possibility of using statistical ensembles is presented as a consequence of the existence of probabilistic processes which are not accounted for by quantum mechanics. The paper provides a new analytical derivation of canonical distribution for macrosystems which takes into...

  6. An Intuitively Complete Analysis of Godel's Incompleteness

    OpenAIRE

    Steinmetz, Jason W.

    2015-01-01

    A detailed and rigorous analysis of Godel's proof of his first incompleteness theorem is presented. The purpose of this analysis is two-fold. The first is to reveal what Godel actually proved to provide a clear and solid foundation upon which to base future research. The second is to construct a coherent explication of Godel's proof that is not only approachable by the non-specialist, but also brings to light the core principles underlying Godel's proof.

  7. Stochastic approximation boosting for incomplete data problems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sexton, Joseph; Laake, Petter

    2009-12-01

    Boosting is a powerful approach to fitting regression models. This article describes a boosting algorithm for likelihood-based estimation with incomplete data. The algorithm combines boosting with a variant of stochastic approximation that uses Markov chain Monte Carlo to deal with the missing data. Applications to fitting generalized linear and additive models with missing covariates are given. The method is applied to the Pima Indians Diabetes Data where over half of the cases contain missing values. PMID:19432768

  8. Characterization Tensors of Balanced Incomplete Block Designs

    OpenAIRE

    Qi, Liqun; Luo, Ziyan

    2015-01-01

    Balanced incomplete block designs (BIBDs) have wide applications in engineering, business and sciences. In this paper, for each (v, k, \\lambda)-BIBD, we construct a strongly symmetric k-th order v-dimensional tensor. We call such a strongly symmetric tensor the characterization tensor of that BIBD, and the absolute value tensor of the characterization tensor the signless characterization tensor of that BIBD. We study some spectral properties of such characterization tensors ...

  9. Scalable tensor factorizations for incomplete data

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Acar, Evrim; Dunlavy, Daniel M.; KOlda, Tamara G.; Mørup, Morten

    2011-01-01

    The problem of incomplete data—i.e., data with missing or unknown values—in multi-way arrays is ubiquitous in biomedical signal processing, network traffic analysis, bibliometrics, social network analysis, chemometrics, computer vision, communication networks, etc. We consider the problem of how to factorize data sets with missing values with the goal of capturing the underlying latent structure of the data and possibly reconstructing missing values (i.e., tensor completion). We focus on one of ...

  10. Dynamic Network Formation with Incomplete Information

    CERN Document Server

    Song, Yangbo

    2013-01-01

    How do networks form and what is their ultimate topology? Most of the literature that addresses these questions assumes complete information: agents know in advance the value of linking to other agents, even with agents they have never met and with whom they have had no previous interaction (direct or indirect). This paper addresses the same questions under what seems to us to be the much more natural assumption of incomplete information: agents do not know in advance -- but must learn -- the value of linking to agents they have never met. We show that the assumption of incomplete information has profound implications for the process of network formation and the topology of networks that ultimately form. Under complete information, the networks that form and are stable typically have a star, wheel or core-periphery form, with high-value agents in the core. Under incomplete information, the presence of positive externalities (the value of indirect links) implies that a much wider collection of network topologi...

  11. Autoantibodies to the NY-ESO-1 Tumor Antigen in Metastatic Melanoma: Sialylation of the Fc Region of Immunoglobulin G Induces Differential Expression Signatures of Inflammatory Molecules During Dendritic Cell Differentiation and Maturation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin Oaks

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: We tested the hypothesis that different glycoforms of antibodies from patients with metastatic melanoma have different functional effects on human dendritic cell differentiation and maturation. Methods: Antibodies to the cancer antigen NY-ESO-1 were affinity-purified from patients with melanoma and further fractionated into different glycoforms by lectin chromatography. Sialic acid-rich and sialic acid-poor fractions of these immunoglobulin G antibodies (IgG were added to dendritic cell cultures during both differentiation and maturation, and the resulting cellular messenger RNA (mRNA and culture supernatants were tested by microarray and enzyme-linked immunoassay for molecules related to inflammatory pathways. Results: We identified unique mRNA and secreted protein signatures that were induced by different glycoforms of IgG during dendritic cell differentiation and maturation. Among the variety of mRNA and proteins induced by the sialic acidrich IgG fraction, we found a dramatic increase in levels of the melanoma growth factor CXCL1. Conclusions: Our findings support the concept that alternate glycoforms of IgG induce differing functional programs of dendritic cell differentiation and maturation. The data also support the concept that the functional phenotype of IgG is related to glycosylation. Thus, subtle changes in glycan structure can change the effector function of IgG from an inflammatory to an anti-inflammatory program. This work highlights the importance of the interface between tumors and the immune system, revealing a potential explanation as to why tumors persist and progress despite potent immune responses against them.

  12. Human T-cell leukemia virus type I Tax induces the expression of dendritic cell markers associated with maturation and activation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mostoller, Kate; Norbury, Christopher C; Jain, Pooja; Wigdahl, Brian

    2004-12-01

    Human T-cell leukemia virus type I (HTLV-I) is the etiologic agent of both adult T-cell leukemia (ATL) and HTLV-I-associated myelopathy/tropical spastic paraparesis (HAM/TSP). Although the genesis of HAM/TSP likely involves several steps, the generation of a highly specific and effective population of Tax-specific CD8+ cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTLs) that migrate to the central nervous system (CNS) is of pivotal importance in this neuropathologic process. Presentation of Tax peptides by activated dendritic cells (DCs) to naive CD8+ T cells likely plays an important role in the induction of a Tax-specific CTL response and the eventual neurologic dysfunction observed in HAM/TSP. The immune response mounted during HTLV-I infection is primarily targeted against Tax with both Tax-specific antibodies and CTLs found in HTLV-I-infected individuals, indicating that Tax is available for immune recognition. Studies have suggested that Tax may be secreted from HTLV-I-infected cells and act as an extracellular cytokine, be internalized and processed for presentation, or be transported to the nucleus where it may act as a transcriptional activator. The authors report in this article that purified Tax induces DC activation involving an increase in the production of CD80 and CD86 mRNA in the absence of corresponding protein synthesis. Furthermore, intracellular Tax down-regulates the protein expression of molecules involved in antigen presentation. This implies a difference in the mechanism of Tax activity depending upon its location. Additionally, treatment of JAWS II DCs with extracellular Tax decreases the ability of DCs to present a major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class I-restricted peptide, indicating that Tax likely matures the DCs to the point where presentation of a secondary antigen is restricted. The implication of the experimental results with respect to the generation of a Tax-specific CTL compartment that participates in the genesis of HAM/TSP is discussed. PMID:15765807

  13. Estimate of true incomplete exchanges using fluorescence in situ hybridization with telomere probes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, H.; George, K.; Yang, T. C.

    1998-01-01

    PURPOSE: To study the frequency of true incomplete exchanges in radiation-induced chromosome aberrations. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Human lymphocytes were exposed to 2 Gy and 5 Gy of gamma-rays. Chromosome aberrations were studied using the fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) technique with whole chromosome-specific probes, together with human telomere probes. Chromosomes 2 and 4 were chosen in the present study. RESULTS: The percentage of incomplete exchanges was 27% when telomere signals were not considered. After excluding false incomplete exchanges identified by the telomere signals, the percentage of incomplete exchanges decreased to 11%. Since telomere signals appear on about 82% of the telomeres, the percentage of true incomplete exchanges should be even lower and was estimated to be 3%. This percentage was similar for chromosomes 2 and 4 and for doses of both 2 Gy and 5 Gy. CONCLUSIONS: The percentage of true incomplete exchanges is significantly lower in gamma-irradiated human lymphocytes than the frequencies reported in the literature.

  14. Essays on incomplete contracts in regulatory activities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saavedra, Eduardo Humberto

    This dissertation consists of three essays. The first essay, The Hold-Up Problem in Public Infrastructure Franchising, characterizes the equilibria of the investment decisions in public infrastructure franchising under incomplete contracting and ex-post renegotiation. The parties (government and a firm) are unable to credibly commit to the contracted investment plan, so that a second step investment is renegotiated by the parties at the revision stage. As expected, the possibility of renegotiation affects initial non-verifiable investments. The main conclusion of this essay is that not only underinvestment but also overinvestment in infrastructure may arise in equilibrium, compared to the complete contracting case. The second essay, Alternative Institutional Arrangements in Network Utilities: An Incomplete Contracting Approach, presents a theoretical assessment of the efficiency implications of privatizing natural monopolies which are vertically related to potential competitive firms. Based on the incomplete contracts and asymmetric information paradigm. I develop a model that analyzes the relative advantages of different institutional arrangements---alternative ownership and market structures in the industry--- in terms of their allocative and productive efficiencies. The main policy conclusion of this essay is that both ownership and the existence of conglomerates in network industries matter. Among other conclusions, this essay provides an economic rationale for a mixed economy in which the network is public and vertical separation of the industry when the natural monopoly is under private ownership. The last essay, Opportunistic Behavior and Legal Disputes in the Chilean Electricity Sector, analyzes post-contractual disputes in this newly privatized industry. It discusses the presumption that opportunistic behavior and disputes arise due to inadequate market design, ambiguous regulation, and institutional weaknesses. This chapter also assesses the presumption that a large number of legal disputes are inhibited by the nonexistence of institutions able to verify and enforce contracts. An in-depth analysis of six cases of open conflict provides support for such a presumption and highlights the crucial role of an adequate market design.

  15. Topological effects of data incompleteness of gene regulatory networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanz Joaquin

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The topological analysis of biological networks has been a prolific topic in network science during the last decade. A persistent problem with this approach is the inherent uncertainty and noisy nature of the data. One of the cases in which this situation is more marked is that of transcriptional regulatory networks (TRNs in bacteria. The datasets are incomplete because regulatory pathways associated to a relevant fraction of bacterial genes remain unknown. Furthermore, direction, strengths and signs of the links are sometimes unknown or simply overlooked. Finally, the experimental approaches to infer the regulations are highly heterogeneous, in a way that induces the appearance of systematic experimental-topological correlations. And yet, the quality of the available data increases constantly. Results In this work we capitalize on these advances to point out the influence of data (incompleteness and quality on some classical results on topological analysis of TRNs, specially regarding modularity at different levels. Conclusions In doing so, we identify the most relevant factors affecting the validity of previous findings, highlighting important caveats to future prokaryotic TRNs topological analysis.

  16. On problem of optimization under incomplete information.

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Volf, Petr

    Karviná : Silesian University in Opava, School of Business Administration in Karviná, 2012 - (Ramík, J.; Stavárek, D.), s. 968-973 ISBN 978-80-7248-779-0. [30th International Conference Mathematical Methods in Economics 2012. Karviná (CZ), 11.09.2012-13.09.2012] R&D Projects: GA ?R GAP402/10/0956 Institutional support: RVO:67985556 Keywords : optimization * censored data * Fisher information * product-limit estimate Subject RIV: BB - Applied Statistics, Operational Research http://library.utia.cas.cz/separaty/2012/SI/volf-on problem of optimization under incomplete information.pdf

  17. Godel's Incompleteness Theorems and Platonic Metaphysics

    CERN Document Server

    Mikovic, Aleksandar

    2015-01-01

    We argue by using Godel's incompletness theorems in logic that platonism is the best metaphysics for science. This is based on the fact that a natural law in a platonic metaphysics represents a timeless order in the motion of matter, while a natural law in a materialistic metaphysics can be only defined as a temporary order which appears at random in the chaotic motion of matter. Although a logical possibility, one can argue that this type of metaphysics is highly implausible. Given that mathematics fits naturally within platonism, we conclude that a platonic metaphysics is more preferable than a materialistic metaphysics.

  18. Entropy, heat, and G\\"odel incompleteness

    CERN Document Server

    Schlesinger, Karl-Georg

    2014-01-01

    Irreversible phenomena, such as the production of entropy and heat, arise from fundamental reversible dynamics because the forward dynamics is too complex, in the sense that it becomes impossible to provide the necessary information to keep track of the dynamics. On a heuristic level, this is well captured by coarse graining. We suggest that on a fundamental level the impossibility to provide the necessary information might be related to the incompleteness results of G\\"odel. This would hold interesting implications for both, mathematics and physics.

  19. A new version of an old modal incompleteness theorem

    OpenAIRE

    Vosmaer, Jacob

    2012-01-01

    Thomason \\cite{Thomason74} showed that a certain modal logic $\\mathbf{L}\\subset \\mathbf{S4}$ is incomplete with respect to Kripke semantics. Later Gerson \\cite{Gerson75} showed that $\\mathbf{L}$ is also incomplete with respect to neighborhood semantics. In this paper we show that $\\mathbf{L}$ is in fact incomplete with respect to any class of complete Boolean algebras with operators, i.e. that it is completely incomplete.

  20. Extensive Generalization of Statistical Mechanics Based on Incomplete Information Theory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qiuping A. Wang

    2003-06-01

    Full Text Available Statistical mechanics is generalized on the basis of an additive information theory for incomplete probability distributions. The incomplete normalization is used to obtain generalized entropy . The concomitant incomplete statistical mechanics is applied to some physical systems in order to show the effect of the incompleteness of information. It is shown that this extensive generalized statistics can be useful for the correlated electron systems in weak coupling regime.

  1. The effect of luteinizing hormone releasing hormone analog regime and stage of oocyte maturity for induced ovulation of channel catfish Ictalurus punctatus

    Science.gov (United States)

    The effective LHRHa (luteinizing hormone releasing hormone analog) dose based on the gonadal maturity of channel catfish, Ictalurus punctatus to optimize channel x blue hybrid catfish production was evaluated in 4 trials (twice in early part of the season and twice in the peak spawning season) in a ...

  2. Goedel incompleteness theorems and the limits of their applicability. I

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This is a survey of results related to the Goedel incompleteness theorems and the limits of their applicability. The first part of the paper discusses Goedel's own formulations along with modern strengthenings of the first incompleteness theorem. Various forms and proofs of this theorem are compared. Incompleteness results related to algorithmic problems and mathematically natural examples of unprovable statements are discussed. Bibliography: 68 titles.

  3. Audit Maturity Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bhattacharya Uttam

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Today it is crucial for organizations to pay even greater attention on quality management as the importance of this function in achieving ultimate business objectives is increasingly becoming clearer. Importance of the Quality Management (QM Function in achieving basic need by ensuring compliance with Capability Maturity Model Integrated (CMMI / International Organization for Standardization (ISO is a basic demand from business nowadays. However, QM Function and its processes need to be made much more mature to prevent delivery outages and to achieve business excellence through their review and auditing capability. Many organizations now face challenges in determining the maturity of the QM group along with the service offered by them and the right way to elevate the maturity of the same. The objective of this whitepaper is to propose a new model –the Audit Maturity Model (AMM which will provide organizations with a measure of their maturity in quality management in the perspective of auditing, along with recommendations for preventing delivery outage, and identifying risk to achieve business excellence. This will enable organizations to assess QM maturity higher than basic hygiene and will also help them to identify gaps and to take corrective actions for achieving higher maturity levels. Hence the objective is to envisage a new auditing model as a part of organisation quality management function which can be a guide for them to achieve higher level of maturity and ultimately help to achieve delivery and business excellence.

  4. Prolonged performance of a high repetition low force task induces bone adaptation in young adult rats, but loss in mature rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Massicotte, Vicky S; Frara, Nagat; Harris, Michele Y; Amin, Mamta; Wade, Christine K; Popoff, Steven N; Barbe, Mary F

    2015-12-01

    We have shown that prolonged repetitive reaching and grasping tasks lead to exposure-dependent changes in bone microarchitecture and inflammatory cytokines in young adult rats. Since aging mammals show increased tissue inflammatory cytokines, we sought here to determine if aging, combined with prolonged performance of a repetitive upper extremity task, enhances bone loss. We examined the radius, forearm flexor muscles, and serum from 16 mature (14-18months of age) and 14 young adult (2.5-6.5months of age) female rats after performance of a high repetition low force (HRLF) reaching and grasping task for 12weeks. Young adult HRLF rats showed enhanced radial bone growth (e.g., increased trabecular bone volume, osteoblast numbers, bone formation rate, and mid-diaphyseal periosteal perimeter), compared to age-matched controls. Mature HRLF rats showed several indices of radial bone loss (e.g., decreased trabecular bone volume, and increased cortical bone thinning, porosity, resorptive spaces and woven bone formation), increased osteoclast numbers and inflammatory cytokines, compared to age-matched controls and young adult HRLF rats. Mature rats weighed more yet had lower maximum reflexive grip strength, than young adult rats, although each age group was able to pull at the required reach rate (4reaches/min) and required submaximal pulling force (30force-grams) for a food reward. Serum estrogen levels and flexor digitorum muscle size were similar in each age group. Thus, mature rats had increased bone degradative changes than in young adult rats performing the same repetitive task for 12weeks, with increased inflammatory cytokine responses and osteoclast activity as possible causes. PMID:26517953

  5. Plasmodium falciparum-Infected Erythrocytes and ?-Hematin Induce Partial Maturation of Human Dendritic Cells and Increase Their Migratory Ability in Response to Lymphoid Chemokines ? †

    OpenAIRE

    Giusti, Pablo; Urban, Britta C; Frascaroli, Giada; Albrecht, Letusa; Tinti, Anna; Troye-Blomberg, Marita; Varani, Stefania

    2011-01-01

    Acute and chronic Plasmodium falciparum infections alter the immune competence of the host possibly through changes in dendritic cell (DC) functionality. DCs are the most potent activators of T cells, and migration is integral to their function. Mature DCs express lymphoid chemokine receptors (CCRs), expression of which enables them to migrate to the lymph nodes, where they encounter naïve T cells. The present study aimed to investigate the impact of the synthetic analog to malaria parasite p...

  6. Intra-articular injection of a nutritive mixture solution protects articular cartilage from osteoarthritic progression induced by anterior cruciate ligament transection in mature rabbits: a randomized controlled trial

    OpenAIRE

    Park, Yoo-Sin; Lim, Si-Woong; Lee, Il-Hoon; Lee, Tae-Jin; Kim, Jong-Sung; Han, Jin Soo

    2007-01-01

    Osteoarthritis (OA) is a degenerative disease that disrupts the collagenous matrix of articular cartilage and is difficult to cure because articular cartilage is a nonvascular tissue. Treatment of OA has targeted macromolecular substitutes for cartilage components, such as hyaluronic acid or genetically engineered materials. However, the goal of the present study was to examine whether intra-articular injection of the elementary nutrients restores the matrix of arthritic knee joints in mature...

  7. The Impact of Incomplete Information on Games in Parallel Relay Networks

    CERN Document Server

    Xiao, Hongda

    2011-01-01

    We consider the impact of incomplete information on incentives for node cooperation in parallel relay networks with one source node, one destination node, and multiple relay nodes. All nodes are selfish and strategic, interested in maximizing their own profit instead of the social welfare. We consider the practical situation where the channel state on any given relay path is not observable to the source or to the other relays. We examine different bargaining relationships between the source and the relays, and propose a framework for analyzing the efficiency loss induced by incomplete information. We analyze the source of the efficiency loss, and quantify the amount of inefficiency which results.

  8. Incomplete Brillouin-zone spectra and controlled Bragg reflection with ionic-type photonic lattices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We demonstrate ionic-type photonic lattices consisting of alternating positive and negative lattice potentials akin to those of ionic crystals in solids. A modified geometrical structure factor is developed for describing Bragg scattering in these non-Bravais photonic lattices. We show that lattice reconfiguration leads to incomplete Brillouin zone spectra due to selective band-gap closures. Experimentally, incomplete Brillouin zone spectra and associated Bragg-reflection suppression are observed in such ionic-type lattices optically induced in a bulk nonlinear crystal. Our experimental results agree well with our theoretical analysis.

  9. Relational data clustering with incomplete data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hathaway, Richard J.; Overstreet, Dessa D.; Murphy, Thomas E.; Bezdek, James C.

    2001-03-01

    We consider the problem of clustering a set of objects which are represented by rational data in the form of a dissimilarity matrix which has missing values. Three methods are developed to estimate the missing values, all based on simple triangle inequality-based approximation schemes. With few exceptions, any relational clustering algorithm can then be applied to the completed data matrix to obtain nice clusters. We illustrate our approach by clustering incomplete data built from several data sets. The primary clustering method chosen for our numerical experiments is the non-Euclidean relational fuzzy c-means algorithm. Our examples show that satisfactory clusters can still be obtained even when roughly half of the distance values are missing before completion.

  10. Is Complexity a Source of Incompleteness?

    CERN Document Server

    Calude, C S; Calude, Cristian S.; Juergensen, helmut

    2004-01-01

    In this paper we prove a formal form of Chaitin's ``heuristic principle'', for an appropriate measure of complexity: ``the theorems of a finitely specified theory cannot be significantly more complex than the theory itself`''. For this measure, the theorems of a consistent finitely specified theory strong enough to formalize arithmetic (like Zermelo-Fraenkel set theory with choice or Peano Arithmetic) have bounded complexity, hence every statement of the theory which is significantly more complex than the theory is unprovable. Previous results showing that incompleteness is not accidental, but ubiquitous are here reinforced in probabilistic terms: the probability that an $n$-bit statement is provable in such a theory tends to zero when $n$ tends to infinity.

  11. Light particle revelation on incomplete fusion reactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Incomplete fusion reactions have been studied through light particles emission in the reaction 116Sn + 16O at 125 MeV (ALICE facility in Orsay). We measured energy angular distributions and correlations between any two of these particles (? particles, protons, neutrons), while ? multiplicity measurements provide us fuller informations. From collected data, the following pictures can be drawn: - the only fast particles observed are ? particles, while protons and neutrons seem to come only from statistical evaporation; - outgoing channels where two ? particles are emitted cannot be solely explained by the sequential emission of 8Be ? 2?: about half of the cross section proceeds from statistical evaporation of one ? particle. Accordingly, 2?xn channels do not necessarily agree with high value of angular momentum in the entrance channel. From the study of experimental results in the yrast plane, we can assign a large width to the angular momentum distribution

  12. Incomplete melting of the Au(100) surface

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We study the high-temperature disordering of the reconstructed Au(100) surface by molecular dynamics simulation using a many-body interatomic potential. We find that the surface deconstructs at 0.8Tm in good agreement with experimental data, but proper surface melting does not occur close to the bulk melting point. Instead there is an in-plane disordering of the two topmost layers. The thickness of the disordered region remains constant with increasing temperature, indicating blocked, or incomplete, melting of the (100) crystalline substrate. An analysis of the structure reveals that crystalline and disordered islands coexist on two first surface layers for temperature between deconstruction and bulk melting. (author). 24 refs, 10 figs

  13. Regulatory perspective on incomplete control rod insertions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chatterton, M.

    1997-01-01

    The incomplete control rod insertions experienced at South Texas Unit 1 and Wolf Creek are of safety concern to the NRC staff because they represent potential precursors to loss of shutdown margin. Even before it was determined if these events were caused by the control rods or by the fuel there was an apparent correlation of the problem with high burnup fuel. It was determined that there was also a correlation between high burnup and high drag forces as well as with rod drop time histories and lack of rod recoil. The NRC staff initial actions were aimed at getting a perspective on the magnitude of the problem as far as the number of plants and the amount of fuel that could be involved, as well as the safety significance in terms of shutdown margin. As tests have been performed and data has been analyzed the focus has shifted more toward understanding the problem and the ways to eliminate it. At this time the staff`s understanding of the phenomena is that it was a combination of factors including burnup, power history and temperature. The problem appears to be very sensitive to these factors, the interaction of which is not clearly understood. The model developed by Westinghouse provides a possible explanation but there is not sufficient data to establish confidence levels and sensitivity studies involving the key parameters have not been done. While several fixes to the problem have been discussed, no definitive fixes have been proposed. Without complete understanding of the phenomena, or fixes that clearly eliminate the problem the safety concern remains. The safety significance depends on the amount of shutdown margin lost due to incomplete insertion of the control rods. Were the control rods to stick high in the core, the reactor could not be shutdown by the control rods and other means such as emergency boration would be required.

  14. Regulatory perspective on incomplete control rod insertions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The incomplete control rod insertions experienced at South Texas Unit 1 and Wolf Creek are of safety concern to the NRC staff because they represent potential precursors to loss of shutdown margin. Even before it was determined if these events were caused by the control rods or by the fuel there was an apparent correlation of the problem with high burnup fuel. It was determined that there was also a correlation between high burnup and high drag forces as well as with rod drop time histories and lack of rod recoil. The NRC staff initial actions were aimed at getting a perspective on the magnitude of the problem as far as the number of plants and the amount of fuel that could be involved, as well as the safety significance in terms of shutdown margin. As tests have been performed and data has been analyzed the focus has shifted more toward understanding the problem and the ways to eliminate it. At this time the staff's understanding of the phenomena is that it was a combination of factors including burnup, power history and temperature. The problem appears to be very sensitive to these factors, the interaction of which is not clearly understood. The model developed by Westinghouse provides a possible explanation but there is not sufficient data to establish confidence levels and sensitivity studies involving the key parameters have not been done. While several fixes to the problem have been discussed, no definitive fixes have been proposed. Without complete understanding of the phenomena, or fixes that clearly eliminate the problem the safety concern remains. The safety significance depends on the amount of shutdown margin lost due to incomplete insertion of the control rods. Were the control rods to stick high in the core, the reactor could not be shutdown by the control rods and other means such as emergency boration would be required

  15. In praise of the incomplete leader.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ancona, Deborah; Malone, Thomas W; Orlikowski, Wanda J; Senge, Peter M

    2007-02-01

    Today's top executives are expected to do everything right, from coming up with solutions to unfathomably complex problems to having the charisma and prescience to rally stakeholders around a perfect vision of the future. But no one leader can be all things to all people. It's time to end the myth of the complete leader, say the authors. Those at the top must come to understand their weaknesses as well as their strengths. Only by embracing the ways in which they are incomplete can leaders fill in the gaps in their knowledge with others' skills. The incomplete leader has the confidence and humility to recognize unique talents and perspectives throughout the organization--and to let those qualities shine. The authors' work studying leadership over the past six years has led them to develop a framework of distributed leadership. Within that model, leadership consists of four capabilities: sensemaking, relating, "visioning," and inventing. Sensemaking involves understanding and mapping the context in which a company and its people operate. A leader skilled in this area can quickly identify the complexities of a given situation and explain them to others. The second capability, relating, means being able to build trusting relationships with others through inquiring (listening with intention), advocating (explaining one's own point of view), and connecting (establishing a network of allies who can help a leader accomplish his or her goals). Visioning, the third capability, means coming up with a compelling image of the future. It is a collaborative process that articulates what the members of an organization want to create. Finally, inventing involves developing new ways to bring that vision to life. Rarely will a single person be skilled in all four areas. That's why it's critical that leaders find others who can offset their limitations and complement their strengths. Those who don't will not only bear the burden of leadership alone but will find themselves at the helm of an unbalanced ship. PMID:17345683

  16. Induction of complete and incomplete chromosome aberrations by bleomycin in human lymphocytes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bleomycin (BLM) is a clastogenic compound, which due to the overdispersion in the cell distribution of induced dicentrics has been compared to the effect of high-LET radiation. Recently, it has been described that in fibroblast derived cell lines BLM induces incomplete chromosome elements more efficiently than any type of ionizing radiation. The objective of the present study was to evaluate in human lymphocytes the induction of dicentrics and incomplete chromosome elements by BLM. Peripheral blood samples have been treated with different concentrations of BLM. Two cytogenetic techniques were applied, fluorescence plus Giemsa (FPG) and FISH using pan-centromeric and pan-telomeric probes. The observed frequency of dicentric equivalents increases linearly with the BLM concentration, and for all BLM concentrations the distribution of dicentric equivalents was overdispersed. In the FISH study the ratio between total incomplete elements and multicentrics was 0.27. The overdispersion in the dicentric cell distribution, and the linear BLM-concentration dependence of dicentrics can be compared to the effect of high-LET radiation, on the contrary the ratio of incomplete elements and multicentrics is similar to the one induced by low-LET radiation (∼0.40). The elevated proportion of interstitial deletions in relation to total acentric fragments, higher than any type of ionizing radiation could be a characteristic signature of the clastogenic effect of BLM

  17. Induction of complete and incomplete chromosome aberrations by bleomycin in human lymphocytes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Benkhaled, L.; Xuncla, M.; Caballin, M.R. [Universitat Autonoma de Barcelona, Unitat d' Antropologia Biologica, Departament de Biologia Animal, Biologia Vegetal i Ecologia, E-08193 Bellaterra (Spain); Barrios, L. [Universitat Autonoma de Barcelona, Unitat de Biologia Cel.lular, Departament de Biologia Cel.lular, Fisiologia i Immunologia (Spain); Barquinero, J.F. [Universitat Autonoma de Barcelona, Unitat d' Antropologia Biologica, Departament de Biologia Animal, Biologia Vegetal i Ecologia, E-08193 Bellaterra (Spain)], E-mail: Francesc.Barquinero@uab.es

    2008-01-01

    Bleomycin (BLM) is a clastogenic compound, which due to the overdispersion in the cell distribution of induced dicentrics has been compared to the effect of high-LET radiation. Recently, it has been described that in fibroblast derived cell lines BLM induces incomplete chromosome elements more efficiently than any type of ionizing radiation. The objective of the present study was to evaluate in human lymphocytes the induction of dicentrics and incomplete chromosome elements by BLM. Peripheral blood samples have been treated with different concentrations of BLM. Two cytogenetic techniques were applied, fluorescence plus Giemsa (FPG) and FISH using pan-centromeric and pan-telomeric probes. The observed frequency of dicentric equivalents increases linearly with the BLM concentration, and for all BLM concentrations the distribution of dicentric equivalents was overdispersed. In the FISH study the ratio between total incomplete elements and multicentrics was 0.27. The overdispersion in the dicentric cell distribution, and the linear BLM-concentration dependence of dicentrics can be compared to the effect of high-LET radiation, on the contrary the ratio of incomplete elements and multicentrics is similar to the one induced by low-LET radiation ({approx}0.40). The elevated proportion of interstitial deletions in relation to total acentric fragments, higher than any type of ionizing radiation could be a characteristic signature of the clastogenic effect of BLM.

