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Sample records for induce incomplete maturation

  1. Cannabinoids induce incomplete maturation of cultured human leukemia cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Murison, G.; Chubb, C.B.H.; Maeda, S.; Gemmell, M.A.; Huberman, E.

    1987-08-01

    Monocyte maturation markers were induced in cultured human myeloblastic ML-2 leukemia cells after treatment for 1-6 days with 0.03-30 ..mu..M ..delta../sup 9/-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC), the major psychoactive component of marijuana. After a 2-day or longer treatment, 2- to 5-fold increases were found in the percentages of cells exhibiting reactivity with either the murine OKM1 monoclonal antibody of the Leu-M5 monoclonal antibody, staining positively for nonspecific esterase activity, and displaying a promonocyte morphology. The increases in these differentiation markers after treatment with 0.03-1 ..mu..M THC were dose dependent. At this dose range, THC did not cause an inhibition of cell growth. The THC-induced cell maturation was also characterized by specific changes in the patterns of newly synthesized proteins. The THC-induced differentiation did not, however, result in cells with a highly developed mature monocyte phenotype. However, treatment of these incompletely matured cells with either phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate of 1..cap alpha..,25-dihydroxycholecalciferol, which are inducers of differentiation in myeloid leukemia cells (including ML-2 cells), produced cells with a mature monocyte morphology. The ML-2 cell system described here may be a useful tool for deciphering critical biochemical events that lead to the cannabinoid-induced incomplete cell differentiation of ML-2 cells and other related cell types. Findings obtained from this system may have important implications for studies of cannabinoid effects on normal human bone-marrow progenitor cells.

  2. Brucella lipoproteins mimic dendritic cell maturation induced by Brucella abortus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zwerdling, Astrid; Delpino, M Victoria; Barrionuevo, Paula; Cassataro, Juliana; Pasquevich, Karina A; García Samartino, Clara; Fossati, Carlos A; Giambartolomei, Guillermo H

    2008-10-01

    Infection with Brucella abortus induces a pro-inflammatory response that drives T cell responses toward a Th1 profile. The mechanism by which this bacterium triggers this response is unknown. Dendritic cells (DC) are crucial mediators at the host-pathogen interface and are potent Th1-inducing antigen-presenting cells. Thus, we examined the mechanism whereby B. abortus stimulate human DC maturation. B. abortus-infected DC increased the expression of CD86, CD80, CCR7, CD83, MHCII, MHCI and CD40 and induced the production of TNF-alpha, IL-6, IL-10 and IL-12. Both phenomena were not dependent on bacterial viability since they were also induced by heat-killed B. abortus (HKBA). B. abortus LPS was unable to induce markers up-regulation or cytokine production. We next investigated the capacity of the outer membrane protein 19 (Omp19) as a B. abortus lipoprotein model to induce DC maturation. Lipidated Omp19 (L-Omp19), but not its unlipidated form, increased the expression of cell surface markers and the secretion of cytokines. L-Omp19-matured DC also have decreased endocytic activity and displayed enhanced T cell stimulatory activity in a MLR. Pre-incubation of DC with anti-TLR2 mAb blocked L-Omp19-mediated cytokine production. These results demonstrate that B. abortus lipoproteins can stimulate DC maturation providing a mechanism by which these bacteria generate a Th1-type immune response. PMID:18761420

  3. Induced maturation of hepatic progenitor cells in vitro

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Y., Bi; Y., He; J.Y., Huang; L., Xu; N., Tang; T.C., He; T., Feng.

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Hepatic progenitor cells (HPCs) are a potential cell source for liver cell transplantation but do not function like mature liver cells. We sought an effective and reliable method to induce HPC maturation. An immortalized HP14.5 albumin promoter-driven Gaussian luciferase (ALB-GLuc) ce [...] ll line was established from HPCs isolated from fetal mouse liver of post coitus day 14.5 mice to investigate the effect of induction factors on ALB promoter. HP14.5 parental cells were cultured in DMEM with different combinations of 2% horse serum (HS), 0.1 µM dexamethasone (DEX), 10 ng/mL hepatic growth factor (HGF), and/or 20 ng/mL fibroblast growth factor 4 (FGF4). Trypan blue and crystal violet staining were used to assess cell proliferation with different induction conditions. Expression of hepatic markers was measured by semi-quantitative RT-PCR, Western blot, and immunofluorescence. Glycogen storage and metabolism were detected by periodic acid-Schiff and indocyanine green (ICG) staining. GLuc activity indicated ALB expression. The combination of 2% HS+0.1 µM Dex+10 ng/mL HGF+20 ng/mL FGF4 induced the highest ALB-GLuc activity. Cell proliferation decreased in 2% HS but increased by adding FGF4. Upon induction, and consistent with hepatocyte development, DLK, AFP, and CK19 expression decreased, while ALB, CK18, and UGT1A expression increased. The maturity markers tyrosine aminotransferase and apolipoprotein B were detected at days 3 and 6 post-induction, respectively. ICG uptake and glycogen synthesis were detectable at day 6 and increased over time. Therefore, we demonstrated that HPCs were induced to differentiate into functional mature hepatocytes in vitro, suggesting that factor-treated HPCs may be further explored as a means of liver cell transplantation.

  4. Investigation of the influence of incomplete fusion on complete fusion of 16O induced reactions at moderate excitation energies

    OpenAIRE

    Ahamad Tauseef; Ali Sabir; Kumar Kamal; Rizvi I. A.; Sharma Anjali; Dutt Sunil; Agarwal Avinash; Kumar Rakesh; Chaubey A. K.

    2012-01-01

    An attempt has been made to investigate for the reaction dynamics leading to incomplete fusion (ICF) of heavy ions at moderate excitation energies, especially the influence of incomplete fusion on complete fusion (CF) of 16O induced reactions at specific energies. Excitation functions (EFs) of various reaction products populated via CF and/or ICF of 16O projectile with 45Sc target were measured at energies ?3-7 MeV/nucleon, using recoil catcher technique followed by offline ?-ray spectroscopy...

  5. Dimer formation of receptor activator of nuclear factor ?B induces incomplete osteoclast formation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Receptor activator of nuclear factor ?B-ligand (RANKL) transduces a differentiation signal appropriate to osteoclasts likely through induction a receptor homotrimer; however, biological importance of RANK-trimerizarion is unknown. To address the signaling mechanism of the RANK receptor, we analyzed the effect of two different types of homodimer inducers RANK-TM-FKBP36v and hEpoR-RANK-TM on osteoclastogenesis. Dimerizing component FKBP36v or extracellular portion of human erythropoietin receptor (hEpoR) was fused to RANK lacking the extracellular domain, and the dimerization of this fusion protein was induced by addition of the chemical inducer of dimerization AP20187 or erythropoietin, respectively. Such treatment resulted in induction of TRAP-activity, a marker of osteoclast in a dose dependent manner, with an efficiency equivalent to that of induction by RANKL. However, dimerized-RANK-induced osteoclasts showed relatively low levels of multinucleation, pit forming activity, and expression of calcitonin receptor and cathepsin K, compared with osteoclasts which were induced in the presence of RANKL. As expression of nuclear factor of activated T cells 1 (NFATc1) was also reduced in dimerized-RANK-induced osteoclasts, RANK oligomerization by RANKL is a critical event to generate fully matured osteoclasts through upregulation of NFATc1

  6. The role of phosphatidylinositol signaling pathway in regulating serotonin-induced oocyte maturation in Mercenaria mercenaria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Qing; Zhang, Tao

    2011-05-01

    Serotonin (5-HT) has been found to stimulate meiotic maturation of oocytes in many molluscs. During maturation, several signaling pathways are involved, especially the phosphatidylinositol and cAMP pathways. In order to examine the possible role of the phosphatidylinositol signaling pathway in regulating oocyte maturation in Mercenaria mercenaria, the effects of the activator/inhibitor of phospholipase (PLC) and protein kinase C (PKC) on serotonin-induced maturation were studied. Results show that high-concentrations of neomycin (inhibitor of PLC) blocked oocyte maturation, while 9, 10-dimethyl-1, 2-benzanthracene (DMBA, activator of PLC) promoted oocyte maturation in the presence of serotonin. It was also found that in the presence of serotonin, phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate (PMA, activator of PKC) inhibited oocyte maturation, while sphingosine (inhibitor of PKC) stimulated oocyte maturation. These results indicate that serotonin-induced oocyte maturation requires the activation of the phosphatidylinositol pathway. Decrease of PLC inhibited serotonin-induced oocyte maturation, whereas a decrease of PKC stimulated the maturation. Thus, our study indicates that serotonin promotes maturation of M. mercenaria oocytes through PLC stimulated increase in calcium ion concentration via inositol-1, 4, 5-trisphosphate (IP3) but not PKC.

  7. Investigation of the influence of incomplete fusion on complete fusion of 16O induced reactions at moderate excitation energies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahamad Tauseef

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available An attempt has been made to investigate for the reaction dynamics leading to incomplete fusion (ICF of heavy ions at moderate excitation energies, especially the influence of incomplete fusion on complete fusion (CF of 16O induced reactions at specific energies. Excitation functions (EFs of various reaction products populated via CF and/or ICF of 16O projectile with 45Sc target were measured at energies ?3-7 MeV/nucleon, using recoil catcher technique followed by offline ?-ray spectroscopy. The measured EFs were compared with theoretical values obtained using the statistical model code PACE4. The experimentally measured EFs were in general found to be in good agreement with the theoretical predictions for non ?-emitting channels in the present target projectile system. However, for ?-emitting channels the measured EFs were higher than the predictions of the theoretical model codes, which may be credited to incomplete fusion reactions at these energies.

  8. Contribution to the study of incomplete fusion reactions induced in heavy ion collisions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The objective of this research thesis work was to identify the mechanisms involved in incomplete fusion reactions, and more particularly to see whether projectile structure has an influence on the reaction, and to assess the level and width of the angular moment window associated with incomplete fusion alphas. The study focused on alpha emission by the 16O + 116,124Sn system. Various experimental data have been obtained: differential efficient cross sections for different incident energies, energy spectra of alphas and their evolution with respect to the angle, angular moments associated with fast alphas, coincidences between alphas and discrete gamma lines, measurement of circular polarization of gammas emitted in incomplete fusion reactions

  9. The basic helix-loop-helix transcription factor, Mist1, induces maturation of mouse fetal hepatoblasts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chikada, Hiromi; Ito, Keiichi; Yanagida, Ayaka; Nakauchi, Hiromitsu; Kamiya, Akihide

    2015-01-01

    Hepatic stem/progenitor cells, hepatoblasts, have a high proliferative ability and can differentiate into mature hepatocytes and cholangiocytes. Therefore, these cells are considered to be useful for regenerative medicine and drug screening for liver diseases. However, it is problem that in vitro maturation of hepatoblasts is insufficient in the present culture system. In this study, a novel regulator to induce hepatic differentiation was identified and the molecular function of this factor was examined in embryonic day 13 hepatoblast culture with maturation factor, oncostatin M and extracellular matrices. Overexpression of the basic helix-loop-helix type transcription factor, Mist1, induced expression of mature hepatocytic markers such as carbamoyl-phosphate synthetase1 and several cytochrome P450 (CYP) genes in this culture system. In contrast, Mist1 suppressed expression of cholangiocytic markers such as Sox9, Sox17, Ck19, and Grhl2. CYP3A metabolic activity was significantly induced by Mist1 in this hepatoblast culture. In addition, Mist1 induced liver-enriched transcription factors, CCAAT/enhancer-binding protein ? and Hepatocyte nuclear factor 1?, which are known to be involved in liver functions. These results suggest that Mist1 partially induces mature hepatocytic expression and function accompanied by the down-regulation of cholangiocytic markers. PMID:26456005

  10. The basic helix-loop-helix transcription factor, Mist1, induces maturation of mouse fetal hepatoblasts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chikada, Hiromi; Ito, Keiichi; Yanagida, Ayaka; Nakauchi, Hiromitsu; Kamiya, Akihide

    2015-01-01

    Hepatic stem/progenitor cells, hepatoblasts, have a high proliferative ability and can differentiate into mature hepatocytes and cholangiocytes. Therefore, these cells are considered to be useful for regenerative medicine and drug screening for liver diseases. However, it is problem that in vitro maturation of hepatoblasts is insufficient in the present culture system. In this study, a novel regulator to induce hepatic differentiation was identified and the molecular function of this factor was examined in embryonic day 13 hepatoblast culture with maturation factor, oncostatin M and extracellular matrices. Overexpression of the basic helix-loop-helix type transcription factor, Mist1, induced expression of mature hepatocytic markers such as carbamoyl-phosphate synthetase1 and several cytochrome P450 (CYP) genes in this culture system. In contrast, Mist1 suppressed expression of cholangiocytic markers such as Sox9, Sox17, Ck19, and Grhl2. CYP3A metabolic activity was significantly induced by Mist1 in this hepatoblast culture. In addition, Mist1 induced liver-enriched transcription factors, CCAAT/enhancer-binding protein ? and Hepatocyte nuclear factor 1?, which are known to be involved in liver functions. These results suggest that Mist1 partially induces mature hepatocytic expression and function accompanied by the down-regulation of cholangiocytic markers. PMID:26456005

  11. Evidence of a Binary-Induced Spiral from an Incomplete Ring Pattern of CIT 6

    OpenAIRE

    Kim, Hyosun; Hsieh, I-Ta; Liu, Sheng-Yuan; Ronald E. Taam

    2013-01-01

    With the advent of high-resolution high-sensitivity observations, spiral patterns have been revealed around several asymptotic giant branch (AGB) stars. Such patterns can provide possible evidence for the existence of central binary stars embedded in outflowing circumstellar envelopes. Here, we suggest the viability of explaining the previously observed incomplete ring-like patterns with the spiral-shell structure due to the motion of (unknown) binary components viewed at an...

  12. Evidence of a Binary-induced Spiral from an Incomplete Ring Pattern of CIT 6

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Hyosun; Hsieh, I.-Ta; Liu, Sheng-Yuan; Taam, Ronald E.

    2013-10-01

    With the advent of high-resolution high-sensitivity observations, spiral patterns have been revealed around several asymptotic giant branch (AGB) stars. Such patterns can provide possible evidence for the existence of central binary stars embedded in outflowing circumstellar envelopes. Here, we suggest the viability of explaining the previously observed incomplete ring-like patterns with the spiral-shell structure as being due to the motion of (unknown) binary components viewed at an inclination with respect to the orbital plane. We describe a method of extracting such spiral shells from an incomplete ring-like pattern to place constraints on the characteristics of the central binary stars. The use of gas kinematics is essential in facilitating detailed modeling for the three-dimensional structure of the circumstellar pattern. We show that a hydrodynamic radiative transfer model can reproduce the structure of the HC3N molecular line emission of the extreme carbon star, CIT 6. This method can be applied to other sources in the AGB phase and to the outer ring-like patterns of pre-planetary nebulae for probing the existence of embedded binary stars, which are highly anticipated with future observations using the Atacama Large Millimeter/submillimeter Array.

  13. Evidence of a Binary-Induced Spiral from an Incomplete Ring Pattern of CIT 6

    CERN Document Server

    Kim, Hyosun; Liu, Sheng-Yuan; Taam, Ronald E

    2013-01-01

    With the advent of high-resolution high-sensitivity observations, spiral patterns have been revealed around several asymptotic giant branch (AGB) stars. Such patterns can provide possible evidence for the existence of central binary stars embedded in outflowing circumstellar envelopes. Here, we suggest the viability of explaining the previously observed incomplete ring-like patterns with the spiral-shell structure due to the motion of (unknown) binary components viewed at an inclination with respect to the orbital plane. We describe a method of extracting such spiral-shells from an incomplete ring-like pattern to place constraints on the characteristics of the central binary stars. The use of gas kinematics is essential in facilitating a detailed modeling for the three-dimensional structure of the circumstellar pattern. We show that a hydrodynamic radiative transfer model can reproduce the structure of the HC3N molecular line emission of the extreme carbon star, CIT 6. This method can be applied to other sour...

  14. A requirement for fatty acid oxidation in the hormone-induced meiotic maturation of mouse oocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valsangkar, Deepa; Downs, Stephen M

    2013-08-01

    We have previously shown that fatty acid oxidation (FAO) is required for AMP-activated protein kinase (PRKA)-induced maturation in vitro. In the present study, we have further investigated the role of this metabolic pathway in hormone-induced meiotic maturation. Incorporating an assay with (3)H-palmitic acid as the substrate, we first examined the effect of PRKA activators on FAO levels. There was a significant stimulation of FAO in cumulus cell-enclosed oocytes (CEO) treated with 5-aminoimidazole-4-carboxamide ribonucleotide (AICAR) and RSVA405. In denuded oocytes (DO), AICAR stimulated FAO only in the presence of carnitine, the molecule that facilitates fatty acyl CoA entry into the mitochondria. The carnitine palmitoyltransferase 1 activator C75 successfully stimulated FAO in CEO. All three of these activators trigger germinal vesicle breakdown. Meiotic resumption induced by follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) or amphiregulin was completely inhibited by the FAO inhibitors etomoxir, mercaptoacetate, and malonyl CoA. Importantly, FAO was increased in CEO stimulated by FSH and epidermal growth factor, and this increase was blocked by FAO inhibitors. Moreover, compound C, a PRKA inhibitor, prevented the FSH-induced increase in FAO. Both carnitine and palmitic acid augmented hormonal induction of maturation. In a more physiological setting, etomoxir eliminated human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG)-induced maturation in follicle-enclosed oocytes. In addition, CEO and DO from hCG-treated mice displayed an etomoxir-sensitive increase in FAO, indicating that this pathway was stimulated during in vivo meiotic resumption. Taken together, our data indicate that hormone-induced maturation in mice requires a PRKA-dependent increase in FAO. PMID:23863407

  15. Complement protein C1q induces maturation of human dendritic cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Csomor, Eszter; Bajtay, Zsuzsa

    2007-01-01

    Maturation of dendritic cells (DCs) is known to be induced by several stimuli, including microbial products, inflammatory cytokines and immobilized IgG, as demonstrated recently. Since immune complexes formed in vivo also contain C1q, moreover apoptotic cells and several pathogens fix C1q in the absence of antibodies, we undertook to investigate whether this complement protein has an impact on various functions of human DCs. Maturation of monocyte-derived immature DCs (imMDCs) cultured on immobilized C1q was followed by monitoring expression of CD80, CD83, CD86, MHCII and CCR7. The functional activity of the cells was assessed by measuring cytokine secretion and their ability to activate allogeneic T lymphocytes. Cytokine production by T cells co-cultured with C1q-matured DCs was also investigated. C1q, but not the structurally related mannose-binding lectin was found to bind to imMDC in a dose-dependent manner and induced NF-kappaB translocation to the nucleus. Immobilized C1q induced maturation of MDCs and enhanced secretion of IL-12 and TNF-alpha, moreover, elevated their T-cell stimulating capacity. As IFN-gamma levels were increased in supernatants of MDC-T cell co-cultures, our data suggest that C1q-induced DC maturation generates a Th1-type response. Interestingly, IL-10 levels were elevated by C1q-treated MDCs but not in the supernatant of their co-cultures with allogeneic T cells. Taken together, these results indicate that C1q-opsonized antigens may play a role in the induction and regulation of immune response. Moreover our data are relevant in view of the role of C1q in removal of apoptotic cells and the association between C1q-deficiency and autoimmunity.

  16. Excitation functions for some Ne induced reactions with Holmium: incomplete fusion vs complete fusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reactions induced by 20Ne are expected to be considerably more complex than those of 12C, and 16O. As a part of the ongoing program to understand CF and ICF reaction mechanisms, it is of great interest to see whether the same experimental technique yield similarly valuable information for 20Ne induced reactions. In this present work an attempt has been made to measure the excitation functions for fifteen evaporation residues (ERs) identified in the interaction of 20Ne + 165Ho system in the energy range 4 -7 MeV/A

  17. Maturation of Induced Pluripotent Stem Cell Derived Hepatocytes by 3D-Culture

    OpenAIRE

    Gieseck III, Richard L.; Hannan, Nicholas R. F.; Bort, Roque; Hanley, Neil A; Drake, Rosemary A. L.; Cameron, Grant W. W.; Wynn, Thomas A.; Vallier, Ludovic

    2014-01-01

    Induced pluripotent stem cell derived hepatocytes (IPSC-Heps) have the potential to reduce the demand for a dwindling number of primary cells used in applications ranging from therapeutic cell infusions to in vitro toxicology studies. However, current differentiation protocols and culture methods produce cells with reduced functionality and fetal-like properties compared to adult hepatocytes. We report a culture method for the maturation of IPSC-Heps using 3-Dimensional (3D) collagen matrices...

  18. Thidiazuron-induced high-frequency plant regeneration from leaf explants of Paulownia tomentosa mature trees

    OpenAIRE

    Corredoira, E.; Ballester, A.; Viéitez Martín, Ana María

    2008-01-01

    Attempts were made to study the effect of thidiazuron (TDZ) on adventitious shoot induction and plant development in Paulownia tomentosa explants derived from mature trees. Media with different concentrations of TDZ in combination with an auxin were used to induce adventitious shoot-buds in two explant types: basal leaf halves with the petiole attached (leaf explant) and intact petioles. Optimal shoot regeneration was obtained in leaf explants cultured on induction medium containing TDZ (22.7...

  19. Panobinostat (LBH589)-induced acetylation of tubulin impairs megakaryocyte maturation and platelet formation

    OpenAIRE

    Iancu-Rubin, Camelia; Gajzer, David; Mosoyan, Goar; Feller, Faye; Mascarenhas, John; Hoffman, Ronald

    2012-01-01

    Drug-induced thrombocytopenia often results from dysregulation of normal megakaryocytopoiesis. In this study, we investigated the mechanisms responsible for thrombocytopenia associated with the use of Panobinostat (LBH589), a histone deacetylase inhibitor (HDACi) with promising anti-cancer activities. The effects of LBH589 were tested on the cellular and molecular aspects of megakaryocytopoiesis by utilizing an ex vivo system in which mature megakaryocytes (MK) and platelets were generated fr...

  20. Mature T-lineage leukemia with growth factor-induced multilineage differentiation

    OpenAIRE

    1989-01-01

    We report an acute T-lymphoblastic leukemia with a predominantly mature CD3+ CD7+ WT31+ phenotype that was induced to differentiate into different cell lineages by various recombinant human growth factors. In the presence of IL-3 or GM-CSF, the leukemic cells gave rise to myeloid and monocytic cells including terminally differentiated, partially functional, segmented neutrophilic granulocytes as assessed by morphologic, cytochemical, immunophenotypic, and functional criteria. In the presence ...

  1. Maturation of murine bone marrow dendritic cells induced by acidic Ginseng polysaccharides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zuozhou; Meng, Jingjuan; Xia, Yanjie; Meng, Yiming; Du, Lin; Zhang, Zhenjie; Wang, Enhua; Shan, Fengping

    2013-02-01

    In this study, we report that a acidic polysaccharide (AGP) isolated from a Chinese medicinal herb, named Ginseng (Panax giseng C.A. Meyer), induces maturation of bone marrow dendritic cells (BMDCs) via concrete changes both inside and outside BMDCs. The impacts of AGP on BMDCs were assessed with use of conventional scanning electronic microscopy (SEM), transmission electronic microscopy (TEM) for morphology, flow cytometry (FCM) for key surface molecules, cytochemistry assay, FITC-dextran, bio-assay for phagocytosis and enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) for production of cytokines. Our results elucidated that PPS promoted maturation of BMDCs via changes as reflected by the down-regulation of acid phosphatase (ACP) activity inside the BMDCs, which occurs when phagocytosis of BMDCs to antigen decreased, while antigen presentation increased upon maturation, higher expression of key surface molecules of MHC II, CD80, CD86, CD83, and CD40, and releasing higher level of cytokines IL-12 and low level of TNF-?. Our study suggest that AGP play marked immunostimulating role on the maturation of murine BMDCs through precise regulation of phagocytosis and enzyme activities inside the BMDCs. PMID:23164755

  2. Investigation of the influence of incomplete fusion on complete fusion of 12C-induced reactions at ? 4-7.2 MeV/nucleon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this paper, we present the results of our investigation of reaction dynamics leading to incomplete fusion of heavy ions at moderate excitation energies, especially the influence of incomplete fusion on complete fusion of 12C -induced reactions at specific energies ? 4-7.2M eV/nucleon. Excitation functions of various reaction products populated via complete and/or incomplete fusions of a 12C projectile with 93Nb, 59Co and 52Cr targets were measured at several specific energies ? 4-7.2 MeV/nucleon, using a recoil catcher technique, followed by off-line ?-ray spectrometry. The measured excitation functions were compared with theoretical values obtained using the PACE4 statistical model code. For representative non-?-emitting channels in the 12C + 93Nb system, the experimentally measured excitation functions were, in general, found to be in good agreement with the theoretical predictions. However, for ?-emitting channels in the 12C + 93Nb, 12C + 59Co, and 12C + 52Cr systems, the measured excitation functions were higher than the predictions of the theoretical model code, which may be credited to incomplete fusion reactions at these energies. An attempt was made to estimate the incomplete fusion fraction for the present systems, which revealed that the fraction was sensitive to the projectile energy and mass asymmetry of the entrance channel. (orig.)

  3. Exopolysaccharide Produced by Lactobacillus Plantarum Induces Maturation of Dendritic Cells in BALB/c Mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Yanjun; Dong, Wei; Wan, Keyu; Zhang, Ligang; Li, Chun; Zhang, Lili; Liu, Ning

    2015-01-01

    Lactobacillus plantarum (L. plantarum) exopolysaccharide (EPS) is an important bioactive component in fermented functional foods. However, there is a lack of data concerning the effects of L. plantarum EPS on maturation of mouse dendritic cells (DCs). In this study, we purified L. plantarum EPS and examined its effects on cytokines production by dendritic cells in serum and intestinal fluid of BALB/c mice, then investigated its effects on phenotypic and functional maturation of mouse bone marrow-derived dendritic cells (BMDCs). Cytokines (nitric oxide, IL-12p70, IL-10 and RANTES) in serum and intestinal fluid were analyzed by enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) after the mice received EPS for 2, 5 and 7 days, respectively. DCs derived from bone marrow of BALB/c mouse were treated with EPS, then the phenotypic maturation of BMDCs was analyzed using flow cytometer and the functional maturation of BMDCs was analyzed by ELISA, and, lastly, mixed lymphocyte proliferation was performed. We found the molecular weight of purified EPS was approximately 2.4×106 Da and it was composed of ribose, rhamnose, arabinose, xylose, mannose, glucose and galactose in a molar ratio of 2:1:1:10:4:205:215. We observed that L. plantarum EPS enriched production of nitric oxide, IL-12p70 and RANTES, and decreased the secretion of IL-10 in the serum or intestinal fluid as well as in the supernatant of DCs treated with the EPS. The EPS also up-regulated the expression of MHC II and CD86 on DCs surface and promoted T cells to proliferate in vitro. Our data provide direct evidence to suggest that L. plantarum EPS can effectively induce maturation of DCs in mice. PMID:26599612

  4. Maturation of Induced Pluripotent Stem Cell Derived Hepatocytes by 3D-Culture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gieseck III, Richard L.; Hannan, Nicholas R. F.; Bort, Roque; Hanley, Neil A.; Drake, Rosemary A. L.; Cameron, Grant W. W.; Wynn, Thomas A.; Vallier, Ludovic

    2014-01-01

    Induced pluripotent stem cell derived hepatocytes (IPSC-Heps) have the potential to reduce the demand for a dwindling number of primary cells used in applications ranging from therapeutic cell infusions to in vitro toxicology studies. However, current differentiation protocols and culture methods produce cells with reduced functionality and fetal-like properties compared to adult hepatocytes. We report a culture method for the maturation of IPSC-Heps using 3-Dimensional (3D) collagen matrices compatible with high throughput screening. This culture method significantly increases functional maturation of IPSC-Heps towards an adult phenotype when compared to conventional 2D systems. Additionally, this approach spontaneously results in the presence of polarized structures necessary for drug metabolism and improves functional longevity to over 75 days. Overall, this research reveals a method to shift the phenotype of existing IPSC-Heps towards primary adult hepatocytes allowing such cells to be a more relevant replacement for the current primary standard. PMID:24466060

  5. Impact of laccase enzyme inducers on solid waste compost maturity and stability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nadeem, Amana; Baig, Shahjahan; Iqbal, Khalid; Sheikh, Nadeem

    2014-01-01

    The influence of inducers of laccase produced by Pleurotus ostreatus-P1 on the physicochemical properties of solid waste compost was investigated. In order to examine the degree of humification and time period for maturity and stability of compost, three different treatments (T: laccase; T1: laccase+CuSO4; and T2: laccase+CuSO4+CaCl2) were inoculated on solid waste in the initial stage of the composting process. During the composting process, the carbon nitrogen ratio (C/N), nitrate ([Formula: see text]), ammonium nitrogen ([Formula: see text]), cation exchange capacity (CEC), humic acid (HA) and fulvic acid (FA) humification rate (HR), Humification Index (HI), and degree of polymerization (DP) were assessed for the evaluation of compost maturity and stability, and it was found that T2 treatment C/N, CEC, and HI was greater, 46.8%, 37.2%, and 38.46%, respectively, than T at the end of the maturation phase. Optimum degree of maturity was also appraised by the Germination Index, 98.25% was attained by T2, whereas 88.65% and 71.23% by T1 and T, respectively. Significant Pearson correlation was also found between compost characteristics such as C/N, CEC, HA, FA, DP, HI, and HR. In addition, also obstinate the mineralization's of nitrogen under laboratory incubation, using soil amended by 50 and 100 kg-N/ha and examined an increasing trend in nitrogen mineralization with the application rate. Moreover, it was concluded that the laccase inducers increase the disintegration and humification process during solid waste composting. PMID:25244141

  6. Incomplete fusion reactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Various aspects of the mechanism of heavy-ion induced reactions in the range of bombarding energies from a few to about 20 MeV/A are reviewed with special emphasis on the reactions for very asymmetric systems. Results of the experimental studies of binary reactions and particularly of the incomplete fusion reactions (selected by means of various coincidence techniques)are discussed. A model of generalized critical angular momentum is formulated. The model explains essential features of the incomplete fusion reactions and predicts that particular reaction channels are localized in well defined regions of angular momenta. An extension of this model (the sum-rule model) is also proposed in attempt to consistently describe the complete fusion reactions, incomplete fusion reactions and multibody reactions in the framework of statistical competition constrained by the angular momentum limitations. (author)

  7. Gamma rays induced variability in mature embryos of avocado (Persea americana Mill)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Induced mutation and biotechnology techniques are current approaches used in plant breeding. At present work, the induced mutation and embryo zygotic culture techniques were used in order to characterize the radiosensitivity of avocado commercial varieties, Hass and California. The induced diversity in plant material was also evaluated in morphological seedling descriptors as: height seedling, diameter seedling neck, leaves number, length of principal root and secondary root number. The obtained results showed high susceptibility of both varieties to gamma rays. California was the higher sensitivity variety. Percentage of entire shoot induction showed clear dependence of radiation dose in both varieties. Thus dose range for mutagenesis was determined. In general, variation of morphological seedling descriptors not was clearly agreed to increase of radiation dose. In addition, the results suggested that variation in morphological seedling descriptors also could be depending of genotypes. The useful of mature embryo culture of avocado for improvement of breeding approaches in this crop, was discussed

  8. Caspase-activated ROCK-1 allows erythroblast terminal maturation independently of cytokine-induced Rho signaling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gabet, A-S; Coulon, S; Fricot, A; Vandekerckhove, J; Chang, Y; Ribeil, J-A; Lordier, L; Zermati, Y; Asnafi, V; Belaid, Z; Debili, N; Vainchenker, W; Varet, B; Hermine, O; Courtois, G

    2011-04-01

    Stem cell factor (SCF) and erythropoietin are strictly required for preventing apoptosis and stimulating proliferation, allowing the differentiation of erythroid precursors from colony-forming unit-E to the polychromatophilic stage. In contrast, terminal maturation to generate reticulocytes occurs independently of cytokine signaling by a mechanism not fully understood. Terminal differentiation is characterized by a sequence of morphological changes including a progressive decrease in cell size, chromatin condensation in the nucleus and disappearance of organelles, which requires transient caspase activation. These events are followed by nucleus extrusion as a consequence of plasma membrane and cytoskeleton reorganization. Here, we show that in early step, SCF stimulates the Rho/ROCK pathway until the basophilic stage. Thereafter, ROCK-1 is activated independently of Rho signaling by caspase-3-mediated cleavage, allowing terminal maturation at least in part through phosphorylation of the light chain of myosin II. Therefore, in this differentiation system, final maturation occurs independently of SCF signaling through caspase-induced ROCK-1 kinase activation. PMID:21072057

  9. Complete and incomplete fusion studies in 7Li and 16O induced reactions on 51V by measurement of excitation functions and recoil ranges

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Excitation function and mean projected recoil ranges of nuclei produced in the 7Li and 16O induced reactions on 51V target were measured by conventional stacked foil and thick target and thick-recoil-catcher technique for bombarding energies E ? 50.0 MeV for 7Li ions and E?60.0-96.0 MeV for the 16O ions. The measured recoil ranges are converted to momentum transfer. The momentum transfer information was used to get clues about some aspects of the interaction such as complete and incomplete fusion reaction mechanism which correspond to full and reduced momentum transfer respectively. The measured excitation functions are compared with the calculation based on the statistical model which describes only equilibrium decay of the compound nucleus using the CASCADE code. The comparison of the CASCADE code with the measured excitation functions for the residue radioisotopes 51Cr and 54Mn for the 7Li + 51V system indicates the reaction mechanisms is complete fusion of 7Li with the target nucleus 51V. Similarly the comparison of the CASCADE code with the measured excitation functions of the residue radioisotopes for the system 16O + 51V indicates that the four reaction mechanisms (i) complete fusion of 16O, (ii) incomplete fusion of 12C, (iii) incomplete fusion of 8Be and (iv) incomplete fusion of 4He respectively with the target might be contributing to reaction cross sections. (author)

  10. Interferon-? Added During Bacillus Calmette-Guerin Induced Dendritic Cell Maturation Stimulates Potent Th1 Immune Responses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pestano Linda A

    2003-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Dendritic cells (DC are increasingly prepared in vitro for use in immunotherapy trials. Mature DC express high levels of surface molecules needed for T cell activation and are superior at antigen-presentation than immature DC. Bacillus Calmette-Guerin (BCG is one of several products known to induce DC maturation, and interferon (IFN-? has been shown to enhance the activity of DC stimulated with certain maturation factors. In this study, we investigated the use of IFN-? in combination with the powerful maturation agent, BCG. The treatment of immature DC with IFN-? plus BCG led to the upregulation of CD54, CD80, and CD86 in comparison with BCG treatment alone. In MLR or recall immune responses, the addition of IFN-? at the time of BCG-treatment did not increase the number of antigen-specific T cells but enhanced the development of IFN-?-producing Th1 cells. In primary immune responses, on the other hand, BCG and IFN-? co-treated DC stimulated higher proportions of specific T cells as well as IFN-? secretion by these T cells. Thus the use of IFN-? during BCG-induced DC maturation differentially affects the nature of recall versus naïve antigen-specific T-cell responses. IFN-? co-treatment with BCG was found to induce IL-12 and, in some instances, inhibit IL-10 secretion by DC. These findings greatly enhance the potential of BCG-matured dendritic cells for use in cancer immunotherapy.

  11. Comparative effects of mature coconut water (Cocos nucifera) and glibenclamide on some biochemical parameters in alloxan induced diabetic rats

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    P. P., Preetha; V., Girija Devi; T., Rajamohan.

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available In the present study, comparative effects of mature coconut water (Cocos nucifera L., Arecaceae) and glibenclamide in alloxan induced diabetic rats were evaluated. Diabetes mellitus was induced in Sprague-Dawly rats using alloxan monohydrate (150 mg kg-1 body weight). Treatment with lyophilized form [...] of mature coconut water and glibenclamide in diabetic rats reduced the blood glucose and glycated hemoglobin along with improvement in plasma insulin level. Elevated levels of liver function enzymes markers like alkaline phosphatase, serum glutamate oxaloacetate transaminase and serum glutamate pyruvate transaminase in diabetic rats were significantly reduced on treatment with mature coconut water. In addition to this, diabetic rats showed altered levels of blood urea, serum creatinine, albumin, albumin/globulin ratio which were significantly improved by treatment with mature coconut water and glibenclamide. Activities of nitric oxide synthase in liver and plasma L-arginine were reduced significantly in alloxan induced diabetic rats while treatment with mature coconut water reversed these changes. The overall results show that mature coconut water has significant beneficial effects in diabetic rats and its effects were comparable to that of glibenclamide, a well known antidiabetic drug.

  12. Investigation of complete and incomplete fusion dynamics of 20Ne induced reactions at energies above the Coulomb barrier

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, D.; Ali, R.; Kumar, Harish; Ansari, M. Afzal; Rashid, M. H.; Guin, R.

    2014-08-01

    Experiment has been performed to explore the complete and incomplete fusion dynamics in heavy ion collisions using stacked foil activation technique. The measurement of excitation functions of the evaporation residues produced in the 20Ne+165Ho system at projectile energies ranges ? 4-8 MeV/nucleon have been done. Measured cumulative and direct cross-sections have been compared with the theoretical model code PACE-2, which takes into account only the complete fusion process. The analysis indicates the presence of contributions from incomplete fusion processes in some ?-emission channels following the break-up of the projectile 20Ne in the nuclear field of the target nucleus 165Ho.

  13. Glia maturation factor induces interleukin-33 release from astrocytes: implications for neurodegenerative diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kempuraj, Duraisamy; Khan, Mohammad Moshahid; Thangavel, Ramasamy; Xiong, Zhi; Yang, Evert; Zaheer, Asgar

    2013-06-01

    Neurodegenerative diseases such as Alzheimer's disease (AD), Parkinson's disease (PD) and Multiple sclerosis (MS) involve activation of glial cells and release of inflammatory mediators leading to death of neurons. Glia maturation factor (GMF) is up-regulated in the central nervous system (CNS) in these neurodegenerative diseases. Interleukin-33 (IL-33) is highly expressed constitutively in the CNS. We have treated mouse astrocytes, mixed culture with glial cells and neurons, and only neurons with GMF and/or IL-33 in vitro. Both GMF and IL-33-induced chemokine (C-C motif) ligand 2 (CCL2) release in a dose and time-dependent manner. We report that GMF induced IL-33 release, and that IL-33 augments GMF-induced tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-?) release from mouse astrocytes. IL-33 induces CCL2, TNF-? and nitric oxide release through phosphorylation of ERK in mouse astrocytes. Incubation of mixed culture containing glial cells and neurons or only neuronal culture with IL-33 reduced the number of neurons positive for microtubule-associated protein 2. In conclusion, IL-33 augments GMF-mediated neuroinflammation and may provide a new drug target for neurodegenerative and autoimmune diseases. PMID:23397250

  14. Generation of induced pluripotent stem cell-derived mice by reprogramming of a mature NKT cell

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, Yue; Dashtsoodol, Nyambayar; Watarai, Hiroshi; Koseki, Haruhiko; Quan, Chengshi

    2014-01-01

    NKT cells are characterized by their expression of an NKT-cell-specific invariant antigen-receptor ? chain encoded by V?14J?18 gene segments. These NKT cells bridge the innate and acquired immune systems to mediate effective and augmented responses; however, the limited number of NKT cells in vivo hampers their analysis. Here, two lines of induced pluripotent stem cell-derived mice (NKT-iPSC-derived mice) were generated by reprogramming of mature NKT cells, where one harbors both rearranged V?14J?18 and V?7 genes and the other carries rearranged V?14J?18 on both alleles but germline V? loci. The analysis of NKT-iPSC-derived mice showed a significant increase in NKT cell numbers with relatively normal frequencies of functional subsets, but significantly enhanced in some cases, and acquired functional NKT cell maturation in peripheral lymphoid organs. NKT-iPSC-derived mice also showed normal development of other immune cells except for the absence of ??T cells and disturbed development of conventional CD4 ??T cells. These results suggest that the NKT-iPSC-derived mice are a better model for NKT cell development and function study rather than transgenic mouse models reported previously and also that the presence of a pre-rearranged V?14J?18 in the natural chromosomal context favors the developmental fate of NKT cells. PMID:24854340

  15. A Requirement for Fatty Acid Oxidation in the Hormone-Induced Meiotic Maturation of Mouse Oocytes1

    OpenAIRE

    Valsangkar, Deepa; Downs, Stephen M.

    2013-01-01

    We have previously shown that fatty acid oxidation (FAO) is required for AMP-activated protein kinase (PRKA)-induced maturation in vitro. In the present study, we have further investigated the role of this metabolic pathway in hormone-induced meiotic maturation. Incorporating an assay with 3H-palmitic acid as the substrate, we first examined the effect of PRKA activators on FAO levels. There was a significant stimulation of FAO in cumulus cell-enclosed oocytes (CEO) treated with 5-aminoimidaz...

  16. Mycobacterium tuberculosislpdC, Rv0462, induces dendritic cell maturation and Th1 polarization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: ? Treatment with Rv0462 induces the expression of surface molecules and the production of cytokines in DCs. ? Rv0462 induces the activation of MAPKs. ? Rv0462-treated DCs enhances the proliferation of CD4+ T cells. -- Abstract: Mycobacterium tuberculosis, the etiological factor of pulmonary tuberculosis, causes significant morbidity and mortality worldwide. Activation of host immune responses for containment of mycobacterial infections involves participation of innate immune cells, such as dendritic cells (DCs). In this study, we demonstrated that the gene encoding lipoamide dehydrogenase C (lpdC) from M. tuberculosis, Rv0462, induce maturation and activation of DCs involved in the MAPKs signaling pathway. Moreover, Rv0462-treated DCs activated naive T cells, polarized CD4+ and CD8+ T cells to secrete IFN-? in syngeneic mixed lymphocyte reactions, which would be expected to contribute to Th1 polarization of the immune response. Our results suggest that Rv0462 can contribute to the innate and adaptive immune responses during tuberculosis infection, and thus modulate the clinical course of tuberculosis.

  17. Mycobacterium tuberculosislpdC, Rv0462, induces dendritic cell maturation and Th1 polarization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heo, Deok Rim [Department of Microbiology and Immunology, School of Medicine, Pusan National University, Beom-eo Ri, Mulgum Eop, Yangsan, Gyeongsangnam-do 626-770 (Korea, Republic of); Shin, Sung Jae; Kim, Woo Sik [Department of Microbiology, College of Medicine, Chungnam National University, Munwha-Dong, Jung-Ku, Daejeon 301-747 (Korea, Republic of); Noh, Kyung Tae; Park, Jin Wook; Son, Kwang Hee [Department of Microbiology and Immunology, School of Medicine, Pusan National University, Beom-eo Ri, Mulgum Eop, Yangsan, Gyeongsangnam-do 626-770 (Korea, Republic of); Park, Won Sun [Department of Physiology, Kangwon National University, School of Medicine, Chuncheon 200-701 (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Min-Goo [Department of Physiology, Korea University, College of Medicine, Anam-dong, Sungbuk-Gu, Seoul 136-705 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Daejin [Department of Anatomy, Chung-Ang University, College of Medicine, 221 Heuksuk-Dong, Dongjak-Ku, Seoul 156-756 (Korea, Republic of); Shin, Yong Kyoo [Department of Pharmacology, Chung-Ang University, College of Medicine, 221 Heuksuk-Dong, Dongjak-Ku, Seoul 156-756 (Korea, Republic of); Jung, In Duk, E-mail: jungid@pusan.ac.kr [Department of Microbiology and Immunology, School of Medicine, Pusan National University, Beom-eo Ri, Mulgum Eop, Yangsan, Gyeongsangnam-do 626-770 (Korea, Republic of); Research Institute of Convergence of Biomedical Science and Technology, Pusan National University Yangsan Hospital, Beom-eo Ri, Mulgum Eop, Yangsan, Gyeongsangnam-do 626-770 (Korea, Republic of); Park, Yeong-Min, E-mail: immunpym@pusan.ac.kr [Department of Microbiology and Immunology, School of Medicine, Pusan National University, Beom-eo Ri, Mulgum Eop, Yangsan, Gyeongsangnam-do 626-770 (Korea, Republic of); Research Institute of Convergence of Biomedical Science and Technology, Pusan National University Yangsan Hospital, Beom-eo Ri, Mulgum Eop, Yangsan, Gyeongsangnam-do 626-770 (Korea, Republic of)

    2011-08-05

    Highlights: {yields} Treatment with Rv0462 induces the expression of surface molecules and the production of cytokines in DCs. {yields} Rv0462 induces the activation of MAPKs. {yields} Rv0462-treated DCs enhances the proliferation of CD4{sup +} T cells. -- Abstract: Mycobacterium tuberculosis, the etiological factor of pulmonary tuberculosis, causes significant morbidity and mortality worldwide. Activation of host immune responses for containment of mycobacterial infections involves participation of innate immune cells, such as dendritic cells (DCs). In this study, we demonstrated that the gene encoding lipoamide dehydrogenase C (lpdC) from M. tuberculosis, Rv0462, induce maturation and activation of DCs involved in the MAPKs signaling pathway. Moreover, Rv0462-treated DCs activated naive T cells, polarized CD4{sup +} and CD8{sup +} T cells to secrete IFN-{gamma} in syngeneic mixed lymphocyte reactions, which would be expected to contribute to Th1 polarization of the immune response. Our results suggest that Rv0462 can contribute to the innate and adaptive immune responses during tuberculosis infection, and thus modulate the clinical course of tuberculosis.

  18. Incomplete fusion reaction in /sup 14/N induced reaction at 10-15 MeV/A

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In heavy-ion reactions with lower bombarding energies, complete fusion characterized by full momentum transfer is a dominant part of the total reaction cross section. As increasing bombarding energies (above 10 MeV/A), incomplete fusion process becomes more and more important, where energetic light particles are considered to be emitted before the remaining nuclei fuse together. In order to investigate the incomplete fusion process, the authors have measured i) inclusive light particle emission in the reactions of /sup 93/Nb + /sup 14/N at 132, 159, and 208 MeV, and ii) the magnitude of linear momentum transferred to the target in coincidence with light particles in the reaction of /sup 232/Th + /sup 14/N at 208 MeV

  19. Investigation of complete and incomplete fusion dynamics of {sup 20}Ne induced reactions at energies above the Coulomb barrier

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Singh, D., E-mail: dsinghiuac@gmail.com [Centre for Applied Physics, Central University of Jharkhand, Ranchi-835 205 (India); Ali, R. [Department of Physics, G.F.(P.G.), College, Shahjahanpur-242 001 (India); Kumar, Harish; Ansari, M. Afzal [Department of Physics, Aligarh Muslim University, Aligarh-202 002 (India); Rashid, M. H.; Guin, R. [Variable Energy Cyclotron Centre, 1/AF, Bidhan Nagar, Kolkata-700 064 (India)

    2014-08-14

    Experiment has been performed to explore the complete and incomplete fusion dynamics in heavy ion collisions using stacked foil activation technique. The measurement of excitation functions of the evaporation residues produced in the {sup 20}Ne+{sup 165}Ho system at projectile energies ranges ? 4-8 MeV/nucleon have been done. Measured cumulative and direct cross-sections have been compared with the theoretical model code PACE-2, which takes into account only the complete fusion process. The analysis indicates the presence of contributions from incomplete fusion processes in some ?-emission channels following the break-up of the projectile {sup 20}Ne in the nuclear field of the target nucleus {sup 165}Ho.

  20. The cumulus cell layer protects the bovine maturing oocyte against fatty acid-induced lipotoxicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lolicato, Francesca; Brouwers, Jos F; de Lest, Chris H A van; Wubbolts, Richard; Aardema, Hilde; Priore, Paola; Roelen, Bernard A J; Helms, J Bernd; Gadella, Bart M

    2015-01-01

    Mobilization of fatty acids from adipose tissue during metabolic stress increases the amount of free fatty acids in blood and follicular fluid and is associated with impaired female fertility. In a previous report, we described the effects of the three predominant fatty acids in follicular fluid (saturated palmitate and stearate and unsaturated oleate) on oocyte maturation and quality. In the current study, the effects of elevated fatty acid levels on cumulus cells were investigated. In a dose-dependent manner, the three fatty acids induced lipid storage in cumulus cells accompanied by an enhanced immune labeling of perilipin-2, a marker for lipid droplets. Lipidomic analysis confirmed incorporation of the administered fatty acids into triglyceride, resulting in a 3- to 6-fold increase of triglyceride content. In addition, palmitate selectively induced ceramide formation, which has been implicated in apoptosis. Indeed, of the three fatty acids tested, palmitate induced reactive oxygen species formation, caspase 3 activation, and mitochondria deterioration, leading to degeneration of the cumulus cell layers. This effect could be mimicked by addition of the ceramide-C2 analog and could be inhibited by the ceramide synthase inhibitor fumonisin-B1. Interfering with the intactness of the cumulus cell layers, either by mechanical force or by palmitate treatment, resulted in enhanced uptake of lipids in the oocyte and increased radical formation. Our results show that cumulus cells act as a barrier, protecting oocytes from in vitro induced lipotoxic effects. We suggest that this protective function of the cumulus cell layers is important for the developmental competence of the oocyte. The relevance of our findings for assisted reproduction technologies is discussed. PMID:25297544

  1. The timing of the restitution of chromosome breaks induced by x-rays in the mature sperm of Drosophila melanogaster

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Drosophila melanogaster males with marked X and Y chromosomes were irradiated and mature sperm sampled by mating the males to females carrying attached-X chromosomes. Induced loss and partial loss of the paternal sex chromosomes was studied. F1 females were scored according to their phenotype and transmitted fragments were analyzed genetically. Half of the exceptional F1 females could be scored as 'partial losses'. Of the apparent total loss exceptions tested, half were carrying detectable fragments. 21% of the transmissible fragments were carrying a duplication of a paternal chromosome tip. This frequency is an under-estimate because only 6 of the 10 chromosome tips were marked in such a way that duplications could be detected. In addition, the markers used were located near, but not at the chromosome ends. These data are interpreted as indicating that a high proportion of the chromosome loss and partial loss induced by irradiation of mature sperm is a consequence of chromatid rearrangements arising from chromosome breaks which stay open until replication. It is suggested that during the transition from sperm head to mature pronucleus, repair of breaks and chromosome replication are two processes that occur in overlapping time intervals. It is therefore possible for chromosome breaks induced in mature sperm to give rise to chromosome and chromatid rearrangements

  2. Bone and hormonal changes induced by skeletal unloading in the mature male rat

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dehority, W.; Halloran, B. P.; Bikle, D. D.; Curren, T.; Kostenuik, P. J.; Wronski, T. J.; Shen, Y.; Rabkin, B.; Bouraoui, A.; Morey-Holton, E.

    1999-01-01

    To determine whether the rat hindlimb elevation model can be used to study the effects of spaceflight and loss of gravitational loading on bone in the adult animal, and to examine the effects of age on bone responsiveness to mechanical loading, we studied 6-mo-old rats subjected to hindlimb elevation for up to 5 wk. Loss of weight bearing in the adult induced a mild hypercalcemia, diminished serum 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D, decreased vertebral bone mass, and blunted the otherwise normal increase in femoral mass associated with bone maturation. Unloading decreased osteoblast numbers and reduced periosteal and cancellous bone formation but had no effect on bone resorption. Mineralizing surface, mineral apposition rate, and bone formation rate decreased during unloading. Our results demonstrate the utility of the adult rat hindlimb elevation model as a means of simulating the loss of gravitational loading on the skeleton, and they show that the effects of nonweight bearing are prolonged and have a greater relative effect on bone formation in the adult than in the young growing animal.

  3. Glia maturation factor deficiency suppresses 1-methyl-4-phenylpyridinium-induced oxidative stress in astrocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Mohammad Moshahid; Kempuraj, Duraisamy; Zaheer, Smita; Zaheer, Asgar

    2014-08-01

    Inflammation is closely intertwined with pathogenesis of Parkinson's disease (PD). Increasing evidence suggests that inhibition of glia-mediated inflammation might represent a promising therapeutic target for PD. Glia maturation factor (GMF), an inflammatory protein, predominantly localized in astrocytes is previously isolated, sequenced and cloned in our laboratory. In the present investigation, we demonstrate that GMF-deficiency in astrocytes upregulates the antioxidant status and limit the extent of lipid peroxidation and production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) along with diminished nuclear factor-?B-mediated inflammatory responses in 1-methyl-4-phenylpyridinium (MPP(+))-induced toxicity. Primary astrocytes obtained from wild-type (Wt) and GMF-deficient (GMF-KO) mice were treated with 5, 10, and 20 ?M MPP(+) for 24, 48, and 72 h in vitro. Our results show decreased release of ROS and increased level of glutathione in astrocytes obtained from GMF-KO mice when compared to astrocytes derived from Wt mice following MPP(+) treatment. Additionally, we found decreased activity of NF-?B, and reduced levels of proinflammatory tumor necrosis factor- ?, interleukin-1? (IL-1?), IL-17, IL-33, and chemokine (C-C motif) ligand 2 (CCL2) in GMF-KO astrocytes when compared to Wt astrocytes. Our overall results suggest that GMF-KO astrocytes are significantly resistant to MPP(+) toxicity when compared to Wt astrocytes. PMID:24430624

  4. Experimental investigation of changes in methane adsorption of bitumen-free Woodford Shale with thermal maturation induced by hydrous pyrolysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Haiyan; Zhang, Tongwei; Wiggins-Camacho, Jaclyn D.; Ellis, Geoffrey S.; Lewan, Michael D.; Zhang, Xiayong

    2014-01-01

    This study quantifies the effects of organic-matter (OM) thermal maturity on methane (CH4) sorption, on the basis of five samples that were artificially matured through hydrous pyrolysis achieved by heating samples of immature Woodford Shale under five different time–temperature conditions. CH4-sorption isotherms at 35 °C, 50 °C, and 65 °C, and pressures up to 14 MPa on dry, solvent-extracted samples of the artificially matured Woodford Shale were measured. The results showed that CH4-sorption capacity, normalized to TOC, varied with thermal maturity, following the trend: maximum oil (367 °C) > oil cracking (400 °C) > maximum bitumen/early oil (333 °C) > early bitumen (300 °C) > immature stage (130 °C). The Langmuir constants for the samples at maximum-oil and oil-cracking stages are larger than the values for the bitumen-forming stages. The total pore volume, determined by N2 physisorption at 77 K, increases with increased maturation: mesopores, 2–50 nm in width, were created during the thermal conversion of organic-matter and a dramatic increase in porosity appeared when maximum-bitumen and maximum-oil generation stages were reached. A linear relationship between thermal maturity and Brunauer–Emmett–Teller (BET) surface area suggests that the observed increase in CH4-sorption capacity may be the result of mesopores produced during OM conversion. No obvious difference is observed in pore-size distribution and pore volume for samples with pores 2 physisorption at 273 K. The isosteric heat of adsorption and the standard entropy for artificially matured samples ranged from 17.9 kJ mol?1 to 21.9 kJ mol?1 and from ?85.4 J mol?1 K?1 to ?101.8 J mol?1 K?1, respectively. These values are similar to the values of immature Woodford kerogen concentrate previously observed, but are larger than naturally matured organic-rich shales. High-temperature hydrous pyrolysis might have induced Lewis acid sites on both organic and mineral surfaces, resulting to some extent, in chemical interactions between the adsorption site and the methane C–H bonds. The formation of abundant mesopores (2–50 nm) within organic matter during organic-matter thermal maturation makes a great contribution to the increase in both BET surface area and pore volume, and a significant increase in 2–6 nm pores occurs at maximum-oil-generation and oil-cracking to gas, ultimately controlling the methane-adsorption capacity. Therefore, consideration of pore-size effects and thermal maturity is very important for gas in place (GIP) prediction in organic-rich shales.

  5. Defined MicroRNAs Induce Aspects of Maturation in Mouse and Human Embryonic-Stem-Cell-Derived Cardiomyocytes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Desy S. Lee

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Pluripotent-cell-derived cardiomyocytes have great potential for use in research and medicine, but limitations in their maturity currently constrain their usefulness. Here, we report a method for improving features of maturation in murine and human embryonic-stem-cell-derived cardiomyocytes (m/hESC-CMs. We found that coculturing m/hESC-CMs with endothelial cells improves their maturity and upregulates several microRNAs. Delivering four of these microRNAs, miR-125b-5p, miR-199a-5p, miR-221, and miR-222 (miR-combo, to m/hESC-CMs resulted in improved sarcomere alignment and calcium handling, a more negative resting membrane potential, and increased expression of cardiomyocyte maturation markers. Although this could not fully phenocopy all adult cardiomyocyte characteristics, these effects persisted for two months following delivery of miR-combo. A luciferase assay demonstrated that all four miRNAs target ErbB4, and siRNA knockdown of ErbB4 partially recapitulated the effects of miR-combo. In summary, a combination of miRNAs induced via endothelial coculture improved ESC-CM maturity, in part through suppression of ErbB4 signaling.

