WorldWideScience
1

Cannabinoids induce incomplete maturation of cultured human leukemia cells  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Monocyte maturation markers were induced in cultured human myeloblastic ML-2 leukemia cells after treatment for 1-6 days with 0.03-30 ..mu..M ..delta../sup 9/-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC), the major psychoactive component of marijuana. After a 2-day or longer treatment, 2- to 5-fold increases were found in the percentages of cells exhibiting reactivity with either the murine OKM1 monoclonal antibody of the Leu-M5 monoclonal antibody, staining positively for nonspecific esterase activity, and displaying a promonocyte morphology. The increases in these differentiation markers after treatment with 0.03-1 ..mu..M THC were dose dependent. At this dose range, THC did not cause an inhibition of cell growth. The THC-induced cell maturation was also characterized by specific changes in the patterns of newly synthesized proteins. The THC-induced differentiation did not, however, result in cells with a highly developed mature monocyte phenotype. However, treatment of these incompletely matured cells with either phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate of 1..cap alpha..,25-dihydroxycholecalciferol, which are inducers of differentiation in myeloid leukemia cells (including ML-2 cells), produced cells with a mature monocyte morphology. The ML-2 cell system described here may be a useful tool for deciphering critical biochemical events that lead to the cannabinoid-induced incomplete cell differentiation of ML-2 cells and other related cell types. Findings obtained from this system may have important implications for studies of cannabinoid effects on normal human bone-marrow progenitor cells.

Murison, G.; Chubb, C.B.H.; Maeda, S.; Gemmell, M.A.; Huberman, E.

1987-08-01

2

Diethylstilbestrol induces fish oocyte maturation  

OpenAIRE

An endocrine-disrupting chemical, diethylstilbestrol (DES), a nonsteroidal estrogen, triggers oocyte maturation in fish. The morphology (the time course of the change in germinal vesicle breakdown) and an intracellular molecular event (the de novo synthesis of cyclin B) induced by DES were indistinguishable from those induced by a natural maturation-inducing hormone, 17?,20?-dihydroxy-4-pregnen-3-one (17,20?-DHP). A synergistic action of DES on 17,20?-DHP-induced oocyte maturation was obs...

Tokumoto, Toshinobu; Tokumoto, Mika; Horiguchi, Ryo; Ishikawa, Katsutoshi; Nagahama, Yoshitaka

2004-01-01

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Brucella lipoproteins mimic dendritic cell maturation induced by Brucella abortus.  

Science.gov (United States)

Infection with Brucella abortus induces a pro-inflammatory response that drives T cell responses toward a Th1 profile. The mechanism by which this bacterium triggers this response is unknown. Dendritic cells (DC) are crucial mediators at the host-pathogen interface and are potent Th1-inducing antigen-presenting cells. Thus, we examined the mechanism whereby B. abortus stimulate human DC maturation. B. abortus-infected DC increased the expression of CD86, CD80, CCR7, CD83, MHCII, MHCI and CD40 and induced the production of TNF-alpha, IL-6, IL-10 and IL-12. Both phenomena were not dependent on bacterial viability since they were also induced by heat-killed B. abortus (HKBA). B. abortus LPS was unable to induce markers up-regulation or cytokine production. We next investigated the capacity of the outer membrane protein 19 (Omp19) as a B. abortus lipoprotein model to induce DC maturation. Lipidated Omp19 (L-Omp19), but not its unlipidated form, increased the expression of cell surface markers and the secretion of cytokines. L-Omp19-matured DC also have decreased endocytic activity and displayed enhanced T cell stimulatory activity in a MLR. Pre-incubation of DC with anti-TLR2 mAb blocked L-Omp19-mediated cytokine production. These results demonstrate that B. abortus lipoproteins can stimulate DC maturation providing a mechanism by which these bacteria generate a Th1-type immune response. PMID:18761420

Zwerdling, Astrid; Delpino, M Victoria; Barrionuevo, Paula; Cassataro, Juliana; Pasquevich, Karina A; García Samartino, Clara; Fossati, Carlos A; Giambartolomei, Guillermo H

2008-10-01

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Experimentally induced incomplete burst fractures - a novel technique for calf and human specimens  

OpenAIRE

Abstract Background Fracture morphology is crucial for the clinical decision-making process preceding spinal fracture treatment. The presented experimental approach was designed in order to ensure reproducibility of induced fracture morphology. Results The presented method resulted in fracture morphology, found in clinical classification systems like the Magerl classification. In the calf spine samples, 70% displayed incomplete burst fractures corresponding to type A3.1 and A3.2 fractures. In...

Hartensuer René; Gasch Adam; Gehweiler Dominic; Schanz Steffen; Schulze Martin; Matuszewski Lars; Langer Martin; Raschke Michael J; Vordemvenne Thomas

2012-01-01

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Steroidogenic and maturation-inducing potency of native gonadotropic hormones in female chub mackerel, Scomber japonicus  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background The gonadotropins (GtHs, follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH and luteinizing hormone (LH are produced in the pituitary gland and regulates gametogenesis through production of gonadal steroids. However, respective roles of two GtHs in the teleosts are still incompletely characterized due to technical difficulties in the purification of native GtHs. Methods Native FSH and LH were purified from the pituitaries of adult chub mackerel, Scomber japonicus by anion-exchange chromatography and immunoblotting using specific antisera. The steroidogenic potency of the intact chub mackerel FSH (cmFSH and LH (cmLH were evaluated in mid- and late-vitellogenic stage follicles by measuring the level of gonadal steroids, estradiol-17beta (?2 and 17,20beta-dihydroxy-4-pregnen-3-one (17,20beta-P. In addition, we evaluated the maturation-inducing potency of the GtHs on same stage follicles. Results Both cmFSH and cmLH significantly stimulated E2 production in mid-vitellogenic stage follicles. In contrast, only LH significantly stimulated the production of 17,20beta-P in late-vitellogenic stage follicles. Similarly, cmLH induced final oocyte maturation (FOM in late-vitellogenic stage follicles. Conclusions Present results indicate that both FSH and LH may regulate vitellogenic processes, whereas only LH initiates FOM in chub mackerel.

Ohga Hirofumi

2012-09-01

6

Induced maturation of hepatic progenitor cells in vitro  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Hepatic progenitor cells (HPCs) are a potential cell source for liver cell transplantation but do not function like mature liver cells. We sought an effective and reliable method to induce HPC maturation. An immortalized HP14.5 albumin promoter-driven Gaussian luciferase (ALB-GLuc) ce [...] ll line was established from HPCs isolated from fetal mouse liver of post coitus day 14.5 mice to investigate the effect of induction factors on ALB promoter. HP14.5 parental cells were cultured in DMEM with different combinations of 2% horse serum (HS), 0.1 µM dexamethasone (DEX), 10 ng/mL hepatic growth factor (HGF), and/or 20 ng/mL fibroblast growth factor 4 (FGF4). Trypan blue and crystal violet staining were used to assess cell proliferation with different induction conditions. Expression of hepatic markers was measured by semi-quantitative RT-PCR, Western blot, and immunofluorescence. Glycogen storage and metabolism were detected by periodic acid-Schiff and indocyanine green (ICG) staining. GLuc activity indicated ALB expression. The combination of 2% HS+0.1 µM Dex+10 ng/mL HGF+20 ng/mL FGF4 induced the highest ALB-GLuc activity. Cell proliferation decreased in 2% HS but increased by adding FGF4. Upon induction, and consistent with hepatocyte development, DLK, AFP, and CK19 expression decreased, while ALB, CK18, and UGT1A expression increased. The maturity markers tyrosine aminotransferase and apolipoprotein B were detected at days 3 and 6 post-induction, respectively. ICG uptake and glycogen synthesis were detectable at day 6 and increased over time. Therefore, we demonstrated that HPCs were induced to differentiate into functional mature hepatocytes in vitro, suggesting that factor-treated HPCs may be further explored as a means of liver cell transplantation.

Y., Bi; Y., He; J.Y., Huang; L., Xu; N., Tang; T.C., He; T., Feng.

2013-08-01

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Investigation of the influence of incomplete fusion on complete fusion of 16O induced reactions at moderate excitation energies  

OpenAIRE

An attempt has been made to investigate for the reaction dynamics leading to incomplete fusion (ICF) of heavy ions at moderate excitation energies, especially the influence of incomplete fusion on complete fusion (CF) of 16O induced reactions at specific energies. Excitation functions (EFs) of various reaction products populated via CF and/or ICF of 16O projectile with 45Sc target were measured at energies ?3-7 MeV/nucleon, using recoil catcher technique followed by offline ?-ray spectrosc...

Ahamad Tauseef; Ali Sabir; Kumar Kamal; Rizvi I. A.; Sharma Anjali; Dutt Sunil; Agarwal Avinash; Kumar Rakesh; Chaubey A. K.

2012-01-01

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Complete fusion, incomplete fusion and fission in heavy ion induced reactions  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In considering complete and incomplete fusion and fission induced by heavy ions, recent experiments are discussed which have been carried out to explore the following points: (1) Some products with properties quite similar to fission products might not originate from fully equilibrated compound nuclei but rather from long lived di-nuclear or composite systems decaying before equilibration of the mass asymmetry degree of freedom is achieved. (2) Many evaporation residues do not result only from the de-excitation of the compound nucleus itself but also from the de-excitation of nuclei issued from partial fusion. (3) Anomalies observed in the de-excitation of some compound nuclei cast some doubts on the use of the classical statistical theory for highly excited and highly spinning nuclei. (U.K.)

9

Conditions that induce tolerance in mature CD4+ T cells.  

Science.gov (United States)

Establishment of antigen-specific tolerance among mature T cells has been a long debated, yet poorly understood issue. In this study we have used transgenic mice bearing a class II--restricted TCR specific for the hemmagglutinin of the influenza virus in order to test the behavior of CD4+ T cells upon exposure to antigen in different forms and doses. We first studied the fate of T cells expressing the transgenic TCR (6.5) in double transgenic mice where HA was expressed as a self antigen by hemapoietic cells. In these mice, we found some mature T cells in periphery that had escaped thymic deletion and that showed signs of activation but which were anergic. Mature CD4+6.5+ cells that were transferred into antigen-containing recipients went through an initial phase of expansion after which most cells were deleted and those remaining became unresponsive, as previously described for CD8+ cells. Inducing tolerance in CD4+6.5+ cells in situ in single transgenic mice proved a difficult task: classical protocols using single doses of soluble or deaggregated antigen as well as feeding antigen all failed to induce antigen-specific unresponsiveness. It was only after decreasing cell numbers by CD4 antibody treatment and by repeatedly reintroducing antigen thereafter that unresponsiveness of 6.5+ cells was achieved and maintained. In no case could we observe the appearance of antigen-specific T cells with a Th2 cytokine profile among the remaining cells and therefore conclude that deletion and anergy represent the major mechanisms of tolerance in our studies. PMID:9053441

Lanoue, A; Bona, C; von Boehmer, H; Sarukhan, A

1997-02-01

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Investigation of the influence of incomplete fusion on complete fusion of 16O induced reactions at moderate excitation energies  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available An attempt has been made to investigate for the reaction dynamics leading to incomplete fusion (ICF of heavy ions at moderate excitation energies, especially the influence of incomplete fusion on complete fusion (CF of 16O induced reactions at specific energies. Excitation functions (EFs of various reaction products populated via CF and/or ICF of 16O projectile with 45Sc target were measured at energies ?3-7 MeV/nucleon, using recoil catcher technique followed by offline ?-ray spectroscopy. The measured EFs were compared with theoretical values obtained using the statistical model code PACE4. The experimentally measured EFs were in general found to be in good agreement with the theoretical predictions for non ?-emitting channels in the present target projectile system. However, for ?-emitting channels the measured EFs were higher than the predictions of the theoretical model codes, which may be credited to incomplete fusion reactions at these energies.

Ahamad Tauseef

2012-12-01

11

Contribution to the study of incomplete fusion reactions induced in heavy ion collisions  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The objective of this research thesis work was to identify the mechanisms involved in incomplete fusion reactions, and more particularly to see whether projectile structure has an influence on the reaction, and to assess the level and width of the angular moment window associated with incomplete fusion alphas. The study focused on alpha emission by the 16O + 116,124Sn system. Various experimental data have been obtained: differential efficient cross sections for different incident energies, energy spectra of alphas and their evolution with respect to the angle, angular moments associated with fast alphas, coincidences between alphas and discrete gamma lines, measurement of circular polarization of gammas emitted in incomplete fusion reactions

12

Scintigraphic diagnosis of stress-induced incomplete fractures of the proximal tibia  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Incomplete stress fractures of the proximal tibial diaphysis can be diagnosed by bone scintigraphy. The scintigraphic appearance of incomplete rather than complete tibial stress fractures is apparently reported for the first time in this article. With no treatment other than restricted activity, this injury heals rapidly and completely in 4 to 6 weeks. The major threat to the patient's welfare is unfounded suspicion of tumor or infection which may lead to biopsy or inappropriate therapy

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Fibroblast and T cells conditioned media induce maturation dendritic cell and promote T helper immune response  

OpenAIRE

Dendritic cells (DCs) induce pathogen-specific T cell responses. We comprehensively studied the effects of addition of maturation stimulus, fibroblasts (fibroblast conditioned medium), PHA activated T cells (T cell conditioned medium), and mixture of fibroblast & PHA activated T cells (FCM-TCCM) conditioned media on maturation of DCs. Monocytes were cultured with GM-CSF and IL-4 for five days. Maturation factors included MCM and TNF-? as control group. FCM and TCCM, or FCM-TCCM supernatant w...

Masoumeh Asadi; Farah Farokhi; Nowruz Delirezh; Meysam Ganji Bakhsh; Vahid Nejati; Keykavos Golami

2012-01-01

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Cyclic Nucleotide-induced Maturation of Human Promyelocytic Leukemia Cells  

OpenAIRE

Myeloid differentiation in vitro is characterized by the sequential appearance of morphological, functional, and biochemical markers of maturation. We examined the effect of agents that increased the intracellular concentration of adenosine 3?5?-cyclic monophosphate on the expression of these markers by human promyelocytic leukemia cells (HL60). Cells treated with 500 ?M N6,O2-dibutyryl adenosine 3?5?-cyclic monophosphate expressed formyl peptide and complement receptors, reduced nit...

Chaplinski, Thomas J.; Niedel, James E.

1982-01-01

15

Evidence of a Binary-Induced Spiral from an Incomplete Ring Pattern of CIT 6  

CERN Document Server

With the advent of high-resolution high-sensitivity observations, spiral patterns have been revealed around several asymptotic giant branch (AGB) stars. Such patterns can provide possible evidence for the existence of central binary stars embedded in outflowing circumstellar envelopes. Here, we suggest the viability of explaining the previously observed incomplete ring-like patterns with the spiral-shell structure due to the motion of (unknown) binary components viewed at an inclination with respect to the orbital plane. We describe a method of extracting such spiral-shells from an incomplete ring-like pattern to place constraints on the characteristics of the central binary stars. The use of gas kinematics is essential in facilitating a detailed modeling for the three-dimensional structure of the circumstellar pattern. We show that a hydrodynamic radiative transfer model can reproduce the structure of the HC3N molecular line emission of the extreme carbon star, CIT 6. This method can be applied to other sour...

Kim, Hyosun; Liu, Sheng-Yuan; Taam, Ronald E

2013-01-01

16

EVIDENCE OF A BINARY-INDUCED SPIRAL FROM AN INCOMPLETE RING PATTERN OF CIT 6  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

With the advent of high-resolution high-sensitivity observations, spiral patterns have been revealed around several asymptotic giant branch (AGB) stars. Such patterns can provide possible evidence for the existence of central binary stars embedded in outflowing circumstellar envelopes. Here, we suggest the viability of explaining the previously observed incomplete ring-like patterns with the spiral-shell structure as being due to the motion of (unknown) binary components viewed at an inclination with respect to the orbital plane. We describe a method of extracting such spiral shells from an incomplete ring-like pattern to place constraints on the characteristics of the central binary stars. The use of gas kinematics is essential in facilitating detailed modeling for the three-dimensional structure of the circumstellar pattern. We show that a hydrodynamic radiative transfer model can reproduce the structure of the HC{sub 3}N molecular line emission of the extreme carbon star, CIT 6. This method can be applied to other sources in the AGB phase and to the outer ring-like patterns of pre-planetary nebulae for probing the existence of embedded binary stars, which are highly anticipated with future observations using the Atacama Large Millimeter/submillimeter Array.

Kim, Hyosun; Hsieh, I-Ta; Liu, Sheng-Yuan; Taam, Ronald E., E-mail: hkim@asiaa.sinica.edu.tw [Academia Sinica Institute of Astronomy and Astrophysics, P.O. Box 23-141, Taipei 10617, Taiwan (China)

2013-10-20

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In Vitro Matured Oocytes Are More Susceptible than In Vivo Matured Oocytes to Mock ICSI Induced Functional and Genetic Changes  

Science.gov (United States)

Background Concerns regarding the safety of ICSI have been intensified recently due to increased risk of birth defects in ICSI born children. Although fertilization rate is significantly higher in ICSI cycles, studies have failed to demonstrate the benefits of ICSI in improving the pregnancy rate. Poor technical skill, and suboptimal in vitro conditions may account for the ICSI results however, there is no report on the effects of oocyte manipulations on the ICSI outcome. Objective The present study elucidates the influence of mock ICSI on the functional and genetic integrity of the mouse oocytes. Methods Reactive Oxygen Species (ROS) level, mitochondrial status, and phosphorylation of H2AX were assessed in the in vivo matured and IVM oocytes subjected to mock ICSI. Results A significant increase in ROS level was observed in both in vivo matured and IVM oocytes subjected to mock ICSI (PICSI (P ICSI can alter genetic and functional integrity in oocytes and IVM oocytes are more vulnerable to mock ICSI induced changes. PMID:25786120

Salian, Sujit Raj; Singh, Vikram Jeet; Kalthur, Guruprasad; Adiga, Satish Kumar

2015-01-01

18

Fibroblast and T cells conditioned media induce maturation dendritic cell and promote T helper immune response.  

Science.gov (United States)

Dendritic cells (DCs) induce pathogen-specific T cell responses. We comprehensively studied the effects of addition of maturation stimulus, fibroblasts (fibroblast conditioned medium), PHA activated T cells (T cell conditioned medium), and mixture of fibroblast & PHA activated T cells (FCM-TCCM) conditioned media on maturation of DCs. Monocytes were cultured with GM-CSF and IL-4 for five days. Maturation factors included MCM and TNF-? as control group. FCM and TCCM, or FCM-TCCM supernatant were considered as the treatment group. Tumor antigens were added at day five. Matured DCs were harvested at day seven. Phenotypic and functional analyses were carried out using anti (CD14, CD80, CD86, CD83 and HLA-DR) monoclonal antibodies. Phagocytic activity, mixed lymphocyte reaction (MLR) and cytokine production were also evaluated. At the end of culturing period, significantly fully matured DCs with large amount cytoplasm and copious dendritic projections were found in the presence of MCM, TNF-? with or without FCM, TCCM, FCM as well as TCCM. Flow cytometric analysis revealed that expression of CD14 decreased in particular in treated DCs, at the 5(th) day and expression of CD80, CD86 and HLA-DR was higher when FCM, TCCM, FCM plus TCCM were added to maturation factor. This study demonstrated that DCs matured with these methods had optimum function in comparison with either factor alone. PMID:25653756

Asadi, Masoumeh; Farokhi, Farah; Delirezh, Nowruz; Ganji Bakhsh, Meysam; Nejati, Vahid; Golami, Keykavos

2012-01-01

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Fibroblast and T cells conditioned media induce maturation dendritic cell and promote T helper immune response  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Dendritic cells (DCs induce pathogen-specific T cell responses. We comprehensively studied the effects of addition of maturation stimulus, fibroblasts (fibroblast conditioned medium, PHA activated T cells (T cell conditioned medium, and mixture of fibroblast & PHA activated T cells (FCM-TCCM conditioned media on maturation of DCs. Monocytes were cultured with GM-CSF and IL-4 for five days. Maturation factors included MCM and TNF-? as control group. FCM and TCCM, or FCM-TCCM supernatant were considered as the treatment group. Tumor antigens were added at day five. Matured DCs were harvested at day seven. Phenotypic and functional analyses were carried out using anti (CD14, CD80, CD86, CD83 and HLA-DR monoclonal antibodies. Phagocytic activity, mixed lymphocyte reaction (MLR and cytokine production were also evaluated. At the end of culturing period, significantly fully matured DCs with large amount cytoplasm and copious dendritic projections were found in the presence of MCM, TNF-? with or without FCM, TCCM, FCM as well as TCCM. Flow cytometric analysis revealed that expression of CD14 decreased in particular in treated DCs, at the 5th day and expression of CD80, CD86 and HLA-DR was higher when FCM, TCCM, FCM plus TCCM were added to maturation factor. This study demonstrated that DCs matured with these methods had optimum function in comparison with either factor alone.

Masoumeh Asadi

2012-06-01

20

tpr-met oncogene product induces maturation-producing factor activation in Xenopus oocytes.  

OpenAIRE

tpr-met, a tyrosine kinase oncogene, is the activated form of the met proto-oncogene that encodes the receptor for hepatocyte growth factor/scatter factor. The tpr-met product (p65tpr-met) was tested for its ability to induce meiotic maturation in Xenopus oocytes. While src and abl tyrosine kinase oncogene products have previously been shown to be inactive in this assay, p65tpr-met efficiently induced maturation-promoting factor (MPF) activation and germinal vesicle breakdown (GVBD) together ...

Daar, I. O.; White, G. A.; Schuh, S. M.; Ferris, D. K.; Vande Woude, G. F.

1991-01-01

21

Gamma-ray-induced bold seeded early maturing groundnut selections  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Full text: ''Chico'' is an early maturing (85-90 days) erect groundnut (Arachis hypogaea L.) genotype utilised in groundnut improvement to incorporate earliness in high yielding varieties. Though it has high shelling out-turn, its yield potential is low since it has small seeds. Mutation breeding was started with the objective of improving the seed size. In a preliminary experiment, dry seeds were treated with 20, 30, 40 or 50 kR of gamma rays. The M1 generation was grown during the post rainy season of 1988-1989. The M2 generation was planted as individual plant progeny rows during the rainy season of 1989. 105 progeny rows were studied, the total number of M2 plants being 1,730. All the M2 plants were harvested 90 days after sowing. Seven mutants with bold seed size were obtained. The mutants had 100 kernel weight ranging from 22.2 to 40.4 g compared to 21.1 g of control. The study is in progress. (author)

22

Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug-induced duodenal ulceration and perforation in a mature rottweiler  

OpenAIRE

A mature male rottweiler was evaluated for acute collapse and abdominal pain. The history consisted of concurrent administration of meloxicam and aspirin. On exploratory laparotomy, a large perforated ulcer was discovered in the proximal duodenum, with secondary peritonitis. The pathogenesis of NSAID-induced gastrointestinal ulceration and the supposed safety of COX-2 selective agents are discussed.

Reed, Suma

2002-01-01

23

Hericium erinaceum induces maturation of dendritic cells derived from human peripheral blood monocytes.  

Science.gov (United States)

Hericium erinaceum, a medicinal mushroom, has long been used as a therapeutic due to its immuno-regulating potentials eliciting anticarcinogenic and antimicrobial efficacies. Since maturation of dendritic cells (DC) is an important process in the initiation and regulation of immune responses, the ability of water-soluble components from H. erinaceum (WEHE) to regulate DC maturation was investigated. Immature DC were prepared by differentiating human peripheral blood CD14-positive cells with GM-CSF and IL-4. DC were stimulated with WEHE at 2-20 microg/mL for 48 h and subjected to flow cytometric analysis to determine the expression of indicative maturation markers. The endocytic capacity of WEHE-stimulated DC was examined by a Dextran-FITC uptake assay. An enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay was performed to examine the secretion of TNF-alpha and IL-12p40. DC stimulated with WEHE showed representative features upon DC maturation: enhanced expression of CD80, CD83 and CD86, and both MHC class I and II molecules, decreased endocytic capacity of DC, increased expression of CD205, and decreased expression of CD206. However, interestingly, WEHE could not induce the production of TNF-alpha and IL-12p40, whereas lipopolysaccharide substantially increased the production of both cytokines. Collectively, these results suggest that H. erinaceum induces the maturation of human DC, which might reinforce the host innate immune system. PMID:19441068

Kim, Sun Kyung; Son, Chang Gue; Yun, Cheol-Heui; Han, Seung Hyun

2010-01-01

24

Spermidine and the ectomycorrhizal fungus Pisolithus tinctorius synergistically induce maturation of Scots pine embryogenic cultures.  

Science.gov (United States)

Exogenous spermidine (Spd) and the ectomycorrhizal (ECM) fungus Pisolithus tinctorius (Pers.) Coker and Couch had a synergistic effect on the maturation of Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) somatic embryos. Induced maturation was expressed as a higher number of cell masses able to form embryos and a greater number of embryos formed per cell mass. In contrast, treatment with P. tinctorius alone on the hormone-free medium resulted in the lowest embryo-forming capacity. Retarded proliferation growth appeared to be required for maturation, but did not explain the synergistic effect of the fungus and exogenous Spd. Simultaneous treatment did not result in lower concentrations of putrescine (Put), Spd or spermine (Spm) in the embryogenic cell masses relative to the separate treatments. Our study is the first report on the use of a specific ECM fungus to induce maturation of somatic embryos, and it indicates that P. tinctorius was able to modify the maturation media in a way that, together with exogenous Spd, positively affected embryogenic cultures of Scots pine. Our study also shows that it is possible to enhance plant development other than root formation by using specific ECM fungi. PMID:16777261

Niemi, Karoliina; Sarjala, Tytti; Chen, Xiwen; Häggman, Hely

2007-05-01

25

Simple chemicals can induce maturation and apoptosis of dendritic cells.  

Science.gov (United States)

As is well known in the case of Langerhans cells, dendritic cells (DCs) play a crucial role in the initiation of immunity to simple chemicals such as noted in the contact hypersensitivity. Because DCs are scattered in non-lymphoid organs as immature cells, they must be activated to initiate primary antigen-specific immune reactions. Therefore, we hypothesized that some simple chemicals must affect the function of DCs. In this paper, we first demonstrated that human monocyte-derived DCs responded to such simple chemicals as 2, 4-dinitrochlorobenzene (DNCB), 2,4,6-trinitrochlorobenzene (TNCB), 2, 4-dinitrofluorobenzene (DNFB), NiCl2, MnCl2, CoCl2, SnCl2, and CdSO4 by augmenting their expression of CD86 or human leucocyte antigen-DR (HLA-DR), down-regulating c-Fms expression or increasing their production of tumour necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha). In addition, the DCs stimulated with the chemicals demonstrated increased allogeneic T-cell stimulatory function. Next, we found that, among these chemicals, only NiCl2 and CoCl2 induced apoptosis in them. Finally, we examined the effects of these chemicals on CD86 expression by three different macrophage subsets and DCs induced from the cultures of human peripheral blood monocytes in the presence of macrophage colony-stimulating factor (M-CSF), M-CSF + interleukin-4 (IL-4), granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF), and GM-CSF + IL-4, respectively. Among them, only DCs dramatically augmented their expression of CD86. These observations have revealed unique characteristics of DCs, which convert chemical stimuli to augmentation of their antigen presenting function, although their responses to different chemicals were not necessarily uniform in the phenotypic changes, cytokine production or in the induction of apoptosis. PMID:10594678

Manome, H; Aiba, S; Tagami, H

1999-12-01

26

Dendritic Cell Activation and Maturation Induced by Mucosal Fluid from Women with Bacterial Vaginosis  

OpenAIRE

Dendritic cells (DC) at mucosal surfaces mature when exposed to “danger” signals such as LPS. Bacterial vaginosis (BV) is a prevalent alteration of the vaginal bacterial flora associated with preterm childbirth and increased risk for HIV acquisition. We examined the effect of mucosal fluid from women with BV or healthy flora on DC function. IL-12, IL-23 and p40 production by monocyte-derived dendritic cells (MDDC) were all induced by BV samples. Activation/maturation markers HLA-DR, CD40,...

St John, Elizabeth P.; Martinson, Jeff; Simoes, Jose A.; Landay, Alan L.; Spear, Gregory T.

2007-01-01

27

Complement protein C1q induces maturation of human dendritic cells  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Maturation of dendritic cells (DCs) is known to be induced by several stimuli, including microbial products, inflammatory cytokines and immobilized IgG, as demonstrated recently. Since immune complexes formed in vivo also contain C1q, moreover apoptotic cells and several pathogens fix C1q in the absence of antibodies, we undertook to investigate whether this complement protein has an impact on various functions of human DCs. Maturation of monocyte-derived immature DCs (imMDCs) cultured on immobilized C1q was followed by monitoring expression of CD80, CD83, CD86, MHCII and CCR7. The functional activity of the cells was assessed by measuring cytokine secretion and their ability to activate allogeneic T lymphocytes. Cytokine production by T cells co-cultured with C1q-matured DCs was also investigated. C1q, but not the structurally related mannose-binding lectin was found to bind to imMDC in a dose-dependent manner and induced NF-kappaB translocation to the nucleus. Immobilized C1q induced maturation of MDCs and enhanced secretion of IL-12 and TNF-alpha, moreover, elevated their T-cell stimulating capacity. As IFN-gamma levels were increased in supernatants of MDC-T cell co-cultures, our data suggest that C1q-induced DC maturation generates a Th1-type response. Interestingly, IL-10 levels were elevated by C1q-treated MDCs but not in the supernatant of their co-cultures with allogeneic T cells. Taken together, these results indicate that C1q-opsonized antigens may play a role in the induction and regulation of immune response. Moreover our data are relevant in view of the role of C1q in removal of apoptotic cells and the association between C1q-deficiency and autoimmunity.

Cosmor, E; Bajtay, Z

2007-01-01

28

Incomplete fusion reactions  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Various aspects of the mechanism of heavy-ion induced reactions in the range of bombarding energies from a few to about 20 MeV/A are reviewed with special emphasis on the reactions for very asymmetric systems. Results of the experimental studies of binary reactions and particularly of the incomplete fusion reactions (selected by means of various coincidence techniques)are discussed. A model of generalized critical angular momentum is formulated. The model explains essential features of the incomplete fusion reactions and predicts that particular reaction channels are localized in well defined regions of angular momenta. An extension of this model (the sum-rule model) is also proposed in attempt to consistently describe the complete fusion reactions, incomplete fusion reactions and multibody reactions in the framework of statistical competition constrained by the angular momentum limitations. (author)

29

Study of the In Vitro Maturation of Mouse Oocytes Induced by Microinjection of Maturation Promoting Factor (MPF)  

OpenAIRE

Purpose: Maturation promoting factor (MPF) acts at theresumption of meiosis and nonspecifically throughout theanimal species. There exists a considerable body of literatureon MPF, but little work has been done to study the inductionof maturation of mammalian oocytes by microinjection ofextracted MPF.

Nakano, Hideyuki; Kubo, Harumi

2000-01-01

30

Tumor necrosis factor alpha may act as an intraovarian mediator of luteinizing hormone-induced oocyte maturation in trout  

OpenAIRE

In fish, like in other vertebrates, luteinizing hormone (Lh) is an essential hormone for the completion of oocyte maturation. In salmonid fish (i.e., salmon and trout), oocyte maturation is induced by Lh through its stimulation of the production of the maturation-inducing steroid, 17alpha,20beta-dihydroxy-4-pregnen-3-one (17,20beta-P). In mammals, several factors, including ovarian cytokines and growth factors, have been reported to contribute to the regulation of oocyte maturation. In fish, ...

Crespo, Diego; Man?ano?s, Evaristo L.; Roher, N.; Mackenzie, Simon; Planas, Josep V.

2012-01-01

31

Investigation of the influence of incomplete fusion on complete fusion of {sup 12}C-induced reactions at {approx} 4-7.2 MeV/nucleon  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

In this paper, we present the results of our investigation of reaction dynamics leading to incomplete fusion of heavy ions at moderate excitation energies, especially the influence of incomplete fusion on complete fusion of {sup 12}C -induced reactions at specific energies {approx} 4-7.2M eV/nucleon. Excitation functions of various reaction products populated via complete and/or incomplete fusions of a {sup 12}C projectile with {sup 93}Nb, {sup 59}Co and {sup 52}Cr targets were measured at several specific energies {approx} 4-7.2 MeV/nucleon, using a recoil catcher technique, followed by off-line {gamma}-ray spectrometry. The measured excitation functions were compared with theoretical values obtained using the PACE4 statistical model code. For representative non-{alpha}-emitting channels in the {sup 12}C + {sup 93}Nb system, the experimentally measured excitation functions were, in general, found to be in good agreement with the theoretical predictions. However, for {alpha}-emitting channels in the {sup 12}C + {sup 93}Nb, {sup 12}C + {sup 59}Co, and {sup 12}C + {sup 52}Cr systems, the measured excitation functions were higher than the predictions of the theoretical model code, which may be credited to incomplete fusion reactions at these energies. An attempt was made to estimate the incomplete fusion fraction for the present systems, which revealed that the fraction was sensitive to the projectile energy and mass asymmetry of the entrance channel. (orig.)

Amanuel, F.K. [INFN, Laboratori Nazionali di Legnaro, Legnaro (Padova) (Italy); Zelalem, B.; Chaubey, A.K. [Addis Ababa University, Department of Physics, P.O.Box 1176, Addis Ababa (Ethiopia); Agarwal, Avinash [Bareilly College, Department of Physics, Bareilly (India); Rizvi, I.A.; Maheshwari, Anjana; Ahmed, Tauseef [Aligarh Muslim University, Department of Physics, Aligarh (India)

2011-12-15

32

Mesenchymal stem cells attenuated PLGA-induced inflammatory responses by inhibiting host DC maturation and function.  

Science.gov (United States)

The poly lactic-co-glycolic acid (PLGA) bio-scaffold is a biodegradable scaffold commonly used for tissue repair. However, implanted PLGA scaffolds usually cause serious inflammatory responses around grafts. To improve PLGA scaffold-based tissue repair, it is important to control the PLGA-mediated inflammatory responses. Recent evidence indicated that PLGA induce dendritic cell (DC) maturation in vitro, which may initiate host immune responses. In the present study, we explored the modulatory effects of mesenchymal stem cells (MSC) on PLGA-induced DCs (PLGA-DC). We found that mouse MSCs inhibited PLGA-DC dendrite formation, as well as co-stimulatory molecule and pro-inflammatory factor expression. Functionally, MSC-educated PLGA-DCs promoted Th2 and regulatory T cell differentiation but suppressed Th1 and Th17 cell differentiation. Mechanistically, we determined that PLGA elicited DC maturation via inducing phosphorylation of p38/MAPK and ERK/MAPK pathway proteins in DCs. Moreover, MSCs suppressed PLGA-DCs by partially inactivating those pathways. Most importantly, we found that the MSCs were capable of suppressing DC maturation and immune function in vivo. Also, the proportion of mature DCs in the mice that received MSC-PLGA constructs greatly decreased compared with that of their PLGA-film implantation counterparts. Additionally, MSCs co-delivery increased regulatory T and Th2 cells but decreased the Th1 and Th17 cell numbers in the host spleens. Histological analysis showed that MSCs alleviated the inflammatory responses around the grafted PLGA scaffolds. In summary, our findings reveal a novel function for MSCs in suppressing PLGA-induced host inflammatory response and suggest that DCs are a new cellular target in improving PLGA scaffold-based tissue repair. PMID:25890764

Zhu, Heng; Yang, Fei; Tang, Bo; Li, Xi-Mei; Chu, Ya-Nan; Liu, Yuan-Lin; Wang, Shen-Guo; Wu, De-Cheng; Zhang, Yi

2015-06-01

33

Salmonella enterica Serovar Typhimurium-Induced Maturation of Bone Marrow-Derived Dendritic Cells  

OpenAIRE

Murine bone marrow-derived dendritic cells (DC) can phagocytose and process Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium for peptide presentation on major histocompatibility complex class I (MHC-I) and MHC-II molecules. To investigate if a serovar Typhimurium encounter with DC induces maturation and downregulates their ability to present antigens from subsequently encountered bacteria, DC were pulsed with serovar Typhimurium 24 h prior to coincubating with Escherichia coli expressing the model ant...

Svensson, Mattias; Johansson, Cecilia; Wick, Mary Jo

2000-01-01

34

Thidiazuron-induced high-frequency plant regeneration from leaf explants of Paulownia tomentosa mature trees  

OpenAIRE

Attempts were made to study the effect of thidiazuron (TDZ) on adventitious shoot induction and plant development in Paulownia tomentosa explants derived from mature trees. Media with different concentrations of TDZ in combination with an auxin were used to induce adventitious shoot-buds in two explant types: basal leaf halves with the petiole attached (leaf explant) and intact petioles. Optimal shoot regeneration was obtained in leaf explants cultured on induction medium containing TDZ (22.7...

Corredoira, E.; Ballester, A.; Vie?itez Marti?n, Ana Mari?a

2008-01-01

35

Rehmannia glutinosa polysaccharide induces maturation of murine bone marrow derived Dendritic cells (BMDCs).  

Science.gov (United States)

Purified Rehmannia glutinosa polysaccharide (RGP) is used as functional foods for the prevention and treatment of various diseases. In this study, we examined the effects of RGP on phenotypic and functional maturation of murine bone marrow derived Dendritic cells (BMDCs). Phenotypic maturation of BMDCs was confirmed by conventional scanning electron microscopy (SEM), flow cytometry (FCM) and functional maturation by transmission electron microscopy (TEM), cytochemistry assay, Acid phosphatase (ACP) activity, FITC-dextran, bio-assay and enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA).We found that RGP up-regulated the expression of CD40, CD80, CD83, CD86 and MHC II molecules of BMDCs, down-regulated pinocytosis and phagocytosis activity, induced IL-12 and TNF-? production of BMDCs. It is therefore concluded that RGP can effectively promote the maturation of DCs. Our study provides evidence and rationale on using RGP in various clinical conditions to enhance host immunity and suggests RGP as a potent adjuvant for the design of DC-based vaccines. PMID:23246902

Zhang, Zhenjie; Meng, Yiming; Guo, Yanxia; He, Xin; Liu, Qingrui; Wang, Xiufeng; Shan, Fengping

2013-03-01

36

Glucocorticoid-induced maturation of glycoprotein galactosylation and fucosylation processes in the rat small intestine.  

Science.gov (United States)

We determined the role of glucocorticoids in the maturation of glycoprotein galactosylation and fucosylation processes in the rat small intestine during postnatal development. Treatment of suckling rats with hydrocortisone (HC) increased activities of an O-glycan: galactosyltransferase, and of an alpha-1,2-fucosyltransferase, through transcriptional regulation of the FTB gene. The activities of a fucosyltransferase inhibitor and of the enzymes responsible for the synthesis and degradation of GDP-fucose were unaffected by the treatment, whereas a fall in the activity of alpha-L-fucosidase was observed. These changes were accompanied by the precocious appearance of alpha-1,2-fucose residues in complex glycan chains of brush-border membrane glycoproteins that normally appear after weaning, and with a trend to increase in alpha-1,2-fucose residues in mucins. Thus, treatment of suckling rats with hydrocortisone speeds up the maturation of glycoprotein galactosylation and fucosylation processes in the small intestine. The delayed increase in glucocorticoid levels induced by prolonged nursing, or the suppression of glucocorticoids by adrenalectomy (AD) before the normal rise in the hormone, both induced a delay in the increases in activities of the O-glycan: galactosyltransferase and alpha-1,2-fucosyltransferase observed normally after glucocorticoid enhancement. Thus, glucocorticoids might play at least a partial role in the maturation of glycoprotein glycosylation observed at weaning. PMID:12732286

Biol-N'garagba, Marie-Claire; Niepceron, Elodie; Mathian, Bruno; Louisot, Pierre

2003-03-01

37

Human parainfluenza virus type 2 vector induces dendritic cell maturation without viral RNA replication/transcription.  

Science.gov (United States)

The dendritic cell (DC), a most potent antigen-presenting cell, plays a key role in vaccine therapy against infectious diseases and malignant tumors. Although advantages of viral vectors for vaccine therapy have been reported, potential risks for adverse effects prevent them from being licensed for clinical use. Human parainfluenza virus type 2 (hPIV2), one of the members of the Paramyxoviridae family, is a nonsegmented and negative-stranded RNA virus. We have developed a reverse genetics system for the production of infectious hPIV2 lacking the F gene (hPIV2?F), wherein various advantages for vaccine therapy exist, such as cytoplasmic replication/transcription, nontransmissible infectivity, and extremely high transduction efficacy in various types of target cells. Here we demonstrate that hPIV2?F shows high transduction efficiency in human DCs, while not so high in mouse DCs. In addition, hPIV2?F sufficiently induces maturation of both human and murine DCs, and the maturation state of both human and murine DCs is almost equivalent to that induced by lipopolysaccharide. Moreover, alkylating agent ?-propiolactone-inactivated hPIV2?F (BPL-hPIV2?F) elicits DC maturation without viral replication/transcription. These results suggest that hPIV2?F may be a useful tool for vaccine therapy as a novel type of paramyxoviral vector, which is single-round infectious vector and has potential adjuvant activity. PMID:23790317

Hara, Kenichiro; Fukumura, Masayuki; Ohtsuka, Junpei; Kawano, Mitsuo; Nosaka, Tetsuya

2013-07-01

38

Role of PTGS2-generated PGE2 during gonadotrophin-induced bovine oocyte maturation and cumulus cell expansion.  

Science.gov (United States)

Prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) is an autocrine/paracrine factor which mediates gonadotrophin (Gn) stimulation of cumulus expansion and oocyte maturation in rodents. Its role in bovine oocyte maturation is less characterized. This study detected PTGS2 (COX2) and PGE synthases (PTGES1, PTGES2 and PTGES3) in bovine cumulus-oocyte complexes (COC). Only PTGS2 and PTGES1 expression changed during maturation. In Gn-free media, no cumulus expansion and ?45% nuclear maturation was achieved, while Gn-induced maturation showed full cumulus expansion (score 3) and ?87% maturation. PGE2 supplementation without Gn induced mild cumulus expansion (score 0.5-1) but increased nuclear maturation to levels similar to those obtained with Gn alone. In the presence of Gn, exogenous PGE2 did not affect expansion or nuclear maturation and subsequent embryo development. Treatment with PTGS2 selective inhibitor (NS398), PTGS2-specific siRNA or PTGER2-receptor antagonist (AH6809) resulted in ?20-25% reduction in nuclear maturation. NS398 and AH6809 did not affect cumulus expansion. Most oocytes not reaching metaphase of second meiosis (MII) following NS398, AH6809 and PTGS2-specific siRNA treatments were at MI. After longer maturation, NS398-treated oocytes had normal MII rate and uncompromised embryo development. PGE2 has a limited role in cumulus expansion in bovine COC but is important for the timing of Gn-induced nuclear maturation. We confirmed that genes involved in the synthesis of prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) are expressed by cumulus-oocyte complexes (or eggs) of cows and that PGE2 is synthesized during oocyte maturation in the presence of gonadotrophin hormones. When we inhibited synthesis of PGE2 or blocked its receptors, oocyte maturation, but not cumulus expansion, was compromised. Further investigation showed that oocyte maturation is delayed but not arrested when PGE2 synthesis is inhibited. On the other hand, addition of exogenous PGE2 induced a high maturation rate and mild cumulus expansion only in the absence of gonadotrophin stimulation, and had no effect in the presence of gonadotrophin. PMID:24447957

Marei, Waleed F; Abayasekara, D Robert E; Wathes, D Claire; Fouladi-Nashta, Ali A

2014-03-01

39

Human B cells induce dendritic cell maturation and favour Th2 polarization by inducing OX-40 ligand.  

Science.gov (United States)

Dendritic cells (DCs) play a critical role in immune homeostasis by regulating the functions of various immune cells, including T and B cells. Notably, DCs also undergo education on reciprocal signalling by these immune cells and environmental factors. Various reports demonstrated that B cells have profound regulatory functions, although only few reports have explored the regulation of human DCs by B cells. Here we demonstrate that activated but not resting B cells induce maturation of DCs with distinct features to polarize Th2 cells that secrete interleukin (IL)-5, IL-4 and IL-13. B-cell-induced maturation of DCs is contact dependent and implicates signalling of B-cell activation molecules CD69, B-cell-activating factor receptor, and transmembrane activator and calcium-modulating cyclophilin ligand interactor. Mechanistically, differentiation of Th2 cells by B-cell-matured DCs is dependent on OX-40 ligand. Collectively, our results suggest that B cells have the ability to control their own effector functions by enhancing the ability of human DCs to mediate Th2 differentiation. PMID:24910129

Maddur, Mohan S; Sharma, Meenu; Hegde, Pushpa; Stephen-Victor, Emmanuel; Pulendran, Bali; Kaveri, Srini V; Bayry, Jagadeesh

2014-01-01

40

Induced maturation of frog mast cells by nerve growth factor during ontogenesis.  