  18. Large influence of fusion incompleteness in incomplete fusion reaction dynamics at low energies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Incomplete fusion (ICF) has been found to be competing fusion-like processes at energies even a little above the Coulomb barrier, forming a reduced excited composite system with relatively lower mass, charge, and excitation energy compared to the completely fused composite system, due to the prompt emission of forward-peaked projectile like fragments (PLFs) at the initial stage of interaction. As the projectiles 12C, 16O and 20Ne are clusters of ?-particles, it could be assumed that it is easy to transfer ? particle from these projectiles to the target. In such reactions the mass flow is always from projectile to target. In the present work, the relative contributions of incomplete fusion process to the total reaction cross-section in the two systems, i.e., 16O + 165Ho and 16O + 115In have been calculated

  19. Counseling the Mature Woman

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baribien, Marietta N.

    1971-01-01

    When the mature woman has finished rearing a family, she may face many problems in seeking to reenter the vocational world. A counselor can be of immense help in helping the adult woman overcome many of these problems. (MR)

  20. Observation of incomplete fusion at low angular momenta

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Devendra P.; Yadav, Abhishek; Bala, Indu; Raghav, Anubhav; Shuaib, Mohd.; Kumar, Prabhat; Singh, Pushpendra P.; Unnati; Sharma, M. K.; Sharma, Vijay R.; Kumar, R.; Gupta, R. K.; Singh, B. P.; Prasad, R.

    2015-01-01

    Present work deals with experimental studies of incomplete fusion reaction dynamics using off-line ?-ray spectrometry at energies as low as ?3-6 MeV/nucleon. Excitation functions for five reaction products populated via complete and/or incomplete fusion processes in 16O+130Te system have been measured and compared with the predictions of the statistical model code PACE4. A significant enhancement in the measured excitation functions compared to theoretical predictions for ?-emitting channels has been observed and is attributed to incomplete fusion processes. The relative strength of incomplete fusion has been found to increase with projectile energy. Results show that incomplete fusion is associated even for angular momenta lesser than the critical angular momentum for complete fusion and also reveals importance of incomplete fusion even at energies as low as ?3-6 MeV/nucleon.

  1. Gibbs' theorem for open systems with incomplete statistics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gibbs' theorem, which is originally intended for canonical ensembles with complete statistics has been generalized to open systems with incomplete statistics. As a result of this generalization, it is shown that the stationary equilibrium distribution of inverse power law form associated with the incomplete statistics has maximum entropy even for open systems with energy or matter influx. The renormalized entropy definition given in this paper can also serve as a measure of self-organization in open systems described by incomplete statistics.

  2. The Surprise Examination Paradox and the Second Incompleteness Theorem

    OpenAIRE

    Kritchman, Shira; Raz, Ran

    2010-01-01

    We give a new proof for Godel's second incompleteness theorem, based on Kolmogorov complexity, Chaitin's incompleteness theorem, and an argument that resembles the surprise examination paradox. We then go the other way around and suggest that the second incompleteness theorem gives a possible resolution of the surprise examination paradox. Roughly speaking, we argue that the flaw in the derivation of the paradox is that it contains a hidden assumption that one can prove the consistency of the...

  3. Goedel incompleteness theorems and the limits of their applicability. I

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beklemishev, Lev D [Steklov Mathematical Institute, Russian Academy of Sciences, Moscow (Russian Federation)

    2011-01-25

    This is a survey of results related to the Goedel incompleteness theorems and the limits of their applicability. The first part of the paper discusses Goedel's own formulations along with modern strengthenings of the first incompleteness theorem. Various forms and proofs of this theorem are compared. Incompleteness results related to algorithmic problems and mathematically natural examples of unprovable statements are discussed. Bibliography: 68 titles.

  4. Judicial Dissent under Externalities and Incomplete Information

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rustam Romaniuc

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available he issue of the stability and change of legal rules occupies a central place in the discussions of alternative ways of organizing justice and the provision of legal rules. There nonetheless remains a theoretical aspect that has never been raised in the literature on judicial decision making and legal change. Judges that are not bound by precedent and can change the law directly by overruling previous decisions have to make a particular decision about the direction the new precedent will take. We show that under incomplete information about judges’ eagerness to choose according to their ideal points, there are two candidates for the particular legal rule that is to become the new precedent: (i judge’s private optimum; and (ii some other legal rule that can differ from (i and corresponds to the empirical and normative expectations of a large subset of judges within the judicial population. The individual judge that has decided not to stick to the precedent faces therefore a trade-off, he has to choose among alternative legal rules that yield alternative levels of public and private satisfaction of preferences.

  5. Robust Localization from Incomplete Local Information

    CERN Document Server

    Karbasi, Amin

    2011-01-01

    We consider the problem of localizing wireless devices in an ad-hoc network embedded in a d-dimensional Euclidean space. Obtaining a good estimation of where wireless devices are located is crucial in wireless network applications including environment monitoring, geographic routing and topology control. When the positions of the devices are unknown and only local distance information is given, we need to infer the positions from these local distance measurements. This problem is particularly challenging when we only have access to measurements that have limited accuracy and are incomplete. We consider the extreme case of this limitation on the available information, namely only the connectivity information is available, i.e., we only know whether a pair of nodes is within a fixed detection range of each other or not, and no information is known about how far apart they are. Further, to account for detection failures, we assume that even if a pair of devices is within the detection range, it fails to detect t...

  6. Skyline Sets Queries for Incomplete Data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Shamsul Arefin

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available With the increase of data volume, advanced query operators, such as skyline queries, are necessary inorder to help users to handle the huge amount of available data by identifying a set of interesting dataobjects. Skyline queries help us to filter unnecessary information efficiently and provide us clues forvarious decision making tasks.Most of the existing skyline algorithms cannot preserve individual’s privacy and are not well suited fordata with outliers and frequently updated data. Considering these issues, earlier we have proposed skylinesets queries from databases where all dimensions are available for all data items and considered anefficient algorithm for computing convex skyline sets. In this paper, we use that idea for skyline sets queriesfor incomplete data and propose a method, namely, RBSSQ. RBSSQ method uses a replacement-basedapproach and is applicable to the databases having any number of missing dimensions in the databaseobjects. We have conducted several experiments in terms of computational cost and found that ourproposed method can efficiently compute skyline sets from data items with missing values.

  7. Scalable Tensor Factorizations for Incomplete Data

    CERN Document Server

    Acar, Evrim; Dunlavy, Daniel M; Morup, Morten

    2010-01-01

    The problem of incomplete data - i.e., data with missing or unknown values - in multi-way arrays is ubiquitous in biomedical signal processing, network traffic analysis, bibliometrics, social network analysis, chemometrics, computer vision, communication networks, etc. We consider the problem of how to factorize data sets with missing values with the goal of capturing the underlying latent structure of the data and possibly reconstructing missing values (i.e., tensor completion). We focus on one of the most well-known tensor factorizations that captures multi-linear structure, CANDECOMP/PARAFAC (CP). In the presence of missing data, CP can be formulated as a weighted least squares problem that models only the known entries. We develop an algorithm called CP-WOPT (CP Weighted OPTimization) that uses a first-order optimization approach to solve the weighted least squares problem. Based on extensive numerical experiments, our algorithm is shown to successfully factorize tensors with noise and up to 99% missing d...

  8. Scalable tensor factorizations with incomplete data.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morup, Morten (Technical University of Denmark); Dunlavy, Daniel M. (Sandia National Laboratories, Albuquerque, NM); Acar, Evrim (Information Technologies Institute, Turkey); Kolda, Tamara Gibson

    2010-07-01

    The problem of incomplete data - i.e., data with missing or unknown values - in multi-way arrays is ubiquitous in biomedical signal processing, network traffic analysis, bibliometrics, social network analysis, chemometrics, computer vision, communication networks, etc. We consider the problem of how to factorize data sets with missing values with the goal of capturing the underlying latent structure of the data and possibly reconstructing missing values (i.e., tensor completion). We focus on one of the most well-known tensor factorizations that captures multi-linear structure, CANDECOMP/PARAFAC (CP). In the presence of missing data, CP can be formulated as a weighted least squares problem that models only the known entries. We develop an algorithm called CP-WOPT (CP Weighted OPTimization) that uses a first-order optimization approach to solve the weighted least squares problem. Based on extensive numerical experiments, our algorithm is shown to successfully factorize tensors with noise and up to 99% missing data. A unique aspect of our approach is that it scales to sparse large-scale data, e.g., 1000 x 1000 x 1000 with five million known entries (0.5% dense). We further demonstrate the usefulness of CP-WOPT on two real-world applications: a novel EEG (electroencephalogram) application where missing data is frequently encountered due to disconnections of electrodes and the problem of modeling computer network traffic where data may be absent due to the expense of the data collection process.

  9. Scalable tensor factorizations for incomplete data

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Acar, Evrim; Dunlavy, Daniel M.

    2011-01-01

    The problem of incomplete data—i.e., data with missing or unknown values—in multi-way arrays is ubiquitous in biomedical signal processing, network traffic analysis, bibliometrics, social network analysis, chemometrics, computer vision, communication networks, etc. We consider the problem of how to factorize data sets with missing values with the goal of capturing the underlying latent structure of the data and possibly reconstructing missing values (i.e., tensor completion). We focus on one of the most well-known tensor factorizations that captures multi-linear structure, CANDECOMP/PARAFAC (CP). In the presence of missing data, CP can be formulated as a weighted least squares problem that models only the known entries. We develop an algorithm called CP-WOPT (CP Weighted OPTimization) that uses a first-order optimization approach to solve the weighted least squares problem. Based on extensive numerical experiments, our algorithm is shown to successfully factorize tensors with noise and up to 99% missing data.A unique aspect of our approach is that it scales to sparse large-scale data, e.g., 1000 × 1000 × 1000 with five million known entries (0.5% dense). We further demonstrate the usefulness of CP-WOPT on two real-world applications: a novel EEG (electroencephalogram) application where missing data is frequently encountered due to disconnections of electrodes and the problem of modeling computer network traffic where data may be absent due to the expense of the data collection process.

  10. Role of arachidonic acid cascade in Rhinella arenarum oocyte maturation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ortiz, Maria Eugenia; Arias-Torres, Ana Josefina; Zelarayán, Liliana Isabel

    2015-08-01

    There are no studies that document the production of prostaglandins (PGs) or their role in Rhinella arenarum oocyte maturation. In this study, we analysed the effect of arachidonic acid (AA) and prostaglandins (PGs) on maturation, activation and pronuclear formation in R. arenarum oocytes. Our results demonstrated that AA was capable of inducing maturation in time-dependent and dose-dependent manner. Arachidonic acid-induced maturation was inhibited by indomethacin. PGs from AA hydrolysis, such as prostaglandin F2? (PGF2?) and, to a lesser extent, PGE2, induced meiosis resumption. Oocyte maturation in response to PGF2? was similar to that produced by progesterone (P4). Oocyte response to PGE1 was scarce. Rhinella arenarum oocyte PGF2?-induced maturation showed seasonal variation. From February to June, oocytes presented low sensitivity to PGF2?. In following periods, this response increased until a maximum was reached during October to January, a close temporal correlation with oocyte response to P4 being observed. The effect of PGF2? on maturation was verified by analysing the capacity of oocytes to activate and form pronuclei after being injected with homologous sperm. The cytological analysis of activated oocytes demonstrated the absence of cortical granules in oocytes, suggesting that PGF2? induces germinal vesicle breakdown (GVBD) and meiosis resumption up to metaphase II. In turn, oocytes matured by the action of PGF2? were able to form pronuclei after fertilization in a similar way to oocyte maturated by P4. In microinjection of mature cytoplasm experiments, the transformation of pre-maturation promoting factor (pre-MPF) to MPF was observed when oocytes were treated with PGF2?. In summary, our results illustrated the participation of the AA cascade and its metabolites in maturation, activation and pronuclei formation in R. arenarum. PMID:24964276

  11. A Clinical Study on Management of Incomplete Abortion by Manual Vacuum Aspiration (MVA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arifa Akter Jahan

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: Abortion is an important social and public health issue. In Bangladesh complication from unsafe abortion is one of the leading causes of maternal mortality. It is a serious health problem. World Health Organisation estimates that 14% of maternal deaths which occur every year in the countries of South Asia including Bangladesh are due to abortion. Study shows manual vacuum aspiration procedure is safe and effective in incomplete abortion. Very few clinical trials were carried out in Bangladesh to assess the safety and effectivity of manual vacuum aspiration in managing incomplete abortion. Objective: To find out the outcome of manual vacuum aspiration in the management of patients of incomplete abortion. Materials and Methods: This observational descriptive study was conducted in the department of Obstetrics & Gynaecology, Dhaka Medical College & Hospital from June to December, 2004. One hundred cases of diagnosed incomplete abortion up to 12 weeks of gestation were managed by manual vacuum aspiration during this period. A data recording sheet was designed for this purpose. Haemodynamically stable patients with no history of induced abortion and fever were enrolled. Results: Procedure time of manual vacuum aspiration was short, average duration was 7 minutes. Bleeding was minimum (20-30 mL in 67% cases and weighted mean was 29.80 mL. Eighty three percent patients were stable during the procedure and only 3% needed blood transfusion. Nonnarcotic analgesics were used in 59% cases and 33% needed only proper counselling. Average duration of hospital stay was 2 hours. Effectiveness of the procedure was about 98% with very low post procedure complication rate (2%. Conclusion: MVA procedure is a safe and effective technique of uterine evacuation in incomplete abortion. It is quick, less expensive, effective and less painful. Hospital stay and chance of perforation of uterus is less. So this procedure should be considered by health care system in Bangladesh for improving treatment of incomplete abortion to reduce both maternal morbidity and mortality.

  12. 19 CFR 122.74 - Incomplete (pro forma) manifest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Incomplete (pro forma) manifest. 122.74 Section 122.74 Customs Duties U.S. CUSTOMS AND BORDER PROTECTION, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY; DEPARTMENT... Aircraft Departing From the United States § 122.74 Incomplete (pro forma) manifest. (a)...

  13. Mature Vegetation along Roads

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hykš O.

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The article deals with the issue of vegetation, particularly mature vegetation, along transport routes. Since rather heated discussions on this topic have recently appeared, particularly in relation to road safety, the authors of this article decided to present this issue in wider context and from various viewpoints. The starting point for this issue is mentioned in the introduction. The next part deals with the history of planting tree alleys in the Czech Republic. Subsequently, a brief summary of advantages and drawbacks of mature vegetation along transport routes is presented. The next part of the article discusses the environmental bases and, last but not least, the article deals with the impact of mature vegetation on road safety.

  14. SUMO routes ribosome maturation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finkbeiner, Elisabeth; Haindl, Markus; Raman, Nithya; Muller, Stefan

    2011-01-01

    The control of ribosome biogenesis is a critical cellular nodal point, which ensures that protein synthesis is coordinated with cell growth and proliferation. Prior to their cytoplasmic assembly the 40S and 60S ribosomal subunits pass through the nucleolus and the nucleoplasm via a maturation pathway that involves a set of non-coding RNAs and non-ribosomal regulatory trans-acting factors. In mammalian cells the inventory of the required protein components is still fragmentary and it is largely unclear what drives the subcellular transitions and the exchange of protein components along the maturation pathway. However, recent data indicate that the dynamic post-translational modification by the ubiquitin-like SUMO modifier is critically involved in these processes. In particular, removal of SUMO from trans-acting factors by the SUMO-specific isopeptidase SENP3 is instrumental in the 60S maturation pathway in mammals. In an attempt to pinpoint the relevant targets of SENP3 we identified a novel SENP3-associated protein complex comprised of PELP1, TEX10 and WDR18. We demonstrated that this complex is involved in the nucleolar steps of 28S rRNA maturation and the subsequent nucleoplasmic transit of the 60S ribosomal subunit. Importantly, we found that PELP1 is a SENP3-sensitive target of SUMO and observed that lack of SENP3-mediated desumoylation prevents the nucleolar partitioning of the PELP1-TEX10-WDR18 complex. SUMO-dependent subnuclear trafficking may thus assist in coordinating the rate of ribosome formation. Here we propose that sumoylation of PELP1 serves as a quality control mechanism that restricts pre-mature loading of the PELP1-WDR18-TEX10 complex to 60S particles thereby limiting ribosome maturation. We further hypothesize that the PELP1-associated AAA-ATPase MDN1 may be part of this surveillance pathway. PMID:22064470

  15. Sexual maturation and administration of 17?-estradiol and testosterone induce complex gene expression changes in skin and increase resistance of Atlantic salmon to ectoparasite salmon louse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krasnov, Aleksei; Wesmajervi Breiland, Mette S; Hatlen, Bjarne; Afanasyev, Sergey; Skugor, Stanko

    2015-02-01

    The crustacean ectoparasitic salmon louse (Lepeophtheirus salmonis) is a major problem of Atlantic salmon aquaculture in the Northern hemisphere. Host-pathogen interactions in this system are highly complex. Resistance to the parasite involves variations in genetic background, nutrition, properties of skin, and status of the endocrine and immune systems. This study addressed the relationship between sex hormones and lice infection. Field observation revealed a sharp reduction of lice prevalence during sexual maturation with no difference between male and female fish. To determine if higher resistance against lice was related to sex hormones, post-smolt salmon were administered control feed and feeds containing 17?-estradiol (20 mg/kg) and testosterone (25 mg/kg) during a 3-week pre-challenge period. After challenge with lice, counts were reduced 2-fold and 1.5-fold in fish that received 17?-estradiol and testosterone, respectively. Gene expression analyses were performed from skin of salmon collected in the field trial and from the controlled lab experiment at three time points (end of feeding-before challenge, 3 days post challenge (dpc) and 16 dpc) using oligonucleotide microarray and qPCR. Differential expression was observed in genes associated with diverse biological processes. Both studies revealed similar changes of several antibacterial acute phase proteins; of note was induction of cathelicidin and down-regulation of a defensin gene. Treatment with hormones revealed their ability to modulate T helper cell (Th)-mediated immunity in skin. Enhanced protection achieved by 17?-estradiol administration might in part be due to the skewing of Th responses away from the prototypic anti-parasitic Th2 immunity and towards the more effective Th1 responses. Multiple genes involved in wound healing, differentiation and remodelling of skin tissue were stimulated during maturation but suppressed with sex hormones. Such opposite regulation suggested that these processes were not associated with resistance to the parasite under the studied conditions. Both studies revealed regulation of a suite of genes encoding putative large mucosal proteins found exclusively in fish. Marked decrease of erythrocyte markers indicated reduced circulation while down-regulation of multiple zymogen granule membrane proteins and transporters of cholesterol and other compounds suggested limited availability of nutrients for the parasites. PMID:25599658

  16. Long Maturity Forward Rates

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christiansen, Charlotte

    2001-01-01

    The paper aims to improve the knowledge of the empirical properties of the long maturity region of the forward rate curve. Firstly, the theoretical negative correlation between the slope at the long end of the forward rate curve and the term structure variance is recovered empirically and found to...... be statistically significant. Secondly, the expectations hypothesis is analyzed for the long maturity region of the forward rate curve using "forward rate" regressions. The expectations hypothesis is numerically close to being accepted but is statistically rejected. The findings provide mixed support...

  17. Radiation Processes in an Incompletely Ionized Plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The first part of the paper gives a simple analytical treatment of radiation transfer (line and recombination) in a plasma, assuming full frequency redistribution. A study is made of the effect of the type of kernel of the integral transport equation on the nature of its solutions and the corresponding physical characteristics of the main types of radiation transfer, true diffusion, ''trapping'' and free escape. Some approximate methods of solving the transport equation are analysed, and results are established which do not depend on the type of kernel. The difference between capture and true diffusion, which is known to amount to the difference in the relationship between photon escape time and the dimensions of the system, can also be formulated as the difference between two characteristic lengths, the diffusion length and the quenching length. The difference between diffusion and capture is marked only if there is strong non-equilibrium, and then it appears principally in the intermediate region of optical thicknesses corresponding to the ''pure scattering'' case. However, use of the photon escape time as a kind of phenomenological characteristic means that in this region, too, an approximate solution can be written in the ''invariant'' form. Radiation losses in the final volume of a non-equilibrium plasma are considered, and a relationship is derived between the optical thickness and the degree of non-equilibrium which delineates the regions of volume and surface emission. The range of applicability of the treatment in question is discussed in the light of recent works on related aspects of radiation transfer theory. The second part analyses the quasi-static (Holtzmark) approximation in the theory of Stark broadening' of spectral lines. The limits within which this approximation can be applied are discussed; these limits are imposed by dynamic effects caused both by thermal motion of the perturbing particles themselves and by some external quenching. The treatment is based on a more general approach which reveals the real range of applicability of the frequently used binary approach, and also yields a critical analysis of certain semi-intuitive, evident criteria for the quasi-static state which appear in the literature. Two types of criteria for the quasi-static state, ''modulation'' and ''quenching'', are compared. Some new relationships describing the influence of the dynamic effects mentioned above are given. The third part contains short reviews of a number of contemporary trends in the development of the theory of such phenomena as radiation processes in an incompletely ionized plasma, broadening of lines, radiation transfer, relaxation in multi-level systems, emission in a continuum, fluctuating microfields and certain thermodynamic effects. (author)

  18. Perinatal exposure to benzyl butyl phthalate induces alterations in neuronal development/maturation protein expression, estrogen responses, and fear conditioning in rodents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeBartolo, Danielle; Jayatilaka, Sahani; Yan Siu, Nga; Rose, Melissa; Ramos, Raddy L; Betz, Adrienne J

    2016-02-01

    Phthalate exposure has recently been associated with behavioral actions that are linked to its endocrine-disrupting properties. The purpose of this study was to investigate the molecular, anatomical, and behavioral effects of indirect perinatal benzyl butyl phthalate (BBP) exposure in offspring of BBP-treated pregnant dams. In two separate experiments, we administered BBP (10.0??g/ml) on food pellets to pregnant dams and examined the offspring. The first experiment revealed reproductive anatomical abnormalities linked to BBP's endocrine-disrupting properties, whereas histological analysis revealed preserved hippocampal neuronal migration. The second experiment demonstrated learning and memory impairments accompanied by molecular abnormalities in multiple brain regions. Offspring from BBP-treated dams had altered levels of several proteins important for neuronal circuitry formation, tissue development, and maturation. We suggest that BBP administration disrupts normal learning and that these effects could be related to alterations in brain development and result in a phenotype similar to that observed in neurodevelopmental disorders. PMID:26376073

  19. Evidence of reproductive disruption associated with neuroendocrine changes induced by UV–B filters, phtalates and nonylphenol during sexual maturation in rats of both gender

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Endocrine disruptors (EDs) are exogenous substances or xenoestrogens natural or synthetic, capable of interacting with different systems and altering their normal hormonal regulation, being the reproductive system one of the most affected. EDs produce their effects not only by acting on nuclear steroid receptors, but also on membrane receptors, steroidal and non-steroidal synthetic enzymatic pathways and/or metabolism. The incorporation to the body depend on each EDs, which are liposoluble and easily deposited in the tissue; thus ensuring a prolonged accumulation and release, even when the exposure is not continuous. In addition to cross the placenta, EDs may act in the offspring during the reproductive system formation and maturation key stages and its regulatory mechanisms. The effects of EDs can be multiple, but most acts mediating estrogenic and/or antiandrogenic effect. Three groups of EDs are widely used: in plastics (phtalates), sunscreens (cinnamate and methylbenzylcamphor), and detergents (nonylphenol). In this paper we review the effects of the exposure to these environmental chemicals on the reproductive system and the possible mechanisms by which they occur, focusing in the hypothalamic–pituitary neuroendocrine mechanisms that regulate the reproductive system

  20. Association of anti-nucleoprotein autoantibodies with upregulation of Type I interferon-inducible gene transcripts and dendritic cell maturation in systemic lupus erythematosus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhuang, Haoyang; Narain, Sonali; Sobel, Eric; Lee, Pui Y; Nacionales, Dina C; Kelly, Kindra M; Richards, Hanno B; Segal, Mark; Stewart, Carol; Satoh, Minoru; Reeves, Westley H

    2005-12-01

    Lupus patients selectively produce autoantibodies against nucleoproteins. Since the RNA/DNA components of these autoantigens are endogenous TLR ligands capable of stimulating Type I interferon (IFN-I) production, we asked whether autoantibodies against the ribonucleoproteins Sm/RNP and Ro60 and double-stranded DNA are associated with high levels of IFN-I. IFN-I levels were increased in SLE (n = 88) vs. other autoimmune diseases (n = 82) and controls (n = 57) (P < 0.0001) and were associated positively with autoantibodies against Sm/RNP, Ro60/La, and dsDNA but negatively with anti-phospholipid. Low numbers of circulating plasmacytoid and myeloid dendritic cells also were associated with these autoantibodies. The IFN-I and dendritic cell abnormalities correlated with disease severity and were not therapy-related. These findings suggest that immunostimulatory nucleic acid components of autoantigens may act as endogenous adjuvants by promoting IFN-I production and dendritic cell maturation, helping to explain the high prevalence of autoantibodies against nucleoprotein antigens in SLE. PMID:16126005

  1. Microinjected progesterone reinitiates meiotic maturation of Xenopus laevis oocytes.

    OpenAIRE

    Tso, J; Thibier, C; Mulner, O; Ozon, R.

    1982-01-01

    Microinjection of progesterone dissolved in paraffin oil induces the reinitiation of meiotic maturation in the Xenopus oocyte; 50% maturation is obtained when 50 nl of a 50 microM solution is microinjected into the oocyte. The kinetics of the response to microinjected progesterone are similar to the kinetics of response to externally applied hormone. When an aqueous solution of progesterone is microinjected instead of an oil solution, maturation is never observed, a result which confirms prev...

  2. Jealousy and Moral Maturity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mathes, Eugene W.; Deuger, Donna J.

    Jealousy may be perceived as either good or bad depending upon the moral maturity of the individual. To investigate this conclusion, a study was conducted testing two hypothesis: a positive relationship exists between conventional moral reasoning (reference to norms and laws) and the endorsement and level of jealousy; and a negative relationship…

  3. WASp stings mature lymphocytes

    OpenAIRE

    Severinson, Eva

    2008-01-01

    WAS is an X-linked immunodeficiency disease caused by mutations in WASp.1 Meyer-Bahlburg and colleagues and Westerberg and colleagues in this issue of Blood have investigated lymphocyte subpopulations in WASp+/- mice and found that WASp confers a selective advantage to the most mature T and B cells.

  4. Hierarchical sparse Bayesian learning for structural health monitoring with incomplete modal data

    OpenAIRE

    Yong HUANG; Beck, James L.

    2014-01-01

    For civil structures, structural damage due to severe loading events such as earthquakes, or due to long-term environmental degradation, usually occurs in localized areas of a structure. A new sparse Bayesian probabilistic framework for computing the probability of localized stiffness reductions induced by damage is presented that uses noisy incomplete modal data from before and after possible damage. This new approach employs system modal parameters of the structure as extr...

