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1

Experimentally induced incomplete burst fractures - a novel technique for calf and human specimens  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background Fracture morphology is crucial for the clinical decision-making process preceding spinal fracture treatment. The presented experimental approach was designed in order to ensure reproducibility of induced fracture morphology. Results The presented method resulted in fracture morphology, found in clinical classification systems like the Magerl classification. In the calf spine samples, 70% displayed incomplete burst fractures corresponding to type A3.1 and A3.2 fractures. In all human samples, superior incomplete burst fractures (Magerl A3.1 were identified by an independent radiologist and spine surgeon. Conclusions The presented set up enables the first experimental means to reliably model and study distinct incomplete burst fracture patterns in an in vitro setting. Thus, we envisage this protocol to facilitate further studies on spine fracture treatment of incomplete burst fractures.

Hartensuer René

2012-03-01

2

Analysis of {alpha}-particle induced incomplete chromosome aberrations, using pan-centro metric and pan-telomeric DNA probes  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The aim of the present study has been the evaluation of the incompleteness of {alpha}-particle induced chromosome aberrations by the simultaneous detection of all centromeres and telomeres present in human lymphocytes. For this purpose attached lymphocytes were irradiated at doses of 0.2, 0.5,0.7 and 1 Gy in a ''241Am source. FISH techniques were applied using pan-centromeric and pan-telomeric probes. All abnormal cells were digitalised and analysed using a Cytovision FISH workstation. A total of 378 incomplete chromosomes plus incomplete acentrics was found. Cases with more than 92 telomeres were not detected. The ratio between total incomplete elements and multicentrics was 1.00. The total number of acentric fragments was 822; 57% of then were complete fragments ace (+.+), 26% incomplete fragments ace (+,-), and 17% interstitial fragment ace (-.-). The percentage of incomplete aberrations is higher after high-LET than described for low-LET exposure. The results seem to indicate that compared to low-LET. after {alpha}-particle exposure it is more likely to repair the centromere-containing elements. (Author) 30 refs.

Mestres, M.; Schmid, E.; Stephan, G.; Barrios, L.; Caballin, M. R.; Barquinero, J. F.

2004-07-01

3

Induced maturation of hepatic progenitor cells in vitro  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in english Hepatic progenitor cells (HPCs) are a potential cell source for liver cell transplantation but do not function like mature liver cells. We sought an effective and reliable method to induce HPC maturation. An immortalized HP14.5 albumin promoter-driven Gaussian luciferase (ALB-GLuc) ce [...] ll line was established from HPCs isolated from fetal mouse liver of post coitus day 14.5 mice to investigate the effect of induction factors on ALB promoter. HP14.5 parental cells were cultured in DMEM with different combinations of 2% horse serum (HS), 0.1 µM dexamethasone (DEX), 10 ng/mL hepatic growth factor (HGF), and/or 20 ng/mL fibroblast growth factor 4 (FGF4). Trypan blue and crystal violet staining were used to assess cell proliferation with different induction conditions. Expression of hepatic markers was measured by semi-quantitative RT-PCR, Western blot, and immunofluorescence. Glycogen storage and metabolism were detected by periodic acid-Schiff and indocyanine green (ICG) staining. GLuc activity indicated ALB expression. The combination of 2% HS+0.1 µM Dex+10 ng/mL HGF+20 ng/mL FGF4 induced the highest ALB-GLuc activity. Cell proliferation decreased in 2% HS but increased by adding FGF4. Upon induction, and consistent with hepatocyte development, DLK, AFP, and CK19 expression decreased, while ALB, CK18, and UGT1A expression increased. The maturity markers tyrosine aminotransferase and apolipoprotein B were detected at days 3 and 6 post-induction, respectively. ICG uptake and glycogen synthesis were detectable at day 6 and increased over time. Therefore, we demonstrated that HPCs were induced to differentiate into functional mature hepatocytes in vitro, suggesting that factor-treated HPCs may be further explored as a means of liver cell transplantation.

Y., Bi; Y., He; J.Y., Huang; L., Xu; N., Tang; T.C., He; T., Feng.

2013-08-01

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Contribution to the study of incomplete fusion reactions induced in heavy ion collisions  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The objective of this research thesis work was to identify the mechanisms involved in incomplete fusion reactions, and more particularly to see whether projectile structure has an influence on the reaction, and to assess the level and width of the angular moment window associated with incomplete fusion alphas. The study focused on alpha emission by the 16O + 116,124Sn system. Various experimental data have been obtained: differential efficient cross sections for different incident energies, energy spectra of alphas and their evolution with respect to the angle, angular moments associated with fast alphas, coincidences between alphas and discrete gamma lines, measurement of circular polarization of gammas emitted in incomplete fusion reactions

5

Scintigraphic diagnosis of stress-induced incomplete fractures of the proximal tibia  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Incomplete stress fractures of the proximal tibial diaphysis can be diagnosed by bone scintigraphy. The scintigraphic appearance of incomplete rather than complete tibial stress fractures is apparently reported for the first time in this article. With no treatment other than restricted activity, this injury heals rapidly and completely in 4 to 6 weeks. The major threat to the patient's welfare is unfounded suspicion of tumor or infection which may lead to biopsy or inappropriate therapy

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The role of phosphatidylinositol signaling pathway in regulating serotonin-induced oocyte maturation in Mercenaria mercenaria  

Science.gov (United States)

Serotonin (5-HT) has been found to stimulate meiotic maturation of oocytes in many molluscs. During maturation, several signaling pathways are involved, especially the phosphatidylinositol and cAMP pathways. In order to examine the possible role of the phosphatidylinositol signaling pathway in regulating oocyte maturation in Mercenaria mercenaria, the effects of the activator/inhibitor of phospholipase (PLC) and protein kinase C (PKC) on serotonin-induced maturation were studied. Results show that high-concentrations of neomycin (inhibitor of PLC) blocked oocyte maturation, while 9, 10-dimethyl-1, 2-benzanthracene (DMBA, activator of PLC) promoted oocyte maturation in the presence of serotonin. It was also found that in the presence of serotonin, phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate (PMA, activator of PKC) inhibited oocyte maturation, while sphingosine (inhibitor of PKC) stimulated oocyte maturation. These results indicate that serotonin-induced oocyte maturation requires the activation of the phosphatidylinositol pathway. Decrease of PLC inhibited serotonin-induced oocyte maturation, whereas a decrease of PKC stimulated the maturation. Thus, our study indicates that serotonin promotes maturation of M. mercenaria oocytes through PLC stimulated increase in calcium ion concentration via inositol-1, 4, 5-trisphosphate (IP3) but not PKC.

Wang, Qing; Zhang, Tao

2011-05-01

7

EVIDENCE OF A BINARY-INDUCED SPIRAL FROM AN INCOMPLETE RING PATTERN OF CIT 6  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

With the advent of high-resolution high-sensitivity observations, spiral patterns have been revealed around several asymptotic giant branch (AGB) stars. Such patterns can provide possible evidence for the existence of central binary stars embedded in outflowing circumstellar envelopes. Here, we suggest the viability of explaining the previously observed incomplete ring-like patterns with the spiral-shell structure as being due to the motion of (unknown) binary components viewed at an inclination with respect to the orbital plane. We describe a method of extracting such spiral shells from an incomplete ring-like pattern to place constraints on the characteristics of the central binary stars. The use of gas kinematics is essential in facilitating detailed modeling for the three-dimensional structure of the circumstellar pattern. We show that a hydrodynamic radiative transfer model can reproduce the structure of the HC3N molecular line emission of the extreme carbon star, CIT 6. This method can be applied to other sources in the AGB phase and to the outer ring-like patterns of pre-planetary nebulae for probing the existence of embedded binary stars, which are highly anticipated with future observations using the Atacama Large Millimeter/submillimeter Array

8

[Serotonin inhibits phorbol ester-induced oocyte maturation in the green toad (Bufo viridis)].  

Science.gov (United States)

The activator of protein kinase C phorbol-12-myristat-13-acetate (PMA) induces maturation of the definitive intact (coated with the follicular envelopes) and defolliculated oocytes of the green toad. This effect is more pronounced in case of defolliculated oocytes. The amount of matured oocytes depends on the PMA concentration in solution. Serotonin (5-HT) inhibits or blocks maturation of the oocytes induced either by progesterone or by PMA. A possible mechanism of this effect is discussed with special reference to its role in regulation of oocyte maturation. PMID:8725438

Nikitina, L A; Buznikov, G A

1996-01-01

9

Ischemia-induced depolarizations and associated hemodynamic responses in incomplete global forebrain ischemia in rats.  

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Spontaneous depolarizations around the core are a consistent feature of focal cerebral ischemia, but the associated regional hemodynamic changes are heterogeneous. We determined how the features of depolarizations relate to subsequent cerebral blood flow (CBF) changes in global forebrain ischemia. Forebrain ischemia was produced in halothane-anesthetized rats (n=13) by common carotid artery occlusion and hypovolemic hypotension. Mean arterial blood pressure (MABP) was monitored via a femoral catheter. Specific illuminations allowed the capture of image sequences through a cranial window to visualize: changes in membrane potential (voltage-sensitive dye method); CBF (laser speckle contrast imaging); cerebral blood volume (intrinsic optical signal, IOS at 540-550nm); and hemoglobin deoxygenation (IOS at 620-640nm). A depolarization occurred (n=9) when CBF fell below 43.4±5% of control (41±4mmHg MABP), and propagated with a distinct wave front at a rate of 2.8mm/min. Depolarizations were either persistent (n=4), intermediate (n=3) or short, transient depolarization (n=2). Persistent and intermediate depolarizations were associated with sustained hypoperfusion (-11.7±5.1%) and transient hypoperfusion (-17.4±5.2, relative to CBF before depolarization). Short, transient depolarizations did not generate clear CBF responses. Depolarizations during incomplete global ischemia occurred at the lower limit of CBF autoregulation, propagated similar to spreading depolarization (SD), and the hemodynamic responses indicated inverse neurovascular coupling. Similar to SDs associated with focal stroke, the propagating event can be persistent or transient. PMID:24365459

Bere, Z; Obrenovitch, T P; Bari, F; Farkas, E

2014-02-28

10

A sequential study of incomplete Freund's adjuvant-induced peritonitis in Atlantic cod.  

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Development of diagnostic and prophylactic methodologies is dependent on knowledge of the host's defence system and reaction to different vaccine adjuvants. Here we present a sequential morphological study of peritonitis and inflammatory cell processing of incomplete Freund's adjuvant (IFA) in intraperitoneally injected Atlantic cod. The peritoneal tissue responses were characterised using necropsy, histology and electron microscopy. An extensive inflammatory response as characterised by leukocyte morphology and contents of enzymes, presence of apoptotic cells and IFN-?-expressing cells was observed. Three days post injection, IFA droplets were surrounded by different types of inflammatory cells and two different patterns could be discerned. The first was characterised by flattened and concentrically arranged interdigitating cells connected by desmosomes and with macrophage-like cells (MLCs) predominant in the periphery. The second type possessed four stratified layers with an inner layer containing many apoptotic MLCs; a second layer containing flattened and shrunken cells and outer layers comprising moderately flattened cells and an outermost layer of mononuclear cells expressing IFN-?. Oil was detected both inside and outside MLCs. The two types of processes, of which the second was clearly stratified, were similar to those observed in other teleosts, indicating a variety of reaction modes or alternatively sequential process development. The numerous dead MLCs contributed to inflammation. PMID:22100613

Gjessing, Mona Cecilie; Falk, Knut; Weli, Simon Chioma; Koppang, Erling Olaf; Kvellestad, Agnar

2012-01-01

11

2-Azidoalkoxy-7-hydro-8-oxoadenine derivatives as TLR7 agonists inducing dendritic cell maturation.  

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The synthesis of an array of 2-azidoalkoxy substituted 7-hydro-8-oxoadenines is described. The relation of the structure of these compounds and their ability to induce maturation of dendritic cells is evaluated. PMID:19299126

Weterings, Jimmy J; Khan, Selina; van der Heden van Noort, Gerbrand J; Melief, Cornelis J M; Overkleeft, Herman S; van der Burg, Sjoerd H; Ossendorp, Ferry; van der Marel, Gijsbert A; Filippov, Dmitri V

2009-04-15

12

Mechanosensitive Kinases Regulate Stiffness-Induced Cardiomyocyte Maturation  

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Cells secrete and assemble extracellular matrix throughout development, giving rise to time-dependent, tissue-specific stiffness. Mimicking myocardial matrix stiffening, i.e. ~10-fold increase over 1 week, with a hydrogel system enhances myofibrillar organization of embryonic cardiomyocytes compared to static hydrogels, and thus we sought to identify specific mechanosensitive proteins involved. Expression and/or phosphorylation state of 309 unique protein kinases were examined in embryonic cardiomyocytes plated on either dynamically stiffening or static mature myocardial stiffness hydrogels. Gene ontology analysis of these kinases identified cardiogenic pathways that exhibited time-dependent up-regulation on dynamic versus static matrices, including PI3K/AKT and p38 MAPK, while GSK3?, a known antagonist of cardiomyocyte maturation, was down-regulated. Additionally, inhibiting GSK3? on static matrices improved spontaneous contraction and myofibril organization, while inhibiting agonist AKT on dynamic matrices reduced myofibril organization and spontaneous contraction, confirming its role in mechanically-driven maturation. Together, these data indicate that mechanically-driven maturation is at least partially achieved via active mechanosensing at focal adhesions, affecting expression and phosphorylation of a variety of protein kinases important to cardiomyogenesis. PMID:25236849

Young, Jennifer L.; Kretchmer, Kyle; Ondeck, Matthew G.; Zambon, Alexander C.; Engler, Adam J.

2014-01-01

13

Mechanosensitive kinases regulate stiffness-induced cardiomyocyte maturation.  

Science.gov (United States)

Cells secrete and assemble extracellular matrix throughout development, giving rise to time-dependent, tissue-specific stiffness. Mimicking myocardial matrix stiffening, i.e. ~10-fold increase over 1 week, with a hydrogel system enhances myofibrillar organization of embryonic cardiomyocytes compared to static hydrogels, and thus we sought to identify specific mechanosensitive proteins involved. Expression and/or phosphorylation state of 309 unique protein kinases were examined in embryonic cardiomyocytes plated on either dynamically stiffening or static mature myocardial stiffness hydrogels. Gene ontology analysis of these kinases identified cardiogenic pathways that exhibited time-dependent up-regulation on dynamic versus static matrices, including PI3K/AKT and p38 MAPK, while GSK3?, a known antagonist of cardiomyocyte maturation, was down-regulated. Additionally, inhibiting GSK3? on static matrices improved spontaneous contraction and myofibril organization, while inhibiting agonist AKT on dynamic matrices reduced myofibril organization and spontaneous contraction, confirming its role in mechanically-driven maturation. Together, these data indicate that mechanically-driven maturation is at least partially achieved via active mechanosensing at focal adhesions, affecting expression and phosphorylation of a variety of protein kinases important to cardiomyogenesis. PMID:25236849

Young, Jennifer L; Kretchmer, Kyle; Ondeck, Matthew G; Zambon, Alexander C; Engler, Adam J

2014-01-01

14

Methods to Quantify Pharmacologically Induced Alterations in Motor Function in Human Incomplete SCI  

Science.gov (United States)

Spinal cord injury (SCI) is a debilitating disorder, which produces profound deficits in volitional motor control. Following medical stabilization, recovery from SCI typically involves long term rehabilitation. While recovery of walking ability is a primary goal in many patients early after injury, those with a motor incomplete SCI, indicating partial preservation of volitional control, may have the sufficient residual descending pathways necessary to attain this goal. However, despite physical interventions, motor impairments including weakness, and the manifestation of abnormal involuntary reflex activity, called spasticity or spasms, are thought to contribute to reduced walking recovery. Doctrinaire thought suggests that remediation of this abnormal motor reflexes associated with SCI will produce functional benefits to the patient. For example, physicians and therapists will provide specific pharmacological or physical interventions directed towards reducing spasticity or spasms, although there continues to be little empirical data suggesting that these strategies improve walking ability. In the past few decades, accumulating data has suggested that specific neuromodulatory agents, including agents which mimic or facilitate the actions of the monoamines, including serotonin (5HT) and norepinephrine (NE), can initiate or augment walking behaviors in animal models of SCI. Interestingly, many of these agents, particularly 5HTergic agonists, can markedly increase spinal excitability, which in turn also increases reflex activity in these animals. Counterintuitive to traditional theories of recovery following human SCI, the empirical evidence from basic science experiments suggest that this reflex hyper excitability and generation of locomotor behaviors are driven in parallel by neuromodulatory inputs (5HT) and may be necessary for functional recovery following SCI. The application of this novel concept derived from basic scientific studies to promote recovery following human SCI would appear to be seamless, although the direct translation of the findings can be extremely challenging. Specifically, in the animal models, an implanted catheter facilitates delivery of very specific 5HT agonist compounds directly onto the spinal circuitry. The translation of this technique to humans is hindered by the lack of specific surgical techniques or available pharmacological agents directed towards 5HT receptor subtypes that are safe and effective for human clinical trials. However, oral administration of commonly available 5HTergic agents, such as selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs), may be a viable option to increase central 5HT concentrations in order to facilitate walking recovery in humans. Systematic quantification of how these SSRIs modulate human motor behaviors following SCI, with a specific focus on strength, reflexes, and the recovery of walking ability, are missing. This video demonstration is a progressive attempt to systematically and quantitatively assess the modulation of reflex activity, volitional strength and ambulation following the acute oral administration of an SSRI in human SCI. Agents are applied on single days to assess the immediate effects on motor function in this patient population, with long-term studies involving repeated drug administration combined with intensive physical interventions. PMID:21525848

Thompson, Christopher K.; Jayaraman, Arun; Kinnaird, Catherine; Hornby, T. George

2011-01-01

15

Mitomycin-induced chromatid breaks in HeLa cells: a consequence of incomplete DNA replication.  

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The formation of chromosome aberrations induced by alkylating agents such as mitomycin C has been shown to require the passage of the treated cell through S phase. However, the exact mechanisms by which mitomycin C-induced DNA lesions are translated into chromosome aberrations during S phase are not known. The purpose of these studies was to better understand the molecular basis of chromosome aberration formation after mitomycin C treatment. The morphology of metaphases of cells treated in G1 phase with mitomycin C resembled that of prematurely condensed chromosomes of S-phase cells. Consequently we postulated that chromosome aberrations resulted from cells reaching mitosis without completing DNA replication. This was tested by treating HeLa cells in G1 phase with mitomycin C and then analyzing these cells at mitosis for residual DNA damage and DNA content. Utilizing the DNA alkaline elution assay for DNA damage, we showed that HeLa cells progress through S phase into mitosis with intact DNA-DNA interstrand cross-links. These cross-links, originally induced into parental DNA, were associated equally with parental and newly replicated DNA at the time the cells reached mitosis. This suggests that recombinational events had taken place during the DNA replication process. Cells that were treated in G1 phase and allowed to proceed to mitosis in the presence of bromodeoxyuridine to density label newly replicated DNA were analyzed with cesium chloride density sedimentation. Unreplicated DNA was present in the mitotic cells of the treated populations but not in the untreated control cells. Further, flow cytometric measurements, made under hypotonic conditions in order to reduce chromatin condensation effects, demonstrated that the mitotic cells from the mitomycin C-treated populations contained 10-20% less DNA than untreated mitotic controls. These results indicate that chromosome breaks induced by mitomycin C are the result of cells reaching mitosis without having fully completed DNA replication. PMID:3089585

Sognier, M A; Hittelman, W N

1986-08-01

16

The VP35 protein of Ebola virus impairs dendritic cell maturation induced by virus and lipopolysaccharide  

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Ebola virus causes rapidly progressive haemorrhagic fever, which is associated with severe immuosuppression. In infected dendritic cells (DCs), Ebola virus replicates efficiently and inhibits DC maturation without inducing cytokine expression, leading to impaired T-cell proliferation. However, the underlying mechanism remains unclear. In this study, we report that Ebola virus VP35 impairs the maturation of mouse DCs. When expressed in mouse immature DCs, Ebola virus VP35 prevents virus-stimul...

Jin, Huali; Yan, Zhipeng; Prabhakar, Bellur S.; Feng, Zongdi; Ma, Yijie; Verpooten, Dustin; Ganesh, Balaji; He, Bin

2010-01-01

17

Investigation of the influence of incomplete fusion on complete fusion of 12C-induced reactions at ? 4-7.2 MeV/nucleon  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In this paper, we present the results of our investigation of reaction dynamics leading to incomplete fusion of heavy ions at moderate excitation energies, especially the influence of incomplete fusion on complete fusion of 12C -induced reactions at specific energies ? 4-7.2M eV/nucleon. Excitation functions of various reaction products populated via complete and/or incomplete fusions of a 12C projectile with 93Nb, 59Co and 52Cr targets were measured at several specific energies ? 4-7.2 MeV/nucleon, using a recoil catcher technique, followed by off-line ?-ray spectrometry. The measured excitation functions were compared with theoretical values obtained using the PACE4 statistical model code. For representative non-?-emitting channels in the 12C + 93Nb system, the experimentally measured excitation functions were, in general, found to be in good agreement with the theoretical predictions. However, for ?-emitting channels in the 12C + 93Nb, 12C + 59Co, and 12C + 52Cr systems, the measured excitation functions were higher than the predictions of the theoretical model code, which may be credited to incomplete fusion reactions at these energies. An attempt was made to estimate the incomplete fusion fraction for the present systems, which revealed that the fraction was sensitive to the projectile energy and mass asymmetry of ttile energy and mass asymmetry of the entrance channel. (orig.)

18

Extensive remodeling of DC function by rapid maturation-induced transcriptional silencing.  

Science.gov (United States)

The activation, or maturation, of dendritic cells (DCs) is crucial for the initiation of adaptive T-cell mediated immune responses. Research on the molecular mechanisms implicated in DC maturation has focused primarily on inducible gene-expression events promoting the acquisition of new functions, such as cytokine production and enhanced T-cell-stimulatory capacity. In contrast, mechanisms that modulate DC function by inducing widespread gene-silencing remain poorly understood. Yet the termination of key functions is known to be critical for the function of activated DCs. Genome-wide analysis of activation-induced histone deacetylation, combined with genome-wide quantification of activation-induced silencing of nascent transcription, led us to identify a novel inducible transcriptional-repression pathway that makes major contributions to the DC-maturation process. This silencing response is a rapid primary event distinct from repression mechanisms known to operate at later stages of DC maturation. The repressed genes function in pivotal processes-including antigen-presentation, extracellular signal detection, intracellular signal transduction and lipid-mediator biosynthesis-underscoring the central contribution of the silencing mechanism to rapid reshaping of DC function. Interestingly, promoters of the repressed genes exhibit a surprisingly high frequency of PU.1-occupied sites, suggesting a novel role for this lineage-specific transcription factor in marking genes poised for inducible repression. PMID:25104025

Seguín-Estévez, Queralt; Dunand-Sauthier, Isabelle; Lemeille, Sylvain; Iseli, Christian; Ibberson, Mark; Ioannidis, Vassilios; Schmid, Christoph D; Rousseau, Philippe; Barras, Emmanuèle; Geinoz, Antoine; Xenarios, Ioannis; Acha-Orbea, Hans; Reith, Walter

2014-11-01

19

Fibroblast and T cells conditioned media induce maturation dendritic cell and promote T helper immune response  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Dendritic cells (DCs induce pathogen-specific T cell responses. We comprehensively studied the effects of addition of maturation stimulus, fibroblasts (fibroblast conditioned medium, PHA activated T cells (T cell conditioned medium, and mixture of fibroblast & PHA activated T cells (FCM-TCCM conditioned media on maturation of DCs. Monocytes were cultured with GM-CSF and IL-4 for five days. Maturation factors included MCM and TNF-? as control group. FCM and TCCM, or FCM-TCCM supernatant were considered as the treatment group. Tumor antigens were added at day five. Matured DCs were harvested at day seven. Phenotypic and functional analyses were carried out using anti (CD14, CD80, CD86, CD83 and HLA-DR monoclonal antibodies. Phagocytic activity, mixed lymphocyte reaction (MLR and cytokine production were also evaluated. At the end of culturing period, significantly fully matured DCs with large amount cytoplasm and copious dendritic projections were found in the presence of MCM, TNF-? with or without FCM, TCCM, FCM as well as TCCM. Flow cytometric analysis revealed that expression of CD14 decreased in particular in treated DCs, at the 5th day and expression of CD80, CD86 and HLA-DR was higher when FCM, TCCM, FCM plus TCCM were added to maturation factor. This study demonstrated that DCs matured with these methods had optimum function in comparison with either factor alone.

Masoumeh Asadi

2012-06-01

20

Phosphorylated tau potentiates A?-induced mitochondrial damage in mature neurons.  

Science.gov (United States)

Tau phosphorylated at the PHF-1 epitope (S396/S404) is likely involved in the pathogenesis of Alzheimer's disease (AD). However, the molecular mechanisms by which tau phosphorylated at these sites negatively impacts neuronal functions are still under scrutiny. Previously, we showed that expression of tau truncated at D421 enhances mitochondrial dysfunction induced by A? in cortical neurons. To extend these findings, we expressed tau pseudo-phosphorylated at S396/404 (T42EC) in mature and young cortical neurons and evaluated different aspects of mitochondrial function in response to A?. Expression of T42EC did not induce significant changes in mitochondrial morphology, mitochondrial length, or mitochondrial transport, compared to GFP and full-length tau. However, T42EC expression enhanced A?-induced mitochondrial membrane potential loss and increased superoxide levels compared to what was observed in mature neurons expressing full-length tau. The same effect was observed in mature neurons that expressed both pseudo-phosphorylated and truncated tau when they were treated with A?. Interestingly, the mitochondrial failure induced by A? in mature neurons that expressed T42EC, was not observed in young neurons expressing T42EC. These novel findings suggest that phosphorylated tau (PHF-1 epitope) enhances A?-induced mitochondrial injury, which contributes to neuronal dysfunction and to the pathogenesis of AD. PMID:25134729

Quintanilla, Rodrigo A; von Bernhardi, Rommy; Godoy, Juan A; Inestrosa, Nibaldo C; Johnson, Gail V W

2014-11-01

 
 
 
 
21

Neuronal peptides induce oocyte maturation and gamete spawning of sea cucumber, Apostichopus japonicus.  

Science.gov (United States)

Extracts prepared from tissues containing buccal ring nerve or longitudinal radial nerve of sea cucumber induce oocyte maturation and ovulation from ovarian tissues. We purified two small peptides, a pentapeptide and a heptapeptide, from the buccal tissues of Japanese common sea cucumber, Apostichopus japonicas. Both peptides induced oocyte maturation and gamete spawning. The pentapeptide was identified as NGIWYamide. This peptide induced in vitro germinal vesicle breakdown and ovulation of fully-grown oocytes at less than 1 pM and in vivo spawning at 10 nM. A synthetic derivative of the pentapeptide, NGLWYamide, was 10-100 times more potent compared to the natural NGIWYamide. The heptapeptide was less potent, inducing ovulation at 1 muM. NGIWYamide and NGLWYamide induced a characteristic spawning behavior when injected into sexually matured individuals. Mature eggs artificially spawned were fertilized, and developed normally and metamorphosed into young sea cucumbers. The details of the production and the mechanism of action of NGIWYamide are still unclear, but the high biopotency of the peptide will aid understanding of the neuronal and hormonal control of reproduction of sea cucumber. PMID:19059232

Kato, Shinichi; Tsurumaru, Saori; Taga, Makoto; Yamane, Tomoki; Shibata, Yasushi; Ohno, Kaoru; Fujiwara, Atushi; Yamano, Keisuke; Yoshikuni, Michiyasu

2009-02-01

22

Investigation of complete and incomplete fusion dynamics of 20Ne induced reactions at energies above the Coulomb barrier  

Science.gov (United States)

Experiment has been performed to explore the complete and incomplete fusion dynamics in heavy ion collisions using stacked foil activation technique. The measurement of excitation functions of the evaporation residues produced in the 20Ne+165Ho system at projectile energies ranges ? 4-8 MeV/nucleon have been done. Measured cumulative and direct cross-sections have been compared with the theoretical model code PACE-2, which takes into account only the complete fusion process. The analysis indicates the presence of contributions from incomplete fusion processes in some ?-emission channels following the break-up of the projectile 20Ne in the nuclear field of the target nucleus 165Ho.

Singh, D.; Ali, R.; Kumar, Harish; Ansari, M. Afzal; Rashid, M. H.; Guin, R.

2014-08-01

23

Complement protein C1q induces maturation of human dendritic cells  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Maturation of dendritic cells (DCs) is known to be induced by several stimuli, including microbial products, inflammatory cytokines and immobilized IgG, as demonstrated recently. Since immune complexes formed in vivo also contain C1q, moreover apoptotic cells and several pathogens fix C1q in the absence of antibodies, we undertook to investigate whether this complement protein has an impact on various functions of human DCs. Maturation of monocyte-derived immature DCs (imMDCs) cultured on immobilized C1q was followed by monitoring expression of CD80, CD83, CD86, MHCII and CCR7. The functional activity of the cells was assessed by measuring cytokine secretion and their ability to activate allogeneic T lymphocytes. Cytokine production by T cells co-cultured with C1q-matured DCs was also investigated. C1q, but not the structurally related mannose-binding lectin was found to bind to imMDC in a dose-dependent manner and induced NF-kappaB translocation to the nucleus. Immobilized C1q induced maturation of MDCs and enhanced secretion of IL-12 and TNF-alpha, moreover, elevated their T-cell stimulating capacity. As IFN-gamma levels were increased in supernatants of MDC-T cell co-cultures, our data suggest that C1q-induced DC maturation generates a Th1-type response. Interestingly, IL-10 levels were elevated by C1q-treated MDCs but not in the supernatant of their co-cultures with allogeneic T cells. Taken together, these results indicate that C1q-opsonized antigens may play a role in the induction and regulation of immune response. Moreover our data are relevant in view of the role of C1q in removal of apoptotic cells and the association between C1q-deficiency and autoimmunity.

Cosmor, E; Bajtay, Z

2007-01-01

24

Stock loans in incomplete markets  

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A stock loan is a contract whereby a stockholder uses shares as collateral to borrow money from a bank or financial institution. In Xia and Zhou (2007), this contract is modeled as a perpetual American option with a time varying strike and analyzed in detail within a risk--neutral framework. In this paper, we extend the valuation of such loans to an incomplete market setting, which takes into account the natural trading restrictions faced by the client. When the maturity of ...

Grasselli, Matheus R.; Velez, Cesar G.

2010-01-01

25

The role of heat shock protein (hsp70) in dendritic cell maturation: hsp70 induces the maturation of immature dendritic cells but reduces DC differentiation from monocyte precursors.  

Science.gov (United States)

Members of the heat shock protein (hsp70) family are either constitutively expressed (hsc70) or can be induced by hyperthermic stress (hsp70). Recombinant hsp70 (rhsp70) stimulates cytokine production from monocytes and enhances NK cell proliferation and cytotoxicity. Here we demonstrate that rhsp70 binds to immature dendritic cells (DC) derived from monocyte precursors and induces their maturation as evidenced by an increase in CD40, CD86 and CD83 expression. Immature DC stimulated to mature with rhsp70 show an enhanced ability to present tyrosinase peptide to specific CTL. Mature DC did not bind rhsp70, suggesting a down-regulation in the expression of its receptor. When rhsp70 was added to monocyte precursors at the same time as GM-CSF and IL-4 it reduced the differentiation of monocytes into DC as shown by a decrease in the level of CD40, CD83, CD86 and HLA-DR expression and an increase in CD14 expression. The constitutively expressed hsc70 had neither a stimulatory effect on the maturation of immature DC nor did it reduce the differentiation of monocytes into DC. These findings demonstrate the specific ability of rhsp70 to induce the maturation of immature DC. Therefore rhsp70 may be useful for its adjuvant like properties in DC based immunotherapy of certain tumors. PMID:11465118

Kuppner, M C; Gastpar, R; Gelwer, S; Nössner, E; Ochmann, O; Scharner, A; Issels, R D

2001-05-01

26

Salmonella enterica Serovar Typhimurium-Induced Maturation of Bone Marrow-Derived Dendritic Cells  

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Murine bone marrow-derived dendritic cells (DC) can phagocytose and process Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium for peptide presentation on major histocompatibility complex class I (MHC-I) and MHC-II molecules. To investigate if a serovar Typhimurium encounter with DC induces maturation and downregulates their ability to present antigens from subsequently encountered bacteria, DC were pulsed with serovar Typhimurium 24 h prior to coincubating with Escherichia coli expressing the model ant...

Svensson, Mattias; Johansson, Cecilia; Wick, Mary Jo

2000-01-01

27

Impact of laccase enzyme inducers on solid waste compost maturity and stability.  

Science.gov (United States)

The influence of inducers of laccase produced by Pleurotus ostreatus-P1 on the physicochemical properties of solid waste compost was investigated. In order to examine the degree of humification and time period for maturity and stability of compost, three different treatments (T: laccase; T1: laccase+CuSO4; and T2: laccase+CuSO4+CaCl2) were inoculated on solid waste in the initial stage of the composting process. During the composting process, the carbon nitrogen ratio (C/N), nitrate ([Formula: see text]), ammonium nitrogen ([Formula: see text]), cation exchange capacity (CEC), humic acid (HA) and fulvic acid (FA) humification rate (HR), Humification Index (HI), and degree of polymerization (DP) were assessed for the evaluation of compost maturity and stability, and it was found that T2 treatment C/N, CEC, and HI was greater, 46.8%, 37.2%, and 38.46%, respectively, than T at the end of the maturation phase. Optimum degree of maturity was also appraised by the Germination Index, 98.25% was attained by T2, whereas 88.65% and 71.23% by T1 and T, respectively. Significant Pearson correlation was also found between compost characteristics such as C/N, CEC, HA, FA, DP, HI, and HR. In addition, also obstinate the mineralization's of nitrogen under laboratory incubation, using soil amended by 50 and 100 kg-N/ha and examined an increasing trend in nitrogen mineralization with the application rate. Moreover, it was concluded that the laccase inducers increase the disintegration and humification process during solid waste composting. PMID:25244141

Nadeem, Amana; Baig, Shahjahan; Iqbal, Khalid; Sheikh, Nadeem

2014-12-01

28

Comparative effects of mature coconut water (Cocos nucifera) and glibenclamide on some biochemical parameters in alloxan induced diabetic rats  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

In the present study, comparative effects of mature coconut water (Cocos nucifera L., Arecaceae) and glibenclamide in alloxan induced diabetic rats were evaluated. Diabetes mellitus was induced in Sprague-Dawly rats using alloxan monohydrate (150 mg kg-1 body weight). Treatment with lyophilized form of mature coconut water and glibenclamide in diabetic rats reduced the blood glucose and glycated hemoglobin along with improvement in plasma insulin level. Elevated levels of liver function enzym...

Preetha, P. P.; Girija Devi, V.; Rajamohan, T.

2013-01-01

29

Gamma rays induced variability in mature embryos of avocado (Persea americana Mill)  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Induced mutation and biotechnology techniques are current approaches used in plant breeding. At present work, the induced mutation and embryo zygotic culture techniques were used in order to characterize the radiosensitivity of avocado commercial varieties, Hass and California. The induced diversity in plant material was also evaluated in morphological seedling descriptors as: height seedling, diameter seedling neck, leaves number, length of principal root and secondary root number. The obtained results showed high susceptibility of both varieties to gamma rays. California was the higher sensitivity variety. Percentage of entire shoot induction showed clear dependence of radiation dose in both varieties. Thus dose range for mutagenesis was determined. In general, variation of morphological seedling descriptors not was clearly agreed to increase of radiation dose. In addition, the results suggested that variation in morphological seedling descriptors also could be depending of genotypes. The useful of mature embryo culture of avocado for improvement of breeding approaches in this crop, was discussed

30

Human heat shock protein 60 induces maturation of dendritic cells versus a Th1-promoting phenotype.  

Science.gov (United States)

Heat shock protein (HSP) 60 nonspecifically activates cells of the innate immune system. In the present study, we characterized the effects of human HSP60 maturation, cytokine release, and T cell-activating capacity of bone marrow-derived dendritic cells (DC). Furthermore, we analyzed HSP60-induced signal transduction in DC. HSP60 strongly stimulated DC for maturation and release of TNF-alpha, IL-12, and IL-1 beta. However, HSP60 elicited only a weak IL-10 response in DC suggesting a Th1 bias. HSP60-treated DC induced proliferation of allogeneic T cells. Again, a Th1 bias was noted in that cocultures of allogeneic T cells and HSP60-treated DC released IFN-gamma but only small amounts of IL-10 and no detectable IL-4. Signaling via Toll-like receptor 4 was involved in HSP60-induced cytokine release and maturation because DC of C3H/HeJ mice with a mutant Toll-like receptor 4 showed deficient response to HSP60. HSP60 was found to rapidly activate the mitogen-activated protein kinases p38, c-Jun N-terminal kinase, and extracellular signal-regulated kinase as well as I kappa B in DC. Phosphorylation of these signaling molecules was also mediated by LPS, but with much slower kinetics. Thus, HSP60 stimulates DC more rapidly than LPS and elicits a Th1-promoting phenotype. These results suggest that DC play a pivotal role in priming for destructive Th1-type responses at sites of local HSP60 release. PMID:12594256

Flohé, Stefanie B; Brüggemann, Jutta; Lendemans, Sven; Nikulina, Marina; Meierhoff, Guido; Flohé, Sascha; Kolb, Hubert

2003-03-01

31

Inducing Maturation of Monocyte-Derived Dendritic Cells on Human Epithelial Cell Feeder Layer  

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Full Text Available Background: Nowadays, dendritic cells (DCs have a special place in cancer treatment strategies and they have been used for tumor immunotherapy as they can induce immune response against tumor cells. Researchers have been trying to generate efficient dendritic cells in vitro; therefore, this research was done to generate them for use in research and tumor immunotherapy. Methods: This study took place at Urmia University in 2010-2011 years. In this study plastic adherent monocytes were incubated with granulocyte-macrophage colony stimulating factor (GM-CSF and interleukin-4 (IL-4 for five days. Finally, fully matured and stable DCs were generated by 48 hours of incubation in a monocyte conditioned medium (MCM containing tumor necrosis factor-? (TNF-? and epithelial cells. Phenotypic and functional analysis were carried out by using anti-CD14, anti-CD80, anti-CD86, and anti-CD83 monoclonal antibodies, and by determining their phagocytic activity, mixed lymphocyte reaction (MLR and cytokine production, respectively. Results: Dendritic cells were produced with high levels of surface molecule, i.e. of CD80, CD83, CD86, HLA-DR, expression and low levels of CD14 expression. Dendritic cells showed efficient phagocytosis and ability to stimulate T-lymphocytes. Moreover, dendritic cells could secrete high levels of interleukin-12 (IL-12 cytokine which was depictive of their full maturation. Measurement of the produced cytokines showed the generation of type-1 dendritic cells (DC1. Conclusion: Our study showed that skin epithelial cells could induce maturation of monocyte-derived dendritic cells (DCs. This feeder layer led to the production of efficient dendritic cells with the ability to be used for tumor immunotherapy.

Delirezh N

2012-02-01

32

Derivation of human induced pluripotent stem cells from patients with maturity onset diabetes of the young.  

Science.gov (United States)

Maturity onset diabetes of the young (MODY) is an autosomal dominant disease. Despite extensive research, the mechanism by which a mutant MODY gene results in monogenic diabetes is not yet clear due to the inaccessibility of patient samples. Induced pluripotency and directed differentiation toward the pancreatic lineage are now viable and attractive methods to uncover the molecular mechanisms underlying MODY. Here we report, for the first time, the derivation of human induced pluripotent stem cells (hiPSCs) from patients with five types of MODY: MODY1 (HNF4A), MODY2 (GCK), MODY3 (HNF1A), MODY5 (HNF1B), and MODY8 (CEL) with a polycistronic lentiviral vector expressing a Cre-excisable human "stem cell cassette" containing the four reprogramming factors OCT4, KLF4, SOX2, and CMYC. These MODY-hiPSCs morphologically resemble human pluripotent stem cells (hPSCs), express pluripotency markers OCT4, SOX2, NANOG, SSEA-4, and TRA-1-60, give rise to derivatives of the three germ layers in a teratoma assay, and are karyotypically normal. Overall, our MODY-hiPSCs serve as invaluable tools to dissect the role of MODY genes in the development of pancreas and islet cells and to evaluate their significance in regulating beta cell function. This knowledge will aid future attempts aimed at deriving functional mature beta cells from hPSCs. PMID:23306198

Teo, Adrian K K; Windmueller, Rebecca; Johansson, Bente B; Dirice, Ercument; Njolstad, Pal R; Tjora, Erling; Raeder, Helge; Kulkarni, Rohit N

2013-02-22

33

Streptococcus mutans wall-associated protein A promotes TLR4-induced dendritic cell maturation.  

Science.gov (United States)

Dendritic cells orchestrate innate and adaptive immune responses, which are central to establishing efficient responses to vaccination. Wall-associated protein A (WapA) of Streptococcus mutans was previously used as a vaccine in animal studies for immunization against dental caries. However, as a cell surface protein, whether WapA activates innate immune responses and the effects of WapA on DCs remain unclear. In this study, WapA was cloned into the GST fusion vector pEBG, which can be expressed efficiently in mammalian cells. We found that when added before stimulation with LPS, purified WapA-GST protein increased TLR4-induced NF-?B and MAPK signalling pathway activation. Pretreatment with WapA-GST also increased LPS-induced proinflammatory cytokine production by DCs, including IL-12, IL-6 and TNF-?. Furthermore, expression of the DC maturation markers CD80/86, CD40 and MHC II was also increased by WapA pretreatment. These data indicate that WapA is recognized by DCs and promotes DC maturation. PMID:24846569

Li, H; Wang, D

2014-08-01

34

Comparative effects of mature coconut water (Cocos nucifera) and glibenclamide on some biochemical parameters in alloxan induced diabetic rats  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in english In the present study, comparative effects of mature coconut water (Cocos nucifera L., Arecaceae) and glibenclamide in alloxan induced diabetic rats were evaluated. Diabetes mellitus was induced in Sprague-Dawly rats using alloxan monohydrate (150 mg kg-1 body weight). Treatment with lyophilized form [...] of mature coconut water and glibenclamide in diabetic rats reduced the blood glucose and glycated hemoglobin along with improvement in plasma insulin level. Elevated levels of liver function enzymes markers like alkaline phosphatase, serum glutamate oxaloacetate transaminase and serum glutamate pyruvate transaminase in diabetic rats were significantly reduced on treatment with mature coconut water. In addition to this, diabetic rats showed altered levels of blood urea, serum creatinine, albumin, albumin/globulin ratio which were significantly improved by treatment with mature coconut water and glibenclamide. Activities of nitric oxide synthase in liver and plasma L-arginine were reduced significantly in alloxan induced diabetic rats while treatment with mature coconut water reversed these changes. The overall results show that mature coconut water has significant beneficial effects in diabetic rats and its effects were comparable to that of glibenclamide, a well known antidiabetic drug.

P. P., Preetha; V., Girija Devi; T., Rajamohan.

2013-06-01

35

Mannan-binding lectin regulates dendritic cell maturation and cytokine production induced by lipopolysaccharide  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background Mannan-binding lectin (MBL is a pattern-recognition molecule present in serum, which is involved in the innate immune defense by activating complement and promoting opsonophagocytosis. Dendritic cells (DCs are professional antigen presenting cells (APCs that are crucial for the initiation of adaptive immunity. Lipopolysaccharide (LPS has been shown to be a strong activator of the inflammatory response and immune regulation. We first examined whether MBL modulated LPS-induced cellular responses, then investigated possible mechanisms of its inhibitory effect. Results MBL at higher concentrations (10-20 ?g/ml significantly attenuated LPS-induced maturation of monocyte-derived DCs (MDCs and production of proinflammatory cytokines (e.g., IL-12 and TNF-?, and inhibited their ability to activate allogeneic T lymphocytes. It bound to immature MDCs at physiological calcium concentrations, and was optimal at supraphysiological calcium concentrations. MBL also bound directly to immature MDCs and attenuated the binding of LPS to the cell surfaces, resulting in decreased LPS-induced nuclear factor-?B (NF-?B activity in these cells. Conclusion All these data suggest that MBL could affect the functions of DCs by modifying LPS-induced cellular responses. This study supports an important role for MBL in the regulation of adaptive immune responses and inflammatory responses.

Zhang Liyun

2011-01-01

36

Glia Maturation Factor Induces Interleukin-33 Release from Astrocytes: Implications for Neurodegenerative Diseases  

Science.gov (United States)

Neurodegenerative diseases such as Alzheimer's disease (AD), Parkinson's disease (PD) and Multiple sclerosis (MS) involve activation of glial cells and release of inflammatory mediators leading to death of neurons. Glia maturation factor (GMF) is up-regulated in the central nervous system (CNS) in these neurodegenerative diseases. Interleukin-33 (IL-33) is highly expressed constitutively in the CNS. We have treated mouse astrocytes, mixed culture with glial cells and neurons, and only neurons with GMF and/or IL-33 in vitro. Both GMF and IL-33-induced chemokine (C-C motif) ligand 2 (CCL2) release in a dose and time-dependent manner. We report that GMF induced IL-33 release, and that IL-33 augments GMF-induced TNF-? release from mouse astrocytes. IL-33 induces CCL2, TNF-? and nitric oxide release through phosphorylation of ERK in mouse astrocytes. Incubation of mixed culture containing glial cells and neurons or only neuronal culture with IL-33 reduced the number of neurons positive for microtubule-associated protein 2. In conclusion, IL-33 augments GMF-mediated neuroinflammation and may provide a new drug target for neurodegenerative and autoimmune diseases. PMID:23397250

Kempuraj, Duraisamy; Khan, Mohammad Moshahid; Thangavel, Ramasamy; Xiong, Zhi; Yang, Evert; Zaheer, Asgar

2013-01-01

37

Maturation of osteoblast-like SaoS2 induced by carbon nanotubes  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Osteogenic maturation of the osteoblast is crucial for bone formation. In this study, multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) and graphite (GP) were pressed as compacts. The greater ability of carbon nanotubes to adsorb proteins, compared with graphite, was shown. Human osteoblast-like SaoS2 cells were cultured and the cell response to the two kinds of compacts was compared in vitro. Meanwhile, we used cell culture on the culture plate as a control. Assays for osteonectin, osteopontin and osteocalcin gene expression, total protein (TP) amount, alkaline phosphatase activity (ALP) and DNA of cells cultured on the samples were done. During the conventional culture, significantly higher osteonectin, osteopontin and osteocalcin gene expression level, ALP/DNA and TP/DNA on carbon nanotubes were found. To confirm the hypothesis that the larger amount of specific proteins adsorbed on the carbon nanotubes was crucial for this, the compacts were pre-soaked in culture medium having additional recombinant human bone morphogenetic protein-2 (rhBMP-2) before cell culture. Compared with GP, osteonectin, osteopontin and osteocalcin gene expression level, ALP/DNA and TP/DNA of the cells tested increased more on the MWCNTs after the compacts were pre-soaked in the culture medium with rhBMP-2. The results indicated that the carbon nanotubes might induce osteogenic maturation of the osteoblast by adsorbing more specific proteins.

38

Potentially probiotic bacteria induce efficient maturation but differential cytokine production in human monocyte-derived dendritic cells  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available AIM: To analyze the ability of nine different potentially probiotic bacteria to induce maturation and cytokine production in human monocyte-derived dendritic cells (moDCs.METHODS: Cytokine production and maturation of moDCs in response to bacterial stimulation was analyzed with enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA and flow cytometric analysis (FACS, respectively. The kinetics of mRNA expression of cytokine genes was determined by Northern blotting. The involvement of different signaling pathways in cytokine gene expression was studied using specific pharmacological signaling inhibitors.RESULTS: All studied bacteria induced the maturation of moDCs in a dose-dependent manner. More detailed analysis with S. thermophilus THS, B. breve Bb99, and L. lactis subsp. cremoris ARH74 indicated that these bacteria induced the expression of moDC maturation markers HLA class II and CD86 as efficiently as pathogenic bacteria. However, these bacteria differed in their ability to induce moDC cytokine gene expression. S. thermophilus induced the expression of pro-inflammatory (TNF-?, IL-12, IL-6, and CCL20 and Th1 type (IL-12 and IFN-? cytokines, while B. breve and L. lactis were also potent inducers of anti-inflammatory IL-10. Mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK p38, phosphatidylinositol 3 (PI3 kinase, and nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-?B signaling pathways were shown to be involved in bacteria-induced cytokine production.CONCLUSION: Our results indicate that potentially probiotic bacteria are able to induce moDC maturation, but their ability to induce cytokine gene expression varies significantly from one bacterial strain to another.

Sinikka Latvala, Taija E Pietilä, Ville Veckman, Riina A Kekkonen, Soile Tynkkynen, Riitta Korpela, Ilkka Julkunen

2008-03-01

39

Mycobacterium tuberculosislpdC, Rv0462, induces dendritic cell maturation and Th1 polarization  

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Highlights: {yields} Treatment with Rv0462 induces the expression of surface molecules and the production of cytokines in DCs. {yields} Rv0462 induces the activation of MAPKs. {yields} Rv0462-treated DCs enhances the proliferation of CD4{sup +} T cells. -- Abstract: Mycobacterium tuberculosis, the etiological factor of pulmonary tuberculosis, causes significant morbidity and mortality worldwide. Activation of host immune responses for containment of mycobacterial infections involves participation of innate immune cells, such as dendritic cells (DCs). In this study, we demonstrated that the gene encoding lipoamide dehydrogenase C (lpdC) from M. tuberculosis, Rv0462, induce maturation and activation of DCs involved in the MAPKs signaling pathway. Moreover, Rv0462-treated DCs activated naive T cells, polarized CD4{sup +} and CD8{sup +} T cells to secrete IFN-{gamma} in syngeneic mixed lymphocyte reactions, which would be expected to contribute to Th1 polarization of the immune response. Our results suggest that Rv0462 can contribute to the innate and adaptive immune responses during tuberculosis infection, and thus modulate the clinical course of tuberculosis.

Heo, Deok Rim [Department of Microbiology and Immunology, School of Medicine, Pusan National University, Beom-eo Ri, Mulgum Eop, Yangsan, Gyeongsangnam-do 626-770 (Korea, Republic of); Shin, Sung Jae; Kim, Woo Sik [Department of Microbiology, College of Medicine, Chungnam National University, Munwha-Dong, Jung-Ku, Daejeon 301-747 (Korea, Republic of); Noh, Kyung Tae; Park, Jin Wook; Son, Kwang Hee [Department of Microbiology and Immunology, School of Medicine, Pusan National University, Beom-eo Ri, Mulgum Eop, Yangsan, Gyeongsangnam-do 626-770 (Korea, Republic of); Park, Won Sun [Department of Physiology, Kangwon National University, School of Medicine, Chuncheon 200-701 (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Min-Goo [Department of Physiology, Korea University, College of Medicine, Anam-dong, Sungbuk-Gu, Seoul 136-705 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Daejin [Department of Anatomy, Chung-Ang University, College of Medicine, 221 Heuksuk-Dong, Dongjak-Ku, Seoul 156-756 (Korea, Republic of); Shin, Yong Kyoo [Department of Pharmacology, Chung-Ang University, College of Medicine, 221 Heuksuk-Dong, Dongjak-Ku, Seoul 156-756 (Korea, Republic of); Jung, In Duk, E-mail: jungid@pusan.ac.kr [Department of Microbiology and Immunology, School of Medicine, Pusan National University, Beom-eo Ri, Mulgum Eop, Yangsan, Gyeongsangnam-do 626-770 (Korea, Republic of); Research Institute of Convergence of Biomedical Science and Technology, Pusan National University Yangsan Hospital, Beom-eo Ri, Mulgum Eop, Yangsan, Gyeongsangnam-do 626-770 (Korea, Republic of); Park, Yeong-Min, E-mail: immunpym@pusan.ac.kr [Department of Microbiology and Immunology, School of Medicine, Pusan National University, Beom-eo Ri, Mulgum Eop, Yangsan, Gyeongsangnam-do 626-770 (Korea, Republic of); Research Institute of Convergence of Biomedical Science and Technology, Pusan National University Yangsan Hospital, Beom-eo Ri, Mulgum Eop, Yangsan, Gyeongsangnam-do 626-770 (Korea, Republic of)

2011-08-05

40

Mycobacterium tuberculosislpdC, Rv0462, induces dendritic cell maturation and Th1 polarization  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Highlights: ? Treatment with Rv0462 induces the expression of surface molecules and the production of cytokines in DCs. ? Rv0462 induces the activation of MAPKs. ? Rv0462-treated DCs enhances the proliferation of CD4+ T cells. -- Abstract: Mycobacterium tuberculosis, the etiological factor of pulmonary tuberculosis, causes significant morbidity and mortality worldwide. Activation of host immune responses for containment of mycobacterial infections involves participation of innate immune cells, such as dendritic cells (DCs). In this study, we demonstrated that the gene encoding lipoamide dehydrogenase C (lpdC) from M. tuberculosis, Rv0462, induce maturation and activation of DCs involved in the MAPKs signaling pathway. Moreover, Rv0462-treated DCs activated naive T cells, polarized CD4+ and CD8+ T cells to secrete IFN-? in syngeneic mixed lymphocyte reactions, which would be expected to contribute to Th1 polarization of the immune response. Our results suggest that Rv0462 can contribute to the innate and adaptive immune responses during tuberculosis infection, and thus modulate the clinical course of tuberculosis.