Science.gov (United States)

The effect of nerve growth factor (NGF) on ontogenesis of frog mast cells was investigated in vivo by histochemical, morphometric, and ultrastructural analysis. Three groups of tadpoles at various stages of development were used. In the first group, the larvae received i.p. injections of 1 ng NGF/g; the second group received 10 ng NGF/g, while the control group received only the vehicle. The first recognizable mast cells arose symmetrically in the tongue at stage 26 of Witschi's standard table. At stages 26 and 29, the mast cell number in the NGF-injected tadpoles was significantly higher than the control group. From stage 29 onward, the mast cell number rapidly increased in all groups. No significant differences in mast cell number were observed between the control group and the NGF-injected groups at stages 31 and 33. Electron microscopy revealed that at metamorphic climax (stage 33), the mast cells in the NGF-treated groups were more mature than those in the control group. Therefore, nerve growth factor at early stages of tadpole development is likely to induce differentiation of mast cell precursors, while at later stages it is likely to induce maturation of immature mast cells. The close anatomical association between mast cells and perineurium, observed during nerve development, is intriguing. Already in the early stages of nerve development, the mast cells form a network around Schwann cell-axon complexes, together with the perineurial cells. At climax, the mast cells are located between the perineurial layers, suggesting that they may play a role in the tissue-nerve barrier of the perineurium. Nerve growth factor also seems to induce perineurial cell maturation. PMID:14601150

Baccari, Gabriella Chieffi; Raucci, Franca; Di Fiore, Maria M; Monteforte, Rossella

2003-12-01

41

Calcium Signaling through Phospholipase C Activates Dendritic Cells To Mature and Is Necessary for the Activation and Maturation of Dendritic Cells Induced by Diverse Agonists  

OpenAIRE

Calcium is an important second messenger in the phospholipase C (PLC) signal transduction pathway. Calcium signaling is involved in many biological processes, including muscle contraction, cellular activation, and cellular proliferation. Dendritic cell (DC) maturation is induced by many different stimuli, including bacterial lipopolysaccharide (LPS), bacterial toxins, inflammatory cytokines, prostaglandins, as well as calcium mobilization. In the present study, we determined the role of the P...

Bagley, Kenneth C.; Abdelwahab, Sayed F.; Tuskan, Robert G.; Lewis, George K.

2004-01-01

42

Differentiation of human induced pluripotent stem cells to mature functional Purkinje neurons.  

Science.gov (United States)

It remains a challenge to differentiate human induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) or embryonic stem (ES) cells to Purkinje cells. In this study, we derived iPSCs from human fibroblasts and directed the specification of iPSCs first to Purkinje progenitors, by adding Fgf2 and insulin to the embryoid bodies (EBs) in a time-sensitive manner, which activates the endogenous production of Wnt1 and Fgf8 from EBs that further patterned the cells towards a midbrain-hindbrain-boundary tissue identity. Neph3-positive human Purkinje progenitors were sorted out by using flow cytometry and cultured either alone or with granule cell precursors, in a 2-dimensional or 3-dimensional environment. However, Purkinje progenitors failed to mature further under above conditions. By co-culturing human Purkinje progenitors with rat cerebellar slices, we observed mature Purkinje-like cells with right morphology and marker expression patterns, which yet showed no appropriate membrane properties. Co-culture with human fetal cerebellar slices drove the progenitors to not only morphologically correct but also electrophysiologically functional Purkinje neurons. Neph3-posotive human cells could also survive transplantation into the cerebellum of newborn immunodeficient mice and differentiate to L7- and Calbindin-positive neurons. Obtaining mature human Purkinje cells in vitro has significant implications in studying the mechanisms of spinocerebellar ataxias and other cerebellar diseases. PMID:25782665

Wang, Shuyan; Wang, Bin; Pan, Na; Fu, Linlin; Wang, Chaodong; Song, Gongru; An, Jing; Liu, Zhongfeng; Zhu, Wanwan; Guan, Yunqian; Xu, Zhi-Qing David; Chan, Piu; Chen, Zhiguo; Zhang, Y Alex

2015-01-01

43

Comparative effects of mature coconut water (Cocos nucifera) and glibenclamide on some biochemical parameters in alloxan induced diabetic rats  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in english In the present study, comparative effects of mature coconut water (Cocos nucifera L., Arecaceae) and glibenclamide in alloxan induced diabetic rats were evaluated. Diabetes mellitus was induced in Sprague-Dawly rats using alloxan monohydrate (150 mg kg-1 body weight). Treatment with lyophilized form [...] of mature coconut water and glibenclamide in diabetic rats reduced the blood glucose and glycated hemoglobin along with improvement in plasma insulin level. Elevated levels of liver function enzymes markers like alkaline phosphatase, serum glutamate oxaloacetate transaminase and serum glutamate pyruvate transaminase in diabetic rats were significantly reduced on treatment with mature coconut water. In addition to this, diabetic rats showed altered levels of blood urea, serum creatinine, albumin, albumin/globulin ratio which were significantly improved by treatment with mature coconut water and glibenclamide. Activities of nitric oxide synthase in liver and plasma L-arginine were reduced significantly in alloxan induced diabetic rats while treatment with mature coconut water reversed these changes. The overall results show that mature coconut water has significant beneficial effects in diabetic rats and its effects were comparable to that of glibenclamide, a well known antidiabetic drug.

P. P., Preetha; V., Girija Devi; T., Rajamohan.

2013-06-01

44

Interferon-? Added During Bacillus Calmette-Guerin Induced Dendritic Cell Maturation Stimulates Potent Th1 Immune Responses  

Science.gov (United States)

Dendritic cells (DC) are increasingly prepared in vitro for use in immunotherapy trials. Mature DC express high levels of surface molecules needed for T cell activation and are superior at antigen-presentation than immature DC. Bacillus Calmette-Guerin (BCG) is one of several products known to induce DC maturation, and interferon (IFN)-? has been shown to enhance the activity of DC stimulated with certain maturation factors. In this study, we investigated the use of IFN-? in combination with the powerful maturation agent, BCG. The treatment of immature DC with IFN-? plus BCG led to the upregulation of CD54, CD80, and CD86 in comparison with BCG treatment alone. In MLR or recall immune responses, the addition of IFN-? at the time of BCG-treatment did not increase the number of antigen-specific T cells but enhanced the development of IFN-?-producing Th1 cells. In primary immune responses, on the other hand, BCG and IFN-? co-treated DC stimulated higher proportions of specific T cells as well as IFN-? secretion by these T cells. Thus the use of IFN-? during BCG-induced DC maturation differentially affects the nature of recall versus naïve antigen-specific T-cell responses. IFN-? co-treatment with BCG was found to induce IL-12 and, in some instances, inhibit IL-10 secretion by DC. These findings greatly enhance the potential of BCG-matured dendritic cells for use in cancer immunotherapy. PMID:14580262

Shankar, Gopi; Pestano, Linda A; Bosch, Marnix L

2003-01-01

45

Interferon-? Added During Bacillus Calmette-Guerin Induced Dendritic Cell Maturation Stimulates Potent Th1 Immune Responses  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Dendritic cells (DC are increasingly prepared in vitro for use in immunotherapy trials. Mature DC express high levels of surface molecules needed for T cell activation and are superior at antigen-presentation than immature DC. Bacillus Calmette-Guerin (BCG is one of several products known to induce DC maturation, and interferon (IFN-? has been shown to enhance the activity of DC stimulated with certain maturation factors. In this study, we investigated the use of IFN-? in combination with the powerful maturation agent, BCG. The treatment of immature DC with IFN-? plus BCG led to the upregulation of CD54, CD80, and CD86 in comparison with BCG treatment alone. In MLR or recall immune responses, the addition of IFN-? at the time of BCG-treatment did not increase the number of antigen-specific T cells but enhanced the development of IFN-?-producing Th1 cells. In primary immune responses, on the other hand, BCG and IFN-? co-treated DC stimulated higher proportions of specific T cells as well as IFN-? secretion by these T cells. Thus the use of IFN-? during BCG-induced DC maturation differentially affects the nature of recall versus naïve antigen-specific T-cell responses. IFN-? co-treatment with BCG was found to induce IL-12 and, in some instances, inhibit IL-10 secretion by DC. These findings greatly enhance the potential of BCG-matured dendritic cells for use in cancer immunotherapy.

Pestano Linda A

2003-10-01

46

Susceptibility to estrogen-induced mammary cancer segregates as an incompletely dominant phenotype in reciprocal crosses between the ACI and Copenhagen rat strains.  

Science.gov (United States)

Estrogens have been inextricably linked to the etiology of breast cancer. We have demonstrated that the female ACI rat exhibits a unique propensity to develop mammary cancers when treated continuously with physiological levels of 17 beta-estradiol (E2). The E2-induced mammary cancers are estrogen dependent and exhibit genomic instability. In contrast, the genetically related Copenhagen (COP) rat strain is relatively resistant to E2-induced mammary cancers. In this study we evaluated susceptibility to E2-induced mammary cancers in first filial (F(1)), second filial (F(2)), and backcross (BC) progeny generated from reciprocal intercrosses between the ACI and COP strains. F(1) progeny resembled the parental ACI strain with respect to incidence of E2-induced mammary cancers. However, latency was significantly prolonged in the F(1) populations. These data indicate that susceptibility behaves as an incompletely dominant phenotype in these crosses. Analysis of phenotypes exhibited by the F(1), F(2), and BC populations suggests that mammary cancer susceptibility is modified by one or two genetic loci in the reciprocal intercrosses between the ACI and COP strains. Susceptibility to E2-induced mammary cancers did not correlate with E2-induced pituitary growth in the genetically diverse F(2) and BC populations, suggesting that the genetic bases for susceptibility to E2-induced mammary cancers differ from those for E2-induced lactotroph hyperplasia. PMID:11713205

Shull, J D; Pennington, K L; Reindl, T M; Snyder, M C; Strecker, T E; Spady, T J; Tochacek, M; McComb, R D

2001-12-01

47

Short chain regioselectively hydrolyzed scleroglucans induce maturation of porcine dendritic cells.  

Science.gov (United States)

Branched beta-1,3/1,6-glucans (scleroglucan) were produced by cultivation of Sclerotium rolfsii ATCC 15205. Regioselective hydrolysis at the beta-1,3-linkage of the cell-free and purified polysaccharide was performed in borosilicate glass bottles at pH 5, 121 degrees C, and 1 bar for 72 h. The mixture was divided into four molar mass fractions by stepwise cross-flow filtration using different cutoffs. In vitro studies revealed that scleroglucan hydrolysates with a low molar mass of less than 5 kDa significantly stimulated the activation and maturation of porcine monocyte derived dendritic cells (MoDC) by upregulation of CD40 and CD80/86 as well as by reduction of antigen uptake. MoDC treated with low molar mass scleroglucan showed a considerable increase in the amounts of secreted proinflammatory cytokine tumor necrosis factor alpha and stimulated the proliferation of lymphocytes. Therefore, scleroglucan molecules of low molecular weight are able to induce activation and maturation of porcine DC, which are key initiators of inflammatory and adaptive immune responses, and could provide improved protection against infectious diseases. PMID:19107473

Bimczok, Diane; Wrenger, Julika; Schirrmann, Thomas; Rothkötter, Hermann-Josef; Wray, Victor; Rau, Udo

2009-02-01

48

Role of the C-terminal propeptide in the activity and maturation of ?-interferon-inducible lysosomal thiol reductase (GILT)  

Science.gov (United States)

?-Interferon-inducible lysosomal thiol reductase (GILT) is constitutively expressed in antigen-presenting cells. GILT facilitates unfolding of endocytosed antigens in MHC class II-containing compartments by enzymatically reducing disulfide bonds. The enzyme is synthesized as a 35-kDa precursor. Although a fraction of the precursor is secreted as a disulfide-linked dimer, the majority is directed via the mannose-6-phosphate receptor pathway to endocytic compartments where its N- and C-terminal propeptides are cleaved to generate the 30-kDa mature form. Both precursor and mature GILT reduce disulfide bonds with an acidic pH optimum. In this report, we show that the cysteine residues in the C-terminal propeptide, Cys-211 and Cys-222, serve key structural roles. Mutation of Cys-222 abolishes disulfide-linked dimerization of precursor GILT and decreases the efficiency of GILT maturation. Mutation of Cys-211 results in both impaired intracellular maturation and loss of enzymatic activity of the precursor form at an acidic pH. A similar phenotype was obtained upon mutation of Cys-200, which is retained in the mature form. Cys-200 and Cys-211 seem to form a disulfide bond that links the propeptide and the mature enzyme until reduction in the lysosome. This disulfide bridge is essential for stability of the enzyme at low pH and for its proper maturation in vivo. PMID:12198183

Phan, Uyen T.; Lackman, Rebecca L.; Cresswell, Peter

2002-01-01

49

Maturation of nematode-induced galls in Medicago truncatula is related to water status and primary metabolism modifications.  

Science.gov (United States)

Root-knot nematodes are obligatory plant parasitic worms that establish and maintain an intimate relationship with their host plants. During a compatible interaction, these nematodes induce the redifferentiation of root cells into multinucleate and hypertrophied giant cells (GCs). These metabolically active feeding cells constitute the exclusive source of nutrients for the nematode. We analyzed the modifications of water status, ionic content and accumulation of metabolites in development and mature galls induced by Meloidogyne incognita and in uninfected roots of Medicago truncatula plants. Water potential and osmotic pressure are significantly modified in mature galls compared to developing galls and control roots. Ionic content is significantly modified in galls compared to roots. Principal component analyses of metabolite content showed that mature gall metabolism is significantly modified compared to developing gall metabolism. The most striking differences were the three-fold increase of trehalose content associated to the five-fold diminution in glucose concentration in mature galls. Gene expression analysis showed that trehalose accumulation was, at least, partially linked to a significantly lower expression of the trehalase gene in mature galls. Our results point to significant modifications of gall physiology during maturation. PMID:25617326

Baldacci-Cresp, Fabien; Maucourt, Mickaël; Deborde, Catherine; Pierre, Olivier; Moing, Annick; Brouquisse, Renaud; Favery, Bruno; Frendo, Pierre

2015-03-01

50

IL-8 signaling does not mediate intra-amniotic LPS-induced inflammation and maturation in preterm fetal lamb lung.  

Science.gov (United States)

Preterm infants exposed to chorioamnionitis and preterm sheep fetuses exposed to intra-amniotic (IA) LPS have lung inflammation, increased IL-8 levels, and lung maturation. We tested the hypothesis that IL-8 signaling mediates IA LPS-induced lung inflammation and lung maturation. Two strategies were used: 1) we tested if IA injection of recombinant sheep IL-8 (rsIL-8) induced fetal inflammation and 2) if IL-8 signaling was blocked by a novel CXCR2 receptor blocker, nicotinanilide thioglycolate methyl ester (NTME). To test effects of IL-8 in the fetus, rsIL-8 was given intravascularly (50 microg) at 124 +/- 1 day of gestation (term = 150 days). A separate group of sheep was given IA rsIL-8 (100 microg) and delivered 5 h to 7 days later at 124 +/- 1 day of gestation. After confirming efficacy of the CXCR2 inhibitor, effects of IL-8 blockade were tested by injecting fetal sheep intramuscularly with NTME (10 mg) before IA injection of Escherichia coli LPS (10 mg). Sheep fetuses were delivered 1 or 7 days after injections at 124 +/- 1 day of gestation. IA rsIL-8 induced a modest fivefold increase in bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) monocytes and neutrophils and increased lung monocyte hydrogen peroxide generation. However, rsIL-8 did not induce lung maturation. Intravascular rsIL-8 did not change fetal cardiovascular variables, blood pH, or blood leukocyte counts. Inhibition of CXCR2 decreased IA LPS-induced increases in BAL proteins at 1 day but not at 7 days. NTME did not significantly decrease IA LPS-induced BAL leukocyte influx and lung cytokine mRNA expression. Inhibition of CXCR2 did not change IA LPS-induced lung maturation. IL-8 signaling does not mediate LPS-induced lung inflammation and lung maturation. PMID:19574422

Kallapur, Suhas G; Moss, Timothy J M; Auten, Richard L; Nitsos, Ilias; Pillow, J Jane; Kramer, Boris W; Maeda, Dean Y; Newnham, John P; Ikegami, Machiko; Jobe, Alan H

2009-09-01

51

Mycobacterium tuberculosislpdC, Rv0462, induces dendritic cell maturation and Th1 polarization  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Highlights: {yields} Treatment with Rv0462 induces the expression of surface molecules and the production of cytokines in DCs. {yields} Rv0462 induces the activation of MAPKs. {yields} Rv0462-treated DCs enhances the proliferation of CD4{sup +} T cells. -- Abstract: Mycobacterium tuberculosis, the etiological factor of pulmonary tuberculosis, causes significant morbidity and mortality worldwide. Activation of host immune responses for containment of mycobacterial infections involves participation of innate immune cells, such as dendritic cells (DCs). In this study, we demonstrated that the gene encoding lipoamide dehydrogenase C (lpdC) from M. tuberculosis, Rv0462, induce maturation and activation of DCs involved in the MAPKs signaling pathway. Moreover, Rv0462-treated DCs activated naive T cells, polarized CD4{sup +} and CD8{sup +} T cells to secrete IFN-{gamma} in syngeneic mixed lymphocyte reactions, which would be expected to contribute to Th1 polarization of the immune response. Our results suggest that Rv0462 can contribute to the innate and adaptive immune responses during tuberculosis infection, and thus modulate the clinical course of tuberculosis.

Heo, Deok Rim [Department of Microbiology and Immunology, School of Medicine, Pusan National University, Beom-eo Ri, Mulgum Eop, Yangsan, Gyeongsangnam-do 626-770 (Korea, Republic of); Shin, Sung Jae; Kim, Woo Sik [Department of Microbiology, College of Medicine, Chungnam National University, Munwha-Dong, Jung-Ku, Daejeon 301-747 (Korea, Republic of); Noh, Kyung Tae; Park, Jin Wook; Son, Kwang Hee [Department of Microbiology and Immunology, School of Medicine, Pusan National University, Beom-eo Ri, Mulgum Eop, Yangsan, Gyeongsangnam-do 626-770 (Korea, Republic of); Park, Won Sun [Department of Physiology, Kangwon National University, School of Medicine, Chuncheon 200-701 (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Min-Goo [Department of Physiology, Korea University, College of Medicine, Anam-dong, Sungbuk-Gu, Seoul 136-705 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Daejin [Department of Anatomy, Chung-Ang University, College of Medicine, 221 Heuksuk-Dong, Dongjak-Ku, Seoul 156-756 (Korea, Republic of); Shin, Yong Kyoo [Department of Pharmacology, Chung-Ang University, College of Medicine, 221 Heuksuk-Dong, Dongjak-Ku, Seoul 156-756 (Korea, Republic of); Jung, In Duk, E-mail: jungid@pusan.ac.kr [Department of Microbiology and Immunology, School of Medicine, Pusan National University, Beom-eo Ri, Mulgum Eop, Yangsan, Gyeongsangnam-do 626-770 (Korea, Republic of); Research Institute of Convergence of Biomedical Science and Technology, Pusan National University Yangsan Hospital, Beom-eo Ri, Mulgum Eop, Yangsan, Gyeongsangnam-do 626-770 (Korea, Republic of); Park, Yeong-Min, E-mail: immunpym@pusan.ac.kr [Department of Microbiology and Immunology, School of Medicine, Pusan National University, Beom-eo Ri, Mulgum Eop, Yangsan, Gyeongsangnam-do 626-770 (Korea, Republic of); Research Institute of Convergence of Biomedical Science and Technology, Pusan National University Yangsan Hospital, Beom-eo Ri, Mulgum Eop, Yangsan, Gyeongsangnam-do 626-770 (Korea, Republic of)

2011-08-05

52

Mycobacterium tuberculosislpdC, Rv0462, induces dendritic cell maturation and Th1 polarization  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Highlights: ? Treatment with Rv0462 induces the expression of surface molecules and the production of cytokines in DCs. ? Rv0462 induces the activation of MAPKs. ? Rv0462-treated DCs enhances the proliferation of CD4+ T cells. -- Abstract: Mycobacterium tuberculosis, the etiological factor of pulmonary tuberculosis, causes significant morbidity and mortality worldwide. Activation of host immune responses for containment of mycobacterial infections involves participation of innate immune cells, such as dendritic cells (DCs). In this study, we demonstrated that the gene encoding lipoamide dehydrogenase C (lpdC) from M. tuberculosis, Rv0462, induce maturation and activation of DCs involved in the MAPKs signaling pathway. Moreover, Rv0462-treated DCs activated naive T cells, polarized CD4+ and CD8+ T cells to secrete IFN-? in syngeneic mixed lymphocyte reactions, which would be expected to contribute to Th1 polarization of the immune response. Our results suggest that Rv0462 can contribute to the innate and adaptive immune responses during tuberculosis infection, and thus modulate the clinical course of tuberculosis.

53

HCV Induces the Expression of Rubicon and UVRAG to Temporally Regulate the Maturation of Autophagosomes and Viral Replication  

Science.gov (United States)

Hepatitis C virus (HCV) induces autophagy to enhance its replication. However, how HCV regulates the autophagic pathway remains largely unclear. In this report, we demonstrated that HCV infection could induce the expression of Rubicon and UVRAG, which inhibited and stimulated the maturation of autophagosomes, respectively. The induction of Rubicon by HCV was prompt whereas the induction of UVRAG was delayed, resulting in the accumulation of autophagosomes in the early time points of viral infection. The role of Rubicon in inhibiting the maturation of autophagosomes in HCV-infected cells was confirmed by siRNA knockdown and the over-expression of Rubicon, which enhanced and suppressed the maturation of autophagosomes, respectively. Rubicon played a positive role in HCV replication, as the suppression of its expression reduced HCV replication and its over-expression enhanced HCV replication. In contrast, the over-expression of UVRAG facilitated the maturation of autophagosomes and suppressed HCV replication. The HCV subgenomic RNA replicon, which expressed only the nonstructural proteins, could also induce the expression of Rubicon and the accumulation of autophagosomes. Further analysis indicated that the HCV NS4B protein was sufficient to induce Rubicon and autophagosomes. Our results thus indicated that HCV, by differentially inducing the expression of Rubicon and UVRAG, temporally regulated the autophagic flux to enhance its replication. PMID:25807108

Wang, Linya; Tian, Yongjun; Ou, Jing-hsiung James

2015-01-01

54

Progesterone improves the maturation of male-induced preovulatory follicles in anoestrous ewes.  

Science.gov (United States)

The first ovulation induced by male effect in sheep during seasonal anoestrus usually results in the development of a short cycle that can be avoided by progesterone priming before ram introduction. In elucidating the involvement of the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis in the occurrence of short cycles, the effects of progesterone and the time of anoestrus on the development of male-induced preovulatory follicles were investigated in anoestrous ewes using morphological, endocrine and molecular approaches. Ewes were primed with progesterone for 2 (CIDR2) or 12 days (CIDR12) and untreated ewes used as controls during early (April) and late (June) anoestrus. The duration of follicular growth and the lifespan of the male-induced preovulatory follicles were prolonged by ?1.6 days in CIDR12 ewes compared with the controls. These changes were accompanied by a delay in the preovulatory LH and FSH surges and ovulation. Intra-follicular oestradiol concentration and mRNA levels of LHCGR and STAR in the granulosa and theca cells of the preovulatory follicles were higher in CIDR12 ewes than the control ewes. The expression of mRNA levels of CYP11A1 and CYP17A1 also increased in theca cells of CIDR12 ewes. CIDR2 ewes gave intermediate results. Moreover, ewes ovulated earlier in June than in April, without changes in the duration of follicular growth, but these effects were unrelated to the lifespan of corpus luteum. Our results give the first evidence supporting the positive effect of progesterone priming on the completion of growth and maturation of preovulatory follicles induced by male effect in seasonal anoestrous ewes, thereby preventing short cycles. PMID:25062803

Adib, Achraf; Freret, Sandrine; Touze, Jean-Luc; Lomet, Didier; Lardic, Lionel; Chesneau, Didier; Estienne, Anthony; Papillier, Pascal; Monniaux, Danielle; Pellicer-Rubio, Maria-Teresa

2014-10-01

55

Palmitate induces endoplasmic reticulum stress and autophagy in mature adipocytes: Implications for apoptosis and inflammation.  

Science.gov (United States)

Endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress and inflammation induced by obesity lead to adipocyte dysfunction, with the impairment of the insulin pathway. Recent studies have indicated that understanding the physiological role of autophagy is of great significance. In the present study, an in vitro model was used in which 3T3-L1 adipocytes were pre-loaded with palmitate (PA) to generate artificially hypertrophied mature adipocytes. PA induced an autophagic flux, determined by an increased microtubule-associated protein 1 light chain 3 (LC3)-II formation, as shown by western blot analysis and fluorescence microscopy, and was confirmed using transmission electron microscopy (TEM). Using TEM and western blot analysis, we observed increased ER stress in response to PA, as indicated by the increased levels of the ER stress markers, BiP, activating transcription factor 4 (ATF4) and C/EBP homologous protein (CHOP), and the phosphoralytion of eukaryotic translation initiation factor 2? and c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK). Of note, we observed that the PA-induced ER stress occurred prior to the activation of autophagy. We confirmed that autophagy was induced in response to JNK-dependent ER stress, as autophagy was suppressed by treatment with the ER stress inhibitor, 4-phenyl butyrate (4-PBA), and the JNK inhibitor, SP600125. Upon the inhibition of autophagy using chloroquine (CQ), we observed exacerbated ER stress and an increased level of cell death. Importantly, to determine whether autophagy is linked to inflammation, the autophagy inhibitor, 3-methyladenine (3-MA) was used. The inhibition of autophagy led to a further increase in the PA-induced expression of monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1) and interleukin-6 (IL-6). Consistently, such an increase was also observed following treatment with SP600125. In conclusion, our data indicate that PA elicits a ER stress-JNK-autophagy axis, and that this confers a pro-survival effect against PA-induced cell death and stress in hypertrophied adipocytes. The JNK-dependent activation of autophagy diminishes PA-induced inflammation. Therefore, the stimulation of autophagy may become a method with which to attenuate adipocyte dysfunction and inflammation. PMID:25647410

Yin, Jiajing; Wang, Yufan; Gu, Liping; Fan, Nengguang; Ma, Yuhang; Peng, Yongde

2015-04-01

56

Galactomannan from Caesalpinia spinosa induces phenotypic and functional maturation of human dendritic cells.  

Science.gov (United States)

Plant polysaccharides present an interesting potential as immunomodulators, particularly in the induction of antitumoral responses, principally because of their molecular complexity and low in vivo toxicity. Activation of dendritic cells (DCs) could improve antitumoral responses usually diminished in cancer patients, and natural adjuvants provide a possibility of inducing this activation. Herein, we investigated the immunomodulatory activity of a neutral plant polysaccharide Galactomannan on human monocyte-derived DCs (MDDC). MDDCs were stimulated with Galactomannan (GLM) from Caesalpinia spinosa and both phenotypic and functional activities were assessed by flow cytometry and real-time PCR. The phagocytic ability of MDDCs was determined by using E-coli pHrodo particles and induction of T-lymphocyte allostimulation was determined after T-cell staining with carboxyfluorescein succinimidyl ester (CFSE). In MDDCs, purified Galactomannan induced phenotypic maturation revealed by increased expression of CD83, CD86, CD206, and HLA-DR. Functional experiments showed the loss of particulate antigen uptake in Galactomannan-stimulated DCs and increased alloantigen presentation capacity. Finally, Galactomannan increased protein and mRNA levels of pro-inflammatory cytokines including IL-1?, IL-6, IL-8, IL-12p70, and TNF-?. These data reveal that Galactomannan obtained from Caesalpinia spinosa promotes effective activation of MDDCs. This adjuvant-like activity may have therapeutic applications in clinical settings where immune responses need boosting. PMID:21255695

Santander, S P; Aoki, M; Hernandez, J F; Pombo, M; Moins-Teisserenc, H; Mooney, N; Fiorentino, S

2011-06-01

57

IL-1? induces CD11b(low) alveolar macrophage proliferation and maturation during granuloma formation.  

Science.gov (United States)

Macrophages play a central role in immune and tissue responses of granulomatous lung diseases induced by pathogens and foreign bodies. Circulating monocytes are generally viewed as central precursors of these tissue effector macrophages. Here, we provide evidence that granulomas derive from alveolar macrophages serving as a local reservoir for the expansion of activated phagocytic macrophages. By exploring lung granulomatous responses to silica particles in IL-1-deficient mice, we found that the absence of IL-1?, but not IL-1?, was associated with reduced CD11b(high) phagocytic macrophage accumulation and fewer granulomas. This defect was associated with impaired alveolar clearance and resulted in the development of pulmonary alveolar proteinosis (PAP). Reconstitution of IL-1?(-/-) mice with recombinant IL-1? restored lung clearance functions and the pulmonary accumulation of CD11b(high) phagocytic macrophages. Mechanistically, IL-1? induced the proliferation of CD11b(low) alveolar macrophages and differentiated these cells into CD11b(high) macrophages which perform critical phagocytic functions and organize granuloma. We newly discovered here that IL-1? triggers lung responses requiring macrophage proliferation and maturation from tissue-resident macrophages. Copyright © 2014 Pathological Society of Great Britain and Ireland. Published by John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. PMID:25421226

Huaux, François; Lo Re, Sandra; Giordano, Giulia; Uwambayinema, Francine; Devosse, Raynal; Yakoub, Yousof; Panin, Nadtha; Palmai-Pallag, Mihaly; Rabolli, Virginie; Delos, Monique; Marbaix, Etienne; Dauguet, Nicolas; Couillin, Isabelle; Ryffel, Bernhard; Renauld, Jean-Christophe; Lison, Dominique

2015-04-01

58

Ascophyllan Purified from Ascophyllum nodosum Induces Th1 and Tc1 Immune Responses by Promoting Dendritic Cell Maturation  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Marine-derived sulfated polysaccharides have been shown to possess certain anti-virus, anti-tumor, anti-inflammatory and anti-coagulant activities. However, the in vivo immunomodulatory effects of marine-derived pure compounds have been less well characterized. In this study, we investigated the effect of ascophyllan, a sulfated polysaccharide purified from Ascophyllum nodosum, on the maturation of mouse dendritic cells (DCs in vitro and in vivo. Ascophyllan induced up-regulation of co-stimulatory molecules and production of pro-inflammatory cytokines in bone marrow-derived DCs (BMDCs. Moreover, in vivo administration of ascophyllan promotes up-regulation of CD40, CD80, CD86, MHC class I and MHC class II and production of IL-6, IL-12 and TNF-? in spleen cDCs. Interestingly, ascophyllan induced a higher degree of co-stimulatory molecule up-regulation and pro-inflammatory cytokine production than fucoidan, a marine-derived polysaccharide with well-defined effect for promoting DC maturation. Ascophyllan also promoted the generation of IFN-?-producing Th1 and Tc1 cells in the presence of DCs in an IL-12-dependent manner. Finally, myeloid differentiation primary response 88 (MyD88 signaling pathway was essential for DC maturation induced by ascophyllan. Taken together, these results demonstrate that ascophyllan induces DC maturation, and consequently enhances Th1 and Tc1 responses in vivo. This knowledge could facilitate the development of novel therapeutic strategies to combat infectious diseases and cancer.

Wei Zhang

2014-07-01

59

Ascophyllan purified from Ascophyllum nodosum induces Th1 and Tc1 immune responses by promoting dendritic cell maturation.  

Science.gov (United States)

Marine-derived sulfated polysaccharides have been shown to possess certain anti-virus, anti-tumor, anti-inflammatory and anti-coagulant activities. However, the in vivo immunomodulatory effects of marine-derived pure compounds have been less well characterized. In this study, we investigated the effect of ascophyllan, a sulfated polysaccharide purified from Ascophyllum nodosum, on the maturation of mouse dendritic cells (DCs) in vitro and in vivo. Ascophyllan induced up-regulation of co-stimulatory molecules and production of pro-inflammatory cytokines in bone marrow-derived DCs (BMDCs). Moreover, in vivo administration of ascophyllan promotes up-regulation of CD40, CD80, CD86, MHC class I and MHC class II and production of IL-6, IL-12 and TNF-? in spleen cDCs. Interestingly, ascophyllan induced a higher degree of co-stimulatory molecule up-regulation and pro-inflammatory cytokine production than fucoidan, a marine-derived polysaccharide with well-defined effect for promoting DC maturation. Ascophyllan also promoted the generation of IFN-?-producing Th1 and Tc1 cells in the presence of DCs in an IL-12-dependent manner. Finally, myeloid differentiation primary response 88 (MyD88) signaling pathway was essential for DC maturation induced by ascophyllan. Taken together, these results demonstrate that ascophyllan induces DC maturation, and consequently enhances Th1 and Tc1 responses in vivo. This knowledge could facilitate the development of novel therapeutic strategies to combat infectious diseases and cancer. PMID:25026264

Zhang, Wei; Du, Jiang-Yuan; Jiang, Zedong; Okimura, Takasi; Oda, Tatsuya; Yu, Qing; Jin, Jun-O

2014-07-01

60

Tumor necrosis factor alpha may act as an intraovarian mediator of luteinizing hormone-induced oocyte maturation in trout.  

Science.gov (United States)

In fish, like in other vertebrates, luteinizing hormone (Lh) is an essential hormone for the completion of oocyte maturation. In salmonid fish (i.e., salmon and trout), oocyte maturation is induced by Lh through its stimulation of the production of the maturation-inducing steroid, 17alpha,20beta-dihydroxy-4-pregnen-3-one (17,20beta-P). In mammals, several factors, including ovarian cytokines and growth factors, have been reported to contribute to the regulation of oocyte maturation. In fish, growing evidence suggests that tumor necrosis factor alpha (hereafter referred to as Tnf) could play multiple physiological roles in the control of ovarian function. In the present study, we have investigated the possible involvement of Tnf in the regulation of oocyte maturation in brown trout (Salmo trutta). Our results show that in vitro treatment of brown trout preovulatory follicles with coho salmon (Oncorhynchus kisutch) Lh (sLh) significantly increased oocyte maturation, as assessed by germinal vesicle breakdown (GVBD), and that this effect was blocked by TAPI-1 (an inhibitor of Tnf-converting enzyme or Tace/Adam17). Furthermore, treatment of preovulatory follicles with sLh increased the expression of tnf and tace/adam17 as well as the secretion of the Tnf protein. Importantly, recombinant trout Tnf (rtTnf) significantly increased GVBD in vitro. Our results also show that the stimulatory effects of rtTnf on oocyte maturation may be the result of the direct involvement of rtTnf in stimulating the production of the maturation-inducing steroid as evidenced, first, by the stimulatory effects of rtTnf on 17,20beta-P production in vitro and on the expression of cholesterol side-chain cleavage P450 cytochrome (p450scc) and 20beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase/carbonyl reductase 1 (cbr1), the enzyme responsible for the production of 17,20beta-P, and, second, by the ability of TAPI-1 to block the stimulatory effects of sLh on 17,20beta-P production and cbr1 expression. Furthermore, sLh and rtTnf increased the expression of the Lh receptor (lhr) and decreased the expression of aromatase (cyp19a1), and TAPI-1 completely blocked the effects of sLh. These results strongly suggest that Tnf may contribute to the regulation of oocyte maturation by Lh in trout. PMID:21880947

Crespo, Diego; Mañanós, Evaristo L; Roher, Nerea; MacKenzie, Simon A; Planas, Josep V

2012-01-01

61

?-fetoprotein involvement during glucocorticoid-induced precocious maturation in rat colon  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available AIM: To investigate the role of ?-fetoprotein (AFP, a cancer-associated fetal glycoprotein, in glucocorticoid-induced precocious maturation in rat colon. METHODS: Colons from suckling Sprague-Dawley rats were used in this study. Corticosterone acetate at a dose of 100 ?g/g body weight was given to normal pups on days 7, 9 and 11 after birth to induce hypercorticoidism. Control animals were injected with identical volumes of normal saline. Some rats receiving corticosterone 7 d after birth were also treated with mifepristone (RU38486, a glucocorticoid cytoplasm receptor antagonist to investigate the effects of glucocorticoids (GCs. The morphological changes of the crypt depth and villous height of the villous zone in colon were observed as indices of colon maturation. Expression levels of AFP in colons were detected by reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction and Western blotting. To identify the cellular localization of AFP in developing rat colons, double-immunofluorescent staining was performed using antibodies to specific mesenchymal cell marker and AFP. RESULTS: Corticosterone increased the crypt depth and villous height in the colon of 8- and 10-d-old rats with hypercorticoidism compared with that in the control animals (120% in 8-d-old rats and 118% in 10-d-old rats in villous height, P = 0.021; 145% in 8-d-old rats and 124% in 10-d-old rats in crypt depth, P = 0.017. These increases were accompanied by an increase of AFP expression in both mRNA and protein (2.5-folds in 8-d-old and 2.5-folds in 10-d-old rats higher than in control animals, P = 0.035; 1.8-folds in 8-d-old and 1.3-folds in 10-d-old rats higher than in control animals, P = 0.023. Increased crypt depth and villous height and increased expression of AFP in the colon of rats with hypercorticoidism were blocked by mifepristone. Both had positive staining for AFP or vimentin, and overlapped in mesenchymal cells at each tested colon. CONCLUSION: GCs promote the development of rat colon. AFP appears to be involved, in part, in mediating the effects of GCs in the developmental colon.

Min Chen

2011-01-01

62

Mixture of fibroblast, epithelial and endothelial cells conditioned media induce monocyte-derived dendritic cell maturation.  

Science.gov (United States)

Fully matured DCs with large amount cytoplasm and copious dendritic projections were visible at the end of culturing period in the presence of MCM, TNF-? and poly (I:C), with or without FEECM. Thus, DCs generated with these maturation factors are nonadherent and have typical satellite morphology. Flow cytometric analysis using anti-CD14, -CD80, -CD86, -HLA-DR and -CD83 revealed that expression of CD14 is decreased in particular in FEECM treated DCs, on day 5 and expression of CD80, CD86 and HLA-DR was the higher when FEECM are added to maturation factor. Functionally, when DCs matured in the presence of FEECM elicited stronger MLR, reduced phagocytic activity. These results support the use of the FEECM with MCM, TNF-? and poly (I-C) as maturation factor in DC generation that could result in functionally mature monocyte-derived DCs in comparison to either alone. PMID:22035776

GanjiBakhsh, Meysam; Nejati, Vahid; Delirezh, Nowruz; Asadi, Masoumeh; Gholami, Keykavos

2011-01-01

63

The timing of the restitution of chromosome breaks induced by x-rays in the mature sperm of Drosophila melanogaster  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Drosophila melanogaster males with marked X and Y chromosomes were irradiated and mature sperm sampled by mating the males to females carrying attached-X chromosomes. Induced loss and partial loss of the paternal sex chromosomes was studied. F1 females were scored according to their phenotype and transmitted fragments were analyzed genetically. Half of the exceptional F1 females could be scored as 'partial losses'. Of the apparent total loss exceptions tested, half were carrying detectable fragments. 21% of the transmissible fragments were carrying a duplication of a paternal chromosome tip. This frequency is an under-estimate because only 6 of the 10 chromosome tips were marked in such a way that duplications could be detected. In addition, the markers used were located near, but not at the chromosome ends. These data are interpreted as indicating that a high proportion of the chromosome loss and partial loss induced by irradiation of mature sperm is a consequence of chromatid rearrangements arising from chromosome breaks which stay open until replication. It is suggested that during the transition from sperm head to mature pronucleus, repair of breaks and chromosome replication are two processes that occur in overlapping time intervals. It is therefore possible for chromosome breaks induced in mature sperm to give rise to chromosome and chromatid rearrangements

64

Cooperative transcription activation by Nurr1 and Pitx3 induces embryonic stem cell maturation to the midbrain dopamine neuron phenotype  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Midbrain dopamine (DA) neurons play a central role in the regulation of voluntary movement, and their degeneration is associated with Parkinson's disease. Cell replacement therapies, and in particular embryonic stem (ES) cell-derived DA neurons, offer a potential therapeutic venue for Parkinson's disease. We sought to identify genes that can potentiate maturation of ES cell cultures to the midbrain DA neuron phenotype. A number of transcription factors have been implicated in the development of midbrain DA neurons by expression analyses and loss-of-function knockout mouse studies, including Nurr1, Pitx3, Lmx1b, Engrailed-1, and Engrailed-2. However, none of these factors appear sufficient alone to induce the mature midbrain DA neuron phenotype in ES cell cultures in vitro, suggesting a more complex regulatory network. Here we show that Nurr1 and Pitx3 cooperatively promote terminal maturation to the midbrain DA neuron phenotype in murine and human ES cell cultures.

Martinat, Cecile; Bacci, Jean-Jacques

2006-01-01

65

Motoneurons derived from induced pluripotent stem cells develop mature phenotypes typical of endogenous spinal motoneurons.  

Science.gov (United States)

Induced pluripotent cell-derived motoneurons (iPSCMNs) are sought for use in cell replacement therapies and treatment strategies for motoneuron diseases such as amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS). However, much remains unknown about the physiological properties of iPSCMNs and how they compare with endogenous spinal motoneurons or embryonic stem cell-derived motoneurons (ESCMNs). In the present study, we first used a proteomic approach and compared protein expression profiles between iPSCMNs and ESCMNs to show that <4% of the proteins identified were differentially regulated. Like ESCs, we found that mouse iPSCs treated with retinoic acid and a smoothened agonist differentiated into motoneurons expressing the LIM homeodomain protein Lhx3. When transplanted into the neural tube of developing chick embryos, iPSCMNs selectively targeted muscles normally innervated by Lhx3 motoneurons. In vitro studies showed that iPSCMNs form anatomically mature and functional neuromuscular junctions (NMJs) when cocultured with chick myofibers for several weeks. Electrophysiologically, iPSCMNs developed passive membrane and firing characteristic typical of postnatal motoneurons after several weeks in culture. Finally, iPSCMNs grafted into transected mouse tibial nerve projected axons to denervated gastrocnemius muscle fibers, where they formed functional NMJs, restored contractile force. and attenuated denervation atrophy. Together, iPSCMNs possess many of the same cellular and physiological characteristics as ESCMNs and endogenous spinal motoneurons. These results further justify using iPSCMNs as a source of motoneurons for cell replacement therapies and to study motoneuron diseases such as ALS. PMID:25609642

Toma, Jeremy S; Shettar, Basavaraj C; Chipman, Peter H; Pinto, Devanand M; Borowska, Joanna P; Ichida, Justin K; Fawcett, James P; Zhang, Ying; Eggan, Kevin; Rafuse, Victor F

2015-01-21

66

Age and size at maturity: a quantitative review of diet-induced reaction norms in insects.  