  5. Phagocytosis and LPS alter the maturation state of ?-amyloid precursor protein and induce different A? peptide release signatures in human mononuclear phagocytes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kornhuber Johannes

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The classic neuritic ?-amyloid plaque of Alzheimer's disease (AD is typically associated with activated microglia and neuroinflammation. Similarly, cerebrovascular ?-amyloid (A? deposits are surrounded by perivascular macrophages. Both observations indicate a contribution of the mononuclear phagocyte system to the development of ?-amyloid. Methods Human CD14-positive mononuclear phagocytes were isolated from EDTA-anticoagulated blood by magnetic activated cell sorting. After a cultivation period of 72 hours in serum-free medium we assessed the protein levels of amyloid precursor protein (APP as well as the patterns and the amounts of released A? peptides by ELISA or one-dimensional and two-dimensional urea-based SDS-PAGE followed by western immunoblotting. Results We observed strong and significant increases in A? peptide release upon phagocytosis of acetylated low density lipoprotein (acLDL or polystyrene beads and also after activation of the CD14/TLR4 pathway by stimulation with LPS. The proportion of released N-terminally truncated A? variants was increased after stimulation with polystyrene beads and acLDL but not after stimulation with LPS. Furthermore, strong shifts in the proportions of single A?1-40 and A?2-40 variants were detected resulting in a stimulus-specific A? signature. The increased release of A? peptides was accompanied by elevated levels of full length APP in the cells. The maturation state of APP was correlated with the release of N-terminally truncated A? peptides. Conclusions These findings indicate that mononuclear phagocytes potentially contribute to the various N-truncated A? variants found in AD ?-amyloid plaques, especially under neuroinflammatory conditions.

  6. Pharmaceutical Options for Triggering of Final Oocyte Maturation in ART

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Castillo, Juan Carlos; Humaidan, Peter; Bernabéu, Rafael

    2014-01-01

    Since the pioneering days of in vitro fertilization, hCG has been the gold standard to induce final follicular maturation. We herein reviewed different pharmaceutical options for triggering of final oocyte maturation in ART. The new upcoming agent seems to be GnRHa with its potential advantages...

  7. The topology of integrable systems with incomplete fields

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aleshkin, K R [M. V. Lomonosov Moscow State University, Faculty of Mechanics and Mathematics, Moscow (Russian Federation)

    2014-09-30

    Liouville's theorem holds for Hamiltonian systems with complete Hamiltonian fields which possess a complete involutive system of first integrals; such systems are called Liouville-integrable. In this paper integrable systems with incomplete Hamiltonian fields are investigated. It is shown that Liouville's theorem remains valid in the case of a single incomplete field, while if the number of incomplete fields is greater, a certain analogue of the theorem holds. An integrable system on the algebra sl(3) is taken as an example. Bibliography: 11 titles.

  8. The topology of integrable systems with incomplete fields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liouville's theorem holds for Hamiltonian systems with complete Hamiltonian fields which possess a complete involutive system of first integrals; such systems are called Liouville-integrable. In this paper integrable systems with incomplete Hamiltonian fields are investigated. It is shown that Liouville's theorem remains valid in the case of a single incomplete field, while if the number of incomplete fields is greater, a certain analogue of the theorem holds. An integrable system on the algebra sl(3) is taken as an example. Bibliography: 11 titles

  9. Incomplete fusion reactions in 16O+165Ho

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Anil Sharma; B Bindu Kumar; S Mukherjee; S Chakrabarty; B S Tomar; A Goswami; G K Gubbi; S B Manohar; A K Sinha; S K Datta

    2000-03-01

    Excitation functions for evaporation residues of the system 16O+165Ho have been measured up to 100 MeV. Recoil range distribution of long lived reaction products were measured at 16O beam energy of 100 MeV. Detailed Monte Carlo simulation of recoil range distributions of products were performed with the help of PACE2 code, in order to extract the contributions of incomplete fusion in the individual channels. The results clearly show the incomplete fusion contributions in the tantalum and thulium products. This is con?rmed by the predictions of breakup fusion model of the incomplete fusion.

  10. Boosting high-intensity focused ultrasound-induced anti-tumor immunity using a sparse-scan strategy that can more effectively promote dendritic cell maturation

    OpenAIRE

    Zhong Pei; Li Chao; Hui Chun; Qiu Lei; Hu Zhenlin; Liu Fang; Zhang Junping

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Background The conventional treatment protocol in high-intensity focused ultrasound (HIFU) therapy utilizes a dense-scan strategy to produce closely packed thermal lesions aiming at eradicating as much tumor mass as possible. However, this strategy is not most effective in terms of inducing a systemic anti-tumor immunity so that it cannot provide efficient micro-metastatic control and long-term tumor resistance. We have previously provided evidence that HIFU may enhance systemic anti...

  11. Hairpin Incompletion : An Extension of Bounded Hairpin Completion

    CERN Document Server

    Okubo, Fumiya

    2011-01-01

    Hairpin completion and its restricted variant called bounded hairpin completion are operations on formal languages, inspired by a hairpin formation in molecular biology. We introduce a new operation of this kind, called {\\it hairpin incompletion} which is in fact an extension of bounded hairpin completion. Further, the hairpin incompletion operation provides a formal language theoretic framework that models a bio-molecular technique nowadays known as Whiplash PCR. We study the closure properties of language families under both the operation and its iterated version. We show that a family of languages closed under intersection with regular sets, concatenation with regular sets, and finite union is closed under iterated hairpin incompletion, and that a family of languages containing all linear languages and closed under circular permutation, left derivative and substitution is also closed under iterated hairpin incompletion.

  12. Maturity in technology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Alberts

    1988-03-01

    Full Text Available The concept is developed that modern technology, because of its relationship with pure science, can never really become mature, but will always grow as the pool of scientific knowledge grows. Parameters indicating to some extent the degree of technological prowess in a society are compared for a spectrum of countries. It is clear that in spite of some internationally outstanding successes. South Africa must be regarded on average as a developing society.

  13. Audit Maturity Model

    OpenAIRE

    Bhattacharya, Uttam; Rahut, Amit Kumar; De, Sujoy

    2013-01-01

    Today it is crucial for organizations to pay even greater attention on quality management as the importance of this function in achieving ultimate business objectives is increasingly becoming clearer. Importance of the Quality Management Function in achieving basic need by ensuring compliance with Capability Maturity Model Integrated or International Organization for Standardization is a basic demand from business nowadays. However, Quality Management Function and its proces...

  14. Group decision-making with incomplete fuzzy linguistic preference relations

    OpenAIRE

    Alonso, S.; Cabrerizo, F.J.; Chiclana, F.; Herrera-Viedma, E.; Herrera, Francisco

    2009-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to propose a procedure to estimate missing preference values when dealing with incomplete fuzzy linguistic preference relations assessed using a 2–tuple fuzzy linguistic approach. This procedure attempts to estimate the missing information in an individual incomplete fuzzy linguistic preference relation using only the preference values provided by the respective expert. It is guided by the additive consistency property in order to maintain experts consiste...

  15. Effect of the Target Deformation on Incomplete Fusion Dynamics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Singh D.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available To investigate the role of target deformation on incomplete fusion dynamics, a particle-gamma coincidence experiment has been performed at Inter University Accelerator Centre, New Delhi. Spin distributions for various evaporation residues populated via complete and incomplete fusion of 16O with 124Sn at 6.3MeV/nucleon have been measured. Experimentally measured spin distributions of the residues produced as incomplete fusion products associated with fast ? and 2?-emission channels observed in forward cone are found to be distinctly different from those of the residues produced as complete fusion products. The mean value of input angular momentum J0 for evaporation residues produced through xn channels (complete fusion products is found to be J0? 7?, while the mean value of input angular momentum J0 for the residues produced through direct ?xn and 2?xn channels (incomplete fusion products in forward cone, are found to be J0 ? 9? and ? 12? respectively for 16O + 124Sn (spherical system [7]. The mean value of input angular momentum J0 for the system 16O + 169Tm (deformed reported in ref. [8], are found to be ?10? for xn-channels (complete fusion products and for direct ?xn and 2?xn channels (incomplete fusion products the value of J0 approaches to ? 13? and ?16?, respectively. The mean values of the input angular momentum observed for xn (complete fusion products, ?xn and 2?xn (incomplete fusion products in 16O + 124Sn (spherical system are smaller than that of the mean values of the input angular momentum observed for xn (complete fusion products, ?xn and 2?xn (incomplete fusion products in 16O + 169Tm (deformed system. The comparison of data inferred that the mean values of the input angular momentum are smaller in case of spherical target than that of deformed target at same projectile energy of 16O-ion beam. It means that the target deformation affect the incomplete fusion dynamics.

  16. Incomplete Financial Markets and Jumps in Asset Prices

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Crès, Hervé; Markeprand, Tobias Ejnar; Tvede, Mich

    A dynamic pure-exchange general equilibrium model with uncertainty is studied. Fundamentals are supposed to depend continuously on states of nature. It is shown that: 1. if financial markets are complete, then asset prices vary continuously with states of nature, and; 2. if financial markets are ...... incomplete, jumps in asset prices may be unavoidable. Consequently incomplete financial markets may increase volatility in asset prices significantly....

  17. Incomplete spinal cord injury, exercise and life satisfaction

    OpenAIRE

    Lannem, Anne Marie; Sørensen, Marit; Frøslie, Kathrine Frey; Hjeltnes, Nils

    2008-01-01

    STUDY DESIGN: Cross-sectional survey. OBJECTIVE: This study investigates the role of physical exercise, perceived exercise mastery and fitness on life satisfaction of a sample of individuals with incomplete spinal cord injury (SCI). SETTING: Sunnaas Rehabilitation Hospital and the Norwegian School of Sport Sciences, Norway. METHODS: A questionnaire measuring life satisfaction, self-rated physical exercise and self-perceptions were mailed to persons with incomplete SCI. RESULTS: In total, 100 ...

  18. Cooperation under Incomplete Information on the Discount Factors

    OpenAIRE

    Maor, Cy; Solan, Eilon

    2014-01-01

    In repeated games, cooperation is possible in equilibrium only if players are sufficiently patient, and long-term gains from cooperation outweigh short-term gains from deviation. What happens if the players have incomplete information regarding each other's discount factors? In this paper we look at repeated games in which each player has incomplete information regarding the other player's discount factor, and ask when full cooperation can arise in equilibrium. We provide ne...

  19. ON TWO METHODS OF ANALYSING BALANCED INCOMPLETE BLOCK DESIGNS

    OpenAIRE

    Chigozie Kelechi Acha

    2012-01-01

    The paper briefly discusses the balanced incomplete–block design (BIBD’s) and further compares two methods of analyzing them-the classical and vector space analysis of variance (ANOVA) methods. These methods are applied differently to the data arising from the balanced incomplete block designs (BIBD’s). The basic interest is to compare the performance of the two methods of analysis on the available data from National Root Crop Research Institute (N.R.C.R.I) Umudike, Abia Sta...

  20. Reputations, relationships and the enforcement of incomplete contracts

    OpenAIRE

    Macleod, W. Bentley

    2006-01-01

    This paper discusses the literature on the enforcement of incomplete contracts. It compares legal enforcement to enforcement via relationships and reputations. A number of mechanisms, such as the repeat purchase mechanism (Klein and Leffler (1981)) and efficiency wages (Shapiro and Stiglitz (1984)), have been offered as solutions to the problem of enforcing an incomplete contract. It is shown that the efficiency of these solutions is very sensitive to the characteristics of the good or servic...

  1. Theorems of Tarski's Undefinability and Godel's Second Incompleteness - Computationally

    OpenAIRE

    Salehi, Saeed

    2015-01-01

    We show that the existence of a finitely axiomatized theory which can prove all the true $\\Sigma_1$ sentences may imply Godel's Second Incompleteness Theorem, by incorporating some bi-theoretic version of the derivability conditions (first discussed by Detlefsen~2001). We also argue that Tarski's theorem on the undefinability of truth is Godel's first incompleteness theorem relativized to definable oracles; here a unification of these two theorems is shown.

  2. Filtering, control and fault detection with randomly occurring incomplete information

    CERN Document Server

    Dong, Hongli; Gao, Huijun

    2013-01-01

    This book investigates the filtering, control and fault detection problems for several classes of nonlinear systems with randomly occurring incomplete information. It proposes new concepts, including RVNs, ROMDs, ROMTCDs, and ROQEs. The incomplete information under consideration primarily includes missing measurements, time-delays, sensor and actuator saturations, quantization effects and time-varying nonlinearities. The first part of this book focuses on the filtering, control and fault detection problems for several classes of nonlinear stochastic discrete-time systems and

  3. Are the Gödel incompleteness theorems limitative results for the neurosciences?

    OpenAIRE

    Buechner, Jeff

    2009-01-01

    There are many kinds of limitative results in the sciences, some of which are philosophical. I am interested in examining one kind of limitative result in the neurosciences that is mathematical—a result secured by the Gödel incompleteness theorems. I will view the incompleteness theorems as independence results, develop a connection with independence results in set theory, and then argue that work in the neurosciences (as well as in molecular, systems and synthetic biology) may well avoid the...

  4. An example of a stochastic equilibrium with incomplete markets

    OpenAIRE

    Zitkovic, Gordan

    2009-01-01

    We prove existence and uniqueness of stochastic equilibria in a class of incomplete continuous-time financial environments where the market participants are exponential utility maximizers with heterogeneous risk-aversion coefficients and general Markovian random endowments. The incompleteness featured in our setting - the source of which can be thought of as a credit event or a catastrophe - is genuine in the sense that not only the prices, but also the family of replicable ...

  5. Water deficit stress tolerance in maize conferred by expression of an isopentenyltransferase (IPT) gene driven by a stress- and maturation-induced promoter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Décima Oneto, Cecilia; Otegui, María Elena; Baroli, Irene; Beznec, Ailin; Faccio, Paula; Bossio, Ezequiel; Blumwald, Eduardo; Lewi, Dalia

    2016-02-20

    Senescence can be delayed in transgenic plants overexpressing the enzyme isopentenyltransferase (IPT) due to stress-induced increased levels of endogenous cytokinins. This trait leads to sustained photosynthetic activity and improved tolerance to abiotic stress. The aim of this study was to generate and characterize transgenic plants of maize (Zea mays L.) transformed with the IPT gene sequence under the regulation of SARK promoter (protein kinase receptor-associated senescence). Three independent transgenic events and their segregating null controls were evaluated in two watering regimes (WW: well watered; WD: water deficit) imposed for two weeks around anthesis. Our results show that the WD treatment induced IPT expression with the concomitant increase in cytokinin levels, which prolonged the persistence of total green leaf area, and maintained normal photosynthetic rate and stomatal conductance. These trends were accompanied by a minor decrease in number of grains per plant, individual grain weight and plant grain yield as compared to WW plants. Plants expressing the IPT gene under WD had PGR, anthesis and silking dates and biomass levels similar to WW plants. Our results demonstrate that expression of the IPT gene under the regulation of the SARK promoter helps improve productivity under WD conditions in C4 plants like maize. PMID:26784988

  6. Is a decrease in cyclic AMP a necessary and sufficient signal for maturation of amphibian oocytes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gelerstein, S.; Shapira, H.; Dascal, N.; Yekuel, R.; Oron, Y.

    1988-05-01

    Acetylcholine rapidly lowered the intracellular levels of cyclic AMP in stage 5 and 6 Xenopus laevis oocytes. Acetylcholine alone did not induce oocyte maturation, though it did accelerate maturation induced by progesterone. The effect of acetylcholine on oocyte maturation was independent of extracellular calcium concentration. Adenosine increased cyclic AMP and abolished the progesterone-induced decrease in cyclic AMP levels in follicles and in denuded oocytes. This effect of adenosine was blocked by the Ra purinergic receptor antagonist, theophylline. Despite those effects, adenosine alone induced maturation in stage 6 oocytes and accelerated progesterone-induced maturation in both stage 5 and 6 cells. Adenosine also induced a significant increase in the rate of /sup 45/Ca efflux from oocytes in the presence and the absence of external calcium. We suggest that the activation of cell surface receptors involved in the release of calcium from cellular stores may induce or accelerate oocyte maturation independently of small changes in intracellular cyclic AMP concentration.

  7. Vocational Maturity and Self Concepts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Helbing, Hans

    The relationship between separate dimensions of vocational maturity and different self-concept and identity variables were examined. Subjects were Dutch students, age 14-18 years. The vocational maturity dimensions were measured by Dutch adaptations of American vocational maturity scales. Instruments for self-concept and identity measurement were…

  8. A Socioanalytic Model of Maturity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hogan, Robert; Roberts, Brent W.

    2004-01-01

    K0 describes a point of view on maturity that departs from earlier treatments in two ways. First, it rejects the popular assumption from humanistic psychology that maturity is a function of self-actualization and stipulates that maturity is related to certain performance capacities--namely, the ability to form lasting relationships and to achieve…

  9. Modelling incomplete fusion dynamics of weakly-bound nuclei at near-barrier energies

    CERN Document Server

    Diaz-Torres, Alexis

    2010-01-01

    The classical dynamical model for reactions induced by weakly-bound nuclei at near-barrier energies is developed further. It allows a quantitative study of the role and importance of incomplete fusion dynamics in asymptotic observables, such as the population of high-spin states in reaction products as well as the angular distribution of direct alpha-production. Model calculations indicate that incomplete fusion is an effective mechanism for populating high-spin states, and its contribution to the direct alpha production yield diminishes with decreasing energy towards the Coulomb barrier. It also becomes notably separated in angles from the contribution of no-capture breakup events. This should facilitate the experimental disentanglement of these competing reaction processes.

  10. Role of the critical angular momentum on incomplete fusion dynamics above the Coulomb barrier

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The study of incomplete fusion (ICF) of heavy ions (HI) with different targets has been a growing interest at energies above the Coulomb barrier. Observations of HI induced reactions show that at projectile energies above the Coulomb barrier, complete fusion (CF) and incomplete fusion (ICF) are dominant nuclear reaction mechanisms. In case of CF process, the projectile completely fuses with the target nucleus and the highly excited nuclear system decays by evaporating low energy nucleons and alpha particles. Using these experimentally measured total and theoretically calculated total cross-section of ERs, critical angular momentum have been calculated for the above projectile target systems at projectile energy ? 4-7 MeV/nucleon. Role of the ?crit on ICF dynamics above the Coulomb barrier for these two projectile target combinations have been discussed and presented in this paper

  11. Manejo estético y endodóncico de dientes con formación radicular incompleta / Aesthetic and endodontic management of teeth with incomplete root formation

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    L.A., Dávila Rodríguez; D.A., Barcha Barreto; E., León Barrios; M.A., Simancas Pallares.

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available La necrosis pulpar es una de las principales complicaciones de los traumatismos dentales lo que implica en un diente inmaduro la interrupción de la maduración de la raíz y el cierre apical. Una terapia llamada "apexificación" se requiere para inducir la formación de una barrera calcificada apical pe [...] rmitiendo un relleno permanente y hermético de la raíz. Numerosos materiales han sido recomendados para inducir apexificación y conservar la estética en dientes con ápices inmaduros como el mineral trióxido agregado (MTA), el hidróxido de calcio [Ca (OH)2], los postes de fibra de vidrio y entre los diversos materiales utilizados en prótesis, la cerámica que reproduce la apariencia de la dentición natural y tiene un comportamiento óptico muy similar a la de los tejidos duros dentales. El presente caso reporta paciente masculino de 17 años de edad con fractura coronaria complicada, conducto radicular expuesto a cavidad oral con formación radicular incompleta. El objetivo del presente caso clínico es describir la apexificación como primera alternativa para mantener un diente útil, utilizando la formación de una barrera apical con mineral trióxido agregado (MTA) y recuperar la estética del paciente. Conclusiones: La medicación intraconducto adecuada para la inducción a la formación de un cierre apical en un diente inmaduro o con formación radicular incompleta, es de trascendental importancia para el éxito del proceso de apexificación en donde juega un papel importante el MTA ya que en la actualidad es el material que brinda más ventajas en esta práctica como inductor de dicho proceso. Abstract in english Pulpal necrosis is one of the main complications of dental trauma which implies an interruption of the root maturation and the apical closure of an immature tooth. Apexification is a therapy used for inducing the creation of an apical calcified barrier allowing a permanent filling of the root. Sever [...] al materials have been recommended to induce apexification and preserve aesthetics in teeth with immature apex, such as mineral trioxide aggregate (MTA), calcium hydroxide [Ca (OH)2], glass fiber posts, as well as the different materials used in prosthetic dentistry, ceramics that reproduce the appearance of the natural dentition and show an optic behavior very similar to the hard tissues of the teeth. This case reports a 17 year old male patient with a complicated crown fracture, exposed root canal in the oral cavity with incomplete root formation. The purpose of this clinical case is to describe the use of apexification as the first choice to keep a useful tooth, using the formation of an apical barrier with mineral trioxide aggregate (MTA) and recover the patient aesthetics. Conclusions: The appropriate intracanal medication for inducing the formation of an apical closure in an immature tooth or with an incomplete root formation, is of vital importance for the success of the process of apexification where MTA plays an important role due to the fact that right now is the material that gives more advantages in this particular practice as an inducer in that process.

  12. Mature Cystic Renal Teratoma

    OpenAIRE

    Yavuz, Alpaslan; Ceken, Kagan; Alimoglu, Emel; Bahar AKKAYA

    2014-01-01

    Teratomas are rare germline tumors that originate from one or more embryonic germ cell layers. Teratoma of the kidney is extremely rare, and less than 30 cases of primary intrarenal teratomas have been published to date. We report the main radiologic features of an unusual case of mature cystic teratoma arising from the left kidney in a two-year-old boy. A left-sided abdominal mass was detected on physical examination and B-Mod Ultrasound (US) examination revealed a heterogeneous mass with ce...

  13. Antibody affinity maturation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skjødt, Mette Louise

    Yeast surface display is an effective tool for antibody affinity maturation because yeast can be used as an all-in-one workhorse to assemble, display and screen diversified antibody libraries. By employing the natural ability of yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae to efficiently recombine multiple DNA...... laboratory conditions. A particular emphasis was put on using molecular techniques in conjunction with microenvironmental measurements (O2, pH, irradiance), a combination that is rarely found but provides a much more detailed understanding of “cause and effect” in complex natural systems...

  14. The Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids Arachidonic Acid and Docosahexaenoic Acid Induce Mouse Dendritic Cells Maturation but Reduce T-Cell Responses In Vitro

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carlsson, Johan A.; Wold, Agnes E.; Sandberg, Ann-Sofie; Östman, Sofia M.

    2015-01-01

    Long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) might regulate T-cell activation and lineage commitment. Here, we measured the effects of omega-3 (n-3), n-6 and n-9 fatty acids on the interaction between dendritic cells (DCs) and naïve T cells. Spleen DCs from BALB/c mice were cultured in vitro with ovalbumin (OVA) with 50 ?M fatty acids; ?-linolenic acid, arachidonic acid (AA), eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA), docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), linoleic acid or oleic acid and thereafter OVA-specific DO11.10 T cells were added to the cultures. Fatty acids were taken up by the DCs, as shown by gas chromatography analysis. After culture with arachidonic acid or DHA CD11c+ CD11b+ and CD11c+ CD11bneg DCs expressed more CD40, CD80, CD83, CD86 and PDL-1, while IAd remained unchanged. However, fewer T cells co-cultured with these DCs proliferated (CellTrace Violetlow) and expressed CD69 or CD25, while more were necrotic (7AAD+). We noted an increased proportion of T cells with a regulatory T cell (Treg) phenotype, i.e., when gating on CD4+ FoxP3+ CTLA-4+, CD4+ FoxP3+ Helios+ or CD4+ FoxP3+ PD-1+, in co-cultures with arachidonic acid- or DHA-primed DCs relative to control cultures. The proportion of putative Tregs was inversely correlated to T-cell proliferation, indicating a suppressive function of these cells. With arachidonic acid DCs produced higher levels of prostaglandin E2 while T cells produced lower amounts of IL-10 and IFN?. In conclusion arachidonic acid and DHA induced up-regulation of activation markers on DCs. However arachidonic acid- and DHA-primed DCs reduced T-cell proliferation and increased the proportion of T cells expressing FoxP3, indicating that these fatty acids can promote induction of regulatory T cells. PMID:26619195

  15. Propolis inhibits osteoclast maturation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pileggi, Roberta; Antony, Kathryn; Johnson, Kristie; Zuo, Jian; Shannon Holliday, L

    2009-12-01

    Propolis, a natural product produced by the honey bee, has been successfully used in medicine as an anti-inflammatory and antimicrobial agent. Traumatic injuries to the teeth, especially avulsion injuries, present a challenging situation for the clinician because of post-treatment complications, such as inflammatory and/or replacement resorption. Agents that reduce osteoclast numbers and activity may be useful in the treatment of traumatic injuries to the teeth. In this study, we evaluated propolis as an anti-resorptive agent. Calcitriol-stimulated mouse marrow cultures, which contain both osteoclasts and osteoblasts, were exposed to the ethanol extracts of propolis or vehicle control and stained for tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase (TRAP)-activity to identify osteoclasts. A significant, dose-dependent reduction in multinuclear TRAP+ cells was demonstrated, although the propolis treatment accommodated cell growth and survival (P RAW 264.7 osteoclast-like cells, suggesting that it exerts direct actions on osteoclast maturation. In summary, our data suggest that propolis inhibits late stages of osteoclast maturation including fusion of osteoclasts precursors to form giant cells and formation of actin rings. This supports the hypothesis that it may prove useful as a medicament to reduce resorption associated with traumatic injuries to the teeth. PMID:19843135

  16. Observation of incomplete fusion reactions at l < l crit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yadav, Abhishek; Sharma, Vijay R.; Singh, Devendra P.; Singh, Pushpendra P.; Bala, Indu; Kumar, R.; Unnati, Sharma, M. K.; Muralithar, S.; Singh, R. P.; Singh, B. P.; Prasad, R.

    2014-08-01

    In order to understand the presence of incomplete fusion at low energies i.e. 4-7MeV/nucleon & also to study its dependence on various entrance-channel parameters, the two type of measurements (i) excitation function for 12C+159Tb, and (ii) forward recoil ranges for 12C+159Tb systems have been performed. The experimentally measured excitation functions have been analyzed within the framework of compound nucleus decay using statistical model code PACE4. Analysis of data suggests the production of xn/px)n-channels via complete fusion, as these are found to be well reproduced by PACE4 predictions, while, a significant enhancement in the excitation functions of ?-emitting channels has been observed over the theoretical ones, which has been attributed due to the incomplete fusion processes. Further, the incomplete fusion events observed in case of forward recoil range measurements have been explained on the basis of the breakup fusion model, where these events may be attributed to the fusion of 8Be and/or 4He from 12C projectile to the target nucleus. In the present work, the SUMRULE model calculations are found to highly underestimate the observed incomplete fusion cross-sections which indicate that the l-values lower than l crit (limit of complete fusion) significantly contribute to the incomplete fusion reactions.

  17. Observation of incomplete fusion reactions at l < l {sub crit}

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yadav, Abhishek, E-mail: abhishekyadav117@gmail.com; Sharma, Vijay R., E-mail: abhishekyadav117@gmail.com; Singh, Devendra P., E-mail: abhishekyadav117@gmail.com; Unnati,; Singh, B. P.; Prasad, R. [Department of Physics, Aligarh Muslim University, Aligarh (UP) - 202 002 (India); Singh, Pushpendra P. [GSI-Helmholtz Centre for Heavy Ion Research GmbH, D-64291 Darmstadt (Germany); Bala, Indu; Kumar, R.; Muralithar, S.; Singh, R. P. [NP-Group: Inter-University Accelerator Center, Aruna Asaf Ali Marg, New Delhi - 110 067 (India); Sharma, M. K. [Department of Physics, S. V. College, Aligarh- 202 001 (India)

    2014-08-14

    In order to understand the presence of incomplete fusion at low energies i.e. 4-7MeV/nucleon and also to study its dependence on various entrance-channel parameters, the two type of measurements (i) excitation function for {sup 12}C+{sup 159}Tb, and (ii) forward recoil ranges for {sup 12}C+{sup 159}Tb systems have been performed. The experimentally measured excitation functions have been analyzed within the framework of compound nucleus decay using statistical model code PACE4. Analysis of data suggests the production of xn/px)n-channels via complete fusion, as these are found to be well reproduced by PACE4 predictions, while, a significant enhancement in the excitation functions of ?-emitting channels has been observed over the theoretical ones, which has been attributed due to the incomplete fusion processes. Further, the incomplete fusion events observed in case of forward recoil range measurements have been explained on the basis of the breakup fusion model, where these events may be attributed to the fusion of {sup 8}Be and/or {sup 4}He from {sup 12}C projectile to the target nucleus. In the present work, the SUMRULE model calculations are found to highly underestimate the observed incomplete fusion cross-sections which indicate that the l-values lower than l {sub crit} (limit of complete fusion) significantly contribute to the incomplete fusion reactions.