  6. Defined MicroRNAs Induce Aspects of Maturation in Mouse and Human Embryonic-Stem-Cell-Derived Cardiomyocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Desy S; Chen, Jyh-Hong; Lundy, David J; Liu, Chung-Hung; Hwang, Shiaw-Min; Pabon, Lil; Shieh, Ru-Chi; Chen, Chien-Chang; Wu, Sheng-Nan; Yan, Yu-Ting; Lee, Sho-Tone; Chiang, Po-Min; Chien, Shu; Murry, Charles E; Hsieh, Patrick C H

    2015-09-29

    Pluripotent-cell-derived cardiomyocytes have great potential for use in research and medicine, but limitations in their maturity currently constrain their usefulness. Here, we report a method for improving features of maturation in murine and human embryonic-stem-cell-derived cardiomyocytes (m/hESC-CMs). We found that coculturing m/hESC-CMs with endothelial cells improves their maturity and upregulates several microRNAs. Delivering four of these microRNAs, miR-125b-5p, miR-199a-5p, miR-221, and miR-222 (miR-combo), to m/hESC-CMs resulted in improved sarcomere alignment and calcium handling, a more negative resting membrane potential, and increased expression of cardiomyocyte maturation markers. Although this could not fully phenocopy all adult cardiomyocyte characteristics, these effects persisted for two months following delivery of miR-combo. A luciferase assay demonstrated that all four miRNAs target ErbB4, and siRNA knockdown of ErbB4 partially recapitulated the effects of miR-combo. In summary, a combination of miRNAs induced via endothelial coculture improved ESC-CM maturity, in part through suppression of ErbB4 signaling. PMID:26365191

  7. Platelets, after exposure to a high shear stress, induce IL-10-producing, mature dendritic cells in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hagihara, Masao; Higuchi, Ayako; Tamura, Noriko; Ueda, Yoko; Hirabayashi, Kaori; Ikeda, Yasuo; Kato, Shunichi; Sakamoto, Shinji; Hotta, Tomomitsu; Handa, Shunnosuke; Goto, Shinya

    2004-05-01

    There is evidence for immune system involvement in atherogenesis. In the present study the effect of platelets on dendritic cells (DC), an important immunologic regulator, was examined in vitro. Platelet-rich plasma, after exposure to shear stress, was added to human monocyte-derived immature DC, which were then examined for surface Ag expression, allogeneic T lymphocyte stimulatory activity, and cytokine production. After exposure, the number of anti-CD40 ligand (anti-CD40L) and anti-P-selectin IgG molecules bound per platelet was increased. These activated platelets induced DC maturation, as revealed by significant up-regulation of CD83, CD80, and CD86 Ags. The addition of platelets in the presence of IFN-gamma plus LPS significantly enhanced IL-10 production from immature DC. After platelet addition, mature DC provoked a significant proliferation of allogeneic naive T lymphocytes. These activated T cells showed lower IFN-gamma production than those stimulated by LPS- and IFN-gamma-treated DC. CD40L on the platelet surface was not involved in maturation of DC, as mAb to CD40L failed to block maturation. The effect of platelets was observed even if platelets and DC were separated using large pore-sized membranes or when platelets were depleted from plasma by centrifugation. Furthermore, it was abrogated after the depletion of protein fraction. Thus, soluble protein factors excreted from activated platelets contribute to IL-10-producing DC maturation. PMID:15100268

  8. In vitro maturation (IVM as a new technique to treat polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS and induce pregnancy in Indonesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soegiharto Soebijanto

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Aim: To assesse the success of inducing pregnancies in the treatment of PCOS (Poly Cystic Ovary Syndrome cases with in vitro maturation as a newly application technique in Indonesia.Methods This paper is a report of 7 cases in Indonesia that used the newly developed technique. There were 7 cases confi rmed PCOS, in which 1 patient with a history of OHSS (Ovary Hyper Stimulation Syndrome in a previous IVF procedure and 1 patient with PCOS characteristics, suspected hyper responder, in the Family Hospital from January to May of 2009. Follicular induction was performed with a minimum dose, primming with HCG 10.000 IU, on the 10th day and 40 hours later ovum pick up was  performed, followed by in vitro maturation. Subsequently, insemination was performed and the inseminated follicle was assessed. Well qualifi ed embryos then transferred them into the uterus. We then performed assessment of pregnancy biochemically, by the presence of embryonic sac and embryonic heart beat.Results: We have performed the IVM (In Vitro Maturation technique in the Family Hospital, West Jakarta, along with the TRB team of the Family Hospital in seven PCOS cases. From these patients, we have found 156 antral follicles (average of 22 follicles per patient, 82 oocytes, and after maturation, 61  nature oocytes (75 %. In three cases, in vitro fertilization was performed, while in 4 cases ICSI (In Cystoplasmic Sperm Infection was performed. In these serial cases we obtained 41 embryos, and 22 fertilized embryos were transferred. Of 7 cases, we achieved two successful pregnancies (29%.Conclusion: In vitro maturation is an alternative procedures in solving infertility problems for PCOS patients with lower risk of OHSS and more cost effective than conventional IVF. (Med J Indones 2009; 18: 269-75Keywords: pregnancy, PCOS, in vitro maturation

  9. The nature of X-ray-induced mutations in mature sperm and spermatogonial cells of Drosophila melanogaster

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mutations at four X-linked visible loci (yellow, white, vermilion and forked) induced by X-irradiation of mature sperm and spermatogonial cells were analysed genetically and cytogenetically. In addition, a fraction of the intragenic vermilion mutations was analysed molecularly. Males of two wild-type strains (Amherst M56i and Berlin-K) were used. A total of 332,651 chromosomes of irradiated mature sperm and 311,567 of irradiated spermatogonial cells were scored. The ratio of F1 female sterile, F2 male lethal and F2 male viable mutations in mature sperm and spermatogonial cells is very similar. The cytogenetic analysis shows equal fractions of multilocus deletions and translocations among the mutations recovered from both stages of spermatogenesis. These data strongly suggest that the spectrum of X-ray mutations is similar in mature sperm and spermatogonial cells, including multilocus deletions and chromosome rearrangements. The molecular analysis of a number of intragenic vermilion mutations showed the presence of three small deletions (1-10 bp), one insertion of two nucleotides and seven single nucleotide changes

  10. Characterization of early events involved in human dendritic cell maturation induced by sensitizers: Cross talk between MAPK signalling pathways

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dendritic cells (DCs), efficient-antigen presenting cells play an important role in initiating and regulating immune responses. DC maturation following exposure to nickel or DNCB induced an up-regulation of phenotypic markers and inflammatory cytokine secretion. Early intracellular mechanisms involved in DC maturation required to be precise. To address this purpose, DCs derived from human monocytes were treated with sensitizers (nickel, DNCB or thimerosal) in comparison with an irritant (SDS). Our data confirming the up-regulation of CD86, CD54 and cytokine secretion (IL-8 and TNF?) induced by sensitizers but not by SDS, signalling transduction involved in DC maturation was investigated using these chemicals. Kinase activity measurement was assessed using two new sensitive procedures (FaceTM and CBA) requiring few cells. SDS did not induce changes in signalling pathways whereas NiSO4, DNCB and thimerosal markedly activated p38 MAPK and JNK, in contrast Erk1/2 phosphorylation was completely inhibited by DNCB or thimerosal and only activated by nickel. A pre-treatment with p38 MAPK inhibitor (SB203580) suppressed Erk1/2 inhibition induced by DNCB or thimerosal demonstrating a direct interaction between p38 MAPK and Erk1/2. A pre-treatment with an antioxidant, N-acetyl-L-cysteine (NAC) markedly reduced Erk1/2 inhibition and p38 MAPK phosphorylation induced by DNCB and thimerosal, suggesting a direct activation of p38 MAPK via an oxidative stress and a regulation of MAPK signalling pathways depending on chemicals. Because of a high sensitivity of kinase activity measurements, these procedures will be suitable for weak or moderate sensitizer screening

  11. Collagen induces maturation of human monocyte-derived dendritic cells by signaling through osteoclast-associated receptor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schultz, Heidi S; Nitze, Louise M; Zeuthen, Louise H; Keller, Pernille; Gruhler, Albrecht; Pass, Jesper; Chen, Jianhe; Guo, Li; Fleetwood, Andrew J; Hamilton, John A; Berchtold, Martin W; Panina, Svetlana

    2015-04-01

    Osteoclast-associated receptor (OSCAR) is widely expressed on human myeloid cells. Collagen types (Col)I, II, and III have been described as OSCAR ligands, and ColII peptides can induce costimulatory signaling in receptor activator for NF-?B-dependent osteoclastogenesis. In this study, we isolated collagen as an OSCAR-interacting protein from the membranes of murine osteoblasts. We have investigated a functional outcome of the OSCAR-collagen interaction in human monocyte-derived dendritic cells (DCs). OSCAR engagement by ColI/II-induced activation/maturation of DCs is characterized by upregulation of cell surface markers and secretion of cytokines. These collagen-matured DCs (Col-DCs) were efficient drivers of allogeneic and autologous naive T cell proliferation. The T cells expanded by Col-DCs secreted cytokines with no clear T cell polarization pattern. Global RNA profiling revealed that multiple proinflammatory mediators, including cytokines and cytokine receptors, components of the stable immune synapse (namely CD40, CD86, CD80, and ICAM-1), as well as components of TNF and TLR signaling, are transcriptional targets of OSCAR in DCs. Our findings indicate the existence of a novel pathway by which extracellular matrix proteins locally drive maturation of DCs during inflammatory conditions, for example, within synovial tissue of rheumatoid arthritis patients, where collagens become exposed during tissue remodeling and are thus accessible for interaction with infiltrating precursors of DCs. PMID:25725106

  12. Maturation of Shark Single-Domain (IgNAR) Antibodies: Evidence for Induced-Fit Binding

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stanfield, R.L.; Dooley, H.; Verdino, P.; Flajnik, M.F.; Wilson, I.A.; /Scripps Res. Inst. /Maryland U.

    2007-07-13

    Sharks express an unusual heavy-chain isotype called IgNAR, whose variable regions bind antigen as independent soluble domains. To further probe affinity maturation of the IgNAR response, we structurally characterized the germline and somatically matured versions of a type II variable (V) region, both in the presence and absence of its antigen, hen egg-white lysozyme. Despite a disulfide bond linking complementarity determining regions (CDRs) 1 and 3, both germline and somatically matured V regions displayed significant structural changes in these CDRs upon complex formation with antigen. Somatic mutations in the IgNAR V region serve to increase the number of contacts with antigen, as reflected by a tenfold increase in affinity, and one of these mutations appears to stabilize the CDR3 region. In addition, a residue in the HV4 loop plays an important role in antibody-antigen interaction, consistent with the high rate of somatic mutations in this non-CDR loop.

  13. A new model of radiation-induced myelopathy: A comparison of the response of mature and immature pigs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The purpose was development of an experimental model of radiation-induced myelopathy in the pig which would facilitate the study of the effects of clinically relevant treatment volumes. The effects of local spinal cord irradiation, to a standard 10 X 5 cm field, have been evaluated in mature (37-42.5 weeks) and immature (15.5-23 weeks) pigs. Irradiation was with single doses of 60Co ?rays at a dose-rate of 0.21-0.65 Gy/min. The incidence of paralysis was used as an endpoint. Irradiation of mature animals resulted in the development of frank paralysis with animals showing combined parenchymal and vascular pathologic changes in their white matter. These lesions, in common with those seen in patients, had a clear evidence of an inflammatory component. The latency for paralysis was short, 7.5-16.5 weeks, but within the wide range reported for patients. However, it was shorter than that reported in other large animal models. The ED50 value (±SE) for paralysis was 27.02±0.36 Gy, similar to that in rats taking into account dose-rate factors. The irradiation of immature pigs only resulted in transient neurological changes after doses comparable to those used in the mature animals, ED50 value (±SE) 26.09±0.37 Gy. The reasons for these transient neurological symptoms are uncertain. A reliable experimental model of radiation-induced myelopathy has been developed for mature pigs. This model is suitable for the study of clinically relevant volume effects. 39 refs., 4 figs., 1 tab

  14. Complete and incomplete fusion competition in 11B-induced fission reaction on medium mass targets at intermediate energies

    CERN Document Server

    Demekhina, N A; Balabekyan, A R

    2014-01-01

    The cross sections for the binary fission of 197Au, 181Ta and 209Bi targets induced by 11B ions were measured at intermediate energies. The fission products cross sections were studied by means of activation analysis in off-line regime observed gamma-ray spectra. The fission cross section is reconstructed on the basis of charge and mass distribution of the fission products.

  15. Complete and Incomplete Fusion Competition in 11B-INDUCED Fission Reactions on 197Au at the Intermediate Energy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demekhina, N. A.; Karapetyan, G. S.; Balabekyan, A. R.

    2015-06-01

    Above Coulomb barrier cross sections of fission fragment production were measured in reactions of 11B with 197Au target. Induced-activity method was used for measurement the fission decay channel of the composite nuclei. Systematic of the fission fragment charge and mass distributions was used for fission cross section calculation. Fission fraction of the composite nuclei decay was compared with PACE-4 mode calculations. Estimated suppression for fission fraction followed the complete fusion have been obtained 35%.

  16. CASPASE-ACTIVATED ROCK-1 ALLOWS ERYTHROBLAST TERMINAL MATURATION INDEPENDENTLY OF CYTOKINE-INDUCED RHO SIGNALING

    OpenAIRE

    COURTOIS, Genevieve; Gabet, Anne Sophie; Coulon, Severine; Vandekerckhove, Julie; Fricot, Aurelie; Ribeil, Jean-Antoine; Belaid, Zakia; Asnafi, Vahid; Chang, YunHua; Lordier, Larissa; Debili, Najet; Zermati, Yael; Vainchenker, William; Varet, Bruno; Hermine, Olivier

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Stem cell factor (SCF) and erythropoietin (EPO) are strictly required for preventing apoptosis and stimulating proliferation, allowing the differentiation of erythroid precursors from CFU-E to the polychromatophilic stage. In contrast, terminal maturation to generate reticulocytes occurs independently of cytokine signaling by a mechanism not fully understood. Terminal differentiation is characterized by a sequence of morphological changes including a progressive decrease i...

  17. Recombinant Lactobacillus plantarum induces immune responses to cancer testis antigen NY-ESO-1 and maturation of dendritic cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mobergslien, Anne; Vasovic, Vlada; Mathiesen, Geir; Fredriksen, Lasse; Westby, Phuong; Eijsink, Vincent Gh; Peng, Qian; Sioud, Mouldy

    2015-11-01

    Given their safe use in humans and inherent adjuvanticity, Lactic Acid Bacteria may offer several advantages over other mucosal delivery strategies for cancer vaccines. The objective of this study is to evaluate the immune responses in mice after oral immunization with Lactobacillus (L) plantarum WCFS1 expressing a cell-wall anchored tumor antigen NY-ESO-1. And to investigate the immunostimulatory potency of this new candidate vaccine on human dendritic cells (DCs). L. plantarum displaying NY-ESO-1 induced NY-ESO-1 specific antibodies and T-cell responses in mice. By contrast, L. plantarum displaying conserved proteins such as heat shock protein-27 and galectin-1, did not induce immunity, suggesting that immune tolerance to self-proteins cannot be broken by oral administration of L. plantarum. With respect to immunomodulation, immature DCs incubated with wild type or L. plantarum-NY-ESO-1 upregulated the expression of co-stimulatory molecules and secreted a large amount of interleukin (IL)-12, TNF-?, but not IL-4. Moreover, they upregulated the expression of immunosuppressive factors such as IL-10 and indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase. Although L. plantarum-matured DCs expressed inhibitory molecules, they stimulated allogeneic T cells in-vitro. Collectively, the data indicate that L. plantarum-NY-ESO-1 can evoke antigen-specific immunity upon oral administration and induce DC maturation, raising the potential of its use in cancer immunotherapies. PMID:26185907

  18. Repair capacity of fertilized mouse eggs for X-ray damage induced in sperm and mature oocytes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To study the repair capacity of fertilized mouse eggs for X-ray damage induced in sperm and mature oocytes, the potentiating effects of 3 well-known repair inhibitors, arabinofuranosyl cytosine (ara-C), 3-aminobenzamide (3AB) and caffeine, on the frequency of induced chromosome aberrations were examined in eggs fertilized with X-irradiated sperm or in eggs irradiated with X-rays at the mature oocyte stage immediately before fertilization. Gametic treatment, fertilization and embryo culture wer carried out in vitro. Ara-C treatment was done only in the pre-DNA replication period, while treatment with 3AB and caffeine was continuous from fertilization to the first-cleavage metaphase. The induction of chromosome aberrations by exposing sperm or oocytes to X-rays was remarkably potentiated by post-treatment incubation in the presence of each of the 3 inhibitors. This result indicates the possibility that X-ray damage induced in sperm or oocytes is reparable in the fertilized eggs and that various types of repair processes are involved. (author). 39 refs.; 3 figs.; 5 tabs

  19. The role of DCs in the immunopathogenesis of chronic HBV infection and the methods of inducing DCs maturation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Hai-Hua; Zhou, Dong-Fang; Zhou, Jun-Ying

    2016-01-01

    Chronic hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection is the result of an inadequate immune response towards the virus. Dendritic cells (DCs), as the most efficient professional antigen-presenting cells (APCs), possess the strongest antigen presenting the effect in the body and can stimulate the initial T cell activation and proliferation. DCs of patients with chronic HBV infection are impaired, resulting in more tolerogenic rather than immunogenic responses, which may contribute to viral persistence. Recently, numerous methods have been developed to induce DCs maturation. To date, recombinant human granulocyte-macrophage colony stimulating factor (rhGM-CSF) combined with interleukin-4 (rhIL-4) has been a classic culture combination to DCs. The recently classified type III interferon group interferon-? (IFN-?) displays antiviral, antitumor, and immunoregulatory activity. In our laboratory, we demonstrate that IFN-?1 combined with rhGM-CSF and rhIL-4 can significantly increase the expression of DC surface molecules and the secretion of interleukin-12 (IL-12) and interferon-? (IFN-?) in patients with chronic hepatitis B infection. In this review, we emphasize on the role of DCs in the immunopathogenesis of chronic HBV infection. Importantly, we systematic review that the latest update in the current status of knowledge on the methods of inducing DCs maturation in anti-HBV immunity. What's more, we conclude that IFN-?1 combined with GM-CSF and IL-4 can induce DCs maturation, which could become a possibility to be applied to the autologus dendritic cell vaccine to treat chronic hepatitis B. J. Med. Virol. 88:13-20, 2016. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:26104380

  20. Uncoupling of induced protein processing from maturation in dendritic cells exposed to a highly antigenic preparation from a helminth parasite

    OpenAIRE

    Marshall, Fraser A.; Edward J. Pearce

    2008-01-01

    Toll-like receptor (TLR) ligands induce dendritic cell (DC) maturation. During this process cells initiate proteolytic degradation of internalized protein antigens into peptides that complex with MHC II, and simultaneously increase expression of costimulatory molecules and of cytokines such as IL-6, IL-12 and IL-23. In these ways, TLR-activated DCs are able to activate naïve Th cells and initiate Th1 and Th17 responses, and TLR-ligands thus serve as adjuvants for these types of responses. In ...

  1. The types and genetic analysis of radiation induced early maturity mutants of rice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Observation and correlation analysis were made for 50 early mutant lines,The early mutant lines fall into late type of early-maturity rice, and early type of mid- maturity rice, some of which are valuable as materials of rice breeding.With shorter growing period, the mutants have less inter-nodes and leaf numbers on main culm, shorter leaf and panicle length, and less filled grains and yield per plant, but have higher Protein content.Among 20 traits observed, 7 were significantly correlated with the length of growing period.The genetic parameter analysis for the mutant lines indicates that the length of growing period, plant height, grain number per panicle, 1000-grain weight have high heritability, Non-filled grain rate, secondary branch, number of panicle, grain number per panicle have larger genetic coefficient of variation and larger gain of selection

  2. Maturation-Induced Cloaking of Neutralization Epitopes on HIV-1 Particles

    OpenAIRE

    Joyner, Amanda S.; Willis, Jordan R.; Crowe, James E.; Aiken, Christopher

    2011-01-01

    To become infectious, HIV-1 particles undergo a maturation process involving proteolytic cleavage of the Gag and Gag-Pol polyproteins. Immature particles contain a highly stable spherical Gag lattice and are impaired for fusion with target cells. The fusion impairment is relieved by truncation of the gp41 cytoplasmic tail (CT), indicating that an interaction between the immature viral core and gp41 within the particle represses HIV-1 fusion by an unknown mechanism. We hypothesized that the co...

  3. Farnesyl transferase inhibitors induce extended remissions in transgenic mice with mature B cell lymphomas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Refaeli Yosef

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background We have used a mouse model based on overexpression of c-Myc in B cells genetically engineered to be self-reactive to test the hypothesis that farnesyl transferase inhibitors (FTIs can effectively treat mature B cell lymphomas. FTIs are undergoing clinical trials to treat both lymphoid and non-lymphoid malignancies and we wished to obtain evidence to support the inclusion of B cell lymphomas in future trials. Results We report that two FTIs, L-744,832 and SCH66336, blocked the growth of mature B cell lymphoma cells in vitro and in vivo. The FTI treatment affected the proliferation and survival of the transformed B cells to a greater extent than naïve B cells stimulated with antigen. In syngeneic mice transplanted with the transgenic lymphoma cells, L-744,832 treatment prevented the growth of the tumor cells and the morbidity associated with the resulting lymphoma progression. Tumors that arose from transplantation of the lymphoma cells regressed with as little as three days of treatment with L-744,832 or SCH66336. Treatment of these established lymphomas with L-744,832 for seven days led to long-term remission of the disease in approximately 25% of animals. Conclusion FTI treatment can block the proliferation and survival of self-reactive transformed B cells that overexpress Myc. In mice transplanted with mature B cell lymphomas, we found that FTI treatment led to regression of disease. FTIs warrant further consideration as therapeutic agents for mature B cell lymphomas and other lymphoid tumors.

  4. Updating with incomplete observations

    CERN Document Server

    De Cooman, G; Zaffalon, Marco

    2003-01-01

    Currently, there is renewed interest in the problem, raised by Shafer in 1985, of updating probabilities when observations are incomplete (or set-valued). This is a fundamental problem, and of particular interest for Bayesian networks. Recently, Grunwald and Halpern have shown that commonly used updating strategies fail here, except under very special assumptions. We propose a new rule for updating probabilities with incomplete observations. Our approach is deliberately conservative: we make no or weak assumptions about the so-called incompleteness mechanism that produces incomplete observations. We model our ignorance about this mechanism by a vacuous lower prevision, a tool from the theory of imprecise probabilities, and we derive a new updating rule using coherence arguments. In general, our rule produces lower posterior probabilities, as well as partially determinate decisions. This is a logical consequence of the ignorance about the incompleteness mechanism. We show how the new rule can properly address ...

  5. A highly expressing Tet-inducible cell line recapitulates in situ developmental changes in prestin's Boltzmann characteristics and reveals early maturational events

    OpenAIRE

    Bian, Shumin; Koo, Bon W.; Kelleher, Stephen; Santos-Sacchi, Joseph; Navaratnam, Dhasakumar S.

    2010-01-01

    Prestin is the motor protein within the lateral membrane of outer hair cells (OHCs), and it is required for mammalian cochlear amplification. Expression of prestin precedes the onset of hearing in mice, and it has been suggested that prestin undergoes a functional maturation within the membrane coincident with the onset of hearing. We have developed a tetracycline-inducible prestin-expressing cell line that we have used to model prestin's functional maturation. We used prestin's voltage-depen...

  6. Chlorella sorokiniana-Induced Activation and Maturation of Human Monocyte-Derived Dendritic Cells through NF-?B and PI3K/MAPK Pathways

    OpenAIRE

    Nien-Tzu Chou; Chieh-Fang Cheng; Hsin-Chieh Wu; Chin-Pen Lai; Li-Tsen Lin; I-Horng Pan; Ching-Huai Ko

    2012-01-01

    Chlorella sorokiniana (CS) is a unicellular green alga. The extracts of Chlorella have been used as treatments for relieving hypertension and modulating immune response. The detailed mechanisms are not clear yet. In this study, we sought to study the molecular mechanisms for the polysaccharide fraction of CS-induced immune response. We pulsed dendritic cells (DCs) with CS and found that CS could maturate DCs. CS-maturated DC could activate naïve T cells and stimulate T-cell proliferation and ...

  7. Permanent alveolar remodeling in canine lung induced by high-altitude residence during maturation

    OpenAIRE

    Ravikumar, Priya; Bellotto, Dennis J.; Johnson, Robert L.; Hsia, Connie C.W.

    2009-01-01

    Young canines born at sea level (SL) and raised for 5 mo at high altitude (HA, 3,800 m), followed by return to SL before somatic maturation, showed enhanced alveolar gas exchange and diffusing capacity at rest and exercise that persisted into adulthood (McDonough P, Dane DM, Hsia CC, Yilmaz C, Johnson RL Jr. J Appl Physiol 100: 474–81, 2006; Hsia CCW, Johnson RL Jr, McDonough P, Dane DM, Hurst MD, Fehmel JL, Wagner HE, Wagner PD. J Appl Physiol 102: 1448–55, 2007). To examine the associated s...

  8. Relating incomplete data and incomplete theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Assuming string theorists will not soon provide a compelling case for the primary theory underlying particle physics, the field will proceed as it has historically: with data stimulating and testing ideas. Ideally the soft supersymmetry breaking Lagrangian will be measured and its patterns will point to the underlying theory. But there are two new problems. First a matter of principle: the theory may be simplest at distance scales and in numbers of dimensions where direct experiments are not possible. Second a practical problem: in the foreseeable future (with mainly hadron collider data) too few observables can be measured to lead to direct connections between experiment and theory. In this paper we discuss and study these issues and consider ways to circumvent the problems, studying models to test methods. We propose a semiquantitative method for focusing and sharpening thinking when trying to relate incomplete data to incomplete theory, as will probably be necessary

  9. Combinatorial polymer matrices enhance in vitro maturation of human induced pluripotent stem cell-derived cardiomyocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chun, Young Wook; Balikov, Daniel A; Feaster, Tromondae K; Williams, Charles H; Sheng, Calvin C; Lee, Jung-Bok; Boire, Timothy C; Neely, M Diana; Bellan, Leon M; Ess, Kevin C; Bowman, Aaron B; Sung, Hak-Joon; Hong, Charles C

    2015-10-01

    Cardiomyocytes derived from human induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSC-CMs) hold great promise for modeling human heart diseases. However, iPSC-CMs studied to date resemble immature embryonic myocytes and therefore do not adequately recapitulate native adult cardiomyocyte phenotypes. Since extracellular matrix plays an essential role in heart development and maturation in vivo, we sought to develop a synthetic culture matrix that could enhance functional maturation of iPSC-CMs in vitro. In this study, we employed a library of combinatorial polymers comprising of three functional subunits - poly-?-caprolacton (PCL), polyethylene glycol (PEG), and carboxylated PCL (cPCL) - as synthetic substrates for culturing human iPSC-CMs. Of these, iPSC-CMs cultured on 4%PEG-96%PCL (each % indicates the corresponding molar ratio) exhibit the greatest contractility and mitochondrial function. These functional enhancements are associated with increased expression of cardiac myosin light chain-2v, cardiac troponin I and integrin alpha-7. Importantly, iPSC-CMs cultured on 4%PEG-96%PCL demonstrate troponin I (TnI) isoform switch from the fetal slow skeletal TnI (ssTnI) to the postnatal cardiac TnI (cTnI), the first report of such transition in vitro. Finally, culturing iPSC-CMs on 4%PEG-96%PCL also significantly increased expression of genes encoding intermediate filaments known to transduce integrin-mediated mechanical signals to the myofilaments. In summary, our study demonstrates that synthetic culture matrices engineered from combinatorial polymers can be utilized to promote in vitro maturation of human iPSC-CMs through the engagement of critical matrix-integrin interactions. PMID:26204225

  10. The PPAR?/? Agonist GW0742 Induces Early Neuronal Maturation of Cortical Post-Mitotic Neurons: Role of PPAR?/? in Neuronal Maturation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benedetti, Elisabetta; Di Loreto, Silvia; D'Angelo, Barbara; Cristiano, Loredana; d'angelo, Michele; Antonosante, Andrea; Fidoamore, Alessia; Golini, Raffaella; Cinque, Benedetta; Cifone, Maria Grazia; Ippoliti, Rodolfo; Giordano, Antonio; Cimini, Annamaria

    2016-03-01

    Increasing evidences support that signaling lipids participate in synaptic plasticity and cell survival, and that the lipid signaling is closely associated with neuronal differentiation, learning, and memory and with pathologic events, such as epilepsy and Alzheimer's disease. The Peroxisome Proliferator-Activated Receptors (PPAR) are strongly involved in the fatty acid cell signaling, as many of the natural lypophylic compounds are PPAR ligands. We have previously shown that PPAR?/? is the main isotype present in cortical neuron primary cultures and that during neuronal maturation, PPAR?/? is gradually increased and activated. To get more insight into the molecular mechanism by which PPAR?/? may be involved in neuronal maturation processes, in this work a specific PPAR?/? agonist, GW0742 was used administered alone or in association with a specific PPAR?/? antagonist, the GSK0660, and the parameters involved in neuronal differentiation and maturation were assayed. The data obtained demonstrated the strong involvement of PPAR?/? in neuronal maturation, triggering the agonist an anticipation of neuronal differentiation, and the antagonist abolishing the observed effects. These effects appear to be mediated by the activation of BDNF pathway. J. Cell. Physiol. 231: 597-606, 2016. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:26206209

  11. THYROID HORMONE TREATED ASTROCYTES INDUCE MATURATION OF CEREBRAL CORTICAL NEURONS THROUGH MODULATION OF PROTEOGLYCAN LEVELS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mauro Sérgio Gonçalves Pavão

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Proper brain neuronal circuitry formation and synapse development is dependent on specific cues, either genetic or epigenetic, provided by the surrounding neural environment. Within these signals, thyroid hormones (T3 and T4 play crucial role in several steps of brain morphogenesis including proliferation of progenitor cells, neuronal differentiation, maturation, migration, and synapse formation. The lack of thyroid hormones during childhood is associated with several impair neuronal connections, cognitive deficits, and mental disorders. Many of the thyroid hormones effects are mediated by astrocytes, although the mechanisms underlying these events are still unknown. In this work, we investigated the effect of 3, 5, 3’-triiodothyronine-treated (T3-treated astrocytes on cerebral cortex neuronal differentiation. Culture of neural progenitors from embryonic cerebral cortex mice onto T3-treated astrocyte monolayers yielded an increment in neuronal population, followed by enhancement of neuronal maturation, arborization and neurite outgrowth. In addition, real time PCR assays revealed an increase in the levels of the heparan sulfate proteoglycans, Glypican 1 (GPC-1 and Syndecans 3 e 4 (SDC-3 e SDC-4, followed by a decrease in the levels of the chondroitin sulfate proteoglycan, Versican. Disruption of glycosaminoglycan chains by chondroitinase AC or heparanase III completely abolished the effects of T3-treated astrocytes on neuronal morphogenesis. Our work provides evidence that astrocytes are key mediators of T3 actions on cerebral cortex neuronal development and identified potential molecules and pathways involved in neurite extension; which might eventually contribute to a better understanding of axonal regeneration, synapse formation and neuronal circuitry recover.

  12. Growth dynamics and cytoskeleton organization during stem maturation and gravity-induced stem bending in Zea mays L

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collings, D. A.; Winter, H.; Wyatt, S. E.; Allen, N. S.; Davies, E. (Principal Investigator)

    1998-01-01

    Characterization of gravitropic bending in the maize stem pulvinus, a tissue that functions specifically in gravity responses, demonstrates that the pulvinus is an ideal system for studying gravitropism. Gravistimulation during the second of three developmental phases of the pulvinus induces a gradient of cell elongation across the non-growing cells of the pulvinus, with the most elongation occurring on the lower side. This cell elongation is spatially and temporally separated from normal internodal cell elongation. The three characterized growth phases in the pulvinus correspond closely to a specialized developmental sequence in which structural features typical of cells not fully matured are retained while cell maturation occurs in surrounding internodal and nodal tissue. For example, the lignification of supporting tissue and rearrangement of transverse microtubules to oblique that occur in the internode when cell elongation ceases are delayed for up to 10 d in the adjacent cells of the pulvinus, and only occurs as a pulvinus loses its capacity to respond to gravistimulation. Gravistimulation does not modify this developmental sequence. Neither wall lignification nor rearrangement of transverse microtubules occurs in the rapidly elongating lower side or non-responsive upper side of the pulvinus until the pulvinus loses the capacity to bend further. Gravistimulation does, however, lead to the formation of putative pit fields within the expanding cells of the pulvinus.

  13. Induced Pluripotent Stem Cell-Derived Neural Cells Survive and Mature in the Nonhuman Primate Brain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marina E. Emborg

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The generation of induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs opens up the possibility for personalized cell therapy. Here, we show that transplanted autologous rhesus monkey iPSC-derived neural progenitors survive for up to 6 months and differentiate into neurons, astrocytes, and myelinating oligodendrocytes in the brains of MPTP-induced hemiparkinsonian rhesus monkeys with a minimal presence of inflammatory cells and reactive glia. This finding represents a significant step toward personalized regenerative therapies.

  14. Acute steroid-induced myopathy during lung Maturation in a patient with threatened preterm Delivery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rojas-Suarez José Antonio

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Myopathy caused by steroids is a serious and unusual side effect related with administration of high doses of steroids. In this article we had reported a possible deleterious and serious effect on the mother health when steroids are used in the treatment of preterm childbirth. The case of a pregnant patient of 28 gestational week that consults to the emergency department with signs of preterm birth, receives tocolysis and lung maturation with Betametasona (12 mg the first day and 12 mg at 24 hours after first dose; thereafter, patient refer dizziness and blurry vision, which progress rapidly to pain in lower limbs, with weakness, being generalized then to four limbs, for acute weakness and imminence of respiratory failure the patient was transferred to the intensive care unit (ICU for respiratory vigilance, possible ventilatory support and study of this weakness. Myopathy caused by steroids is generally related with high doses of steroids. These patients, present a clinical typical picture characterized by widespread weakness of four extremities, muscular atrophy, normal CK or moderately high and myopathic changes in the EMG, the clinical presentation improves slowly. This report invite us to questioning the apparent innocuousness of steroids in pulmonary maturity and the dose of the same one, as well as to using them well in agreement to the indication of the same one keeping in mind the risk - benefit of the medicine.RESUMENLa miopatía causada por esteroides es un efecto secundario grave muy poco frecuente asociado a la administración de dosis altas de esteroides. Se reportan los posibles efectos deletéreos sobre la salud materna que puede tener la administración de corticosteroides frente al riesgo de un parto pretérmino. Se presenta el caso de una paciente gestante de 28 semanas que consulta al servicio de urgencia por infección de vías urinarias y amenaza de parto pretérmino, que recibe uteroinhibicion y maduración pulmonar con Betametasona (12 mg primer día y 12 mg a las 24 horas de primera dosis; luego de segunda dosis de maduración pulmonar la paciente refiere vértigo y visión borrosa, la cual progresó rápidamente a dolor, con pérdida de fuerza muscular en miembros inferiores, generalizándose luego a las cuatro extremidades, por lo que ante la inminencia de falla respiratoria se traslada a unidad de cuidados intermedios para vigilancia ventilatoria y estudio de miopatía.Discusión: La miopatía por esteroides, se produce con dosis altas de corticoides. Estos pacientes, presentan un cuadro clínico típico caracterizado por debilidad generalizada de las cuatro extremidades, atrofia muscular, CK normal o moderadamente elevada y cambios miopáticos en el EMG, el cuadro clínico mejora aunque de forma lenta. Conclusiones: Este reporte nos invita a cuestionar la aparente inocuidad de los esteroides en maduración pulmonar y la dosis de la misma, así como a utilizarlos bien de acuerdo a la indicación del mismo teniendo en cuenta el riesgo – beneficio del medicamento.

  15. Suppression of glia maturation factor expression prevents 1-methyl-4-phenylpyridinium (MPP+)-induced loss of mesencephalic dopaminergic neurons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Mohammad Moshahid; Zaheer, Smita; Nehman, John; Zaheer, Asgar

    2014-01-01

    Inflammation mediated by glial activation appears to play critical role in the pathogenesis of Parkinson disease (PD). Glia maturation factor (GMF), a proinflammatory protein predominantly localized in the central nervous system was isolated, sequenced and cloned in our laboratory. We have previously demonstrated an immunomodulatory and proinflammatory functions for GMF, but its involvement in 1-methyl-4-phenylpyridinium (MPP+), active metabolite of classical parkinsonian toxin MPTP, induced loss of dopaminergic neurons have not been studied. Here we show that altered expression of GMF has direct consequences on the production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and NF-?B mediated production of inflammatory mediators by MPP+. We examined MPP+- induced dopaminergic neuronal loss in primary cultures of mouse mesencephalic neuron/glia obtained from GMF-deficient (GMF-KO) and GMF-containing wild type (Wt) mice. We demonstrate that deficiency of GMF in GMF-KO neuron/glia led to decrease production of ROS and downregulation of NF-?B mediated production of TNF-? and IL-1? as compare to Wt neuron/glia. Additionally, overexpression of GMF induced dopaminergic neurodegeneration, whereas GMF downregulation by GMF-specific shRNA protected dopaminergic neurons from MPP-induced toxicity. Subsequently, GMF deficiency ameliorates antioxidant balance, as evidenced by the decreased level of lipid peroxidation, less ROS production along with increased level of glutathione; and attenuated the dopaminergic neuronal loss via the downregulation of NF-?B mediated inflammatory responses. In conclusion, our overall data indicate that GMF modulates oxidative stress and release of deleterious agents by MPP+ leading to loss of dopaminergic neurons. Our study provides new insights into the potential role of GMF and identifies targets for therapeutic interventions in neurodegenerative diseases. PMID:25016212

  16. Suppression of glia maturation factor expression prevents 1-methyl-4-phenylpyridinium (MPP?)-induced loss of mesencephalic dopaminergic neurons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, M M; Zaheer, S; Nehman, J; Zaheer, A

    2014-09-26

    Inflammation mediated by glial activation appears to play a critical role in the pathogenesis of Parkinson disease (PD). Glia maturation factor (GMF), a proinflammatory protein predominantly localized in the central nervous system was isolated, sequenced and cloned in our laboratory. We have previously demonstrated immunomodulatory and proinflammatory functions of GMF, but its involvement in 1-methyl-4-phenylpyridinium (MPP(+)), active metabolite of classical parkinsonian toxin 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine (MPTP), inducing loss of dopaminergic (DA) neurons has not been studied. Here we show that altered expression of GMF has direct consequences on the production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-?B)- mediated production of inflammatory mediators by MPP(+). We examined MPP(+)-induced DA neuronal loss in primary cultures of mouse mesencephalic neurons/glia obtained from GMF-deficient (GMF knockout (GMF-KO)) and GMF-containing wild-type (Wt) mice. We demonstrate that deficiency of GMF in GMF-KO neurons/glia led to decreased production of ROS and downregulation of NF-?B-mediated production of tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-?) and interleukin-1beta (IL-1?) as compared to Wt neurons/glia. Additionally, overexpression of GMF induced DA neurodegeneration, whereas GMF downregulation by GMF-specific shRNA protected DA neurons from MPP-induced toxicity. Subsequently, GMF deficiency ameliorates antioxidant balance, as evidenced by the decreased level of lipid peroxidation, less ROS production along with increased level of glutathione; and attenuated the DA neuronal loss via the downregulation of NF-?B-mediated inflammatory responses. In conclusion, our overall data indicate that GMF modulates oxidative stress and release of deleterious agents by MPP(+) leading to loss of DA neurons. Our study provides new insights into the potential role of GMF and identifies targets for therapeutic interventions in neurodegenerative diseases. PMID:25016212

  17. Tripeptidyl Peptidase II Promotes Maturation of Caspase-1 in Shigella flexneri-Induced Macrophage Apoptosis

    OpenAIRE

    Hilbi, Hubert; Puro, Robyn J.; Zychlinsky, Arturo

    2000-01-01

    The invasive enteropathogenic bacterium Shigella flexneri activates apoptosis in macrophages. Shigella-induced apoptosis requires caspase-1. We demonstrate here that tripeptidyl peptidase II (TPPII), a cytoplasmic, high-molecular-weight protease, participates in the apoptotic pathway triggered by Shigella. The TPPII inhibitor Ala-Ala-Phe-chloromethylketone (AAF-cmk) and clasto-lactacystin ?-lactone (lactacystin), an inhibitor of both TPPII and the proteasome, protected macrophages from Shigel...

  18. Akt activation induces hypertrophy without contractile phenotypic maturation in airway smooth muscle

    OpenAIRE

    Ma, Lan; Brown, Melanie; Kogut, Paul; Serban, Karina; Li, Xiaojing; McConville, John; Chen, Bohao; Bentley, J Kelley; Marc B. Hershenson; Dulin, Nickolai; SOLWAY, Julian; Camoretti-Mercado, Blanca

    2011-01-01

    Airway smooth muscle (ASM) hypertrophy is a cardinal feature of severe asthma, but the underlying molecular mechanisms remain uncertain. Forced protein kinase B/Akt 1 activation is known to induce myocyte hypertrophy in other muscle types, and, since a number of mediators present in asthmatic airways can activate Akt signaling, we hypothesized that Akt activation could contribute to ASM hypertrophy in asthma. To test this hypothesis, we evaluated whether Akt activation occurs naturally within...

  19. Hemin-induced transcriptional activation of the HSP70 gene during erythroid maturation in K562 cells is due to a heat shock factor-mediated stress response.

    OpenAIRE

    Theodorakis, N G; Zand, D J; Kotzbauer, P T; G.T. Williams; Morimoto, R I

    1989-01-01

    Hemin-induced differentiation of the human erythroleukemia cell line K562 results in the expression and accumulation of erythroid-specific gene products such as embryonic and fetal hemoglobins and the elevated synthesis of the major heat shock protein HSP70. This activity was suggested to represent activation of a heat shock gene during erythroid maturation independent of stress induction. In this study, we demonstrate that hemin induces the transcription of two members of the human HSP70 gen...

  20. Planning with Incomplete Information

    CERN Document Server

    Kakas, A C; Toni, F; Kakas, Antonis; Miller, Rob; Toni, Francesca

    2000-01-01

    Planning is a natural domain of application for frameworks of reasoning aboutactions and change. In this paper we study how one such framework, the LanguageE, can form the basis for planning under (possibly) incomplete information. Wedefine two types of plans: weak and safe plans, and propose a planner, calledthe E-Planner, which is often able to extend an initial weak plan into a safeplan even though the (explicit) information available is incomplete, e.g. forcases where the initial state is not completely known. The E-Planner is basedupon a reformulation of the Language E in argumentation terms and a naturalproof theory resulting from the reformulation. It uses an extension of thisproof theory by means of abduction for the generation of plans and adoptsargumentation-based techniques for extending weak plans into safe plans. Weprovide representative examples illustrating the behaviour of the E-Planner, inparticular for cases where the status of fluents is incompletely known.

  1. Variation in eating quality of early maturing mutant lines of rice induced by space technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Variations in eating quality of 9 mutant lines derived from single season indica rice variety Jingxian 89 by the treatment of space technique were investigated. The result indicated that the exterior quality of some mutant lines including grain shape and endosperm appearance changed obviously. AAC was induced into three categories: low, moderate and high AAC. Alkali spreading value and starch viscosity of most mutant lines were significantly worse than those of the original parent. However, the gel consistence of mutant lines was similar or improved obviously. Except SP501, major agronomic traits of mutant lines were worse than those of the control, but one thousand grains weight increased obviously

  2. Study of complete and incomplete fusion in reactions induced by 12C and 16O ions below 7 MeV/nucleon energies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    With a view to study the complete fusion, incomplete fusion and pre-equilibrium emission, a program of precise measurement and analysis of excitation functions (EFs) and recoil range distribution (RRD) of residues for various projectile-target combinations has been undertaken

  3. Planning with Incomplete Information

    OpenAIRE

    Kakas, Antonis; Miller, Rob; Toni, Francesca

    2000-01-01

    Planning is a natural domain of application for frameworks of reasoning about actions and change. In this paper we study how one such framework, the Language E, can form the basis for planning under (possibly) incomplete information. We define two types of plans: weak and safe plans, and propose a planner, called the E-Planner, which is often able to extend an initial weak plan into a safe plan even though the (explicit) information available is incomplete, e.g. for cases wh...

  4. Information-theoretic incompleteness

    CERN Document Server

    Chaitin, Gregory J

    1992-01-01

    In this mathematical autobiography, Gregory Chaitin presents a technical survey of his work and a nontechnical discussion of its significance. The volume is an essential companion to the earlier collection of Chaitin's papers Information, Randomness and Incompleteness, also published by World Scientific.The technical survey contains many new results, including a detailed discussion of LISP program size and new versions of Chaitin's most fundamental information-theoretic incompleteness theorems. The nontechnical part includes the lecture given by Chaitin in Gšdel's classroom at the University o

  5. The Icsbp locus is a common proviral insertion site in mature B-cell lymphomas/plasmacytomas induced by exogenous murine leukemia virus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    ICSBP (interferon consensus sequence binding protein)/IRF8 (interferon regulatory factor 8) is an interferon gamma-inducible transcription factor expressed predominantly in hematopoietic cells, and down-regulation of this factor has been observed in chronic myelogenous leukemia and acute myeloid leukemia in man. By screening about 1200 murine leukemia virus (MLV)-induced lymphomas, we found proviral insertions at the Icsbp locus in 14 tumors, 13 of which were mature B-cell lymphomas or plasmacytomas. Only one was a T-cell lymphoma, although such tumors constituted about half of the samples screened. This indicates that the Icsbp locus can play a specific role in the development of mature B-lineage malignancies. Two proviral insertions in the last Icsbp exon were found to act by a poly(A)-insertion mechanism. The remaining insertions were found within or outside Icsbp. Since our results showed expression of Icsbp RNA and protein in all end-stage tumor samples, a simple tumor suppressor function of ICSBP is not likely. Interestingly, proviral insertions at Icsbp have not been reported from previous extensive screenings of mature B-cell lymphomas induced by endogenous MLVs. We propose that ICSBP might be involved in an early modulation of an immune response to exogenous MLVs that might also play a role in proliferation of the mature B-cell lymphomas

  6. Kurt Gödel, completeness, incompleteness.

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Hájek, Petr

    2007-01-01

    Ro?. 82, ?. 1 (2007), 012005_1-012005_4. E-ISSN 1742-6596. [Brno Kurt Gödel Days. Brno, 25.04.2007-28.04.2007] R&D Projects: GA AV ?R IAA100300503 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10300504 Keywords : Kurt Gödel * completeness * incompleteness Subject RIV: BA - General Mathematics

  7. Protein-induced changes during the maturation process of human dendritic cells: A 2-D DIGE approach

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ferreira, Gb; Overbergh, L

    2008-01-01

    Dendritic cells (DCs) are unique antigen presenting cells, which upon maturation change from a specialized antigen-capturing cell towards a professional antigen presenting cells. In this study, a 2-D DIGE analysis of immature and mature DCs was performed, to identify proteins changing in expression upon maturation. The protein expression profile of immature and mature DCs, derived from CD14+ peripheral blood monocytes was investigated using two pH ranges (pH 4-7 and 6-9) (n = 4). Ninety one differentially expressed spots (p

  8. Maturation of human dendritic cells by monocyte-conditioned medium is dependent upon trace amounts of lipopolysaccharide inducing tumour necrosis factor alpha

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nersting, Jacob; Svenson, Morten

    2003-01-01

    We investigated the ability of monocyte-conditioned medium (MCM), generated by monocytes cultured on plastic-immobilised immunoglobulin, to stimulate maturation of human monocyte-derived dendritic cells (DC). Earlier reports suggest that MCM is a strong inducer of irreversible DC maturation, whereas we find, that adding a small amount of lipopolysaccharide (LPS) to the MCM-generating cultures is required for the production of a DC-stimulatory MCM. Moreover, compared with addition of LPS directly to the DC cultures, stimulation via MCM cultures increases by several fold the DC-stimulatory potency of LPS. Maturation by this procedure is mediated mainly by tumour necrosis factor alpha secreted from monocytes during the medium-conditioning period.

  9. Metabolomic changes in follicular fluid induced by soy isoflavones administered to rats from weaning until sexual maturity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Female Wistar rats at 21 days of age were treated with one of three concentrations of soy isoflavones (SIF) (50, 100 or 200 mg/kg body weight, orally, once per day) from weaning until sexual maturity (3 months) in order to evaluate the influence of SIF on ovarian follicle development. After treatment, the serum sex hormone levels and enumeration of ovarian follicles of the ovary were measured. The metabolic profile of follicular fluid was determined using HPLC-MS. Principal component analysis (PCA) and partial least-squares-discriminant analysis (PLS-DA) was used to identify differences in metabolites and reveal useful toxic biomarkers. The results indicated that modest doses of SIF affect ovarian follicle development, as demonstrated by decreased serum estradiol levels and increases in both ovarian follicle atresia and corpora lutea number in the ovary. SIF treatment-related metabolic alterations in follicular fluid were also found in the PCA and PLS-DA models. The 24 most significantly altered metabolites were identified, including primary sex hormones, amino acids, fatty acids and metabolites involved in energy metabolism. These findings may indicate that soy isoflavones affect ovarian follicle development by inducing metabolomic variations in the follicular fluid. - Highlights: ? Modest doses of soy isoflavones (SIF) do affect ovarian follicle development. ? SIF treatment-related metabolic alterations in follicular fluid were found. ? The 24 most significantly altered metabolites were identified

  10. Insulin-like growth factor-1 receptor in mature osteoblasts is required for periosteal bone formation induced by reloading.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kubota, Takuo; Elalieh, Hashem Z; Saless, Neema; Fong, Chak; Wang, Yongmei; Babey, Muriel; Cheng, Zhiqiang; Bikle, Daniel D

    2013-11-01

    Skeletal loading and unloading has a pronounced impact on bone remodeling, a process also regulated by insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-1) signaling. Skeletal unloading leads to resistance to the anabolic effect of IGF-1, while reloading after unloading restores responsiveness to IGF-1. However, a direct study of the importance of IGF-1 signaling in the skeletal response to mechanical loading remains to be tested. In this study, we assessed the skeletal response of osteoblast-specific Igf-1 receptor deficient (Igf-1r(-/-) ) mice to unloading and reloading. The mice were hindlimb unloaded for 14 days and then reloaded for 16 days. Igf-1r(-/-) mice displayed smaller cortical bone and diminished periosteal and endosteal bone formation at baseline. Periosteal and endosteal bone formation decreased with unloading in Igf-1r(+/+) mice. However, the recovery of periosteal bone formation with reloading was completely inhibited in Igf-1r(-/-) mice, although reloading-induced endosteal bone formation was not hampered. These changes in bone formation resulted in the abolishment of the expected increase in total cross-sectional area with reloading in Igf-1r(-/-) mice compared to the control mice. These results suggest that the Igf-1r in mature osteoblasts has a critical role in periosteal bone formation in the skeletal response to mechanical loading. PMID:23976802

  11. Metabolomic changes in follicular fluid induced by soy isoflavones administered to rats from weaning until sexual maturity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Wenxiang [Department of Nutrition and Health Care, School of Public Health, Fujian Medical University, Fuzhou, Fujian (China); Zhang, Wenchang, E-mail: wenchang2002@sina.com [Department of Occupational and Environmental Health, School of Public Health, Fujian Medical University, Fuzhou, Fujian (China); Liu, Jin [Department of Occupational and Environmental Health, School of Public Health, Fujian Medical University, Fuzhou, Fujian (China); Sun, Yan [Center for Reproductive Medicine, Teaching Hospital of Fujian Medical University, Fujian Maternity and Child Health Hospital, Fuzhou, Fujian (China); Li, Yuchen; Li, Hong; Xiao, Shihua; Shen, Xiaohua [Department of Occupational and Environmental Health, School of Public Health, Fujian Medical University, Fuzhou, Fujian (China)

    2013-06-15

    Female Wistar rats at 21 days of age were treated with one of three concentrations of soy isoflavones (SIF) (50, 100 or 200 mg/kg body weight, orally, once per day) from weaning until sexual maturity (3 months) in order to evaluate the influence of SIF on ovarian follicle development. After treatment, the serum sex hormone levels and enumeration of ovarian follicles of the ovary were measured. The metabolic profile of follicular fluid was determined using HPLC-MS. Principal component analysis (PCA) and partial least-squares-discriminant analysis (PLS-DA) was used to identify differences in metabolites and reveal useful toxic biomarkers. The results indicated that modest doses of SIF affect ovarian follicle development, as demonstrated by decreased serum estradiol levels and increases in both ovarian follicle atresia and corpora lutea number in the ovary. SIF treatment-related metabolic alterations in follicular fluid were also found in the PCA and PLS-DA models. The 24 most significantly altered metabolites were identified, including primary sex hormones, amino acids, fatty acids and metabolites involved in energy metabolism. These findings may indicate that soy isoflavones affect ovarian follicle development by inducing metabolomic variations in the follicular fluid. - Highlights: ? Modest doses of soy isoflavones (SIF) do affect ovarian follicle development. ? SIF treatment-related metabolic alterations in follicular fluid were found. ? The 24 most significantly altered metabolites were identified.

  12. Progressive behavioral changes during the maturation of rats with early radiation-induced hypoplasia of fascia dentata granule cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Localized exposure of the neonatal rat brain to X-rays produces neuronal hypoplasia specific to the granule cell layer of the hippocampal dentate gyrus. This brain damage causes locomotor hyperactivity, slowed acquisition of passive avoidance tasks and long bouts of spontaneous turning (without reversals) in a bowl apparatus. Here we report how these behavioral deficits change as a function of subject aging and behavioral test replications. Portions of the neonatal rat cerebral hemispheres were X-irradiated in order to selectively damage the granule cells of the dentate gyrus. The brains of experimental animals received a fractionated dose of X rays (13 Gy total) over postnatal days 1 to 16 and control animals were sham-irradiated. Rats between the ages of 71-462 days were tested 3 separate times on each of the following 3 behavioral tests: (1) spontaneous locomotion, (2) passive avoidance acquisition, and (3) spontaneous circling in a large plastic hemisphere. Rats with radiation-induced damage to the fascia dentata exhibited long bouts of slow turns without reversals. Once they began, irradiated subjects perseverated in turning to an extent significantly greater than sham-irradiated control subjects. This irradiation effect was significant during all test series. Moreover, in time, spontaneous perseverative turning was significantly potentiated in rats with hippocampal damage but increased only slightly in controls. Early radiation exposure produced locomotor hyperactivity in young rats. While activity levels of controls remained fairly stable throughout the course of the experiment, the hyperactivity of the irradiated animals decreased significantly as they matured

  13. Nicotine-induced Disturbances of Meiotic Maturation in Cultured Mouse Oocytes: Alterations of Spindle Integrity and Chromosome Alignment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zenzes Maria

    2004-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract We investigated whether nicotine exposure in vitro of mouse oocytes affects spindle and chromosome function during meiotic maturation (M-I and M-II. Oocytes in germinal vesicle (GV stage were cultured in nicotine for 8 h or for 16 h, to assess effects in M-I and in metaphase II (M-II. The latter culture setting used the three protocols: 8 h nicotine then 8 h medium (8N + 8M; 16 h nicotine (16N; 8 h medium then 8 h nicotine (8M + 8N. Non-toxic concentrations of nicotine at 1.0, 2.5, 5.0 and 10.0 mmol/L were used. Spindle-chromosome configurations were analyzed with wide-field optical sectioning microscopy. In 8 h cultures, nicotine exposure resulted in dose-related increased proportions of M-I oocytes with defective spindle-chromosome configurations. A dose-related delayed entry into anaphase I was also detected. In 16 h cultures, nicotine exposure for the first 8 h (8N + 8M, or for 16 h (16N, resulted in dose- and time-related increased proportions of oocytes arrested in M-I (10 mmol/L; 8 h: 53.2%, controls 9.6%; 16 h: 87.6%, controls 8.5%. Defects in M-I spindles and chromosomes caused M-I arrest leading to dose-related decreased proportions of oocytes that reached metaphase-II (10 mmol/L 8 h: 46.8%, controls 90.4%;16 h: 12.4%, controls 91.5%. A delayed anaphase-I affected the normal timing of M-II, leading to abnormal oocytes with dispersed chromosomes, or with double spindles and no polar body. Nicotine exposure during the second 8 h (8M + 8N resulted in dose-related, increased proportions of M-II oocytes with defective spindles and chromosomes (10 mmol/L: 42.9%, controls 2.0%. Nicotine has no adverse effects on GV break down, but induces spindle and chromosome defects compromising oocyte meiotic maturation and development.

  14. Minimizing incomplete automata

    OpenAIRE

    Béal, Marie-Pierre; Crochemore, Maxime

    2008-01-01

    We develop a O(m log n)-time and O(k + n + m)-space algorithm for minimizing incomplete deterministic automata, where n is the number of states, m the number of edges, and k the size of the alphabet. Minimization reduces to the partial Functional coarsest partition problem. Our algorithm is a slight variant of Hopcroft's algorithm for minimizing deterministic complete automata.

  15. BIF. Balanced Incomplete Decomposition.

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    T?ma, Miroslav

    Liberec : Technical University, 2008. s. 129-130. ISBN 978-80-7372-298-2. [SNA '08 - Seminar on numerical analysis: modelling and simulation of challenging engineering problems. 28.01.2008-01.02.2008, Liberec] R&D Projects: GA AV ?R 1ET400300415; GA AV ?R IAA100300802 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10300504 Keywords : preconditioning * sparse linear systems * incomplete decomposition * iterative methods Subject RIV: BA - General Mathematics

  16. Physicalism, Behaviorism and Incompleteness

    OpenAIRE

    Tao Li

    2011-01-01

    The content of this paper contains four parts. (1) First, physicalism gives the enlightenments to behaviorism: mind-body identity, objectivity like physics and completeness of reduction. (2) Secondly, there are difficulties which behaviorist could not overcome—both the reduction of the theory and the terms are unreliable, and the strict distinction between introspective method and inter-subjective method is also untenable. (3) Thirdly, It has inevitable incompleteness in one theory no matter ...

  17. Godel's Incompleteness Phenomenon - Computationally

    OpenAIRE

    Salehi, Saeed

    2012-01-01

    We argue that Godel's completeness theorem is equivalent to completability of consistent theories, and Godel's incompleteness theorem is equivalent to the fact that this completion is not constructive, in the sense that there are some consistent and recursively enumerable theories which cannot be extended to any complete and consistent and recursively enumerable theory. Though any consistent and decidable theory can be extended to a complete and consistent and decidable theo...