Science.gov (United States)

Optimality models predict that diet-induced bivariate reaction norms for age and size at maturity can have diverse shapes, with the slope varying from negative to positive. To evaluate these predictions, we perform a quantitative review of relevant data, using a literature-derived database of body sizes and development times for over 200 insect species. We show that bivariate reaction norms with a negative slope prevail in nearly all taxonomic and ecological categories of insects as well as in some other ectotherm taxa with comparable life histories (arachnids and amphibians). In insects, positive slopes are largely limited to species, which feed on discrete resource items, parasitoids in particular. By contrast, with virtually no meaningful exceptions, herbivorous and predatory insects display reaction norms with a negative slope. This is consistent with the idea that predictable resource depletion, a scenario selecting for positively sloped reaction norms, is not frequent for these insects. Another source of such selection-a positive correlation between resource levels and juvenile mortality rates-should similarly be rare among insects. Positive slopes can also be predicted by models which integrate life-history evolution and population dynamics. As bottom-up regulation is not common in most insect groups, such models may not be most appropriate for insects. PMID:25180817

Teder, Tiit; Vellau, Helen; Tammaru, Toomas

2014-11-01

67

Experimental investigation of changes in methane adsorption of bitumen-free Woodford Shale with thermal maturation induced by hydrous pyrolysis  

Science.gov (United States)

This study quantifies the effects of organic-matter (OM) thermal maturity on methane (CH4) sorption, on the basis of five samples that were artificially matured through hydrous pyrolysis achieved by heating samples of immature Woodford Shale under five different time–temperature conditions. CH4-sorption isotherms at 35 °C, 50 °C, and 65 °C, and pressures up to 14 MPa on dry, solvent-extracted samples of the artificially matured Woodford Shale were measured. The results showed that CH4-sorption capacity, normalized to TOC, varied with thermal maturity, following the trend: maximum oil (367 °C) > oil cracking (400 °C) > maximum bitumen/early oil (333 °C) > early bitumen (300 °C) > immature stage (130 °C). The Langmuir constants for the samples at maximum-oil and oil-cracking stages are larger than the values for the bitumen-forming stages. The total pore volume, determined by N2 physisorption at 77 K, increases with increased maturation: mesopores, 2–50 nm in width, were created during the thermal conversion of organic-matter and a dramatic increase in porosity appeared when maximum-bitumen and maximum-oil generation stages were reached. A linear relationship between thermal maturity and Brunauer–Emmett–Teller (BET) surface area suggests that the observed increase in CH4-sorption capacity may be the result of mesopores produced during OM conversion. No obvious difference is observed in pore-size distribution and pore volume for samples with pores 2 physisorption at 273 K. The isosteric heat of adsorption and the standard entropy for artificially matured samples ranged from 17.9 kJ mol?1 to 21.9 kJ mol?1 and from ?85.4 J mol?1 K?1 to ?101.8 J mol?1 K?1, respectively. These values are similar to the values of immature Woodford kerogen concentrate previously observed, but are larger than naturally matured organic-rich shales. High-temperature hydrous pyrolysis might have induced Lewis acid sites on both organic and mineral surfaces, resulting to some extent, in chemical interactions between the adsorption site and the methane C–H bonds. The formation of abundant mesopores (2–50 nm) within organic matter during organic-matter thermal maturation makes a great contribution to the increase in both BET surface area and pore volume, and a significant increase in 2–6 nm pores occurs at maximum-oil-generation and oil-cracking to gas, ultimately controlling the methane-adsorption capacity. Therefore, consideration of pore-size effects and thermal maturity is very important for gas in place (GIP) prediction in organic-rich shales.

Hu, Haiyan; Zhang, Tongwei; Wiggins-Camacho, Jaclyn D.; Ellis, Geoffrey S.; Lewan, Michael D.; Zhang, Xialong

2014-01-01

68

Two distinctly regulated events, priming and triggering, during retinoid-induced maturation and resistance of NB4 promyelocytic leukemia cell line.  

OpenAIRE

In t(15;17) acute promyelocytic leukemia, all-trans retinoic acid (RA) induces leukemic cell maturation in vitro and remission in acute promyelocytic leukemia patients, but in vivo treatments invariably lead to relapse with resistance to RA. NB4, a maturation-inducible cell line, and NB4-RAr sublines (R1 and R2) displaying no maturation in the presence of RA have been isolated from a patient in relapse. We show that resistance to maturation is not a mere unresponsiveness to RA: rather, R1 "re...

Ruchaud, S.; Duprez, E.; Gendron, M. C.; Houge, G.; Genieser, H. G.; Jastorff, B.; Doskeland, S. O.; Lanotte, M.

1994-01-01

69

Modulation of phenotypic and functional maturation of murine bone-marrow-derived dendritic cells (BMDCs) induced by cadmium chloride.  

Science.gov (United States)

Cadmium (Cd(2+)) has been classified as a type I human carcinogen by the International Agency for Research on Cancer. In the present study, we are going to report for the first time on the detailed modulation of phenotypic and functional maturation of murine bone marrow-derived dendritic cells (BMDCs) induced by cadmium chloride. Dendritic cells (DCs) are major modulators in the whole immune system. One dynamic field of research is the manipulation of DCs as pharmacological targets to screen novel biological modifiers for the treatment of tumor, inflammatory and autoimmune disorders. Phenotypic and functional maturation of BMDCs was evaluated by phase-contrast light microscope for primary cultures, flow cytometry (FCM) for important DC markers, reverse-transcriptase PCR and enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) for cytokines. Cd(2+)-induced BMDC death was also performed by comet assay. Our results elucidated that Cd(2+) suppressed maturation of BMDCs via changes as reflected by the decreased expression of key surface molecules such as MHCII and CD40, and also by releasing the lower level of IL-12p70. The change of expression of other co-stimulatory molecules such as CD86 and CD80 was not so significant. However, it was found that cadmium promotes releasing a higher level of IL-23 from BMDCs. So from our study, it can be concluded that cadmium may be one of the potent immunosuppressive agents through the blockage of DC maturation and function. PMID:24583143

Chakraborty, Kaustav; Chatterjee, Soumya; Bhattacharyya, Arindam

2014-05-01

70

Complete and incomplete fusion competition in 11B-induced fission reaction on medium mass targets at intermediate energies  

CERN Document Server

The cross sections for the binary fission of 197Au, 181Ta and 209Bi targets induced by 11B ions were measured at intermediate energies. The fission products cross sections were studied by means of activation analysis in off-line regime observed gamma-ray spectra. The fission cross section is reconstructed on the basis of charge and mass distribution of the fission products.

Demekhina, N A; Balabekyan, A R

2014-01-01

71

Interferon-? Added During Bacillus Calmette-Guerin Induced Dendritic Cell Maturation Stimulates Potent Th1 Immune Responses  

OpenAIRE

Abstract Dendritic cells (DC) are increasingly prepared in vitro for use in immunotherapy trials. Mature DC express high levels of surface molecules needed for T cell activation and are superior at antigen-presentation than immature DC. Bacillus Calmette-Guerin (BCG) is one of several products known to induce DC maturation, and interferon (IFN)-? has been shown to enhance the activity of DC stimulated with certain maturation factors. In this study, we investigated the use of IFN-? in combin...

Pestano Linda A; Shankar Gopi; Bosch Marnix L

2003-01-01

72

Inhaled nitric oxide alleviates hyperoxia suppressed phosphatidylcholine synthesis in endotoxin-induced injury in mature rat lungs  

OpenAIRE

Abstract Background We investigated efficacy of inhaled nitric oxide (NO) in modulation of metabolism of phosphatidylcholine (PC) of pulmonary surfactant and in anti-inflammatory mechanism of mature lungs with inflammatory injury. Methods Healthy adult rats were divided into a group of lung inflammation induced by i.v. lipopolysaccharides (LPS) or a normal control (C) for 24 h, and then exposed to: room air (Air), 95% oxygen (O), NO (20 parts per million, NO), both O and NO (ONO) as subgroups...

Huang Shibing; Guo Chunbao; Gong Xiaohui; Sun Bo

2006-01-01

73

Ascophyllan Purified from Ascophyllum nodosum Induces Th1 and Tc1 Immune Responses by Promoting Dendritic Cell Maturation  

OpenAIRE

Marine-derived sulfated polysaccharides have been shown to possess certain anti-virus, anti-tumor, anti-inflammatory and anti-coagulant activities. However, the in vivo immunomodulatory effects of marine-derived pure compounds have been less well characterized. In this study, we investigated the effect of ascophyllan, a sulfated polysaccharide purified from Ascophyllum nodosum, on the maturation of mouse dendritic cells (DCs) in vitro and in vivo. Ascophyllan induced up-regulation of co-stim...

Wei Zhang; Jiang-Yuan Du; Zedong Jiang; Takasi Okimura; Tatsuya Oda; Qing Yu; Jun-O Jin

2014-01-01

74

The nature of X-ray-induced mutations in mature sperm and spermatogonial cells of Drosophila melanogaster  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Mutations at four X-linked visible loci (yellow, white, vermilion and forked) induced by X-irradiation of mature sperm and spermatogonial cells were analysed genetically and cytogenetically. In addition, a fraction of the intragenic vermilion mutations was analysed molecularly. Males of two wild-type strains (Amherst M56i and Berlin-K) were used. A total of 332,651 chromosomes of irradiated mature sperm and 311,567 of irradiated spermatogonial cells were scored. The ratio of F1 female sterile, F2 male lethal and F2 male viable mutations in mature sperm and spermatogonial cells is very similar. The cytogenetic analysis shows equal fractions of multilocus deletions and translocations among the mutations recovered from both stages of spermatogenesis. These data strongly suggest that the spectrum of X-ray mutations is similar in mature sperm and spermatogonial cells, including multilocus deletions and chromosome rearrangements. The molecular analysis of a number of intragenic vermilion mutations showed the presence of three small deletions (1-10 bp), one insertion of two nucleotides and seven single nucleotide changes

75

Biological features of an early-maturity mutant of sweet sorghum induced by carbon ions irradiation and its genetic polymorphism  

Science.gov (United States)

It is well known that heavy ions irradiation is characterized by a high linear energy transfer (LET) and relative biological effectiveness (RBE). These characters are believed to increase mutation frequency and mutation spectrum of plants or mammalian cells irradiated by heavy ions. Here we describe an early-maturity mutant of sweet sorghum induced by carbon ion irradiation. The growth period of this mutant was shortened by about 20 days compared to the wild type. The proline content of the mutant was increased by 11.05% while the malondialdehyde content was significantly lower than that of wild type. In addition, the RAPD analysis indicated that the percentage of polymorphism between the mutant KFJT-1 and the control KFJT-CK reached 5.26%. The gain of early-maturity might solve the problem in the northwest region of China where seeds of sweet sorghum cannot be mature because of early frost. The early-maturity mutant may be important for future space cultivation.

Dong, Xicun; Li, Wenjian

2012-08-01

76

Statistical explanation of incomplete fusion-fission induced by 12C on 159Tb at 46.7 MeV/u  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The binary fission has been measured in 12C (46.7 Mev/u)+159Tb system. The conclusion is that fission events corresponded to incomplete fusion can be explained by cascade fission with competition of particle evaporation. The fragmentation after incomplete fusion is not considerable in the reaction

77

Collagen Induces Maturation of Human Monocyte-Derived Dendritic Cells by Signaling through Osteoclast-Associated Receptor.  

Science.gov (United States)

Osteoclast-associated receptor (OSCAR) is widely expressed on human myeloid cells. Collagen types (Col)I, II, and III have been described as OSCAR ligands, and ColII peptides can induce costimulatory signaling in receptor activator for NF-?B-dependent osteoclastogenesis. In this study, we isolated collagen as an OSCAR-interacting protein from the membranes of murine osteoblasts. We have investigated a functional outcome of the OSCAR-collagen interaction in human monocyte-derived dendritic cells (DCs). OSCAR engagement by ColI/II-induced activation/maturation of DCs is characterized by upregulation of cell surface markers and secretion of cytokines. These collagen-matured DCs (Col-DCs) were efficient drivers of allogeneic and autologous naive T cell proliferation. The T cells expanded by Col-DCs secreted cytokines with no clear T cell polarization pattern. Global RNA profiling revealed that multiple proinflammatory mediators, including cytokines and cytokine receptors, components of the stable immune synapse (namely CD40, CD86, CD80, and ICAM-1), as well as components of TNF and TLR signaling, are transcriptional targets of OSCAR in DCs. Our findings indicate the existence of a novel pathway by which extracellular matrix proteins locally drive maturation of DCs during inflammatory conditions, for example, within synovial tissue of rheumatoid arthritis patients, where collagens become exposed during tissue remodeling and are thus accessible for interaction with infiltrating precursors of DCs. PMID:25725106

Schultz, Heidi S; Nitze, Louise M; Zeuthen, Louise H; Keller, Pernille; Gruhler, Albrecht; Pass, Jesper; Chen, Jianhe; Guo, Li; Fleetwood, Andrew J; Hamilton, John A; Berchtold, Martin W; Panina, Svetlana

2015-04-01

78

Maturation of Shark Single-Domain (IgNAR) Antibodies: Evidence for Induced-Fit Binding  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Sharks express an unusual heavy-chain isotype called IgNAR, whose variable regions bind antigen as independent soluble domains. To further probe affinity maturation of the IgNAR response, we structurally characterized the germline and somatically matured versions of a type II variable (V) region, both in the presence and absence of its antigen, hen egg-white lysozyme. Despite a disulfide bond linking complementarity determining regions (CDRs) 1 and 3, both germline and somatically matured V regions displayed significant structural changes in these CDRs upon complex formation with antigen. Somatic mutations in the IgNAR V region serve to increase the number of contacts with antigen, as reflected by a tenfold increase in affinity, and one of these mutations appears to stabilize the CDR3 region. In addition, a residue in the HV4 loop plays an important role in antibody-antigen interaction, consistent with the high rate of somatic mutations in this non-CDR loop.

Stanfield, R.L.; Dooley, H.; Verdino, P.; Flajnik, M.F.; Wilson, I.A.; /Scripps Res. Inst. /Maryland U.

2007-07-13

79

Relating incomplete data and incomplete theory  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Assuming string theorists will not soon provide a compelling case for the primary theory underlying particle physics, the field will proceed as it has historically: with data stimulating and testing ideas. Ideally the soft supersymmetry breaking Lagrangian will be measured and its patterns will point to the underlying theory. But there are two new problems. First a matter of principle: the theory may be simplest at distance scales and in numbers of dimensions where direct experiments are not possible. Second a practical problem: in the foreseeable future (with mainly hadron collider data) too few observables can be measured to lead to direct connections between experiment and theory. In this paper we discuss and study these issues and consider ways to circumvent the problems, studying models to test methods. We propose a semiquantitative method for focusing and sharpening thinking when trying to relate incomplete data to incomplete theory, as will probably be necessary

80

Gemcitabine-treated pancreatic cancer cell medium induces the specific CTL antitumor activity by stimulating the maturation of dendritic cells.  

Science.gov (United States)

Gemcitabine (GEM) is a first line chemotherapeutic drug for advanced pancreatic cancer. Dendritic cell (DC) vaccine is a promising method of immunotherapy for malignant tumor. Recent research has indicated that gemcitabine can enhance the efficacy of DC vaccine, but precise mechanism is still unknown. Here, we aimed to investigate the effect of GEM on DCs. The results showed that GEM-treated pancreatic cancer cell medium stimulated maturation of DCs. When co-cultured with autologous T lymphocytes, the pulsed DCs promoted the proliferation of T cells, and exhibited specific cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTLs) antitumor activity. Further research showed that stimulation of DC maturation may be related to the elevated level of Hsp70 induced by GEM. Our study indicates that GEM changes the immunogenicity of tumor cells, and enhances the efficacy of DC based immunotherapy for pancreatic cancer. PMID:24389382

Pei, Qingshan; Pan, Jianmei; Zhu, Hao; Ding, Xiwei; Liu, Wenjia; Lv, Ying; Zou, Xiaoping; Luo, Hesheng

2014-03-01

81

Sugar homeostasis mediated by cell wall invertase GRAIN INCOMPLETE FILLING 1 (GIF1) plays a role in pre-existing and induced defence in rice.  

Science.gov (United States)

Sugar metabolism and sugar signalling are not only critical for plant growth and development, but are also important for stress responses. However, how sugar homeostasis is involved in plant defence against pathogen attack in the model crop rice remains largely unknown. In this study, we observed that the grains of gif1, a loss-of-function mutant of the cell wall invertase gene GRAIN INCOMPLETE FILLING 1 (GIF1), were hypersusceptible to postharvest fungal pathogens, with decreased levels of sugars and a thinner glume cell wall in comparison with the wild-type. Interestingly, constitutive expression of GIF1 enhanced resistance to both the rice bacterial pathogen Xanthomonas oryzae pv. oryzae and the fungal pathogen Magnaporthe oryzae. The GIF1-overexpressing (GIF1-OE) plants accumulated higher levels of glucose, fructose and sucrose compared with the wild-type plants. More importantly, higher levels of callose were deposited in GIF1-OE plants during pathogen infection. Moreover, the cell wall was much thicker in the infection sites of the GIF1-OE plants when compared with the wild-type plants. We also found that defence-related genes were constitutively activated in the GIF1-OE plants. Taken together, our study reveals that sugar homeostasis mediated by GIF1 plays an important role in constitutive and induced physical and chemical defence. PMID:24118770

Sun, Li; Yang, Dong-lei; Kong, Yu; Chen, Ying; Li, Xiao-Zun; Zeng, Long-Jun; Li, Qun; Wang, Er-Tao; He, Zu-Hua

2014-02-01

82

The viral mimetic polyinosinic:polycytidylic acid (poly I:C) induces cellular responses in primary cultures from rat brain sites with an incomplete blood-brain barrier.  

Science.gov (United States)

Primary microcultures of the organum vasculosum laminae terminalis (OVLT) and the area postrema (AP), brain sites with an incomplete blood-brain barrier, were established from topographically excised rat pup tissue, with cellular identification by marker protein-specific immunocytochemistry. Employing the ratio calcium imaging technique, we showed for the first time that polyinosinic:polycytidylic acid (poly I:C) can induce calcium signalling in single OVLT and AP cells. Poly I:C stimulation caused fast, transient rises in intracellular calcium in about 5% of neurons and astrocytes and some microglial cells. Frequently, the responses of astrocytes and microglial cells showed a shorter onset-latency compared to neurons. In addition, exposure to poly I:C led to a time dependent release of bioactive tumour necrosis factor (TNF) and interleukin-6 (IL-6) into the supernatants of OVLT and AP cultures. The demonstration of direct cellular responses of OVLT- and AP-intrinsic cells to stimulations with poly I:C is in agreement with the discovered existence of Toll-like receptor 3 (TLR3), the cognate receptor for poly I:C, in the brain. PMID:23022505

Ott, Daniela; Wuchert, Florian; Murgott, Jolanta; Rummel, Christoph; Gerstberger, Rüdiger; Roth, Joachim

2012-11-14

83

A new model of radiation-induced myelopathy: A comparison of the response of mature and immature pigs  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The purpose was development of an experimental model of radiation-induced myelopathy in the pig which would facilitate the study of the effects of clinically relevant treatment volumes. The effects of local spinal cord irradiation, to a standard 10 X 5 cm field, have been evaluated in mature (37-42.5 weeks) and immature (15.5-23 weeks) pigs. Irradiation was with single doses of {sup 60}Co {gamma}rays at a dose-rate of 0.21-0.65 Gy/min. The incidence of paralysis was used as an endpoint. Irradiation of mature animals resulted in the development of frank paralysis with animals showing combined parenchymal and vascular pathologic changes in their white matter. These lesions, in common with those seen in patients, had a clear evidence of an inflammatory component. The latency for paralysis was short, 7.5-16.5 weeks, but within the wide range reported for patients. However, it was shorter than that reported in other large animal models. The ED{sub 50} value ({+-}SE) for paralysis was 27.02{+-}0.36 Gy, similar to that in rats taking into account dose-rate factors. The irradiation of immature pigs only resulted in transient neurological changes after doses comparable to those used in the mature animals, ED{sub 50} value ({+-}SE) 26.09{+-}0.37 Gy. The reasons for these transient neurological symptoms are uncertain. A reliable experimental model of radiation-induced myelopathy has been developed for mature pigs. This model is suitable for the study of clinically relevant volume effects. 39 refs., 4 figs., 1 tab.

Aardweg, G.J.M.J. van den; Hopewell, J.W.; Whitehouse, E.M.; Calvo, W. [Univ. of Ulm (Germany)

1994-07-01

84

Decomposition of incomplete fusion  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The velocity distribution of fusion-like products formed in the reaction 701 MeV 28Si+100Mo is decomposed into 26 incomplete fusion channels. The momentum deficit of the residue per nonevaporative mass unit is approximately equal to the beam momentum per nucleon. The yields of the incomplete fusion channels correlate with the Q-value for projectile fragmentation rather than that for incomplete fusion. The backward angle multiplicities of light particles and heavy ions increase with momentum transfer, however, the heavy ion multiplicities also depend on the extent of the fragmentation of the incomplete fusion channel. These data indicate that at fixed linear momentum transfer, increased fragmentation of the unfused component is related to a reduced transferred angular momentum. 22 refs., 6 figs., 1 tab

85

Repair capacity of fertilized mouse eggs for X-ray damage induced in sperm and mature oocytes  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

To study the repair capacity of fertilized mouse eggs for X-ray damage induced in sperm and mature oocytes, the potentiating effects of 3 well-known repair inhibitors, arabinofuranosyl cytosine (ara-C), 3-aminobenzamide (3AB) and caffeine, on the frequency of induced chromosome aberrations were examined in eggs fertilized with X-irradiated sperm or in eggs irradiated with X-rays at the mature oocyte stage immediately before fertilization. Gametic treatment, fertilization and embryo culture wer carried out in vitro. Ara-C treatment was done only in the pre-DNA replication period, while treatment with 3AB and caffeine was continuous from fertilization to the first-cleavage metaphase. The induction of chromosome aberrations by exposing sperm or oocytes to X-rays was remarkably potentiated by post-treatment incubation in the presence of each of the 3 inhibitors. This result indicates the possibility that X-ray damage induced in sperm or oocytes is reparable in the fertilized eggs and that various types of repair processes are involved. (author). 39 refs.; 3 figs.; 5 tabs

86

[Formation of the gray crescent, induced in axolotl oocytes during maturation, depends on factors of nuclear origin].  

Science.gov (United States)

Inhibitors of protein synthesis caN elicit the precocious appearance of a grey crescent (GC) in in vitro maturing Ambystoma mexicanum oocytes. This treatment however fails to induce GC formation when the oocytes are enucleated before initiation of maturation. The ability to form a GC is reestablished in enucleated oocytes by the injection of nucleoplasm from a normal oocyte, either before or after injection of the inhibitor. In the latter case, the GC appears even though the protein synthesis level is already about one-tenth that of the control enucleated oocytes. One or several nuclear factors, in conjunction with protein synthesis inhibition, are therefore essential for the early symmetry reaction. The corrective nuclear factor is already present in the germinal vesicle of young oocytes at the very beginning of vitellogenesis. It is not species-specific and enucleated axolotl oocytes can be symmetrized with Pleurodeles or even Xenopus oocyte nucleoplasm. The interaction between nuclear factor(s) and cytoplasm is possible only when cytoplasmic maturation has occurred. PMID:6412990

Gautier, J; Beetschen, J C

1983-01-01

87

Short-term environmental enrichment exposure induces proliferation and maturation of doublecortin-positive cells in the prefrontal cortex  

Science.gov (United States)

Previous studies have demonstrated that doublecortin-positive immature neurons exist predominantly in the superficial layer of the cerebral cortex of adult mammals such as guinea pigs, and these neurons exhibit very weak properties of self-proliferation during adulthood under physiological conditions. To verify whether environmental enrichment has an impact on the proliferation and maturation of these immature neurons in the prefrontal cortex of adult guinea pigs, healthy adult guinea pigs were subjected to short-term environmental enrichment. Animals were allowed to play with various cognitive and physical stimulating objects over a period of 2 weeks, twice per day, for 60 minutes each. Immunofluorescence staining results indicated that the number of doublecortin-positive cells in layer II of the prefrontal cortex was significantly increased after short-term environmental enrichment exposure. In addition, these doublecortin-positive cells co-expressed 5-bromo-2-deoxyuridine (a marker of cell proliferation), c-Fos (a marker of cell viability) and NeuN (a marker of mature neurons). Experimental findings showed that short-term environmental enrichment can induce proliferation, activation and maturation of doublecortin-positive cells in layer II of the prefrontal cortex of adult guinea pigs. PMID:25206818

Fan, Chunling; Zhang, Mengqi; Shang, Lei; Cynthia, Ngobe Akume; Li, Zhi; Yang, Zhenyu; Chen, Dan; Huang, Jufang; Xiong, Kun

2014-01-01

88

Farnesyl transferase inhibitors induce extended remissions in transgenic mice with mature B cell lymphomas  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background We have used a mouse model based on overexpression of c-Myc in B cells genetically engineered to be self-reactive to test the hypothesis that farnesyl transferase inhibitors (FTIs can effectively treat mature B cell lymphomas. FTIs are undergoing clinical trials to treat both lymphoid and non-lymphoid malignancies and we wished to obtain evidence to support the inclusion of B cell lymphomas in future trials. Results We report that two FTIs, L-744,832 and SCH66336, blocked the growth of mature B cell lymphoma cells in vitro and in vivo. The FTI treatment affected the proliferation and survival of the transformed B cells to a greater extent than naïve B cells stimulated with antigen. In syngeneic mice transplanted with the transgenic lymphoma cells, L-744,832 treatment prevented the growth of the tumor cells and the morbidity associated with the resulting lymphoma progression. Tumors that arose from transplantation of the lymphoma cells regressed with as little as three days of treatment with L-744,832 or SCH66336. Treatment of these established lymphomas with L-744,832 for seven days led to long-term remission of the disease in approximately 25% of animals. Conclusion FTI treatment can block the proliferation and survival of self-reactive transformed B cells that overexpress Myc. In mice transplanted with mature B cell lymphomas, we found that FTI treatment led to regression of disease. FTIs warrant further consideration as therapeutic agents for mature B cell lymphomas and other lymphoid tumors.

Refaeli Yosef

2008-05-01

89

Maturation of shark single-domain (IgNAR) antibodies: evidence for induced-fit binding.  

Science.gov (United States)

Sharks express an unusual heavy-chain isotype called IgNAR, whose variable regions bind antigen as independent soluble domains. To further probe affinity maturation of the IgNAR response, we structurally characterized the germline and somatically matured versions of a type II variable (V) region, both in the presence and absence of its antigen, hen egg-white lysozyme. Despite a disulfide bond linking complementarity determining regions (CDRs) 1 and 3, both germline and somatically matured V regions displayed significant structural changes in these CDRs upon complex formation with antigen. Somatic mutations in the IgNAR V region serve to increase the number of contacts with antigen, as reflected by a tenfold increase in affinity, and one of these mutations appears to stabilize the CDR3 region. In addition, a residue in the HV4 loop plays an important role in antibody-antigen interaction, consistent with the high rate of somatic mutations in this non-CDR loop. PMID:17258766

Stanfield, Robyn L; Dooley, Helen; Verdino, Petra; Flajnik, Martin F; Wilson, Ian A

2007-03-23

90

IL-36? induces maturation of Th1-inducing human MDDC and synergises with IFN-? to induce high surface expression of CD14 and CD11c.  

Science.gov (United States)

We show that IL-36? induced maturation of human MDDCs and stimulated differentiation of IFN-? producing (Type 1) CD3+ lymphocytes but was not as effective as IL-36? in doing so. For the first time, we also show that IL-36? induced expression of CD14 by MDDCs and this was highly potentiated by co-cultured with IFN-?. In contrast, lipopolysaccharide (LPS) did not increase CD14 expression by MDDCs, suggesting that if MDDCs represent a physiologically relevant population in vivo, they need to be stimulated by relevant inflammatory cytokines prior to CD14 expression and detection of LPS, expressed by Gram negative bacteria. IFN-? synergised with IL-36? to restore the high levels of CD11c expression by MDDCs, which was reduced by culture with these cytokines in isolation. IL-36?/IFN-? synergy also correlated with increased binding of the opsonic complement protein (iC3b) to MDDCs. However although IL-36? increased the phagocytic capacity of MDDCs for Salmonella Typhimurium 4/74 this was not synergistically increased by IFN-? (P>0.05). In conclusion we report the hitherto unknown effects of IL-36? on the innate cell function of human MDDCs. PMID:25700962

Higgins, John; Mutamba, Shilla; Mahida, Yashwant; Barrow, Paul; Foster, Neil

2015-04-01

91

Signaling adaptor protein SH2B1 enhances neurite outgrowth and accelerates the maturation of human induced neurons.  

Science.gov (United States)

Recent advances in somatic cell reprogramming have highlighted the plasticity of the somatic epigenome, particularly through demonstrations of direct lineage reprogramming of adult mouse and human fibroblasts to induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) and induced neurons (iNs) under defined conditions. However, human cells appear to be less plastic and have a higher epigenetic hurdle for reprogramming to both iPSCs and iNs. Here, we show that SH2B adaptor protein 1? (SH2B1) can enhance neurite outgrowth of iNs reprogrammed from human fibroblasts as early as day 14, when combined with miR124 and transcription factors BRN2 and MYT1L (IBM) under defined conditions. These SH2B1-enhanced iNs (S-IBM) showed canonical neuronal morphology, and expressed multiple neuronal markers, such as TuJ1, NeuN, and synapsin, and functional proteins for neurotransmitter release, such as GABA, vGluT2, and tyrosine hydroxylase. Importantly, SH2B1 accelerated mature process of functional neurons and exhibited action potentials as early as day 14; without SH2B1, the IBM iNs do not exhibit action potentials until day 21. Our data demonstrate that SH2B1 can enhance neurite outgrowth and accelerate the maturation of human iNs under defined conditions. This approach will facilitate the application of iNs in regenerative medicine and in vitro disease modeling. PMID:24736401

Hsu, Yi-Chao; Chen, Su-Liang; Wang, Ya-Jean; Chen, Yun-Hsiang; Wang, Dan-Yen; Chen, Linyi; Chen, Chia-Hsiang; Chen, Hwei-Hsien; Chiu, Ing-Ming

2014-06-01

92

Planning with Incomplete Information  

CERN Document Server

Planning is a natural domain of application for frameworks of reasoning aboutactions and change. In this paper we study how one such framework, the LanguageE, can form the basis for planning under (possibly) incomplete information. Wedefine two types of plans: weak and safe plans, and propose a planner, calledthe E-Planner, which is often able to extend an initial weak plan into a safeplan even though the (explicit) information available is incomplete, e.g. forcases where the initial state is not completely known. The E-Planner is basedupon a reformulation of the Language E in argumentation terms and a naturalproof theory resulting from the reformulation. It uses an extension of thisproof theory by means of abduction for the generation of plans and adoptsargumentation-based techniques for extending weak plans into safe plans. Weprovide representative examples illustrating the behaviour of the E-Planner, inparticular for cases where the status of fluents is incompletely known.

Kakas, A C; Toni, F; Kakas, Antonis; Miller, Rob; Toni, Francesca

2000-01-01

93

Thidiazuron-induced shoot organogenesis from mature leaf explants of scented Pelargonium capitatum cultivars  

OpenAIRE

Shoot organogenesis from mature leaf tissues of two scented Pelargonium capitatum cultivars, 'Attar of Roses' and 'Atomic Snowflake', grown in the greenhouse, were optimized in the presence of thidiazuron (TDZ). The protocol involved preculture of leaf sections on basal Murashige and Skoog (MS) medium supplemented with 10 lM TDZ, 4.4 lM of 6-benzyladenine (BA) and 5.4 lM a-naphtaleneacetic acid (NAA) for a period of 2 weeks and followed by subculture of explants to a fresh medium containing 4...

Arshad, Muhammad; Silvestre, Je?ro?me; Merlina, Georges; Dumat, Camille; Pinelli, Eric; Kallerhoff, Jean

2012-01-01

94

Information-theoretic incompleteness  

CERN Document Server

In this mathematical autobiography, Gregory Chaitin presents a technical survey of his work and a nontechnical discussion of its significance. The volume is an essential companion to the earlier collection of Chaitin's papers Information, Randomness and Incompleteness, also published by World Scientific.The technical survey contains many new results, including a detailed discussion of LISP program size and new versions of Chaitin's most fundamental information-theoretic incompleteness theorems. The nontechnical part includes the lecture given by Chaitin in Gšdel's classroom at the University o

Chaitin, Gregory J

1992-01-01

95

Chlorella sorokiniana-Induced Activation and Maturation of Human Monocyte-Derived Dendritic Cells through NF-?B and PI3K/MAPK Pathways  

OpenAIRE

Chlorella sorokiniana (CS) is a unicellular green alga. The extracts of Chlorella have been used as treatments for relieving hypertension and modulating immune response. The detailed mechanisms are not clear yet. In this study, we sought to study the molecular mechanisms for the polysaccharide fraction of CS-induced immune response. We pulsed dendritic cells (DCs) with CS and found that CS could maturate DCs. CS-maturated DC could activate naïve T cells and stimulate T-cell proliferation and...

Chou, Nien-tzu; Cheng, Chieh-fang; Wu, Hsin-chieh; Lai, Chin-pen; Lin, Li-tsen; Pan, I-horng; Ko, Ching-huai

2012-01-01

96

Incomplete A-Hypergeometric Systems  

CERN Document Server

The incomplete beta function is an important special function in statistics. In modern theory of hypergeometric functions, we regard hypergeometric functions as pairings of twisted cycles and twisted cocycles. However, the incomplete beta function cannot be understood in this scheme; in other words, the domain of the integration is not cycle (incomplete). We will generalize the theory of A-hypergeometric systems for incomplete functions. We give a general study as well as a detailed study on an incomplete Gauss hypergeometric function.

Nishiyama, Kenta

2009-01-01

97

Incomplete Information in RDF  

OpenAIRE

We extend RDF with the ability to represent property values that exist, but are unknown or partially known, using constraints. Following ideas from the incomplete information literature, we develop a semantics for this extension of RDF, called RDFi, and study SPARQL query evaluation in this framework.

Nikolaou, Charalampos; Koubarakis, Manolis

2012-01-01

98

THYROID HORMONE TREATED ASTROCYTES INDUCE MATURATION OF CEREBRAL CORTICAL NEURONS THROUGH MODULATION OF PROTEOGLYCAN LEVELS  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Proper brain neuronal circuitry formation and synapse development is dependent on specific cues, either genetic or epigenetic, provided by the surrounding neural environment. Within these signals, thyroid hormones (T3 and T4 play crucial role in several steps of brain morphogenesis including proliferation of progenitor cells, neuronal differentiation, maturation, migration, and synapse formation. The lack of thyroid hormones during childhood is associated with several impair neuronal connections, cognitive deficits, and mental disorders. Many of the thyroid hormones effects are mediated by astrocytes, although the mechanisms underlying these events are still unknown. In this work, we investigated the effect of 3, 5, 3’-triiodothyronine-treated (T3-treated astrocytes on cerebral cortex neuronal differentiation. Culture of neural progenitors from embryonic cerebral cortex mice onto T3-treated astrocyte monolayers yielded an increment in neuronal population, followed by enhancement of neuronal maturation, arborization and neurite outgrowth. In addition, real time PCR assays revealed an increase in the levels of the heparan sulfate proteoglycans, Glypican 1 (GPC-1 and Syndecans 3 e 4 (SDC-3 e SDC-4, followed by a decrease in the levels of the chondroitin sulfate proteoglycan, Versican. Disruption of glycosaminoglycan chains by chondroitinase AC or heparanase III completely abolished the effects of T3-treated astrocytes on neuronal morphogenesis. Our work provides evidence that astrocytes are key mediators of T3 actions on cerebral cortex neuronal development and identified potential molecules and pathways involved in neurite extension; which might eventually contribute to a better understanding of axonal regeneration, synapse formation and neuronal circuitry recover.

FlaviaCarvalho AlcantaraGomes

2013-08-01

99

Study of complete and incomplete fusion in reactions induced by 12C and 16O ions below 7 MeV/nucleon energies  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

With a view to study the complete fusion, incomplete fusion and pre-equilibrium emission, a program of precise measurement and analysis of excitation functions (EFs) and recoil range distribution (RRD) of residues for various projectile-target combinations has been undertaken

100

Induced Pluripotent Stem Cell-Derived Neural Cells Survive and Mature in the Nonhuman Primate Brain  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The generation of induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs opens up the possibility for personalized cell therapy. Here, we show that transplanted autologous rhesus monkey iPSC-derived neural progenitors survive for up to 6 months and differentiate into neurons, astrocytes, and myelinating oligodendrocytes in the brains of MPTP-induced hemiparkinsonian rhesus monkeys with a minimal presence of inflammatory cells and reactive glia. This finding represents a significant step toward personalized regenerative therapies.

Marina E. Emborg

2013-03-01

101

Role of the C-terminal propeptide in the activity and maturation of gamma -interferon-inducible lysosomal thiol reductase (GILT).  

Science.gov (United States)

gamma-Interferon-inducible lysosomal thiol reductase (GILT) is constitutively expressed in antigen-presenting cells. GILT facilitates unfolding of endocytosed antigens in MHC class II-containing compartments by enzymatically reducing disulfide bonds. The enzyme is synthesized as a 35-kDa precursor. Although a fraction of the precursor is secreted as a disulfide-linked dimer, the majority is directed via the mannose-6-phosphate receptor pathway to endocytic compartments where its N- and C-terminal propeptides are cleaved to generate the 30-kDa mature form. Both precursor and mature GILT reduce disulfide bonds with an acidic pH optimum. In this report, we show that the cysteine residues in the C-terminal propeptide, Cys-211 and Cys-222, serve key structural roles. Mutation of Cys-222 abolishes disulfide-linked dimerization of precursor GILT and decreases the efficiency of GILT maturation. Mutation of Cys-211 results in both impaired intracellular maturation and loss of enzymatic activity of the precursor form at an acidic pH. A similar phenotype was obtained upon mutation of Cys-200, which is retained in the mature form. Cys-200 and Cys-211 seem to form a disulfide bond that links the propeptide and the mature enzyme until reduction in the lysosome. This disulfide bridge is essential for stability of the enzyme at low pH and for its proper maturation in vivo. PMID:12198183

Phan, Uyen T; Lackman, Rebecca L; Cresswell, Peter

2002-09-17

102

AFLP analysis of early maturing rice mutants induced by ion bean mediated  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

AFLP marker technique was used to study the two stable heritable early maturing mutant lines C (08-5-121-6-1) and D (08-5-121-6-2) which were developed by N+ ion beam mediated maize total DNA into rice Yujing 6.10 pairs of selective primers with high polymorphic bands were selected from 64 pairs of AFLP primers. The results showed that the similarity ratio of amplified bands in mutant lines (C and D) and negative control B (Yujing 6) with the positive control A(maize Zhengdan 14) were 15.7%, 16.2% and 11.6%, respectively, which indicated that the amplified bands between mutant lines and control Yujing 6 had significant differences. Compared with negative control, 50 and 58 AFLP polymorphic bands were amplified in each mutant line, with 25 and 35 new bands, 19 and 15 absent bands in each mutant line respectively. Besides, there were 6 and 8 target bands that also presented in maize were detected in two mutant lines C and D, which revealed that the similarity of genome DNA in mutant lines compared with maize were higher than that of negative control rice. (authors)

103

Godel's Incompleteness Phenomenon - Computationally  

OpenAIRE

We argue that Godel's completeness theorem is equivalent to completability of consistent theories, and Godel's incompleteness theorem is equivalent to the fact that this completion is not constructive, in the sense that there are some consistent and recursively enumerable theories which cannot be extended to any complete and consistent and recursively enumerable theory. Though any consistent and decidable theory can be extended to a complete and consistent and decidable theo...

Salehi, Saeed

2012-01-01

104

Iterative incomplete factorization methods  

CERN Document Server

This book is devoted to numerical methods for solving sparse linear algebra systems of very large dimension which arise in the implementation of the mesh approximations of the partial differential equations. Incomplete factorization is the basis of the wide class of preconditioning interative processes with acceleration by conjugate gradients or the Chebyshev technique. Different kinds of explicit and implicit algorithms are considered. Theoretical grounds of correctness and estimates of the convergence velocity of iterations are presented. Together with the results of experimental investigati

Il'in, VP

1992-01-01

105

Egalitarianism under incomplete information  

OpenAIRE

The paper aims at extending the egalitarian principle to environments with incomplete information. The approach is primarily axiomatic, focusing on the characteristic property of monotonicity: no member of the society should be worse off when more collective decisions are available. I start by showing the incompatibility of this property with incentive effciency, even in quasi-linear environments. This serious impossibility result does not follow from the mere presence of incentive constraint...

Clippel, Geoffroy

2010-01-01

106

Delay of Postnatal Maturation Sensitizes the Mouse Prostate to Testosterone-Induced Pronounced Hyperplasia  

Science.gov (United States)

The role of estrogens in the etiology of prostate cancer is controversial. To demonstrate the specific effects of estrogens and androgens on the development of the prostatic epithelial hyperplasia, we used luteinizing hormone receptor knockout mice (LuRKO), which are resistant to pituitary regulation mediated by luteinizing hormone, lack postnatal androgen production, and have rudimentary accessory sex glands, the growth of which can be induced with exogenous androgen replacement. This model is thus ideal for the investigation of direct hormonal effects on the prostate. Testosterone, but not 5?-dihydrotestosterone, replacement from 21 days of life for 8 weeks induced pronounced hyperplasia and inflammation in the prostates of LuRKO mice. Interestingly, 5?-dihydrotestosterone combined with 17?-estradiol did not induce hyperplasia or inflammation, and treatments with inhibitors of estrogen action, aromatase inhibitor, and ICI 182780 further exacerbated testosterone-induced hyperplastic growth. However, the activation of estrogen receptor (ER)-? with a specific agonist, DPN [2,3-bis(4-hydroxyphenol)-propionitrile], prevented the development of prostatic hyperplasia and inflammation in testosterone-treated LuRKO mice. Thus, it seems that in the presence of sufficient androgenic stimulation, it is the balance between ER-?- and ER-?-mediated signaling that determines whether estrogens promote hyperplasia or protect the prostate against hyperplastic changes. PMID:17640960

Savolainen, Saija; Pakarainen, Tomi; Huhtaniemi, Ilpo; Poutanen, Matti; Mäkelä, Sari

2007-01-01

107

Acute steroid-induced myopathy during lung Maturation in a patient with threatened preterm Delivery  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Myopathy caused by steroids is a serious and unusual side effect related with administration of high doses of steroids. In this article we had reported a possible deleterious and serious effect on the mother health when steroids are used in the treatment of preterm childbirth. The case of a pregnant patient of 28 gestational week that consults to the emergency department with signs of preterm birth, receives tocolysis and lung maturation with Betametasona (12 mg the first day and 12 mg at 24 hours after first dose; thereafter, patient refer dizziness and blurry vision, which progress rapidly to pain in lower limbs, with weakness, being generalized then to four limbs, for acute weakness and imminence of respiratory failure the patient was transferred to the intensive care unit (ICU for respiratory vigilance, possible ventilatory support and study of this weakness. Myopathy caused by steroids is generally related with high doses of steroids. These patients, present a clinical typical picture characterized by widespread weakness of four extremities, muscular atrophy, normal CK or moderately high and myopathic changes in the EMG, the clinical presentation improves slowly. This report invite us to questioning the apparent innocuousness of steroids in pulmonary maturity and the dose of the same one, as well as to using them well in agreement to the indication of the same one keeping in mind the risk - benefit of the medicine.RESUMENLa miopatía causada por esteroides es un efecto secundario grave muy poco frecuente asociado a la administración de dosis altas de esteroides. Se reportan los posibles efectos deletéreos sobre la salud materna que puede tener la administración de corticosteroides frente al riesgo de un parto pretérmino. Se presenta el caso de una paciente gestante de 28 semanas que consulta al servicio de urgencia por infección de vías urinarias y amenaza de parto pretérmino, que recibe uteroinhibicion y maduración pulmonar con Betametasona (12 mg primer día y 12 mg a las 24 horas de primera dosis; luego de segunda dosis de maduración pulmonar la paciente refiere vértigo y visión borrosa, la cual progresó rápidamente a dolor, con pérdida de fuerza muscular en miembros inferiores, generalizándose luego a las cuatro extremidades, por lo que ante la inminencia de falla respiratoria se traslada a unidad de cuidados intermedios para vigilancia ventilatoria y estudio de miopatía.Discusión: La miopatía por esteroides, se produce con dosis altas de corticoides. Estos pacientes, presentan un cuadro clínico típico caracterizado por debilidad generalizada de las cuatro extremidades, atrofia muscular, CK normal o moderadamente elevada y cambios miopáticos en el EMG, el cuadro clínico mejora aunque de forma lenta. Conclusiones: Este reporte nos invita a cuestionar la aparente inocuidad de los esteroides en maduración pulmonar y la dosis de la misma, así como a utilizarlos bien de acuerdo a la indicación del mismo teniendo en cuenta el riesgo – beneficio del medicamento.

Rojas-Suarez José Antonio

2010-06-01

108

Whey protein processing influences formula-induced gut maturation in preterm pigs.  