  18. Observation of incomplete fusion reactions at l crit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In order to understand the presence of incomplete fusion at low energies i.e. 4-7MeV/nucleon and also to study its dependence on various entrance-channel parameters, the two type of measurements (i) excitation function for 12C+159Tb, and (ii) forward recoil ranges for 12C+159Tb systems have been performed. The experimentally measured excitation functions have been analyzed within the framework of compound nucleus decay using statistical model code PACE4. Analysis of data suggests the production of xn/px)n-channels via complete fusion, as these are found to be well reproduced by PACE4 predictions, while, a significant enhancement in the excitation functions of ?-emitting channels has been observed over the theoretical ones, which has been attributed due to the incomplete fusion processes. Further, the incomplete fusion events observed in case of forward recoil range measurements have been explained on the basis of the breakup fusion model, where these events may be attributed to the fusion of 8Be and/or 4He from 12C projectile to the target nucleus. In the present work, the SUMRULE model calculations are found to highly underestimate the observed incomplete fusion cross-sections which indicate that the l-values lower than l crit (limit of complete fusion) significantly contribute to the incomplete fusion reactions

  19. Facioscapulohumeral dystrophy: incomplete suppression of a retrotransposed gene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snider, Lauren; Geng, Linda N; Lemmers, Richard J L F; Kyba, Michael; Ware, Carol B; Nelson, Angelique M; Tawil, Rabi; Filippova, Galina N; van der Maarel, Silvère M; Tapscott, Stephen J; Miller, Daniel G

    2010-10-01

    Each unit of the D4Z4 macrosatellite repeat contains a retrotransposed gene encoding the DUX4 double-homeobox transcription factor. Facioscapulohumeral dystrophy (FSHD) is caused by deletion of a subset of the D4Z4 units in the subtelomeric region of chromosome 4. Although it has been reported that the deletion of D4Z4 units induces the pathological expression of DUX4 mRNA, the association of DUX4 mRNA expression with FSHD has not been rigorously investigated, nor has any human tissue been identified that normally expresses DUX4 mRNA or protein. We show that FSHD muscle expresses a different splice form of DUX4 mRNA compared to control muscle. Control muscle produces low amounts of a splice form of DUX4 encoding only the amino-terminal portion of DUX4. FSHD muscle produces low amounts of a DUX4 mRNA that encodes the full-length DUX4 protein. The low abundance of full-length DUX4 mRNA in FSHD muscle cells represents a small subset of nuclei producing a relatively high abundance of DUX4 mRNA and protein. In contrast to control skeletal muscle and most other somatic tissues, full-length DUX4 transcript and protein is expressed at relatively abundant levels in human testis, most likely in the germ-line cells. Induced pluripotent (iPS) cells also express full-length DUX4 and differentiation of control iPS cells to embryoid bodies suppresses expression of full-length DUX4, whereas expression of full-length DUX4 persists in differentiated FSHD iPS cells. Together, these findings indicate that full-length DUX4 is normally expressed at specific developmental stages and is suppressed in most somatic tissues. The contraction of the D4Z4 repeat in FSHD results in a less efficient suppression of the full-length DUX4 mRNA in skeletal muscle cells. Therefore, FSHD represents the first human disease to be associated with the incomplete developmental silencing of a retrogene array normally expressed early in development. PMID:21060811

  20. Sublingual misoprostol versus standard surgical care for treatment of incomplete abortion in five sub-Saharan African countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shochet Tara

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In low-resource settings, where abortion is highly restricted and self-induced abortions are common, access to post-abortion care (PAC services, especially treatment of incomplete terminations, is a priority. Standard post-abortion care has involved surgical intervention but can be hard to access in these areas. Misoprostol provides an alternative to surgical intervention that could increase access to abortion care. We sought to gather additional evidence regarding the efficacy of 400 mcg of sublingual misoprostol vs. standard surgical care for treatment of incomplete abortion in the environments where need for economical non-surgical treatments may be most useful. Methods A total of 860 women received either sublingual misoprostol or standard surgical care for treatment of incomplete abortion in a multi-site randomized trial. Women with confirmed incomplete abortion, defined as past or present history of vaginal bleeding during pregnancy and an open cervical os, were eligible to participate. Participants returned for follow-up one week later to confirm clinical status. If abortion was incomplete at that time, women were offered an additional follow-up visit or immediate surgical evacuation. Results Both misoprostol and surgical evacuation are highly effective treatments for incomplete abortion (misoprostol: 94.4%, surgical: 100.0%. Misoprostol treatment resulted in a somewhat lower chance of success than standard surgical practice (RR = 0.90; 95% CI: 0.89-0.92. Both tolerability of side effects and women’s satisfaction were similar in the two study arms. Conclusion Misoprostol, much easier to provide than surgery in low-resource environments, can be used safely, successfully, and satisfactorily for treatment of incomplete abortion. Focus should shift to program implementation, including task-shifting the provision of post-abortion care to mid- and low- level providers, training and assurance of drug availability. Trial registration This study has been registered at clinicaltrials.gov as NCT00466999 and NCT01539408

  1. New Approach for Evaluating Incomplete and Complete Fusion Cross Sections with Continuum-Discretized Coupled-Channels Method

    CERN Document Server

    Hashimoto, S; Chiba, S; Yahiro, M

    2009-01-01

    We propose a new method for evaluating incomplete and complete fusion cross sections separately using the Continuum-Discretized Coupled-Channels method. This method is applied to analysis of the deuteron induced reaction on a 7Li target up to 50 MeV of the deuteron incident energy. Effects of deuteron breakup on this reaction are explicitly taken into account. Results of the method are compared with those of the Glauber model, and the difference between the two is discussed. It is found that the energy dependence of the incomplete fusion cross sections obtained by the present calculation is almost the same as that obtained by the Glauber model, while for the complete fusion cross section, the two models give markedly different energy dependence. We show also that a prescription for evaluating incomplete fusion cross sections proposed in a previous study gives much smaller result than an experimental value.

  2. New approach for evaluating incomplete and complete fusion cross sections with continuum-discretized coupled-channels method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We propose a new method for evaluating incomplete and complete fusion cross sections separately using the Continuum-Discretized Coupled-Channels method. This method is applied to analysis of the deuteron induced reaction on a 7Li target up to 50 MeV of the deuteron incident energy. Effects of deuteron breakup on this reaction are explicitly taken into account. Results of the method are compared with those of the Glauber model, and the difference between the two is discussed. It is found that the energy dependence of the incomplete fusion cross sections obtained by the present calculation is almost the same as that obtained by the Glauber model, while for the complete fusion cross section, the two models give markedly different energy dependence. We show also that a prescription for evaluating incomplete fusion cross sections proposed in a previous study gives much smaller result than an experimental value. (author)

  3. Incomplete scan geometries in fast X-ray scanners

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    If the data delivered by an X-ray scanner are not available in a complete grid of scan positions, the reconstructed pictures are degraded by artefacts which are due to the lack of information gathered. The most prominent examples of incomplete scan geometries are: the incomplete range of viewing directions; and the spatial restriction of X-ray irradiation to a region of interest. Both are caused by the requirement of sacrificing some characteristics of conventional scanner geometries, either to get a very rapid scan or a reduction of patient dose without increasing the picture noise. The implications of such restrictions will be described and pictures will be presented which are reconstructed from true scan data which have been made incomplete by means of simulations software. Under certain conditions, unavailable data can be replaced by artificially calculated ones in order to reduce the artefacts. (orig.)

  4. THE THEORIES OF INCOMPLETE CONTRACTS IN ANALYZING THE COMPANY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pacala Anca

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Incomplete contracts theories have developed significantly in recent decades, although insistence for rigorous models left little room for empirical research. By formalizing and extending some results from other theories such as transaction costs, incomplete contracts theory tries to analyze the prudence displayed by the parties before the possible opportunistic behavior that would follow completing a contract, especially in the case of specific investments and how the insufficient contractual protection measures can lead to inefficient levels of investment. Even the name - incomplete contracts theory- suggests that the main concern is to consider the limits of contracts, that the contracts fail to specify not only the investment ex ante, but also many other unforeseen items that may appear ex post, and that would be desirable to be introduced in such an arrangement. Explanations can be either the bounded rationality or excessive cost that would involve writing of such contracts.\\r\

  5. Possible communicative cues to syntactic incompleteness in spoken dialogues

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hunyadi, László

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Due to the dynamic nature of dialogues, spoken utterances are often characterized by some degree of fragmentation. This fragmentation is directly reflected by the incompleteness of the syntactic structure of such utterances that represent a considerable challenge for automatic parsing. At the same time, syntactic incompleteness is also a reflection of some cognitive processes underlying the fragmentation of such an interaction. This fragmentation is often accompanied by a set of nonverbal gestures offering thereby the chance to attempt to find certain cues to these cognitive processes by studying the complex of aligning verbal and nonverbal elements. The present paper addresses the issue of the interaction of multimodal markers of conversation with the syntax of spoken utterances to find if certain communicative functions may be cues to the incompleteness of spoken syntax.

  6. Maduración visual retardada / Delayed visual maturation

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Yolelvis, Monfort Estévez; Teresita de Jesús, Méndez Sánchez.

    Full Text Available Retraso en la maduración visual es el término utilizado para describir aquellos niños con incapacidad de fijar o seguir objetos en el ambiente, que no responden ante la proximidad de un objeto amenazante o un destello de luz, por ejemplo, abrir y cerrar los ojos; pero luego mejora a la edad de 6 mes [...] es sin tratamiento. Se incluyen dentro de las posibles causas la falta de oxígeno antes, durante o después del nacimiento, enfermedades producidas por virus o bacterias como la meningitis y el citomegalovirus, o una lesión traumática,aunque hoy en día queda poco consenso en cuanto a la etiología de este fenómeno. Estos niños con retraso en la maduración visual parecen ciegos, incapaces de centrar la atención, fijar o seguir cualquier parte del mundo visual. La exploración ocular y neurológica del niño es completamente normal. Los síntomas se resuelven sin tratamiento y con frecuencia, no se encuentra ninguna causa para la presentación inicial. El retraso en la maduración visual se clasifica en 3 grupos: el primero con retraso en la maduración visual como única anomalía y una recuperación rápida y completa. El segundo incluye aquellos casos con problemas oculares, como estrabismo, error refractivo elevado, retraso mental, entre otros, logrando una recuperación más lenta y a menudo incompleta. El tercer grupo incluye los casos con otras anomalías oculares. Abstract in english Delayed visual maturation is the term used to describe those children with inability to fix their eyes with the object or to visually follow them in the environment, who do not react to a threatening object or a gleam of light close to them, for example, by opening and closing their eyes. However, t [...] hey generally improve their condition at the age of 6 months without any treatment. The possible causes of this disorder may be lack of oxygen, before, during or after birth, illnesses caused by viruses or bacteria, such as meningitis and cytomegalovirus, or a traumatic lesion, although there exists now minority consensus about the real etiology of this phenomenon. The children suffering delayed visual maturation seem to be blind, unable to focus attention, fix or visually follow any portion of the visual world. Ocular and neurological examination of the child is completely normal. Symptoms disappear without any treatment and the cause for the initial occurrence is usually unfound. The delayed visual maturation is classified into 3 groups, the first group with delayed visual maturation as the only anomaly and a quick and complete recovery. The second group includes those cases with ocular problems, namely strabismus, high refractive error, mental retardation, and others, in which recovery is slower and often incomplete. The third group includes cases with other ocular anomalies.

  7. Systematics of incomplete fusion probability and its correlation with complete fusion suppression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali, Sabir; Kumar, Kamal; Ahmad, Tauseef; Rizvi, I. A.; Agarwal, Avinash; Chaubey, A. K.

    2013-04-01

    The mechanism for the suppression of complete fusion, induced by different light alpha cluster projectiles (Z ≤ 10) on 51V target has been investigated through the measurement of break-up of the projectiles into different alpha fragments. The results from the present systems show substantial components from incomplete fusion in addition to complete fusion. The measurements also show significant reduction of complete fusion cross-section above the barrier energies for all the reactions when compared with the theoretical prediction of CCFULL code. CCFULL is a program that calculates fusion cross-sections and mean angular momenta of the compound nucleus under the influence of coupling between the relative motion and several collective nuclear motions. Moreover, measurements also show a systematics in complete fusion suppression with respect to CCFULL calculation, suggesting that the extent of suppression of complete fusion cross-sections is correlated with the alpha Q-value of the projectiles. Also, all the reactions were found to produce incomplete fusion products at energies near the respective Coulomb barriers with the alpha-particle emanating channel being the favored incomplete fusion process in all the cases.

  8. Low Complexity Models to improve Incomplete Sensitivities for Shape Optimization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stanciu, Mugurel; Mohammadi, Bijan; Moreau, Stéphane

    2003-01-01

    The present global platform for simulation and design of multi-model configurations treat shape optimization problems in aerodynamics. Flow solvers are coupled with optimization algorithms based on CAD-free and CAD-connected frameworks. Newton methods together with incomplete expressions of gradients are used. Such incomplete sensitivities are improved using reduced models based on physical assumptions. The validity and the application of this approach in real-life problems are presented. The numerical examples concern shape optimization for an airfoil, a business jet and a car engine cooling axial fan.

  9. Additive habit formation: Consumption in incomplete markets with random endowments

    CERN Document Server

    Muraviev, Roman

    2011-01-01

    We provide a detailed characterization of the optimal consumption stream for the additive habit-forming utility maximization problem, in a framework of general discrete-time incomplete markets and random endowments. This characterization allows us to derive the monotonicity and concavity of the optimal consumption as a function of wealth, for several important classes of incomplete markets and preferences. These results yield a deeper understanding of the fine structure of the optimal consumption and provide a further theoretical support for the classical conjectures of Keynes (1936).

  10. CFD - Mature Technology?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwak, Dochan

    2005-01-01

    Over the past 30 years, numerical methods and simulation tools for fluid dynamic problems have advanced as a new discipline, namely, computational fluid dynamics (CFD). Although a wide spectrum of flow regimes are encountered in many areas of science and engineering, simulation of compressible flow has been the major driver for developing computational algorithms and tools. This is probably due to a large demand for predicting the aerodynamic performance characteristics of flight vehicles, such as commercial, military, and space vehicles. As flow analysis is required to be more accurate and computationally efficient for both commercial and mission-oriented applications (such as those encountered in meteorology, aerospace vehicle development, general fluid engineering and biofluid analysis) CFD tools for engineering become increasingly important for predicting safety, performance and cost. This paper presents the author's perspective on the maturity of CFD, especially from an aerospace engineering point of view.

  11. Mature Cystic Renal Teratoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Teratomas are rare germline tumors that originate from one or more embryonic germ cell layers. Teratoma of the kidney is extremely rare, and less than 30 cases of primary intrarenal teratomas have been published to date. We report the main radiologic features of an unusual case of mature cystic teratoma arising from the left kidney in a two-year-old boy. A left-sided abdominal mass was detected on physical examination and B-Mod Ultrasound (US) examination revealed a heterogeneous mass with central cystic component. Computed tomography (CT) demonstrated a lobulated, heterogeneous, hypodense mass extending craniocaudally from the splenic hilum to the level of the left iliac fossa. Nephrectomy was performed and a large, fatty mass arising from the left kidney was excised. The final pathologic diagnosis was confirmed as cystic renal teratoma

  12. Information Security Maturity Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Information Security Maturity Model

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available To ensure security, it is important to build-in security in both the planning and the design phases andadapt a security architecture which makes sure that regular and security related tasks, are deployedcorrectly. Security requirements must be linked to the business goals. We identified four domains thataffect security at an organization namely, organization governance, organizational culture, thearchitecture of the systems, and service management. In order to identify and explore the strength andweaknesses of particular organization’s security, a wide range model has been developed. This model isproposed as an information security maturity model (ISMM and it is intended as a tool to evaluate theability of organizations to meet the objectives of security.

  13. Business process maturity a comparative study on a sample of business process maturity models

    CERN Document Server

    Van Looy, Amy

    2014-01-01

    Organisations face many challenges, which induce them to perform better, and thus to establish mature (or excellent) business processes. As they now face globalisation, higher competitiveness, demanding customers, growing IT possibilities, compliancy rules etc., business process maturity models (BPMMs) have been introduced to help organisations gradually assess and improve their business processes (e.g. CMMI or OMG-BPMM). In fact, there are now so many BPMMs to choose from that organisations risk selecting one that does not fit their needs or one of substandard quality. This book presents a s

  14. Transcriptional Landscape of Cardiomyocyte Maturation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uosaki, Hideki; Cahan, Patrick; Lee, Dong I.; Wang, Songnan; Miyamoto, Matthew; Fernandez, Laviel; Kass, David A.; Kwon, Chulan

    2015-01-01

    SUMMARY Decades of progress in developmental cardiology has advanced our understanding of the early aspects of heart development, including cardiomyocyte (CM) differentiation. However, control of CM maturation which is subsequently required to generate adult myocytes, remains elusive. Here, we analyzed over 200 microarray datasets from early embryonic to adult hearts and identified a large number of genes whose expression shifts gradually and continuously during maturation. We generated an atlas of integrated gene expression, biological pathways, transcriptional regulators, and gene regulatory networks (GRNs), which show discrete sets of key transcriptional regulators and pathways activated or suppressed during CM maturation. We developed a GRN-based program named MatStatCM that indexes CM maturation status. MatStatCM reveals that pluripotent stem cell-derived CMs mature early in culture, but are arrested at the late embryonic stage with aberrant regulation of key transcription factors. Our study provides a foundation for understanding CM maturation. PMID:26586429

  15. In vitro Atrazine Exposure Affects the Phenotypic and Functional Maturation of Dendritic Cells

    OpenAIRE

    Pinchuk, Lesya M; Lee, Sang-Ryul; Filipov, Nikolay M

    2007-01-01

    Recent data suggest that some of the immunotoxic effects of the herbicide atrazine, a very widely used pesticide, may be due to perturbations in dendritic cell (DC) function. As consequences of atrazine exposure on the phenotypic and functional maturation of DC have not been studied, our objective was, using the murine DC line, JAWSII, to determine whether atrazine will interfere with DC maturation. First, we characterized the maturation of JAWSII cells in vitro by inducing them to mature in ...

  16. Isospin Dependence of Incomplete Fusion Reactions at 25 Mev/a

    OpenAIRE

    Amorini, F; Cardella, G.; Giuliani, G.; Papa, M.; Agodi, C.; Alba, R.; Anzalone, A.; Berceanu, I.(National Institute for Physics and Nuclear Engineering, Bucharest, Romania); Cavallaro, S; Chatterjee, M.B.; Coniglione, R; De Filippo, E.; Di Pietro, A.; Geraci, E.; Grassi, L

    2008-01-01

    40Ca+40,48Ca,46Ti reactions at 25 MeV/A have been studied using the 4p CHIMERA detector. An isospin effect on the competition between incomplete fusion and dissipative binary reaction mechanisms has been observed. The probability of producing a compound system is observed to be lower in the case of N=Z colliding systems as compared to the case of reactions induced on the more neutron rich 48Ca target. Predictions based on CoMD-II calculations show that the competition betwee...

  17. Is there incomplete fusion mechanism beyond 100A MeV?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eudes, P. [SUBATECH, EMN-IN2P3/CNRS-Université de Nantes, Nantes (France); Basrak, Z., E-mail: basrak@irb.hr [Ru?er Boškovi? Institute, Zagreb (Croatia); Mota, V. de la; Royer, G. [SUBATECH, EMN-IN2P3/CNRS-Université de Nantes, Nantes (France)

    2014-10-15

    Presented is a universal description of the generalized fusion excitation function which indicates that the fusion reaction mechanism should vanish at center-of-mass energy per nucleon of about 13 MeV/nucleon independently of the specific heavy-ion reaction system. Placing reliance on this result and comforted by semiclassical transport model simulations we suggest that the proposed persistence of the incomplete fusion cross sections in the measurement of the {sup 14}N induced reactions on heavy targets at beam energies between 100A and 155A MeV should be attributed to a geometrical participant-spectator-like reaction mechanism.

  18. Is there incomplete fusion mechanism beyond 100A MeV?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eudes, P.; Basrak, Z.; de la Mota, V.; Royer, G.

    2014-10-01

    Presented is a universal description of the generalized fusion excitation function which indicates that the fusion reaction mechanism should vanish at center-of-mass energy per nucleon of about 13 MeV/nucleon independently of the specific heavy-ion reaction system. Placing reliance on this result and comforted by semiclassical transport model simulations we suggest that the proposed persistence of the incomplete fusion cross sections in the measurement of the 14N induced reactions on heavy targets at beam energies between 100A and 155A MeV should be attributed to a geometrical participant-spectator-like reaction mechanism.

  19. Partially balanced incomplete block designs associated with minimum perfect dominating sets of Clebsch graph

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vinay Kumar

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available A dominating set $S$ of a graph $G$ is perfect if each vertex of G is dominated by exactly one vertex in $S$. We study the minimum perfect dominating sets in the Petersen graph and in the Clebsch graph. In this paper we show that every minimum perfect dominating set in the Petersen graph and the Clebsch graph induces $K_{1,3}$ and $C_4$ respectively. Further we establish that these classes of minimum perfect dominating sets of Clebsch graph form Partially Balanced Incomplete Block Designs with the parameters (16, 40, 10, 4, 1, 4.

  20. Is there incomplete fusion mechanism beyond 100A MeV?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Presented is a universal description of the generalized fusion excitation function which indicates that the fusion reaction mechanism should vanish at center-of-mass energy per nucleon of about 13 MeV/nucleon independently of the specific heavy-ion reaction system. Placing reliance on this result and comforted by semiclassical transport model simulations we suggest that the proposed persistence of the incomplete fusion cross sections in the measurement of the 14N induced reactions on heavy targets at beam energies between 100A and 155A MeV should be attributed to a geometrical participant-spectator-like reaction mechanism

  1. Entrance channel effect in the incomplete fusion reactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the present work the effect of various entrance channel parameters on incomplete fusion strength and the reaction dynamics in 12C+159Tb system at energies ? 4-7 MeV/A have been investigated by measuring the excitation functions of individual reaction channels. Experimental excitation functions have been analyzed in the framework of compound nucleus decay using statistical model code PACE4. Analysis of data suggests the production of xn/pxn-channels via complete fusion of 12C with 159Tb, as these are found to be well reproduced by PACE4 predictions, while, a significant enhancement in the excitation functions of ?-emitting channels has been observed over the theoretical ones. This enhancement has been attributed due to incomplete fusion. For better insight into the underlying dynamics, the fraction of incomplete fusion to the total fusion has been deduced and compared with 16O+159Tb and other nearby systems as a function of various entrance channel parameters. The fraction of incomplete fusion has been found to be sensitive to the projectile type, energy and entrance-channel mass-asymmetry. (authors)

  2. An Uncertainty Measure for Incomplete Decision Tables and Its Applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jianhua Dai; Wentao Wang; Qing Xu

    2013-08-01

    Uncertainty measures can supply new viewpoints for analyzing data. They can help us in disclosing the substantive characteristics of data. The uncertainty measurement issue is also a key topic in the rough-set theory. Although there are some measures to evaluate the uncertainty for complete decision systems (also called decision tables), they cannot be trivially transplanted into incomplete decision systems. There are relatively few studies on uncertainty measurement in incomplete decision systems. In this paper, we propose a new form of conditional entropy, which can be used to measure the uncertainty in incomplete decision systems. Some important properties of the conditional entropy are obtained. In particular, two validity theorems guarantee that the proposed conditional entropy can be used as a reasonable uncertainty measure for incomplete decision systems. Experiments on some real-life data sets are conducted to test and verify the validity of the proposed measure. Applications of the proposed uncertainty measure in ranking attributes and feature selection are also studied with experiments. PMID:26502436

  3. Cooperative games with incomplete information: Some open problems

    OpenAIRE

    Forges, Françoise; Serrano, Roberto

    2011-01-01

    This is a brief survey describing some of the recent progress and open problems in the area of cooperative games with incomplete information. We discuss exchange economies, cooperative Bayesian games with orthogonal coalitions, and issues of cooperation in non-cooperative Bayesian games.

  4. Statistical evaluations of current sampling procedures and incomplete core recovery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This document develops two formulas that describe the effects of incomplete recovery on core sampling results for the Hanford waste tanks. The formulas evaluate incomplete core recovery from a worst-case (i.e.,biased) and best-case (i.e., unbiased) perspective. A core sampler is unbiased if the sample material recovered is a random sample of the material in the tank, while any sampler that preferentially recovers a particular type of waste over others is a biased sampler. There is strong evidence to indicate that the push-mode sampler presently used at the Hanford site is a biased one. The formulas presented here show the effects of incomplete core recovery on the accuracy of composition measurements, as functions of the vertical variability in the waste. These equations are evaluated using vertical variability estimates from previously sampled tanks (B110, U110, C109). Assuming that the values of vertical variability used in this study adequately describes the Hanford tank farm, one can use the formulas to compute the effect of incomplete recovery on the accuracy of an average constituent estimate. To determine acceptable recovery limits, we have assumed that the relative error of such an estimate should be no more than 20%

  5. Effect of relative velocity on incomplete fusion dynamics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In order to study the effect of relative velocity on incomplete fusion dynamics, experiments have been performed using 20Ne and 16O-ion beams delivered from VECC-machine (Kolkata) and 15UD Pelletron (New Delhi). The details of the experimental set-up are given elsewhere. Activation technique has been used for the present measurements

  6. On Positive Semidefinite Modification Schemes for Incomplete Cholesky Factorization.

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Scott, J.; T?ma, Miroslav

    2014-01-01

    Ro?. 36, ?. 2 (2014), A609-A633. ISSN 1064-8275 R&D Projects: GA ?R GA13-06684S Institutional support: RVO:67985807 Keywords : sparse matrices * sparse linear systems * positive-definite symmetric systems * iterative solvers * preconditioning * incomplete Cholesky factorization Subject RIV: BA - General Mathematics Impact factor: 1.854, year: 2014

  7. Nonallelic heterogeneity in autosomal dominant retinitis pigmentosa with incomplete penetrance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, S.K.; Berson, E.L.; Dryja, T.P. [Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA (United States)] [and others

    1994-08-01

    Retinitis pigmentosa is a group of retinal diseases in which photoreceptor cells throughout the retina degenerate. Although there is considerable genetic heterogeneity (autosomal dominant, autosomal recessive, and X-linked forms exist), there is a possibility that some clinically defined subtypes of the disease may be the result of mutations at the same locus. One possible clinically defined subtype is that of autosomal dominant retinitis pigmentosa (ADRP) with incomplete penetrance. Whereas in most families with ADRP, carriers can be clearly identified because of visual loss, ophthalmological findings, or abnormal electroretinograms (ERGs), in occasional families some obligate carriers are asymptomatic and have normal or nearly normal ERGs even late in life. A recent paper reported the mapping of the diseases locus in one pedigree (designated adRP7) with ADRP with incomplete penetrance to chromosome 7p. To test the idea that ADRP with incomplete penetrance may be genetically homogeneous, we have evaluated whether a different family with incomplete penetrance also has a disease gene linked to the same region. 4 refs., 1 fig., 1 tab.

  8. Root cause of incomplete control rod insertions at Westinghouse reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Within the past year, incomplete RCCA insertions have been observed on high burnup fuel assemblies at two Westinghouse PWRs. Initial tests at the Wolf Creek site indicated that the direct cause of the incomplete insertions observed at Wolf Creek was excessive fuel assembly thimble tube distortion. Westinghouse committed to the NRC to perform a root cause analysis by the end of August, 1996. The root cause analysis process used by Westinghouse included testing at ten sites to obtain drag, growth and other characteristics of high burnup fuel assemblies. It also included testing at the Westinghouse hot cell of two of the Wolf Creek incomplete insertion assemblies. A mechanical model was developed to calculate the response of fuel assemblies when subjected to compressive loads. Detailed manufacturing reviews were conducted to determine if this was a manufacturing related issue. In addition, a review of available worldwide experience was performed. Based on the above, it was concluded that the thimble tube distortion observed on the Wolf Creek incomplete insertion assemblies was caused by unusual fuel assembly growth over and above what would typically be expected as a result of irradiation exposure. It was determined that the unusual growth component is a combination of growth due to oxide accumulation and accelerated growth, and would only be expected in high temperature plants on fuel assemblies that see long residence times and high power duties

  9. Optimal consumption and investment in incomplete markets with general constraints

    CERN Document Server

    Cheridito, Patrick

    2010-01-01

    We study an optimal consumption and investment problem in a possibly incomplete market with general, not necessarily convex, stochastic constraints. We give explicit solutions for investors with exponential, logarithmic and power utility. Our approach is based on martingale methods which rely on recent results on the existence and uniqueness of solutions to BSDEs with drivers of quadratic growth.