  18. Angular momentum population in incomplete fusion reactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    It has been established that several reaction mechanisms occur in heavy ion-induced reactions having projectile energy below 10 MeV/A. Among these mechanisms, dominant ones are complete fusion, deep-inelastic collision and quasi-elastic collision. As the projectile energy increases to 5-10 MeV/A and above, incomplete fusion reactions start competing with complete fusion reactions. In incomplete fusion reactions, projectile breaks up into two fragments before fusing with the target. After the break-up, one part of the projectile completely fuses with the target while the other escapes at forward angle as a spectator. Such reactions are also known as breakup fusion or massive transfer reactions. In recent years, the incomplete-fusion reaction mechanism has attracted considerable attention as it can be used to produce states at higher angular momentum in relatively neutron-rich nuclei

  19. Effects of repeated anesthesia by thiopental in neonatal period on PTZ-induced convulsions and pain responses during maturation in rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fatemeh Faghih Majidi

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: General anesthetics during critical periods of brain development may cause some seriousmalformations or side effects. Anesthetic drugs can involve in the brain development and synaptogenesis atthe critical period of development. There are some controversy with regards the effects of(neurodegenerative or neuroprotective barbiturates on brain. The aim of the present study was toinvestigate the possible relation between repeated induced thiopental (a GABAA agonist anesthesia at thepostnatal period and pentylentetrazol-induced convulsions and pain responses in adult in the Wistar rats.Materials and methods: 40 male neonate rats were divided into experimental and sham groups. Theexperimental group (n=20 was deeply anesthetized with thiopental (30 mg/kg daily during 10 to 20-daysof post- natal period and physiologic serum was used for sham animals. After maturation of male rats, thePTZ-induced seizures were induced by daily interapritoneally injection of PTZ (45 mg/kg, and thelatency of the appearance of generalized epileptiform behaviors was recorded. Pain responses were alsoevaluated using tail-flick and formalin tests.Results: No significant differences were found in the lantency of the appearance of behaviouralconvulsions and pain sensitivity between experimental and sham groups.Conclusion: Our findings indicate that prior exposure to thiopental during nenonatal stage has no effectson PTZ-induced seizures and also pain responses after maturation. Developmental compensatorymechanisms may protect the brian against the possible damage that induced by repeated thipopental duringneonatal period.

  20. Lycium barbarum polysaccharides induce Toll-like receptor 2- and 4-mediated phenotypic and functional maturation of murine dendritic cells via activation of NF-?B.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Jie; Zhang, Yuanyuan; Shen, Yueshuang; Zhou, Huanqin; Yu, Xiaomei

    2013-10-01

    Dendritic cells (DCs) are potent antigen?presenting cells that play pivotal roles in the initiation of primary immune responses. Lycium barbarum polysaccharides (LBPs) are known to have a variety of immunomodulatory functions. However, the cellular and molecular mechanisms underlying their therapeutic effects are poorly understood. In this study, we report that LBPs induce phenotypic and functional maturation of DCs. LBPs upregulated DC expression of I?A/I?E and CD11c, enhanced DC allostimulatory activity and induced IL?12p40 production. Furthermore, the activity of LBPs on DCs was significantly reduced by treating the cells with anti?TLR2 or anti?TLR4 antibody prior to LBPs, indicating that both are possible receptors of LBPs. Maturation of DCs by LBPs was able to directly activate the nuclear transcription factor NF??B p65. The results revealed that LBP stimulation induces the phenotypic and functional maturation of DCs via TLR2- and/or TLR4-mediated NF??B signaling pathways. PMID:23904044

  1. Human serum induces maturation of human monocytes in vitro. Changes in cytolytic activity, intracellular lysosomal enzymes, and nonspecific esterase activity.

    OpenAIRE

    Musson, R. A.

    1983-01-01

    The dependence of human monocyte maturation in vitro on autologous serum was examined. If autologous serum was present during the monocyte culture, cytolysis of K562 target cells increased, intracellular levels of three lysosomal enzymes increased, and the fluoride-inhibitable esterase staining of the monocytes changed into a fluoride-resistant esterase stain (characteristic of more mature extravascular mononuclear phagocytes). Monocytes cultured in the presence and in the absence of serum al...

  2. On Incomplete Symmetric Decompositions.

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    T?ma, Miroslav

    Ostrava : Ústav geoniky AV ?R, 2014 - (Blaheta, R.; Starý, J.; Sysalová, D.). s. 74-75 ISBN 978-80-86407-47-0. [Modelling 2014. 02.06.2014-06.06.2014, Rožnov pod Radhošt?m] R&D Projects: GA ?R GA13-06684S; GA ?R(CZ) GAP108/11/0853 Grant ostatní: EPSRC EP/I013067/1 Institutional support: RVO:67985807 Keywords : preconditioning * sparse linear systems * incomplete decompositions * preconditioned iterative methods * symmetric and positive definite matrices Subject RIV: BA - General Mathematics

  3. Boosting high-intensity focused ultrasound-induced anti-tumor immunity using a sparse-scan strategy that can more effectively promote dendritic cell maturation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhong Pei

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The conventional treatment protocol in high-intensity focused ultrasound (HIFU therapy utilizes a dense-scan strategy to produce closely packed thermal lesions aiming at eradicating as much tumor mass as possible. However, this strategy is not most effective in terms of inducing a systemic anti-tumor immunity so that it cannot provide efficient micro-metastatic control and long-term tumor resistance. We have previously provided evidence that HIFU may enhance systemic anti-tumor immunity by in situ activation of dendritic cells (DCs inside HIFU-treated tumor tissue. The present study was conducted to test the feasibility of a sparse-scan strategy to boost HIFU-induced anti-tumor immune response by more effectively promoting DC maturation. Methods An experimental HIFU system was set up to perform tumor ablation experiments in subcutaneous implanted MC-38 and B16 tumor with dense- or sparse-scan strategy to produce closely-packed or separated thermal lesions. DCs infiltration into HIFU-treated tumor tissues was detected by immunohistochemistry and flow cytometry. DCs maturation was evaluated by IL-12/IL-10 production and CD80/CD86 expression after co-culture with tumor cells treated with different HIFU. HIFU-induced anti-tumor immune response was evaluated by detecting growth-retarding effects on distant re-challenged tumor and tumor-specific IFN-?-secreting cells in HIFU-treated mice. Results HIFU exposure raised temperature up to 80 degrees centigrade at beam focus within 4 s in experimental tumors and led to formation of a well-defined thermal lesion. The infiltrated DCs were recruited to the periphery of lesion, where the peak temperature was only 55 degrees centigrade during HIFU exposure. Tumor cells heated to 55 degrees centigrade in 4-s HIFU exposure were more effective to stimulate co-cultured DCs to mature. Sparse-scan HIFU, which can reserve 55 degrees-heated tumor cells surrounding the separated lesions, elicited an enhanced anti-tumor immune response than dense-scan HIFU, while their suppressive effects on the treated primary tumor were maintained at the same level. Flow cytometry analysis showed that sparse-scan HIFU was more effective than dense-scan HIFU in enhancing DC infiltration into tumor tissues and promoting their maturation in situ. Conclusion Optimizing scan strategy is a feasible way to boost HIFU-induced anti-tumor immunity by more effectively promoting DC maturation.

  4. NO2 inhalation induces maturation of pulmonary CD11c+ cells that promote antigenspecific CD4+ T cell polarization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suratt Benjamin T

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Nitrogen dioxide (NO2 is an air pollutant associated with poor respiratory health, asthma exacerbation, and an increased likelihood of inhalational allergies. NO2 is also produced endogenously in the lung during acute inflammatory responses. NO2 can function as an adjuvant, allowing for allergic sensitization to an innocuous inhaled antigen and the generation of an antigen-specific Th2 immune response manifesting in an allergic asthma phenotype. As CD11c+ antigen presenting cells are considered critical for naïve T cell activation, we investigated the role of CD11c+ cells in NO2-promoted allergic sensitization. Methods We systemically depleted CD11c+ cells from transgenic mice expressing a simian diphtheria toxin (DT receptor under of control of the CD11c promoter by administration of DT. Mice were then exposed to 15 ppm NO2 followed by aerosolized ovalbumin to promote allergic sensitization to ovalbumin and were studied after subsequent inhaled ovalbumin challenges for manifestation of allergic airway disease. In addition, pulmonary CD11c+ cells from wildtype mice were studied after exposure to NO2 and ovalbumin for cellular phenotype by flow cytometry and in vitro cytokine production. Results Transient depletion of CD11c+ cells during sensitization attenuated airway eosinophilia during allergen challenge and reduced Th2 and Th17 cytokine production. Lung CD11c+ cells from wildtype mice exhibited a significant increase in MHCII, CD40, and OX40L expression 2 hours following NO2 exposure. By 48 hours, CD11c+MHCII+ DCs within the mediastinal lymph node (MLN expressed maturation markers, including CD80, CD86, and OX40L. CD11c+CD11b- and CD11c+CD11b+ pulmonary cells exposed to NO2 in vivo increased uptake of antigen 2 hours post exposure, with increased ova-Alexa 647+ CD11c+MHCII+ DCs present in MLN from NO2-exposed mice by 48 hours. Co-cultures of ova-specific CD4+ T cells from naïve mice and CD11c+ pulmonary cells from NO2-exposed mice produced IL-1, IL-12p70, and IL-6 in vitro and augmented antigen-induced IL-5 production. Conclusions CD11c+ cells are critical for NO2-promoted allergic sensitization. NO2 exposure causes pulmonary CD11c+ cells to acquire a phenotype capable of increased antigen uptake, migration to the draining lymph node, expression of MHCII and co-stimulatory molecules required to activate naïve T cells, and secretion of polarizing cytokines to shape a Th2/Th17 response.

  5. Regulation of murine oocyte meiosis: evidence for a gonadotropin- induced, cAMP-dependent reduction in a maturation inhibitor

    OpenAIRE

    1984-01-01

    We have developed an assay that can detect relative changes in the amount of a non-cAMP inhibitor of maturation present in cumulus cells (Eppig et al., 1983, Dev. Biol., 100:39-49). Using this assay in which accelerated maturation of a group of treated cumulus cell-oocyte complexes relative to untreated complexes indicates a decrease in the amount of inhibitor, results of the experiments described here suggest a possible relationship between elevation of cAMP levels and subsequent decreased a...

  6. Physicalism, Behaviorism and Incompleteness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tao Li

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available The content of this paper contains four parts. (1 First, physicalism gives the enlightenments to behaviorism: mind-body identity, objectivity like physics and completeness of reduction. (2 Secondly, there are difficulties which behaviorist could not overcome—both the reduction of the theory and the terms are unreliable, and the strict distinction between introspective method and inter-subjective method is also untenable. (3 Thirdly, It has inevitable incompleteness in one theory no matter what it claims due to the limitations of human cognition. (4 Finally, the author concludes that we should treat various theories in a "both this and that" but "either this or that" way. Therefore, we should admit the contribution of behaviorism and its model philosophy—physicalism, although they has failed in seeking for completeness.

  7. Processing Of Incomplete Data Set

    OpenAIRE

    Mahesh Babanrao Shelke; K.B. Badade

    2013-01-01

    A large number of Data Sets are available, but they are incomplete in nature so that they cannot be used for real applications. These incomplete data sets are produced due to various reasons like system failure, privacy of data, incomplete input, time delay in system, lack of available resources. As common examples Weather data sets, sensor image data sets, Measurement Reflection in Agriculture Data Sets. For these cases we use conceptual data reconstruction by using statistical models of mul...

  8. Dynamics of incomplete fusion-fission reactions

    OpenAIRE

    Crouzen, Paulus Caorlus Nicolaas,

    1988-01-01

    Fifty years after its first observation, nuclear fission is still a lively field of research. The contemporary interest in this well established phenomenon is mainly related to heavy-ion physics, where fission provides a valuable means for the study of reaction mechanisms. Until recently, most of the experiments on heavy-ion induced fission reactions were inclusive and often could not distinguish between complete and incomplete fusion. The present thesis work, however, was specifically focuss...

  9. Risk sharing and retrading in incomplete markets

    OpenAIRE

    Gottardi, Piero

    2013-01-01

    At a competitive equilibrium of an incomplete-markets economy agents’ marginal valuations for the tradable assets are equalized ex-ante. We characterize the finest partition of the state space conditional on which this equality holds for any economy. This leads naturally to a necessary and sufficient condition on information that would induce agents to retrade, if such information was to become publicly available after the initial round of trade.

  10. Dynamic feedback circuits function as a switch for shaping a maturation-inducing steroid pulse in Drosophila

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    MØller, Morten Erik; Danielsen, Erik Thomas

    2013-01-01

    Steroid hormones trigger the onset of sexual maturation in animals by initiating genetic response programs that are determined by steroid pulse frequency, amplitude and duration. Although steroid pulses coordinate growth and timing of maturation during development, the mechanisms generating these pulses are not known. Here we show that the ecdysone steroid pulse that drives the juvenile-adult transition in Drosophila is determined by feedback circuits in the prothoracic gland (PG), the major steroid-producing tissue of insect larvae. These circuits coordinate the activation and repression of hormone synthesis, the two key parameters determining pulse shape (amplitude and duration). We show that ecdysone has a positive-feedback effect on the PG, rapidly amplifying its own synthesis to trigger pupariation as the onset of maturation. During the prepupal stage, a negative-feedback signal ensures the decline in ecdysone levels required to produce a temporal steroid pulse that drives developmental progression to adulthood. The feedback circuits rely on a developmental switch in the expression of Broad isoforms that transcriptionally activate or silence components in the ecdysone biosynthetic pathway. Remarkably, our study shows that the same well-defined genetic program that stimulates a systemic downstream response to ecdysone is also utilized upstream to set the duration and amplitude of the ecdysone pulse. Activation of this switch-like mechanism ensures a rapid, self-limiting PG response that functions in producing steroid oscillations that can guide the decision to terminate growth and promote maturation.

  11. Alcohol-induced decrease in muscle protein synthesis associated with increased binding of mTOR and raptor: Comparable effects in young and mature rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vary Thomas C

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Acute alcohol (EtOH intoxication decreases muscle protein synthesis via inhibition of mTOR-dependent translation initiation. However, these studies have been performed in relatively young rapidly growing rats in which muscle protein accretion is more sensitive to growth factor and nutrient stimulation. Furthermore, some in vivo-produced effects of EtOH vary in an age-dependent manner. The hypothesis tested in the present study was that young rats will show a more pronounced decrement in muscle protein synthesis than older mature rats in response to acute EtOH intoxication. Methods Male F344 rats were studied at approximately 3 (young or 12 (mature months of age. Young rats were injected intraperitoneally with 75 mmol/kg of EtOH, and mature rats injected with either 75 or 90 mmol/kg EtOH. Time-matched saline-injected control rats were included for both age groups. Gastrocnemius protein synthesis and the activity of the mTOR pathway were assessed 2.5 h after EtOH using [3H]-labeled phenylalanine and the phosphorylation of various protein factors known to regulate peptide-chain initiation. Results Blood alcohol levels (BALs were lower in mature rats compared to young rats after administration of 75 mmol/kg EtOH (154 ± 23 vs 265 ± 24 mg/dL. However, injection of 90 mmol/kg EtOH in mature rats produced BALs comparable to that of young rats (281 ± 33 mg/dL. EtOH decreased muscle protein synthesis similarly in both young and high-dose EtOH-treated mature rats. The EtOH-induced changes in both groups were associated with a concomitant reduction in 4E-BP1 phosphorylation, and redistribution of eIF4E between the active eIF4E·eIF4G and inactive eIF4E·4EBP1 complex. Moreover, EtOH increased the binding of mTOR with raptor in a manner which appeared to be AMPK- and TSC-independent. In contrast, although muscle protein synthesis was unchanged in mature rats given low-dose EtOH, compared to control values, the phosphorylation of rpS6 and eIF4G was decreased. Conclusion These data indicate that muscle protein synthesis is equally sensitive to the inhibitory effects of EtOH in young rapidly growing rats and older mature rats which are growing more slowly, but that mature rats must be given a relatively larger dose of EtOH to achieve the same BAL. Based on the differential response in mature rats to low- and high-dose EtOH, the decreased protein synthesis was associated with a reduction in mTOR activity which was selectively mediated via a reduction in 4E-BP1 phosphorylation and an increase in mTOR·raptor formation.

  12. Unravelling the T-cell-mediated autoimmune attack on CNS myelin in a new primate EAE model induced with MOG34-56 peptide in incomplete adjuvant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jagessar, S Anwar; Heijmans, Nicole; Blezer, Erwin L A; Bauer, Jan; Blokhuis, Jeroen H; Wubben, Jacqueline A M; Drijfhout, Jan W; van den Elsen, Peter J; Laman, Jon D; Hart, Bert A 't

    2012-01-01

    Induction of experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE) has been documented in common marmosets using peptide 34-56 from human myelin/oligodendrocyte glycoprotein (MOG(34-56) ) in incomplete Freund's adjuvant (IFA). Here, we report that this EAE model is associated with widespread demyelination of grey and white matter. We performed an in-depth analysis of the specificity, MHC restriction and functions of the activated T cells in the model, which likely cause EAE in an autoantibody-independent manner. T-cell lines isolated from blood and lymphoid organs of animals immunized with MOG(34-56) displayed high production of IL-17A and specific lysis of MOG(34-56) -pulsed EBV B-lymphoblastoid cells as typical hallmarks. Cytotoxicity was directed at the epitope MOG(40-48) presented by the non-classical MHC class Ib allele Caja-E, which is orthologue to HLA-E and is expressed in non-inflamed brain. In vivo activated T cells identified by flow cytometry in cultures with MOG(34-56,) comprised CD4(+) CD56(+) and CD4(+) CD8(+) CD56(+) T cells. Furthermore, phenotypical analysis showed that CD4(+) CD8(+) CD56(+) T cells also expressed CD27, but CD16, CD45RO, CD28 and CCR7 were absent. These results show that, in the MOG34-56/IFA marmoset EAE model, a Caja-E-restricted population of autoreactive cytotoxic T cells plays a key role in the process of demyelination in the grey and white matter. PMID:21928277

  13. Diagnosis of incomplete Kawasaki disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeong Jin Yu

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Several authors suggested that the clinical characteristics of incomplete presentation of Kawasaki disease are similar to those of complete presentation and that the 2 forms of presentation are not separate entities. Based on this suggestion, a diagnosis of incomplete Kawasaki disease in analogy to the findings of complete presentation is reasonable. Currently, the diagnosis of incomplete Kawasaki disease might be made in cases with fewer classical diagnostic criteria and with several compatible clinical, laboratory or echocardiographic findings on the exclusion of other febrile illness. Definition of incomplete presentation in which coronary artery abnormalities are included as a necessary condition, is restrictive and specific. The validity of the diagnostic criteria of incomplete presentation by the American Heart Association should be thoroughly tested in the immediate future.

  14. Role of LRP1 and ERK and cAMP Signaling Pathways in Lactoferrin-Induced Lipolysis in Mature Rat Adipocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ikoma-Seki, Keiko; Nakamura, Kanae; Morishita, Satoru; Ono, Tomoji; Sugiyama, Keikichi; Nishino, Hoyoku; Hirano, Hisashi; Murakoshi, Michiaki

    2015-01-01

    Lactoferrin (LF) is a multifunctional glycoprotein present in milk. A clinical study showed that enteric-coated bovine LF tablets decrease visceral fat accumulation. Furthermore, animal studies revealed that ingested LF is partially delivered to mesenteric fat, and in vitro studies showed that LF promotes lipolysis in mature adipocytes. The aim of the present study was to determine the mechanism underlying the induction of lipolysis in mature adipocytes that is induced by LF. To address this question, we used proteomics techniques to analyze protein expression profiles. Mature adipocytes from primary cultures of rat mesenteric fat were collected at various times after exposure to LF. Proteomic analysis revealed that the expression levels of hormone-sensitive lipase (HSL), which catalyzes the rate-limiting step of lipolysis, were upregulated and that HSL was activated by protein kinase A within 15 min after the cells were treated with LF. We previously reported that LF increases the intracellular concentration of cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP), suggesting that LF activates the cAMP signaling pathway. In this study, we show that the expression level and the activity of the components of the extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) signaling pathway were upregulated. Moreover, LF increased the activity of the transcription factor cAMP response element binding protein (CREB), which acts downstream in the cAMP and ERK signaling pathways and regulates the expression levels of adenylyl cyclase and HSL. Moreover, silencing of the putative LF receptor low-density lipoprotein receptor-related protein 1 (LRP1) attenuated lipolysis in LF-treated adipocytes. These results suggest that LF promoted lipolysis in mature adipocytes by regulating the expression levels of proteins involved in lipolysis through controlling the activity of cAMP/ERK signaling pathways via LRP1. PMID:26506094

  15. The incorporation of myo-inositol into phosphatidylinositol derivatives is stimulated during hormone-induced meiotic maturation of amphibian oocytes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carrasco, D.; Allende, C.C.; Allende, J.E. (Universidad de Chile, Casilla, Santiago (Chile))

    1990-12-01

    The incorporation of myo-({sup 3}H)inositol into phosphatidylinositol and its phosphorylated derivatives was studied by microinjection of the radioactive precursor into Xenopus laevis oocytes. Induction of meiotic maturation of the oocytes by treatment with either progesterone one or insulin resulted in a significant increase in the incorporation of myo-({sup 3}H)inositol into the phospholipid fraction. This increase occurred 3-6 h after hormonal treatment, a time coincident with the start of the breakdown of the nuclear envelope, and requires protein synthesis. The effect of progesterone and insulin contrasts with the effect of acetylcholine, which acts through a muscarinic receptor causing the activation of phospholipase C, since the latter effector causes an increase in myo-({sup 3}H)inositol incorporation, which is more rapid and does not require protein synthesis. These results suggest that the meiotic maturation process is connected with changes in inositol metabolism in the amphibian oocyte.

  16. The incorporation of myo-inositol into phosphatidylinositol derivatives is stimulated during hormone-induced meiotic maturation of amphibian oocytes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The incorporation of myo-[3H]inositol into phosphatidylinositol and its phosphorylated derivatives was studied by microinjection of the radioactive precursor into Xenopus laevis oocytes. Induction of meiotic maturation of the oocytes by treatment with either progesterone one or insulin resulted in a significant increase in the incorporation of myo-[3H]inositol into the phospholipid fraction. This increase occurred 3-6 h after hormonal treatment, a time coincident with the start of the breakdown of the nuclear envelope, and requires protein synthesis. The effect of progesterone and insulin contrasts with the effect of acetylcholine, which acts through a muscarinic receptor causing the activation of phospholipase C, since the latter effector causes an increase in myo-[3H]inositol incorporation, which is more rapid and does not require protein synthesis. These results suggest that the meiotic maturation process is connected with changes in inositol metabolism in the amphibian oocyte

  17. X-ray induced dominant lethal mutations in mature and immature oocytes of guinea-pigs and golden hamsters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The induction of dominant lethal mutations by doses of 100-400 rad X-rays in oocytes of the guinea-pig and golden hamster was studied using criteria of embryonic mortality. For both species higher yields were obtained from mature than from immature oocytes. Data on fertility indicated that in the golden hamster immature oocytes were more sensitive to killing by X-rays than mature oocytes but that the converse was true in the guinea-pig. The dose-response relationship for mutation to dominant lethals in pre-ovulatory oocytes of guinea-pigs and golden hamsters was linear, both when based on pre- and post-implantation loss only. The rate per unit dose was higher for the golden hamster, and the old golden hamsters were possibly slightly more sensitive than young ones

  18. Cooperative transcription activation by Nurr1 and Pitx3 induces embryonic stem cell maturation to the midbrain dopamine neuron phenotype

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Martinat, Cecile; Bacci, Jean-Jacques; Leete, Thomas; Kim, Jongpil; Vanti, William B; Newman, Amy H; Cha, Joo H; Gether, Ulrik; Wang, Honggang; Abeliovich, Asa

    2006-01-01

    Midbrain dopamine (DA) neurons play a central role in the regulation of voluntary movement, and their degeneration is associated with Parkinson's disease. Cell replacement therapies, and in particular embryonic stem (ES) cell-derived DA neurons, offer a potential therapeutic venue for Parkinson's disease. We sought to identify genes that can potentiate maturation of ES cell cultures to the midbrain DA neuron phenotype. A number of transcription factors have been implicated in the development of ...

  19. AML1-ETO Inhibits Maturation of Multiple Lymphohematopoietic Lineages and Induces Myeloblast Transformation in Synergy with ICSBP Deficiency

    OpenAIRE

    Schwieger, Maike; Löhler, Jürgen; Friel, Jutta; Scheller, Marina; Horak, Ivan; Stocking, Carol

    2002-01-01

    The translocation (8;21), generating the AML1-ETO fusion protein, is one of the most frequent chromosomal abnormalities associated with acute myelogenous leukemia (AML). To elucidate its role in oncogenesis, bone marrow (BM) cells were infected with a retroviral vector carrying AML1-ETO and transplanted into mice. In contrast to previous transgenic mouse models, we show that AML1-ETO directly stimulates granulopoiesis, suppresses erythropoiesis, and impairs the maturation of myeloid, B, and T...

  20. Incomplete contracts and the impact of globalization on consumer welfare

    OpenAIRE

    Defever, Fabrice

    2011-01-01

    We embed a North-South trade model into an incomplete contracts setting where the production of heterogeneous firms can be geographically separated. When a Northern headquarter contracts with a Southern supplier instead of a Northern supplier, the presence of international incomplete contracts may lead to a higher price. As a result, trade liberalization, that induces offshoring, is not necessarily welfare-enhancing for consumers, despite the lower cost of labor in the South. In addition, fir...

  1. Updating beliefs with incomplete observations

    CERN Document Server

    de Cooman, G; Cooman, Gert de; Zaffalon, Marco

    2003-01-01

    Currently, there is renewed interest in the problem, raised by Shafer in 1985, of updating probabilities when observations are incomplete. This is a fundamental problem in general, and of particular interest for Bayesian networks. Recently, Grunwald and Halpern have shown that commonly used updating strategies fail in this case, except under very special assumptions. In this paper we propose a new method for updating probabilities with incomplete observations. Our approach is deliberately conservative: we make no assumptions about the so-called incompleteness mechanism that associates complete with incomplete observations. We model our ignorance about this mechanism by a vacuous lower prevision, a tool from the theory of imprecise probabilities, and we use only coherence arguments to turn prior into posterior probabilities. In general, this new approach to updating produces lower and upper posterior probabilities and expectations, as well as partially determinate decisions. This is a logical consequence of th...

  2. Skill formation under incomplete information

    OpenAIRE

    Weinschenk, Philipp

    2010-01-01

    We consider an economic model of child development with multiple stages. Due to incomplete information, parents are not able to tailor their investments to their child's type when the child is young. We show that incomplete information weakens the importance of early investments in children when inter-stage investments are easily substitutable, but strengthens them when substitution is difficult. The latter case is empirically relevant.

  3. Mechanics of bacteriophage maturation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roos, Wouter H; Gertsman, Ilya; May, Eric R; Brooks, Charles L; Johnson, John E; Wuite, Gijs J L

    2012-02-14

    Capsid maturation with large-scale subunit reorganization occurs in virtually all viruses that use a motor to package nucleic acid into preformed particles. A variety of ensemble studies indicate that the particles gain greater stability during this process, however, it is unknown which material properties of the fragile procapsids change. Using Atomic Force Microscopy-based nano-indentation, we study the development of the mechanical properties during maturation of bacteriophage HK97, a ?-like phage of which the maturation-induced morphological changes are well described. We show that mechanical stabilization and strengthening occurs in three independent ways: (i) an increase of the Young's modulus, (ii) a strong rise of the capsid's ultimate strength, and (iii) a growth of the resistance against material fatigue. The Young's modulus of immature and mature capsids, as determined from thin shell theory, fit with the values calculated using a new multiscale simulation approach. This multiscale calculation shows that the increase in Young's modulus isn't dependent on the crosslinking between capsomers. In contrast, the ultimate strength of the capsids does increase even when a limited number of cross-links are formed while full crosslinking appears to protect the shell against material fatigue. Compared to phage ?, the covalent crosslinking at the icosahedral and quasi threefold axes of HK97 yields a mechanically more robust particle than the addition of the gpD protein during maturation of phage ?. These results corroborate the expected increase in capsid stability and strength during maturation, however in an unexpected intricate way, underlining the complex structure of these self-assembling nanocontainers. PMID:22308333

  4. Detection of radiation-induced hydrocarbons in Camembert irradiated before and after the maturing process-comparison of florisil column chromatography and on-line coupled liquid chromatography-gas chromatography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The influence of the maturing process on the detection of radiation-induced volatile hydrocarbons in the fat of Camembert has been investigated. Two analytical methods for separation of the hydrocarbon fraction from the lipid were applied: Florisil column chromatography with subsequent gas chromatographic-mass spectrometric (GC-MS) determination as well as on-line coupled liquid chromatography-GC-MS. The maturing process had no influence on the detection of radiation-induced volatiles. Comparable results were achieved with both analytical methods. However, preference is given to the more effective on-line coupled LC-GC method

  5. Stochastic incompleteness of quantum mechanics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This article brings out in as conceptually clear terms as possible what seems to be a major incompleteness in the probability theory of particles offered by classical quantum mechanics. The exact nature of this incompleteness is illustrated by consideration of some simple quantum-mechanical examples. In addition, these examples are contrasted with the fundamental assumptions of Brownian motion in classical physics on the one hand, and with a controversey of a deecade ago in mathematical physchology. The central claim is that clasical quantum mechanics is radically incomplete in its probabilistic account of the motion of particles. In the last part of the article the time-dependent joint distribution of position and momentum of the linear harmonic oscillator is derived, and it is shown how the apparently physically paradoxical statistical independence of position and momentum has a natural explanation. The explanation is given within the framework of the non-quantum-mechanical stochastic theory constructed for such oscillators. (Auth.)

  6. The shape of incomplete preferences

    CERN Document Server

    Nau, R

    2006-01-01

    Incomplete preferences provide the epistemic foundation for models of imprecise subjective probabilities and utilities that are used in robust Bayesian analysis and in theories of bounded rationality. This paper presents a simple axiomatization of incomplete preferences and characterizes the shape of their representing sets of probabilities and utilities. Deletion of the completeness assumption from the axiom system of Anscombe and Aumann yields preferences represented by a convex set of state-dependent expected utilities, of which at least one must be a probability/utility pair. A strengthening of the state-independence axiom is needed to obtain a representation purely in terms of a set of probability/utility pairs.

  7. Neurogenic maturation of human dental pulp stem cells following neurosphere generation induces morphological and electrophysiological characteristics of functional neurons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gervois, Pascal; Struys, Tom; Hilkens, Petra; Bronckaers, Annelies; Ratajczak, Jessica; Politis, Constantinus; Brône, Bert; Lambrichts, Ivo; Martens, Wendy

    2015-02-01

    Cell-based therapies are emerging as an alternative treatment option to promote functional recovery in patients suffering from neurological disorders, which are the major cause of death and permanent disability. The present study aimed to differentiate human dental pulp stem cells (hDPSCs) toward functionally active neuronal cells in vitro. hDPSCs were subjected to a two-step protocol. First, neuronal induction was acquired through the formation of neurospheres, followed by neuronal maturation, based on cAMP and neurotrophin-3 (NT-3) signaling. At the ultrastructural level, it was shown that the intra-spheral microenvironment promoted intercellular communication. hDPSCs grew out of the neurospheres in vitro and established a neurogenic differentiated hDPSC culture (d-hDPSCs) upon cAMP and NT-3 signaling. d-hDPSCs were characterized by the increased expression of neuronal markers such as neuronal nuclei, microtubule-associated protein 2, neural cell adhesion molecule, growth-associated protein 43, synapsin I, and synaptophysin compared with nondifferentiated hDPSCs. Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay demonstrated that the secretion of brain-derived neurotrophic factor, vascular endothelial growth factor, and nerve growth factor differed between d-hDPSCs and hDPSCs. d-hDPSCs acquired neuronal features, including multiple intercommunicating cytoplasmic extensions and increased vesicular transport, as shown by the electron microscopic observation. Patch clamp analysis demonstrated the functional activity of d-hDPSCs by the presence of tetrodotoxin- and tetraethyl ammonium-sensitive voltage-gated sodium and potassium channels, respectively. A subset of d-hDPSCs was able to fire a single action potential. The results reported in this study demonstrate that hDPSCs are capable of neuronal commitment following neurosphere formation, characterized by distinct morphological and electrophysiological properties of functional neuronal cells. PMID:25203005

  8. A CADASIL-mutated Notch 3 receptor exhibits impaired intracellular trafficking and maturation but normal ligand-induced signaling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karlström, Helena; Beatus, Paul; Dannaeus, Karin; Chapman, Gavin; Lendahl, Urban; Lundkvist, Johan

    2002-01-01

    Notch receptors are single transmembrane receptors that contain a large number of epidermal growth factor-like repeats (EGF repeats) in their extracellular domains. Mutations in the EGF repeats of the human Notch 3 receptor lead to the vascular dementia disease Cerebral Autosomal Dominant Arteriopathy with Subcortical Infarcts and Leukoencephalopathy (CADASIL). The vast majority of CADASIL mutations are missense mutations removing or inserting cysteine residues in the EGF repeats, but it is not yet clear whether these mutations primarily affect receptor trafficking, maturation, and/or signaling. To address this issue, we have generated and analyzed stable cell lines expressing either wild-type murine Notch 3 (mNotch 3) or the mutant mNotch 3R142C, which corresponds to the prevalent CADASIL form of Notch 3, Notch 3R141C in humans. We find that a lower proportion of mNotch 3R142C is expressed in the site 1-cleaved configuration, and that reduced amounts of mNotch 3R142C appear at the cell surface, as compared with wild-type mNotch 3. This observation is accompanied by a higher propensity for mNotch 3R142C to form intracellular aggregates, which may be a result of increased accumulation or slowed transport in the secretory pathway. In contrast to the impaired cell surface expression, mNotch 3R142C signals equally well in response to Delta 1 and Jagged 1 as wild-type mNotch 3. Taken together, these data suggest that trafficking and localization rather than signaling of mNotch 3 are affected in mNotch 3R142C. PMID:12482954

  9. Collagen Induces Maturation of Human Monocyte-Derived Dendritic Cells by Signaling through Osteoclast-Associated Receptor

    OpenAIRE

    Schultz, Heidi S.; Nitze, Louise M.; Zeuthen, Louise H.; Keller, Pernille; Gruhler, Albrecht; Pass, Jesper; Chen, Jianhe; Guo, Li; Fleetwood, Andrew J.; Hamilton, John A; Berchtold, Martin W.; Panina, Svetlana

    2015-01-01

    Osteoclast-associated receptor (OSCAR) is widely expressed on human myeloid cells. Collagen types (Col)I, II, and III have been described as OSCAR ligands, and ColII peptides can induce costimulatory signaling in receptor activator for NF-?B–dependent osteoclastogenesis. In this study, we isolated collagen as an OSCAR-interacting protein from the membranes of murine osteoblasts. We have investigated a functional outcome of the OSCAR–collagen interaction in human monocyte-derived dendritic cel...

  10. Whole inactivated avian Influenza H9N2 viruses induce nasal submucosal dendritic cells to sample luminal viruses via transepithelial dendrites and trigger subsequent DC maturation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qin, Tao; Yin, Yinyan; Wang, Xiaoqing; Liu, Haofei; Lin, Jian; Yu, Qinghua; Yang, Qian

    2015-03-10

    Nasal mucosal barrier is a key impediment for the absorption of influenza whole inactivated virus (WIV) intranasal vaccine. Yet it is still unclear how WIV cross the epithelial cells (ECs) in nasal cavity. Here, in vitro, a coculture system was well established, consisting of surrogate nasal ECs (Calu-3) and dendritic cells (DCs). After adding H9N2 WIV on the apical side of ECs, we found that submucosal DCs extended their transepithelial dendrites (TEDs) and sampled luminal viruses. However, ECs were not involved in the transepithelial transport of viruses. Subsequently, the phenotypic and functional maturation of DCs were also enhanced, whereas they were attenuated after blocking of TED formation by anti-JAM1 antibody. In vivo, we confirmed that H9N2 WIV were capable of inducing nasal submucosal DCs to sample luminal viruses via TEDs in the nasal passage but not nasal-associated lymphoid tissue (NALT). CD103(+) and CD103(-) DC subsets participated in this process. Of note, chemokine CCL20, released from the H9N2 WIV-induced ECs, played a vital role in DC recruitment and TED formation. Taken together, our findings indicated that TEDs played a critical role in facilitating viral transport across the epithelial barrier, which may guide the design of novel nasal mucosal vaccine strategies. PMID:25613720

  11. Radiation combined with hyperthermia induces HSP70-dependent maturation of dendritic cells and release of pro-inflammatory cytokines by dendritic cells and macrophages

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: Hyperthermia (HT) treatment of cancer patients was revived over the last years and has been proven to be beneficiary for many cancer entities when applied temperature controlled in multimodal treatments. We examined whether a combination of ionizing irradiation (X-ray) and HT (41.5 °C; 1 h) can induce the release of heat shock protein (HSP) 70 by tumor cells and thereby lead to the activation of dendritic cells and macrophages. Material and methods: Extracellular HSP70 was detected in supernatants (SN) of treated colorectal tumor cells by ELISA. Maturation of dendritic cells (DC) after contact with the SN was measured by flow-cytometry. Phagocytosis assays were conducted to get hints about the immune stimulating potential of the tumor cells after the respective treatments. Results: An increased surface expression of HSP70 was observed after X-ray or X-ray plus HT while the amount of extracellular HSP70 was only increased when HT was given additionally. A high up-regulation of the co-stimulation molecule CD80 and the chemokine receptor CCR7 on DC was measured after contact with SN of X-ray plus HT treated cells. This was dependent on extracellular HSP70. Combined treatments further led to significantly increased phagocytosis rates of macrophages and DC and increased pro-inflammatory cytokine (IL-8 and IL-12) secretion. Conclusion: X-ray combined with HT induces HSP70 dependent activation of immune cells and might generate a tumor microenvironment beneficial for cure.

  12. Delta Inulin Adjuvant Enhances Plasmablast Generation, Expression of Activation-Induced Cytidine Deaminase and B-Cell Affinity Maturation in Human Subjects Receiving Seasonal Influenza Vaccine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Lei; Honda-Okubo, Yoshikazu; Li, Connie; Sajkov, Dimitar; Petrovsky, Nikolai

    2015-01-01

    There is a major need for new adjuvants to improve the efficacy of seasonal and pandemic influenza vaccines. Advax is a novel polysaccharide adjuvant based on delta inulin that has been shown to enhance the immunogenicity of influenza vaccine in animal models and human clinical trials. To better understand the mechanism for this enhancement, we sought to assess its effect on the plasmablast response in human subjects. This pilot study utilised cryopreserved 7 day post-vaccination (7dpv) peripheral blood mononuclear cell samples obtained from a subset of 25 adult subjects from the FLU006-12 trial who had been immunized intramuscularly with a standard dose of 2012 trivalent inactivated influenza vaccine (TIV) alone (n=9 subjects) or combined with 5mg (n=8) or 10mg (n=8) of Advax adjuvant. Subjects receiving Advax adjuvant had increased 7dpv plasmablasts, which in turn exhibited a 2-3 fold higher rate of non-silent mutations in the B-cell receptor CDR3 region associated with higher expression of activation-induced cytidine deaminase (AID), the major enzyme controlling BCR affinity maturation. Together, these data suggest that Advax adjuvant enhances influenza immunity in immunized subjects via multiple mechanisms including increased plasmablast generation, AID expression and CDR3 mutagenesis resulting in enhanced BCR affinity maturation and increased production of high avidity antibody. How Advax adjuvant achieves these beneficial effects on plasmablasts remains the subject of ongoing investigation. Trial Registration Australia New Zealand Clinical Trials Register ACTRN12612000709842 https://www.anzctr.org.au/Trial/Registration/TrialReview.aspx?id=362709 PMID:26177480

  13. Seizure induces activation of multiple subtypes of neural progenitors and growth factors in hippocampus with neuronal maturation confined to dentate gyrus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adult hippocampal neurogenesis is altered in response to different physiological and pathological stimuli. GFAP+ve/nestin+ve radial glial like Type-1 progenitors are considered to be the resident stem cell population in adult hippocampus. During neurogenesis these Type-1 progenitors matures to GFAP-ve/nestin+ve Type-2 progenitors and then to Type-3 neuroblasts and finally differentiates into granule cell neurons. In our study, using pilocarpine-induced seizure model, we showed that seizure initiated activation of multiple progenitors in the entire hippocampal area such as DG, CA1 and CA3. Seizure induction resulted in activation of two subtypes of Type-1 progenitors, Type-1a (GFAP+ve/nestin+ve/BrdU+ve) and Type-1b (GFAP+ve/nestin+ve/BrdU-ve). We showed that majority of Type-1b progenitors were undergoing only a transition from a state of dormancy to activated form immediately after seizures rather than proliferating, whereas Type-1a showed maximum proliferation by 3 days post-seizure induction. Type-2 (GFAP-ve/nestin+ve/BrdU+ve) progenitors were few compared to Type-1. Type-3 (DCX+ve) progenitors showed increased expression of immature neurons only in DG region by 3 days after seizure induction indicating maturation of progenitors happens only in microenvironment of DG even though progenitors are activated in CA1 and CA3 regions of hippocampus. Also parallel increase in growth factors expression after seizure induction suggests that microenvironmental niche has a profound effect on stimulation of adult neural progenitors.

  14. Seizure induces activation of multiple subtypes of neural progenitors and growth factors in hippocampus with neuronal maturation confined to dentate gyrus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Indulekha, Chandrasekharan L.; Sanalkumar, Rajendran [Neuro Stem Cell Biology Laboratory, Department of Neurobiology, Rajiv Gandhi Center for Biotechnology, Thiruvananthapuram, Kerala 695 014 (India); Thekkuveettil, Anoopkumar [Molecular Medicine, Biomedical Technology Wing, Sree Chitra Thirunal Institute for Medical Sciences and Technology, Thiruvananthapuram, Kerala (India); James, Jackson, E-mail: jjames@rgcb.res.in [Neuro Stem Cell Biology Laboratory, Department of Neurobiology, Rajiv Gandhi Center for Biotechnology, Thiruvananthapuram, Kerala 695 014 (India)

    2010-03-19

    Adult hippocampal neurogenesis is altered in response to different physiological and pathological stimuli. GFAP{sup +ve}/nestin{sup +ve} radial glial like Type-1 progenitors are considered to be the resident stem cell population in adult hippocampus. During neurogenesis these Type-1 progenitors matures to GFAP{sup -ve}/nestin{sup +ve} Type-2 progenitors and then to Type-3 neuroblasts and finally differentiates into granule cell neurons. In our study, using pilocarpine-induced seizure model, we showed that seizure initiated activation of multiple progenitors in the entire hippocampal area such as DG, CA1 and CA3. Seizure induction resulted in activation of two subtypes of Type-1 progenitors, Type-1a (GFAP{sup +ve}/nestin{sup +ve}/BrdU{sup +ve}) and Type-1b (GFAP{sup +ve}/nestin{sup +ve}/BrdU{sup -ve}). We showed that majority of Type-1b progenitors were undergoing only a transition from a state of dormancy to activated form immediately after seizures rather than proliferating, whereas Type-1a showed maximum proliferation by 3 days post-seizure induction. Type-2 (GFAP{sup -ve}/nestin{sup +ve}/BrdU{sup +ve}) progenitors were few compared to Type-1. Type-3 (DCX{sup +ve}) progenitors showed increased expression of immature neurons only in DG region by 3 days after seizure induction indicating maturation of progenitors happens only in microenvironment of DG even though progenitors are activated in CA1 and CA3 regions of hippocampus. Also parallel increase in growth factors expression after seizure induction suggests that microenvironmental niche has a profound effect on stimulation of adult neural progenitors.

  15. Sulpiride-Induced Hyperprolactinemia in Mature Female Rats: Evidence for Alterations in The Reproductive System, Pituitary and Ovarian Hormones

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sara Mostafapour

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: The prevalence of hyperprolactinemia following administration of conventional antipsychotic drugs requires further investigation. The current study is designed to evaluate the effect of sulpiride (SPD-induced hyperprolactinemia on alterations to ovarian follicular growth, gonadotropins, and ovarian hormones and to analyze the extent of potential problems in mammary glands. Materials and Methods: A total of 40 albino Wistar rats were divided into four groups: control (no treatment, control-sham (0.3 ml olive oil, low dose SPD (20 mg/kg and high dose SPD (40 mg/kg. All compounds were intraperitoneally (IP administered for a period of 28 days. Results: After 28 days, we dissected the rats’ ovarian tissues, uterine horns and mammary glands which were sent for histological analyses. We counted the numbers of normal, atretic follicles and corpora lutea (CL. Serum levels of prolactin (PRL, estradiol, progesterone, follicle stimulating hormone (FSH and luteinizing hormone (LH were evaluated. SPD-administered animals showed sporadic follicular atresia in different sizes associated with higher numbers of CL on the ovaries. The mammary glands exhibited features of galactorrhea. There was remarkable (p<0.05 elevation in SPD-administered animals’ uterine horn endometrium, myometrium and perimetrium thicknesses. The serum levels of PRL and progesterone significantly (p<0.05 increased, while the serum concentration of estradiol, LH and FSH notably (p<0.05 decreased according to the SPD administered dose. No histological and biological changes occurred in control-sham animals. SPD-induced animals had unsuccessful attempts at mating and decreased pregnancy rates. Conclusion: The present findings suggest that SPD-induced disturbances depend on PRL level. In addition, an increased PRL level is largely dependent on the administered doses of SPD.

  16. Malformations and maturation disturbances after prenatal irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Risk estimates for prenatally exposed humans in view to malformations and maturation disturbances are incomplete despite numerous single cases being described. In this situation support from animal data has necessarily to be taken into consideration. Outlines of recent knowledge in the field of experimental radioembryology will be given. Possibilities and limits of the transfer of animal data to man will be discussed and correlated with new medical evaluations. The discussions are focussed on developmental defects of the central nervous system. (orig.)

  17. Maturity and maturity models in lean construction

    OpenAIRE

    Claus Nesensohn; David James Bryde; Edward Ochieng; Damian Fearon

    2014-01-01

    In recent years there has been an increasing interest in maturity models in management-related disciplines; which reflects a growing recognition that becoming more mature and having a model to guide the route to maturity can help organisations in managing major transformational change. Lean Construction (LC) is an increasingly important improvement approach that organisations seek to embed. This study explores how to apply the maturity models to LC. Hence the attitudes, opinions and experienc...

  18. Induction and inhibition of oocyte maturation by EDCs in zebrafish

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tokumoto Mika

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Oocyte maturation in lower vertebrates is triggered by maturation-inducing hormone (MIH, which acts on unidentified receptors on the oocyte surface and induces the activation of maturation-promoting factor (MPF in the oocyte cytoplasm. We previously described the induction of oocyte maturation in fish by an endocrine-disrupting chemical (EDC, diethylstilbestrol (DES, a nonsteroidal estrogen. Methods In this study, stimulatory and inhibitory effects of EDCs and natural steroids on oocyte maturation were examined in zebrafish. For effective agents, some details about the mechanism in induction or inhibition of maturation were examined. Possible groups of DES interacting with the MIH receptor are discussed based on relative potency of steroids to induce maturation. Results Among agents tested, tamoxifen (TAM and its metabolite 4-hydroxytamoxifen (4-OHT showed stimulatory activity similar to DES. The time courses of the change in germinal vesicle breakdown and an intracellular molecular event (the synthesis of cyclin B induced by TAM were indistinguishable from those induced by MIH. In contrast, pentachlorophenol (PCP had a potent inhibitory effect on MIH-induced oocyte maturation. PCP inhibited not only MIH-induced maturation but also DES- and TAM-induced maturation. Methoxychlor also inhibited maturation when oocytes were pre-treated with this agent. Conclusion These results suggest that EDCs act as agonists or antagonists in the induction of oocyte maturation in fish.

  19. Uncertainty, incompleteness, chance, and design

    CERN Document Server

    Sols, Fernando

    2013-01-01

    The 20th century has revealed two important limitations of scientific knowledge. On the one hand, the combination of Poincar\\'e's nonlinear dynamics and Heisenberg's uncertainty principle leads to a world picture where physical reality is, in many respects, intrinsically undetermined. On the other hand, G\\"odel's incompleteness theorems reveal us the existence of mathematical truths that cannot be demonstrated. More recently, Chaitin has proved that, from the incompleteness theorems, it follows that the random character of a given mathematical sequence cannot be proved in general (it is 'undecidable'). I reflect here on the consequences derived from the indeterminacy of the future and the undecidability of randomness, concluding that the question of the presence or absence of finality in nature is fundamentally outside the scope of the scientific method.

  20. Incomplete intestinal absorption of fructose.

    OpenAIRE

    Kneepkens, C M; Vonk, R.J.; Fernandes, J

    1984-01-01

    Intestinal D-fructose absorption in 31 children was investigated using measurements of breath hydrogen. Twenty five children had no abdominal symptoms and six had functional bowel disorders. After ingestion of fructose (2 g/kg bodyweight), 22 children (71%) showed a breath hydrogen increase of more than 10 ppm over basal values, indicating incomplete absorption: the increase averaged 53 ppm, range 12 to 250 ppm. Four of these children experienced abdominal symptoms. Three of the six children ...

  1. An Incomplete Definition of Reality

    OpenAIRE

    Boris DeWiel

    2013-01-01

    A reality may be defined incompletely as a perpetuating pattern of relations. This definition denies the name of reality to an utter and totalistic patternlessness, like a primal patternless stuff, because a patternless all-ness would be indistinguishable from a patternless nothingness. If reality began from a chaos or patternless stuff, it became a reality only when it became patterned. If there are orders of reality with perpetuating relations between them, as in Cartesian interactive subst...

  2. Incomplete information and correlated electrons

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, Qiuping A

    2002-01-01

    Although G\\"odel's incompleteness theorem made mathematician recognize that no axiomatic system could completely prove its correctness and that there is an eternal hole between our knowledge and the world, physicists so far continue to work on the approaches based on the hypothesis to completely or approximately know the systems of interest. In this paper, however, I review the recent development of a different approach, a statistical theory based upon the notion of incomple...

  3. A glyphosate-based herbicide induces necrosis and apoptosis in mature rat testicular cells in vitro, and testosterone decrease at lower levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clair, Emilie; Mesnage, Robin; Travert, Carine; Séralini, Gilles-Éric

    2012-03-01

    The major herbicide used worldwide, Roundup, is a glyphosate-based pesticide with adjuvants. Glyphosate, its active ingredient in plants and its main metabolite (AMPA) are among the first contaminants of surface waters. Roundup is being used increasingly in particular on genetically modified plants grown for food and feed that contain its residues. Here we tested glyphosate and its formulation on mature rat fresh testicular cells from 1 to 10000ppm, thus from the range in some human urine and in environment to agricultural levels. We show that from 1 to 48h of Roundup exposure Leydig cells are damaged. Within 24-48h this formulation is also toxic on the other cells, mainly by necrosis, by contrast to glyphosate alone which is essentially toxic on Sertoli cells. Later, it also induces apoptosis at higher doses in germ cells and in Sertoli/germ cells co-cultures. At lower non toxic concentrations of Roundup and glyphosate (1ppm), the main endocrine disruption is a testosterone decrease by 35%. The pesticide has thus an endocrine impact at very low environmental doses, but only a high contamination appears to provoke an acute rat testicular toxicity. This does not anticipate the chronic toxicity which is insufficiently tested, and only with glyphosate in regulatory tests. PMID:22200534

  4. Transgenic mice overexpressing glia maturation factor-?, an oxidative stress inducible gene, show premature aging due to Zmpste24 down-regulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanai, Jun-ichi; Takenaka, Masaru

    2015-01-01

    Glia Maturation Factor-? (GMF), a brain specific protein, is induced by proteinuria in renal tubules. Ectopic GMF overexpression causes apoptosis in vitro via cellular vulnerability to oxidative stress. In order to examine the roles of GMF in non-brain tissue, we constructed transgenic mice overexpressing GMF (GMF-TG). The GMF-TG mice exhibited appearance phenotypes associated with premature aging. The GMF-TG mice also demonstrated short lifespans and reduced hair regrowth, suggesting an accelerated aging process. The production of an abnormal lamin A, a nuclear envelope protein, plays a causal role in both normal aging and accelerated aging diseases, known as laminopathies. Importantly, we identified the abnormal lamin A (prelamin A), accompanied by a down-regulation of a lamin A processing enzyme (Zmpste24) in the kidney of the GMF-TG mice. The GMF-TG mice showed accelerated aging in the kidney, compared with wild-type mice, showing increased TGF-?1, CTGF gene and serum creatinine. The gene expression of p21/waf1 was increased at an earlier stage of life, at 10 weeks, which was in turn down-regulated at a later stage, at 60 weeks. In conclusion, we propose that GMF-TG mice might be a novel mouse model of accelerated aging, due to the abnormal lamin A. PMID:26232943

  5. Impacts of a GHG-induced climate change on crop yields: effects of acceleration in maturation, moisture stress and optimal temperature

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The present study involves using the Canadian Climate Centre (CCC) climate change scenario to evaluate the impacts of a CO2-induced climate change on agriculture in Quebec and vicinity. Climate change using the CCC General Circulating Model (GCM) data are fed into a crop model (FAO) so as to gauge the changes in agroclimatic factors such as growing season length and growing degree days, and subsequently potential yield changes for a variety of cereal (C3 and C4), leguminous, oleaginous, vegetable and special crops, for twelve major agricultural regions in southern Quebec. Our results show that depending upon the agricultural zone and crop type, yields may increase (ex. corn and sorghum by 20%) or decrease (ex. wheat and soybean by 20 to 30%). Also, these crop yield changes appear to be related to acceleration in maturation rates, mainly to change in moisture stress and to shifts in optimal thermal growth conditions. These possible shifts in agricultural production potentials would solicit the formulation of appropriate adaptation strategies. 77 refs., 6 figs., 5 tabs

  6. Elevated ?-synuclein caused by SNCA gene triplication impairs neuronal differentiation and maturation in Parkinson's patient-derived induced pluripotent stem cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliveira, L M A; Falomir-Lockhart, L J; Botelho, M G; Lin, K-H; Wales, P; Koch, J C; Gerhardt, E; Taschenberger, H; Outeiro, T F; Lingor, P; Schüle, B; Arndt-Jovin, D J; Jovin, T M

    2015-01-01

    We have assessed the impact of ?-synuclein overexpression on the differentiation potential and phenotypic signatures of two neural-committed induced pluripotent stem cell lines derived from a Parkinson's disease patient with a triplication of the human SNCA genomic locus. In parallel, comparative studies were performed on two control lines derived from healthy individuals and lines generated from the patient iPS-derived neuroprogenitor lines infected with a lentivirus incorporating a small hairpin RNA to knock down the SNCA mRNA. The SNCA triplication lines exhibited a reduced capacity to differentiate into dopaminergic or GABAergic neurons and decreased neurite outgrowth and lower neuronal activity compared with control cultures. This delayed maturation phenotype was confirmed by gene expression profiling, which revealed a significant reduction in mRNA for genes implicated in neuronal differentiation such as delta-like homolog 1 (DLK1), gamma-aminobutyric acid type B receptor subunit 2 (GABABR2), nuclear receptor related 1 protein (NURR1), G-protein-regulated inward-rectifier potassium channel 2 (GIRK-2) and tyrosine hydroxylase (TH). The differentiated patient cells also demonstrated increased autophagic flux when stressed with chloroquine. We conclude that a two-fold overexpression of ?-synuclein caused by a triplication of the SNCA gene is sufficient to impair the differentiation of neuronal progenitor cells, a finding with implications for adult neurogenesis and Parkinson's disease progression, particularly in the context of bioenergetic dysfunction. PMID:26610207

  7. Transgenic mice overexpressing glia maturation factor-?, an oxidative stress inducible gene, show premature aging due to Zmpste24 down-regulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Imai, Rika; Asai, Kanae; Hanai, Jun-ichi; Takenaka, Masaru

    2015-07-01

    Glia Maturation Factor-? (GMF), a brain specific protein, is induced by proteinuria in renal tubules. Ectopic GMF overexpression causes apoptosisin vitro via cellular vulnerability to oxidative stress. In order to examine the roles of GMF in non-brain tissue, we constructed transgenic mice overexpressing GMF (GMF-TG). The GMF-TG mice exhibited appearance phenotypes associated with premature aging. The GMF-TG mice also demonstrated short lifespans and reduced hair regrowth, suggesting an accelerated aging process. The production of an abnormal lamin A, a nuclear envelope protein, plays a causal role in both normal aging and accelerated aging diseases, known as laminopathies. Importantly, we identified the abnormal lamin A (prelamin A), accompanied by a down-regulation of a lamin A processing enzyme (Zmpste24) in the kidney of the GMF-TG mice. The GMF-TG mice showed accelerated aging in the kidney, compared with wild-type mice, showing increased TGF-?1, CTGF gene and serum creatinine. The gene expression of p21/waf1 was increased at an earlier stage of life, at 10 weeks, which was in turn down-regulated at a later stage, at 60 weeks. In conclusion, we propose that GMF-TG mice might be a novel mouse model of accelerated aging, due to the abnormal lamin A. PMID:26232943

  8. Incomplete fusion in heavy ion reactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A brief review of the literature on incomplete fusion reactions is presented along with the theoretical models proposed to explain the process. The dependence of the probability of incomplete fusion on entrance channel mass asymmetry, as well as the angular momenta involved in incomplete fusion reaction are discussed. The need to obtain a global picture of incomplete fusion and deep inelastic collision is emphasised. (author). 28 refs., 4 figs

  9. Induction and inhibition of oocyte maturation by EDCs in zebrafish

    OpenAIRE

    Tokumoto Mika; Tokumoto Toshinobu; Nagahama Yoshitaka

    2005-01-01

    Abstract Background Oocyte maturation in lower vertebrates is triggered by maturation-inducing hormone (MIH), which acts on unidentified receptors on the oocyte surface and induces the activation of maturation-promoting factor (MPF) in the oocyte cytoplasm. We previously described the induction of oocyte maturation in fish by an endocrine-disrupting chemical (EDC), diethylstilbestrol (DES), a nonsteroidal estrogen. Methods In this study, stimulatory and inhibitory effects of EDCs and natural ...