 
 
 
 
41

Elongation and maturation of c-myc RNA is inhibited by differentiation inducing agents in HL60 cells.  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Maturation of c-myc mRNA proceeds in a given order in HL60 cells. It starts with splicing of intron 2, continues with splicing of intron 1 and ends with 3' cleavage and polyadenylation of the primary transcript. This process is inhibited, when HL60 cells were induced to terminal differentiation by dimethylsulfoxide (DMSO). DMSO interferes specifically with maturation of c-myc but not c-abl RNA in HL60 cells. Simultaneously, DMSO induces a block to RNA elongation at the boundary of c-myc exon ...

Eick, D.

1990-01-01

42

Observation and analysis of incomplete fusion reactions induced by (12C, 14N, 16O, 22Ne) ions  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The mechanism of the reactions induced by heavy ions has been studied. The experiments were concerned with incident channels which lead to the formation of intermediate nuclei with atomic mass (6412C, 14N, 16O, 22Ne) as projectiles respectively. The detection of light fragments (2< Z<12) is studied. A three solid-state-detector telescope, with associated electronics is used which allows the separation of reaction products according to their charge. The main features of deep inelastic collisions are discussed: large kinetic energy loss, and important nucleon transfer as a function of the angular detection. The time evolution of the reaction has been studied, then the results are compared with a scattering model suggested by Noremberg. A theoretical calculation based on both classical and statistical approaches giving the total cross-sections for any exit channel has been proposed

43

Incomplete fusion studies  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In order to study the incomplete fusion reaction dynamics at energies ? 4-7 MeV/nucleon, several experiments have been carried out using accelerator facilities available in India. The measurements presented here cover a wide range of projectile-target combinations and enhance significantly our knowledge about incomplete fusion reaction dynamics. Here, the three sets of measurements have been presented; (i) excitation functions, (ii) forward recoil range distributions and (iii) the spin distributions. The first evidence of these reactions has been obtained from the measurement and analysis of excitation functions for xn/?xn/2?xn-channels. The measured excitation functions have been analyzed within the framework of compound nucleus model. The results obtained indicate the occurrence of fusion incompleteness at low beam energies. However, in order to determine the relative contribution of complete and incomplete fusion reaction processes, the recoil range distributions of the heavy residues have also been measured and analyzed within the framework of breakup fusion model which confirmed the fusion incompleteness in several heavy ion reactions involving ?-emitting reaction channels. Further, in order to study the role of l-values in these reactions the spin distributions of the residues populated in case of complete and incomplete channels have been measured and are found to be distinctly different. The analysis of the data on spin distribution measurements indicate that the mean values of driving input angular momenta associated with direct-?-emitting (incomplete fusion) channels are higher than that observed for fusion-evaporation xn or ?-emitting (complete fusion) channels, and is found to increase with direct ?-multiplicity in the forward cone. One of the important conclusions drawn in the present work is that, there is significant incomplete fusion contribution even at energies slightly above the barrier. Further, the projectile structure has been found to play an important role in the incomplete fusion processes. (author)

44

Tumor cells prevent mouse dendritic cell maturation induced by TLR ligands.  

Science.gov (United States)

Tumor cells can evade the immune system through several mechanisms, one of which is to block DC maturation. It has been suggested that signaling via Toll-like receptors (TLR) may be involved in the induction of prophylactic anti-cancer immunity and in the treatment of established tumors. In the present study we found that high numbers of tumor cells interfere with BMDC activation induced by the TLR ligands LPS and poly IC. Tumor cells blocked TLR3- and TLR4-mediated induction of MHCII and the co-stimulatory molecules CD40 and CD86, as well as the cytokines IL-12, TNF-alpha and IL-6. Importantly, tumor cells induced inhibitory molecules (B7-DC, B7-H1 and CD80) on spleen DC in vivo and on BMDC, even in the presence of TLR ligands. Moreover, after a long exposure with tumor cells, purified BMDC were unable to respond to a second challenge with TLR ligands. The failure of tumor exposed-BMDC to express co-stimulatory molecules and cytokines in the presence of TLR ligands has implications for the future development of DC-based cancer immune therapies using TLR ligands as adjuvants for the activation of DC. PMID:17237931

Idoyaga, Juliana; Moreno, José; Bonifaz, Laura

2007-08-01

45

Kurt Goedel, completeness, incompleteness  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The famous results of Goedel - semantic completeness of classical (predicate) logic and deductive incompleteness of any 'reasonable' arithmetic - are briefly presented for a reader able of elementary mathematical thinking.

Hajek, Petr [Institute of Computer Science, Academy of Sciences of the Czech Republic, 182 07 Prague (Czech Republic)

2007-11-15

46

Kurt Gödel, completeness, incompleteness  

Science.gov (United States)

The famous results of Gödel - semantic completeness of classical (predicate) logic and deductive incompleteness of any ''reasonable'' arithmetic - are briefly presented for a reader able of elementary mathematical thinking.

Hájek, Petr

2007-11-01

47

Kurt Goedel, completeness, incompleteness  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The famous results of Goedel - semantic completeness of classical (predicate) logic and deductive incompleteness of any ''reasonable'' arithmetic - are briefly presented for a reader able of elementary mathematical thinking

48

Ascophyllan purified from Ascophyllum nodosum induces Th1 and Tc1 immune responses by promoting dendritic cell maturation.  

Science.gov (United States)

Marine-derived sulfated polysaccharides have been shown to possess certain anti-virus, anti-tumor, anti-inflammatory and anti-coagulant activities. However, the in vivo immunomodulatory effects of marine-derived pure compounds have been less well characterized. In this study, we investigated the effect of ascophyllan, a sulfated polysaccharide purified from Ascophyllum nodosum, on the maturation of mouse dendritic cells (DCs) in vitro and in vivo. Ascophyllan induced up-regulation of co-stimulatory molecules and production of pro-inflammatory cytokines in bone marrow-derived DCs (BMDCs). Moreover, in vivo administration of ascophyllan promotes up-regulation of CD40, CD80, CD86, MHC class I and MHC class II and production of IL-6, IL-12 and TNF-? in spleen cDCs. Interestingly, ascophyllan induced a higher degree of co-stimulatory molecule up-regulation and pro-inflammatory cytokine production than fucoidan, a marine-derived polysaccharide with well-defined effect for promoting DC maturation. Ascophyllan also promoted the generation of IFN-?-producing Th1 and Tc1 cells in the presence of DCs in an IL-12-dependent manner. Finally, myeloid differentiation primary response 88 (MyD88) signaling pathway was essential for DC maturation induced by ascophyllan. Taken together, these results demonstrate that ascophyllan induces DC maturation, and consequently enhances Th1 and Tc1 responses in vivo. This knowledge could facilitate the development of novel therapeutic strategies to combat infectious diseases and cancer. PMID:25026264

Zhang, Wei; Du, Jiang-Yuan; Jiang, Zedong; Okimura, Takasi; Oda, Tatsuya; Yu, Qing; Jin, Jun-O

2014-07-01

49

Ascophyllan Purified from Ascophyllum nodosum Induces Th1 and Tc1 Immune Responses by Promoting Dendritic Cell Maturation  

Science.gov (United States)

Marine-derived sulfated polysaccharides have been shown to possess certain anti-virus, anti-tumor, anti-inflammatory and anti-coagulant activities. However, the in vivo immunomodulatory effects of marine-derived pure compounds have been less well characterized. In this study, we investigated the effect of ascophyllan, a sulfated polysaccharide purified from Ascophyllum nodosum, on the maturation of mouse dendritic cells (DCs) in vitro and in vivo. Ascophyllan induced up-regulation of co-stimulatory molecules and production of pro-inflammatory cytokines in bone marrow-derived DCs (BMDCs). Moreover, in vivo administration of ascophyllan promotes up-regulation of CD40, CD80, CD86, MHC class I and MHC class II and production of IL-6, IL-12 and TNF-? in spleen cDCs. Interestingly, ascophyllan induced a higher degree of co-stimulatory molecule up-regulation and pro-inflammatory cytokine production than fucoidan, a marine-derived polysaccharide with well-defined effect for promoting DC maturation. Ascophyllan also promoted the generation of IFN-?-producing Th1 and Tc1 cells in the presence of DCs in an IL-12-dependent manner. Finally, myeloid differentiation primary response 88 (MyD88) signaling pathway was essential for DC maturation induced by ascophyllan. Taken together, these results demonstrate that ascophyllan induces DC maturation, and consequently enhances Th1 and Tc1 responses in vivo. This knowledge could facilitate the development of novel therapeutic strategies to combat infectious diseases and cancer. PMID:25026264

Zhang, Wei; Du, Jiang-Yuan; Jiang, Zedong; Okimura, Takasi; Oda, Tatsuya; Yu, Qing; Jin, Jun-O

2014-01-01

50

Ascophyllan Purified from Ascophyllum nodosum Induces Th1 and Tc1 Immune Responses by Promoting Dendritic Cell Maturation  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Marine-derived sulfated polysaccharides have been shown to possess certain anti-virus, anti-tumor, anti-inflammatory and anti-coagulant activities. However, the in vivo immunomodulatory effects of marine-derived pure compounds have been less well characterized. In this study, we investigated the effect of ascophyllan, a sulfated polysaccharide purified from Ascophyllum nodosum, on the maturation of mouse dendritic cells (DCs in vitro and in vivo. Ascophyllan induced up-regulation of co-stimulatory molecules and production of pro-inflammatory cytokines in bone marrow-derived DCs (BMDCs. Moreover, in vivo administration of ascophyllan promotes up-regulation of CD40, CD80, CD86, MHC class I and MHC class II and production of IL-6, IL-12 and TNF-? in spleen cDCs. Interestingly, ascophyllan induced a higher degree of co-stimulatory molecule up-regulation and pro-inflammatory cytokine production than fucoidan, a marine-derived polysaccharide with well-defined effect for promoting DC maturation. Ascophyllan also promoted the generation of IFN-?-producing Th1 and Tc1 cells in the presence of DCs in an IL-12-dependent manner. Finally, myeloid differentiation primary response 88 (MyD88 signaling pathway was essential for DC maturation induced by ascophyllan. Taken together, these results demonstrate that ascophyllan induces DC maturation, and consequently enhances Th1 and Tc1 responses in vivo. This knowledge could facilitate the development of novel therapeutic strategies to combat infectious diseases and cancer.

Wei Zhang

2014-07-01

51

Selective contribution of IFN-/ signaling to the maturation of dendritic cells induced by double-stranded RNA or viral infection  

Science.gov (United States)

A complex mechanism may be operational for dendritic cell (DC) maturation, wherein Toll-like receptor and other signaling pathways may be coordinated differently depending on the nature of the pathogens, in order for DC maturation to be most effective to a given threat. Here, we show that IFN-/ signaling is selectively required for the maturation of DCs induced by double-stranded RNA or viral infection in vitro. Interestingly, the maturation is still observed in the absence of either of the two target genes of IFN-/, TLR3 and PKR (double-stranded-RNA-dependent protein kinase R), indicating the complexity of the IFN-/-induced transcriptional program in DCs. We also show that the DCs stimulated in vivo by these agents can migrate into the T cell zone of the spleen but fail to mature without the IFN signal. The immune system may have acquired the selective utilization of this cytokine system, which is essential for innate antiviral immunity, to effectively couple with the induction of adaptive immunity.

Honda, Kenya; Sakaguchi, Shinya; Nakajima, Chigusa; Watanabe, Ai; Yanai, Hideyuki; Matsumoto, Misako; Ohteki, Toshiaki; Kaisho, Tsuneyasu; Takaoka, Akinori; Akira, Shizuo; Seya, Tsukasa; Taniguchi, Tadatsugu

2003-09-01

52

Age and size at maturity: A quantitative review of diet-induced reaction norms in insects.  

Science.gov (United States)

Optimality models predict that diet-induced bivariate reaction norms for age and size at maturity can have diverse shapes, with the slope varying from negative to positive. To evaluate these predictions, we perform a quantitative review of relevant data, using a literature-derived database of body sizes and development times for over 200 insect species. We show that bivariate reaction norms with a negative slope prevail in nearly all taxonomic and ecological categories of insects as well as in some other ectotherm taxa with comparable life histories (arachnids and amphibians). In insects, positive slopes are largely limited to species, which feed on discrete resource items, parasitoids in particular. By contrast, with virtually no meaningful exceptions, herbivorous and predatory insects display reaction norms with a negative slope. This is consistent with the idea that predictable resource depletion, a scenario selecting for positively sloped reaction norms, is not frequent for these insects. Another source of such selection-a positive correlation between resource levels and juvenile mortality rates-should similarly be rare among insects. Positive slopes can also be predicted by models which integrate life-history evolution and population dynamics. As bottom-up regulation is not common in most insect groups, such models may not be most appropriate for insects. PMID:25180817

Teder, Tiit; Vellau, Helen; Tammaru, Toomas

2014-11-01

53

Glia Maturation Factor Deficiency Suppresses 1-Methyl-4-Phenylpyridinium-Induced Oxidative Stress in Astrocytes  

Science.gov (United States)

Inflammation is closely intertwined with pathogenesis of Parkinson's disease (PD). Increasing evidence suggests that inhibition of glia-mediated inflammation might represent a promising therapeutic target for PD. Glia maturation factor (GMF), an inflammatory protein, predominantly localized in astrocytes is previously isolated, sequenced and cloned in our laboratory. In the present investigation, we demonstrate that GMF-deficiency in astrocytes upregulates the antioxidant status and limit the extent of lipid peroxidation and production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) along with diminished nuclear factor-?B-mediated inflammatory responses in 1-methyl-4-phenylpyridinium (MPP+)-induced toxicity. Primary astrocytes obtained from wild-type (Wt) and GMF-deficient (GMF-KO) mice were treated with 5, 10, and 20 ?M MPP+ for 24, 48, and 72 h in vitro. Our results show decreased release of ROS and increased level of glutathione in astrocytes obtained from GMF-KO mice when compared to astrocytes derived from Wt mice following MPP+ treatment. Additionally, we found decreased activity of NF-?B, and reduced levels of proinflammatory tumor necrosis factor- ?, interleukin-1? (IL-1?), IL-17, IL-33, and chemokine (C–C motif) ligand 2 (CCL2) in GMF-KO astrocytes when compared to Wt astrocytes. Our overall results suggest that GMF-KO astrocytes are significantly resistant to MPP+ toxicity when compared to Wt astrocytes. PMID:24430624

Khan, Mohammad Moshahid; Kempuraj, Duraisamy; Zaheer, Smita; Zaheer, Asgar

2014-01-01

54

Predisposing factors to light-induced photoreceptor cell damage: retinal changes in maturing rats.  

Science.gov (United States)

Retinal changes occurring during the period of growth and maturation of Long Evans pigmented rats were examined to obtain a better understanding of the basis for the age-dependency of light-induced photoreceptor cell damage. Susceptibility to light damage increased markedly between 30 and 60 days of age and to a lesser extent between 60 and 90 days. Although the retinal antioxidant vitamins E and C, and taurine showed a significant increase during the age-period studied, retinal lipid phosphorus and total protein increased by similar amounts indicating that the concentration of these nutrients was not changing. In contrast, rhodopsin content of the retina increased progressively by 44% between 30 and 90 days of age. While ROS length showed no appreciable change with age, rhodopsin per ROS length increased by 31% between 30 and 60 days of age and by 48% between 30 and 90 days. Determinations of ROS phospholipid to rhodopsin ratio and disks per ROS length indicated that rhodopsin did not become more concentrated in photoreceptor cells between 30 and 90 days. However, the 12% increase in ROS diameter between 30 and 90 days of age may partially account for the rhodopsin difference. These findings demonstrate an age-dependent association between greater rhodopsin per ROS length and increased susceptibility to retinal light damage. An increased metabolic demand on photoreceptor cells with greater rhodopsin may be an important factor influencing their destruction by light. PMID:2387335

Rapp, L M; Tolman, B L; Koutz, C A; Thum, L A

1990-08-01

55

Agrobacterium-mediated transformation of rice using immature embryos or calli induced from mature seed.  

Science.gov (United States)

Here, we provide comprehensive, highly efficient protocols for Agrobacterium tumefaciens-mediated transformation of a wide range of rice genotypes. Methods that use either immature embryos (japonica and indica rice) or calli (japonica cultivars and the indica cultivar, Kasalath) as a starting material for inoculation with Agrobacterium are described. Immature embryos are pretreated with heat and centrifugal force, which significantly enhances the efficiency of gene transfer, and then infected with Agrobacterium. Callus is induced from mature seeds and infected. Transformed cells proliferated from these tissues are selected on the basis of hygromycin resistance, and transgenic plants are eventually regenerated. A single immature japonica or Kasalath embryo will produce between 10 and 18 independent transgenic plants; for other non-Kasalath indica varieties, the number of transgenic plants expected will be between 5 and 13. For japonica and Kasalath, transformants should be obtained from between 50 and 90% of calli. From inoculation with Agrobacterium to transplanting to soil will take 55 d for japonica and Kasalath, and 74 d for indica other than Kasalath using the immature embryo method, and 50 d for japonica and Kasalath using the callus method. PMID:18451790

Hiei, Yukoh; Komari, Toshihiko

2008-01-01

56

Planning with Incomplete Information  

CERN Document Server

Planning is a natural domain of application for frameworks of reasoning aboutactions and change. In this paper we study how one such framework, the LanguageE, can form the basis for planning under (possibly) incomplete information. Wedefine two types of plans: weak and safe plans, and propose a planner, calledthe E-Planner, which is often able to extend an initial weak plan into a safeplan even though the (explicit) information available is incomplete, e.g. forcases where the initial state is not completely known. The E-Planner is basedupon a reformulation of the Language E in argumentation terms and a naturalproof theory resulting from the reformulation. It uses an extension of thisproof theory by means of abduction for the generation of plans and adoptsargumentation-based techniques for extending weak plans into safe plans. Weprovide representative examples illustrating the behaviour of the E-Planner, inparticular for cases where the status of fluents is incompletely known.

Kakas, A C; Toni, F; Kakas, Antonis; Miller, Rob; Toni, Francesca

2000-01-01

57

Experimental investigation of changes in methane adsorption of bitumen-free Woodford Shale with thermal maturation induced by hydrous pyrolysis  

Science.gov (United States)

This study quantifies the effects of organic-matter (OM) thermal maturity on methane (CH4) sorption, on the basis of five samples that were artificially matured through hydrous pyrolysis achieved by heating samples of immature Woodford Shale under five different time–temperature conditions. CH4-sorption isotherms at 35 °C, 50 °C, and 65 °C, and pressures up to 14 MPa on dry, solvent-extracted samples of the artificially matured Woodford Shale were measured. The results showed that CH4-sorption capacity, normalized to TOC, varied with thermal maturity, following the trend: maximum oil (367 °C) > oil cracking (400 °C) > maximum bitumen/early oil (333 °C) > early bitumen (300 °C) > immature stage (130 °C). The Langmuir constants for the samples at maximum-oil and oil-cracking stages are larger than the values for the bitumen-forming stages. The total pore volume, determined by N2 physisorption at 77 K, increases with increased maturation: mesopores, 2–50 nm in width, were created during the thermal conversion of organic-matter and a dramatic increase in porosity appeared when maximum-bitumen and maximum-oil generation stages were reached. A linear relationship between thermal maturity and Brunauer–Emmett–Teller (BET) surface area suggests that the observed increase in CH4-sorption capacity may be the result of mesopores produced during OM conversion. No obvious difference is observed in pore-size distribution and pore volume for samples with pores 2 physisorption at 273 K. The isosteric heat of adsorption and the standard entropy for artificially matured samples ranged from 17.9 kJ mol?1 to 21.9 kJ mol?1 and from ?85.4 J mol?1 K?1 to ?101.8 J mol?1 K?1, respectively. These values are similar to the values of immature Woodford kerogen concentrate previously observed, but are larger than naturally matured organic-rich shales. High-temperature hydrous pyrolysis might have induced Lewis acid sites on both organic and mineral surfaces, resulting to some extent, in chemical interactions between the adsorption site and the methane C–H bonds. The formation of abundant mesopores (2–50 nm) within organic matter during organic-matter thermal maturation makes a great contribution to the increase in both BET surface area and pore volume, and a significant increase in 2–6 nm pores occurs at maximum-oil-generation and oil-cracking to gas, ultimately controlling the methane-adsorption capacity. Therefore, consideration of pore-size effects and thermal maturity is very important for gas in place (GIP) prediction in organic-rich shales.

Hu, Haiyan; Zhang, Tongwei; Wiggins-Camacho, Jaclyn D.; Ellis, Geoffrey S.; Lewan, Michael D.; Zhang, Xialong

2014-01-01

58

Endotoxin-induced nitric oxide production rescues airway growth and maturation in atrophic fetal rat lung explants  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Inflammation induces premature maturation of the fetal lung but the signals causing this effect remain unclear. We determined if nitric oxide (NO) synthesis, evoked by Escherichia coli lipopolysaccharide (LPS, 2 ?g ml-1), participated in this process. Fetal rat lung airway surface complexity rose 2.5-fold over 96 h in response to LPS and was associated with increased iNOS protein expression and activity. iNOS inhibition by N6-(1-iminoethyl)-L-lysine-2HCl (L-NIL) abolished this and induced airway atrophy similar to untreated explants. Surfactant protein-C (SP-C) expression was also induced by LPS and abolished by L-NIL. As TGF? suppresses iNOS activity, we determined if feedback regulation modulated NO-dependent maturation. LPS induced TGF?1 release and SMAD4 nuclear translocation 96 h after treatment. Treatment of explants with a blocking antibody against TGF?1 sustained NO production and airway morphogenesis whereas recombinant TGF?1 antagonized these effects. Feedback regulation of NO synthesis by TGF? may, thus, modulate airway branching and maturation of the fetal lung

59

Fisheries-induced evolution in growth, maturation and reproductive investment of the sexually dimorphic North Sea plaice ( Pleuronectes platessa L.)  

Science.gov (United States)

Changes in the onset of sexual maturation, reproductive investment and growth of North Sea plaice are studied between three periods: 1900s, 1980s and 2000s. Probabilistic maturation reaction norms of both males and females, describing the probability of becoming mature conditional on age and size, shifted towards smaller sizes and younger ages, indicating a fisheries-induced evolutionary change. A higher rate of change was observed during the past 20 years, which may be related to higher temperature conditions. Reproductive investment was estimated from the decrease in lipid, protein, dry weight content and condition factor of the whole body between pre- and post-spawning adults. Reproductive investment expressed as the energy loss over the spawning period increased with body size from 19% at 20 cm to 30% at 40 cm in males and from 35% at 30 cm to 48% at 50 cm in females. No change in reproductive investment could be detected between the 1980s and the 2000s. Von Bertalanffy (VB) growth parameters showed a decrease in L? the asymptotic size and an increase in K, the velocity to reach L?, in both males and females. The changes in VB growth are consistent with an increase in energy acquisition and reproductive investment. The observed changes in maturation, reproductive investment and growth are consistent with fisheries-induced evolution, but the changes in reproductive investment and growth need further investigation to disentangle the role of phenotypic plasticity.

van Walraven, L.; Mollet, F. M.; van Damme, C. J. G.; Rijnsdorp, A. D.

2010-07-01

60

Immunophotoaffinity labeling of the binding proteins for 1-methyladenine, an oocyte maturation-inducing hormone of starfish.  

Science.gov (United States)

Starfish oocytes are naturally arrested at the prophase stage of the first meiotic division and resume meiosis in response to 1-methyladenine (1-MeAde), the oocyte maturation-inducing hormone of starfish. Putative receptors for 1-MeAde have not yet been characterized biochemically, although the specific binding of 1-MeAde to the isolated cortices of starfish oocytes was reported so far. Based on the structure-activity relationship of 1-MeAde analogs, we have designed a photoaffinity labeling reagent. The photoaffinity labeling of oocyte membrane fractions, followed by immunoblotting analysis with anti-1-MeAde antibody, results in the detection of an almost single protein band. This 1-MeAde-binding protein might be a possible candidate of the maturation-inducing hormone receptor of starfish. PMID:24567225

Kida, Tetsuo; Matsuda, Shinjiro; Kuyama, Atsushi; Toraya, Tetsuo

2014-01-01

 
 
 
 
61

In vitro maturation (IVM as a new technique to treat polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS and induce pregnancy in Indonesia  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Aim: To assesse the success of inducing pregnancies in the treatment of PCOS (Poly Cystic Ovary Syndrome cases with in vitro maturation as a newly application technique in Indonesia.Methods This paper is a report of 7 cases in Indonesia that used the newly developed technique. There were 7 cases confi rmed PCOS, in which 1 patient with a history of OHSS (Ovary Hyper Stimulation Syndrome in a previous IVF procedure and 1 patient with PCOS characteristics, suspected hyper responder, in the Family Hospital from January to May of 2009. Follicular induction was performed with a minimum dose, primming with HCG 10.000 IU, on the 10th day and 40 hours later ovum pick up was  performed, followed by in vitro maturation. Subsequently, insemination was performed and the inseminated follicle was assessed. Well qualifi ed embryos then transferred them into the uterus. We then performed assessment of pregnancy biochemically, by the presence of embryonic sac and embryonic heart beat.Results: We have performed the IVM (In Vitro Maturation technique in the Family Hospital, West Jakarta, along with the TRB team of the Family Hospital in seven PCOS cases. From these patients, we have found 156 antral follicles (average of 22 follicles per patient, 82 oocytes, and after maturation, 61  nature oocytes (75 %. In three cases, in vitro fertilization was performed, while in 4 cases ICSI (In Cystoplasmic Sperm Infection was performed. In these serial cases we obtained 41 embryos, and 22 fertilized embryos were transferred. Of 7 cases, we achieved two successful pregnancies (29%.Conclusion: In vitro maturation is an alternative procedures in solving infertility problems for PCOS patients with lower risk of OHSS and more cost effective than conventional IVF. (Med J Indones 2009; 18: 269-75Keywords: pregnancy, PCOS, in vitro maturation

Soegiharto Soebijanto

2009-11-01

62

Reasoning in incomplete domains  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Most real-world domains differ from the micro-worlds traditionally used in A.I. in that they have an incomplete factual data base which changes over time. Understanding in these domains can be thought of as the gneration of plausible infoerences which are able to use the facts available, and respond to changes in them. A traditional rule interpreter such as Planner can be extended to construct plausible inferences in these domains by allowing assumptions to be made in applying rules, resultsing in simplifications of rules which can be used in an incomplete data base; monitoring the antecedents and consequents of a rule so that inferences can be maintained over a changing data base.

Rosenberg, S.

1979-01-01

63

Interleukin 10 Induces the Maturation of Putative Tolerogenic Monocyte-derived Dendritic Cells as Revealed by GeneArray Analysis  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available IL-10 is a multifunctional cytokine with known inhibitory effect on DC maturation. In the present study, we show that the presence of IL-10 during the first 6 days of maturation of Mo-DC has severe effects on the phenotype with IL-10 treated Mo-DC retaining a high expression of factors involved in antigen uptake and having low expression of costimulatory factors and MHC II. The effect of IL-10 on DC maturation is further characterized by a comprehensive investigation of the expression profile of 12500 genes using GeneArrays and comparing the data for IL-10 treated and untreated Mo-DC at day 6 and 8 with monocytes and macrophages. The data is confirmed with semi-quantitative RT-PCR. We find that the transcriptional pattern of IL-10 treated Mo-DC at day 6 and day 8 is distinct from both untreated Mo-DC and macrophages. IL-10 induces the expression of genes coding for CCL18, ILT3, ILT4 and TGF? while inhibiting the expression of IL-12 p40 mRNA, and genes coding for CCL17, CCL19 and CCL22 suggesting a likely effect of IL-10 on Mo-DC maturation to be the generation of tolerogenic Mo-DC.

Marianne A. Jakobsen

2005-01-01

64

A novel polysaccharide from the seeds of Plantago asiatica L. induces dendritic cells maturation through toll-like receptor 4.  

Science.gov (United States)

In this study, we investigated the effect of a polysaccharide purified from the seeds of Plantago asiatica L. (PLP-2) on the phenotypic and functional maturation of murine bone marrow-derived dendritic cells (DCs) and relevant mechanisms. The results showed that PLP-2 increased the expression of maturation markers major histocompatibility complex II, CD86, CD80, and CD40 on DCs. Consistent with the changes in the phenotypic markers, functional assay for DCs maturation showed that PLP-2 decreased DCs endocytosis and increased intracellular interleukin (IL)-12 levels and allostimulatory activity. Furthermore, using a syngeneic T cell activation model, we found that PLP-2 treated DCs presented ovalbumin antigen to T cells more efficiently as demonstrated by increased T cell proliferation. In addition, the effects of PLP-2 on DCs were significantly impaired by treating the cells with anti-TLR4 antibody prior to PLP-2 treatment, implying direct interaction between PLP-2 and TLR4 on cell surface. These results suggested that PLP-2 may induce DCs maturation through TLR4. Our results may have important implications for our understanding on the molecular mechanisms of immunopotentiating action of the polysaccharides from plants. PMID:24316254

Huang, Danfei; Nie, Shaoping; Jiang, Leming; Xie, Mingyong

2014-02-01

65

Iterative incomplete factorization methods  

CERN Document Server

This book is devoted to numerical methods for solving sparse linear algebra systems of very large dimension which arise in the implementation of the mesh approximations of the partial differential equations. Incomplete factorization is the basis of the wide class of preconditioning interative processes with acceleration by conjugate gradients or the Chebyshev technique. Different kinds of explicit and implicit algorithms are considered. Theoretical grounds of correctness and estimates of the convergence velocity of iterations are presented. Together with the results of experimental investigati

Il'in, VP

1992-01-01

66

Characterization of early events involved in human dendritic cell maturation induced by sensitizers: Cross talk between MAPK signalling pathways  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Dendritic cells (DCs), efficient-antigen presenting cells play an important role in initiating and regulating immune responses. DC maturation following exposure to nickel or DNCB induced an up-regulation of phenotypic markers and inflammatory cytokine secretion. Early intracellular mechanisms involved in DC maturation required to be precise. To address this purpose, DCs derived from human monocytes were treated with sensitizers (nickel, DNCB or thimerosal) in comparison with an irritant (SDS). Our data confirming the up-regulation of CD86, CD54 and cytokine secretion (IL-8 and TNF?) induced by sensitizers but not by SDS, signalling transduction involved in DC maturation was investigated using these chemicals. Kinase activity measurement was assessed using two new sensitive procedures (FaceTM and CBA) requiring few cells. SDS did not induce changes in signalling pathways whereas NiSO4, DNCB and thimerosal markedly activated p38 MAPK and JNK, in contrast Erk1/2 phosphorylation was completely inhibited by DNCB or thimerosal and only activated by nickel. A pre-treatment with p38 MAPK inhibitor (SB203580) suppressed Erk1/2 inhibition induced by DNCB or thimerosal demonstrating a direct interaction between p38 MAPK and Erk1/2. A pre-treatment with an antioxidant, N-acetyl-L-cysteine (NAC) markedly reduced Erk1/2 inhibition and p38 MAPK phosphorylation induced by DNCB and thimerosal, suggesting a direct activation of p38 MAPK via an oxidative stress anon of p38 MAPK via an oxidative stress and a regulation of MAPK signalling pathways depending on chemicals. Because of a high sensitivity of kinase activity measurements, these procedures will be suitable for weak or moderate sensitizer screening

67

Maturation of Shark Single-Domain (IgNAR) Antibodies: Evidence for Induced-Fit Binding  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Sharks express an unusual heavy-chain isotype called IgNAR, whose variable regions bind antigen as independent soluble domains. To further probe affinity maturation of the IgNAR response, we structurally characterized the germline and somatically matured versions of a type II variable (V) region, both in the presence and absence of its antigen, hen egg-white lysozyme. Despite a disulfide bond linking complementarity determining regions (CDRs) 1 and 3, both germline and somatically matured V regions displayed significant structural changes in these CDRs upon complex formation with antigen. Somatic mutations in the IgNAR V region serve to increase the number of contacts with antigen, as reflected by a tenfold increase in affinity, and one of these mutations appears to stabilize the CDR3 region. In addition, a residue in the HV4 loop plays an important role in antibody-antigen interaction, consistent with the high rate of somatic mutations in this non-CDR loop.

Stanfield, R.L.; Dooley, H.; Verdino, P.; Flajnik, M.F.; Wilson, I.A.; /Scripps Res. Inst. /Maryland U.

2007-07-13

68

Curcumin induces maturation-arrested dendritic cells that expand regulatory T cells in vitro and in vivo.  

Science.gov (United States)

Dendritic cells (DC) and regulatory T cells (T(regs) ) are vital to the development of transplant tolerance. Curcumin is a novel biological agent extracted from Curcuma longa (turmeric), with anti-inflammatory and anti-oxidant activity mediated via nuclear factor (NF)-?B inhibition. We investigated the immunomodulatory effects of curcumin on human monocyte-derived and murine DC. Human monocyte-derived DC (hu-Mo-DC) were generated in the presence (CurcDC) or absence (matDC) of 25 µM curcumin, and matured using lipopolysaccharide (1 µg/ml). DC phenotype and allostimulatory capacity was assessed. CD11c(+) DC were isolated from C57BL/6 mice, pretreated with curcumin and injected into BALB/c mice, followed by evaluation of in vivo T cell populations and alloproliferative response. Curcumin induced DC differentiation towards maturation-arrest. CurcDC demonstrated minimal CD83 expression (effect was not antigen-specific. In mice, in vivo infusion of allogeneic CurcDC promoted development of FoxP3(+) T(regs) and reduced subsequent alloproliferative capacity. Curcumin arrests maturation of DC and induces a tolerogenic phenotype that subsequently promotes functional FoxP3(+) T(regs) in vitro and in vivo. PMID:21070208

Rogers, N M; Kireta, S; Coates, P T H

2010-12-01

69

A new model of radiation-induced myelopathy: A comparison of the response of mature and immature pigs  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The purpose was development of an experimental model of radiation-induced myelopathy in the pig which would facilitate the study of the effects of clinically relevant treatment volumes. The effects of local spinal cord irradiation, to a standard 10 X 5 cm field, have been evaluated in mature (37-42.5 weeks) and immature (15.5-23 weeks) pigs. Irradiation was with single doses of {sup 60}Co {gamma}rays at a dose-rate of 0.21-0.65 Gy/min. The incidence of paralysis was used as an endpoint. Irradiation of mature animals resulted in the development of frank paralysis with animals showing combined parenchymal and vascular pathologic changes in their white matter. These lesions, in common with those seen in patients, had a clear evidence of an inflammatory component. The latency for paralysis was short, 7.5-16.5 weeks, but within the wide range reported for patients. However, it was shorter than that reported in other large animal models. The ED{sub 50} value ({+-}SE) for paralysis was 27.02{+-}0.36 Gy, similar to that in rats taking into account dose-rate factors. The irradiation of immature pigs only resulted in transient neurological changes after doses comparable to those used in the mature animals, ED{sub 50} value ({+-}SE) 26.09{+-}0.37 Gy. The reasons for these transient neurological symptoms are uncertain. A reliable experimental model of radiation-induced myelopathy has been developed for mature pigs. This model is suitable for the study of clinically relevant volume effects. 39 refs., 4 figs., 1 tab.

Aardweg, G.J.M.J. van den; Hopewell, J.W.; Whitehouse, E.M.; Calvo, W. [Univ. of Ulm (Germany)

1994-07-01

70

A new model of radiation-induced myelopathy: A comparison of the response of mature and immature pigs  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The purpose was development of an experimental model of radiation-induced myelopathy in the pig which would facilitate the study of the effects of clinically relevant treatment volumes. The effects of local spinal cord irradiation, to a standard 10 X 5 cm field, have been evaluated in mature (37-42.5 weeks) and immature (15.5-23 weeks) pigs. Irradiation was with single doses of 60Co ?rays at a dose-rate of 0.21-0.65 Gy/min. The incidence of paralysis was used as an endpoint. Irradiation of mature animals resulted in the development of frank paralysis with animals showing combined parenchymal and vascular pathologic changes in their white matter. These lesions, in common with those seen in patients, had a clear evidence of an inflammatory component. The latency for paralysis was short, 7.5-16.5 weeks, but within the wide range reported for patients. However, it was shorter than that reported in other large animal models. The ED50 value (±SE) for paralysis was 27.02±0.36 Gy, similar to that in rats taking into account dose-rate factors. The irradiation of immature pigs only resulted in transient neurological changes after doses comparable to those used in the mature animals, ED50 value (±SE) 26.09±0.37 Gy. The reasons for these transient neurological symptoms are uncertain. A reliable experimental model of radiation-induced myelopathy has been developed for mature pigs. This model is suitable for the study of clinically relevant vol the study of clinically relevant volume effects. 39 refs., 4 figs., 1 tab

71

Overexpression of glia maturation factor reinstates susceptibility to myelin oligodendrocyte glycoprotein-induced experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis in glia maturation factor deficient mice  

Science.gov (United States)

Glia maturation factor (GMF), a primarily CNS localized protein was discovered and characterized in our laboratory. We previously demonstrated that GMF is the upstream regulator for excessive production and release of proinflammatory cytokines /chemokines in brain cells leading to the destruction of oligodendrocytes, the myelin forming cells, and neurons. We also reported that mice lacking endogenous GMF (GMF-deficient, GMF-KO) were resistant to myelin oligodendrocyte glycoprotein peptide 35–55 (MOG35-55) induced EAE, since immunization induced only delayed EAE with diminished severity. In the present study we show that a replication-defective adenovirus-GMF construct caused expression of GMF in CNS of GMF-KO mice and reinstated MOG35-55 induced early and severe EAE. Our results show that MOG35-55 immunization caused only a muted EAE and inflammation/demyelination in mice lacking endogenous GMF. The diminished incidence of EAE in GMF-KO mice was consistent with the significantly reduced expressions of cytokines/chemokines. The muted severity of EAE in GMF-KO mice was restored to full blown levels upon reintroduction of GMF using an adeno-GMF-virus (Adv-GMF) vector. Consistent with the clinical findings, histological examination of the CNS of mice with EAE revealed profound differences between wild type (Wt), GMF-KO, and GMF-KO mice with re-introduced GMF (GMF-KO +Adv-GMF). Spinal cord sections from mice with EAE were analyzed for the infiltration of mononuclear cells (inflammation) and myelin loss (demyelination). In Wt mice, 40% of spinal cord quadrants were positive for demyelination and 45% of spinal cord quadrants were positive for inflammation at the peak of EAE. Drastically reduced infiltrates (15%) and demyelination (10%) was found in GMF-KO mice that developed reduced severity of EAE. Upon GMF reintroduction in GMF-KO mice, MOG35-55 immunization caused extensive monocytes infiltration (48%) and demyelination (46%), similar to that observed in the immunized Wt mice. The levels of cytokine/chemokine in the spinal cords of mice at three time points, corresponding to the onset, peak severity and recovery period of EAE, show a distinct pattern of very large increases in IFN-?, TNF-?, GM-CSF and MCP-1 in Wt and GMF-KO +Adv-GMF mice compared to GMF-KO and GMF-KO +Adv-LacZ mice. PMID:20696246

Zaheer, Smita; Wu, Yanghong; Sahu, Shailendra K.; Zaheer, Asgar

2010-01-01

72

Set Approximation in Incomplete Data  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The problem of set approximation in incomplete data is addressed. Different with complete data where the upper/lower approximation of an object set is certain and can be given by one set, for incomplete data upper/lower approximation of a set is uncertain and needs to be bracketed by a set pair. From the completion view of incomplete data, the semantic interpretations of four boundaries used to approximate a set in incomplete data are given. It is illustrated that existing definitions based on tolerance class or covering are not enough to describe precisely the set approximation in incomplete data. Based on a concept of interval granule, new methods are presented for incomplete data to compute the four approximation boundaries of a set. This study provides a new view of granular computing on set approximation in incomplete data and is helpful for computing the uncertainty of a set more accurately.

Renpu Li

2013-01-01

73

Retinoic acid and dexamethasone induce differentiation and maturation of somatotroph cells at different stages in vitro  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The purpose of this study was to investigate the role of retinoic acid (RA) and/or dexamethasone and growth hormone releasing hormone (GHRH) in the induction of somatotroph cell differentiation. Immunohistochemistry, radioimmunoassay, 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-1,2-y1)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide assay, and immune electron microscopy were employed to determine the effect of incubation with these constituents on the differentiation into somatotrophs of cells isolated from the rat embryonic pituitary gland. RA administration increased the proportion of growth hormone (GH) positive somatotroph cells and GH secretion in embryonic pituitary cells (P0.05). However, addition of GHRH to treatment with RA plus dexamethasone significantly increased both the proportion of somatotroph cells and the secretion of GH compared to treatment with RA or dexamethasone alone or RA plus dexamethasone (P<0.01). RA promoted the early differentiation of somatotroph cells, dexamethasone promoted the differentiation and maturation of somatotroph cells and in addition, RA, dexamethasone and GHRH together exerted synergistic effects that markedly promoted somatotroph cell differentiation, maturation and GH secretionfferentiation, maturation and GH secretion. (author)

74

Simulation of B cell affinity maturation explains enhanced antibody cross-reactivity induced by the polyvalent malaria vaccine AMA1.  

Science.gov (United States)

Polyvalent vaccines use a mixture of Ags representing distinct pathogen strains to induce an immune response that is cross-reactive and protective. However, such approaches often have mixed results, and it is unclear how polyvalency alters the fine specificity of the Ab response and what those consequences might be for protection. In this article, we present a coarse-grain theoretical model of B cell affinity maturation during monovalent and polyvalent vaccinations that predicts the fine specificity and cross-reactivity of the Ab response. We stochastically simulate affinity maturation using a population dynamics approach in which the host B cell repertoire is represented explicitly, and individual B cell subpopulations undergo rounds of stimulation, mutation, and differentiation. Ags contain multiple epitopes and are present in subpopulations of distinct pathogen strains, each with varying degrees of cross-reactivity at the epitope level. This epitope- and strain-specific model of affinity maturation enables us to study the composition of the polyclonal response in granular detail and identify the mechanisms driving serum specificity and cross-reactivity. We applied this approach to predict the Ab response to a polyvalent vaccine based on the highly polymorphic malaria Ag apical membrane antigen-1. Our simulations show how polyvalent apical membrane Ag-1 vaccination alters the selection pressure during affinity maturation to favor cross-reactive B cells to both conserved and strain-specific epitopes and demonstrate how a polyvalent vaccine with a small number of strains and only moderate allelic coverage may be broadly neutralizing. Our findings suggest that altered fine specificity and enhanced cross-reactivity may be a universal feature of polyvalent vaccines. PMID:25080483

Chaudhury, Sidhartha; Reifman, Jaques; Wallqvist, Anders

2014-09-01

75

Incomplete fusion reactions  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A review of incomplete fusion reactions is given. The localization of the entrance chanel angular momentum window is discussed for incident energies lower than 10 MeV per nucleon and is found to depend on the target deformation. With deformed target 'peripheral' collisions are observed with l values in the vicinity of lsub(cr) for complete fusion, while for spherical targets, the l window is centered around values lower than 0.5 lsub(cr). These properties are discussed on the grounds of available theoretical models. All other properties of the reactions such as cross sections, angular distributions, shape of the energy spectra of light ejectiles are discussed to bring additional informations about the reaction mechanism. (orig.)

76

Modeling incomplete fusion reactions  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Full text: We would like to present a new model [1] of the dynamics of the incomplete fusion reaction. We will compare the calculated mass distributions and the alpha particle spectra to a set of experimental data. The incomplete fusion has been of interest to the nuclear physics society since 1979 [2]. Since then plenty of experimental and theoretical works were published (see [1,3]) and references therein). Nevertheless, the models so far do not handle the dynamics of the process - the creation of a compound nucleus and a 'projectile like' fragment emission. Our model describes the incomplete fusion for the cases with an ?-particle escape. It is based on the assumption that the incomplete fusion is a two-stage process. In the first stage the projectile breaks up into an ?-particle and the projectile residue during the approach towards the target. In the second stage the projectile residue fuses with the target and the ?-particle escapes. The model allows the spin and excitation energy of the compound nucleus to be evaluated, as well as the energy and the direction of the escaping ?-particle. Recently ?-ray fold distributions for the 51V+97Mo reaction at energy of 4.5 A MeV of 51V [4], have been compared to the predictions of our model. We would like to present the basics of the model as well as its software implementation of the COMPA [3] code. Working in the 'event by event' mode, it provides complete information on the reactios complete information on the reaction products: the entry state spin and energy distribution, the reaction point coordinates, the directions and the velocities of the recoil and emitted light particles. The stopping of the reaction products in the passive elements of the setup (such as support, target and backing) is taken into account. It is easy to compare the COMPA calculations with the experimental results. We will present the comparisons of simulated ?-particle spectra with the experimental data in ?10 A MeV region for the 12C+160Gd [2] and 12C+51V [5] as well as 20Ne+122Sn reactions, studied with new EAGLE [6] array recently put into operation at Heavy Ion Laboratory of the University of Warsaw. (author) Reference: 1. J. Mierzejewski et al. submitted to Phys. Scr.; 2. K.Siwek-Wilczynska et al. Phys. Rev. Lett. 42, 1599 (1979); 3. The COMPA code and documentation, available at web page: http://www.slcj.uw.edu.pl/compa; 4. R.M. Lieder et al. Eur. Phys. J. A 47, 115 (2011); 5. D. J. Parker et al. Phys. Rev. C30, 143 (1984); 6. J.Mierzejewski et al. Nucl. Instr. and Meth. A 659, 84 (2011)

77

Microbeam Radiation-Induced Tissue Damage Depends on the Stage of Vascular Maturation  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Purpose: To explore the effects of microbeam radiation (MR) on vascular biology, we used the chick chorioallantoic membrane (CAM) model of an almost pure vascular system with immature vessels (lacking periendothelial coverage) at Day 8 and mature vessels (with coverage) at Day 12 of development. Methods and Materials: CAMs were irradiated with microplanar beams (width, ?25 ?m; interbeam spacing, ?200 ?m) at entrance doses of 200 or 300 Gy and, for comparison, with a broad beam (seamless radiation [SLR]), with entrance doses of 5 to 40 Gy. Results: In vivo monitoring of Day-8 CAM vasculature 6 h after 200 Gy MR revealed a near total destruction of the immature capillary plexus. Conversely, 200 Gy MR barely affected Day-12 CAM mature microvasculature. Morphological evaluation of Day-12 CAMs after the dose was increased to 300 Gy revealed opened interendothelial junctions, which could explain the transient mesenchymal edema immediately after irradiation. Electron micrographs revealed cytoplasmic vacuolization of endothelial cells in the beam path, with disrupted luminal surfaces; often the lumen was engorged with erythrocytes and leukocytes. After 30 min, the capillary plexus adopted a striated metronomic pattern, with alternating destroyed and intact zones, corresponding to the beam and the interbeam paths within the array. SLR at a dose of 10 Gy caused growth retardation, resulting in a remarkable reduction in the vascular endpoint density 24 h postirradiation. Aoint density 24 h postirradiation. A dose of 40 Gy damaged the entire CAM vasculature. Conclusions: The effects of MR are mediated by capillary damage, with tissue injury caused by insufficient blood supply. Vascular toxicity and physiological effects of MR depend on the stage of capillary maturation and appear in the first 15 to 60 min after irradiation. Conversely, the effects of SLR, due to the arrest of cell proliferation, persist for a longer time.

78

Soy isoflavones administered to rats from weaning until sexual maturity affect ovarian follicle development by inducing apoptosis.  

Science.gov (United States)

Twenty-one-day-old female Wistar rats were treated daily with orally administered soy isoflavones (SIFs) at concentrations of 50, 100, or 200mg/kg body weight from weaning until sexual maturity (3mo.), and ovarian follicle development was evaluated. At the end of the treatment period, the ultrastructure of the ovarian granulosa cells was examined by transmission electron microscopy. The apoptotic cell death of ovarian granulosa cells was detected using TUNEL staining. The mRNA expression levels of caspase-3, caspase-8, caspase-9, Bcl2, Bax, and Fas were determined by real-time quantitative PCR. The protein expression levels of caspase-3, Bcl2, Bax, and Fas were determined by western blotting. Our data showed that exposure to SIFs resulted in morphological changes consistent with ovarian granulosa cell apoptosis. The percentage of TUNEL-positive granulosa cells was increased. The mRNA expression levels of the apoptosis-related genes caspase-3, caspase-8, caspase-9, Bax, and Fas increased significantly. The protein levels of Bax, Fas, and cleaved caspase-3 were also increased. These results indicate that the exposure of rats to modest doses of SIFs from weaning until sexual maturity can affect ovarian follicle development by inducing apoptosis. The mechanism of SIF-induced alterations in ovarian follicle development may involve the activation of Fas-mediated and Bcl2/Bax-mediated apoptotic signaling pathways. PMID:25035168

Wang, Wenxiang; Sun, Yan; Liu, Jin; Li, Yuchen; Li, Hong; Xiao, Shihua; Weng, Shaozheng; Zhang, Wenchang

2014-10-01

79

Processing Of Incomplete Data Set  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

A large number of Data Sets are available, but they are incomplete in nature so that they cannot be used for real applications. These incomplete data sets are produced due to various reasons like system failure, privacy of data, incomplete input, time delay in system, lack of available resources. As common examples Weather data sets, sensor image data sets, Measurement Reflection in Agriculture Data Sets. For these cases we use conceptual data reconstruction by using statistical models...

Mahesh Babanrao Shelke; Badade, K. B.

2013-01-01

80

Lead-induced changes in ovarian follicular development and maturation in mice  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Lead, a potent reproductive toxicant in humans and experimental animals, was used to detect the morphological basis of ovarian toxicity in mice by counting the various stages of follicular development using different doses of lead acetate (0, 2, 4 or 8 mg/kg/d) for 60 d (5 d/wk) by oral gavage. Our results revealed that while small and medium follicles were significantly affected even at the lowest dose (2 mg), the large follicles were affected mostly at the highest dose. Atresia even in the medium follicles reflected the extent of damage caused by lead. These finding correlated well with increased blood lead levels. Therefore, lead seems to affect the follicular development and maturation, if mice are exposed to sufficiently high concentrations of metal through the oral route. 26 refs., 4 figs., 3 tabs.

Junaid, M.; Chowdhuri, D.K.; Narayan, R. [Industrial Toxicology Research Centre, Lucknow (India)] [and others

1997-01-01

 
 
 
 
81

Thyroid hormone treated astrocytes induce maturation of cerebral cortical neurons through modulation of proteoglycan levels.  

Science.gov (United States)

Proper brain neuronal circuitry formation and synapse development is dependent on specific cues, either genetic or epigenetic, provided by the surrounding neural environment. Within these signals, thyroid hormones (T3 and T4) play crucial role in several steps of brain morphogenesis including proliferation of progenitor cells, neuronal differentiation, maturation, migration, and synapse formation. The lack of thyroid hormones during childhood is associated with several impair neuronal connections, cognitive deficits, and mental disorders. Many of the thyroid hormones effects are mediated by astrocytes, although the mechanisms underlying these events are still unknown. In this work, we investigated the effect of 3, 5, 3'-triiodothyronine-treated (T3-treated) astrocytes on cerebral cortex neuronal differentiation. Culture of neural progenitors from embryonic cerebral cortex mice onto T3-treated astrocyte monolayers yielded an increment in neuronal population, followed by enhancement of neuronal maturation, arborization and neurite outgrowth. In addition, real time PCR assays revealed an increase in the levels of the heparan sulfate proteoglycans, Glypican 1 (GPC-1) and Syndecans 3 e 4 (SDC-3 e SDC-4), followed by a decrease in the levels of the chondroitin sulfate proteoglycan, Versican. Disruption of glycosaminoglycan chains by chondroitinase AC or heparanase III completely abolished the effects of T3-treated astrocytes on neuronal morphogenesis. Our work provides evidence that astrocytes are key mediators of T3 actions on cerebral cortex neuronal development and identified potential molecules and pathways involved in neurite extension; which might eventually contribute to a better understanding of axonal regeneration, synapse formation, and neuronal circuitry recover. PMID:23964200

Dezonne, Rômulo S; Stipursky, Joice; Araujo, Ana P B; Nones, Jader; Pavão, Mauro S G; Porcionatto, Marimélia; Gomes, Flávia C A

2013-01-01

82

Ectopic expression of neurogenin 2 alone is sufficient to induce differentiation of embryonic stem cells into mature neurons.  

Science.gov (United States)

Recent studies show that combinations of defined key developmental transcription factors (TFs) can reprogram somatic cells to pluripotency or induce cell conversion of one somatic cell type to another. However, it is not clear if single genes can define a cell?s identity and if the cell fate defining potential of TFs is also operative in pluripotent stem cells in vitro. Here, we show that ectopic expression of the neural TF Neurogenin2 (Ngn2) is sufficient to induce rapid and efficient differentiation of embryonic stem cells (ESCs) into mature glutamatergic neurons. Ngn2-induced neuronal differentiation did not require any additional external or internal factors and occurred even under pluripotency-promoting conditions. Differentiated cells displayed neuron-specific morphology, protein expression, and functional features, most importantly the generation of action potentials and contacts with hippocampal neurons. Gene expression analyses revealed that Ngn2-induced in vitro differentiation partially resembled neurogenesis in vivo, as it included specific activation of Ngn2 target genes and interaction partners. These findings demonstrate that a single gene is sufficient to determine cell fate decisions of uncommitted stem cells thus giving insights into the role of key developmental genes during lineage commitment. Furthermore, we present a promising tool to improve directed differentiation strategies for applications in both stem cell research and regenerative medicine. PMID:22719915

Thoma, Eva C; Wischmeyer, Erhard; Offen, Nils; Maurus, Katja; Sirén, Anna-Leena; Schartl, Manfred; Wagner, Toni U

2012-01-01

83

Potassium ion- and nitric oxide-induced exocytosis from populations of hippocampal synapses during synaptic maturation in vitro.  