  10. Root cause of incomplete control rod insertions at Westinghouse reactors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ray, S. [Westinghouse, Monroeville, PA (United States)

    1997-01-01

    Within the past year, incomplete RCCA insertions have been observed on high burnup fuel assemblies at two Westinghouse PWRs. Initial tests at the Wolf Creek site indicated that the direct cause of the incomplete insertions observed at Wolf Creek was excessive fuel assembly thimble tube distortion. Westinghouse committed to the NRC to perform a root cause analysis by the end of August, 1996. The root cause analysis process used by Westinghouse included testing at ten sites to obtain drag, growth and other characteristics of high burnup fuel assemblies. It also included testing at the Westinghouse hot cell of two of the Wolf Creek incomplete insertion assemblies. A mechanical model was developed to calculate the response of fuel assemblies when subjected to compressive loads. Detailed manufacturing reviews were conducted to determine if this was a manufacturing related issue. In addition, a review of available worldwide experience was performed. Based on the above, it was concluded that the thimble tube distortion observed on the Wolf Creek incomplete insertion assemblies was caused by unusual fuel assembly growth over and above what would typically be expected as a result of irradiation exposure. It was determined that the unusual growth component is a combination of growth due to oxide accumulation and accelerated growth, and would only be expected in high temperature plants on fuel assemblies that see long residence times and high power duties.

  11. The AI&M procedure for learning from incomplete data

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jaeger, Manfred

    We investigate methods for parameter learning from incomplete data that is not missing at random. Likelihood-based methods then require the optimization of a profile likelihood that takes all possible missingness mechanisms into account. Optimizing this profile likelihood poses two main difficult...

  12. Study of incomplete fusion dynamics: analysis of excitation functions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    With a view to study complete fusion and incomplete fusion in several projectile target combinations, a programme of precise measurements of cross-sections and analysis of excitation functions has been undertaken. As a part of the ongoing programme, excitation functions for six reactions in 16O + 169Tm system have been measured

  13. Entrance channel effect in the incomplete fusion reactions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Singh B.P.

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available In the present work the effect of various entrance channel parameters on incomplete fusion strength and the reaction dynamics in 12C+159Tb system at energies ? 4-7MeV/A have been investigated by measuring the excitation functions of individual reaction channels. Experimental excitation functions have been analyzed in the framework of compound nucleus decay using statistical model code PACE4. Analysis of data suggests the production of xn/pxn-channels via complete fusion of 12C with 159Tb, as these are found to be well reproduced by PACE4 predictions, while, a significant enhancement in the excitation functions of ?-emitting channels has been observed over the theoretical ones. This enhancement has been attributed due to incomplete fusion. For better insight into the underlying dynamics, fraction of incomplete fusion to the total fusion has been deduced and compared with 16O+159Tb and other nearby systems as a function of various entrance channel parameters. The fraction of incomplete fusion has been found to be sensitive to the projectile type, energy and entrance-channel mass-asymmetry.

  14. Finding the solution for incomplete small bowel capsule endoscopy

    OpenAIRE

    Cotter, José; Castro, Francisca Dias de; Magalhães, Joana; Moreira, Maria João; Rosa, Bruno

    2013-01-01

    AIM: To evaluate whether the use of real time viewer (RTV) and administration of domperidone to patients with delayed gastric passage of the capsule could reduce the rate of incomplete examinations (IE) and improve the diagnostic yield of small bowel capsule endoscopy (SBCE).

  15. Incomplete inversion of the hippocampus - a common developmental anomaly

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Incomplete inversion of the hippocampus, an imperfect fetal development, has been described in patients with epilepsy or severe midline malformations. We studied this condition in a nonepileptic population without obvious developmental anomalies. We analyzed the coronal MR images of 50 women and 50 men who did not have epilepsy. Twenty of them were healthy volunteers and 80 were patients without obvious intracranial developmental anomalies, intracranial masses, hydrocephalus or any condition affecting the temporal lobes. If the entire hippocampus (the head could not be evaluated) were affected, the incomplete inversion was classified as total, otherwise as partial. Incomplete inversion of the hippocampus was found in 19/100 subjects (9 women, 10 men). It was unilateral, always on the left side, in 13 subjects (4 women, 9 men): 9 were of the total type, 4 were partial. It was bilateral in six subjects (five women, one man): four subjects had total types bilaterally, two had a combination of total and partial types. The collateral sulcus was vertically oriented in all subjects with a deviating hippocampal shape. We conclude that incomplete inversion of the hippocampus is not an unusual morphologic variety in a nonepileptic population without other obvious intracranial developmental anomalies. (orig.)

  16. Limit Pricing with Incomplete Information: Answers to Frequently Asked Questions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sorenson, Timothy L.

    2004-01-01

    Strategic pricing is an important and exciting topic in industrial organization and the economics of strategy. A wide range of texts use what has become a standard version of the Milgrom and Roberts (1982a) limit-pricing model to convey the essential ideas of strategic pricing under incomplete information. In addition to providing a formal, but…

  17. Vulvar myiasis following suction and evacuation for incomplete abortion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Anju; Goel, Bharti; Rani, Shikha

    2015-07-01

    Myiasis is caused by fly larva capable of penetrating healthy or necrotic tissue, usually in tropical and subtropical countries. The involvement of an exposed area is common; however it may very rarely involve the genital region. We present a rare case of vulvar myiasis which occurred after suction and evacuation performed for incomplete abortion. PMID:25740831

  18. Incompleteness of Representation Theory: Hidden Symmetries and Quantum Nonintegrability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Representation theory is shown to be incomplete in terms of enumerating all integrable limits of quantum systems. As a consequence, one can find exactly solvable Hamiltonians which have apparently strongly broken symmetry. The number of these hidden symmetries depends upon the realization of the Hamiltonian. copyright 1997 The American Physical Society

  19. Pricing the Option to Surrender in Incomplete Markets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Consiglio, Andrea; De Giovanni, Domenico

    New international accounting standards require insurers to reflect the value of embedded options and guarantees in their products. Pricing techniques based on the Black & Scholes paradigm are often used, however, the hypotheses underneath this model are rarely met. We propose a framework that...... to highlight the effect of incompleteness on the fair value of the option....

  20. Melatonin Induces Follicle Maturation in Danio rerio

    OpenAIRE

    Carnevali, Oliana; Gioacchini, Giorgia; Maradonna, Francesca; Olivotto, Ike; Migliarini, Beatrice

    2011-01-01

    Most organisms modulate their reproductive activity responding to day length by the nocturnal release of melatonin by the pineal gland. This hormone is also responsible for synchronizing reproduction with specific external environment stimuli in order to optimize reproductive success.

  1. Spinal cord mature cystic teratoma

    OpenAIRE

    Avci, Emel; Adil OZTURK ,; Ozardali, Ilyas

    2005-01-01

    Spinal cord teratoma is very rare lesion. Intradural spinal teratoma consists of 0,1% of all spinal tumours. Teratomas are classified into three groups: mature, immature and malignant teratomas. The authors report a 12 years old man with intradural lumbar mature teratoma

  2. Emotional Maturity: Characteristics and Levels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dr. Umesh Chandra Kapri

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available "Mature" means a completed natural growth. Emotional maturity is not related to physical maturity which is expected to be but, does not grow with our chronological age. Emotionally mature people are sensible who do not whine, crib or play the blame game. They have full control over their lives. They reflect on their lives and on the role that they play in other people’s lives. Emotionally mature people lead a well-adjusted life due to their healthy outlook on life. There are various levels of emotional maturity. The final level is emotional detachment which is the direct consequence of the true understanding of emotions and therefore, letting go of all the emotions, either good or bad and feeling happy. Emotional maturity is a significant predictor of the level of success that an individual achieves in his/her lifetime. Success includes wealth, general level of happiness, self-confidence, success in relationships, etc. where emotional maturity plays a significant role to get success.

  3. Quantum Stackelberg Duopoly with Continuous Distributed Incomplete Information

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xia; Hu, Cheng-Zheng

    2012-12-01

    A general model of the quantum Stackelberg duopoly is constructed by introducing the “minimal" quantum structure into the Stackelberg duopoly with continuous distributed incomplete information, where both players only know the continuous distribution of the competitor's unit cost. In this model, the cases with complete information, discrete distributed incomplete information, and continuous distributed asymmetric information are all involved. Because of different roles played by the total information uncertainty and the information asymmetry, the game exhibits some new interesting features, such as the total information uncertainty can counteract or improve the first-mover advantage according to the value of the quantum entanglement. What's more, this general model will be helpful for the government to reduce the abuses of oligopolistic competition and to improve the economic efficiency.

  4. Quantum Stackelberg Duopoly with Continuous Distributed Incomplete Information

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A general model of the quantum Stackelberg duopoly is constructed by introducing the 'minimal' quantum structure into the Stackelberg duopoly with continuous distributed incomplete information, where both players only know the continuous distribution of the competitor's unit cost. In this model, the cases with complete information, discrete distributed incomplete information, and continuous distributed asymmetric information are all involved. Because of different roles played by the total information uncertainty and the information asymmetry, the game exhibits some new interesting features, such as the total information uncertainty can counteract or improve the first-mover advantage according to the value of the quantum entanglement. What's more, this general model will be helpful for the government to reduce the abuses of oligopolistic competition and to improve the economic efficiency

  5. Incomplete RCCA Insertion Observations in Westinghouse-Fueled Plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper (a series of slides) describes some incomplete RCCA insertion events (1995-1996) in Westinghouse-fueled plants. It presents the safety assessments that have been conducted, the determination of susceptible plants and root cause, a site testing program that has been completed and its results, hot cell testing and results, a review of manufacturing and material properties, industry and operational experience, mechanical model conclusions, and susceptible design evaluation. As a conclusion, the incomplete RCCA insertion was due to excessive thimble tube distortion, distortion caused by excessive fuel assembly compressive load, and compressive load caused by high fuel assembly growth. The high growth is due to a combination of oxide accumulation, accelerated growth, both being temperature sensitive; the high growth is only observed in high temperature plants with certain types of power histories

  6. Incomplete dicephalous conjoined twins: prenatal US and MRI findings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The authors report a case of incomplete dicephali conjoined twins, with prenatal diagnostic by ultrasound scan and confirmed with nuclear magnetic resonance. In this case the fetus presented two complete heads and necks, two parallel columns up to the coccyx, one single body, two complete arms and two complete legs. Thorax and abdominal organs were not double, however the heart had more than four cavities. This abnormality appears when the zygote division happens after the day 14 from fertilization and it is unable to cause the fission, resulting in an incomplete division. This kind of conjoined twins have practically no chance of surviving, due to the large number of shared organs. The prenatal diagnosis is important to separate these cases from those with a chance of living with surgical intervention. (author)

  7. Double-level Incomplete Spinal Cord Injuries: A case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saeed Bin Ayaz

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Brown-Séquard Syndrome is a type of Incomplete Spinal Cord Injury characterized by a relatively greater ipsilateral loss of proprioception and motor function, with contralateral loss of pain and temperature sensations. The residual deficits in balance produced by such injury may render a person liable to fall that may result in vertebral fracture and another injury to the spinal cord. We present here a case who initially had Brown-Séquard Syndrome due to penetrating knife injury to the neck and later on developed Cauda Equina Syndrome (another Incomplete Spinal Cord Injury due to fractured LV1 following a fall. The fracture was fixed through Pedicle Screws and the patient underwent effective rehabilitation to gain maximum achievable independence in functional activities. [Cukurova Med J 2014; 39(2.000: 392-398

  8. Inpatient capsule endoscopy leads to frequent incomplete small bowel examinations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cemal Yazici

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available AIM: To examine the predictive factors of capsule endoscopy (CE completion rate (CECR including the effect of inpatient and outpatient status. METHODS: We identified 355 consecutive patients who completed CE at Rush University Medical Center between March 2003 and October 2005. Subjects for CE had either nothing by mouth or clear liquids for the afternoon and evening of the day before the procedure. CE exams were reviewed by two physicians who were unaware of the study hypotheses. After retrospective analysis, 21 cases were excluded due to capsule malfunction, prior gastric surgery, endoscopic capsule placement or insufficient data. Of the remaining 334 exams [264 out-patient (OP, 70 in-patient (IP], CE indications, findings, location of the patients [IP vs OP and intensive care unit (ICU vs general medical floor (GMF] and gastrointestinal transit times were analyzed. Statistical analysis was completed using SPSS version 17 (Chicago, IL. Chi-square, t test or fisher exact-tests were used as appropriate. Multivariate logistic regression analysis was used to identify variables associated with incomplete CE exams. RESULTS: The mean age for the entire study population was 54.7 years. Sixty-one percent of the study population was female, and gender was not different between IPs vs OPs (P = 0.07. The overall incomplete CECR was 14% in our study. Overt obscure gastrointestinal bleeding (OGB was significantly more common for the IP CE (P = 0.0001, while abdominal pain and assessment of IBD were more frequent indications for the OP CE exams (P = 0.002 and P = 0.01, respectively. Occult OGB was the most common indication and arteriovenous malformations were the most common finding both in the IPs and OPs. The capsule did not enter the small bowel (SB in 6/70 IPs and 8/264 OPs (P = 0.04. The capsule never reached the cecum in 31.4% (22/70 of IP vs 9.5% (25/ 264 of OP examinations (P < 0.001. The mean gastric transit time (GTT was delayed in IPs compared to OPs, 98.5 ± 139.5 min vs 60.4 ± 92.6 min (P = 0.008. Minimal SB transit time was significantly prolonged in the IP compared to the OP setting [IP = 275.1 ± 111.6 min vs OP = 244.0 ± 104.3 min (P = 0.037]. CECR was also significantly higher in the subgroup of patients with OGB who had OP vs IP exams (95% vs 80% respectively, P = 0.001. The proportion of patients with incomplete exams was higher in the ICU (n = 7/13, 54% as compared to the GMF (n = 15/57, 26% (P = 0.05. There was only a single permanent SB retention case which was secondary to a previously unknown SB stricture, and the remaining incomplete SB exams were due to slow transit. Medications which affect gastrointestinal system motility were tested both individually and also in aggregate in univariate analysis in hospitalized patients (ICU and GMF and were not predictive of incomplete capsule passage (P > 0.05. Patient location (IP vs OP and GTT were independent predictors of incomplete CE exams (P < 0.001 and P = 0.008, respectively. CONCLUSION: Incomplete CE is a multifactorial problem. Patient location and related factors such as severity of illness and sedentary status may contribute to incomplete exams.

  9. Einstein's Boxes: Incompleteness of Quantum Mechanics Without a Separation Principle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Held, Carsten

    2015-09-01

    Einstein made several attempts to argue for the incompleteness of quantum mechanics (QM), not all of them using a separation principle. One unpublished example, the box parable, has received increased attention in the recent literature. Though the example is tailor-made for applying a separation principle and Einstein indeed applies one, he begins his discussion without it. An analysis of this first part of the parable naturally leads to an argument for incompleteness not involving a separation principle. I discuss the argument and its systematic import. Though it should be kept in mind that the argument is not the one Einstein intends, I show how it suggests itself and leads to a conflict between QM's completeness and a physical principle more fundamental than the separation principle, i.e. a principle saying that QM should deliver probabilities for physical systems possessing properties at definite times.

  10. Consumption-Portfolio Optimization with Recursive Utility in Incomplete Markets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kraft, Holger; Seifried, Frank Thomas; Steffensen, Mogens

    2013-01-01

    In an incomplete market, we study the optimal consumption-portfolio decision of an investor with recursive preferences of Epstein–Zin type. Applying a classical dynamic programming approach, we formulate the associated Hamilton–Jacobi–Bellman equation and provide a suitable verification theorem....... The proof of this verification theorem is complicated by the fact that the Epstein–Zin aggregator is non-Lipschitz, so standard verification results (e.g. in Duffie and Epstein, Econometrica 60, 393–394, 1992) are not applicable. We provide new explicit solutions to the Bellman equation with Epstein......–Zin preferences in an incomplete market for non-unit elasticity of intertemporal substitution (EIS) and apply our verification result to prove that they solve the consumption-investment problem. We also compare our exact solutions to the Campbell–Shiller approximation and assess its accuracy....

  11. Bayesian Inference of Natural Rankings in Incomplete Competition Networks

    CERN Document Server

    Park, Juyong

    2013-01-01

    Competition between a complex system's constituents and a corresponding reward mechanism based on it have profound influence on the functioning, stability, and evolution of the system. But determining the dominance hierarchy or ranking among the constituent parts from the strongest to the weakest -- essential in determining reward or penalty -- is almost always an ambiguous task due to the incomplete nature of competition networks. Here we introduce ``Natural Ranking," a desirably unambiguous ranking method applicable to a complete (full) competition network, and formulate an analytical model based on the Bayesian formula inferring the expected mean and error of the natural ranking of nodes from an incomplete network. We investigate its potential and uses in solving issues in ranking by applying to a real-world competition network of economic and social importance.

  12. Contributions to the theory of incomplete tension bay

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schapitz, E

    1937-01-01

    The present report offers an approximate theory for the stress and deformation condition after buckling of the skin in reinforced panels and shells loaded in simple shear and compression and under combined stresses. The theory presents a unified scheme for stresses of these types. It is based upon the concept of a nonuniform stress distribution in the metal panel and its marked power of resistance against compressive stresses ("incomplete" tension bay).

  13. Inflation and output volatility under asymmetric incomplete information

    OpenAIRE

    Carboni, Giacomo; Ellison, Martin

    2010-01-01

    The assumption of asymmetric and incomplete information in a standard New Keynesian model creates strong incentives for monetary policy transparency. We assume that the central bank has better information about its objectives than the private sector, and that the private sector has better information about shocks than the central bank. Transparency has the potential to trigger a virtuous circle in which all agents find it easier to make inferences and the economy is better stabilised. Our ana...

  14. Risk-Sharing and Retrading in Incomplete Markets

    OpenAIRE

    Gottardi, Piero; RAHI, Rohit

    2012-01-01

    At a competitive equilibrium of an incomplete-markets economy agents’ marginal valuations for the tradable assets are equalized ex-ante. We characterize the finest partition of the state space conditional on which this equality holds for any economy. This leads naturally to a necessary and sufficient condition on information that would lead to retrade, if such information were to become publicly available after the initial round of trade.

  15. Optimal portfolio selection and compression in an incomplete market

    CERN Document Server

    Dokuchaev, N; Dokuchaev, Nikolai; Haussmann, Ulrich

    2001-01-01

    We investigate an optimal investment problem with a general performance criterion which, in particular, includes discontinuous functions. Prices are modeled as diffusions and the market is incomplete. We find an explicit solution for the case of limited diversification of the portfolio, i.e. for the portfolio compression problem. By this we mean that an admissible strategies may include no more than m different stocks concurrently, where m may be less than the total number n of available stocks.

  16. An implication of G\\"odel's incompleteness theorem

    CERN Document Server

    Kitada, Hitoshi

    2009-01-01

    A proof of G\\"odel's incompleteness theorem is given. With this new proof a transfinite extension of G\\"odel's theorem is considered. It is shown that if one assumes the set theory ZFC on the meta level as well as on the object level, a contradiction arises. The cause is shown to be the implicit identification of the meta level and the object level hidden behind the G\\"odel numbering. An implication of these considerations is stated.

  17. Construction of a natural partition of incomplete horseshoes

    CERN Document Server

    Jung, C

    2003-01-01

    A method is presented to construct a partition of an incomplete horseshoe in a Poincare map which is only based on unstable manifolds of outermost fixed points and eventually their limits. Thereby this partition becomes natural from the point of view of asymptotic scattering observations. The symbolic dynamics derived from this partition coincides with the one derived from the hierarchical structure of the singularities of scattering functions.

  18. Tariff Policy for a Monopolist Under Incomplete Information

    OpenAIRE

    PRUSA, Thomas J; Kolev, Dobrin

    1998-01-01

    We examine the incentives for a government to levy an optimal tariff on a foreign monopolist. With complete information, the home government uses tariffs to extract rents and therefore implements a policy of discriminatory tariffs entailing higher tariffs on more efficient firms. By contrast if the government is incompletely informed about costs, we show that under reasonable conditions the unique self-enforcing outcome involves pooling where firms export the same quantity regardless of effic...

  19. Fabrication of Stable Cartilage Framework for Microtia in Incomplete Synchondrosis

    OpenAIRE

    Byung Chae Cho; Jung Hun Lee; Kang Young Choi; Jung Dug Yang; Ho Yun Chung

    2012-01-01

    The synchondrosis between the sixth and seventh costal cartilage is usually used for the base frame in autogenous ear reconstruction. If the synchondrosis is loose, a variety of modifications can be devised. This report introduces new methods for these problems. In cases of incomplete synchondrosis, only the surface of the base block margin was smoothly tapered without carving for the removal of the conchal deepening. The secure fixation of the two segments (helix and antihelix) to the base b...

  20. Estimating the prevalence of inbreeding from incomplete pedigrees.

    OpenAIRE

    Marshall, T C; Coltman, D.W.; Pemberton, J.M.; Slate, J.; Spalton, J A; Guinness, F. E.; Smith, J. A.; Pilkington, J. G; T.H. CLUTTON-BROCK

    2002-01-01

    A previous review of inbreeding in natural populations suggested that close inbreeding (inbreeding coefficient f = 0.25) is generally rare in wild birds and mammals. However, the review did not assess rates of moderate inbreeding (f = 0.125), which may make a rather larger contribution to overall inbreeding in a population. Furthermore, previous studies may have underestimated the prevalence of inbreeding in wild populations with incomplete pedigrees. By categorizing inbreeding events by the ...

  1. 04131 Abstracts Collection -- Geometric Properties from Incomplete Data

    OpenAIRE

    Klette, Reinhard; Kozera, Ryszard; Noakes, Lyle; Weickert, Joachim

    2006-01-01

    From 21.03.04 to 26.03.04, the Dagstuhl Seminar 04131 ``Geometric Properties from Incomplete Data'' was held in the International Conference and Research Center (IBFI), Schloss Dagstuhl. During the seminar, several participants presented their current research, and ongoing work and open problems were discussed. Abstracts of the presentations given during the seminar as well as abstracts of seminar results and ideas are put together in this paper. The first section describes the...

  2. Incomplete Continuous-time Securities Markets with Stochastic Income Volatility

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Peter Ove; Larsen, Kasper

    2014-01-01

    We derive closed-form solutions for the equilibrium interest rate and market price of risk processes in an incomplete continuous-time market with uncertainty generated by Brownian motions. The economy has a finite number of heterogeneous exponential utility investors, who receive partially unspanned income and can trade continuously. Countercyclical stochastic income volatility generates a countercyclical equilibrium market price of risk process and a procyclical equilibrium interest rate proces...

  3. INCOMPLETE KORO” - A FORERUNNER FOR MOOD DISORDER: TWO CASE REPORTS

    OpenAIRE

    Damodaran, Saji S.; Nizamie, S. Haque

    1993-01-01

    Koro was initially reported as a culture-bound psychiatric syndrome confined to South-east Asian cultures. Later on, isolated cases of Koro have been reported from non-Chinese cultures also. Incomplete Koro syndrome or a ‘Koro-like state’ is usually grafted on to a primary psychiatric disorder. The association of Koro with depression is rare and this paper reports two cases of mood disorder presenting with Koro symptoms. Recurrence of Koro symptoms in the depressive phase and its disappearanc...

  4. Bayesian Inference of Natural Rankings in Incomplete Competition Networks

    OpenAIRE

    Park, Juyong; Yook, Soon-Hyung

    2014-01-01

    Competition between a complex system's constituents and a corresponding reward mechanism based on it have profound influence on the functioning, stability, and evolution of the system. But determining the dominance hierarchy or ranking among the constituent parts from the strongest to the weakest -- essential in determining reward or penalty -- is almost always an ambiguous task due to the incomplete nature of competition networks. Here we introduce ``Natural Ranking," a des...

  5. Learning Bayesian Networks from Incomplete Data with Stochastic Search Algorithms

    OpenAIRE

    Myers, James W.; Laskey, Kathryn Blackmond; Levitt, Tod S.

    2013-01-01

    This paper describes stochastic search approaches, including a new stochastic algorithm and an adaptive mutation operator, for learning Bayesian networks from incomplete data. This problem is characterized by a huge solution space with a highly multimodal landscape. State-of-the-art approaches all involve using deterministic approaches such as the expectation-maximization algorithm. These approaches are guaranteed to find local maxima, but do not explore the landscape for other modes. Our app...

  6. Consumption-Portfolio Optimization with Recursive Utility in Incomplete Markets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kraft, Holger; Seifried, Frank Thomas; Steffensen, Mogens

    2013-01-01

    In an incomplete market, we study the optimal consumption-portfolio decision of an investor with recursive preferences of Epstein–Zin type. Applying a classical dynamic programming approach, we formulate the associated Hamilton–Jacobi–Bellman equation and provide a suitable verification theorem. The proof of this verification theorem is complicated by the fact that the Epstein–Zin aggregator is non-Lipschitz, so standard verification results (e.g. in Duffie and Epstein, Econometrica 60, 393–394,...

  7. On the forecast of periodic events from incomplete records

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naunihal Singh

    1962-10-01

    Full Text Available In practice several natural phenomena like wind direction, death rates, egg production ,etc. follow circular normal distribution. In this paper the problem of estimating the parameters of this distribution from incomplete records has been worked out by the method of maximum likelihood. Second order partial derivatives are given to determine the standard error of the estimates. A numerical example is added to illustrate the practical application of the method.

  8. Incomplete response in late-life depression: getting to remission

    OpenAIRE

    Lenze, Eric J.; Sheffrin, Meera; Driscoll, Henry C; MULSANT, BENOIT H.; Bruce G Pollock; Amanda Dew, Mary; Lotrich, Frank; Devlin, Bernie; Bies, Robert; Reynolds III, Charles F.

    2008-01-01

    Incomplete response in the treatmen tof late-life depression is a large public health challenge: at least 50% of older people fail to respond adequately to first-line antidepressant pharmacotherapy, even under optimal treatment conditions. Treatment-resistant late-life depression (TRLLD) increases risk for early relapse, undermines adherence to treatment for coexisting medical disorders, amplifies disability and cognitive impairment, imposes greater burden on family caregivers, and increases ...

  9. Some remarks on marginally trapped surfaces and geodesic incompleteness

    OpenAIRE

    Silva, I. P. Costa e

    2012-01-01

    In a recent paper, Eichmair, Galloway and Pollack have proved a Gannon-Lee-type singularity theorem based on the existence of marginally outer trapped surfaces (MOTS) on noncompact initial data sets for globally hyperbolic spacetimes. However, one might wonder whether the corresponding incomplete geodesics could still be complete in a possible non-globally hyperbolic extension of spacetime. In this note, some variants of that result are given with weaker causality assumptions, thus suggesting...

  10. Can we make the second incompleteness theorem coordinate free?

    OpenAIRE

    Visser, A.

    2008-01-01

    Is it possible to give a coordinate free formulation of the Second Incompleteness Theorem? We pursue one possible approach to this question. We show that (i) cutfree consistency for finitely axiomatized theories can be uniquely characterized modulo EA-provable equivalence, (ii) consistency for finitely axiomatized sequential theories can be uniquely characterized modulo EA-provable equivalence. The case of infinitely axiomatized ce theories is more delicate. We carefully dis...

  11. Einstein, incompleteness, and the epistemic view of quantum states

    OpenAIRE

    Harrigan, Nicholas; Spekkens, Robert W.

    2007-01-01

    Does the quantum state represent reality or our knowledge of reality? In making this distinction precise, we are led to a novel classification of hidden variable models of quantum theory. Indeed, representatives of each class can be found among existing constructions for two-dimensional Hilbert spaces. Our approach also provides a fruitful new perspective on arguments for the nonlocality and incompleteness of quantum theory. Specifically, we show that for models wherein the quantum state has ...

  12. Causal Incompleteness: A New Perspective on Quantum Non-locality

    OpenAIRE

    Palmer, T. N.