  10. An Incomplete Pentalogy of Cantrell

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Mishaly

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Pentalogy of Cantrell is a rare entity of congenital defects involving the abdominal wall,sternum, diaphragm, pericardium and heart. The complete pentalogy and its variants havebeen described in the literature. We report a 47-day-old girl with an incomplete pentalogy ofCantrell presenting with congenital absence of the sternum, congenital heart defects, and anepigastric hernia. Two even rarer expressions of this disorder, tricuspid atresia type IIc andasymmetric kidneys, were also found. The patient was successfully managed with palliativepulmonary artery banding as preparation for a modified Fontan operation when she is older.We report this rare case, and discuss the pathologic findings and surgical strategy.

  11. Utility maximization in incomplete markets

    CERN Document Server

    Hu, Y; Müller, M; Hu, Ying; Imkeller, Peter; Muller, Matthias

    2005-01-01

    We consider the problem of utility maximization for small traders on incomplete financial markets. As opposed to most of the papers dealing with this subject, the investors' trading strategies we allow underly constraints described by closed, but not necessarily convex, sets. The final wealths obtained by trading under these constraints are identified as stochastic processes which usually are supermartingales, and even martingales for particular strategies. These strategies are seen to be optimal, and the corresponding value functions determined simply by the initial values of the supermartingales. We separately treat the cases of exponential, power and logarithmic utility.

  12. Human Induced Pluripotent Stem Cell-Derived Microvesicles Transmit RNAs and Proteins to Recipient Mature Heart Cells Modulating Cell Fate and Behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bobis-Wozowicz, Sylwia; Kmiotek, Katarzyna; Sekula, Malgorzata; Kedracka-Krok, Sylwia; Kamycka, Elzbieta; Adamiak, Marta; Jankowska, Urszula; Madetko-Talowska, Anna; Sarna, Michal; Bik-Multanowski, Miroslaw; Kolcz, Jacek; Boruczkowski, Dariusz; Madeja, Zbigniew; Dawn, Buddhadeb; Zuba-Surma, Ewa K

    2015-09-01

    Microvesicles (MVs) are membrane-enclosed cytoplasmic fragments released by normal and activated cells that have been described as important mediators of cell-to-cell communication. Although the ability of human induced pluripotent stem cells (hiPSCs) to participate in tissue repair is being increasingly recognized, the use of hiPSC-derived MVs (hiPSC-MVs) in this regard remains unknown. Accordingly, we investigated the ability of hiPSC-MVs to transfer bioactive molecules including mRNA, microRNA (miRNA), and proteins to mature target cells such as cardiac mesenchymal stromal cells (cMSCs), and we next analyzed effects of hiPSC-MVs on fate and behavior of such target cells. The results show that hiPSC-MVs derived from integration-free hiPSCs cultured under serum-free and feeder-free conditions are rich in mRNA, miRNA, and proteins originated from parent cells; however, the levels of expression vary between donor cells and MVs. Importantly, we found that transfer of hiPSC components by hiPSC-MVs impacted on transcriptome and proteomic profiles of target cells as well as exerted proliferative and protective effects on cMSCs, and enhanced their cardiac and endothelial differentiation potential. hiPSC-MVs also transferred exogenous transcripts from genetically modified hiPSCs that opens new perspectives for future strategies to enhance MV content. We conclude that hiPSC-MVs are effective vehicles for transferring iPSC attributes to adult somatic cells, and hiPSC-MV-mediated horizontal transfer of RNAs and proteins to injured tissues may be used for therapeutic tissue repair. In this study, for the first time, we propose a new concept of use of hiPSCs as a source of safe acellular bioactive derivatives for tissue regeneration. PMID:26031404

  13. A sea urchin lectin, SUL-1, from the Toxopneustid sea urchin induces DC maturation from human monocyte and drives Th1 polarization in vitro

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The sea urchin Toxopneustes pileolus belonging to the family Toxopneustidae, they have well-developed globiferous pedicellariae with pharmacologically active substances. We have purified a novel sea urchin lectin-1 (SUL-1) from the large globiferous pedicellariae of T. pileolus. Dendritic cells (DC) are professional APC and play a pivotal role in controlling immune responses. This study investigated whether SUL-1 can drive DC maturation from human immature monocyte-derived DC in vitro. Human monocytes were cultured with GM-CSF and IL-4 for 6 days followed by another 1 day in the presence of SUL-1 or LPS. DC harvested on day 7 were examined using functional assays. The expression levels of CD1a, CD80, CD83, CD86 and HLA-DR as expressed by mean fluorescence intensity (MFI) on DC differentiated from immature DC after culture with 1.0 ?g/ml of SUL-1 for 1 day were enhanced and decreased endocytic activity. SUL-1-treated DC also displayed enhanced T cell stimulatory capacity in an MLR, as measured by T cell proliferation. Cell surface expression of CD80, CD83 and CD86 on SUL-1-treated DC was inhibited by anti-DC-SIGN mAb, while anti-DC-SIGN mAb had no influence on allogeneic T cell proliferation by SUL-1-treated DC. DC differentiated with SUL-1 induced the differentiation of naive T cell towards a helper T cell type 1 (Th1) response at DC/T (1:5) cells ratio depending on IL-12 secretion. In CTL assay, the production of IFN-? and 51Cr release on SUL-1-treated DC were more augmented than of immature DC or LPS-treated DC. SUL-1-treated DC expressed CCR7 and had a high migration to MIP-3?. Intracellular Ca2+ mobilization in SUL-1-treated DC was also induced by MIP-3?. These results suggest that SUL-1 bindings to DC-SIGN on surface of immature DC may lead to differentiate DC from immature DC. Moreover, it suggests that SUL-1 may be used on DC-based vaccines for cancer immunotherapy

  14. Autoantibodies to the NY-ESO-1 Tumor Antigen in Metastatic Melanoma: Sialylation of the Fc Region of Immunoglobulin G Induces Differential Expression Signatures of Inflammatory Molecules During Dendritic Cell Differentiation and Maturation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin Oaks

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: We tested the hypothesis that different glycoforms of antibodies from patients with metastatic melanoma have different functional effects on human dendritic cell differentiation and maturation. Methods: Antibodies to the cancer antigen NY-ESO-1 were affinity-purified from patients with melanoma and further fractionated into different glycoforms by lectin chromatography. Sialic acid-rich and sialic acid-poor fractions of these immunoglobulin G antibodies (IgG were added to dendritic cell cultures during both differentiation and maturation, and the resulting cellular messenger RNA (mRNA and culture supernatants were tested by microarray and enzyme-linked immunoassay for molecules related to inflammatory pathways. Results: We identified unique mRNA and secreted protein signatures that were induced by different glycoforms of IgG during dendritic cell differentiation and maturation. Among the variety of mRNA and proteins induced by the sialic acidrich IgG fraction, we found a dramatic increase in levels of the melanoma growth factor CXCL1. Conclusions: Our findings support the concept that alternate glycoforms of IgG induce differing functional programs of dendritic cell differentiation and maturation. The data also support the concept that the functional phenotype of IgG is related to glycosylation. Thus, subtle changes in glycan structure can change the effector function of IgG from an inflammatory to an anti-inflammatory program. This work highlights the importance of the interface between tumors and the immune system, revealing a potential explanation as to why tumors persist and progress despite potent immune responses against them.

  15. Maturity and maturity models in lean construction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claus Nesensohn

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available In recent years there has been an increasing interest in maturity models in management-related disciplines; which reflects a growing recognition that becoming more mature and having a model to guide the route to maturity can help organisations in managing major transformational change. Lean Construction (LC is an increasingly important improvement approach that organisations seek to embed. This study explores how to apply the maturity models to LC. Hence the attitudes, opinions and experiences of key industry informants with high levels of knowledge of LC were investigated. To achieve this, a review of maturity models was conducted, and data for the analysis was collected through a sequential process involving three methods. First a group interview with seven key informants. Second a follow up discussion with the same individuals to investigate some of the issues raised in more depth. Third an online discussion held via LinkedIn in which members shared their views on some of the results. Overall, we found that there is a lack of common understanding as to what maturity means in LC, though there is general agreement that the concept of maturity is a suitable one to reflect the path of evolution for LC within organisations.

  16. Human T-cell leukemia virus type I Tax induces the expression of dendritic cell markers associated with maturation and activation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mostoller, Kate; Norbury, Christopher C; Jain, Pooja; Wigdahl, Brian

    2004-12-01

    Human T-cell leukemia virus type I (HTLV-I) is the etiologic agent of both adult T-cell leukemia (ATL) and HTLV-I-associated myelopathy/tropical spastic paraparesis (HAM/TSP). Although the genesis of HAM/TSP likely involves several steps, the generation of a highly specific and effective population of Tax-specific CD8+ cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTLs) that migrate to the central nervous system (CNS) is of pivotal importance in this neuropathologic process. Presentation of Tax peptides by activated dendritic cells (DCs) to naive CD8+ T cells likely plays an important role in the induction of a Tax-specific CTL response and the eventual neurologic dysfunction observed in HAM/TSP. The immune response mounted during HTLV-I infection is primarily targeted against Tax with both Tax-specific antibodies and CTLs found in HTLV-I-infected individuals, indicating that Tax is available for immune recognition. Studies have suggested that Tax may be secreted from HTLV-I-infected cells and act as an extracellular cytokine, be internalized and processed for presentation, or be transported to the nucleus where it may act as a transcriptional activator. The authors report in this article that purified Tax induces DC activation involving an increase in the production of CD80 and CD86 mRNA in the absence of corresponding protein synthesis. Furthermore, intracellular Tax down-regulates the protein expression of molecules involved in antigen presentation. This implies a difference in the mechanism of Tax activity depending upon its location. Additionally, treatment of JAWS II DCs with extracellular Tax decreases the ability of DCs to present a major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class I-restricted peptide, indicating that Tax likely matures the DCs to the point where presentation of a secondary antigen is restricted. The implication of the experimental results with respect to the generation of a Tax-specific CTL compartment that participates in the genesis of HAM/TSP is discussed. PMID:15765807

  17. Mature Teachers Matter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berl, Patricia Scallan

    2005-01-01

    In this article, the author discusses the consequences of losing mature teachers due to voluntary separation or retirement and the mindset of a mature teacher that is different from younger teachers in a number of ways. Mature teachers are colleagues over 45 years of age possessing significant experience in the field. Future trends in teacher…

  18. Incomplete linear tibial fractures in two horses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Incomplete linear tibial fractures were identified in two horses with the aid of scintigraphy. Both horses were treated successfully by strict stall confinement, and both returned to normal athletic activity. Scintigraphy can be used to facilitate the generally difficult diagnosis of incomplete tibial fractures

  19. The effect of luteinizing hormone releasing hormone analog regime and stage of oocyte maturity for induced ovulation of channel catfish Ictalurus punctatus

    Science.gov (United States)

    The effective LHRHa (luteinizing hormone releasing hormone analog) dose based on the gonadal maturity of channel catfish, Ictalurus punctatus to optimize channel x blue hybrid catfish production was evaluated in 4 trials (twice in early part of the season and twice in the peak spawning season) in a ...

  20. Debt renegotiation with incomplete contract

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Paulo de Melo, Jorge Neto.

    2005-09-01

    Full Text Available Um contrato de débito geralmente não inclui uma cláusula sobre renegociação. O direito de liquidar os ativos do tomador e as regras do processo são habitualmente estipuladas no contrato. Tal promessa de não renegociar não é crível, já que a renegociação pode mitigar a perda bruta de se liquidar toma [...] dores insolventes. Uma vez que o contrato inicial pode não considerar os procedimentos de renegociação, e esta pode, de fato, vir a ocorrer, este artigo investiga a razão de um contrato completo não ser ofertado. Mostra-se que o emprestador não precisa estipular os procedimentos de renegociação no contrato inicial porque ele é indiferente entre se comprometer ou não aos termos do contrato. Isto indica que um contrato completo dá ao emprestador o mesmo retorno esperado de um contrato incompleto, no qual os procedimentos de renegociação são determinados após a declaração de default. Abstract in english A debt contract usually does not include a provision about renegotiation. The right to seize the borrower’s asset and the rules of this process are usually stipulated in the contract. Such a promise not to renegotiate is not credible since renegotiation can mitigate the dead-weight loss of liquidati [...] ng insolvent borrowers. Once the initial contract may not consider the renegotiation procedure and renegotiation may occur, this paper investigates why a complete contract is not offered. It shows that the lender does not need to stipulate the renegotiation procedure on the initial contract because he is indifferent about committing or not to the terms of a contract. This indicates that a complete contract gives the lender the same expected return as an incomplete contract, in which the renegotiation process is determined after the occurrence of default.

  1. Debt renegotiation with incomplete contract

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulo de Melo Jorge Neto

    2005-09-01

    Full Text Available A debt contract usually does not include a provision about renegotiation. The right to seize the borrower’s asset and the rules of this process are usually stipulated in the contract. Such a promise not to renegotiate is not credible since renegotiation can mitigate the dead-weight loss of liquidating insolvent borrowers. Once the initial contract may not consider the renegotiation procedure and renegotiation may occur, this paper investigates why a complete contract is not offered. It shows that the lender does not need to stipulate the renegotiation procedure on the initial contract because he is indifferent about committing or not to the terms of a contract. This indicates that a complete contract gives the lender the same expected return as an incomplete contract, in which the renegotiation process is determined after the occurrence of default.Um contrato de débito geralmente não inclui uma cláusula sobre renegociação. O direito de liquidar os ativos do tomador e as regras do processo são habitualmente estipuladas no contrato. Tal promessa de não renegociar não é crível, já que a renegociação pode mitigar a perda bruta de se liquidar tomadores insolventes. Uma vez que o contrato inicial pode não considerar os procedimentos de renegociação, e esta pode, de fato, vir a ocorrer, este artigo investiga a razão de um contrato completo não ser ofertado. Mostra-se que o emprestador não precisa estipular os procedimentos de renegociação no contrato inicial porque ele é indiferente entre se comprometer ou não aos termos do contrato. Isto indica que um contrato completo dá ao emprestador o mesmo retorno esperado de um contrato incompleto, no qual os procedimentos de renegociação são determinados após a declaração de default.

  2. Incomplete fusion in 12C+160Gd collisions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The mechanism of the production of fast ?-particles in 12C induced reactions was studied over a wide range of bombarding energies (7.5-16.7 MeV/A) by measuring ?-? coincidences. Absolute cross sections for 160Gd(12C,?xn)sup(168-x)Er and 160Gd(12C,2?xn)sup(164-x)Dy reactions, as well as inclusive ?-particle production cross sections, have been determined. Depending on the bombarding energy, a fraction of 0.2-0.4 of the singles ?-particles can be explained as resulting from incomplete fusion reactions (12C,?) and (12C,2?) which correspond to a capture of '8Be' and '4He', respectively. The energy dependence of the cross sections for (12C,?) and (12C,2?) incomplete fusion as well as for (12C,3?) projectile breakup is given. (Auth.)

  3. Topological effects of data incompleteness of gene regulatory networks

    CERN Document Server

    Sanz, J; Borge-Holthoefer, J; Moreno, Y

    2012-01-01

    The topological analysis of biological networks has been a prolific topic in network science during the last decade. A persistent problem with this approach is the inherent uncertainty and noisy nature of the data. One of the cases in which this situation is more marked is that of transcriptional regulatory networks (TRNs) in bacteria. The datasets are incomplete because regulatory pathways associated to a relevant fraction of bacterial genes remain unknown. Furthermore, direction, strengths and signs of the links are sometimes unknown or simply overlooked. Finally, the experimental approaches to infer the regulations are highly heterogeneous, in a way that induces the appearance of systematic experimental-topological correlations. And yet, the quality of the available data increases constantly. In this work we capitalize on these advances to point out the influence of data (in)completeness and quality on some classical results on topological analysis of TRNs, specially regarding modularity at different level...

  4. Modelling incomplete fusion dynamics of weakly bound nuclei at near-barrier energies

    OpenAIRE

    Diaz-Torres, Alexis(ECT, Villa Tambosi, Villazzano, Trento, I-38123, Italy)

    2010-01-01

    Abstract The classical dynamical model for reactions induced by weakly-bound nuclei at near-barrier energies is developed further. It allows a quantitative study of the role and importance of incomplete fusion dynamics in asymptotic observables, such as the population of high-spin states in reaction products as well as the angular distribution of direct alpha-production. Model calculations indicate that incomplete fusion is an effective mechanism for populating high-spin states, and its co...

  5. Intra-articular injection of a nutritive mixture solution protects articular cartilage from osteoarthritic progression induced by anterior cruciate ligament transection in mature rabbits: a randomized controlled trial

    OpenAIRE

    Park, Yoo-Sin; Lim, Si-Woong; Lee, Il-Hoon; Lee, Tae-Jin; Kim, Jong-Sung; Han, Jin Soo

    2007-01-01

    Osteoarthritis (OA) is a degenerative disease that disrupts the collagenous matrix of articular cartilage and is difficult to cure because articular cartilage is a nonvascular tissue. Treatment of OA has targeted macromolecular substitutes for cartilage components, such as hyaluronic acid or genetically engineered materials. However, the goal of the present study was to examine whether intra-articular injection of the elementary nutrients restores the matrix of arthritic knee joints in mature...

  6. Prolonged performance of a high repetition low force task induces bone adaptation in young adult rats, but loss in mature rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Massicotte, Vicky S; Frara, Nagat; Harris, Michele Y; Amin, Mamta; Wade, Christine K; Popoff, Steven N; Barbe, Mary F

    2015-12-01

    We have shown that prolonged repetitive reaching and grasping tasks lead to exposure-dependent changes in bone microarchitecture and inflammatory cytokines in young adult rats. Since aging mammals show increased tissue inflammatory cytokines, we sought here to determine if aging, combined with prolonged performance of a repetitive upper extremity task, enhances bone loss. We examined the radius, forearm flexor muscles, and serum from 16 mature (14-18months of age) and 14 young adult (2.5-6.5months of age) female rats after performance of a high repetition low force (HRLF) reaching and grasping task for 12weeks. Young adult HRLF rats showed enhanced radial bone growth (e.g., increased trabecular bone volume, osteoblast numbers, bone formation rate, and mid-diaphyseal periosteal perimeter), compared to age-matched controls. Mature HRLF rats showed several indices of radial bone loss (e.g., decreased trabecular bone volume, and increased cortical bone thinning, porosity, resorptive spaces and woven bone formation), increased osteoclast numbers and inflammatory cytokines, compared to age-matched controls and young adult HRLF rats. Mature rats weighed more yet had lower maximum reflexive grip strength, than young adult rats, although each age group was able to pull at the required reach rate (4reaches/min) and required submaximal pulling force (30force-grams) for a food reward. Serum estrogen levels and flexor digitorum muscle size were similar in each age group. Thus, mature rats had increased bone degradative changes than in young adult rats performing the same repetitive task for 12weeks, with increased inflammatory cytokine responses and osteoclast activity as possible causes. PMID:26517953

  7. Plasmodium falciparum-Infected Erythrocytes and ?-Hematin Induce Partial Maturation of Human Dendritic Cells and Increase Their Migratory Ability in Response to Lymphoid Chemokines ? †

    OpenAIRE

    Giusti, Pablo; Urban, Britta C; Frascaroli, Giada; Albrecht, Letusa; Tinti, Anna; Troye-Blomberg, Marita; Varani, Stefania

    2011-01-01

    Acute and chronic Plasmodium falciparum infections alter the immune competence of the host possibly through changes in dendritic cell (DC) functionality. DCs are the most potent activators of T cells, and migration is integral to their function. Mature DCs express lymphoid chemokine receptors (CCRs), expression of which enables them to migrate to the lymph nodes, where they encounter naïve T cells. The present study aimed to investigate the impact of the synthetic analog to malaria parasite p...

  8. Predicting the influence of liposomal lipid composition on liposome size, zeta potential and liposome-induced dendritic cell maturation using a design of experiments approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soema, Peter C; Willems, Geert-Jan; Jiskoot, Wim; Amorij, Jean-Pierre; Kersten, Gideon F

    2015-08-01

    In this study, the effect of liposomal lipid composition on the physicochemical characteristics and adjuvanticity of liposomes was investigated. Using a design of experiments (DoE) approach, peptide-containing liposomes containing various lipids (EPC, DOPE, DOTAP and DC-Chol) and peptide concentrations were formulated. Liposome size and zeta potential were determined for each formulation. Moreover, the adjuvanticity of the liposomes was assessed in an in vitro dendritic cell (DC) model, by quantifying the expression of DC maturation markers CD40, CD80, CD83 and CD86. The acquired data of these liposome characteristics were successfully fitted with regression models, and response contour plots were generated for each response factor. These models were applied to predict a lipid composition that resulted in a liposome with a target zeta potential. Subsequently, the expression of the DC maturation factors for this lipid composition was predicted and tested in vitro; the acquired maturation responses corresponded well with the predicted ones. These results show that a DoE approach can be used to screen various lipids and lipid compositions, and to predict their impact on liposome size, charge and adjuvanticity. Using such an approach may accelerate the formulation development of liposomal vaccine adjuvants. PMID:26144666

  9. Gödel’s Incompleteness Theorems and Physics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Newton C. A. da Costa

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper is a summary of a lecture in which I presented some remarks on Gödel’s incompleteness theorems and their meaning for the foundations of physics. The entire lecture will appear elsewhere.

  10. Angular momentum transfer in incomplete fusion

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    B S Tomar; K Surendra Babu; K Sudarshan; R Tripathi; A Goswami

    2005-02-01

    Isomeric cross-section ratios of evaporation residues formed in 12C+93Nb and 16O + 89Y reactions were measured by recoil catcher technique followed by off-line -ray spectrometry in the beam energy range of 55.7-77.5 MeV for 12C and 68-81 MeV for 16O. The isomeric cross-section ratios were resolved into that for complete and incomplete fusion reactions. The angular momentum of the intermediate nucleus formed in incomplete fusion was deduced from the isomeric cross-section ratio by considering the statistical de-excitation of the incompletely fused composite nucleus. The data show that incomplete fusion is associated with angular momenta slightly smaller than critical angular momentum for complete fusion, indicating the deeper interpenetration of projectile and target nuclei than that in peripheral collisions.

  11. Reliability evaluation of incomplete AIS trajectories

    OpenAIRE

    LECORNU, Laurent; Montagner, Julien; Puentes, John

    2013-01-01

    Automatic Identification System (AIS) data are prone to alterations that impede signal storage, producing incomplete trajectories. Since trajectory analysis assumes complete AIS data sets, incomplete trajectories are discarded. Yet, those data sets contain proper values, which could be exploited. This paper describes an approach to estimate the degree of reliability assigned to missing segments of a vessel trajectory, depending on meaningful statistical variations of recorded and predicted ve...

  12. Abstraction Refinement for Games with Incomplete Information

    OpenAIRE

    Dimitrova, Rayna; Finkbeiner, Bernd

    2008-01-01

    Counterexample-guided abstraction refinement (CEGAR) is used in automated software analysis to find suitable finite-state abstractions of infinite-state systems. In this paper, we extend CEGAR to games with incomplete information, as they commonly occur in controller synthesis and modular verification. The challenge is that, under incomplete information, one must carefully account for the knowledge available to the player: the strategy must not depend on information the ...

  13. Quantum Bertrand duopoly of incomplete information

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We study Bertrand's duopoly of incomplete information. It is found that the effect of quantum entanglement on the outcome of the game is dramatically changed by the uncertainty of information. In contrast with the case of complete information where the outcome increases with entanglement, when information is incomplete the outcome is maximized at some finite entanglement. As a consequence, information and entanglement are both crucial factors that determine the properties of a quantum oligopoly

  14. EMOTIONAL MATURITY AMONG ADOLECENTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.G.JADHAV

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available The present study was conducted to know the Emotional Maturity amongadolescents in relation to some personal background variables. The sample of this studyconsisted of 200 graduates (100 Arts & 100 Science students studying in Dharwad city.Yeshvir Singh and Mahesh Bhargava's Emotional Maturity scale was administered onthem to measure the Emotional Maturity. The data collected was subjected to statisticalanalysis in terms of Mean, SD, and 't' ratio. The findings show that, Science students arehaving significantly high Emotional Maturity than the Arts students. Where as there isno significant difference in Emotional Maturity of Boys and Girl adolescents,adolescents those who are coming from rural and urban area and adolescents those whobelongs to Scheduled Caste, Scheduled Tribes and General merit.

  15. Microinjected progesterone reinitiates meiotic maturation of Xenopus laevis oocytes.

    OpenAIRE

    Tso, J; Thibier, C; Mulner, O; Ozon, R.

    1982-01-01

    Microinjection of progesterone dissolved in paraffin oil induces the reinitiation of meiotic maturation in the Xenopus oocyte; 50% maturation is obtained when 50 nl of a 50 microM solution is microinjected into the oocyte. The kinetics of the response to microinjected progesterone are similar to the kinetics of response to externally applied hormone. When an aqueous solution of progesterone is microinjected instead of an oil solution, maturation is never observed, a result which confirms prev...

  16. CIMGS: An incomplete orthogonal factorization preconditioner

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, X.; Bramley, R. [Indiana Univ., Bloomington, IN (United States); Gallivan, K. [Univ. of Illinois, Urbana, IL (United States)

    1994-12-31

    This paper introduces, analyzes, and tests a preconditioning method for conjugate gradient (CG) type iterative methods. The authors start by examining incomplete Gram-Schmidt factorization (IGS) methods in order to motivate the new preconditioner. They show that the IGS family is more stable than IC, and they successfully factor any full rank matrix. Furthermore, IGS preconditioners are at least as effective in accelerating convergence of CG type iterative methods as the incomplete Cholesky (IC) preconditioner. The drawback of IGS methods are their high cost of factorization. This motivates finding a new algorithm, CIMGS, which can generate the same factor in a more efficient way.

  17. Option Pricing Model for Incomplete Market

    CERN Document Server

    Fedotov, S; Fedotov, Sergei; Mikhailov, Sergei

    1998-01-01

    The problem of determining the European-style option price in the incomplete market has been examined within the framework of stochastic optimization. An analytic method based on the discrete dynamic programming equation (Bellman equation) has been developed that gives the general formalism for determining the option price and the optimal trading strategy (optimal control policy) that reduces total risk inherent in writing the option. The basic purpose of paper is to present an effective algorithm that can be used in practice. Keywords: option pricing, incomplete market, transaction costs, stochastic optimization, Bellman equation.

  18. Pericoronal radiolucency associated with incomplete crown

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The author experienced 8 cases of pericoronal radiolucency involving an incomplete tooth crown that had not developed to form the cemento-enamel junction, and the underdeveloped crown sometimes appeared to be floating within the radiolucency radiographically. The first impression was that these cystic lesions had odontogenic keratocysts, but half of them turned out to be dentigerous cysts histopathologically. There has been no report concerning odontogenic cysts involving an incompletely developed crown. The purpose of this paper is to report that dentigerous cysts may develop before the completion of the cemento-enamel junction of a developing crown.

  19. Pericoronal radiolucency associated with incomplete crown

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nah, Kyung Soo [Dept. of Oral and Maxillofacial Radiology, School of Dentistry, Pusan National University, Yangsan (Korea, Republic of)

    2013-12-15

    The author experienced 8 cases of pericoronal radiolucency involving an incomplete tooth crown that had not developed to form the cemento-enamel junction, and the underdeveloped crown sometimes appeared to be floating within the radiolucency radiographically. The first impression was that these cystic lesions had odontogenic keratocysts, but half of them turned out to be dentigerous cysts histopathologically. There has been no report concerning odontogenic cysts involving an incompletely developed crown. The purpose of this paper is to report that dentigerous cysts may develop before the completion of the cemento-enamel junction of a developing crown.

  20. Contractual Incompleteness, Unemployment, and Labour Market Segmentation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Altmann, Steffen; Falk, Armin

    2014-01-01

    This article provides evidence that involuntary unemployment, and the segmentation of labour markets into firms offering "good" and "bad" jobs, may both arise as a consequence of contractual incompleteness.We provide a simple model that illustrates how unemployment and market segmentation may jointly emerge as part of a market equilibrium in environments where work effort is not third-party verifiable. Using experimental labour markets that differ only in the verifiability of effort, we demonstrate empirically that contractual incompleteness can cause unemployment and segmentation. Our data are also consistent with the key channels through which the model explains the emergence of both phenomena. © The Author 2013.

  1. Quantum Stackelberg duopoly with incomplete information

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We investigate the quantum version of the Stackelberg duopoly with incomplete information, especially how the quantum entanglement affects the first-mover advantage in the classical form. It is found that while positive entanglement enhances the first-mover advantage beyond the classical limit, the advantage is dramatically suppressed by negative entanglement. Moreover, despite that positive quantum entanglement improves the first-mover's tolerance for the informational incompleteness, the quantum effect does not change the basic fact that Firm A's lack of complete information of Firm B's unit cost is eradicating the first-mover advantage

  2. Numerical study on incomplete orthogonal factorization preconditioners

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bai, Zhong-Zhi; Duff, Iain S.; Yin, Jun-Feng

    2009-04-01

    We design, analyse and test a class of incomplete orthogonal factorization preconditioners constructed from Givens rotations, incorporating some dropping strategies and updating tricks, for the solution of large sparse systems of linear equations. Comprehensive accounts about how the preconditioners are coded, what storage is required and how the computation is executed for a given accuracy are presented. A number of numerical experiments show that these preconditioners are competitive with standard incomplete triangular factorization preconditioners when they are applied to accelerate Krylov subspace iteration methods such as GMRES and BiCGSTAB.

  3. Estimate of true incomplete exchanges using fluorescence in situ hybridization with telomere probes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, H.; George, K.; Yang, T. C.

    1998-01-01

    PURPOSE: To study the frequency of true incomplete exchanges in radiation-induced chromosome aberrations. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Human lymphocytes were exposed to 2 Gy and 5 Gy of gamma-rays. Chromosome aberrations were studied using the fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) technique with whole chromosome-specific probes, together with human telomere probes. Chromosomes 2 and 4 were chosen in the present study. RESULTS: The percentage of incomplete exchanges was 27% when telomere signals were not considered. After excluding false incomplete exchanges identified by the telomere signals, the percentage of incomplete exchanges decreased to 11%. Since telomere signals appear on about 82% of the telomeres, the percentage of true incomplete exchanges should be even lower and was estimated to be 3%. This percentage was similar for chromosomes 2 and 4 and for doses of both 2 Gy and 5 Gy. CONCLUSIONS: The percentage of true incomplete exchanges is significantly lower in gamma-irradiated human lymphocytes than the frequencies reported in the literature.

  4. Local RNA structure alignment with incomplete sequence

    OpenAIRE

    Kolbe, Diana L.; Eddy, Sean R

    2009-01-01

    Motivation: Accuracy of automated structural RNA alignment is improved by using models that consider not only primary sequence but also secondary structure information. However, current RNA structural alignment approaches tend to perform poorly on incomplete sequence fragments, such as single reads from metagenomic environmental surveys, because nucleotides that are expected to be base paired are missing.

  5. Evidence of reproductive disruption associated with neuroendocrine changes induced by UV–B filters, phtalates and nonylphenol during sexual maturation in rats of both gender

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Endocrine disruptors (EDs) are exogenous substances or xenoestrogens natural or synthetic, capable of interacting with different systems and altering their normal hormonal regulation, being the reproductive system one of the most affected. EDs produce their effects not only by acting on nuclear steroid receptors, but also on membrane receptors, steroidal and non-steroidal synthetic enzymatic pathways and/or metabolism. The incorporation to the body depend on each EDs, which are liposoluble and easily deposited in the tissue; thus ensuring a prolonged accumulation and release, even when the exposure is not continuous. In addition to cross the placenta, EDs may act in the offspring during the reproductive system formation and maturation key stages and its regulatory mechanisms. The effects of EDs can be multiple, but most acts mediating estrogenic and/or antiandrogenic effect. Three groups of EDs are widely used: in plastics (phtalates), sunscreens (cinnamate and methylbenzylcamphor), and detergents (nonylphenol). In this paper we review the effects of the exposure to these environmental chemicals on the reproductive system and the possible mechanisms by which they occur, focusing in the hypothalamic–pituitary neuroendocrine mechanisms that regulate the reproductive system

  6. Boosting high-intensity focused ultrasound-induced anti-tumor immunity using a sparse-scan strategy that can more effectively promote dendritic cell maturation

    OpenAIRE

    Zhong Pei; Li Chao; Hui Chun; Qiu Lei; Hu Zhenlin; Liu Fang; Zhang Junping

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Background The conventional treatment protocol in high-intensity focused ultrasound (HIFU) therapy utilizes a dense-scan strategy to produce closely packed thermal lesions aiming at eradicating as much tumor mass as possible. However, this strategy is not most effective in terms of inducing a systemic anti-tumor immunity so that it cannot provide efficient micro-metastatic control and long-term tumor resistance. We have previously provided evidence that HIFU may enhance systemic anti...

  7. Jealousy and Moral Maturity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mathes, Eugene W.; Deuger, Donna J.

    Jealousy may be perceived as either good or bad depending upon the moral maturity of the individual. To investigate this conclusion, a study was conducted testing two hypothesis: a positive relationship exists between conventional moral reasoning (reference to norms and laws) and the endorsement and level of jealousy; and a negative relationship…

  8. Mature Students Studying Mathematics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirst, Keith

    1999-01-01

    Discusses mature students in the single subject area of mathematics in a single institution and makes comparisons with traditional universities. Reviews some features of the age distribution, entry qualifications, degree-class distribution, non-completion rates and gender distribution. (Author/ASK)

  9. Advanced incomplete factorization algorithms for Stiltijes matrices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Il`in, V.P. [Siberian Division RAS, Novosibirsk (Russian Federation)

    1996-12-31

    The modern numerical methods for solving the linear algebraic systems Au = f with high order sparse matrices A, which arise in grid approximations of multidimensional boundary value problems, are based mainly on accelerated iterative processes with easily invertible preconditioning matrices presented in the form of approximate (incomplete) factorization of the original matrix A. We consider some recent algorithmic approaches, theoretical foundations, experimental data and open questions for incomplete factorization of Stiltijes matrices which are {open_quotes}the best{close_quotes} ones in the sense that they have the most advanced results. Special attention is given to solving the elliptic differential equations with strongly variable coefficients, singular perturbated diffusion-convection and parabolic equations.

  10. Past incompleteness of a bouncing multiverse

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vilenkin, Alexander; Zhang, Jun, E-mail: vilenkin@cosmos.phy.tufts.edu, E-mail: jun.zhang@tufts.edu [Institute of Cosmology, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Tufts University, Medford, MA 02155 (United States)

    2014-06-01

    According to classical GR, Anti-de Sitter (AdS) bubbles in the multiverse terminate in big crunch singularities. It has been conjectured, however, that the fundamental theory may resolve these singularities and replace them by nonsingular bounces. This may have important implications for the beginning of the multiverse. Geodesics in cosmological spacetimes are known to be past-incomplete, as long as the average expansion rate along the geodesic is positive, but it is not clear that the latter condition is satisfied if the geodesic repeatedly passes through crunching AdS bubbles. We investigate this issue in a simple multiverse model, where the spacetime consists of a patchwork of FRW regions. The conclusion is that the spacetime is still past-incomplete, even in the presence of AdS bounces.

  11. Incomplete Brillouin-zone spectra and controlled Bragg reflection with ionic-type photonic lattices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We demonstrate ionic-type photonic lattices consisting of alternating positive and negative lattice potentials akin to those of ionic crystals in solids. A modified geometrical structure factor is developed for describing Bragg scattering in these non-Bravais photonic lattices. We show that lattice reconfiguration leads to incomplete Brillouin zone spectra due to selective band-gap closures. Experimentally, incomplete Brillouin zone spectra and associated Bragg-reflection suppression are observed in such ionic-type lattices optically induced in a bulk nonlinear crystal. Our experimental results agree well with our theoretical analysis.

  12. The Impact of Incomplete Information on Games in Parallel Relay Networks

    CERN Document Server

    Xiao, Hongda

    2011-01-01

    We consider the impact of incomplete information on incentives for node cooperation in parallel relay networks with one source node, one destination node, and multiple relay nodes. All nodes are selfish and strategic, interested in maximizing their own profit instead of the social welfare. We consider the practical situation where the channel state on any given relay path is not observable to the source or to the other relays. We examine different bargaining relationships between the source and the relays, and propose a framework for analyzing the efficiency loss induced by incomplete information. We analyze the source of the efficiency loss, and quantify the amount of inefficiency which results.

  13. Godel's Incompleteness Theorems and Platonic Metaphysics

    OpenAIRE

    Mikovic, Aleksandar

    2015-01-01

    We argue by using Godel's incompletness theorems in logic that platonism is the best metaphysics for science. This is based on the fact that a natural law in a platonic metaphysics represents a timeless order in the motion of matter, while a natural law in a materialistic metaphysics can be only defined as a temporary order which appears at random in the chaotic motion of matter. Although a logical possibility, one can argue that this type of metaphysics is highly implausibl...

  14. Canonical distribution and incompleteness of quantum mechanics

    OpenAIRE

    Skrebnev, V. A.

    2012-01-01

    The paper discusses the physical groundlessness of the models used for the derivation of canonical distribution and provides the experimental data demonstrating the incompleteness of quantum mechanics. The possibility of using statistical ensembles is presented as a consequence of the existence of probabilistic processes which are not accounted for by quantum mechanics. The paper provides a new analytical derivation of canonical distribution for macrosystems which takes into...

  15. Option Pricing Model for Incomplete Market

    OpenAIRE

    Fedotov, Sergei; Mikhailov, Sergei

    1998-01-01

    The problem of determining the European-style option price in the incomplete market has been examined within the framework of stochastic optimization. An analytic method based on the discrete dynamic programming equation (Bellman equation) has been developed that gives the general formalism for determining the option price and the optimal trading strategy (optimal control policy) that reduces total risk inherent in writing the option. The basic purpose of paper is to presen...

  16. Essential Incompleteness of Arithmetic Verified by Coq

    OpenAIRE

    O'Connor, Russell

    2005-01-01

    A constructive proof of the Goedel-Rosser incompleteness theorem has been completed using the Coq proof assistant. Some theory of classical first-order logic over an arbitrary language is formalized. A development of primitive recursive functions is given, and all primitive recursive functions are proved to be representable in a weak axiom system. Formulas and proofs are encoded as natural numbers, and functions operating on these codes are proved to be primitive recursive. ...

  17. Funding Value Adjustment and Incomplete Markets

    OpenAIRE

    Cornalba, Lorenzo

    2014-01-01

    Value adjustment of uncollateralized trades is determined within a risk-neutral pricing framework. When hedging such trades, investors cannot freely trade protection on their own name, thus facing an incomplete market. This fact is reflected in the non-uniqueness of the pricing measure, which is only constrained by the values of the hedging instruments tradable by the investor. Uncollateralized trades should then be considered not as derivatives but as new primary assets in ...

  18. Incomplete information, credibility and the core

    OpenAIRE

    Dutta, Bhaskar; Vohra, Rajiv

    2003-01-01

    An appropriate (interim) notion of the core for an economy with incomplete information depends on the amount of information that coalitions can share. The coarse and fine core, as originally defined by Wilson (1978), correspond to two polar cases, involving no information sharing and arbitrary information sharing, respectively. We propose a new core notion, the credible core, which incorporates incentive compatibility constraints, and is based on the idea that a coalition can coordinate its p...

  19. Characterization Tensors of Balanced Incomplete Block Designs

    OpenAIRE

    Qi, Liqun; Luo, Ziyan

    2015-01-01

    Balanced incomplete block designs (BIBDs) have wide applications in engineering, business and sciences. In this paper, for each (v, k, \\lambda)-BIBD, we construct a strongly symmetric k-th order v-dimensional tensor. We call such a strongly symmetric tensor the characterization tensor of that BIBD, and the absolute value tensor of the characterization tensor the signless characterization tensor of that BIBD. We study some spectral properties of such characterization tensors ...

  20. Scalable tensor factorizations for incomplete data

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Acar, Evrim; Dunlavy, Daniel M.; KOlda, Tamara G.; Mørup, Morten

    2011-01-01

    The problem of incomplete data—i.e., data with missing or unknown values—in multi-way arrays is ubiquitous in biomedical signal processing, network traffic analysis, bibliometrics, social network analysis, chemometrics, computer vision, communication networks, etc. We consider the problem of how to factorize data sets with missing values with the goal of capturing the underlying latent structure of the data and possibly reconstructing missing values (i.e., tensor completion). We focus on one of ...

  1. Stochastic approximation boosting for incomplete data problems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sexton, Joseph; Laake, Petter

    2009-12-01

    Boosting is a powerful approach to fitting regression models. This article describes a boosting algorithm for likelihood-based estimation with incomplete data. The algorithm combines boosting with a variant of stochastic approximation that uses Markov chain Monte Carlo to deal with the missing data. Applications to fitting generalized linear and additive models with missing covariates are given. The method is applied to the Pima Indians Diabetes Data where over half of the cases contain missing values. PMID:19432768

  2. Polarization study of incomplete fusion dynamics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Incomplete fusion reactions for 16O on 144Sm, 154Sm and 93Nb and 14N on 93Nb were studied using the Brookhaven tandem accelerator facility at energies from 95 to 140 MeV. Polarization of light charged particles from the reactions was studied by ? coincidence. Polarization is detected for ? particles but is near zero for protons. ? particle polarization shows energy dependence

  3. [Cervical maturation using Prepidil gel in pregnancy termination in primigravidas].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stanimirovi?, B; Markovi?, A; Pazin, V; Popovi?, V; Nikoli?, B

    1990-01-01

    The study investigated the possibility of pharmacological servical ripening induced by Dinoprostone (Prepidil Gel--Upjohn Co) prior to therapeutic abortion in primigravida. The study concerned patients-volunteers choosen by random. 73 patients were divided into two groups with the same average age, term of gestation, cervix consistency and passage through the cervical canal before the application of gel. In the first group therapeutic abortion was carried out 6 hours after the application of gle into cervical canal, and in the second group--4 hours after the gel application. Cervical maturation, testified by its consistency and spontaneous cervical ripening, was equal in both groups (average delta Hegar I was 7.32 and delta Hegar II--7.02), and it enabled medical procedure only with the local anaesthesia with 2% hylocein in 82% ob pregnant women. In a fifth of patients ob both groups it was necessary to do additional mechanical dilatation, which was easily performed due to the already soft cervix; these patients were also administered 1 ampulla ob Fortral I.V. In both groups during the action of Dinoprostone there were no significant changes either in blood pressure or in body temperature. More expressed uterine activity, followed by initial and incompleted abortions, were more frequent in patients of the first group (3529%) than in those from the second group (17.95%) in which only contractions occurred (33.33%). The rate of gastrointestinal side effects was 29.41% in the first group and 41.03% in the second group. There was no uterine complication during the activity of Dinoprostone as well as during and after medical procedure. PMID:2218733

  4. Dynamic Network Formation with Incomplete Information

    CERN Document Server

    Song, Yangbo

    2013-01-01

    How do networks form and what is their ultimate topology? Most of the literature that addresses these questions assumes complete information: agents know in advance the value of linking to other agents, even with agents they have never met and with whom they have had no previous interaction (direct or indirect). This paper addresses the same questions under what seems to us to be the much more natural assumption of incomplete information: agents do not know in advance -- but must learn -- the value of linking to agents they have never met. We show that the assumption of incomplete information has profound implications for the process of network formation and the topology of networks that ultimately form. Under complete information, the networks that form and are stable typically have a star, wheel or core-periphery form, with high-value agents in the core. Under incomplete information, the presence of positive externalities (the value of indirect links) implies that a much wider collection of network topologi...

  5. A new version of an old modal incompleteness theorem

    OpenAIRE

    Vosmaer, Jacob

    2012-01-01

    Thomason \\cite{Thomason74} showed that a certain modal logic $\\mathbf{L}\\subset \\mathbf{S4}$ is incomplete with respect to Kripke semantics. Later Gerson \\cite{Gerson75} showed that $\\mathbf{L}$ is also incomplete with respect to neighborhood semantics. In this paper we show that $\\mathbf{L}$ is in fact incomplete with respect to any class of complete Boolean algebras with operators, i.e. that it is completely incomplete.

  6. Induction of complete and incomplete chromosome aberrations by bleomycin in human lymphocytes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Benkhaled, L.; Xuncla, M.; Caballin, M.R. [Universitat Autonoma de Barcelona, Unitat d' Antropologia Biologica, Departament de Biologia Animal, Biologia Vegetal i Ecologia, E-08193 Bellaterra (Spain); Barrios, L. [Universitat Autonoma de Barcelona, Unitat de Biologia Cel.lular, Departament de Biologia Cel.lular, Fisiologia i Immunologia (Spain); Barquinero, J.F. [Universitat Autonoma de Barcelona, Unitat d' Antropologia Biologica, Departament de Biologia Animal, Biologia Vegetal i Ecologia, E-08193 Bellaterra (Spain)], E-mail: Francesc.Barquinero@uab.es

    2008-01-01

    Bleomycin (BLM) is a clastogenic compound, which due to the overdispersion in the cell distribution of induced dicentrics has been compared to the effect of high-LET radiation. Recently, it has been described that in fibroblast derived cell lines BLM induces incomplete chromosome elements more efficiently than any type of ionizing radiation. The objective of the present study was to evaluate in human lymphocytes the induction of dicentrics and incomplete chromosome elements by BLM. Peripheral blood samples have been treated with different concentrations of BLM. Two cytogenetic techniques were applied, fluorescence plus Giemsa (FPG) and FISH using pan-centromeric and pan-telomeric probes. The observed frequency of dicentric equivalents increases linearly with the BLM concentration, and for all BLM concentrations the distribution of dicentric equivalents was overdispersed. In the FISH study the ratio between total incomplete elements and multicentrics was 0.27. The overdispersion in the dicentric cell distribution, and the linear BLM-concentration dependence of dicentrics can be compared to the effect of high-LET radiation, on the contrary the ratio of incomplete elements and multicentrics is similar to the one induced by low-LET radiation ({approx}0.40). The elevated proportion of interstitial deletions in relation to total acentric fragments, higher than any type of ionizing radiation could be a characteristic signature of the clastogenic effect of BLM.

  7. Induction of complete and incomplete chromosome aberrations by bleomycin in human lymphocytes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bleomycin (BLM) is a clastogenic compound, which due to the overdispersion in the cell distribution of induced dicentrics has been compared to the effect of high-LET radiation. Recently, it has been described that in fibroblast derived cell lines BLM induces incomplete chromosome elements more efficiently than any type of ionizing radiation. The objective of the present study was to evaluate in human lymphocytes the induction of dicentrics and incomplete chromosome elements by BLM. Peripheral blood samples have been treated with different concentrations of BLM. Two cytogenetic techniques were applied, fluorescence plus Giemsa (FPG) and FISH using pan-centromeric and pan-telomeric probes. The observed frequency of dicentric equivalents increases linearly with the BLM concentration, and for all BLM concentrations the distribution of dicentric equivalents was overdispersed. In the FISH study the ratio between total incomplete elements and multicentrics was 0.27. The overdispersion in the dicentric cell distribution, and the linear BLM-concentration dependence of dicentrics can be compared to the effect of high-LET radiation, on the contrary the ratio of incomplete elements and multicentrics is similar to the one induced by low-LET radiation (?0.40). The elevated proportion of interstitial deletions in relation to total acentric fragments, higher than any type of ionizing radiation could be a characteristic signature of the clastogenic effect of BLM

  8. Goedel incompleteness theorems and the limits of their applicability. I

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This is a survey of results related to the Goedel incompleteness theorems and the limits of their applicability. The first part of the paper discusses Goedel's own formulations along with modern strengthenings of the first incompleteness theorem. Various forms and proofs of this theorem are compared. Incompleteness results related to algorithmic problems and mathematically natural examples of unprovable statements are discussed. Bibliography: 68 titles.

  9. Maturity in technology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Alberts

    1988-03-01

    Full Text Available The concept is developed that modern technology, because of its relationship with pure science, can never really become mature, but will always grow as the pool of scientific knowledge grows. Parameters indicating to some extent the degree of technological prowess in a society are compared for a spectrum of countries. It is clear that in spite of some internationally outstanding successes. South Africa must be regarded on average as a developing society.

  10. Audit Maturity Model

    OpenAIRE

    Bhattacharya, Uttam; Rahut, Amit Kumar; De, Sujoy

    2013-01-01

    Today it is crucial for organizations to pay even greater attention on quality management as the importance of this function in achieving ultimate business objectives is increasingly becoming clearer. Importance of the Quality Management Function in achieving basic need by ensuring compliance with Capability Maturity Model Integrated or International Organization for Standardization is a basic demand from business nowadays. However, Quality Management Function and its proces...

  11. Vocational Maturity and Self Concepts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Helbing, Hans

    The relationship between separate dimensions of vocational maturity and different self-concept and identity variables were examined. Subjects were Dutch students, age 14-18 years. The vocational maturity dimensions were measured by Dutch adaptations of American vocational maturity scales. Instruments for self-concept and identity measurement were…

  12. A Socioanalytic Model of Maturity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hogan, Robert; Roberts, Brent W.

    2004-01-01

    K0 describes a point of view on maturity that departs from earlier treatments in two ways. First, it rejects the popular assumption from humanistic psychology that maturity is a function of self-actualization and stipulates that maturity is related to certain performance capacities--namely, the ability to form lasting relationships and to achieve…

  13. The Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids Arachidonic Acid and Docosahexaenoic Acid Induce Mouse Dendritic Cells Maturation but Reduce T-Cell Responses In Vitro

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carlsson, Johan A.; Wold, Agnes E.; Sandberg, Ann-Sofie; Östman, Sofia M.

    2015-01-01

    Long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) might regulate T-cell activation and lineage commitment. Here, we measured the effects of omega-3 (n-3), n-6 and n-9 fatty acids on the interaction between dendritic cells (DCs) and naïve T cells. Spleen DCs from BALB/c mice were cultured in vitro with ovalbumin (OVA) with 50 ?M fatty acids; ?-linolenic acid, arachidonic acid (AA), eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA), docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), linoleic acid or oleic acid and thereafter OVA-specific DO11.10 T cells were added to the cultures. Fatty acids were taken up by the DCs, as shown by gas chromatography analysis. After culture with arachidonic acid or DHA CD11c+ CD11b+ and CD11c+ CD11bneg DCs expressed more CD40, CD80, CD83, CD86 and PDL-1, while IAd remained unchanged. However, fewer T cells co-cultured with these DCs proliferated (CellTrace Violetlow) and expressed CD69 or CD25, while more were necrotic (7AAD+). We noted an increased proportion of T cells with a regulatory T cell (Treg) phenotype, i.e., when gating on CD4+ FoxP3+ CTLA-4+, CD4+ FoxP3+ Helios+ or CD4+ FoxP3+ PD-1+, in co-cultures with arachidonic acid- or DHA-primed DCs relative to control cultures. The proportion of putative Tregs was inversely correlated to T-cell proliferation, indicating a suppressive function of these cells. With arachidonic acid DCs produced higher levels of prostaglandin E2 while T cells produced lower amounts of IL-10 and IFN?. In conclusion arachidonic acid and DHA induced up-regulation of activation markers on DCs. However arachidonic acid- and DHA-primed DCs reduced T-cell proliferation and increased the proportion of T cells expressing FoxP3, indicating that these fatty acids can promote induction of regulatory T cells. PMID:26619195

  14. Entropy, heat, and G\\"odel incompleteness

    CERN Document Server

    Schlesinger, Karl-Georg

    2014-01-01

    Irreversible phenomena, such as the production of entropy and heat, arise from fundamental reversible dynamics because the forward dynamics is too complex, in the sense that it becomes impossible to provide the necessary information to keep track of the dynamics. On a heuristic level, this is well captured by coarse graining. We suggest that on a fundamental level the impossibility to provide the necessary information might be related to the incompleteness results of G\\"odel. This would hold interesting implications for both, mathematics and physics.

  15. On problem of optimization under incomplete information.

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Volf, Petr

    Karviná : Silesian University in Opava, School of Business Administration in Karviná, 2012 - (Ramík, J.; Stavárek, D.), s. 968-973 ISBN 978-80-7248-779-0. [30th International Conference Mathematical Methods in Economics 2012. Karviná (CZ), 11.09.2012-13.09.2012] R&D Projects: GA ?R GAP402/10/0956 Institutional support: RVO:67985556 Keywords : optimization * censored data * Fisher information * product-limit estimate Subject RIV: BB - Applied Statistics, Operational Research http://library.utia.cas.cz/separaty/2012/SI/volf-on problem of optimization under incomplete information.pdf

  16. Godel's Incompleteness Theorems and Platonic Metaphysics

    CERN Document Server

    Mikovic, Aleksandar

    2015-01-01

    We argue by using Godel's incompletness theorems in logic that platonism is the best metaphysics for science. This is based on the fact that a natural law in a platonic metaphysics represents a timeless order in the motion of matter, while a natural law in a materialistic metaphysics can be only defined as a temporary order which appears at random in the chaotic motion of matter. Although a logical possibility, one can argue that this type of metaphysics is highly implausible. Given that mathematics fits naturally within platonism, we conclude that a platonic metaphysics is more preferable than a materialistic metaphysics.

  17. In vitro Atrazine Exposure Affects the Phenotypic and Functional Maturation of Dendritic Cells

    OpenAIRE

    Pinchuk, Lesya M; Lee, Sang-Ryul; Filipov, Nikolay M

    2007-01-01

    Recent data suggest that some of the immunotoxic effects of the herbicide atrazine, a very widely used pesticide, may be due to perturbations in dendritic cell (DC) function. As consequences of atrazine exposure on the phenotypic and functional maturation of DC have not been studied, our objective was, using the murine DC line, JAWSII, to determine whether atrazine will interfere with DC maturation. First, we characterized the maturation of JAWSII cells in vitro by inducing them to mature in ...

  18. Business process maturity a comparative study on a sample of business process maturity models

    CERN Document Server

    Van Looy, Amy

    2014-01-01

    Organisations face many challenges, which induce them to perform better, and thus to establish mature (or excellent) business processes. As they now face globalisation, higher competitiveness, demanding customers, growing IT possibilities, compliancy rules etc., business process maturity models (BPMMs) have been introduced to help organisations gradually assess and improve their business processes (e.g. CMMI or OMG-BPMM). In fact, there are now so many BPMMs to choose from that organisations risk selecting one that does not fit their needs or one of substandard quality. This book presents a s

  19. A Clinical Study on Management of Incomplete Abortion by Manual Vacuum Aspiration (MVA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arifa Akter Jahan

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: Abortion is an important social and public health issue. In Bangladesh complication from unsafe abortion is one of the leading causes of maternal mortality. It is a serious health problem. World Health Organisation estimates that 14% of maternal deaths which occur every year in the countries of South Asia including Bangladesh are due to abortion. Study shows manual vacuum aspiration procedure is safe and effective in incomplete abortion. Very few clinical trials were carried out in Bangladesh to assess the safety and effectivity of manual vacuum aspiration in managing incomplete abortion. Objective: To find out the outcome of manual vacuum aspiration in the management of patients of incomplete abortion. Materials and Methods: This observational descriptive study was conducted in the department of Obstetrics & Gynaecology, Dhaka Medical College & Hospital from June to December, 2004. One hundred cases of diagnosed incomplete abortion up to 12 weeks of gestation were managed by manual vacuum aspiration during this period. A data recording sheet was designed for this purpose. Haemodynamically stable patients with no history of induced abortion and fever were enrolled. Results: Procedure time of manual vacuum aspiration was short, average duration was 7 minutes. Bleeding was minimum (20-30 mL in 67% cases and weighted mean was 29.80 mL. Eighty three percent patients were stable during the procedure and only 3% needed blood transfusion. Nonnarcotic analgesics were used in 59% cases and 33% needed only proper counselling. Average duration of hospital stay was 2 hours. Effectiveness of the procedure was about 98% with very low post procedure complication rate (2%. Conclusion: MVA procedure is a safe and effective technique of uterine evacuation in incomplete abortion. It is quick, less expensive, effective and less painful. Hospital stay and chance of perforation of uterus is less. So this procedure should be considered by health care system in Bangladesh for improving treatment of incomplete abortion to reduce both maternal morbidity and mortality.

  20. Propolis inhibits osteoclast maturation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pileggi, Roberta; Antony, Kathryn; Johnson, Kristie; Zuo, Jian; Shannon Holliday, L

    2009-12-01

    Propolis, a natural product produced by the honey bee, has been successfully used in medicine as an anti-inflammatory and antimicrobial agent. Traumatic injuries to the teeth, especially avulsion injuries, present a challenging situation for the clinician because of post-treatment complications, such as inflammatory and/or replacement resorption. Agents that reduce osteoclast numbers and activity may be useful in the treatment of traumatic injuries to the teeth. In this study, we evaluated propolis as an anti-resorptive agent. Calcitriol-stimulated mouse marrow cultures, which contain both osteoclasts and osteoblasts, were exposed to the ethanol extracts of propolis or vehicle control and stained for tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase (TRAP)-activity to identify osteoclasts. A significant, dose-dependent reduction in multinuclear TRAP+ cells was demonstrated, although the propolis treatment accommodated cell growth and survival (P RAW 264.7 osteoclast-like cells, suggesting that it exerts direct actions on osteoclast maturation. In summary, our data suggest that propolis inhibits late stages of osteoclast maturation including fusion of osteoclasts precursors to form giant cells and formation of actin rings. This supports the hypothesis that it may prove useful as a medicament to reduce resorption associated with traumatic injuries to the teeth. PMID:19843135

  1. Maduración visual retardada / Delayed visual maturation

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Yolelvis, Monfort Estévez; Teresita de Jesús, Méndez Sánchez.