Science.gov (United States)

The development of mechanisms of neurotransmitter release is an important component in the formation of functional synaptic connections. Synaptic neurotransmitter release can be modulated by nitric oxide, a compound shown to have a variety of physiologic functions in the nervous system. The goal of this study was to determine whether, during synaptic maturation, nitric oxide is capable of affecting exocytosis of synaptic vesicles, and to compare its effects with those elicited by strongly depolarizing stimuli. To address these questions we examined vesicle release from large numbers of individual synapses of hippocampal neurons between five and 13 days in culture. Synaptic vesicles were labelled by uptake of the styrylpyridinium dye N-(3-triethylammoniumpropyl)-4-(4-(dibutylamino)styryl)pyridinium dibromide (FM1-43) and their release was monitored by fluorescence imaging. Across populations of developing synapses, there was a good correspondence between FM1-43 staining and synapsin immunocytochemistry. A marked heterogeneity was observed in the ability to release vesicles both after potassium and nitric oxide stimulation. In less mature populations of synapses, the rate of potassium- and nitric oxide-induced exocytosis gradually increased, while at later stages nitric oxide-induced responses levelled off and potassium-induced responses continued to rise. Application of nitric oxide donors did not trigger any detectable changes in intracellular calcium. Combined immunocytochemical analysis of cultured hippocampal neurons for neuronal nitric oxide synthase and synapsin revealed that nitric oxide synthase was present within neurites of cultured hippocampal neurons, largely distributed in a bead-like pattern which partially overlapped presynaptic sites. Stimulation of the N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor while blocking propagation of action potentials with tetrodotoxin resulted in exocytosis from numerous individually resolved sites. Preincubation of neurons with an nitric oxide synthase inhibitor or addition of an nitric oxide scavenger eliminated these responses indicating a role for nitric oxide in N-methyl-D-aspartate-stimulated exocytosis. Using fluorescence imaging of individually resolved synaptic sites, we provide direct evidence for an effect of nitric oxide on vesicular neurotransmitter release in intact neurons. Nitric oxide is capable to produce this effect at all stages of synaptic development and acts independently of calcium influx. We show that nitric oxide synthase is present at synaptic sites and endogenously produced nitric oxide is sufficient to cause exocytosis. Taken together, these experiments suggest a possible role for nitric oxide in calcium-independent transmitter release in populations of synapses at all stages of maturation. PMID:9284060

Sporns, O; Jenkinson, S

1997-10-01

84

Diagnosis of incomplete Kawasaki disease  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Several authors suggested that the clinical characteristics of incomplete presentation of Kawasaki disease are similar to those of complete presentation and that the 2 forms of presentation are not separate entities. Based on this suggestion, a diagnosis of incomplete Kawasaki disease in analogy to the findings of complete presentation is reasonable. Currently, the diagnosis of incomplete Kawasaki disease might be made in cases with fewer classical diagnostic criteria and with several compatible clinical, laboratory or echocardiographic findings on the exclusion of other febrile illness. Definition of incomplete presentation in which coronary artery abnormalities are included as a necessary condition, is restrictive and specific. The validity of the diagnostic criteria of incomplete presentation by the American Heart Association should be thoroughly tested in the immediate future.

Jeong Jin Yu

2012-03-01

85

Jarid2 is induced by TCR signalling and controls iNKT cell maturation.  

Science.gov (United States)

Jarid2 is a reported component of three lysine methyltransferase complexes, polycomb repressive complex 2 (PRC2) that methylates histone 3 lysine 27 (H3K27), and GLP-G9a and SETDB1 complexes that methylate H3K9. Here we show that Jarid2 is upregulated upon TCR stimulation and during positive selection in the thymus. Mice lacking Jarid2 in T cells display an increase in the frequency of IL-4-producing promyelocytic leukemia zinc finger (PLZF)(hi) immature invariant natural killer T (iNKT) cells and innate-like CD8(+) cells; Itk-deficient mice, which have a similar increase of innate-like CD8(+) cells, show blunted upregulation of Jarid2 during positive selection. Jarid2 binds to the Zbtb16 locus, which encodes PLZF, and thymocytes lacking Jarid2 show increased PLZF and decreased H3K9me3 levels. Jarid2-deficient iNKT cells perturb Th17 differentiation, leading to reduced Th17-driven autoimmune pathology. Our results establish Jarid2 as a novel player in iNKT cell maturation that regulates PLZF expression by modulating H3K9 methylation. PMID:25105474

Pereira, Renata M; Martinez, Gustavo J; Engel, Isaac; Cruz-Guilloty, Fernando; Barboza, Bianca A; Tsagaratou, Ageliki; Lio, Chan-Wang J; Berg, Leslie J; Lee, Youngsook; Kronenberg, Mitchell; Bandukwala, Hozefa S; Rao, Anjana

2014-01-01

86

Neuroligin 1 induces blood vessel maturation by cooperating with the ?6 integrin.  

Science.gov (United States)

The synaptic protein Neuroligin 1 (NLGN1), a cell adhesion molecule, is critical for the formation and consolidation of synaptic connectivity and is involved in vascular development. The mechanism through which NLGN1 acts, especially in vascular cells, is unknown. Here, we aimed at deepening our knowledge on the cellular activities and molecular pathways exploited by endothelial NLGN1 both in vitro and in vivo. We analyzed the phenotypic consequences of NLGN1 expression modulation in endothelial cells through in vitro angiogenesis assays and the mouse postnatal retinal angiogenesis model. We demonstrate that NLGN1, whereas not affecting endothelial cell proliferation or migration, modulates cell adhesion to the vessel stabilizing protein laminin through cooperation with the ?6 integrin, a specific laminin receptor. Finally, we show that in vivo, NLGN1 and ?6 integrin preferentially colocalize in the mature retinal vessels, whereas NLGN1 deletion causes an aberrant VE-cadherin, laminin and ?6 integrin distribution in vessels, along with significant structural defects in the vascular tree. PMID:24860089

Samarelli, Anna Valeria; Riccitelli, Elena; Bizzozero, Laura; Silveira, Tatiana Nunes; Seano, Giorgio; Pergolizzi, Margherita; Vitagliano, Grazia; Cascone, Ilaria; Carpentier, Gilles; Bottos, Alessia; Primo, Luca; Bussolino, Federico; Arese, Marco

2014-07-11

87

Activation receptor-induced tolerance of mature NK cells in vivo requires signaling through the receptor and is reversible.  

Science.gov (United States)

NK cell responses are determined by signals received through activating and inhibitory cell surface receptors. Ly49H is an NK cell-specific activating receptor that accounts for the genetic resistance to murine CMV (MCMV). The Ly49H receptor has been shown to interact with two adaptor proteins (DAP12 and DAP10). In the context of MCMV infection, interaction of m157 (the MCMV-encoded ligand for Ly49H) with Ly49H results in activation of Ly49H-expressing NK cells. Chronic exposure of Ly49H with m157, however, induces tolerance in these same cells. The mechanism of this tolerance remains poorly understood. Using a transgenic mouse model, we demonstrate that induction of tolerance in Ly49H(+) NK cells by chronic exposure to m157, in vivo, requires signaling through the Ly49H adaptor protein DAP12, but not the DAP10 adaptor protein. Furthermore, mature Ly49H-expressing NK cells from wild-type mice can acquire a tolerant phenotype by 24 h posttransfer into a transgenic C57BL/6 mouse that expresses m157. The tolerant phenotype can be reversed, in vivo, if tolerant NK cells are transferred to mice that do not express the m157 protein. Thus, continuous activating receptor engagement can induce a transient tolerance in mature NK cells in vivo. These observations provide new insight into how activating receptor engagement shapes NK cell function and has important implications in how NK cells respond to tumors and during chronic viral infection. PMID:21263069

Bolanos, Fred D; Tripathy, Sandeep K

2011-03-01

88

Acute steroid-induced myopathy during lung Maturation in a patient with threatened preterm Delivery  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Myopathy caused by steroids is a serious and unusual side effect related with administration of high doses of steroids. In this article we had reported a possible deleterious and serious effect on the mother health when steroids are used in the treatment of preterm childbirth. The case of a pregnant patient of 28 gestational week that consults to the emergency department with signs of preterm birth, receives tocolysis and lung maturation with Betametasona (12 mg the first day and 12 mg at 24 hours after first dose; thereafter, patient refer dizziness and blurry vision, which progress rapidly to pain in lower limbs, with weakness, being generalized then to four limbs, for acute weakness and imminence of respiratory failure the patient was transferred to the intensive care unit (ICU for respiratory vigilance, possible ventilatory support and study of this weakness. Myopathy caused by steroids is generally related with high doses of steroids. These patients, present a clinical typical picture characterized by widespread weakness of four extremities, muscular atrophy, normal CK or moderately high and myopathic changes in the EMG, the clinical presentation improves slowly. This report invite us to questioning the apparent innocuousness of steroids in pulmonary maturity and the dose of the same one, as well as to using them well in agreement to the indication of the same one keeping in mind the risk - benefit of the medicine.RESUMENLa miopatía causada por esteroides es un efecto secundario grave muy poco frecuente asociado a la administración de dosis altas de esteroides. Se reportan los posibles efectos deletéreos sobre la salud materna que puede tener la administración de corticosteroides frente al riesgo de un parto pretérmino. Se presenta el caso de una paciente gestante de 28 semanas que consulta al servicio de urgencia por infección de vías urinarias y amenaza de parto pretérmino, que recibe uteroinhibicion y maduración pulmonar con Betametasona (12 mg primer día y 12 mg a las 24 horas de primera dosis; luego de segunda dosis de maduración pulmonar la paciente refiere vértigo y visión borrosa, la cual progresó rápidamente a dolor, con pérdida de fuerza muscular en miembros inferiores, generalizándose luego a las cuatro extremidades, por lo que ante la inminencia de falla respiratoria se traslada a unidad de cuidados intermedios para vigilancia ventilatoria y estudio de miopatía.Discusión: La miopatía por esteroides, se produce con dosis altas de corticoides. Estos pacientes, presentan un cuadro clínico típico caracterizado por debilidad generalizada de las cuatro extremidades, atrofia muscular, CK normal o moderadamente elevada y cambios miopáticos en el EMG, el cuadro clínico mejora aunque de forma lenta. Conclusiones: Este reporte nos invita a cuestionar la aparente inocuidad de los esteroides en maduración pulmonar y la dosis de la misma, así como a utilizarlos bien de acuerdo a la indicación del mismo teniendo en cuenta el riesgo – beneficio del medicamento.

Rojas-Suarez José Antonio

2010-06-01

89

Whey protein processing influences formula-induced gut maturation in preterm pigs.  

Science.gov (United States)

Immaturity of the gut predisposes preterm infants to nutritional challenges potentially leading to clinical complications such as necrotizing enterocolitis. Feeding milk formulas is associated with greater risk than fresh colostrum or milk, probably due to loss of bioactive proteins (e.g., immunoglobulins, lactoferrin, insulin-like growth factor, transforming growth factor-?) during industrial processing (e.g., pasteurization, filtration, spray-drying). We hypothesized that the processing method for whey protein concentrate (WPC) would affect gut maturation in formula-fed preterm pigs used as a model for preterm infants. Fifty-five caesarean-delivered preterm pigs were distributed into 4 groups given 1 of 4 isoenergetic diets: formula containing conventional WPC (filtration, multi-pasteurization, standard spray-drying) (CF); formula containing gently treated WPC (reduced filtration and pasteurization, gentle spray-drying) (GF); formula containing minimally treated WPC (rennet precipitation, reduced filtration, heat treatment colostrum (used as a positive reference group) (BC). Relative to CF, GF, and MF pigs, BC pigs had greater villus heights, lactose digestion, and absorption and lower gut permeability (P < 0.05). MF and BC pigs had greater plasma citrulline concentrations than CF and GF pigs and intestinal interleukin-8 was lower in BC pigs than in the other groups (P < 0.05). MF pigs had lower concentrations of intestinal claudin-4, cleaved caspase-3, and phosphorylated c-Jun than CF pigs (P < 0.05). The conventional and gently treated WPCs had similar efficacy in stimulating proliferation of porcine intestinal epithelial cells. We conclude that processing of WPC affects intestinal structure, function, and integrity when included in formulas for preterm pigs. Optimization of WPC processing technology may be important to preserve the bioactivity and nutritional value of formulas for sensitive newborns. PMID:24047702

Li, Yanqi; Østergaard, Mette V; Jiang, Pingping; Chatterton, Dereck E W; Thymann, Thomas; Kvistgaard, Anne S; Sangild, Per T

2013-12-01

90

Semiquinone-induced Maturation of Bacillus anthracis Ribonucleotide Reductase by a Superoxide Intermediate.  

Science.gov (United States)

Ribonucleotide reductases (RNRs) catalyze the conversion of ribonucleotides to deoxyribonucleotides, and represent the only de novo pathway to provide DNA building blocks. Three different classes of RNR are known, denoted I-III. Class I RNRs are heteromeric proteins built up by ? and ? subunits and are further divided into different subclasses, partly based on the metal content of the ?-subunit. In subclass Ib RNR the ?-subunit is denoted NrdF, and harbors a manganese-tyrosyl radical cofactor. The generation of this cofactor is dependent on a flavodoxin-like maturase denoted NrdI, responsible for the formation of an active oxygen species suggested to be either a superoxide or a hydroperoxide. Herein we report on the magnetic properties of the manganese-tyrosyl radical cofactor of Bacillus anthracis NrdF and the redox properties of B. anthracis NrdI. The tyrosyl radical in NrdF is stabilized through its interaction with a ferromagnetically coupled manganese dimer. Moreover, we show through a combination of redox titration and protein electrochemistry that in contrast to hitherto characterized NrdIs, the B. anthracis NrdI is stable in its semiquinone form (NrdIsq) with a difference in electrochemical potential of ?110 mV between the hydroquinone and semiquinone state. The under anaerobic conditions stable NrdIsq is fully capable of generating the oxidized, tyrosyl radical-containing form of Mn-NrdF when exposed to oxygen. This latter observation strongly supports that a superoxide radical is involved in the maturation mechanism, and contradicts the participation of a peroxide species. Additionally, EPR spectra on whole cells revealed that a significant fraction of NrdI resides in its semiquinone form in vivo, underscoring that NrdIsq is catalytically relevant. PMID:25262022

Berggren, Gustav; Duraffourg, Nicolas; Sahlin, Margareta; Sjöberg, Britt-Marie

2014-11-14

91

Inhaled nitric oxide alleviates hyperoxia suppressed phosphatidylcholine synthesis in endotoxin-induced injury in mature rat lungs  

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Full Text Available Abstract Background We investigated efficacy of inhaled nitric oxide (NO in modulation of metabolism of phosphatidylcholine (PC of pulmonary surfactant and in anti-inflammatory mechanism of mature lungs with inflammatory injury. Methods Healthy adult rats were divided into a group of lung inflammation induced by i.v. lipopolysaccharides (LPS or a normal control (C for 24 h, and then exposed to: room air (Air, 95% oxygen (O, NO (20 parts per million, NO, both O and NO (ONO as subgroups, whereas [3H]-choline was injected i.v. for incorporation into PC of the lungs which were processed subsequently at 10 min, 4, 8, 12 and 24 h, respectively, for measurement of PC synthesis and proinflammatory cytokine production. Results LPS-NO subgroup had the lowest level of labeled PC in total phospholipids and disaturated PC in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid and lung tissue (decreased by 46–59%, along with the lowest activity of cytidine triphosphate: phosphocholine cytidylyltransferase (-14–18% in the lungs, compared to all other subgroups at 4 h (p Conclusion In LPS-induced lung inflammation in association with hyperoxia, depressed PC synthesis and enhanced proinflammatory cytokine production may be alleviated by iNO. NO alone only transiently suppressed the PC synthesis as a result of lower activity of cytidylyltransferase.

Huang Shibing

2006-01-01

92

5-Azacytidine induces early stage apoptosis and promotes in vitro maturation by changing chromosomal construction in murine oocytes.  

Science.gov (United States)

As an anticancer drug, 5-azacytidine (5-AzaC) has been widely used to treat various cancers. To investigate the effect of 5-AzaC on mouse oocytes cultured in vitro, we have performed morphological and molecular biology studies to examine the behavior of chromosomes and oocyte development. In 5-AzaC-treated oocytes, chromosomes were decondensed and unstable. The mRNA levels of Caspase3, Caspase8, and Caspase9 increased with the occurrence of early stage apoptosis in oocytes following 5-AzaC treatment. Furthermore, the mRNA levels of Gdf9 and Bmp15 also increased with the corresponding morphological changes in 5-AzaC-treated oocytes. In conclusion, 5-AzaC not only induced early apoptosis through both extrinsic and intrinsic pathways, but also had a positive effect on the developmental competence of mouse oocytes during in vitro maturation. These effects may be due to changes in chromosomal construction induced by DNA hypomethylation. PMID:23395740

Zhao, F Y; Shao, C P; Li, Y; Ma, W Y; Tian, N; Zheng, J H

2013-06-01

93

Carboxymethylation enhances the maturation-inducing activity in dendritic cells of polysaccharide from the seeds of Plantago asiatica L.  

Science.gov (United States)

Carboxymethylation is a well-known modification process for polysaccharides. To evaluate the biological availability of carboxymethyl, polysaccharide from the seeds of Plantago asiatica L. (PLCP) was carboxymethylated (CM-PLCP) and the immunomodulatory activities of five CM-PLCPs of gradient degree of substitution (DS) from 0.40 to 0.62 were determined on dendritic cells (DCs) in vitro. Compared with DCs treated with PLCP, DCs treated with CM-PLCP of DS0.50, DS0.55, DS0.62, as well as CD86 and CD80, expressed higher levels of MHCII, CD86 and CD80 surface molecules. In addition, the secretion of IL-12p70 and the mRNA of CCR7 and CXCR4 chemokines were increased, while the endocytosis activities were inhibited. Correspondingly, stronger mixed lymphocyte reactions were induced by the DCs treated with the CM-PLCPs. The results showed that carboxymethylation modification of relevant high DS can enhance the DC maturation-inducing function of PLCP, indicating the potential application of carboxymethylated polysaccharide as an immunotherapeutic adjuvant. PMID:24975662

Jiang, Le-Ming; Nie, Shao-Ping; Zhou, Hua-Lu; Huang, Dan-Fei; Xie, Ming-Yong

2014-10-01

94

Updating beliefs with incomplete observations  

CERN Document Server

Currently, there is renewed interest in the problem, raised by Shafer in 1985, of updating probabilities when observations are incomplete. This is a fundamental problem in general, and of particular interest for Bayesian networks. Recently, Grunwald and Halpern have shown that commonly used updating strategies fail in this case, except under very special assumptions. In this paper we propose a new method for updating probabilities with incomplete observations. Our approach is deliberately conservative: we make no assumptions about the so-called incompleteness mechanism that associates complete with incomplete observations. We model our ignorance about this mechanism by a vacuous lower prevision, a tool from the theory of imprecise probabilities, and we use only coherence arguments to turn prior into posterior probabilities. In general, this new approach to updating produces lower and upper posterior probabilities and expectations, as well as partially determinate decisions. This is a logical consequence of th...

de Cooman, G; Cooman, Gert de; Zaffalon, Marco

2003-01-01

95

Danhong inhibits oxidized low-density lipoprotein-induced immune maturation of dentritic cells via a peroxisome proliferator activated receptor ?-mediated pathway.  

Science.gov (United States)

Danhong injection (DHI), a Chinese Materia Medica standardized product extracted from Radix Salviae miltiorrhizae and Flos Carthami tinctorii, is effective in the treatment of atherosclerosis (AS)-related diseases. It is widely recognized that AS is a complex inflammatory disease of the arterial wall and the dendritic cells (DCs) is a major player in the pathogenesis of AS via mediating atherosclerotic antigen presenting and T lymphocytes. Here, we determined the effect and possible mechanism of DHI on oxidized low-density lipoprotein (ox-LDL)-induced maturation and immune function of DCs. Human monocyte-derived DCs were incubated with DHI or ciglitazone and were subsequently stimulated with ox-LDL to induce maturation. Similar to ciglitazone, a peroxisome proliferator activated receptor (PPAR) ? agonist, DHI, could significantly reduce ox-LDL-induced expressions of mature markers, enhance the endocytotic function, and inhibit secretions of cytokine on DCs. These effects of DHI could be partly reversed by silencing the PPAR?. In conclusion, DHI could inhibit ox-LDL-induced maturation of DCs partly through activating a PPAR?-mediated signaling pathway. PMID:22739234

Liu, Hongying; Wang, Shijun; Sun, Aijun; Huang, Dong; Wang, Wei; Zhang, Chunyu; Shi, Dazhuo; Chen, Keji; Zou, Yunzeng; Ge, Junbo

2012-01-01

96

Functions of defense-related proteins and dehydrogenases in resistance response induced by salicylic acid in sweet cherry fruits at different maturity stages.  

Science.gov (United States)

We report here a comparative analysis of sweet cherry (Prunus avium) fruits proteome induced by salicylic acid (SA) at different maturity stages. The results demonstrated that SA enhanced the resistance of sweet cherry fruits against Penicillium expansum, resulting in lower disease incidences and smaller lesion diameters, especially at earlier maturity stage. Based on proteomics analysis, 13 and 28 proteins were identified after SA treatment at earlier (A) and later (B) maturity stage, respectively. Seven antioxidant proteins and three pathogenesis related-proteins were identified at both A and B stages, while five heat shock proteins and four dehydrogenases were only detected at B stage. SA treatment also stimulated higher transcript levels of peroxidase, but repressed that of catalase. Moreover, some proteins regulated by SA at B maturity stage were identified as enzymes involved in glycolysis and tricarboxylic acid cycle. These findings indicated that younger sweet cherry fruits showed stronger resistance against pathogen invasion after SA treatment. It further indicated that antioxidant proteins were involved in the resistance response of fruits at every maturity stage, while heat shock proteins and dehydrogenases might potentially act as factors only at later maturity stages. PMID:18924108

Chan, Zhulong; Wang, Qing; Xu, Xiangbin; Meng, Xianghong; Qin, Guozheng; Li, Boqiang; Tian, Shiping

2008-11-01

97

Clinical course of myelin oligodendrocyte glycoprotein 35-55 induced experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis is aggravated by glia maturation factor  

Science.gov (United States)

The role of glia maturation factor (GMF) in myelin oligodendrocyte glycoprotein (MOG) 35-55 peptide-induced experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE) was investigated using GMF-deficient (GMF-KO) mice. We demonstrate that GMF-KO mice were resistant to the MOG 35-55 peptide-induced EAE as compared to wild type (Wt) mice (two in eight versus ten in ten). Next, we examined the effect of administration of recombinant human GMF (rGMF) on MOG 35-55 peptide-induced EAE in mice. Daily administration of rGMF, staring day 1 to 14, resulted in significant exacerbation of clinical symptoms. Following rGMF injections, both GMF-KO (six in eight) and Wt mice (eight in eight) developed severe EAE (maximal clinical score of 3.5–4.0) with high frequency. The histological examination revealed severe infiltration of inflammatory cells in the spinal cord of MOG-immunized Wt mice while the resistance to EAE in GMF-KO mice was characterized by the absence of inflammatory cells. Administration of rGMF in Wt mice and GMF-KO mice resulted in a significant increase in infiltrating cells in the spinal cord following MOG-immunizations. We also evaluated cytokines and chemokines production as parameters of severity of inflammation in the spinal cord of Wt versus GMF-KO mice with and without GMF-reconstitution following MOG-immunizations. Cytokines (TNF-?, IFN-?, IL-1?, IL-6) and chemokines (CCL2, CCL3, CXCL10, GM-CSF) production were significantly greater in Wt mice than in GMF-KO mice following MOG-immunization. Furthermore, the reconstitution experiment with rGMF showed that the administration of rGMF in both, Wt mice and GMF-KO mice produced significant increase in the GMF-mediated cytokine/chemokine production. PMID:22226840

Zaheer, Smita; Wu, Yanghong; Yang, Xi; Ahrens, Marcus; Sahu, Shailendra K.; Zaheer, Asgar

2012-01-01

98

CO2-induced decrease of canopy stomatal conductance of mature conifer and broadleaved trees  

Science.gov (United States)

Together with canopy leaf area, mean canopy stomatal conductance (GS) controls forest-atmosphere exchanges of energy and mass. Expectations for stomatal response to elevated atmospheric [CO2] (CO2E) based on seedling studies range from large decreases of conductance in foliage of broadleaved species to little or no response in conifers. These responses are not directly translatable to forest canopies, and their underlying mechanisms are ill-defined. The uncertainty of canopy-scale stomatal response to CO2E reduces confidence in modeled predictions of future forest productivity and carbon sequestration, and of partitioning of net radiation between latent and sensible heat flux. Thus, debates on the potential effects of CO2E-induced stomatal closure continue. We used a Free-Air CO2 Enrichment (FACE) experiment in a 27-year-old, 25 m tall forest, to generate a whole-canopy CO2-response and test whether canopy-scale GS response to CO2E of widely distributed, fast growing shade-intolerant species, Pinus taeda (L.) and co-occurring broadleaved species dominated by Liquidambar styraciflua (L.), was indirectly affected by slow changes such as hydraulic adjustments and canopy development, as opposed to quickly responding to CO2 concentrations in the leaf-internal air space. Our results show indirect CO2E-induced reductions of GS of 10% and 30%, respectively, and no signs of a direct stomatal response even as CO2E was pushed to 685 ?mol mol-1 (~1.8 of ambient). Modeling the effect of CO2E on the water, energy and carbon cycles of forests must consider slow-response indirect mechanisms producing large variation in the reduction of GS, such as the previously observed inconsistent CO2E effect on canopy leaf area and plant hydraulics. Moreover, the new generation of CO2E studies in forests must allow indirect effects caused by, e.g., hydraulic adjustments and canopy development, to play out. Such acclimation will be particularly prolonged in slowly developing ecosystems, such as boreal forests, the focus of new [CO2] X warming experiments.

Tor-ngern, P.; Oren, R.; Ward, E. J.; Palmroth, S.; McCarthy, H. R.; domec, J.

2013-12-01

99

Protein-induced changes during the maturation process of human dendritic cells: A 2-D DIGE approach  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Dendritic cells (DCs) are unique antigen presenting cells, which upon maturation change from a specialized antigen-capturing cell towards a professional antigen presenting cells. In this study, a 2-D DIGE analysis of immature and mature DCs was performed, to identify proteins changing in expression upon maturation. The protein expression profile of immature and mature DCs, derived from CD14+ peripheral blood monocytes was investigated using two pH ranges (pH 4-7 and 6-9) (n = 4). Ninety one differentially expressed spots (p

Hansen, Kasper Lage; Hansen, Daniel Aaen

2008-01-01

100

The Icsbp locus is a common proviral insertion site in mature B-cell lymphomas/plasmacytomas induced by exogenous murine leukemia virus  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

ICSBP (interferon consensus sequence binding protein)/IRF8 (interferon regulatory factor 8) is an interferon gamma-inducible transcription factor expressed predominantly in hematopoietic cells, and down-regulation of this factor has been observed in chronic myelogenous leukemia and acute myeloid leukemia in man. By screening about 1200 murine leukemia virus (MLV)-induced lymphomas, we found proviral insertions at the Icsbp locus in 14 tumors, 13 of which were mature B-cell lymphomas or plasmacytomas. Only one was a T-cell lymphoma, although such tumors constituted about half of the samples screened. This indicates that the Icsbp locus can play a specific role in the development of mature B-lineage malignancies. Two proviral insertions in the last Icsbp exon were found to act by a poly(A)-insertion mechanism. The remaining insertions were found within or outside Icsbp. Since our results showed expression of Icsbp RNA and protein in all end-stage tumor samples, a simple tumor suppressor function of ICSBP is not likely. Interestingly, proviral insertions at Icsbp have not been reported from previous extensive screenings of mature B-cell lymphomas induced by endogenous MLVs. We propose that ICSBP might be involved in an early modulation of an immune response to exogenous MLVs that might also play a role in proliferation of the mature B-cell lymphomas

 
 
 
 
101

Measles virus-induced promotion of dendritic cell maturation by soluble mediators does not overcome the immunosuppressive activity of viral glycoproteins on the cell surface.  

Science.gov (United States)

Measles virus (MV) infection promotes maturation of dendritic cells (DC), but also interferes with DC functions, and MV renders the DC inhibitory for T cell proliferation. We now describe that MV infection triggers the release of type I IFN from monocyte-derived DC (Mo-DC) which contributes to DC maturation. There is no evidence that soluble mediators are released interfering with the stimulatory activity of uninfected DC. Since inhibition of allogeneic T cell proliferation was unaffected by a fusion inhibitory peptide (Z-fFG), MV infection of T cells did not contribute to inhibition. Allogeneic T cell proliferation depended on the percentage of DC expressing MV F/H glycoproteins within the DC population and their surface expression levels, was induced upon addition of UV-inactivated MV to a mixed lymphocyte reaction stimulated by lipopolysaccharide-matured DC, and was not induced by DC infected with a recombinant MV encoding the ectodomain of vesicular stomatitis virus G protein (MG/FV) instead of the MV glycoproteins. Similarly, DC infected with MV, but not with MG/FV inhibited mitogen-induced proliferation of T cells. Thus, a dominant inhibitory signal is delivered to T cells by the MV glycoproteins on the surface of DC overcoming positive signals by co-stimulatory molecules promoted by maturation factors released from infected DC. PMID:11069053

Klagge, I M; ter Meulen, V; Schneider-Schaulies, S

2000-10-01

102

Metabolomic changes in follicular fluid induced by soy isoflavones administered to rats from weaning until sexual maturity  

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Female Wistar rats at 21 days of age were treated with one of three concentrations of soy isoflavones (SIF) (50, 100 or 200 mg/kg body weight, orally, once per day) from weaning until sexual maturity (3 months) in order to evaluate the influence of SIF on ovarian follicle development. After treatment, the serum sex hormone levels and enumeration of ovarian follicles of the ovary were measured. The metabolic profile of follicular fluid was determined using HPLC-MS. Principal component analysis (PCA) and partial least-squares-discriminant analysis (PLS-DA) was used to identify differences in metabolites and reveal useful toxic biomarkers. The results indicated that modest doses of SIF affect ovarian follicle development, as demonstrated by decreased serum estradiol levels and increases in both ovarian follicle atresia and corpora lutea number in the ovary. SIF treatment-related metabolic alterations in follicular fluid were also found in the PCA and PLS-DA models. The 24 most significantly altered metabolites were identified, including primary sex hormones, amino acids, fatty acids and metabolites involved in energy metabolism. These findings may indicate that soy isoflavones affect ovarian follicle development by inducing metabolomic variations in the follicular fluid. - Highlights: ? Modest doses of soy isoflavones (SIF) do affect ovarian follicle development. ? SIF treatment-related metabolic alterations in follicular fluid were found. ? The 24 most significantly altered metabolites were identified

103

Insulin-like growth factor-1 receptor in mature osteoblasts is required for periosteal bone formation induced by reloading  

Science.gov (United States)

Skeletal loading and unloading has a pronounced impact on bone remodeling, a process also regulated by insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) signaling. Skeletal unloading leads to resistance to the anabolic effect of IGF-1, while reloading after unloading restores responsiveness to IGF-1. However, a direct study of the importance of IGF-1 signaling in the skeletal response to mechanical loading remains to be tested. In this study, we assessed the skeletal response of osteoblast-specific Igf-1 receptor deficient (Igf-1r-/-) mice to unloading and reloading. The mice were hindlimb unloaded for 14 days and then reloaded for 16 days. Igf-1r-/- mice displayed smaller cortical bone and diminished periosteal and endosteal bone formation at baseline. Periosteal and endosteal bone formation decreased with unloading in Igf-1r+/+ mice. However, the recovery of periosteal bone formation with reloading was completely inhibited in Igf-1r-/- mice, although reloading-induced endosteal bone formation was not hampered. These changes in bone formation resulted in the abolishment of the expected increase in total cross-sectional area with reloading in Igf-1r-/- mice compared to the control mice. These results suggest that the Igf-1r in mature osteoblasts has a critical role in periosteal bone formation in the skeletal response to mechanical loading.

Kubota, Takuo; Elalieh, Hashem Z.; Saless, Neema; Fong, Chak; Wang, Yongmei; Babey, Muriel; Cheng, Zhiqiang; Bikle, Daniel D.

2013-11-01

104

Progressive behavioral changes during the maturation of rats with early radiation-induced hypoplasia of fascia dentata granule cells  

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Localized exposure of the neonatal rat brain to X-rays produces neuronal hypoplasia specific to the granule cell layer of the hippocampal dentate gyrus. This brain damage causes locomotor hyperactivity, slowed acquisition of passive avoidance tasks and long bouts of spontaneous turning (without reversals) in a bowl apparatus. Here we report how these behavioral deficits change as a function of subject aging and behavioral test replications. Portions of the neonatal rat cerebral hemispheres were X-irradiated in order to selectively damage the granule cells of the dentate gyrus. The brains of experimental animals received a fractionated dose of X rays (13 Gy total) over postnatal days 1 to 16 and control animals were sham-irradiated. Rats between the ages of 71-462 days were tested 3 separate times on each of the following 3 behavioral tests: (1) spontaneous locomotion, (2) passive avoidance acquisition, and (3) spontaneous circling in a large plastic hemisphere. Rats with radiation-induced damage to the fascia dentata exhibited long bouts of slow turns without reversals. Once they began, irradiated subjects perseverated in turning to an extent significantly greater than sham-irradiated control subjects. This irradiation effect was significant during all test series. Moreover, in time, spontaneous perseverative turning was significantly potentiated in rats with hippocampal damage but increased only slightly in controls. Early radiation exposure produced locomotor hyperactivity in young rats. While activity levels of controls remained fairly stable throughout the course of the experiment, the hyperactivity of the irradiated animals decreased significantly as they matured.

Mickley, G.A.; Ferguson, J.L.; Mulvihill, M.A.; Nemeth, T.J. (Armed Forces Radiobiology Research Institute, Bethesda, MD (USA))

1989-07-01

105

Maturation of Murine Bone Marrow-Derived Dendritic Cells Induced by Radix Glycyrrhizae Polysaccharide  

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Full Text Available Radix Glycyrrhizae polysaccharide (GP, the most important component of Radix Glycyrrhizae, has been reported to have many immunopharmacological activities. However, the mechanism by which GP affects dendritic cells (DCs has not been elucidated. In this study, we investigated the effect of GP on murine bone marrow-derived DCs and the potential pathway through which GP exerts this effect. Mononuclear cells (MNCs were isolated from murine bone marrow and induced to become DCs by culturing with GM-CSF and IL-4. Six days later, DCs were divided into three groups: control group, GP group and LPS group. After 48 h of treatment, phenotypic figures and antigen uptake ability were determined by FACS analysis. The proliferation of DC-stimulated allogenic CD3+ T cells was detected by WST-1. IL-12 p70 and IFN-?, which are secreted by DCs and CD3+ T cells respectively, were quantified by ELISA. Additionally, IL-12 p40 mRNA expression was determined by real-time PCR. Alterations in TLR4-related signaling pathways were examined by performing an antibody neutralization experiment. Treatment of DCs with GP resulted in the enhanced expression of the cell surface molecules CD80, CD86 and MHC I-A/I-E. GP also increased the production of IL-12 p70 by DCs in a time-dependent manner. The endocytosis of FITC-dextran by DCs was suppressed by GP administration. Furthermore, GP-treated DCs enhanced both the proliferation and IFN-? secretion of allogenic CD3+ T cells. Finally, the effects of GP on DCs were partially reduced by using inhibitors of TLR4, NF-?B, p38 MAPK or JNK. In conclusion, GP can induce the maturation of DCs, and does so, in part, by regulating a TLR4-related signaling pathway.

Shilin Chen

2012-05-01

106

Glia maturation factor modulates ?-amyloid-induced glial activation, inflammatory cytokine/chemokine production and neuronal damage  

Science.gov (United States)

Glia maturation factor (GMF), discovered and characterized in our laboratory, is a highly conserved protein primarily localized in mammalian central nervous system. Previously we demonstrated that GMF is required in the induced production of proinflammatory cytokines and chemokines in brain cells. We now report that ventricular infusion of human amyloid beta peptide1-42 (A?1-42) in mouse brain caused glial activation and large increases in the levels of GMF as well as induction of inflammatory cytokine/chemokine known for launching the neuro inflammatory cascade in Alzheimer’s disease (AD). To test the hypothesis that GMF is involved in the pathogenesis of AD, we infused A?1-42 in the brain of GMF-deficient (GMF-KO) mice, recently prepared in our laboratory. GMF-deficient mice showed reduced glial activation and significantly suppressed proinflammatory cytokine/chemokine production following A? infusion compared to wild type (Wt) mice. The decrease in glial activation in the GMF-KO mice is also associated with significant reduction in A? induced loss of pre-synaptic marker, synaptophysin, and post-synaptic density protein-95 (PSD 95). We also examined the potential relationship between GMF or lack of it with learning and memory using the T-maze, Y-maze, and water maze, hippocampal-dependent spatial memory tasks. Our results show that memory retention was improved in GMF-KO mice compared to Wt controls following A? infusion. Diminution of these A?1-42 effects in primary cultures of GMF-KO astrocyte and microglia were reversed by reconstituted expression of GMF. Taken together, our results indicate a novel mediatory role of GMF in neuro-inflammatory pathway of A? and its pro-inflammatory functions. PMID:18395194

Zaheer, Asgar; Zaheer, Smita; Thangavel, Ramasamy; Wu, Yanghong; Sahu, Shailendra K.; Yang, Baoli

2008-01-01

107

Glia maturation factor modulates beta-amyloid-induced glial activation, inflammatory cytokine/chemokine production and neuronal damage.  

Science.gov (United States)

Glia maturation factor (GMF), discovered and characterized in our laboratory, is a highly conserved protein primarily localized in mammalian central nervous system. Previously we demonstrated that GMF is required in the induced production of proinflammatory cytokines and chemokines in brain cells. We now report that ventricular infusion of human amyloid beta peptide1-42 (Abeta1-42) in mouse brain caused glial activation and large increases in the levels of GMF as well as induction of inflammatory cytokine/chemokine known for launching the neuro inflammatory cascade in Alzheimer's disease (AD). To test the hypothesis that GMF is involved in the pathogenesis of AD, we infused Abeta1-42 in the brain of GMF-deficient (GMF-KO) mice, recently prepared in our laboratory. GMF-deficient mice showed reduced glial activation and significantly suppressed proinflammatory cytokine/chemokine production following Abeta infusion compared to wild type (Wt) mice. The decrease in glial activation in the GMF-KO mice is also associated with significant reduction in Abeta induced loss of pre-synaptic marker, synaptophysin, and post-synaptic density protein-95 (PSD 95). We also examined the potential relationship between GMF or lack of it with learning and memory using the T-maze, Y-maze, and water maze, hippocampal-dependent spatial memory tasks. Our results show that memory retention was improved in GMF-KO mice compared to Wt controls following Abeta infusion. Diminution of these Abeta1-42 effects in primary cultures of GMF-KO astrocyte and microglia were reversed by reconstituted expression of GMF. Taken together, our results indicate a novel mediatory role of GMF in the neuro-inflammatory pathway of Abeta and its pro-inflammatory functions. PMID:18395194

Zaheer, Asgar; Zaheer, Smita; Thangavel, Ramasamy; Wu, Yanghong; Sahu, Shailendra K; Yang, Baoli

2008-05-01

108

Maturation of human dendritic cells by monocyte-conditioned medium is dependent upon trace amounts of lipopolysaccharide inducing tumour necrosis factor alpha  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

We investigated the ability of monocyte-conditioned medium (MCM), generated by monocytes cultured on plastic-immobilised immunoglobulin, to stimulate maturation of human monocyte-derived dendritic cells (DC). Earlier reports suggest that MCM is a strong inducer of irreversible DC maturation, whereas we find, that adding a small amount of lipopolysaccharide (LPS) to the MCM-generating cultures is required for the production of a DC-stimulatory MCM. Moreover, compared with addition of LPS directly to the DC cultures, stimulation via MCM cultures increases by several fold the DC-stimulatory potency of LPS. Maturation by this procedure is mediated mainly by tumour necrosis factor alpha secreted from monocytes during the medium-conditioning period.

Nersting, Jacob; Svenson, Morten

2003-01-01

109

Polyamine-induced modulation of genes involved in ethylene biosynthesis and signalling pathways and nitric oxide production during olive mature fruit abscission.  

Science.gov (United States)

After fruit ripening, many fruit-tree species undergo massive natural fruit abscission. Olive (Olea europaea L.) is a stone-fruit with cultivars such as Picual (PIC) and Arbequina (ARB) which differ in mature fruit abscission potential. Ethylene (ET) is associated with abscission, but its role during mature fruit abscission remains largely uncharacterized. The present study investigates the possible roles of ET and polyamine (PA) during mature fruit abscission by modulating genes involved in the ET signalling and biosynthesis pathways in the abscission zone (AZ) of both cultivars. Five ET-related genes (OeACS2, OeACO2, OeCTR1, OeERS1, and OeEIL2) were isolated in the AZ and adjacent cells (AZ-AC), and their expression in various olive organs and during mature fruit abscission, in relation to interactions between ET and PA and the expression induction of these genes, was determined. OeACS2, OeACO2, and OeEIL2 were found to be the only genes that were up-regulated in association with mature fruit abscission. Using the inhibition of ET and PA biosynthesis, it is demonstrated that OeACS2 and OeEIL2 expression are under the negative control of PA while ET induces their expression in AZ-AC. Furthermore, mature fruit abscission depressed nitric oxide (NO) production present mainly in the epidermal cells and xylem of the AZ. Also, NO production was differentially responsive to ET, PA, and different inhibitors. Taken together, the results indicate that PA-dependent ET signalling and biosynthesis pathways participate, at least partially, during mature fruit abscission, and that endogenous NO and 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid maintain an inverse correlation, suggesting an antagonistic action of NO and ET in abscission signalling. PMID:21633085

Parra-Lobato, Maria C; Gomez-Jimenez, Maria C

2011-08-01

110

Mycobacterium abscessus MAB2560 induces maturation of dendritic cells via Toll-like receptor 4 and drives Th1 immune response  

Science.gov (United States)

In this study, we showed that Mycobacterium abscessus MAB2560 induces the maturation of dendritic cells (DCs), which are representative antigen-presenting cells (APCs). M. abscessus MAB2560 stimulate the production of pro-inflammatory cytokines [interleukin (IL)-6, tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-?, IL-1?, and IL-12p70] and reduce the endocytic capacity and maturation of DCs. Using TLR4-/- DCs, we found that MAB2560 mediated DC maturation via Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4). MAB2560 also activated the MAPK signaling pathway, which was essential for DC maturation. Furthermore, MAB2560-treated DCs induced the transformation of naïve T cells to polarized CD4+ and CD8+ T cells, which would be crucial for Th1 polarization of the immune response. Taken together, our results indicate that MAB2560 could potentially regulate the host immune response to M. abscessus and may have critical implications for the manipulation of DC functions for developing DC-based immunotherapy. [BMB Reports 2014;47(9): 512-517] PMID:24667171

Lee, Su Jung; Shin, Sung Jae; Lee, Seung Jun; Lee, Moon Hee; Kang, Tae Heung; Noh, Kyung Tae; Shin, Yong Kyoo; Kim, Han Wool; Yun, Cheol-Heui; Jung, In Duk; Park, Yeong-Min

2014-01-01

111

Mycobacterium abscessus MAB2560 induces maturation of dendritic cells via Toll-like receptor 4 and drives Th1 immune response.  

Science.gov (United States)

In this study, we showed that Mycobacterium abscessus MAB2560 induces the maturation of dendritic cells (DCs), which are representative antigen-presenting cells (APCs). M. abscessus MAB2560 stimulate the production of pro-inflammatory cytokines [interleukin (IL)-6, tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-?, IL-1?, and IL-12p70] and reduce the endocytic capacity and maturation of DCs. Using TLR4-/- DCs, we found that MAB2560 mediated DC maturation via Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4). MAB2560 also activated the MAPK signaling pathway, which was essential for DC maturation. Furthermore, MAB2560- treated DCs induced the transformation of naïve T cells to polarized CD4+ and CD8+ T cells, which would be crucial for Th1 polarization of the immune response. Taken together, our results indicate that MAB2560 could potentially regulate the host immune response to M. abscessus and may have critical implications for the manipulation of DC functions for developing DC-based immunotherapy. [BMB Reports 2014; 47(9): 512-517]. PMID:24667171

Lee, Su Jung; Shin, Sung Jae; Lee, Seung Jun; Lee, Moon Hee; Kang, Tae Heung; Noh, Kyung Tae; Shin, Yong Kyoo; Kim, Han Wool; Yun, Cheol-Heui; Jung, In Duk; Park, Yeong-Min

2014-09-01

112

Anencephaly with incomplete twinning (diprosopus).  

Science.gov (United States)

A case of diprosopus with anencephaly is presented. It is suggested that such concurrence of neural tube defects and incomplete twinning corroborates the notion that a single pathogenetic mechanism may be common to both neural tube defects and monozygotic twinning. PMID:563109

Riccardi, V M; Bergmann, C A

1977-10-01

113

Induced formation and maturation of acetylcholine receptor clusters in a defined 3D bio-artificial muscle.  

Science.gov (United States)

Dysfunction of the neuromuscular junction is involved in a wide range of muscular diseases. The development of neuromuscular junction through which skeletal muscle is innervated requires the functional modulation of acetylcholine receptor (AchR) clustering on myofibers. However, studies on AchR clustering in vitro are mostly done on monolayer muscle cell culture, which lacks a three-dimensional (3D) structure, a prominent limitation of the two-dimensional (2D) system. To enable a better understanding on the structure-function correlation underlying skeletal muscle innervation, a muscle system with a well-defined geometry mimicking the in vivo muscular setting is needed. Here, we report a 3D bio-artificial muscle (BAM) bioengineered from green fluorescent protein-transduced C3H murine myoblasts as a novel in vitro tissue-based model for muscle innervation studies. Our cell biological and molecular analysis showed that this BAM is structurally similar to in vivo muscle tissue and can reach the perinatal differentiation stage, higher than does 2D culture. Effective clustering and morphological maturation of AchRs on BAMs induced by agrin and laminin indicate the functional activity and plasticity of this BAM system toward innervation. Taken together, our results show that the BAM provides a favorable 3D environment that at least partially recapitulates real physiological skeletal muscle with regard to innervation. With a convenience of fabrication and manipulation, this 3D in vitro system offers a novel model for studying mechanisms underlying skeletal muscle innervation and testing therapeutic strategies for relevant nervous and muscular diseases. PMID:23371342

Wang, Lin; Shansky, Janet; Vandenburgh, Herman

2013-12-01

114

Progressive behavioral changes during the maturation of rats with early radiation-induced hypoplasia of fascia dentata granule cells  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

diation exposure produced locomotor hyperactivity in young rats. While activity levels of controls remained fairly stable throughout the course of the experiment, the hyperactivity of the irradiated animals decreased significantly as they matured

115

The intradermal leishmanin reaction induces antigen-specific maturation of canine dendritic cells with up-regulation of MHCII synthesis and expression  

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Dendritic cells (DCs) are professional antigen-presenting cells that reside in many tissues, including the skin. This study showed that intradermal injection of leishmanin in Leishmania infantum-infected dogs induced the "up-regulation'' of surface MHCII expression, associated with progressive ultrastrucutural changes characteristic of DC maturation, including the formation of multilaminar MHC class II-containing compartments and arrays of tubulo-vesicular structures. These changes were not o...

Ferroglio, Ezio

2006-01-01

116

Microfilament-mediated surface change in starfish oocytes in response to 1-methyladenine: implications for identifying the pathway and receptor sites for maturation-inducing hormones  

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Oocytes of the starfish Pisaster ochraceus exhibit an early response to 1-methyladenine (the maturation-inducing hormone), which is described for the first time. In this response approximately 6,500 spikelike surface projections, much larger than microvilli, emerge transiently from oocytes stripped of their follicle cells and then treated with the hormone in vitro. Each spike contains a prominent bundle of microfilaments, possibly composed of actin. The distribution of spikes when follicle ce...

1981-01-01

117

Influenza Virus–induced Dendritic Cell Maturation Is Associated with the Induction of Strong T Cell Immunity to a Coadministered, Normally Nonimmunogenic Protein  

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We evaluated the proposal that during microbial infection, dendritic cells (DCs) undergo maturation and present a mixture of peptides derived from the microbe as well as harmless environmental antigens. Mice were exposed to an aerosol of endotoxin free ovalbumin (OVA) in the absence or presence of influenza virus. In its absence, OVA failed to induce B and T cell responses and even tolerized, but with influenza, OVA-specific antibodies and CD8+ cytolytic T lymphocytes developed. With or witho...

Brimnes, Marie K.; Bonifaz, Laura; Steinman, Ralph M.; Moran, Thomas M.

2003-01-01

118

Lycium barbarum polysaccharides induce Toll-like receptor 2- and 4-mediated phenotypic and functional maturation of murine dendritic cells via activation of NF-?B.  

Science.gov (United States)

Dendritic cells (DCs) are potent antigen?presenting cells that play pivotal roles in the initiation of primary immune responses. Lycium barbarum polysaccharides (LBPs) are known to have a variety of immunomodulatory functions. However, the cellular and molecular mechanisms underlying their therapeutic effects are poorly understood. In this study, we report that LBPs induce phenotypic and functional maturation of DCs. LBPs upregulated DC expression of I?A/I?E and CD11c, enhanced DC allostimulatory activity and induced IL?12p40 production. Furthermore, the activity of LBPs on DCs was significantly reduced by treating the cells with anti?TLR2 or anti?TLR4 antibody prior to LBPs, indicating that both are possible receptors of LBPs. Maturation of DCs by LBPs was able to directly activate the nuclear transcription factor NF??B p65. The results revealed that LBP stimulation induces the phenotypic and functional maturation of DCs via TLR2- and/or TLR4-mediated NF??B signaling pathways. PMID:23904044

Zhu, Jie; Zhang, Yuanyuan; Shen, Yueshuang; Zhou, Huanqin; Yu, Xiaomei

2013-10-01

119

Incomplete intestinal absorption of fructose.  

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Intestinal D-fructose absorption in 31 children was investigated using measurements of breath hydrogen. Twenty five children had no abdominal symptoms and six had functional bowel disorders. After ingestion of fructose (2 g/kg bodyweight), 22 children (71%) showed a breath hydrogen increase of more than 10 ppm over basal values, indicating incomplete absorption: the increase averaged 53 ppm, range 12 to 250 ppm. Four of these children experienced abdominal symptoms. Three of the six children ...

Kneepkens, C. M.; Vonk, R. J.; Fernandes, J.

1984-01-01

120

Bilateral incomplete superficial palmar arch  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available A rare variation of bilateral incomplete palmar arch was observed during routine dissection of a cadaver. Ulnar arteries gave rise to two common palmar digital arteries supplying the ring and little fingers and one proper palmar digital artery, which supplied ulnar side of little finger. Radial artery gave rise to two common palmar digital arteries that supplied the remaining fingers. Right side also had a palmar carpal branch from deep palmar arch.

Lakshmiprabha R

2009-08-01

 
 
 
 
121

GnRH agonist to induce oocyte maturation during IVF in patients at high risk of OHSS.  

Science.gov (United States)

The aim of this retrospective study was to evaluate the effectiveness of gonadotrophin-releasing hormone agonist (GnRHa) to trigger oocyte maturation in patients with polycystic ovarian syndrome (PCOS) or previous high response. The outcome of ovarian stimulation and IVF in patients using GnRHa to trigger oocyte maturation after co-treatment with GnRH antagonist (study group) was compared with patients using human chorionic gonadotrophin (HCG) to trigger oocyte maturation after a dual pituitary suppression protocol with oral contraceptive pill (OCP) and GnRHa overlap (control group). All patients received intramuscular progesterone for luteal support but patients in the study group received additional supplementation with oestradiol patches. The mean number of oocytes, proportion of mature oocytes and fertilization rate were similar between the study and control groups. Implantation rate (38.6% versus 45.1%), clinical pregnancy rate (69.6% versus 60.9%) and delivery rate (62.5% versus 56.5%) were similar in the study and control groups respectively. There was one case of moderate ovarian hyperstimulation syndrome (OHSS) in the control group and none in the study group. GnRHa is effective in triggering oocyte maturation in patients with PCOS or previous high response. Further randomized studies are required to evaluate its effectiveness in the prevention of OHSS in this group of patients. PMID:17169172

Engmann, L; Siano, L; Schmidt, D; Nulsen, J; Maier, D; Benadiva, C

2006-11-01

122

Dynamic feedback circuits function as a switch for shaping a maturation-inducing steroid pulse in Drosophila  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Steroid hormones trigger the onset of sexual maturation in animals by initiating genetic response programs that are determined by steroid pulse frequency, amplitude and duration. Although steroid pulses coordinate growth and timing of maturation during development, the mechanisms generating these pulses are not known. Here we show that the ecdysone steroid pulse that drives the juvenile-adult transition in Drosophila is determined by feedback circuits in the prothoracic gland (PG), the major steroid-producing tissue of insect larvae. These circuits coordinate the activation and repression of hormone synthesis, the two key parameters determining pulse shape (amplitude and duration). We show that ecdysone has a positive-feedback effect on the PG, rapidly amplifying its own synthesis to trigger pupariation as the onset of maturation. During the prepupal stage, a negative-feedback signal ensures the decline in ecdysone levels required to produce a temporal steroid pulse that drives developmental progression to adulthood. The feedback circuits rely on a developmental switch in the expression of Broad isoforms that transcriptionally activate or silence components in the ecdysone biosynthetic pathway. Remarkably, our study shows that the same well-defined genetic program that stimulates a systemic downstream response to ecdysone is also utilized upstream to set the duration and amplitude of the ecdysone pulse. Activation of this switch-like mechanism ensures a rapid, self-limiting PG response that functions in producing steroid oscillations that can guide the decision to terminate growth and promote maturation.