    2005-01-01

    The mathematical notion of incompleteness (eg of rational numbers, Turing-computable functions, and arithmetic proof) does not play a key role in conventional physics. Here, a reformulation of the kinematics of quantum theory is attempted, based on an inherently granular and discontinuous state space, in which the quantum wavefunction is associated with a finite set of finite bit strings, and the unitary transformations of complex Hilbert space are reformulated as finite permutation and relat...

  13. Hilbert's Incompleteness, Chaitin's $\\Omega$ number and Quantum Physics

    OpenAIRE

    Kieu, Tien D

    2001-01-01

    To explore the limitation of a class of quantum algorithms originally proposed for the Hilbert's tenth problem, we consider two further classes of mathematically non-decidable problems, those of a modified version of the Hilbert's tenth problem and of the computation of the Chaitin's $\\Omega$ number, which is a representation of the G\\"odel's Incompletness theorem. Some interesting connection to Quantum Field Theory is pointed out.

  14. Incomplete wetting of methane on graphite at low temperatures

    OpenAIRE

    Krim, J.; Gay, J M; Suzanne, J.; Lerner, E.

    1986-01-01

    The wetting behaviour of methane on graphite has been studied by means of low energy electron diffraction and reflection high energy electron diffraction in the temperature range 14-40 K. Incomplete wetting, or crystallite formation, is detected over the entire temperature range for films with thicknesses of 15 or more layers. Isosteric heats of adsorption are reported for the 2nd, 3rd and 4th adsorbed layers, and agree with earlier measurements recorded at 77 K.

  15. Pricing, implementation and calibration of credit derivatives in incomplete market

    OpenAIRE

    Houssou, Régis; Besson, Olivier

    2011-01-01

    Après la crise financière de 2008, on a pu observer que le marché des dérivés de crédit avait fortement perdu son niveau courant de liquidité. L'existence de dérivés de crédit illiquides qui ne peuvent pas être parfaitement couverts signifie que le marché est incomplet. Comme conséquence, dans l'univers risque-neutre les approches classiques de valorisation des dérivés de crédit ne prendront pas en compte les risques non couverts. Dans cette thèse, nous abordons ces questions en modifiant les...

  16. To Mature or not to Mature: The Information Systems Conundrum

    OpenAIRE

    Carl Marnewick

    2013-01-01

    Research has been done within the South African information technology (IT) industry over the last decade with regard to project management maturity (PMM) and the impact it has on delivering information systems (IS) projects successfully. The research was done to determine whether IS PMM per knowledge area has improved over the last decade. It investigates if there is a correlation between maturity levels and project success. Four independent surveys over the last decade focused on IS PMM ...

  17. UNILATERAL INCOMPLETE SUPERFICIAL PALMAR ARCH: A CASE REPORT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Subhankar Chakraborty

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The functional importance of hand is revealed by its rich vascularity contributed by superficial and deep palmar arches (SPA and DPA.Superficial palmar arch is located superficial to flexor tendons, and deep palmar arch deep to lumbrical muscles. Variations are found more often in SPA than DPA, later being more or less constant. During routine undergraduate dissection, we observed, unilateral incomplete SPA being formed by superficial palmar branches of ulnar and radial artery in the right hand of a male cadaver. These two arteries remained independent without anastomosis forming incomplete arch (SPA.The superficial branch of ulnar artery entered hand superficial to flexor retinaculum and supplied middle, ring and little finger by three branches. The superficial branch of radial artery via its two branches supplied index finger and thumb. Classical SPA formation was seen on left side. The presence of an incomplete SPA as in this case is a potential danger in RA harvesting for CABG.Variations in SPA play a pivotal role in microvascular surgical procedures of hand, RAinterventions and arterial graft applications.

  18. Incomplete domain decomposition preconditioning for coarse mesh neutron diffusion problems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Incomplete domain decomposition preconditioning for parallel implementation of the conjugate gradient-like methods is applied to solve the two-group, three-dimensional, coarse mesh finite differenced neutron diffusion equation on the PARAGON XP/S-10 parallel computer. The linear system resulting from implicit time differencing of the time-dependent neutron diffusion equation is solved by the preconditioned biconjugate gradient squared method without employing the fission source iteration. An efficient domain decomposition preconditioning scheme is constructed by taking advantage of strong diagonal dominance of the coarse mesh finite difference formulation. Simplifications are made in the incomplete LU factorization process to construct a preconditioner for a three dimensional subdomain and the coupling between subdomains is approximated by incorporating only the effect of the non-leakage terms of neighboring subdomains. The method is applied to quarter core and full core fixed source problems which are created from the IAEA three-dimensional benchmark problem. Results show that on a single processor the computation time for the preconditioned biconjugate gradient method is comparable to other conventional iteration methods such as Line-SOR and the cyclic Chebyshev semi-iterative method. The effectiveness of the incomplete domain decomposition preconditioning on a multi-processor is evidenced by the small increase in the number of iterations as the number of subdomains increases. Speedups up to 32.1 are achievable with 64 processing elements for a 34x34x36 full core three-dimensional problem

  19. Elective postoperative radiotherapy after incomplete resection of colorectal cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ghossein, N.A.; Samala, E.C.; Alpert, S.; DeLuca, F.R.; Ragins, H.; Turner, S.S.; Stacey, P.; Flax, H.

    It is known that patients with incompletely resected epithelial cancers are at high risk of local recurrence. A prospective study to determine whether elective postoperative radiotherapy can decrease the incidence of local recurrence and thus improve survival of those patients with an incompletely resected tumor was made of 125 irradiated patients with locally advanced colorectal cancer (B2, C1, C2) 78 patients had rectosigmoid tumors and 47 had colonic cancers. Complete resection (R0) was performed in 94 patients (75 per cent). Thirteen (10 per cent) had microscopic (R1) and 18 (14 per cent) had gross residual disease (R2). Local control and survival (average follow-up, 38 months) of patients with microscopic residual cancer (RI) were 84 per cent (11/13) and 77 per cent (10/13) respectively. These results were identical to those obtained in patients without residual disease (R0). Patients with gross residual disease (R2) had a local control of 50 per cent (9/18) and a survival of 39 per cent (7/18). Radiation complication occurred in seven of 125 patients (6 per cent). One patient died, of radiation enteritis. One patient required a nephrostomy. The remaining five patients were treated conservatively. Elective postoperative radiotherapy given to patients who had incomplete resection of a colorectal cancer prevented local recurrence in the majority and may have increased survival.

  20. Elective postoperative radiotherapy after incomplete resection of colorectal cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    It is known that patients with incompletely resected epithelial cancers are at high risk of local recurrence. A prospective study to determine whether elective postoperative radiotherapy can decrease the incidence of local recurrence and thus improve survival of those patients with an incompletely resected tumor was made of 125 irradiated patients with locally advanced colorectal cancer (B2, C1, C2) 78 patients had rectosigmoid tumors and 47 had colonic cancers. Complete resection (R0) was performed in 94 patients (75 per cent). Thirteen (10 per cent) had microscopic (R1) and 18 (14 per cent) had gross residual disease (R2). Local control and survival (average follow-up, 38 months) of patients with microscopic residual cancer (RI) were 84 per cent (11/13) and 77 per cent (10/13) respectively. These results were identical to those obtained in patients without residual disease (R0). Patients with gross residual disease (R2) had a local control of 50 per cent (9/18) and a survival of 39 per cent (7/18). Radiation complication occurred in seven of 125 patients (6 per cent). One patient died, of radiation enteritis. One patient required a nephrostomy. The remaining five patients were treated conservatively. Elective postoperative radiotherapy given to patients who had incomplete resection of a colorectal cancer prevented local recurrence in the majority and may have increased survival

  1. Incomplete penetrance: The role of stochasticity in developmental cell colonization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Binder, Benjamin J; Landman, Kerry A; Newgreen, Donald F; Ross, Joshua V

    2015-09-01

    Cell colonization during embryonic development involves cells migrating and proliferating over growing tissues. Unsuccessful colonization, resulting from genetic causes, can result in various birth defects. However not all individuals with the same mutation show the disease. This is termed incomplete penetrance, and it even extends to discordancy in monozygotic (identical) twins. A one-dimensional agent-based model of cell migration and proliferation within a growing tissue is presented, where the position of every cell is recorded at any time. We develop a new model that approximates this agent-based process - rather than requiring the precise configuration of cells within the tissue, the new model records the total number of cells, the position of the most advanced cell, and then invokes an approximation for how the cells are distributed. The probability mass function (PMF) for the most advanced cell is obtained for both the agent-based model and its approximation. The two PMFs compare extremely well, but using the approximation is computationally faster. Success or failure of colonization is probabilistic. For example for sufficiently high proliferation rate the colonization is assured. However, if the proliferation rate is sufficiently low, there will be a lower, say 50%, chance of success. These results provide insights into the puzzle of incomplete penetrance of a disease phenotype, especially in monozygotic twins. Indeed, stochastic cell behavior (amplified by disease-causing mutations) within the colonization process may play a key role in incomplete penetrance, rather than differences in genes, their expression or environmental conditions. PMID:26047851

  2. Disruption of nuclear maturation and rearrangement of cytoskeletal elements in bovine oocytes exposed to heat shock during maturation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roth, Z; Hansen, P J

    2005-02-01

    Meiotic maturation in mammalian oocytes is a complex process which involves extensive rearrangement of microtubules, actin filaments and chromosomes. Since cytoskeletal elements are sensitive to disruption by heat shock, a series of experiments were performed to determine whether physiologically relevant heat shock disrupts the progression of the oocyte through meiosis, fertilization and zygote formation. Cumulus-oocyte complexes were cultured at 38.5, 40.0 or 41.0 degrees C for the first 12 h of maturation. Incubation during the last 10 h of maturation and 18 h after fertilization was at 38.5 degrees C and in 5% (v/v) CO2 for both treatments. Examination of the cytoskeleton and the chromosome organization in matured oocytes revealed that oocytes matured at 38.5 degrees C were mostly at metaphase II (MII) stage, while the majority of heat-shocked oocytes were blocked at the first metaphase (MI), first anaphase or first telophase stages. A subset of heat-shocked oocytes possessed misshapen MI spindles with disorganized microtubules and unaligned chromosomes. A higher percentage of TUNEL-positive oocytes was noted for oocytes matured at 41.0 degrees C. Addition of 50 nmol/l sphingosine 1-phosphate to maturation medium blocked the effect of heat shock on progression through meiosis and apoptosis and increased the proportion of oocytes matured at 41.0 degrees C that were at MII. Following insemination, a high percentage of heat-shocked oocytes were unfertilized, while the majority of the control zygotes were fertilized and had two visible pronuclei. In conclusion, heat shock disrupts nuclear maturation and induces apoptosis. These alterations are likely to be involved in the mechanism underlying heat-shock-induced disruption of oocyte capacity for fertilization and subsequent development. PMID:15695618

  3. Effect of fission following incomplete fusion on the interpretation of fission fragment angular distributions in heavy-ion fusion reactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    It is shown that with the inclusion of fission following incomplete fusion in addition to the normal equilibrium fission following compound nucleus formation and the recently proposed pre-equilibrium fission, one can understand in a quantitative way the host of apparently anomalous fragment angular distributions measured in a number of heavy ion induced fission reactions involving the highly fissile actinides as one of the collision partners

  4. Sublingual misoprostol versus standard surgical care for treatment of incomplete abortion in five sub-Saharan African countries

    OpenAIRE

    Shochet Tara; Diop Ayisha; Gaye Alioune; Nayama Madi; Sall Aissata; Bukola Fawole; Blandine Thieba; Abiola Okunlola; Dao Blami; Olayinka Ogunbode; Winikoff Beverly

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Background In low-resource settings, where abortion is highly restricted and self-induced abortions are common, access to post-abortion care (PAC) services, especially treatment of incomplete terminations, is a priority. Standard post-abortion care has involved surgical intervention but can be hard to access in these areas. Misoprostol provides an alternative to surgical intervention that could increase access to abortion care. We sought to gather additional evidence regarding the ef...

  5. Complete and incomplete fusion reactions in the 16O+169Tm system: Excitation functions and recoil range distributions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    With the view to study complete and incomplete fusion in heavy ion induced reactions, experiments have been carried out for measuring excitation functions for several reactions in the system 16O+169Tm at energies near the Coulomb barrier to well above it, using an activation technique. The measured excitation functions have been compared with those calculated theoretically using three different computer codes viz., ALICE-91, CASCADE and PACE2. The enhancement of experimentally measured cross sections for alpha emission channels over their theoretical prediction has been attributed to the fact that these residues are formed not only by complete fusion but also through incomplete fusion. In order to separate out the relative contributions of complete and incomplete fusion, the recoil range distributions of eight residues produced in the interaction of 16O with 169Tm at ?87 MeV have been measured. The recoil range distributions indicate significant contributions from incomplete fusion at ?87 MeV for some of the channels

  6. Assessing harvest maturity in nectarines

    OpenAIRE

    Tijskens, L. M. M.; Zerbini, F.M.; Schouten, R.E.; Vanoli, M.; Jacob, S.; Grassi, M.; Cubeddu, R.; Spinelli, L.; Torricelli, A.

    2007-01-01

    The maturity at harvest of nectarines can be assessed with the novel technique of time-resolved reflectance spectroscopy (TRS) measuring the light absorption at 670 nm in the fruit flesh. A kinetic model was developed that links this absorption coefficient (¿a), expressed as the biological shift factor, to firmness decrease during ripening. The model thus includes the variations in maturity at harvest of the individual fruit. In non-linear regression analyses of data from four different seaso...

  7. 7 CFR 51.693 - Mature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ...Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Mature. 51.693 Section 51.693 Agriculture Regulations...California, and Arizona) Definitions § 51.693 Mature. Mature shall have the same meaning currently assigned...

  8. 7 CFR 51.1218 - Mature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ...Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Mature. 51.1218 Section 51.1218 Agriculture ...for Grades of Peaches Definitions § 51.1218 Mature. “Mature” means that the peach has reached the stage of...

  9. 7 CFR 51.484 - Mature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ...Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Mature. 51.484 Section 51.484 Agriculture Regulations...Grades of Cantaloups 1 Definitions § 51.484 Mature. Mature means that the cantaloup has reached the stage...

  10. 7 CFR 51.1907 - Mature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ...Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Mature. 51.1907 Section 51.1907 Agriculture ...Standards for Fresh Tomatoes Definitions § 51.1907 Mature. Mature means that the tomato has reached the stage of...

  11. 7 CFR 51.767 - Mature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ...Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Mature. 51.767 Section 51.767 Agriculture Regulations...Grades of Florida Grapefruit Definitions § 51.767 Mature. Mature shall have the same meaning assigned the term...

  12. 7 CFR 51.2651 - Mature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ...Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Mature. 51.2651 Section 51.2651 Agriculture ...Grades for Sweet Cherries 1 Definitions § 51.2651 Mature. Mature means that the cherries have reached the stage...

  13. 7 CFR 51.1158 - Mature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ...Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Mature. 51.1158 Section 51.1158 Agriculture ...Florida Oranges and Tangelos Definitions § 51.1158 Mature. Mature shall have the same meaning assigned the term...

  14. 7 CFR 51.3153 - Mature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ...Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Mature. 51.3153 Section 51.3153 Agriculture ...Grades of Nectarines Definitions § 51.3153 Mature. “Mature” means that the nectarine has reached the stage...

  15. 7 CFR 51.631 - Mature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ...Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Mature. 51.631 Section 51.631 Agriculture Regulations...California, and Arizona) Definitions § 51.631 Mature. Mature shall have the same meaning currently assigned...

  16. 7 CFR 51.3058 - Mature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ...Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Mature. 51.3058 Section 51.3058 Agriculture ...Standards for Florida Avocados Definitions § 51.3058 Mature. Mature means that the avocado has reached a stage of...

  17. 7 CFR 51.1865 - Mature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ...Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Mature. 51.1865 Section 51.1865 Agriculture ...Standards for Fresh Tomatoes 1 Definitions § 51.1865 Mature. Mature means that the tomato has reached the stage of...

  18. 7 CFR 51.2841 - Mature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ...Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Mature. 51.2841 Section 51.2841 Agriculture ...Bermuda-Granex-Grano and Creole Types) Definitions § 51.2841 Mature. Mature means well cured. Midseason onions which are...

  19. 7 CFR 51.1530 - Mature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ...Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Mature. 51.1530 Section 51.1530 Agriculture ...Fresh Plums and Prunes Definitions § 51.1530 Mature. “Mature” means that the fruit has reached the stage of...

  20. 7 CFR 51.1585 - Mature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ...Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Mature. 51.1585 Section 51.1585 Agriculture ...Standards for Potatoes Definitions § 51.1585 Mature. Mature means that the outer skin (epidermis) does not...

  1. 7 CFR 51.3746 - Mature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ...Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Mature. 51.3746 Section 51.3746 Agriculture ...Honey Ball Type Melons Definitions § 51.3746 Mature. Mature means that the melon has reached the stage of...

  2. 7 CFR 51.2930 - Mature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ...Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Mature. 51.2930 Section 51.2930 Agriculture ...for Grades of Apricots Definitions § 51.2930 Mature. Mature means having reached the stage of development...

  3. Structural and functional maturation of rat gastrointestinal barrier with thyroxine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    It has been noted that the closure of the intestinal barrier to immunoglobulins is a normal maturational process in the rat. It has also been noted that the microvillus membrane (MVM) of newborn animals differs from adult MVM. The purpose of this study is to document whether thyroid hormone can induce closure in vivo in the rat and to relate this effect of thyroxine to the structural and functional maturation of the intestinal MVM. To assess closure, 2-wk-old rats were fed in rat immunoglobulin G (IgG), and serum antibody binding activity was measured 4 h later. The antibody binding activity of treated animals (T) was 1.5-2 times less than that of controls (C), indicating that thyroxine stimulates closure. The MVM similarly showed signs of maturation. Structural maturation was demonstrated by the lower fluidity of the thyroid-treated animals' membranes. Under the influence of thyroxine, the number of receptors on the MVM for IgG had decreased, while the K/sub a/ remained the same, demonstrating the functional maturation of the MVM. In conclusion, thryoid hormone can induce both structural and functional maturation of the intestinal MVM and can enhance the intestinal mucosal barrier by decreasing the penetration of antibodies

  4. Maturity Models Development in IS Research

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lasrado, Lester Allan; Vatrapu, Ravi; Andersen, Kim Normann

    2015-01-01

    Maturity models are widespread in IS research and in particular, IT practitioner communities. However, theoretically sound, methodologically rigorous and empirically validated maturity models are quite rare. This literature review paper focuses on the challenges faced during the development of...... maturity models. Specifically, it explores maturity models literature in IS and standard guidelines, if any to develop maturity models, challenges identified and solutions proposed. Our systematic literature review of IS publications revealed over hundred and fifty articles on maturity models. Extant...

  5. Maturity Model of Software Product with Educational Maturity Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R.Manjula

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Software product line engineering is an inter-disciplinary concept. It spans the dimensions of business, architecture, process,and the organization. Similarly, Education System engineering is also an inter-disciplinary concept, which spans the dimensions of academic, infrastructure, facilities, administration etc. Some of the potential benefits of this approach includecontinuous improvements in System quality and adhering to global standards. The increasing competency in IT and Educational Sectors necessitates a process maturity evaluation methodology. Accordingly, this paper presents an organizational maturity model for Education system for evaluating the maturity of multi- dimension factors and attributes of an Education System. Assessment questionnaires and a rating methodology comprise the framework of this Educational maturity model. The objective and design of the questionnaires are to collect information about the Education system engineering process from the multi perspectives of academic, infrastructure, administration, facilities etc. Furthermore, we conducted one case study and reported the assessment results using the organizational maturity model presented in this paper.

  6. Social Interactions under Incomplete Information: Games, Equilibria, and Expectations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Chao

    My dissertation research investigates interactions of agents' behaviors through social networks when some information is not shared publicly, focusing on solutions to a series of challenging problems in empirical research, including heterogeneous expectations and multiple equilibria. The first chapter, "Social Interactions under Incomplete Information with Heterogeneous Expectations", extends the current literature in social interactions by devising econometric models and estimation tools with private information in not only the idiosyncratic shocks but also some exogenous covariates. For example, when analyzing peer effects in class performances, it was previously assumed that all control variables, including individual IQ and SAT scores, are known to the whole class, which is unrealistic. This chapter allows such exogenous variables to be private information and models agents' behaviors as outcomes of a Bayesian Nash Equilibrium in an incomplete information game. The distribution of equilibrium outcomes can be described by the equilibrium conditional expectations, which is unique when the parameters are within a reasonable range according to the contraction mapping theorem in function spaces. The equilibrium conditional expectations are heterogeneous in both exogenous characteristics and the private information, which makes estimation in this model more demanding than in previous ones. This problem is solved in a computationally efficient way by combining the quadrature method and the nested fixed point maximum likelihood estimation. In Monte Carlo experiments, if some exogenous characteristics are private information and the model is estimated under the mis-specified hypothesis that they are known to the public, estimates will be biased. Applying this model to municipal public spending in North Carolina, significant negative correlations between contiguous municipalities are found, showing free-riding effects. The Second chapter "A Tobit Model with Social Interactions under Incomplete Information", is an application of the first chapter to censored outcomes, corresponding to the situation when agents" behaviors are subjected to some binding restrictions. In an interesting empirical analysis for property tax rates set by North Carolina municipal governments, it is found that there is a significant positive correlation among near-by municipalities. Additionally, some private information about its own residents is used by a municipal government to predict others' tax rates, which enriches current empirical work about tax competition. The third chapter, "Social Interactions under Incomplete Information with Multiple Equilibria", extends the first chapter by investigating effective estimation methods when the condition for a unique equilibrium may not be satisfied. With multiple equilibria, the previous model is incomplete due to the unobservable equilibrium selection. Neither conventional likelihoods nor moment conditions can be used to estimate parameters without further specifications. Although there are some solutions to this issue in the current literature, they are based on strong assumptions such as agents with the same observable characteristics play the same strategy. This paper relaxes those assumptions and extends the all-solution method used to estimate discrete choice games to a setting with both discrete and continuous choices, bounded and unbounded outcomes, and a general form of incomplete information, where the existence of a pure strategy equilibrium has been an open question for a long time. By the use of differential topology and functional analysis, it is found that when all exogenous characteristics are public information, there are a finite number of equilibria. With privately known exogenous characteristics, the equilbria can be represented by a compact set in a Banach space and be approximated by a finite set. As a result, a finite-state probability mass function can be used to specify a probability measure for equilibrium selection, which completes the model. From Monte Carlo experiments about two types of binary choice models, it is found that assuming equilibrium uniqueness can bring in estimation biases when the true value of interaction intensity is large and there are multiple equilibria in the data generating process.

  7. [Application of immunomodulators in the treatment of mandibular fractures in elderly patients with incomplete secondary adentia].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abramov, A V; Parfenov, S A; Belov, V G; Parfenov, Iu A

    2014-01-01

    The aim of the work was to study the experience of using complex pharmacotherapy in the treatment of mandibular fractures in elderly patients with incomplete secondary periodontitis, which were divided into two groups. In the first group, patients (n = 46; average age 69.0 ± 3.6) were treated using the authors' original device combined with application of antimicrobial MetrogilDenta gel onto gums two times a day during ten days. Patients in the second group (n = 52; average age 61.0 ± 3.1) were treated with the same device combined with (i) application of MetrogilDenta antimicrobial gel onto gums two times a day during ten days, (ii) application of 1.5 ml of Cycloferon 5% liniment by cotton pellet for 20 min during the same 10 days (30 minutes after the antimicrobial gel), and (iii) intramuscular injections of 6 mg of synthetic immunomodulator Polyoxidonium once a day for 3 days, then once every two days (for a total of 17 days). It is established that the use of the combination of interferon inducers of immunomodulator group--Cycloferon in the form of liniment and synthetic immunomodulator Polyoksidonium together with MetrogilDenta antimicrobial gel--led to the most pronounced regression of inflammatory and destructive processes in periodontal tissues (in 7.1%, ? = 0.05), optimized the state of local immunity of the oral cavity, and normalized microflora in periodontal pockets in elderly patients with incomplete secondary adentia. PMID:25365866

  8. Task Parallel Incomplete Cholesky Factorization using 2D Partitioned-Block Layout

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Kyungjoo [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Rajamanickam, Sivasankaran [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Stelle, George Widgery [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Edwards, Harold C. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Olivier, Stephen Lecler [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2016-01-01

    We introduce a task-parallel algorithm for sparse incomplete Cholesky factorization that utilizes a 2D sparse partitioned-block layout of a matrix. Our factorization algorithm follows the idea of algorithms-by-blocks by using the block layout. The algorithm-byblocks approach induces a task graph for the factorization. These tasks are inter-related to each other through their data dependences in the factorization algorithm. To process the tasks on various manycore architectures in a portable manner, we also present a portable tasking API that incorporates different tasking backends and device-specific features using an open-source framework for manycore platforms i.e., Kokkos. A performance evaluation is presented on both Intel Sandybridge and Xeon Phi platforms for matrices from the University of Florida sparse matrix collection to illustrate merits of the proposed task-based factorization. Experimental results demonstrate that our task-parallel implementation delivers about 26.6x speedup (geometric mean) over single-threaded incomplete Choleskyby- blocks and 19.2x speedup over serial Cholesky performance which does not carry tasking overhead using 56 threads on the Intel Xeon Phi processor for sparse matrices arising from various application problems.

  9. Entrance channel effect in the incomplete fusion reactions

    OpenAIRE

    Singh B.P.; Kumar R,; Unnati; Singh Devendra P.; Sharma Manoj K.; Singh Pushpendra P; Sharma Vijay R.; Yadav Abhishek; Prasad R.; Bhowmik R.K.

    2011-01-01

    In the present work the effect of various entrance channel parameters on incomplete fusion strength and the reaction dynamics in 12C+159Tb system at energies ? 4-7MeV/A have been investigated by measuring the excitation functions of individual reaction channels. Experimental excitation functions have been analyzed in the framework of compound nucleus decay using statistical model code PACE4. Analysis of data suggests the production of xn/pxn-channels via complete fusion of 12C with 159Tb...

  10. Incomplete fusion reactions as binary l-matched reactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Recent data on incomplete fusion reactions at E approx.= 10 MeV/A are reviewed. The characteristics of these processes such as their localization in l-space, their binary character, and the division of cross sections is discussed. The bin-model and its natural extension, the sum-rule model, as well as the break-up fusion model are presented. Attention is paid to the ''balance'' of cross sections that is needed for a global understanding of the heavy-ion reactions under consideration. (orig.)

  11. A model of incomplete chromatic adaptation for calculating corresponding colors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fairchild, Mark D.

    1990-01-01

    A new mathematical model of chromatic adaptation for calculating corresponding colors across changes in illumination is formulated and tested. This model consists of a modified von Kries transform that accounts for incomplete levels of adaptation. The model predicts that adaptation will be less complete as the saturation of the adapting stimulus increases and more complete as the luminance of the adapting stimulus increases. The model is tested with experimental results from two different studies and found to be significantly better at predicting corresponding colors than other proposed models. This model represents a first step toward the specification of color appearance across varying conditions.

  12. A model of incomplete chromatic adaptation for calculating corresponding colors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fairchild, M.D.

    1990-01-01

    A new mathematical model of chromatic adaptation for calculating corresponding colors across changes in illumination is formulated and tested. This model consists of a modified von Kries transform that accounts for incomplete levels of adaptation. The model predicts that adaptation will be less complete as the saturation of the adapting stimulus increases and more complete as the luminance of the adapting stimulus increases. The model is tested with experimental results from two different studies and found to be significantly better at predicting corresponding colors than other proposed models. This model represents a first step toward the specification of color appearance across varying conditions. 30 refs., 3 figs., 1 tab.

  13. Optimal Robust Mean-Variance Hedging in Incomplete Financial Markets

    CERN Document Server

    Lazrieva, N

    2008-01-01

    Optimal B-robust estimate is constructed for multidimensional parameter in drift coefficient of diffusion type process with small noise. Optimal mean-variance robust (optimal V -robust) trading strategy is find to hedge in mean-variance sense the contingent claim in incomplete financial market with arbitrary information structure and misspecified volatility of asset price, which is modelled by multidimensional continuous semimartingale. Obtained results are applied to stochastic volatility model, where the model of latent volatility process contains unknown multidimensional parameter in drift coefficient and small parameter in diffusion term.