Science.gov (United States)

Immaturity of the gut predisposes preterm infants to nutritional challenges potentially leading to clinical complications such as necrotizing enterocolitis. Feeding milk formulas is associated with greater risk than fresh colostrum or milk, probably due to loss of bioactive proteins (e.g., immunoglobulins, lactoferrin, insulin-like growth factor, transforming growth factor-?) during industrial processing (e.g., pasteurization, filtration, spray-drying). We hypothesized that the processing method for whey protein concentrate (WPC) would affect gut maturation in formula-fed preterm pigs used as a model for preterm infants. Fifty-five caesarean-delivered preterm pigs were distributed into 4 groups given 1 of 4 isoenergetic diets: formula containing conventional WPC (filtration, multi-pasteurization, standard spray-drying) (CF); formula containing gently treated WPC (reduced filtration and pasteurization, gentle spray-drying) (GF); formula containing minimally treated WPC (rennet precipitation, reduced filtration, heat treatment <40°C, freeze-drying) (MF); and bovine colostrum (used as a positive reference group) (BC). Relative to CF, GF, and MF pigs, BC pigs had greater villus heights, lactose digestion, and absorption and lower gut permeability (P < 0.05). MF and BC pigs had greater plasma citrulline concentrations than CF and GF pigs and intestinal interleukin-8 was lower in BC pigs than in the other groups (P < 0.05). MF pigs had lower concentrations of intestinal claudin-4, cleaved caspase-3, and phosphorylated c-Jun than CF pigs (P < 0.05). The conventional and gently treated WPCs had similar efficacy in stimulating proliferation of porcine intestinal epithelial cells. We conclude that processing of WPC affects intestinal structure, function, and integrity when included in formulas for preterm pigs. Optimization of WPC processing technology may be important to preserve the bioactivity and nutritional value of formulas for sensitive newborns. PMID:24047702

Li, Yanqi; Østergaard, Mette V; Jiang, Pingping; Chatterton, Dereck E W; Thymann, Thomas; Kvistgaard, Anne S; Sangild, Per T

2013-12-01

109

Semiquinone-induced maturation of Bacillus anthracis ribonucleotide reductase by a superoxide intermediate.  

Science.gov (United States)

Ribonucleotide reductases (RNRs) catalyze the conversion of ribonucleotides to deoxyribonucleotides, and represent the only de novo pathway to provide DNA building blocks. Three different classes of RNR are known, denoted I-III. Class I RNRs are heteromeric proteins built up by ? and ? subunits and are further divided into different subclasses, partly based on the metal content of the ?-subunit. In subclass Ib RNR the ?-subunit is denoted NrdF, and harbors a manganese-tyrosyl radical cofactor. The generation of this cofactor is dependent on a flavodoxin-like maturase denoted NrdI, responsible for the formation of an active oxygen species suggested to be either a superoxide or a hydroperoxide. Herein we report on the magnetic properties of the manganese-tyrosyl radical cofactor of Bacillus anthracis NrdF and the redox properties of B. anthracis NrdI. The tyrosyl radical in NrdF is stabilized through its interaction with a ferromagnetically coupled manganese dimer. Moreover, we show through a combination of redox titration and protein electrochemistry that in contrast to hitherto characterized NrdIs, the B. anthracis NrdI is stable in its semiquinone form (NrdIsq) with a difference in electrochemical potential of ?110 mV between the hydroquinone and semiquinone state. The under anaerobic conditions stable NrdIsq is fully capable of generating the oxidized, tyrosyl radical-containing form of Mn-NrdF when exposed to oxygen. This latter observation strongly supports that a superoxide radical is involved in the maturation mechanism, and contradicts the participation of a peroxide species. Additionally, EPR spectra on whole cells revealed that a significant fraction of NrdI resides in its semiquinone form in vivo, underscoring that NrdIsq is catalytically relevant. PMID:25262022

Berggren, Gustav; Duraffourg, Nicolas; Sahlin, Margareta; Sjöberg, Britt-Marie

2014-11-14

110

Incomplete A-Hypergeometric Systems  

OpenAIRE

The incomplete beta function is an important special function in statistics. In modern theory of hypergeometric functions, we regard hypergeometric functions as pairings of twisted cycles and twisted cocycles. However, the incomplete beta function cannot be understood in this scheme; in other words, the domain of the integration is not cycle (incomplete). We will generalize the theory of A-hypergeometric systems for incomplete functions. We give a general study as well as a ...

Nishiyama, Kenta; Takayama, Nobuki

2009-01-01

111

Akt activation induces hypertrophy without contractile phenotypic maturation in airway smooth muscle  

OpenAIRE

Airway smooth muscle (ASM) hypertrophy is a cardinal feature of severe asthma, but the underlying molecular mechanisms remain uncertain. Forced protein kinase B/Akt 1 activation is known to induce myocyte hypertrophy in other muscle types, and, since a number of mediators present in asthmatic airways can activate Akt signaling, we hypothesized that Akt activation could contribute to ASM hypertrophy in asthma. To test this hypothesis, we evaluated whether Akt activation occurs naturally within...

Ma, Lan; Brown, Melanie; Kogut, Paul; Serban, Karina; Li, Xiaojing; Mcconville, John; Chen, Bohao; Bentley, J. Kelley; Hershenson, Marc B.; Dulin, Nickolai; Solway, Julian; Camoretti-mercado, Blanca

2011-01-01

112

Virus Maturation  

OpenAIRE

We examined virus maturation of selected non-enveloped and enveloped ssRNA viruses; retroviruses; bacteriophages and herpes virus. Processes associated with maturation in the RNA viruses range from subtle (noda and picornaviruses) to dramatic (tetraviruses and togaviruses). The elaborate assembly and maturation pathway of HIV is discussed in contrast to the less sophisticated but highly efficient processes associated with togaviruses. Bacteriophage assembly and maturation are discussed in gen...

Veesler, David; Johnson, John E.

2012-01-01

113

Inhaled nitric oxide alleviates hyperoxia suppressed phosphatidylcholine synthesis in endotoxin-induced injury in mature rat lungs  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background We investigated efficacy of inhaled nitric oxide (NO in modulation of metabolism of phosphatidylcholine (PC of pulmonary surfactant and in anti-inflammatory mechanism of mature lungs with inflammatory injury. Methods Healthy adult rats were divided into a group of lung inflammation induced by i.v. lipopolysaccharides (LPS or a normal control (C for 24 h, and then exposed to: room air (Air, 95% oxygen (O, NO (20 parts per million, NO, both O and NO (ONO as subgroups, whereas [3H]-choline was injected i.v. for incorporation into PC of the lungs which were processed subsequently at 10 min, 4, 8, 12 and 24 h, respectively, for measurement of PC synthesis and proinflammatory cytokine production. Results LPS-NO subgroup had the lowest level of labeled PC in total phospholipids and disaturated PC in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid and lung tissue (decreased by 46–59%, along with the lowest activity of cytidine triphosphate: phosphocholine cytidylyltransferase (-14–18% in the lungs, compared to all other subgroups at 4 h (p Conclusion In LPS-induced lung inflammation in association with hyperoxia, depressed PC synthesis and enhanced proinflammatory cytokine production may be alleviated by iNO. NO alone only transiently suppressed the PC synthesis as a result of lower activity of cytidylyltransferase.

Huang Shibing

2006-01-01

114

Dictyostelium hybrid polyketide synthase, SteelyA, produces 4-methyl-5-pentylbenzene-1,3-diol and induces spore maturation.  

Science.gov (United States)

The genome of Dictyostelium contains two novel hybrid-type polyketide synthases (PKSs) known as 'Steely'; the Steely enzyme is formed by the fusion of type I and type III PKSs. One of these enzymes, SteelyB, is known to be responsible for the production of the stalk cell-inducing factor DIF-1 in vivo. On the other hand, the product(s) and expression pattern of SteelyA are not clearly understood, because there are two different reports associated with the in vitro products of SteelyA and its expression pattern. To solve this problem, we first examined the expression pattern using two different primer sets and found that it was quite similar to that shown in the dictyExpress database. stlA expression peaked at approximately 3 h and declined, but showed a small peak around the end of development. Next, we examined the in vivo product of SteelyA using a stlA null mutant and found that the mutant lacked 4-methyl-5-pentylbenzene-1,3-diol (MPBD). This null mutant showed aberrant, glassy sori, and most of the cells in the sori remained amoeba-like without a cell wall. This defect was restored by adding 200 nM of MPBD to the agar. These results indicate that SteelyA produces MPBD in vivo and induces spore maturation. PMID:21438914

Narita, Takaaki B; Koide, Kota; Morita, Naoki; Saito, Tamao

2011-06-01

115

HIV-1 Gag-virus-like particles induce natural killer cell immune responses via activation and maturation of dendritic cells.  

Science.gov (United States)

Despite the extensive efforts that have been made to combat acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS), the number of people infected each year with human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) is still increasing worldwide, and a safe and effective vaccine to control HIV infection is urgently needed. Recently, the natural killer (NK) cell-mediated innate immune response, which represents the first line of defense against infections, has attracted attention for its role in combating HIV infection and disease progression. In the present study, we investigated the immunogenic ability of HIV-1 Gag-virus-like particles (Gag-VLPs) to induce NK cell immune responses in vitro and in vivo. Gag-VLPs efficiently activated human monocyte-derived dendritic cells (MDDCs), eliciting MDDC maturation with an associated increase in the surface expression of CD80, CD86 and MHC classes I and II, MDDC proliferation and proinflammatory cytokine production. Gag-VLP-treated MDDCs subsequently activated autologous NK cells, leading to their proliferation and production of interferon-? and to the upregulation of NK cell cytotoxicity against YAC-1 cells and HIV-1-infected CD4(+) T cells. In addition, we introduced a 2-phase immunization strategy in BALB/c mice to assess the role of DCs in the induction of NK cell immune responses by Gag-VLPs in vivo. Our findings reveal that Gag-VLPs efficiently activate DCs, which in turn induce innate and Gag-specific immune responses in NK cells. PMID:21778700

Chang, Myint Oo; Suzuki, Tomoyuki; Suzuki, Hitoshi; Takaku, Hiroshi

2012-01-01

116

Functions of defense-related proteins and dehydrogenases in resistance response induced by salicylic acid in sweet cherry fruits at different maturity stages.  

Science.gov (United States)

We report here a comparative analysis of sweet cherry (Prunus avium) fruits proteome induced by salicylic acid (SA) at different maturity stages. The results demonstrated that SA enhanced the resistance of sweet cherry fruits against Penicillium expansum, resulting in lower disease incidences and smaller lesion diameters, especially at earlier maturity stage. Based on proteomics analysis, 13 and 28 proteins were identified after SA treatment at earlier (A) and later (B) maturity stage, respectively. Seven antioxidant proteins and three pathogenesis related-proteins were identified at both A and B stages, while five heat shock proteins and four dehydrogenases were only detected at B stage. SA treatment also stimulated higher transcript levels of peroxidase, but repressed that of catalase. Moreover, some proteins regulated by SA at B maturity stage were identified as enzymes involved in glycolysis and tricarboxylic acid cycle. These findings indicated that younger sweet cherry fruits showed stronger resistance against pathogen invasion after SA treatment. It further indicated that antioxidant proteins were involved in the resistance response of fruits at every maturity stage, while heat shock proteins and dehydrogenases might potentially act as factors only at later maturity stages. PMID:18924108

Chan, Zhulong; Wang, Qing; Xu, Xiangbin; Meng, Xianghong; Qin, Guozheng; Li, Boqiang; Tian, Shiping

2008-11-01

117

Variation in eating quality of early maturing mutant lines of rice induced by space technique  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Variations in eating quality of 9 mutant lines derived from single season indica rice variety Jingxian 89 by the treatment of space technique were investigated. The result indicated that the exterior quality of some mutant lines including grain shape and endosperm appearance changed obviously. AAC was induced into three categories: low, moderate and high AAC. Alkali spreading value and starch viscosity of most mutant lines were significantly worse than those of the original parent. However, the gel consistence of mutant lines was similar or improved obviously. Except SP501, major agronomic traits of mutant lines were worse than those of the control, but one thousand grains weight increased obviously

118

Microinjection of pp60v-src into Xenopus oocytes increases phosphorylation of ribosomal protein S6 and accelerates the rate of progesterone-induced meiotic maturation.  

OpenAIRE

Microinjection of purified pp60v-src into Xenopus oocytes caused the phosphorylation of ribosomal protein S6 on serine residues and also increased total protein phosphorylation, with almost a two-fold increase in the percentage of phosphotyrosine present. In addition, pp60v-src accelerated the time course of progesterone-induced oocyte maturation, suggesting that the biochemical pathway influenced by pp60v-src is related to that induced by progesterone.

Spivack, J. G.; Erikson, R. L.; Maller, J. L.

1984-01-01

119

The Icsbp locus is a common proviral insertion site in mature B-cell lymphomas/plasmacytomas induced by exogenous murine leukemia virus  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

ICSBP (interferon consensus sequence binding protein)/IRF8 (interferon regulatory factor 8) is an interferon gamma-inducible transcription factor expressed predominantly in hematopoietic cells, and down-regulation of this factor has been observed in chronic myelogenous leukemia and acute myeloid leukemia in man. By screening about 1200 murine leukemia virus (MLV)-induced lymphomas, we found proviral insertions at the Icsbp locus in 14 tumors, 13 of which were mature B-cell lymphomas or plasmacytomas. Only one was a T-cell lymphoma, although such tumors constituted about half of the samples screened. This indicates that the Icsbp locus can play a specific role in the development of mature B-lineage malignancies. Two proviral insertions in the last Icsbp exon were found to act by a poly(A)-insertion mechanism. The remaining insertions were found within or outside Icsbp. Since our results showed expression of Icsbp RNA and protein in all end-stage tumor samples, a simple tumor suppressor function of ICSBP is not likely. Interestingly, proviral insertions at Icsbp have not been reported from previous extensive screenings of mature B-cell lymphomas induced by endogenous MLVs. We propose that ICSBP might be involved in an early modulation of an immune response to exogenous MLVs that might also play a role in proliferation of the mature B-cell lymphomas

120

Virus-like particles derived from major capsid protein VP1 of different polyomaviruses differ in their ability to induce maturation in human dendritic cells.  

Science.gov (United States)

As polyomavirus major capsid protein VP1-derived virus-like particles (VLPs) have been demonstrated to be highly immunogenic, we studied their interaction with human dendritic cells (hDCs). Exposure of hDCs to VLPs originating from murine (MPyV) or hamster polyomavirus (HaPyV) induced hDC maturation. In contrast, exposure of hDCs to VLPs derived from human polyomaviruses (BK and JC) and simian virus 40 (SV40) only marginally induced DC maturation. The hDCs stimulated by HaPyV- or MPyV-derived VLPs readily produced interleukin-12 and stimulated CD8-positive T-cell responses in vitro. The highest frequencies of activated T cells were again observed after pulsing with HaPyV- and MPyV-derived VLPs. Monocyte-derived hDCs both bound and internalized the various tested polyomavirus VP1-derived VLPs with different levels of efficiency, partially explaining their individual maturation potentials. In conclusion, our data suggest a high variability in uptake of polyomavirus-derived VLPs and potency to induce hDC maturation. PMID:16904154

Gedvilaite, Alma; Dorn, David C; Sasnauskas, Kestutis; Pecher, Gabriele; Bulavaite, Aiste; Lawatscheck, Robert; Staniulis, Juozas; Dalianis, Tina; Ramqvist, Torbjörn; Schönrich, Günther; Raftery, Martin J; Ulrich, Rainer

2006-10-25

121

Protein-induced changes during the maturation process of human dendritic cells: A 2-D DIGE approach  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Dendritic cells (DCs) are unique antigen presenting cells, which upon maturation change from a specialized antigen-capturing cell towards a professional antigen presenting cells. In this study, a 2-D DIGE analysis of immature and mature DCs was performed, to identify proteins changing in expression upon maturation. The protein expression profile of immature and mature DCs, derived from CD14+ peripheral blood monocytes was investigated using two pH ranges (pH 4-7 and 6-9) (n = 4). Ninety one differentially expressed spots (p

Ferreira, Gb; Overbergh, L

2008-01-01

122

Chlorella sorokiniana-Induced Activation and Maturation of Human Monocyte-Derived Dendritic Cells through NF-?B and PI3K/MAPK Pathways.  

Science.gov (United States)

Chlorella sorokiniana (CS) is a unicellular green alga. The extracts of Chlorella have been used as treatments for relieving hypertension and modulating immune response. The detailed mechanisms are not clear yet. In this study, we sought to study the molecular mechanisms for the polysaccharide fraction of CS-induced immune response. We pulsed dendritic cells (DCs) with CS and found that CS could maturate DCs. CS-maturated DC could activate naïve T cells and stimulate T-cell proliferation and IFN-? secretion. Furthermore, CS activated PI3K and MAPKs signaling pathways in DCs by interacting with TLR4 receptor. These CS-activated signaling pathways could further activate NF-?B and induce IL-12 production in DCs. This study provides molecular mechanisms for CS-induced DCs activation and immune response. PMID:23304212

Chou, Nien-Tzu; Cheng, Chieh-Fang; Wu, Hsin-Chieh; Lai, Chin-Pen; Lin, Li-Tsen; Pan, I-Horng; Ko, Ching-Huai

2012-01-01

123

Metabolomic changes in follicular fluid induced by soy isoflavones administered to rats from weaning until sexual maturity  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Female Wistar rats at 21 days of age were treated with one of three concentrations of soy isoflavones (SIF) (50, 100 or 200 mg/kg body weight, orally, once per day) from weaning until sexual maturity (3 months) in order to evaluate the influence of SIF on ovarian follicle development. After treatment, the serum sex hormone levels and enumeration of ovarian follicles of the ovary were measured. The metabolic profile of follicular fluid was determined using HPLC-MS. Principal component analysis (PCA) and partial least-squares-discriminant analysis (PLS-DA) was used to identify differences in metabolites and reveal useful toxic biomarkers. The results indicated that modest doses of SIF affect ovarian follicle development, as demonstrated by decreased serum estradiol levels and increases in both ovarian follicle atresia and corpora lutea number in the ovary. SIF treatment-related metabolic alterations in follicular fluid were also found in the PCA and PLS-DA models. The 24 most significantly altered metabolites were identified, including primary sex hormones, amino acids, fatty acids and metabolites involved in energy metabolism. These findings may indicate that soy isoflavones affect ovarian follicle development by inducing metabolomic variations in the follicular fluid. - Highlights: ? Modest doses of soy isoflavones (SIF) do affect ovarian follicle development. ? SIF treatment-related metabolic alterations in follicular fluid were found. ? The 24 most significantly altered metabolites were identified.

Wang, Wenxiang [Department of Nutrition and Health Care, School of Public Health, Fujian Medical University, Fuzhou, Fujian (China); Zhang, Wenchang, E-mail: wenchang2002@sina.com [Department of Occupational and Environmental Health, School of Public Health, Fujian Medical University, Fuzhou, Fujian (China); Liu, Jin [Department of Occupational and Environmental Health, School of Public Health, Fujian Medical University, Fuzhou, Fujian (China); Sun, Yan [Center for Reproductive Medicine, Teaching Hospital of Fujian Medical University, Fujian Maternity and Child Health Hospital, Fuzhou, Fujian (China); Li, Yuchen; Li, Hong; Xiao, Shihua; Shen, Xiaohua [Department of Occupational and Environmental Health, School of Public Health, Fujian Medical University, Fuzhou, Fujian (China)

2013-06-15

124

Metabolomic changes in follicular fluid induced by soy isoflavones administered to rats from weaning until sexual maturity  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Female Wistar rats at 21 days of age were treated with one of three concentrations of soy isoflavones (SIF) (50, 100 or 200 mg/kg body weight, orally, once per day) from weaning until sexual maturity (3 months) in order to evaluate the influence of SIF on ovarian follicle development. After treatment, the serum sex hormone levels and enumeration of ovarian follicles of the ovary were measured. The metabolic profile of follicular fluid was determined using HPLC-MS. Principal component analysis (PCA) and partial least-squares-discriminant analysis (PLS-DA) was used to identify differences in metabolites and reveal useful toxic biomarkers. The results indicated that modest doses of SIF affect ovarian follicle development, as demonstrated by decreased serum estradiol levels and increases in both ovarian follicle atresia and corpora lutea number in the ovary. SIF treatment-related metabolic alterations in follicular fluid were also found in the PCA and PLS-DA models. The 24 most significantly altered metabolites were identified, including primary sex hormones, amino acids, fatty acids and metabolites involved in energy metabolism. These findings may indicate that soy isoflavones affect ovarian follicle development by inducing metabolomic variations in the follicular fluid. - Highlights: ? Modest doses of soy isoflavones (SIF) do affect ovarian follicle development. ? SIF treatment-related metabolic alterations in follicular fluid were found. ? The 24 most significantly altered metabolites were identified

125

Hepatitis C virus inhibits cell surface expression of HLA-DR, prevents dendritic cell maturation, and induces interleukin-10 production.  

Science.gov (United States)

Hepatitis C virus (HCV) chronic infection is characterized by low-level or undetectable cellular immune responses against HCV antigens. HCV proteins have been shown to affect various intracellular events and modulate immune responses, although the precise mechanisms used to mediate these effects are not fully understood. In this study, we have examined the effect of HCV proteins on the modulation of major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class II expression and other functions important for antigen presentation in humans. Expression of an HCV(1-2962) genomic clone (HCV-FL) in human fibrosarcoma cells (HT1080) inhibited gamma interferon (IFN-gamma)-induced upregulation of human leukocyte antigen-DR (HLA-DR) cell surface expression. Furthermore, inhibition of promoter activities of MHC class II transactivator (CIITA), IFN-gamma-activated site (GAS), and HLA-DR was observed in IFN-gamma-inducible HT1080 cells expressing HCV-FL by in vitro reporter assays. Exposure of human monocyte-derived dendritic cells (DCs) to cell culture-grown HCV (HCVcc) genotype 1a (clone H77) or 2a (clone JFH1) significantly inhibited DC maturation and was associated with the production of IL-10. Furthermore, DCs exposed to HCVcc were impaired in their functional ability to stimulate antigen-specific CD4-positive (CD4(+)) and CD8(+) T-cell responses. Taken together, our results indicated that HCV can have direct and/or indirect inhibitory effects on antigen-presenting cells, resulting in reduction of antigen-specific T-cell activation. These effects may account for or contribute to the low overall level of immunogenicity of HCV observed in chronically infected patients. PMID:18216090

Saito, Kousuke; Ait-Goughoulte, Malika; Truscott, Steven M; Meyer, Keith; Blazevic, Azra; Abate, Getahun; Ray, Ratna B; Hoft, Daniel F; Ray, Ranjit

2008-04-01

126

Modeling incomplete fusion reactions  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Full text: We would like to present a new model [1] of the dynamics of the incomplete fusion reaction. We will compare the calculated mass distributions and the alpha particle spectra to a set of experimental data. The incomplete fusion has been of interest to the nuclear physics society since 1979 [2]. Since then plenty of experimental and theoretical works were published (see [1,3]) and references therein). Nevertheless, the models so far do not handle the dynamics of the process - the creation of a compound nucleus and a 'projectile like' fragment emission. Our model describes the incomplete fusion for the cases with an ?-particle escape. It is based on the assumption that the incomplete fusion is a two-stage process. In the first stage the projectile breaks up into an ?-particle and the projectile residue during the approach towards the target. In the second stage the projectile residue fuses with the target and the ?-particle escapes. The model allows the spin and excitation energy of the compound nucleus to be evaluated, as well as the energy and the direction of the escaping ?-particle. Recently ?-ray fold distributions for the 51V+97Mo reaction at energy of 4.5 A MeV of 51V [4], have been compared to the predictions of our model. We would like to present the basics of the model as well as its software implementation of the COMPA [3] code. Working in the 'event by event' mode, it provides complete information on the reactios complete information on the reaction products: the entry state spin and energy distribution, the reaction point coordinates, the directions and the velocities of the recoil and emitted light particles. The stopping of the reaction products in the passive elements of the setup (such as support, target and backing) is taken into account. It is easy to compare the COMPA calculations with the experimental results. We will present the comparisons of simulated ?-particle spectra with the experimental data in ?10 A MeV region for the 12C+160Gd [2] and 12C+51V [5] as well as 20Ne+122Sn reactions, studied with new EAGLE [6] array recently put into operation at Heavy Ion Laboratory of the University of Warsaw. (author) Reference: 1. J. Mierzejewski et al. submitted to Phys. Scr.; 2. K.Siwek-Wilczynska et al. Phys. Rev. Lett. 42, 1599 (1979); 3. The COMPA code and documentation, available at web page: http://www.slcj.uw.edu.pl/compa; 4. R.M. Lieder et al. Eur. Phys. J. A 47, 115 (2011); 5. D. J. Parker et al. Phys. Rev. C30, 143 (1984); 6. J.Mierzejewski et al. Nucl. Instr. and Meth. A 659, 84 (2011)

127

Physicalism, Behaviorism and Incompleteness  

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Full Text Available The content of this paper contains four parts. (1 First, physicalism gives the enlightenments to behaviorism: mind-body identity, objectivity like physics and completeness of reduction. (2 Secondly, there are difficulties which behaviorist could not overcome—both the reduction of the theory and the terms are unreliable, and the strict distinction between introspective method and inter-subjective method is also untenable. (3 Thirdly, It has inevitable incompleteness in one theory no matter what it claims due to the limitations of human cognition. (4 Finally, the author concludes that we should treat various theories in a "both this and that" but "either this or that" way. Therefore, we should admit the contribution of behaviorism and its model philosophy—physicalism, although they has failed in seeking for completeness.

Tao Li

2011-04-01

128

Nicotine-induced Disturbances of Meiotic Maturation in Cultured Mouse Oocytes: Alterations of Spindle Integrity and Chromosome Alignment  

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Full Text Available Abstract We investigated whether nicotine exposure in vitro of mouse oocytes affects spindle and chromosome function during meiotic maturation (M-I and M-II. Oocytes in germinal vesicle (GV stage were cultured in nicotine for 8 h or for 16 h, to assess effects in M-I and in metaphase II (M-II. The latter culture setting used the three protocols: 8 h nicotine then 8 h medium (8N + 8M; 16 h nicotine (16N; 8 h medium then 8 h nicotine (8M + 8N. Non-toxic concentrations of nicotine at 1.0, 2.5, 5.0 and 10.0 mmol/L were used. Spindle-chromosome configurations were analyzed with wide-field optical sectioning microscopy. In 8 h cultures, nicotine exposure resulted in dose-related increased proportions of M-I oocytes with defective spindle-chromosome configurations. A dose-related delayed entry into anaphase I was also detected. In 16 h cultures, nicotine exposure for the first 8 h (8N + 8M, or for 16 h (16N, resulted in dose- and time-related increased proportions of oocytes arrested in M-I (10 mmol/L; 8 h: 53.2%, controls 9.6%; 16 h: 87.6%, controls 8.5%. Defects in M-I spindles and chromosomes caused M-I arrest leading to dose-related decreased proportions of oocytes that reached metaphase-II (10 mmol/L 8 h: 46.8%, controls 90.4%;16 h: 12.4%, controls 91.5%. A delayed anaphase-I affected the normal timing of M-II, leading to abnormal oocytes with dispersed chromosomes, or with double spindles and no polar body. Nicotine exposure during the second 8 h (8M + 8N resulted in dose-related, increased proportions of M-II oocytes with defective spindles and chromosomes (10 mmol/L: 42.9%, controls 2.0%. Nicotine has no adverse effects on GV break down, but induces spindle and chromosome defects compromising oocyte meiotic maturation and development.

Zenzes Maria

2004-09-01

129

Disorder induced modification of reflection and transmission spectra of a two-dimensional photonic crystal with an incomplete band-gap  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Transmission and reflection of light in disordered two-dimensional photonic crystals with an incomplete photonic band-gap have been modelled for various levels of disorder. It is found that ballistic and scattered light display different behaviours as a function of the disorder parameter. For ballistic light, the dependence of the transmission coefficient on the disorder parameter exhibits a threshold-like behaviour, whereas the transmission of scattered light increases rapidly for small disorder. Unlike for photonic crystals with a complete band-gap, the minimum of the transmission for scattered light does not coincide with the centre of the photonic band-gap, and Fabry-Perot-type oscillations can be seen within the photonic band-gap

130

Mycobacterium abscessus MAB2560 induces maturation of dendritic cells via Toll-like receptor 4 and drives Th1 immune response.  

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In this study, we showed that Mycobacterium abscessus MAB2560 induces the maturation of dendritic cells (DCs), which are representative antigen-presenting cells (APCs). M. abscessus MAB2560 stimulate the production of pro-inflammatory cytokines [interleukin (IL)-6, tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-?, IL-1?, and IL-12p70] and reduce the endocytic capacity and maturation of DCs. Using TLR4-/- DCs, we found that MAB2560 mediated DC maturation via Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4). MAB2560 also activated the MAPK signaling pathway, which was essential for DC maturation. Furthermore, MAB2560- treated DCs induced the transformation of naïve T cells to polarized CD4+ and CD8+ T cells, which would be crucial for Th1 polarization of the immune response. Taken together, our results indicate that MAB2560 could potentially regulate the host immune response to M. abscessus and may have critical implications for the manipulation of DC functions for developing DC-based immunotherapy. PMID:24667171

Lee, Su Jung; Shin, Sung Jae; Lee, Seung Jun; Lee, Moon Hee; Kang, Tae Heung; Noh, Kyung Tae; Shin, Yong Kyoo; Kim, Han Wool; Yun, Cheol-Heui; Jung, In Duk; Park, Yeong-Min

2014-09-01

131

Dynamics of incomplete fusion-fission reactions  

OpenAIRE

Fifty years after its first observation, nuclear fission is still a lively field of research. The contemporary interest in this well established phenomenon is mainly related to heavy-ion physics, where fission provides a valuable means for the study of reaction mechanisms. Until recently, most of the experiments on heavy-ion induced fission reactions were inclusive and often could not distinguish between complete and incomplete fusion. The present thesis work, however, was specifically focuss...

Crouzen, Paulus Caorlus Nicolaas

1988-01-01

132

Influenza Virus–induced Dendritic Cell Maturation Is Associated with the Induction of Strong T Cell Immunity to a Coadministered, Normally Nonimmunogenic Protein  

OpenAIRE

We evaluated the proposal that during microbial infection, dendritic cells (DCs) undergo maturation and present a mixture of peptides derived from the microbe as well as harmless environmental antigens. Mice were exposed to an aerosol of endotoxin free ovalbumin (OVA) in the absence or presence of influenza virus. In its absence, OVA failed to induce B and T cell responses and even tolerized, but with influenza, OVA-specific antibodies and CD8+ cytolytic T lymphocytes developed. With or witho...

Brimnes, Marie K.; Bonifaz, Laura; Steinman, Ralph M.; Moran, Thomas M.

2003-01-01

133

Lycium barbarum polysaccharides induce Toll-like receptor 2- and 4-mediated phenotypic and functional maturation of murine dendritic cells via activation of NF-?B.  

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Dendritic cells (DCs) are potent antigen?presenting cells that play pivotal roles in the initiation of primary immune responses. Lycium barbarum polysaccharides (LBPs) are known to have a variety of immunomodulatory functions. However, the cellular and molecular mechanisms underlying their therapeutic effects are poorly understood. In this study, we report that LBPs induce phenotypic and functional maturation of DCs. LBPs upregulated DC expression of I?A/I?E and CD11c, enhanced DC allostimulatory activity and induced IL?12p40 production. Furthermore, the activity of LBPs on DCs was significantly reduced by treating the cells with anti?TLR2 or anti?TLR4 antibody prior to LBPs, indicating that both are possible receptors of LBPs. Maturation of DCs by LBPs was able to directly activate the nuclear transcription factor NF??B p65. The results revealed that LBP stimulation induces the phenotypic and functional maturation of DCs via TLR2- and/or TLR4-mediated NF??B signaling pathways. PMID:23904044

Zhu, Jie; Zhang, Yuanyuan; Shen, Yueshuang; Zhou, Huanqin; Yu, Xiaomei

2013-10-01

134

Diagnosis of incomplete Kawasaki disease  

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Full Text Available Several authors suggested that the clinical characteristics of incomplete presentation of Kawasaki disease are similar to those of complete presentation and that the 2 forms of presentation are not separate entities. Based on this suggestion, a diagnosis of incomplete Kawasaki disease in analogy to the findings of complete presentation is reasonable. Currently, the diagnosis of incomplete Kawasaki disease might be made in cases with fewer classical diagnostic criteria and with several compatible clinical, laboratory or echocardiographic findings on the exclusion of other febrile illness. Definition of incomplete presentation in which coronary artery abnormalities are included as a necessary condition, is restrictive and specific. The validity of the diagnostic criteria of incomplete presentation by the American Heart Association should be thoroughly tested in the immediate future.

Jeong Jin Yu

2012-03-01

135

Involvement of corticotropin-releasing factor and adrenocorticotropic hormone in the ovarian maturation, seawater acclimation, and induced spawning of Liza ramada.  

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In the present study, we investigated the distribution and activities of corticotropin-releasing factor (CRF) and adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) immunoreactive (ir) cells in the brain and pituitary of Liza ramada during ovarian maturation, seawater acclimation, and induction of spawning. Using immunohistochemistry, we detected that CRF-ir cell bodies exist in different brain regions: medulla oblongata (MO), midbrain tegmentum, habenula, nucleus preopticus (NPO), and in a ventral hypothalamic region corresponding to the nucleus lateralis tuberis (NLTP). In the pituitary gland, we detected some ACTH-producing cells in the rostral pars distalis (RPD) containing CRF immunoreactivity. The synthetic and secretory activity of CRF-ir cells in the NPO and MO as well as ACTH-ir cells in the pituitary were enhanced during ovarian maturation. During seawater acclimation, CRF-ir cells in the NPO and MO and ACTH-ir cells in the pituitary showed dramatic increases in their synthetic activity. These cells showed dramatic increase in their secretory activity during spawning induced by human chorionic gonadotropin (HCG) injection in L. ramada. Finally, hormonally induced ovulation was accompanied with elevation of plasma cortisol and depletion of CRF and ACTH immunoreactivity within the brain and the pituitary gland, respectively. Taken together, our findings suggest that mature breeders of L. ramada may respond to stress resulting from ovarian maturation, and seawater acclimation as well as induced spawning. Mechanisms include enhancement of the synthetic and/or secretory activity of CRF-ir cells in the NPO and MO as well as ACTH-ir cells in the pituitary gland along with a rise in plasma cortisol during ovulation, supporting the possible role of these hormones during stress and reproduction in L. ramada. PMID:16376890

Mousa, Shaaban A; Mousa, Mostafa A

2006-04-01

136

Investigating human vascular tube morphogenesis and maturation using endothelial cell-pericyte co-cultures and a doxycycline-inducible genetic system in 3D extracellular matrices.  

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Considerable progress has occurred toward our understanding of the molecular basis for vascular morphogenesis, maturation, and stabilization. A major reason for this progress has been the development of novel in vitro systems to investigate these processes in 3D extracellular matrices. In this chapter, we present models of human endothelial cell (EC) tube formation and EC-pericyte tube co-assembly using serum-free defined conditions in 3D collagen matrices. We utilize both human venous and arterial ECs and show that both cell types readily form tubes and induce pericyte recruitment and both ECs and pericytes work together to remodel the extracellular matrix environment by assembling the vascular basement membrane, a key step in capillary tube network maturation and stabilization. Importantly, we have shown that these events occur under serum-free defined conditions using the hematopoietic stem cell cytokines, SCF, IL-3, and SDF-1? and also including FGF-2. In contrast, the combination of VEGF and FGF-2 fails to support vascular tube morphogenesis or pericyte-induced tube maturation under the same serum-free defined conditions. Furthermore, we present novel assays whereby we have developed both human ECs and pericytes to induce specific genes using a doxycycline-regulated lentiviral system. In this manner, we can upregulate the expression of wild-type or mutant gene products at any stage of vascular morphogenesis or maturation in 3D matrices. These in vitro experimental approaches will continue to identify key molecular requirements and signaling pathways that control fundamental events in tissue vascularization under normal or pathologic conditions. Furthermore, these models will provide new insights into the development of novel disease therapeutic approaches where vascularization is an important pathogenic component and create new ways to assemble capillary tube networks with associated pericytes for tissue engineering applications. PMID:25245694

Bowers, Stephanie L K; Meng, Chun-Xia; Davis, Matthew T; Davis, George E

2015-01-01

137

Steroidogenic and maturation-inducing potency of native gonadotropic hormones in female chub mackerel, Scomber japonicus  

OpenAIRE

Abstract Background The gonadotropins (GtHs), follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) and luteinizing hormone (LH) are produced in the pituitary gland and regulates gametogenesis through production of gonadal steroids. However, respective roles of two GtHs in the teleosts are still incompletely characterized due to technical difficulties in the purification of native GtHs. Methods Native FSH and LH were purified from the pituitaries of adult chub mackerel, Scomber japonicus by anion-exchange chrom...

Ohga Hirofumi; Kaneko Kensuke; Shimizu Akio; Kitano Hajime; Selvaraj Sethu; Nyuji Mitsuo; Adachi Hayato; Yamaguchi Akihiko; Matsuyama Michiya

2012-01-01

138

Processing Of Incomplete Data Set  

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Full Text Available A large number of Data Sets are available, but they are incomplete in nature so that they cannot be used for real applications. These incomplete data sets are produced due to various reasons like system failure, privacy of data, incomplete input, time delay in system, lack of available resources. As common examples Weather data sets, sensor image data sets, Measurement Reflection in Agriculture Data Sets. For these cases we use conceptual data reconstruction by using statistical models of multiple linear Regressions to Predict Missing values in Data Sets.

Mahesh Babanrao Shelke

2013-10-01

139

PGE2-Induced IDO1 Inhibits the Capacity of Fully Mature DCs to Elicit an In Vitro Antileukemic Immune Response.  

Science.gov (United States)

In the last years, dendritic cells (DC) have been evaluated for antitumor vaccination. Although DC-based vaccines have raised great expectations, their clinical translation has been largely disappointing. For these results, several explanations have been proposed. In particular, the concomitant expression by DCs of tolerogenic pathways, such as the immunosuppressive agent indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase-1 (IDO1), has been demonstrated. The aim of this study is to evaluate both the stimulatory and the tolerogenic feature of monocyte-derived DCs (Mo-DCs) after maturation with PGE2. In particular, the role of IDO1 expression in PGE2-matured Mo-DCs has been addressed. Here we show that PGE2, which is required for full maturation of DCs, is one mediator of DC tolerance by enhancing IDO1. PGE2-mediated expression of IDO1 results in the production of kynurenine, in the generation of Tregs, and in the inhibition of either the allogeneic or the autologous antigen-specific stimulatory capacity of DCs. When pulsed with leukemic lysates and matured with PGE2, DCs are impaired in the induction of IFN-? secreting CD4(+) and CD8(+) T cells due to IDO1 upregulation. Moreover, the inhibition of IDO1 enhances the antileukemic response. Overall, these results point toward the use of IDO1 inhibitors to enhance the vaccination capacity of DCs, matured with PGE2. PMID:25815345

Trabanelli, Sara; Lecciso, Mariangela; Salvestrini, Valentina; Cavo, Michele; O?adlíková, Darina; Lemoli, Roberto M; Curti, Antonio

2015-01-01

140

BCR-crosslinking induces a transcription of protein phosphatase component G5PR that is required for mature B-cell survival  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

BCR-crosslinking triggers activation-induced cell death (AICD) selectively in the restricted stage of B-cell differentiation. We examined the transcription of a protein phosphatase subunit G5PR in immature and mature B-cells, because absence of this factor augmented cell sensitivity to AICD, associated with increased activation of JNK and Bim. BCR-crosslinking-induced G5pr transcription in AICD-resistant mature splenic IgMloIgDhi B-cells but not in AICD susceptible immature IgMhiIgDlo B-cells. Thus, G5pr induction correlated with the prevention of AICD; High in mature splenic CD23hi B-cells but low in immature B-cells of neonatal mice, sub-lethally irradiated mice, or xid mice. Lack of G5pr upregulation was associated with the prolonged activation of JNK. The G5pr cDNA transfection protected an immature B-cell line WEHI-231 from BCR-mediated AICD. The differential expression of G5PR might be responsible for the antigen-dependent selection of B-cells

141

NO2 inhalation induces maturation of pulmonary CD11c+ cells that promote antigenspecific CD4+ T cell polarization  

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Full Text Available Abstract Background Nitrogen dioxide (NO2 is an air pollutant associated with poor respiratory health, asthma exacerbation, and an increased likelihood of inhalational allergies. NO2 is also produced endogenously in the lung during acute inflammatory responses. NO2 can function as an adjuvant, allowing for allergic sensitization to an innocuous inhaled antigen and the generation of an antigen-specific Th2 immune response manifesting in an allergic asthma phenotype. As CD11c+ antigen presenting cells are considered critical for naïve T cell activation, we investigated the role of CD11c+ cells in NO2-promoted allergic sensitization. Methods We systemically depleted CD11c+ cells from transgenic mice expressing a simian diphtheria toxin (DT receptor under of control of the CD11c promoter by administration of DT. Mice were then exposed to 15 ppm NO2 followed by aerosolized ovalbumin to promote allergic sensitization to ovalbumin and were studied after subsequent inhaled ovalbumin challenges for manifestation of allergic airway disease. In addition, pulmonary CD11c+ cells from wildtype mice were studied after exposure to NO2 and ovalbumin for cellular phenotype by flow cytometry and in vitro cytokine production. Results Transient depletion of CD11c+ cells during sensitization attenuated airway eosinophilia during allergen challenge and reduced Th2 and Th17 cytokine production. Lung CD11c+ cells from wildtype mice exhibited a significant increase in MHCII, CD40, and OX40L expression 2 hours following NO2 exposure. By 48 hours, CD11c+MHCII+ DCs within the mediastinal lymph node (MLN expressed maturation markers, including CD80, CD86, and OX40L. CD11c+CD11b- and CD11c+CD11b+ pulmonary cells exposed to NO2 in vivo increased uptake of antigen 2 hours post exposure, with increased ova-Alexa 647+ CD11c+MHCII+ DCs present in MLN from NO2-exposed mice by 48 hours. Co-cultures of ova-specific CD4+ T cells from naïve mice and CD11c+ pulmonary cells from NO2-exposed mice produced IL-1, IL-12p70, and IL-6 in vitro and augmented antigen-induced IL-5 production. Conclusions CD11c+ cells are critical for NO2-promoted allergic sensitization. NO2 exposure causes pulmonary CD11c+ cells to acquire a phenotype capable of increased antigen uptake, migration to the draining lymph node, expression of MHCII and co-stimulatory molecules required to activate naïve T cells, and secretion of polarizing cytokines to shape a Th2/Th17 response.

Suratt Benjamin T

2010-07-01

142

Regulation of murine oocyte meiosis: evidence for a gonadotropin- induced, cAMP-dependent reduction in a maturation inhibitor  

OpenAIRE

We have developed an assay that can detect relative changes in the amount of a non-cAMP inhibitor of maturation present in cumulus cells (Eppig et al., 1983, Dev. Biol., 100:39-49). Using this assay in which accelerated maturation of a group of treated cumulus cell-oocyte complexes relative to untreated complexes indicates a decrease in the amount of inhibitor, results of the experiments described here suggest a possible relationship between elevation of cAMP levels and subsequent decreased a...

1984-01-01

143

Incomplete Contracts: Foundations and Applications  

OpenAIRE

More than twenty years have elapsed since Oliver Hart's Fisher-Schultz lecture on the topic of incomplete contracts. Incomplete contract theory (ICT) has become a rigorous and widely used approach in dealing with various issues. It's applications include firm theory (hierarchies, ownership and control rights, authority,etc.), international trade (judicial quality as comparative advantage, intra-firm trade, etc.), scope of organizations (including the government, see Hart et. al. 1997) and man...

Pei, Di

2010-01-01

144

Expression of the new P2Y-like receptor GPR17 during oligodendrocyte precursor cell maturation regulates sensitivity to ATP-induced death.  

Science.gov (United States)

The P2Y-like receptor GPR17 is expressed by adult neural progenitor cells, suggesting a role in lineage determination. Here, we characterized GPR17 expression and function in mouse cortical primary astrocytes/precursor cell cultures. GPR17 is expressed by a subpopulation of oligodendrocyte precursor cells (OPCs), but not by astrocytes. This expression pattern was also confirmed in vivo. In vitro, GPR17 expression was markedly influenced by culturing conditions. In the presence of growth factors (GFs), no significant GPR17 expression was found. When cultures were shifted to a differentiating medium, a dramatic, time-dependent increase in the number of highly branched GPR17-positive cells was observed. Under these conditions, GPR17 was induced in the totality of O4-positive immature oligodendrocytes. Instead, in cultures originally grown in the absence of GFs, GPR17 was already expressed in morphologically more mature OPCs. Shifting of these cultures to differentiating conditions induced GPR17 only in a subpopulation of O4-positive cells. Under both culture protocols, appearance of more mature CNPase- and MBP-positive cells was associated to a progressive loss of GPR17. GPR17 expression also sensitized cells to adenine nucleotide-induced cytotoxicity, whereas activation with uracil nucleotides promoted differentiation towards a more mature phenotype. We suggest that GFs may keep OPCs in a less differentiated stage by restraining GPR17 expression, and that, under permissive conditions, GPR17 contributes to OPCs differentiation. However, upon high extracellular adenine nucleotide concentrations, as during trauma and ischemia, GPR17 sensitizes cells to cytotoxicity. This double-edged sword role may be exploited to unveil new therapeutic approaches to acute and chronic brain disorders. PMID:21264945

Ceruti, Stefania; Viganò, Francesca; Boda, Enrica; Ferrario, Silvia; Magni, Giulia; Boccazzi, Marta; Rosa, Patrizia; Buffo, Annalisa; Abbracchio, Maria P

2011-03-01

145

Influence of water temperature on induced reproduction by hypophysation, sex steroids concentrations and final oocyte maturation of the "curimatã-pacu" Prochilodus argenteus (Pisces: Prochilodontidae).  