MØller, Morten Erik; Danielsen, Erik Thomas

2013-01-01

123

Mature B cells are critical to T-cell-mediated tumor immunity induced by an agonist anti-GITR monoclonal antibody.  

Science.gov (United States)

An agonistic antibody DTA-1, to glucocorticoid-induced TNFR-related protein (GITR), induces T-cell activation and antitumor immunity. CD4(+) effector T cells are essential in initiating GITR-induced immune activation, and the sequentially activated cytolytic CD8(+) T cells are sufficient to induce tumor rejection. Administration of DTA-1 to a tumor-bearing mouse also induces B-cell activation illustrated by CD69 expression. Substantial evidence suggests that resting B cells are tumor promoting, which has prompted the idea of B-cell depletion by Rituximab, to be combined with other agents in the clinic to augment antitumor response. In this study, we have found that mature B cells are needed for the mechanism of anti-GITR agonist to kill tumors. The treatment of GITR agonist induces profound B-cell activation, differentiation, and antibody production. In a mature B-cell-deficient mouse (JHD), DTA-1 fails to induce tumor regression with a reduced early activation of CD4(+) and CD8(+) T cells. B-cell deficiency disables the capability of the DTA-1 in generating cytolytic CD8(+) T cells and significantly reduces the cytokine production in tumor bearing mice. The tumor-killing activities of DTA-1 are still present albeit reduced in the CD40(-/-) mice, in which IgG production is impaired. We have also shown that the dependence on B cells to kill tumors differentiates GITR costimulation from CTLA4 blockade and OX40 agonism in tumor immunotherapy. The findings underscore the reciprocal T-cell-B-cell interaction to enhance antitumor immunity upon GITR costimulation. The results provide the insight that attenuating B-cell functions may not be beneficial in cancer immunotherapy based on GITR agonism. PMID:20842058

Zhou, Pengfei; Qiu, Junzhuan; L'Italien, Lawrence; Gu, Danling; Hodges, Douglas; Chao, Cheng-Chi; Schebye, Xiao Min

2010-10-01

124

Utility maximization in incomplete markets  

CERN Document Server

We consider the problem of utility maximization for small traders on incomplete financial markets. As opposed to most of the papers dealing with this subject, the investors' trading strategies we allow underly constraints described by closed, but not necessarily convex, sets. The final wealths obtained by trading under these constraints are identified as stochastic processes which usually are supermartingales, and even martingales for particular strategies. These strategies are seen to be optimal, and the corresponding value functions determined simply by the initial values of the supermartingales. We separately treat the cases of exponential, power and logarithmic utility.

Hu, Y; Müller, M; Hu, Ying; Imkeller, Peter; Muller, Matthias

2005-01-01

125

Reconstruction tomography from incomplete projections  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In some instances, reconstruction radionuclide tomography must be carried out from projections that do not include projection values for all portions of the object to be reconstructed. This may occur, for example, when the field of view of the detector is limited, or when an opaque foreign body is present within the object. The effects of such incomplete projections upon reconstructions of computer-simulated phantoms were studied, using iterative and convolution methods. Several methods for reducing the resulting artifacts and inaccuracies are discussed

126

Alcohol-induced decrease in muscle protein synthesis associated with increased binding of mTOR and raptor: Comparable effects in young and mature rats  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background Acute alcohol (EtOH intoxication decreases muscle protein synthesis via inhibition of mTOR-dependent translation initiation. However, these studies have been performed in relatively young rapidly growing rats in which muscle protein accretion is more sensitive to growth factor and nutrient stimulation. Furthermore, some in vivo-produced effects of EtOH vary in an age-dependent manner. The hypothesis tested in the present study was that young rats will show a more pronounced decrement in muscle protein synthesis than older mature rats in response to acute EtOH intoxication. Methods Male F344 rats were studied at approximately 3 (young or 12 (mature months of age. Young rats were injected intraperitoneally with 75 mmol/kg of EtOH, and mature rats injected with either 75 or 90 mmol/kg EtOH. Time-matched saline-injected control rats were included for both age groups. Gastrocnemius protein synthesis and the activity of the mTOR pathway were assessed 2.5 h after EtOH using [3H]-labeled phenylalanine and the phosphorylation of various protein factors known to regulate peptide-chain initiation. Results Blood alcohol levels (BALs were lower in mature rats compared to young rats after administration of 75 mmol/kg EtOH (154 ± 23 vs 265 ± 24 mg/dL. However, injection of 90 mmol/kg EtOH in mature rats produced BALs comparable to that of young rats (281 ± 33 mg/dL. EtOH decreased muscle protein synthesis similarly in both young and high-dose EtOH-treated mature rats. The EtOH-induced changes in both groups were associated with a concomitant reduction in 4E-BP1 phosphorylation, and redistribution of eIF4E between the active eIF4E·eIF4G and inactive eIF4E·4EBP1 complex. Moreover, EtOH increased the binding of mTOR with raptor in a manner which appeared to be AMPK- and TSC-independent. In contrast, although muscle protein synthesis was unchanged in mature rats given low-dose EtOH, compared to control values, the phosphorylation of rpS6 and eIF4G was decreased. Conclusion These data indicate that muscle protein synthesis is equally sensitive to the inhibitory effects of EtOH in young rapidly growing rats and older mature rats which are growing more slowly, but that mature rats must be given a relatively larger dose of EtOH to achieve the same BAL. Based on the differential response in mature rats to low- and high-dose EtOH, the decreased protein synthesis was associated with a reduction in mTOR activity which was selectively mediated via a reduction in 4E-BP1 phosphorylation and an increase in mTOR·raptor formation.

Vary Thomas C

2009-01-01

127

A relaxin-like peptide purified from radial nerves induces oocyte maturation and ovulation in the starfish, Asterina pectinifera  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Gonad-stimulating substance (GSS) of starfish is the only known invertebrate peptide hormone responsible for final gamete maturation, rendering it functionally analogous to the vertebrate luteinizing hormone (LH). Here, we purified GSS of starfish, Asterina pectinifera, from radial nerves and determined its amino acid sequence. The purified GSS was a heterodimer composed of 2 different peptides, A and B chains, with disulfide cross-linkages. Based on its cysteine motif, starfish GSS was class...

Mita, Masatoshi; Yoshikuni, Michiyasu; Ohno, Kaoru; Shibata, Yasushi; Paul-prasanth, Bindhu; Pitchayawasin, Suthasinee; Isobe, Minoru; Nagahama, Yoshitaka

2009-01-01

128

ENAM Mutations with Incomplete Penetrance.  

Science.gov (United States)

Amelogenesis imperfecta (AI) is a genetic disease affecting tooth enamel formation. AI can be an isolated entity or a phenotype of syndromes. To date, more than 10 genes have been associated with various forms of AI. We have identified 2 unrelated Turkish families with hypoplastic AI and performed mutational analysis. Whole-exome sequencing identified 2 novel heterozygous nonsense mutations in the ENAM gene (c.454G>T p.Glu152* in family 1, c.358C>T p.Gln120* in family 2) in the probands. Affected individuals were heterozygous for the mutation in each family. Segregation analysis within each family revealed individuals with incomplete penetrance or extremely mild enamel phenotype, in spite of having the same mutation with the other affected individuals. We believe that these findings will broaden our understanding of the clinical phenotype of AI caused by ENAM mutations. PMID:25143514

Seymen, F; Lee, K-E; Koruyucu, M; Gencay, K; Bayram, M; Tuna, E B; Lee, Z H; Kim, J-W

2014-10-01

129

An Incomplete Definition of Reality  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available A reality may be defined incompletely as a perpetuating pattern of relations. This definition denies the name of reality to an utter and totalistic patternlessness, like a primal patternless stuff, because a patternless all-ness would be indistinguishable from a patternless nothingness. If reality began from a chaos or patternless stuff, it became a reality only when it became patterned. If there are orders of reality with perpetuating relations between them, as in Cartesian interactive substance dualism, the definition allows us to say that these orders belong to a common reality by virtue of those relations. However, the definition is silent on the question of whether reality is ultimately pluralistic. Some suggestions are made about the possibility of stuffless patterns, including those of the physical world, but the definition is not dependent on the possibility of stufflessness.

Boris DeWiel

2013-07-01

130

The Incomplete Fusion reaction modeling  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

We would like to present a new model describing the dynamics of the Incomplete fusion reaction. Calculated mass distributions as well as alpha particle spectra will be compared to the set of experimental data. Our model is a development of Sum Rule Model. It is based on an assumption that incomplete fusion (ICF) is a two stage process. In the first stage, the projectile breaks apart when colliding with the target. In the second stage the projectile residue fuses with the target while the rest escapes in some effective potential. The escaping ('projectile like') fragment is emitted in forward angles, usually observed at ?51V+97Mo reaction at energy of 4.5 AMeV of 51V, measured with the ?-detector array GASP, have been compared to the predictions of our model. We would like to present the basics of the model as well as its software implementation - the COMPA code. It works in event by event mode, gives a complete information on the reaction products: the entry state spin and energy distribution, reaction point coordinates, directions and velocities of the recoil and emitted light particles. The stopping of the reaction products in the passive elements of the setup, like support, target and backing, is taken into account. This way the COMPA allows for easy comparison with the experimental results. Simulated ? particle spectra will be compared to the experimental data in approx.10 AMeV region for the reactions 12C+160Gd and 12C+51V as well as 20Ne+122Sn, studied with the new EAGLE array recently put into operation at Heavy Ion Laboratory of the University of Warsaw

131

Bone-like mineral nucleating peptide nanofibers induce differentiation of human mesenchymal stem cells into mature osteoblasts.  

Science.gov (United States)

A bone implant should integrate to the tissue through a bone-like mineralized interface, which requires increased osteoblast activity at the implant-tissue boundary. Modification of the implant surface with synthetic bioinstructive cues facilitates on-site differentiation of progenitor stem cells to functional mature osteoblasts and results in subsequent mineralization. Inspired by the bioactive domains of the bone extracellular matrix proteins and the mussel adhesive proteins, we synthesized peptide nanofibers to promote bone-like mineralization on the implant surface. Nanofibers functionalized with osteoinductive collagen I derived Asp-Gly-Glu-Ala (DGEA) peptide sequence provide an advantage in initial adhesion, spreading, and early commitment to osteogenic differentiation for mesenchymal stem cells (hMSCs). In this study, we demonstrated that this early osteogenic commitment, however, does not necessarily guarantee a priority for maturation into functional osteoblasts. Similar to natural biological cascades, early commitment should be further supported with additional signals to provide a long-term effect on differentiation. Here, we showed that peptide nanofibers functionalized with Glu-Glu-Glu (EEE) sequence enhanced mineralization abilities due to osteoinductive properties for late-stage differentiation of hMSCs. Mussel-inspired functionalization not only enables robust immobilization on metal surfaces, but also improves bone-like mineralization under physiologically simulated conditions. The multifunctional osteoinductive peptide nanofiber biointerfaces presented here facilitate osseointegration for long-term clinical stability. PMID:24878392

Ceylan, Hakan; Kocabey, Samet; Unal Gulsuner, Hilal; Balcik, Ozlem S; Guler, Mustafa O; Tekinay, Ayse B

2014-07-14

132

Transferrin receptor number, synthesis, and endocytosis during erythropoietin-induced maturation of Friend virus-infected erythroid cells  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Erythropoietin (EP) responsive Friend virus-infected erythroid cells had 200,000 steady-state binding sites for transferrin at 370C when isolated from the spleens of Friend virus-infected mice. Upon culture of these cells with EP, the synthesis of transferrin receptors increased 4- to 7-fold and the number of transferrin-binding sites per cell doubled after 24 h. However, the rate of uptake of 59Fe from transferrin remained constant at approximately 35,000 atoms of 59Fe per minute per cell during this period in culture. The amount of 125I-transferrin internalized during the steady-state binding did not change during this culture period while the transferrin bound to the surface increased 3-fold. At all stages of erythroid maturation, the maximum rate of endocytosis was determined to be 18,000 molecules of transferrin per minute per cell, and the interval that 125I-transferrin remains in the interior of the cell was calculated to be 6.9 min. After 48 h of culture with EP, the number of steady-state transferrin-binding sites was reduced in part due to the sequestration of surface receptors within the cell. The uptake of iron from transferrin was limited by the level of endocytosis of transferrin during the initial phase of culture and the number of transferrin receptors at the cell surface during the latter stages of erythroid maturation of these cells

133

LA GLOBALIZACIÓN INCOMPLETA / INCOMPLETE GLOBALIZATION  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Colombia | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish El objetivo de este artículo es analizar el proceso de globalización, sus determinantes y los factores que limitan sus alcances. Metodológicamente, el trabajo se basa en una exhaustiva revisión documental crítica sobre el tema, complementada con el análisis de indicadores macroeconómicos de diferent [...] es países. Los resultados muestran la creciente desigualdad económica y social entre las regiones, en el marco de un proceso globalizador basado en un patrón de acumulación capitalista, que tiende a profundizar esos desequilibrios. La globalización se caracteriza como incompleta, por el despliegue limitado de su potencial para lograr una distribución más equitativa y sustentable no solo en lo económico, sino también en las esferas científica, tecnológica, ambiental, política y social. Abstract in english The aim of this document is to analyze the process of globa-lization, its determinants and the factors limiting its scope. Methodologically, the work is based on a comprehensive critical literature review on the subject, supplemented with the analysis of macroeconomic indicators in different countri [...] es. The results show the growing economic and social inequality between regions, as part of a process of globalization based on a pattern of capitalist accumulation, which tends to exacerbate these imbalances. Glo-balization is characterized as incomplete, because of the limited deployment potential to achieve a more equitable and sustainable development, not only economically, but also in scientific, tech-nological, environmental, political and social issues.

Alberto, Romero; Mary A, Vera-Colina.

2014-01-01

134

LA GLOBALIZACIÓN INCOMPLETA / INCOMPLETE GLOBALIZATION  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Colombia | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish El objetivo de este artículo es analizar el proceso de globalización, sus determinantes y los factores que limitan sus alcances. Metodológicamente, el trabajo se basa en una exhaustiva revisión documental crítica sobre el tema, complementada con el análisis de indicadores macroeconómicos de diferent [...] es países. Los resultados muestran la creciente desigualdad económica y social entre las regiones, en el marco de un proceso globalizador basado en un patrón de acumulación capitalista, que tiende a profundizar esos desequilibrios. La globalización se caracteriza como incompleta, por el despliegue limitado de su potencial para lograr una distribución más equitativa y sustentable no solo en lo económico, sino también en las esferas científica, tecnológica, ambiental, política y social. Abstract in english The aim of this document is to analyze the process of globa-lization, its determinants and the factors limiting its scope. Methodologically, the work is based on a comprehensive critical literature review on the subject, supplemented with the analysis of macroeconomic indicators in different countri [...] es. The results show the growing economic and social inequality between regions, as part of a process of globalization based on a pattern of capitalist accumulation, which tends to exacerbate these imbalances. Glo-balization is characterized as incomplete, because of the limited deployment potential to achieve a more equitable and sustainable development, not only economically, but also in scientific, tech-nological, environmental, political and social issues.

Alberto, Romero; Mary A, Vera-Colina.

135

Voluntary exercise followed by chronic stress strikingly increases mature adult-born hippocampal neurons and prevents stress-induced deficits in 'what-when-where' memory.  

Science.gov (United States)

We investigated whether voluntary exercise prevents the deleterious effects of chronic stress on episodic-like memory and adult hippocampal neurogenesis. After bromodeoxyuridine (BrdU) administration, mice were assigned to receive standard housing, chronic intermittent restraint stress, voluntary exercise or a combination of both (stress starting on the seventh day of exercise). Twenty-four days later, mice were tested in a 'what-when-where' object recognition memory task. Adult hippocampal neurogenesis (proliferation, differentiation, survival and apoptosis) and c-Fos expression in the hippocampus and extra-hippocampal areas (medial prefrontal cortex, amygdala, paraventricular hypothalamic nucleus, accumbens and perirhinal cortex) were assessed after behavior. Chronic intermittent restraint stress impaired neurogenesis and the 'when' memory, while exercise promoted neurogenesis and improved the 'where' memory. The 'when' and 'where' memories correlated with c-Fos expression in CA1 and the dentate gyrus, respectively. Furthermore, analysis suggested that each treatment induced a distinct pattern of functional connectivity among the areas analyzed for c-Fos. In the animals in which stress and exercise were combined, stress notably reduced the amount of voluntary exercise performed. Nevertheless, exercise still improved memory and counteracted the stress induced-deficits in neurogenesis and behavior. Interestingly, compared with the other three treatments, the stressed exercising animals showed a larger increase in cell survival, the maturation of new neurons and apoptosis in the dentate gyrus, with a considerable increase in the number of 24-day-old BrdU+cells that differentiated into mature neurons. The interaction between exercise and stress in enhancing the number of adult-born hippocampal neurons supports a role of exercise-induced neurogenesis in stressful conditions. PMID:24333647

Castilla-Ortega, Estela; Rosell-Valle, Cristina; Pedraza, Carmen; Rodríguez de Fonseca, Fernando; Estivill-Torrús, Guillermo; Santín, Luis J

2014-03-01

136

Domoic Acid-Induced Neurotoxicity Is Mainly Mediated by the AMPA/KA Receptor: Comparison between Immature and Mature Primary Cultures of Neurons and Glial Cells from Rat Cerebellum.  

Science.gov (United States)

Domoic acid (DomA) is a naturally occurring shellfish toxin that can induce brain damage in mammalians. Neonates have shown increased sensitivity to DomA-induced toxicity, and prenatal exposure has been associated with e.g. decreased brain GABA levels, and increased glutamate levels. Here, we evaluated DomA-induced toxicity in immature and mature primary cultures of neurons and glial cells from rat cerebellum by measuring the mRNA levels of selected genes. Moreover, we assessed if the induced toxicity was mediated by the activation of the AMPA/KA and/or the NMDA receptor. The expression of all studied neuronal markers was affected after DomA exposure in both immature and mature cultures. However, the mature cultures seemed to be more sensitive to the treatment, as the effects were observed at lower concentrations and at earlier time points than for the immature cultures. The DomA effects were completely prevented by the antagonist of the AMPA/KA receptor (NBQX), while the antagonist of the NMDA receptor (APV) partly blocked the DomA-induced effects. Interestingly, the DomA-induced effect was also partly prevented by the neurotransmitter GABA. DomA exposure also affected the mRNA levels of the astrocytic markers in mature cultures. These DomA-induced effects were reduced by the addition of NBQX, APV, and GABA. PMID:22135676

Hogberg, Helena T; Bal-Price, Anna K

2011-01-01

137

Expression of FLOWERING LOCUS T from Arabidopsis thaliana induces precocious flowering in soybean irrespective of maturity group and stem growth habit.  

Science.gov (United States)

The flowering integrator gene FLOWERING LOCUS T (FT) in Arabidopsis thaliana is conserved between diverse plant species and is thought to be the flowering signal ''florigen'', a universal long-distance mobile signal. In soybean, two FT homologs having a function to induce flowering in Arabidopsis have been identified. In this study, we showed that the expression of FT from Arabidopsis by the Apple latent spherical virus (ALSV) vector promoted precocious flowering and terminated vegetative growth in a wide range of genotypes of soybean, without using a short-day treatment. Four determinate and two indeterminate cultivars, infected with ALSV expressing FT (FT-ALSV), set flower buds on shoot apices and terminated vegetative growth at the fourth- to seventh-node stages under long-day conditions. In contrast, non-infected, healthy plants did not set flower buds on shoot apices at the same stage under the same conditions. After flowering, soybean cultivars infected with FT-ALSV, belonging to different maturity groups and stem growth habits, matured and produced seeds. The results suggest that the basic flowering pathway controlled by FT in A. thaliana might also be conserved in soybean. A system for precocious flowering and shortening of generation time using FT-ALSV would be a useful and novel technology for efficient soybean breeding. PMID:21116647

Yamagishi, Noriko; Yoshikawa, Nobuyuki

2011-03-01

138

Down-Regulation of TLR9 Expression Affects the Maturation and Function of Murine Bone Marrow-Derived Dendritic Cells Induced by CpG  

Science.gov (United States)

Toll-like receptor 9 (TLR9) is expressed intracellularly by dendritic cells (DCs) and specifically recognizes unmethylated CpG motif. Recognition of TLR9 to CpG DNA can induce DC maturation followed by the subsequent immune responses. Here, RNA interference (RNAi) was used to identify the effect of CpG DNA signaling on DC function. The results showed that transfection of DCs with siRNA specific for TLR9 gene significantly down-regulated TLR9 expression. Immature DCs transfected with TLR9 siRNA did not differentiate into mature DCs with exposure to CpG. TLR9 siRNA-treated DCs expressed low levels of MHC II and CD40 without reducing endocytosis. Furthermore, TLR9 siRNA-transfected DCs exhibited a decreased allostimulatory capacity in a lymphocyte proliferation assay and attenuated Th1 responses by decreasing IL-12p70 production. Our findings indicate that siRNA in silencing TLR9 gene in DCs may offer a potential tool to study the TLR9-CpG pathway. PMID:19567203

Ma, Ling; Zhao, Guangfeng; Hua, Chunyan; Li, Xiaoxi; Zhao, Xiaoyin; Sun, Lingyun; Hou, Yayi

2009-01-01

139

Influence of a mouse female genotype on the incidence of dominant lethal mutations induced by ionizing radiation in mature germ cells of CBA males  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

CBA male mice were exposed to 60Co-?-rays (5.5 Gy) and mated with CBA, A/He, AKR, C57BL/6, C57BL/Mib and BALB/c females. The yield of dominant lethal mutations (DLM) induced by radiation in mature germ cells was estimated. It was established that the yield of DLM depends on the genotype of a female: a maximum yield of DLM was registered in CBA, A/He and C57BL/6 females, and a minimum yield, in C57BL/Mib females. It is assumed that different yields of DLM in females of different lines might be related to different effectiveness of repair of premutational damages to spermia chromosomes by the enzymatic systems of female gametes

140

The role of surface charge density in cationic liposome-promoted dendritic cell maturation and vaccine-induced immune responses  

Science.gov (United States)

Cationic liposomes have emerged as a novel adjuvant and antigen delivery system to enhance vaccine efficacy. However, the role of surface charge density in cationic liposome-regulated immune responses has not yet been elucidated. In the present study, we prepared a series of DOTAP/DOPC cationic liposomes with different surface densities by incorporating varying amounts of DOPC (a neutral lipid) into DOTAP (a cationic lipid). The results showed that DOTAP/DOPC cationic liposome-regulated immune responses relied on the surface charge density, and might occur through ROS signaling. The liposomes with a relatively high charge density, such as DOTAP/DOPC 5 : 0 and 4 : 1 liposomes, potently enhanced dendritic cell maturation, ROS generaion, antigen uptake, as well as the production of OVA-specific IgG2a and IFN-?. In contrast, low-charge liposomes, such as DOTAP/DOPC 1 : 4 liposome, failed to promote immune responses even at high concentrations, confirming that the immunoregulatory effect of cationic liposomes is mostly attributable to their surface charge density. Moreover, the DOTAP/DOPC 1 : 4 liposome suppressed anti-OVA antibody responses in vivo. Overall, maintaining an appropriate surface charge is crucial for optimizing the adjuvant effect of cationic liposomes and enhancing the efficacy of liposome-based vaccines.

Ma, Yifan; Zhuang, Yan; Xie, Xiaofang; Wang, Ce; Wang, Fei; Zhou, Dongmei; Zeng, Jianqiang; Cai, Lintao

2011-05-01

 
 
 
 
141

Ectopic Expression of Neurogenin 2 Alone is Sufficient to Induce Differentiation of Embryonic Stem Cells into Mature Neurons  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Recent studies show that combinations of defined key developmental transcription factors (TFs) can reprogram somatic cells to pluripotency or induce cell conversion of one somatic cell type to another. However, it is not clear if single genes can define a cell?s identity and if the cell fate defining potential of TFs is also operative in pluripotent stem cells in vitro. Here, we show that ectopic expression of the neural TF Neurogenin2 (Ngn2) is sufficient to induce rapid and efficient diffe...

Thoma, Eva C.; Wischmeyer, Erhard; Offen, Nils; Maurus, Katja; Sire?n, Anna-leena; Schartl, Manfred; Wagner, Toni U.

2012-01-01

142

Detection of radiation-induced hydrocarbons in Camembert irradiated before and after the maturing process-comparison of florisil column chromatography and on-line coupled liquid chromatography-gas chromatography  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The influence of the maturing process on the detection of radiation-induced volatile hydrocarbons in the fat of Camembert has been investigated. Two analytical methods for separation of the hydrocarbon fraction from the lipid were applied: Florisil column chromatography with subsequent gas chromatographic-mass spectrometric (GC-MS) determination as well as on-line coupled liquid chromatography-GC-MS. The maturing process had no influence on the detection of radiation-induced volatiles. Comparable results were achieved with both analytical methods. However, preference is given to the more effective on-line coupled LC-GC method

143

Sulpiride-Induced Hyperprolactinemia in Mature Female Rats: Evidence for Alterations in The Reproductive System, Pituitary and Ovarian Hormones  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Background: The prevalence of hyperprolactinemia following administration of conventional antipsychotic drugs requires further investigation. The current study is designed to evaluate the effect of sulpiride (SPD-induced hyperprolactinemia on alterations to ovarian follicular growth, gonadotropins, and ovarian hormones and to analyze the extent of potential problems in mammary glands. Materials and Methods: A total of 40 albino Wistar rats were divided into four groups: control (no treatment, control-sham (0.3 ml olive oil, low dose SPD (20 mg/kg and high dose SPD (40 mg/kg. All compounds were intraperitoneally (IP administered for a period of 28 days. Results: After 28 days, we dissected the rats’ ovarian tissues, uterine horns and mammary glands which were sent for histological analyses. We counted the numbers of normal, atretic follicles and corpora lutea (CL. Serum levels of prolactin (PRL, estradiol, progesterone, follicle stimulating hormone (FSH and luteinizing hormone (LH were evaluated. SPD-administered animals showed sporadic follicular atresia in different sizes associated with higher numbers of CL on the ovaries. The mammary glands exhibited features of galactorrhea. There was remarkable (p<0.05 elevation in SPD-administered animals’ uterine horn endometrium, myometrium and perimetrium thicknesses. The serum levels of PRL and progesterone significantly (p<0.05 increased, while the serum concentration of estradiol, LH and FSH notably (p<0.05 decreased according to the SPD administered dose. No histological and biological changes occurred in control-sham animals. SPD-induced animals had unsuccessful attempts at mating and decreased pregnancy rates. Conclusion: The present findings suggest that SPD-induced disturbances depend on PRL level. In addition, an increased PRL level is largely dependent on the administered doses of SPD.

Sara Mostafapour

2014-07-01

144

Sulpiride-Induced Hyperprolactinemia in Mature Female Rats: Evidence for Alterations in The Reproductive System, Pituitary and Ovarian Hormones  

Science.gov (United States)

Background The prevalence of hyperprolactinemia following administration of conven- tional antipsychotic drugs requires further investigation. The current study is designed to evaluate the effect of sulpiride (SPD)-induced hyperprolactinemia on alterations to ovarian follicular growth, gonadotropins, and ovarian hormones and to analyze the extent of potential problems in mammary glands. Materials and Methods A total of 40 albino Wistar rats were divided into four groups: control (no treatment), control-sham (0.3 ml olive oil), low dose SPD (20 mg/kg) and high dose SPD (40 mg/kg). All compounds were intraperitoneally (IP) administered for a period of 28 days. Results After 28 days, we dissected the rats’ ovarian tissues, uterine horns and mammary glands which were sent for histological analyses. We counted the numbers of normal, atretic follicles and corpora lutea (CL). Serum levels of prolactin (PRL), estradiol, progesterone, follicle stimulating hormone (FSH) and luteinizing hormone (LH) were evaluated. SPD-administered animals showed sporadic follicular atresia in different sizes associated with higher numbers of CL on the ovaries. The mammary glands exhibited features of galactorrhea. There was remarkable (p<0.05) elevation in SPD-administered animals’ uterine horn endometrium, myometrium and perimetrium thicknesses. The serum levels of PRL and progesterone significantly (p<0.05) increased, while the serum concentration of estradiol, LH and FSH notably (p<0.05) decreased according to the SPD administered dose. No histological and biological changes occurred in control-sham animals. SPD-induced animals had unsuccessful attempts at mating and decreased pregnancy rates. Conclusion The present findings suggest that SPD-induced disturbances depend on PRL level. In addition, an increased PRL level is largely dependent on the administered doses of SPD. PMID:25083185

Mostafapour, Sara; Zare, Samad; Sadrkhanlou, Rajab Ali; Ahmadi, Abbas; Razi, Mazdak

2014-01-01

145

Development of sensitivity to maturation-inducing steroids in the oocytes of the daily spawning teleost, the kisu Sillago japonica.  

Science.gov (United States)

The responsiveness of oocytes to 17 alpha,20 beta-dihydroxy-4-pregnen-3-one (17 alpha,20 beta-diOH-P), 17 alpha-hydroxyprogesterone (17 alpha-OH-P), and silver carp gonadotropin (GtH) was examined in vitro at seven different times of the day (0100, 0500, 0800, 1000, 1300, 1700, 2100 hr) in a daily spawning teleost, the kisu Sillago japonica. 17 alpha,20 beta-DiOH-P, 17 alpha-OH-P, and GtH were effective in inducing germinal vesicle breakdown (GVBD) and ovulation in kisu oocytes. However, the oocytes of the kisu responded to these hormones during a limited time of the day (2100-1000 hr), and their responsiveness to steroids and GtH was different with the sampling time. After a 20-hr incubation, the oocytes with yolk globules were classified into four stages based on their responses (GVBD) to GtH and steroids. Stage A, the oocytes did not respond to either GtH or steroids. These unresponsive oocytes were observed in all the ovaries examined. Stage B, GVBD could be induced by GtH but not by steroids. These oocytes were found in the ovaries collected from 2100 to 1000 hr. Stage C, GVBD could be induced by both GtH and steroids. These oocytes were found only between 0800 and 1000 hr. Stage D, oocytes spontaneously underwent GVBD without hormones. These oocytes were found between 1300 and 1700 hr. Ovulated oocytes were found in the ovaries collected during 1700-0500 hr. These results indicate that the kisu possesses a daily rhythm in oocyte development from stage A to stage D, and that the sensitivity to 17 alpha,20 beta-diOH-P appears at stage C.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:3197947

Kobayashi, M; Aida, K; Furukawa, K; Law, Y K; Moriwaki, T; Hanyu, I

1988-11-01

146

Gödel’s Incompleteness Theorems and Physics  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This paper is a summary of a lecture in which I presented some remarks on Gödel’s incompleteness theorems and their meaning for the foundations of physics. The entire lecture will appear elsewhere.

Newton C. A. da Costa

2011-12-01

147

Incomplete albinism in Discoglossus pictus (Otth, 1837  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The authors present an incomplete albinism case in a Discoglossus pictus subject found in Sicily. This is the first note for Italian territory, the second for the species and the third for Discoglossus genus.

Gianni Insacco

2010-12-01

148

Seizure induces activation of multiple subtypes of neural progenitors and growth factors in hippocampus with neuronal maturation confined to dentate gyrus  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Adult hippocampal neurogenesis is altered in response to different physiological and pathological stimuli. GFAP{sup +ve}/nestin{sup +ve} radial glial like Type-1 progenitors are considered to be the resident stem cell population in adult hippocampus. During neurogenesis these Type-1 progenitors matures to GFAP{sup -ve}/nestin{sup +ve} Type-2 progenitors and then to Type-3 neuroblasts and finally differentiates into granule cell neurons. In our study, using pilocarpine-induced seizure model, we showed that seizure initiated activation of multiple progenitors in the entire hippocampal area such as DG, CA1 and CA3. Seizure induction resulted in activation of two subtypes of Type-1 progenitors, Type-1a (GFAP{sup +ve}/nestin{sup +ve}/BrdU{sup +ve}) and Type-1b (GFAP{sup +ve}/nestin{sup +ve}/BrdU{sup -ve}). We showed that majority of Type-1b progenitors were undergoing only a transition from a state of dormancy to activated form immediately after seizures rather than proliferating, whereas Type-1a showed maximum proliferation by 3 days post-seizure induction. Type-2 (GFAP{sup -ve}/nestin{sup +ve}/BrdU{sup +ve}) progenitors were few compared to Type-1. Type-3 (DCX{sup +ve}) progenitors showed increased expression of immature neurons only in DG region by 3 days after seizure induction indicating maturation of progenitors happens only in microenvironment of DG even though progenitors are activated in CA1 and CA3 regions of hippocampus. Also parallel increase in growth factors expression after seizure induction suggests that microenvironmental niche has a profound effect on stimulation of adult neural progenitors.

Indulekha, Chandrasekharan L.; Sanalkumar, Rajendran [Neuro Stem Cell Biology Laboratory, Department of Neurobiology, Rajiv Gandhi Center for Biotechnology, Thiruvananthapuram, Kerala 695 014 (India); Thekkuveettil, Anoopkumar [Molecular Medicine, Biomedical Technology Wing, Sree Chitra Thirunal Institute for Medical Sciences and Technology, Thiruvananthapuram, Kerala (India); James, Jackson, E-mail: jjames@rgcb.res.in [Neuro Stem Cell Biology Laboratory, Department of Neurobiology, Rajiv Gandhi Center for Biotechnology, Thiruvananthapuram, Kerala 695 014 (India)

2010-03-19

149

Absence of mature microRNAs inactivates the response of gene expression to carcinogenesis induced by N-ethyl-N-nitrosourea in mouse liver.  

Science.gov (United States)

This study aims to evaluate the role of microRNAs (miRNAs) in chemical tumorigenesis by evaluating genomic gene expression in miRNA knockout mice. Previous studies showed that mice without mature miRNAs due to hepatocyte-specific Dicer1 knockout (KO) had a much higher liver tumor incidence than wild-type mice. In this study, Dicer1 KO or the wild-type mice were treated intraperitoneally with genotoxic carcinogen N-ethyl-N-nitrosourea (ENU) at a single dose (150 mg kg(-1) that resulted in liver tumorigenesis) or the vehicle at 3 weeks of age. The animals were killed 2 weeks after treatment and the liver samples were collected for the gene expression study. Principal components analysis and hierarchical cluster analysis showed that gene expression was globally altered by the Dicer1 KO and ENU exposure. There were 5621, 3286 and 2565 differentially expressed genes for Dicer1 disruption, ENU treatment in wild-type mice and ENU treatment in Dicer1 KO mice, respectively. Functional analysis of the differentially expressed genes suggests that the Dicer1 KO mouse liver lost their capability to suppress the carcinogenesis induced by ENU exposure in genomic level. In addition, the miRNA-mediated BRCA1 and P53 signaling pathways were identified as the main pathways responsible for the tumorigenesis. We conclude that the mouse livers in the absence of mature miRNAs could not appropriately respond to carcinogenic insults from ENU treatment, indicating that miRNAs play a critical role in chemical carcinogenesis. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. PMID:24478143

Luan, Yang; Qi, Xinming; Xu, Liang; Ren, Jin; Chen, Tao

2014-12-01

150

Seizure induces activation of multiple subtypes of neural progenitors and growth factors in hippocampus with neuronal maturation confined to dentate gyrus  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Adult hippocampal neurogenesis is altered in response to different physiological and pathological stimuli. GFAP+ve/nestin+ve radial glial like Type-1 progenitors are considered to be the resident stem cell population in adult hippocampus. During neurogenesis these Type-1 progenitors matures to GFAP-ve/nestin+ve Type-2 progenitors and then to Type-3 neuroblasts and finally differentiates into granule cell neurons. In our study, using pilocarpine-induced seizure model, we showed that seizure initiated activation of multiple progenitors in the entire hippocampal area such as DG, CA1 and CA3. Seizure induction resulted in activation of two subtypes of Type-1 progenitors, Type-1a (GFAP+ve/nestin+ve/BrdU+ve) and Type-1b (GFAP+ve/nestin+ve/BrdU-ve). We showed that majority of Type-1b progenitors were undergoing only a transition from a state of dormancy to activated form immediately after seizures rather than proliferating, whereas Type-1a showed maximum proliferation by 3 days post-seizure induction. Type-2 (GFAP-ve/nestin+ve/BrdU+ve) progenitors were few compared to Type-1. Type-3 (DCX+ve) progenitors showed increased expression of immature neurons only in DG region by 3 days after seizure induction indicating maturation of progenitors happens only in microenvironment of DG even though progenitors are activated in CA1 and CA3 regions of hippocampus. Also parallel increase in growth factors expression after seizure induction suggests that microenvironmental niche has a profound effect on stimulation of adult neural progenitors.

151

Early maturing mutations as germplasm stocks for barley breeding  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A total of 102 early maturing mutations have been isolated after various treatments of seeds or plants with ionizing radiations or chemicals from a barley cultivar 'Chikurin Ibaraki 1' or its mutants. Fifty of them were evaluated as regards responses to internal physiological factors. The mutants were found to have a mutational alteration in vernalization and/or photoperiodic response. Earliness in a narrow sense was not noticeably changed. The original genotype is a winter and long-day type. By mutation four different degrees of change in vernalization requirement i.e. complete (V1) and incomplete (V2) spring habit and winter habit with reduced requirement to varying degrees (V3, V4) have been produced. Photoperiodic response was also changed into at least three types i.e. complete (P1) and incomplete (P2) loss of sensitivity to short photoperiod and a slight reduction in critical daylength for heading. P1 and P2 type mutants were all characterized by marked earliness in heading time in field. Thirty seven mutants were located in seven separate loci. Allelism test of the mutated genes to spontaneous ones revealed that the genes carried by P1 type mutants were all allelic to an earliness gene ea sub(k) on chromosome 5 and the gene involved in P2 type mutants to ea7 on chromosome 6. On the contrary, the gene commonly involved in all V1 type mutants and one V2 type mutant was not allelic to spring habit gene Sh2 or Sh3. It seemed likely that the gene was not allelic to, either, but closely linked with sh on chromosome 4. The diversity in terms of genetic and physiological properties of the early maturing mutants arising from common ancestry emphasizes the importance of induced mutation in broadening of germplasm of barley breeding. (author)

152

Incomplete Markets, Labor Supply and Capital Accumulation  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

We explore the accumulation of capital in the presence of limited insurance against idiosyncratic shocks, borrowing constraints and endogenous labor supply. In the exogenous labor supply case (e.g. Aiyagari 1994, Huggett 1997), the presence of limited insurance increases the demand for savings for precautionary reasons. As a consequence, capital and output are higher under incomplete markets. We show that if labor hours are endogenous, labor supply is likely to be lower under incomplete marke...

Marcet, Albert; Obiols-homs, Francesc; Weil, Philippe

2003-01-01

153

The Conformal Pseudodistance and Null Geodesic Incompleteness  

CERN Document Server

We clarify the relationship between the null geodesic completeness of an Einstein Lorentz manifold and its conformal Kobayashi pseudodistance. We show that an Einstein manifold has at least one incomplete null geodesic if its pseudodistancfe is nontrivial. If its pseudodistance is nondegenerate, all of its null geodesics must be incomplete. Thus an Einstein manifold (M,g) has no complete null geodesic if there is a "physical metric" in the conformal class of g satisfying the null convergence and null generic conditions.

Markowitz, Michael J

2011-01-01

154

Effect of ?-Q value on incomplete fusion  

Science.gov (United States)

The probability of incomplete fusion in 13C+159Tb interactions has been measured in the energy range ?4-7 MeV/nucleon. The variation of the incomplete fusion fraction has been studied in terms of projectile energy and type. Present results are compared with the existing 12C+159Tb data, where a strong projectile structure effect on the incomplete fusion fraction has been observed. It has been found that the probability of incomplete fusion is higher in the case of 12C than for a one-neutron rich 13C projectile. For better insight into the projectile structure effect, a systematic study is presented on the incomplete fusion measured in 12,13C,16O+159Tb and 12,13C,16O+181Ta systems by Singh [Phys. Rev.CPRVCAN0556-281310.1103/PhysRevC.80.014601 80, 014601 (2009)] and by Babu [J. Phys. GJPGPED0954-389910.1088/0954-3899/29/6/304 29, 1011 (2003)]. The present analysis indicates a strong dependence of incomplete fusion probability on the ?-Q value of the projectile at these low energies.

Yadav, Abhishek; Sharma, Vijay R.; Singh, Pushpendra P.; Kumar, R.; Singh, D. P.; Unnati; Sharma, M. K.; Singh, B. P.; Prasad, R.

2012-07-01

155

Topological effects of data incompleteness of gene regulatory networks  

CERN Document Server

The topological analysis of biological networks has been a prolific topic in network science during the last decade. A persistent problem with this approach is the inherent uncertainty and noisy nature of the data. One of the cases in which this situation is more marked is that of transcriptional regulatory networks (TRNs) in bacteria. The datasets are incomplete because regulatory pathways associated to a relevant fraction of bacterial genes remain unknown. Furthermore, direction, strengths and signs of the links are sometimes unknown or simply overlooked. Finally, the experimental approaches to infer the regulations are highly heterogeneous, in a way that induces the appearance of systematic experimental-topological correlations. And yet, the quality of the available data increases constantly. In this work we capitalize on these advances to point out the influence of data (in)completeness and quality on some classical results on topological analysis of TRNs, specially regarding modularity at different level...

Sanz, J; Borge-Holthoefer, J; Moreno, Y

2012-01-01

156

Piperine inhibits lipopolysaccharide-induced maturation of bone-marrow-derived dendritic cells through inhibition of ERK and JNK activation.  

Science.gov (United States)

Piperine, one of the main components of Piper longum Linn. and P. nigrum Linn., is a plant alkaloid with a long history of medicinal use. Piperine has been shown to modulate the immune response, but the mechanism underlying this modulation remains unknown. Here, we examined the effects of piperine on lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced inflammatory responses in bone-marrow-derived dendritic cells (BMDCs). Piperine significantly inhibited the expression of major histocompatibility complex class II, CD40 and CD86 in BMDCs in a dose-dependent manner. Furthermore, piperine treatment led to an increase in fluorescein-isothiocyanate-dextran uptake in LPS-treated dendritic cells and inhibited the production of tumour necrosis factor alpha and interleukin (IL)-12, but not IL-6. The inhibitory effects of piperine were mediated via suppression of extracellular signal-regulated kinases and c-Jun N-terminal kinases activation, but not p38 or nuclear factor-?B activation. These findings provide insight into the immunopharmacological role of piperine. PMID:22430952

Bae, Gi-Sang; Kim, Jong-Jin; Park, Kyoung-Chel; Koo, Bon Soon; Jo, Il-Joo; Choi, Sun Bok; Lee, Chang Hyuk; Jung, Won-Seok; Cho, Jung-Hee; Hong, Seung-Heon; Song, Ho-Joon; Shin, Yong Kook; Park, Sung-Joo

2012-12-01

157

Polyamine-induced modulation of genes involved in ethylene biosynthesis and signalling pathways and nitric oxide production during olive mature fruit abscission  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

After fruit ripening, many fruit-tree species undergo massive natural fruit abscission. Olive (Olea europaea L.) is a stone-fruit with cultivars such as Picual (PIC) and Arbequina (ARB) which differ in mature fruit abscission potential. Ethylene (ET) is associated with abscission, but its role during mature fruit abscission remains largely uncharacterized. The present study investigates the possible roles of ET and polyamine (PA) during mature fruit abscission by modulating genes involved in ...

Parra-lobato, Maria C.; Gomez-jimenez, Maria C.

2011-01-01

158

49 CFR 529.4 - Requirements for incomplete automobile manufacturers.  

Science.gov (United States)

... false Requirements for incomplete automobile manufacturers. 529.4 Section 529...TRANSPORTATION MANUFACTURERS OF MULTISTAGE AUTOMOBILES § 529.4 Requirements for incomplete automobile manufacturers. (a) Except as...

2010-10-01

159

Primary and secondary sexual characters in alternative reproductive tactics of Chinook salmon: Associations with androgens and the maturation-inducing steroid  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

The proximate mechanisms that underlie the evolution of within-sex variation in mating behavior, sexual characters and reproductive investment patterns are still poorly understood. Species exhibiting alternative reproductive tactics (ARTs) are ideal model systems to examine these mechanisms. Chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) exhibits two distinct ARTs: hooknoses, which are large males that establish spawning dominance hierarchies via intense male–male competition and jacks, which are smaller precocious sneaking males that steal fertilizations via sperm competition. In this study, we examine plasma testosterone (T), 11-ketotestosterone (11-KT) and maturation-inducing steroid (MIS; 17?,20?-dihydroxy-4-pregnen-3-one) profiles of spawning hooknoses and jacks. Furthermore, we examine relationships between androgens and primary (gonad mass, gonadosomatic index and sperm traits) and secondary (total mass, body size, hump depth and kype length) sexual characters. Relationships between MIS and sperm traits arealso examined. We found that hooknoses and jacks did not significantly differ in terms of plasma T, 11-KT or MIS concentrations. Moreover, we found significant positive relationships between levels of both androgens within each ART. There were no significant relationships between androgens, MIS and sperm traits. T and 11-KT concentrations co-varied positively with gonad investment and kype length in jacks. In hooknoses, 11-KT concentration was positively related to total mass, hump depth and condition factor. Overall, these findings suggest that there are differential androgen effects for each of the ARTs in Chinook salmon.

Butts, Ian A.E.; Love, Oliver P.

2012-01-01

160

The use of calcium phosphate nanoparticles encapsulating Toll-like receptor ligands and the antigen hemagglutinin to induce dendritic cell maturation and T cell activation.  

Science.gov (United States)

Dendritic cells (DCs) are potent antigen-presenting cells that possess the ability to stimulate naïve T cells. Antigen presentation by mature (activated) DCs is a prerequisite for the stimulation of antigen-specific T cells, whereas antigen presentation by immature DCs results in the generation of specific tolerance. Our aim was to develop calcium phosphate nanoparticles which can serve as carriers of immunoactive oligonucleotides into dendritic cells for their activation. We analyzed size, surface charge, and morphology of calcium phosphate nanoparticles loaded with the TLR ligands CpG and poly(I:C) and also with the antigen hemagglutinin (HA) by scanning electron microscopy, dynamic light scattering, Brownian motion analysis and ultracentrifugation. The uptake of fluorescence-labeled nanoparticles into dendritic cells was illustrated by confocal laser scanning microscopy. Immunostimulatory effects of these nanoparticles on DCs were studied, i.e., cytokine production and activation of the cells in terms of upregulation of surface molecules. We show that functionalized calcium phosphate nanoparticles are capable to induce both innate and adaptive immunity by activation of DCs. PMID:20417963

Sokolova, Viktoriya; Knuschke, Torben; Kovtun, Anna; Buer, Jan; Epple, Matthias; Westendorf, Astrid Maria

2010-07-01

 
 
 
 
161

Impacts of a GHG-induced climate change on crop yields: effects of acceleration in maturation, moisture stress and optimal temperature  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The present study involves using the Canadian Climate Centre (CCC) climate change scenario to evaluate the impacts of a CO2-induced climate change on agriculture in Quebec and vicinity. Climate change using the CCC General Circulating Model (GCM) data are fed into a crop model (FAO) so as to gauge the changes in agroclimatic factors such as growing season length and growing degree days, and subsequently potential yield changes for a variety of cereal (C3 and C4), leguminous, oleaginous, vegetable and special crops, for twelve major agricultural regions in southern Quebec. Our results show that depending upon the agricultural zone and crop type, yields may increase (ex. corn and sorghum by 20%) or decrease (ex. wheat and soybean by 20 to 30%). Also, these crop yield changes appear to be related to acceleration in maturation rates, mainly to change in moisture stress and to shifts in optimal thermal growth conditions. These possible shifts in agricultural production potentials would solicit the formulation of appropriate adaptation strategies. 77 refs., 6 figs., 5 tabs

162

An unusual case of incomplete isosexual precocious puberty in a young girl with juvenile hypothyroidism  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Long-standing untreated primary hypothyroidism is an uncommon cause of praecocious puberty. The hypothyroidism, incomplete sexual maturation, galactorrhoea, and pituitary enlargement are reversed or corrected by levothyroxine therapy within a few months. We report a young girl with juvenile hypothyroidism who presented with early onset of menarche with failure of growth who was treated successfully with levothyroxine with resolution of early onset pubertal changes.

Sahana PK

2014-07-01

163

Differentiation of thymocytes from CD3-CD4-CD8- through CD3-CD4-CD8+ into more mature stages induced by a thymic stromal cell clone.  

Science.gov (United States)

We have investigated the capacity of our established thymic stromal cell clone (MRL104.8a) or its derived factor(s) to induce the differentiation of immature thymocytes. Culture of purified adult murine double-negative (CD4-CD8-, indicated here as CD4-8-) thymocytes on the MRL104.8a thymic stromal cell monolayer for 1 day resulted in the induction of an appreciable percentage of CD4-8+ thymocytes. A bone marrow-derived stromal cell monolayer or a L929 fibroblast monolayer failed to generate CD4-8+ cells. This differentiation could also be induced by a semipurified sample of the MRL104.8a culture supernatant, which contained a thymic stroma-derived T-cell growth factor capable of contributing to the growth of double-negative immature thymocytes. CD4-8+ thymocytes generated 1 day after coculture with the MRL104.8a cells or the sample containing thymic stroma-derived T-cell growth factor were found to be CD3- and J11d+, excluding the possibility of expansion of mature (CD3+4-8+) thymocytes present in the thymus. More importantly, when the culture period was extended to 2 or 3 days, an appreciable number of CD4+8+ and single-positive (CD4+) cells were generated on the MRL104.8a monolayer. Thus, these results provide the direct demonstration that CD3-4-8- immature thymocytes are promoted to differentiate through a rapidly cycling intermediate (CD3-4-8+) into double- and single-positive cells by a specialized thymic stromal component. Images PMID:2138784

Tatsumi, Y; Kumanogoh, A; Saitoh, M; Mizushima, Y; Kimura, K; Suzuki, S; Yagi, H; Horiuchi, A; Ogata, M; Hamaoka, T

1990-01-01

164

Radiation combined with hyperthermia induces HSP70-dependent maturation of dendritic cells and release of pro-inflammatory cytokines by dendritic cells and macrophages  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Purpose: Hyperthermia (HT) treatment of cancer patients was revived over the last years and has been proven to be beneficiary for many cancer entities when applied temperature controlled in multimodal treatments. We examined whether a combination of ionizing irradiation (X-ray) and HT (41.5 °C; 1 h) can induce the release of heat shock protein (HSP) 70 by tumor cells and thereby lead to the activation of dendritic cells and macrophages. Material and methods: Extracellular HSP70 was detected in supernatants (SN) of treated colorectal tumor cells by ELISA. Maturation of dendritic cells (DC) after contact with the SN was measured by flow-cytometry. Phagocytosis assays were conducted to get hints about the immune stimulating potential of the tumor cells after the respective treatments. Results: An increased surface expression of HSP70 was observed after X-ray or X-ray plus HT while the amount of extracellular HSP70 was only increased when HT was given additionally. A high up-regulation of the co-stimulation molecule CD80 and the chemokine receptor CCR7 on DC was measured after contact with SN of X-ray plus HT treated cells. This was dependent on extracellular HSP70. Combined treatments further led to significantly increased phagocytosis rates of macrophages and DC and increased pro-inflammatory cytokine (IL-8 and IL-12) secretion. Conclusion: X-ray combined with HT induces HSP70 dependent activation of immune cells and might generate a tumor microenvironment beneficial fate a tumor microenvironment beneficial for cure.

165

Contractual Incompleteness, Unemployment, and Labour Market Segmentation  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

This article provides evidence that involuntary unemployment, and the segmentation of labour markets into firms offering "good" and "bad" jobs, may both arise as a consequence of contractual incompleteness.We provide a simple model that illustrates how unemployment and market segmentation may jointly emerge as part of a market equilibrium in environments where work effort is not third-party verifiable. Using experimental labour markets that differ only in the verifiability of effort, we demonstrate empirically that contractual incompleteness can cause unemployment and segmentation. Our data are also consistent with the key channels through which the model explains the emergence of both phenomena. © The Author 2013.

Altmann, Steffen; Falk, Armin

2014-01-01

166

Fractional exclusion statistics with incomplete information  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

We introduce the hypothesis of incomplete information into the fractional exclusion statistics in order to apply the latter to some correlated heavy fermion systems. It is shown that the actual inexplicit distribution function of FES may be replaced by an equivalent explicit one of which the form does not change with $\\alpha$ value.

Wang, Qiuping A.

2002-01-01

167

PIC (PRODUCTS OF INCOMPLETE COMBUSTION) ANALYSIS METHODS  

Science.gov (United States)

The report gives results of method evaluations for products of incomplete combustion (PICs): 36 proposed PICs were evaluated by previously developed gas chromatography/flame ionization detection (GC/FID) and gas chromatography/mass spectroscopy (GC/MS) methods. It also gives resu...

168

Prune belly syndrome associated with incomplete VACTERL  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available A Prune Belly syndrome with VATER/VACTERL association is an extremely rare. They are either stillborn or die within few days of life, only few such cases have been reported in literature. We are presenting here a male neonate of Prune Belly syndrome associated with incomplete VACTERL with brief review of literature.

Ghritlaharey R

2007-01-01

169

Know-how disclosure and incomplete contracts  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

When two parties invest in human capital and at the same time decide on know-how disclosure it can be shown that joint ownership with veto power is the optimal ownership structure, given that only incomplete contracts can be written.

Rosenkranz, Stephanie; Schmitz, Patrick W.