  14. Bilateral transaction bargaining between independent utilities under incomplete information

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A new approach to designing bilateral power transaction bargaining models between two independent utilities in a deregulated electricity market is proposed. In the paper it is assumed that each utility (a seller or a buyer) knows its own operating costs but does not know those of its opponent. The bilateral power transaction problem is then considered as non-cooperative bargaining under incomplete information. Each participant develops its own bargaining strategy based on estimates of the opponent's operating costs and bargaining strategy. Two bargaining models are developed and examples are employed for demonstration. (Author)

  15. Incomplete block factorization preconditioning for indefinite elliptic problems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guo, Chun-Hua [Univ. of Calgary, Alberta (Canada)

    1996-12-31

    The application of the finite difference method to approximate the solution of an indefinite elliptic problem produces a linear system whose coefficient matrix is block tridiagonal and symmetric indefinite. Such a linear system can be solved efficiently by a conjugate residual method, particularly when combined with a good preconditioner. We show that specific incomplete block factorization exists for the indefinite matrix if the mesh size is reasonably small. And this factorization can serve as an efficient preconditioner. Some efforts are made to estimate the eigenvalues of the preconditioned matrix. Numerical results are also given.

  16. Incomplete Continuous-Time Securities Markets with Stochastic Income Volatility

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Peter Ove; Larsen, Kasper

    In an incomplete continuous-time securities market governed by Brownian motions, we derive closed-form solutions for the equilibrium risk-free rate and equity premium processes. The economy has a finite number of heterogeneous exponential utility investors, who receive partially unspanned income...... and can trade continuously on a finite time interval in a money market account and a single risky security. Besides establishing the existence of an equilibrium, our main result shows that if the investors' unspanned income has stochastic counter-cyclical volatility, the resulting equilibrium can...

  17. Asset pricing puzzles explained by incomplete Brownian equilibria

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Peter Ove; Larsen, Kasper

    We examine a class of Brownian based models which produce tractable incomplete equilibria. The models are based on finitely many investors with heterogeneous exponential utilities over intermediate consumption who receive partially unspanned income. The investors can trade continuously on a finite...... time interval in a money market account as well as a risky security. Besides establishing the existence of an equilibrium, our main result shows that the resulting equilibrium can display a lower risk-free rate and a higher risk premium relative to the usual Pareto efficient equilibrium in complete...

  18. Acoustooptic refraction-influenced generation of tunable incomplete Airy beams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the process of acoustooptic refraction of an incident-finite- aperture light beam on a standing acoustic wave, there arises a cubic phase modulation of the beam in passing through an acoustooptic cell. After the Fourier transformation of the transmitted field, an Airy-type beam is formed with varying in time parameters. The propagation of such a beam is described explicitly with diffraction integral. By using the numerical simulation, it is established that the transverse intensity profile, acceleration and additional modulation of oscillations of a generated incomplete Airy beam are dependent on the frequency and power of an acoustic wave. (paper)

  19. Conditioning analysis of incomplete Cholesky factorizations with orthogonal dropping

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Napov, Artem

    2012-03-16

    The analysis of preconditioners based on incomplete Cholesky factorization in which the neglected (dropped) components are orthogonal to the approximations being kept is presented. General estimate for the condition number of the preconditioned system is given which only depends on the accuracy of individual approximations. The estimate is further improved if, for instance, only the newly computed rows of the factor are modified during each approximation step. In this latter case it is further shown to be sharp. The analysis is illustrated with some existing factorizations in the context of discretized elliptic partial differential equations.

  20. On the determination of dipoles from incomplete galaxy catalogues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The spherical harmonic and random filling methods, used to account for incomplete sky coverage in dipole calculations, are investigated. A study of their comparative performances is carried out and the former method is shown to be more accurate. Using both these methods, an attempt is made to find the regions responsible for the dipole in the Lahav optical catalogue. We find that the Virgo-Centaurus region provides most of the dipole power. We also find strong indications that these structures are embedded within a global underlying anisotropy. (author)

  1. Incomplete block SSOR preconditionings for high order discretizations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kolotilina, L. [Steklov Mathematical Institute, St. Petersburg (Russian Federation)

    1994-12-31

    This paper considers the solution of linear algebraic systems Ax = b resulting from the p-version of the Finite Element Method (FEM) using PCG iterations. Contrary to the h-version, the p-version ensures the desired accuracy of a discretization not by refining an original finite element mesh but by introducing higher degree polynomials as additional basis functions which permits to reduce the size of the resulting linear system as compared with the h-version. The suggested preconditionings are the so-called Incomplete Block SSOR (IBSSOR) preconditionings.

  2. Online Identification and Tracking of Subspaces from Highly Incomplete Information

    CERN Document Server

    Balzano, Laura; Recht, Benjamin

    2010-01-01

    This work presents GROUSE (Grassmanian Rank-One Update Subspace Estimation), an efficient online algorithm for tracking subspaces from highly incomplete observations. GROUSE requires only basic linear algebraic manipulations at each iteration, and each subspace update can be performed in linear time in the dimension of the subspace. The algorithm is derived by analyzing incremental gradient descent on the Grassmannian manifold of subspaces. With a slight modification, GROUSE can also be used as an online incremental algorithm for the matrix completion problem of imputing missing entries of a low-rank matrix. GROUSE performs exceptionally well in practice both in tracking subspaces and as an online algorithm for matrix completion.

  3. A Short Guide to Gödel's Second Incompleteness Theorem

    OpenAIRE

    Bagaria, Joan

    2003-01-01

    The usual proof of Godel's second incompleteness theorem for weak theories like I Sigma 'subscript 1' is long and technically cumbersome. The details are rarely given in full and in most cases they are skipped altogether with dismissing vague sentences alluding to the reader's ability to fill them in. In the first part of this note we provide a guide through the main technical points of the usual proof of Godel's theorem for weak theories. In the second part we present a different and simpler...

  4. An incompleteness theorem for ?n-models

    OpenAIRE

    Mummert, Carl; Simpson, Stephen G.

    2004-01-01

    Let n be a positive integer. By a ?n-model we mean an ?-model which is elementary with respect to ?1n formulas. We prove the following ?n-model version of Gödel’s Second Incompleteness Theorem. For any recursively axiomatized theory S in the language of second order arithmetic, if there exists a ?n-model of S, then there exists a ?n-model of S + “there is no countable ?n-model of S”. We also prove a ?n-model version of Löb’s Theorem. As a corollary, we obtain a ?n-mode...

  5. Information, randomness & incompleteness papers on algorithmic information theory

    CERN Document Server

    Chaitin, Gregory J

    1987-01-01

    The papers gathered in this book were published over a period of more than twenty years in widely scattered journals. They led to the discovery of randomness in arithmetic which was presented in the recently published monograph on "Algorithmic Information Theory" by the author. There the strongest possible version of Gödel's incompleteness theorem, using an information-theoretic approach based on the size of computer programs, was discussed. The present book is intended as a companion volume to the monograph and it will serve as a stimulus for work on complexity, randomness and unpredictabilit

  6. Joint probabilities of noncommuting operators and incompleteness of quantum mechanics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We use joint probabilities to analyze the EPR argument in the Bohm's example of spins. The properties of distribution functions for two, three, or more noncommuting spin components are explicitly studied and their limitations are pointed out. Within the statistical ensemble interpretation of quantum theory (where only statements about repeated events can be made), the incompleteness of quantum theory does not follow, as the consistent use of joint probabilities shows. This does not exclude a completion of quantum mechanics, going beyond it, by a more general theory of single events, using hidden variables, for example

  7. Bilateral transaction bargaining between independent utilities under incomplete information

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    David, A. K.; Wen, F. S. [Department of Electrical Engineering, Hong Kong Polytechnic University, Kowloon, (Hong Kong)

    2001-09-01

    A new approach to designing bilateral power transaction bargaining models between two independent utilities in a deregulated electricity market is proposed. In the paper it is assumed that each utility (a seller or a buyer) knows its own operating costs but does not know those of its opponent. The bilateral power transaction problem is then considered as non-cooperative bargaining under incomplete information. Each participant develops its own bargaining strategy based on estimates of the opponent's operating costs and bargaining strategy. Two bargaining models are developed and examples are employed for demonstration. (Author)

  8. Observation of entrance channel mass-asymmetry effect on incomplete fusion reaction for 20Ne+165Ho system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An experiment has been performed to explore the incomplete fusion (ICF) reaction dynamics in heavy ion induced reactions. Excitation functions (EFs) for eighteen evaporation residues (ERs) produced in the system 20Ne+165Ho have been measured in the energy range ?88–164 MeV. Some of the ERs have significant contribution from precursor decay, which has been separated out from the measured cumulative cross-sections to get direct production cross-sections. Parameters of the statistical model code PACE-2 are optimized to reproduce the ERs populated in complete fusion reactions such as in xn and pxn channels. Using the same parameters, EFs for the residues produced in ?-particle(s) emission channels have been calculated. A significant enhancement in the measured EFs of the ERs produced in ?-particle(s) emission channels over the PACE-2 predictions have been observed which indicates the occurrence of incomplete fusion reaction process. In the ICF process the break-up of projectile 20Ne into 4He+16O and/or 8Be+12C takes place followed by fusion of one of the fragments with the target nucleus 165Ho. The present data analyses suggest that probability of incomplete fusion reaction increases with projectile energy. The ICF fraction FICF has been estimated and found to increase with increasing mass-asymmetry [AT/(AT+AP)] of the partners in entrance channel. It is also observed that critical angular momentum associated with incomplete fusion channels at higher projectile energy may be associated with ?-values lower than that of peripheral collisions, indicating that the incomplete fusion competes with complete fusion even at angular momentum values little lower than critical angular momentum.

  9. Early maturity mutants from reirradiation of rice mutant MA03

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rice mutant MA03 was obtained through induced mutation breeding programme on a popular rice variety c.v Mr52. It was a semidwarf mutant line with other useful attributes such as high yield and upright panicle. However, it was also disadvantaged by a long maturity period and a rounded grain shape which lowered its commercial grade. Therefore, the Mr52-derived induced mutant was subjected to another irradiation treatment to improve its characteristics further. At M4 generation 6 mutant lines with improved maturity period were selected. The second irradiation treatment had successfully improved the maturity period and reduced plant height of MA03 further but did not change the grain shape

  10. Mechanosensitivity of dental pulp stem cells is related to their osteogenic maturity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kraft, David C E; Bindslev, Dorthe A; Melsen, Birte; Abdallah, Basem; Kassem, Moustapha; Klein-Nulend, Jenneke

    2010-01-01

    exhibited higher osteocalcin and alkaline phosphatase gene expression and activity than PDSC-immature. Pulsating fluid flow (PFF) stimulated nitric oxide production within 5 min by PDSC-mature but not by PDSC-immature. In PDSC-mature, PFF induced prostaglandin E(2) production, and cyclooxygenase 2 gene...... cells (PDSCs) portraying mature (PDSC-mature) or immature (PDSC-immature) bone cell characteristics are responsive to pulsating fluid flow (PFF) in vitro. We also assessed bone formation by PDSCs on hydroxyapatite-tricalcium phosphate granules after subcutaneous implantation in mice. Cultured PDSC-mature...... expression was higher than in PDSC-immature. Implantation of PDSC-mature resulted in more osteoid deposition and lamellar bone formation than PDSC-immature. We conclude that PDSCs with a mature osteogenic phenotype are more responsive to pulsating fluid shear stress than osteogenically immature PDSCs and...

  11. Incomplete fusion in 12C + 160Gd collisions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A study of the mechanism of the production of fast ?-particels in 12C + 160Gd collisions has been performed. Experiments have been performed at four bombarding energies 90, 120, 160 and 200 MeV. The energy spectra of singles ?-particles were taken at several laboratory angles, and the singles ?-ray spectra compared with the spectra of ?-rays in prompt coincidences with ?-particles. Absolute cross sections were deduced for (12C, ?) and (12C, 2?) reactions. The conclusion is that depending on the bombarding energy, a fraction of 0.2-0.4 of the inclusive ?-particle production cross section can be explained as resulting from incomplete fusion reactions. A large part of the cross section must be then attributed to 3?-particle breakup. Energy dependence of the cross sections for (12C, ?) and (12C, 2?) reactions indicates that incomplete fusion reactions begin to be important only above the critical energy, i.e. when the grazing angular momentum becomes greater than the critical angular momentum for complete fusion. (C.F.)

  12. Regularised finite element model updating using measured incomplete modal data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Hua-Peng; Maung, Than Soe

    2014-10-01

    This paper presents an effective approach for directly updating finite element model from measured incomplete vibration modal data with regularised algorithms. The proposed method is based on the relationship between the perturbation of structural parameters such as stiffness change and the modal data measurements of the tested structure such as measured mode shape readings. In order to adjust structural parameters at detailed locations, structural updating parameters will be selected at critical point level to reflect the modelling errors at the connections of structural elements. These updating parameters are then evaluated by an iterative or a direct solution procedure, which gives optimised solutions in the least squares sense without requiring an optimisation technique. In order to reduce the influence of modal measurement uncertainty, the Tikhonov regularisation method incorporating the L-curve criterion is employed to produce reliable solutions for the chosen updating parameters. Numerical simulation investigations and experimental studies for the laboratory tested space steel frame structure are undertaken to verify the accuracy and effectiveness of the proposed methods for adjusting the stiffness at the joints of structural members. The results demonstrate that the proposed methods provide reliable estimates of finite element model updating using the measured incomplete modal data.

  13. Fabrication of Stable Cartilage Framework for Microtia in Incomplete Synchondrosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Byung Chae Cho

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available The synchondrosis between the sixth and seventh costal cartilage is usually used for thebase frame in autogenous ear reconstruction. If the synchondrosis is loose, a variety ofmodifications can be devised. This report introduces new methods for these problems. Incases of incomplete synchondrosis, only the surface of the base block margin was smoothlytapered without carving for the removal of the conchal deepening. The secure fixation ofthe two segments (helix and antihelix to the base block using fine wire sutures gave stabilityto the unstable basal frame. After confirming that all the segments were assembled in onestable piece, the remaining conchal deepening of the basal framework was removed, and theouter lower portion of the basal cartilage was trimmed along its whole length. A total of 10consecutive patients with microtia, ranging from 8 to 13 years old, were treated from 2008 to2009. The follow-up period was 6 months to 2 years. Despite incomplete synchondrosis, thestable frameworks were constructed using the authors’ method and aesthetically acceptableresults were achieved. The proposed method can provide an easy way to make a stablecartilage framework regardless of the variable conditions of synchondrosis.

  14. Definite integrals of generalized certain class of incomplete elliptic integrals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ravi Shanker Dubey

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Elliptic- integral have their importance and potential in certain problems in radiation physics and nuclear technology, studies of crystallographic minimal surfaces, the theory of scattering of acoustic or electromagnetic waves by means of an elliptic disk, studies of elliptical crack problems in fracture mechanics. A number of earlier works on the subject contains remarkably large number of general families of elliptic- integrals and indeed also many definite integrals of such families with respect to their modulus (or complementary modulus are known to arise naturally. Motivated essentially by these and many other potential avenues of their applications, our aim here is to give a systematic account of the theory of a certain family of generalized incomplete elliptic integrals in a unique and generalized manner. The results established in this paper are of manifold generality and basic in nature. By making use of the familiar Riemann-Liouville fractional differ integral operators, we establish many explicit hypergeometric representations and apply these representation in deriving several definite integrals pertaining to their, not only with respect to the modulus (or complementary modulus, but also with respect to the amplitude of generalized incomplete elliptic integrals involved therein.

  15. An information propagation model considering incomplete reading behavior in microblog

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Qiang; Huang, Jiajia; Zhao, Xiande

    2015-02-01

    Microblog is one of the most popular communication channels on the Internet, and has already become the third largest source of news and public opinions in China. Although researchers have studied the information propagation in microblog using the epidemic models, previous studies have not considered the incomplete reading behavior among microblog users. Therefore, the model cannot fit the real situations well. In this paper, we proposed an improved model entitled Microblog-Susceptible-Infected-Removed (Mb-SIR) for information propagation by explicitly considering the user's incomplete reading behavior. We also tested the effectiveness of the model using real data from Sina Microblog. We demonstrate that the new proposed model is more accurate in describing the information propagation in microblog. In addition, we also investigate the effects of the critical model parameters, e.g., reading rate, spreading rate, and removed rate through numerical simulations. The simulation results show that, compared with other parameters, reading rate plays the most influential role in the information propagation performance in microblog.

  16. Distributed Cooperation among Cognitive Radios with Complete and Incomplete Information

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giupponi, Lorenza; Ibars, Christian

    2009-12-01

    This paper proposes that secondary unlicensed users are allowed to opportunistically use the radio spectrum allocated to the primary licensed users, as long as they agree on facilitating the primary user communications by cooperating with them. The proposal is characterized by feasibility since the half-duplex option is considered, and incomplete knowledge of channel state information can be assumed. In particular, we consider two situations, where the users in the scenario have complete or incomplete knowledge of the surrounding environment. In the first case, we make the hypothesis of the existence of a Common Control Channel (CCC) where users share this information. In the second case, the hypothesis of the CCC is avoided, which improves the robustness and feasibility of the cognitive radio network. To model these schemes we make use of theory of exact and Bayesian potential games. We analyze the convergence properties of the proposed games, and we evaluate the outputs in terms of quality of service perceived by both primary and secondary users, showing that cooperation for cognitive radios is a promising framework and that the lack of complete information in the decision process only slightly reduces system performance.

  17. Global stability of two models with incomplete treatment for tuberculosis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang Yali, E-mail: yylhgr@126.co [Department of Applied Mathematics, Xi' an Jiaotong University, Xi' an 710049 (China) and Department of Applied Mathematics and Physics, Air Force Engineering University, Xi' an 710051 (China); Li Jianquan, E-mail: jianq_li@263.ne [Department of Applied Mathematics and Physics, Air Force Engineering University, Xi' an 710051 (China); Ma Zhien, E-mail: zhma@mail.xjtu.edu.c [Department of Applied Mathematics, Xi' an Jiaotong University, Xi' an 710049 (China); Liu Luju, E-mail: dahai20401095@yahoo.com.c [Department of Mathematics, Henan University of Science and Technology, Luoyang 471003 (China)

    2010-12-15

    Research highlights: Two tuberculosis models with incomplete treatment. Intuitive epidemiological interpretations for the basic reproduction numbers. Global dynamics of the two models. Strategies to control the spread of tuberculosis. - Abstract: Two tuberculosis (TB) models with incomplete treatment are investigated. It is assumed that the treated individuals may enter either the latent compartment due to the remainder of Mycobacterium tuberculosis or the infectious compartment due to the treatment failure. The first model is a simple one with treatment failure reflecting the current TB treatment fact in most countries with high tuberculosis incidence. The second model refines the simple one by dividing the latent compartment into slow and fast two kinds of progresses. This improvement can be used to describe the case that the latent TB individuals have been infected with some other chronic diseases (such as HIV and diabetes) which may weaken the immunity of infected individuals and shorten the latent period of TB. Both of the two models assume mass action incidence and exponential distributions of transfers between different compartments. The basic reproduction numbers of the two models are derived and their intuitive epidemiological interpretations are given. The global dynamics of two models are all proved by using Liapunov functions. At last, some strategies to control the spread of tuberculosis are discussed.

  18. Incomplete hippocampal inversion - is there a relation to epilepsy?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Incomplete hippocampal inversion (IHI) has been described in patients with epilepsy or severe midline malformations but also in nonepileptic subjects without obvious developmental anomalies. We studied the frequency of IHI in different epilepsy syndromes to evaluate their relationship. Three hundred patients were drawn from the regional epilepsy register. Of these, 99 were excluded because of a disease or condition affecting the temporal lobes or incomplete data. Controls were 150 subjects without epilepsy or obvious intracranial developmental anomalies. The coronal MR images were analysed without knowledge of the clinical data. Among epilepsy patients, 30% had IHI (40 left-sided, 4 right-sided, 16 bilateral). Of controls, 18% had IHI (20 left-sided, 8 bilateral). The difference was statistically significant (P<0.05). Of temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE) patients, 25% had IHI, which was not a significantly higher frequency than in controls (P=0.34). There was no correlation between EEG and IHI laterality. A total of 44% of Rolandic epilepsy patients and 57% of cryptogenic generalised epilepsy patients had IHI. The IHI frequency was very high in some epileptic syndromes, but not significantly higher in TLE compared to controls. No causality between TLE and IHI could be found. IHI can be a sign of disturbed cerebral development affecting other parts of the brain, maybe leading to epilepsy. (orig.)

  19. Experimental Determination of Multipartite Entanglement with Incomplete Information

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aguilar, G. H.; Walborn, S. P.; Ribeiro, P. H. Souto; Céleri, L. C.

    2015-07-01

    Multipartite entanglement is very poorly understood despite all the theoretical and experimental advances of the last decades. Preparation, manipulation, and identification of this resource is crucial for both practical and fundamental reasons. However, the difficulty in the practical manipulation and the complexity of the data generated by measurements on these systems increase rapidly with the number of parties. Therefore, we would like to experimentally address the problem of how much information about multipartite entanglement we can access with incomplete measurements. In particular, it was shown that some types of pure multipartite entangled states can be witnessed without measuring the correlations [M. Walter et al., Science 340, 1205 (2013)] between parties, which is strongly demanding experimentally. We explore this method using an optical setup that permits the preparation and the complete tomographic reconstruction of many inequivalent classes of three- and four-partite entangled states, and compare complete versus incomplete information. We show that the method is useful in practice, even for nonpure states or nonideal measurement conditions.

  20. Cooperative coalition for formation flight scheduling based on incomplete information

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meng Linghang

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This study analyzes the cooperative coalition problem for formation scheduling based on incomplete information. A multi-agent cooperative coalition framework is developed to optimize the formation scheduling problem in a decentralized manner. The social class differentiation mechanism and role-assuming mechanism are incorporated into the framework, which, in turn, ensures that the multi-agent system (MAS evolves in the optimal direction. Moreover, a further differentiation pressure can be achieved to help MAS escape from local optima. A Bayesian coalition negotiation algorithm is constructed, within which the Harsanyi transformation is introduced to transform the coalition problem based on incomplete information to the Bayesian-equivalent coalition problem based on imperfect information. The simulation results suggest that the distribution of agents’ expectations of other agents’ unknown information approximates to the true distribution after a finite set of generations. The comparisons indicate that the MAS cooperative coalition algorithm produces a significantly better utility and possesses a more effective capability of escaping from local optima than the proposal-engaged marriage algorithm and the Simulated Annealing algorithm.

  1. Global stability of two models with incomplete treatment for tuberculosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Research highlights: → Two tuberculosis models with incomplete treatment. → Intuitive epidemiological interpretations for the basic reproduction numbers. → Global dynamics of the two models. → Strategies to control the spread of tuberculosis. - Abstract: Two tuberculosis (TB) models with incomplete treatment are investigated. It is assumed that the treated individuals may enter either the latent compartment due to the remainder of Mycobacterium tuberculosis or the infectious compartment due to the treatment failure. The first model is a simple one with treatment failure reflecting the current TB treatment fact in most countries with high tuberculosis incidence. The second model refines the simple one by dividing the latent compartment into slow and fast two kinds of progresses. This improvement can be used to describe the case that the latent TB individuals have been infected with some other chronic diseases (such as HIV and diabetes) which may weaken the immunity of infected individuals and shorten the latent period of TB. Both of the two models assume mass action incidence and exponential distributions of transfers between different compartments. The basic reproduction numbers of the two models are derived and their intuitive epidemiological interpretations are given. The global dynamics of two models are all proved by using Liapunov functions. At last, some strategies to control the spread of tuberculosis are discussed.

  2. Public Sector IS Maturity Models

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zinner Henriksen, Helle; Andersen, Kim Normann; Medaglia, Rony

    2011-01-01

    Online applications and processing of tax forms, driver licenses, and construction permits are examples of where policy attention and research have been united in efforts aiming to categorize the maturity level of e-services. Less attention has been attributed to policy areas with continuous online...... citizenpublic interaction, such as in public education. In this paper we use a revised version of the Public Sector Process Rebuilding (PPR) maturity model for mapping 200 websites of public primary schools in Denmark. Findings reveal a much less favorable picture of the digitization of the Danish public sector...... compared to the high ranking it has received in the international benchmark studies. This paper aims at closing the gap between the predominant scope of maturity models and the frequency of citizen-public sector interaction, and calls for increased attention to the activities of government where the scale...

  3. The Forgotten Promise of E-government Maturity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Kim Normann; Medaglia, Rony; Vatrapu, Ravi; Zinner Henriksen, Helle; Gauld, Robin

    2011-01-01

    Assessing e-government responsiveness is one of the major gaps in the currently dominant e-government maturity models. While we have a relatively large pool of models focusing on technological and organizational integration from a supply side perspective, measures of responsiveness of e-government...... systems from a user perspective are still lacking. Replicating a study from New Zealand and Australia, this study explores the response time and quality of e-mail response in Danish local and central governments (N = 175). Despite that Denmark is high ranking in international benchmark studies, we find...... that one third of central government agencies did not respond at all, and close to 80% of the ministries provided none or incomplete answers. Local government responds faster and provides answers that are more complete and accurate than those provided by central government. Implications for e-government...

  4. The cost of maturing early in a solitary carnivore.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nilsen, Erlend B; Brøseth, Henrik; Odden, John; Linnell, John D C

    2010-12-01

    Central to the theory of life history evolution is the existence of trade-offs between different traits, such as the trade-off between early maturity and an extended period of body growth. Based on analysis of the reproductive tracts of harvested Eurasian lynx (Lynx lynx) females in Norway, we find that females that mature early are generally heavier than those that postpone maturation. A higher proportion of 1.5-year-old females showed signs of ovulation in areas with high prey density, where they were also heavier. Further, we show that female Eurasian lynx that mature early have the same number of placental scars (an index of breeding investment and litter size) as older females, suggesting that they have a relatively high investment in their first litter. This induces a cost in terms of body weight development, as those females that had matured at the age of 1.5 years were substantially lighter by the age of 2.5 years than those that postponed breeding. This effect tended to be more pronounced in areas with low prey density. We discuss to what extent this might affect their future fitness prospects, and suggest that such costs of maturing early in terms of body weight development might be high in terrestrial large carnivores due to a prolonged period of postnatal care. PMID:20607292

  5. Development and maturation of Escherichia coli K-12 biofilms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Reisner, A.; Haagensen, J.A.J.; Schembri, Mark; Zechner, E.L.; Molin, Søren

    2003-01-01

    . We suggest on the basis of these results that E. coli K-12 biofilm development and maturation is dependent on cell-cell adhesion factors, which may act as inducers of self-assembly processes that result in differently structured biofilms depending on the adhesive properties on the cell surface....

  6. Altered maturation of small intestinal function in the absence of intraluminal nutrients: rapid normalization with refeeding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castillo, R O; Feng, J J; Stevenson, D K; Kwong, L K

    1991-02-01

    The absence of intraluminal nutrients during weaning in rats was shown to result in altered intestinal growth and maturation. In this study intestinal length, mucosal weight, DNA, protein, and total disaccharidase activities were significantly lower in animals sustained by intravenous nutrients over the normal weaning age than were normally weaned controls but were greater than preweaning values. Absorptive capacity for sucrose (assessed by hydrogen-gas production) was diminished, directly linking incomplete maturation of sucrase to diminished intestinal function. To determine whether these alterations were permanent, rats previously deprived of intraluminal nutrients over the weaning period were refed. Eight days after refeeding, all variables except total lactase had attained values found in normally weaned age-matched controls, including absorptive capacity for sucrose. Although intestinal growth and maturation is abnormal in the absence of intraluminal nutrients during weaning, the abnormalities are not permanent and are rapidly corrected upon refeeding. PMID:1899174

  7. Isospin Dependence of Incomplete Fusion Reactions at 25 Mev/a

    CERN Document Server

    Amorini, F; Giuliani, G; Papa, M; Agodi, C; Alba, R; Anzalone, A; Berceanu, I; Cavallaro, S; Chatterjee, M B; Coniglione, R; De Filippo, E; Di Pietro, A; Geraci, E; Grassi, L; Grzeszczuk, A; Figuera, P; La Guidara, E; Lanzalone, G; Neindre, N Le; Lombardo, I; Maiolino, C; Pagano, A; Pirrone, S; Politi, G; Pop, A; Porto, F; Rizzo, F; Russotto, P; Santonocito, D; Sapienza, P; Verde, G

    2008-01-01

    40Ca+40,48Ca,46Ti reactions at 25 MeV/A have been studied using the 4p CHIMERA detector. An isospin effect on the competition between incomplete fusion and dissipative binary reaction mechanisms has been observed. The probability of producing a compound system is observed to be lower in the case of N=Z colliding systems as compared to the case of reactions induced on the more neutron rich 48Ca target. Predictions based on CoMD-II calculations show that the competition between fusion-like and dissipative reactions, for the selected centrality, can strongly constraint the parameterization of symmetry energy and its density dependence in the nuclear equation of state.