Science.gov (United States)

Most fishes with commercial importance from the São Francisco basin are migratory and do not complete the reproductive cycle in lentic environments, such as hydroelectric plant reservoirs, hence natural stocks are declining and there is an urgent need to reduce the pressure of fishing on those wild populations. Therefore, studies on reproductive biology and its relationship with endocrine and environmental factors are key to improving the cultivation techniques of Brazilian fish species. This study examined the influence of water temperature on sex steroid concentrations (testosterone, 17?-estradiol and 17?-hydroxyprogesterone), spawning efficiency, fecundity, fertilisation rate, larval abnormality rates and involvement of the cytoskeleton during the final oocyte maturation of Prochilodus argenteus under experimental conditions. The results of our study showed that in captivity, sex steroid plasma concentrations and spawning performance of P. argenteus were clearly different for fish kept in water with different temperature regimes. In lower water temperature (23°C), it was observed that: 33% of females did not ovulate, fecundity was lower and vitellogenic oocytes after the spawning induction procedure exhibited a smaller diameter. Moreover, concentrations of 17?-estradiol and 17?-hydroxyprogesterone were lower and there was a delay in the final oocyte maturation and, consequently, ovulation and spawning. Our experiments showed direct influence of water temperature in the process of induced spawning of P. argenteus. Changes in water temperature also suggest the tubulin involvement in the nuclear dislocation process and the possible action of actin filaments in the release of polar bodies during final oocyte maturation of P. argenteus. PMID:21501616

Arantes, Fábio P; Santos, Hélio B; Rizzo, Elizete; Sato, Yoshimi; Bazzoli, Nilo

2011-07-01

146

Traditional Chinese Medicine, the Zishen Yutai Pill, Ameliorates Precocious Endometrial Maturation Induced by Controlled Ovarian Hyperstimulation and Improves Uterine Receptivity via Upregulation of HOXA10  

Science.gov (United States)

Controlled ovarian hyperstimulation (COH) is widely used in assisted reproductive technology (ART), but it often leads to precocious maturation of the endometrium such that it impairs embryonic implantation and limits pregnancy rates. Previous studies have shown the traditional Chinese medicine, the Zishen Yutai pill (ZYP), to be effective in treatment of threatened as well as recurrent miscarriages, and it can improve embryonic implantation rates in patients undergoing IVF treatment. In the present study, the ZYP has been found to ameliorate precocious endometrial maturation in a mouse model of different COH. Molecular evaluations, real-time PCR, relative RT-PCR, Western blotting, and immunohistochemistry have indicated that the ZYP increased the expression of HOXA10, an important marker of uterine receptivity. Elevation of HOXA10 led to further upregulation of its target gene, integrin ?3, and downregulation of EMX2, two additional markers of uterine receptivity. In this way, the ZYP may mitigate COH-induced precocious maturation of the endometrium and improve uterine receptivity by upregulating HOXA10.

Gao, Qi; Han, Lu; Li, Xiumei; Cai, Xia

2015-01-01

147

Seasonal changes in sexual maturity and fecundity, and HCG-induced breeding of the catfish, Heterobranchus longifilis val. (claridae), reared in Ebrie Lagoon (Ivory Coast)  

OpenAIRE

Oocyte maturation and ovulation were induced with human chorionic gonadotropin (HCG) in the African catfish, #Heterobranchus longifilis$. Females with a mean oocyte diameter of at least 1.1 mm were used. 100 % ovulation was obtained after a single intramuscular HCG injection of between 1.0 and 2.5 I.U./g body weight ; a lower dose led to high variability in individual response. Latency time depended more on temperature than on the hormone dose. Eggs could be stripped within 14 h of a dose of ...

Legendre, Marc

1986-01-01

148

Bone Marrow Stromal Cell Transdifferentiation into Oligodendrocyte-Like Cells Using Triiodothyronine as a Inducer with Expression of Platelet-Derived Growth Factor ? as a Maturity Marker  

OpenAIRE

Background: The present study investigated the functional maturity of oligodendrocyte derived from rat bone marrow stromal cells (BMSC). Methods: The BMSC were isolated from female Sprague-Dawley rats and evaluated for different markers, such as fibronectin, CD106, CD90, Oct-4 and CD45. Transdifferentiation of OLC from BMSC was obtained by exposing the BMSC to DMSO and 1 µM all-trans-retinoic acid during the pre-induction stage and then induced by heregulin (HRG), platelet-derived growth fac...

Abbaszadeh, Hojjat-allah; Tiraihi, Taki; Delshad, Ali Reza; Saghedi Zadeh, Majid; Taheri, Taher

2013-01-01

149

Role of inhibin and activin in the modulation of gonadotropin- and steroid-induced oocyte maturation in the teleost Fundulus heteroclitus  

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Full Text Available Abstract Background Activin and inhibin are glycoproteins structurally related to the transforming growth factor-beta superfamily. These peptides were first described as factors that regulate the follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH at the pituitary level. The possible role of inhibin and activin, at the ovarian level, in mediating the stimulatory actions of a Fundulus pituitary extract (FPE and 17alpha,20beta-dihydroprogesterone (DHP on oocyte maturation was investigated in this study. Methods In vitro culture of ovarian follicles and induction of oocyte maturation were carried out in 75% Leibovitz L-15 medium. Follicles or denuded oocytes were exposed to FPE, inhibin, activin, ethanol vehicle (control group, or DHP. The competence of the follicles or denuded oocytes to respond to the hormones was assessed by scoring germinal vesicle breakdown (GVBD used as an indication of the reinitiation of meiosis or oocyte maturation. DHP level was measured by radioimmunoassay. Results Addition of FPE promoted the synthesis of DHP by the granulose cells of fully grown ovarian follicles and thus stimulated GVBD in the oocyte. Presence of porcine inhibin did not hinder the synthesis of DHP stimulated by FPE, although it did inhibit the subsequent GVBD in a dose-dependent manner, suggesting that the action of inhibin was at the oocyte level. Similarly to the findings with FPE, inhibin also blocked the DHP-induced GVBD in intact follicles, as well as the spontaneous and steroid-induced GVBD of denuded oocyte. Inhibin straightforwardly blocked the response to a low dose of DHP throughout the culture period, while higher doses of the steroid appeared to overcome the inhibitory effect especially at later times. In contrast to inhibin, recombinant human activin A significantly enhanced DHP-induced GVBD in a dose-dependent manner after 48 hr, although activin alone was not able to induce GVBD without the presence of the steroid. Conclusion Taking together with our previous studies that demonstrate the presence of activin/inhibin subunits in the ovary of F. heteroclitus, these in vitro findings indicate that inhibin and activin are local regulators in the teleost ovary and have opposing effects in modulating oocyte maturation.

Toussaint Gesulla

2007-06-01

150

The incorporation of myo-inositol into phosphatidylinositol derivatives is stimulated during hormone-induced meiotic maturation of amphibian oocytes  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The incorporation of myo-[3H]inositol into phosphatidylinositol and its phosphorylated derivatives was studied by microinjection of the radioactive precursor into Xenopus laevis oocytes. Induction of meiotic maturation of the oocytes by treatment with either progesterone one or insulin resulted in a significant increase in the incorporation of myo-[3H]inositol into the phospholipid fraction. This increase occurred 3-6 h after hormonal treatment, a time coincident with the start of the breakdown of the nuclear envelope, and requires protein synthesis. The effect of progesterone and insulin contrasts with the effect of acetylcholine, which acts through a muscarinic receptor causing the activation of phospholipase C, since the latter effector causes an increase in myo-[3H]inositol incorporation, which is more rapid and does not require protein synthesis. These results suggest that the meiotic maturation process is connected with changes in inositol metabolism in the amphibian oocyte

151

CNL, a ricin B-like lectin from mushroom Clitocybe nebularis, induces maturation and activation of dendritic cells via the toll-like receptor 4 pathway.  

Science.gov (United States)

A novel lectin, isolated from the basidiomycete mushroom Clitocybe nebularis and termed C. nebularis lectin (CNL), exhibits an immunostimulatory effect on the most potent antigen-presenting cells, the dendritic cells (DCs). Treatment of human monocyte-derived DCs with CNL in doses from 1 to 10??g/ml resulted in a dose-dependent induction of overall DC maturation characteristics. Exposure of DCs to CNL for 48?hr resulted in extensive up-regulation of co-stimulatory molecules CD80 and CD86, as well as of the maturation marker CD83 and HLA-DR molecules. Such CNL-matured DCs (CNL-DCs) were capable of inducing a T helper type 1-polarized response in naive CD4+ ?CD45RA+ T cells in 5-day allogeneic co-cultures. The allostimulatory potential of CNL-DCs was significantly increased relative to untreated controls, as was their capacity to produce several pro-inflammatory cytokines such as interleukin-6, interleukin-8 and tumour necrosis factor-?. By using a specific Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) signalling inhibitor, CLI-095, as well as Myd88 inhibitory peptide, we have shown that DC activation by CNL is completely dependent on the TLR4 activation pathway. Furthermore, activation of TLR4 by CNL was confirmed via TLR4 reporter assay. Measurement of p65 nuclear factor-?B and p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) phosphorylation levels following CNL stimulation of DCs revealed primarily an increase in nuclear factor-?B activity, with less effect on the induction of p38 MAPK signalling than of lipopolysaccharide-matured DCs. The CNL had the ability to activate human DCs in such a way as to subsequently direct T helper type 1 T-cell responses. Our results encourage the use of mushroom-derived lectins for use in therapeutic strategies with aims such as to strengthen anti-tumour immune responses. PMID:22044067

Svajger, Urban; Pohleven, Jure; Kos, Janko; Strukelj, Borut; Jeras, Matjaž

2011-12-01

152

Short-term environmental enrichment exposure induces proliferation and maturation of doublecortin-positive cells in the prefrontal cortex  

OpenAIRE

Previous studies have demonstrated that doublecortin-positive immature neurons exist predominantly in the superficial layer of the cerebral cortex of adult mammals such as guinea pigs, and these neurons exhibit very weak properties of self-proliferation during adulthood under physiological conditions. To verify whether environmental enrichment has an impact on the proliferation and maturation of these immature neurons in the prefrontal cortex of adult guinea pigs, healthy adult guinea pigs we...

Fan, Chunling; Zhang, Mengqi; Shang, Lei; Cynthia, Ngobe Akume; Li, Zhi; Yang, Zhenyu; Chen, Dan; Huang, Jufang; Xiong, Kun

2014-01-01

153

Polysaccharide purified from Polyporus umbellatus (Per) Fr induces the activation and maturation of murine bone-derived dendritic cells via toll-like receptor 4.  

Science.gov (United States)

In this study, we report that a polysaccharide isolated from a Chinese medicinal herb, Zhu Ling (the sclerotium of Polyporus umbellatus (Per) Fr), induces phenotypic and functional maturation of murine bone-derived dendritic cells (BMDCs). Treatment of BMDCs with Polyporus polysaccharide (PPS) resulted in enhanced cell-surface expression of CD86, as well as enhanced production of both interleukin (IL)-12 p40 and IL-10 in a dose-dependent manner. In addition, treatment of BMDCs with PPS resulted in increased T cell-stimulatory capacity and decreased phagocytic ability. PPS-induced production of IL-12 p40 was inhibited by monoclonal antibodies to Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4). Flow cytometric analysis showed that fluorescence-labeled PPS (f-PPS) bound specifically to BMDCs. This binding was blocked by both unlabeled PPS and anti-TLR4, but not by anti-TLR2 and anti-CR3 monoclonal antibodies. Taken together, our data show that PPS promotes the activation and maturation of murine BMDCs via TLR4. PMID:20673883

Li, Xinqun; Xu, Wen; Chen, Jun

2010-01-01

154

Incomplete relaxation of pinch discharges  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Solenoidal field linkage is explained and its application to magnetic helicity is discussed. A Green's tensor function for the magnetic vector potential of a plasma current distribution bounded by a perfect conductor is derived. A hypothesis of incomplete relaxation of a turbulent discharge is then used to establish reversed-field pinch configurations with finite beta

155

Transferrin receptor number, synthesis, and endocytosis during erythropoietin-induced maturation of Friend virus-infected erythroid cells  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Erythropoietin (EP) responsive Friend virus-infected erythroid cells had 200,000 steady-state binding sites for transferrin at 370C when isolated from the spleens of Friend virus-infected mice. Upon culture of these cells with EP, the synthesis of transferrin receptors increased 4- to 7-fold and the number of transferrin-binding sites per cell doubled after 24 h. However, the rate of uptake of 59Fe from transferrin remained constant at approximately 35,000 atoms of 59Fe per minute per cell during this period in culture. The amount of 125I-transferrin internalized during the steady-state binding did not change during this culture period while the transferrin bound to the surface increased 3-fold. At all stages of erythroid maturation, the maximum rate of endocytosis was determined to be 18,000 molecules of transferrin per minute per cell, and the interval that 125I-transferrin remains in the interior of the cell was calculated to be 6.9 min. After 48 h of culture with EP, the number of steady-state transferrin-binding sites was reduced in part due to the sequestration of surface receptors within the cell. The uptake of iron from transferrin was limited by the level of endocytosis of transferrin during the initial phase of culture and the number of transferrin receptors at the cell surface during the latter stages of erythroid maturation of these cells

156

Expression of FLOWERING LOCUS T from Arabidopsis thaliana induces precocious flowering in soybean irrespective of maturity group and stem growth habit.  

Science.gov (United States)

The flowering integrator gene FLOWERING LOCUS T (FT) in Arabidopsis thaliana is conserved between diverse plant species and is thought to be the flowering signal ''florigen'', a universal long-distance mobile signal. In soybean, two FT homologs having a function to induce flowering in Arabidopsis have been identified. In this study, we showed that the expression of FT from Arabidopsis by the Apple latent spherical virus (ALSV) vector promoted precocious flowering and terminated vegetative growth in a wide range of genotypes of soybean, without using a short-day treatment. Four determinate and two indeterminate cultivars, infected with ALSV expressing FT (FT-ALSV), set flower buds on shoot apices and terminated vegetative growth at the fourth- to seventh-node stages under long-day conditions. In contrast, non-infected, healthy plants did not set flower buds on shoot apices at the same stage under the same conditions. After flowering, soybean cultivars infected with FT-ALSV, belonging to different maturity groups and stem growth habits, matured and produced seeds. The results suggest that the basic flowering pathway controlled by FT in A. thaliana might also be conserved in soybean. A system for precocious flowering and shortening of generation time using FT-ALSV would be a useful and novel technology for efficient soybean breeding. PMID:21116647

Yamagishi, Noriko; Yoshikawa, Nobuyuki

2011-03-01

157

Uncertainty, incompleteness, chance, and design  

CERN Document Server

The 20th century has revealed two important limitations of scientific knowledge. On the one hand, the combination of Poincar\\'e's nonlinear dynamics and Heisenberg's uncertainty principle leads to a world picture where physical reality is, in many respects, intrinsically undetermined. On the other hand, G\\"odel's incompleteness theorems reveal us the existence of mathematical truths that cannot be demonstrated. More recently, Chaitin has proved that, from the incompleteness theorems, it follows that the random character of a given mathematical sequence cannot be proved in general (it is 'undecidable'). I reflect here on the consequences derived from the indeterminacy of the future and the undecidability of randomness, concluding that the question of the presence or absence of finality in nature is fundamentally outside the scope of the scientific method.

Sols, Fernando

2013-01-01

158

Incomplete information and correlated electrons  

OpenAIRE

Although G\\"odel's incompleteness theorem made mathematician recognize that no axiomatic system could completely prove its correctness and that there is an eternal hole between our knowledge and the world, physicists so far continue to work on the approaches based on the hypothesis to completely or approximately know the systems of interest. In this paper, however, I review the recent development of a different approach, a statistical theory based upon the notion of incomple...

Wang, Qiuping A.

2002-01-01

159

Transition Complexity of Incomplete DFAs  

OpenAIRE

In this paper, we consider the transition complexity of regular languages based on the incomplete deterministic finite automata. A number of results on Boolean operations have been obtained. It is shown that the transition complexity results for union and complementation are very different from the state complexity results for the same operations. However, for intersection, the transition complexity result is similar to that of state complexity.

Yuan Gao; Kai Salomaa; Sheng Yu

2010-01-01

160

Market maturity  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The power sector in the Philipines provides one of the most mature independent power markets in Asia. Over the past five years, National Power Corp. (NPC), the government owned utility, has actively invited the power sector into power generation. Distribution has remained in the hands of private and rural cooperative utilities. Private utilities have been operating as full requirements customers of NPC while the growth in capacity additions by independent power producers (IPPs) has outpaced NPC`s for the second year in a row. With a recovering economy and regulatory reform proceeding, the outlook for independent power remains strong through the end of the decade. The Philipine Congress is now reviewing draft legislation that will decentralize NPC and begin the process of privatization and market-based reforms throughout the country`s power sector.

Meade, B.; Bowden, S.; Ellis, M

1995-02-01

161

Beyond maturity  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The Nuclear Power Plant Simulator Industry has undergone to decades of evolution in experience, technology and business practices. Link-Miles Simulation Corporation (LMSC) has been contracted to build 68 Full Scope Nuclear Simulators during the 1970's and 1980's. Traditional approaches to design, development and testing have been used to satisfy specifications for initial customer requirements. However, the Industry has matured. All U.S. Nuclear Utilities own, or have under contract, at least one simulator. Other industrial nations have centralized training facilities to satisfy the simulator training needs. The customer of the future is knowledgeable and experienced in the development and service of nuclear simulators. The role of the simulator vendor is changing in order to alter the traditional approach for development. Covenants between the vendors and their customers solidify new complementary roles. This paper presents examples of current simulator project development with recommendations for future endeavors

162

Influence of a mouse female genotype on the incidence of dominant lethal mutations induced by ionizing radiation in mature germ cells of CBA males  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

CBA male mice were exposed to 60Co-?-rays (5.5 Gy) and mated with CBA, A/He, AKR, C57BL/6, C57BL/Mib and BALB/c females. The yield of dominant lethal mutations (DLM) induced by radiation in mature germ cells was estimated. It was established that the yield of DLM depends on the genotype of a female: a maximum yield of DLM was registered in CBA, A/He and C57BL/6 females, and a minimum yield, in C57BL/Mib females. It is assumed that different yields of DLM in females of different lines might be related to different effectiveness of repair of premutational damages to spermia chromosomes by the enzymatic systems of female gametes

163

Detection of radiation-induced hydrocarbons in Camembert irradiated before and after the maturing process-comparison of florisil column chromatography and on-line coupled liquid chromatography-gas chromatography  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The influence of the maturing process on the detection of radiation-induced volatile hydrocarbons in the fat of Camembert has been investigated. Two analytical methods for separation of the hydrocarbon fraction from the lipid were applied: Florisil column chromatography with subsequent gas chromatographic-mass spectrometric (GC-MS) determination as well as on-line coupled liquid chromatography-GC-MS. The maturing process had no influence on the detection of radiation-induced volatiles. Comparable results were achieved with both analytical methods. However, preference is given to the more effective on-line coupled LC-GC method

164

The role of surface charge density in cationic liposome-promoted dendritic cell maturation and vaccine-induced immune responses  

Science.gov (United States)

Cationic liposomes have emerged as a novel adjuvant and antigen delivery system to enhance vaccine efficacy. However, the role of surface charge density in cationic liposome-regulated immune responses has not yet been elucidated. In the present study, we prepared a series of DOTAP/DOPC cationic liposomes with different surface densities by incorporating varying amounts of DOPC (a neutral lipid) into DOTAP (a cationic lipid). The results showed that DOTAP/DOPC cationic liposome-regulated immune responses relied on the surface charge density, and might occur through ROS signaling. The liposomes with a relatively high charge density, such as DOTAP/DOPC 5 : 0 and 4 : 1 liposomes, potently enhanced dendritic cell maturation, ROS generaion, antigen uptake, as well as the production of OVA-specific IgG2a and IFN-?. In contrast, low-charge liposomes, such as DOTAP/DOPC 1 : 4 liposome, failed to promote immune responses even at high concentrations, confirming that the immunoregulatory effect of cationic liposomes is mostly attributable to their surface charge density. Moreover, the DOTAP/DOPC 1 : 4 liposome suppressed anti-OVA antibody responses in vivo. Overall, maintaining an appropriate surface charge is crucial for optimizing the adjuvant effect of cationic liposomes and enhancing the efficacy of liposome-based vaccines.

Ma, Yifan; Zhuang, Yan; Xie, Xiaofang; Wang, Ce; Wang, Fei; Zhou, Dongmei; Zeng, Jianqiang; Cai, Lintao

2011-05-01

165

Environmental-endocrine control of reproductive maturation in gastropods: implications for the mechanism of tributyltin-induced imposex in prosobranchs.  

Science.gov (United States)

Prosobranch snails have been afflicted globally by a condition whereby females develop male sex characteristics, most notably a penis. This condition, known as imposex, has been causally associated with the ubiquitous environmental contaminant tributyltin (TBT). Deduction of the mechanism by which TBT causes imposex has been hampered by the lack of understanding of the normal endocrine regulation of reproductive tract recrudescence in these organisms. We have reviewed the relevant literature on the environmental and endocrine factors that regulate reproductive tract recrudescence, sexual differentiation, and reproduction in gastropods. We provide a cohesive model for the environmental-endocrine regulation of reproduction in these organisms, and use this information to deduce a most likely mechanism by which TBT causes imposex. Photoperiod appears to be the predominant environmental cue that regulates reproductive tract recrudescence. Secondary cues include temperature and nutrition which control the timing of breeding and egg laying. Several hormone products of the central and peripheral nervous systems have been identified that contribute to recrudescence, reproductive behaviors, oocyte maturation and egg laying. Retinoic acid signaling via the retinoid X-receptor (RXR) has shown promise to be a major regulator of reproductive tract recrudescence. Furthermore, TBT has been shown to be a high affinity ligand for the RXR and the RXR ligand 9-cis retinoic acid causes imposex. We propose that TBT causes imposex through the inappropriate activation of this signaling pathway. However, uncertainties remain in our understanding of the environmental-endocrine regulation of reproduction in gastropods. Definitive elucidation of the mechanism of action of TBT awaits resolution of these uncertainties. PMID:19653098

Sternberg, Robin M; Gooding, Meredith P; Hotchkiss, Andrew K; LeBlanc, Gerald A

2010-01-01

166

Expression of a phosphoenolpyruvate carboxylase promoter from Mesembryanthemum crystallinum is not salt-inducible in mature transgenic tobacco.  

Science.gov (United States)

The 5' flanking region of a salt-stress-inducible, CAM-specific phosphoenolpyruvate carboxylase (PEPC) gene from the facultative halophyte Mesembryanthemum crystallinum, was fused to the beta-glucuronidase (GUS) reporter gene and introduced into Nicotiana tabacum SR1. The Ppc1 promoter displayed high levels of expression in transgenic tobacco quantitatively and qualitatively similar to a full-length 35S CaMV-GUS construct. Histochemical assays revealed that the full-length Ppc1-GUS fusions expressed GUS activity in all tissues except in root tips. While tobacco is capable of utilizing the Ppc1 cis-acting regulatory regions from M. crystallinum to yield high levels of constitutive expression, this glycophyte fails to direct a stress-inducible pattern of gene expression typical of this promoter in its native, facultative halophytic host. PMID:8443349

Cushman, J C; Meiners, M S; Bohnert, H J

1993-02-01

167

An Incomplete Pentalogy of Cantrell  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Pentalogy of Cantrell is a rare entity of congenital defects involving the abdominal wall,sternum, diaphragm, pericardium and heart. The complete pentalogy and its variants havebeen described in the literature. We report a 47-day-old girl with an incomplete pentalogy ofCantrell presenting with congenital absence of the sternum, congenital heart defects, and anepigastric hernia. Two even rarer expressions of this disorder, tricuspid atresia type IIc andasymmetric kidneys, were also found. The patient was successfully managed with palliativepulmonary artery banding as preparation for a modified Fontan operation when she is older.We report this rare case, and discuss the pathologic findings and surgical strategy.

David Mishaly

2008-06-01

168

Utility maximization in incomplete markets  

CERN Document Server

We consider the problem of utility maximization for small traders on incomplete financial markets. As opposed to most of the papers dealing with this subject, the investors' trading strategies we allow underly constraints described by closed, but not necessarily convex, sets. The final wealths obtained by trading under these constraints are identified as stochastic processes which usually are supermartingales, and even martingales for particular strategies. These strategies are seen to be optimal, and the corresponding value functions determined simply by the initial values of the supermartingales. We separately treat the cases of exponential, power and logarithmic utility.

Hu, Y; Müller, M; Hu, Ying; Imkeller, Peter; Muller, Matthias

2005-01-01

169

Delay of Postnatal Maturation Sensitizes the Mouse Prostate to Testosterone-Induced Pronounced Hyperplasia : Protective Role of Estrogen Receptor-?  

OpenAIRE

The role of estrogens in the etiology of prostate cancer is controversial. To demonstrate the specific effects of estrogens and androgens on the development of the prostatic epithelial hyperplasia, we used luteinizing hormone receptor knockout mice (LuRKO), which are resistant to pituitary regulation mediated by luteinizing hormone, lack postnatal androgen production, and have rudimentary accessory sex glands, the growth of which can be induced with exogenous androgen replacement. This model ...

Savolainen, Saija; Pakarainen, Tomi; Huhtaniemi, Ilpo; Poutanen, Matti; Ma?kela?, Sari

2007-01-01

170

Role of the C-terminal propeptide in the activity and maturation of ?-interferon-inducible lysosomal thiol reductase (GILT)  

OpenAIRE

?-Interferon-inducible lysosomal thiol reductase (GILT) is constitutively expressed in antigen-presenting cells. GILT facilitates unfolding of endocytosed antigens in MHC class II-containing compartments by enzymatically reducing disulfide bonds. The enzyme is synthesized as a 35-kDa precursor. Although a fraction of the precursor is secreted as a disulfide-linked dimer, the majority is directed via the mannose-6-phosphate receptor pathway to endocytic compartments where its N- and C-termina...

Phan, Uyen T.; Lackman, Rebecca L.; Cresswell, Peter

2002-01-01

171

Lack of dendritic cell maturation by the plant toxin ricin.  

OpenAIRE

Several bacterial toxins either promote or inhibit the maturation of human monocyte-derived DC. Since the potent plant toxin ricin exploits the same cell entry pathway used by these bacterial toxins and shares identical catalytic activity with some of them, we have studied the capacity of ricin to induce DC maturation in vitro. Here, we show that in contrast to the bacterial proteins, ricin neither induces DC maturation nor interferes with LPS-induced DC maturation. There is no correlation be...

Smith, Dc; Salio, M.; Lord, Jm; Roberts, Lm; Cerundolo, V.

2004-01-01

172

Seizure induces activation of multiple subtypes of neural progenitors and growth factors in hippocampus with neuronal maturation confined to dentate gyrus  

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Adult hippocampal neurogenesis is altered in response to different physiological and pathological stimuli. GFAP{sup +ve}/nestin{sup +ve} radial glial like Type-1 progenitors are considered to be the resident stem cell population in adult hippocampus. During neurogenesis these Type-1 progenitors matures to GFAP{sup -ve}/nestin{sup +ve} Type-2 progenitors and then to Type-3 neuroblasts and finally differentiates into granule cell neurons. In our study, using pilocarpine-induced seizure model, we showed that seizure initiated activation of multiple progenitors in the entire hippocampal area such as DG, CA1 and CA3. Seizure induction resulted in activation of two subtypes of Type-1 progenitors, Type-1a (GFAP{sup +ve}/nestin{sup +ve}/BrdU{sup +ve}) and Type-1b (GFAP{sup +ve}/nestin{sup +ve}/BrdU{sup -ve}). We showed that majority of Type-1b progenitors were undergoing only a transition from a state of dormancy to activated form immediately after seizures rather than proliferating, whereas Type-1a showed maximum proliferation by 3 days post-seizure induction. Type-2 (GFAP{sup -ve}/nestin{sup +ve}/BrdU{sup +ve}) progenitors were few compared to Type-1. Type-3 (DCX{sup +ve}) progenitors showed increased expression of immature neurons only in DG region by 3 days after seizure induction indicating maturation of progenitors happens only in microenvironment of DG even though progenitors are activated in CA1 and CA3 regions of hippocampus. Also parallel increase in growth factors expression after seizure induction suggests that microenvironmental niche has a profound effect on stimulation of adult neural progenitors.

Indulekha, Chandrasekharan L.; Sanalkumar, Rajendran [Neuro Stem Cell Biology Laboratory, Department of Neurobiology, Rajiv Gandhi Center for Biotechnology, Thiruvananthapuram, Kerala 695 014 (India); Thekkuveettil, Anoopkumar [Molecular Medicine, Biomedical Technology Wing, Sree Chitra Thirunal Institute for Medical Sciences and Technology, Thiruvananthapuram, Kerala (India); James, Jackson, E-mail: jjames@rgcb.res.in [Neuro Stem Cell Biology Laboratory, Department of Neurobiology, Rajiv Gandhi Center for Biotechnology, Thiruvananthapuram, Kerala 695 014 (India)

2010-03-19

173

Seizure induces activation of multiple subtypes of neural progenitors and growth factors in hippocampus with neuronal maturation confined to dentate gyrus  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Adult hippocampal neurogenesis is altered in response to different physiological and pathological stimuli. GFAP+ve/nestin+ve radial glial like Type-1 progenitors are considered to be the resident stem cell population in adult hippocampus. During neurogenesis these Type-1 progenitors matures to GFAP-ve/nestin+ve Type-2 progenitors and then to Type-3 neuroblasts and finally differentiates into granule cell neurons. In our study, using pilocarpine-induced seizure model, we showed that seizure initiated activation of multiple progenitors in the entire hippocampal area such as DG, CA1 and CA3. Seizure induction resulted in activation of two subtypes of Type-1 progenitors, Type-1a (GFAP+ve/nestin+ve/BrdU+ve) and Type-1b (GFAP+ve/nestin+ve/BrdU-ve). We showed that majority of Type-1b progenitors were undergoing only a transition from a state of dormancy to activated form immediately after seizures rather than proliferating, whereas Type-1a showed maximum proliferation by 3 days post-seizure induction. Type-2 (GFAP-ve/nestin+ve/BrdU+ve) progenitors were few compared to Type-1. Type-3 (DCX+ve) progenitors showed increased expression of immature neurons only in DG region by 3 days after seizure induction indicating maturation of progenitors happens only in microenvironment of DG even though progenitors are activated in CA1 and CA3 regions of hippocampus. Also parallel increase in growth factors expression after seizure induction suggests that microenvironmental niche has a profound effect on stimulation of adult neural progenitors.

174

Absence of mature microRNAs inactivates the response of gene expression to carcinogenesis induced by N-ethyl-N-nitrosourea in mouse liver.  

Science.gov (United States)

This study aims to evaluate the role of microRNAs (miRNAs) in chemical tumorigenesis by evaluating genomic gene expression in miRNA knockout mice. Previous studies showed that mice without mature miRNAs due to hepatocyte-specific Dicer1 knockout (KO) had a much higher liver tumor incidence than wild-type mice. In this study, Dicer1 KO or the wild-type mice were treated intraperitoneally with genotoxic carcinogen N-ethyl-N-nitrosourea (ENU) at a single dose (150 mg kg(-1) that resulted in liver tumorigenesis) or the vehicle at 3 weeks of age. The animals were killed 2 weeks after treatment and the liver samples were collected for the gene expression study. Principal components analysis and hierarchical cluster analysis showed that gene expression was globally altered by the Dicer1 KO and ENU exposure. There were 5621, 3286 and 2565 differentially expressed genes for Dicer1 disruption, ENU treatment in wild-type mice and ENU treatment in Dicer1 KO mice, respectively. Functional analysis of the differentially expressed genes suggests that the Dicer1 KO mouse liver lost their capability to suppress the carcinogenesis induced by ENU exposure in genomic level. In addition, the miRNA-mediated BRCA1 and P53 signaling pathways were identified as the main pathways responsible for the tumorigenesis. We conclude that the mouse livers in the absence of mature miRNAs could not appropriately respond to carcinogenic insults from ENU treatment, indicating that miRNAs play a critical role in chemical carcinogenesis. PMID:24478143

Luan, Yang; Qi, Xinming; Xu, Liang; Ren, Jin; Chen, Tao

2014-12-01

175

Early maturing mutations as germplasm stocks for barley breeding  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A total of 102 early maturing mutations have been isolated after various treatments of seeds or plants with ionizing radiations or chemicals from a barley cultivar 'Chikurin Ibaraki 1' or its mutants. Fifty of them were evaluated as regards responses to internal physiological factors. The mutants were found to have a mutational alteration in vernalization and/or photoperiodic response. Earliness in a narrow sense was not noticeably changed. The original genotype is a winter and long-day type. By mutation four different degrees of change in vernalization requirement i.e. complete (V1) and incomplete (V2) spring habit and winter habit with reduced requirement to varying degrees (V3, V4) have been produced. Photoperiodic response was also changed into at least three types i.e. complete (P1) and incomplete (P2) loss of sensitivity to short photoperiod and a slight reduction in critical daylength for heading. P1 and P2 type mutants were all characterized by marked earliness in heading time in field. Thirty seven mutants were located in seven separate loci. Allelism test of the mutated genes to spontaneous ones revealed that the genes carried by P1 type mutants were all allelic to an earliness gene ea sub(k) on chromosome 5 and the gene involved in P2 type mutants to ea7 on chromosome 6. On the contrary, the gene commonly involved in all V1 typcommonly involved in all V1 type mutants and one V2 type mutant was not allelic to spring habit gene Sh2 or Sh3. It seemed likely that the gene was not allelic to, either, but closely linked with sh on chromosome 4. The diversity in terms of genetic and physiological properties of the early maturing mutants arising from common ancestry emphasizes the importance of induced mutation in broadening of germplasm of barley breeding. (author)

176

Sulpiride-Induced Hyperprolactinemia in Mature Female Rats: Evidence for Alterations in The Reproductive System, Pituitary and Ovarian Hormones  

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Full Text Available Background: The prevalence of hyperprolactinemia following administration of conventional antipsychotic drugs requires further investigation. The current study is designed to evaluate the effect of sulpiride (SPD-induced hyperprolactinemia on alterations to ovarian follicular growth, gonadotropins, and ovarian hormones and to analyze the extent of potential problems in mammary glands. Materials and Methods: A total of 40 albino Wistar rats were divided into four groups: control (no treatment, control-sham (0.3 ml olive oil, low dose SPD (20 mg/kg and high dose SPD (40 mg/kg. All compounds were intraperitoneally (IP administered for a period of 28 days. Results: After 28 days, we dissected the rats’ ovarian tissues, uterine horns and mammary glands which were sent for histological analyses. We counted the numbers of normal, atretic follicles and corpora lutea (CL. Serum levels of prolactin (PRL, estradiol, progesterone, follicle stimulating hormone (FSH and luteinizing hormone (LH were evaluated. SPD-administered animals showed sporadic follicular atresia in different sizes associated with higher numbers of CL on the ovaries. The mammary glands exhibited features of galactorrhea. There was remarkable (p<0.05 elevation in SPD-administered animals’ uterine horn endometrium, myometrium and perimetrium thicknesses. The serum levels of PRL and progesterone significantly (p<0.05 increased, while the serum concentration of estradiol, LH and FSH notably (p<0.05 decreased according to the SPD administered dose. No histological and biological changes occurred in control-sham animals. SPD-induced animals had unsuccessful attempts at mating and decreased pregnancy rates. Conclusion: The present findings suggest that SPD-induced disturbances depend on PRL level. In addition, an increased PRL level is largely dependent on the administered doses of SPD.

Sara Mostafapour

2014-07-01

177

CD8 T Cell Response Maturation Defined by Anentropic Specificity and Repertoire Depth Correlates with SIV?nef-induced Protection  

Science.gov (United States)

The live attenuated simian immunodeficiency virus (LASIV) vaccine SIV?nef is one of the most effective vaccines in inducing protection against wild-type lentiviral challenge, yet little is known about the mechanisms underlying its remarkable protective efficacy. Here, we exploit deep sequencing technology and comprehensive CD8 T cell epitope mapping to deconstruct the CD8 T cell response, to identify the regions of immune pressure and viral escape, and to delineate the effect of epitope escape on the evolution of the CD8 T cell response in SIV?nef-vaccinated animals. We demonstrate that the initial CD8 T cell response in the acute phase of SIV?nef infection is mounted predominantly against more variable epitopes, followed by widespread sequence evolution and viral escape. Furthermore, we show that epitope escape expands the CD8 T cell repertoire that targets highly conserved epitopes, defined as anentropic specificity, and generates de novo responses to the escaped epitope variants during the vaccination period. These results correlate SIV?nef-induced protection with expanded anentropic specificity and increased response depth. Importantly, these findings render SIV?nef, long the gold standard in HIV/SIV vaccine research, as a proof-of-concept vaccine that highlights the significance of the twin principles of anentropic specificity and repertoire depth in successful vaccine design. PMID:25688559

Adnan, Sama; Colantonio, Arnaud D.; Yu, Yi; Gillis, Jacqueline; Wong, Fay E.; Becker, Ericka A.; Reeves, R. Keith; Lifson, Jeffrey D.; O’Connor, Shelby L.; Johnson, R. Paul

2015-01-01

178

CD8 T cell response maturation defined by anentropic specificity and repertoire depth correlates with SIV?nef-induced protection.  

Science.gov (United States)

The live attenuated simian immunodeficiency virus (LASIV) vaccine SIV?nef is one of the most effective vaccines in inducing protection against wild-type lentiviral challenge, yet little is known about the mechanisms underlying its remarkable protective efficacy. Here, we exploit deep sequencing technology and comprehensive CD8 T cell epitope mapping to deconstruct the CD8 T cell response, to identify the regions of immune pressure and viral escape, and to delineate the effect of epitope escape on the evolution of the CD8 T cell response in SIV?nef-vaccinated animals. We demonstrate that the initial CD8 T cell response in the acute phase of SIV?nef infection is mounted predominantly against more variable epitopes, followed by widespread sequence evolution and viral escape. Furthermore, we show that epitope escape expands the CD8 T cell repertoire that targets highly conserved epitopes, defined as anentropic specificity, and generates de novo responses to the escaped epitope variants during the vaccination period. These results correlate SIV?nef-induced protection with expanded anentropic specificity and increased response depth. Importantly, these findings render SIV?nef, long the gold standard in HIV/SIV vaccine research, as a proof-of-concept vaccine that highlights the significance of the twin principles of anentropic specificity and repertoire depth in successful vaccine design. PMID:25688559

Adnan, Sama; Colantonio, Arnaud D; Yu, Yi; Gillis, Jacqueline; Wong, Fay E; Becker, Ericka A; Piatak, Michael; Reeves, R Keith; Lifson, Jeffrey D; O'Connor, Shelby L; Johnson, R Paul

2015-02-01

179

The consequences of incomplete disclosure  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The disclosure requirements imposed on Canadian public companies are discussed. The basis of the capital market system in Canada is the integrity of full and true disclosure of all material facts in a prospectus and continuous disclosure of material changes and information, including financial results. Securities regulators have the right to report to the appropriate law enforcement agencies any company director who intentionally files misleading financial statements or press releases. The fundamental policy of Canadian stock exchanges is that all persons investing in securities listed on an exchange have equal access to information that may affect their investment decisions. Canadian stock exchanges have developed by-laws, rules and regulations relating to listed companies disclosure obligations, breach of which may lead to suspension of trading, delisting of the securities of the offending issuer, and substantial fines. Details of civil and criminal liability, current and proposed, for incomplete or inaccurate disclosure under Canadian securities legislation are explained. 59 refs

180

Reconstruction tomography from incomplete projections  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The findings reported are equally applicable to the fields of radiology and nuclear medicine, but the data discussed was aquired with scintillation cameras. Incomplete projections are obtained when the field of view of the detector is limited or when an opaque object lies within the field of view. It is possible to carry out reconstructions from such projections by extimating the missing projection values. A preferable method in most instances, however, appears to be the additive ART iterative method, modified to ignore the missing projection values. When the field of view is limited, one can use knowledge of the true outline of the density or radioactivity distribution to obtain improved reconstructions, by trimming the margin of the reconstruction array at the beginning of, or during, iterative reconstruction. The modified additive ART method, utilizing such trimming, appears to be clearly superior to any other method for reconstruction from projections which cover a limited field of view

181

Incomplete descriptions and relevant entropies  

CERN Document Server

Statistical mechanics relies on the complete though probabilistic description of a system in terms of all the microscopic variables. Its object is to derive therefrom static and dynamic properties involving some reduced set of variables. The elimination of the irrelevant variables is guided by the maximum entropy criterion, which produces the probability law carrying the least amount of information compatible with the relevant variables. This defines relevant entropies which measure the missing information (the disorder) associated with the sole variables retained in an incomplete description. Relevant entropies depend not only on the state of the system but also on the coarseness of its reduced description. Their use sheds light on questions such as the Second Law, both in equilibrium an in irreversible thermodynamics, the projection method of statistical mechanics, Boltzmann's \\textit{H}-theorem or spin-echo experiment.

Balian, R

1999-01-01

182

Polyamine-induced modulation of genes involved in ethylene biosynthesis and signalling pathways and nitric oxide production during olive mature fruit abscission  

OpenAIRE

After fruit ripening, many fruit-tree species undergo massive natural fruit abscission. Olive (Olea europaea L.) is a stone-fruit with cultivars such as Picual (PIC) and Arbequina (ARB) which differ in mature fruit abscission potential. Ethylene (ET) is associated with abscission, but its role during mature fruit abscission remains largely uncharacterized. The present study investigates the possible roles of ET and polyamine (PA) during mature fruit abscission by modulating genes involved in ...

Parra-lobato, Maria C.; Gomez-jimenez, Maria C.

2011-01-01

183

The novel RUNX3/p33 isoform is induced upon monocyte-derived dendritic cell maturation and downregulates IL-8 expression.  

Science.gov (United States)

RUNX proteins are heterodimeric factors that play crucial roles during development and differentiation of cells of the immune system. The RUNX3 transcription factor controls lineage decisions during thymopoiesis and T-cell differentiation, and modulates myeloid cell effector functions. We now report the characterization of the human RUNX3/p33 isoform, generated by splicing out a Runt DNA-binding domain-encoding exon, and whose transcriptional activities differ from those of the prototypic RUNX3/p44 molecule. Unlike RUNX3/p44, RUNX3/p33 is induced upon maturation of monocyte-derived dendritic cells (MDDC), and is unable to transactivate the regulatory regions of the CD11a, CD11c and CD49e integrin genes. Overexpression of RUNX3/p33 in myeloid cell lines led to diminished expression of genes involved in inflammatory responses. Moreover, overexpression of RUNX3/p33 down-modulated the basal level of IL-8 production from immature monocyte-derived dendritic cells (MDDC). Besides, siRNA-mediated knock-down of RUNX3 led to diminished levels of IL-8 RNA in immature MDDC, and modulated the neutrophil-recruiting capacity of myeloid cell line supernatants. Since IL-8 promotes neutrophil chemotaxis and degranulation during inflammatory responses, and exerts mitogenic and angiogenic actions within tumor microenvironment, our results imply that myeloid RUNX3 expression regulates the recruitment of leukocytes towards inflammatory foci and might also contribute to human cancer progression. PMID:20615577

Puig-Kröger, Amaya; Aguilera-Montilla, Noemi; Martínez-Nuñez, Rocío; Domínguez-Soto, Angeles; Sánchez-Cabo, Fátima; Martín-Gayo, Enrique; Zaballos, Angel; Toribio, María L; Groner, Yoram; Ito, Yoshiaki; Dopazo, Ana; Corcuera, María T; Alonso Martín, María J; Vega, Miguel A; Corbí, Angel L

2010-01-01

184

Effect of stress during handling, seawater acclimation, confinement, and induced spawning on plasma ion levels and somatolactin-expressing cells in mature female Liza ramada.  