1999-01-01

170

Classification and data acquisition with incomplete data  

Science.gov (United States)

In remote-sensing applications, incomplete data can result when only a subset of sensors (e.g., radar, infrared, acoustic) are deployed at certain regions. The limitations of single sensor systems have spurred interest in employing multiple sensor modalities simultaneously. For example, in land mine detection tasks, different sensor modalities are better-suited to capture different aspects of the underlying physics of the mines. Synthetic aperture radar sensors may be better at detecting surface mines, while infrared sensors may be better at detecting buried mines. By employing multiple sensor modalities to address the detection task, the strengths of the disparate sensors can be exploited in a synergistic manner to improve performance beyond that which would be achievable with either single sensor alone. When multi-sensor approaches are employed, however, incomplete data can be manifested. If each sensor is located on a separate platform ( e.g., aircraft), each sensor may interrogate---and hence collect data over---only partially overlapping areas of land. As a result, some data points may be characterized by data (i.e., features) from only a subset of the possible sensors employed in the task. Equivalently, this scenario implies that some data points will be missing features. Increasing focus in the future on using---and fusing data from---multiple sensors will make such incomplete-data problems commonplace. In many applications involving incomplete data, it is possible to acquire the missing data at a cost. In multi-sensor remote-sensing applications, data is acquired by deploying sensors to data points. Acquiring data is usually an expensive, time-consuming task, a fact that necessitates an intelligent data acquisition process. Incomplete data is not limited to remote-sensing applications, but rather, can arise in virtually any data set. In this dissertation, we address the general problem of classification when faced with incomplete data. We also address the closely related problem of active data acquisition, which develops a strategy to acquire missing features and labels that will most benefit the classification task. We first address the general problem of classification with incomplete data, maintaining the view that all data (i.e., information) is valuable. We employ a logistic regression framework within which we formulate a supervised classification algorithm for incomplete data. This principled, yet flexible, framework permits several interesting extensions that allow all available data to be utilized. One extension incorporates labeling error, which permits the usage of potentially imperfectly labeled data in learning a classifier. A second major extension converts the proposed algorithm to a semi-supervised approach by utilizing unlabeled data via graph-based regularization. Finally, the classification algorithm is extended to the case in which (image) data---from which features are extracted---are available from multiple resolutions. Taken together, this family of incomplete-data classification algorithms exploits all available data in a principled manner by avoiding explicit imputation. Instead, missing data is integrated out analytically with the aid of an estimated conditional density function (conditioned on the observed features). This feat is accomplished by invoking only mild assumptions. We also address the problem of active data acquisition by determining which missing data should be acquired to most improve performance. Specifically, we examine this data acquisition task when the data to be acquired can be either labels or features. The proposed approach is based on a criterion that accounts for the expected benefit of the acquisition. This approach, which is applicable for any general missing data problem, exploits the incomplete-data classification framework introduced in the first part of this dissertation. This data acquisition approach allows for the acquisition of both labels and features. Moreover, several types of feature acquisition are permitted, including the acquisition of individual

Williams, David P.

171

Sensor Robot Planning in Incomplete Environment  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Aiming at the former formalized methods of robot planning should give the environment state, can not obtain the new knowledge of the environment. In order to improve the reason ability for obtaining new knowledge of the environment state, the actions in the process of planning such as external action and sensing action are formalized. A formalized reasoning method—CPNI (Colored Petri Net for Planning in incomplete environment based on two kinds of actions is proposed, and the reasoning rule as Fluent Calculus in incomplete environment is applied. Robot planning experiment is modeled and simulated by using the tool CPNTools and the result shows the state knowledge of the door and the action sequence to reach the goal can be generated automatically in the CPNI net system.

Yufeng Yao

2011-03-01

172

Advanced incomplete factorization algorithms for Stiltijes matrices  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The modern numerical methods for solving the linear algebraic systems Au = f with high order sparse matrices A, which arise in grid approximations of multidimensional boundary value problems, are based mainly on accelerated iterative processes with easily invertible preconditioning matrices presented in the form of approximate (incomplete) factorization of the original matrix A. We consider some recent algorithmic approaches, theoretical foundations, experimental data and open questions for incomplete factorization of Stiltijes matrices which are {open_quotes}the best{close_quotes} ones in the sense that they have the most advanced results. Special attention is given to solving the elliptic differential equations with strongly variable coefficients, singular perturbated diffusion-convection and parabolic equations.

Il`in, V.P. [Siberian Division RAS, Novosibirsk (Russian Federation)

1996-12-31

173

Model for incomplete reconnection in sawtooth crashes.  

Science.gov (United States)

A model for incomplete reconnection in sawtooth crashes is presented. The reconnection inflow during the crash phase of sawteeth self-consistently convects the high pressure core toward the reconnection site, raising the pressure gradient there. Reconnection shuts off if the diamagnetic drift speed at the reconnection site exceeds a threshold, which may explain incomplete reconnection. The relaxation of magnetic shear after reconnection stops may explain the destabilization of ideal interchange instabilities reported previously. Proof-of-principle two-fluid simulations confirm this basic picture. Predictions of the model compare favorably to data from the Mega Ampere Spherical Tokamak. Applications to transport modeling of sawteeth are discussed. The results should apply across tokamaks, including ITER. PMID:22243083

Beidler, M T; Cassak, P A

2011-12-16

174

Lossy Channel Games under Incomplete Information  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In this paper we investigate lossy channel games under incomplete information, where two players operate on a finite set of unbounded FIFO channels and one player, representing a system component under consideration operates under incomplete information, while the other player, representing the component's environment is allowed to lose messages from the channels. We argue that these games are a suitable model for synthesis of communication protocols where processes communicate over unreliable channels. We show that in the case of finite message alphabets, games with safety and reachability winning conditions are decidable and finite-state observation-based strategies for the component can be effectively computed. Undecidability for (weak parity objectives follows from the undecidability of (weak parity perfect information games where only one player can lose messages.

Rayna Dimitrova

2013-03-01

175

Past incompleteness of a bouncing multiverse  

CERN Document Server

According to classical GR, Anti-de Sitter (AdS) bubbles in the multiverse terminate in big crunch singularities. It has been conjectured, however, that the fundamental theory may resolve these singularities and replace them by nonsingular bounces. This may have important implications for the beginning of the multiverse. Geodesics in cosmological spacetimes are known to be past-incomplete, as long as the average expansion rate along the geodesic is positive, but it is not clear that the latter condition is satisfied if the geodesic repeatedly passes through crunching AdS bubbles. We investigate this issue in a simple multiverse model, where the spacetime consists of a patchwork of FRW regions. The conclusion is that the spacetime is still past-incomplete, even in the presence of AdS bounces.

Vilenkin, Alexander

2014-01-01

176

UNILATERAL INCOMPLETE SUPERFICIAL PALMAR ARCH VARIATION  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In this case report, we want to present a truly incomplete superficial palmar arch on right side which is not completed by any of the branches of radial or median artery. On the left side of the same individual, the SPA is classical, completed by superficial branch of radial artery. The areria nervi mediana is not participating in arch formation on both the sides. Four palmar digital branches: digital branch to medial side of little finger and three common palmar digital arteries to the adjacent sides of medial four digits are seen arising from incomplete palmar arch. Awareness of the variation among the individual patient’s both hands need to be well thought-out during hand surgeries.

Rejeena P Raj, Anju Balaji More* and Kunjumon PC

2014-01-01

177

Endogenous Trading Constraints with Incomplete Asset Markets  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This paper endogenizes the borrowing constraints on capital in a production economy with incomplete markets. We find that these limits get looser with income, a property that is consistent with US data on credit limits. The framework with endogenous limits is then used to study the effects of a revenue neutral tax reform that eliminates capital income taxes. Our results illustrate that it is very important to take into account the effects of tax policies on the limits. Throughout the transiti...

Abraham, Arpad; Carceles-poveda, Eva

2010-01-01

178

Pareto Improving Financial Innovation in Incomplete Markets  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

In this paper we develop a differential technique for investigating the welfare effects of financial innovation in incomplete markets. Utilizing this technique, and after parametrizing the standard competitive, pure-exchange economy by both endowments and utility functions, we establish the following (weakly) generic property: Let S be the number of states, I be the number of assets and H be the number of households, and consider a particular financial equilibrium. Then, provided that the deg...

Cass, David; Citanna, Alessandro

1998-01-01

179

Incomplete information and R&D organization  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The paper studies incentives for cooperative research vis-à-vis non-cooperative research under incomplete information when the R&D outcome is stochastic and continuously distributed with a given mean and a constant variance. We show that the non-cooperative R&D incentive increases with the variance of the R&D outcome. And this result does not depend on the nature of the product market competition.

Chattopadhyay, Srobonti; Kabiraj, Tarun

2014-01-01

180

Expression of 20beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase and P450 17alpha-hydroxylase/c17-20 lyase during hCG-induced in vitro oocyte maturation in snake head murrel Channa striatus.  

Science.gov (United States)

Partial cDNAs encoding carbonyl reductase like 20beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase (20beta-HSD) and P450 17alpha-hydroxylase/c17-20 lyase (CYP17) were isolated from the ovary of snake head murrel and they exhibited high sequence identity to the Nile tilapia and rainbow trout, respectively. A low transcript level of both 20beta-HSD and CYP17 were detected in pre-vitellogenic follicles, while the transcript level was high in full-grown immature follicles. In hCG-induced in vitro oocyte maturation, we found a significant increase in 20beta-HSD transcript level after 2 h. The CYP17 transcripts also showed a considerable increase following hCG-induction compared to saline-treated controls. On the other hand, Western blot analysis demonstrated no significant change in the CYP17 protein level during hCG-induced in vitro oocyte maturation. Taken together, we suggest that in addition to 20beta-HSD, the CYP17 might have a role in the shift in steroidogenesis during meiotic maturation of snake head murrel. PMID:20035462

Sreenivasulu, G; Swapna, I; Rasheeda, M K; Ijiri, S; Adachi, S; Thangaraj, K; Senthilkumaran, B

2005-04-01

 
 
 
 
181

1,25-Dihydroxyvitamin D3-induced differentiation in a human promyelocytic leukemia cell line (HL-60): receptor-mediated maturation to macrophage-like cells  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The human-derived promyelocytic leukemia cell line, HL-60, is known to differentiate into mature myeloid cells in the presence of 1,25- dihydroxyvitamin D3 (1,25[OH]2D3). We investigated differentiation by monitoring 1,25(OH)2D3-exposed HL-60 cells for phagocytic activity, ability to reduce nitroblue tetrazolium, binding of the chemotaxin N- formyl-methionyl-leucyl-[3H]phenylalanine, development of nonspecific acid esterase activity, and morphological maturation of Wright-Giemsa- stained cell...

1984-01-01

182

10 CFR 782.7 - Incomplete notice of infringement.  

Science.gov (United States)

...2010-01-01 false Incomplete notice of infringement. 782.7 Section 782.7 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY CLAIMS FOR PATENT...COPYRIGHT INFRINGEMENT Requirements and Procedures § 782.7 Incomplete notice of infringement....

2010-01-01

183

19 CFR 122.74 - Incomplete (pro forma) manifest.  

Science.gov (United States)

...2010-04-01 false Incomplete (pro forma) manifest. 122.74 Section 122.74 Customs Duties U.S. CUSTOMS AND BORDER...Commercial Aircraft Departing From the United States § 122.74 Incomplete (pro forma) manifest. (a)...

2010-04-01

184

Extensive Generalization of Statistical Mechanics Based on Incomplete Information Theory  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Statistical mechanics is generalized on the basis of an additive information theory for incomplete probability distributions. The incomplete normalization is used to obtain generalized entropy . The concomitant incomplete statistical mechanics is applied to some physical systems in order to show the effect of the incompleteness of information. It is shown that this extensive generalized statistics can be useful for the correlated electron systems in weak coupling regime.

Qiuping A. Wang

2003-06-01

185

A new version of an old modal incompleteness theorem  

CERN Document Server

Thomason \\cite{Thomason74} showed that a certain modal logic $\\mathbf{L}\\subset \\mathbf{S4}$ is incomplete with respect to Kripke semantics. Later Gerson \\cite{Gerson75} showed that $\\mathbf{L}$ is also incomplete with respect to neighborhood semantics. In this paper we show that $\\mathbf{L}$ is in fact incomplete with respect to any class of complete Boolean algebras with operators, i.e. that it is completely incomplete.

Vosmaer, Jacob

2012-01-01

186

49 CFR 568.4 - Requirements for incomplete vehicle manufacturers.  

Science.gov (United States)

...furnish for each incomplete vehicle, at or before the time of delivery, an incomplete vehicle document (“IVD”) that contains...types as defined in 49 CFR 571.3 (e.g. , truck, MPV, bus, trailer) into which the incomplete vehicle may...

2010-10-01

187

Incomplete TCR? allelic exclusion accelerates spontaneous autoimmune arthritis in K/BxN TCR transgenic mice  

Science.gov (United States)

Summary Allelic exclusion of antigen receptor loci is a fundamental mechanism of immunological self tolerance. Incomplete allelic exclusion leads to dual T cell receptor (TCR) expression and can allow developing autoreactive ?? T lymphocytes to escape clonal deletion. Because allelic exclusion at the TCR? locus is more stringent than at the TCR? locus, dual TCR? expression has not been considered a likely contributor to autoimmunity. We show here that incomplete TCR? allelic exclusion permits developing thymocytes bearing the autoreactive, transgene-encoded KRN TCR to be positively selected more efficiently, thereby accelerating the onset of spontaneous autoimmune arthritis. Our findings highlight dual TCR? expression as a mechanism that can enhance the maturation of autoreactive pathogenic T cells and lead to more rapid development of autoimmune disease. PMID:22706882

Auger, Jennifer L.; Haasken, Stefanie; Steinert, Elizabeth M.; Binstadt, Bryce A.

2013-01-01

188

Intra-articular injection of a nutritive mixture solution protects articular cartilage from osteoarthritic progression induced by anterior cruciate ligament transection in mature rabbits: a randomized controlled trial  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Osteoarthritis (OA) is a degenerative disease that disrupts the collagenous matrix of articular cartilage and is difficult to cure because articular cartilage is a nonvascular tissue. Treatment of OA has targeted macromolecular substitutes for cartilage components, such as hyaluronic acid or genetically engineered materials. However, the goal of the present study was to examine whether intra-articular injection of the elementary nutrients restores the matrix of arthritic knee joints in mature...

Park, Yoo-sin; Lim, Si-woong; Lee, Il-hoon; Lee, Tae-jin; Kim, Jong-sung; Han, Jin Soo

2007-01-01

189

Thymic hormones in radiation-induced immunodeficiency. I. Induction of mature interleukin 1 responsive cell in the thymus by thymosin fraction 5  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The restorative effect of thymosin fraction 5 (TF5) on the thymus of gamma-irradiated mice was examined. Four different mouse strains were used in this study since earlier work determined that the degree of response to TF5 is strain dependent. The responsiveness to comitogenic effect of interleukin 1 (IL-1) was used to measure the rate of recovery of immunocompetent cells in the thymus, since only more mature PNA-, Lyt-1+-2- medullary cells respond to this monokine. Contrary to several earlier reports that radioresistant cells repopulating the thymus within the first 10 days after irradiation are mature, corticosteroid resistant, immunocompetent cells, the thymic cells from irradiated mice in all strains used had greatly reduced responses to IL-1. Daily intraperitoneal injections of TF5 increased significantly the responses of thymic cells to IL-1 in 10- to 13-weeks-old C57Bl/KsJ, C57Bl/6, C3H/HeJ, and DBA/1 mice. Older mice, 5 months or more in age, of DBA/1 strain did not respond to treatment with TF5. However, C3H/HeJ mice of the same age were highly responsive. In conclusion, (1) cells repopulating the thymus within 12 days after irradiation contain lower than normal fraction of mature IL-1 responsive cells, (2) thymic hormones increase the rate of recovery of immunocompetent cells in the thymus, and (3) the effect of thymic hormones is strain and age dependent

190

Building Chaotic Model From Incomplete Time Series  

Science.gov (United States)

This paper presents a number of novel techniques for building a predictive chaotic model from incomplete time series. A predictive chaotic model is built by reconstructing the time-delayed phase space from observed time series and the prediction is made by a global model or adaptive local models based on the dynamical neighbors found in the reconstructed phase space. In general, the building of any data-driven models depends on the completeness and quality of the data itself. However, the completeness of the data availability can not always be guaranteed since the measurement or data transmission is intermittently not working properly due to some reasons. We propose two main solutions dealing with incomplete time series: using imputing and non-imputing methods. For imputing methods, we utilized the interpolation methods (weighted sum of linear interpolations, Bayesian principle component analysis and cubic spline interpolation) and predictive models (neural network, kernel machine, chaotic model) for estimating the missing values. After imputing the missing values, the phase space reconstruction and chaotic model prediction are executed as a standard procedure. For non-imputing methods, we reconstructed the time-delayed phase space from observed time series with missing values. This reconstruction results in non-continuous trajectories. However, the local model prediction can still be made from the other dynamical neighbors reconstructed from non-missing values. We implemented and tested these methods to construct a chaotic model for predicting storm surges at Hoek van Holland as the entrance of Rotterdam Port. The hourly surge time series is available for duration of 1990-1996. For measuring the performance of the proposed methods, a synthetic time series with missing values generated by a particular random variable to the original (complete) time series is utilized. There exist two main performance measures used in this work: (1) error measures between the actual and missing value estimates; and (2) the accuracy of the built chaotic model predictions. The model results indicate that the proposed methods are able to build a chaotic model from incomplete time series and to provide reliable and accurate predictions.

Siek, Michael; Solomatine, Dimitri

2010-05-01

191

Induction of complete and incomplete chromosome aberrations by bleomycin in human lymphocytes  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Bleomycin (BLM) is a clastogenic compound, which due to the overdispersion in the cell distribution of induced dicentrics has been compared to the effect of high-LET radiation. Recently, it has been described that in fibroblast derived cell lines BLM induces incomplete chromosome elements more efficiently than any type of ionizing radiation. The objective of the present study was to evaluate in human lymphocytes the induction of dicentrics and incomplete chromosome elements by BLM. Peripheral blood samples have been treated with different concentrations of BLM. Two cytogenetic techniques were applied, fluorescence plus Giemsa (FPG) and FISH using pan-centromeric and pan-telomeric probes. The observed frequency of dicentric equivalents increases linearly with the BLM concentration, and for all BLM concentrations the distribution of dicentric equivalents was overdispersed. In the FISH study the ratio between total incomplete elements and multicentrics was 0.27. The overdispersion in the dicentric cell distribution, and the linear BLM-concentration dependence of dicentrics can be compared to the effect of high-LET radiation, on the contrary the ratio of incomplete elements and multicentrics is similar to the one induced by low-LET radiation ({approx}0.40). The elevated proportion of interstitial deletions in relation to total acentric fragments, higher than any type of ionizing radiation could be a characteristic signature of the clastogenic effect of BLM.

Benkhaled, L.; Xuncla, M.; Caballin, M.R. [Universitat Autonoma de Barcelona, Unitat d' Antropologia Biologica, Departament de Biologia Animal, Biologia Vegetal i Ecologia, E-08193 Bellaterra (Spain); Barrios, L. [Universitat Autonoma de Barcelona, Unitat de Biologia Cel.lular, Departament de Biologia Cel.lular, Fisiologia i Immunologia (Spain); Barquinero, J.F. [Universitat Autonoma de Barcelona, Unitat d' Antropologia Biologica, Departament de Biologia Animal, Biologia Vegetal i Ecologia, E-08193 Bellaterra (Spain)], E-mail: Francesc.Barquinero@uab.es

2008-01-01

192

Induction of complete and incomplete chromosome aberrations by bleomycin in human lymphocytes  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Bleomycin (BLM) is a clastogenic compound, which due to the overdispersion in the cell distribution of induced dicentrics has been compared to the effect of high-LET radiation. Recently, it has been described that in fibroblast derived cell lines BLM induces incomplete chromosome elements more efficiently than any type of ionizing radiation. The objective of the present study was to evaluate in human lymphocytes the induction of dicentrics and incomplete chromosome elements by BLM. Peripheral blood samples have been treated with different concentrations of BLM. Two cytogenetic techniques were applied, fluorescence plus Giemsa (FPG) and FISH using pan-centromeric and pan-telomeric probes. The observed frequency of dicentric equivalents increases linearly with the BLM concentration, and for all BLM concentrations the distribution of dicentric equivalents was overdispersed. In the FISH study the ratio between total incomplete elements and multicentrics was 0.27. The overdispersion in the dicentric cell distribution, and the linear BLM-concentration dependence of dicentrics can be compared to the effect of high-LET radiation, on the contrary the ratio of incomplete elements and multicentrics is similar to the one induced by low-LET radiation (?0.40). The elevated proportion of interstitial deletions in relation to total acentric fragments, higher than any type of ionizing radiation could be a characteristic signature of the clastogenic effect of BLMgenic effect of BLM

193

Light particle revelation on incomplete fusion reactions  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Incomplete fusion reactions have been studied through light particles emission in the reaction 116Sn + 16O at 125 MeV (ALICE facility in Orsay). We measured energy angular distributions and correlations between any two of these particles (? particles, protons, neutrons), while ? multiplicity measurements provide us fuller informations. From collected data, the following pictures can be drawn: - the only fast particles observed are ? particles, while protons and neutrons seem to come only from statistical evaporation; - outgoing channels where two ? particles are emitted cannot be solely explained by the sequential emission of 8Be ? 2?: about half of the cross section proceeds from statistical evaporation of one ? particle. Accordingly, 2?xn channels do not necessarily agree with high value of angular momentum in the entrance channel. From the study of experimental results in the yrast plane, we can assign a large width to the angular momentum distribution

194

Competitive Spectrum Management with Incomplete Information  

CERN Document Server

This paper studies an interference interaction (game) between selfish and independent wireless communication systems in the same frequency band. Each system (player) has incomplete information about the other player's channel conditions. A trivial Nash equilibrium point in this game is where players mutually full spread (FS) their transmit spectrum and interfere with each other. This point may lead to poor spectrum utilization from a global network point of view and even for each user individually. In this paper, we provide a closed form expression for a non pure-FS epsilon-Nash equilibrium point; i.e., an equilibrium point where players choose FDM for some channel realizations and FS for the others. We show that operating in this non pure-FS epsilon-Nash equilibrium point increases each user's throughput and therefore improves the spectrum utilization, and demonstrate that this performance gain can be substantial. Finally, important insights are provided into the behaviour of selfish and rational wireless us...

Noam, Yair; Messer, Hagit

2010-01-01

195

Regulatory perspective on incomplete control rod insertions  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The incomplete control rod insertions experienced at South Texas Unit 1 and Wolf Creek are of safety concern to the NRC staff because they represent potential precursors to loss of shutdown margin. Even before it was determined if these events were caused by the control rods or by the fuel there was an apparent correlation of the problem with high burnup fuel. It was determined that there was also a correlation between high burnup and high drag forces as well as with rod drop time histories and lack of rod recoil. The NRC staff initial actions were aimed at getting a perspective on the magnitude of the problem as far as the number of plants and the amount of fuel that could be involved, as well as the safety significance in terms of shutdown margin. As tests have been performed and data has been analyzed the focus has shifted more toward understanding the problem and the ways to eliminate it. At this time the staff`s understanding of the phenomena is that it was a combination of factors including burnup, power history and temperature. The problem appears to be very sensitive to these factors, the interaction of which is not clearly understood. The model developed by Westinghouse provides a possible explanation but there is not sufficient data to establish confidence levels and sensitivity studies involving the key parameters have not been done. While several fixes to the problem have been discussed, no definitive fixes have been proposed. Without complete understanding of the phenomena, or fixes that clearly eliminate the problem the safety concern remains. The safety significance depends on the amount of shutdown margin lost due to incomplete insertion of the control rods. Were the control rods to stick high in the core, the reactor could not be shutdown by the control rods and other means such as emergency boration would be required.

Chatterton, M.

1997-01-01

196

CAREER MATURITY OF ADOLESCENTS IN RELATION TO THEIR EMOTIONAL MATURITY  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The present study attempts to study the relationship between career maturity and emotional maturity of adolescents. It also purports to find out difference between male and female, urban and rural in terms of career maturity and emotional maturity. The simple random sample consists of 240 students selected from twelve schools of Faridabad district. The results revealed a negative relationship between career maturity and emotional maturity. It was also found that male adolescents were better than female adolescents and urban adolescents were better than rural adolescents with regard their career maturity and emotional maturity.

Ms. Rita Saini,

197

Incomplete resistance to coffee leaf rust (Hemileia vastatrix)  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Incomplete resistance to coffee leaf rust ( Hemileia vastatrix ) may be of value in obtaining durable resistance, which is of great importance for the perennial coffee crop. Methods were developed to assess incomplete resistance to coffee leaf rust by using illustrated scales ranging from 0 to 9 (Chapter 1). A laboratory screening method, which uses leaf disks, has been standardized. The method is satisfactory for the assessment of complete and incomplete resistance (Chapter 2). Resist...

Eskes, T. K. A. B.

1983-01-01

198

The effect of incomplete information on the compromise effect  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Most research on the compromise effect focuses on how consumers make their decisions in a complete information scenario; however, consumers generally lack sufficient information when they make purchase decisions. This research aims to explore the compromise effect with incomplete information. Three studies were conducted to examine the research hypotheses. The main findings was that consumers are more likely to choose the middle option when they have incomplete information than when they have complete information. Further, the compromise effect decreases when consumers can choose to defer their decision in an incomplete information scenario. Finally, the compromise effect decreases when consumers are asked to infer missing attribute values from the incomplete information.

Shih-Chieh Chuang

2012-03-01

199

MATURATION OF POPCORN SEEDS  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The objective of this study was to analyze the maturation process of the popcorn seeds DFT 2 (selection cycle 2. At approximately 30 days after full blooming, when about 50% of the plants exhibited receptive silks, the first harvest of the seeds was accomplished. The other harvests were accomplished at 7-day intervals until seeds reached approximately 12% moisture content (wet basis, which occurred upon the 10th harvesting. Just after each harvest, the seeds were manually husked, to determine their moisture content and the weight of the dry matter. Also the development of the black layer was visually evaluated. After the last harvesting, the seeds were evaluated for retention on sieves, germination and vigor (modified cold, accelerated aging and electric conductivity tests. The popcorn seeds reach the maximum dry matter weight (mass maturity 68 days after flowering, and the physiological maturity of the seeds (maximum germination and vigor achieves it from 62 to 68 days after blooming. The seeds show humidity in the grade from 17 to 20%, for occasion of the physiological maturity and mass maturity. The black layer is an efficient visual characteristic to identify the physiological maturity of the seeds.

ANDRÉIA MÁRCIA SANTOS DE SOUZA DAVID

2003-12-01

200

Scalable tensor factorizations with incomplete data.  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The problem of incomplete data - i.e., data with missing or unknown values - in multi-way arrays is ubiquitous in biomedical signal processing, network traffic analysis, bibliometrics, social network analysis, chemometrics, computer vision, communication networks, etc. We consider the problem of how to factorize data sets with missing values with the goal of capturing the underlying latent structure of the data and possibly reconstructing missing values (i.e., tensor completion). We focus on one of the most well-known tensor factorizations that captures multi-linear structure, CANDECOMP/PARAFAC (CP). In the presence of missing data, CP can be formulated as a weighted least squares problem that models only the known entries. We develop an algorithm called CP-WOPT (CP Weighted OPTimization) that uses a first-order optimization approach to solve the weighted least squares problem. Based on extensive numerical experiments, our algorithm is shown to successfully factorize tensors with noise and up to 99% missing data. A unique aspect of our approach is that it scales to sparse large-scale data, e.g., 1000 x 1000 x 1000 with five million known entries (0.5% dense). We further demonstrate the usefulness of CP-WOPT on two real-world applications: a novel EEG (electroencephalogram) application where missing data is frequently encountered due to disconnections of electrodes and the problem of modeling computer network traffic where data may be absent due to the expense of the data collection process.

Morup, Morten (Technical University of Denmark); Dunlavy, Daniel M. (Sandia National Laboratories, Albuquerque, NM); Acar, Evrim (Information Technologies Institute, Turkey); Kolda, Tamara Gibson

2010-07-01

 
 
 
 
201

Scalable tensor factorizations for incomplete data  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

The problem of incomplete data—i.e., data with missing or unknown values—in multi-way arrays is ubiquitous in biomedical signal processing, network traffic analysis, bibliometrics, social network analysis, chemometrics, computer vision, communication networks, etc. We consider the problem of how to factorize data sets with missing values with the goal of capturing the underlying latent structure of the data and possibly reconstructing missing values (i.e., tensor completion). We focus on one of the most well-known tensor factorizations that captures multi-linear structure, CANDECOMP/PARAFAC (CP). In the presence of missing data, CP can be formulated as a weighted least squares problem that models only the known entries. We develop an algorithm called CP-WOPT (CP Weighted OPTimization) that uses a first-order optimization approach to solve the weighted least squares problem. Based on extensive numerical experiments, our algorithm is shown to successfully factorize tensors with noise and up to 99% missing data.A unique aspect of our approach is that it scales to sparse large-scale data, e.g., 1000 × 1000 × 1000 with five million known entries (0.5% dense). We further demonstrate the usefulness of CP-WOPT on two real-world applications: a novel EEG (electroencephalogram) application where missing data is frequently encountered due to disconnections of electrodes and the problem of modeling computer network traffic where data may be absent due to the expense of the data collection process.

MØrup, Morten

2011-01-01

202

Scalable Tensor Factorizations for Incomplete Data  

CERN Document Server

The problem of incomplete data - i.e., data with missing or unknown values - in multi-way arrays is ubiquitous in biomedical signal processing, network traffic analysis, bibliometrics, social network analysis, chemometrics, computer vision, communication networks, etc. We consider the problem of how to factorize data sets with missing values with the goal of capturing the underlying latent structure of the data and possibly reconstructing missing values (i.e., tensor completion). We focus on one of the most well-known tensor factorizations that captures multi-linear structure, CANDECOMP/PARAFAC (CP). In the presence of missing data, CP can be formulated as a weighted least squares problem that models only the known entries. We develop an algorithm called CP-WOPT (CP Weighted OPTimization) that uses a first-order optimization approach to solve the weighted least squares problem. Based on extensive numerical experiments, our algorithm is shown to successfully factorize tensors with noise and up to 99% missing d...

Acar, Evrim; Dunlavy, Daniel M; Morup, Morten

2010-01-01

203

Analyzing Incomplete Discrete Longitudinal Clinical Trial Data  

CERN Document Server

Commonly used methods to analyze incomplete longitudinal clinical trial data include complete case analysis (CC) and last observation carried forward (LOCF). However, such methods rest on strong assumptions, including missing completely at random (MCAR) for CC and unchanging profile after dropout for LOCF. Such assumptions are too strong to generally hold. Over the last decades, a number of full longitudinal data analysis methods have become available, such as the linear mixed model for Gaussian outcomes, that are valid under the much weaker missing at random (MAR) assumption. Such a method is useful, even if the scientific question is in terms of a single time point, for example, the last planned measurement occasion, and it is generally consistent with the intention-to-treat principle. The validity of such a method rests on the use of maximum likelihood, under which the missing data mechanism is ignorable as soon as it is MAR. In this paper, we will focus on non-Gaussian outcomes, such as binary, categorica...

Jansen, I; Molenberghs, G; Verbeke, G; Mallinckrodt, C; Jansen, Ivy; Beunckens, Caroline; Molenberghs, Geert; Verbeke, Geert; Mallinckrodt, Craig

2006-01-01

204

Trisomy 18 syndrome with incomplete Cantrell syndrome.  

Science.gov (United States)

The pentalogy of Cantrell was first described in 1958 by Cantrell and coworkers, who reported five cases in which they described a pentad of findings including a midline supraumbilical thoracoabdominal wall defect, a defect of the Lower sternum, abnormalities of the diaphragmatic pericardium and the anterior diaphragm, and congenital cardiac anomalies. Trisomy 18 has an incidence of about 0.3 per 1000 newborns. We present a case of trisomy 18 with incomplete Cantrell syndrome. The patient presented with hypogenesis of the corpus callosum, vermian-cerebellar hypoplasia (Dandy-Walker variant), ventricular septal defect, dextrocardia, patent ductus arteriosus, a defect of the lower sternum, a midline supraumbilical abdominal wall defect with omphalocele, congenital left posterior diaphragmatic hernia (Bochdalek hernia), micrognathia, low-set and malformed ears, rocker-bottom feet, dorsiflexed hallux, hypoplastic nails, short neck, and wrist deformity. Trisomy 18 syndrome was unusually combined with the pentalogy of Cantrell. We present this case because of its rarity and high risk of mortality. PMID:18947004

Hou, Yi-Jen; Chen, Fong-Lin; Ng, Yan-Yan; Hu, Jui-Ming; Chen, Suh-Jen; Chen, Jia-Yuh; Su, Pen-Hua

2008-06-01

205

A Clinical Study on Management of Incomplete Abortion by Manual Vacuum Aspiration (MVA  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Background: Abortion is an important social and public health issue. In Bangladesh complication from unsafe abortion is one of the leading causes of maternal mortality. It is a serious health problem. World Health Organisation estimates that 14% of maternal deaths which occur every year in the countries of South Asia including Bangladesh are due to abortion. Study shows manual vacuum aspiration procedure is safe and effective in incomplete abortion. Very few clinical trials were carried out in Bangladesh to assess the safety and effectivity of manual vacuum aspiration in managing incomplete abortion. Objective: To find out the outcome of manual vacuum aspiration in the management of patients of incomplete abortion. Materials and Methods: This observational descriptive study was conducted in the department of Obstetrics & Gynaecology, Dhaka Medical College & Hospital from June to December, 2004. One hundred cases of diagnosed incomplete abortion up to 12 weeks of gestation were managed by manual vacuum aspiration during this period. A data recording sheet was designed for this purpose. Haemodynamically stable patients with no history of induced abortion and fever were enrolled. Results: Procedure time of manual vacuum aspiration was short, average duration was 7 minutes. Bleeding was minimum (20-30 mL in 67% cases and weighted mean was 29.80 mL. Eighty three percent patients were stable during the procedure and only 3% needed blood transfusion. Nonnarcotic analgesics were used in 59% cases and 33% needed only proper counselling. Average duration of hospital stay was 2 hours. Effectiveness of the procedure was about 98% with very low post procedure complication rate (2%. Conclusion: MVA procedure is a safe and effective technique of uterine evacuation in incomplete abortion. It is quick, less expensive, effective and less painful. Hospital stay and chance of perforation of uterus is less. So this procedure should be considered by health care system in Bangladesh for improving treatment of incomplete abortion to reduce both maternal morbidity and mortality.

Arifa Akter Jahan

2012-07-01

206

Fusion of Ubiquitin to HIV Gag Impairs Human Monocyte-Derived Dendritic Cell Maturation and Reduces Ability to Induce Gag T Cell Responses  

Science.gov (United States)

The efficient induction of CD8 T cell immunity is dependent on the processing and presentation of antigen on MHC class I molecules by professional antigen presenting cells (APC). To develop an improved T cell vaccine for HIV we investigated whether fusing the ubiquitin gene to the N terminus of the HIV gag gene enhanced targeting to the proteasome resulting in better CD8 T cell responses. Human monocyte derived dendritic cells (moDC), transduced with adenovirus vectors carrying either ubiquitinated or non-ubiquitinated gag transgene constructs, were co-cultured with autologous naïve T cells and T cell responses were measured after several weekly cycles of stimulation. Despite targeting of the ubiquitin gag transgene protein to the proteasome, ubiquitination did not increase CD8 T cell immune responses and in some cases diminished responses to gag peptides. There were no marked differences in cytokines produced from ubiquitinated and non-ubiquitinated gag stimulated cultures or in the expression of inhibitory molecules on expanded T cells. However, the ability of moDC transduced with ubiquitinated gag gene to upregulate co-stimulatory molecules was reduced, whilst no difference in moDC maturation was observed with a control ubiquitinated and non-ubiquitinated MART gene. Furthermore moDC transduced with ubiquitinated gag produced more IL-10 than transduction with unmodified gag. Thus failure of gag ubiquitination to enhance CD8 responses may be caused by suppression of moDC maturation. These results indicate that when designing a successful vaccine strategy to target a particular cell population, attention must also be given to the effect of the vaccine on APCs. PMID:24505475

Herath, Shanthi; Benlahrech, Adel; Papagatsias, Timos; Athanasopoulos, Takis; Bouzeboudjen, Zineb; Hervouet, Catherine; Klavinskis, Linda; Meiser, Andrea; Kelleher, Peter; Dickson, George; Patterson, Steven

2014-01-01

207

New Experimental Evidence on the Incomplete Transformation Phenomenon in Steel.  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The aim of this work is to analyse the carbon content distribution in austenite during isothermal bainite formation and the incomplete reaction phenomenon by means of X-ray diffraction analysis and atom-probe tomography in high silicon, manganese alloyed steels. Results provide new evidence on the explanation for the incomplete reaction phenomenon and the bainite transformation theory.

Caballero, Francesca G. [CENIM-CSIC, Madrid, Spain; Garcia-Mateo, C. [CENIM-CSIC, Madrid, Spain; Santofimia, M. J. [Delft University of Technology, Delft, Netherlands; Miller, Michael K [ORNL; Garcia de Andres, C [CENIM-CSIC, Madrid, Spain

2009-01-01

208

Discrete spectrum and Weyl's asymptotic formula for incomplete manifolds  

CERN Document Server

Motivated by recent interest in the spectrum of the Laplacian of incomplete surfaces with isolated conical singularities, we consider more general incomplete m-dimensional manifolds with singularities on sets of codimension at least 2. With certain restrictions on the metric, we establish that the spectrum is discrete and satisfies Weyl's asymptotic formula.

Masamune, Jun

2008-01-01

209

HIFI: a computer code for projectile fragmentation accompanied by incomplete fusion  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A brief summary of a model proposed to describe projectile fragmentation accompanied by incomplete fusion and the instructions for the use of the computer code HIFI are given. The code HIFI calculates single inclusive spectra, coincident spectra and excitation functions resulting from particle-induced reactions. It is a multipurpose program which can calculate any type of coincident spectra as long as the reaction is assumed to take place in two steps

210

Long Maturity Forward Rates  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

The paper aims to improve the knowledge of the empirical properties of the long maturity region of the forward rate curve. Firstly, the theoretical negative correlation between the slope at the long end of the forward rate curve and the term structure variance is recovered empirically and found to be statistically significant. Secondly, the expectations hypothesis is analyzed for the long maturity region of the forward rate curve using "forward rate" regressions. The expectations hypothesis is numerically close to being accepted but is statistically rejected. The findings provide mixed support for the affine term structure model.

Christiansen, Charlotte

2001-01-01

211

TOPSIS-based consensus model for group decision-making with incomplete interval fuzzy preference relations.  

Science.gov (United States)

Due to the vagueness of real-world environments and the subjective nature of human judgments, it is natural for experts to estimate their judgements by using incomplete interval fuzzy preference relations. In this paper, based on the technique for order preference by similarity to ideal solution method, we present a consensus model for group decision-making (GDM) with incomplete interval fuzzy preference relations. To do this, we first define a new consistency measure for incomplete interval fuzzy preference relations. Second, a goal programming model is proposed to estimate the missing interval preference values and it is guided by the consistency property. Third, an ideal interval fuzzy preference relation is constructed by using the induced ordered weighted averaging operator, where the associated weights of characterizing the operator are based on the defined consistency measure. Fourth, a similarity degree between complete interval fuzzy preference relations and the ideal one is defined. The similarity degree is related to the associated weights, and used to aggregate the experts' preference relations in such a way that more importance is given to ones with the higher similarity degree. Finally, a new algorithm is given to solve the GDM problem with incomplete interval fuzzy preference relations, which is further applied to partnership selection in formation of virtual enterprises. PMID:24081882

Liu, Fang; Zhang, Wei-Guo

2014-08-01

212

Incomplete combustion in nonadiabatic premixed gas flames  

Science.gov (United States)

The inward propagating spherical flame and burner stabilized Bunsen-type flame of low-Lewis-number premixtures are studied numerically. It is shown that reduction of the reaction rate induced by the flame stretch makes the flame vulnerable to the radiative heat losses which may well result in a partial or complete extinction of the flame.

Kagan, L.; Sivashinsky, G.

1996-06-01

213

Incomplete fusion reactions in 16O + 165Ho  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Excitation functions for evaporation residues of the system 16O + 165Ho have been measured up to 100 MeV. Recoil range distribution of long lived reaction products were measured at 16O beam energy of 100 MeV. Detailed Monte Carlo simulation of recoil range distributions of products were performed with the help of PACE2 code, in order to extract the contributions of incomplete fusion in the individual channels. The results clearly show the incomplete fusion contributions in the tantalum and thulium products. This is confirmed by the predictions of breakup fusion model of the incomplete fusion. (author)

214

Incomplete fusion reactions in 16O+165Ho  

Science.gov (United States)

Excitation functions for evaporation residues of the system 16O + 165Ho have been measured up to 100 MeV. Recoil range distribution of long lived reaction products were measured at 16O beam energy of 100 MeV. Detailed Monte Carlo simulation of recoil range distributions of products were performed with the help of PACE2 code, in order to extract the contributions of incomplete fusion in the individual channels. The results clearly show the incomplete fusion contributions in the tantalum and thulium products. This is confirmed by the predictions of breakup fusion model of the incomplete fusion.

Sharma, Anil; Kumar, B. Bindu; Mukherjee, S.; Chakrabarty, S.; Tomar, B. S.; Goswami, A.; Gubbi, G. K.; Manohar, S. B.; Sinha, A. K.; Datta, S. K.

2000-03-01

215

Enterovirus-71 Virus-Like Particles Induce the Activation and Maturation of Human Monocyte-Derived Dendritic Cells through TLR4 Signaling  

Science.gov (United States)

Enterovirus 71 (EV71) causes seasonal epidemics of hand-foot-and-mouth disease and has a high mortality rate among young children. We recently demonstrated potent induction of the humoral and cell-mediated immune response in monkeys immunized with EV71 virus-like particles (VLPs), with a morphology resembling that of infectious EV71 virions but not containing a viral genome, which could potentially be safe as a vaccine for EV71. To elucidate the mechanisms through which EV71 VLPs induce cell-mediated immunity, we studied the immunomodulatory effects of EV71 VLPs on human monocyte-derived dendritic cells (DCs), which bind to and incorporate EV71 VLPs. DC treatment with EV71 VLPs enhanced the expression of CD80, CD86, CD83, CD40, CD54, and HLA-DR on the cell surface; increased the production of interleukin (IL)-12 p40, IL-12 p70, and IL-10 by DCs; and suppressed the capacity of DCs for endocytosis. Treatment with EV71 VLPs also enhanced the ability of DCs to stimulate naïve T cells and induced secretion of interferon (IFN)-? by T cells and Th1 cell responses. Neutralization with antibodies against Toll-like receptor (TLR) 4 suppressed the capacity of EV71 VLPs to induce the production of IL-12 p40, IL-12 p70, and IL-10 by DCs and inhibited EV71 VLPs binding to DCs. Our study findings clarified the important role for TLR4 signaling in DCs in response to EV71 VLPs and showed that EV71 VLPs induced inhibitor of kappaB alpha (I?B?) degradation and nuclear factor of kappaB (NF-?B) activation. PMID:25360749

Lin, Yu-Li; Hu, Yu-Chen; Liang, Cheng-Chao; Lin, Shih-Yeh; Liang, Yu-Chih; Yuan, Hui-Ping; Chiang, Bor-Luen

2014-01-01

216

Traumatic induction of early maturity in tetrahymena.  

Science.gov (United States)

Exposure of conjugating pairs of Tetrahymena thermophila to high temperature (37 degrees) during macronuclear development causes an abortion of many macronuclei, but it also often induces an early appearance of sexual maturity in clones completing macronuclear development. Lines become mature after about 15 cell divisions rather than after 50 or more cell divisions in untreated pairs. The phenotype resembles that associated with Em (early maturity) mutants but, because it is not transmitted to the progeny in the next generation, it must be considered a phenocopy. The hypothesis is developed that an early genotype-environment incompatibiltiy, whether associated with an abnormal genotype or an unusual environment, activates a shunt mechanism permitting the organisms to undertake quickly an ordinarily forbidden sexual lottery. PMID:885337

Nanney, D L; Meyer, E B

1977-05-01

217

19 CFR 122.74 - Incomplete (pro forma) manifest.  

Science.gov (United States)

...for Clearance and Permission To Depart; Electronic Manifest Requirements for Passengers, Crew Members, and Non-Crew Members Onboard Commercial Aircraft Departing From the United States § 122.74 Incomplete (pro forma) manifest. (a)...

2010-04-01

218

Incomplete fusion in the 19F+93Nb reaction  

Science.gov (United States)

The kinetic energy spectra and angular distributions of projectilelike fragments were measured by silicon based ?E-E telescopes in 95 MeV 19F+93Nb. The spectra of oxygen and nitrogen fragments show the existence of two reaction mechanisms, namely, quasielastic transfer and incomplete fusion reactions. On the other hand, the carbon and other lower Z fragments show broad Gaussian spectra indicative of incomplete fusion reactions only. The quasielastic transfer is explained in terms of the direct surface transfer model. The cross sections of complete and incomplete fusion channels agree with the calculations based on the sum-rule model. Recoil range distributions of evaporation residues formed in the 95 MeV 19F+93Nb reaction were measured using recoil catcher and off-line gamma-ray spectrometry. The results corroborate the binary nature of the incomplete fusion reactions.

Tomar, B. S.; Goswami, A.; Gubbi, G. K.; Reddy, A. V. R.; Manohar, S. B.; John, Bency; Kataria, S. K.

1998-12-01

219

Hairpin Incompletion : An Extension of Bounded Hairpin Completion  

CERN Document Server

Hairpin completion and its restricted variant called bounded hairpin completion are operations on formal languages, inspired by a hairpin formation in molecular biology. We introduce a new operation of this kind, called {\\it hairpin incompletion} which is in fact an extension of bounded hairpin completion. Further, the hairpin incompletion operation provides a formal language theoretic framework that models a bio-molecular technique nowadays known as Whiplash PCR. We study the closure properties of language families under both the operation and its iterated version. We show that a family of languages closed under intersection with regular sets, concatenation with regular sets, and finite union is closed under iterated hairpin incompletion, and that a family of languages containing all linear languages and closed under circular permutation, left derivative and substitution is also closed under iterated hairpin incompletion.

Okubo, Fumiya

2011-01-01

220

A Medium-Chain Fatty Acid, Capric Acid, Inhibits RANKL-Induced Osteoclast Differentiation via the Suppression of NF-?B Signaling and Blocks Cytoskeletal Organization and Survival in Mature Osteoclasts  

Science.gov (United States)

Fatty acids, important components of a normal diet, have been reported to play a role in bone metabolism. Osteoclasts are bone-resorbing cells that are responsible for many bone-destructive diseases such as osteoporosis. In this study, we investigated the impact of a medium-chain fatty acid, capric acid, on the osteoclast differentiation, function, and survival induced by receptor activator of NF-?B ligand (RANKL) and macrophage colony-stimulating factor (MCSF). Capric acid inhibited RANKL-mediated osteoclastogenesis in bone marrow-derived macrophages and suppressed RANKL-induced I?B? phosphorylation, p65 nuclear translocation, and NF-?B transcriptional activity. Capric acid further blocked the RANKL-stimulated activation of ERK without affecting JNK or p38. The induction of NFATc1 in response to RANKL was also attenuated by capric acid. In addition, capric acid abrogated M-CSF and RANKL-mediated cytoskeleton reorganization, which is crucial for the efficient bone resorption of osteoclasts. Capric acid also increased apoptosis in mature osteoclasts through the induction of Bim expression and the suppression of ERK activation by M-CSF. Together, our results reveal that capric acid has inhibitory effects on osteoclast development. We therefore suggest that capric acid may have potential therapeutic implications for the treatment of bone resorption-associated disorders. PMID:25134536

Kim, Hyun-Ju; Yoon, Hye-Jin; Kim, Shin-Yoon; Yoon, Young-Ran

2014-01-01

 
 
 
 
221

A medium-chain fatty acid, capric acid, inhibits RANKL-induced osteoclast differentiation via the suppression of NF-?B signaling and blocks cytoskeletal organization and survival in mature osteoclasts.  

Science.gov (United States)

Fatty acids, important components of a normal diet, have been reported to play a role in bone metabolism. Osteoclasts are bone-resorbing cells that are responsible for many bone-destructive diseases such as osteoporosis. In this study, we investigated the impact of a medium-chain fatty acid, capric acid, on the osteoclast differentiation, function, and survival induced by receptor activator of NF-?B ligand (RANKL) and macrophage colony-stimulating factor (MCSF). Capric acid inhibited RANKL-mediated osteoclastogenesis in bone marrow-derived macrophages and suppressed RANKL-induced I?B? phosphorylation, p65 nuclear translocation, and NF-?B transcriptional activity. Capric acid further blocked the RANKL-stimulated activation of ERK without affecting JNK or p38. The induction of NFATc1 in response to RANKL was also attenuated by capric acid. In addition, capric acid abrogated M-CSF and RANKL-mediated cytoskeleton reorganization, which is crucial for the efficient bone resorption of osteoclasts. Capric acid also increased apoptosis in mature osteoclasts through the induction of Bim expression and the suppression of ERK activation by M-CSF. Together, our results reveal that capric acid has inhibitory effects on osteoclast development. We therefore suggest that capric acid may have potential therapeutic implications for the treatment of bone resorption-associated disorders. PMID:25134536

Kim, Hyun-Ju; Yoon, Hye-Jin; Kim, Shin-Yoon; Yoon, Young-Ran

2014-08-01

222

The resurgence properties of the Incomplete gamma function II  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

In this paper we derive a new representation for the incomplete gamma function, exploiting the reformulation of the method of steepest descents by C. J. Howls (Howls, Proc. R. Soc. Lond. A 439 (1992) 373--396). Using this representation, we obtain numerically computable bounds for the remainder term of the asymptotic expansion of the incomplete gamma function $\\Gamma \\left( { - a,\\lambda a} \\right)$ with large $a$ and fixed positive $\\lambda$, and an asymptotic expansion for...

Nemes, Gergo?

2014-01-01

223

Possible communicative cues to syntactic incompleteness in spoken dialogues  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Due to the dynamic nature of dialogues, spoken utterances are often characterized by some degree of fragmentation. This fragmentation is directly reflected by the incompleteness of the syntactic structure of such utterances that represent a considerable challenge for automatic parsing. At the same time, syntactic incompleteness is also a reflection of some cognitive processes underlying the fragmentation of such an interaction. This fragmentation is often accompanied by a set of nonverbal ges...

Hunyadi, La?szlo?

2013-01-01

224

Filtering, control and fault detection with randomly occurring incomplete information  

CERN Document Server

This book investigates the filtering, control and fault detection problems for several classes of nonlinear systems with randomly occurring incomplete information. It proposes new concepts, including RVNs, ROMDs, ROMTCDs, and ROQEs. The incomplete information under consideration primarily includes missing measurements, time-delays, sensor and actuator saturations, quantization effects and time-varying nonlinearities. The first part of this book focuses on the filtering, control and fault detection problems for several classes of nonlinear stochastic discrete-time systems and

Dong, Hongli; Gao, Huijun

2013-01-01

225

A Method for Planning Given Uncertain and Incomplete Information  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This paper describes ongoing research into planning in an uncertain environment. In particular, it introduces U-Plan, a planning system that constructs quantitatively ranked plans given an incomplete description of the state of the world. U-Plan uses a DempsterShafer interval to characterise uncertain and incomplete information about the state of the world. The planner takes as input what is known about the world, and constructs a number of possible initial states with repre...

Mansell, Todd Michael

2013-01-01

226

The effect of incomplete information on the compromise effect  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Most research on the compromise effect focuses on how consumers make their decisions in a complete information scenario; however, consumers generally lack sufficient information when they make purchase decisions. This research aims to explore the compromise effect with incomplete information. Three studies were conducted to examine the research hypotheses. The main findings was that consumers are more likely to choose the middle option when they have incomplete information than when they have...

Shih-Chieh Chuang; Danny Tengti Kao; Yin-Hui Cheng; Chu-An Chou

2012-01-01

227

Mapping brain maturation  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Human brain maturation is a complex, lifelong process that can now be examined in detail using neuroimaging techniques. Ongoing projects scan subjects longitudinally with structural magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), enabling the time-course and anatomical sequence of development to be reconstructed. Here, we review recent progress on imaging studies of development. We focus on cortical and subcortical changes observed in healthy children, and contrast them with abnormal developmental changes ...

Toga, Arthur W.; Thompson, Paul M.; Sowell, Elizabeth R.

2006-01-01

228

MATURATION OF POPCORN SEEDS  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The objective of this study was to analyze the maturation process of the popcorn seeds DFT 2 (selection cycle 2). At approximately 30 days after full blooming, when about 50% of the plants exhibited receptive silks, the first harvest of the seeds was accomplished. The other harvests were accomplished at 7-day intervals until seeds reached approximately 12% moisture content (wet basis), which occurred upon the 10th harvesting. Just after each harvest, the seeds were manually husked, to determi...

ANDRÉIA MÁRCIA SANTOS DE SOUZA DAVID; EDUARDO FONTES ARAÚJO; GLAUCO VIEIRA MIRANDA; DENISE CUNHA FERNANDES DOS SANTOS DIAS; JOÃO CARLOS CARDOSO GALVÃO; VERÔNICA CARNEIRO

2003-01-01

229

Recurrent maturing perineal lipoblastoma  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Lipoblastoma is a rare benign neoplasm of fetal adipose tissue that we see mostly in infants and young children less than 3 years of age. Most lipoblastomas occur on the extremities, trunk, head and neck, and various other organs have been described. We report a case of a recurrent perineal lipoblastoma in a 2.5-year-old boy, which showed maturation of the lipoblasts as compared to the primary tumor. (author)

230

Lipid raft disruption protects mature neurons against amyloid oligomer toxicity  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Abstract A specific neuronal vulnerability to amyloid protein toxicity may account for brain susceptibility to protein misfolding diseases. To investigate this issue, we compared the effects induced by oligomers from salmon calcitonin (sCTOs), a neurotoxic amyloid protein, on cells of different histogenesis: mature and immature primary hippocampal neurons, primary astrocytes, MG63 osteoblasts and NIH-3T3 fibroblasts. In mature neurons, sCTOs increased apoptosis and induced neuritic...