    Full Text Available Retraso en la maduración visual es el término utilizado para describir aquellos niños con incapacidad de fijar o seguir objetos en el ambiente, que no responden ante la proximidad de un objeto amenazante o un destello de luz, por ejemplo, abrir y cerrar los ojos; pero luego mejora a la edad de 6 mes [...] es sin tratamiento. Se incluyen dentro de las posibles causas la falta de oxígeno antes, durante o después del nacimiento, enfermedades producidas por virus o bacterias como la meningitis y el citomegalovirus, o una lesión traumática,aunque hoy en día queda poco consenso en cuanto a la etiología de este fenómeno. Estos niños con retraso en la maduración visual parecen ciegos, incapaces de centrar la atención, fijar o seguir cualquier parte del mundo visual. La exploración ocular y neurológica del niño es completamente normal. Los síntomas se resuelven sin tratamiento y con frecuencia, no se encuentra ninguna causa para la presentación inicial. El retraso en la maduración visual se clasifica en 3 grupos: el primero con retraso en la maduración visual como única anomalía y una recuperación rápida y completa. El segundo incluye aquellos casos con problemas oculares, como estrabismo, error refractivo elevado, retraso mental, entre otros, logrando una recuperación más lenta y a menudo incompleta. El tercer grupo incluye los casos con otras anomalías oculares. Abstract in english Delayed visual maturation is the term used to describe those children with inability to fix their eyes with the object or to visually follow them in the environment, who do not react to a threatening object or a gleam of light close to them, for example, by opening and closing their eyes. However, t [...] hey generally improve their condition at the age of 6 months without any treatment. The possible causes of this disorder may be lack of oxygen, before, during or after birth, illnesses caused by viruses or bacteria, such as meningitis and cytomegalovirus, or a traumatic lesion, although there exists now minority consensus about the real etiology of this phenomenon. The children suffering delayed visual maturation seem to be blind, unable to focus attention, fix or visually follow any portion of the visual world. Ocular and neurological examination of the child is completely normal. Symptoms disappear without any treatment and the cause for the initial occurrence is usually unfound. The delayed visual maturation is classified into 3 groups, the first group with delayed visual maturation as the only anomaly and a quick and complete recovery. The second group includes those cases with ocular problems, namely strabismus, high refractive error, mental retardation, and others, in which recovery is slower and often incomplete. The third group includes cases with other ocular anomalies.

  2. Observation of incomplete fusion at low angular momenta

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Devendra P.; Yadav, Abhishek; Bala, Indu; Raghav, Anubhav; Shuaib, Mohd.; Kumar, Prabhat; Singh, Pushpendra P.; Unnati; Sharma, M. K.; Sharma, Vijay R.; Kumar, R.; Gupta, R. K.; Singh, B. P.; Prasad, R.

    2015-01-01

    Present work deals with experimental studies of incomplete fusion reaction dynamics using off-line ?-ray spectrometry at energies as low as ?3-6 MeV/nucleon. Excitation functions for five reaction products populated via complete and/or incomplete fusion processes in 16O+130Te system have been measured and compared with the predictions of the statistical model code PACE4. A significant enhancement in the measured excitation functions compared to theoretical predictions for ?-emitting channels has been observed and is attributed to incomplete fusion processes. The relative strength of incomplete fusion has been found to increase with projectile energy. Results show that incomplete fusion is associated even for angular momenta lesser than the critical angular momentum for complete fusion and also reveals importance of incomplete fusion even at energies as low as ?3-6 MeV/nucleon.

  3. Light particle revelation on incomplete fusion reactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Incomplete fusion reactions have been studied through light particles emission in the reaction 116Sn + 16O at 125 MeV (ALICE facility in Orsay). We measured energy angular distributions and correlations between any two of these particles (? particles, protons, neutrons), while ? multiplicity measurements provide us fuller informations. From collected data, the following pictures can be drawn: - the only fast particles observed are ? particles, while protons and neutrons seem to come only from statistical evaporation; - outgoing channels where two ? particles are emitted cannot be solely explained by the sequential emission of 8Be ? 2?: about half of the cross section proceeds from statistical evaporation of one ? particle. Accordingly, 2?xn channels do not necessarily agree with high value of angular momentum in the entrance channel. From the study of experimental results in the yrast plane, we can assign a large width to the angular momentum distribution

  4. Incomplete melting of the Au(100) surface

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We study the high-temperature disordering of the reconstructed Au(100) surface by molecular dynamics simulation using a many-body interatomic potential. We find that the surface deconstructs at 0.8Tm in good agreement with experimental data, but proper surface melting does not occur close to the bulk melting point. Instead there is an in-plane disordering of the two topmost layers. The thickness of the disordered region remains constant with increasing temperature, indicating blocked, or incomplete, melting of the (100) crystalline substrate. An analysis of the structure reveals that crystalline and disordered islands coexist on two first surface layers for temperature between deconstruction and bulk melting. (author). 24 refs, 10 figs

  5. Regulatory perspective on incomplete control rod insertions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chatterton, M.

    1997-01-01

    The incomplete control rod insertions experienced at South Texas Unit 1 and Wolf Creek are of safety concern to the NRC staff because they represent potential precursors to loss of shutdown margin. Even before it was determined if these events were caused by the control rods or by the fuel there was an apparent correlation of the problem with high burnup fuel. It was determined that there was also a correlation between high burnup and high drag forces as well as with rod drop time histories and lack of rod recoil. The NRC staff initial actions were aimed at getting a perspective on the magnitude of the problem as far as the number of plants and the amount of fuel that could be involved, as well as the safety significance in terms of shutdown margin. As tests have been performed and data has been analyzed the focus has shifted more toward understanding the problem and the ways to eliminate it. At this time the staff`s understanding of the phenomena is that it was a combination of factors including burnup, power history and temperature. The problem appears to be very sensitive to these factors, the interaction of which is not clearly understood. The model developed by Westinghouse provides a possible explanation but there is not sufficient data to establish confidence levels and sensitivity studies involving the key parameters have not been done. While several fixes to the problem have been discussed, no definitive fixes have been proposed. Without complete understanding of the phenomena, or fixes that clearly eliminate the problem the safety concern remains. The safety significance depends on the amount of shutdown margin lost due to incomplete insertion of the control rods. Were the control rods to stick high in the core, the reactor could not be shutdown by the control rods and other means such as emergency boration would be required.

  6. In praise of the incomplete leader.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ancona, Deborah; Malone, Thomas W; Orlikowski, Wanda J; Senge, Peter M

    2007-02-01

    Today's top executives are expected to do everything right, from coming up with solutions to unfathomably complex problems to having the charisma and prescience to rally stakeholders around a perfect vision of the future. But no one leader can be all things to all people. It's time to end the myth of the complete leader, say the authors. Those at the top must come to understand their weaknesses as well as their strengths. Only by embracing the ways in which they are incomplete can leaders fill in the gaps in their knowledge with others' skills. The incomplete leader has the confidence and humility to recognize unique talents and perspectives throughout the organization--and to let those qualities shine. The authors' work studying leadership over the past six years has led them to develop a framework of distributed leadership. Within that model, leadership consists of four capabilities: sensemaking, relating, "visioning," and inventing. Sensemaking involves understanding and mapping the context in which a company and its people operate. A leader skilled in this area can quickly identify the complexities of a given situation and explain them to others. The second capability, relating, means being able to build trusting relationships with others through inquiring (listening with intention), advocating (explaining one's own point of view), and connecting (establishing a network of allies who can help a leader accomplish his or her goals). Visioning, the third capability, means coming up with a compelling image of the future. It is a collaborative process that articulates what the members of an organization want to create. Finally, inventing involves developing new ways to bring that vision to life. Rarely will a single person be skilled in all four areas. That's why it's critical that leaders find others who can offset their limitations and complement their strengths. Those who don't will not only bear the burden of leadership alone but will find themselves at the helm of an unbalanced ship. PMID:17345683

  7. Transcriptional Landscape of Cardiomyocyte Maturation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uosaki, Hideki; Cahan, Patrick; Lee, Dong I.; Wang, Songnan; Miyamoto, Matthew; Fernandez, Laviel; Kass, David A.; Kwon, Chulan

    2015-01-01

    SUMMARY Decades of progress in developmental cardiology has advanced our understanding of the early aspects of heart development, including cardiomyocyte (CM) differentiation. However, control of CM maturation which is subsequently required to generate adult myocytes, remains elusive. Here, we analyzed over 200 microarray datasets from early embryonic to adult hearts and identified a large number of genes whose expression shifts gradually and continuously during maturation. We generated an atlas of integrated gene expression, biological pathways, transcriptional regulators, and gene regulatory networks (GRNs), which show discrete sets of key transcriptional regulators and pathways activated or suppressed during CM maturation. We developed a GRN-based program named MatStatCM that indexes CM maturation status. MatStatCM reveals that pluripotent stem cell-derived CMs mature early in culture, but are arrested at the late embryonic stage with aberrant regulation of key transcription factors. Our study provides a foundation for understanding CM maturation. PMID:26586429

  8. Incomplete resistance to coffee leaf rust (Hemileia vastatrix)

    OpenAIRE

    Eskes, T.K.A.B.

    1983-01-01

    Incomplete resistance to coffee leaf rust ( Hemileia vastatrix ) may be of value in obtaining durable resistance, which is of great importance for the perennial coffee crop. Methods were developed to assess incomplete resistance to coffee leaf rust by using illustrated scales ranging from 0 to 9 (Chapter 1). A laboratory screening method, which uses leaf disks, has been standardized. The method is satisfactory for the assessment of complete and incomplete resistance (Chapter 2). Resistance to...

  9. Goedel incompleteness theorems and the limits of their applicability. I

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beklemishev, Lev D [Steklov Mathematical Institute, Russian Academy of Sciences, Moscow (Russian Federation)

    2011-01-25

    This is a survey of results related to the Goedel incompleteness theorems and the limits of their applicability. The first part of the paper discusses Goedel's own formulations along with modern strengthenings of the first incompleteness theorem. Various forms and proofs of this theorem are compared. Incompleteness results related to algorithmic problems and mathematically natural examples of unprovable statements are discussed. Bibliography: 68 titles.

  10. Gibbs' theorem for open systems with incomplete statistics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gibbs' theorem, which is originally intended for canonical ensembles with complete statistics has been generalized to open systems with incomplete statistics. As a result of this generalization, it is shown that the stationary equilibrium distribution of inverse power law form associated with the incomplete statistics has maximum entropy even for open systems with energy or matter influx. The renormalized entropy definition given in this paper can also serve as a measure of self-organization in open systems described by incomplete statistics.

  11. The Surprise Examination Paradox and the Second Incompleteness Theorem

    OpenAIRE

    Kritchman, Shira; Raz, Ran

    2010-01-01

    We give a new proof for Godel's second incompleteness theorem, based on Kolmogorov complexity, Chaitin's incompleteness theorem, and an argument that resembles the surprise examination paradox. We then go the other way around and suggest that the second incompleteness theorem gives a possible resolution of the surprise examination paradox. Roughly speaking, we argue that the flaw in the derivation of the paradox is that it contains a hidden assumption that one can prove the ...

  12. Melatonin Induces Follicle Maturation in Danio rerio

    OpenAIRE

    Carnevali, Oliana; Gioacchini, Giorgia; Maradonna, Francesca; Olivotto, Ike; Migliarini, Beatrice

    2011-01-01

    Most organisms modulate their reproductive activity responding to day length by the nocturnal release of melatonin by the pineal gland. This hormone is also responsible for synchronizing reproduction with specific external environment stimuli in order to optimize reproductive success.

  13. Hierarchical sparse Bayesian learning for structural health monitoring with incomplete modal data

    OpenAIRE

    Yong HUANG; Beck, James L.

    2014-01-01

    For civil structures, structural damage due to severe loading events such as earthquakes, or due to long-term environmental degradation, usually occurs in localized areas of a structure. A new sparse Bayesian probabilistic framework for computing the probability of localized stiffness reductions induced by damage is presented that uses noisy incomplete modal data from before and after possible damage. This new approach employs system modal parameters of the structure as extr...

  14. CFD - Mature Technology?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwak, Dochan

    2005-01-01

    Over the past 30 years, numerical methods and simulation tools for fluid dynamic problems have advanced as a new discipline, namely, computational fluid dynamics (CFD). Although a wide spectrum of flow regimes are encountered in many areas of science and engineering, simulation of compressible flow has been the major driver for developing computational algorithms and tools. This is probably due to a large demand for predicting the aerodynamic performance characteristics of flight vehicles, such as commercial, military, and space vehicles. As flow analysis is required to be more accurate and computationally efficient for both commercial and mission-oriented applications (such as those encountered in meteorology, aerospace vehicle development, general fluid engineering and biofluid analysis) CFD tools for engineering become increasingly important for predicting safety, performance and cost. This paper presents the author's perspective on the maturity of CFD, especially from an aerospace engineering point of view.

  15. Mature Cystic Renal Teratoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Teratomas are rare germline tumors that originate from one or more embryonic germ cell layers. Teratoma of the kidney is extremely rare, and less than 30 cases of primary intrarenal teratomas have been published to date. We report the main radiologic features of an unusual case of mature cystic teratoma arising from the left kidney in a two-year-old boy. A left-sided abdominal mass was detected on physical examination and B-Mod Ultrasound (US) examination revealed a heterogeneous mass with central cystic component. Computed tomography (CT) demonstrated a lobulated, heterogeneous, hypodense mass extending craniocaudally from the splenic hilum to the level of the left iliac fossa. Nephrectomy was performed and a large, fatty mass arising from the left kidney was excised. The final pathologic diagnosis was confirmed as cystic renal teratoma

  16. Large influence of fusion incompleteness in incomplete fusion reaction dynamics at low energies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Incomplete fusion (ICF) has been found to be competing fusion-like processes at energies even a little above the Coulomb barrier, forming a reduced excited composite system with relatively lower mass, charge, and excitation energy compared to the completely fused composite system, due to the prompt emission of forward-peaked projectile like fragments (PLFs) at the initial stage of interaction. As the projectiles 12C, 16O and 20Ne are clusters of ?-particles, it could be assumed that it is easy to transfer ? particle from these projectiles to the target. In such reactions the mass flow is always from projectile to target. In the present work, the relative contributions of incomplete fusion process to the total reaction cross-section in the two systems, i.e., 16O + 165Ho and 16O + 115In have been calculated

  17. Spinal cord mature cystic teratoma

    OpenAIRE

    Avci, Emel; Adil OZTURK ,; Ozardali, Ilyas

    2005-01-01

    Spinal cord teratoma is very rare lesion. Intradural spinal teratoma consists of 0,1% of all spinal tumours. Teratomas are classified into three groups: mature, immature and malignant teratomas. The authors report a 12 years old man with intradural lumbar mature teratoma

  18. Emotional Maturity: Characteristics and Levels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dr. Umesh Chandra Kapri

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available "Mature" means a completed natural growth. Emotional maturity is not related to physical maturity which is expected to be but, does not grow with our chronological age. Emotionally mature people are sensible who do not whine, crib or play the blame game. They have full control over their lives. They reflect on their lives and on the role that they play in other people’s lives. Emotionally mature people lead a well-adjusted life due to their healthy outlook on life. There are various levels of emotional maturity. The final level is emotional detachment which is the direct consequence of the true understanding of emotions and therefore, letting go of all the emotions, either good or bad and feeling happy. Emotional maturity is a significant predictor of the level of success that an individual achieves in his/her lifetime. Success includes wealth, general level of happiness, self-confidence, success in relationships, etc. where emotional maturity plays a significant role to get success.

  19. Global identification from the equilibrium manifold under incomplete markets

    OpenAIRE

    Carvajal, Andreas; Riascos, Alvaro

    2004-01-01

    We show that, even under incomplete markets, the equilibrium manifold identifies individual demands everywhere in their domains. For this, we assume conditions of smoothness, interiority and regularity, and avoid observational requirements at the individual level. It is crucial that there be date-zero consumption. As a by-product, we develop some duality theory under incomplete markets.

  20. Manejo estético y endodóncico de dientes con formación radicular incompleta / Aesthetic and endodontic management of teeth with incomplete root formation

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    L.A., Dávila Rodríguez; D.A., Barcha Barreto; E., León Barrios; M.A., Simancas Pallares.

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available La necrosis pulpar es una de las principales complicaciones de los traumatismos dentales lo que implica en un diente inmaduro la interrupción de la maduración de la raíz y el cierre apical. Una terapia llamada "apexificación" se requiere para inducir la formación de una barrera calcificada apical pe [...] rmitiendo un relleno permanente y hermético de la raíz. Numerosos materiales han sido recomendados para inducir apexificación y conservar la estética en dientes con ápices inmaduros como el mineral trióxido agregado (MTA), el hidróxido de calcio [Ca (OH)2], los postes de fibra de vidrio y entre los diversos materiales utilizados en prótesis, la cerámica que reproduce la apariencia de la dentición natural y tiene un comportamiento óptico muy similar a la de los tejidos duros dentales. El presente caso reporta paciente masculino de 17 años de edad con fractura coronaria complicada, conducto radicular expuesto a cavidad oral con formación radicular incompleta. El objetivo del presente caso clínico es describir la apexificación como primera alternativa para mantener un diente útil, utilizando la formación de una barrera apical con mineral trióxido agregado (MTA) y recuperar la estética del paciente. Conclusiones: La medicación intraconducto adecuada para la inducción a la formación de un cierre apical en un diente inmaduro o con formación radicular incompleta, es de trascendental importancia para el éxito del proceso de apexificación en donde juega un papel importante el MTA ya que en la actualidad es el material que brinda más ventajas en esta práctica como inductor de dicho proceso. Abstract in english Pulpal necrosis is one of the main complications of dental trauma which implies an interruption of the root maturation and the apical closure of an immature tooth. Apexification is a therapy used for inducing the creation of an apical calcified barrier allowing a permanent filling of the root. Sever [...] al materials have been recommended to induce apexification and preserve aesthetics in teeth with immature apex, such as mineral trioxide aggregate (MTA), calcium hydroxide [Ca (OH)2], glass fiber posts, as well as the different materials used in prosthetic dentistry, ceramics that reproduce the appearance of the natural dentition and show an optic behavior very similar to the hard tissues of the teeth. This case reports a 17 year old male patient with a complicated crown fracture, exposed root canal in the oral cavity with incomplete root formation. The purpose of this clinical case is to describe the use of apexification as the first choice to keep a useful tooth, using the formation of an apical barrier with mineral trioxide aggregate (MTA) and recover the patient aesthetics. Conclusions: The appropriate intracanal medication for inducing the formation of an apical closure in an immature tooth or with an incomplete root formation, is of vital importance for the success of the process of apexification where MTA plays an important role due to the fact that right now is the material that gives more advantages in this particular practice as an inducer in that process.

  1. Judicial Dissent under Externalities and Incomplete Information

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rustam Romaniuc

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available he issue of the stability and change of legal rules occupies a central place in the discussions of alternative ways of organizing justice and the provision of legal rules. There nonetheless remains a theoretical aspect that has never been raised in the literature on judicial decision making and legal change. Judges that are not bound by precedent and can change the law directly by overruling previous decisions have to make a particular decision about the direction the new precedent will take. We show that under incomplete information about judges’ eagerness to choose according to their ideal points, there are two candidates for the particular legal rule that is to become the new precedent: (i judge’s private optimum; and (ii some other legal rule that can differ from (i and corresponds to the empirical and normative expectations of a large subset of judges within the judicial population. The individual judge that has decided not to stick to the precedent faces therefore a trade-off, he has to choose among alternative legal rules that yield alternative levels of public and private satisfaction of preferences.

  2. Trisomy 18 syndrome with incomplete Cantrell syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hou, Yi-Jen; Chen, Fong-Lin; Ng, Yan-Yan; Hu, Jui-Ming; Chen, Suh-Jen; Chen, Jia-Yuh; Su, Pen-Hua

    2008-06-01

    The pentalogy of Cantrell was first described in 1958 by Cantrell and coworkers, who reported five cases in which they described a pentad of findings including a midline supraumbilical thoracoabdominal wall defect, a defect of the Lower sternum, abnormalities of the diaphragmatic pericardium and the anterior diaphragm, and congenital cardiac anomalies. Trisomy 18 has an incidence of about 0.3 per 1000 newborns. We present a case of trisomy 18 with incomplete Cantrell syndrome. The patient presented with hypogenesis of the corpus callosum, vermian-cerebellar hypoplasia (Dandy-Walker variant), ventricular septal defect, dextrocardia, patent ductus arteriosus, a defect of the lower sternum, a midline supraumbilical abdominal wall defect with omphalocele, congenital left posterior diaphragmatic hernia (Bochdalek hernia), micrognathia, low-set and malformed ears, rocker-bottom feet, dorsiflexed hallux, hypoplastic nails, short neck, and wrist deformity. Trisomy 18 syndrome was unusually combined with the pentalogy of Cantrell. We present this case because of its rarity and high risk of mortality. PMID:18947004

  3. Skyline Sets Queries for Incomplete Data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Shamsul Arefin

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available With the increase of data volume, advanced query operators, such as skyline queries, are necessary inorder to help users to handle the huge amount of available data by identifying a set of interesting dataobjects. Skyline queries help us to filter unnecessary information efficiently and provide us clues forvarious decision making tasks.Most of the existing skyline algorithms cannot preserve individual’s privacy and are not well suited fordata with outliers and frequently updated data. Considering these issues, earlier we have proposed skylinesets queries from databases where all dimensions are available for all data items and considered anefficient algorithm for computing convex skyline sets. In this paper, we use that idea for skyline sets queriesfor incomplete data and propose a method, namely, RBSSQ. RBSSQ method uses a replacement-basedapproach and is applicable to the databases having any number of missing dimensions in the databaseobjects. We have conducted several experiments in terms of computational cost and found that ourproposed method can efficiently compute skyline sets from data items with missing values.

  4. Scalable Tensor Factorizations for Incomplete Data

    CERN Document Server

    Acar, Evrim; Dunlavy, Daniel M; Morup, Morten

    2010-01-01

    The problem of incomplete data - i.e., data with missing or unknown values - in multi-way arrays is ubiquitous in biomedical signal processing, network traffic analysis, bibliometrics, social network analysis, chemometrics, computer vision, communication networks, etc. We consider the problem of how to factorize data sets with missing values with the goal of capturing the underlying latent structure of the data and possibly reconstructing missing values (i.e., tensor completion). We focus on one of the most well-known tensor factorizations that captures multi-linear structure, CANDECOMP/PARAFAC (CP). In the presence of missing data, CP can be formulated as a weighted least squares problem that models only the known entries. We develop an algorithm called CP-WOPT (CP Weighted OPTimization) that uses a first-order optimization approach to solve the weighted least squares problem. Based on extensive numerical experiments, our algorithm is shown to successfully factorize tensors with noise and up to 99% missing d...

  5. Scalable tensor factorizations for incomplete data

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Acar, Evrim; Dunlavy, Daniel M.

    2011-01-01

    The problem of incomplete data—i.e., data with missing or unknown values—in multi-way arrays is ubiquitous in biomedical signal processing, network traffic analysis, bibliometrics, social network analysis, chemometrics, computer vision, communication networks, etc. We consider the problem of how to factorize data sets with missing values with the goal of capturing the underlying latent structure of the data and possibly reconstructing missing values (i.e., tensor completion). We focus on one of the most well-known tensor factorizations that captures multi-linear structure, CANDECOMP/PARAFAC (CP). In the presence of missing data, CP can be formulated as a weighted least squares problem that models only the known entries. We develop an algorithm called CP-WOPT (CP Weighted OPTimization) that uses a first-order optimization approach to solve the weighted least squares problem. Based on extensive numerical experiments, our algorithm is shown to successfully factorize tensors with noise and up to 99% missing data.A unique aspect of our approach is that it scales to sparse large-scale data, e.g., 1000 × 1000 × 1000 with five million known entries (0.5% dense). We further demonstrate the usefulness of CP-WOPT on two real-world applications: a novel EEG (electroencephalogram) application where missing data is frequently encountered due to disconnections of electrodes and the problem of modeling computer network traffic where data may be absent due to the expense of the data collection process.

  6. Scalable tensor factorizations with incomplete data.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morup, Morten (Technical University of Denmark); Dunlavy, Daniel M. (Sandia National Laboratories, Albuquerque, NM); Acar, Evrim (Information Technologies Institute, Turkey); Kolda, Tamara Gibson

    2010-07-01

    The problem of incomplete data - i.e., data with missing or unknown values - in multi-way arrays is ubiquitous in biomedical signal processing, network traffic analysis, bibliometrics, social network analysis, chemometrics, computer vision, communication networks, etc. We consider the problem of how to factorize data sets with missing values with the goal of capturing the underlying latent structure of the data and possibly reconstructing missing values (i.e., tensor completion). We focus on one of the most well-known tensor factorizations that captures multi-linear structure, CANDECOMP/PARAFAC (CP). In the presence of missing data, CP can be formulated as a weighted least squares problem that models only the known entries. We develop an algorithm called CP-WOPT (CP Weighted OPTimization) that uses a first-order optimization approach to solve the weighted least squares problem. Based on extensive numerical experiments, our algorithm is shown to successfully factorize tensors with noise and up to 99% missing data. A unique aspect of our approach is that it scales to sparse large-scale data, e.g., 1000 x 1000 x 1000 with five million known entries (0.5% dense). We further demonstrate the usefulness of CP-WOPT on two real-world applications: a novel EEG (electroencephalogram) application where missing data is frequently encountered due to disconnections of electrodes and the problem of modeling computer network traffic where data may be absent due to the expense of the data collection process.

  7. Structural and functional maturation of rat gastrointestinal barrier with thyroxine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    It has been noted that the closure of the intestinal barrier to immunoglobulins is a normal maturational process in the rat. It has also been noted that the microvillus membrane (MVM) of newborn animals differs from adult MVM. The purpose of this study is to document whether thyroid hormone can induce closure in vivo in the rat and to relate this effect of thyroxine to the structural and functional maturation of the intestinal MVM. To assess closure, 2-wk-old rats were fed in rat immunoglobulin G (IgG), and serum antibody binding activity was measured 4 h later. The antibody binding activity of treated animals (T) was 1.5-2 times less than that of controls (C), indicating that thyroxine stimulates closure. The MVM similarly showed signs of maturation. Structural maturation was demonstrated by the lower fluidity of the thyroid-treated animals' membranes. Under the influence of thyroxine, the number of receptors on the MVM for IgG had decreased, while the K/sub a/ remained the same, demonstrating the functional maturation of the MVM. In conclusion, thryoid hormone can induce both structural and functional maturation of the intestinal MVM and can enhance the intestinal mucosal barrier by decreasing the penetration of antibodies

  8. Modelling incomplete fusion dynamics of weakly bound nuclei at near-barrier energies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diaz-Torres, Alexis

    2010-07-01

    The classical dynamical model for reactions induced by weakly bound nuclei at near-barrier energies is developed further. It allows a quantitative study of the role and importance of incomplete fusion dynamics in asymptotic observables, such as the population of high-spin states in reaction products as well as the angular distribution of direct alpha-production. Model calculations indicate that incomplete fusion is an effective mechanism for populating high-spin states, and its contribution to the direct alpha production yield diminishes with decreasing energy towards the Coulomb barrier. It also becomes notably separated in angles from the contribution of no-capture breakup events. This should facilitate the experimental disentanglement of these competing reaction processes.

  9. Modelling incomplete fusion dynamics of weakly-bound nuclei at near-barrier energies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diaz-Torres, Alexis

    2010-03-01

    The classical dynamical model for reactions induced by weakly-bound nuclei at near-barrier energies is developed further. It allows a quantitative study of the role and importance of incomplete fusion dynamics in asymptotic observables, such as the population of high-spin states in reaction products as well as the angular distribution of direct alpha-production. Model calculations indicate that incomplete fusion is an effective mechanism for populating high-spin states, and its contribution to the direct alpha production yield diminishes with decreasing energy towards the Coulomb barrier. It also becomes notably separated in angles from the contribution of no-capture breakup events. This should facilitate the experimental disentanglement of these competing reaction processes.

  10. Modelling incomplete fusion dynamics of weakly-bound nuclei at near-barrier energies

    CERN Document Server

    Diaz-Torres, Alexis

    2010-01-01

    The classical dynamical model for reactions induced by weakly-bound nuclei at near-barrier energies is developed further. It allows a quantitative study of the role and importance of incomplete fusion dynamics in asymptotic observables, such as the population of high-spin states in reaction products as well as the angular distribution of direct alpha-production. Model calculations indicate that incomplete fusion is an effective mechanism for populating high-spin states, and its contribution to the direct alpha production yield diminishes with decreasing energy towards the Coulomb barrier. It also becomes notably separated in angles from the contribution of no-capture breakup events. This should facilitate the experimental disentanglement of these competing reaction processes.

  11. Role of the critical angular momentum on incomplete fusion dynamics above the Coulomb barrier

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The study of incomplete fusion (ICF) of heavy ions (HI) with different targets has been a growing interest at energies above the Coulomb barrier. Observations of HI induced reactions show that at projectile energies above the Coulomb barrier, complete fusion (CF) and incomplete fusion (ICF) are dominant nuclear reaction mechanisms. In case of CF process, the projectile completely fuses with the target nucleus and the highly excited nuclear system decays by evaporating low energy nucleons and alpha particles. Using these experimentally measured total and theoretically calculated total cross-section of ERs, critical angular momentum have been calculated for the above projectile target systems at projectile energy ? 4-7 MeV/nucleon. Role of the ?crit on ICF dynamics above the Coulomb barrier for these two projectile target combinations have been discussed and presented in this paper

  12. 7 CFR 51.693 - Mature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ...Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Mature. 51.693 Section 51.693 Agriculture Regulations...California, and Arizona) Definitions § 51.693 Mature. Mature shall have the same meaning currently assigned...

  13. 7 CFR 51.1218 - Mature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ...Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Mature. 51.1218 Section 51.1218 Agriculture ...for Grades of Peaches Definitions § 51.1218 Mature. “Mature” means that the peach has reached the stage of...

  14. 7 CFR 51.484 - Mature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ...Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Mature. 51.484 Section 51.484 Agriculture Regulations...Grades of Cantaloups 1 Definitions § 51.484 Mature. Mature means that the cantaloup has reached the stage...

  15. 7 CFR 51.1907 - Mature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ...Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Mature. 51.1907 Section 51.1907 Agriculture ...Standards for Fresh Tomatoes Definitions § 51.1907 Mature. Mature means that the tomato has reached the stage of...

  16. 7 CFR 51.767 - Mature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ...Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Mature. 51.767 Section 51.767 Agriculture Regulations...Grades of Florida Grapefruit Definitions § 51.767 Mature. Mature shall have the same meaning assigned the term...

  17. 7 CFR 51.2651 - Mature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ...Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Mature. 51.2651 Section 51.2651 Agriculture ...Grades for Sweet Cherries 1 Definitions § 51.2651 Mature. Mature means that the cherries have reached the stage...

  18. 7 CFR 51.1158 - Mature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ...Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Mature. 51.1158 Section 51.1158 Agriculture ...Florida Oranges and Tangelos Definitions § 51.1158 Mature. Mature shall have the same meaning assigned the term...

  19. 7 CFR 51.3153 - Mature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ...Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Mature. 51.3153 Section 51.3153 Agriculture ...Grades of Nectarines Definitions § 51.3153 Mature. “Mature” means that the nectarine has reached the stage...

  20. 7 CFR 51.631 - Mature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ...Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Mature. 51.631 Section 51.631 Agriculture Regulations...California, and Arizona) Definitions § 51.631 Mature. Mature shall have the same meaning currently assigned...

  1. 7 CFR 51.3058 - Mature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ...Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Mature. 51.3058 Section 51.3058 Agriculture ...Standards for Florida Avocados Definitions § 51.3058 Mature. Mature means that the avocado has reached a stage of...

  2. 7 CFR 51.1865 - Mature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ...Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Mature. 51.1865 Section 51.1865 Agriculture ...Standards for Fresh Tomatoes 1 Definitions § 51.1865 Mature. Mature means that the tomato has reached the stage of...

  3. 7 CFR 51.2841 - Mature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ...Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Mature. 51.2841 Section 51.2841 Agriculture ...Bermuda-Granex-Grano and Creole Types) Definitions § 51.2841 Mature. Mature means well cured. Midseason onions which are...

  4. 7 CFR 51.1530 - Mature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ...Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Mature. 51.1530 Section 51.1530 Agriculture ...Fresh Plums and Prunes Definitions § 51.1530 Mature. “Mature” means that the fruit has reached the stage of...

  5. 7 CFR 51.1585 - Mature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ...Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Mature. 51.1585 Section 51.1585 Agriculture ...Standards for Potatoes Definitions § 51.1585 Mature. Mature means that the outer skin (epidermis) does not...

  6. 7 CFR 51.3746 - Mature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ...Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Mature. 51.3746 Section 51.3746 Agriculture ...Honey Ball Type Melons Definitions § 51.3746 Mature. Mature means that the melon has reached the stage of...

  7. 7 CFR 51.2930 - Mature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ...Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Mature. 51.2930 Section 51.2930 Agriculture ...for Grades of Apricots Definitions § 51.2930 Mature. Mature means having reached the stage of development...

  8. Leaflet stress and strain distributions following incomplete transcatheter aortic valve expansion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abbasi, Mostafa; Azadani, Ali N

    2015-10-15

    Transcatheter aortic valve replacement (TAVR) is an established treatment alternative to surgical valve replacement in high-risk patients with severe symptomatic aortic stenosis. The current guidelines for TAVR are to upsize transcatheter aortic valve (TAV) relative to the native annulus to secure the device and minimize paravalvular leakage. Unlike surgical stented bioprosthetic valves where leaflets are attached to a rigid frame, TAVs must expand to fit within the native annulus. Fully-expanded circular TAVs have consistent leaflet kinematics; however, subtle variations in the degree of stent expansion may affect leaflet coaptation. The objective of this study was to determine the impact of incomplete TAV expansion on leaflet stress and strain distributions. In this study, we developed finite element models of a 23mm homemade TAV expanded to diameters ranging from 18 to 23mm in 1mm increments. Through dynamic finite element simulations, we found that leaflet stress and strain distributions were dependent on the diameter of the inflated TAV. After complete expansion of the TAV to 23mm, high stress and strain regions were observed primarily in the commissures during diastole. However, 2-3mm incomplete TAV stent expansion induced localized high stress regions within the TAV commissures, while 4-5mm incomplete stent expansion induced localized high stress regions within the belly of the TAV leaflets during the diastolic phase of the cardiac cycle. Increased mechanical stress and flexural deformation on TAV leaflets due to incomplete stent expansion may lead to accelerated tissue degeneration and diminished long-term valve durability. PMID:26338100

  9. The topology of integrable systems with incomplete fields

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aleshkin, K R [M. V. Lomonosov Moscow State University, Faculty of Mechanics and Mathematics, Moscow (Russian Federation)

    2014-09-30

    Liouville's theorem holds for Hamiltonian systems with complete Hamiltonian fields which possess a complete involutive system of first integrals; such systems are called Liouville-integrable. In this paper integrable systems with incomplete Hamiltonian fields are investigated. It is shown that Liouville's theorem remains valid in the case of a single incomplete field, while if the number of incomplete fields is greater, a certain analogue of the theorem holds. An integrable system on the algebra sl(3) is taken as an example. Bibliography: 11 titles.

  10. Incomplete fusion reactions in 16O+165Ho

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Anil Sharma; B Bindu Kumar; S Mukherjee; S Chakrabarty; B S Tomar; A Goswami; G K Gubbi; S B Manohar; A K Sinha; S K Datta

    2000-03-01

    Excitation functions for evaporation residues of the system 16O+165Ho have been measured up to 100 MeV. Recoil range distribution of long lived reaction products were measured at 16O beam energy of 100 MeV. Detailed Monte Carlo simulation of recoil range distributions of products were performed with the help of PACE2 code, in order to extract the contributions of incomplete fusion in the individual channels. The results clearly show the incomplete fusion contributions in the tantalum and thulium products. This is con?rmed by the predictions of breakup fusion model of the incomplete fusion.

  11. The topology of integrable systems with incomplete fields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liouville's theorem holds for Hamiltonian systems with complete Hamiltonian fields which possess a complete involutive system of first integrals; such systems are called Liouville-integrable. In this paper integrable systems with incomplete Hamiltonian fields are investigated. It is shown that Liouville's theorem remains valid in the case of a single incomplete field, while if the number of incomplete fields is greater, a certain analogue of the theorem holds. An integrable system on the algebra sl(3) is taken as an example. Bibliography: 11 titles

  12. Early maturity mutants from reirradiation of rice mutant MA03

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rice mutant MA03 was obtained through induced mutation breeding programme on a popular rice variety c.v Mr52. It was a semidwarf mutant line with other useful attributes such as high yield and upright panicle. However, it was also disadvantaged by a long maturity period and a rounded grain shape which lowered its commercial grade. Therefore, the Mr52-derived induced mutant was subjected to another irradiation treatment to improve its characteristics further. At M4 generation 6 mutant lines with improved maturity period were selected. The second irradiation treatment had successfully improved the maturity period and reduced plant height of MA03 further but did not change the grain shape

  13. Assessing harvest maturity in nectarines

    OpenAIRE

    Tijskens, L. M. M.; Zerbini, F.M.; Schouten, R.E.; Vanoli, M.; Jacob, S.; Grassi, M.; Cubeddu, R.; Spinelli, L.; Torricelli, A.

    2007-01-01

    The maturity at harvest of nectarines can be assessed with the novel technique of time-resolved reflectance spectroscopy (TRS) measuring the light absorption at 670 nm in the fruit flesh. A kinetic model was developed that links this absorption coefficient (¿a), expressed as the biological shift factor, to firmness decrease during ripening. The model thus includes the variations in maturity at harvest of the individual fruit. In non-linear regression analyses of data from four different seaso...

  14. Sublingual misoprostol versus standard surgical care for treatment of incomplete abortion in five sub-Saharan African countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shochet Tara

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In low-resource settings, where abortion is highly restricted and self-induced abortions are common, access to post-abortion care (PAC services, especially treatment of incomplete terminations, is a priority. Standard post-abortion care has involved surgical intervention but can be hard to access in these areas. Misoprostol provides an alternative to surgical intervention that could increase access to abortion care. We sought to gather additional evidence regarding the efficacy of 400 mcg of sublingual misoprostol vs. standard surgical care for treatment of incomplete abortion in the environments where need for economical non-surgical treatments may be most useful. Methods A total of 860 women received either sublingual misoprostol or standard surgical care for treatment of incomplete abortion in a multi-site randomized trial. Women with confirmed incomplete abortion, defined as past or present history of vaginal bleeding during pregnancy and an open cervical os, were eligible to participate. Participants returned for follow-up one week later to confirm clinical status. If abortion was incomplete at that time, women were offered an additional follow-up visit or immediate surgical evacuation. Results Both misoprostol and surgical evacuation are highly effective treatments for incomplete abortion (misoprostol: 94.4%, surgical: 100.0%. Misoprostol treatment resulted in a somewhat lower chance of success than standard surgical practice (RR = 0.90; 95% CI: 0.89-0.92. Both tolerability of side effects and women’s satisfaction were similar in the two study arms. Conclusion Misoprostol, much easier to provide than surgery in low-resource environments, can be used safely, successfully, and satisfactorily for treatment of incomplete abortion. Focus should shift to program implementation, including task-shifting the provision of post-abortion care to mid- and low- level providers, training and assurance of drug availability. Trial registration This study has been registered at clinicaltrials.gov as NCT00466999 and NCT01539408

  15. Mathematical Modeling of Oncogenesis Control in Mature T-Cell Populations

    OpenAIRE

    Gerdes, Sebastian; Newrzela, Sebastian; Glauche, Ingmar; von Laer, Dorothee; Hansmann, Martin-Leo; Roeder, Ingo

    2013-01-01

    T-cell receptor (TCR) polyclonal mature T cells are surprisingly resistant to oncogenic transformation after retroviral insertion of T-cell oncogenes. In a mouse model, it has been shown that mature T-cell lymphoma/leukemia (MTCLL) is not induced upon transplantation of mature, TCR polyclonal wild-type (WT) T cells, transduced with gammaretroviral vectors encoding potent T-cell oncogenes, into RAG1-deficient recipients. However, further studies demonstrated that quasi-monoclonal T cells treat...

  16. Radiation Processes in an Incompletely Ionized Plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The first part of the paper gives a simple analytical treatment of radiation transfer (line and recombination) in a plasma, assuming full frequency redistribution. A study is made of the effect of the type of kernel of the integral transport equation on the nature of its solutions and the corresponding physical characteristics of the main types of radiation transfer, true diffusion, ''trapping'' and free escape. Some approximate methods of solving the transport equation are analysed, and results are established which do not depend on the type of kernel. The difference between capture and true diffusion, which is known to amount to the difference in the relationship between photon escape time and the dimensions of the system, can also be formulated as the difference between two characteristic lengths, the diffusion length and the quenching length. The difference between diffusion and capture is marked only if there is strong non-equilibrium, and then it appears principally in the intermediate region of optical thicknesses corresponding to the ''pure scattering'' case. However, use of the photon escape time as a kind of phenomenological characteristic means that in this region, too, an approximate solution can be written in the ''invariant'' form. Radiation losses in the final volume of a non-equilibrium plasma are considered, and a relationship is derived between the optical thickness and the degree of non-equilibrium which delineates the regions of volume and surface emission. The range of applicability of the treatment in question is discussed in the light of recent works on related aspects of radiation transfer theory. The second part analyses the quasi-static (Holtzmark) approximation in the theory of Stark broadening' of spectral lines. The limits within which this approximation can be applied are discussed; these limits are imposed by dynamic effects caused both by thermal motion of the perturbing particles themselves and by some external quenching. The treatment is based on a more general approach which reveals the real range of applicability of the frequently used binary approach, and also yields a critical analysis of certain semi-intuitive, evident criteria for the quasi-static state which appear in the literature. Two types of criteria for the quasi-static state, ''modulation'' and ''quenching'', are compared. Some new relationships describing the influence of the dynamic effects mentioned above are given. The third part contains short reviews of a number of contemporary trends in the development of the theory of such phenomena as radiation processes in an incompletely ionized plasma, broadening of lines, radiation transfer, relaxation in multi-level systems, emission in a continuum, fluctuating microfields and certain thermodynamic effects. (author)

  17. New Approach for Evaluating Incomplete and Complete Fusion Cross Sections with Continuum-Discretized Coupled-Channels Method

    CERN Document Server

    Hashimoto, S; Chiba, S; Yahiro, M

    2009-01-01

    We propose a new method for evaluating incomplete and complete fusion cross sections separately using the Continuum-Discretized Coupled-Channels method. This method is applied to analysis of the deuteron induced reaction on a 7Li target up to 50 MeV of the deuteron incident energy. Effects of deuteron breakup on this reaction are explicitly taken into account. Results of the method are compared with those of the Glauber model, and the difference between the two is discussed. It is found that the energy dependence of the incomplete fusion cross sections obtained by the present calculation is almost the same as that obtained by the Glauber model, while for the complete fusion cross section, the two models give markedly different energy dependence. We show also that a prescription for evaluating incomplete fusion cross sections proposed in a previous study gives much smaller result than an experimental value.

  18. New approach for evaluating incomplete and complete fusion cross sections with continuum-discretized coupled-channels method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We propose a new method for evaluating incomplete and complete fusion cross sections separately using the Continuum-Discretized Coupled-Channels method. This method is applied to analysis of the deuteron induced reaction on a 7Li target up to 50 MeV of the deuteron incident energy. Effects of deuteron breakup on this reaction are explicitly taken into account. Results of the method are compared with those of the Glauber model, and the difference between the two is discussed. It is found that the energy dependence of the incomplete fusion cross sections obtained by the present calculation is almost the same as that obtained by the Glauber model, while for the complete fusion cross section, the two models give markedly different energy dependence. We show also that a prescription for evaluating incomplete fusion cross sections proposed in a previous study gives much smaller result than an experimental value. (author)

  19. Study on production of seed and seedling of green sturgeon. Determination on sensitivity of oocyte of green sturgeon (Bster) to ovule maturation inducing hormone, and on roe quality; Chozame no shubyo seisan ni kansuru kenkyu. Chozame (besuteru) no ranbo saibo no ranseijuku yuki horumon kanjusei to ranshitsu hantei

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Omoto, N.; Maebayashi, M. [Hokkaido Electric Power Co. Inc., Sapporo (Japan)

    2000-03-24

    Green sturgeons do not spawn naturally in the ordinary breeding environment. Hence obtaining fries requires stimulation of ovulation by hormone treatment. In order to raise hatching rate and perform stable seed and seedling production, it is necessary to establish a method to determine at high accuracy the optimal time of the hormone treatment. Therefore, discussions were given on a method to evaluate sensitivity to different ovule maturation inducing hormones (progesterone systems). As a result, an effective means to perform ovum collection of Bester efficiently was considered to be a method to determine the timing of hormone dosing by using the sensitivity of oocyte to ovule maturation inducing hormone, supported by the use of germinal vesicle breakdown (GVBD) as the parameter. The timing at which this hormone sensitivity is highest, that is, the timing at which GVBD is induced with the probability of 100% is the optimal timing for the hormone treatment. Roes with high hormone sensitivity tend to have higher hatching rate, whereas this tendency is useful to estimate the hatching rate. Individuals having roes with high hormone sensitivity show a trend of shortening the time required from the first hormone dosing to the ovulation. (NEDO)

  20. Hairpin Incompletion : An Extension of Bounded Hairpin Completion

    CERN Document Server

    Okubo, Fumiya

    2011-01-01

    Hairpin completion and its restricted variant called bounded hairpin completion are operations on formal languages, inspired by a hairpin formation in molecular biology. We introduce a new operation of this kind, called {\\it hairpin incompletion} which is in fact an extension of bounded hairpin completion. Further, the hairpin incompletion operation provides a formal language theoretic framework that models a bio-molecular technique nowadays known as Whiplash PCR. We study the closure properties of language families under both the operation and its iterated version. We show that a family of languages closed under intersection with regular sets, concatenation with regular sets, and finite union is closed under iterated hairpin incompletion, and that a family of languages containing all linear languages and closed under circular permutation, left derivative and substitution is also closed under iterated hairpin incompletion.

  1. Are the Gödel incompleteness theorems limitative results for the neurosciences?

    OpenAIRE

    Buechner, Jeff

    2009-01-01

    There are many kinds of limitative results in the sciences, some of which are philosophical. I am interested in examining one kind of limitative result in the neurosciences that is mathematical—a result secured by the Gödel incompleteness theorems. I will view the incompleteness theorems as independence results, develop a connection with independence results in set theory, and then argue that work in the neurosciences (as well as in molecular, systems and synthetic biology) may well avoid the...

  2. The effect of incomplete information on the compromise effect

    OpenAIRE

    Shih-Chieh Chuang; Danny Tengti Kao; Yin-Hui Cheng; Chu-An Chou

    2012-01-01

    Most research on the compromise effect focuses on how consumers make their decisions in a complete information scenario; however, consumers generally lack sufficient information when they make purchase decisions. This research aims to explore the compromise effect with incomplete information. Three studies were conducted to examine the research hypotheses. The main findings was that consumers are more likely to choose the middle option when they have incomplete information than when they have...

  3. Incomplete and Asymmetric Surplus Information in Labor Relations

    OpenAIRE

    Hennig-Schmidt, Heike; Rockenbach, Bettina; Sadrieh, Abdolkarim

    2003-01-01

    Numerous laboratory experiments show that workers reciprocate to high wages with high effort, when there is perfect information on the surplus created. Recent field experiments, however, suggest that trust and reciprocity may be lower – or absent – when the information is incomplete. We report a laboratory experiment with symmetric and asymmetric incomplete surplus information in a ?bilateral gift exchange? setting. We find that trust and reciprocity have a significant positive effect on wage...

  4. Incomplete spinal cord injury, exercise and life satisfaction

    OpenAIRE

    Lannem, Anne Marie; Sørensen, Marit; Frøslie, Kathrine Frey; Hjeltnes, Nils

    2008-01-01

    STUDY DESIGN: Cross-sectional survey. OBJECTIVE: This study investigates the role of physical exercise, perceived exercise mastery and fitness on life satisfaction of a sample of individuals with incomplete spinal cord injury (SCI). SETTING: Sunnaas Rehabilitation Hospital and the Norwegian School of Sport Sciences, Norway. METHODS: A questionnaire measuring life satisfaction, self-rated physical exercise and self-perceptions were mailed to persons with incomplete SCI. RESULTS: In total, 100 ...

  5. Group decision-making with incomplete fuzzy linguistic preference relations

    OpenAIRE

    Alonso, S.; Cabrerizo, F.J.; Chiclana, F.; Herrera-Viedma, E.; Herrera, Francisco

    2009-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to propose a procedure to estimate missing preference values when dealing with incomplete fuzzy linguistic preference relations assessed using a 2–tuple fuzzy linguistic approach. This procedure attempts to estimate the missing information in an individual incomplete fuzzy linguistic preference relation using only the preference values provided by the respective expert. It is guided by the additive consistency property in order to maintain experts consiste...

  6. Cooperation under Incomplete Information on the Discount Factors

    OpenAIRE

    Maor, Cy; Solan, Eilon

    2014-01-01

    In repeated games, cooperation is possible in equilibrium only if players are sufficiently patient, and long-term gains from cooperation outweigh short-term gains from deviation. What happens if the players have incomplete information regarding each other's discount factors? In this paper we look at repeated games in which each player has incomplete information regarding the other player's discount factor, and ask when full cooperation can arise in equilibrium. We provide ne...

  7. Filtering, control and fault detection with randomly occurring incomplete information

    CERN Document Server

    Dong, Hongli; Gao, Huijun

    2013-01-01

    This book investigates the filtering, control and fault detection problems for several classes of nonlinear systems with randomly occurring incomplete information. It proposes new concepts, including RVNs, ROMDs, ROMTCDs, and ROQEs. The incomplete information under consideration primarily includes missing measurements, time-delays, sensor and actuator saturations, quantization effects and time-varying nonlinearities. The first part of this book focuses on the filtering, control and fault detection problems for several classes of nonlinear stochastic discrete-time systems and

  8. An example of a stochastic equilibrium with incomplete markets

    OpenAIRE

    Zitkovic, Gordan

    2009-01-01

    We prove existence and uniqueness of stochastic equilibria in a class of incomplete continuous-time financial environments where the market participants are exponential utility maximizers with heterogeneous risk-aversion coefficients and general Markovian random endowments. The incompleteness featured in our setting - the source of which can be thought of as a credit event or a catastrophe - is genuine in the sense that not only the prices, but also the family of replicable ...

  9. Theorems of Tarski's Undefinability and Godel's Second Incompleteness - Computationally

    OpenAIRE

    Salehi, Saeed

    2015-01-01

    We show that the existence of a finitely axiomatized theory which can prove all the true $\\Sigma_1$ sentences may imply Godel's Second Incompleteness Theorem, by incorporating some bi-theoretic version of the derivability conditions (first discussed by Detlefsen~2001). We also argue that Tarski's theorem on the undefinability of truth is Godel's first incompleteness theorem relativized to definable oracles; here a unification of these two theorems is shown.

  10. Reputations, relationships and the enforcement of incomplete contracts

    OpenAIRE

    Macleod, W. Bentley

    2006-01-01

    This paper discusses the literature on the enforcement of incomplete contracts. It compares legal enforcement to enforcement via relationships and reputations. A number of mechanisms, such as the repeat purchase mechanism (Klein and Leffler (1981)) and efficiency wages (Shapiro and Stiglitz (1984)), have been offered as solutions to the problem of enforcing an incomplete contract. It is shown that the efficiency of these solutions is very sensitive to the characteristics of the good or servic...

  11. Pharmaceutical Options for Triggering of Final Oocyte Maturation in ART

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Castillo, Juan Carlos; Humaidan, Peter

    2014-01-01

    Since the pioneering days of in vitro fertilization, hCG has been the gold standard to induce final follicular maturation. We herein reviewed different pharmaceutical options for triggering of final oocyte maturation in ART. The new upcoming agent seems to be GnRHa with its potential advantages over hCG trigger. GnRHa triggering elicits a surge of gonadotropins resembling the natural midcycle surge of gonadotropins, without the prolonged action of hCG, resulting in the retrieval of more mature oocytes and a significant reduction in or elimination of OHSS as compared to hCG triggering. The induction of final follicular maturation using GnRHa represents a paradigm shift in the ovulation triggering concept in ART and, thus, a way to develop a safer IVF procedure. Kisspeptins are key central regulators of the neuroendocrine mechanisms of human reproduction, who have been shown to effectively elicit an LH surge and to induce final oocyte maturation in IVF cycles. This new trigger concept may, therefore, offer a completely new, "natural" pharmacological option for ovulation induction. Whether kisspeptins will be the future agent to trigger ovulation remains to be further explored.

  12. MicroRNA-15/16 Antagonizes Myb To Control NK Cell Maturation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sullivan, Ryan P; Leong, Jeffrey W; Schneider, Stephanie E; Ireland, Aaron R; Berrien-Elliott, Melissa M; Singh, Anvita; Schappe, Timothy; Jewell, Brea A; Sexl, Veronika; Fehniger, Todd A

    2015-09-15

    NK cells develop in the bone marrow and complete their maturation in peripheral organs, but the molecular events controlling maturation are incompletely understood. The miR-15/16 family of microRNA regulates key cellular processes and is abundantly expressed in NK cells. In this study, we identify a critical role for miR-15/16 in the normal maturation of NK cells using a mouse model of NK-specific deletion, in which immature NK cells accumulate in the absence of miR-15/16. The transcription factor c-Myb (Myb) is expressed preferentially by immature NK cells, is a direct target of miR-15/16, and is increased in 15a/16-1 floxed knockout NK cells. Importantly, maturation of 15a/16-1 floxed knockout NK cells was rescued by Myb knockdown. Moreover, Myb overexpression in wild-type NK cells caused a defective NK cell maturation phenotype similar to deletion of miR-15/16, and Myb overexpression enforces an immature NK cell transcriptional profile. Thus, miR-15/16 regulation of Myb controls the NK cell maturation program. PMID:26268657

  13. Isospin Dependence of Incomplete Fusion Reactions at 25 Mev/a

    OpenAIRE

    Amorini, F; Cardella, G.; Giuliani, G.; Papa, M.; Agodi, C.; Alba, R.; Anzalone, A.; Berceanu, I.(National Institute for Physics and Nuclear Engineering, Bucharest, Romania); Cavallaro, S; Chatterjee, M.B.; Coniglione, R; De Filippo, E.; Di Pietro, A.; Geraci, E.; Grassi, L

    2008-01-01

    40Ca+40,48Ca,46Ti reactions at 25 MeV/A have been studied using the 4p CHIMERA detector. An isospin effect on the competition between incomplete fusion and dissipative binary reaction mechanisms has been observed. The probability of producing a compound system is observed to be lower in the case of N=Z colliding systems as compared to the case of reactions induced on the more neutron rich 48Ca target. Predictions based on CoMD-II calculations show that the competition betwee...

  14. Is there incomplete fusion mechanism beyond 100A MeV?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eudes, P. [SUBATECH, EMN-IN2P3/CNRS-Université de Nantes, Nantes (France); Basrak, Z., E-mail: basrak@irb.hr [Ru?er Boškovi? Institute, Zagreb (Croatia); Mota, V. de la; Royer, G. [SUBATECH, EMN-IN2P3/CNRS-Université de Nantes, Nantes (France)

    2014-10-15

    Presented is a universal description of the generalized fusion excitation function which indicates that the fusion reaction mechanism should vanish at center-of-mass energy per nucleon of about 13 MeV/nucleon independently of the specific heavy-ion reaction system. Placing reliance on this result and comforted by semiclassical transport model simulations we suggest that the proposed persistence of the incomplete fusion cross sections in the measurement of the {sup 14}N induced reactions on heavy targets at beam energies between 100A and 155A MeV should be attributed to a geometrical participant-spectator-like reaction mechanism.

  15. Is there incomplete fusion mechanism beyond 100A MeV?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eudes, P.; Basrak, Z.; de la Mota, V.; Royer, G.

    2014-10-01

    Presented is a universal description of the generalized fusion excitation function which indicates that the fusion reaction mechanism should vanish at center-of-mass energy per nucleon of about 13 MeV/nucleon independently of the specific heavy-ion reaction system. Placing reliance on this result and comforted by semiclassical transport model simulations we suggest that the proposed persistence of the incomplete fusion cross sections in the measurement of the 14N induced reactions on heavy targets at beam energies between 100A and 155A MeV should be attributed to a geometrical participant-spectator-like reaction mechanism.

  16. Partially balanced incomplete block designs associated with minimum perfect dominating sets of Clebsch graph

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vinay Kumar

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available A dominating set $S$ of a graph $G$ is perfect if each vertex of G is dominated by exactly one vertex in $S$. We study the minimum perfect dominating sets in the Petersen graph and in the Clebsch graph. In this paper we show that every minimum perfect dominating set in the Petersen graph and the Clebsch graph induces $K_{1,3}$ and $C_4$ respectively. Further we establish that these classes of minimum perfect dominating sets of Clebsch graph form Partially Balanced Incomplete Block Designs with the parameters (16, 40, 10, 4, 1, 4.