Science.gov (United States)

The present experiments were designed to determine the effect of different stress factors; handling, seawater acclimation, confinement, and induced spawning on plasma cortisol, hydro mineral balance as well as changes in size, number and integrated intensity of somatolactin (SL)-expressing cells in Liza ramada mature females confined to fresh water ponds. The plasma levels of cortisol, PO(4)(3-), Na(+), and K(+) were higher, while Ca(2+) and Mg(2+) were lower than controls during transportation without anesthesia. By using clove oil (5 mg L(-1)) as an anesthetic during transportation, the plasma cortisol, PO(4) (3-), Na(+), and K(+) were similar to controls, while Ca(2+) and Mg(2+) were higher. During seawater acclimation, the plasma cortisol and minerals were significantly higher except Na(+) which was lower than controls. In addition, during induction of spawning, the plasma levels of cortisol, PO(4)(3-), Na(+), K(+), and Mg(2+) were significantly higher than controls. The SL-producing cells are located in the pars intermedia (PI) bordering the neurohypophysis. The stress affected the number, size, and immunostaining of SL-expressing cells. During seawater acclimation, the size and the integrated intensity of SL immunoreactivity were lower, but the number of these cells was higher than controls. Furthermore, the number, size, and the integrated intensity of SL immunoreactivity were significantly lower than controls during handling and after spawning, which was opposite to confinement. The response of SL-expressing cells in PI in parallel with changes in cortisol and hydro mineral balance induced by stress support the possible role of SL in the adaptive response of fish to stress. PMID:22628286

Khalil, Noha A; Hashem, Amal M; Ibrahim, Amal A E; Mousa, Mostafa A

2012-08-01

185

Inhibition of B lymphocyte-induced maturation protein-1 reduces the production of autoantibody and alleviates symptoms of systemic lupus erythematosus.  

Science.gov (United States)

The B lymphocyte-induced maturation protein-1 (Blimp-1) is an important transcription factor for the maintenance of antigen-specific immune responses, and it is crucial in the development of systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). This study aimed to investigate the role of Blimp-1 in the development of SLE and autoimmune-like symptoms. Lentivirus-mediated Blimp-1 siRNA was constructed and injected into MRL-Fas(lpr) lupus mice. The expression levels of Blimp-1, J-chain, C-myc, XBP-1 and BCMA in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PMBCs) were determined by RT-PCR. Anti-dsDNA autoantibody levels were detected using ELISA. The expression levels of Blimp-1 in liver, kidney, spleen and lymph nodes of mice were also detected by Western blot. The 24-h urinary protein was monitored weekly. Our results demonstrated that in MRL-Fas(lpr) lupus mice, Blimp-1 was upregulated in PMBCs, liver, kidney, spleen and lymph nodes. Administration of Blimp-1 siRNA reduced the expression of Blimp-1 and the anti-dsDNA level by 78 and 28%, respectively, in the peripheral blood, and the expression of XBP-1, J-chain and BCMA was also decreased. Although the Blimp-1 level in liver showed no significant changes, the levels of Blimp-1 in kidney, spleen and lymph nodes were dramatically decreased by 95, 72 and 47%, respectively. Kidney diseases induced by SLE in lupus mice were mitigated, and urinary protein levels were significantly decreased. These results indicate that Blimp-1 plays an important role in promoting the progression of SLE. Therefore, Blimp-1 may provide a new therapeutic target in the treatment of SLE. PMID:25347333

Luo, Jie; Niu, Xiaochang; Zhang, Mingxu; Zhang, Kejun; Chen, Ming; Deng, Shaoli

2015-03-01

186

The insemination of goldfish ( Carassium auratus) oocyte matured in vitro  

Science.gov (United States)

Full maturation of goldfish oocyte was induced in vitro by 17 ?-hydroxy-20?-dihydroprogesterone. The oocyte maturation involves GV migration to the periphery of the oocyte and germinal vesicle breakdown (GVBD). In the experiment, incubation duration for GVBD varied in different broods of oocytes. Generally, if the duration for GVBD was shorter than 6 h, oocytes would have a better chance to survive after maturation and insemination. The maturation of nucleus (GV) and cytoplasm are not synchronous. Cytoplasm maturation occurs several hs after GVBD. Oocytes inseminated 8 9 h after GVBD have the highest fertilizing and hatching rate. Fertilized ova matured in vitro can develop to sexually mature adults capable of reproduction.

Wang, Renxue; Wu, Xianhan; Zhou, Jing; Zhang, Shicui; Ma, Yingjie; Wu, Shangqin; Shi, Yingxian

1991-03-01

187

Induction and inhibition of oocyte maturation by EDCs in zebrafish  

OpenAIRE

Abstract Background Oocyte maturation in lower vertebrates is triggered by maturation-inducing hormone (MIH), which acts on unidentified receptors on the oocyte surface and induces the activation of maturation-promoting factor (MPF) in the oocyte cytoplasm. We previously described the induction of oocyte maturation in fish by an endocrine-disrupting chemical (EDC), diethylstilbestrol (DES), a nonsteroidal estrogen. Methods In this study, stimulatory and inhibitory effects of EDCs and natural ...

Tokumoto Mika; Tokumoto Toshinobu; Nagahama Yoshitaka

2005-01-01

188

NKT Cell-TCR Expression Activates Conventional T Cells in Vivo, but Is Largely Dispensable for Mature NKT Cell Biology  

Science.gov (United States)

Natural killer T (NKT) cell development depends on recognition of self-glycolipids via their semi-invariant V?14i-TCR. However, to what extent TCR-mediated signals determine identity and function of mature NKT cells remains incompletely understood. To address this issue, we developed a mouse strain allowing conditional V?14i-TCR expression from within the endogenous Tcr? locus. We demonstrate that naïve T cells are activated upon replacement of their endogenous TCR repertoire with V?14i-restricted TCRs, but they do not differentiate into NKT cells. On the other hand, induced TCR ablation on mature NKT cells did not affect their lineage identity, homeostasis, or innate rapid cytokine secretion abilities. We therefore propose that peripheral NKT cells become unresponsive to and thus are independent of their autoreactive TCR. PMID:23853545

Vahl, J. Christoph; Heger, Klaus; Knies, Nathalie; Hein, Marco Y.; Boon, Louis; Yagita, Hideo; Polic, Bojan; Schmidt-Supprian, Marc

2013-01-01

189

LA GLOBALIZACIÓN INCOMPLETA / INCOMPLETE GLOBALIZATION  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Colombia | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish El objetivo de este artículo es analizar el proceso de globalización, sus determinantes y los factores que limitan sus alcances. Metodológicamente, el trabajo se basa en una exhaustiva revisión documental crítica sobre el tema, complementada con el análisis de indicadores macroeconómicos de diferent [...] es países. Los resultados muestran la creciente desigualdad económica y social entre las regiones, en el marco de un proceso globalizador basado en un patrón de acumulación capitalista, que tiende a profundizar esos desequilibrios. La globalización se caracteriza como incompleta, por el despliegue limitado de su potencial para lograr una distribución más equitativa y sustentable no solo en lo económico, sino también en las esferas científica, tecnológica, ambiental, política y social. Abstract in english The aim of this document is to analyze the process of globa-lization, its determinants and the factors limiting its scope. Methodologically, the work is based on a comprehensive critical literature review on the subject, supplemented with the analysis of macroeconomic indicators in different countri [...] es. The results show the growing economic and social inequality between regions, as part of a process of globalization based on a pattern of capitalist accumulation, which tends to exacerbate these imbalances. Glo-balization is characterized as incomplete, because of the limited deployment potential to achieve a more equitable and sustainable development, not only economically, but also in scientific, tech-nological, environmental, political and social issues.

Alberto, Romero; Mary A, Vera-Colina.

2014-01-01

190

Incomplete linear tibial fractures in two horses  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Incomplete linear tibial fractures were identified in two horses with the aid of scintigraphy. Both horses were treated successfully by strict stall confinement, and both returned to normal athletic activity. Scintigraphy can be used to facilitate the generally difficult diagnosis of incomplete tibial fractures

191

Debt renegotiation with incomplete contract  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available A debt contract usually does not include a provision about renegotiation. The right to seize the borrower’s asset and the rules of this process are usually stipulated in the contract. Such a promise not to renegotiate is not credible since renegotiation can mitigate the dead-weight loss of liquidating insolvent borrowers. Once the initial contract may not consider the renegotiation procedure and renegotiation may occur, this paper investigates why a complete contract is not offered. It shows that the lender does not need to stipulate the renegotiation procedure on the initial contract because he is indifferent about committing or not to the terms of a contract. This indicates that a complete contract gives the lender the same expected return as an incomplete contract, in which the renegotiation process is determined after the occurrence of default.Um contrato de débito geralmente não inclui uma cláusula sobre renegociação. O direito de liquidar os ativos do tomador e as regras do processo são habitualmente estipuladas no contrato. Tal promessa de não renegociar não é crível, já que a renegociação pode mitigar a perda bruta de se liquidar tomadores insolventes. Uma vez que o contrato inicial pode não considerar os procedimentos de renegociação, e esta pode, de fato, vir a ocorrer, este artigo investiga a razão de um contrato completo não ser ofertado. Mostra-se que o emprestador não precisa estipular os procedimentos de renegociação no contrato inicial porque ele é indiferente entre se comprometer ou não aos termos do contrato. Isto indica que um contrato completo dá ao emprestador o mesmo retorno esperado de um contrato incompleto, no qual os procedimentos de renegociação são determinados após a declaração de default.

Paulo de Melo Jorge Neto

2005-09-01

192

Efficacy of clorsulon for treatment of mature naturally acquired and 8-week-old experimentally induced Fasciola hepatica infections in cattle.  

Science.gov (United States)

In a dose-titration study against experimentally induced 8-week-old Fasciola hepatica infection (study A), 20 calves were allotted to 5 groups, each of 4 calves, and treated with different doses of an injectable formulation of clorsulon or its vehicle: group 1--controls, no drug; group 2--2 mg of clorsulon /kg; group 3--4 mg of drug/kg; group 4--8 mg/kg; and group 5--16 mg/kg. Mean numbers of flukes recovered from 4 calves in each treatment group were as follows: group 1--112.2, group 2--42, group 3--4.8, group 4--3.0, and group 5--0.2. Percentages of fluke reductions for groups 2, 3, 4, and 5 ( clorsulon -treated) calves were 62.6%, 95.7%, 97.3%, and 99.8%, respectively. Against naturally acquired mature (greater than 14-week-old) F hepatica infections (study B), a total of 161 flukes were recovered from 7 vehicle-treated control calves (group 6; mean fluke recovery = 23) and no flukes were recovered from 9 calves (group 7) given orally a formulation containing 7 mg of clorsulon /kg of body weight. Eggs were not found in the feces of clorsulon -treated calves at 20 to 21 days after treatment as compared with a mean of 7.4 eggs per gram (epg) in group 6 (control) calves. Mean bile egg recoveries were 13,532 (456 to 66,861) from group 6 calves as compared to recovery of a total of 162 (0 to 160) eggs from 3 of the 9 treated calves.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:6732013

Malone, J B; Ramsey, R T; Loyacano, A F

1984-05-01

193

Lipocalin 2 binds to membrane phosphatidylethanolamine to induce lipid raft movement in a PKA-dependent manner and modulates sperm maturation.  

Science.gov (United States)

Mammalian sperm undergo multiple maturation steps after leaving the testis in order to become competent for fertilization, but the molecular mechanisms underlying this process remain unclear. In terms of identifying factors crucial for these processes in vivo, we found that lipocalin 2 (Lcn2), which is known as an innate immune factor inhibiting bacterial and malarial growth, can modulate sperm maturation. Most sperm that migrated to the oviduct of wild-type females underwent lipid raft reorganization and glycosylphosphatidylinositol-anchored protein shedding, which are signatures of sperm maturation, but few did so in Lcn2 null mice. Furthermore, we found that LCN2 binds to membrane phosphatidylethanolamine to reinforce lipid raft reorganization via a PKA-dependent mechanism and promotes sperm to acquire fertility by facilitating cholesterol efflux. These observations imply that mammals possess a mode for sperm maturation in addition to the albumin-mediated pathway. PMID:24803661

Watanabe, Hitomi; Takeo, Toru; Tojo, Hiromasa; Sakoh, Kazuhito; Berger, Thorsten; Nakagata, Naomi; Mak, Tak W; Kondoh, Gen

2014-05-01

194

A sea urchin lectin, SUL-1, from the Toxopneustid sea urchin induces DC maturation from human monocyte and drives Th1 polarization in vitro  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The sea urchin Toxopneustes pileolus belonging to the family Toxopneustidae, they have well-developed globiferous pedicellariae with pharmacologically active substances. We have purified a novel sea urchin lectin-1 (SUL-1) from the large globiferous pedicellariae of T. pileolus. Dendritic cells (DC) are professional APC and play a pivotal role in controlling immune responses. This study investigated whether SUL-1 can drive DC maturation from human immature monocyte-derived DC in vitro. Human monocytes were cultured with GM-CSF and IL-4 for 6 days followed by another 1 day in the presence of SUL-1 or LPS. DC harvested on day 7 were examined using functional assays. The expression levels of CD1a, CD80, CD83, CD86 and HLA-DR as expressed by mean fluorescence intensity (MFI) on DC differentiated from immature DC after culture with 1.0 ?g/ml of SUL-1 for 1 day were enhanced and decreased endocytic activity. SUL-1-treated DC also displayed enhanced T cell stimulatory capacity in an MLR, as measured by T cell proliferation. Cell surface expression of CD80, CD83 and CD86 on SUL-1-treated DC was inhibited by anti-DC-SIGN mAb, while anti-DC-SIGN mAb had no influence on allogeneic T cell proliferation by SUL-1-treated DC. DC differentiated with SUL-1 induced the differentiation of naive T cell towards a helper T cell type 1 (Th1) response at DC/T (1:5) cells ratio depending on IL-12 secretion. In CTL assay, the production of IFN-? and 51Cr release on SUL-1-treated Dup>51Cr release on SUL-1-treated DC were more augmented than of immature DC or LPS-treated DC. SUL-1-treated DC expressed CCR7 and had a high migration to MIP-3?. Intracellular Ca2+ mobilization in SUL-1-treated DC was also induced by MIP-3?. These results suggest that SUL-1 bindings to DC-SIGN on surface of immature DC may lead to differentiate DC from immature DC. Moreover, it suggests that SUL-1 may be used on DC-based vaccines for cancer immunotherapy

195

An unusual case of incomplete isosexual precocious puberty in a young girl with juvenile hypothyroidism  

OpenAIRE

Long-standing untreated primary hypothyroidism is an uncommon cause of praecocious puberty. The hypothyroidism, incomplete sexual maturation, galactorrhoea, and pituitary enlargement are reversed or corrected by levothyroxine therapy within a few months. We report a young girl with juvenile hypothyroidism who presented with early onset of menarche with failure of growth who was treated successfully with levothyroxine with resolution of early onset pubertal changes.

Pk, Sahana; As, Deshmukh; Sengupta N; Das C; Dasgupta R

2014-01-01

196

International testing of incomplete resistance against brown rust (Puccinia recondita) in IPHR wheat lines.  

OpenAIRE

Promising wheat lines from FAO's International Program for Horizontal Resistance (IPHR) in Brazil and Zambia were tested in the Netherlands against brown rust (Puccinia recondita. f.sp.tritici). Race nursery tests were performed on isolated field plots using five monopustular isolates from the Netherlands representing at least four races. Mature plants of several lines showed high incomplete resistance. For most lines, the reactions to the different races showed a high uniformity. Apparently,...

Milliano, W. A. J.; Beek, M. A.; Zadoks, J. C.

1986-01-01

197

Quantum Bertrand duopoly of incomplete information  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

We study Bertrand's duopoly of incomplete information. It is found that the effect of quantum entanglement on the outcome of the game is dramatically changed by the uncertainty of information. In contrast with the case of complete information where the outcome increases with entanglement, when information is incomplete the outcome is maximized at some finite entanglement. As a consequence, information and entanglement are both crucial factors that determine the properties of a quantum oligopoly

198

Lossy Channel Games under Incomplete Information  

OpenAIRE

In this paper we investigate lossy channel games under incomplete information, where two players operate on a finite set of unbounded FIFO channels and one player, representing a system component under consideration operates under incomplete information, while the other player, representing the component's environment is allowed to lose messages from the channels. We argue that these games are a suitable model for synthesis of communication protocols where processes communic...

Rayna Dimitrova; Bernd Finkbeiner

2013-01-01

199

Cochlear implant in incomplete partition type I  

OpenAIRE

In this investigation, we report on 4 patients affected by incomplete partition type I submitted to cochlear implant at our institutions. Preoperative, surgical, mapping and follow-up issues as well as results in cases with this complex malformation are described. The cases reported in the present study confirm that cochlear implantation in patients with incomplete partition type I may be challenging for cochlear implant teams. The results are variable, but in many cases satisfactory, and are...

Berrettini, S.; Forli, F.; Vito, A.; Bruschini, L.; Quaranta, N.

2013-01-01

200

Effect of ?-Q value on incomplete fusion  

Science.gov (United States)

The probability of incomplete fusion in 13C+159Tb interactions has been measured in the energy range ?4-7 MeV/nucleon. The variation of the incomplete fusion fraction has been studied in terms of projectile energy and type. Present results are compared with the existing 12C+159Tb data, where a strong projectile structure effect on the incomplete fusion fraction has been observed. It has been found that the probability of incomplete fusion is higher in the case of 12C than for a one-neutron rich 13C projectile. For better insight into the projectile structure effect, a systematic study is presented on the incomplete fusion measured in 12,13C,16O+159Tb and 12,13C,16O+181Ta systems by Singh [Phys. Rev.CPRVCAN0556-281310.1103/PhysRevC.80.014601 80, 014601 (2009)] and by Babu [J. Phys. GJPGPED0954-389910.1088/0954-3899/29/6/304 29, 1011 (2003)]. The present analysis indicates a strong dependence of incomplete fusion probability on the ?-Q value of the projectile at these low energies.

Yadav, Abhishek; Sharma, Vijay R.; Singh, Pushpendra P.; Kumar, R.; Singh, D. P.; Unnati; Sharma, M. K.; Singh, B. P.; Prasad, R.

2012-07-01

201

The structure and development of incompletely closed carpels in an apocarpous species, Sagittaria trifolia (Alismataceae).  

Science.gov (United States)

• Premise of the study: Carpel closure is commonly considered as a key innovation in angiosperms; however, some families continue to exhibit a variety of forms of incomplete carpel closure. The carpel of Sagittaria species contains an unusual structure. In this study, we confirm the closure type of the carpel of Sagittaria trifolia and discuss its development and evolution.• Methods: Scanning electron microscopy and light microscopy of semithin sections were used to observe the development and the mature structure of the carpel. Pollen tube growth in the carpel and seed germination in the achene was also studied.• Key results: During late carpel development, the middle parts of the carpel margins underwent postgenital fusion. However, at maturity the lowest and uppermost parts of the carpel margins remained open. The mature carpel was incompletely closed and contained a secretion-filled canal, which extended from the stigma to the opening at the carpel base. At that site, pollen tubes could either grow to the ovule or exit the carpel and grow to other carpels. The basal opening also served as an exit point for the seedling to emerge.• Conclusions: Incomplete carpel closure by S. trifolia differs from the closure types recorded in previous studies because two entrances link the ovary in the carpel to the outside environment. This type of carpel closure occurs as a result of the lack of fusion of the carpel margins at the base of the carpel and could improve the seed set and seedling germination of S. trifolia. PMID:25030350

Huang, Lan-Jie; Wang, Xiao-Wen; Wang, Xiao-Fan

2014-07-16

202

49 CFR 529.4 - Requirements for incomplete automobile manufacturers.  

Science.gov (United States)

... false Requirements for incomplete automobile manufacturers. 529.4 Section 529...TRANSPORTATION MANUFACTURERS OF MULTISTAGE AUTOMOBILES § 529.4 Requirements for incomplete automobile manufacturers. (a) Except as...

2010-10-01

203

The 30-kDa and 38-kDa antigens from Mycobacterium tuberculosis induce partial maturation of human dendritic cells shifting CD4+ T cell responses towards IL-4 production  

Science.gov (United States)

Background Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb) infections are still a major cause of death among all infectious diseases. Although 99% of individuals infected with Mtb develop a CD4+ Th1 and CD8+ T cell mediated immunity as measured by tuberculin skin test, this results only in partial protection and Mtb vaccines are not effective. Deviation of immune responses by pathogens towards a Th2 profile is a common mechanism of immune evasion, typically leading to the persistence of the microbes. Results Here we tested the stimulatory capacity of selective Mtb antigens on human monocyte-derived dendritic cell (DC) maturation and cytokine production. DC maturation markers CD80, CD86 and CD83 were readily upregulated by H37Ra- and H37Rv-associated antigens, the 30-kDa (from Ag85 B complex) and 38-KDa Mtb antigens only partially induced these markers. All Mtb antigens induced variable levels of IL-6 and low levels of IL-10, there was no release of IL-12p70 detectable. Substantial IL-12p40 production was restricted to LPS or H37Ra and H37Rv preparations. Although the proliferation levels of primary T cell responses were comparable using all the differentially stimulated DC, the 30-kDa and 38-kDa antigens showed a bias towards IL-4 secretion of polarized CD4+ T cells after secondary stimulation as compared to H37Ra and H37Rv preparations. Conclusion Together our data indicate that 30-kDa and 38-kDa Mtb antigens induced only partial DC maturation shifting immune responses towards a Th2 profile. PMID:24089996

2013-01-01

204

Pericoronal radiolucency associated with incomplete crown  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The author experienced 8 cases of pericoronal radiolucency involving an incomplete tooth crown that had not developed to form the cemento-enamel junction, and the underdeveloped crown sometimes appeared to be floating within the radiolucency radiographically. The first impression was that these cystic lesions had odontogenic keratocysts, but half of them turned out to be dentigerous cysts histopathologically. There has been no report concerning odontogenic cysts involving an incompletely developed crown. The purpose of this paper is to report that dentigerous cysts may develop before the completion of the cemento-enamel junction of a developing crown.

Nah, Kyung Soo [Dept. of Oral and Maxillofacial Radiology, School of Dentistry, Pusan National University, Yangsan (Korea, Republic of)

2013-12-15

205

Quantum Stackelberg duopoly with incomplete information  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

We investigate the quantum version of the Stackelberg duopoly with incomplete information, especially how the quantum entanglement affects the first-mover advantage in the classical form. It is found that while positive entanglement enhances the first-mover advantage beyond the classical limit, the advantage is dramatically suppressed by negative entanglement. Moreover, despite that positive quantum entanglement improves the first-mover's tolerance for the informational incompleteness, the quantum effect does not change the basic fact that Firm A's lack of complete information of Firm B's unit cost is eradicating the first-mover advantage

206

CIMGS: An incomplete orthogonal factorization preconditioner  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This paper introduces, analyzes, and tests a preconditioning method for conjugate gradient (CG) type iterative methods. The authors start by examining incomplete Gram-Schmidt factorization (IGS) methods in order to motivate the new preconditioner. They show that the IGS family is more stable than IC, and they successfully factor any full rank matrix. Furthermore, IGS preconditioners are at least as effective in accelerating convergence of CG type iterative methods as the incomplete Cholesky (IC) preconditioner. The drawback of IGS methods are their high cost of factorization. This motivates finding a new algorithm, CIMGS, which can generate the same factor in a more efficient way.

Wang, X.; Bramley, R. [Indiana Univ., Bloomington, IN (United States); Gallivan, K. [Univ. of Illinois, Urbana, IL (United States)

1994-12-31

207

The empirical cost of optimal incomplete transportation  

OpenAIRE

We consider the problem of optimal incomplete transportation between the empirical measure on an i.i.d. uniform sample on the d-dimensional unit cube $[0,1]^d$ and the true measure. This is a family of problems lying in between classical optimal transportation and nearest neighbor problems. We show that the empirical cost of optimal incomplete transportation vanishes at rate $O_P(n^{-1/d})$, where n denotes the sample size. In dimension $d\\geq3$ the rate is the same as in cl...

Del Barrio, Eustasio; Matra?n, Carlos

2013-01-01

208

Herpes Simplex Virus 2 (HSV-2) Prevents Dendritic Cell Maturation, Induces Apoptosis, and Triggers Release of Proinflammatory Cytokines: Potential Links to HSV-HIV Synergy  

OpenAIRE

Herpes simplex virus 2 (HSV-2) may cause frequent recurrences, highlighting its ability to evade host defense. This study tested the hypothesis that HSV-2 interferes with dendritic cell (DC) function as an escape mechanism, which may contribute to enhanced HIV replication in coinfected populations. Immature monocyte-derived human DCs were exposed to live or UV-inactivated HSV-2 or lipopolysaccharide. Little or no increase in the maturation marker CD83 was observed in response to HSV-2 and HSV...

Stefanidou, Martha; Ramos, Irene; Mas Casullo, Veronica; Tre?panier, Janie B.; Rosenbaum, Sara; Fernandez-sesma, Ana; Herold, Betsy C.

2013-01-01

209

EMOTIONAL MATURITY AMONG ADOLECENTS  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The present study was conducted to know the Emotional Maturity amongadolescents in relation to some personal background variables. The sample of this studyconsisted of 200 graduates (100 Arts & 100 Science students studying in Dharwad city.Yeshvir Singh and Mahesh Bhargava's Emotional Maturity scale was administered onthem to measure the Emotional Maturity. The data collected was subjected to statisticalanalysis in terms of Mean, SD, and 't' ratio. The findings show that, Science students arehaving significantly high Emotional Maturity than the Arts students. Where as there isno significant difference in Emotional Maturity of Boys and Girl adolescents,adolescents those who are coming from rural and urban area and adolescents those whobelongs to Scheduled Caste, Scheduled Tribes and General merit.

S.G.JADHAV

2013-02-01

210

Quantum correlations from incomplete classical statistics  

OpenAIRE

We formulate incomplete classical statistics for situations where the knowledge about the probability distribution outside a local region is limited. The information needed to compute expectation values of local observables can be collected in a quantum mechanical state vector, whereas further statistical information about the probability distribution outside the local region becomes irrelevant. The translation of the available information between neighboring local regions i...

Wetterich, C.

2001-01-01

211

Classification and data acquisition with incomplete data  

Science.gov (United States)

In remote-sensing applications, incomplete data can result when only a subset of sensors (e.g., radar, infrared, acoustic) are deployed at certain regions. The limitations of single sensor systems have spurred interest in employing multiple sensor modalities simultaneously. For example, in land mine detection tasks, different sensor modalities are better-suited to capture different aspects of the underlying physics of the mines. Synthetic aperture radar sensors may be better at detecting surface mines, while infrared sensors may be better at detecting buried mines. By employing multiple sensor modalities to address the detection task, the strengths of the disparate sensors can be exploited in a synergistic manner to improve performance beyond that which would be achievable with either single sensor alone. When multi-sensor approaches are employed, however, incomplete data can be manifested. If each sensor is located on a separate platform ( e.g., aircraft), each sensor may interrogate---and hence collect data over---only partially overlapping areas of land. As a result, some data points may be characterized by data (i.e., features) from only a subset of the possible sensors employed in the task. Equivalently, this scenario implies that some data points will be missing features. Increasing focus in the future on using---and fusing data from---multiple sensors will make such incomplete-data problems commonplace. In many applications involving incomplete data, it is possible to acquire the missing data at a cost. In multi-sensor remote-sensing applications, data is acquired by deploying sensors to data points. Acquiring data is usually an expensive, time-consuming task, a fact that necessitates an intelligent data acquisition process. Incomplete data is not limited to remote-sensing applications, but rather, can arise in virtually any data set. In this dissertation, we address the general problem of classification when faced with incomplete data. We also address the closely related problem of active data acquisition, which develops a strategy to acquire missing features and labels that will most benefit the classification task. We first address the general problem of classification with incomplete data, maintaining the view that all data (i.e., information) is valuable. We employ a logistic regression framework within which we formulate a supervised classification algorithm for incomplete data. This principled, yet flexible, framework permits several interesting extensions that allow all available data to be utilized. One extension incorporates labeling error, which permits the usage of potentially imperfectly labeled data in learning a classifier. A second major extension converts the proposed algorithm to a semi-supervised approach by utilizing unlabeled data via graph-based regularization. Finally, the classification algorithm is extended to the case in which (image) data---from which features are extracted---are available from multiple resolutions. Taken together, this family of incomplete-data classification algorithms exploits all available data in a principled manner by avoiding explicit imputation. Instead, missing data is integrated out analytically with the aid of an estimated conditional density function (conditioned on the observed features). This feat is accomplished by invoking only mild assumptions. We also address the problem of active data acquisition by determining which missing data should be acquired to most improve performance. Specifically, we examine this data acquisition task when the data to be acquired can be either labels or features. The proposed approach is based on a criterion that accounts for the expected benefit of the acquisition. This approach, which is applicable for any general missing data problem, exploits the incomplete-data classification framework introduced in the first part of this dissertation. This data acquisition approach allows for the acquisition of both labels and features. Moreover, several types of feature acquisition are permitted, including the acquisition of individual

Williams, David P.

212

Estimate of true incomplete exchanges using fluorescence in situ hybridization with telomere probes  

Science.gov (United States)

PURPOSE: To study the frequency of true incomplete exchanges in radiation-induced chromosome aberrations. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Human lymphocytes were exposed to 2 Gy and 5 Gy of gamma-rays. Chromosome aberrations were studied using the fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) technique with whole chromosome-specific probes, together with human telomere probes. Chromosomes 2 and 4 were chosen in the present study. RESULTS: The percentage of incomplete exchanges was 27% when telomere signals were not considered. After excluding false incomplete exchanges identified by the telomere signals, the percentage of incomplete exchanges decreased to 11%. Since telomere signals appear on about 82% of the telomeres, the percentage of true incomplete exchanges should be even lower and was estimated to be 3%. This percentage was similar for chromosomes 2 and 4 and for doses of both 2 Gy and 5 Gy. CONCLUSIONS: The percentage of true incomplete exchanges is significantly lower in gamma-irradiated human lymphocytes than the frequencies reported in the literature.

Wu, H.; George, K.; Yang, T. C.

1998-01-01

213

Influence of a one-neutron-excess projectile on low-energy incomplete fusion  

Science.gov (United States)

Background: Incomplete fusion has been found to be an important contributor in light heavy-ion (A ?20) induced reactions even at slightly above barrier energies. Purpose: For better insight into the dynamics of incomplete fusion, the onset and influence of incomplete fusion need to be investigated in terms of projectile energy (Elab) and entrance channel mass-asymmetry (?A). A rich set of experimental data on incomplete fusion may be useful to correlate the probability of incomplete fusion with the various entrance channel parameters and eventually to develop a theoretical model code for the same. Presently, there is no theoretical model available which can explain low-energy incomplete fusion data consistently. Methods: The excitation functions of complete and incomplete fusion residues populated in the C13+Tm169 system have been measured using the recoil-catcher activation technique followed by offline ? spectroscopy. The evaporation residues have been identified on the basis of characteristic ? lines and confirmed through the decay-curve analysis. Results: The excitation functions of xn and pxn channels are found to be in good agreement with the statistical model code pace4; this suggests the population of these channels via complete fusion. Some residues are found to have a contribution from their higher charge isobar precursor decay. The precursor contribution has been deduced from the cumulative cross section using the standard successive radioactive decay formulations. The excitation functions of ?-emitting channels are observed to be significantly enhanced as compared to the statistical model code pace4. This enhancement may be attributed to the contribution from incomplete fusion. The incomplete fusion strength function for C13+Tm169 is compared with that obtained in the C12+Tm169 system. It has been found that the one-neutron (1n) excess projectile C13 (as compared to C12) results in a less incomplete fusion contribution due to its relatively large negative alpha-Q value. Recently proposed "alpha-Q-value systematics" seems to explain incomplete fusion data.

Sharma, Vijay R.; Yadav, Abhishek; Singh, Pushpendra P.; Singh, Devendra P.; Gupta, Sunita; Sharma, M. K.; Bala, Indu; Kumar, R.; Murlithar, S.; Singh, B. P.; Prasad, R.

2014-02-01

214

Model for Incomplete Reconnection in Sawtooth Crashes  

CERN Document Server

A model for incomplete reconnection in sawtooth crashes is presented. The reconnection inflow during the crash phase of sawteeth self-consistently convects the high pressure core toward the reconnection site, raising the pressure gradient there. Reconnection shuts off if the diamagnetic drift speed at the reconnection site exceeds a threshold, which may explain incomplete reconnection. The relaxation of magnetic shear after reconnection stops may explain the destabilization of ideal interchange instabilities reported previously. Proof-of-principle two-fluid simulations confirm this basic picture. Predictions of the model compare favorably to data from the Mega Ampere Spherical Tokamak. Applications to transport modeling of sawteeth are discussed. The results should apply across tokamaks, including ITER.

Beidler, Matthew T

2011-01-01

215

Advanced incomplete factorization algorithms for Stiltijes matrices  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The modern numerical methods for solving the linear algebraic systems Au = f with high order sparse matrices A, which arise in grid approximations of multidimensional boundary value problems, are based mainly on accelerated iterative processes with easily invertible preconditioning matrices presented in the form of approximate (incomplete) factorization of the original matrix A. We consider some recent algorithmic approaches, theoretical foundations, experimental data and open questions for incomplete factorization of Stiltijes matrices which are {open_quotes}the best{close_quotes} ones in the sense that they have the most advanced results. Special attention is given to solving the elliptic differential equations with strongly variable coefficients, singular perturbated diffusion-convection and parabolic equations.

Il`in, V.P. [Siberian Division RAS, Novosibirsk (Russian Federation)

1996-12-31

216

Lossy Channel Games under Incomplete Information  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In this paper we investigate lossy channel games under incomplete information, where two players operate on a finite set of unbounded FIFO channels and one player, representing a system component under consideration operates under incomplete information, while the other player, representing the component's environment is allowed to lose messages from the channels. We argue that these games are a suitable model for synthesis of communication protocols where processes communicate over unreliable channels. We show that in the case of finite message alphabets, games with safety and reachability winning conditions are decidable and finite-state observation-based strategies for the component can be effectively computed. Undecidability for (weak parity objectives follows from the undecidability of (weak parity perfect information games where only one player can lose messages.

Rayna Dimitrova

2013-03-01

217

MATURATION OF POPCORN SEEDS  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The objective of this study was to analyze the maturation process of the popcorn seeds DFT 2 (selection cycle 2. At approximately 30 days after full blooming, when about 50% of the plants exhibited receptive silks, the first harvest of the seeds was accomplished. The other harvests were accomplished at 7-day intervals until seeds reached approximately 12% moisture content (wet basis, which occurred upon the 10th harvesting. Just after each harvest, the seeds were manually husked, to determine their moisture content and the weight of the dry matter. Also the development of the black layer was visually evaluated. After the last harvesting, the seeds were evaluated for retention on sieves, germination and vigor (modified cold, accelerated aging and electric conductivity tests. The popcorn seeds reach the maximum dry matter weight (mass maturity 68 days after flowering, and the physiological maturity of the seeds (maximum germination and vigor achieves it from 62 to 68 days after blooming. The seeds show humidity in the grade from 17 to 20%, for occasion of the physiological maturity and mass maturity. The black layer is an efficient visual characteristic to identify the physiological maturity of the seeds.

ANDRÉIA MÁRCIA SANTOS DE SOUZA DAVID

2003-12-01

218

Analyzing Incomplete Discrete Longitudinal Clinical Trial Data  

OpenAIRE

Commonly used methods to analyze incomplete longitudinal clinical trial data include complete case analysis (CC) and last observation carried forward (LOCF). However, such methods rest on strong assumptions, including missing completely at random (MCAR) for CC and unchanging profile after dropout for LOCF. Such assumptions are too strong to generally hold. Over the last decades, a number of full longitudinal data analysis methods have become available, such as the linear mix...

Jansen, Ivy; Beunckens, Caroline; Molenberghs, Geert; Verbeke, Geert; Mallinckrodt, Craig

2006-01-01

219

Option Pricing Model for Incomplete Market  

OpenAIRE

The problem of determining the European-style option price in the incomplete market has been examined within the framework of stochastic optimization. An analytic method based on the discrete dynamic programming equation (Bellman equation) has been developed that gives the general formalism for determining the option price and the optimal trading strategy (optimal control policy) that reduces total risk inherent in writing the option. The basic purpose of paper is to presen...

Fedotov, Sergei; Mikhailov, Sergei

1998-01-01

220

Incomplete information and R&D organization  

OpenAIRE

The paper studies incentives for cooperative research vis-à-vis non-cooperative research under incomplete information when the R&D outcome is stochastic and continuously distributed with a given mean and a constant variance. We show that the non-cooperative R&D incentive increases with the variance of the R&D outcome. And this result does not depend on the nature of the product market competition.

Chattopadhyay, Srobonti; Kabiraj, Tarun

2014-01-01

221

Incomplete momentum transfer in heavy-ion fusion at 14 MeV/u  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Evaporation residues have been studied for reactions induced by 291 MeV 20Ne ions on 12C, 27Al, 40Ca targets. The analysis of many velocity spectra of individually resolved residue masses shows clear evidence for fusion-like residues with incomplete momentum transfer

222

Dynamic Network Formation with Incomplete Information  

CERN Document Server

How do networks form and what is their ultimate topology? Most of the literature that addresses these questions assumes complete information: agents know in advance the value of linking to other agents, even with agents they have never met and with whom they have had no previous interaction (direct or indirect). This paper addresses the same questions under what seems to us to be the much more natural assumption of incomplete information: agents do not know in advance -- but must learn -- the value of linking to agents they have never met. We show that the assumption of incomplete information has profound implications for the process of network formation and the topology of networks that ultimately form. Under complete information, the networks that form and are stable typically have a star, wheel or core-periphery form, with high-value agents in the core. Under incomplete information, the presence of positive externalities (the value of indirect links) implies that a much wider collection of network topologi...

Song, Yangbo

2013-01-01

223

Inhibition of apelin expression switches endothelial cells from proliferative to mature state in pathological retinal angiogenesis  

OpenAIRE

The recruitment of mural cells such as pericytes to patent vessels with an endothelial lumen is a key factor for the maturation of blood vessels and the prevention of hemorrhage in pathological angiogenesis. To date, our understanding of the specific trigger underlying the transition from cell growth to the maturation phase remains incomplete. Since rapid endothelial cell growth causes pericyte loss, we hypothesized that suppression of endothelial growth factors would both promote pericyte re...

Kasai, Atsushi; Ishimaru, Yuki; Higashino, Kosuke; Kobayashi, Kohei; Yamamuro, Akiko; Yoshioka, Yasuhiro; Maeda, Sadaaki

2013-01-01

224

A new version of an old modal incompleteness theorem  

OpenAIRE

Thomason \\cite{Thomason74} showed that a certain modal logic $\\mathbf{L}\\subset \\mathbf{S4}$ is incomplete with respect to Kripke semantics. Later Gerson \\cite{Gerson75} showed that $\\mathbf{L}$ is also incomplete with respect to neighborhood semantics. In this paper we show that $\\mathbf{L}$ is in fact incomplete with respect to any class of complete Boolean algebras with operators, i.e. that it is completely incomplete.

Vosmaer, Jacob

2012-01-01

225

The Impact of Incomplete Information on Games in Parallel Relay Networks  

CERN Document Server

We consider the impact of incomplete information on incentives for node cooperation in parallel relay networks with one source node, one destination node, and multiple relay nodes. All nodes are selfish and strategic, interested in maximizing their own profit instead of the social welfare. We consider the practical situation where the channel state on any given relay path is not observable to the source or to the other relays. We examine different bargaining relationships between the source and the relays, and propose a framework for analyzing the efficiency loss induced by incomplete information. We analyze the source of the efficiency loss, and quantify the amount of inefficiency which results.

Xiao, Hongda

2011-01-01

226

Goedel incompleteness theorems and the limits of their applicability. I  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This is a survey of results related to the Goedel incompleteness theorems and the limits of their applicability. The first part of the paper discusses Goedel's own formulations along with modern strengthenings of the first incompleteness theorem. Various forms and proofs of this theorem are compared. Incompleteness results related to algorithmic problems and mathematically natural examples of unprovable statements are discussed. Bibliography: 68 titles.

227

Closed-Form Bounds to the Rice and Incomplete Toronto Functions and Incomplete Lipschitz-Hankel Integrals  

OpenAIRE

This article provides novel analytical results for the Rice function, the incomplete Toronto function and the incomplete Lipschitz-Hankel Integrals. Firstly, upper and lower bounds are derived for the Rice function, $Ie(k,x)$. Secondly, explicit expressions are derived for the incomplete Toronto function, $T_{B}(m,n,r)$, and the incomplete Lipschitz-Hankel Integrals of the modified Bessel function of the first kind, $Ie_{\\mu,n}(a,z)$, for the case that $n$ is an odd multiple...

Sofotasios, Paschalis C.; Freear, Steven

2011-01-01

228

Induction of complete and incomplete chromosome aberrations by bleomycin in human lymphocytes  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Bleomycin (BLM) is a clastogenic compound, which due to the overdispersion in the cell distribution of induced dicentrics has been compared to the effect of high-LET radiation. Recently, it has been described that in fibroblast derived cell lines BLM induces incomplete chromosome elements more efficiently than any type of ionizing radiation. The objective of the present study was to evaluate in human lymphocytes the induction of dicentrics and incomplete chromosome elements by BLM. Peripheral blood samples have been treated with different concentrations of BLM. Two cytogenetic techniques were applied, fluorescence plus Giemsa (FPG) and FISH using pan-centromeric and pan-telomeric probes. The observed frequency of dicentric equivalents increases linearly with the BLM concentration, and for all BLM concentrations the distribution of dicentric equivalents was overdispersed. In the FISH study the ratio between total incomplete elements and multicentrics was 0.27. The overdispersion in the dicentric cell distribution, and the linear BLM-concentration dependence of dicentrics can be compared to the effect of high-LET radiation, on the contrary the ratio of incomplete elements and multicentrics is similar to the one induced by low-LET radiation ({approx}0.40). The elevated proportion of interstitial deletions in relation to total acentric fragments, higher than any type of ionizing radiation could be a characteristic signature of the clastogenic effect of BLM.

Benkhaled, L.; Xuncla, M.; Caballin, M.R. [Universitat Autonoma de Barcelona, Unitat d' Antropologia Biologica, Departament de Biologia Animal, Biologia Vegetal i Ecologia, E-08193 Bellaterra (Spain); Barrios, L. [Universitat Autonoma de Barcelona, Unitat de Biologia Cel.lular, Departament de Biologia Cel.lular, Fisiologia i Immunologia (Spain); Barquinero, J.F. [Universitat Autonoma de Barcelona, Unitat d' Antropologia Biologica, Departament de Biologia Animal, Biologia Vegetal i Ecologia, E-08193 Bellaterra (Spain)], E-mail: Francesc.Barquinero@uab.es

2008-01-01

229

Evidence of reproductive disruption associated with neuroendocrine changes induced by UV–B filters, phtalates and nonylphenol during sexual maturation in rats of both gender  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Endocrine disruptors (EDs) are exogenous substances or xenoestrogens natural or synthetic, capable of interacting with different systems and altering their normal hormonal regulation, being the reproductive system one of the most affected. EDs produce their effects not only by acting on nuclear steroid receptors, but also on membrane receptors, steroidal and non-steroidal synthetic enzymatic pathways and/or metabolism. The incorporation to the body depend on each EDs, which are liposoluble and easily deposited in the tissue; thus ensuring a prolonged accumulation and release, even when the exposure is not continuous. In addition to cross the placenta, EDs may act in the offspring during the reproductive system formation and maturation key stages and its regulatory mechanisms. The effects of EDs can be multiple, but most acts mediating estrogenic and/or antiandrogenic effect. Three groups of EDs are widely used: in plastics (phtalates), sunscreens (cinnamate and methylbenzylcamphor), and detergents (nonylphenol). In this paper we review the effects of the exposure to these environmental chemicals on the reproductive system and the possible mechanisms by which they occur, focusing in the hypothalamic–pituitary neuroendocrine mechanisms that regulate the reproductive system

230

Essays on incomplete contracts in regulatory activities  

Science.gov (United States)

This dissertation consists of three essays. The first essay, The Hold-Up Problem in Public Infrastructure Franchising, characterizes the equilibria of the investment decisions in public infrastructure franchising under incomplete contracting and ex-post renegotiation. The parties (government and a firm) are unable to credibly commit to the contracted investment plan, so that a second step investment is renegotiated by the parties at the revision stage. As expected, the possibility of renegotiation affects initial non-verifiable investments. The main conclusion of this essay is that not only underinvestment but also overinvestment in infrastructure may arise in equilibrium, compared to the complete contracting case. The second essay, Alternative Institutional Arrangements in Network Utilities: An Incomplete Contracting Approach, presents a theoretical assessment of the efficiency implications of privatizing natural monopolies which are vertically related to potential competitive firms. Based on the incomplete contracts and asymmetric information paradigm. I develop a model that analyzes the relative advantages of different institutional arrangements---alternative ownership and market structures in the industry--- in terms of their allocative and productive efficiencies. The main policy conclusion of this essay is that both ownership and the existence of conglomerates in network industries matter. Among other conclusions, this essay provides an economic rationale for a mixed economy in which the network is public and vertical separation of the industry when the natural monopoly is under private ownership. The last essay, Opportunistic Behavior and Legal Disputes in the Chilean Electricity Sector, analyzes post-contractual disputes in this newly privatized industry. It discusses the presumption that opportunistic behavior and disputes arise due to inadequate market design, ambiguous regulation, and institutional weaknesses. This chapter also assesses the presumption that a large number of legal disputes are inhibited by the nonexistence of institutions able to verify and enforce contracts. An in-depth analysis of six cases of open conflict provides support for such a presumption and highlights the crucial role of an adequate market design.