2010-01-01

231

The high-mobility group box 1 cytokine induces transporter-mediated release of glutamate from glial subcellular particles (gliosomes) prepared from in situ-matured astrocytes.  

Science.gov (United States)

The multifunctional protein high-mobility group box 1 (HMGB1) is expressed in restricted areas of adult brain where it can act as a proinflammatory cytokine. We report here that HMGB1 affects CNS transmission by inducing glutamatergic release from glial (gliosomes) but not neuronal (synaptosomes) resealed subcellular particles isolated from mouse cerebellum and hippocampus. Confocal microscopy showed that gliosomes are enriched with glia-specific proteins such as GFAP and S-100, but not with neuronal proteins such as PSD-95, MAP-2, and beta-tubulin III. Furthermore, gliosomes exhibit labeling neither for integrin-alphaM nor for myelin basic protein, specific for microglia and oligodendrocytes, respectively. The gliosomal fraction contains proteins of the exocytotic machinery coexisting with GFAP. Consistent with ultrastructural analysis, several approximately 30-nm nonclustered vesicles are present in the gliosome cytoplasm. Finally, gliosomes represent functional organelles that actively export glutamate when subjected to releasing stimuli, such as ionomycin or ATP, by mechanisms involving extracellular Ca(2+) and Ca(2+) release from intracellular stores. HMGB1-induced release of the stable glutamate analogue [(3)H]d-aspartate and endogenous glutamate form gliosomes, whereas nerve terminals were insensitive to the protein. The HMGB1-evoked release of glutamate was independent on modifications of cytosolic Ca(2+) concentration, but it was blocked by dl-threo-beta-benzyloxyaspartate, suggesting the involvement of transporter-mediated release mechanisms. Moreover, dihydrokainic acid, a selective inhibitor of glutamate transporter 1 does not block the HMGB1 effect, indicating a role for the glial glutamate-aspartate transporter (GLAST) subtype in this response. HMGB1 bind to gliosomes but not to synaptosomes and can physically interact with GLAST and receptor for advanced glycation end products (RAGE). Taken together, these results suggest that the HMGB1 cytokine could act as a modulator of glutamate homeostasis in adult mammalian brain. PMID:17678956

Bonanno, Giambattista; Raiteri, Luca; Milanese, Marco; Zappettini, Simona; Melloni, Edon; Pedrazzi, Marco; Passalacqua, Mario; Tacchetti, Carlo; Usai, Cesare; Sparatore, Bianca

2007-01-01

232

Manejo estético y endodóncico de dientes con formación radicular incompleta / Aesthetic and endodontic management of teeth with incomplete root formation  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Spain | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish La necrosis pulpar es una de las principales complicaciones de los traumatismos dentales lo que implica en un diente inmaduro la interrupción de la maduración de la raíz y el cierre apical. Una terapia llamada "apexificación" se requiere para inducir la formación de una barrera calcificada apical pe [...] rmitiendo un relleno permanente y hermético de la raíz. Numerosos materiales han sido recomendados para inducir apexificación y conservar la estética en dientes con ápices inmaduros como el mineral trióxido agregado (MTA), el hidróxido de calcio [Ca (OH)2], los postes de fibra de vidrio y entre los diversos materiales utilizados en prótesis, la cerámica que reproduce la apariencia de la dentición natural y tiene un comportamiento óptico muy similar a la de los tejidos duros dentales. El presente caso reporta paciente masculino de 17 años de edad con fractura coronaria complicada, conducto radicular expuesto a cavidad oral con formación radicular incompleta. El objetivo del presente caso clínico es describir la apexificación como primera alternativa para mantener un diente útil, utilizando la formación de una barrera apical con mineral trióxido agregado (MTA) y recuperar la estética del paciente. Conclusiones: La medicación intraconducto adecuada para la inducción a la formación de un cierre apical en un diente inmaduro o con formación radicular incompleta, es de trascendental importancia para el éxito del proceso de apexificación en donde juega un papel importante el MTA ya que en la actualidad es el material que brinda más ventajas en esta práctica como inductor de dicho proceso. Abstract in english Pulpal necrosis is one of the main complications of dental trauma which implies an interruption of the root maturation and the apical closure of an immature tooth. Apexification is a therapy used for inducing the creation of an apical calcified barrier allowing a permanent filling of the root. Sever [...] al materials have been recommended to induce apexification and preserve aesthetics in teeth with immature apex, such as mineral trioxide aggregate (MTA), calcium hydroxide [Ca (OH)2], glass fiber posts, as well as the different materials used in prosthetic dentistry, ceramics that reproduce the appearance of the natural dentition and show an optic behavior very similar to the hard tissues of the teeth. This case reports a 17 year old male patient with a complicated crown fracture, exposed root canal in the oral cavity with incomplete root formation. The purpose of this clinical case is to describe the use of apexification as the first choice to keep a useful tooth, using the formation of an apical barrier with mineral trioxide aggregate (MTA) and recover the patient aesthetics. Conclusions: The appropriate intracanal medication for inducing the formation of an apical closure in an immature tooth or with an incomplete root formation, is of vital importance for the success of the process of apexification where MTA plays an important role due to the fact that right now is the material that gives more advantages in this particular practice as an inducer in that process.

L.A., Dávila Rodríguez; D.A., Barcha Barreto; E., León Barrios; M.A., Simancas Pallares.

233

Manejo estético y endodóncico de dientes con formación radicular incompleta / Aesthetic and endodontic management of teeth with incomplete root formation  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Spain | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish La necrosis pulpar es una de las principales complicaciones de los traumatismos dentales lo que implica en un diente inmaduro la interrupción de la maduración de la raíz y el cierre apical. Una terapia llamada "apexificación" se requiere para inducir la formación de una barrera calcificada apical pe [...] rmitiendo un relleno permanente y hermético de la raíz. Numerosos materiales han sido recomendados para inducir apexificación y conservar la estética en dientes con ápices inmaduros como el mineral trióxido agregado (MTA), el hidróxido de calcio [Ca (OH)2], los postes de fibra de vidrio y entre los diversos materiales utilizados en prótesis, la cerámica que reproduce la apariencia de la dentición natural y tiene un comportamiento óptico muy similar a la de los tejidos duros dentales. El presente caso reporta paciente masculino de 17 años de edad con fractura coronaria complicada, conducto radicular expuesto a cavidad oral con formación radicular incompleta. El objetivo del presente caso clínico es describir la apexificación como primera alternativa para mantener un diente útil, utilizando la formación de una barrera apical con mineral trióxido agregado (MTA) y recuperar la estética del paciente. Conclusiones: La medicación intraconducto adecuada para la inducción a la formación de un cierre apical en un diente inmaduro o con formación radicular incompleta, es de trascendental importancia para el éxito del proceso de apexificación en donde juega un papel importante el MTA ya que en la actualidad es el material que brinda más ventajas en esta práctica como inductor de dicho proceso. Abstract in english Pulpal necrosis is one of the main complications of dental trauma which implies an interruption of the root maturation and the apical closure of an immature tooth. Apexification is a therapy used for inducing the creation of an apical calcified barrier allowing a permanent filling of the root. Sever [...] al materials have been recommended to induce apexification and preserve aesthetics in teeth with immature apex, such as mineral trioxide aggregate (MTA), calcium hydroxide [Ca (OH)2], glass fiber posts, as well as the different materials used in prosthetic dentistry, ceramics that reproduce the appearance of the natural dentition and show an optic behavior very similar to the hard tissues of the teeth. This case reports a 17 year old male patient with a complicated crown fracture, exposed root canal in the oral cavity with incomplete root formation. The purpose of this clinical case is to describe the use of apexification as the first choice to keep a useful tooth, using the formation of an apical barrier with mineral trioxide aggregate (MTA) and recover the patient aesthetics. Conclusions: The appropriate intracanal medication for inducing the formation of an apical closure in an immature tooth or with an incomplete root formation, is of vital importance for the success of the process of apexification where MTA plays an important role due to the fact that right now is the material that gives more advantages in this particular practice as an inducer in that process.

L.A., Dávila Rodríguez; D.A., Barcha Barreto; E., León Barrios; M.A., Simancas Pallares.

2013-08-01

234

Low energy in-complete fusion: The ?-Q-value systematics  

Science.gov (United States)

In the present work, the in-complete fusion probability has been deduced for 12C+159Tb and 13C+159Tb systems in the energy range ? 4-7 MeV/nucleon. The activation technique followed by off-line ?-rays spectroscopy has been used. The results have been compared with the predictions of statistical model code PACE4, which is based on the compound nucleus decay. The ratio of the sum of cross-sections of all measured xn, pxn channels to their corresponding PACE4 predictions are found to be lying close to unity throughout the studied energy range for both the systems, indicating their population via fusion evaporation channels followed by CF processes only. However, the ratio of the sum of cross-sections of all experimentally measured xn, pxn and ?xn-channels to their corresponding PACE4 calculations, display significant enhancement over the unity line, indicating the onset and presence of in-complete fusion processes at these energies. The comparison of experimentally measured and systematically deduced in-complete fusion fractions for both the systems reveals a strong projectile structure effect. The probability of in-complete fusion is found to be higher for 12C induced reaction than for one-neutron rich 13C induced reactions on the same target 159Tb. An attempt has been made to study the ICF probability within the frame work of the ?-Q-value of the projectiles. Analysis of the data indicates that the ?-Q-value of the projectile is an important entrance channel parameter and seems to dictate the probability of ICF at these low energies.

Yadav, Abhishek; Sharma, Vijay R.; Singh, Devendra P.; Singh, Pushpendra P.; Unnati, Sharma, M. K.; Kumar, R.; Singh, B. P.; Prasad, R.

2013-04-01

235

Late Sexual Maturation in Girls  

Science.gov (United States)

The delay of sexual maturation causes emotional difficulty. The girl doubts her worth and exhibits uncertainty about herself. This paper describes sexual maturation from the standpoint of sociocultural and biological factors, and offers suggestions for management of young girls with delayed sexual maturation. (Author/CJ)

Adams, Paul L.

1972-01-01

236

Development of an in vitro culture method for stepwise differentiation of mouse embryonic stem cells and induced pluripotent stem cells into mature osteoclasts.  

Science.gov (United States)

The development of methods for differentiation of embryonic stem cells (ESCs) and induced pluripotent stem cell (iPSCs) into functional cells have helped to analyze the mechanism regulating cellular processes and to explore cell-based assays for drug discovery. Although several reports have demonstrated methods for differentiation of mouse ESCs into osteoclast-like cells, it remains unclear whether these methods are applicable for differentiation of iPSCs to osteoclasts. In this study, we developed a simple method for stepwise differentiation of mouse ESCs and iPSCs into bone-resorbing osteoclasts based upon a monoculture approach consisting of three steps. First, based on conventional hanging-drop methods, embryoid bodies (EBs) were produced from mouse ESCs or iPSCs. Second, EBs were cultured in medium supplemented with macrophage colony-stimulating factor (M-CSF), and differentiated to osteoclast precursors, which expressed CD11b. Finally, ESC- or iPSC-derived osteoclast precursors stimulated with receptor activator of nuclear factor-B ligand (RANKL) and M-CSF formed large multinucleated osteoclast-like cells that expressed tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase and were capable of bone resorption. Molecular analysis showed that the expression of osteoclast marker genes such as Nfatc1, Ctsk, and Acp5 are increased in a RANKL-dependent manner. Thus, our procedure is simple and easy and would be helpful for stem cell-based bone research. PMID:24366621

Nishikawa, Keizo; Iwamoto, Yoriko; Ishii, Masaru

2014-05-01

237

In vivo microdialysis study of excitatory and inhibitory amino acid levels in the hippocampus following penicillin-induced seizures in mature rats.  

Science.gov (United States)

To investigate the basic mechanism of epileptogenecity in children, we undertook a study of application of penicillin (PC) to the brain of an animal model. Different doses of PC were injected into the hippocampus of Spraque-Dawley rats subjected to microdialysis to observe in vivo changes of excitatory amino acid (EAA) and inhibitory amino acid (IAA) levels during seizure. All of the EAA and IAA levels increased in the interstitial cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) after focal application of PC. We found that 668 and 1336 units of PC were enough to increase glutamate levels significantly. These levels consistently declined to nearly normal within 40 minutes after PC injection. The aspartate level increased soon after PC injection without statistical significance and then declined almost to baseline level. The IAA, r-aminobutyric acid (GABA), glycine, and taurine levels increased significantly after injection of 1336 u of PC. EEG recording of spike discharges was also well defined after the injection of 1336 u of PC. Our study suggests that an adequate PC dose to the hippocampus will enhance the release of EAA and IAA in the brain as well as epileptogenecity on EEG activity. Using in vivo microdialysis, EAA and IAA can be studied during an induced epileptic process. Elevation of EAA levels soon after focal chemical stimulation of the brain provides a good model for study of epileptogenecity. A delay in the decline of IAA levels may suggest an important phenomenon in seizure suppression and is also worthy of further study. PMID:12632783

Shen, Ein-Yiao; Lai, Yu-Jan

2002-01-01

238

Sublingual misoprostol versus standard surgical care for treatment of incomplete abortion in five sub-Saharan African countries  

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Full Text Available Abstract Background In low-resource settings, where abortion is highly restricted and self-induced abortions are common, access to post-abortion care (PAC services, especially treatment of incomplete terminations, is a priority. Standard post-abortion care has involved surgical intervention but can be hard to access in these areas. Misoprostol provides an alternative to surgical intervention that could increase access to abortion care. We sought to gather additional evidence regarding the efficacy of 400 mcg of sublingual misoprostol vs. standard surgical care for treatment of incomplete abortion in the environments where need for economical non-surgical treatments may be most useful. Methods A total of 860 women received either sublingual misoprostol or standard surgical care for treatment of incomplete abortion in a multi-site randomized trial. Women with confirmed incomplete abortion, defined as past or present history of vaginal bleeding during pregnancy and an open cervical os, were eligible to participate. Participants returned for follow-up one week later to confirm clinical status. If abortion was incomplete at that time, women were offered an additional follow-up visit or immediate surgical evacuation. Results Both misoprostol and surgical evacuation are highly effective treatments for incomplete abortion (misoprostol: 94.4%, surgical: 100.0%. Misoprostol treatment resulted in a somewhat lower chance of success than standard surgical practice (RR = 0.90; 95% CI: 0.89-0.92. Both tolerability of side effects and women’s satisfaction were similar in the two study arms. Conclusion Misoprostol, much easier to provide than surgery in low-resource environments, can be used safely, successfully, and satisfactorily for treatment of incomplete abortion. Focus should shift to program implementation, including task-shifting the provision of post-abortion care to mid- and low- level providers, training and assurance of drug availability. Trial registration This study has been registered at clinicaltrials.gov as NCT00466999 and NCT01539408

Shochet Tara

2012-11-01

239

Observation of incomplete fusion reactions at l < l crit  

Science.gov (United States)

In order to understand the presence of incomplete fusion at low energies i.e. 4-7MeV/nucleon & also to study its dependence on various entrance-channel parameters, the two type of measurements (i) excitation function for 12C+159Tb, and (ii) forward recoil ranges for 12C+159Tb systems have been performed. The experimentally measured excitation functions have been analyzed within the framework of compound nucleus decay using statistical model code PACE4. Analysis of data suggests the production of xn/px)n-channels via complete fusion, as these are found to be well reproduced by PACE4 predictions, while, a significant enhancement in the excitation functions of ?-emitting channels has been observed over the theoretical ones, which has been attributed due to the incomplete fusion processes. Further, the incomplete fusion events observed in case of forward recoil range measurements have been explained on the basis of the breakup fusion model, where these events may be attributed to the fusion of 8Be and/or 4He from 12C projectile to the target nucleus. In the present work, the SUMRULE model calculations are found to highly underestimate the observed incomplete fusion cross-sections which indicate that the l-values lower than l crit (limit of complete fusion) significantly contribute to the incomplete fusion reactions.

Yadav, Abhishek; Sharma, Vijay R.; Singh, Devendra P.; Singh, Pushpendra P.; Bala, Indu; Kumar, R.; Unnati, Sharma, M. K.; Muralithar, S.; Singh, R. P.; Singh, B. P.; Prasad, R.

2014-08-01

240

Aberrant elevated microRNA-146a in dendritic cells (DC) induced by human pancreatic cancer cell line BxPC-3-conditioned medium inhibits DC maturation and activation.  

Science.gov (United States)

It has been shown that the function of dendritic cell (DC) is suppressed in pancreatic cancer patients; however, the detailed mechanism involved in it remains unclear. Here, we used medium conditioned by a highly metastatic human pancreatic cancer cell line BxPC-3 [BxPC-3-conditioned medium (BxCM)] to culture human CD14+ monocyte-derived DCs in vitro. Both DC differentiation and antigen presentation function were inhibited by BxCM. The microRNA-146a (miRNA-146a) expression is aberrantly up-regulated in BxCM-treated DCs. In addition, inhibition of aberrant miRNA-146a expression partly rescues the BxCM-induced defects in differentiation and function of DCs, which may be through regulation of Smad4 expression. Taken together, our findings indicate that aberrant miRNA-146a expression is one of main factors responsible for inhibition of DC maturation and antigen presentation function, and this inhibitory effect on DCs may be due to the repression of Smad4 mediated signal pathway by BxCM. PMID:22311263

Du, Jian; Wang, Jingwen; Tan, Guang; Cai, Zhengang; Zhang, Lu; Tang, Bo; Wang, Zhongyu

2012-12-01

 
 
 
 
241

Propolis inhibits osteoclast maturation.  

Science.gov (United States)

Propolis, a natural product produced by the honey bee, has been successfully used in medicine as an anti-inflammatory and antimicrobial agent. Traumatic injuries to the teeth, especially avulsion injuries, present a challenging situation for the clinician because of post-treatment complications, such as inflammatory and/or replacement resorption. Agents that reduce osteoclast numbers and activity may be useful in the treatment of traumatic injuries to the teeth. In this study, we evaluated propolis as an anti-resorptive agent. Calcitriol-stimulated mouse marrow cultures, which contain both osteoclasts and osteoblasts, were exposed to the ethanol extracts of propolis or vehicle control and stained for tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase (TRAP)-activity to identify osteoclasts. A significant, dose-dependent reduction in multinuclear TRAP+ cells was demonstrated, although the propolis treatment accommodated cell growth and survival (P Propolis also reduced the formation of actin rings in pure cultures of RAW 264.7 osteoclast-like cells, suggesting that it exerts direct actions on osteoclast maturation. In summary, our data suggest that propolis inhibits late stages of osteoclast maturation including fusion of osteoclasts precursors to form giant cells and formation of actin rings. This supports the hypothesis that it may prove useful as a medicament to reduce resorption associated with traumatic injuries to the teeth. PMID:19843135

Pileggi, Roberta; Antony, Kathryn; Johnson, Kristie; Zuo, Jian; Shannon Holliday, L

2009-12-01

242

Group decision-making model with incomplete fuzzy preference relations based on additive consistency.  

Science.gov (United States)

In decision-making problems there may be cases in which experts do not have an in-depth knowledge of the problem to be solved. In such cases, experts may not put their opinion forward about certain aspects of the problem, and as a result they may present incomplete preferences, i.e., some preference values may not be given or may be missing. In this paper, we present a new model for group decision making in which experts' preferences can be expressed as incomplete fuzzy preference relations. As part of this decision model, we propose an iterative procedure to estimate the missing information in an expert's incomplete fuzzy preference relation. This procedure is guided by the additive-consistency (AC) property and only uses the preference values the expert provides. The AC property is also used to measure the level of consistency of the information provided by the experts and also to propose a new induced ordered weighted averaging (IOWA) operator, the AC-IOWA operator, which permits the aggregation of the experts' preferences in such a way that more importance is given to the most consistent ones. Finally, the selection of the solution set of alternatives according to the fuzzy majority of the experts is based on two quantifier-guided choice degrees: the dominance and the nondominance degree. PMID:17278570

Herrera-Viedma, Enrique; Chiclana, Francisco; Herrera, Francisco; Alonso, Sergio

2007-02-01

243

Possible communicative cues to syntactic incompleteness in spoken dialogues  

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Full Text Available Due to the dynamic nature of dialogues, spoken utterances are often characterized by some degree of fragmentation. This fragmentation is directly reflected by the incompleteness of the syntactic structure of such utterances that represent a considerable challenge for automatic parsing. At the same time, syntactic incompleteness is also a reflection of some cognitive processes underlying the fragmentation of such an interaction. This fragmentation is often accompanied by a set of nonverbal gestures offering thereby the chance to attempt to find certain cues to these cognitive processes by studying the complex of aligning verbal and nonverbal elements. The present paper addresses the issue of the interaction of multimodal markers of conversation with the syntax of spoken utterances to find if certain communicative functions may be cues to the incompleteness of spoken syntax.

Hunyadi, László

2013-01-01

244

THE THEORIES OF INCOMPLETE CONTRACTS IN ANALYZING THE COMPANY  

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Full Text Available Incomplete contracts theories have developed significantly in recent decades, although insistence for rigorous models left little room for empirical research. By formalizing and extending some results from other theories such as transaction costs, incomplete contracts theory tries to analyze the prudence displayed by the parties before the possible opportunistic behavior that would follow completing a contract, especially in the case of specific investments and how the insufficient contractual protection measures can lead to inefficient levels of investment. Even the name - incomplete contracts theory- suggests that the main concern is to consider the limits of contracts, that the contracts fail to specify not only the investment ex ante, but also many other unforeseen items that may appear ex post, and that would be desirable to be introduced in such an arrangement. Explanations can be either the bounded rationality or excessive cost that would involve writing of such contracts.\\r\

Pacala Anca

2012-07-01

245

Incomplete factorization technique for positive definite linear systems  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This paper describes a technique for solving the large sparse symmetric linear systems that arise from the application of finite element methods. The technique combines an incomplete factorization method called the shifted incomplete Cholesky factorization with the method of generalized conjugate gradients. The shifted incomplete Cholesky factorization produces a splitting of the matrix A that is dependent upon a parameter ?. It is shown that if A is positive definite, then there is some ? for which this splitting is possible and that this splitting is at least as good as the Jacobi splitting. The method is shown to be more efficient on a set of test problems than either direct methods or explicit iteration schemes

246

Two Incomplete Kawasaki Disease Cases Presenting With Rare Symptoms  

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Full Text Available Early recognition and prompt treatment of Kawasaki disease are essential to ensure a successful outcome of coronary artery involvement. A specific diagnostic test is not available and the diagnosis is based on the presence of characteristic clinical findings. However, in some patients with lack of sufficient clinical signs to fulfill the diagnostic criteria are called incomplete Kawasaki disease. There may be problems in diagnosing infants presenting with rare symptoms. Here we presented two infants diagnosed with incomplete Kawasaki disease who presented with rare symptoms. The first patient presented with a history of persistent fever for seven days, irritability and strawberry tongue. Subsequently erythema with induration was noticed around the BCG site. The second patient presented with fever, maculopapular rash and transient hemiparesis. The coronary abnormalities were observed by echocardiography in both patients. Incomplete Kawasaki disease was diagnosed, and therapy with acetylsalicylic acid and intravenous gamma globulin was initiated in both patients.

Fad?l Vardar

2008-12-01

247

Incomplete fuzzy data processing systems using artificial neural network  

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In this paper, the implementation of a fuzzy data processing system using an artificial neural network (ANN) is discussed. The binary representation of fuzzy data is assumed, where the universe of discourse is decartelized into n equal intervals. The value of a membership function is represented by a binary number. It is proposed that incomplete fuzzy data processing be performed in two stages. The first stage performs the 'retrieval' of incomplete fuzzy data, and the second stage performs the desired operation on the retrieval data. The method of incomplete fuzzy data retrieval is proposed based on the linear approximation of missing values of the membership function. The ANN implementation of the proposed system is presented. The system was computationally verified and showed a relatively small total error.

Patyra, Marek J.

1992-01-01

248

ON TWO METHODS OF ANALYSING BALANCED INCOMPLETE BLOCK DESIGNS  

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Full Text Available The paper briefly discusses the balanced incomplete–block design (BIBD’s and further compares two methods of analyzing them-the classical and vector space analysis of variance (ANOVA methods. These methods are applied differently to the data arising from the balanced incomplete block designs (BIBD’s. The basic interest is to compare the performance of the two methods of analysis on the available data from National Root Crop Research Institute (N.R.C.R.I Umudike, Abia State. To achieve this, we shall consider treatment (adjusted, block (adjusted treatment (not adjusted in the classical ANOVA method and the vector space ANOVA method.  Block is adjusted to know if the experiment is symmetric balanced incomplete block design (SBIBD. The classical ANOVA method was easier to compute and more convenient to handle than the vector ANOVA method. The classical ANOVA method is found to be preferable to the vector space ANOVA method.

Chigozie Kelechi Acha

2012-11-01

249

Enamel maturation: a brief background with implications for some enamel dysplasias  

Science.gov (United States)

The maturation stage of enamel development begins once the final tissue thickness has been laid down. Maturation includes an initial transitional pre-stage during which morphology and function of the enamel organ cells change. When this is complete, maturation proper begins. Fully functional maturation stage cells are concerned with final proteolytic degradation and removal of secretory matrix components which are replaced by tissue fluid. Crystals, initiated during the secretory stage, then grow replacing the tissue fluid. Crystals grow in both width and thickness until crystals abut each other occupying most of the tissue volume i.e. full maturation. If this is not complete at eruption, a further post eruptive maturation can occur via mineral ions from the saliva. During maturation calcium and phosphate enter the tissue to facilitate crystal growth. Whether transport is entirely active or not is unclear. Ion transport is also not unidirectional and phosphate, for example, can diffuse out again especially during transition and early maturation. Fluoride and magnesium, selectively taken up at this stage can also diffuse both in an out of the tissue. Crystal growth can be compromised by excessive fluoride and by ingress of other exogenous molecules such as albumin and tetracycline. This may be exacerbated by the relatively long duration of this stage, 10 days or so in a rat incisor and up to several years in human teeth rendering this stage particularly vulnerable to ingress of foreign materials, incompletely mature enamel being the result. PMID:25339913

Robinson, Colin

2014-01-01

250

Incomplete chromosome exchanges are not fingerprints of high LET neutrons  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A new fluorescence in situ hybridisation (FISH) technique combining whole chromosome specific DNA libraries with pan-centromeric DNA and telomeric PNA probes was introduced to investigate the induction of chromosome exchanges in human lymphocytes after exposure to low (4 Gy X rays) and high (1 Gy neutrons) linear energy transfer radiation. This combination of probes allowed accurate detection of exchange aberrations involving the painted chromosomes and an unambiguous discrimination between complete and incomplete exchanges, as well as terminal and interstitial deletions. Data obtained in the present study using combined FISH assay with telomeres detection showed no differences between two types of radiation regarding the induction of incomplete exchanges. (author)

251

Additive habit formation: Consumption in incomplete markets with random endowments  

CERN Document Server

We provide a detailed characterization of the optimal consumption stream for the additive habit-forming utility maximization problem, in a framework of general discrete-time incomplete markets and random endowments. This characterization allows us to derive the monotonicity and concavity of the optimal consumption as a function of wealth, for several important classes of incomplete markets and preferences. These results yield a deeper understanding of the fine structure of the optimal consumption and provide a further theoretical support for the classical conjectures of Keynes (1936).

Muraviev, Roman

2011-01-01

252

Contingent Claims in Incomplete Markets: A Case Study  

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Full Text Available In this paper, we revisit pricing contingent claims in incomplete markets. While a lot have been done on pricing in incomplete markets, there is still a gap on the categorization of the payoffs. Some contingent claims are attainable while others will not be attainable. We address the question of which contingent claims belong to each group. We also propose a generalization of the equivalent martingale measures used for pricing, a generalization which includes those studied so far. We also provide some examples of how to price in each class and introduce important definitions.

Sure Mataramvura

2013-10-01

253

Is there incomplete fusion mechanism beyond 100A MeV?  

Science.gov (United States)

Presented is a universal description of the generalized fusion excitation function which indicates that the fusion reaction mechanism should vanish at center-of-mass energy per nucleon of about 13 MeV/nucleon independently of the specific heavy-ion reaction system. Placing reliance on this result and comforted by semiclassical transport model simulations we suggest that the proposed persistence of the incomplete fusion cross sections in the measurement of the 14N induced reactions on heavy targets at beam energies between 100A and 155A MeV should be attributed to a geometrical participant-spectator-like reaction mechanism.

Eudes, P.; Basrak, Z.; de la Mota, V.; Royer, G.

2014-10-01

254

Partially balanced incomplete block designs associated with minimum perfect dominating sets of Clebsch graph  

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Full Text Available A dominating set $S$ of a graph $G$ is perfect if each vertex of G is dominated by exactly one vertex in $S$. We study the minimum perfect dominating sets in the Petersen graph and in the Clebsch graph. In this paper we show that every minimum perfect dominating set in the Petersen graph and the Clebsch graph induces $K_{1,3}$ and $C_4$ respectively. Further we establish that these classes of minimum perfect dominating sets of Clebsch graph form Partially Balanced Incomplete Block Designs with the parameters (16, 40, 10, 4, 1, 4.

Vinay Kumar

2012-05-01

255

Image reconstruction for transmission tomography when projection data are incomplete  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Two iterative methods are developed for forming a maximum-likelihood estimate of the attenuation density in a patient or object for transmission tomography when projection data are incomplete. The methods converge monotonically to the same limit points. Results of testing the methods with both simulated and real data are given.

Snyder, Donald L [Washington University, St Louis, MO (United States); O' Sullivan, Joseph A [Washington University, St Louis, MO (United States); Murphy, Ryan J [Washington University, St Louis, MO (United States); Politte, David G [Washington University, St Louis, MO (United States); Whiting, Bruce R [Washington University, St Louis, MO (United States); Williamson, Jeffrey F [Virginia Commonwealth University, Richmond, VA (United States)

2006-11-07

256

New experimental evidence on the incomplete transformation phenomenon in steel  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

In this work, the carbon distribution in austenite during isothermal bainite formation and the incomplete reaction phenomenon was analyzed by means of X-ray diffraction and atom-probe tomography in high-silicon, manganese-alloyed steels. The results provide new evidence on the temporary cessation of bainitic ferrite formation at abnormally low transformation temperatures.

Caballero, F.G. [Materalia Research Group, Department of Physical Metallurgy, Centro Nacional de Investigaciones Metalurgicas (CENIM-CSIC), Avda. Gregorio del Amo-8, E-28040 Madrid (Spain)], E-mail: fgc@cenim.csic.es; Garcia-Mateo, C. [Materalia Research Group, Department of Physical Metallurgy, Centro Nacional de Investigaciones Metalurgicas (CENIM-CSIC), Avda. Gregorio del Amo-8, E-28040 Madrid (Spain); Santofimia, M.J. [Materials Innovation Institute (M2i), Mekelweg 2, 2628CD Delft (Netherlands); Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Delft University of Technology, Mekelweg 2, 2628 CD, Delft (Netherlands); Miller, M.K. [Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL), Materials Science and Technology Division, P.O. Box 2008, Oak Ridge, TN 37831-6136 (United States); Garcia de Andres, C. [Materalia Research Group, Department of Physical Metallurgy, Centro Nacional de Investigaciones Metalurgicas (CENIM-CSIC), Avda. Gregorio del Amo-8, E-28040 Madrid (Spain)

2009-01-15

257

New experimental evidence on the incomplete transformation phenomenon in steel  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In this work, the carbon distribution in austenite during isothermal bainite formation and the incomplete reaction phenomenon was analyzed by means of X-ray diffraction and atom-probe tomography in high-silicon, manganese-alloyed steels. The results provide new evidence on the temporary cessation of bainitic ferrite formation at abnormally low transformation temperatures

258

On a continuous time game with incomplete information  

CERN Document Server

For zero-sum two-player continuous-time games with integral payoff and incomplete information on one side, one shows that the optimal strategy of the informed player can be computed through an auxiliary optimization problem over some martingale measures. One also characterizes the optimal martingale measures and compute it explicitely in several examples.

Cardaliaguet, Pierre

2008-01-01

259

Image reconstruction for transmission tomography when projection data are incomplete  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Two iterative methods are developed for forming a maximum-likelihood estimate of the attenuation density in a patient or object for transmission tomography when projection data are incomplete. The methods converge monotonically to the same limit points. Results of testing the methods with both simulated and real data are given

260

Temperature definition and fundamental thermodynamic relations in incomplete statistics  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Within the incomplete statistics characterized by the normalization -bar ipiq=1, a precise mathematical calculation related to the partial differential of the partition function with respect to the internal energy is provided. A concomitant definition of the physical temperature and several important fundamental thermodynamic relations are given

 
 
 
 
261

The Incomplete transformation phenomenon in Fe-C-Mo alloys  

Science.gov (United States)

The overall kinetics of isothermal transformation of austenite to bainite were studied with quantitative metallography and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) in a series of highpurity Fe-C-Mo alloys containing 0.06 to 0.27 wt pct C and 0.23 to 4.28 wt pct Mo at reaction temperatures mainly below that of the bay in the time-temperature-transformation (TTT) curve for initiation of transformation. Ferrite growth kinetics were also determined at temperatures slightly below that of the bay. The incomplete character of the bainite transformation was found to depend upon both the C and Mo concentrations; below threshold combinations of these elements, the incomplete reaction is absent. In cases in which the bainite reaction was incomplete, transformation of austenite resumed and went to completion following the initiation of Mo2C precipitation at ?: ? boundaries. The time of transformation stasis increased with the proportions of C and Mo in the alloy. Pearlite was not observed anywhere in the time-temperature-composition (TTC) region investigated. Ferrite growth kinetics at temperatures near the bay do not exhibit simple time laws; this behavior is attributed to a solute drag-like effect (SDLE). Extensive sympathetic nucleation of ferrite is observed at temperatures below that of the bay. The temperature and composition dependence of the incomplete reaction can be explained by a combination of the SDLE and the variation in the sympathetic nucleation rate of ferrite with temperature and the amount of transformation.

Reynolds, W. T.; Li, F. Z.; Shui, C. K.; Aaronson, H. I.

1990-06-01

262

Incomplete molar pregnancy with live coexisting fetus: a case report  

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Conclusion: The rate of pregnancy complications such as hypertension, hyperthyroidism, and obstetrics hemorrhage and also the risk of Gestational Trophoblastic Neoplasm (GTN are increasing in incomplete molar pregnancy. Therefore, early diagnosis and timely treatment of molar pregnancy is very important to reduce maternal morbidity and mortality.

Leila Pourali

2014-03-01

263

Incomplete inversion of the hippocampus - a common developmental anomaly  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Incomplete inversion of the hippocampus, an imperfect fetal development, has been described in patients with epilepsy or severe midline malformations. We studied this condition in a nonepileptic population without obvious developmental anomalies. We analyzed the coronal MR images of 50 women and 50 men who did not have epilepsy. Twenty of them were healthy volunteers and 80 were patients without obvious intracranial developmental anomalies, intracranial masses, hydrocephalus or any condition affecting the temporal lobes. If the entire hippocampus (the head could not be evaluated) were affected, the incomplete inversion was classified as total, otherwise as partial. Incomplete inversion of the hippocampus was found in 19/100 subjects (9 women, 10 men). It was unilateral, always on the left side, in 13 subjects (4 women, 9 men): 9 were of the total type, 4 were partial. It was bilateral in six subjects (five women, one man): four subjects had total types bilaterally, two had a combination of total and partial types. The collateral sulcus was vertically oriented in all subjects with a deviating hippocampal shape. We conclude that incomplete inversion of the hippocampus is not an unusual morphologic variety in a nonepileptic population without other obvious intracranial developmental anomalies. (orig.)

264

Root cause of incomplete control rod insertions at Westinghouse reactors  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Within the past year, incomplete RCCA insertions have been observed on high burnup fuel assemblies at two Westinghouse PWRs. Initial tests at the Wolf Creek site indicated that the direct cause of the incomplete insertions observed at Wolf Creek was excessive fuel assembly thimble tube distortion. Westinghouse committed to the NRC to perform a root cause analysis by the end of August, 1996. The root cause analysis process used by Westinghouse included testing at ten sites to obtain drag, growth and other characteristics of high burnup fuel assemblies. It also included testing at the Westinghouse hot cell of two of the Wolf Creek incomplete insertion assemblies. A mechanical model was developed to calculate the response of fuel assemblies when subjected to compressive loads. Detailed manufacturing reviews were conducted to determine if this was a manufacturing related issue. In addition, a review of available worldwide experience was performed. Based on the above, it was concluded that the thimble tube distortion observed on the Wolf Creek incomplete insertion assemblies was caused by unusual fuel assembly growth over and above what would typically be expected as a result of irradiation exposure. It was determined that the unusual growth component is a combination of growth due to oxide accumulation and accelerated growth, and would only be expected in high temperature plants on fuel assemblies that see long residence times and high power duties.

Ray, S. [Westinghouse, Monroeville, PA (United States)

1997-01-01

265

Purification and structural determination of an inhibitor of starfish oocyte maturation from a Bacillus species.  

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Inhibitors of bacterial origins of starfish oocyte maturation were sought to obtain biologically active substances which act on either hormonal signal transduction or cell cycle regulation. An oocyte maturation-inhibiting substance found in culture fluid of a Bacillus species was purified to homogeneity. This substance possessed the nature of a detergent and specifically inhibited 1-methyladenine-induced oocyte maturation (50% inhibitory concentration, 3.3 microM) but not dithiothreitol-induc...

Toraya, T.; Maoka, T.; Tsuji, H.; Kobayashi, M.

1995-01-01

266

Emotional Maturity: Characteristics and Levels  

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Full Text Available "Mature" means a completed natural growth. Emotional maturity is not related to physical maturity which is expected to be but, does not grow with our chronological age. Emotionally mature people are sensible who do not whine, crib or play the blame game. They have full control over their lives. They reflect on their lives and on the role that they play in other people’s lives. Emotionally mature people lead a well-adjusted life due to their healthy outlook on life. There are various levels of emotional maturity. The final level is emotional detachment which is the direct consequence of the true understanding of emotions and therefore, letting go of all the emotions, either good or bad and feeling happy. Emotional maturity is a significant predictor of the level of success that an individual achieves in his/her lifetime. Success includes wealth, general level of happiness, self-confidence, success in relationships, etc. where emotional maturity plays a significant role to get success.

Dr. Umesh Chandra Kapri

2014-02-01

267

Gradual molecular evolution of a sex determination switch through incomplete penetrance of femaleness.  

Science.gov (United States)

Some genes regulate phenotypes that are either present or absent. They are often important regulators of developmental switches and are involved in morphological evolution. We have little understanding of the molecular mechanisms by which these absence/presence gene functions have evolved, because the phenotype and fitness of molecular intermediate forms are unknown. Here, we studied the sex-determining switch of 14 natural sequence variants of the csd gene among 76 genotypes of the honeybee (Apis mellifera). Heterozygous genotypes (different specificities) of the csd gene determine femaleness, while hemizygous genotypes (single specificity) determine maleness. Homozygous genotypes of the csd gene (same specificity) are lethal. We found that at least five amino acid differences and length variation between Csd specificities in the specifying domain (PSD) were sufficient to regularly induce femaleness. We estimated that, on average, six pairwise amino acid differences evolved under positive selection. We also identified a natural evolutionary intermediate that showed only three amino acid length differences in the PSD relative to its parental allele. This genotype showed an intermediate fitness because it implemented lethality regularly and induced femaleness infrequently (i.e., incomplete penetrance). We suggest incomplete penetrance as a mechanism through which new molecular switches can gradually and adaptively evolve. PMID:24316208

Beye, Martin; Seelmann, Christine; Gempe, Tanja; Hasselmann, Martin; Vekemans, Xavier; Fondrk, M Kim; Page, Robert E

2013-12-16

268

Vulnerability of complex networks under intentional attack with incomplete information  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

We study the vulnerability of complex networks under intentional attack with incomplete information, which means that one can only preferentially attack the most important nodes among a local region of a network. The known random failure and the intentional attack are two extreme cases of our study. Using the generating function method, we derive the exact value of the critical removal fraction fc of nodes for the disintegration of networks and the size of the giant component. To validate our model and method, we perform simulations of intentional attack with incomplete information in scale-free networks. We show that the attack information has an important effect on the vulnerability of scale-free networks. We also demonstrate that hiding a fraction of the nodes information is a cost-efficient strategy for enhancing the robustness of complex networks

269

Incomplete dicephalous conjoined twins: prenatal US and MRI findings  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The authors report a case of incomplete dicephali conjoined twins, with prenatal diagnostic by ultrasound scan and confirmed with nuclear magnetic resonance. In this case the fetus presented two complete heads and necks, two parallel columns up to the coccyx, one single body, two complete arms and two complete legs. Thorax and abdominal organs were not double, however the heart had more than four cavities. This abnormality appears when the zygote division happens after the day 14 from fertilization and it is unable to cause the fission, resulting in an incomplete division. This kind of conjoined twins have practically no chance of surviving, due to the large number of shared organs. The prenatal diagnosis is important to separate these cases from those with a chance of living with surgical intervention. (author)

270

Calculating Weights Methods in Complete Matrices and Incomplete Matrices  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available It is well known that the Analytic Hierarchy Process (AHP of Saaty is one of the most powerful approach for decision aid in solving of a multi criteria decision making (MCDM problem. Several computing weights methods in AHP are analyzed. Based on least square method, three methods for calculating weights using the least the sum of squares of error criterion, the least the sum of error absolute value criterion and the least the error absolute value criterion are proposed. New least squares method is translated into linear system and Minimax method and absolute deviation method are translated into linear programming. New proposed methods can apply to the ranking estimation in incomplete AHP, which is very important to estimate incomplete comparisons data to have alternative’s weights. The computation methods and results are given through numerical examples.

Shang Gao

2010-03-01

271

Distribution of angular momentum in incomplete fusion reaction  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Angular momentum distribution and its alignment for the incompletely fused system formed in nucleus-nucleus collisions in the Fermi energy domain due to emission of pre-equilibrium nucleons have been studied in the framework of dynamical trajectory model with dissipation due to particle exchange. The distributions of mass and excitation energy in the incompletely fused composite have also been calculated. The calculation has been performed on an event by event basis using Monte Carlo simulation technique. The distribution of angular momentum looks almost like a gaussian as opposed to the triangular distribution in the sharp cut-off approximation for complete fusion. It is found that the almost aligned angular momentum for relatively noncentral collisions becomes sharply nonaligned as the collisions become more central. (orig.)

272

Bayesian Inference of Natural Rankings in Incomplete Competition Networks  

Science.gov (United States)

Competition between a complex system's constituents and a corresponding reward mechanism based on it have profound influence on the functioning, stability, and evolution of the system. But determining the dominance hierarchy or ranking among the constituent parts from the strongest to the weakest - essential in determining reward and penalty - is frequently an ambiguous task due to the incomplete (partially filled) nature of competition networks. Here we introduce the ``Natural Ranking,'' an unambiguous ranking method applicable to a round robin tournament, and formulate an analytical model based on the Bayesian formula for inferring the expected mean and error of the natural ranking of nodes from an incomplete network. We investigate its potential and uses in resolving important issues of ranking by applying it to real-world competition networks.

Park, Juyong; Yook, Soon-Hyung

2014-08-01

273

Bayesian Inference of Natural Rankings in Incomplete Competition Networks  

CERN Document Server

Competition between a complex system's constituents and a corresponding reward mechanism based on it have profound influence on the functioning, stability, and evolution of the system. But determining the dominance hierarchy or ranking among the constituent parts from the strongest to the weakest -- essential in determining reward or penalty -- is almost always an ambiguous task due to the incomplete nature of competition networks. Here we introduce ``Natural Ranking," a desirably unambiguous ranking method applicable to a complete (full) competition network, and formulate an analytical model based on the Bayesian formula inferring the expected mean and error of the natural ranking of nodes from an incomplete network. We investigate its potential and uses in solving issues in ranking by applying to a real-world competition network of economic and social importance.

Park, Juyong

2013-01-01

274

Consumption-Portfolio Optimization with Recursive Utility in Incomplete Markets  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

In an incomplete market, we study the optimal consumption-portfolio decision of an investor with recursive preferences of Epstein–Zin type. Applying a classical dynamic programming approach, we formulate the associated Hamilton–Jacobi–Bellman equation and provide a suitable verification theorem. The proof of this verification theorem is complicated by the fact that the Epstein–Zin aggregator is non-Lipschitz, so standard verification results (e.g. in Duffie and Epstein, Econometrica 60, 393–394, 1992) are not applicable. We provide new explicit solutions to the Bellman equation with Epstein–Zin preferences in an incomplete market for non-unit elasticity of intertemporal substitution (EIS) and apply our verification result to prove that they solve the consumption-investment problem. We also compare our exact solutions to the Campbell–Shiller approximation and assess its accuracy.

Kraft, Holger; Seifried, Frank Thomas

2013-01-01

275

Inpatient capsule endoscopy leads to frequent incomplete small bowel examinations  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available AIM: To examine the predictive factors of capsule endoscopy (CE completion rate (CECR including the effect of inpatient and outpatient status. METHODS: We identified 355 consecutive patients who completed CE at Rush University Medical Center between March 2003 and October 2005. Subjects for CE had either nothing by mouth or clear liquids for the afternoon and evening of the day before the procedure. CE exams were reviewed by two physicians who were unaware of the study hypotheses. After retrospective analysis, 21 cases were excluded due to capsule malfunction, prior gastric surgery, endoscopic capsule placement or insufficient data. Of the remaining 334 exams [264 out-patient (OP, 70 in-patient (IP], CE indications, findings, location of the patients [IP vs OP and intensive care unit (ICU vs general medical floor (GMF] and gastrointestinal transit times were analyzed. Statistical analysis was completed using SPSS version 17 (Chicago, IL. Chi-square, t test or fisher exact-tests were used as appropriate. Multivariate logistic regression analysis was used to identify variables associated with incomplete CE exams. RESULTS: The mean age for the entire study population was 54.7 years. Sixty-one percent of the study population was female, and gender was not different between IPs vs OPs (P = 0.07. The overall incomplete CECR was 14% in our study. Overt obscure gastrointestinal bleeding (OGB was significantly more common for the IP CE (P = 0.0001, while abdominal pain and assessment of IBD were more frequent indications for the OP CE exams (P = 0.002 and P = 0.01, respectively. Occult OGB was the most common indication and arteriovenous malformations were the most common finding both in the IPs and OPs. The capsule did not enter the small bowel (SB in 6/70 IPs and 8/264 OPs (P = 0.04. The capsule never reached the cecum in 31.4% (22/70 of IP vs 9.5% (25/ 264 of OP examinations (P < 0.001. The mean gastric transit time (GTT was delayed in IPs compared to OPs, 98.5 ± 139.5 min vs 60.4 ± 92.6 min (P = 0.008. Minimal SB transit time was significantly prolonged in the IP compared to the OP setting [IP = 275.1 ± 111.6 min vs OP = 244.0 ± 104.3 min (P = 0.037]. CECR was also significantly higher in the subgroup of patients with OGB who had OP vs IP exams (95% vs 80% respectively, P = 0.001. The proportion of patients with incomplete exams was higher in the ICU (n = 7/13, 54% as compared to the GMF (n = 15/57, 26% (P = 0.05. There was only a single permanent SB retention case which was secondary to a previously unknown SB stricture, and the remaining incomplete SB exams were due to slow transit. Medications which affect gastrointestinal system motility were tested both individually and also in aggregate in univariate analysis in hospitalized patients (ICU and GMF and were not predictive of incomplete capsule passage (P > 0.05. Patient location (IP vs OP and GTT were independent predictors of incomplete CE exams (P < 0.001 and P = 0.008, respectively. CONCLUSION: Incomplete CE is a multifactorial problem. Patient location and related factors such as severity of illness and sedentary status may contribute to incomplete exams.

Cemal Yazici

2012-01-01

276

Incomplete Stevens-Johnson syndrome secondary to atypical pneumonia.  

Science.gov (United States)

Steven-Johnson syndrome is a common condition characterised by erythematous target lesions on the skin and involvement of the oral mucosa, genitals and conjunctivae. It has been documented as one of the extra-pulmonary manifestations of Mycoplasma pneumoniae infection. Recently, there has been several documentation of an incomplete presentation of this syndrome - without the typical rash but with mucosal, conjunctival and genital involvement. Our case illustrates that the incomplete Steven-Johnson syndrome may present with oral mucosal and conjunctival involvement alone without skin or genital involvement. This important clinical diagnosis should not be missed due to its atypical presentation. Treatment of Steven-Johnson syndrome remains supportive along with treating the underlying infection if recognised. PMID:22679161

Ramasamy, Anantharaman; Patel, Chiraush; Conlon, Christopher

2011-01-01

277

Survey incompleteness and the evolution of the QSO luminosity function  

Science.gov (United States)

We concentrate on a type of QSO survey which depends on selecting QSO candidates based on combinations of colors. Since QSO's have emission lines and power-law continua, they are expected to yield broadband colors unlike those of stellar photospheres. Previously, the fraction of QSO's expected to be hiding (unselected) within the locus of stellar (U-J, J-F) colors was estimated at about 15 percent. We have now verified that the KK88 survey is at least 11 percent incomplete, but have determined that it may be as much as 34 percent incomplete. The 'missing' QSO's are expected to be predominantly at z less than or = 2.2. We have studied the proper motion and variability properties of all stellar objects with J less than or = 22.5 or F less than or = 21.5 in the SA 57 field which has previously been surveyed with a multicolor QSO search by KK88.

Majewski, Steven R.; Munn, Jeffrey A.; Kron, Richard G.; Bershady, Matthew A.; Smetanka, John J.; Koo, David C.

1993-01-01

278

Quantum Stackelberg Duopoly with Continuous Distributed Incomplete Information  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A general model of the quantum Stackelberg duopoly is constructed by introducing the 'minimal' quantum structure into the Stackelberg duopoly with continuous distributed incomplete information, where both players only know the continuous distribution of the competitor's unit cost. In this model, the cases with complete information, discrete distributed incomplete information, and continuous distributed asymmetric information are all involved. Because of different roles played by the total information uncertainty and the information asymmetry, the game exhibits some new interesting features, such as the total information uncertainty can counteract or improve the first-mover advantage according to the value of the quantum entanglement. What's more, this general model will be helpful for the government to reduce the abuses of oligopolistic competition and to improve the economic efficiency

279

Argumentation-Based Preference Modelling with Incomplete Information  

Science.gov (United States)

No intelligent decision support system functions even remotely without knowing the preferences of the user. A major problem is that the way average users think about and formulate their preferences does not match the utility-based quantitative frameworks currently used in decision support systems. For the average user qualitative models are a better fit. This paper presents an argumentation-based framework for the modelling of, and automated reasoning about multi-issue preferences of a qualitative nature. The framework presents preferences according to the lexicographic ordering that is well-understood by humans. The main contribution of the paper is that it shows how to reason about preferences when only incomplete information is available. An adequate strategy is proposed that allows reasoning with incomplete information and it is shown how to incorporate this strategy into the argumentation-based framework for modelling preferences.

Visser, Wietske; Hindriks, Koen V.; Jonker, Catholijn M.

280

Quantum Stackelberg Duopoly with Continuous Distributed Incomplete Information  

Science.gov (United States)

A general model of the quantum Stackelberg duopoly is constructed by introducing the “minimal" quantum structure into the Stackelberg duopoly with continuous distributed incomplete information, where both players only know the continuous distribution of the competitor's unit cost. In this model, the cases with complete information, discrete distributed incomplete information, and continuous distributed asymmetric information are all involved. Because of different roles played by the total information uncertainty and the information asymmetry, the game exhibits some new interesting features, such as the total information uncertainty can counteract or improve the first-mover advantage according to the value of the quantum entanglement. What's more, this general model will be helpful for the government to reduce the abuses of oligopolistic competition and to improve the economic efficiency.

Wang, Xia; Hu, Cheng-Zheng

2012-12-01

 
 
 
 
281

Incomplete nonextensive statistics and the zeroth law of thermodynamics  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

On the basis of the entropy of incomplete statistics (IS) and the joint probability factorization condition, two controversial problems existing in IS are investigated: one is what expression of the internal energy is reasonable for a composite system and the other is whether the traditional zeroth law of thermodynamics is suitable for IS. Some new equivalent expressions of the internal energy of a composite system are derived through accurate mathematical calculation. Moreover, a self-consistent calculation is used to expound that the zeroth law of thermodynamics is also suitable for IS, but it cannot be proven theoretically. Finally, it is pointed out that the generalized zeroth law of thermodynamics for incomplete nonextensive statistics is unnecessary and the nonextensive assumptions for the composite internal energy will lead to mathematical contradiction. (general)

282

The Risky Value in the Capital Market of Incomplete Information  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Risk is everywhere, especially in the capital market of incomplete information, which is full of speculation, so it is particularly important for investors to define risk, identify risks, and control the investment activities with the application of risk value to. It is analyzed quantitatively on risk value in the paper, with the Knowledge of game theory, economics and mathematical statistics, on the basis of the explanation of risk and risk value.

Xuhong Tan

2009-02-01

283

Placenta percreta resulting in incomplete spontaneous abortion in first trimester.  

Science.gov (United States)

Placenta percreta is a rare complication potentially fatal to fetus and the mother. We present here a 41-year-old female patient who underwent curettage for incomplete abortion at 6(th) week of pregnancy. She had persistent vaginal bleeding for 2 months after the curettage, for which she was treated with hysterectomy. Preoperative ultrasonography and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) made the diagnosis of placenta percreta. Postoperative pathological examination confirmed this diagnosis. PMID:25379165

Genc, Mine; Genc, Berhan; Solak, Aynur; Sivrikoz, Oya Nermin

2014-10-01

284

Dominance Measuring Method Performance under Incomplete Information about Weights.  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

In multi-attribute utility theory, it is often not easy to elicit precise values for the scaling weights representing the relative importance of criteria. A very widespread approach is to gather incomplete information. A recent approach for dealing with such situations is to use information about each alternative?s intensity of dominance, known as dominance measuring methods. Different dominancemeasuring methods have been proposed, and simulation studies have been carried out to compare these...