  17. Is there incomplete fusion mechanism beyond 100A MeV?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Presented is a universal description of the generalized fusion excitation function which indicates that the fusion reaction mechanism should vanish at center-of-mass energy per nucleon of about 13 MeV/nucleon independently of the specific heavy-ion reaction system. Placing reliance on this result and comforted by semiclassical transport model simulations we suggest that the proposed persistence of the incomplete fusion cross sections in the measurement of the 14N induced reactions on heavy targets at beam energies between 100A and 155A MeV should be attributed to a geometrical participant-spectator-like reaction mechanism

  18. Facioscapulohumeral dystrophy: incomplete suppression of a retrotransposed gene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snider, Lauren; Geng, Linda N; Lemmers, Richard J L F; Kyba, Michael; Ware, Carol B; Nelson, Angelique M; Tawil, Rabi; Filippova, Galina N; van der Maarel, Silvère M; Tapscott, Stephen J; Miller, Daniel G

    2010-10-01

    Each unit of the D4Z4 macrosatellite repeat contains a retrotransposed gene encoding the DUX4 double-homeobox transcription factor. Facioscapulohumeral dystrophy (FSHD) is caused by deletion of a subset of the D4Z4 units in the subtelomeric region of chromosome 4. Although it has been reported that the deletion of D4Z4 units induces the pathological expression of DUX4 mRNA, the association of DUX4 mRNA expression with FSHD has not been rigorously investigated, nor has any human tissue been identified that normally expresses DUX4 mRNA or protein. We show that FSHD muscle expresses a different splice form of DUX4 mRNA compared to control muscle. Control muscle produces low amounts of a splice form of DUX4 encoding only the amino-terminal portion of DUX4. FSHD muscle produces low amounts of a DUX4 mRNA that encodes the full-length DUX4 protein. The low abundance of full-length DUX4 mRNA in FSHD muscle cells represents a small subset of nuclei producing a relatively high abundance of DUX4 mRNA and protein. In contrast to control skeletal muscle and most other somatic tissues, full-length DUX4 transcript and protein is expressed at relatively abundant levels in human testis, most likely in the germ-line cells. Induced pluripotent (iPS) cells also express full-length DUX4 and differentiation of control iPS cells to embryoid bodies suppresses expression of full-length DUX4, whereas expression of full-length DUX4 persists in differentiated FSHD iPS cells. Together, these findings indicate that full-length DUX4 is normally expressed at specific developmental stages and is suppressed in most somatic tissues. The contraction of the D4Z4 repeat in FSHD results in a less efficient suppression of the full-length DUX4 mRNA in skeletal muscle cells. Therefore, FSHD represents the first human disease to be associated with the incomplete developmental silencing of a retrogene array normally expressed early in development. PMID:21060811

  19. Observation of incomplete fusion reactions at l < l crit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yadav, Abhishek; Sharma, Vijay R.; Singh, Devendra P.; Singh, Pushpendra P.; Bala, Indu; Kumar, R.; Unnati, Sharma, M. K.; Muralithar, S.; Singh, R. P.; Singh, B. P.; Prasad, R.

    2014-08-01

    In order to understand the presence of incomplete fusion at low energies i.e. 4-7MeV/nucleon & also to study its dependence on various entrance-channel parameters, the two type of measurements (i) excitation function for 12C+159Tb, and (ii) forward recoil ranges for 12C+159Tb systems have been performed. The experimentally measured excitation functions have been analyzed within the framework of compound nucleus decay using statistical model code PACE4. Analysis of data suggests the production of xn/px)n-channels via complete fusion, as these are found to be well reproduced by PACE4 predictions, while, a significant enhancement in the excitation functions of ?-emitting channels has been observed over the theoretical ones, which has been attributed due to the incomplete fusion processes. Further, the incomplete fusion events observed in case of forward recoil range measurements have been explained on the basis of the breakup fusion model, where these events may be attributed to the fusion of 8Be and/or 4He from 12C projectile to the target nucleus. In the present work, the SUMRULE model calculations are found to highly underestimate the observed incomplete fusion cross-sections which indicate that the l-values lower than l crit (limit of complete fusion) significantly contribute to the incomplete fusion reactions.

  20. Observation of incomplete fusion reactions at l < l {sub crit}

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yadav, Abhishek, E-mail: abhishekyadav117@gmail.com; Sharma, Vijay R., E-mail: abhishekyadav117@gmail.com; Singh, Devendra P., E-mail: abhishekyadav117@gmail.com; Unnati,; Singh, B. P.; Prasad, R. [Department of Physics, Aligarh Muslim University, Aligarh (UP) - 202 002 (India); Singh, Pushpendra P. [GSI-Helmholtz Centre for Heavy Ion Research GmbH, D-64291 Darmstadt (Germany); Bala, Indu; Kumar, R.; Muralithar, S.; Singh, R. P. [NP-Group: Inter-University Accelerator Center, Aruna Asaf Ali Marg, New Delhi - 110 067 (India); Sharma, M. K. [Department of Physics, S. V. College, Aligarh- 202 001 (India)

    2014-08-14

    In order to understand the presence of incomplete fusion at low energies i.e. 4-7MeV/nucleon and also to study its dependence on various entrance-channel parameters, the two type of measurements (i) excitation function for {sup 12}C+{sup 159}Tb, and (ii) forward recoil ranges for {sup 12}C+{sup 159}Tb systems have been performed. The experimentally measured excitation functions have been analyzed within the framework of compound nucleus decay using statistical model code PACE4. Analysis of data suggests the production of xn/px)n-channels via complete fusion, as these are found to be well reproduced by PACE4 predictions, while, a significant enhancement in the excitation functions of ?-emitting channels has been observed over the theoretical ones, which has been attributed due to the incomplete fusion processes. Further, the incomplete fusion events observed in case of forward recoil range measurements have been explained on the basis of the breakup fusion model, where these events may be attributed to the fusion of {sup 8}Be and/or {sup 4}He from {sup 12}C projectile to the target nucleus. In the present work, the SUMRULE model calculations are found to highly underestimate the observed incomplete fusion cross-sections which indicate that the l-values lower than l {sub crit} (limit of complete fusion) significantly contribute to the incomplete fusion reactions.

  1. Observation of incomplete fusion reactions at l crit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In order to understand the presence of incomplete fusion at low energies i.e. 4-7MeV/nucleon and also to study its dependence on various entrance-channel parameters, the two type of measurements (i) excitation function for 12C+159Tb, and (ii) forward recoil ranges for 12C+159Tb systems have been performed. The experimentally measured excitation functions have been analyzed within the framework of compound nucleus decay using statistical model code PACE4. Analysis of data suggests the production of xn/px)n-channels via complete fusion, as these are found to be well reproduced by PACE4 predictions, while, a significant enhancement in the excitation functions of ?-emitting channels has been observed over the theoretical ones, which has been attributed due to the incomplete fusion processes. Further, the incomplete fusion events observed in case of forward recoil range measurements have been explained on the basis of the breakup fusion model, where these events may be attributed to the fusion of 8Be and/or 4He from 12C projectile to the target nucleus. In the present work, the SUMRULE model calculations are found to highly underestimate the observed incomplete fusion cross-sections which indicate that the l-values lower than l crit (limit of complete fusion) significantly contribute to the incomplete fusion reactions

  2. Mature Cystic Teratoma of Liver

    OpenAIRE

    Richa Gupta; Kalpana Bansal; Vivek Manchanda; Ruchika Gupta

    2013-01-01

    A four-year-old boy presented with constipation and mild abdominal distention for one year. Radiologic investigations showed a multiloculated cystic lesion in the caudate lobe of liver with focal calcification in the wall. The child underwent laparotomy with marsupialization of the cystic lesion. Histopathologic examination showed mature teratoma of liver.

  3. Rhetorical Maturity: Definition and Development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Susan

    Lawrence Kohlberg's stages of moral development, when applied to theories of teaching composition, support any method or material that refers to the age and prior experience of the writer and the newness of the task the writer is attempting. Rhetorical development and maturation in the ability to write and argue persuasively are partly conceptual…

  4. Maturation of the adolescent brain

    OpenAIRE

    Arain M; Haque M; Johal L; Mathur P; Nel W; Rais A; Sandhu R; Sharma S.

    2013-01-01

    Mariam Arain, Maliha Haque, Lina Johal, Puja Mathur, Wynand Nel, Afsha Rais, Ranbir Sandhu, Sushil Sharma Saint James School of Medicine, Kralendijk, Bonaire, The Netherlands Abstract: Adolescence is the developmental epoch during which children become adults – intellectually, physically, hormonally, and socially. Adolescence is a tumultuous time, full of changes and transformations. The pubertal transition to adulthood involves both gonadal and behavioral maturation. Magnetic resonance...

  5. Motivational Maturity and Helping Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haymes, Michael; Green, Logan

    1977-01-01

    Maturity in conative development (type of motivation included in Maslow's needs hierarchy) was found to be predictive of helping behavior in middle class white male college students. The effects of safety and esteem needs were compared, and the acceptance of responsibility was also investigated. (GDC)

  6. Incomplete scan geometries in fast X-ray scanners

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    If the data delivered by an X-ray scanner are not available in a complete grid of scan positions, the reconstructed pictures are degraded by artefacts which are due to the lack of information gathered. The most prominent examples of incomplete scan geometries are: the incomplete range of viewing directions; and the spatial restriction of X-ray irradiation to a region of interest. Both are caused by the requirement of sacrificing some characteristics of conventional scanner geometries, either to get a very rapid scan or a reduction of patient dose without increasing the picture noise. The implications of such restrictions will be described and pictures will be presented which are reconstructed from true scan data which have been made incomplete by means of simulations software. Under certain conditions, unavailable data can be replaced by artificially calculated ones in order to reduce the artefacts. (orig.)

  7. THE THEORIES OF INCOMPLETE CONTRACTS IN ANALYZING THE COMPANY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pacala Anca

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Incomplete contracts theories have developed significantly in recent decades, although insistence for rigorous models left little room for empirical research. By formalizing and extending some results from other theories such as transaction costs, incomplete contracts theory tries to analyze the prudence displayed by the parties before the possible opportunistic behavior that would follow completing a contract, especially in the case of specific investments and how the insufficient contractual protection measures can lead to inefficient levels of investment. Even the name - incomplete contracts theory- suggests that the main concern is to consider the limits of contracts, that the contracts fail to specify not only the investment ex ante, but also many other unforeseen items that may appear ex post, and that would be desirable to be introduced in such an arrangement. Explanations can be either the bounded rationality or excessive cost that would involve writing of such contracts.\\r\

  8. Glia maturation factor gamma regulates the migration and adherence of human T lymphocytes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lippert Dustin ND

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Lymphocyte migration and chemotaxis are essential for effective immune surveillance. A critical aspect of migration is cell polarization and the extension of pseudopodia in the direction of movement. However, our knowledge of the underlying molecular mechanisms responsible for these events is incomplete. Proteomic analysis of the isolated leading edges of CXCL12 stimulated human T cell lines was used to identify glia maturation factor gamma (GMFG as a component of the pseudopodia. This protein is predominantly expressed in hematopoietic cells and it has been shown to regulate cytoskeletal branching. The present studies were undertaken to examine the role of GMFG in lymphocyte migration. Results Microscopic analysis of migrating T-cells demonstrated that GMFG was distributed along the axis of movement with enrichment in the leading edge and behind the nucleus of these cells. Inhibition of GMFG expression in T cell lines and IL-2 dependent human peripheral blood T cells with shRNAmir reduced cellular basal and chemokine induced migration responses. The failure of the cells with reduced GMFG to migrate was associated with an apparent inability to detach from the substrates that they were moving on. It was also noted that these cells had an increased adherence to extracellular matrix proteins such as fibronectin. These changes in adherence were associated with altered patterns of ?1 integrin expression and increased levels of activated integrins as detected with the activation specific antibody HUTS4. GMFG loss was also shown to increase the expression of the ?2 integrin LFA-1 and to increase the adhesion of these cells to ICAM-1. Conclusions The present studies demonstrate that GMFG is a component of human T cell pseudopodia required for migration. The reduction in migration and increased adherence properties associated with inhibition of GMFG expression suggest that GMFG activity influences the regulation of integrin mediated adhesion.

  9. Male silver eels mature by swimming

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Spaink Herman P

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background If European silver eels are prevented from reproductive migration, they remain in a prepubertal stage by dopaminergic inhibition of pituitary activity. Because this inhibition is likely a requirement for an extended female growth stage, we tested if it is sex-specific by subjecting both sexes to stimulation by GnRHa (Gonadotropin-Releasing Hormone agonist – injection or 3-months swimming in seawater. Results In contrast to females, males showed a two- to three-fold higher LH? (luteinising hormone ? subunit – expression, a three- to five-fold higher GSI (Gonadosomatic index and induced spermatogenesis when compared with the untreated control group. Conclusion Dopaminergic inhibition is thus not effective in males and swimming results in natural maturation, probably via GnRH-release.

  10. Green ICT Maturity Model for Czech SMEs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alena Buchalcevova

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a design of a Green ICT maturity model that is aimed at maturity assessment of a Green ICT capability in SMEs that figure as users of ICT services. Based on a literature review and internet search, six maturity models in the Green ICT area were detected and further analysed. Since these maturity models do not suit maturity assessment in non-ICT SMEs, a new Green ICT maturity model for SMEs was developed. This paper introduces the process of model development, description of the resulted model and evaluation of the model.

  11. Pricing the Option to Surrender in Incomplete Markets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Consiglio, Andrea; De Giovanni, Domenico

    2007-01-01

    New international accounting standards require insurers to reflect the value of embedded options and guarantees in their products. Pricing techniques based on the Black & Scholes paradigm are often used, however, the hypotheses underneath this model are rarely met. We propose a framework that encompasses the most known sources of incompleteness. We show that the surrender option, joined with a wide range of claims embedded in insurance contracts, can be priced through our tool, and deliver hedging portfolios to mitigate the risk arising from their positions. We provide extensive empirical analysis to highlight the effect of incompleteness on the fair value of the option.

  12. Low Complexity Models to improve Incomplete Sensitivities for Shape Optimization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stanciu, Mugurel; Mohammadi, Bijan; Moreau, Stéphane

    2003-01-01

    The present global platform for simulation and design of multi-model configurations treat shape optimization problems in aerodynamics. Flow solvers are coupled with optimization algorithms based on CAD-free and CAD-connected frameworks. Newton methods together with incomplete expressions of gradients are used. Such incomplete sensitivities are improved using reduced models based on physical assumptions. The validity and the application of this approach in real-life problems are presented. The numerical examples concern shape optimization for an airfoil, a business jet and a car engine cooling axial fan.

  13. Additive habit formation: Consumption in incomplete markets with random endowments

    CERN Document Server

    Muraviev, Roman

    2011-01-01

    We provide a detailed characterization of the optimal consumption stream for the additive habit-forming utility maximization problem, in a framework of general discrete-time incomplete markets and random endowments. This characterization allows us to derive the monotonicity and concavity of the optimal consumption as a function of wealth, for several important classes of incomplete markets and preferences. These results yield a deeper understanding of the fine structure of the optimal consumption and provide a further theoretical support for the classical conjectures of Keynes (1936).

  14. Sublingual misoprostol versus standard surgical care for treatment of incomplete abortion in five sub-Saharan African countries

    OpenAIRE

    Shochet Tara; Diop Ayisha; Gaye Alioune; Nayama Madi; Sall Aissata; Bukola Fawole; Blandine Thieba; Abiola Okunlola; Dao Blami; Olayinka Ogunbode; Winikoff Beverly

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Background In low-resource settings, where abortion is highly restricted and self-induced abortions are common, access to post-abortion care (PAC) services, especially treatment of incomplete terminations, is a priority. Standard post-abortion care has involved surgical intervention but can be hard to access in these areas. Misoprostol provides an alternative to surgical intervention that could increase access to abortion care. We sought to gather additional evidence regarding the ef...

  15. Effect of fission following incomplete fusion on the interpretation of fission fragment angular distributions in heavy-ion fusion reactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    It is shown that with the inclusion of fission following incomplete fusion in addition to the normal equilibrium fission following compound nucleus formation and the recently proposed pre-equilibrium fission, one can understand in a quantitative way the host of apparently anomalous fragment angular distributions measured in a number of heavy ion induced fission reactions involving the highly fissile actinides as one of the collision partners

  16. Complete and incomplete fusion reactions in the 16O+169Tm system: Excitation functions and recoil range distributions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    With the view to study complete and incomplete fusion in heavy ion induced reactions, experiments have been carried out for measuring excitation functions for several reactions in the system 16O+169Tm at energies near the Coulomb barrier to well above it, using an activation technique. The measured excitation functions have been compared with those calculated theoretically using three different computer codes viz., ALICE-91, CASCADE and PACE2. The enhancement of experimentally measured cross sections for alpha emission channels over their theoretical prediction has been attributed to the fact that these residues are formed not only by complete fusion but also through incomplete fusion. In order to separate out the relative contributions of complete and incomplete fusion, the recoil range distributions of eight residues produced in the interaction of 16O with 169Tm at ?87 MeV have been measured. The recoil range distributions indicate significant contributions from incomplete fusion at ?87 MeV for some of the channels

  17. Fit and Fabulous As You Mature

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Alternate Language URL Fit and Fabulous as You Mature Page Content How can I start feeling fit ... and Your Family! Fit and Fabulous as You Mature Sisters Together Program Guide: Move More, Eat Better ...

  18. 7 CFR 51.312 - Mature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ...United States Standards for Grades of Apples Definitions § 51.312 Mature. “Mature” means that the apples have reached the stage of development...describing different stages of firmness of apples: (a) “Hard” means apples...

  19. 13 CFR 120.933 - Maturity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... Program (504) 504 Loans and Debentures § 120.933 Maturity. From time to time, SBA will publish in the Federal Register the available maturities for a 504 loan and the Debenture that funds it. Such...

  20. In vitro maturation: Clinical applications

    OpenAIRE

    Lim, Kyung Sil; Chae, Soo Jin; Choo, Chang Woo; Ku, Yeon Hee; Lee, Hye Jun; Hur, Chang Young; Lim, Jin Ho; Lee, Won Don

    2013-01-01

    Oocyte in vitro maturation (IVM) is an assisted reproductive technology in which oocytes are retrieved from the antral follicles of unstimulated or minimally stimulated ovaries. IVM of human oocytes has emerged as a promising procedure. This new technology has advantages over controlled ovarian stimulation such as reduction of costs, simplicity, and elimination of ovarian hyperstimulation syndrome. By elimination or reduction of gonadotropin stimulation, IVM offers eligible infertile couples ...

  1. Regulators of growth plate maturation

    OpenAIRE

    Emons, Joyce Adriana Mathilde

    2010-01-01

    Estrogen is known to play an important role in longitudinal bone growth and growth plate maturation, but the mechanism by which estrogens exert their effect is not fully understood. In this thesis this role is further explored. Chapter 1 contains a general introduction to longitudinal bone growth and the regulation of the growth plate in respect to relevant topics further studied in this thesis. Estrogen can act through a genomic or a nongenomic pathway. Both pathways are explored in rats ...

  2. Maturation of the adolescent brain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arain M

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Mariam Arain, Maliha Haque, Lina Johal, Puja Mathur, Wynand Nel, Afsha Rais, Ranbir Sandhu, Sushil Sharma Saint James School of Medicine, Kralendijk, Bonaire, The Netherlands Abstract: Adolescence is the developmental epoch during which children become adults – intellectually, physically, hormonally, and socially. Adolescence is a tumultuous time, full of changes and transformations. The pubertal transition to adulthood involves both gonadal and behavioral maturation. Magnetic resonance imaging studies have discovered that myelinogenesis, required for proper insulation and efficient neurocybernetics, continues from childhood and the brain's region-specific neurocircuitry remains structurally and functionally vulnerable to impulsive sex, food, and sleep habits. The maturation of the adolescent brain is also influenced by heredity, environment, and sex hormones (estrogen, progesterone, and testosterone, which play a crucial role in myelination. Furthermore, glutamatergic neurotransmission predominates, whereas gamma-aminobutyric acid neurotransmission remains under construction, and this might be responsible for immature and impulsive behavior and neurobehavioral excitement during adolescent life. The adolescent population is highly vulnerable to driving under the influence of alcohol and social maladjustments due to an immature limbic system and prefrontal cortex. Synaptic plasticity and the release of neurotransmitters may also be influenced by environmental neurotoxins and drugs of abuse including cigarettes, caffeine, and alcohol during adolescence. Adolescents may become involved with offensive crimes, irresponsible behavior, unprotected sex, juvenile courts, or even prison. According to a report by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, the major cause of death among the teenage population is due to injury and violence related to sex and substance abuse. Prenatal neglect, cigarette smoking, and alcohol consumption may also significantly impact maturation of the adolescent brain. Pharmacological interventions to regulate adolescent behavior have been attempted with limited success. Since several factors, including age, sex, disease, nutritional status, and substance abuse have a significant impact on the maturation of the adolescent brain, we have highlighted the influence of these clinically significant and socially important aspects in this report. Keywords: myelinogenesis, neurocircuitry, molecular imaging, drug addiction, behavior, social adjustment

  3. A Maturity Model of Enterprise Business Intelligence

    OpenAIRE

    Chee-Sok Tan; Yee-Wai Sim; William Yeoh

    2011-01-01

    The implementation of an enterprise-level business intelligence initiative is a large-scale and complex undertaking, involving significant expenditure and multiple stakeholders over a lengthy period. It is therefore imperative to have systematic guidelines for business intelligence stakeholders in referring business intelligence maturity levels. Draw upon the prudent concepts of the Capability Maturity Model, this research proposes a multi-dimensional maturity model with distinct maturity lev...

  4. On Positive Semidefinite Modification Schemes for Incomplete Cholesky Factorization.

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Scott, J.; T?ma, Miroslav

    2014-01-01

    Ro?. 36, ?. 2 (2014), A609-A633. ISSN 1064-8275 R&D Projects: GA ?R GA13-06684S Institutional support: RVO:67985807 Keywords : sparse matrices * sparse linear systems * positive-definite symmetric systems * iterative solvers * preconditioning * incomplete Cholesky factorization Subject RIV: BA - General Mathematics Impact factor: 1.854, year: 2014

  5. An Uncertainty Measure for Incomplete Decision Tables and Its Applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jianhua Dai; Wentao Wang; Qing Xu

    2013-08-01

    Uncertainty measures can supply new viewpoints for analyzing data. They can help us in disclosing the substantive characteristics of data. The uncertainty measurement issue is also a key topic in the rough-set theory. Although there are some measures to evaluate the uncertainty for complete decision systems (also called decision tables), they cannot be trivially transplanted into incomplete decision systems. There are relatively few studies on uncertainty measurement in incomplete decision systems. In this paper, we propose a new form of conditional entropy, which can be used to measure the uncertainty in incomplete decision systems. Some important properties of the conditional entropy are obtained. In particular, two validity theorems guarantee that the proposed conditional entropy can be used as a reasonable uncertainty measure for incomplete decision systems. Experiments on some real-life data sets are conducted to test and verify the validity of the proposed measure. Applications of the proposed uncertainty measure in ranking attributes and feature selection are also studied with experiments. PMID:26502436

  6. Cooperative games with incomplete information: Some open problems

    OpenAIRE

    Forges, Françoise; Serrano, Roberto

    2011-01-01

    This is a brief survey describing some of the recent progress and open problems in the area of cooperative games with incomplete information. We discuss exchange economies, cooperative Bayesian games with orthogonal coalitions, and issues of cooperation in non-cooperative Bayesian games.

  7. Statistical evaluations of current sampling procedures and incomplete core recovery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This document develops two formulas that describe the effects of incomplete recovery on core sampling results for the Hanford waste tanks. The formulas evaluate incomplete core recovery from a worst-case (i.e.,biased) and best-case (i.e., unbiased) perspective. A core sampler is unbiased if the sample material recovered is a random sample of the material in the tank, while any sampler that preferentially recovers a particular type of waste over others is a biased sampler. There is strong evidence to indicate that the push-mode sampler presently used at the Hanford site is a biased one. The formulas presented here show the effects of incomplete core recovery on the accuracy of composition measurements, as functions of the vertical variability in the waste. These equations are evaluated using vertical variability estimates from previously sampled tanks (B110, U110, C109). Assuming that the values of vertical variability used in this study adequately describes the Hanford tank farm, one can use the formulas to compute the effect of incomplete recovery on the accuracy of an average constituent estimate. To determine acceptable recovery limits, we have assumed that the relative error of such an estimate should be no more than 20%

  8. Entrance channel effect in the incomplete fusion reactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the present work the effect of various entrance channel parameters on incomplete fusion strength and the reaction dynamics in 12C+159Tb system at energies ? 4-7 MeV/A have been investigated by measuring the excitation functions of individual reaction channels. Experimental excitation functions have been analyzed in the framework of compound nucleus decay using statistical model code PACE4. Analysis of data suggests the production of xn/pxn-channels via complete fusion of 12C with 159Tb, as these are found to be well reproduced by PACE4 predictions, while, a significant enhancement in the excitation functions of ?-emitting channels has been observed over the theoretical ones. This enhancement has been attributed due to incomplete fusion. For better insight into the underlying dynamics, the fraction of incomplete fusion to the total fusion has been deduced and compared with 16O+159Tb and other nearby systems as a function of various entrance channel parameters. The fraction of incomplete fusion has been found to be sensitive to the projectile type, energy and entrance-channel mass-asymmetry. (authors)

  9. Entrance channel effect in the incomplete fusion reactions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Singh B.P.

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available In the present work the effect of various entrance channel parameters on incomplete fusion strength and the reaction dynamics in 12C+159Tb system at energies ? 4-7MeV/A have been investigated by measuring the excitation functions of individual reaction channels. Experimental excitation functions have been analyzed in the framework of compound nucleus decay using statistical model code PACE4. Analysis of data suggests the production of xn/pxn-channels via complete fusion of 12C with 159Tb, as these are found to be well reproduced by PACE4 predictions, while, a significant enhancement in the excitation functions of ?-emitting channels has been observed over the theoretical ones. This enhancement has been attributed due to incomplete fusion. For better insight into the underlying dynamics, fraction of incomplete fusion to the total fusion has been deduced and compared with 16O+159Tb and other nearby systems as a function of various entrance channel parameters. The fraction of incomplete fusion has been found to be sensitive to the projectile type, energy and entrance-channel mass-asymmetry.

  10. Incomplete inversion of the hippocampus - a common developmental anomaly

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bajic, Dragan; Wang, Chen; Raininko, Raili [Uppsala University Hospital, Department of Radiology, Uppsala (Sweden); Kumlien, Eva; Mattsson, Peter [Uppsala University Hospital, Department of Neurology, Uppsala (Sweden); Lundberg, Staffan; Eeg-Olofsson, Orvar [Uppsala University Hospital, Department of Child Neurology, Uppsala (Sweden)

    2008-01-15

    Incomplete inversion of the hippocampus, an imperfect fetal development, has been described in patients with epilepsy or severe midline malformations. We studied this condition in a nonepileptic population without obvious developmental anomalies. We analyzed the coronal MR images of 50 women and 50 men who did not have epilepsy. Twenty of them were healthy volunteers and 80 were patients without obvious intracranial developmental anomalies, intracranial masses, hydrocephalus or any condition affecting the temporal lobes. If the entire hippocampus (the head could not be evaluated) were affected, the incomplete inversion was classified as total, otherwise as partial. Incomplete inversion of the hippocampus was found in 19/100 subjects (9 women, 10 men). It was unilateral, always on the left side, in 13 subjects (4 women, 9 men): 9 were of the total type, 4 were partial. It was bilateral in six subjects (five women, one man): four subjects had total types bilaterally, two had a combination of total and partial types. The collateral sulcus was vertically oriented in all subjects with a deviating hippocampal shape. We conclude that incomplete inversion of the hippocampus is not an unusual morphologic variety in a nonepileptic population without other obvious intracranial developmental anomalies. (orig.)

  11. Optimal consumption and investment in incomplete markets with general constraints

    OpenAIRE

    Cheridito, Patrick; Hu, Ying

    2011-01-01

    We study an optimal consumption and investment problem in a possibly incomplete market with general, not necessarily convex, stochastic constraints. We give explicit solutions for investors with exponential, logarithmic and power utility. Our approach is based on martingale methods which rely on recent results on the existence and uniqueness of solutions to BSDEs with drivers of quadratic growth.

  12. Finding the solution for incomplete small bowel capsule endoscopy

    OpenAIRE

    Cotter, José; Castro, Francisca Dias de; Magalhães, Joana; Moreira, Maria João; Rosa, Bruno

    2013-01-01

    AIM: To evaluate whether the use of real time viewer (RTV) and administration of domperidone to patients with delayed gastric passage of the capsule could reduce the rate of incomplete examinations (IE) and improve the diagnostic yield of small bowel capsule endoscopy (SBCE).

  13. Optimal consumption and investment in incomplete markets with general constraints

    CERN Document Server

    Cheridito, Patrick

    2010-01-01

    We study an optimal consumption and investment problem in a possibly incomplete market with general, not necessarily convex, stochastic constraints. We give explicit solutions for investors with exponential, logarithmic and power utility. Our approach is based on martingale methods which rely on recent results on the existence and uniqueness of solutions to BSDEs with drivers of quadratic growth.

  14. Root cause of incomplete control rod insertions at Westinghouse reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Within the past year, incomplete RCCA insertions have been observed on high burnup fuel assemblies at two Westinghouse PWRs. Initial tests at the Wolf Creek site indicated that the direct cause of the incomplete insertions observed at Wolf Creek was excessive fuel assembly thimble tube distortion. Westinghouse committed to the NRC to perform a root cause analysis by the end of August, 1996. The root cause analysis process used by Westinghouse included testing at ten sites to obtain drag, growth and other characteristics of high burnup fuel assemblies. It also included testing at the Westinghouse hot cell of two of the Wolf Creek incomplete insertion assemblies. A mechanical model was developed to calculate the response of fuel assemblies when subjected to compressive loads. Detailed manufacturing reviews were conducted to determine if this was a manufacturing related issue. In addition, a review of available worldwide experience was performed. Based on the above, it was concluded that the thimble tube distortion observed on the Wolf Creek incomplete insertion assemblies was caused by unusual fuel assembly growth over and above what would typically be expected as a result of irradiation exposure. It was determined that the unusual growth component is a combination of growth due to oxide accumulation and accelerated growth, and would only be expected in high temperature plants on fuel assemblies that see long residence times and high power duties

  15. Root cause of incomplete control rod insertions at Westinghouse reactors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ray, S. [Westinghouse, Monroeville, PA (United States)

    1997-01-01

    Within the past year, incomplete RCCA insertions have been observed on high burnup fuel assemblies at two Westinghouse PWRs. Initial tests at the Wolf Creek site indicated that the direct cause of the incomplete insertions observed at Wolf Creek was excessive fuel assembly thimble tube distortion. Westinghouse committed to the NRC to perform a root cause analysis by the end of August, 1996. The root cause analysis process used by Westinghouse included testing at ten sites to obtain drag, growth and other characteristics of high burnup fuel assemblies. It also included testing at the Westinghouse hot cell of two of the Wolf Creek incomplete insertion assemblies. A mechanical model was developed to calculate the response of fuel assemblies when subjected to compressive loads. Detailed manufacturing reviews were conducted to determine if this was a manufacturing related issue. In addition, a review of available worldwide experience was performed. Based on the above, it was concluded that the thimble tube distortion observed on the Wolf Creek incomplete insertion assemblies was caused by unusual fuel assembly growth over and above what would typically be expected as a result of irradiation exposure. It was determined that the unusual growth component is a combination of growth due to oxide accumulation and accelerated growth, and would only be expected in high temperature plants on fuel assemblies that see long residence times and high power duties.

  16. Incompleteness of Representation Theory: Hidden Symmetries and Quantum Nonintegrability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Representation theory is shown to be incomplete in terms of enumerating all integrable limits of quantum systems. As a consequence, one can find exactly solvable Hamiltonians which have apparently strongly broken symmetry. The number of these hidden symmetries depends upon the realization of the Hamiltonian. copyright 1997 The American Physical Society

  17. Nonallelic heterogeneity in autosomal dominant retinitis pigmentosa with incomplete penetrance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, S.K.; Berson, E.L.; Dryja, T.P. [Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA (United States)] [and others

    1994-08-01

    Retinitis pigmentosa is a group of retinal diseases in which photoreceptor cells throughout the retina degenerate. Although there is considerable genetic heterogeneity (autosomal dominant, autosomal recessive, and X-linked forms exist), there is a possibility that some clinically defined subtypes of the disease may be the result of mutations at the same locus. One possible clinically defined subtype is that of autosomal dominant retinitis pigmentosa (ADRP) with incomplete penetrance. Whereas in most families with ADRP, carriers can be clearly identified because of visual loss, ophthalmological findings, or abnormal electroretinograms (ERGs), in occasional families some obligate carriers are asymptomatic and have normal or nearly normal ERGs even late in life. A recent paper reported the mapping of the diseases locus in one pedigree (designated adRP7) with ADRP with incomplete penetrance to chromosome 7p. To test the idea that ADRP with incomplete penetrance may be genetically homogeneous, we have evaluated whether a different family with incomplete penetrance also has a disease gene linked to the same region. 4 refs., 1 fig., 1 tab.

  18. 7 CFR 51.3203 - Mature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ...Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Mature. 51.3203 Section 51.3203 Agriculture ...Bermuda-Granex-Grano Type Onions Definitions § 51.3203 Mature. Mature means that the onion is fairly well cured, and...

  19. 7 CFR 51.1272 - Mature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ...Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Mature. 51.1272 Section 51.1272 Agriculture ...Summer and Fall Pears 1 Definitions § 51.1272 Mature. (a) Mature means that the pear has reached the stage of...

  20. 7 CFR 51.1313 - Mature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ...Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Mature. 51.1313 Section 51.1313 Agriculture ...Standards for Winter Pears 1 Definitions § 51.1313 Mature. (a) Mature means that the pear has reached the stage of...

  1. Closed-Form Bounds to the Rice and Incomplete Toronto Functions and Incomplete Lipschitz-Hankel Integrals

    CERN Document Server

    Sofotasios, Paschalis C

    2011-01-01

    This article provides novel analytical results for the Rice function, the incomplete Toronto function and the incomplete Lipschitz-Hankel Integrals. Firstly, upper and lower bounds are derived for the Rice function, $Ie(k,x)$. Secondly, explicit expressions are derived for the incomplete Toronto function, $T_{B}(m,n,r)$, and the incomplete Lipschitz-Hankel Integrals of the modified Bessel function of the first kind, $Ie_{\\mu,n}(a,z)$, for the case that $n$ is an odd multiple of 0.5 and $m \\geq n$. By exploiting these expressions, tight upper and lower bounds are subsequently proposed for both $T_{B}(m,n,r)$ function and $Ie_{\\mu,n}(a,z)$ integrals. Importantly, all new representations are expressed in closed-form whilst the proposed bounds are shown to be rather tight. Based on these features, it is evident that the offered results can be utilized effectively in analytical studies related to wireless communications. Indicative applications include, among others, the performance evaluation of digital communica...

  2. Mature bone marrow erythroid burst-forming units do not require T cells for induction of erythropoietin-dependent differentiation

    OpenAIRE

    1980-01-01

    Cell-cell interactions between mature T cells and peripheral blood null cells induce erythropoietin-stimulated differentiation of peripheral blood-derived erythroid progenitors. By the use of complement-fixing cytolytic murine hybridoma and antibody uniquely reactive with mature T lymphocytes, this dependence of immature peripheral blood erythroid burst-forming unit (BFU-E) differentiation upon mature T cells or a T cell conditioned medium is confirmed. By using the same antibody, it is demon...

  3. Observation of entrance channel mass-asymmetry effect on incomplete fusion reaction for 20Ne+165Ho system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An experiment has been performed to explore the incomplete fusion (ICF) reaction dynamics in heavy ion induced reactions. Excitation functions (EFs) for eighteen evaporation residues (ERs) produced in the system 20Ne+165Ho have been measured in the energy range ?88–164 MeV. Some of the ERs have significant contribution from precursor decay, which has been separated out from the measured cumulative cross-sections to get direct production cross-sections. Parameters of the statistical model code PACE-2 are optimized to reproduce the ERs populated in complete fusion reactions such as in xn and pxn channels. Using the same parameters, EFs for the residues produced in ?-particle(s) emission channels have been calculated. A significant enhancement in the measured EFs of the ERs produced in ?-particle(s) emission channels over the PACE-2 predictions have been observed which indicates the occurrence of incomplete fusion reaction process. In the ICF process the break-up of projectile 20Ne into 4He+16O and/or 8Be+12C takes place followed by fusion of one of the fragments with the target nucleus 165Ho. The present data analyses suggest that probability of incomplete fusion reaction increases with projectile energy. The ICF fraction FICF has been estimated and found to increase with increasing mass-asymmetry [AT/(AT+AP)] of the partners in entrance channel. It is also observed that critical angular momentum associated with incomplete fusion channels at higher projectile energy may be associated with ?-values lower than that of peripheral collisions, indicating that the incomplete fusion competes with complete fusion even at angular momentum values little lower than critical angular momentum.

  4. Oocyte Maturation Process and Affecting Factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yurdun Kuyucu

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Normal female fertility depends on normally occuring oogenesis and maturation progress. Oogenesis and folliculogenesis are different progresses but occure in a harmony and at the same time. Oogenesis includes the events that take place matur ovum produced from primordial germ cells. Although folliculogenesis includes the stages primordial, primary, secondary, matur (Graaf follicules in the influece of gonadotropines and local growth factors. During oocyte maturation meiosis is distrupted till the puberty. Under LH influence it starts again and first meiosis completes before ovulation. Oocyte maturation can be regarded as the process of coming metaphase II from prophase I of oocyte at the puberty and can be studied as nuclear and cytoplasmic maturation. Meiosis is completed when fertilization occures and zygot is formed. In this article oogenesis, folliculogenesis and oocyte maturation process are summerized with related studies and reiews are revised. [Archives Medical Review Journal 2009; 18(4.000: 227-240

  5. Sexual maturation in kokanee Oncorhynchus nerka

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patterson, S.D.; Scarnecchia, D.L.; Congleton, J.L.

    2008-01-01

    We used observational and experimental approaches to obtain information on factors affecting the timing of maturation of kokanee Oncorhynchus nerka, a semelparous, landlocked salmon. Gonadal staging criteria were developed and applied to three kokanee populations in Idaho lakes and reservoirs. Testes were classified into three stages: immature (stage one, S1), maturing (S2), and mature (S3). Ovaries were classified into eight stages: immature (S1-S3), transitional (stage S4), maturing (S5-S7), and mature (S8). Males entered the maturing stage (S2) in February through April of the spawning year. Females entered maturing stage (S5) as early as July of the year before the spawning year, and as late as March of the spawning year. Three hatchery experiments demonstrated that attainment of a larger body size 10 to 16 months before spawning increased the likelihood of initiation of maturation in both sexes. No gonads in a state of regression were observed. A gonadosomatic index above 0.1 by early July was a good indicator of a maturing male, and a gonadosomatic index above 1.0 by early July was a good indicator of a maturing female. Instantaneous growth rates were not good predictors of maturation, but attaining a size threshold of 18 to 19 cm in the fall was a good predictor of maturation the following year. This improved knowledge of kokanee maturation will permit more effectively management of the species for age, growth and size at maturity as well as for contributions to fisheries. ?? 2008 by the Northwest Scientific Association. All rights reserved.

  6. Einstein's Boxes: Incompleteness of Quantum Mechanics Without a Separation Principle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Held, Carsten

    2015-09-01

    Einstein made several attempts to argue for the incompleteness of quantum mechanics (QM), not all of them using a separation principle. One unpublished example, the box parable, has received increased attention in the recent literature. Though the example is tailor-made for applying a separation principle and Einstein indeed applies one, he begins his discussion without it. An analysis of this first part of the parable naturally leads to an argument for incompleteness not involving a separation principle. I discuss the argument and its systematic import. Though it should be kept in mind that the argument is not the one Einstein intends, I show how it suggests itself and leads to a conflict between QM's completeness and a physical principle more fundamental than the separation principle, i.e. a principle saying that QM should deliver probabilities for physical systems possessing properties at definite times.

  7. Inpatient capsule endoscopy leads to frequent incomplete small bowel examinations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cemal Yazici

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available AIM: To examine the predictive factors of capsule endoscopy (CE completion rate (CECR including the effect of inpatient and outpatient status. METHODS: We identified 355 consecutive patients who completed CE at Rush University Medical Center between March 2003 and October 2005. Subjects for CE had either nothing by mouth or clear liquids for the afternoon and evening of the day before the procedure. CE exams were reviewed by two physicians who were unaware of the study hypotheses. After retrospective analysis, 21 cases were excluded due to capsule malfunction, prior gastric surgery, endoscopic capsule placement or insufficient data. Of the remaining 334 exams [264 out-patient (OP, 70 in-patient (IP], CE indications, findings, location of the patients [IP vs OP and intensive care unit (ICU vs general medical floor (GMF] and gastrointestinal transit times were analyzed. Statistical analysis was completed using SPSS version 17 (Chicago, IL. Chi-square, t test or fisher exact-tests were used as appropriate. Multivariate logistic regression analysis was used to identify variables associated with incomplete CE exams. RESULTS: The mean age for the entire study population was 54.7 years. Sixty-one percent of the study population was female, and gender was not different between IPs vs OPs (P = 0.07. The overall incomplete CECR was 14% in our study. Overt obscure gastrointestinal bleeding (OGB was significantly more common for the IP CE (P = 0.0001, while abdominal pain and assessment of IBD were more frequent indications for the OP CE exams (P = 0.002 and P = 0.01, respectively. Occult OGB was the most common indication and arteriovenous malformations were the most common finding both in the IPs and OPs. The capsule did not enter the small bowel (SB in 6/70 IPs and 8/264 OPs (P = 0.04. The capsule never reached the cecum in 31.4% (22/70 of IP vs 9.5% (25/ 264 of OP examinations (P < 0.001. The mean gastric transit time (GTT was delayed in IPs compared to OPs, 98.5 ± 139.5 min vs 60.4 ± 92.6 min (P = 0.008. Minimal SB transit time was significantly prolonged in the IP compared to the OP setting [IP = 275.1 ± 111.6 min vs OP = 244.0 ± 104.3 min (P = 0.037]. CECR was also significantly higher in the subgroup of patients with OGB who had OP vs IP exams (95% vs 80% respectively, P = 0.001. The proportion of patients with incomplete exams was higher in the ICU (n = 7/13, 54% as compared to the GMF (n = 15/57, 26% (P = 0.05. There was only a single permanent SB retention case which was secondary to a previously unknown SB stricture, and the remaining incomplete SB exams were due to slow transit. Medications which affect gastrointestinal system motility were tested both individually and also in aggregate in univariate analysis in hospitalized patients (ICU and GMF and were not predictive of incomplete capsule passage (P > 0.05. Patient location (IP vs OP and GTT were independent predictors of incomplete CE exams (P < 0.001 and P = 0.008, respectively. CONCLUSION: Incomplete CE is a multifactorial problem. Patient location and related factors such as severity of illness and sedentary status may contribute to incomplete exams.

  8. Double-level Incomplete Spinal Cord Injuries: A case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saeed Bin Ayaz

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Brown-Séquard Syndrome is a type of Incomplete Spinal Cord Injury characterized by a relatively greater ipsilateral loss of proprioception and motor function, with contralateral loss of pain and temperature sensations. The residual deficits in balance produced by such injury may render a person liable to fall that may result in vertebral fracture and another injury to the spinal cord. We present here a case who initially had Brown-Séquard Syndrome due to penetrating knife injury to the neck and later on developed Cauda Equina Syndrome (another Incomplete Spinal Cord Injury due to fractured LV1 following a fall. The fracture was fixed through Pedicle Screws and the patient underwent effective rehabilitation to gain maximum achievable independence in functional activities. [Cukurova Med J 2014; 39(2.000: 392-398

  9. Bayesian Inference of Natural Rankings in Incomplete Competition Networks

    CERN Document Server

    Park, Juyong

    2013-01-01

    Competition between a complex system's constituents and a corresponding reward mechanism based on it have profound influence on the functioning, stability, and evolution of the system. But determining the dominance hierarchy or ranking among the constituent parts from the strongest to the weakest -- essential in determining reward or penalty -- is almost always an ambiguous task due to the incomplete nature of competition networks. Here we introduce ``Natural Ranking," a desirably unambiguous ranking method applicable to a complete (full) competition network, and formulate an analytical model based on the Bayesian formula inferring the expected mean and error of the natural ranking of nodes from an incomplete network. We investigate its potential and uses in solving issues in ranking by applying to a real-world competition network of economic and social importance.

  10. Incomplete dicephalous conjoined twins: prenatal US and MRI findings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The authors report a case of incomplete dicephali conjoined twins, with prenatal diagnostic by ultrasound scan and confirmed with nuclear magnetic resonance. In this case the fetus presented two complete heads and necks, two parallel columns up to the coccyx, one single body, two complete arms and two complete legs. Thorax and abdominal organs were not double, however the heart had more than four cavities. This abnormality appears when the zygote division happens after the day 14 from fertilization and it is unable to cause the fission, resulting in an incomplete division. This kind of conjoined twins have practically no chance of surviving, due to the large number of shared organs. The prenatal diagnosis is important to separate these cases from those with a chance of living with surgical intervention. (author)

  11. Vascular endothelial growth factor inhibits dendritic cell maturation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luciana Cavalheiro Marti

    2005-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective: In this paper we investigated the effects of vascularendothelial growth factor on dendritic cells differentiation andmaturation from monocytic precursors. Methods: CD14+/CD34-progenitor cells were obtained from umbilical cord blood, purifiedby magnetic cell sorting, and cultivated with IL-4 and GM-CSF, inthe presence or absence of vascular endothelial growth factor.Maturation of dendritic cells was induced after six days of cultureby 24h-treatment with lipopolysaccharide (LPS. Results:Expression of marker proteins for immature (CD14 and DC-SIGNand mature(CD83 dendritic cells was detected by fluorescencemicroscopy and flow cytometry using monoclonal antibodies(mAb. Under proper differentiating conditions, treatment withvascular endothelial growth factor did not change the expressionof immature DC markers. Following maturation with LPS, increasedamount of CD14+ and DC-SIGN+ cells and decreased CD83+ cellpopulation were detected in vascular endothelial growth factortreatedcultures. Conclusions: Our data suggest that vascularendothelial growth factor does not affect the differentiation ofCD14+/CD34- progenitor cells into immature dendritic cells, butit reduces the efficiency of dendritic cells maturation in vitro. Thisvascular endothelial growth factor-mediated effect on dendriticcells function may influence anti-tumor immune responses.

  12. The AI&M procedure for learning from incomplete data

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jaeger, Manfred

    2006-01-01

    We investigate methods for parameter learning from incomplete data that is not missing at random. Likelihood-based methods then require the optimization of a profile likelihood that takes all possible missingness mechanisms into account. Optimizing this profile likelihood poses two main difficulties: multiple (local) maxima, and its very high-dimensional parameter space. In this paper a new method is presented for optimizing the profile likelihood that addresses the second difficulty: in the pro...

  13. Asset pricing puzzles explained by incomplete Brownian equilibria

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Peter Ove; Larsen, Kasper

    2010-01-01

    We examine a class of Brownian based models which produce tractable incomplete equilibria. The models are based on finitely many investors with heterogeneous exponential utilities over intermediate consumption who receive partially unspanned income. The investors can trade continuously on a finite time interval in a money market account as well as a risky security. Besides establishing the existence of an equilibrium, our main result shows that the resulting equilibrium can display a lower risk-...

  14. Incomplete Continuous-Time Securities Markets with Stochastic Income Volatility

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Peter Ove; Larsen, Kasper

    2011-01-01

    In an incomplete continuous-time securities market governed by Brownian motions, we derive closed-form solutions for the equilibrium risk-free rate and equity premium processes. The economy has a finite number of heterogeneous exponential utility investors, who receive partially unspanned income and can trade continuously on a finite time interval in a money market account and a single risky security. Besides establishing the existence of an equilibrium, our main result shows that if the investo...

  15. Incomplete Continuous-time Securities Markets with Stochastic Income Volatility

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Peter Ove; Larsen, Kasper

    2014-01-01

    We derive closed-form solutions for the equilibrium interest rate and market price of risk processes in an incomplete continuous-time market with uncertainty generated by Brownian motions. The economy has a finite number of heterogeneous exponential utility investors, who receive partially unspanned income and can trade continuously. Countercyclical stochastic income volatility generates a countercyclical equilibrium market price of risk process and a procyclical equilibrium interest rate proces...

  16. Optimal portfolio selection and compression in an incomplete market

    CERN Document Server

    Dokuchaev, N; Dokuchaev, Nikolai; Haussmann, Ulrich

    2001-01-01

    We investigate an optimal investment problem with a general performance criterion which, in particular, includes discontinuous functions. Prices are modeled as diffusions and the market is incomplete. We find an explicit solution for the case of limited diversification of the portfolio, i.e. for the portfolio compression problem. By this we mean that an admissible strategies may include no more than m different stocks concurrently, where m may be less than the total number n of available stocks.

  17. On precision of optimization in the case of incomplete information.

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Volf, Petr

    2012-01-01

    Ro?. 19, ?. 30 (2012), s. 170-184. ISSN 1212-074X R&D Projects: GA ?R GAP402/10/0956 Institutional support: RVO:67985556 Keywords : stochastic optimization * censored data * Fisher information * product-limit estimator Subject RIV: BB - Applied Statistics, Operational Research http://library.utia.cas.cz/separaty/2013/SI/volf-on precision of optimization in the case of incomplete information.pdf

  18. Exit Options in Incomplete Contracts with Asymmetric Information

    OpenAIRE

    Bester, Helmut; Krähmer, Daniel

    2008-01-01

    This paper analyzes bilateral contracting in an environment with contractual incompleteness and asymmetric information. One party (the seller) makes an unverifiable quality choice and the other party (the buyer) has private information about its valuation. A simple exit option contract, which allows the buyer to refuse trade, achieves the first-best in the benchmark cases where either quality is verifiable or the buyer's valuation is public information. But, when unverifiable and asymmetric i...

  19. Bayesian Inference of Natural Rankings in Incomplete Competition Networks

    OpenAIRE

    Park, Juyong; Yook, Soon-Hyung

    2014-01-01

    Competition between a complex system's constituents and a corresponding reward mechanism based on it have profound influence on the functioning, stability, and evolution of the system. But determining the dominance hierarchy or ranking among the constituent parts from the strongest to the weakest -- essential in determining reward or penalty -- is almost always an ambiguous task due to the incomplete nature of competition networks. Here we introduce ``Natural Ranking," a des...

  20. Estimating the prevalence of inbreeding from incomplete pedigrees.

    OpenAIRE

    Marshall, T C; Coltman, D.W.; Pemberton, J.M.; Slate, J.; Spalton, J A; Guinness, F. E.; Smith, J. A.; Pilkington, J. G; T.H. CLUTTON-BROCK

    2002-01-01

    A previous review of inbreeding in natural populations suggested that close inbreeding (inbreeding coefficient f = 0.25) is generally rare in wild birds and mammals. However, the review did not assess rates of moderate inbreeding (f = 0.125), which may make a rather larger contribution to overall inbreeding in a population. Furthermore, previous studies may have underestimated the prevalence of inbreeding in wild populations with incomplete pedigrees. By categorizing inbreeding events by the ...

  1. INCOMPLETE KORO” - A FORERUNNER FOR MOOD DISORDER: TWO CASE REPORTS

    OpenAIRE

    Damodaran, Saji S.; Nizamie, S. Haque

    1993-01-01

    Koro was initially reported as a culture-bound psychiatric syndrome confined to South-east Asian cultures. Later on, isolated cases of Koro have been reported from non-Chinese cultures also. Incomplete Koro syndrome or a ‘Koro-like state’ is usually grafted on to a primary psychiatric disorder. The association of Koro with depression is rare and this paper reports two cases of mood disorder presenting with Koro symptoms. Recurrence of Koro symptoms in the depressive phase and its disappearanc...

  2. On Information Creation and Its Effect in Incomplete Financial Markets

    OpenAIRE

    Mingren Chen

    2012-01-01

    “Thirst for information” existing in financial markets shows that information supply is insufficient and private information is value. Agents will select to acquire economic information under the market incentive mechanism. This is the basis of information creation in incomplete financial markets. Because the information supplies insufficiency in the financial markets is exogenous, information creation is natural exogenous. From this perspective, this paper thinks that information creation ha...

  3. On the forecast of periodic events from incomplete records

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naunihal Singh

    1962-10-01

    Full Text Available In practice several natural phenomena like wind direction, death rates, egg production ,etc. follow circular normal distribution. In this paper the problem of estimating the parameters of this distribution from incomplete records has been worked out by the method of maximum likelihood. Second order partial derivatives are given to determine the standard error of the estimates. A numerical example is added to illustrate the practical application of the method.

  4. Consumption-Portfolio Optimization with Recursive Utility in Incomplete Markets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kraft, Holger; Seifried, Frank Thomas; Steffensen, Mogens

    2013-01-01

    In an incomplete market, we study the optimal consumption-portfolio decision of an investor with recursive preferences of Epstein–Zin type. Applying a classical dynamic programming approach, we formulate the associated Hamilton–Jacobi–Bellman equation and provide a suitable verification theorem. The proof of this verification theorem is complicated by the fact that the Epstein–Zin aggregator is non-Lipschitz, so standard verification results (e.g. in Duffie and Epstein, Econometrica 60, 393–394,...

  5. Incomplete response in late-life depression: getting to remission

    OpenAIRE

    Lenze, Eric J.; Sheffrin, Meera; Driscoll, Henry C; MULSANT, BENOIT H.; Bruce G Pollock; Amanda Dew, Mary; Lotrich, Frank; Devlin, Bernie; Bies, Robert; Reynolds III, Charles F.

    2008-01-01

    Incomplete response in the treatmen tof late-life depression is a large public health challenge: at least 50% of older people fail to respond adequately to first-line antidepressant pharmacotherapy, even under optimal treatment conditions. Treatment-resistant late-life depression (TRLLD) increases risk for early relapse, undermines adherence to treatment for coexisting medical disorders, amplifies disability and cognitive impairment, imposes greater burden on family caregivers, and increases ...

  6. Risk-Sharing and Retrading in Incomplete Markets

    OpenAIRE

    Gottardi, Piero; RAHI, Rohit

    2012-01-01

    At a competitive equilibrium of an incomplete-markets economy agents’ marginal valuations for the tradable assets are equalized ex-ante. We characterize the finest partition of the state space conditional on which this equality holds for any economy. This leads naturally to a necessary and sufficient condition on information that would lead to retrade, if such information were to become publicly available after the initial round of trade.

  7. Causal Incompleteness: A New Perspective on Quantum Non-locality

    OpenAIRE

    Palmer, T. N.

    2005-01-01

    The mathematical notion of incompleteness (eg of rational numbers, Turing-computable functions, and arithmetic proof) does not play a key role in conventional physics. Here, a reformulation of the kinematics of quantum theory is attempted, based on an inherently granular and discontinuous state space, in which the quantum wavefunction is associated with a finite set of finite bit strings, and the unitary transformations of complex Hilbert space are reformulated as finite per...

  8. An implication of G\\"odel's incompleteness theorem

    OpenAIRE

    Kitada, Hitoshi

    2009-01-01

    A proof of G\\"odel's incompleteness theorem is given. With this new proof a transfinite extension of G\\"odel's theorem is considered. It is shown that if one assumes the set theory ZFC on the meta level as well as on the object level, a contradiction arises. The cause is shown to be the implicit identification of the meta level and the object level hidden behind the G\\"odel numbering. An implication of these considerations is stated.

  9. Some remarks on marginally trapped surfaces and geodesic incompleteness

    OpenAIRE

    Silva, I. P. Costa e

    2012-01-01

    In a recent paper, Eichmair, Galloway and Pollack have proved a Gannon-Lee-type singularity theorem based on the existence of marginally outer trapped surfaces (MOTS) on noncompact initial data sets for globally hyperbolic spacetimes. However, one might wonder whether the corresponding incomplete geodesics could still be complete in a possible non-globally hyperbolic extension of spacetime. In this note, some variants of that result are given with weaker causality assumption...

  10. Einstein, incompleteness, and the epistemic view of quantum states

    OpenAIRE

    Harrigan, Nicholas; Spekkens, Robert W.

    2007-01-01

    Does the quantum state represent reality or our knowledge of reality? In making this distinction precise, we are led to a novel classification of hidden variable models of quantum theory. Indeed, representatives of each class can be found among existing constructions for two-dimensional Hilbert spaces. Our approach also provides a fruitful new perspective on arguments for the nonlocality and incompleteness of quantum theory. Specifically, we show that for models wherein the ...

  11. Hilbert's Incompleteness, Chaitin's $\\Omega$ number and Quantum Physics

    OpenAIRE

    Kieu, Tien D.

    2001-01-01

    To explore the limitation of a class of quantum algorithms originally proposed for the Hilbert's tenth problem, we consider two further classes of mathematically non-decidable problems, those of a modified version of the Hilbert's tenth problem and of the computation of the Chaitin's $\\Omega$ number, which is a representation of the G\\"odel's Incompletness theorem. Some interesting connection to Quantum Field Theory is pointed out.

  12. Pricing, implementation and calibration of credit derivatives in incomplete market

    OpenAIRE

    Houssou, Régis; Besson, Olivier

    2011-01-01

    Après la crise financière de 2008, on a pu observer que le marché des dérivés de crédit avait fortement perdu son niveau courant de liquidité. L'existence de dérivés de crédit illiquides qui ne peuvent pas être parfaitement couverts signifie que le marché est incomplet. Comme conséquence, dans l'univers risque-neutre les approches classiques de valorisation des dérivés de crédit ne prendront pas en compte les risques non couverts. Dans cette thèse, nous abordons ces questions en modifiant les...

  13. Incomplete wetting of methane on graphite at low temperatures

    OpenAIRE

    Krim, J.; Gay, J M; Suzanne, J.; Lerner, E.

    1986-01-01

    The wetting behaviour of methane on graphite has been studied by means of low energy electron diffraction and reflection high energy electron diffraction in the temperature range 14-40 K. Incomplete wetting, or crystallite formation, is detected over the entire temperature range for films with thicknesses of 15 or more layers. Isosteric heats of adsorption are reported for the 2nd, 3rd and 4th adsorbed layers, and agree with earlier measurements recorded at 77 K.

  14. Pricing the Option to Surrender in Incomplete Markets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Consiglio, Andrea; De Giovanni, Domenico

    2007-01-01

    New international accounting standards require insurers to reflect the value of embedded options and guarantees in their products. Pricing techniques based on the Black & Scholes paradigm are often used, however, the hypotheses underneath this model are rarely met. We propose a framework that encompasses the most known sources of incompleteness. We show that the surrender option, joined with a wide range of claims embedded in insurance contracts, can be priced through our tool, and deliver hedgi...