Saavedra, Eduardo Humberto

231

Incomplete figure perception and invisible masking.  

Science.gov (United States)

The Gollin test (measuring recognition thresholds for fragmented line drawings of everyday objects and animals) has traditionally been regarded as a test of incomplete figure perception or 'closure', though there is a debate about how such closure is achieved. Here, figural incompleteness is considered to be the result of masking, such that absence of contour elements of a fragmented figure is the result of the influence of an 'invisible' mask. It is as though the figure is partly obscured by a mask having parameters identical to those of the background. This mask is 'invisible' only consciously, but for the early stages of visual processing it is real and has properties of multiplicative noise. Incomplete Gollin figures were modeled as the figure covered by the mask with randomly distributed transparent and opaque patches. We adjusted the statistical characteristics of the contour image and empty noise patches and processed those using spatial and spatial-frequency measures. Across 73 figures, despite inter-subject variability, mean recognition threshold was always approximately 15% of total contour in naive observers. Recognition worsened with increasing spectral similarity between the figure and the 'invisible' mask. Near threshold, the spectrum of the fragmented image was equally similar to that of the 'invisible' mask and complete image. The correlation between spectral parameters of figures at threshold and complete figures was greatest for figures that were most easily recognised. Across test sessions, thresholds reduced when either figure or mask parameters were familiar. We argue that recognition thresholds for Gollin stimuli in part reflect the extraction of signal from noise. PMID:17286116

Chikhman, Valery; Shelepin, Yuri; Foreman, Nigel; Merkuljev, Aleksey; Pronin, Sergey

2006-01-01

232

Inflationary spacetimes are incomplete in past directions.  

Science.gov (United States)

Many inflating spacetimes are likely to violate the weak energy condition, a key assumption of singularity theorems. Here we offer a simple kinematical argument, requiring no energy condition, that a cosmological model which is inflating--or just expanding sufficiently fast--must be incomplete in null and timelike past directions. Specifically, we obtain a bound on the integral of the Hubble parameter over a past-directed timelike or null geodesic. Thus inflationary models require physics other than inflation to describe the past boundary of the inflating region of spacetime. PMID:12732026

Borde, Arvind; Guth, Alan H; Vilenkin, Alexander

2003-04-18

233

Time, Incompleteness and Singularity in Quantum Cosmology  

CERN Document Server

In this paper we extend our 2007 paper, Comparative Quantum Cosmology: Causality, Singularity, and Boundary Conditions, arXiv:0710.5046 to include consideration of universal expansion, various implications of extendibility and incompleteness in spacetime metrics and, absent the treatment of Feynman diagrams, the use of Penning trap dynamics as explained by Ferdandez and Velazquez to describe the Hamiltonians of space-times with no characteristic upper or lower bound and to compare the above with Peter Lynds' conjecture on the specialness of initial conditions in inflationary theory in quantum cosmology.

Fellman, Philip V; Carmichael, Christine; Manus, Alexandru; Attig, Dawna Lee

2009-01-01

234

Obesity and secondary sexual maturity in boys  

OpenAIRE

Background Obesity induces earlier secondary sexual maturity in girls. However, results of studies in boys have been inconclusive. Objective To assess for an association between obesity and sexual maturity in boys. Methods This was a prospective cohort study on 133 obese and 133 matched-for-age, non-obese, prepubertal boys, aged 9 to 10 years. They were observed every 4 months for a two year period. Obesity was defined as the BMI ?the 95th percentile, according to the Centers for Di...

Modella Rahmani Femina; Madarina Julia2); Soeroyo Machfudz

2013-01-01

235

Phagocytosis and LPS alter the maturation state of ?-amyloid precursor protein and induce different A? peptide release signatures in human mononuclear phagocytes  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background The classic neuritic ?-amyloid plaque of Alzheimer's disease (AD is typically associated with activated microglia and neuroinflammation. Similarly, cerebrovascular ?-amyloid (A? deposits are surrounded by perivascular macrophages. Both observations indicate a contribution of the mononuclear phagocyte system to the development of ?-amyloid. Methods Human CD14-positive mononuclear phagocytes were isolated from EDTA-anticoagulated blood by magnetic activated cell sorting. After a cultivation period of 72 hours in serum-free medium we assessed the protein levels of amyloid precursor protein (APP as well as the patterns and the amounts of released A? peptides by ELISA or one-dimensional and two-dimensional urea-based SDS-PAGE followed by western immunoblotting. Results We observed strong and significant increases in A? peptide release upon phagocytosis of acetylated low density lipoprotein (acLDL or polystyrene beads and also after activation of the CD14/TLR4 pathway by stimulation with LPS. The proportion of released N-terminally truncated A? variants was increased after stimulation with polystyrene beads and acLDL but not after stimulation with LPS. Furthermore, strong shifts in the proportions of single A?1-40 and A?2-40 variants were detected resulting in a stimulus-specific A? signature. The increased release of A? peptides was accompanied by elevated levels of full length APP in the cells. The maturation state of APP was correlated with the release of N-terminally truncated A? peptides. Conclusions These findings indicate that mononuclear phagocytes potentially contribute to the various N-truncated A? variants found in AD ?-amyloid plaques, especially under neuroinflammatory conditions.

Kornhuber Johannes

2010-10-01

236

Jealousy and Moral Maturity.  

Science.gov (United States)

Jealousy may be perceived as either good or bad depending upon the moral maturity of the individual. To investigate this conclusion, a study was conducted testing two hypothesis: a positive relationship exists between conventional moral reasoning (reference to norms and laws) and the endorsement and level of jealousy; and a negative relationship…

Mathes, Eugene W.; Deuger, Donna J.

237

Incomplete Quadratic Exponential Sums in Several Variables  

CERN Document Server

We consider incomplete exponential sums in several variables of the form S(f,n,m) = \\frac{1}{2^n} \\sum_{x_1 \\in \\{-1,1\\}} ... \\sum_{x_n \\in \\{-1,1\\}} x_1 ... x_n e^{2\\pi i f(x)/p}, where m>1 is odd and f is a polynomial of degree d with coefficients in Z/mZ. We investigate the conjecture, originating in a problem in computational complexity, that for each fixed d and m the maximum norm of $S(f,n,m)$ converges exponentially fast to 0 as n grows to infinity. The conjecture is known to hold in the case when m=3 and d=2, but existing methods for studying incomplete exponential sums appear to be insufficient to resolve the question for an arbitrary odd modulus m, even when d=2. In the present paper we develop three separate techniques for studying the problem in the case of quadratic f, each of which establishes a different special case of the conjecture. We show that a bound of the required sort holds for almost all quadratic polynomials, a stronger form of the conjecture holds for all quadratic polynomials with ...

Duenez, E; Straubing, H; Roy, A; Duenez, Eduardo; Miller, Steven J.; Straubing, Howard; Roy, Amitabha

2004-01-01

238

Coordinated Development of Voltage-Gated Na+ and K+ Currents Regulates Functional Maturation of Forebrain Neurons Derived from Human Induced Pluripotent Stem Cells  

OpenAIRE

Like embryonic stem (ES) cells, human induced pluripotent stem (hiPS) cells can differentiate into neuronal cells. However, it is unclear how their exquisite neuronal function is electrophysiologically coordinated during differentiation and whether they are functionally identical to human ES cell-derived neurons. In this study, we differentiated hiPS and ES cells into pyramidal-like neurons and conducted electrophysiological characterization over the 4-week terminal differentiation period. Th...

Song, Mingke; Mohamad, Osama; Chen, Dongdong; Yu, Shan Ping

2012-01-01

239

Enterovirus-71 Virus-Like Particles Induce the Activation and Maturation of Human Monocyte-Derived Dendritic Cells through TLR4 Signaling  

Science.gov (United States)

Enterovirus 71 (EV71) causes seasonal epidemics of hand-foot-and-mouth disease and has a high mortality rate among young children. We recently demonstrated potent induction of the humoral and cell-mediated immune response in monkeys immunized with EV71 virus-like particles (VLPs), with a morphology resembling that of infectious EV71 virions but not containing a viral genome, which could potentially be safe as a vaccine for EV71. To elucidate the mechanisms through which EV71 VLPs induce cell-mediated immunity, we studied the immunomodulatory effects of EV71 VLPs on human monocyte-derived dendritic cells (DCs), which bind to and incorporate EV71 VLPs. DC treatment with EV71 VLPs enhanced the expression of CD80, CD86, CD83, CD40, CD54, and HLA-DR on the cell surface; increased the production of interleukin (IL)-12 p40, IL-12 p70, and IL-10 by DCs; and suppressed the capacity of DCs for endocytosis. Treatment with EV71 VLPs also enhanced the ability of DCs to stimulate naïve T cells and induced secretion of interferon (IFN)-? by T cells and Th1 cell responses. Neutralization with antibodies against Toll-like receptor (TLR) 4 suppressed the capacity of EV71 VLPs to induce the production of IL-12 p40, IL-12 p70, and IL-10 by DCs and inhibited EV71 VLPs binding to DCs. Our study findings clarified the important role for TLR4 signaling in DCs in response to EV71 VLPs and showed that EV71 VLPs induced inhibitor of kappaB alpha (I?B?) degradation and nuclear factor of kappaB (NF-?B) activation. PMID:25360749

Lin, Yu-Li; Hu, Yu-Chen; Liang, Cheng-Chao; Lin, Shih-Yeh; Liang, Yu-Chih; Yuan, Hui-Ping; Chiang, Bor-Luen

2014-01-01

240

Enterovirus-71 Virus-Like Particles Induce the Activation and Maturation of Human Monocyte-Derived Dendritic Cells through TLR4 Signaling  

OpenAIRE

Enterovirus 71 (EV71) causes seasonal epidemics of hand-foot-and-mouth disease and has a high mortality rate among young children. We recently demonstrated potent induction of the humoral and cell-mediated immune response in monkeys immunized with EV71 virus-like particles (VLPs), with a morphology resembling that of infectious EV71 virions but not containing a viral genome, which could potentially be safe as a vaccine for EV71. To elucidate the mechanisms through which EV71 VLPs induce cell-...

Lin, Yu-li; Hu, Yu-chen; Liang, Cheng-chao; Lin, Shih-yeh; Liang, Yu-chih; Yuan, Hui-ping; Chiang, Bor-luen

2014-01-01

241

Light particle revelation on incomplete fusion reactions  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Incomplete fusion reactions have been studied through light particles emission in the reaction 116Sn + 16O at 125 MeV (ALICE facility in Orsay). We measured energy angular distributions and correlations between any two of these particles (? particles, protons, neutrons), while ? multiplicity measurements provide us fuller informations. From collected data, the following pictures can be drawn: - the only fast particles observed are ? particles, while protons and neutrons seem to come only from statistical evaporation; - outgoing channels where two ? particles are emitted cannot be solely explained by the sequential emission of 8Be ? 2?: about half of the cross section proceeds from statistical evaporation of one ? particle. Accordingly, 2?xn channels do not necessarily agree with high value of angular momentum in the entrance channel. From the study of experimental results in the yrast plane, we can assign a large width to the angular momentum distribution

242

Incomplete melting of the Au(100) surface  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

We study the high-temperature disordering of the reconstructed Au(100) surface by molecular dynamics simulation using a many-body interatomic potential. We find that the surface deconstructs at 0.8Tm in good agreement with experimental data, but proper surface melting does not occur close to the bulk melting point. Instead there is an in-plane disordering of the two topmost layers. The thickness of the disordered region remains constant with increasing temperature, indicating blocked, or incomplete, melting of the (100) crystalline substrate. An analysis of the structure reveals that crystalline and disordered islands coexist on two first surface layers for temperature between deconstruction and bulk melting. (author). 24 refs, 10 figs

243

Inflaton dark matter from incomplete decay  

CERN Document Server

We show that the decay of the inflaton field may be incomplete, while nevertheless successfully reheating the universe and leaving a stable remnant that accounts for the present dark matter abundance. We note, in particular, that since the mass of the inflaton decay products is field-dependent, one can construct models, endowed with an appropriate discrete symmetry, where inflaton decay is kinematically forbidden at late times and only occurs during the initial stages of field oscillations after inflation. We show that this is sufficient to ensure the transition to a radiation-dominated era and that inflaton particles typically thermalize in the process. They eventually decouple and freeze out, yielding a thermal dark matter relic. We discuss possible implementations of this generic mechanism within consistent cosmological and particle physics scenarios, for both single-field and hybrid inflation.

Bastero-Gil, Mar; Rosa, Joao G

2015-01-01

244

Regulatory perspective on incomplete control rod insertions  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The incomplete control rod insertions experienced at South Texas Unit 1 and Wolf Creek are of safety concern to the NRC staff because they represent potential precursors to loss of shutdown margin. Even before it was determined if these events were caused by the control rods or by the fuel there was an apparent correlation of the problem with high burnup fuel. It was determined that there was also a correlation between high burnup and high drag forces as well as with rod drop time histories and lack of rod recoil. The NRC staff initial actions were aimed at getting a perspective on the magnitude of the problem as far as the number of plants and the amount of fuel that could be involved, as well as the safety significance in terms of shutdown margin. As tests have been performed and data has been analyzed the focus has shifted more toward understanding the problem and the ways to eliminate it. At this time the staff's understanding of the phenomena is that it was a combination of factors including burnup, power history and temperature. The problem appears to be very sensitive to these factors, the interaction of which is not clearly understood. The model developed by Westinghouse provides a possible explanation but there is not sufficient data to establish confidence levels and sensitivity studies involving the key parameters have not been done. While several fixes to the problem have been discussed, no definitive fixes have been proposed. Without complete understanding of the phenomena, or fixes that clearly eliminate the problem the safety concern remains. The safety significance depends on the amount of shutdown margin lost due to incomplete insertion of the control rods. Were the control rods to stick high in the core, the reactor could not be shutdown by the control rods and other means such as emergency boration would be required

245

Regulatory perspective on incomplete control rod insertions  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The incomplete control rod insertions experienced at South Texas Unit 1 and Wolf Creek are of safety concern to the NRC staff because they represent potential precursors to loss of shutdown margin. Even before it was determined if these events were caused by the control rods or by the fuel there was an apparent correlation of the problem with high burnup fuel. It was determined that there was also a correlation between high burnup and high drag forces as well as with rod drop time histories and lack of rod recoil. The NRC staff initial actions were aimed at getting a perspective on the magnitude of the problem as far as the number of plants and the amount of fuel that could be involved, as well as the safety significance in terms of shutdown margin. As tests have been performed and data has been analyzed the focus has shifted more toward understanding the problem and the ways to eliminate it. At this time the staff`s understanding of the phenomena is that it was a combination of factors including burnup, power history and temperature. The problem appears to be very sensitive to these factors, the interaction of which is not clearly understood. The model developed by Westinghouse provides a possible explanation but there is not sufficient data to establish confidence levels and sensitivity studies involving the key parameters have not been done. While several fixes to the problem have been discussed, no definitive fixes have been proposed. Without complete understanding of the phenomena, or fixes that clearly eliminate the problem the safety concern remains. The safety significance depends on the amount of shutdown margin lost due to incomplete insertion of the control rods. Were the control rods to stick high in the core, the reactor could not be shutdown by the control rods and other means such as emergency boration would be required.

Chatterton, M.

1997-01-01

246

Mapping brain maturation  

OpenAIRE

Human brain maturation is a complex, lifelong process that can now be examined in detail using neuroimaging techniques. Ongoing projects scan subjects longitudinally with structural magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), enabling the time-course and anatomical sequence of development to be reconstructed. Here, we review recent progress on imaging studies of development. We focus on cortical and subcortical changes observed in healthy children, and contrast them with abnormal developmental changes ...

Toga, Arthur W.; Thompson, Paul M.; Sowell, Elizabeth R.

2006-01-01

247

Mechanisms of lipase maturation  

OpenAIRE

Lipases are acyl hydrolases that represent a diverse group of enzymes present in organisms ranging from prokaryotes to humans. This article focuses on an evolutionarily related family of extracellular lipases that include lipoprotein lipase, hepatic lipase and endothelial lipase. As newly synthesized proteins, these lipases undergo a series of co- and post-translational maturation steps occurring in the endoplasmic reticulum, including glycosylation and glycan processing, and protein folding ...

Doolittle, Mark H.; Pe?terfy, Miklo?s

2010-01-01

248

A Clinical Study on Management of Incomplete Abortion by Manual Vacuum Aspiration (MVA  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Background: Abortion is an important social and public health issue. In Bangladesh complication from unsafe abortion is one of the leading causes of maternal mortality. It is a serious health problem. World Health Organisation estimates that 14% of maternal deaths which occur every year in the countries of South Asia including Bangladesh are due to abortion. Study shows manual vacuum aspiration procedure is safe and effective in incomplete abortion. Very few clinical trials were carried out in Bangladesh to assess the safety and effectivity of manual vacuum aspiration in managing incomplete abortion. Objective: To find out the outcome of manual vacuum aspiration in the management of patients of incomplete abortion. Materials and Methods: This observational descriptive study was conducted in the department of Obstetrics & Gynaecology, Dhaka Medical College & Hospital from June to December, 2004. One hundred cases of diagnosed incomplete abortion up to 12 weeks of gestation were managed by manual vacuum aspiration during this period. A data recording sheet was designed for this purpose. Haemodynamically stable patients with no history of induced abortion and fever were enrolled. Results: Procedure time of manual vacuum aspiration was short, average duration was 7 minutes. Bleeding was minimum (20-30 mL in 67% cases and weighted mean was 29.80 mL. Eighty three percent patients were stable during the procedure and only 3% needed blood transfusion. Nonnarcotic analgesics were used in 59% cases and 33% needed only proper counselling. Average duration of hospital stay was 2 hours. Effectiveness of the procedure was about 98% with very low post procedure complication rate (2%. Conclusion: MVA procedure is a safe and effective technique of uterine evacuation in incomplete abortion. It is quick, less expensive, effective and less painful. Hospital stay and chance of perforation of uterus is less. So this procedure should be considered by health care system in Bangladesh for improving treatment of incomplete abortion to reduce both maternal morbidity and mortality.

Arifa Akter Jahan

2012-07-01

249

Observation of incomplete fusion at low angular momenta  

Science.gov (United States)

Present work deals with experimental studies of incomplete fusion reaction dynamics using off-line ?-ray spectrometry at energies as low as ?3-6 MeV/nucleon. Excitation functions for five reaction products populated via complete and/or incomplete fusion processes in 16O+130Te system have been measured and compared with the predictions of the statistical model code PACE4. A significant enhancement in the measured excitation functions compared to theoretical predictions for ?-emitting channels has been observed and is attributed to incomplete fusion processes. The relative strength of incomplete fusion has been found to increase with projectile energy. Results show that incomplete fusion is associated even for angular momenta lesser than the critical angular momentum for complete fusion and also reveals importance of incomplete fusion even at energies as low as ?3-6 MeV/nucleon.

Singh, Devendra P.; Yadav, Abhishek; Bala, Indu; Raghav, Anubhav; Shuaib, Mohd.; Kumar, Prabhat; Singh, Pushpendra P.; Unnati; Sharma, M. K.; Sharma, Vijay R.; Kumar, R.; Gupta, R. K.; Singh, B. P.; Prasad, R.

2015-01-01

250

Goedel incompleteness theorems and the limits of their applicability. I  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This is a survey of results related to the Goedel incompleteness theorems and the limits of their applicability. The first part of the paper discusses Goedel's own formulations along with modern strengthenings of the first incompleteness theorem. Various forms and proofs of this theorem are compared. Incompleteness results related to algorithmic problems and mathematically natural examples of unprovable statements are discussed. Bibliography: 68 titles.

Beklemishev, Lev D [Steklov Mathematical Institute, Russian Academy of Sciences, Moscow (Russian Federation)

2011-01-25

251

Gibbs' theorem for open systems with incomplete statistics  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Gibbs' theorem, which is originally intended for canonical ensembles with complete statistics has been generalized to open systems with incomplete statistics. As a result of this generalization, it is shown that the stationary equilibrium distribution of inverse power law form associated with the incomplete statistics has maximum entropy even for open systems with energy or matter influx. The renormalized entropy definition given in this paper can also serve as a measure of self-organization in open systems described by incomplete statistics.

252

The Surprise Examination Paradox and the Second Incompleteness Theorem  

OpenAIRE

We give a new proof for Godel's second incompleteness theorem, based on Kolmogorov complexity, Chaitin's incompleteness theorem, and an argument that resembles the surprise examination paradox. We then go the other way around and suggest that the second incompleteness theorem gives a possible resolution of the surprise examination paradox. Roughly speaking, we argue that the flaw in the derivation of the paradox is that it contains a hidden assumption that one can prove the ...

Kritchman, Shira; Raz, Ran

2010-01-01

253

Incomplete resistance to coffee leaf rust (Hemileia vastatrix)  

OpenAIRE

Incomplete resistance to coffee leaf rust ( Hemileia vastatrix ) may be of value in obtaining durable resistance, which is of great importance for the perennial coffee crop. Methods were developed to assess incomplete resistance to coffee leaf rust by using illustrated scales ranging from 0 to 9 (Chapter 1). A laboratory screening method, which uses leaf disks, has been standardized. The method is satisfactory for the assessment of complete and incomplete resistance (Chapter 2). Resistance to...

Eskes, T. K. A. B.

1983-01-01

254

Incentives in Public and Privatized Firms under Incomplete Contracting Situations  

OpenAIRE

It is argued that incentives for employees in the public service agencies will necessarily be weak because of the multiple dimensions of products, multiple principals, incomplete contract, and socializing. Some empirical studies refer to incomplete contracting situations as part of the cause of the diminishing of the public sector. This work investigates the effects of privatization and ownership shares on incentive schemes for employees who work for public or privatized firms under incomplet...

Takeshi Miyazaki

2012-01-01

255

The Small-Maturity Heston Forward Smile  

OpenAIRE

In this paper we investigate the asymptotics of forward-start options and the forward implied volatility smile in the Heston model as the maturity approaches zero. We prove that the forward smile for out-of-the-money options explodes and compute a closed-form high-order expansion detailing the rate of the explosion. Furthermore the result shows that the square-root behaviour of the variance process induces a singularity such that for certain parameter configurations one cann...

Jacquier, Antoine; Roome, Patrick

2013-01-01

256

Infrastructure integration and incomplete contracts: natural gas in the Southern Cone  

OpenAIRE

This paper uses evidence on policies, markets and private transactions to discuss the experience of natural gas infrastructure integration in the Southern Cone of Latin America. The argument is that contracts on international exchanges supported by infrastructure may become incomplete due to contingencies related to policy-induced price distortions not anticipated at the moment of writing. Beyond regulatory risk mitigation, it calls for back-up contract provisions designed to cope with aggreg...

Navajas, Fernando H.

2008-01-01

257

In vitro Atrazine Exposure Affects the Phenotypic and Functional Maturation of Dendritic Cells  

OpenAIRE

Recent data suggest that some of the immunotoxic effects of the herbicide atrazine, a very widely used pesticide, may be due to perturbations in dendritic cell (DC) function. As consequences of atrazine exposure on the phenotypic and functional maturation of DC have not been studied, our objective was, using the murine DC line, JAWSII, to determine whether atrazine will interfere with DC maturation. First, we characterized the maturation of JAWSII cells in vitro by inducing them to mature in ...

Pinchuk, Lesya M.; Lee, Sang-ryul; Filipov, Nikolay M.

2007-01-01

258

Enamel maturation: a brief background with implications for some enamel dysplasias.  

Science.gov (United States)

The maturation stage of enamel development begins once the final tissue thickness has been laid down. Maturation includes an initial transitional pre-stage during which morphology and function of the enamel organ cells change. When this is complete, maturation proper begins. Fully functional maturation stage cells are concerned with final proteolytic degradation and removal of secretory matrix components which are replaced by tissue fluid. Crystals, initiated during the secretory stage, then grow replacing the tissue fluid. Crystals grow in both width and thickness until crystals abut each other occupying most of the tissue volume i.e. full maturation. If this is not complete at eruption, a further post eruptive maturation can occur via mineral ions from the saliva. During maturation calcium and phosphate enter the tissue to facilitate crystal growth. Whether transport is entirely active or not is unclear. Ion transport is also not unidirectional and phosphate, for example, can diffuse out again especially during transition and early maturation. Fluoride and magnesium, selectively taken up at this stage can also diffuse both in an out of the tissue. Crystal growth can be compromised by excessive fluoride and by ingress of other exogenous molecules such as albumin and tetracycline. This may be exacerbated by the relatively long duration of this stage, 10 days or so in a rat incisor and up to several years in human teeth rendering this stage particularly vulnerable to ingress of foreign materials, incompletely mature enamel being the result. PMID:25339913

Robinson, Colin

2014-01-01

259

TOPSIS-based consensus model for group decision-making with incomplete interval fuzzy preference relations.  

Science.gov (United States)

Due to the vagueness of real-world environments and the subjective nature of human judgments, it is natural for experts to estimate their judgements by using incomplete interval fuzzy preference relations. In this paper, based on the technique for order preference by similarity to ideal solution method, we present a consensus model for group decision-making (GDM) with incomplete interval fuzzy preference relations. To do this, we first define a new consistency measure for incomplete interval fuzzy preference relations. Second, a goal programming model is proposed to estimate the missing interval preference values and it is guided by the consistency property. Third, an ideal interval fuzzy preference relation is constructed by using the induced ordered weighted averaging operator, where the associated weights of characterizing the operator are based on the defined consistency measure. Fourth, a similarity degree between complete interval fuzzy preference relations and the ideal one is defined. The similarity degree is related to the associated weights, and used to aggregate the experts' preference relations in such a way that more importance is given to ones with the higher similarity degree. Finally, a new algorithm is given to solve the GDM problem with incomplete interval fuzzy preference relations, which is further applied to partnership selection in formation of virtual enterprises. PMID:24081882

Liu, Fang; Zhang, Wei-Guo

2014-08-01

260

Analyzing Incomplete Discrete Longitudinal Clinical Trial Data  

CERN Document Server

Commonly used methods to analyze incomplete longitudinal clinical trial data include complete case analysis (CC) and last observation carried forward (LOCF). However, such methods rest on strong assumptions, including missing completely at random (MCAR) for CC and unchanging profile after dropout for LOCF. Such assumptions are too strong to generally hold. Over the last decades, a number of full longitudinal data analysis methods have become available, such as the linear mixed model for Gaussian outcomes, that are valid under the much weaker missing at random (MAR) assumption. Such a method is useful, even if the scientific question is in terms of a single time point, for example, the last planned measurement occasion, and it is generally consistent with the intention-to-treat principle. The validity of such a method rests on the use of maximum likelihood, under which the missing data mechanism is ignorable as soon as it is MAR. In this paper, we will focus on non-Gaussian outcomes, such as binary, categorica...

Jansen, I; Molenberghs, G; Verbeke, G; Mallinckrodt, C; Jansen, Ivy; Beunckens, Caroline; Molenberghs, Geert; Verbeke, Geert; Mallinckrodt, Craig

2006-01-01

261

Incomplete and complete fusion at intermediate energies  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The authors have begun a radiochemical study of the variation of complete and incomplete fusion processes with increasing projectile energy in the reaction of intermediate energy heavy ions with neutron-rich rare earth nuclei. (These nuclei have been selected to minimize fission and to lead to products suitable for detection by radiochemical techniques.) Specifically, the authors have measured the yields, differential range spectra and angular distributions for near and trans-target residues produced in the interaction of 137 MeV (8.6 MeV/nucleon) and 307 MeV (19.1 MeV/nucleon) 16O (at the LBL 88-Inch Cyclotron), 418 MeV (34.8 MeV/nucleon) 12C (at the Michigan State University superconducting cyclotron) and 1032 MeV (86 MeV/nucleon) 12C (at the CERN SC synchrocyclotron) with 150Nd, 154Sm and 176Yb. From these measured distributions, the authors have deduced isobaric yields and invariant velocity spectra

262

Incomplete statistics and nonextensive generalization of statistical mechanics  

OpenAIRE

Statistical mechanics is generalized on the basis of an information theory for inexact or incomplete probability distributions. A parameterized normalization is proposed and leads to a nonextensive entropy. The resulting incomplete statistical mechanics is proved to have the same theoretical characteristics as Tsallis one based on the conventional normalization.

Wang, Qiuping A.

2000-01-01

263

Maduración visual retardada / Delayed visual maturation  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Retraso en la maduración visual es el término utilizado para describir aquellos niños con incapacidad de fijar o seguir objetos en el ambiente, que no responden ante la proximidad de un objeto amenazante o un destello de luz, por ejemplo, abrir y cerrar los ojos; pero luego mejora a la edad de 6 mes [...] es sin tratamiento. Se incluyen dentro de las posibles causas la falta de oxígeno antes, durante o después del nacimiento, enfermedades producidas por virus o bacterias como la meningitis y el citomegalovirus, o una lesión traumática,aunque hoy en día queda poco consenso en cuanto a la etiología de este fenómeno. Estos niños con retraso en la maduración visual parecen ciegos, incapaces de centrar la atención, fijar o seguir cualquier parte del mundo visual. La exploración ocular y neurológica del niño es completamente normal. Los síntomas se resuelven sin tratamiento y con frecuencia, no se encuentra ninguna causa para la presentación inicial. El retraso en la maduración visual se clasifica en 3 grupos: el primero con retraso en la maduración visual como única anomalía y una recuperación rápida y completa. El segundo incluye aquellos casos con problemas oculares, como estrabismo, error refractivo elevado, retraso mental, entre otros, logrando una recuperación más lenta y a menudo incompleta. El tercer grupo incluye los casos con otras anomalías oculares. Abstract in english Delayed visual maturation is the term used to describe those children with inability to fix their eyes with the object or to visually follow them in the environment, who do not react to a threatening object or a gleam of light close to them, for example, by opening and closing their eyes. However, t [...] hey generally improve their condition at the age of 6 months without any treatment. The possible causes of this disorder may be lack of oxygen, before, during or after birth, illnesses caused by viruses or bacteria, such as meningitis and cytomegalovirus, or a traumatic lesion, although there exists now minority consensus about the real etiology of this phenomenon. The children suffering delayed visual maturation seem to be blind, unable to focus attention, fix or visually follow any portion of the visual world. Ocular and neurological examination of the child is completely normal. Symptoms disappear without any treatment and the cause for the initial occurrence is usually unfound. The delayed visual maturation is classified into 3 groups, the first group with delayed visual maturation as the only anomaly and a quick and complete recovery. The second group includes those cases with ocular problems, namely strabismus, high refractive error, mental retardation, and others, in which recovery is slower and often incomplete. The third group includes cases with other ocular anomalies.

Yolelvis, Monfort Estévez; Teresita de Jesús, Méndez Sánchez.

264

SWAP-70 restricts spontaneous maturation of dendritic cells.  

Science.gov (United States)

Spontaneous maturation observed in dendritic cell (DC) cultures has been linked to their capacity to induce immune responses. Despite several recent studies, the mechanisms and signals triggering spontaneous maturation of DCs are largely unknown. We found that the absence of SWAP-70 causes spontaneous maturation of spleen- and bone marrow-derived DCs and, in vivo, of spleen-resident CD11c(+)CD11b(+)CD8?(-) DCs. Activation markers, cross-presentation of exogenous Ags, and activation of CD8(+) T cells are much increased in Swap-70(-/-) DCs. Spontaneous maturation of Swap-70(-/-) DCs depends on cell-cell contact and does not involve ?-catenin signaling. SWAP-70 is known to regulate integrin activity. Signaling through the integrin CD11b (?M) subunit increases spontaneous maturation of wild-type (wt), but not of Swap-70(-/-) DCs. Signaling through the CD18 (?2) subunit decreases spontaneous maturation of wt and Swap-70(-/-) DCs. Constitutive activation of RhoA in Swap-70(-/-) DCs was determined as a key mechanism causing the increased spontaneous maturation. Inhibition of RhoA early, but not late, in the activation process reduces spontaneous maturation in Swap-70(-/-) DCs to wt levels. Inhibition of RhoA activation during CD11b integrin activation had a significant effect only in Swap-70(-/-) but not in wt DCs. Together, our data suggest that integrin-mediated spontaneous maturation of wt DCs does not depend on active RhoA, whereas the increase in spontaneous maturation of Swap-70(-/-) DCs is supported by integrin CD11b and by hyperactive RhoA. Thus, SWAP-70 deficiency reveals two pathways that contribute to spontaneous maturation of DCs. PMID:23636062

Ocaña-Morgner, Carlos; Götz, Anne; Wahren, Christine; Jessberger, Rolf

2013-06-01

265

Maturity-independent risk measures  

OpenAIRE

The new notion of maturity-independent risk measures is introduced and contrasted with the existing risk measurement concepts. It is shown, by means of two examples, one set on a finite probability space and the other in a diffusion framework, that, surprisingly, some of the widely utilized risk measures cannot be used to build maturity-independent counterparts. We construct a large class of maturity-independent risk measures and give representative examples in both continuo...

Zariphopoulou, Thaleia; Zitkovic, Gordan

2007-01-01

266

Manejo estético y endodóncico de dientes con formación radicular incompleta / Aesthetic and endodontic management of teeth with incomplete root formation  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available La necrosis pulpar es una de las principales complicaciones de los traumatismos dentales lo que implica en un diente inmaduro la interrupción de la maduración de la raíz y el cierre apical. Una terapia llamada "apexificación" se requiere para inducir la formación de una barrera calcificada apical pe [...] rmitiendo un relleno permanente y hermético de la raíz. Numerosos materiales han sido recomendados para inducir apexificación y conservar la estética en dientes con ápices inmaduros como el mineral trióxido agregado (MTA), el hidróxido de calcio [Ca (OH)2], los postes de fibra de vidrio y entre los diversos materiales utilizados en prótesis, la cerámica que reproduce la apariencia de la dentición natural y tiene un comportamiento óptico muy similar a la de los tejidos duros dentales. El presente caso reporta paciente masculino de 17 años de edad con fractura coronaria complicada, conducto radicular expuesto a cavidad oral con formación radicular incompleta. El objetivo del presente caso clínico es describir la apexificación como primera alternativa para mantener un diente útil, utilizando la formación de una barrera apical con mineral trióxido agregado (MTA) y recuperar la estética del paciente. Conclusiones: La medicación intraconducto adecuada para la inducción a la formación de un cierre apical en un diente inmaduro o con formación radicular incompleta, es de trascendental importancia para el éxito del proceso de apexificación en donde juega un papel importante el MTA ya que en la actualidad es el material que brinda más ventajas en esta práctica como inductor de dicho proceso. Abstract in english Pulpal necrosis is one of the main complications of dental trauma which implies an interruption of the root maturation and the apical closure of an immature tooth. Apexification is a therapy used for inducing the creation of an apical calcified barrier allowing a permanent filling of the root. Sever [...] al materials have been recommended to induce apexification and preserve aesthetics in teeth with immature apex, such as mineral trioxide aggregate (MTA), calcium hydroxide [Ca (OH)2], glass fiber posts, as well as the different materials used in prosthetic dentistry, ceramics that reproduce the appearance of the natural dentition and show an optic behavior very similar to the hard tissues of the teeth. This case reports a 17 year old male patient with a complicated crown fracture, exposed root canal in the oral cavity with incomplete root formation. The purpose of this clinical case is to describe the use of apexification as the first choice to keep a useful tooth, using the formation of an apical barrier with mineral trioxide aggregate (MTA) and recover the patient aesthetics. Conclusions: The appropriate intracanal medication for inducing the formation of an apical closure in an immature tooth or with an incomplete root formation, is of vital importance for the success of the process of apexification where MTA plays an important role due to the fact that right now is the material that gives more advantages in this particular practice as an inducer in that process.

L.A., Dávila Rodríguez; D.A., Barcha Barreto; E., León Barrios; M.A., Simancas Pallares.

2013-08-01

267

Complete and incomplete fusion reactions: measurement and analysis of excitation functions in 20Ne + 165Ho system  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In the present work an attempt have been made to identify the complete fusion and incomplete fusion channels, in 20Ne-induced reactions on 165Ho target in the energy region of 88-164 MeV, through the measurement of excitation functions for the production of various evaporation residues, using off-line ?-ray measurement activation technique

268

Incomplete martensitic transformations in NiTi thin films  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Nickel-titanium thin films were deposited onto silicon substrates and subjected to incomplete martensitic transformations. With wafer curvature methods, we observed a stress discontinuity that seems analogous to the splitting of the endothermic peaks measured by differential scanning calorimetry due to the temperature memory effect. The martensite start temperature (Ms) remains constant during incomplete forward transformations, resulting in a constant-stress range between the arrest temperature and Ms. However, incomplete reverse transformations start immediately at the arrest temperature. X-ray diffraction measurements confirm these path-dependent behaviors, which are consistent with the thermodynamic model of martensitic transformations

269

New properties and examples of incomplete Lorentzian tori  

Science.gov (United States)

A new procedure to construct incomplete metrics on a two-torus is introduced. Relations between curvature and completeness are explored, and examples showing a wide independence among them are given. Incompleteness appears as a usual property of the Lorentzian tori, and the density of the incomplete metrics in the set of all the Lorentzian ones is discussed. This article can be seen as a partial study of compact space-times and the conformal Lorentzian moduli space Mod(T2), as claimed by Yurtsever [J. Math. Phys. 31, 3064 (1990)], and as a continuation of the authors' previous article [J. Math. Phys. 34, 3768 (1993)].

Romero, Alfonso; Sánchez, Miguel

1994-04-01

270

Radiation Processes in an Incompletely Ionized Plasma  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The first part of the paper gives a simple analytical treatment of radiation transfer (line and recombination) in a plasma, assuming full frequency redistribution. A study is made of the effect of the type of kernel of the integral transport equation on the nature of its solutions and the corresponding physical characteristics of the main types of radiation transfer, true diffusion, ''trapping'' and free escape. Some approximate methods of solving the transport equation are analysed, and results are established which do not depend on the type of kernel. The difference between capture and true diffusion, which is known to amount to the difference in the relationship between photon escape time and the dimensions of the system, can also be formulated as the difference between two characteristic lengths, the diffusion length and the quenching length. The difference between diffusion and capture is marked only if there is strong non-equilibrium, and then it appears principally in the intermediate region of optical thicknesses corresponding to the ''pure scattering'' case. However, use of the photon escape time as a kind of phenomenological characteristic means that in this region, too, an approximate solution can be written in the ''invariant'' form. Radiation losses in the final volume of a non-equilibrium plasma are considered, and a relationship is derived between the optical thickness and the degree of non-equilibrium which delineates the regions of volume and surface ineates the regions of volume and surface emission. The range of applicability of the treatment in question is discussed in the light of recent works on related aspects of radiation transfer theory. The second part analyses the quasi-static (Holtzmark) approximation in the theory of Stark broadening' of spectral lines. The limits within which this approximation can be applied are discussed; these limits are imposed by dynamic effects caused both by thermal motion of the perturbing particles themselves and by some external quenching. The treatment is based on a more general approach which reveals the real range of applicability of the frequently used binary approach, and also yields a critical analysis of certain semi-intuitive, evident criteria for the quasi-static state which appear in the literature. Two types of criteria for the quasi-static state, ''modulation'' and ''quenching'', are compared. Some new relationships describing the influence of the dynamic effects mentioned above are given. The third part contains short reviews of a number of contemporary trends in the development of the theory of such phenomena as radiation processes in an incompletely ionized plasma, broadening of lines, radiation transfer, relaxation in multi-level systems, emission in a continuum, fluctuating microfields and certain thermodynamic effects. (author)

271

[An original oncoplastic reduction mammaplasty technique for breast cancers with high risk of incomplete excision].  

Science.gov (United States)

Oncoplastic reduction mammaplasty (ORM), like breast-conserving treatments for cancer, has a risk of incomplete excision, and sometimes requires complementary mastectomy. In that case difficulties may occur due to skin shortness induced by recent surgery. Review of bibliography brings evidence that some factors are predictive of incomplete excision. When a patient has one or more of these factors, surgeon should anticipate complementary mastectomy. Horizontal ORM should be reminded for they allow secondary mastectomy in a horizontal way to be performed. An adaptation of the inverted T pattern is proposed, also permitting mastectomy in a horizontal way. These solutions allow neither to alter skin healing nor to compromise the future breast reconstruction. PMID:24582294

Baratte, A; Koch, A; Mathelin, C

2014-03-01

272

Spinal cord mature cystic teratoma  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Spinal cord teratoma is very rare lesion. Intradural spinal teratoma consists of 0,1% of all spinal tumours. Teratomas are classified into three groups: mature, immature and malignant teratomas. The authors report a 12 years old man with intradural lumbar mature teratoma

Emel AVCI

2005-03-01

273

Mos/mitogen-activated protein kinase can induce early meiotic phenotypes in the absence of maturation-promoting factor: a novel system for analyzing spindle formation during meiosis I.  

OpenAIRE

Mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) is selectively activated by injecting either mos or MAPK kinase (mek) RNA into immature mouse oocytes maintained in the phosphodiesterase inhibitor 3-isobutyl-1-methylxanthine (IBMX). IBMX arrests oocyte maturation, but Mos (or MEK) overexpression overrides this block. Under these conditions, meiosis I is significantly prolonged, and MAPK becomes fully activated in the absence of p34cdc2 kinase or maturation-promoting factor. In these oocytes, large ope...

Choi, T.; Rulong, S.; Resau, J.; Fukasawa, K.; Matten, W.; Kuriyama, R.; Mansour, S.; Ahn, N.; Vande Woude, G. F.

1996-01-01

274

Incomplete Kloosterman sums and multiplicative inverses in short intervals  

CERN Document Server

We investigate the solubility of the congruence xy=1 (mod p), where p is a prime and x,y are restricted to lie in suitable short intervals. Our work relies on a mean value theorem for incomplete Kloosterman sums.

Browning, Tim

2012-01-01

275

Hairpin Incompletion : An Extension of Bounded Hairpin Completion  

CERN Document Server

Hairpin completion and its restricted variant called bounded hairpin completion are operations on formal languages, inspired by a hairpin formation in molecular biology. We introduce a new operation of this kind, called {\\it hairpin incompletion} which is in fact an extension of bounded hairpin completion. Further, the hairpin incompletion operation provides a formal language theoretic framework that models a bio-molecular technique nowadays known as Whiplash PCR. We study the closure properties of language families under both the operation and its iterated version. We show that a family of languages closed under intersection with regular sets, concatenation with regular sets, and finite union is closed under iterated hairpin incompletion, and that a family of languages containing all linear languages and closed under circular permutation, left derivative and substitution is also closed under iterated hairpin incompletion.