Mateos Caballero, Alfonso; Jime?nez Marti?n, Antonio; Blanco Agudo, Jose? Francisco

2012-01-01

285

Complete and Incomplete Markets with Short-Sale Constraints  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This paper argues that the introduction of a short-sale constraint in the Arrow-Radner frameworkinvalidates standard definitions of complete and incomplete markets. In this constrained set-up,two threshold values with familiar properties arise.The case of a zero short-sale bound set on some security fulfills the standard definition ofincomplete financial markets. Beyond a particular level of the short-sale bound financial marketsare complete, since the short-sale constraint is not active.For ...

Gime?nez, Eduardo L.

2001-01-01

286

Incomplete Lineage Sorting: Consistent Phylogeny Estimation From Multiple Loci  

CERN Document Server

We introduce a simple algorithm for reconstructing phylogenies from multiple gene trees in the presence of incomplete lineage sorting, that is, when the topology of the gene trees may differ from that of the species tree. We show that our technique is statistically consistent under standard stochastic assumptions, that is, it returns the correct tree given sufficiently many unlinked loci. We also show that it can tolerate moderate estimation errors.

Mossel, Elchanan

2008-01-01

287

Optimal portfolio selection and compression in an incomplete market  

CERN Document Server

We investigate an optimal investment problem with a general performance criterion which, in particular, includes discontinuous functions. Prices are modeled as diffusions and the market is incomplete. We find an explicit solution for the case of limited diversification of the portfolio, i.e. for the portfolio compression problem. By this we mean that an admissible strategies may include no more than m different stocks concurrently, where m may be less than the total number n of available stocks.

Dokuchaev, N; Dokuchaev, Nikolai; Haussmann, Ulrich

2001-01-01

288

Expectation-maximization estimators for incompletely observed data  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Expectation-maximization is a broadly applicable approach to the iterative computation of maximum likelihood estimates. Each iteration of expectation-maximization method consists of two steps: the expectation step and the maximization step. Expectation-maximization method is useful in a variety of problems where the maximum likelihood estimates are very difficult to find. The basic idea of expectation-maximization method is to relate incomplete data problems to complete data problems where es...

Vasi? Vladimir V.

2004-01-01

289

Estimating the prevalence of inbreeding from incomplete pedigrees.  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

A previous review of inbreeding in natural populations suggested that close inbreeding (inbreeding coefficient f = 0.25) is generally rare in wild birds and mammals. However, the review did not assess rates of moderate inbreeding (f = 0.125), which may make a rather larger contribution to overall inbreeding in a population. Furthermore, previous studies may have underestimated the prevalence of inbreeding in wild populations with incomplete pedigrees. By categorizing inbreeding events by the ...

Marshall, T. C.; Coltman, D. W.; Pemberton, J. M.; Slate, J.; Spalton, J. A.; Guinness, F. E.; Smith, J. A.; Pilkington, J. G.; Clutton-brock, T. H.

2002-01-01

290

Placenta Percreta Resulting in Incomplete Spontaneous Abortion in First Trimester  

Science.gov (United States)

Placenta percreta is a rare complication potentially fatal to fetus and the mother. We present here a 41-year-old female patient who underwent curettage for incomplete abortion at 6th week of pregnancy. She had persistent vaginal bleeding for 2 months after the curettage, for which she was treated with hysterectomy. Preoperative ultrasonography and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) made the diagnosis of placenta percreta. Postoperative pathological examination confirmed this diagnosis. PMID:25379165

Genc, Mine; Genc, Berhan; Solak, Aynur; Sivrikoz, Oya Nermin

2014-01-01

291

Traumatic vertebral artery dissection presenting with incomplete congruous homonymous quadrantanopia  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Abstract Background To describe a rare presentation of vertebral artery dissection (VAD) as a small but congruous incomplete homonymous hemianopia demonstrating use of visual field testing in the diagnosis. Case presentation A 30 year old woman had been unwell for 4 months with difficulty focusing, vertigo, dizziness and a feeling of falling to the right. A small but congruous right inferior homonymous quadrantanopia was found on examination leading to further i...

Chen Celia S; Lee Andrew W; Matti Albert I

2010-01-01

292

Placenta Percreta Resulting in Incomplete Spontaneous Abortion in First Trimester  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Placenta percreta is a rare complication potentially fatal to fetus and the mother. We present here a 41-year-old female patient who underwent curettage for incomplete abortion at 6th week of pregnancy. She had persistent vaginal bleeding for 2 months after the curettage, for which she was treated with hysterectomy. Preoperative ultrasonography and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI made the diagnosis of placenta percreta. Postoperative pathological examination confirmed this diagnosis.

Mine Genc

2014-11-01

293

Seronegative conversion after incomplete benznidazole treatment in chronic Chagas disease.  

Science.gov (United States)

In 12-18% of adult patients, treatment with benznidazole for chronic Chagas disease has to be discontinued because of side-effects. We identified and analysed a cohort of 81 adult patients with three positive tests for Trypanosoma cruzi infection and serological monitoring following incomplete treatment with benznidazole for a median of 10 days. Twenty percent of these patients (16/81) met the criteria of cure, showing that the optimal schedule of benznidazole administration remains to be determined. PMID:22898619

Alvarez, M G; Vigliano, C; Lococo, B; Petti, M; Bertocchi, G; Viotti, R

2012-10-01

294

Harmonic Meromorphic Functions Involving Generalized Incomplete Beta Functions  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In this Article, a class MH ([?1] of complex valued harmonic meromorphic functions of the form f = h + g ? MH is introduced with the use of inverse function involving generalized incomplete beta function. A subclass MH ([?1] of MH ([?1] is considered for various properties. Using coefficient condition for functions belonging to MH ([?1] class, bounds, extreme points, closure theorems and integral operator for those functions are also obtained.

Amit Kumar Yadav

2012-12-01

295

A Self-Consistent Mechanism for Incomplete Reconnection in Sawteeth  

Science.gov (United States)

A prevailing impediment to core confinement in fusion devices is the occurrence of large sawtooth events. Experiments show that the crash phase often ends before all available magnetic flux is reconnected, i.e., reconnection is incomplete, but this is inconsistent with the Kadomtsev model. We present a model for incomplete, or partial, reconnection in sawtooth crashes [1]. The reconnection inflow self-consistently convects the high pressure core and low pressure edge of a tokamak toward the m=n=1 rational surface, thereby increasing the pressure gradient at the reconnection site. If the pressure gradient at the rational surface exceeds a threshold, incomplete reconnection will occur. We show that predictions of this model are borne out in large-scale simulations of reconnection. The predictions are also consistent with data from the Mega Ampere Spherical Tokamak. Physically, we attribute the suppression to the interaction of the exterior pressure gradient with the pressure quadrupole that inherently occurs during collisionless (Hall) reconnection with a strong guide-field. The results should apply across tokamaks, including ITER.[4pt] [1] M. T. Beidler and P. A. Cassak, Phys. Rev. Lett., 107, 255002 (2011)

Beidler, Matthew; Cassak, Paul

2012-03-01

296

Elective postoperative radiotherapy after incomplete resection of colorectal cancer  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

It is known that patients with incompletely resected epithelial cancers are at high risk of local recurrence. A prospective study to determine whether elective postoperative radiotherapy can decrease the incidence of local recurrence and thus improve survival of those patients with an incompletely resected tumor was made of 125 irradiated patients with locally advanced colorectal cancer (B2, C1, C2) 78 patients had rectosigmoid tumors and 47 had colonic cancers. Complete resection (R0) was performed in 94 patients (75 per cent). Thirteen (10 per cent) had microscopic (R1) and 18 (14 per cent) had gross residual disease (R2). Local control and survival (average follow-up, 38 months) of patients with microscopic residual cancer (RI) were 84 per cent (11/13) and 77 per cent (10/13) respectively. These results were identical to those obtained in patients without residual disease (R0). Patients with gross residual disease (R2) had a local control of 50 per cent (9/18) and a survival of 39 per cent (7/18). Radiation complication occurred in seven of 125 patients (6 per cent). One patient died, of radiation enteritis. One patient required a nephrostomy. The remaining five patients were treated conservatively. Elective postoperative radiotherapy given to patients who had incomplete resection of a colorectal cancer prevented local recurrence in the majority and may have increased survival

297

Acute inflammation at a mandibular solitary horizontal incompletely impacted molar  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Minoru Yamaoka, Yusuke Ono, Masahide Ishizuka, Yoko Hasumi-Nakayama, Ryosuke Doto, Kouichi Yasuda, Takashi Uematsu, Kiyofumi FurusawaOral and Maxillofacial Surgery, Matsumoto Dental University School of Dentistry, Shiojiri, Nagano, JapanAbstract: Acute inflammation is frequently seen in the elderly around incompletely impacted molars located apart from molars or premolars. To identify the factors causing acute inflammation in the solitary molars without second molars or without second and first molars, ages of patients and rates of acute inflammation in 75 horizontal incompletely impacted mandibular molars in contact or not in contact with molars in subjects 41 years old or older were studied using orthopantomographs. Acute inflammation was seen in nine third molars out of 48 third molars in contact with second molars (18.8%, whereas acute inflammation was seen in 11 molars out of 19 solitary molars without second molars or without first and second molars (57.9% (p < 0.01. The mean age of 48 subjects with third molars in contact with the second molar was 50.42 ± 7.62 years, and the mean age of 19 subjects with isolated molars was 65.16 ± 10.41 years (p < 0.0001. These indicate that a solitary horizontal incompletely impacted molar leads more frequently to acute inflammation along with aging due to possible bone resorption resulting from teeth loss.Keywords: mandible, third molar, impaction, elderly, acute inflammation, solitary molar

Minoru Yamaoka

2009-04-01

298

The analysis of incomplete cost data due to dropout.  

Science.gov (United States)

Incomplete data due to premature withdrawal (dropout) constitute a serious problem in prospective economic evaluations that has received only little attention to date. The aim of this simulation study was to investigate how standard methods for dealing with incomplete data perform when applied to cost data with various distributions and various types of dropout. Selected methods included the product-limit estimator of Lin et al. the expectation maximisation (EM-) algorithm, several types of multiple imputation (MI) and various simple methods like complete case analysis and mean imputation. Almost all methods were unbiased in the case of dropout completely at random (DCAR), but only the product-limit estimator, the EM-algorithm and the MI approaches provided adequate estimates of the standard error (SE). The best estimates of the mean and SE for dropout at random (DAR) were provided by the bootstrap EM-algorithm, MI regression and MI Monte Carlo Markov chain. These methods were able to deal with skewed cost data in combination with DAR and only became biased when costs also included the costs of expensive events. None of the methods were able to deal adequately with informative dropout. In conclusion, the EM-algorithm with bootstrap, MI regression and MI MCMC are robust to the multivariate normal assumption and are the preferred methods for the analysis of incomplete cost data when the assumption of DCAR is not justified. PMID:15729743

Oostenbrink, Jan B; Al, Maiwenn J

2005-08-01

299

Evaluating an Investment Project in an Incomplete Market  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Many studies on real options base their arguments upon the assumption thatsecurity market is complete to apply the risk-neutral valuation technique. However, whenthe market is incomplete, in which investment risk is not spanned by existing assets, theinvestor?s preferences are not risk-neutral, or management is refrained from certain tradingstrategies, there may exist no unique martingale price of uncertain income streams. In thispaper, a dynamic-programming framework for maximizing expected utility of an investor indiscrete time is presented to evaluate an investment opportunity in an incomplete market.It is suggested that certainty equivalent (CE could be applied to value such an investmentopportunity. We show that two approaches to certainty equivalent, i.e., the buying price andthe selling price approaches, are exactly equal in exponential utility, implying that CE is afair value for both the buyer and the seller in an incomplete market, subject to the degree ofrisk aversion. Therefore, the proposed approach, compared to other alternative approaches,is relatively intuitive and easy to apply. With the classic investment problem, it is shownthat the option embedded in a project is crucial in decision-making.

George Yungchih Wang

2012-06-01

300

Maturity shortening and market failure  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Motivated by the financial crisis of 2007-2009 several papers have provided explanations for why liquidity may dry up during market stress. This paper also looks at this issue but focuses on the question as to why the liquidity crunch was not uniform across maturities. As funding pressures were felt particularly severe at longer maturities, central banks saw a high need to provide longer-term liquidity. The paper asks what market failure central banks were addressing by intervening and whethe...

Thierfelder, Felix

2012-01-01

 
 
 
 
301

15 CFR 30.47 - Clearance or departure of carriers under bond on incomplete manifest.  

Science.gov (United States)

... false Clearance or departure of carriers under bond on incomplete manifest...FOREIGN TRADE REGULATIONS General Carrier and Manifest Requirements § 30.47 Clearance or departure of carriers under bond on incomplete...

2010-01-01

302

Maduración visual retardada / Delayed visual maturation  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Cuba | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish Retraso en la maduración visual es el término utilizado para describir aquellos niños con incapacidad de fijar o seguir objetos en el ambiente, que no responden ante la proximidad de un objeto amenazante o un destello de luz, por ejemplo, abrir y cerrar los ojos; pero luego mejora a la edad de 6 mes [...] es sin tratamiento. Se incluyen dentro de las posibles causas la falta de oxígeno antes, durante o después del nacimiento, enfermedades producidas por virus o bacterias como la meningitis y el citomegalovirus, o una lesión traumática,aunque hoy en día queda poco consenso en cuanto a la etiología de este fenómeno. Estos niños con retraso en la maduración visual parecen ciegos, incapaces de centrar la atención, fijar o seguir cualquier parte del mundo visual. La exploración ocular y neurológica del niño es completamente normal. Los síntomas se resuelven sin tratamiento y con frecuencia, no se encuentra ninguna causa para la presentación inicial. El retraso en la maduración visual se clasifica en 3 grupos: el primero con retraso en la maduración visual como única anomalía y una recuperación rápida y completa. El segundo incluye aquellos casos con problemas oculares, como estrabismo, error refractivo elevado, retraso mental, entre otros, logrando una recuperación más lenta y a menudo incompleta. El tercer grupo incluye los casos con otras anomalías oculares. Abstract in english Delayed visual maturation is the term used to describe those children with inability to fix their eyes with the object or to visually follow them in the environment, who do not react to a threatening object or a gleam of light close to them, for example, by opening and closing their eyes. However, t [...] hey generally improve their condition at the age of 6 months without any treatment. The possible causes of this disorder may be lack of oxygen, before, during or after birth, illnesses caused by viruses or bacteria, such as meningitis and cytomegalovirus, or a traumatic lesion, although there exists now minority consensus about the real etiology of this phenomenon. The children suffering delayed visual maturation seem to be blind, unable to focus attention, fix or visually follow any portion of the visual world. Ocular and neurological examination of the child is completely normal. Symptoms disappear without any treatment and the cause for the initial occurrence is usually unfound. The delayed visual maturation is classified into 3 groups, the first group with delayed visual maturation as the only anomaly and a quick and complete recovery. The second group includes those cases with ocular problems, namely strabismus, high refractive error, mental retardation, and others, in which recovery is slower and often incomplete. The third group includes cases with other ocular anomalies.

Yolelvis, Monfort Estévez; Teresita de Jesús, Méndez Sánchez.

303

Balloon dacryocystoplasty: Incomplete versus complete obstruction of the nasolacrimal system  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Balloon dilatation of nasolacrimal drainage apparatus was attempted for the treatment of stenoses or obstructures of the nasolacrimal system in 49 eyes of 41 consecutive patients with complete obstructions and 16 eyes of 14 patients with incomplete obstructions. These two groups were compared with regards to the effectiveness of balloon dacryocystoplasty. All patients suffered from severe epiphora had already undergone multiple probings. A 0.018 inch hair or ball guide wire was introduced through the superior punctum into the inferior meatus of the nasal cavity and pulled out through the nasal aperture using a hemostat under nasal endoscopy. A deflated angiography balloon catheter was then introduced in a retrograde direction and dilated under fluoroscopic control. No major complications occurred in any of the patients. At 7 days after balloon dilatation, 25 of 49 eyes with complete obstruction demonstrated improvement in epiphora (initial success rate: 51.0%) and among them 17 eyes showed complete resolution of symptoms. Reocclusion occurred in 12 of the 25 eyes with initial improvement at the 2 months follow up. For the 16 eyes with incomplete obstruction, and improvement of epiphora was attained in 11 eyes (initial success rate 68.8%): 5 of these eyes showed complete resolution of epiphora, and 3 was failed to maintain initial improvement at the 2 month follow up. Although this study demonstrate that results of balloon dacryocystoplasty are not encouraging because yocystoplasty are not encouraging because of the high failure and recurrence rate, balloon dacryocystoplasty is a simple and safe nonsurgical technique that can be used to treat for obstructions of the nasolacrimal system. In addition, balloon dacryocystoplasty shows better results in incomplete obstruction than in complete obstruction than complete obstruction of the nasolacrimal system

304

Bilateral transaction bargaining between independent utilities under incomplete information  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A new approach to designing bilateral power transaction bargaining models between two independent utilities in a deregulated electricity market is proposed. In the paper it is assumed that each utility (a seller or a buyer) knows its own operating costs but does not know those of its opponent. The bilateral power transaction problem is then considered as non-cooperative bargaining under incomplete information. Each participant develops its own bargaining strategy based on estimates of the opponent's operating costs and bargaining strategy. Two bargaining models are developed and examples are employed for demonstration. (Author)

David, A. K.; Wen, F. S. [Department of Electrical Engineering, Hong Kong Polytechnic University, Kowloon, (Hong Kong)

2001-09-01

305

Bilateral transaction bargaining between independent utilities under incomplete information  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A new approach to designing bilateral power transaction bargaining models between two independent utilities in a deregulated electricity market is proposed. In the paper it is assumed that each utility (a seller or a buyer) knows its own operating costs but does not know those of its opponent. The bilateral power transaction problem is then considered as non-cooperative bargaining under incomplete information. Each participant develops its own bargaining strategy based on estimates of the opponent's operating costs and bargaining strategy. Two bargaining models are developed and examples are employed for demonstration. (Author)

306

Finding small OBDDs for incompletely specified truth tables is hard  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

We present an efficient reduction mapping undirected graphs G with n = 2^k vertices for integers k to tables of partially specified Boolean functions g: {0,1}^(4k+1) -> {0,1,*} so that for any integer m, G has a vertex colouring using m colours if and only if g has a consistent ordered binary decision diagram with at most (2m + 2)n^2 + 4n decision nodes. From this it follows that the problem of finding a minimum-sized consistent OBDD for an incompletely specified truth table is NP-hard and also hard to approximate

Kristensen, Jesper Torp; Miltersen, Peter Bro

2006-01-01

307

Effective stochastic behavior in dynamical systems with incomplete information  

Science.gov (United States)

Complex systems are generally analytically intractable and difficult to simulate. We introduce a method for deriving an effective stochastic equation for a high-dimensional deterministic dynamical system for which some portion of the configuration is not precisely specified. We use a response function path integral to construct an equivalent distribution for the stochastic dynamics from the distribution of the incomplete information. We apply this method to the Kuramoto model of coupled oscillators to derive an effective stochastic equation for a single oscillator interacting with a bath of oscillators and also outline the procedure for other systems.

Buice, Michael A.; Chow, Carson C.

2011-11-01

308

A Supernodal Approach to Incomplete LU Factorization with Partial Pivoting  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

We present a new supernode-based incomplete LU factorization method to construct a preconditioner for solving sparse linear systems with iterative methods. The new algorithm is primarily based on the ILUTP approach by Saad, and we incorporate a number of techniques to improve the robustness and performance of the traditional ILUTP method. These include the new dropping strategies that accommodate the use of supernodal structures in the factored matrix. We present numerical experiments to demonstrate that our new method is competitive with the other ILU approaches and is well suited for today's high performance architectures.

Li, Xiaoye Sherry; Shao, Meiyue

2009-06-25

309

Expectation-maximization estimators for incompletely observed data  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Expectation-maximization is a broadly applicable approach to the iterative computation of maximum likelihood estimates. Each iteration of expectation-maximization method consists of two steps: the expectation step and the maximization step. Expectation-maximization method is useful in a variety of problems where the maximum likelihood estimates are very difficult to find. The basic idea of expectation-maximization method is to relate incomplete data problems to complete data problems where estimation by maximum likelihood method is much simpler.

Vasi? Vladimir V.

2004-01-01

310

The performance of hyperlexic children on an "incomplete words" task.  

Science.gov (United States)

Hyperlexic children were found to outperform normal controls in a task involving the ability to decipher "incomplete words", in which letter-identifying cues were made ambiguous through deletion. Superior performance was characterized by rapidity of response, fine-grained discrimination, and dependency upon the larger visual array. the rapid, complex syntheses achieved by the hyperlexic children is related to recent work involving the nature of visual information processing by the right hemisphere and to the suggestion that a unique form of reading may result from right hemispheric mediation. Finally, the possible process similarities relating hyperlexia to autism are discussed. PMID:7145082

Cobrinik, L

1982-01-01

311

VPRS-Based Knowledge Discovery Approach in Incomplete Information System  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Through changing the equivalence relation in the incomplete information system, a new variable precision rough set model and an approach for knowledge reduction are proposed. To overcome no monotonic property of the lower approximation, a cumulative variable precision rough set model is explored, and the basic properties of cumulative lower and upper approximation operators are investigated. The example proves that the cumulative variable precision rough set model has wide range of applications and better result than variable precision rough set model.

Shibao Sun

2010-01-01

312

Conditioning analysis of incomplete Cholesky factorizations with orthogonal dropping  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The analysis of preconditioners based on incomplete Cholesky factorization in which the neglected (dropped) components are orthogonal to the approximations being kept is presented. General estimate for the condition number of the preconditioned system is given which only depends on the accuracy of individual approximations. The estimate is further improved if, for instance, only the newly computed rows of the factor are modified during each approximation step. In this latter case it is further shown to be sharp. The analysis is illustrated with some existing factorizations in the context of discretized elliptic partial differential equations.

Napov, Artem

2012-03-16

313

Incomplete block factorization preconditioning for indefinite elliptic problems  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The application of the finite difference method to approximate the solution of an indefinite elliptic problem produces a linear system whose coefficient matrix is block tridiagonal and symmetric indefinite. Such a linear system can be solved efficiently by a conjugate residual method, particularly when combined with a good preconditioner. We show that specific incomplete block factorization exists for the indefinite matrix if the mesh size is reasonably small. And this factorization can serve as an efficient preconditioner. Some efforts are made to estimate the eigenvalues of the preconditioned matrix. Numerical results are also given.

Guo, Chun-Hua [Univ. of Calgary, Alberta (Canada)

1996-12-31

314

Human macrophage polarization in vitro: maturation and activation methods compared.  

Science.gov (United States)

Macrophages form a heterogeneous cell population displaying multiple functions, and can be polarized into pro- (M1) or anti-inflammatory (M2) macrophages, by environmental factors. Their activation status reflects a beneficial or detrimental role in various diseases. Currently several in vitro maturation and activation protocols are used to induce an M1 or M2 phenotype. Here, the impact of different maturation factors (NHS, M-CSF, or GM-CSF) and activation methods (IFN-?/LPS, IL-4, dexamethason, IL-10) on the macrophage phenotype was determined. Regarding macrophage morphology, pro-inflammatory (M1) activation stimulated cell elongation, and anti-inflammatory (M2) activation induced a circular appearance. Activation with pro-inflammatory mediators led to increased CD40 and CD64 expression, whereas activation with anti-inflammatory factors resulted in increased levels of MR and CD163. Production of pro-inflammatory cytokines was induced by activation with IFN-?/LPS, and TGF-? production was enhanced by the maturation factors M-CSF and GM-CSF. Our data demonstrate that macrophage marker expression and cytokine production in vitro is highly dependent on both maturation and activation methods. In vivo macrophage activation is far more complex, since a plethora of stimuli are present. Hence, defining the macrophage activation status ex vivo on a limited number of markers could be indecisive. From this study we conclude that maturation with M-CSF or GM-CSF induces a moderate anti- or pro-inflammatory state respectively, compared to maturation with NHS. CD40 and CD64 are the most distinctive makers for human M1 and CD163 and MR for M2 macrophage activation and therefore can be helpful in determining the activation status of human macrophages ex vivo. PMID:24916404

Vogel, Daphne Y S; Glim, Judith E; Stavenuiter, Andrea W D; Breur, Marjolein; Heijnen, Priscilla; Amor, Sandra; Dijkstra, Christine D; Beelen, Robert H J

2014-09-01

315

Sustaining Exploration in Mature Basins  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Exploration is a business like any other business driven by opportunity, resources and expectation of profit. Therefore, exploration will thrive anywhere the opportunities are significant, the resources are available and the outlook for profit (or value creation) is good. To sustain exploration activities anywhere, irrespective of the environment, there must be good understanding of the drivers of these key investment criteria. This paper will examine these investment criteria as they relate to exploration business and address the peculiarity of exploration in mature basin. Mature basins are unique environment that lends themselves a mix of fears, paradigms and realities, particularly with respect to the perception of value. To sustain exploration activities in a mature basin, we need to understand these perceptions relative to the true drivers of profitability. Exploration in the mature basins can be as profitable as exploration in emerging basins if the dynamics of value definition-strategic and fiscal values are understood by operators, regulators and co ventures alike. Some suggestions are made in this presentation on what needs to be done in addressing these dynamic investment parameters and sustaining exploration activities in mature basins

316

Global stability of two models with incomplete treatment for tuberculosis  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Research highlights: ? Two tuberculosis models with incomplete treatment. ? Intuitive epidemiological interpretations for the basic reproduction numbers. ? Global dynamics of the two models. ? Strategies to control the spread of tuberculosis. - Abstract: Two tuberculosis (TB) models with incomplete treatment are investigated. It is assumed that the treated individuals may enter either the latent compartment due to the remainder of Mycobacterium tuberculosis or the infectious compartment due to the treatment failure. The first model is a simple one with treatment failure reflecting the current TB treatment fact in most countries with high tuberculosis incidence. The second model refines the simple one by dividing the latent compartment into slow and fast two kinds of progresses. This improvement can be used to describe the case that the latent TB individuals have been infected with some other chronic diseases (such as HIV and diabetes) which may weaken the immunity of infected individuals and shorten the latent period of TB. Both of the two models assume mass action incidence and exponential distributions of transfers between different compartments. The basic reproduction numbers of the two models are derived and their intuitive epidemiological interpretations are given. The global dynamics of two models are all proved by using Liapunov functions. At last, some strategies to control the spread of tuberculosis are discussed.

317

Global stability of two models with incomplete treatment for tuberculosis  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Research highlights: Two tuberculosis models with incomplete treatment. Intuitive epidemiological interpretations for the basic reproduction numbers. Global dynamics of the two models. Strategies to control the spread of tuberculosis. - Abstract: Two tuberculosis (TB) models with incomplete treatment are investigated. It is assumed that the treated individuals may enter either the latent compartment due to the remainder of Mycobacterium tuberculosis or the infectious compartment due to the treatment failure. The first model is a simple one with treatment failure reflecting the current TB treatment fact in most countries with high tuberculosis incidence. The second model refines the simple one by dividing the latent compartment into slow and fast two kinds of progresses. This improvement can be used to describe the case that the latent TB individuals have been infected with some other chronic diseases (such as HIV and diabetes) which may weaken the immunity of infected individuals and shorten the latent period of TB. Both of the two models assume mass action incidence and exponential distributions of transfers between different compartments. The basic reproduction numbers of the two models are derived and their intuitive epidemiological interpretations are given. The global dynamics of two models are all proved by using Liapunov functions. At last, some strategies to control the spread of tuberculosis are discussed.

Yang Yali, E-mail: yylhgr@126.co [Department of Applied Mathematics, Xi' an Jiaotong University, Xi' an 710049 (China) and Department of Applied Mathematics and Physics, Air Force Engineering University, Xi' an 710051 (China); Li Jianquan, E-mail: jianq_li@263.ne [Department of Applied Mathematics and Physics, Air Force Engineering University, Xi' an 710051 (China); Ma Zhien, E-mail: zhma@mail.xjtu.edu.c [Department of Applied Mathematics, Xi' an Jiaotong University, Xi' an 710049 (China); Liu Luju, E-mail: dahai20401095@yahoo.com.c [Department of Mathematics, Henan University of Science and Technology, Luoyang 471003 (China)

2010-12-15

318

Incomplete hippocampal inversion - is there a relation to epilepsy?  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Incomplete hippocampal inversion (IHI) has been described in patients with epilepsy or severe midline malformations but also in nonepileptic subjects without obvious developmental anomalies. We studied the frequency of IHI in different epilepsy syndromes to evaluate their relationship. Three hundred patients were drawn from the regional epilepsy register. Of these, 99 were excluded because of a disease or condition affecting the temporal lobes or incomplete data. Controls were 150 subjects without epilepsy or obvious intracranial developmental anomalies. The coronal MR images were analysed without knowledge of the clinical data. Among epilepsy patients, 30% had IHI (40 left-sided, 4 right-sided, 16 bilateral). Of controls, 18% had IHI (20 left-sided, 8 bilateral). The difference was statistically significant (P<0.05). Of temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE) patients, 25% had IHI, which was not a significantly higher frequency than in controls (P=0.34). There was no correlation between EEG and IHI laterality. A total of 44% of Rolandic epilepsy patients and 57% of cryptogenic generalised epilepsy patients had IHI. The IHI frequency was very high in some epileptic syndromes, but not significantly higher in TLE compared to controls. No causality between TLE and IHI could be found. IHI can be a sign of disturbed cerebral development affecting other parts of the brain, maybe leading to epilepsy. (orig.)

Bajic, Dragan [Uppsala University Hospital, Department of Radiology, Uppsala (Sweden); Kumlien, Eva; Mattsson, Peter [Uppsala University Hospital, Department of Neuroscience, Neurology, Uppsala (Sweden); Lundberg, Staffan [Uppsala University Hospital, Department of Women' s and Children' s Health, Uppsala (Sweden); Wang, Chen [Karolinska University Hospital, Department of Neuroradiology, Stockholm (Sweden); Raininko, Raili [Uppsala University, Department of Radiology, Uppsala (Sweden)

2009-10-15

319

Regularised finite element model updating using measured incomplete modal data  

Science.gov (United States)

This paper presents an effective approach for directly updating finite element model from measured incomplete vibration modal data with regularised algorithms. The proposed method is based on the relationship between the perturbation of structural parameters such as stiffness change and the modal data measurements of the tested structure such as measured mode shape readings. In order to adjust structural parameters at detailed locations, structural updating parameters will be selected at critical point level to reflect the modelling errors at the connections of structural elements. These updating parameters are then evaluated by an iterative or a direct solution procedure, which gives optimised solutions in the least squares sense without requiring an optimisation technique. In order to reduce the influence of modal measurement uncertainty, the Tikhonov regularisation method incorporating the L-curve criterion is employed to produce reliable solutions for the chosen updating parameters. Numerical simulation investigations and experimental studies for the laboratory tested space steel frame structure are undertaken to verify the accuracy and effectiveness of the proposed methods for adjusting the stiffness at the joints of structural members. The results demonstrate that the proposed methods provide reliable estimates of finite element model updating using the measured incomplete modal data.

Chen, Hua-Peng; Maung, Than Soe

2014-10-01

320

Insights into thermonuclear supernovae from the incomplete silicon burning process  

CERN Document Server

Type Ia supernova (SNIa) explosions synthesize a few tenths to several tenths of a solar mass, whose composition is the result of incomplete silicon burning that reaches peak temperatures of 4 GK to 5 GK. The elemental abundances are sensitive to the physical conditions in the explosion, making their measurement a promising clue to uncovering the properties of the progenitor star and of the explosion itself. Using a parameterized description of the thermodynamic history of matter undergoing incomplete silicon burning, we computed the final composition for a range of parameters wide enough to encompass current models of SNIa. Then, we searched for combinations of elemental abundances that trace the parameters values and are potentially measurable. For this purpose, we divide the present study into two epochs of SNIa, namely the optical epoch, from a few weeks to several months after the explosion, and the X-ray epoch, which refers to the time period in which the supernova remnant is young, starting one or two ...

Bravo, E

2012-01-01

 
 
 
 
321

A Multi-Threshold Granulation Model for Incomplete Decision Tables  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available How to establish basic granules of knowledge is a fundamental issue for data mining from incomplete decision tables. In the existing methods, basic granules under similarity relation contain too many objects and disturb the later knowledge mining, while granules under limited similarity relation, although simplifying the granules through introducing a limited threshold on two objects satisfying similarity relation, still have problems such as high computation and low prediction precision. In this paper, a multi-threshold model is presented to establish basic knowledge units of incomplete decision table based on the idea of granular computing, comparison experiments on the new model with two existing models show that the new model is superior to the other models on prediction precision, time cost and attribute reduction. extension description logic--ALCD-ES. Syntax definition, semantic explanation and reasoning algorithm TableauD-ES are given in details, which lay the theoretical foundation for the automatic solving method of contradiction problem based on extension description logic reasoning.  

Renpu Li

2014-07-01

322

Career Maturity and Physically Disabled College Students.  

Science.gov (United States)

Examined the relationships between career maturity, sex, physical disability, and grades in 40 disabled and 46 nondisabled college students. Results showed disabled students were more vocationally mature than nondisabled students and female students were more vocationally mature than males. Type of disability was not related to career maturity.…

Burkhead, E. Jane; Cope, Corrine S.

1984-01-01

323

Isospin Dependence of Incomplete Fusion Reactions at 25 Mev/a  

CERN Document Server

40Ca+40,48Ca,46Ti reactions at 25 MeV/A have been studied using the 4p CHIMERA detector. An isospin effect on the competition between incomplete fusion and dissipative binary reaction mechanisms has been observed. The probability of producing a compound system is observed to be lower in the case of N=Z colliding systems as compared to the case of reactions induced on the more neutron rich 48Ca target. Predictions based on CoMD-II calculations show that the competition between fusion-like and dissipative reactions, for the selected centrality, can strongly constraint the parameterization of symmetry energy and its density dependence in the nuclear equation of state.

Amorini, F; Giuliani, G; Papa, M; Agodi, C; Alba, R; Anzalone, A; Berceanu, I; Cavallaro, S; Chatterjee, M B; Coniglione, R; De Filippo, E; Di Pietro, A; Geraci, E; Grassi, L; Grzeszczuk, A; Figuera, P; La Guidara, E; Lanzalone, G; Neindre, N Le; Lombardo, I; Maiolino, C; Pagano, A; Pirrone, S; Politi, G; Pop, A; Porto, F; Rizzo, F; Russotto, P; Santonocito, D; Sapienza, P; Verde, G

2008-01-01

324

The cost of maturing early in a solitary carnivore.  

Science.gov (United States)

Central to the theory of life history evolution is the existence of trade-offs between different traits, such as the trade-off between early maturity and an extended period of body growth. Based on analysis of the reproductive tracts of harvested Eurasian lynx (Lynx lynx) females in Norway, we find that females that mature early are generally heavier than those that postpone maturation. A higher proportion of 1.5-year-old females showed signs of ovulation in areas with high prey density, where they were also heavier. Further, we show that female Eurasian lynx that mature early have the same number of placental scars (an index of breeding investment and litter size) as older females, suggesting that they have a relatively high investment in their first litter. This induces a cost in terms of body weight development, as those females that had matured at the age of 1.5 years were substantially lighter by the age of 2.5 years than those that postponed breeding. This effect tended to be more pronounced in areas with low prey density. We discuss to what extent this might affect their future fitness prospects, and suggest that such costs of maturing early in terms of body weight development might be high in terrestrial large carnivores due to a prolonged period of postnatal care. PMID:20607292

Nilsen, Erlend B; Brøseth, Henrik; Odden, John; Linnell, John D C

2010-12-01

325

Pubertal disorders and bone maturation.  

Science.gov (United States)

Bone age (BA) indicates more clearly than chronologic age how far an individual has progressed toward full maturity, and predicts the potential for further growth. Single or serial skeletal age estimations help to confirm the diagnosis of normal puberty and normal pubertal variants such as constitutional delay of growth and puberty, premature therlache, and precocious adrenarche. BA can aid in the clinical workup of children whose sexual maturation is early or delayed. Although BA is considered a qualitative rather than quantitative measure, it serves to round out the clinical picture, providing information without which diagnosis could not be achieved. PMID:23099272

Lazar, Liora; Phillip, Moshe

2012-12-01

326

Pharmaceutical Options for Triggering of Final Oocyte Maturation in ART  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Since the pioneering days of in vitro fertilization, hCG has been the gold standard to induce final follicular maturation. We herein reviewed different pharmaceutical options for triggering of final oocyte maturation in ART. The new upcoming agent seems to be GnRHa with its potential advantages over hCG trigger. GnRHa triggering elicits a surge of gonadotropins resembling the natural midcycle surge of gonadotropins, without the prolonged action of hCG, resulting in the retrieval of more mature oocytes and a significant reduction in or elimination of OHSS as compared to hCG triggering. The induction of final follicular maturation using GnRHa represents a paradigm shift in the ovulation triggering concept in ART and, thus, a way to develop a safer IVF procedure. Kisspeptins are key central regulators of the neuroendocrine mechanisms of human reproduction, who have been shown to effectively elicit an LH surge and to induce final oocyte maturation in IVF cycles. This new trigger concept may, therefore, offer a completely new, "natural" pharmacological option for ovulation induction. Whether kisspeptins will be the future agent to trigger ovulation remains to be further explored.

Castillo, Juan Carlos; Humaidan, Peter

2014-01-01

327

Ghrelin accelerates in vitro maturation of bovine oocytes.  

Science.gov (United States)

Ghrelin, apart from its metabolic role, is nowadays considered as a basic regulator of reproductive functions of mammals, acting at central and gonadal levels. Here, we investigated for possible direct actions of ghrelin on in vitro maturation of bovine oocytes and for its effects on blastocyst yield and quality. In experiment 1, cumulus oocyte complexes (COCs) were matured in the presence of four different concentrations of ghrelin (0, 200, 800 and 2000 pg/ml). In vitro fertilization and embryo culture were carried out in the absence of ghrelin, and blastocyst formation rates were examined on days 7, 8 and 9. In experiment 2, only the 800 pg/ml dose of ghrelin was used. Four groups of COCs were matured for 18 or 24 h (C18, Ghr18, C24 and Ghr24), and subsequently, they were examined for oocyte nuclear maturation and cumulus layer expansion; blastocysts were produced as in experiment 1. The relative mRNA abundance of various genes related to metabolism, oxidation, developmental competence and apoptosis was examined in snap-frozen cumulus cells, oocytes and day-7 blastocysts. In experiment 1, ghrelin significantly suppressed blastocyst formation rates. In experiment 2, more ghrelin-treated oocytes matured for 18 h reached MII compared with controls, while no difference was observed when maturation lasted for 24 h. At 18 and 24 h, the cumulus layer was more expanded in ghrelin-treated COCs than in the controls. The blastocyst formation rate was higher in Ghr18 (27.7 ± 2.4%) compared with Ghr24 (17.5 ± 2.4%). Differences were detected in various genes' expression, indicating that in the presence of ghrelin, incubation of COCs for 24 h caused over-maturation (induced ageing) of oocytes, but formed blastocysts had a higher hatching rate compared with the controls. We infer that ghrelin exerts a specific and direct role on the oocyte, accelerating its maturational process. PMID:24889518

Dovolou, E; Messinis, I E; Periquesta, E; Dafopoulos, K; Gutierrez-Adan, A; Amiridis, G S

2014-08-01

328

Exchangeability and the Law of Maturity  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The law of maturity is the belief that less-observed events are becoming mature and, therefore, more likely to occur in the future. Previous studies have shown that the assumption of infinite exchangeability contradicts the law of maturity. In particular, it has been shown that infinite exchangeability contradicts probabilistic descriptions of the law of maturity such as the gambler's belief and the belief in maturity. We show that the weaker assumption of finite exchangeabi...

Bonassi, Fernando Vieira; Stern, Rafael Bassi; Wechsler, Sergio; Peixoto, Claudia Monteiro

2014-01-01

329

Enticing Mature Females into College.  

Science.gov (United States)

Following a review of the literature on mature female students, this paper examines enrollment trends in a selection of colleges in Alberta (Canada) and presents the findings of a survey of returning women students at Red Deer College. The literature review highlights factors related to the personal and professional development of women graduates…

Loseth, Lexie; Moreau, Linda

330

Motivational Maturity and Helping Behavior  

Science.gov (United States)

Maturity in conative development (type of motivation included in Maslow's needs hierarchy) was found to be predictive of helping behavior in middle class white male college students. The effects of safety and esteem needs were compared, and the acceptance of responsibility was also investigated. (GDC)

Haymes, Michael; Green, Logan

1977-01-01

331

Maturation of the adolescent brain  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Mariam Arain, Maliha Haque, Lina Johal, Puja Mathur, Wynand Nel, Afsha Rais, Ranbir Sandhu, Sushil Sharma Saint James School of Medicine, Kralendijk, Bonaire, The Netherlands Abstract: Adolescence is the developmental epoch during which children become adults – intellectually, physically, hormonally, and socially. Adolescence is a tumultuous time, full of changes and transformations. The pubertal transition to adulthood involves both gonadal and behavioral maturation. Magnetic resonance...

Arain M; Haque M; Johal L; Mathur P; Nel W; Rais A; Sandhu R; Sharma S.

2013-01-01

332

Brain maturation after preterm birth.  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Two translational studies--one in humans and one in sheep--suggest that (i) premature birth is associated with delayed maturation of grey matter in the cerebral cortex and (ii) medical care that prohibits impairment of growth in premature neonates may enhance cortical development and reduce neurological disabilities associated with preterm birth.

Molna?r, Z.; Rutherford, M.

2013-01-01

333

Role of entrance channel parameters on incomplete fusion reaction dynamics  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In recent time the keen interest has been observed in the study of incomplete fusion (ICF) reactions and its dependence on various entrance channel parameters: projectile type/energy, angular momentum imparted to the system, alpha-Q-value of the projectile, mass asymmetry of the interacting partners etc. The fusion reaction proceeds for the energy of projectile capable of overcoming the fusion barrier resulting from the sum of repulsive Coulomb and attractive nuclear potentials. However, the breakup becomes an important process and influences the flux of fusion reactions. Further, the influence of the projectile breakup on fusion is not yet well understood, thus continues to be an active area of investigations. In view of the above facts, the excitation functions of several evaporated residues in the 16O + 115In at energies 4-7 MeV/nucleon have been measured. The influence of various entrance channel parameters on ICF reaction dynamics has been studied

334

Testing for a Trend in a Partially Incomplete Hurricane Record.  

Science.gov (United States)

The record of annual counts of basinwide North Atlantic hurricanes is incomplete prior to 1946. This has restricted efforts to identify a long-term trend in hurricane activity to the postwar period. In contrast, the complete record of U.S. landfalling hurricanes extends back to 1930 or earlier. Under the assumption that the proportion of basinwide hurricanes that make landfall is constant over time, it is possible to use the record of landfalling hurricanes to extend a test for trend in basinwide hurricane activity beyond the postwar period. This note describes and illustrates a method for doing this. The results suggest that there has been a significant reduction in basinwide hurricane activity over the period 1930-98.

Solow, Andrew R.; Moore, Laura

2000-10-01

335

A flexible acquisition cycle for incompletely defined fieldbus protocols.  

Science.gov (United States)

Real time data-acquisition from fieldbuses strongly depends on the network type and protocol used. Currently, there is an impressive number of fieldbuses, some of them are completely defined and others are incompletely defined. In those from the second category, the time variable, the main element in real-time data acquisition, does not appear explicitly. Examples include protocols such as Modbus ASCII/RTU, M-bus, ASCII character-based, and so on. This paper defines a flexible acquisition cycle based on the Master-Slave architecture that can be implemented on a Master station, called a Base Station Gateway (BSG). The BSG can add a timestamp for temporal location of data. It also presents a possible extension for the Modbus protocol, developed as simple and low cost solution based on existing hardware. PMID:24650922

Gaitan, Vasile-Gheorghita; Gaitan, Nicoleta-Cristina; Ungurean, Ioan

2014-05-01

336

Stability of utility-maximization in incomplete markets  

CERN Document Server

The effectiveness of utility-maximization techniques for portfolio management relies on our ability to estimate correctly the parameters of the dynamics of the underlying financial assets. In the setting of complete or incomplete financial markets, we investigate whether small perturbations of the market coefficient processes lead to small changes in the agent's optimal behavior derived from the solution of the related utility-maximization problems. Specifically, we identify the topologies on the parameter process space and the solution space under which utility-maximization is a continuous operation, and we provide a counterexample showing that our results are best possible, in a certain sense. A novel result about the structure of the solution of the utility-maximization problem where prices are modeled by continuous semimartingales is established as an offshoot of the proof of our central theorem.

Larsen, Kasper

2007-01-01

337

Mass estimates for visual binaries with incomplete orbits  

Science.gov (United States)

The problem of estimating the total mass of a visual binary when its orbit is incomplete is treated with Bayesian methods. The posterior mean of a mass estimator is approximated by a triple integral over orbital period, orbital eccentricity and time of periastron. This reduction to 3D from the 7D space defined by the conventional Campbell parameters is achieved by adopting the Thiele-Innes elements and exploiting the linearity with respect to the four Thiele-Innes constants. The formalism is tested on synthetic observational data covering a variable fraction of a model binary's orbit. The posterior mean of the mass estimator is numerically found to be unbiased when the data cover ?40% of the orbit.

Lucy, L. B.

2014-03-01

338

Mass estimates for visual binaries with incomplete orbits  

CERN Document Server

The problem of estimating the total mass of a visual binary when its orbit is incomplete is treated with Bayesian methods. The posterior mean of a mass estimator is approximated by a triple integral over orbital period, time of periastron and orbital eccentricity. This reduction to 3-D from the 7-D space defined by the conventional Campbell parameters is achieved by adopting the Thiele-Innes elements and exploiting the linearity with respect to the four Thiele-Innes constants. The formalism is tested on synthetic observational data covering a variable fraction of a model binary's orbit. The posterior mean of the mass estimator is numerically found to be unbiased when the data cover > 40% of the orbit.

Lucy, L B

2013-01-01

339

Expurgated PPM Using Symmetric Balanced Incomplete Block Designs  

CERN Document Server

In this letter, we propose a new pulse position modulation (PPM) scheme, called expurgated PPM (EPPM), for application in peak power limited communication systems, such as impulse radio (IR) ultra wide band (UWB) systems and free space optical (FSO) communications. Using the proposed scheme, the constellation size and the bit-rate can be increased significantly in these systems. The symbols are obtained using symmetric balanced incomplete block designs (BIBD), forming a set of pair-wise equidistance symbols. The performance of Q-ary EPPM is better than any Q-ary pulse position-based modulation scheme with the same symbol length. Since the code is cyclic, the receiver for EPPM is simpler compared to multipulse PPM (MPPM).

Noshad, Mohammad

2012-01-01

340

Self-Financing, Replicating Hedging Strategies, an incomplete thermodynamic analogy  

CERN Document Server

In the theory of riskfree hedges in continuous time finance, one can start with the delta-hedge and derive the option pricing equation, or one can start with the replicating, self-financing hedging strategy and derive both the delta-hedge and the option pricing partial differential equation. Approximately reversible trading is implicitly assumed in both cases. The option pricing equation is not restricted to the standard Black-Scholes equation when nontrivial volatility is assumed, but produces option pricing in agreement with the empirical distribution for the right choice of volatility in a stochastic description of fluctuations. The replicating, self-financing hedging strategy provides us with an incomplete analogy with thermodynamics where liquidity plays the role of the heat bath, the absence of arbitrage is analgous to thermal equilibrium, but there is no role played by the entropy of the returns distribution, which cannot reach a maximum/equilibrium. We emphasize strongly that the no-arbitrage assumpti...

McCauley, J L

2002-01-01

 
 
 
 
341

A Memetic Algorithm for Designing Balanced Incomplete Blocks  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The generation of balanced incomplete block designs (BIBD is a hard constrained combinatorial problem whose applications are manifold. Although the BIBD problem can be easily formulated as a combinatorial optimization problem, its resolution still constitutes a formidable challenge for solving techniques. In this work we devise a memetic algorithm (MA for tackling the BIBD problem. This MA features a heuristic recombination operator based on greedy procedures and a local search method embedded in the evolutionary cycle. An extensive empirical evaluation is done using 86 different instances of the problem. The results indicate that the two mentioned components of the MA contribute synergistically to the performance of the algorithm, whose results are better than those of other metaheuristics such as genetic algorithms, hill climbing, and tabu search (which was the previous incumbent for the problem.

David Rodríguez Rueda

2011-01-01

342

Proclaiming the validity of systematics for low energy incomplete fusion  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The phenomenon of incomplete fusion (ICF) in heavy ion (HI) interactions may be considered to take place when the projectile breaks up near the vicinity of target nuclear field, into fragments, one of which fuses with the target nucleus forming an excited composite system which may eventually de-excite by particle and ? emission, while the other part of fragment moves into the forward direction without any interaction and acts as spectator. In order to explore the underlined issues, the EFs of 13C+169Tm (present work) and 12C+169Tm systems at energies ? 4-7 MeV/A have been compared to study convincingly the projectile structure effects on the ICF reaction dynamics

343

Incomplete thermalization and enhanced transport in tokamak plasmas  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Plasma transport in the presence of unthermalized particles is analysed. During intensive heating a high energy tail develops and the spatial loss of fast particles affects the global energy balance. The paper examines the anomalous transport of electrons in the tail current operation of Ohmic discharges, the effect of the spatial loss on RF current drive, and the ion confinement in ICRF heating plasmas. Experimental results show that the tail current operation of Ohmic plasmas reduces the anomalous loss. On the other hand, the fast particle losses put an upper limit to the efficient heating and current drive. The small amount of fast particle loss (such as ripple loss) annihilates the RF enhancement of the fusion reactivity. In this case, the order of magnitude of the global confinement time is between that of the bulk particle confinement time and that of the slowing-down time. Effects of incomplete thermalization in real space are also discussed. (author)

344

Traumatic vertebral artery dissection presenting with incomplete congruous homonymous quadrantanopia  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background To describe a rare presentation of vertebral artery dissection (VAD as a small but congruous incomplete homonymous hemianopia demonstrating use of visual field testing in the diagnosis. Case presentation A 30 year old woman had been unwell for 4 months with difficulty focusing, vertigo, dizziness and a feeling of falling to the right. A small but congruous right inferior homonymous quadrantanopia was found on examination leading to further investigation that uncovered a vertebral artery dissection and multiple posterior circulation infarctions including a left occipital stroke matching the field defect. Conclusions We describe an atypical case of VAD presenting with a small congruous quadrantanopia. This is a rare but significant condition that predisposes to multiple thromboembolic infarction that may be easily misdiagnosed and a high index of suspicion is required to make the diagnosis.

Chen Celia S

2010-05-01

345

An improved modeling technique for distribution feeders with incomplete information  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This paper proposes an improved technique for modeling of an electrical distribution system in the presence of incomplete information. By considering the different behavior and coincident factors of commercial and residential loads, this paper formulates a Ratio Factor technique to acquire an improved powerflow model. A load distribution relationship between the entire load and less than 50% of the total load on a feeder is also formulated. The technique only requires annual peak loads for each feeder and substation which are readily available. In addition, the method uses the results of the conventional technique and produces better results through a set of simple computation. It is shown that the accuracy of the new techniques is significantly better than the traditional technique.

Lee, Y.C. (Sierra Pacific Power Co., Reno, NV (United States)); Etezadi-Amoli, M. (Univ. of Nevada, Reno, NV (United States). Electrical Engineering Dept.)

1993-10-01

346

Process reconstruction from incomplete and/or inconsistent data  

CERN Document Server

We analyze how an action of a qubit channel (map) can be estimated from the measured data that are incomplete or even inconsistent. That is, we consider situations when measurement statistics is insufficient to determine consistent probability distributions. As a consequence either the estimation (reconstruction) of the channel completely fails or it results in an unphysical channel (i.e., the corresponding map is not completely positive). We present a regularization procedure that allows us to derive physically reasonable estimates (approximations) of quantum channels. We illustrate our procedure on specific examples and we show that the procedure can be also used for a derivation of optimal approximations of operations that are forbidden by the laws of quantum mechanics (e.g., the universal NOT gate).

Ziman, M; Buzek, V; Ziman, Mario; Plesch, Martin; Buzek, Vladimir

2004-01-01

347

Parameter learning in MTE networks using incomplete data  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Bayesian networks with mixtures of truncated exponentials (MTEs) are gaining popularity as a flexible modelling framework for hybrid domains. MTEs support efficient and exact inference algorithms, but estimating an MTE from data has turned out to be a difficult task. Current methods suffer from a considerable computational burden as well as the inability to handle missing values in the training data. In this paper we describe an EM-based algorithm for learning the maximum likelihood parameters of an MTE network when confronted with incomplete data. In order to overcome the computational difficulties we make certain distributional assumptions about the domain being modeled, thus focusing on a subclass of the general class of MTE networks. Preliminary empirical results indicate that the proposed method offers results that are inline with intuition.

Fernández, Antonio; Langseth, Helge

348

Mature HIV-1 capsid structure by cryo-electron microscopy and all-atom molecular dynamics.  