  15. Pure and Random strategies in differential game with incomplete informations

    OpenAIRE

    Cardaliaguet, Pierre; Jimenez, Chloé

    2014-01-01

    We investigate a two players zero sum differential game with incomplete information on the initial state: The first player has a private information on the initial state while the second player knows only a probability distribution on the initial state. This could be view as a generalization to differential games of the famous Aumann-Maschler framework for repeated games. In an article of the first author, the existence of the value in random strategies was obtained for a finite number of ini...

  16. The Risky Value in the Capital Market of Incomplete Information

    OpenAIRE

    Xuhong Tan; Mingjun Tan

    2009-01-01

    Risk is everywhere, especially in the capital market of incomplete information, which is full of speculation, so it is particularly important for investors to define risk, identify risks, and control the investment activities with the application of risk value to. It is analyzed quantitatively on risk value in the paper, with the Knowledge of game theory, economics and mathematical statistics, on the basis of the explanation of risk and risk value.

  17. Acute inflammation at a mandibular solitary horizontal incompletely impacted molar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Minoru Yamaoka

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Minoru Yamaoka, Yusuke Ono, Masahide Ishizuka, Yoko Hasumi-Nakayama, Ryosuke Doto, Kouichi Yasuda, Takashi Uematsu, Kiyofumi FurusawaOral and Maxillofacial Surgery, Matsumoto Dental University School of Dentistry, Shiojiri, Nagano, JapanAbstract: Acute inflammation is frequently seen in the elderly around incompletely impacted molars located apart from molars or premolars. To identify the factors causing acute inflammation in the solitary molars without second molars or without second and first molars, ages of patients and rates of acute inflammation in 75 horizontal incompletely impacted mandibular molars in contact or not in contact with molars in subjects 41 years old or older were studied using orthopantomographs. Acute inflammation was seen in nine third molars out of 48 third molars in contact with second molars (18.8%, whereas acute inflammation was seen in 11 molars out of 19 solitary molars without second molars or without first and second molars (57.9% (p < 0.01. The mean age of 48 subjects with third molars in contact with the second molar was 50.42 ± 7.62 years, and the mean age of 19 subjects with isolated molars was 65.16 ± 10.41 years (p < 0.0001. These indicate that a solitary horizontal incompletely impacted molar leads more frequently to acute inflammation along with aging due to possible bone resorption resulting from teeth loss.Keywords: mandible, third molar, impaction, elderly, acute inflammation, solitary molar

  18. Elective postoperative radiotherapy after incomplete resection of colorectal cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    It is known that patients with incompletely resected epithelial cancers are at high risk of local recurrence. A prospective study to determine whether elective postoperative radiotherapy can decrease the incidence of local recurrence and thus improve survival of those patients with an incompletely resected tumor was made of 125 irradiated patients with locally advanced colorectal cancer (B2, C1, C2) 78 patients had rectosigmoid tumors and 47 had colonic cancers. Complete resection (R0) was performed in 94 patients (75 per cent). Thirteen (10 per cent) had microscopic (R1) and 18 (14 per cent) had gross residual disease (R2). Local control and survival (average follow-up, 38 months) of patients with microscopic residual cancer (RI) were 84 per cent (11/13) and 77 per cent (10/13) respectively. These results were identical to those obtained in patients without residual disease (R0). Patients with gross residual disease (R2) had a local control of 50 per cent (9/18) and a survival of 39 per cent (7/18). Radiation complication occurred in seven of 125 patients (6 per cent). One patient died, of radiation enteritis. One patient required a nephrostomy. The remaining five patients were treated conservatively. Elective postoperative radiotherapy given to patients who had incomplete resection of a colorectal cancer prevented local recurrence in the majority and may have increased survival

  19. Incomplete penetrance: The role of stochasticity in developmental cell colonization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Binder, Benjamin J; Landman, Kerry A; Newgreen, Donald F; Ross, Joshua V

    2015-09-01

    Cell colonization during embryonic development involves cells migrating and proliferating over growing tissues. Unsuccessful colonization, resulting from genetic causes, can result in various birth defects. However not all individuals with the same mutation show the disease. This is termed incomplete penetrance, and it even extends to discordancy in monozygotic (identical) twins. A one-dimensional agent-based model of cell migration and proliferation within a growing tissue is presented, where the position of every cell is recorded at any time. We develop a new model that approximates this agent-based process - rather than requiring the precise configuration of cells within the tissue, the new model records the total number of cells, the position of the most advanced cell, and then invokes an approximation for how the cells are distributed. The probability mass function (PMF) for the most advanced cell is obtained for both the agent-based model and its approximation. The two PMFs compare extremely well, but using the approximation is computationally faster. Success or failure of colonization is probabilistic. For example for sufficiently high proliferation rate the colonization is assured. However, if the proliferation rate is sufficiently low, there will be a lower, say 50%, chance of success. These results provide insights into the puzzle of incomplete penetrance of a disease phenotype, especially in monozygotic twins. Indeed, stochastic cell behavior (amplified by disease-causing mutations) within the colonization process may play a key role in incomplete penetrance, rather than differences in genes, their expression or environmental conditions. PMID:26047851

  20. UNILATERAL INCOMPLETE SUPERFICIAL PALMAR ARCH: A CASE REPORT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Subhankar Chakraborty

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The functional importance of hand is revealed by its rich vascularity contributed by superficial and deep palmar arches (SPA and DPA.Superficial palmar arch is located superficial to flexor tendons, and deep palmar arch deep to lumbrical muscles. Variations are found more often in SPA than DPA, later being more or less constant. During routine undergraduate dissection, we observed, unilateral incomplete SPA being formed by superficial palmar branches of ulnar and radial artery in the right hand of a male cadaver. These two arteries remained independent without anastomosis forming incomplete arch (SPA.The superficial branch of ulnar artery entered hand superficial to flexor retinaculum and supplied middle, ring and little finger by three branches. The superficial branch of radial artery via its two branches supplied index finger and thumb. Classical SPA formation was seen on left side. The presence of an incomplete SPA as in this case is a potential danger in RA harvesting for CABG.Variations in SPA play a pivotal role in microvascular surgical procedures of hand, RAinterventions and arterial graft applications.

  1. The classical progesterone receptor mediates Xenopus oocyte maturation through a nongenomic mechanism

    OpenAIRE

    Bayaa, Mustafa; Booth, Ronald A.; Sheng, Yinglun; Liu, X Johné

    2000-01-01

    Xenopus laevis oocytes are physiologically arrested at G2 of meiosis I. Resumption of meiosis, or oocyte maturation, is triggered by progesterone. Progesterone-induced Xenopus oocyte maturation is mediated via an extranuclear receptor and is independent of gene transcription. The identity of this extranuclear oocyte progesterone receptor (PR), however, has remained a longstanding problem. We have isolated the amphibian homologue of human PR from a Xenopus oocyt...

  2. Comparison of immature and mature bone marrow-derived dendritic cells by atomic force microscopy

    OpenAIRE

    Liu Jing; Hu Mingqian; Yu Yu; Xing Feiyue; Wang Jiongkun; Chen Guoliang

    2011-01-01

    Abstract A comparative study of immature and mature bone marrow-derived dendritic cells (BMDCs) was first performed through an atomic force microscope (AFM) to clarify differences of their nanostructure and adhesion force. AFM images revealed that the immature BMDCs treated by granulocyte macrophage-colony stimulating factor plus IL-4 mainly appeared round with smooth surface, whereas the mature BMDCs induced by lipopolysaccharide displayed an irregular shape with numerous pseudopodia or lame...

  3. Mechanosensitivity of dental pulp stem cells is related to their osteogenic maturity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kraft, David C E; Bindslev, Dorthe A; Melsen, Birte; Abdallah, Basem; Kassem, Moustapha; Klein-Nulend, Jenneke

    2010-01-01

    For engineering bone tissue, mechanosensitive cells are needed for bone (re)modelling. Local bone mass and architecture are affected by mechanical loading, which provokes a cellular response via loading-induced interstitial fluid flow. We studied whether human dental pulp-derived mesenchymal stem cells (PDSCs) portraying mature (PDSC-mature) or immature (PDSC-immature) bone cell characteristics are responsive to pulsating fluid flow (PFF) in vitro. We also assessed bone formation by PDSCs on hyd...

  4. Paralemmin-1, a Modulator of Filopodia Induction Is Required for Spine Maturation

    OpenAIRE

    Arstikaitis, Pamela; Gauthier-Campbell, Catherine; Carolina Gutierrez Herrera, Rosario; Huang, Kun; Levinson, Joshua N; Murphy, Timothy H.; Kilimann, Manfred W.; Sala, Carlo; Michael A. Colicos; El-Husseini, Alaa

    2008-01-01

    Dendritic filopodia are thought to participate in neuronal contact formation and development of dendritic spines; however, molecules that regulate filopodia extension and their maturation to spines remain largely unknown. Here we identify paralemmin-1 as a regulator of filopodia induction and spine maturation. Paralemmin-1 localizes to dendritic membranes, and its ability to induce filopodia and recruit synaptic elements to contact sites requires protein acylation. Effects of paralemmin-1 on ...

  5. The effects of immobilization on the maturation of the anterior cruciate ligament of the rabbit knee.

    OpenAIRE

    Amiel, D; Wallace, C. D.; Harwood, F. L.

    1994-01-01

    Immobilization-induced alterations occurred in young anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) samples, including the loss of the rounded appearance of the cells. The mature ACL was minimally altered by immobilization at the light microscopy level. In the immobilized young ACL the fibroblasts became elongated and there was loss of the normal pericellular matrix. The immobilized mature ACL differed from controls primarily in the intracellular composition, as there was significantly more rough endoplasm...

  6. Annual Research Report of Completed and Incomplete Investigations for National Head Start Evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pierce-Jones, John

    A list of nine completed investigations and two progress reports of incomplete investigations makes up this annual research report. One incomplete project is concerned with bilingual instruction and other compensatory education programs for Mexican-American children in the southwest. The objective of the other incomplete project is to examine…

  7. Complete and incomplete fusion reactions in 16O+45Sc system. Measurement and analysis of excitation functions below 7 MeV/nucleon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Complete and incomplete fusion reactions study in heavy ion induced reactions, by 16O ions on 45Sc at incident energies ranging between 39 and 114 MeV have been using the activation technique followed by ?-ray spectrometry. The excitation functions for eleven reactions have been measured using this technique. A comparison of the experimental data has been made with the calculations based on statistical model. Excitation function measurement of various reactions, for the above projectile-target system is being reported for the first time. Complete and incomplete fusion reaction channels have been identified in the production of various residual nuclei, by analysing the experimental data. The results indicate the occurrence of incomplete fusion involving breakup of 16O into 4He+12C and 8Be+8Be followed by fusion of one of the fragments with target nucleus 45Sc. (author)

  8. Towards a Curriculum Design Maturity Model

    OpenAIRE

    Thong Chee Ling 1; Yusmadi Yah Jusoh 2; Rusli Abdullah 3; Nor Hayati Alwi 4

    2012-01-01

    The Capability Maturity Model (CMM) is used in the software industry to improve design process as well as product quality. Likewise, CMM is also used in the education sector for a similar purpose. This paper presents, in particular, a proposed maturity model for curriculum design for Institutions of Higher Learning in Malaysia. The Curriculum Design Maturity Model ONE (CDMM-1) is specifically aimed at guiding curriculum designers in producing quality curricula according to programme specifica...

  9. Synergy between Vitamin D3 and Toll-Like Receptor Agonists Regulates Human Dendritic Cell Response during Maturation

    OpenAIRE

    Anne Brosbøl-Ravnborg; Bettina Bundgaard; Per Höllsberg

    2013-01-01

    Human dendritic cells (DC) can be differentiated from blood monocytes in the presence of GM-CSF and IL-4 and matured by lipopolysaccharide (LPS). Vitamin D3 inhibits the maturation of human DC measured by changes in surface expression of HLA-DR, CD14, CD40, CD80, CD83, and CD86. We here examine the function of vitamin D3 during DC maturation. One of the earliest changes to LPS-induced maturation was an increase in CD83 expression. Vitamin D3 inhibited the increase in expression of HLA-DR, CD4...

  10. Efficient Maturation and Cytokine Production of Neonatal DCs Requires Combined Proinflammatory Signals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudius U. Meyer

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Specific functional properties of dendritic cells (DCs have been suspected as being responsible for the impaired specific immune responses observed in human neonates. To analyze stimulatory requirements for the critical transition from immature, antigen-processing DCs to mature, antigen-presenting DCs, we investigated the effect of different proinflammatory mediators and antigens on phenotype and cytokine secretion of human neonatal DCs derived from hematopoietic progenitor cells (HPCs. Whereas single proinflammatory mediators were unable to induce the maturation of neonatal DCs, various combinations of IFNγ, CD40L, TNFα, LPS and antigens, induced the maturation of neonatal DCs documented by up-regulation of HLA-DR, CD83 and CD86. Combinations of proinflammatory mediators also increased cytokine secretion by neonatal DCs. Especially combined stimulation with LPS and IFNγ proved to be very efficient in inducing maturation and cytokine synthesis of neonatal DCs. In conclusion, neonatal DCs can be stimulated to express maturation as well as costimulatory surface molecules. However, induction of maturation requires combined stimulation with multiple proinflammatory signals.

  11. Isospin Dependence of Incomplete Fusion Reactions at 25 Mev/a

    CERN Document Server

    Amorini, F; Giuliani, G; Papa, M; Agodi, C; Alba, R; Anzalone, A; Berceanu, I; Cavallaro, S; Chatterjee, M B; Coniglione, R; De Filippo, E; Di Pietro, A; Geraci, E; Grassi, L; Grzeszczuk, A; Figuera, P; La Guidara, E; Lanzalone, G; Neindre, N Le; Lombardo, I; Maiolino, C; Pagano, A; Pirrone, S; Politi, G; Pop, A; Porto, F; Rizzo, F; Russotto, P; Santonocito, D; Sapienza, P; Verde, G

    2008-01-01

    40Ca+40,48Ca,46Ti reactions at 25 MeV/A have been studied using the 4p CHIMERA detector. An isospin effect on the competition between incomplete fusion and dissipative binary reaction mechanisms has been observed. The probability of producing a compound system is observed to be lower in the case of N=Z colliding systems as compared to the case of reactions induced on the more neutron rich 48Ca target. Predictions based on CoMD-II calculations show that the competition between fusion-like and dissipative reactions, for the selected centrality, can strongly constraint the parameterization of symmetry energy and its density dependence in the nuclear equation of state.

  12. Postradiation atrophy of mature bone

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The primary event of radiation damage to bone is atrophy and true necrosis of bone is uncommon. The postradiation atrophic changes of bone are the result of combined cellular and vascular damage, the former being more important. The damage to the osteoblast resulting in decreased matrix production is apparently the primary histopathologic event. Radiation damaged bone is susceptible to superimposed complications of fracture, infection, necrosis, and sarcoma. The primary radiographic evidence of atrophy, localized osteopenia, is late in appearing. Contrary to former views, the mature bone is quite radiosensitive and reacts quickly to even small doses of radiation. The differentiation of postirradiation atrophy and metastasis may be difficult. Biopsy should be the last resort because of the possibility of causing true necrosis in atrophic bone by trauma and infection

  13. The maturity of Nuclear Law

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The ever-increasing use of atomic energy since 1950 has generated a set of rules called for practical reasons Nuclear Law. This branch of law covers a wide scope of related activities and, specialized studies have apparently foreseen all conceivable hypotheses. The international character of Nuclear Law explains the basic harmony of international legislation. The methods of comparative Law and International Private Law as well as the joint, indepth work of scientists and jurists will bring about steady progress towards legislative unity and prompt solution to conflicts. The expectable revitalization of nuclear-electric programs early in the 21st. century will give rise to a Nuclear juridical community which can already be perceived through the maturity Nuclear Law has reached. (Author)

  14. Secretion of a truncated osteopetrosis-associated transmembrane protein 1 (OSTM1) mutant inhibits osteoclastogenesis through down-regulation of the B lymphocyte-induced maturation protein 1 (BLIMP1)-nuclear factor of activated T cells c1 (NFATc1) axis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, Bongjin; Yu, Jungeun; Park, Eui-Soon; Choi, Seunga; Yu, Jiyeon; Hwang, Jung Me; Yun, Hyeongseok; Chung, Young-Ho; Hong, Kwan Soo; Choi, Jong-Soon; Takami, Masamichi; Rho, Jaerang

    2014-12-26

    Genetic mutations in osteoclastogenic genes are closely associated with osteopetrotic bone diseases. Genetic defects in OSTM1 (osteopetrosis-associated transmembrane protein 1) cause autosomal recessive osteopetrosis in humans. In particular, OSTM1 mutations that exclude the transmembrane domain might lead to the production of a secreted form of truncated OSTM1. However, the precise role of the secreted form of truncated OSTM1 remains unknown. In this study, we analyzed the functional role of truncated OSTM1 in osteoclastogenesis. Here, we showed that a secreted form of truncated OSTM1 binds to the cell surface of osteoclast (OC) precursors and inhibits the formation of multinucleated OCs through the reduction of cell fusion and survival. Truncated OSTM1 significantly inhibited the expression of OC marker genes through the down-regulation of the BLIMP1 (B lymphocyte-induced maturation protein 1)-NFATc1 (nuclear factor of activated T cells c1) axis. Finally, we demonstrated that truncated OSTM1 reduces lipopolysaccharide-induced bone destruction in vivo. Thus, these findings suggest that autosomal recessive osteopetrosis patients with an OSTM1 gene mutation lacking the transmembrane domain produce a secreted form of truncated OSTM1 that inhibits osteoclastogenesis. PMID:25359771

  15. Configuration Management Maturity in Scientific Facilities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masoud Niknam

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Since the effectiveness of the development and operation of scientific facilities (especially those presenting specific hazards, such as ionizing radiations relies heavily on state of the art practices, such as systems engineering and product lifecycle management, configuration management (CM is becoming a key management process. However, while some maturity models exist to assess the degree of the implementation and effectiveness of many management processes, such as project management or systems engineering, there is no specific framework available to assess the degree of maturity of an organization towards CM. This paper focuses on revealing the important maturity dimensions and levels for CM as a means towards developing a CM maturity model.

  16. Towards a Curriculum Design Maturity Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thong Chee Ling 1

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available The Capability Maturity Model (CMM is used in the software industry to improve design process as well as product quality. Likewise, CMM is also used in the education sector for a similar purpose. This paper presents, in particular, a proposed maturity model for curriculum design for Institutions of Higher Learning in Malaysia. The Curriculum Design Maturity Model ONE (CDMM-1 is specifically aimed at guiding curriculum designers in producing quality curricula according to programme specifications. In this study, CDMM-1, which is derived from the proposed maturity model, has both process and product components. However, this paper only focuses on the product quality aspect.

  17. Histologia da embriogênese somática induzida em embriões de sementes maduras de Urochloa brizantha apomítica Histology of somatic embryogenesis induced in embryos of mature seeds of the apomictic Urochloa brizantha

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandra Janeth Lenis-Manzano

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi descrever o processo de embriogênese somática em Urochloa brizantha cv. Marandu (Syn. Brachiaria brizantha cv. Marandu e fornecer subsídios para o aprimoramento dos métodos de cultura de tecidos e transformação genética. Calos embriogênicos foram obtidos por indução em embriões isolados de sementes maduras, e cultivados in vitro, em meio de cultura que continha ácido 2,4-diclorofenoxiacético, 6-benzilaminopurina e caseína hidrolisada. Plântulas foram regeneradas a partir dos calos embriogênicos, na presença de ácido naftalenoacético e cinetina. Esse processo foi descrito morfologicamente por observações em microscopia de luz de secções seriadas semifinas de tecidos fixados, ao longo do processo de regeneração, em FAA [formaldeído (40%: ácido acético glacial: etanol (50%, a 5:5:90 v/v/v]. Os embriões das sementes de U. brizantha cv. Marandu não têm epiblasto e são classificados como do tipo panicoide. Nas condições estabelecidas de cultura in vitro, calos embriogênicos e embriões somáticos de U. brizantha cv. Marandu, desenvolvem-se a partir de células meristemáticas do escutelo.The objective of this work was to describe the process of somatic embryogenesis in Urochloa brizantha cv. Marandu (Syn. Brachiaria brizantha cv. Marandu and to provide support for the improvement of tissue culture and genetic transformation methods. Embryogenic calli were obtained by induction in embryos isolated from mature seeds, and cultivated in vitro in culture medium containing 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid, 6-benzylaminopurine and hydrolyzed casein. Plantlets were regenerated from the embryogenic calli in the presence of naphthaleneacetic acid and kinetin. This process was described by morphological observations of serial semithin sections of tissues fixed along the regeneration process in FAA (40% formaldehyde: acetic acid: 50% ethanol, at 5:5:90 v/v/v, using light microscopy. Seed embryos of U. brizantha cv. Marandu do not have epiblast and are classified as Panicum-type. Under in vitro culture conditions, embryogenic calli and somatic embryos of U. brizantha cv. Marandu develop from meristematic cells of the scutellum.

  18. Histologia da embriogênese somática induzida em embriões de sementes maduras de Urochloa brizantha apomítica / Histology of somatic embryogenesis induced in embryos of mature seeds of the apomictic Urochloa brizantha

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Sandra Janeth, Lenis-Manzano; Ana Claudia Guerra de, Araujo; Cacilda Borges do, Valle; Eliana de Fátima, Santana; Vera Tavares de Campos, Carneiro.

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi descrever o processo de embriogênese somática em Urochloa brizantha cv. Marandu (Syn. Brachiaria brizantha cv. Marandu) e fornecer subsídios para o aprimoramento dos métodos de cultura de tecidos e transformação genética. Calos embriogênicos foram obtidos por indução em [...] embriões isolados de sementes maduras, e cultivados in vitro, em meio de cultura que continha ácido 2,4-diclorofenoxiacético, 6-benzilaminopurina e caseína hidrolisada. Plântulas foram regeneradas a partir dos calos embriogênicos, na presença de ácido naftalenoacético e cinetina. Esse processo foi descrito morfologicamente por observações em microscopia de luz de secções seriadas semifinas de tecidos fixados, ao longo do processo de regeneração, em FAA [formaldeído (40%): ácido acético glacial: etanol (50%), a 5:5:90 v/v/v]. Os embriões das sementes de U. brizantha cv. Marandu não têm epiblasto e são classificados como do tipo panicoide. Nas condições estabelecidas de cultura in vitro, calos embriogênicos e embriões somáticos de U. brizantha cv. Marandu, desenvolvem-se a partir de células meristemáticas do escutelo. Abstract in english The objective of this work was to describe the process of somatic embryogenesis in Urochloa brizantha cv. Marandu (Syn. Brachiaria brizantha cv. Marandu) and to provide support for the improvement of tissue culture and genetic transformation methods. Embryogenic calli were obtained by induction in e [...] mbryos isolated from mature seeds, and cultivated in vitro in culture medium containing 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid, 6-benzylaminopurine and hydrolyzed casein. Plantlets were regenerated from the embryogenic calli in the presence of naphthaleneacetic acid and kinetin. This process was described by morphological observations of serial semithin sections of tissues fixed along the regeneration process in FAA (40% formaldehyde: acetic acid: 50% ethanol, at 5:5:90 v/v/v), using light microscopy. Seed embryos of U. brizantha cv. Marandu do not have epiblast and are classified as Panicum-type. Under in vitro culture conditions, embryogenic calli and somatic embryos of U. brizantha cv. Marandu develop from meristematic cells of the scutellum.

  19. IFN-? promotes ? phosphorylation without affecting mature tangles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Andrew; Ceballos-Diaz, Carolina; DiNunno, Nadia; Levites, Yona; Cruz, Pedro E; Lewis, Jada; Golde, Todd E; Chakrabarty, Paramita

    2015-10-01

    Inflammatory activation precedes and correlates with accumulating ? lesions in Alzheimer's disease and tauopathies. However, the relationship between neuroinflammation and etiology of pathologic ? remains elusive. To evaluate whether inflammatory signaling may promote or accelerate neurofibrillary tangle pathology, we explored the effect of recombinant adeno-associated virus (rAAV)-mediated overexpression of a master inflammatory cytokine, IFN-?, on ? phosphorylation. In initial studies in primary neuroglial cultures, rAAV-mediated expression of IFN-? did not alter endogenous ? production or paired helical filament ? phosphorylation. Next, we tested the effect of rAAV-mediated expression of IFN-? in the brains of 2 mouse models of tauopathy: JNPL3 and rTg4510. In both models, IFN-? increased 1) signal transducer and activator of transcription 1 levels and gliosis, and 2) hyperphosphorylation and conformational alterations of soluble ? compared with control cohorts. However, sarkosyl-insoluble phosphorylated ? levels and ubiquitin staining were unaltered in the IFN-? cohorts. Notably, IFN-?-induced ? hyperphosphorylation was associated with release of the inhibitory effect of glycogen synthase kinase 3? function by decreasing Ser9 phosphorylation. Our data suggest that type II IFN signaling can promote ? phosphorylation by modulating cellular kinase activity, though this is insufficient in accelerating neuritic tangle pathology.-Li, A., Ceballos-Diaz, C., DiNunno, N., Levites, Y., Cruz, P. E., Lewis, J., Golde, T. E., Chakrabarty, P. IFN-? promotes ? phosphorylation without affecting mature tangles. PMID:26156074

  20. IDO expands human CD4+CD25high regulatory T cells by promoting maturation of LPS-treated dendritic cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hill, Marcelo; Tanguy-Royer, Séverine; Royer, Pierre; Chauveau, Christine; Asghar, Kashif; Tesson, Laurent; Lavainne, Frédéric; Rémy, Séverine; Brion, Régis; Hubert, François-Xavier; Heslan, Michèle; Rimbert, Marie; Berthelot, Laureline; Moffett, John R; Josien, Régis; Grégoire, Marc; Anegon, Ignacio

    2007-11-01

    We have previously shown that human monocyte-derived dendritic cells (DC) express indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase (IDO), as well as several other enzymes of the kynurenine pathway at the mRNA level upon maturation. The tolerogenic mechanisms of this pathway remain unclear. Here we show that LPS-treated DC metabolize tryptophan as far as quinolinate. We found that IDO contributes to LPS and TNF-alpha + poly(I:C)-induced DC maturation since IDO inhibition using two different inhibitors impairs DC maturation. IDO knock-down using short-hairpin RNA also led to diminished LPS-induced maturation. In line with these results, the tryptophan-derived catabolites 3-hydroxyanthranilic acid and 3-hydroxykynurenine increased maturation of LPS-treated DC. Concerning the molecular mechanisms of this effect, IDO acts as an intermediate pathway in LPS-induced production of reactive oxygen species and NF-kappaB activation, two processes that lead to DC maturation. Finally, we show that mature DC expand CD4(+)CD25(high) regulatory T cells in an IDO-dependent manner. In conclusion, we show that IDO constitutes an intermediate pathway in DC maturation leading to expansion of CD4(+)CD25(high) regulatory T cells. PMID:17948274

  1. Plant Regeneration via Somatic Embryogenesis Using Secondary Needles of Mature Trees of Pinus roxburghii Sarg

    OpenAIRE

    Ravindra B. Malabadi; K. Nataraja

    2007-01-01

    This study highlights the positive role of TRIA in inducing the somatic embryogenesis using secondary needles of mature trees of P. roxburghii. Very few reports of induction of somatic embryogenesis using secondary needles as explants are available in conifers. Secondary needles of mature pines can be used as the best explant-source-material for the micropropagation of conifers. Explants cold-pretreated at 4°C and incubated for 3 days on 0.3% activated charcoal induced white-mucilaginous embr...

  2. Incomplete domain decomposition preconditioning for coarse mesh neutron diffusion problems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Incomplete domain decomposition preconditioning for parallel implementation of the conjugate gradient-like methods is applied to solve the two-group, three-dimensional, coarse mesh finite differenced neutron diffusion equation on the PARAGON XP/S-10 parallel computer. The linear system resulting from implicit time differencing of the time-dependent neutron diffusion equation is solved by the preconditioned biconjugate gradient squared method without employing the fission source iteration. An efficient domain decomposition preconditioning scheme is constructed by taking advantage of strong diagonal dominance of the coarse mesh finite difference formulation. Simplifications are made in the incomplete LU factorization process to construct a preconditioner for a three dimensional subdomain and the coupling between subdomains is approximated by incorporating only the effect of the non-leakage terms of neighboring subdomains. The method is applied to quarter core and full core fixed source problems which are created from the IAEA three-dimensional benchmark problem. Results show that on a single processor the computation time for the preconditioned biconjugate gradient method is comparable to other conventional iteration methods such as Line-SOR and the cyclic Chebyshev semi-iterative method. The effectiveness of the incomplete domain decomposition preconditioning on a multi-processor is evidenced by the small increase in the number of iterations as the number of subdomains of iterations as the number of subdomains increases. Speedups up to 32.1 are achievable with 64 processing elements for a 34x34x36 full core three-dimensional problemIncomplete domain decomposition preconditioning for parallel implementation of the conjugate gradient-like methods is applied to solve the two-group, three-dimensional, coarse mesh finite differenced neutron diffusion equation on the PARAGON XP/S-10 parallel computer. The linear system resulting from implicit time differencing of the time-dependent neutron diffusion equation is solved by the preconditioned biconjugate gradient squared method without employing the fission source iteration. An efficient domain decomposition preconditioning scheme is constructed by taking advantage of strong diagonal dominance of the coarse mesh finite difference formulation. Simplifications are made in the incomplete LU factorization process to construct a preconditioner for a three dimensional subdomain and the coupling between subdomains is approximated by incorporating only the effect of the non-leakage terms of neighboring subdomains. The method is applied to quarter core and full core fixed source problems which are created from the IAEA three-dimensional benchmark problem. Results show that on a single processor the computation time for the preconditioned biconjugate gradient method is comparable to other conventional iteration methods such as Line-SOR and the cyclic Chebyshev semi-iterative method. The effectiveness of the incomplete domain decomposition preconditioning on a multi-processor is evidenced by the small increase in the number of iterations as the number of subdomain

  3. An incomplete esophageal perforation masquerading as variceal bleeding

    OpenAIRE

    Veeral M Oza; Pangulur, Prathima; Kirkpatrick, Robert

    2013-01-01

    What is new in this Letter to the Editor: This case and image emphasizes the importance of considering incomplete esophageal rupture in all patients who present with nausea, as well as in those patients who have hematemesis, as they are at high risk to progress to a complete rupture. We would like to emphasize that this presentation of Boerhaave's is unique in the sense that the patient denied any vomiting, and initially, neither had physical exam findings of pneumo-mediastinum nor any eviden...

  4. Incomplete block SSOR preconditionings for high order discretizations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kolotilina, L. [Steklov Mathematical Institute, St. Petersburg (Russian Federation)

    1994-12-31

    This paper considers the solution of linear algebraic systems Ax = b resulting from the p-version of the Finite Element Method (FEM) using PCG iterations. Contrary to the h-version, the p-version ensures the desired accuracy of a discretization not by refining an original finite element mesh but by introducing higher degree polynomials as additional basis functions which permits to reduce the size of the resulting linear system as compared with the h-version. The suggested preconditionings are the so-called Incomplete Block SSOR (IBSSOR) preconditionings.

  5. Optimal Robust Mean-Variance Hedging in Incomplete Financial Markets

    CERN Document Server

    Lazrieva, N

    2008-01-01

    Optimal B-robust estimate is constructed for multidimensional parameter in drift coefficient of diffusion type process with small noise. Optimal mean-variance robust (optimal V -robust) trading strategy is find to hedge in mean-variance sense the contingent claim in incomplete financial market with arbitrary information structure and misspecified volatility of asset price, which is modelled by multidimensional continuous semimartingale. Obtained results are applied to stochastic volatility model, where the model of latent volatility process contains unknown multidimensional parameter in drift coefficient and small parameter in diffusion term.

  6. Incomplete block factorization preconditioning for indefinite elliptic problems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guo, Chun-Hua [Univ. of Calgary, Alberta (Canada)

    1996-12-31

    The application of the finite difference method to approximate the solution of an indefinite elliptic problem produces a linear system whose coefficient matrix is block tridiagonal and symmetric indefinite. Such a linear system can be solved efficiently by a conjugate residual method, particularly when combined with a good preconditioner. We show that specific incomplete block factorization exists for the indefinite matrix if the mesh size is reasonably small. And this factorization can serve as an efficient preconditioner. Some efforts are made to estimate the eigenvalues of the preconditioned matrix. Numerical results are also given.

  7. Entrance channel effect in the incomplete fusion reactions

    OpenAIRE

    Singh B.P.; Kumar R,; Unnati; Singh Devendra P.; Sharma Manoj K.; Singh Pushpendra P; Sharma Vijay R.; Yadav Abhishek; Prasad R.; Bhowmik R.K.

    2011-01-01

    In the present work the effect of various entrance channel parameters on incomplete fusion strength and the reaction dynamics in 12C+159Tb system at energies ? 4-7MeV/A have been investigated by measuring the excitation functions of individual reaction channels. Experimental excitation functions have been analyzed in the framework of compound nucleus decay using statistical model code PACE4. Analysis of data suggests the production of xn/pxn-channels via complete fusion of 12C with 159Tb...

  8. Incomplete fusion reactions as binary l-matched reactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Recent data on incomplete fusion reactions at E approx.= 10 MeV/A are reviewed. The characteristics of these processes such as their localization in l-space, their binary character, and the division of cross sections is discussed. The bin-model and its natural extension, the sum-rule model, as well as the break-up fusion model are presented. Attention is paid to the ''balance'' of cross sections that is needed for a global understanding of the heavy-ion reactions under consideration. (orig.)

  9. Incomplete contracts and optimal ownership of public goods

    OpenAIRE

    Schmitz, Patrick W.

    2012-01-01

    The government and a non-governmental organization (NGO) can invest in the provision of a public good. In an incomplete contracting framework, Besley and Ghatak (2001) have argued that the party who values the public good most should be the owner. We show that this conclusion relies on their assumption that the parties split the renegotiation surplus 50:50. If the generalized Nash bargaining solution is applied, then for any pair of valuations that the two parties may have, there exist bargai...

  10. Redundancy Payments, Incomplete Labor Contracts, Unemployment and Welfare

    OpenAIRE

    Cahuc, Pierre; Zylberberg, André

    1999-01-01

    It is frequently argued that pure government-mandated severance transfers by the employer to the worker have neither employment nor welfare effect because they can be offset by private transfers from the worker to the employer. In this paper, using a dynamic search and matching model a la Mortensen and Pissarides (1994), we show that it may be not any more the case if labor contracts are incomplete and can be renegotiated by mutual agreement only. Indeed, we show that increases in high severa...

  11. Conditioning analysis of incomplete Cholesky factorizations with orthogonal dropping

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Napov, Artem

    2012-03-16

    The analysis of preconditioners based on incomplete Cholesky factorization in which the neglected (dropped) components are orthogonal to the approximations being kept is presented. General estimate for the condition number of the preconditioned system is given which only depends on the accuracy of individual approximations. The estimate is further improved if, for instance, only the newly computed rows of the factor are modified during each approximation step. In this latter case it is further shown to be sharp. The analysis is illustrated with some existing factorizations in the context of discretized elliptic partial differential equations.

  12. A model of incomplete chromatic adaptation for calculating corresponding colors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fairchild, Mark D.

    1990-01-01

    A new mathematical model of chromatic adaptation for calculating corresponding colors across changes in illumination is formulated and tested. This model consists of a modified von Kries transform that accounts for incomplete levels of adaptation. The model predicts that adaptation will be less complete as the saturation of the adapting stimulus increases and more complete as the luminance of the adapting stimulus increases. The model is tested with experimental results from two different studies and found to be significantly better at predicting corresponding colors than other proposed models. This model represents a first step toward the specification of color appearance across varying conditions.

  13. A model of incomplete chromatic adaptation for calculating corresponding colors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fairchild, M.D.

    1990-01-01

    A new mathematical model of chromatic adaptation for calculating corresponding colors across changes in illumination is formulated and tested. This model consists of a modified von Kries transform that accounts for incomplete levels of adaptation. The model predicts that adaptation will be less complete as the saturation of the adapting stimulus increases and more complete as the luminance of the adapting stimulus increases. The model is tested with experimental results from two different studies and found to be significantly better at predicting corresponding colors than other proposed models. This model represents a first step toward the specification of color appearance across varying conditions. 30 refs., 3 figs., 1 tab.

  14. Incomplete Continuous-time Securities Markets with Stochastic Income Volatility

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Peter Ove; Larsen, Kasper

    2014-01-01

    We derive closed-form solutions for the equilibrium interest rate and market price of risk processes in an incomplete continuous-time market with uncertainty generated by Brownian motions. The economy has a finite number of heterogeneous exponential utility investors, who receive partially unspanned income and can trade continuously. Countercyclical stochastic income volatility generates a countercyclical equilibrium market price of risk process and a procyclical equilibrium interest rate process. We show that when the investors' unspanned income volatility is countercyclical, the resulting equilibrium displays both lower interest rates and higher risk premia compared to the equilibrium in an otherwise identical complete market.

  15. Bilateral transaction bargaining between independent utilities under incomplete information

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    David, A. K.; Wen, F. S. [Department of Electrical Engineering, Hong Kong Polytechnic University, Kowloon, (Hong Kong)

    2001-09-01

    A new approach to designing bilateral power transaction bargaining models between two independent utilities in a deregulated electricity market is proposed. In the paper it is assumed that each utility (a seller or a buyer) knows its own operating costs but does not know those of its opponent. The bilateral power transaction problem is then considered as non-cooperative bargaining under incomplete information. Each participant develops its own bargaining strategy based on estimates of the opponent's operating costs and bargaining strategy. Two bargaining models are developed and examples are employed for demonstration. (Author)

  16. Bilateral transaction bargaining between independent utilities under incomplete information

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A new approach to designing bilateral power transaction bargaining models between two independent utilities in a deregulated electricity market is proposed. In the paper it is assumed that each utility (a seller or a buyer) knows its own operating costs but does not know those of its opponent. The bilateral power transaction problem is then considered as non-cooperative bargaining under incomplete information. Each participant develops its own bargaining strategy based on estimates of the opponent's operating costs and bargaining strategy. Two bargaining models are developed and examples are employed for demonstration. (Author)

  17. Information, randomness & incompleteness papers on algorithmic information theory

    CERN Document Server

    Chaitin, Gregory J

    1987-01-01

    The papers gathered in this book were published over a period of more than twenty years in widely scattered journals. They led to the discovery of randomness in arithmetic which was presented in the recently published monograph on "Algorithmic Information Theory" by the author. There the strongest possible version of Gödel's incompleteness theorem, using an information-theoretic approach based on the size of computer programs, was discussed. The present book is intended as a companion volume to the monograph and it will serve as a stimulus for work on complexity, randomness and unpredictabilit

  18. A Short Guide to Gödel's Second Incompleteness Theorem

    OpenAIRE

    Bagaria, Joan

    2003-01-01

    The usual proof of Godel's second incompleteness theorem for weak theories like I Sigma 'subscript 1' is long and technically cumbersome. The details are rarely given in full and in most cases they are skipped altogether with dismissing vague sentences alluding to the reader's ability to fill them in. In the first part of this note we provide a guide through the main technical points of the usual proof of Godel's theorem for weak theories. In the second part we present a different and simpler...

  19. In vitro atrazine exposure affects the phenotypic and functional maturation of dendritic cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Recent data suggest that some of the immunotoxic effects of the herbicide atrazine, a very widely used pesticide, may be due to perturbations in dendritic cell (DC) function. As consequences of atrazine exposure on the phenotypic and functional maturation of DC have not been studied, our objective was, using the murine DC line, JAWSII, to determine whether atrazine will interfere with DC maturation. First, we characterized the maturation of JAWSII cells in vitro by inducing them to mature in the presence of growth factors and selected maturational stimuli in vitro. Next, we exposed the DC cell line to a concentration range of atrazine and examined its effects on phenotypic and functional maturation of DC. Atrazine exposure interfered with the phenotypic and functional maturation of DC at non-cytotoxic concentrations. Among the phenotypic changes caused by atrazine exposure was a dose-dependent removal of surface MHC-I with a significant decrease being observed at 1 ?M concentration. In addition, atrazine exposure decreased the expression of the costimulatory molecule CD86 and it downregulated the expression of the CD11b and CD11c accessory molecules and the myeloid developmental marker CD14. When, for comparative purposes, we exposed primary thymic DC to atrazine, MHC-I and CD11c expression was also decreased. Phenotypic changes in JAWSII DC maturation were associated with functional inhibition of maturation as, albeit at higher concentrations, receptor-mediated antigen uptake was increased by atrazine. Thus, our data suggest that atrazine directly targets DC maturation and that toxicants such as atrazine that efficiently remove MHC-I molecules from the DC surface are likely to contribute to immune evasion

  20. 7 CFR 29.3039 - Maturity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ...Grades for Burley Tobacco (u.s. Type 31 and Foreign Type 93) § 29.3039 Maturity. The degree of ripeness. Tobacco is mature when it reaches its prime state of development. The extremes are expressed as immature and mellow. (See Elements of...

  1. Maturational Constraints and First Language Attrition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bylund, Emanuel

    2009-01-01

    The aim of the article is to examine how first language attrition research on maturational constraints interprets and links its findings to current views on maturation in the field of second language acquisition. It is argued that attrition research exhibits certain inconsistencies in the interpretation of the structural characteristics of the…

  2. Thinned Mature Deciduous Forest Silvopastures for Appalachia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Little information is available on effective management and utilization of silvopastures developed from the ubiquitous mature woodlots which comprise 40-50% of small Appalachian farm acreage. We thinned a white oak dominated mature second growth forested area establishing two 0.5 ha, eight-paddock,...

  3. The FMI: Dimensions of Follower Maturity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Loren I.

    1976-01-01

    The Follower Maturity Index (FMI) is an instrument derived from leadership theory and based on observations of verbal and nonverbal behavior of followers in task groups. Dimensions of follower maturity--achievement, responsibility, experience, activity, dependence, variety, interests, perspective, position, and awareness--are discussed. For…

  4. Truly incomplete and complex exchanges in prematurely condensed chromosomes of human fibroblasts exposed in vitro to energetic heavy ions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Honglu; Durante, Marco; Furusawa, Yoshiya; George, Kerry; Kawata, Tetsuya; Cucinotta, Francis A.

    2003-01-01

    Confluent human fibroblast cells (AG1522) were irradiated with gamma rays, 490 MeV/nucleon silicon ions, or iron ions at either 200 or 500 MeV/nucleon. The cells were allowed to repair at 37 degrees C for 24 h after exposure, and a chemically induced premature chromosome condensation (PCC) technique was used to condense chromosomes in the G2 phase of the cell cycle. Incomplete and complex exchanges were analyzed in the irradiated samples. To verify that chromosomal breaks were truly unrejoined, chromosome aberrations were analyzed using a combination of whole-chromosome specific probes and probes specific for the telomere region of the chromosome. Results showed that the frequency of unrejoined chromosome breaks was higher after irradiation with the heavy ions of high LET, and consequently the ratio of incomplete to complete exchanges increased steadily with LET up to 440 keV/microm, the highest LET included in the present study. For samples exposed to 200 MeV/nucleon iron ions, chromosome aberrations were analyzed using the multicolor FISH (mFISH) technique, which allows identification of both complex and truly incomplete exchanges. Results of the mFISH study showed that 0.7 and 3 Gy iron ions produced similar ratios of complex to simple exchanges and incomplete to complete exchanges; these ratios were higher than those obtained after exposure to 6 Gy gamma rays. After 0.7 Gy of iron ions, most complex aberrations were found to involve three or four chromosomes, which is a likely indication of the maximum number of chromosome domains traversed by a single iron-ion track.

  5. Mini-temporalis transposition: a less invasive procedure of smile restoration for long-standing incomplete facial paralysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Gang; Yang, Xianxian; Wang, Wei; Li, Qingfeng

    2015-03-01

    Facial paralysis is a common craniofacial deformity that is responsible for significant psychological and functional impairment. Free muscle transfer in 2 stages and latissimus dorsi transfer in one stage may be the most effective surgical procedure for achieving a symmetrical spontaneous smile for a patient with complete facial paralysis. However, these 2 procedures are unsuitable for many incomplete patients. The authors introduce a less invasive procedure, termed mini-temporalis transposition that is able to achieve a symmetrical spontaneous smile in incomplete patients. Through a zigzag incision into the temporal region, the middle third of the temporalis is transferred and elongated with the palmaris longus tendon or combined with the deep temporal fascia. The strips are anchored to key points at the modiolus and the middle of the ipsilateral orbicularis oris muscle through a small intraoral incision and subcutaneous tunnel. The key points are marked during preoperative smile analysis. This procedure was applied to 15 patients with long-standing incomplete facial paralysis. All patients obtained improvements in smile symmetry after the operation, and patients' satisfaction was high. In addition, no damage to residual facial nerve functions or development of procedure-induced complications (such as a facial contour defect, lip eversion or puckering, or skin tethering) was observed in any of the patients. Nevertheless, slight temporal hollowing was observed in 4 patients, and mild bulkiness over the zygomatic arch was a common observation. In summary, the mini-temporalis transfer technique is a safe and effective method of smile restoration for long-standing incomplete facial paralysis. PMID:25759922

  6. Global stability of two models with incomplete treatment for tuberculosis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang Yali, E-mail: yylhgr@126.co [Department of Applied Mathematics, Xi' an Jiaotong University, Xi' an 710049 (China) and Department of Applied Mathematics and Physics, Air Force Engineering University, Xi' an 710051 (China); Li Jianquan, E-mail: jianq_li@263.ne [Department of Applied Mathematics and Physics, Air Force Engineering University, Xi' an 710051 (China); Ma Zhien, E-mail: zhma@mail.xjtu.edu.c [Department of Applied Mathematics, Xi' an Jiaotong University, Xi' an 710049 (China); Liu Luju, E-mail: dahai20401095@yahoo.com.c [Department of Mathematics, Henan University of Science and Technology, Luoyang 471003 (China)

    2010-12-15

    Research highlights: Two tuberculosis models with incomplete treatment. Intuitive epidemiological interpretations for the basic reproduction numbers. Global dynamics of the two models. Strategies to control the spread of tuberculosis. - Abstract: Two tuberculosis (TB) models with incomplete treatment are investigated. It is assumed that the treated individuals may enter either the latent compartment due to the remainder of Mycobacterium tuberculosis or the infectious compartment due to the treatment failure. The first model is a simple one with treatment failure reflecting the current TB treatment fact in most countries with high tuberculosis incidence. The second model refines the simple one by dividing the latent compartment into slow and fast two kinds of progresses. This improvement can be used to describe the case that the latent TB individuals have been infected with some other chronic diseases (such as HIV and diabetes) which may weaken the immunity of infected individuals and shorten the latent period of TB. Both of the two models assume mass action incidence and exponential distributions of transfers between different compartments. The basic reproduction numbers of the two models are derived and their intuitive epidemiological interpretations are given. The global dynamics of two models are all proved by using Liapunov functions. At last, some strategies to control the spread of tuberculosis are discussed.

  7. Evolutionary ultimatum game on complex networks under incomplete information

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bo, Xianyu; Yang, Jianmei

    2010-03-01

    This paper studies the evolutionary ultimatum game on networks when agents have incomplete information about the strategies of their neighborhood agents. Our model assumes that agents may initially display low fairness behavior, and therefore, may have to learn and develop their own strategies in this unknown environment. The Genetic Algorithm Learning Classifier System (GALCS) is used in the model as the agent strategy learning rule. Aside from the Watts-Strogatz (WS) small-world network and its variations, the present paper also extends the spatial ultimatum game to the Barabási-Albert (BA) scale-free network. Simulation results show that the fairness level achieved is lower than in situations where agents have complete information about other agents’ strategies. The research results display that fairness behavior will always emerge regardless of the distribution of the initial strategies. If the strategies are randomly distributed on the network, then the long-term agent fairness levels achieved are very close given unchanged learning parameters. Neighborhood size also has little effect on the fairness level attained. The simulation results also imply that WS small-world and BA scale-free networks have different effects on the spatial ultimatum game. In ultimatum game on networks with incomplete information, the WS small-world network and its variations favor the emergence of fairness behavior slightly more than the BA network where agents are heterogeneously structured.

  8. Regularised finite element model updating using measured incomplete modal data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Hua-Peng; Maung, Than Soe

    2014-10-01

    This paper presents an effective approach for directly updating finite element model from measured incomplete vibration modal data with regularised algorithms. The proposed method is based on the relationship between the perturbation of structural parameters such as stiffness change and the modal data measurements of the tested structure such as measured mode shape readings. In order to adjust structural parameters at detailed locations, structural updating parameters will be selected at critical point level to reflect the modelling errors at the connections of structural elements. These updating parameters are then evaluated by an iterative or a direct solution procedure, which gives optimised solutions in the least squares sense without requiring an optimisation technique. In order to reduce the influence of modal measurement uncertainty, the Tikhonov regularisation method incorporating the L-curve criterion is employed to produce reliable solutions for the chosen updating parameters. Numerical simulation investigations and experimental studies for the laboratory tested space steel frame structure are undertaken to verify the accuracy and effectiveness of the proposed methods for adjusting the stiffness at the joints of structural members. The results demonstrate that the proposed methods provide reliable estimates of finite element model updating using the measured incomplete modal data.

  9. An information propagation model considering incomplete reading behavior in microblog

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Qiang; Huang, Jiajia; Zhao, Xiande

    2015-02-01

    Microblog is one of the most popular communication channels on the Internet, and has already become the third largest source of news and public opinions in China. Although researchers have studied the information propagation in microblog using the epidemic models, previous studies have not considered the incomplete reading behavior among microblog users. Therefore, the model cannot fit the real situations well. In this paper, we proposed an improved model entitled Microblog-Susceptible-Infected-Removed (Mb-SIR) for information propagation by explicitly considering the user's incomplete reading behavior. We also tested the effectiveness of the model using real data from Sina Microblog. We demonstrate that the new proposed model is more accurate in describing the information propagation in microblog. In addition, we also investigate the effects of the critical model parameters, e.g., reading rate, spreading rate, and removed rate through numerical simulations. The simulation results show that, compared with other parameters, reading rate plays the most influential role in the information propagation performance in microblog.

  10. Experimental Determination of Multipartite Entanglement with Incomplete Information

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aguilar, G. H.; Walborn, S. P.; Ribeiro, P. H. Souto; Céleri, L. C.

    2015-07-01

    Multipartite entanglement is very poorly understood despite all the theoretical and experimental advances of the last decades. Preparation, manipulation, and identification of this resource is crucial for both practical and fundamental reasons. However, the difficulty in the practical manipulation and the complexity of the data generated by measurements on these systems increase rapidly with the number of parties. Therefore, we would like to experimentally address the problem of how much information about multipartite entanglement we can access with incomplete measurements. In particular, it was shown that some types of pure multipartite entangled states can be witnessed without measuring the correlations [M. Walter et al., Science 340, 1205 (2013)] between parties, which is strongly demanding experimentally. We explore this method using an optical setup that permits the preparation and the complete tomographic reconstruction of many inequivalent classes of three- and four-partite entangled states, and compare complete versus incomplete information. We show that the method is useful in practice, even for nonpure states or nonideal measurement conditions.

  11. Global stability of two models with incomplete treatment for tuberculosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Research highlights: ? Two tuberculosis models with incomplete treatment. ? Intuitive epidemiological interpretations for the basic reproduction numbers. ? Global dynamics of the two models. ? Strategies to control the spread of tuberculosis. - Abstract: Two tuberculosis (TB) models with incomplete treatment are investigated. It is assumed that the treated individuals may enter either the latent compartment due to the remainder of Mycobacterium tuberculosis or the infectious compartment due to the treatment failure. The first model is a simple one with treatment failure reflecting the current TB treatment fact in most countries with high tuberculosis incidence. The second model refines the simple one by dividing the latent compartment into slow and fast two kinds of progresses. This improvement can be used to describe the case that the latent TB individuals have been infected with some other chronic diseases (such as HIV and diabetes) which may weaken the immunity of infected individuals and shorten the latent period of TB. Both of the two models assume mass action incidence and exponential distributions of transfers between different compartments. The basic reproduction numbers of the two models are derived and their intuitive epidemiological interpretations are given. The global dynamics of two models are all proved by using Liapunov functions. At last, some strategies to control the spread of tuberculosis are discussed.

  12. Incomplete hippocampal inversion - is there a relation to epilepsy?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Incomplete hippocampal inversion (IHI) has been described in patients with epilepsy or severe midline malformations but also in nonepileptic subjects without obvious developmental anomalies. We studied the frequency of IHI in different epilepsy syndromes to evaluate their relationship. Three hundred patients were drawn from the regional epilepsy register. Of these, 99 were excluded because of a disease or condition affecting the temporal lobes or incomplete data. Controls were 150 subjects without epilepsy or obvious intracranial developmental anomalies. The coronal MR images were analysed without knowledge of the clinical data. Among epilepsy patients, 30% had IHI (40 left-sided, 4 right-sided, 16 bilateral). Of controls, 18% had IHI (20 left-sided, 8 bilateral). The difference was statistically significant (P<0.05). Of temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE) patients, 25% had IHI, which was not a significantly higher frequency than in controls (P=0.34). There was no correlation between EEG and IHI laterality. A total of 44% of Rolandic epilepsy patients and 57% of cryptogenic generalised epilepsy patients had IHI. The IHI frequency was very high in some epileptic syndromes, but not significantly higher in TLE compared to controls. No causality between TLE and IHI could be found. IHI can be a sign of disturbed cerebral development affecting other parts of the brain, maybe leading to epilepsy. (orig.)

  13. Complete and incomplete fusion of weakly bound nuclei

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The influence of the breakup channel in fusion reactions of weakly bound nuclei with heavy targets has been a matter of theoretical controversies in the last years. In a previous work we have presented a semiclassical treatment of breakup reactions and veri d that the results are in agreement with complete quantum mechanical calculations and experimental data. Here we extend that work to consider the simultaneous treatment of breakup and fusion.Several possibilities are considered for the reaction. The projectile does or does not undergo a breakup process. In the second case, it either fuses with the target, and we have the direct complete fusion process, or scatters quasi elastically. If breakup occurs, none, one or both of the fragments may fuse with the target, and we have pure breakup, incomplete fusion or sequential complete fusion reactions, respectively. Note that this last process cannot be calculated employing quantum Coupled Channels codes. In our calculations the breakup probability as well as the energy and angular distributions of the breakup fragments are obtained by the semiclassical model proposed in. We have veri d in those calculations that the breakup occurs predominantly at the point of closest approach. Thus, we end the breakup calculation at this point, and, using the breakup amplitudes, we calculate the momentum distribution of the breakup products. From them we calculate the fusion probabilities of the fragments. Preliminary results for the complete and incomplete fusion for the 6Li+209Bi system are encouraging when compared with available measurements

  14. Incomplete response in late-life depression: getting to remission.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lenze, Eric J; Sheffrin, Meera; Driscoll, Henry C; Mulsant, Benoit H; Pollock, Bruce G; Dew, Mary Amanda; Lotrich, Frank; Devlin, Bernie; Bies, Robert; Reynolds, Charles F

    2008-01-01

    Incomplete response in the treatment of late-life depression is a large public health challenge: at least 50% of older people fail to respond adequately to first-line antidepressant pharmacotherapy, even under optimal treatment conditions. Treatment-resistant late-life depression (TRLLD) increases risk for early relapse, undermines adherence to treatment for coexisting medical disorders, amplifies disability and cognitive impairment, imposes greater burden on family caregivers, and increases the risk for early mortality, including suicide. Getting to and sustaining remission is the primary goal of treatment, yet there is a paucity of empirical data on how best to manage TRLLD. A pilot study by our group on aripiprazole augmentation in 24 incomplete responders to sequential SSRI and SRNI pharmacotherapy found that 50% remitted over 12 weeks with the addition of aripiprazole, and that remission was sustained in all participants during 6 months of continuation treatment. In addition to controlled assessment, evidence is needed to support personalized treatment by testing the moderating role of clinical (e.g., comorbid anxiety, medical burden, and executive impairment) and genetic (eg, selected polymorphisms in serotonin, norepinephrine, and dopamine genes) variables, while also controlling for variability in drug exposure. Such studies may advance us toward the goal of personalized treatment in late-life depression. PMID:19170399

  15. Incomplete fusion in 12C + 160Gd collisions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A study of the mechanism of the production of fast ?-particels in 12C + 160Gd collisions has been performed. Experiments have been performed at four bombarding energies 90, 120, 160 and 200 MeV. The energy spectra of singles ?-particles were taken at several laboratory angles, and the singles ?-ray spectra compared with the spectra of ?-rays in prompt coincidences with ?-particles. Absolute cross sections were deduced for (12C, ?) and (12C, 2?) reactions. The conclusion is that depending on the bombarding energy, a fraction of 0.2-0.4 of the inclusive ?-particle production cross section can be explained as resulting from incomplete fusion reactions. A large part of the cross section must be then attributed to 3?-particle breakup. Energy dependence of the cross sections for (12C, ?) and (12C, 2?) reactions indicates that incomplete fusion reactions begin to be important only above the critical energy, i.e. when the grazing angular momentum becomes greater than the critical angular momentum for complete fusion. (C.F.)