  8. Study on production of seed and seedling of green sturgeon. Determination on sensitivity of oocyte of green sturgeon (Bster) to ovule maturation inducing hormone, and on roe quality; Chozame no shubyo seisan ni kansuru kenkyu. Chozame (besuteru) no ranbo saibo no ranseijuku yuki horumon kanjusei to ranshitsu hantei

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Omoto, N.; Maebayashi, M. [Hokkaido Electric Power Co. Inc., Sapporo (Japan)

    2000-03-24

    Green sturgeons do not spawn naturally in the ordinary breeding environment. Hence obtaining fries requires stimulation of ovulation by hormone treatment. In order to raise hatching rate and perform stable seed and seedling production, it is necessary to establish a method to determine at high accuracy the optimal time of the hormone treatment. Therefore, discussions were given on a method to evaluate sensitivity to different ovule maturation inducing hormones (progesterone systems). As a result, an effective means to perform ovum collection of Bester efficiently was considered to be a method to determine the timing of hormone dosing by using the sensitivity of oocyte to ovule maturation inducing hormone, supported by the use of germinal vesicle breakdown (GVBD) as the parameter. The timing at which this hormone sensitivity is highest, that is, the timing at which GVBD is induced with the probability of 100% is the optimal timing for the hormone treatment. Roes with high hormone sensitivity tend to have higher hatching rate, whereas this tendency is useful to estimate the hatching rate. Individuals having roes with high hormone sensitivity show a trend of shortening the time required from the first hormone dosing to the ovulation. (NEDO)

  9. Mature Cystic Teratoma of Liver

    OpenAIRE

    Richa Gupta; Kalpana Bansal; Vivek Manchanda; Ruchika Gupta

    2013-01-01

    A four-year-old boy presented with constipation and mild abdominal distention for one year. Radiologic investigations showed a multiloculated cystic lesion in the caudate lobe of liver with focal calcification in the wall. The child underwent laparotomy with marsupialization of the cystic lesion. Histopathologic examination showed mature teratoma of liver.

  10. Maturation of the adolescent brain

    OpenAIRE

    Arain M; Haque M; Johal L; Mathur P; Nel W; Rais A; Sandhu R; Sharma S.

    2013-01-01

    Mariam Arain, Maliha Haque, Lina Johal, Puja Mathur, Wynand Nel, Afsha Rais, Ranbir Sandhu, Sushil Sharma Saint James School of Medicine, Kralendijk, Bonaire, The Netherlands Abstract: Adolescence is the developmental epoch during which children become adults – intellectually, physically, hormonally, and socially. Adolescence is a tumultuous time, full of changes and transformations. The pubertal transition to adulthood involves both gonadal and behavioral maturation. Magnetic resonance...

  11. Motivational Maturity and Helping Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haymes, Michael; Green, Logan

    1977-01-01

    Maturity in conative development (type of motivation included in Maslow's needs hierarchy) was found to be predictive of helping behavior in middle class white male college students. The effects of safety and esteem needs were compared, and the acceptance of responsibility was also investigated. (GDC)

  12. Jobfinding Techniques for Mature Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terlin, Rose

    Written by the Chief of Special Projects of the Women's Bureau as a guide for assisting the mature woman in preparing for and finding employment, this pamphlet contains sections on: (1) How to Do a Self-Inventory, (2) How to Prepare a Resume, (3) The Jobhunt, (4) How to Prepare a Letter of Application, (5) Guides to an Effective Interview, and (6)…

  13. MicroRNA-15/16 Antagonizes Myb To Control NK Cell Maturation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sullivan, Ryan P; Leong, Jeffrey W; Schneider, Stephanie E; Ireland, Aaron R; Berrien-Elliott, Melissa M; Singh, Anvita; Schappe, Timothy; Jewell, Brea A; Sexl, Veronika; Fehniger, Todd A

    2015-09-15

    NK cells develop in the bone marrow and complete their maturation in peripheral organs, but the molecular events controlling maturation are incompletely understood. The miR-15/16 family of microRNA regulates key cellular processes and is abundantly expressed in NK cells. In this study, we identify a critical role for miR-15/16 in the normal maturation of NK cells using a mouse model of NK-specific deletion, in which immature NK cells accumulate in the absence of miR-15/16. The transcription factor c-Myb (Myb) is expressed preferentially by immature NK cells, is a direct target of miR-15/16, and is increased in 15a/16-1 floxed knockout NK cells. Importantly, maturation of 15a/16-1 floxed knockout NK cells was rescued by Myb knockdown. Moreover, Myb overexpression in wild-type NK cells caused a defective NK cell maturation phenotype similar to deletion of miR-15/16, and Myb overexpression enforces an immature NK cell transcriptional profile. Thus, miR-15/16 regulation of Myb controls the NK cell maturation program. PMID:26268657

  14. Complete and incomplete fusion of weakly bound nuclei

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marta, H. D.; Canto, L. F.; Donangelo, R.

    2014-03-01

    Existing quantum mechanics methods to study fusion reactions with weakly bound nuclei cannot evaluate separately the complete fusion and the incomplete fusion cross sections. We develop a semiclassical procedure that can calculate these cross sections, apply it to Li6,7+Bi209 collisions at energies just above the barrier, and show that its predictions for the different fusion cross sections are in good agreement with the data. We find that the contribution from the sequential fusion of the Li fragments to the complete fusion cross section is substantial in the case of Li6, reaching almost 40% of that from the direct process, which illustrates the importance of calculating correctly the different components of the fusion cross section.

  15. Expurgated PPM Using Symmetric Balanced Incomplete Block Designs

    CERN Document Server

    Noshad, Mohammad

    2012-01-01

    In this letter, we propose a new pulse position modulation (PPM) scheme, called expurgated PPM (EPPM), for application in peak power limited communication systems, such as impulse radio (IR) ultra wide band (UWB) systems and free space optical (FSO) communications. Using the proposed scheme, the constellation size and the bit-rate can be increased significantly in these systems. The symbols are obtained using symmetric balanced incomplete block designs (BIBD), forming a set of pair-wise equidistance symbols. The performance of Q-ary EPPM is better than any Q-ary pulse position-based modulation scheme with the same symbol length. Since the code is cyclic, the receiver for EPPM is simpler compared to multipulse PPM (MPPM).

  16. Elementary calculation of clip connections with incomplete sweep of shaft

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivan P. Shatsky

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The article describes promising structures of clip (screw and friction connections with incomplete sweep of shaft used in machines and mechanisms for the oil and gas industry. The contact problems of interaction between semi-hubs and shaft for the symmetric and asymmetric connections are formulated. For structures that are asymmetric relatively the joint bolt two types of interaction are investigated: with and without lateral displacement. Based on a priori assumption about the distribution laws of contact pressure accepted in traditional courses of “Machine Details” an engineering method for calculating of clip connections is developed. Herewith different types of details coupling (with a gap, matched, with tension correspond to concentrated, cosine and sustainable (linear distributions of contact stresses. There are determined an analytical dependences of boundary points and breakloose force on spanning angles, bolt tightening force and tribological properties of joined parts of subassembly.

  17. Distribution of Mutual Information from Complete and Incomplete Data

    CERN Document Server

    Hutter, M; Hutter, Marcus; Zaffalon, Marco

    2004-01-01

    Mutual information is widely used, in a descriptive way, to measure the stochastic dependence of categorical random variables. In order to address questions such as the reliability of the descriptive value, one must consider sample-to-population inferential approaches. This paper deals with the posterior distribution of mutual information, as obtained in a Bayesian framework by a second-order Dirichlet prior distribution. The exact analytical expression for the mean, and analytical approximations for the variance, skewness and kurtosis are derived. These approximations have a guaranteed accuracy level of the order O(1/n^3), where n is the sample size. Leading order approximations for the mean and the variance are derived in the case of incomplete samples. The derived analytical expressions allow the distribution of mutual information to be approximated reliably and quickly. In fact, the derived expressions can be computed with the same order of complexity needed for descriptive mutual information. This makes ...

  18. Self-Financing, Replicating Hedging Strategies, an incomplete thermodynamic analogy

    CERN Document Server

    McCauley, J L

    2002-01-01

    In the theory of riskfree hedges in continuous time finance, one can start with the delta-hedge and derive the option pricing equation, or one can start with the replicating, self-financing hedging strategy and derive both the delta-hedge and the option pricing partial differential equation. Approximately reversible trading is implicitly assumed in both cases. The option pricing equation is not restricted to the standard Black-Scholes equation when nontrivial volatility is assumed, but produces option pricing in agreement with the empirical distribution for the right choice of volatility in a stochastic description of fluctuations. The replicating, self-financing hedging strategy provides us with an incomplete analogy with thermodynamics where liquidity plays the role of the heat bath, the absence of arbitrage is analgous to thermal equilibrium, but there is no role played by the entropy of the returns distribution, which cannot reach a maximum/equilibrium. We emphasize strongly that the no-arbitrage assumpti...

  19. Least-bias state estimation with incomplete unbiased measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    ?ehá?ek, Jaroslav; Hradil, Zden?k; Teo, Yong Siah; Sánchez-Soto, Luis L.; Ng, Hui Khoon; Chai, Jing Hao; Englert, Berthold-Georg

    2015-11-01

    Measuring incomplete sets of mutually unbiased bases constitutes a sensible approach to the tomography of high-dimensional quantum systems. The unbiased nature of these bases optimizes the uncertainty hypervolume. However, imposing unbiasedness on the probabilities for the unmeasured bases does not generally yield the estimator with the largest von Neumann entropy, a popular figure of merit in this context. Furthermore, this imposition typically leads to mock density matrices that are not even positive definite. This provides a strong argument against perfunctory applications of linear estimation strategies. We propose to use instead the physical state estimators that maximize the Shannon entropy of the unmeasured outcomes, which quantifies our lack of knowledge fittingly and gives physically meaningful statistical predictions.

  20. On a class of incomplete gamma functions with applications

    CERN Document Server

    Chaudhry, M Aslam

    2001-01-01

    The subject of special functions is rich and expanding continuously with the emergence of new problems encountered in engineering and applied science applications. The development of computational techniques and the rapid growth in computing power have increased the importance of the special functions and their formulae for analytic representations. However, problems remain, particularly in heat conduction, astrophysics, and probability theory, whose solutions seem to defy even the most general classes of special functions.On a Class of Incomplete Gamma Functions with Applications introduces a class of special functions, developed by the authors, useful in the analytic study of several heat conduction problems. It presents some basic properties of these functions, including their recurrence relations, special cases, asymptotic representations, and integral transform relationships. The authors explore applications of these generalized functions to problems in transient heat conduction, special cases of laser s...

  1. Stability of utility-maximization in incomplete markets

    CERN Document Server

    Larsen, Kasper

    2007-01-01

    The effectiveness of utility-maximization techniques for portfolio management relies on our ability to estimate correctly the parameters of the dynamics of the underlying financial assets. In the setting of complete or incomplete financial markets, we investigate whether small perturbations of the market coefficient processes lead to small changes in the agent's optimal behavior derived from the solution of the related utility-maximization problems. Specifically, we identify the topologies on the parameter process space and the solution space under which utility-maximization is a continuous operation, and we provide a counterexample showing that our results are best possible, in a certain sense. A novel result about the structure of the solution of the utility-maximization problem where prices are modeled by continuous semimartingales is established as an offshoot of the proof of our central theorem.

  2. Incomplete rod insertion at Doel 4 and Tihange 3

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The present paper deals with the Incomplete Rod Insertion (IRI) problems experienced at the Belgian nuclear power plants (NPPs) of Doel-Unit 4 and Tihange-Unit 3 and presents the various remedial action taken to try to address the cause of such abnormal situations. A chronological description is made of the major events that developed at both units since the IRI problem was detected, i.e. since June '96 at Doel 4 and since October '96 at Tihange 3. The problems that arose from IRI are discussed as well as the position adopted by the Belgian Safety Authorities (BSA) and the action taken by the plant operator, his engineer and by the fuel suppliers. Also described are the consequences on how fuel supply and operation cycles of both units are managed. (authors)

  3. [Incomplete Carney's Triad and arterial hypertension in a young woman].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allievi, Alberto; Araya, Valentina; Calvar, Cecilia; Cimino, Conrado; Delle Piane, Hugo; Diaz, Gabriela; Gianni, Marta; Prudkin, Ludmila

    2006-01-01

    The case of young woman with arterial hypertension diagnosed two years before, is here presented; she had a ferropenic anemia caused by digestive loss of blood. Multiple gastric tumors and pararenal non functioning paraganglioma were found. No chondromas were detected. An incomplete Carney's Triad was diagnosed. We remark that multiple gastric tumors in a young adult suggest the possibility of gastrointestinal stromal tumors (GIST) Endoscopic biopsy frequently is not effective because these tumors are deep placed in the muscular gastric layers. The importance of specific techniques for a positive diagnosis are emphasized. Continuous follow up is needed because these tumors have uncertain prognosis. Lung chondromas may appear years later after the GIST was removed and might be confused with GIST metastases. PMID:16555728

  4. Role of entrance channel parameters on incomplete fusion reaction dynamics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In recent time the keen interest has been observed in the study of incomplete fusion (ICF) reactions and its dependence on various entrance channel parameters: projectile type/energy, angular momentum imparted to the system, alpha-Q-value of the projectile, mass asymmetry of the interacting partners etc. The fusion reaction proceeds for the energy of projectile capable of overcoming the fusion barrier resulting from the sum of repulsive Coulomb and attractive nuclear potentials. However, the breakup becomes an important process and influences the flux of fusion reactions. Further, the influence of the projectile breakup on fusion is not yet well understood, thus continues to be an active area of investigations. In view of the above facts, the excitation functions of several evaporated residues in the 16O + 115In at energies 4-7 MeV/nucleon have been measured. The influence of various entrance channel parameters on ICF reaction dynamics has been studied

  5. Applying incomplete statistics to nonextensive systems with different q indices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The nonextensive statistics based on the q-entropy Sq=--bar i=1v(pi-piq)1-q has been so far applied to systems in which the q value is uniformly distributed. For the systems containing different q's, the applicability of the theory is still a matter of investigation. The difficulty is that the class of systems to which the theory can be applied is actually limited by the usual nonadditivity rule of entropy which is no more valid when the systems contain non uniform distribution of q values. In this paper, within the framework of the so called incomplete information theory, we propose a more general nonadditivity rule of entropy prescribed by the zeroth law of thermodynamics. This new nonadditivity generalizes in a simple way the usual one and can be proved to lead uniquely to the q-entropy

  6. Symmetry of interactions rules in incompletely connected random replicator ecosystems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kärenlampi, Petri P

    2014-06-01

    The evolution of an incompletely connected system of species with speciation and extinction is investigated in terms of random replicators. It is found that evolving random replicator systems with speciation do become large and complex, depending on speciation parameters. Antisymmetric interactions result in large systems, whereas systems with symmetric interactions remain small. A co-dominating feature is within-species interaction pressure: large within-species interaction increases species diversity. Average fitness evolves in all systems, however symmetry and connectivity evolve in small systems only. Newcomers get extinct almost immediately in symmetric systems. The distribution in species lifetimes is determined for antisymmetric systems. The replicator systems investigated do not show any sign of self-organized criticality. The generalized Lotka-Volterra system is shown to be a tedious way of implementing the replicator system. PMID:24965155

  7. The value of incomplete mouse models of Alzheimer's disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To study Alzheimer's disease (AD), a variety of mouse models has been generated through the overexpression of the amyloid precursor protein and/or the presenilins harboring one or several mutations found in familial AD. With aging, these mice develop several lesions similar to those of AD, including diffuse and neuritic amyloid deposits, cerebral amyloid angiopathy, dystrophic neurites and synapses, and amyloid-associated neuroinflammation. Other characteristics of AD, such as neurofibrillary tangles and nerve cell loss, are not satisfactorily reproduced in these models. Mouse models that recapitulate only specific aspects of AD pathogenesis are of great advantage when deciphering the complexity of the disease and can contribute substantially to diagnostic and therapeutic innovations. Incomplete mouse models have been key to the development of Aβ42-targeted therapies, as well as to the current understanding of the interrelationship between cerebral β-amyloidosis and tau neurofibrillary lesions, and are currently being used to develop novel diagnostic agents for in vivo imaging. (orig.)

  8. Finding small OBDDs for incompletely specified truth tables is hard

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Miltersen, Peter Bro; Kristensen, Jesper Torp

    We present an efficient reduction mapping undirected graphs G with n = 2^k vertices for integers k to tables of partially specified Boolean functions g: {0,1}^(4k+1) -> {0,1,*} so that for any integer m, G has a vertex colouring using m colours if and only if g has a consistent ordered binary dec...... decision diagram with at most (2m + 2)n^2 + 4n decision nodes. From this it follows that the problem of finding a minimum-sized consistent OBDD for an incompletely specified truth table is NP-hard and also hard to approximate.......We present an efficient reduction mapping undirected graphs G with n = 2^k vertices for integers k to tables of partially specified Boolean functions g: {0,1}^(4k+1) -> {0,1,*} so that for any integer m, G has a vertex colouring using m colours if and only if g has a consistent ordered binary...

  9. Finding small OBDDs for incompletely specified truth tables is hard

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristensen, Jesper Torp; Miltersen, Peter Bro

    We present an efficient reduction mapping undirected graphs G with n = 2^k vertices for integers k to tables of partially specified Boolean functions g: {0,1}^(4k+1) -> {0,1,*} so that for any integer m, G has a vertex colouring using m colours if and only if g has a consistent ordered binary dec...... decision diagram with at most (2m + 2)n^2 + 4n decision nodes. From this it follows that the problem of finding a minimum-sized consistent OBDD for an incompletely specified truth table is NP-hard and also hard to approximate......We present an efficient reduction mapping undirected graphs G with n = 2^k vertices for integers k to tables of partially specified Boolean functions g: {0,1}^(4k+1) -> {0,1,*} so that for any integer m, G has a vertex colouring using m colours if and only if g has a consistent ordered binary...

  10. Warranty forecasting from incomplete two-dimensional warranty data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Warranty modelling with incomplete data is a major issue in reliability analysis. The incomplete failure region characterized by warranty field data may be classified into several domains representing failures from manufacturing/assembly defects, usage or fatigue. In the present paper a data driven approach has been suggested to demark the regions optimally through estimation of the change point in a hazard function. In the perspective of bivariate warranty analysis, as relevant in automobiles, we have assumed the lifetime distribution to be a mixture of distributions corresponding to the burn-in period and the useful life period. The proportions of observations in different regions demarketed by the warranty policy in the bivariate plane have been estimated by considering mileage along with age. The estimation scheme has been verified and validated through extensive simulation studies. The utilities of the results have been demonstrated by addressing several issues through a real life synthetic warranty data set from a large automobile company. - Highlights: • Detailed responses to all comments of the reviewers are attached in a separate file. Almost all of the suggestions of the reviewers are incorporated in the revised manuscript. • Some recent works of different authors as mentioned by the reviewers have been included in the revised manuscript. • The term change point with reference to the transition from $DFR$ to $CFR$ part of the bath-tub curve has been elaborated. • A sample of real life data has been given in the revised manuscript in Table $4$, by following the suggestion of reviewer 2. • The findings have been summarised in a better way in the conclusion part. In this portion we have emphasized on the take away of our work. Scopes for future work have also been mentioned

  11. Complete and incomplete fusion reactions in 16O+45Sc system. Measurement and analysis of excitation functions below 7 MeV/nucleon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Complete and incomplete fusion reactions study in heavy ion induced reactions, by 16O ions on 45Sc at incident energies ranging between 39 and 114 MeV have been using the activation technique followed by ?-ray spectrometry. The excitation functions for eleven reactions have been measured using this technique. A comparison of the experimental data has been made with the calculations based on statistical model. Excitation function measurement of various reactions, for the above projectile-target system is being reported for the first time. Complete and incomplete fusion reaction channels have been identified in the production of various residual nuclei, by analysing the experimental data. The results indicate the occurrence of incomplete fusion involving breakup of 16O into 4He+12C and 8Be+8Be followed by fusion of one of the fragments with target nucleus 45Sc. (author)

  12. Green ICT Maturity Model for Czech SMEs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alena Buchalcevova

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a design of a Green ICT maturity model that is aimed at maturity assessment of a Green ICT capability in SMEs that figure as users of ICT services. Based on a literature review and internet search, six maturity models in the Green ICT area were detected and further analysed. Since these maturity models do not suit maturity assessment in non-ICT SMEs, a new Green ICT maturity model for SMEs was developed. This paper introduces the process of model development, description of the resulted model and evaluation of the model.

  13. Optimal investment with random endowments in incomplete markets

    CERN Document Server

    Hugonnier, J; Hugonnier, Julien; Kramkov, Dmitry

    2004-01-01

    In this paper, we study the problem of expected utility maximization of an agent who, in addition to an initial capital, receives random endowments at maturity. Contrary to previous studies, we treat as the variables of the optimization problem not only the initial capital but also the number of units of the random endowments. We show that this approach leads to a dual problem, whose solution is always attained in the space of random variables. In particular, this technique does not require the use of finitely additive measures and the related assumption that the endowments are bounded.

  14. Glycoprotein maturation and the UPR

    OpenAIRE

    Hülsmeier, A J; Welti, M; Hennet, T

    2011-01-01

    Glycosylation is a complex form of protein modification occurring in the secretory pathway. The addition of N- and O-glycans affects intracellular processes like the folding and trafficking of most glycoproteins. To better understand the impact of glycosylation in protein folding and maturation, parameters like glycosylation site occupancy and oligosaccharide structure must be measured quantitatively. In this chapter, we describe current methods enabling the determination of N-glycosylation b...

  15. Regulators of growth plate maturation

    OpenAIRE

    Emons, Joyce Adriana Mathilde

    2010-01-01

    Estrogen is known to play an important role in longitudinal bone growth and growth plate maturation, but the mechanism by which estrogens exert their effect is not fully understood. In this thesis this role is further explored. Chapter 1 contains a general introduction to longitudinal bone growth and the regulation of the growth plate in respect to relevant topics further studied in this thesis. Estrogen can act through a genomic or a nongenomic pathway. Both pathways are explored in rats ...

  16. In vitro maturation: Clinical applications

    OpenAIRE

    Lim, Kyung Sil; Chae, Soo Jin; Choo, Chang Woo; Ku, Yeon Hee; Lee, Hye Jun; Hur, Chang Young; Lim, Jin Ho; Lee, Won Don

    2013-01-01

    Oocyte in vitro maturation (IVM) is an assisted reproductive technology in which oocytes are retrieved from the antral follicles of unstimulated or minimally stimulated ovaries. IVM of human oocytes has emerged as a promising procedure. This new technology has advantages over controlled ovarian stimulation such as reduction of costs, simplicity, and elimination of ovarian hyperstimulation syndrome. By elimination or reduction of gonadotropin stimulation, IVM offers eligible infertile couples ...

  17. Maturation of the adolescent brain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arain M

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Mariam Arain, Maliha Haque, Lina Johal, Puja Mathur, Wynand Nel, Afsha Rais, Ranbir Sandhu, Sushil Sharma Saint James School of Medicine, Kralendijk, Bonaire, The Netherlands Abstract: Adolescence is the developmental epoch during which children become adults – intellectually, physically, hormonally, and socially. Adolescence is a tumultuous time, full of changes and transformations. The pubertal transition to adulthood involves both gonadal and behavioral maturation. Magnetic resonance imaging studies have discovered that myelinogenesis, required for proper insulation and efficient neurocybernetics, continues from childhood and the brain's region-specific neurocircuitry remains structurally and functionally vulnerable to impulsive sex, food, and sleep habits. The maturation of the adolescent brain is also influenced by heredity, environment, and sex hormones (estrogen, progesterone, and testosterone, which play a crucial role in myelination. Furthermore, glutamatergic neurotransmission predominates, whereas gamma-aminobutyric acid neurotransmission remains under construction, and this might be responsible for immature and impulsive behavior and neurobehavioral excitement during adolescent life. The adolescent population is highly vulnerable to driving under the influence of alcohol and social maladjustments due to an immature limbic system and prefrontal cortex. Synaptic plasticity and the release of neurotransmitters may also be influenced by environmental neurotoxins and drugs of abuse including cigarettes, caffeine, and alcohol during adolescence. Adolescents may become involved with offensive crimes, irresponsible behavior, unprotected sex, juvenile courts, or even prison. According to a report by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, the major cause of death among the teenage population is due to injury and violence related to sex and substance abuse. Prenatal neglect, cigarette smoking, and alcohol consumption may also significantly impact maturation of the adolescent brain. Pharmacological interventions to regulate adolescent behavior have been attempted with limited success. Since several factors, including age, sex, disease, nutritional status, and substance abuse have a significant impact on the maturation of the adolescent brain, we have highlighted the influence of these clinically significant and socially important aspects in this report. Keywords: myelinogenesis, neurocircuitry, molecular imaging, drug addiction, behavior, social adjustment

  18. Mini-temporalis transposition: a less invasive procedure of smile restoration for long-standing incomplete facial paralysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Gang; Yang, Xianxian; Wang, Wei; Li, Qingfeng

    2015-03-01

    Facial paralysis is a common craniofacial deformity that is responsible for significant psychological and functional impairment. Free muscle transfer in 2 stages and latissimus dorsi transfer in one stage may be the most effective surgical procedure for achieving a symmetrical spontaneous smile for a patient with complete facial paralysis. However, these 2 procedures are unsuitable for many incomplete patients. The authors introduce a less invasive procedure, termed mini-temporalis transposition that is able to achieve a symmetrical spontaneous smile in incomplete patients. Through a zigzag incision into the temporal region, the middle third of the temporalis is transferred and elongated with the palmaris longus tendon or combined with the deep temporal fascia. The strips are anchored to key points at the modiolus and the middle of the ipsilateral orbicularis oris muscle through a small intraoral incision and subcutaneous tunnel. The key points are marked during preoperative smile analysis. This procedure was applied to 15 patients with long-standing incomplete facial paralysis. All patients obtained improvements in smile symmetry after the operation, and patients' satisfaction was high. In addition, no damage to residual facial nerve functions or development of procedure-induced complications (such as a facial contour defect, lip eversion or puckering, or skin tethering) was observed in any of the patients. Nevertheless, slight temporal hollowing was observed in 4 patients, and mild bulkiness over the zygomatic arch was a common observation. In summary, the mini-temporalis transfer technique is a safe and effective method of smile restoration for long-standing incomplete facial paralysis. PMID:25759922

  19. Glia maturation factor gamma regulates the migration and adherence of human T lymphocytes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lippert Dustin ND

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Lymphocyte migration and chemotaxis are essential for effective immune surveillance. A critical aspect of migration is cell polarization and the extension of pseudopodia in the direction of movement. However, our knowledge of the underlying molecular mechanisms responsible for these events is incomplete. Proteomic analysis of the isolated leading edges of CXCL12 stimulated human T cell lines was used to identify glia maturation factor gamma (GMFG as a component of the pseudopodia. This protein is predominantly expressed in hematopoietic cells and it has been shown to regulate cytoskeletal branching. The present studies were undertaken to examine the role of GMFG in lymphocyte migration. Results Microscopic analysis of migrating T-cells demonstrated that GMFG was distributed along the axis of movement with enrichment in the leading edge and behind the nucleus of these cells. Inhibition of GMFG expression in T cell lines and IL-2 dependent human peripheral blood T cells with shRNAmir reduced cellular basal and chemokine induced migration responses. The failure of the cells with reduced GMFG to migrate was associated with an apparent inability to detach from the substrates that they were moving on. It was also noted that these cells had an increased adherence to extracellular matrix proteins such as fibronectin. These changes in adherence were associated with altered patterns of ?1 integrin expression and increased levels of activated integrins as detected with the activation specific antibody HUTS4. GMFG loss was also shown to increase the expression of the ?2 integrin LFA-1 and to increase the adhesion of these cells to ICAM-1. Conclusions The present studies demonstrate that GMFG is a component of human T cell pseudopodia required for migration. The reduction in migration and increased adherence properties associated with inhibition of GMFG expression suggest that GMFG activity influences the regulation of integrin mediated adhesion.

  20. 7 CFR 51.312 - Mature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ...United States Standards for Grades of Apples Definitions § 51.312 Mature. “Mature” means that the apples have reached the stage of development...describing different stages of firmness of apples: (a) “Hard” means apples...