Science.gov (United States)

Retroviral capsid proteins are conserved structurally but assemble into different morphologies. The mature human immunodeficiency virus-1 (HIV-1) capsid is best described by a 'fullerene cone' model, in which hexamers of the capsid protein are linked to form a hexagonal surface lattice that is closed by incorporating 12 capsid-protein pentamers. HIV-1 capsid protein contains an amino-terminal domain (NTD) comprising seven ?-helices and a ?-hairpin, a carboxy-terminal domain (CTD) comprising four ?-helices, and a flexible linker with a 310-helix connecting the two structural domains. Structures of the capsid-protein assembly units have been determined by X-ray crystallography; however, structural information regarding the assembled capsid and the contacts between the assembly units is incomplete. Here we report the cryo-electron microscopy structure of a tubular HIV-1 capsid-protein assembly at 8?Å resolution and the three-dimensional structure of a native HIV-1 core by cryo-electron tomography. The structure of the tubular assembly shows, at the three-fold interface, a three-helix bundle with critical hydrophobic interactions. Mutagenesis studies confirm that hydrophobic residues in the centre of the three-helix bundle are crucial for capsid assembly and stability, and for viral infectivity. The cryo-electron-microscopy structures enable modelling by large-scale molecular dynamics simulation, resulting in all-atom models for the hexamer-of-hexamer and pentamer-of-hexamer elements as well as for the entire capsid. Incorporation of pentamers results in closer trimer contacts and induces acute surface curvature. The complete atomic HIV-1 capsid model provides a platform for further studies of capsid function and for targeted pharmacological intervention. PMID:23719463

Zhao, Gongpu; Perilla, Juan R; Yufenyuy, Ernest L; Meng, Xin; Chen, Bo; Ning, Jiying; Ahn, Jinwoo; Gronenborn, Angela M; Schulten, Klaus; Aiken, Christopher; Zhang, Peijun

2013-05-30

349

Cytokines in ovarian folliculogenesis, oocyte maturation and luteinisation.  

Science.gov (United States)

Cytokines are key regulators of ovarian physiology, particularly in relation to folliculogenesis and ovulation, where they contribute to creating an environment supporting follicle selection and growth. Their manifold functions include regulating cellular proliferation/differentiation, follicular survival/atresia, and oocyte maturation. Several cytokines, such as TGF-?-superfamily members, are involved at all stages of folliculogenesis while the production of others is stage-dependent. This review draws upon evidence from both human and animal models to highlight the species-specific roles at each milestone of follicular development. Given these pivotal roles and their ease of detection in follicular fluid, cytokines have been considered as attractive biomarkers of oocyte maturational status and of successful assisted reproductive outcome. Despite this, our understanding of cytokines and their interactions remains incomplete, and is still frequently limited to overly simplistic descriptions of their interrelationships. Given our increased appreciation of cytokine activity in complex and highly regulated networks, we put forward the case for using Bayesian modelling approaches to describe their hierarchical relationships in order to predict causal physiological interactions in vivo. PMID:24273059

Field, Sarah L; Dasgupta, Tathagata; Cummings, Michele; Orsi, Nicolas M

2014-04-01

350

Repetitive common peroneal nerve stimulation increases ankle dorsiflexor motor evoked potentials in incomplete spinal cord lesions.  

Science.gov (United States)

Plasticity of corticospinal tract (CST) activity likely plays a key role in motor function recovery after central nervous system (CNS) lesions. In non-injured adults, 30 min of repetitive common peroneal nerve stimulation (rCPnS) increases CST excitability by 40-50% and the effect persists for at least 30 min. The present study evaluated with transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) the changes in CST excitability after 30 min of rCPnS in people with foot drop due to incomplete SCI. Suprathreshold rCPnS (25 Hz, alternating 1 s on 1 s off stimulation cycle) was given for two 15-min periods, while the subject sat at rest with ankle and knee joints fixed. Before, between, and after the periods of stimulation, the tibialis anterior (TA) motor evoked potentials (MEPs) to TMS were measured at a TMS intensity that originally produced a half-maximum MEP (typically 10-20% above threshold) while the sitting subject provided 25-30% maximum voluntary TA contraction. In 10 subjects with SCI, the peak-to-peak TA MEP increased by 14 ± 3% after rCPnS and the peak increase (+21 ± 7%) occurred 15 min after the cessation of rCPnS. The TA H-reflex, measured in separate experiments in 7 subjects, did not increase after rCPnS. The results indicate that rCPnS can increase CST excitability for the TA in people with incomplete SCI, although its effects appear smaller and shorter lasting than those found in non-injured control subjects. Such short-term plasticity in the CST excitability induced by rCPnS may contribute to long-term therapeutic effects of functional electrical stimulation previously reported in people with CNS lesions. PMID:21360230

Thompson, Aiko K; Lapallo, Brandon; Duffield, Michael; Abel, Briana M; Pomerantz, Ferne

2011-04-01

351

Mechanism of oocyte maturation and ovulation and its application to seed production in the Japanese eel.  

Science.gov (United States)

Reduction in eel resources and catches of glass eels as seedlings for aquaculture have been a serious concern in recent years in both Europe and East Asia. Thus, technical advancement to produce eel seeds for artificial cultivation is most desired. Fundamental information on oocyte maturation and ovulation and its application to artificial induction of sexual maturation are needed to produce good quality seeds of the Japanese eel. This review introduces hormonal mechanisms of cytoplasmic maturation (such as hydration, lipid coalescence, and clearing of the ooplasm) and the maturational competence (the ability to respond to maturation-inducing steroid) and nuclear maturation (germinal vesicle breakdown). In addition, previous and newly developed methods for induction of spawning have been described. PMID:22278706

Kagawa, H; Sakurai, Y; Horiuchi, R; Kazeto, Y; Gen, K; Imaizumi, H; Masuda, Y

2013-02-01

352

Incomplete fusion reactions in 12C+103Rh at 4-7 MeV/nucleon  

Science.gov (United States)

Incomplete fusion reactions at projectile energies 4-7 MeV/nucleon were studied for the system 12C+103Rh by excitation function and recoil range distribution measurements. The complete and incomplete fusion processes were distinguished by the linear momentum transfer from the projectile to target. Comparison of the experimental data with the predictions of Monte Carlo simulation code PACE2 for complete fusion was used to deduce the incomplete fusion component in the recoil range distributions. From the relative yields of the incomplete fusion products, the excitation energy and angular momentum of the incompletely fused composite nucleus were deduced and were found to agree with the breakup fusion model of incomplete fusion.

Kumar, B. Bindu; Sharma, Anil; Mukherjee, S.; Chakrabarty, S.; Pujari, P. K.; Tomar, B. S.; Goswami, A.; Manohar, S. B.; Datta, S. K.

1999-05-01

353

Suppression of experimental autoimmune thyroiditis in the guinea pig by pretreatment with thyroglobulin in incomplete Freund's adjuvant  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Pretreatment of Strain 2 and Strain 13 guinea pigs with guinea pig thyroglobulin (GPTG)2 in incomplete Freund's adjuvant (IFA) reduced both the incidence and severity of experimental autoimmune thyroiditis (EAT) in animals subsequently challenged with GPTG in complete Freund's adjuvant (CFA). Antithyroglobulin antibody titers were reduced by pretreatment with GPTG in IFA in some, but not all, experiments while delayed hypersensitivity to GPTG was not affected. The suppressive effect induced by antigen pretreatment was transferrable by lymphoid cells but not by serum from pretreated animals

354

Maturation of the adolescent brain.  

Science.gov (United States)

Adolescence is the developmental epoch during which children become adults - intellectually, physically, hormonally, and socially. Adolescence is a tumultuous time, full of changes and transformations. The pubertal transition to adulthood involves both gonadal and behavioral maturation. Magnetic resonance imaging studies have discovered that myelinogenesis, required for proper insulation and efficient neurocybernetics, continues from childhood and the brain's region-specific neurocircuitry remains structurally and functionally vulnerable to impulsive sex, food, and sleep habits. The maturation of the adolescent brain is also influenced by heredity, environment, and sex hormones (estrogen, progesterone, and testosterone), which play a crucial role in myelination. Furthermore, glutamatergic neurotransmission predominates, whereas gamma-aminobutyric acid neurotransmission remains under construction, and this might be responsible for immature and impulsive behavior and neurobehavioral excitement during adolescent life. The adolescent population is highly vulnerable to driving under the influence of alcohol and social maladjustments due to an immature limbic system and prefrontal cortex. Synaptic plasticity and the release of neurotransmitters may also be influenced by environmental neurotoxins and drugs of abuse including cigarettes, caffeine, and alcohol during adolescence. Adolescents may become involved with offensive crimes, irresponsible behavior, unprotected sex, juvenile courts, or even prison. According to a report by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, the major cause of death among the teenage population is due to injury and violence related to sex and substance abuse. Prenatal neglect, cigarette smoking, and alcohol consumption may also significantly impact maturation of the adolescent brain. Pharmacological interventions to regulate adolescent behavior have been attempted with limited success. Since several factors, including age, sex, disease, nutritional status, and substance abuse have a significant impact on the maturation of the adolescent brain, we have highlighted the influence of these clinically significant and socially important aspects in this report. PMID:23579318

Arain, Mariam; Haque, Maliha; Johal, Lina; Mathur, Puja; Nel, Wynand; Rais, Afsha; Sandhu, Ranbir; Sharma, Sushil

2013-01-01

355

Glycoprotein maturation and the UPR  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Glycosylation is a complex form of protein modification occurring in the secretory pathway. The addition of N- and O-glycans affects intracellular processes like the folding and trafficking of most glycoproteins. To better understand the impact of glycosylation in protein folding and maturation, parameters like glycosylation site occupancy and oligosaccharide structure must be measured quantitatively. In this chapter, we describe current methods enabling the determination of N-glycosylation b...

Hu?lsmeier, A. J.; Welti, M.; Hennet, T.

2011-01-01

356

Maturation of the adolescent brain  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Mariam Arain, Maliha Haque, Lina Johal, Puja Mathur, Wynand Nel, Afsha Rais, Ranbir Sandhu, Sushil Sharma Saint James School of Medicine, Kralendijk, Bonaire, The Netherlands Abstract: Adolescence is the developmental epoch during which children become adults – intellectually, physically, hormonally, and socially. Adolescence is a tumultuous time, full of changes and transformations. The pubertal transition to adulthood involves both gonadal and behavioral maturation. Magnetic resonance imaging studies have discovered that myelinogenesis, required for proper insulation and efficient neurocybernetics, continues from childhood and the brain's region-specific neurocircuitry remains structurally and functionally vulnerable to impulsive sex, food, and sleep habits. The maturation of the adolescent brain is also influenced by heredity, environment, and sex hormones (estrogen, progesterone, and testosterone, which play a crucial role in myelination. Furthermore, glutamatergic neurotransmission predominates, whereas gamma-aminobutyric acid neurotransmission remains under construction, and this might be responsible for immature and impulsive behavior and neurobehavioral excitement during adolescent life. The adolescent population is highly vulnerable to driving under the influence of alcohol and social maladjustments due to an immature limbic system and prefrontal cortex. Synaptic plasticity and the release of neurotransmitters may also be influenced by environmental neurotoxins and drugs of abuse including cigarettes, caffeine, and alcohol during adolescence. Adolescents may become involved with offensive crimes, irresponsible behavior, unprotected sex, juvenile courts, or even prison. According to a report by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, the major cause of death among the teenage population is due to injury and violence related to sex and substance abuse. Prenatal neglect, cigarette smoking, and alcohol consumption may also significantly impact maturation of the adolescent brain. Pharmacological interventions to regulate adolescent behavior have been attempted with limited success. Since several factors, including age, sex, disease, nutritional status, and substance abuse have a significant impact on the maturation of the adolescent brain, we have highlighted the influence of these clinically significant and socially important aspects in this report. Keywords: myelinogenesis, neurocircuitry, molecular imaging, drug addiction, behavior, social adjustment

Arain M

2013-04-01

357

A lineage-specific protein kinase crucial for myeloid maturation.  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

To identify genes involved in macrophage development, we used the differential display technique and compared the gene expression profiles for human myeloid HL-60 leukemia cell lines susceptible and resistant to macrophage maturation. We identified a gene coding for a protein kinase, protein kinase X (PRKX), which was expressed in the maturation-susceptible, but not in the resistant, cell line. The expression of the PRKX gene was found to be induced during monocyte, macrophage, and granulocyte maturation of HL-60 cells. We also studied the expression of the PRKX gene in 12 different human tissues and transformed cell lines and found that, among these tissues and cell types, the PRKX gene is expressed only in blood. Among the blood cell lineages, the PRKX gene is specifically expressed in macrophages and granulocytes. Antisense inhibition of PRKX expression blocked terminal development in both the leukemic HL-60 cells and normal peripheral blood monocytes, implying that PRKX is a key mediator of macrophage and granulocyte maturation. Using the HL-60 cell variant deficient in protein kinase C-{beta} (PKC-{beta}) and several stable PKC-{beta} transfectants, we found that PRKX gene expression is under control of PKC-{beta}; hence PRKX is likely to act downstream of this PKC isozyme in the same signal transduction pathway leading to macrophage maturation.

Semizarov, D.; Glesne, D.; Laouar, A.; Schiebel, K.; Huberman, E.; Center for Mechanistic Biology and Biotechnology; Univ. of Heidelberg

1998-12-01

358

How does incomplete fusion show up at slightly above barrier energies?  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Experimental results on the onset of incomplete fusion at slightly above barrier energies are discussed in this paper. Spin-distributions of evaporation residues populated via complete and/or incomplete fusion of 12C,16O (Elab ? 4–7 MeV with 169Tm have been measured to probe associated ?–values. Particle (Z=1,2 – ? – coincidence technique has been used for channel selection. Entirely different entry state spin populations have been observed during the de-excitation of complete and incomplete composites. The complete fusion residues are found to be strongly fed over a broad spin range. While, a narrow range feeding for only high spin states has been observed in case of incomplete fusion residues. In the present work, incomplete fusion is shown to be a promising tool to populate high spin states in final reaction products. For better insight into the onset and strength of incomplete fusion, the relative contributions of complete and incomplete fusion have been deduced from the analysis of excitation functions and forward recoil ranges. A significant fraction of ICF has been observed even at energy as low as ? 7% above the barrier. The relative strengths of complete and incomplete fusion deduced from the analysis of forward-recoil-ranges and excitation functions complement each other. All the available results are discussed in light of the Morgenstern’s mass-asymmetry systematics. Incomplete fusion fraction is found to be large for more mass-asymmetric systems for individual projectiles, which points towards the projectile structure effect on incomplete fusion fraction. Experimentally measured forward ranges of recoils complement the existence of incomplete fusion at slightly above barrier energies, where more than one linear-momentum-transfer components associated with full- and/or partial-fusion of projectile(s have been observed. Present results conclusively demonstrate the possibility to selectively populate high spin states via incomplete fusion.

Prasad R.

2012-02-01

359

Young Children's Social Maturity and Their Drawings  

Science.gov (United States)

The relationship between preschool children's level of social maturity and their drawing expressions was tested; findings stregthened the contention that the drawings of preschoolers are not appropriate indicators of their social maturity. (SDH)

Hendrickson, Norejane J.; And Others

1974-01-01

360

Development and maturation of Escherichia coli K-12 biofilms  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

The development and maturation of E. coli biofilms in flow-chambers was investigated. We found that the presence of transfer constitutive IncF plasmids induced biofilm development forming structures resembling those reported for Pseudomonas aeruginosa . The development occurred in a step-wise process: (i) attachment of cells to the substratum, (ii) clonal growth and microcolony formation, and (iii) differentiation into expanding structures rising 70-100 mum into the water phase. The first two steps were the same in the plasmid-carrying and plasmid-free strains, whereas the third step only occurred in conjugation pilus proficient plasmid-carrying strains. The final shapes of the expanding structures in the mature biofilm seem to be determined by the pilus configuration, as various mutants affected in the processing and activity of the transfer pili displayed differently structured biofilms. We further provide evidence that flagella, type 1 fimbriae, curli and Ag43 are all dispensable for the observed biofilm maturation. In addition, our results indicate that cell-to-cell signalling mediated by autoinducer 2 (AI-2) is not required for differentiation of E. coli within a biofilm community. We suggest on the basis of these results that E. coli K-12 biofilm development and maturation is dependent on cell-cell adhesion factors, which may act as inducers of self-assembly processes that result in differently structured biofilms depending on the adhesive properties on the cell surface.

Schembri, Mark; Molin, SØren

2003-01-01

 
 
 
 
361

Uterine rupture following incomplete molar pregnancy: a case report  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Background: In molar pregnancy, when hydatidiform changes are local and some embryonic components are observed, the term of partial mole is used. The risk of persistent trophoblastic tumor after partial mole is much lower than complete mole. In this persistent cases almost all are non metastatic. The aim of this study is to report a case of uterine rupture following incomplete molar pregnancy.Case presentation: The patient was a 26 year old woman with obstetric history of an abortion and one molar pregnancy and no child. She was referred to emergency unit in Ghaem University Hospital, Mashhad, Iran in May 2011. She had an evacuation curettage following molar pregnancy three months before and without any follow up visit. The patient was referred to emergency unit with hemorrhagic shock. She immediately underwent laparotomy. The uterine fundal rupture was repaired and evacuation curettage performed. In post operative evaluation, she had a nine millimeter metastatic nodule in base of right Lung. As a patient in low risk stage III, she received weekly intramuscular methotrexate (40mg/m2 for six courses. In follow up visit ?-hCG titer was negative (<10miu/ml at 5th week. Conclusion: In cases of in complete molar pregnancy risk of metastasis is very low. Serial beta-hCG titer is the most accurate method for detection of persistent gestational trophoblastic disease (GTN. In neglected cases like this case preservation of ruptured uterus in GTN is possible.

Pourali L

2013-03-01

362

The AI&M procedure for learning from incomplete data  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

We investigate methods for parameter learning from incomplete data that is not missing at random. Likelihood-based methods then require the optimization of a profile likelihood that takes all possible missingness mechanisms into account. Optimizing this profile likelihood poses two main difficulties: multiple (local) maxima, and its very high-dimensional parameter space. In this paper a new method is presented for optimizing the profile likelihood that addresses the second difficulty: in the proposed AI\\&M (adjusting imputation and maximization) procedure the optimization is performed by operations in the space of data completions, rather than directly in the parameter space of the profile likelihood. We apply the AI\\&M method to learning parameters for Bayesian networks. The method is compared against conservative inference, which takes into account each possible data completion, and against EM. The results indicate that likelihood-based inference is still feasible in the case of unknown missingness mechanisms, and that conservative inference is unnecessarily weak. On the other hand, our results also provide evidence that the EM algorithm is still quite effective when the data is not missing at random.

Jaeger, Manfred

2006-01-01

363

Improving parameter learning of Bayesian nets from incomplete data  

CERN Document Server

This paper addresses the estimation of parameters of a Bayesian network from incomplete data. The task is usually tackled by running the Expectation-Maximization (EM) algorithm several times in order to obtain a high log-likelihood estimate. We argue that choosing the maximum log-likelihood estimate (as well as the maximum penalized log-likelihood and the maximum a posteriori estimate) has severe drawbacks, being affected both by overfitting and model uncertainty. Two ideas are discussed to overcome these issues: a maximum entropy approach and a Bayesian model averaging approach. Both ideas can be easily applied on top of EM, while the entropy idea can be also implemented in a more sophisticated way, through a dedicated non-linear solver. A vast set of experiments shows that these ideas produce significantly better estimates and inferences than the traditional and widely used maximum (penalized) log-likelihood and maximum a posteriori estimates. In particular, if EM is adopted as optimization engine, the mode...

Corani, Giorgio

2011-01-01

364

Genetic diagnosis of one family with incomplete clinical data.  

Science.gov (United States)

A 6-day-old female patient suddenly died of congestive heart failure, hepatomegaly and hypoglycemic encephalopathy. Tandem mass spectrometry (MS) analysis revealed a possibility of carnitine deficiency. However, many of the clinical symptoms had not yet occurred at that time, and the clinical data was incomplete. We aim to derive a systematic procedure of identifying pathogenic mutations for similar patients. Physicians could save patients' lives with effective treatment at a much earlier stage. Direct sequencing of the exons and exon-intron boundaries of GAA, SLC25A5, CPT1, CPT2, SLC25A20 and MUT genes were performed on the parents of the patient. DNA from the blood spots of the patient was analyzed for the MUT gene. The results revealed that the patient was a compound heterozygote with MUT. c. 729_730insTT and c. 1677-1G>A. cDNA sequence demonstrated MUT c. 1677-1G>A resulting in the deletion of eight nucleotides and the introduction of 13 novel amino acids before premature termination. PMID:23729607

Xu, Shiyan; Bhajoo, Sirsingh H; Jiang, Weiying

2013-01-01

365

Redistribution of magnetic flux during its incomplete compression  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Peculiarities of redistribution of a magnetic flux in a compression generator are considered. The calculations of flux distribution are carried out, taking into account real characteristic of magnetic core in a plane geometry of a pole pitch at the width of the pole 10 cm, the width of the slot 10 cm, the depth of the slot 12 cm and the gap between poles 3 mm, as well as in the presence of the permanent magnetic field in the gap equalling 10 T. The conclusions are made that in the shorted circuit, consisted of coils connected in-series with various number of turns, the change of flux linkage of every of the coils can exceed the initial value several times. For every fixed value of a coil coupling coefficient exists the determined difference of their turns, when maximum change of flux linkage of the coil takes place. The effects connected with the saturation of the magnetic core in the course of incomplete compression of the magnetic flux lead to weakening both change of flux linkage of separate coils and the rate of decreasing the coefficient of induction variation of the whole circuit. It is marked that redistribution of coil flux linkage with the phenomena accompanying them can be caused not only by disbalance of coil turns but by the inequality of the proper coil inductances

366

Spectral Regularization Algorithms for Learning Large Incomplete Matrices.  

Science.gov (United States)

We use convex relaxation techniques to provide a sequence of regularized low-rank solutions for large-scale matrix completion problems. Using the nuclear norm as a regularizer, we provide a simple and very efficient convex algorithm for minimizing the reconstruction error subject to a bound on the nuclear norm. Our algorithm Soft-Impute iteratively replaces the missing elements with those obtained from a soft-thresholded SVD. With warm starts this allows us to efficiently compute an entire regularization path of solutions on a grid of values of the regularization parameter. The computationally intensive part of our algorithm is in computing a low-rank SVD of a dense matrix. Exploiting the problem structure, we show that the task can be performed with a complexity linear in the matrix dimensions. Our semidefinite-programming algorithm is readily scalable to large matrices: for example it can obtain a rank-80 approximation of a 10(6) × 10(6) incomplete matrix with 10(5) observed entries in 2.5 hours, and can fit a rank 40 approximation to the full Netflix training set in 6.6 hours. Our methods show very good performance both in training and test error when compared to other competitive state-of-the art techniques. PMID:21552465

Mazumder, Rahul; Hastie, Trevor; Tibshirani, Robert

2010-03-01

367

The Logical Dynamics of Information; Deacon’s “Incomplete Nature”  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In his Incomplete Nature, Deacon extends a thermodynamic concept of energy to yield a description of complex processes in which absence plays a critical role in their emergence and evolution. Starting from a quantum-mechanical picture of energy as an energy-matter duality, the critical role of potential as well as actual properties of processes is also described in the new extension of logic to real phenomena, Logic in Reality (LIR, which I have proposed. Deacon shows how an interactive operation of both Shannon entropy and Boltzmann entropy must be taken into account in information. Here, I demonstrate the complementarity of our two approaches to what is not, or not fully, present for an understanding of the dynamics of complex phenomena, especially, of intentionality, information and meaning. Deacon shows that the hallmark of information is its absent content, and LIR shows that presence (actuality and absence (potentiality in such processes are related dynamically. Deacon’s approach and LIR ground and extend Logan’s concepts of biotic information and the relativity of information vs. meaning. Their conjunction constitutes a new conceptual structure for exploring the relationship of information to materiality, that is, to the matter-energy that constitutes it as its carrier and/or substrate.

Joseph E. Brenner

2012-11-01

368

Incomplete carbon-oxygen detonation in Type Ia supernovae  

CERN Document Server

Incomplete carbon-oxygen detonation with reactions terminating after burning of 12C in the leading 12C + 12C reaction (C-detonation) may occur in the low density outer layers of white dwarfs exploding as Type Ia supernovae (SNIa). Previous studies of carbon-oxygen detonation structure and stability at low densities were performed under the assumption that the "velocity" of a detonation wave derives from complete burning of carbon and oxygen to iron. In fact, at densities <10^6 g/cm3 the detonation in SNIa may release less than a half of the available nuclear energy. In this paper we study basic properties of such detonations. We find that the length of an unsupported steady-state C-detonation is 30-100 times greater than previously estimated, and that the decreased energy has a drastic effect on the detonation stability. In contrast to complete detonations which are one-dimensionally stable, C-detonations may be one-dimensionally unstable and propagate by periodically re-igniting themselves via spontaneous...

Domínguez, Inma

2011-01-01

369

INCOMPLETE CARBON-OXYGEN DETONATION IN TYPE Ia SUPERNOVAE  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Incomplete carbon-oxygen detonation with reactions terminating after burning of C12 in the leading C12 + C12 reaction (C-detonation) may occur in the low-density outer layers of white dwarfs exploding as Type Ia supernovae (SNe Ia). Previous studies of carbon-oxygen detonation structure and stability at low densities were performed under the assumption that the velocity of a detonation wave is derived from complete burning of carbon and oxygen to iron. In fact, at densities ? ? 106 g cm-3 the detonation in SNe Ia may release less than a half of the available nuclear energy. In this paper, we study basic properties of such detonations. We find that the length of an unsupported steady-state C-detonation is ?30-100 times greater than previously estimated and that the decreased energy has a drastic effect on the detonation stability. In contrast to complete detonations which are one-dimensionally stable, C-detonations may be one-dimensionally unstable and propagate by periodically re-igniting themselves via spontaneous burning. The re-ignition period at ? ? 106 g cm-3 is estimated to be greater than the timescale of an SN Ia explosion. This suggests that propagation and quenching of C-detonations at these densities could be affected by the instability. Potential observational implications of this effect are discussed.

370

Incomplete turgor adjustment in Cladophora rupestrisunder fluctuating salinity regimes  

Science.gov (United States)

Turgor pressure fluctuates strongly in Cladophora rupestrissubjected to low salinities and shows only a small tendency to readjust to the normal value in full seawater (incomplete turgor adjustment). This was revealed by direct turgor pressure measurements and by chemical analyses of osmotic solutes after exposure of upper and lower shore Cladophorato the different salinity regimes occurring in the intertidal zone or representing steady state osmotic acclimation. The main internal osmotic solutes were K +, Cl -, amino acids, NO 3-and glycine betaine. Na +, SO 42-and PO 43-were of less importance. The sum of the charges on the cations was similar to that for the anions. K +, Cl -and, to a lesser extent, amino acids were responsible for limited turgor pressure adjustment which did occur. The concentrations of the major osmotic solutes were influenced not only by salinity but also by light: those of amino acids and NO 3-were increased while those of K +and Cl -were decreased under illumination. Cladophorapopulations from the upper and lower shore differed in their ability to restore internal K +and Cl -levels on transfer to full seawater after long term exposure to low salinity. This may indicate ecotypic variation.

Wiencke, Christian; Gorham, John; Tomos, Deri; Davenport, John

1992-04-01

371

A continuous stochastic maturation model  

CERN Document Server

We present a continuous time model of maturation and survival, obtained as the limit of a compartmental evolution model when the number of compartments tends to infinity. We establish in particular an explicit formula for the law of the system output under inhomogeneous killing and when the input follows a time-inhomogeneous Poisson process. Identifiability issues are discussed, and an application to the modelling of the toxicity of anti-cancer drugs is given. Such models can be seen in particular as generalisations of previous works of Jacquez & Simon and Schuhmacher & Thieme.

Chafai, D; Chafai, Djalil; Concordet, Didier; ccsd-00003498, ccsd

2004-01-01

372

Accounting for Incomplete Species Detection in Fish Community Monitoring  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Riverine fish assemblages are heterogeneous and very difficult to characterize with a one-size-fits-all approach to sampling. Furthermore, detecting changes in fish assemblages over time requires accounting for variation in sampling designs. We present a modeling approach that permits heterogeneous sampling by accounting for site and sampling covariates (including method) in a model-based framework for estimation (versus a sampling-based framework). We snorkeled during three surveys and electrofished during a single survey in suite of delineated habitats stratified by reach types. We developed single-species occupancy models to determine covariates influencing patch occupancy and species detection probabilities whereas community occupancy models estimated species richness in light of incomplete detections. For most species, information-theoretic criteria showed higher support for models that included patch size and reach as covariates of occupancy. In addition, models including patch size and sampling method as covariates of detection probabilities also had higher support. Detection probability estimates for snorkeling surveys were higher for larger non-benthic species whereas electrofishing was more effective at detecting smaller benthic species. The number of sites and sampling occasions required to accurately estimate occupancy varied among fish species. For rare benthic species, our results suggested that higher number of occasions, and especially the addition of electrofishing, may be required to improve detection probabilities and obtain accurate occupancy estimates. Community models suggested that richness was 41% higher than the number of species actually observed and the addition of an electrofishing survey increased estimated richness by 13%. These results can be useful to future fish assemblage monitoring efforts by informing sampling designs, such as site selection (e.g. stratifying based on patch size) and determining effort required (e.g. number of sites versus occasions).

McManamay, Ryan A [ORNL; Orth, Dr. Donald J [Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University; Jager, Yetta [ORNL

2013-01-01

373

Multiple imputation for an incomplete covariate that is a ratio.  

Science.gov (United States)

We are concerned with multiple imputation of the ratio of two variables, which is to be used as a covariate in a regression analysis. If the numerator and denominator are not missing simultaneously, it seems sensible to make use of the observed variable in the imputation model. One such strategy is to impute missing values for the numerator and denominator, or the log-transformed numerator and denominator, and then calculate the ratio of interest; we call this 'passive' imputation. Alternatively, missing ratio values might be imputed directly, with or without the numerator and/or the denominator in the imputation model; we call this 'active' imputation. In two motivating datasets, one involving body mass index as a covariate and the other involving the ratio of total to high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, we assess the sensitivity of results to the choice of imputation model and, as an alternative, explore fully Bayesian joint models for the outcome and incomplete ratio. Fully Bayesian approaches using Winbugs were unusable in both datasets because of computational problems. In our first dataset, multiple imputation results are similar regardless of the imputation model; in the second, results are sensitive to the choice of imputation model. Sensitivity depends strongly on the coefficient of variation of the ratio's denominator. A simulation study demonstrates that passive imputation without transformation is risky because it can lead to downward bias when the coefficient of variation of the ratio's denominator is larger than about 0.1. Active imputation or passive imputation after log-transformation is preferable. PMID:23922236

Morris, Tim P; White, Ian R; Royston, Patrick; Seaman, Shaun R; Wood, Angela M

2014-01-15

374

Proteomic profiling of murine oocyte maturation.  

Science.gov (United States)

In an effort to better understand oocyte function, we utilized two-dimensional (2D) electrophoresis and mass spectrometry to identify proteins that are differentially expressed during murine oocyte maturation. Proteins from 500 germinal vesicle (GV) and metaphase II-(MII) arrested oocytes were extracted, resolved on 2D electrophoretic gels, and stained with silver. Analysis of the gels indicated that 12 proteins appeared to be differentially expressed between the GV and MII stage. These proteins were then cored from the 2D gels and identified by mass spectrometry as: transforming acidic coiled-coil protein 3 (TACC3), heat shock protein 105 (HSP105), programmed cell death six-interacting protein (PDCD6IP), stress-inducible phosphoprotein (STI1), importin alpha2, adenylsuccinate synthase (ADDS), nudix, spindlin, lipocalin, lysozyme, translationally controlled tumor protein (TCTP), and nucleoplasmin 2 (NPM2). Interestingly, PDCD6IP, importin alpha2, spindlin, and NPM2 appear slightly larger in mass and more acidic on the MII oocyte gel compared to the GV oocyte gel, suggesting that they may be post-translationally modified during oocyte maturation. Given NPM2 is an oocyte-restricted protein, we chose to further investigate its properties during oocyte maturation and preimplantation development. Real-Time RT-PCR showed that NPM2 mRNA levels rapidly decline at fertilization. Indirect immunofluorescence analysis showed that, with the exception of cortical localization in MII-arrested oocytes, NPM2 is localized to the nucleus of both GV stage oocytes and all stages of preimplantation embryos. We then performed one-dimensional (1D) western blot analysis of mouse oocytes and preimplantation embryos and found that, as implicated by the 2D gel comparison, NPM2 undergoes a phosphatase-sensitive electrophoretic mobility shift during the GV to MII transition. The slower migrating NPM2 form is also present in pronuclear embryos but by the two-cell stage, the majority of NPM2 exists as the faster migrating form, which persists to the blastocyst stage. PMID:17044029

Vitale, Alejandra M; Calvert, Meredith E Kennedy; Mallavarapu, Mallika; Yurttas, Piraye; Perlin, Julie; Herr, John; Coonrod, Scott

2007-05-01

375

Do You See What I See? Infants' Reasoning about Others' Incomplete Perceptions  

Science.gov (United States)

Twelve-month-olds realize that when an agent cannot see an object, her incomplete perceptions still guide her goal-directed actions. What would happen if the agent had incomplete perceptions because she could see only one part of the object, for example one side of a screen? In the present research, 16-month-olds were first shown an agent who…

Luo, Yuyan; Beck, Whitney

2010-01-01

376

Linear momentum transfer in incomplete fusion reactions of 12C and 13C with 181Ta  

Science.gov (United States)

Recoil range distribution of evaporation residues formed in complete and incomplete fusion of 82.5 MeV 12C and 13C with 181Ta have been measured by recoil catcher technique followed by off-line gamma-ray spectrometry. The recoil range distributions of incomplete fusion products were found to be in good agreement with that simulated on the basis of direct surface transfer reaction model. The cross-sections for complete and incomplete fusion were delineated from the measured excitation function data at the same beam energy. The fraction of incomplete fusion in the total cross-section was found to be more in the case of 12C than that in the case of 13C indicating the dependence of incomplete fusion probability on the cluster structure of the projectile.

Babu, K. Surendra; Tripathi, R.; Sudarshan, K.; Sodaye, S.; Goswami, A.; Shrivastava, B. D.; Tomar, B. S.

2004-07-01

377

Logical settings for concept learning from incomplete examples in First Order Logic  

CERN Document Server

We investigate here concept learning from incomplete examples. Our first purpose is to discuss to what extent logical learning settings have to be modified in order to cope with data incompleteness. More precisely we are interested in extending the learning from interpretations setting introduced by L. De Raedt that extends to relational representations the classical propositional (or attribute-value) concept learning from examples framework. We are inspired here by ideas presented by H. Hirsh in a work extending the Version space inductive paradigm to incomplete data. H. Hirsh proposes to slightly modify the notion of solution when dealing with incomplete examples: a solution has to be a hypothesis compatible with all pieces of information concerning the examples. We identify two main classes of incompleteness. First, uncertainty deals with our state of knowledge concerning an example. Second, generalization (or abstraction) deals with what part of the description of the example is sufficient for the learnin...

Bouthinon, D; Vento, V; Bouthinon, Dominique; Soldano, Henry

2006-01-01

378

Induction of central nervous system plasticity by repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation to promote sensorimotor recovery in incomplete spinal cord injury  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Cortical and spinal cord plasticity may be induced with non-invasive transcranial magnetic stimulation to encourage long term potentiation or depression of neuronal circuits. Such plasticity inducing stimulation provides an attractive approach to promote changes in sensorimotor circuits that have been degraded by spinal cord injury (SCI. If residual corticospinal circuits can be conditioned appropriately there should be the possibility that the changes are accompanied by functional recovery. This article reviews the attempts that have been made to restore sensorimotor function and to obtain functional benefits from the application of repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS of the cortex following incomplete spinal cord injury (iSCI. The confounding issues that arise with the application of rTMS, specifically in SCI, are enumerated. Finally, consideration is given to the potential for rTMS to be used in the restoration of bladder and bowel sphincter function and consequent functional recovery of the guarding reflex.

Peter Ellaway

2014-05-01

379

Neuromuscular stimulation therapy after incomplete spinal cord injury promotes recovery of interlimb coordination during locomotion  

Science.gov (United States)

The mechanisms underlying the effects of neuromuscular electrical stimulation (NMES) induced repetitive limb movement therapy after incomplete spinal cord injury (iSCI) are unknown. This study establishes the capability of using therapeutic NMES in rodents with iSCI and evaluates its ability to promote recovery of interlimb control during locomotion. Ten adult female Long Evans rats received thoracic spinal contusion injuries (T9; 156 ± 9.52 Kdyne). 7 days post-recovery, 6/10 animals received NMES therapy for 15 min/day for 5 days, via electrodes implanted bilaterally into hip flexors and extensors. Six intact animals served as controls. Motor function was evaluated using the BBB locomotor scale for the first 6 days and on 14th day post-injury. 3D kinematic analysis of treadmill walking was performed on day 14 post-injury. Rodents receiving NMES therapy exhibited improved interlimb coordination in control of the hip joint, which was the specific NMES target. Symmetry indices improved significantly in the therapy group. Additionally, injured rodents receiving therapy more consistently displayed a high percentage of 1:1 coordinated steps, and more consistently achieved proper hindlimb touchdown timing. These results suggest that NMES techniques could provide an effective therapeutic tool for neuromotor treatment following iSCI.

Jung, R.; Belanger, A.; Kanchiku, T.; Fairchild, M.; Abbas, J. J.

2009-10-01

380

Proteomic changes during intestinal cell maturation in vivo  

Science.gov (United States)

Intestinal epithelial cells undergo progressive cell maturation as they migrate along the crypt-villus axis. To determine molecular signatures that define this process, proteins differentially expressed between the crypt and villus were identified by 2D-DIGE and MALDI-MS. Forty-six differentially expressed proteins were identified, several of which were validated by immunohistochemistry. Proteins upregulated in the villus were enriched for those involved in brush border assembly and lipid uptake, established features of differentiated intestinal epithelial cells. Multiple proteins involved in glycolysis were also upregulated in the villus, suggesting increased glycolysis is a feature of intestinal cell differentiation. Conversely, proteins involved in nucleotide metabolism, and protein processing and folding were increased in the crypt, consistent with functions associated with cell proliferation. Three novel paneth cell markers, AGR2, HSPA5 and RRBP1 were also identified. Notably, significant correlation was observed between overall proteomic changes and corresponding gene expression changes along the crypt-villus axis, indicating intestinal cell maturation is primarily regulated at the transcriptional level. This proteomic profiling analysis identified several novel proteins and functional processes differentially induced during intestinal cell maturation in vivo. Integration of proteomic, immunohistochemical, and parallel gene expression datasets demonstrate the coordinated manner in which intestinal cell maturation is regulated. PMID:18824147

Chang, Jinsook; Chance, Mark R.; Nicholas, Courtney; Ahmed, Naseem; Guilmeau, Sandra; Flandez, Marta; Wang, Donghai; Byun, Do-Sun; Nasser, Shannon; Albanese, Joseph M.; Corner, Georgia A.; Heerdt, Barbara G.; Wilson, Andrew J.; Augenlicht, Leonard H.; Mariadason, John M.

2008-01-01

 
 
 
 
381

Interleukin-11 potentiates oligodendrocyte survival and maturation, and myelin formation.  

Science.gov (United States)

Mechanisms that regulate oligodendrocyte survival and myelin formation are an intense focus of research into myelin repair in the lesions of multiple sclerosis (MS). Although demyelination and oligodendrocyte loss are pathological hallmarks of the disease, increased oligodendrocyte numbers and remyelination are frequently observed in early lesions, but these diminish as the disease course progresses. In the current study, we used a microarray-based approach to investigate genes regulating repair in MS lesions, and identified interleukin-11 (IL-11) as an astrocyte-derived factor that potentiates oligodendrocyte survival and maturation, and myelin formation. IL-11 was induced in human astrocyte cultures by the cytokines IL-1beta and TGFbeta1, which are both prominently expressed in MS plaques. In MS tissue samples, IL-11 was expressed by reactive astrocytes, with expression particularly localized at the myelinated border of both active and silent lesions. Its receptor, IL-11R alpha, was expressed by oligodendrocytes. In experiments in human cultures in vitro, IL-11R alpha localized to immature oligodendrocytes, and its expression decreased during maturation. In cultures treated with IL-11, we observed a significant increase in oligodendrocyte number, and this was associated with enhanced oligodendrocyte survival and maturation. Importantly, we also found that IL-11 treatment was associated with significantly increased myelin formation in rodent CNS cocultures. These data are the first to implicate IL-11 in oligodendrocyte viability, maturation, and myelination. We suggest that this pathway may represent a potential therapeutic target for oligodendrocyte protection and remyelination in MS. PMID:17122042

Zhang, Yueting; Taveggia, Carla; Melendez-Vasquez, Carmen; Einheber, Steven; Raine, Cedric S; Salzer, James L; Brosnan, Celia F; John, Gareth R

2006-11-22

382

Vascular endothelial growth factor inhibits dendritic cell maturation  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Objective: In this paper we investigated the effects of vascularendothelial growth factor on dendritic cells differentiation andmaturation from monocytic precursors. Methods: CD14+/CD34-progenitor cells were obtained from umbilical cord blood, purifiedby magnetic cell sorting, and cultivated with IL-4 and GM-CSF, inthe presence or absence of vascular endothelial growth factor.Maturation of dendritic cells was induced after six days of cultureby 24h-treatment with lipopolysaccharide (LPS. Results:Expression of marker proteins for immature (CD14 and DC-SIGNand mature(CD83 dendritic cells was detected by fluorescencemicroscopy and flow cytometry using monoclonal antibodies(mAb. Under proper differentiating conditions, treatment withvascular endothelial growth factor did not change the expressionof immature DC markers. Following maturation with LPS, increasedamount of CD14+ and DC-SIGN+ cells and decreased CD83+ cellpopulation were detected in vascular endothelial growth factortreatedcultures. Conclusions: Our data suggest that vascularendothelial growth factor does not affect the differentiation ofCD14+/CD34- progenitor cells into immature dendritic cells, butit reduces the efficiency of dendritic cells maturation in vitro. Thisvascular endothelial growth factor-mediated effect on dendriticcells function may influence anti-tumor immune responses.

Luciana Cavalheiro Marti

2005-03-01

383

[FeFe]-hydrogenase maturation.  

Science.gov (United States)

Hydrogenases are metalloenzymes that catalyze the reversible reduction of protons at unusual metal centers. This Current Topic discusses recent advances in elucidating the steps involved in the biosynthesis of the complex metal cluster at the [FeFe]-hydrogenase (HydA) active site, known as the H-cluster. The H-cluster is composed of a 2Fe subcluster that is anchored within the active site by a bridging cysteine thiolate to a [4Fe-4S] cubane. The 2Fe subcluster contains carbon monoxide, cyanide, and bridging dithiolate ligands. H-cluster biosynthesis is now understood to occur stepwise; standard iron-sulfur cluster assembly machinery builds the [4Fe-4S] cubane of the H-cluster, while three specific maturase enzymes known as HydE, HydF, and HydG assemble the 2Fe subcluster. HydE and HydG are both radical S-adenosylmethionine enzymes that interact with an iron-sulfur cluster binding GTPase scaffold, HydF, during the construction of the 2Fe subcluster moiety. In an unprecedented biochemical reaction, HydG cleaves tyrosine and decomposes the resulting dehydroglycine into carbon monoxide and cyanide ligands. The role of HydE in the biosynthetic pathway remains undefined, although it is hypothesized to be critical for the synthesis of the bridging dithiolate. HydF is the site where the complete 2Fe subcluster is formed and ultimately delivered to the immature hydrogenase protein in the final step of [FeFe]-hydrogenase maturation. This work addresses the roles of and interactions among HydE, HydF, HydG, and HydA in the formation of the mature [FeFe]-hydrogenase. PMID:24878200

Shepard, Eric M; Mus, Florence; Betz, Jeremiah N; Byer, Amanda S; Duffus, Benjamin R; Peters, John W; Broderick, Joan B

2014-07-01

384

Towards a Curriculum Design Maturity Model  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The Capability Maturity Model (CMM) is used in the software industry to improve design process as well as product quality. Likewise, CMM is also used in the education sector for a similar purpose. This paper presents, in particular, a proposed maturity model for curriculum design for Institutions of Higher Learning in Malaysia. The Curriculum Design Maturity Model ONE (CDMM-1) is specifically aimed at guiding curriculum designers in producing quality curricula according to programme specifica...

Thong Chee Ling 1; Yusmadi Yah Jusoh 2; Rusli Abdullah 3; Nor Hayati Alwi 4

2012-01-01

385

Lack of Rbl1/p107 Effects on Cell Proliferation and Maturation in the Inner Ear  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Loss of postnatal mammalian auditory hair cells (HCs is irreversible. Earlier studies have highlighted the importance of the Retinoblastoma family of proteins (pRBs (i.e., Rb1, Rbl1/p107, and Rbl2/p130 in the auditory cells’ proliferation and emphasized our lack of information on their specific roles in the auditory system. We have previously demonstrated that lack of Rbl2/p130 moderately affects HCs’ and supporting cells’ (SCs proliferation. Here, we present evidence supporting multiple roles for Rbl1/p107 inthe developing and mature mouse organ of Corti (OC. Like other pRBs, Rbl1/p107 is expressed in the OC, particularly in the Hensen’s and Deiters’ cells. Moreover, Rbl1/p107 impacts maturation and postmitotic quiescence of HCs and SCs, as evidenced by enhanced numbers of these cells and the presence of dividing cells in the postnatal Rbl1/p107?/?OC. These findings were further supported by microarray and bioinformatics analyses, suggesting downregulation of several bHLH molecules, as well as activation of the Notch/Hes/Hey signaling pathway in homozygous Rbl1/p107 mutant mice. Physiological assessments and detection of ectopic HC marker expression in postnatal spiral ganglion neurons (SGNs provided evidence for incomplete cell maturation and differentiation in Rbl1/p107?/?OC. Collectively, the present study highlights an important role for Rbl1/p107 inOC cell differentiation and maturation, which is distinct from other pRBs.

Sonia M. Rocha-Sanchez

2013-11-01

386

Towards a Curriculum Design Maturity Model  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The Capability Maturity Model (CMM is used in the software industry to improve design process as well as product quality. Likewise, CMM is also used in the education sector for a similar purpose. This paper presents, in particular, a proposed maturity model for curriculum design for Institutions of Higher Learning in Malaysia. The Curriculum Design Maturity Model ONE (CDMM-1 is specifically aimed at guiding curriculum designers in producing quality curricula according to programme specifications. In this study, CDMM-1, which is derived from the proposed maturity model, has both process and product components. However, this paper only focuses on the product quality aspect.

Thong Chee Ling 1

2012-10-01

387

Closure duration analysis of incomplete stop consonants due to stop-stop interaction  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

An incomplete stop consonant is characterized either by an indistinguishable closure or a missing burst. If an incomplete stop happens due to a stop following another stop [stop-stop interaction (SSI)], its acoustics typically resemble that of a complete stop—one closure followed by a single burst. As a consequence, stop detectors would fail to distinguish an SSI from a complete stop. Analysis of the TIMIT corpus shows 35.04% incomplete stops (14.97% SSI). It is shown that by using automati...

Ghosh, Prasanta Kumar; Narayanan, Shrikanth S.

2009-01-01

388

Detecting Incomplete Learners in a Blended Learning Environment Among Japanese University Students  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available To examine the feasibility of identifying incomplete participants who had not eventually completed a course in a blended learning environment using current learning behavioral data, access log data of complete and incomplete participants were analyzed. There is a significant difference between the two sets, and the number of accesses correlates with the final test score. Discrimination analysis was conducted using several variables across the learning process, and the ratio of those taking part in online tests was significant. Discrimination performance improved in relation to the number of accesses. The estimation performance was determined for two disparate courses in order to detect incomplete participants.

Minoru Nakayama

2009-03-01

389

Scintigraphic detection of 'yo-yo' phenomenon in incomplete ureteric duplication  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

'Yo-yo' reflux in an incompletely duplicated renal system was demonstrated on 99mTc-mercaptoacetyltriglycine (MAG3) renal scintigraphy in a 7-year-old girl presenting with low-grade fever and pyelonephritis. Incomplete duplication and a bifid renal pelvis, which may be seen in up to 4% of the North American population, occasionally causes symptoms because of recurrent urinary tract infection or loin pain. 99mTc-MAG3 renal scintigraphy can demonstrate 'yo-yo' reflux in patients with incomplete renal duplication and should be considered in cases with unexplained loin pain, even if 99mTc-dimercaptosuccinic acid (DMSA) renal scintigraphy is normal. (orig.)

390

Usefulness of immunomodulators for maturation of dendritic cells.  

Science.gov (United States)

Biological response modifiers (BRMs) augment the cytotoxic activity of various effector cells by the induction of multiple cytokines and suppression of immunosuppressive factors. BRMs are used extensively in adjuvant therapy for gastric cancer in Japan. In dendritic cell (DC)-based vaccine therapy, the quality of DCs is important in inducing strong antitumor immunity. A good manufacturing practice (GMP) grade agent for DCs maturation is desirable for safety. Here we report the effects of two BRMs, OK432 and PSK, which are GMP grade agents for the functional maturation of DCs. OK432 and PSK were examined in vitro, and compared with lipopolysaccharide (LPS) and a cytokine cocktail (IL-1beta, TNF-alpha, IL-6 and PGE2). In the immunophenotypical analysis, the expression of CD80 and CD83 of DCs stimulated with OK-432 increased significantly compared with PSK and medium, and this up-regulation was the same as levels of DCs stimulated with cytokine cocktail. DCs stimulated with OK-432 showed significantly higher production of IL-12 and Th1-type cytokines (IL-2 and IFN-gamma) compared with DCs stimulated with LPS or cytokine cocktail. OK-432 stimulated DCs could induce the significantly high level of cytotoxic T cell activity compared with PSK-stimulated or unstimulated DCs. These results suggest that OK432 is a GMP-grade reagent that promotes functional maturation of DCs and could be applied in DC-based vaccinations. PMID:15254744

Ogihara, Takashi; Iinuma, Hisae; Okinaga, Kota

2004-08-01

391

Factors involved in the maturation of murine dendritic cells transduced with adenoviral vector variants  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Adenoviral vector (Ad)-mediated gene transfer is an attractive method for manipulating the immunostimulatory properties of dendritic cells (DCs) for cancer immunotherapy. DCs treated with Ad have phenotype alterations (maturation) that facilitate T cell sensitization. We investigated the mechanisms of DC maturation with Ad transduction. Expression levels of a maturation marker (CD40) on DCs treated with conventional Ad, fiber-modified Ads (AdRGD, AdF35, AdF35?RGD), or a different serotype Ad (Ad35) were correlated with their transduction efficacy. The ?v-integrin directional Ad, AdRGD, exhibited the most potent ability to enhance both foreign gene expression and CD40 expression, and induced secretion of interleukin-12, tumor necrosis factor-?, and interferon-? in DCs. The presence of a foreign gene expression cassette in AdRGD was not necessary for DC maturation. Maturation of DCs treated with AdRGD was suppressed by destruction of the Ad genome, inhibition of endocytosis, or endosome acidification, whereas proteasome inhibition increased CD40 expression levels on DCs. Moreover, inhibition of ?v-integrin signal transduction and blockade of cytokine secretion affected the maturation of DCs treated with AdRGD only slightly or not at all, respectively. Thus, our data provide evidence that Ad-induced DC maturation is due to Ad invasion of the DCs, followed by nuclear transport of the Ad genome, and not to the expression of foreign genes

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Evolutionary regime shifts in age and size at maturation of exploited fish stocks.  

Science.gov (United States)

Worldwide declines of fish stocks raise concerns about deleterious consequences of harvesting for stock abundances and individual life histories, and call for appropriate recovery strategies. Fishes in exploited stocks mature earlier at either larger or smaller sizes due to both genetic and plastic responses. The latter occur commonly when reduced competition for food leads to faster growth. Using a size-structured consumer-resource model, which accounts for both genetic and plastic responses, we show that fisheries-induced evolutionary changes in individual life history and stock properties can easily become irreversible. As a result of annual spawning, early maturation at small sizes and late maturation at large sizes can become alternative, evolutionarily and ecologically stable states under otherwise identical environmental conditions. Exploitation of late-maturing populations can then induce an evolutionary regime shift to smaller maturation sizes associated with stepwise, 1-year decreases in age at first reproduction. Complete and early fishing moratoria slowly reverse this process, but belated or partial closure of fisheries may accelerate or even instigate further evolution to smaller sizes at maturation. We suggest that stepwise decreases in maturation age can be used as early warnings of upcoming evolutionary changes, and should inspire timely restrictions of fisheries. PMID:16822746

de Roos, André M; Boukal, David S; Persson, Lennart

2006-08-01

393

Downregulation of surface sodium pumps by endocytosis during meiotic maturation of Xenopus laevis oocytes  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

During meiotic maturation, plasma membranes of Xenopus laevis oocytes completely lose the capacity to transport Na and K and to bind ouabain. To explore whether the downregulation might be due to an internalization of the sodium pump molecules, the intracellular binding of ouabain was determined. Selective permeabilization of the plasma membrane of mature oocytes (eggs) by digitonin almost failed to disclose ouabain binding sites. However, when the eggs were additionally treated with 0.02% sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) to permeabilize inner membranes, all sodium pumps present before maturation were recovered. Phosphorylation by [gamma-32P]ATP combined with SDS-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (PAGE) and autoradiography showed that sodium pumps were greatly reduced in isolated plasma membranes of eggs. According to sucrose gradient fractionation, maturation induced a shift of sodium pumps from the plasma membrane fraction to membranes of lower buoyant density with a protein composition different from that of the plasma membrane. Endocytosed sodium pumps identified on the sucrose gradient from [3H]ouabain bound to the cell surface before maturation could be phosphorylated with inorganic [32P]phosphate. The findings suggest that downregulation of sodium pumps during maturation is brought about by translocation of su