  16. Is curettage needed for uncomplicated incomplete spontaneous abortion?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ballagh, S A; Harris, H A; Demasio, K

    1998-11-01

    Spontaneous abortion occurs in 15% to 20% of all human pregnancies. Since the late 1800s, the management of incomplete spontaneous abortion has focused on using curettage to empty the uterus as quickly as possible. This practice began to reduce blood loss and infection and has been unquestioned for 4 decades. In today's medical climate, few spontaneous abortions are the resuslt of illegal manipulation, given the availability of legal pregnancy termination. Antibiotics and transfusions are available, should complications arise in conservatively managed cases. Two prospective randomized trials suggest that conservative management may be advantageous for women who have stable vital signs without evidence of infection. They will have fewer perforations and, possibly, fewer infections and uterine synechiae with expectant or medical management. Larger trials should be undertaken to critically assess surgical evacuation compared to medical management, factoring in the psychologic impact of treatment. We believe that medical management will prove to be the most appropriate treatment for uncomplicated spontaneous incomplete abortion in the 21st century. PMID:9822516

  17. Fusion of dendritic cells with multiple myeloma cells results in maturation and enhanced antigen presentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vasir, Baldev; Borges, Virginia; Wu, Zekui; Grosman, Daren; Rosenblatt, Jacalyn; Irie, Masaki; Anderson, Kenneth; Kufe, Donald; Avigan, David

    2005-06-01

    Dendritic cells (DCs) are potent antigen-presenting cells that are uniquely capable of inducing primary immune responses. Although tumour cells may directly inhibit DC maturation, exposure to tumour products may also result in their activation. Fusions of cancer cells and DCs are being explored as cancer vaccines. The effect of tumour cell fusion on DC maturation and their functional characteristics has not been defined. In the present study, immature and mature DC generated from human CD34+ and peripheral blood precursors were fused to multiple myeloma cells in the presence of polyethylene glycol. Fusion of both immature and mature DCs with tumour cells resulted in an activated phenotype. In this regard, fusion cells expressed interleukin-12, a cytokine essential for the induction of T-helper cell type 1 immunity. In contrast to immature DCs, fusion cells also strongly expressed CC-chemokine receptor R7, which is responsible for DC migration to draining lymph nodes. Fusions generated with both immature and mature DCs also potently stimulated T-cell expression of gamma-interferon and cytotoxic T lymphocyte killing of tumour targets. These findings demonstrate that tumour cell fusion induces DC maturation and the development of an activated phenotype necessary for their effectiveness as cancer vaccines. PMID:15916692

  18. Rapidly shifting maturation schedules following reduced commercial harvest in a freshwater fish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feiner, Zachary S; Chong, Stephen C; Knight, Carey T; Lauer, Thomas E; Thomas, Michael V; Tyson, Jeffrey T; Höök, Tomas O

    2015-08-01

    Size-selective harvest of fish stocks can lead to maturation at smaller sizes and younger ages, which may depress stock productivity and recovery. Such changes in maturation may be very slow to reverse, even following complete fisheries closures. We evaluated temporal trends in maturation of five Great Lakes stocks of yellow perch (Perca flavescens Mitchill) using indices that attempt to disentangle plastic and evolutionary changes in maturation: age at 50% maturity and probabilistic maturation reaction norms (PMRNs). Four populations were fished commercially throughout the time series, while the Lake Michigan fishery was closed following a stock collapse. We documented rapid increases in PMRNs of the Lake Michigan stock coincident with the commercial fishery closure. Saginaw Bay and Lake Huron PMRNs also increased following reduced harvest, while Lake Erie populations were continuously fished and showed little change. The rapid response of maturation may have been enhanced by the short generation time of yellow perch and potential gene flow between northern and southern Lake Michigan, in addition to potential reverse adaptation following the fishing moratorium. These results suggest that some fish stocks may retain the ability to recover from fisheries-induced life history shifts following fishing moratoria. PMID:26240608

  19. Equilibrium term structure relations of risky assets in incomplete markets

    OpenAIRE

    Eckwert, Bernhard

    1993-01-01

    This paper presents a simple theoretical model of the term structure and analyzes the relations among optimal portfolio decisions, the real term structure of asset returns, and the risks and price volatilities of assets with different terms to maturity when the investor preferences are non-time-separable. It is argued that specifying utility to be a non-time-separable function of consumption allows for richer term structure relations than separable specifications. The model is capable to expl...

  20. Gamma rays role in the improvement of yield and early maturity in soybean

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seeds from soybean variety glycine max (L) Merr., were irradiated with three doses of gamma rays: 100, 150 and 200 Gray in order to obtain high yielding and early maturity mutants to grown after wheat in a two crop rotation. All the three doses induced morphological and physiological variation and malformation that increased with increasing the dose. Coefficient of variation values were higher in M2 than in their respective values of M3. The results showed no selection efficiency under the non optimal environmental growing conditions with this lack of efficiency being more evident for yield than for early maturity. Using FTAB statistical programme 20 M2 and M3 plant were selected for each character and when evaluated in the following generation, it was clear that selection efficiency was higher for early maturity than for yield; the latter being high yielding and 4 early maturing m 4 mutants were obtained. 3 tabs

  1. Evidence against the existence of specific Schistosoma mansoni subpopulations which are resistant to irradiated vaccine-induced immunity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    When mice are immunized with irradiated Schistosoma mansoni cercariae a proportion of the subsequent cercarial challenge always escapes killing and matures to egg-laying adults. This report investigates the possibility that incomplete immunity in this system is governed by a genetically-determined insusceptibility of a particular schistosome subpopulation. To do this the authors tested whether more immunoresistant schistosomes would develop following successive passages of progeny of the resistant worms through immunized mice. Mice were immunized with 500 50 Krad-irradiated cercariae, and challenged with normal cercariae when immunity was at its peak. After five successive passages through snails and immune mice, progeny of those parasites which escaped immune killing were no more refractory to vaccine-induced resistance than the original stock maintained in nonimmune mice. Additionally, the passaged isolates did not differ from the original stock in their ability to induce protection following irradiation. The results indicate that with this model of acquired resistance incomplete immunity is unlikely to be due to a subpopulation of the parasites possessing a genetically-determined insusceptibility to killing

  2. Embryological Aspects of Oocyte In Vitro Maturation

    OpenAIRE

    Farsi, Mir Mehrdad; Kamali, Nematollah; Pourghasem, Mohsen

    2013-01-01

    In Vitro Maturation (IVM) is a method that immature oocytes in antral follicles are extracted and matured in laboratry conditions. This review has attempted to provide the current knowledge and recent findings in in vitro maturation of oocytes and highlights the most important factors involved in this process. The review is based on literature reports and the author’s experience. In IVM cycles, the time of administration of hCG is depending on the diameter of the largest follicle that has bee...

  3. Service Quality and Process Maturity Assessment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Serek Radomir

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available This article deals with service quality and the methods for its measurement and improvements to reach the so called service excellence. Besides older methods such as SERVQUAL and SERPERF, there are also shortly described capability maturity models based on which the own methodology is developed and used for process maturity assessment in organizations providing technical services. This method is equally described and accompanied by examples on pictures. The verification of method functionality is explored on finding a correlation between service employee satisfaction and average process maturity in a service organization. The results seem to be quite promising and open an arena for further studies.

  4. Cardiogenic hypertension in maturing dogs

    OpenAIRE

    Magrini, Fabio; CIULLA, MICHELE MARIO

    1988-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate whether the heart can induce high blood pressure by maintaining an inappropriately elevated cardiac output/body weight ratio during growth. Direct (femoral artery) mean arterial pressure (MAP), heart rate, cardiac output/body weight ratio (as defined by M-mode echocardiography), and total peripheral vascular resistance were measured and calculated every 2 months in nine conscious dogs during development from 2 to 10 months of age. In four dogs a J-sha...

  5. Expurgated PPM Using Symmetric Balanced Incomplete Block Designs

    CERN Document Server

    Noshad, Mohammad

    2012-01-01

    In this letter, we propose a new pulse position modulation (PPM) scheme, called expurgated PPM (EPPM), for application in peak power limited communication systems, such as impulse radio (IR) ultra wide band (UWB) systems and free space optical (FSO) communications. Using the proposed scheme, the constellation size and the bit-rate can be increased significantly in these systems. The symbols are obtained using symmetric balanced incomplete block designs (BIBD), forming a set of pair-wise equidistance symbols. The performance of Q-ary EPPM is better than any Q-ary pulse position-based modulation scheme with the same symbol length. Since the code is cyclic, the receiver for EPPM is simpler compared to multipulse PPM (MPPM).

  6. Incomplete rod insertion at Doel 4 and Tihange 3

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The present paper deals with the Incomplete Rod Insertion (IRI) problems experienced at the Belgian nuclear power plants (NPPs) of Doel-Unit 4 and Tihange-Unit 3 and presents the various remedial action taken to try to address the cause of such abnormal situations. A chronological description is made of the major events that developed at both units since the IRI problem was detected, i.e. since June '96 at Doel 4 and since October '96 at Tihange 3. The problems that arose from IRI are discussed as well as the position adopted by the Belgian Safety Authorities (BSA) and the action taken by the plant operator, his engineer and by the fuel suppliers. Also described are the consequences on how fuel supply and operation cycles of both units are managed. (authors)

  7. On a class of incomplete gamma functions with applications

    CERN Document Server

    Chaudhry, M Aslam

    2001-01-01

    The subject of special functions is rich and expanding continuously with the emergence of new problems encountered in engineering and applied science applications. The development of computational techniques and the rapid growth in computing power have increased the importance of the special functions and their formulae for analytic representations. However, problems remain, particularly in heat conduction, astrophysics, and probability theory, whose solutions seem to defy even the most general classes of special functions.On a Class of Incomplete Gamma Functions with Applications introduces a class of special functions, developed by the authors, useful in the analytic study of several heat conduction problems. It presents some basic properties of these functions, including their recurrence relations, special cases, asymptotic representations, and integral transform relationships. The authors explore applications of these generalized functions to problems in transient heat conduction, special cases of laser s...

  8. Distribution of Mutual Information from Complete and Incomplete Data

    CERN Document Server

    Hutter, M; Hutter, Marcus; Zaffalon, Marco

    2004-01-01

    Mutual information is widely used, in a descriptive way, to measure the stochastic dependence of categorical random variables. In order to address questions such as the reliability of the descriptive value, one must consider sample-to-population inferential approaches. This paper deals with the posterior distribution of mutual information, as obtained in a Bayesian framework by a second-order Dirichlet prior distribution. The exact analytical expression for the mean, and analytical approximations for the variance, skewness and kurtosis are derived. These approximations have a guaranteed accuracy level of the order O(1/n^3), where n is the sample size. Leading order approximations for the mean and the variance are derived in the case of incomplete samples. The derived analytical expressions allow the distribution of mutual information to be approximated reliably and quickly. In fact, the derived expressions can be computed with the same order of complexity needed for descriptive mutual information. This makes ...

  9. Complete and incomplete fusion of weakly bound nuclei

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marta, H. D.; Canto, L. F.; Donangelo, R.

    2014-03-01

    Existing quantum mechanics methods to study fusion reactions with weakly bound nuclei cannot evaluate separately the complete fusion and the incomplete fusion cross sections. We develop a semiclassical procedure that can calculate these cross sections, apply it to Li6,7+Bi209 collisions at energies just above the barrier, and show that its predictions for the different fusion cross sections are in good agreement with the data. We find that the contribution from the sequential fusion of the Li fragments to the complete fusion cross section is substantial in the case of Li6, reaching almost 40% of that from the direct process, which illustrates the importance of calculating correctly the different components of the fusion cross section.

  10. Self-Financing, Replicating Hedging Strategies, an incomplete thermodynamic analogy

    CERN Document Server

    McCauley, J L

    2002-01-01

    In the theory of riskfree hedges in continuous time finance, one can start with the delta-hedge and derive the option pricing equation, or one can start with the replicating, self-financing hedging strategy and derive both the delta-hedge and the option pricing partial differential equation. Approximately reversible trading is implicitly assumed in both cases. The option pricing equation is not restricted to the standard Black-Scholes equation when nontrivial volatility is assumed, but produces option pricing in agreement with the empirical distribution for the right choice of volatility in a stochastic description of fluctuations. The replicating, self-financing hedging strategy provides us with an incomplete analogy with thermodynamics where liquidity plays the role of the heat bath, the absence of arbitrage is analgous to thermal equilibrium, but there is no role played by the entropy of the returns distribution, which cannot reach a maximum/equilibrium. We emphasize strongly that the no-arbitrage assumpti...

  11. Reconciliation of mass-asymmetry systematics for incomplete fusion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Pushpendra P.; Yadav, Abhishek; Sharma, Vijay R.; Kumar, R.; Sharma, Manoj K.; Singh, B. P.; Singh, R. P.; Muralithar, S.; Bhowmik, R. K.; Prasad, R.; AMU-IUAC collaboration

    2015-04-01

    The onset and strength of incomplete fusion (ICF) has been studied in the framework of Morgenstern's mass-asymmetry systematics. The fraction of ICF has been deduced in 12C+169Tm system at energies ranging from 1.02Vb to 1.64Vb (Vb = 54.94 MeV from the analysis of excitation functions (EFs). It has been found that the ICF starts influencing complete fusion at noticeably lower, ?-values (i.e., 0.025 or 2. 5% of c) than that proposed by Morgenstern (i.e., ? 6% of c). The fraction of ICF increases with entrance channel mass-asymmetry for individual projectiles, termed as projectile dependent mass-asymmetry (ProMass-) systematics. The proposed ProMass- systematics has withstood all tests that have been done for fairly large number of systems to verify its validness.

  12. Parameter learning in MTE networks using incomplete data

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fernández, Antonio; Langseth, Helge

    Bayesian networks with mixtures of truncated exponentials (MTEs) are gaining popularity as a flexible modelling framework for hybrid domains. MTEs support efficient and exact inference algorithms, but estimating an MTE from data has turned out to be a difficult task. Current methods suffer from a considerable computational burden as well as the inability to handle missing values in the training data. In this paper we describe an EM-based algorithm for learning the maximum likelihood parameters of an MTE network when confronted with incomplete data. In order to overcome the computational difficulties we make certain distributional assumptions about the domain being modeled, thus focusing on a subclass of the general class of MTE networks. Preliminary empirical results indicate that the proposed method offers results that are inline with intuition.

  13. Stability of utility-maximization in incomplete markets

    CERN Document Server

    Larsen, Kasper

    2007-01-01

    The effectiveness of utility-maximization techniques for portfolio management relies on our ability to estimate correctly the parameters of the dynamics of the underlying financial assets. In the setting of complete or incomplete financial markets, we investigate whether small perturbations of the market coefficient processes lead to small changes in the agent's optimal behavior derived from the solution of the related utility-maximization problems. Specifically, we identify the topologies on the parameter process space and the solution space under which utility-maximization is a continuous operation, and we provide a counterexample showing that our results are best possible, in a certain sense. A novel result about the structure of the solution of the utility-maximization problem where prices are modeled by continuous semimartingales is established as an offshoot of the proof of our central theorem.

  14. Elementary calculation of clip connections with incomplete sweep of shaft

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivan P. Shatsky

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The article describes promising structures of clip (screw and friction connections with incomplete sweep of shaft used in machines and mechanisms for the oil and gas industry. The contact problems of interaction between semi-hubs and shaft for the symmetric and asymmetric connections are formulated. For structures that are asymmetric relatively the joint bolt two types of interaction are investigated: with and without lateral displacement. Based on a priori assumption about the distribution laws of contact pressure accepted in traditional courses of “Machine Details” an engineering method for calculating of clip connections is developed. Herewith different types of details coupling (with a gap, matched, with tension correspond to concentrated, cosine and sustainable (linear distributions of contact stresses. There are determined an analytical dependences of boundary points and breakloose force on spanning angles, bolt tightening force and tribological properties of joined parts of subassembly.

  15. The value of incomplete mouse models of Alzheimer's disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To study Alzheimer's disease (AD), a variety of mouse models has been generated through the overexpression of the amyloid precursor protein and/or the presenilins harboring one or several mutations found in familial AD. With aging, these mice develop several lesions similar to those of AD, including diffuse and neuritic amyloid deposits, cerebral amyloid angiopathy, dystrophic neurites and synapses, and amyloid-associated neuroinflammation. Other characteristics of AD, such as neurofibrillary tangles and nerve cell loss, are not satisfactorily reproduced in these models. Mouse models that recapitulate only specific aspects of AD pathogenesis are of great advantage when deciphering the complexity of the disease and can contribute substantially to diagnostic and therapeutic innovations. Incomplete mouse models have been key to the development of A?42-targeted therapies, as well as to the current understanding of the interrelationship between cerebral ?-amyloidosis and tau neurofibrillary lesions, and are currently being used to develop novel diagnostic agents for in vivo imaging. (orig.)

  16. Applying incomplete statistics to nonextensive systems with different q indices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The nonextensive statistics based on the q-entropy Sq=--bar i=1v(pi-piq)1-q has been so far applied to systems in which the q value is uniformly distributed. For the systems containing different q's, the applicability of the theory is still a matter of investigation. The difficulty is that the class of systems to which the theory can be applied is actually limited by the usual nonadditivity rule of entropy which is no more valid when the systems contain non uniform distribution of q values. In this paper, within the framework of the so called incomplete information theory, we propose a more general nonadditivity rule of entropy prescribed by the zeroth law of thermodynamics. This new nonadditivity generalizes in a simple way the usual one and can be proved to lead uniquely to the q-entropy

  17. Least-bias state estimation with incomplete unbiased measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    ?ehá?ek, Jaroslav; Hradil, Zden?k; Teo, Yong Siah; Sánchez-Soto, Luis L.; Ng, Hui Khoon; Chai, Jing Hao; Englert, Berthold-Georg

    2015-11-01

    Measuring incomplete sets of mutually unbiased bases constitutes a sensible approach to the tomography of high-dimensional quantum systems. The unbiased nature of these bases optimizes the uncertainty hypervolume. However, imposing unbiasedness on the probabilities for the unmeasured bases does not generally yield the estimator with the largest von Neumann entropy, a popular figure of merit in this context. Furthermore, this imposition typically leads to mock density matrices that are not even positive definite. This provides a strong argument against perfunctory applications of linear estimation strategies. We propose to use instead the physical state estimators that maximize the Shannon entropy of the unmeasured outcomes, which quantifies our lack of knowledge fittingly and gives physically meaningful statistical predictions.

  18. Role of entrance channel parameters on incomplete fusion reaction dynamics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In recent time the keen interest has been observed in the study of incomplete fusion (ICF) reactions and its dependence on various entrance channel parameters: projectile type/energy, angular momentum imparted to the system, alpha-Q-value of the projectile, mass asymmetry of the interacting partners etc. The fusion reaction proceeds for the energy of projectile capable of overcoming the fusion barrier resulting from the sum of repulsive Coulomb and attractive nuclear potentials. However, the breakup becomes an important process and influences the flux of fusion reactions. Further, the influence of the projectile breakup on fusion is not yet well understood, thus continues to be an active area of investigations. In view of the above facts, the excitation functions of several evaporated residues in the 16O + 115In at energies 4-7 MeV/nucleon have been measured. The influence of various entrance channel parameters on ICF reaction dynamics has been studied

  19. Complete and incomplete fusion of $^{12}C$ with $^{165}Ho$ below 7 MeV/nucleon Measurements and analysis of excitation functions

    CERN Document Server

    Gupta, S; Musthafa, M M; Bhardwaj, H D; Prasadl, R

    2000-01-01

    This experiment has been done with a view to studying complete and incomplete fusion in heavy-ion-induced reactions. Excitation functions for several reactions induced by /sup 12/C/sup 5+/ ions on /sup 165/Ho at incident energies from 55 to 80 MeV have been measured using the activation technique. The analysis of the data has been done using the codes ALICE-91 and CASCADE. The parameter F/sub theta /, the ratio of actual moment of inertia to the rigid-body value, has been found to play an important role in the calculations done by the code CASCADE. Significant contributions from both the complete and the incomplete fusion channels have been observed. Further, in the case of the reaction (C, p3n) considerable contribution from the decay of higher charge isobar precursor has been observed. (23 refs).

  20. Migraine without aura is not associated with incomplete circle of Willis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ezzatian-Ahar, Shabnam; Amin, Faisal Mohammad; Obaid, Hayder Ghani; Arngrim, Nanna; Hougaard, Anders; Larsson, Henrik B W; Ashina, Messoud

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The circle of Willis is an important source of collateral blood flow to maintain adequate cerebral perfusion, particularly in the posterior circulation. Some studies report a relationship between incomplete circle of Willis and migraine, whereas other studies show no difference between the prevalence of incomplete circle of Willis in migraineurs and controls. In the present study we compared the prevalence of incomplete circle of Willis in female migraine patients without aura to fem...

  1. How does incomplete fusion show up at slightly above barrier energies?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prasad R.

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Experimental results on the onset of incomplete fusion at slightly above barrier energies are discussed in this paper. Spin-distributions of evaporation residues populated via complete and/or incomplete fusion of 12C,16O (Elab ? 4–7 MeV with 169Tm have been measured to probe associated ?–values. Particle (Z=1,2 – ? – coincidence technique has been used for channel selection. Entirely different entry state spin populations have been observed during the de-excitation of complete and incomplete composites. The complete fusion residues are found to be strongly fed over a broad spin range. While, a narrow range feeding for only high spin states has been observed in case of incomplete fusion residues. In the present work, incomplete fusion is shown to be a promising tool to populate high spin states in final reaction products. For better insight into the onset and strength of incomplete fusion, the relative contributions of complete and incomplete fusion have been deduced from the analysis of excitation functions and forward recoil ranges. A significant fraction of ICF has been observed even at energy as low as ? 7% above the barrier. The relative strengths of complete and incomplete fusion deduced from the analysis of forward-recoil-ranges and excitation functions complement each other. All the available results are discussed in light of the Morgenstern’s mass-asymmetry systematics. Incomplete fusion fraction is found to be large for more mass-asymmetric systems for individual projectiles, which points towards the projectile structure effect on incomplete fusion fraction. Experimentally measured forward ranges of recoils complement the existence of incomplete fusion at slightly above barrier energies, where more than one linear-momentum-transfer components associated with full- and/or partial-fusion of projectile(s have been observed. Present results conclusively demonstrate the possibility to selectively populate high spin states via incomplete fusion.

  2. Reliability of three-dimensional gait analysis in adults with acquired incomplete spinal cord injury

    OpenAIRE

    Wedege, Pia

    2013-01-01

    Background: Incomplete spinal cord injury (SCI) results in varying degrees of gait impairments. Three-dimensional (3D) gait analysis has been recommended as part of a standardised gait assessment for individuals with incomplete SCI. However, reliability of 3D gait analysis has not been established for this population. The aim of the present study was to investigate intra- and inter-session reliability of gait kinematics in a group of individuals with incomplete SCI. We also sought to estimate...

  3. 24 CFR 241.1060 - Maturity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ...ACT AND OTHER AUTHORITIES SUPPLEMENTARY FINANCING FOR INSURED PROJECT MORTGAGES Insurance for Equity Loans and Acquisition Loans-Eligibility...Requirements § 241.1060 Maturity. (a) Equity loans shall have a term not to exceed...

  4. Generalized thermal maturity map of Alaska

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This dataset consists of a polygon coverage and associated attribute data derived from the onshore portion of the 1996 "Generalized Thermal Maturity Map of Alaska"...

  5. General smile asymptotics with bounded maturity

    OpenAIRE

    Caravenna, Francesco; Corbetta, Jacopo

    2014-01-01

    We provide explicit conditions on the distribution of risk-neutral log-returns which yield sharp asymptotic estimates on the implied volatility smile. We allow for a variety of asymptotic regimes, including both small maturity (with arbitrary strike) and extreme strike (with arbitrary bounded maturity), extending previous work of Benaim and Friz [Math. Finance 19 (2009), 1-12]. We present applications to popular models, including Carr-Wu finite moment logstable model, Merton...

  6. Postsynaptic Neuroligin1 regulates presynaptic maturation

    OpenAIRE

    Wittenmayer, Nina; Körber, Christoph; Liu, Huisheng; Kremer, Thomas; Varoqueaux, Frederique; Chapman, Edwin R.; Brose, Nils; Kuner, Thomas; Dresbach, Thomas

    2009-01-01

    Presynaptic nerve terminals pass through distinct stages of maturation after their initial assembly. Here we show that the postsynaptic cell adhesion molecule Neuroligin1 regulates key steps of presynaptic maturation. Presynaptic terminals from Neuroligin1-knockout mice remain structurally and functionally immature with respect to active zone stability and synaptic vesicle pool size, as analyzed in cultured hippocampal neurons. Conversely, overexpression of Neuroligin1 in immature neurons, th...

  7. Theory of affinity maturation of antibodies

    OpenAIRE

    Udo Riss

    2013-01-01

    Based on the theory of long distance interaction between antibodies and antigens we developed a theory of affinity maturation of antibodies that is based on longitudinale electric waves. Early stage antibodies show a wide frequency spectrum for antigens and are polyspecific. After affinity maturation the antibody shows a very narrow band spectrum, the antibodies become monospecific. The feedback between antibody and antibody producing cell is done via messenger molecules that are also commun...

  8. Obesity accelerates secondary sexual maturity in girls

    OpenAIRE

    Meiriani Sari; Endy Paryanto Prawirohartono; Madarina Julia2)

    2012-01-01

    Background Worldwide incidence of obesity in children is increasing. Obesity may have many health effects including advancement of sexual maturity. Objective The aim of this study was to assess the timing of secondary sexual maturation in obese vs. non-obese girls. Methods Subjects were 105 obese and 105 non-obese girls, aged 7 to 8 years who had not entered puberty. Breast and pubic hair growth, secondary sexual characteristics, were assessed at baseline and every 4 months for two ye...

  9. Maturity grids as tools for change management

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Maier, Anja; Moultrie, James; Clarkson, P John

    2011-01-01

    A maturity grid is a change management tool. Levels of maturity are assigned against aspects of an area under study, thus creating a grid. Text descriptions at the resulting intersections describe the typical behaviour exhibited by a firm for each area under study and from the basis for the assessment scale. It is a flexible assessment technique that is used by practitioners in industry, consultants and researchers in academia for diagnostic, reflective and improvement purposes. A large number o...

  10. Mature students' perspectives of studying radiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The study set out to explore the experiences of all final year mature students on a diagnostic radiography course, in one United Kingdom University. The aims were to identify any difficulties they may have had and to make recommendations to improve mature students' learning experiences with the hope of lowering attrition rates in this group. A qualitative study involving one-to-one audio recorded interviews was utilised. Analysis of the transcripts of interviews suggested that the group believed that their maturity and previous experiences helped them in the clinical environment and put them in a good position, when asked, to counsel younger students. However for some of the mature students these experiential skills did not extend fully into seeking appropriate support for themselves. The mature students were found to be highly motivated but there was a conflict between balancing clinical and academic aspects of studying as well as balancing studying with home life. The group was found to be unprepared for the volume of academic work and its detrimental effect on family life as they sacrificed other aspects of their lives in order to complete the course. It is recommended that forewarning and forearming prospective mature students be considered by radiography education providers. Setting up and utilising an on-line forum providing a 24/7 peer support environment would aid in coping with academic, clinical or personal problems

  11. Generation of Mature Monocyte-Derived Dendritic Cells in the Presence of Heparin and Monocyte Conditioned Medium: Phenotypic and Functional Comparison

    OpenAIRE

    DELIREZH, Nowruz; Majedi, Leila; Asri Rezaei, Siamak; Ranjkeshzadeh, Hadi

    2011-01-01

    Background: Dendritic cells (DC) induce tumor or pathogen-specific T cell responses in humans. Several laboratories have developed culture systems, including maturation factors for human DC from peripheral blood monocytes. We comprehensively compared standard maturation stimulus, an autologous monocyte-conditioned medium (MCM), with heparin for their ability to promote uniformly mature DC that elicit T cell responses. Methods: A short (4-day) priming of plastic adherent monocyt...

  12. An HDAC2-TET1 switch at distinct chromatin regions significantly promotes the maturation of pre-iPS to iPS cells

    OpenAIRE

    Wei, Tingyi; Chen, Wen; Wang, Xiukun; ZHANG, MAN; Chen, Jiayu; Zhu, Songcheng; CHEN, LONG; Yang, Dandan; Wang, Guiying; Jia, Wenwen; Yu, Yangyang; Duan, Tao; Wu, Minjuan; Liu, Houqi; Gao, Shaorong

    2015-01-01

    The maturation of induced pluripotent stem cells (iPS) is one of the limiting steps of somatic cell reprogramming, but the underlying mechanism is largely unknown. Here, we reported that knockdown of histone deacetylase 2 (HDAC2) specifically promoted the maturation of iPS cells. Further studies showed that HDAC2 knockdown significantly increased histone acetylation, facilitated TET1 binding and DNA demethylation at the promoters of iPS cell maturation-related genes during the transition of p...

  13. Protection of mature oligodendrocytes by inhibitors of caspases and calpains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benjamins, Joyce A; Nedelkoska, Liljana; George, Edwin B

    2003-01-01

    Mature mouse oligodendrocytes (OLs) are susceptible to death in demyelinating diseases such as multiple sclerosis and in brain injury following neurotrauma, ischemia, or stroke. To understand mechanisms leading to death of mature OLs and develop strategies for protection, we utilized cultures of mature mouse OLs to investigate the role of caspases and calpains in OL cell death mediated by different mechanisms. The agents used were (i) staurosporine, which induces apoptotic death via inhibition of protein kinases; (ii) kainate, which activates non-NMDA glutamate receptors; (iii) thapsigargin, which releases intracellular calcium stores; and (iv) SNAP, which releases active NO species and causes necrotic cell death. Inhibitors blocking primary effector caspases (including caspase 3), the FAS (death receptor)-mediated initiator caspases (including caspase 8), and stress-induced caspases (including caspase 9), were tested for their protective effects. Inhibition of caspases 3, 8, and 9 each robustly protected OLs following insult with staurosporine, thapsigargin, or kainate when added at optimal times. The time of addition of the inhibitors for maximal protection varied with the agent, from 1 h of preincubation before addition of staurosporine to 6 h after addition of kainate. Much less protection was seen for the NO generator SNAP under any condition. The role of calcium in OL death in each model was investigated by chelating extracellular Ca++ with EGTA, and by inhibiting the Ca++-activated calpain proteases. Calcium chelation did not protect against staurosporine, but decreased OL death initiated by kainate, thapsigargin, or NO. The calpain inhibitors PD150606 and calpain inhibitor I protected from cell death initiated by staurosporine, kainate, and thapsigargin, but not from cell death initiated by the NO donor SNAP. PMID:12587672

  14. Inhibition of final maturation of Atlantic croaker oocytes in vitro by organochlorines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ghosh, S.; Thomas, P. [Univ. of Texas, Port Aransas, TX (United States). Austin Marine Science Inst.

    1994-12-31

    Final oocyte maturation (FOM) in teleosts is induced by a maturation inducing steroid (MIS) secreted in response to a surge in maturational gonadotropin secretion. Recently the authors found that a variety of organochlorine pesticides bind to the ovarian plasma membrane receptor for the MIS in the spotted seatrout (Cynoscion nebulosus). In the present study the interaction of various xenobiotics (10{sup {minus}9}--10{sup {minus}4}M) with MIS-induced final maturation of follicle-enclosed oocytes of Atlantic croaker (Micropogonias undulatus), a closely related species, was investigated using an in vitro oocyte maturation bioassay. A wide range of organochlorine compounds (10{sup {minus}9}--10{sup {minus}4}M) inhibited MIS-induced FOM 10%-80% in a concentration-dependent manner. 2,3,7,8-Tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD) was the most potent inhibitor among the compounds tested. The minimum concentration of TCDD which inhibited final maturation of 50% of the oocytes (EC{sub 50}) was in the 10{sup {minus}7} M range whereas the EC{sub 50} values for Kepone and naphthalene were in the 10{sup {minus}5}M range. The relative potencies of DDT analogs varied greatly, with EC{sub 50} values ranging from 10{sup {minus}7}--10{sup {minus}4}M (o,p{prime}-DDD > o,p{prime}-DDE > o,p{prime}DDT > p,p{prime}-DDE > p,p{prime}-DDE > p,p{prime}-DDT). PCBs only inhibited FOM at higher concentrations (2--200 ppm); congeners with higher chlorine contents were the most inhibitory. These results indicate that organochlorine compounds at environmentally realistic concentrations can affect reproduction in fish by interfering with FOM, a critical stage of the reproductive cycle.

  15. Betalactam antibiotics affect human dendritic cells maturation through MAPK/NF-kB systems. Role in allergic reactions to drugs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopez, Soledad; Gomez, Enrique; Torres, Maria J; Pozo, David; Fernandez, Tahia D; Ariza, Adriana; Sanz, Maria L; Blanca, Miguel; Mayorga, Cristobalina

    2015-11-01

    The mechanisms leading to drug allergy in predisposed patients, especially those related to T-cell-mediated drug hypersensitivity, are not well understood. A key event in allergic reactions to drugs is the maturation process undergone by dendritic cells (DCs). Although amoxicillin (AX) has been reported to interact and maturate DCs from patients with AX-induced delayed-type hypersensitivity, the cell signaling pathways related to AX-mediated DC maturation have not been elucidated. We sought to determine the role of the MAPK and NF-?? pathways on AX-induced DC maturation and functional status. For that purpose, in monocyte-derived-DCs from AX-delayed allergic patients and tolerant subjects, we analyzed the activation pattern of p38MAPK, JNK, and ERK signaling and the NF-?B, maturation markers as well as endocytosis and allostimulatory capacities driven by AX-stimulated-DCs. Our data reveal that AX induces an increase in the phosphorylation levels of the three MAPKsand activated NF-?B in DCs from allergic patients. Moreover, the inhibition of these pathways prevents the up-regulation of surface molecules induced by AX. Additionally, we observed that the allostimulatory capacity and the endocytosis down-regulation in AX-stimulated-DCs from allergic patients depend on JNK and NF-?B activities. Taken together, our data shed light for the first time on the main signaling pathways involved in DC maturation from AX-delayed allergic patient. PMID:26254762

  16. Link between impaired maturation of phagosomes and defective Coxiella burnetii killing in patients with chronic Q fever.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghigo, Eric; Honstettre, Amélie; Capo, Christian; Gorvel, Jean-Pierre; Raoult, Didier; Mege, Jean-Louis

    2004-11-15

    Q fever is caused by Coxiella burnetii, a bacterium that survives in monocytes/macrophages by resisting their natural microbicidal activity. Because the link between bacterial killing and phagosome maturation has yet to be demonstrated, we evaluated responses in monocytes from both immunologically naive control subjects and patients with various manifestations of Q fever. Monocytes from patients with chronic Q fever in evolution, who do not control the infection, exhibited defective phagosome maturation and impaired C. burnetii killing. Both responses were stimulated in patients recovering from Q fever. Phagosome maturation and C. burnetii killing were significantly correlated. Defective phagosome maturation and impaired C. burnetii killing were induced by adding interleukin (IL)-10 to monocytes from convalescent patients and were restored by IL-10 neutralization in chronic Q fever in evolution. We show that phagosome maturation and microbial killing are linked in Q fever and that IL-10 regulates both features of microbicidal activity. PMID:15499532

  17. Effect of aphidicolin on Friend erythroleukemia cell maturation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aphidicolin, a specific and reversible inhibitor of DNA polymerase alpha, was examined as a potential tool to evaluate the relationship between proliferative and differentiative events in Friend erythroleukemia cell (FELC) maturation. Since FELC can be induced to differentiate alone the erythrocytic pathway with a variety of inducing agents, the effects of aphidicolin were tested on proliferating FELC and cells which were induced to differentiate with the potent inducer, hexamethylene bisacetamide (HMBA). Exposure of FELC to aphidicolin resulted in unbalanced growth within 24 h, as reflected by abnormally large cells, compared with untreated cells. Continuous exposure of FELC from 24-96 h with doses of aphidicolin ranging from 0.5 to 50 ?M was more effective for differentiation induction than was short-term exposure (1, 2, 4, 12 h) to the drug. When cells were treated with HMBA (5 mM0 and aphidicolin (1, 5, 10 ?M), in combination, aphidicolin shifted the time of onset of differentiation from 72 to 48 h, but did not act synergistically or additively with HMBA. In contrast, suboptimal doses of aphidicolin (0.5 ?M) in combination with HMBA (2.5 mM) produced an additive effect on FELC differentiation. In addition, [3H]thymidine experiments demonstrated that aphidicolin reversibly blocked FELC in S phase and at G1-S interface of the cell cycle. These results indicate that aphidicolin can induce the differentiation of FELC, and that a complete round of replicative DNA synthesis is not required for differentiation to occur

  18. Late effects of radiation on mature and growing bone

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The physiopathology of radiation-induced bone damage is no completely elucidated. Ionizing radiation may induce an inhibition or an impairment of growing bone. This fact is of particular importance in children, and represents one of the most important dose-limiting factors in the radiotherapeutic management of children with malignant diseases. Scoliosis, epiphyseal slippage, avascular necrosis, abnormalities of craniofacial growth may be observed after radiation. Child's age at the time of treatment, location of irradiated bone and irradiation characteristics may influence the radiation related observed effects. In adults, pathological analysis of mature bone after ionizing radiation exposure are rare, suggesting that it is difficult to draw a clear feature of the action of radiation on the bone. Osteoporosis, medullary fibrosis and cytotoxicity on bone cells lead to fracture or necrosis. Various factors can influence bone tolerance to radiation such as bone involvement by tumor cells or infection, which is frequent is mandibulary osteoradionecrosis. Technical improvements in radiation techniques have also decreased radio-induced bone complications : the volume, fractionation and total dose are essential to consider. The absence of a consistent radiation-induced late effects evaluation scale has hampered efforts to analyze the influence of various therapeutic maneuvers and the comparison of results from different reported series. The currently proposed evaluation scale may help harmonizing the classification of radiation-induced bone late effects. (author)

  19. Activation of HIFa Pathway in Mature Osteoblasts Disrupts the Integrity of the Osteocyte/Canalicular Network

    OpenAIRE

    Zuo, Gui-lai; Zhang, Lian-Fang; Qi, Jin; Kang, Hui; Jia, Peng; Chen, Hao; Shen, Xing; Guo, Lei; Zhou, Han-bing; Wang, Jin-Shen; Zhou, Qi; Qian, Nian-dong; Deng, Lian-fu

    2015-01-01

    The hypoxia-inducible factors (HIFs), HIF-1? and HIF-2?, are the central mediators of the homeostatic response that enables cells to survive and differentiate in low-oxygen conditions. Previous studies indicated that disruption of the von Hippel-Lindau gene (Vhl) coincides with the activation of HIF? signaling. Here we show that inactivation of Vhl in mature osteoblasts/osteocytes induces their apoptosis and disrupts the cell/canalicular network. VHL-deficient (?VHL) mice exhibited a signific...

  20. Comparison of immature and mature bone marrow-derived dendritic cells by atomic force microscopy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liu Jing

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract A comparative study of immature and mature bone marrow-derived dendritic cells (BMDCs was first performed through an atomic force microscope (AFM to clarify differences of their nanostructure and adhesion force. AFM images revealed that the immature BMDCs treated by granulocyte macrophage-colony stimulating factor plus IL-4 mainly appeared round with smooth surface, whereas the mature BMDCs induced by lipopolysaccharide displayed an irregular shape with numerous pseudopodia or lamellapodia and ruffles on the cell membrane besides becoming larger, flatter, and longer. AFM quantitative analysis further showed that the surface roughness of the mature BMDCs greatly increased and that the adhesion force of them was fourfold more than that of the immature BMDCs. The nano-features of the mature BMDCs were supported by a high level of IL-12 produced from the mature BMDCs and high expression of MHC-II on the surface of them. These findings provide a new insight into the nanostructure of the immature and mature BMDCs.

  1. Maturation Pathways of Cross-Reactive HIV-1 Neutralizing Antibodies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dimiter S. Dimitrov

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Several human monoclonal antibodies (hmAbs and antibody fragments, including the best characterized in terms of structure-function b12 and Fab X5, exhibit relatively potent and broad HIV-1 neutralizing activity. However, the elicitation of b12 or b12-like antibodies in vivo by vaccine immunogens based on the HIV-1 envelope glycoprotein (Env has not been successful. B12 is highly divergent from the closest corresponding germline antibody while X5 is less divergent. We have hypothesized that the relatively high degree of specific somatic hypermutations may preclude binding of the HIV-1 envelope glycoprotein (Env to closest germline antibodies, and that identifying antibodies that are intermediates in the pathways to maturation could help design novel vaccine immunogens to guide the immune system for their enhanced elicitation. In support of this hypothesis we have previously found that a germline-like b12 (monovalent and bivalent scFv as an Fc fusion protein or IgG lacks measurable binding to an Env as measured by ELISA with a sensitivity in the ?M range [1]; here we present evidence confirming and expanding these findings for a panel of Envs. In contrast, a germline-like scFv X5 bound Env with high (nM affinity. To begin to explore the maturation pathways of these antibodies we identified several possible b12 intermediate antibodies and tested their neutralizing activity. These intermediate antibodies neutralized only some HIV-1 isolates and with relatively weak potency. In contrast, germline-like scFv X5 neutralized a subset of the tested HIV-1 isolates with comparable efficiencies to that of the mature X5. These results could help explain the relatively high immunogenicity of the coreceptor binding site on gp120 and the abundance of CD4-induced (CD4i antibodies in HIV-1-infected patients (X5 is a CD4i antibody as well as the maturation pathway of X5. They also can help identify antigens that can bind specifically to b12 germline and intermediate antibodies that together with Envs could be used as a conceptually novel type of candidate vaccines. Such candidate vaccines based on two or more immunogens could help guiding the immune system through complex maturation pathways for elicitation of antibodies that are similar or identical to antibodies with known properties.

  2. GnRHa to trigger final oocyte maturation: a time to reconsider

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Al Humaidan, Peter Samir Heskjær; Papanikolaou, E G

    2009-01-01

    Recently GnRH antagonist protocols for the prevention of a premature LH surge were introduced, allowing final oocyte maturation to be triggered with a single bolus of a GnRH agonist (GnRHa). GnRHa is as effective as hCG for the induction of ovulation, and apart from the LH surge a FSH surge is also induced. Until recently, prospective randomized studies reported a poor clinical outcome when GnRHa was used to trigger final oocyte maturation in IVF/ICSI antagonist protocols, presumably due to a luteal phase deficiency, despite standard luteal phase supplementation with progesterone and estradiol. As GnRHa triggering of final oocyte maturation could possess advantages over hCG triggering in terms of a reduced if not eliminated risk of ovarian hyperstimulation syndrome (OHSS) and the retrieval of more mature oocytes, the challenge has been to rescue the luteal phase. In the literature now several studies report a luteal phase rescue with a reproductive outcome comparable to that of hCG induced final oocyte maturation. Although more research is needed, GnRHa triggering is now a valid alternative with potential benefits.

  3. Apoptotic effects of dillapiole on maturation of mouse oocytes, fertilization and fetal development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsuuw, Yan-Der; Chan, Wen-Hsiung

    2015-10-01

    Previously, we reported that dillapiole, a phenylpropanoid with antileishmanial, anti-inflammatory, antifungal and acaricidal activities, is a risk factor for normal embryonic development that triggers apoptotic processes in the inner cell mass of mouse blastocysts, leading to impaired embryonic development and cell viability. In the current study, we investigated the deleterious effects of dillapiole on mouse oocyte maturation, in vitro fertilization (IVF) and subsequent pre- and post-implantation development, both in vitro and in vivo. Notably, dillapiole induced significant impairment of mouse oocyte maturation, decrease in the IVF rate and inhibition of subsequent embryonic development in vitro. Pre-incubation of oocytes with dillapiole during in vitro maturation led to an increase in post-implantation embryo resorption and decrease in mouse fetal weight. In an in vivo animal model, 2.5, 5 or 10??M dillapiole provided in drinking water caused a decrease in oocyte maturation and IVF, and led to deleterious effects on early embryonic development. Importantly, pre-incubation of oocytes with a caspase-3-specific inhibitor effectively blocked dillapiole-triggered deleterious effects, clearly implying that embryonic injury induced by dillapiole is mediated via a caspase-dependent apoptotic mechanism. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first study to establish the impact of dillapiole on maturation of mouse oocytes, fertilization and sequential embryonic development. PMID:25721892

  4. Reducing the Length of Questionnaires through Structurally Incomplete Designs: An Illustration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smits, Niels; Vorst, Harrie C. M.

    2007-01-01

    This paper serves as an illustration of the usefulness of structurally incomplete designs as an approach to reduce the length of educational questionnaires. In structurally incomplete test designs, respondents only fill out a subset of the total item set, while all items are still provided to the whole sample. The scores on the unadministered…

  5. A case of incomplete and refractory Kawasaki disease: Diagnostic and therapeutic challenges

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    S, Mehndiratta; K, Rajeshwari; A P, Dubey; R, Kumar.

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available The diagnosis of incomplete Kawasaki disease (KD) - i.e. cases that do not fulfil all the diagnostic criteria - requires a high index of suspicion. We report a case of incomplete KD that was refractory to treatment with intravenous immunoglobulin and subsequently responded to treatment with intraven [...] ous methylprednisolone.

  6. Gaussian curvature, elasticity of string and geodesic incompleteness in string theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paeng, Seong-Hun

    2015-09-01

    In classical general relativity, singularity theorems are concerned with the existence of an incomplete inextendible nonspacelike geodesic. We prove the incompleteness of a geodesic surface under assumptions on the Gaussian curvature of the geodesic surface and the elasticity of the string.

  7. Capability Maturity Assessment Method of Civil Aircraft Customer Service System

    OpenAIRE

    Xu Jun; Chen Lin; Sun Lei

    2014-01-01

    According to the basic ideas of the maturity model (Capability Maturity Model, CMM), the maturity model and its capability maturity comprehensive evaluation method of civil aircrafts’ customer service system are established from five aspects: Engineering and technical support, marketing and customer support, spare parts support, flight training and technical publications. Referencing survey results of the customer service satisfaction from airlines, weights was ...

  8. Reassessing the importance of complete versus incomplete coronary revascularization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kereiakes, Dean J

    2014-01-01

    Coronary revascularization may be performed for relief of anginal symptoms or, in specific patient subgroups, to reduce the incidence of myocardial infarction and mortality. Achieving complete revascularization of all significantly obstructed coronary segments has been an established goal of coronary bypass graft surgery (CABG) and more recent data demonstrate a salutary effect of complete revascularization following percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) on long-term clinical outcomes as well. Incomplete coronary revascularization is associated with increased mortality following both CABG and PCI, as well as with an increased incidence of myocardial infarction, repeat revascularization, and major adverse cardiovascular or cerebrovascular events following PCI. The relationship between completeness of revascularization and late adverse clinical outcomes is both qualitative and quantitative as reflected by the residual SYNTAX score (angiographic lesion complexity) following PCI. Thus, complete revascularization has evolved as an important objective for either CABG or PCI and the ability to achieve complete revascularization should enter into the decision algorithm for choice of revascularization modality. PMID:24762463

  9. Image reconstruction from incomplete convolution data via total variation regularization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhida Shen

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Variational models with Total Variation (TV regularization have long been known to preserve image edges and produce high quality reconstruction. On the other hand, recent theory on compressive sensing has shown that it is feasible to accurately reconstruct  images from a few linear measurements via TV regularization. However, in general TV models are difficult to solve due to the nondifferentiability and the universal coupling of variables. In this paper, we propose the use of alternating direction method for image reconstruction from highly incomplete convolution data, where an image is reconstructed as a minimizer of an energy function that sums   a TV term for image regularity and a least squares term for data fitting. Our algorithm, called RecPK, takes advantage of problem structures and has an extremely low per-iteration cost. To demonstrate the efficiency of RecPK, we  compare it with TwIST, a state-of-the-art algorithm for minimizing TV models. Moreover, we also demonstrate the usefulness of RecPK in image zooming.

  10. Incomplete inhibition of central postural commands during manual motor imagery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boulton, Hayley; Mitra, Suvobrata

    2015-10-22

    Imagined movements exhibit many of the behavioral and neurophysiological characteristics of executed actions. As a result, they are considered simulations of physical actions with an inhibition mechanism that suppresses overt movement. This inhibition is incomplete, as it does not block autonomic preparation, and it also does not effectively suppress postural adjustments planned in support of imagined movements. It has been suggested that a central inhibition command may fail to suppress postural adjustments because it may not have access to afference-based elaborations of the postural response that occur downstream of central motor planning. Here, we measured changes in the postural response associated with imagining manual reaching movements under varying levels of imagined loading of the arm. We also manipulated stance stability, and found that postural sway reduced with increased (imagined) arm loading when imagining reaching movements from the less stable stance. As there were no afferent signals associated with the loading constraint, these results suggest that postural adjustments can leak during motor imagery because the postural component of the central motor plan is itself not inhibited effectively. PMID:26236027

  11. Projectile - Mass asymmetry systematics for low energy incomplete fusion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Pushpendra P.; Yadav, Abhishek; Sharma, Vijay R.; Sharma, Manoj K.; Kumar, Pawan; Sahoo, Rudra N.; Kumar, R.; Singh, R. P.; Muralithar, S.; Singh, B. P.; Bhowmik, R. K.; Prasad, R.

    2015-06-01

    In the present work, low energy incomplete fusion (ICF) in which only a part of projectile fuses with target nucleus has been investigated in terms of various entrance channel parameters. The ICF strength function has been extracted from the analysis of experimental excitation functions (EFs) measured for different projectile-target combinations from near- to well above- barrier energies in 12C,16O(from 1.02Vb to 1.64Vb)+169Tm systems. Experimental EFs have been analysed in the framework statistical model code PACE4 based on the idea of equilibrated compound nucleus decay. It has been found that the value of ICF fraction (FICF) increases with incident projectile energy. A substantial fraction of ICF (FICF ? 7 %) has been accounted even at energy as low as ? 7.5% above the barrier (at relative velocity ?rel ?0.027) in 12C+169Tm system, and FICF ? 10 % at ?rel ?0.014 in 16O+169Tm system. The probability of ICF is discussed in light of the Morgenstern's mass-asymmetry systematics. The value of FICF for 16O+169Tm systems is found to be 18.3 % higher than that observed for 12C+169Tm systems. Present results together with the re-analysis of existing data for nearby systems conclusively demonstrate strong competition of ICF with CF even at slightly above barrier energies, and strong projectile dependence that seems to supplement the Morgenstern's systematics.

  12. The Logical Dynamics of Information; Deacon’s “Incomplete Nature”

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joseph E. Brenner

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available In his Incomplete Nature, Deacon extends a thermodynamic concept of energy to yield a description of complex processes in which absence plays a critical role in their emergence and evolution. Starting from a quantum-mechanical picture of energy as an energy-matter duality, the critical role of potential as well as actual properties of processes is also described in the new extension of logic to real phenomena, Logic in Reality (LIR, which I have proposed. Deacon shows how an interactive operation of both Shannon entropy and Boltzmann entropy must be taken into account in information. Here, I demonstrate the complementarity of our two approaches to what is not, or not fully, present for an understanding of the dynamics of complex phenomena, especially, of intentionality, information and meaning. Deacon shows that the hallmark of information is its absent content, and LIR shows that presence (actuality and absence (potentiality in such processes are related dynamically. Deacon’s approach and LIR ground and extend Logan’s concepts of biotic information and the relativity of information vs. meaning. Their conjunction constitutes a new conceptual structure for exploring the relationship of information to materiality, that is, to the matter-energy that constitutes it as its carrier and/or substrate.

  13. Incomplete carbon-oxygen detonation in Type Ia supernovae

    CERN Document Server

    Domínguez, Inma

    2011-01-01

    Incomplete carbon-oxygen detonation with reactions terminating after burning of 12C in the leading 12C + 12C reaction (C-detonation) may occur in the low density outer layers of white dwarfs exploding as Type Ia supernovae (SNIa). Previous studies of carbon-oxygen detonation structure and stability at low densities were performed under the assumption that the "velocity" of a detonation wave derives from complete burning of carbon and oxygen to iron. In fact, at densities <10^6 g/cm3 the detonation in SNIa may release less than a half of the available nuclear energy. In this paper we study basic properties of such detonations. We find that the length of an unsupported steady-state C-detonation is 30-100 times greater than previously estimated, and that the decreased energy has a drastic effect on the detonation stability. In contrast to complete detonations which are one-dimensionally stable, C-detonations may be one-dimensionally unstable and propagate by periodically re-igniting themselves via spontaneous...

  14. Projectile - Mass asymmetry systematics for low energy incomplete fusion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Singh Pushpendra P.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In the present work, low energy incomplete fusion (ICF in which only a part of projectile fuses with target nucleus has been investigated in terms of various entrance channel parameters. The ICF strength function has been extracted from the analysis of experimental excitation functions (EFs measured for different projectile-target combinations from near- to well above- barrier energies in 12C,16O(from 1.02Vb to 1.64Vb+169Tm systems. Experimental EFs have been analysed in the framework statistical model code PACE4 based on the idea of equilibrated compound nucleus decay. It has been found that the value of ICF fraction (FICF increases with incident projectile energy. A substantial fraction of ICF (FICF ? 7 % has been accounted even at energy as low as ? 7.5% above the barrier (at relative velocity ?rel ?0.027 in 12C+169Tm system, and FICF ? 10 % at ?rel ?0.014 in 16O+169Tm system. The probability of ICF is discussed in light of the Morgenstern’s mass-asymmetry systematics. The value of FICF for 16O+169Tm systems is found to be 18.3 % higher than that observed for 12C+169Tm systems. Present results together with the re-analysis of existing data for nearby systems conclusively demonstrate strong competition of ICF with CF even at slightly above barrier energies, and strong projectile dependence that seems to supplement the Morgenstern’s systematics.

  15. Plant development, auxin, and the subsystem incompleteness theorem.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niklas, Karl J; Kutschera, Ulrich

    2012-01-01

    Plant morphogenesis (the process whereby form develops) requires signal cross-talking among all levels of organization to coordinate the operation of metabolic and genomic subsystems operating in a larger network of subsystems. Each subsystem can be rendered as a logic circuit supervising the operation of one or more signal-activated system. This approach simplifies complex morphogenetic phenomena and allows for their aggregation into diagrams of progressively larger networks. This technique is illustrated here by rendering two logic circuits and signal-activated subsystems, one for auxin (IAA) polar/lateral intercellular transport and another for IAA-mediated cell wall loosening. For each of these phenomena, a circuit/subsystem diagram highlights missing components (either in the logic circuit or in the subsystem it supervises) that must be identified experimentally if each of these basic plant phenomena is to be fully understood. We also illustrate the "subsystem incompleteness theorem," which states that no subsystem is operationally self-sufficient. Indeed, a whole-organism perspective is required to understand even the most simple morphogenetic process, because, when isolated, every biological signal-activated subsystem is morphogenetically ineffective. PMID:22645582

  16. The Complete Semiconductor Transistor and Its Incomplete Forms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jie Binbin; Sah, C.-T., E-mail: bb_jie@msn.co, E-mail: tom_sah@msn.co [Peking University, Beijing 100871 (China)

    2009-06-01

    This paper describes the definition of the complete transistor. For semiconductor devices, the complete transistor is always bipolar, namely, its electrical characteristics contain both electron and hole currents controlled by their spatial charge distributions. Partially complete or incomplete transistors, via coined names or/and designed physical geometries, included the 1949 Shockley p/n junction transistor (later called Bipolar Junction Transistor, BJT), the 1952 Shockley unipolar 'field-effect' transistor (FET, later called the p/n Junction Gate FET or JGFET), as well as the field-effect transistors introduced by later investigators. Similarities between the surface-channel MOS-gate FET (MOSFET) and the volume-channel BJT are illustrated. The bipolar currents, identified by us in a recent nanometer FET with 2-MOS-gates on thin and nearly pure silicon base, led us to the recognition of the physical makeup and electrical current and charge compositions of a complete transistor and its extension to other three or more terminal signal processing devices, and also the importance of the terminal contacts.

  17. The Complete Semiconductor Transistor and Its Incomplete Forms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper describes the definition of the complete transistor. For semiconductor devices, the complete transistor is always bipolar, namely, its electrical characteristics contain both electron and hole currents controlled by their spatial charge distributions. Partially complete or incomplete transistors, via coined names or/and designed physical geometries, included the 1949 Shockley p/n junction transistor (later called Bipolar Junction Transistor, BJT), the 1952 Shockley unipolar 'field-effect' transistor (FET, later called the p/n Junction Gate FET or JGFET), as well as the field-effect transistors introduced by later investigators. Similarities between the surface-channel MOS-gate FET (MOSFET) and the volume-channel BJT are illustrated. The bipolar currents, identified by us in a recent nanometer FET with 2-MOS-gates on thin and nearly pure silicon base, led us to the recognition of the physical makeup and electrical current and charge compositions of a complete transistor and its extension to other three or more terminal signal processing devices, and also the importance of the terminal contacts.

  18. Mechanosensitive Kinases Regulate Stiffness-Induced Cardiomyocyte Maturation

    OpenAIRE

    Jennifer L. Young; Kyle Kretchmer; Ondeck, Matthew G.; Zambon, Alexander C.; Engler, Adam J

    2014-01-01

    Cells secrete and assemble extracellular matrix throughout development, giving rise to time-dependent, tissue-specific stiffness. Mimicking myocardial matrix stiffening, i.e. ~10-fold increase over 1 week, with a hydrogel system enhances myofibrillar organization of embryonic cardiomyocytes compared to static hydrogels, and thus we sought to identify specific mechanosensitive proteins involved. Expression and/or phosphorylation state of 309 unique protein kinases were examined in embryonic ca...

  19. Porcine Reproductive and Respiratory Syndrome Virus Infects Mature Porcine Dendritic Cells and Up-Regulates Interleukin-10 Production?

    OpenAIRE

    Flores-Mendoza, Lilian; Silva-Campa, Erika; Reséndiz, Mónica; Osorio, Fernando A.; Hernández, Jesús

    2008-01-01

    Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) infects mature dendritic cells (mDCs) derived from porcine monocytes and matured with lipopolysaccharide. The infection of mDCs induced apoptosis, reduced the expression of CD80/86 and major histocompatibility complex class II molecules, and increased the expression of interleukin-10, thus suggesting that such mDC modulation results in the impairment of T-cell activation.

  20. Meiotic maturation in Xenopus oocytes: a link between the cessation of protein secretion and the polarized disappearance of Golgi apparati

    OpenAIRE

    1985-01-01

    We have studied the relationship between the timing of the late meiotic events that occur during progesterone-induced oocyte maturation, and intracellular protein transport. We have monitored the secretion of chick oviduct proteins from Xenopus laevis oocytes microinjected with polyadenylated mRNA and found that chick ovalbumin and lysozyme are not secreted during the second meiotic metaphase, in contrast to the earlier prophase stage. Maturation had no detectable effect on the glycosylation ...