Okubo, Fumiya

2011-01-01

276

Sublingual misoprostol versus standard surgical care for treatment of incomplete abortion in five sub-Saharan African countries  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background In low-resource settings, where abortion is highly restricted and self-induced abortions are common, access to post-abortion care (PAC services, especially treatment of incomplete terminations, is a priority. Standard post-abortion care has involved surgical intervention but can be hard to access in these areas. Misoprostol provides an alternative to surgical intervention that could increase access to abortion care. We sought to gather additional evidence regarding the efficacy of 400 mcg of sublingual misoprostol vs. standard surgical care for treatment of incomplete abortion in the environments where need for economical non-surgical treatments may be most useful. Methods A total of 860 women received either sublingual misoprostol or standard surgical care for treatment of incomplete abortion in a multi-site randomized trial. Women with confirmed incomplete abortion, defined as past or present history of vaginal bleeding during pregnancy and an open cervical os, were eligible to participate. Participants returned for follow-up one week later to confirm clinical status. If abortion was incomplete at that time, women were offered an additional follow-up visit or immediate surgical evacuation. Results Both misoprostol and surgical evacuation are highly effective treatments for incomplete abortion (misoprostol: 94.4%, surgical: 100.0%. Misoprostol treatment resulted in a somewhat lower chance of success than standard surgical practice (RR = 0.90; 95% CI: 0.89-0.92. Both tolerability of side effects and women’s satisfaction were similar in the two study arms. Conclusion Misoprostol, much easier to provide than surgery in low-resource environments, can be used safely, successfully, and satisfactorily for treatment of incomplete abortion. Focus should shift to program implementation, including task-shifting the provision of post-abortion care to mid- and low- level providers, training and assurance of drug availability. Trial registration This study has been registered at clinicaltrials.gov as NCT00466999 and NCT01539408

Shochet Tara

2012-11-01

277

Some incomplete and boundedly complete families of discrete distributions  

OpenAIRE

We present a general result giving us families of incomplete and boundedly complete families of discrete distributions. For such families, the classes of unbiased estimators of zero with finite variance and of parametric functions which will have uniformly minimum variance unbiased estimators with finite variance are explicitly characterized. The general result allows us to construct a large number of families of incomplete and boundedly complete families of discrete distrib...

Purkayastha, Sumitra

2009-01-01

278

Marginal methods for clustered longitudinal binary data with incomplete covariates  

OpenAIRE

Many analyses for incomplete longitudinal data are directed to examining the impact of covariates on the marginal mean responses. We consider the setting in which longitudinal responses are collected from individuals nested within clusters. We discuss methods for assessing covariate effects on the mean and association parameters when covariates are incompletely observed. Weighted first and second order estimating equations are constructed to obtain consistent estimates of mean and association...

Chen, Baojiang; Yi, Grace Y.; Cook, Richard J.; Zhou, Xiao-hua

2012-01-01

279

Additive habit formation: Consumption in incomplete markets with random endowments  

OpenAIRE

We provide a detailed characterization of the optimal consumption stream for the additive habit-forming utility maximization problem, in a framework of general discrete-time incomplete markets and random endowments. This characterization allows us to derive the monotonicity and concavity of the optimal consumption as a function of wealth, for several important classes of incomplete markets and preferences. These results yield a deeper understanding of the fine structure of t...

Muraviev, Roman

2011-01-01

280

Filtering, control and fault detection with randomly occurring incomplete information  

CERN Document Server

This book investigates the filtering, control and fault detection problems for several classes of nonlinear systems with randomly occurring incomplete information. It proposes new concepts, including RVNs, ROMDs, ROMTCDs, and ROQEs. The incomplete information under consideration primarily includes missing measurements, time-delays, sensor and actuator saturations, quantization effects and time-varying nonlinearities. The first part of this book focuses on the filtering, control and fault detection problems for several classes of nonlinear stochastic discrete-time systems and

Dong, Hongli; Gao, Huijun

2013-01-01

281

Effect of the Target Deformation on Incomplete Fusion Dynamics  

Science.gov (United States)

To investigate the role of target deformation on incomplete fusion dynamics, a particle-gamma coincidence experiment has been performed at Inter University Accelerator Centre, New Delhi. Spin distributions for various evaporation residues populated via complete and incomplete fusion of 16O with 124Sn at 6.3MeV/nucleon have been measured. Experimentally measured spin distributions of the residues produced as incomplete fusion products associated with fast ? and 2?-emission channels observed in forward cone are found to be distinctly different from those of the residues produced as complete fusion products. The mean value of input angular momentum J0 for evaporation residues produced through xn channels (complete fusion products) is found to be J0? 7?, while the mean value of input angular momentum J0 for the residues produced through direct ?xn and 2?xn channels (incomplete fusion products) in forward cone, are found to be J0 ? 9? and ? 12? respectively for 16O + 124Sn (spherical) system [7]. The mean value of input angular momentum J0 for the system 16O + 169Tm (deformed) reported in ref. [8], are found to be ?10? for xn-channels (complete fusion products) and for direct ?xn and 2?xn channels (incomplete fusion products) the value of J0 approaches to ? 13? and ?16?, respectively. The mean values of the input angular momentum observed for xn (complete fusion products), ?xn and 2?xn (incomplete fusion products) in 16O + 124Sn (spherical) system are smaller than that of the mean values of the input angular momentum observed for xn (complete fusion products), ?xn and 2?xn (incomplete fusion products) in 16O + 169Tm (deformed) system. The comparison of data inferred that the mean values of the input angular momentum are smaller in case of spherical target than that of deformed target at same projectile energy of 16O-ion beam. It means that the target deformation affect the incomplete fusion dynamics.

Singh, D.; Ali, Rahbar; Afzal Ansari, M.; Kumar, R.; Singh, R. P.; Muralither, S.; Bhowmik, R. K.

2015-01-01

282

Incomplete spinal cord injury, exercise and life satisfaction  

OpenAIRE

STUDY DESIGN: Cross-sectional survey. OBJECTIVE: This study investigates the role of physical exercise, perceived exercise mastery and fitness on life satisfaction of a sample of individuals with incomplete spinal cord injury (SCI). SETTING: Sunnaas Rehabilitation Hospital and the Norwegian School of Sport Sciences, Norway. METHODS: A questionnaire measuring life satisfaction, self-rated physical exercise and self-perceptions were mailed to persons with incomplete SCI. RESULTS: In total, 100 ...

Lannem, Anne Marie; Sørensen, Marit; Frøslie, Kathrine Frey; Hjeltnes, Nils

2008-01-01

283

New approach for evaluating incomplete and complete fusion cross sections with continuum-discretized coupled-channels method  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

We propose a new method for evaluating incomplete and complete fusion cross sections separately using the Continuum-Discretized Coupled-Channels method. This method is applied to analysis of the deuteron induced reaction on a 7Li target up to 50 MeV of the deuteron incident energy. Effects of deuteron breakup on this reaction are explicitly taken into account. Results of the method are compared with those of the Glauber model, and the difference between the two is discussed. It is found that the energy dependence of the incomplete fusion cross sections obtained by the present calculation is almost the same as that obtained by the Glauber model, while for the complete fusion cross section, the two models give markedly different energy dependence. We show also that a prescription for evaluating incomplete fusion cross sections proposed in a previous study gives much smaller result than an experimental value. (author)

284

New Approach for Evaluating Incomplete and Complete Fusion Cross Sections with Continuum-Discretized Coupled-Channels Method  

CERN Document Server

We propose a new method for evaluating incomplete and complete fusion cross sections separately using the Continuum-Discretized Coupled-Channels method. This method is applied to analysis of the deuteron induced reaction on a 7Li target up to 50 MeV of the deuteron incident energy. Effects of deuteron breakup on this reaction are explicitly taken into account. Results of the method are compared with those of the Glauber model, and the difference between the two is discussed. It is found that the energy dependence of the incomplete fusion cross sections obtained by the present calculation is almost the same as that obtained by the Glauber model, while for the complete fusion cross section, the two models give markedly different energy dependence. We show also that a prescription for evaluating incomplete fusion cross sections proposed in a previous study gives much smaller result than an experimental value.

Hashimoto, S; Chiba, S; Yahiro, M

2009-01-01

285

Unexpected show up of incomplete fusion at low projectile energies  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In this paper, some of the important findings of recent measurements performed to study incomplete fusion at low bombarding energies (i.e., E(lab) ? 4-7 MeV/nucleon) in 12C,16O+169Tm systems are briefly summarized. The spin-distributions of xn, pxn, ?xn/2?xn channels have been measured to probe entirely different ?-emission patterns (and feeding intensity profiles) during the de-excitation of complete and incomplete fusion objects. Incomplete fusion strength function has been deduced (from the analysis of experimental excitation functions in context of equilibrated compound nucleus decay) to achieve information of onset and strength of incomplete fusion in terms of various entrance channel parameters. Presence of incomplete fusion at slightly above barrier energies has been confirmed by the measurement of linear momentum distribution of heavy recoils. Present results conclusively demonstrate, the existence of incomplete fusion at low bombarding energies, its strong dependence on entrance channel parameters, and the possibility to populate high spin states. (authors)

286

Oocyte maturation: converting the zebrafish oocyte to the fertilizable egg.  

Science.gov (United States)

The process of oogenesis culminates in steroid-induced oocyte maturation to produce the fertilizable egg. A quintessential biological entity, the egg is central to the production of new individuals. The result of egg fertilization by a sperm cell is the production of the mother of all stem cells (i.e. the zygote). Furthermore, the egg cytoplasm is the only one known to support reprogramming a transplanted nucleus to give rise to an individual (i.e. animal cloning). Zebrafish oocyte maturation is a complex event encompassing a number of cellular changes including germinal vesicle migration (GVM) and dissolution or breakdown (GVD), ooplasmic clearing (OC) with correlated yolk protein changes (YP), development of osmoregulation (OR) in fresh water, the formation of the future embryonic pole, the blastodisc (BF) and activatibility (AC) or cortical maturation. In zebrafish, and many other teleosts, 17alpha, 20beta-dihydroxy-4-pregnen-3-one (17alpha, 20beta-DP) has been shown to be the normal inducer of oocyte maturation. A 17alpha, 20beta-DP membrane-resident receptor mediates oocyte maturation via non-genomic mechanisms that are beginning to be understood. This paper will highlight some of the cellular markers resulting from the signaling initiated by 17alpha, 20beta-DP. By describing these markers, it is hoped that workers in the field will have additional tools to help further elucidate the signaling events of oocyte maturation. PMID:19027744

Lessman, Charles A

2009-03-01

287

Systematics of incomplete fusion probability and its correlation with complete fusion suppression  

Science.gov (United States)

The mechanism for the suppression of complete fusion, induced by different light alpha cluster projectiles (Z ? 10) on 51V target has been investigated through the measurement of break-up of the projectiles into different alpha fragments. The results from the present systems show substantial components from incomplete fusion in addition to complete fusion. The measurements also show significant reduction of complete fusion cross-section above the barrier energies for all the reactions when compared with the theoretical prediction of CCFULL code. CCFULL is a program that calculates fusion cross-sections and mean angular momenta of the compound nucleus under the influence of coupling between the relative motion and several collective nuclear motions. Moreover, measurements also show a systematics in complete fusion suppression with respect to CCFULL calculation, suggesting that the extent of suppression of complete fusion cross-sections is correlated with the alpha Q-value of the projectiles. Also, all the reactions were found to produce incomplete fusion products at energies near the respective Coulomb barriers with the alpha-particle emanating channel being the favored incomplete fusion process in all the cases.

Ali, Sabir; Kumar, Kamal; Ahmad, Tauseef; Rizvi, I. A.; Agarwal, Avinash; Chaubey, A. K.

2013-04-01

288

Observation of incomplete fusion reactions at l crit  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In order to understand the presence of incomplete fusion at low energies i.e. 4-7MeV/nucleon and also to study its dependence on various entrance-channel parameters, the two type of measurements (i) excitation function for 12C+159Tb, and (ii) forward recoil ranges for 12C+159Tb systems have been performed. The experimentally measured excitation functions have been analyzed within the framework of compound nucleus decay using statistical model code PACE4. Analysis of data suggests the production of xn/px)n-channels via complete fusion, as these are found to be well reproduced by PACE4 predictions, while, a significant enhancement in the excitation functions of ?-emitting channels has been observed over the theoretical ones, which has been attributed due to the incomplete fusion processes. Further, the incomplete fusion events observed in case of forward recoil range measurements have been explained on the basis of the breakup fusion model, where these events may be attributed to the fusion of 8Be and/or 4He from 12C projectile to the target nucleus. In the present work, the SUMRULE model calculations are found to highly underestimate the observed incomplete fusion cross-sections which indicate that the l-values lower than l crit (limit of complete fusion) significantly contribute to the incomplete fusion reactions

289

Observation of incomplete fusion reactions at l < l crit  

Science.gov (United States)

In order to understand the presence of incomplete fusion at low energies i.e. 4-7MeV/nucleon & also to study its dependence on various entrance-channel parameters, the two type of measurements (i) excitation function for 12C+159Tb, and (ii) forward recoil ranges for 12C+159Tb systems have been performed. The experimentally measured excitation functions have been analyzed within the framework of compound nucleus decay using statistical model code PACE4. Analysis of data suggests the production of xn/px)n-channels via complete fusion, as these are found to be well reproduced by PACE4 predictions, while, a significant enhancement in the excitation functions of ?-emitting channels has been observed over the theoretical ones, which has been attributed due to the incomplete fusion processes. Further, the incomplete fusion events observed in case of forward recoil range measurements have been explained on the basis of the breakup fusion model, where these events may be attributed to the fusion of 8Be and/or 4He from 12C projectile to the target nucleus. In the present work, the SUMRULE model calculations are found to highly underestimate the observed incomplete fusion cross-sections which indicate that the l-values lower than l crit (limit of complete fusion) significantly contribute to the incomplete fusion reactions.

Yadav, Abhishek; Sharma, Vijay R.; Singh, Devendra P.; Singh, Pushpendra P.; Bala, Indu; Kumar, R.; Unnati, Sharma, M. K.; Muralithar, S.; Singh, R. P.; Singh, B. P.; Prasad, R.

2014-08-01

290

Observation of incomplete fusion reactions at l < l {sub crit}  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

In order to understand the presence of incomplete fusion at low energies i.e. 4-7MeV/nucleon and also to study its dependence on various entrance-channel parameters, the two type of measurements (i) excitation function for {sup 12}C+{sup 159}Tb, and (ii) forward recoil ranges for {sup 12}C+{sup 159}Tb systems have been performed. The experimentally measured excitation functions have been analyzed within the framework of compound nucleus decay using statistical model code PACE4. Analysis of data suggests the production of xn/px)n-channels via complete fusion, as these are found to be well reproduced by PACE4 predictions, while, a significant enhancement in the excitation functions of ?-emitting channels has been observed over the theoretical ones, which has been attributed due to the incomplete fusion processes. Further, the incomplete fusion events observed in case of forward recoil range measurements have been explained on the basis of the breakup fusion model, where these events may be attributed to the fusion of {sup 8}Be and/or {sup 4}He from {sup 12}C projectile to the target nucleus. In the present work, the SUMRULE model calculations are found to highly underestimate the observed incomplete fusion cross-sections which indicate that the l-values lower than l {sub crit} (limit of complete fusion) significantly contribute to the incomplete fusion reactions.

Yadav, Abhishek, E-mail: abhishekyadav117@gmail.com; Sharma, Vijay R., E-mail: abhishekyadav117@gmail.com; Singh, Devendra P., E-mail: abhishekyadav117@gmail.com; Unnati,; Singh, B. P.; Prasad, R. [Department of Physics, Aligarh Muslim University, Aligarh (UP) - 202 002 (India); Singh, Pushpendra P. [GSI-Helmholtz Centre for Heavy Ion Research GmbH, D-64291 Darmstadt (Germany); Bala, Indu; Kumar, R.; Muralithar, S.; Singh, R. P. [NP-Group: Inter-University Accelerator Center, Aruna Asaf Ali Marg, New Delhi - 110 067 (India); Sharma, M. K. [Department of Physics, S. V. College, Aligarh- 202 001 (India)

2014-08-14

291

Isospin Dependence of Incomplete Fusion Reactions at 25 Mev/a  

OpenAIRE

40Ca+40,48Ca,46Ti reactions at 25 MeV/A have been studied using the 4p CHIMERA detector. An isospin effect on the competition between incomplete fusion and dissipative binary reaction mechanisms has been observed. The probability of producing a compound system is observed to be lower in the case of N=Z colliding systems as compared to the case of reactions induced on the more neutron rich 48Ca target. Predictions based on CoMD-II calculations show that the competition betwee...

Amorini, F.; Cardella, G.; Giuliani, G.; Papa, M.; Agodi, C.; Alba, R.; Anzalone, A.; Berceanu, I.; Cavallaro, S.; Chatterjee, M. B.; Coniglione, R.; Filippo, E.; Di Pietro, A.; Geraci, E.; Grassi, L.

2008-01-01

292

Incentives in Public and Privatized Firms under Incomplete Contracting Situations  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available It is argued that incentives for employees in the public service agencies will necessarily be weak because of the multiple dimensions of products, multiple principals, incomplete contract, and socializing. Some empirical studies refer to incomplete contracting situations as part of the cause of the diminishing of the public sector. This work investigates the effects of privatization and ownership shares on incentive schemes for employees who work for public or privatized firms under incomplete contracting situations. Two main results are obtained. First, the incentive intensity of public firms decreases as the government has more ownership shares, and the social benefit declines. Second, privatized firms offer their employees higher-powered incentive contracts than do public firms.

Takeshi Miyazaki

2012-08-01

293

THE THEORIES OF INCOMPLETE CONTRACTS IN ANALYZING THE COMPANY  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Incomplete contracts theories have developed significantly in recent decades, although insistence for rigorous models left little room for empirical research. By formalizing and extending some results from other theories such as transaction costs, incomplete contracts theory tries to analyze the prudence displayed by the parties before the possible opportunistic behavior that would follow completing a contract, especially in the case of specific investments and how the insufficient contractual protection measures can lead to inefficient levels of investment. Even the name - incomplete contracts theory- suggests that the main concern is to consider the limits of contracts, that the contracts fail to specify not only the investment ex ante, but also many other unforeseen items that may appear ex post, and that would be desirable to be introduced in such an arrangement. Explanations can be either the bounded rationality or excessive cost that would involve writing of such contracts.\\r\

Pacala Anca

2012-07-01

294

From Crescent to Mature Virion: Vaccinia Virus Assembly and Maturation  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Vaccinia virus (VACV has achieved unprecedented success as a live viral vaccine for smallpox which mitigated eradication of the disease. Vaccinia virus has a complex virion morphology and recent advances have been made to answer some of the key outstanding questions, in particular, the origin and biogenesis of the virion membrane, the transformation from immature virion (IV to mature virus (MV, and the role of several novel genes, which were previously uncharacterized, but have now been shown to be essential for VACV virion formation. This new knowledge will undoubtedly contribute to the rational design of safe, immunogenic vaccine candidates, or effective antivirals in the future. This review endeavors to provide an update on our current knowledge of the VACV maturation processes with a specific focus on the initiation of VACV replication through to the formation of mature virions.

Liang Liu

2014-10-01

295

From crescent to mature virion: vaccinia virus assembly and maturation.  

Science.gov (United States)

Vaccinia virus (VACV) has achieved unprecedented success as a live viral vaccine for smallpox which mitigated eradication of the disease. Vaccinia virus has a complex virion morphology and recent advances have been made to answer some of the key outstanding questions, in particular, the origin and biogenesis of the virion membrane, the transformation from immature virion (IV) to mature virus (MV), and the role of several novel genes, which were previously uncharacterized, but have now been shown to be essential for VACV virion formation. This new knowledge will undoubtedly contribute to the rational design of safe, immunogenic vaccine candidates, or effective antivirals in the future. This review endeavors to provide an update on our current knowledge of the VACV maturation processes with a specific focus on the initiation of VACV replication through to the formation of mature virions. PMID:25296112

Liu, Liang; Cooper, Tamara; Howley, Paul M; Hayball, John D

2014-10-01

296

Incomplete electronic relaxation and population upconversion in quantum dots  

CERN Document Server

We calculate the electronic relaxation of a single electron in a quantum dot with two electronic orbital states, and with the electronic coupling to the longitudinal optical modes of the lattice vibrations included in the multiple scattering approximation to the electronic self-energy. This model shows that there is an incomplete electronic relaxation from the excited state to the ground state and also the incomplete increase of the population of the excited state after resonantly exciting the ground state. These theoretical results are compared with very similar recent findings reported in experimental papers.

Kral, K; Zdenek, P

2003-01-01

297

Incomplete chromosome exchanges are not fingerprints of high LET neutrons  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A new fluorescence in situ hybridisation (FISH) technique combining whole chromosome specific DNA libraries with pan-centromeric DNA and telomeric PNA probes was introduced to investigate the induction of chromosome exchanges in human lymphocytes after exposure to low (4 Gy X rays) and high (1 Gy neutrons) linear energy transfer radiation. This combination of probes allowed accurate detection of exchange aberrations involving the painted chromosomes and an unambiguous discrimination between complete and incomplete exchanges, as well as terminal and interstitial deletions. Data obtained in the present study using combined FISH assay with telomeres detection showed no differences between two types of radiation regarding the induction of incomplete exchanges. (author)

298

Pricing the Option to Surrender in Incomplete Markets  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

New international accounting standards require insurers to reflect the value of embedded options and guarantees in their products. Pricing techniques based on the Black & Scholes paradigm are often used, however, the hypotheses underneath this model are rarely met. We propose a framework that encompasses the most known sources of incompleteness. We show that the surrender option, joined with a wide range of claims embedded in insurance contracts, can be priced through our tool, and deliver hedging portfolios to mitigate the risk arising from their positions. We provide extensive empirical analysis to highlight the effect of incompleteness on the fair value of the option.

Consiglio, Andrea; De Giovanni, Domenico

2007-01-01

299

Pharmaceutical Options for Triggering of Final Oocyte Maturation in ART  

Science.gov (United States)

Since the pioneering days of in vitro fertilization, hCG has been the gold standard to induce final follicular maturation. We herein reviewed different pharmaceutical options for triggering of final oocyte maturation in ART. The new upcoming agent seems to be GnRHa with its potential advantages over hCG trigger. GnRHa triggering elicits a surge of gonadotropins resembling the natural midcycle surge of gonadotropins, without the prolonged action of hCG, resulting in the retrieval of more mature oocytes and a significant reduction in or elimination of OHSS as compared to hCG triggering. The induction of final follicular maturation using GnRHa represents a paradigm shift in the ovulation triggering concept in ART and, thus, a way to develop a safer IVF procedure. Kisspeptins are key central regulators of the neuroendocrine mechanisms of human reproduction, who have been shown to effectively elicit an LH surge and to induce final oocyte maturation in IVF cycles. This new trigger concept may, therefore, offer a completely new, “natural” pharmacological option for ovulation induction. Whether kisspeptins will be the future agent to trigger ovulation remains to be further explored. PMID:25133168

Humaidan, Peter; Bernabéu, Rafael

2014-01-01

300

Incomplete molar pregnancy with live coexisting fetus: a case report  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Conclusion: The rate of pregnancy complications such as hypertension, hyperthyroidism, and obstetrics hemorrhage and also the risk of Gestational Trophoblastic Neoplasm (GTN are increasing in incomplete molar pregnancy. Therefore, early diagnosis and timely treatment of molar pregnancy is very important to reduce maternal morbidity and mortality.

Leila Pourali

2014-03-01

301

Incompleteness of Representation Theory: Hidden Symmetries and Quantum Nonintegrability  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Representation theory is shown to be incomplete in terms of enumerating all integrable limits of quantum systems. As a consequence, one can find exactly solvable Hamiltonians which have apparently strongly broken symmetry. The number of these hidden symmetries depends upon the realization of the Hamiltonian. copyright 1997 The American Physical Society

302

Limit Pricing with Incomplete Information: Answers to Frequently Asked Questions  

Science.gov (United States)

Strategic pricing is an important and exciting topic in industrial organization and the economics of strategy. A wide range of texts use what has become a standard version of the Milgrom and Roberts (1982a) limit-pricing model to convey the essential ideas of strategic pricing under incomplete information. In addition to providing a formal, but…

Sorenson, Timothy L.

2004-01-01

303

Parallel incomplete factorizations with pseudo­overlapped subdomains  

OpenAIRE

We address the hard question of efficient use on parallel platforms, of incomplete factorization preconditioning techniques for solving large and sparse linear systems by Krylov subspace methods. A novel parallelization strategy based on pseudo­ overlapped subdomains is explored. This results in efficient parallelizable precondi­ tioners. Numerical results give evidence that high performance can be achieved.

Magolu Monga Made, Mardoche?e; Vorst, H. A.

2000-01-01

304

Root cause of incomplete control rod insertions at Westinghouse reactors  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Within the past year, incomplete RCCA insertions have been observed on high burnup fuel assemblies at two Westinghouse PWRs. Initial tests at the Wolf Creek site indicated that the direct cause of the incomplete insertions observed at Wolf Creek was excessive fuel assembly thimble tube distortion. Westinghouse committed to the NRC to perform a root cause analysis by the end of August, 1996. The root cause analysis process used by Westinghouse included testing at ten sites to obtain drag, growth and other characteristics of high burnup fuel assemblies. It also included testing at the Westinghouse hot cell of two of the Wolf Creek incomplete insertion assemblies. A mechanical model was developed to calculate the response of fuel assemblies when subjected to compressive loads. Detailed manufacturing reviews were conducted to determine if this was a manufacturing related issue. In addition, a review of available worldwide experience was performed. Based on the above, it was concluded that the thimble tube distortion observed on the Wolf Creek incomplete insertion assemblies was caused by unusual fuel assembly growth over and above what would typically be expected as a result of irradiation exposure. It was determined that the unusual growth component is a combination of growth due to oxide accumulation and accelerated growth, and would only be expected in high temperature plants on fuel assemblies that see long residence times and high power duties.

Ray, S. [Westinghouse, Monroeville, PA (United States)

1997-01-01

305

Incomplete bladder duplication with multiple congenital anomalies: A rare presentation.  

Science.gov (United States)

We report a rare case of incomplete bladder duplication associated with multiple congenital malformation. The patient presented with a symptomatic left pelvi-ureteric junction obstruction which was surgically managed. To the best of our knowledge, this type of bladder duplication with such syndromic association is not yet reported in literature. PMID:25657553

Awasthi, Nipun Kumar; Goel, Hemantkumar; Mahapatra, Rajkumarsingha; Pal, Dilipkumar

2015-01-01

306

Statistical evaluations of current sampling procedures and incomplete core recovery  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This document develops two formulas that describe the effects of incomplete recovery on core sampling results for the Hanford waste tanks. The formulas evaluate incomplete core recovery from a worst-case (i.e.,biased) and best-case (i.e., unbiased) perspective. A core sampler is unbiased if the sample material recovered is a random sample of the material in the tank, while any sampler that preferentially recovers a particular type of waste over others is a biased sampler. There is strong evidence to indicate that the push-mode sampler presently used at the Hanford site is a biased one. The formulas presented here show the effects of incomplete core recovery on the accuracy of composition measurements, as functions of the vertical variability in the waste. These equations are evaluated using vertical variability estimates from previously sampled tanks (B110, U110, C109). Assuming that the values of vertical variability used in this study adequately describes the Hanford tank farm, one can use the formulas to compute the effect of incomplete recovery on the accuracy of an average constituent estimate. To determine acceptable recovery limits, we have assumed that the relative error of such an estimate should be no more than 20%

307

Probing of incomplete fusion dynamics by spin-distribution measurement  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Aiming to probe incomplete fusion dynamics in 16O + 169Tm system, spin-distributions of various reaction products populated via xn-, ?/2?xn-channels have been measured at E?5.6MeV/nucleon. Prompt ?-rays in coincidence with fast charged particles (Z=1,2) have been recorded to achieve the information about involved reaction processes on the basis of their experimentally observed spin-populations during de-excitation. The experimentally observed spin-distributions for direct-?-emitting channels (associated with incomplete fusion) have been found to be distinctly different than that observed for fusion-evaporation (complete fusion) channels. The mean value of driving input angular momenta associated with various direct-?/2?xn-channels have been found to be higher than that observed for fusion-evaporation xn/?xn-channels, and increases with direct-?-multiplicity in forward cone. Experimentally measured, normalized production yields of fusion-evaporation xn/?xn-channels have been found to be in good agreement with the predictions of theoretical model code PACE4. Further, in order to understand the feeding probability in both complete and incomplete fusion reaction products, an attempt has been made to generate feeding intensity profiles from spin-distribution data. It has been observed that the complete fusion products are strongly fed over a broad spin range, while incomplete fusion products are found to be less fed and/or the population ofss fed and/or the population of lower spin states are strongly hindered

308

Root cause of incomplete control rod insertions at Westinghouse reactors  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Within the past year, incomplete RCCA insertions have been observed on high burnup fuel assemblies at two Westinghouse PWRs. Initial tests at the Wolf Creek site indicated that the direct cause of the incomplete insertions observed at Wolf Creek was excessive fuel assembly thimble tube distortion. Westinghouse committed to the NRC to perform a root cause analysis by the end of August, 1996. The root cause analysis process used by Westinghouse included testing at ten sites to obtain drag, growth and other characteristics of high burnup fuel assemblies. It also included testing at the Westinghouse hot cell of two of the Wolf Creek incomplete insertion assemblies. A mechanical model was developed to calculate the response of fuel assemblies when subjected to compressive loads. Detailed manufacturing reviews were conducted to determine if this was a manufacturing related issue. In addition, a review of available worldwide experience was performed. Based on the above, it was concluded that the thimble tube distortion observed on the Wolf Creek incomplete insertion assemblies was caused by unusual fuel assembly growth over and above what would typically be expected as a result of irradiation exposure. It was determined that the unusual growth component is a combination of growth due to oxide accumulation and accelerated growth, and would only be expected in high temperature plants on fuel assemblies that see long residence times and high power duties

309

Entrance channel effect in the incomplete fusion reactions  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In the present work the effect of various entrance channel parameters on incomplete fusion strength and the reaction dynamics in 12C+159Tb system at energies ? 4-7MeV/A have been investigated by measuring the excitation functions of individual reaction channels. Experimental excitation functions have been analyzed in the framework of compound nucleus decay using statistical model code PACE4. Analysis of data suggests the production of xn/pxn-channels via complete fusion of 12C with 159Tb, as these are found to be well reproduced by PACE4 predictions, while, a significant enhancement in the excitation functions of ?-emitting channels has been observed over the theoretical ones. This enhancement has been attributed due to incomplete fusion. For better insight into the underlying dynamics, fraction of incomplete fusion to the total fusion has been deduced and compared with 16O+159Tb and other nearby systems as a function of various entrance channel parameters. The fraction of incomplete fusion has been found to be sensitive to the projectile type, energy and entrance-channel mass-asymmetry.

Singh B.P.

2011-10-01

310

????????????? Algorithm of Relative Reduction in Incomplete Decision Table  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available ????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????Many theories used for uncertainty problems are strongly complementary to each other because they focus on different aspects. This study proposes a new relative reduction algorithm by combing two theories which are frequently used to process incomplete information. It has been proved by example that the result is reliable.

??

2011-05-01

311

Nonallelic heterogeneity in autosomal dominant retinitis pigmentosa with incomplete penetrance  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Retinitis pigmentosa is a group of retinal diseases in which photoreceptor cells throughout the retina degenerate. Although there is considerable genetic heterogeneity (autosomal dominant, autosomal recessive, and X-linked forms exist), there is a possibility that some clinically defined subtypes of the disease may be the result of mutations at the same locus. One possible clinically defined subtype is that of autosomal dominant retinitis pigmentosa (ADRP) with incomplete penetrance. Whereas in most families with ADRP, carriers can be clearly identified because of visual loss, ophthalmological findings, or abnormal electroretinograms (ERGs), in occasional families some obligate carriers are asymptomatic and have normal or nearly normal ERGs even late in life. A recent paper reported the mapping of the diseases locus in one pedigree (designated adRP7) with ADRP with incomplete penetrance to chromosome 7p. To test the idea that ADRP with incomplete penetrance may be genetically homogeneous, we have evaluated whether a different family with incomplete penetrance also has a disease gene linked to the same region. 4 refs., 1 fig., 1 tab.

Kim, S.K.; Berson, E.L.; Dryja, T.P. [Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA (United States)] [and others

1994-08-01

312

Projectile-target dependence of incomplete fusion processes  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The results of recent heavy-ion studies indicate that at higher bombarding energies not all central collisions result in the fusion of the projectile and target, but rather that an increasing fraction of these collisions involve the emission of a particle or particles from the projectile or target prior to fusion (i.e., incomplete fusion processes). To obtain information regarding the projectile-target dependence of complete and incomplete fusion processes, measurements of the velocity spectra of the evaporation residues from fusion reactions have been performed using beams of 16O, 24Mg, 28Si, 32S on a series of light- and medium-weight target nuclei. Deviations of the spectra constitute evidence for contributions from incomplete fusion processes and provide an indication of their magnitude. The analysis of these measurements have been completed, revealing evidence that for asymmetric systems (i.e., A/sub proj./ A/sub targ./) incomplete fusion processes begin to contribute above some threshold velocity, contributing as much as 30% of the ER yields at the highest energy studied (E/sub Lab/ = 9 MeV/nucleon)

313

Complete and incomplete fusion reactions in the 16O+169Tm system: Excitation functions and recoil range distributions  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

With the view to study complete and incomplete fusion in heavy ion induced reactions, experiments have been carried out for measuring excitation functions for several reactions in the system 16O+169Tm at energies near the Coulomb barrier to well above it, using an activation technique. The measured excitation functions have been compared with those calculated theoretically using three different computer codes viz., ALICE-91, CASCADE and PACE2. The enhancement of experimentally measured cross sections for alpha emission channels over their theoretical prediction has been attributed to the fact that these residues are formed not only by complete fusion but also through incomplete fusion. In order to separate out the relative contributions of complete and incomplete fusion, the recoil range distributions of eight residues produced in the interaction of 16O with 169Tm at ?87 MeV have been measured. The recoil range distributions indicate significant contributions from incomplete fusion at ?87 MeV for some of the channels

314

Mast cell maturation is driven via a group III phospholipase A2-prostaglandin D2–DP1 receptor paracrine axis  

Science.gov (United States)

Microenvironment-based alterations in phenotypes of mast cells influence the susceptibility to anaphylaxis, yet the mechanisms underlying proper maturation of mast cells toward an anaphylaxis-sensitive phenotype are incompletely understood. Here we report that PLA2G3, a mammalian homolog of anaphylactic bee venom phospholipase A2, regulates this process. PLA2G3 secreted from mast cells is coupled with fibroblastic lipocalin-type PGD2 synthase (L-PGDS) to provide PGD2, which facilitates mast-cell maturation via PGD2 receptor DP1. Mice lacking PLA2G3, L-PGDS or DP1, mast cell–deficient mice reconstituted with PLA2G3-null or DP1-null mast cells, or mast cells cultured with L-PGDS–ablated fibroblasts exhibited impaired maturation and anaphylaxis of mast cells. Thus, we describe a lipid-driven PLA2G3–L-PGDS–DP1 loop that drives mast cell maturation. PMID:23624557

Taketomi, Yoshitaka; Ueno, Noriko; Kojima, Takumi; Sato, Hiroyasu; Murase, Remi; Yamamoto, Kei; Tanaka, Satoshi; Sakanaka, Mariko; Nakamura, Masanori; Nishito, Yasumasa; Kawana, Momoko; Kambe, Naotomo; Ikeda, Kazutaka; Taguchi, Ryo; Nakamizo, Satoshi; Kabashima, Kenji; Gelb, Michael H.; Arita, Makoto; Yokomizo, Takehiko; Nakamura, Motonao; Watanabe, Kikuko; Hirai, Hiroyuki; Nakamura, Masataka; Okayama, Yoshimichi; Ra, Chisei; Aritake, Kosuke; Urade, Yoshihiro; Morimoto, Kazushi; Sugimoto, Yukihiko; Shimizu, Takao; Narumiya, Shuh; Hara, Shuntaro; Murakami, Makoto

2014-01-01

315

Mast cell maturation is driven via a group III phospholipase A2-prostaglandin D2-DP1 receptor paracrine axis.  

Science.gov (United States)

Microenvironment-based alterations in phenotypes of mast cells influence the susceptibility to anaphylaxis, yet the mechanisms underlying proper maturation of mast cells toward an anaphylaxis-sensitive phenotype are incompletely understood. Here we report that PLA2G3, a mammalian homolog of anaphylactic bee venom phospholipase A2, regulates this process. PLA2G3 secreted from mast cells is coupled with fibroblastic lipocalin-type PGD2 synthase (L-PGDS) to provide PGD2, which facilitates mast-cell maturation via PGD2 receptor DP1. Mice lacking PLA2G3, L-PGDS or DP1, mast cell-deficient mice reconstituted with PLA2G3-null or DP1-null mast cells, or mast cells cultured with L-PGDS-ablated fibroblasts exhibited impaired maturation and anaphylaxis of mast cells. Thus, we describe a lipid-driven PLA2G3-L-PGDS-DP1 loop that drives mast cell maturation. PMID:23624557

Taketomi, Yoshitaka; Ueno, Noriko; Kojima, Takumi; Sato, Hiroyasu; Murase, Remi; Yamamoto, Kei; Tanaka, Satoshi; Sakanaka, Mariko; Nakamura, Masanori; Nishito, Yasumasa; Kawana, Momoko; Kambe, Naotomo; Ikeda, Kazutaka; Taguchi, Ryo; Nakamizo, Satoshi; Kabashima, Kenji; Gelb, Michael H; Arita, Makoto; Yokomizo, Takehiko; Nakamura, Motonao; Watanabe, Kikuko; Hirai, Hiroyuki; Nakamura, Masataka; Okayama, Yoshimichi; Ra, Chisei; Aritake, Kosuke; Urade, Yoshihiro; Morimoto, Kazushi; Sugimoto, Yukihiko; Shimizu, Takao; Narumiya, Shuh; Hara, Shuntaro; Murakami, Makoto

2013-06-01

316

Closed-Form Bounds to the Rice and Incomplete Toronto Functions and Incomplete Lipschitz-Hankel Integrals  

CERN Document Server

This article provides novel analytical results for the Rice function, the incomplete Toronto function and the incomplete Lipschitz-Hankel Integrals. Firstly, upper and lower bounds are derived for the Rice function, $Ie(k,x)$. Secondly, explicit expressions are derived for the incomplete Toronto function, $T_{B}(m,n,r)$, and the incomplete Lipschitz-Hankel Integrals of the modified Bessel function of the first kind, $Ie_{\\mu,n}(a,z)$, for the case that $n$ is an odd multiple of 0.5 and $m \\geq n$. By exploiting these expressions, tight upper and lower bounds are subsequently proposed for both $T_{B}(m,n,r)$ function and $Ie_{\\mu,n}(a,z)$ integrals. Importantly, all new representations are expressed in closed-form whilst the proposed bounds are shown to be rather tight. Based on these features, it is evident that the offered results can be utilized effectively in analytical studies related to wireless communications. Indicative applications include, among others, the performance evaluation of digital communica...

Sofotasios, Paschalis C

2011-01-01

317

Chyloabdomen in a mature cat.  

OpenAIRE

A mature, castrated male cat presented with progressive lethargy and a severely distended abdomen. Abdominal radiographs, abdominocentesis, and evaluation of the fluid obtained led to a diagnosis of chyloabdomen. The underlying pathology, etiology, diagnosis, and treatment associated with this disease are discussed.

Nelson, K. L.

2001-01-01

318

MDM2 regulates a novel form of incomplete neoplastic transformation of Theileria parva infected lymphocytes.  

Science.gov (United States)

Our efforts are concerned with identifying features of incomplete malignant transformation caused by non viral pathogens. Theileria parva (T. parva) is a tick-transmitted protozoan parasite that can cause a fatal lymphoproliferative disease in cattle. The T. parva-infected lymphocytes display a transformed phenotype and proliferate in culture media like the other tumor cells, however those cells will return to normal after antiprotozoal treatment reflecting the incomplete nature of transformation. To identify signaling pathways involved in this form of transformation of T. parva-infected cells, we screened a library of anticancer compounds. Among these, TIBC, a specific inhibitor of MDM2, markedly inhibited proliferation of T. parva-infected lymphocytes and promoted apoptosis. Therefore we analyzed MDM2 function in T. parva-infected cells. Several T. parva-infected cell lines showed increased expression level of MDM2 with alternatively spliced isoforms compared to the lymphoma cells or ConA blasts. In addition, buparvaquone affected MDM2 expression in T. parva transformed cells. Moreover, p53 protein accumulation and function were impaired in T. parva-infected cells after cisplatin induced DNA damage despite the increased p53 transcription level. Finally, the treatment of T. parva-infected cells with boronic-chalcone derivatives TIBC restored p53 protein accumulation and induced Bax expression. These results suggest that the overexpression of MDM2 is closely linked to the inhibition of p53-dependent apoptosis of T. parva-infected lymphocytes. Aberrant expression of host lymphocyte MDM2 induced by cytoplasmic existence of T. parva, directly and/or indirectly, is associated with aspects of this type of transformation of T. parva-infected lymphocytes. This form of transformation shares features of oncogene induced malignant phenotype acquisition. PMID:22981919

Hayashida, Kyoko; Kajino, Kiichi; Hattori, Masakazu; Wallace, Maura; Morrison, Ivan; Greene, Mark I; Sugimoto, Chihiro

2013-02-01

319

Diversification of phytochrome contributions to germination as a function of seed-maturation environment.  

Science.gov (United States)

Environmental conditions during seed maturation influence germination, but the genetic basis of maternal environmental effects on germination is virtually unknown. Using single and multiple mutants of phytochromes, it is shown here that different phytochromes contributed to germination differently, depending on seed-maturation conditions. Arabidopsis thaliana wild-type seeds that were matured under cool temperatures were intensely dormant compared with seeds matured at warmer temperature, and this dormancy was broken only after warm seed-stratification followed by cold seed-stratification. The warm-cold stratification broke dormancy in fresh seeds but not in dry after-ripened seeds. Functional PHYB and PHYD were necessary to break cool-induced dormancy, which indicates a previously unknown and ecologically important function for PHYD. Disruption of PHYA in combination with PHYD (but not PHYB) restored germination to near wild-type levels, indicating that PHYA contributes to the maintenance of cool-induced dormancy on a phyD background. Effects of seed-maturation temperature were much stronger than effects of seed-maturation photoperiod. PHYB contributed to germination somewhat more strongly in seeds matured under short days, whereas PHYD contributed to germination somewhat more strongly in seeds matured under long days. The variable contributions of different phytochromes to germination as a function of seed-maturation conditions reveal further functional diversification of the phytochromes during the process of germination. This study identifies among the first genes to be associated with maternal environmental effects on germination. PMID:18028293

Donohue, Kathleen; Heschel, M Shane; Butler, Colleen M; Barua, Deepak; Sharrock, Robert A; Whitelam, Garry C; Chiang, George C K

2008-01-01

320

Mechanism of oocyte maturation and ovulation and its application to seed production in the Japanese eel.  

Science.gov (United States)

Reduction in eel resources and catches of glass eels as seedlings for aquaculture have been a serious concern in recent years in both Europe and East Asia. Thus, technical advancement to produce eel seeds for artificial cultivation is most desired. Fundamental information on oocyte maturation and ovulation and its application to artificial induction of sexual maturation are needed to produce good quality seeds of the Japanese eel. This review introduces hormonal mechanisms of cytoplasmic maturation (such as hydration, lipid coalescence, and clearing of the ooplasm) and the maturational competence (the ability to respond to maturation-inducing steroid) and nuclear maturation (germinal vesicle breakdown). In addition, previous and newly developed methods for induction of spawning have been described. PMID:22278706

Kagawa, H; Sakurai, Y; Horiuchi, R; Kazeto, Y; Gen, K; Imaizumi, H; Masuda, Y

2013-02-01

321

The fungal pathogen Cryptococcus neoformans manipulates macrophage phagosome maturation.  

Science.gov (United States)

Phagocytosis by cells of the innate immune system, such as macrophages, and the subsequent successful maturation of the phagosome, is key for the clearance of pathogens. The fungal pathogen Cryptococcus?neoformans is known to overcome killing by host phagocytes and both replicate within these cells and also escape via a non-lytic process termed vomocytosis. Here we demonstrate that, during intracellular growth, cryptococci modify phagolysosome maturation. Live cryptococci, but not heat-killed pathogens or inert targets, induce the premature removal of the early phagosome markers Rab5 and Rab11. In addition, significant acidification of the phagosome, calcium flux and protease activity is hindered, thus rendering the phagosome permissive for cryptococcal proliferation. Interestingly, several attenuated cryptococcal mutants retain this ability to subvert phagosomal maturation, suggesting that hitherto unidentified pathogen mechanisms regulate this process. PMID:25394938

Smith, Leanne M; Dixon, Emily F; May, Robin C

2015-05-01

322

Adhesion of immature and mature T cells induces in human thymic epithelial cells (TEC) activation of IL-6 gene trascription factors (NF-kappaB and NF-IL6) and IL-6 gene expression: role of alpha3beta1 and alpha6beta4 integrins.  

Science.gov (United States)

T cell precursors homed to thymus develop in close contact with stromal cells. Among them, thymic epithelial cells (TEC) are known to exert dominant roles in their survival and functional shaping. Key molecules mediating TEC/thymocytes interactions include cytokines and growth factors secreted by the two cell types and adhesion receptors mediating cell contact. Signaling events triggered in thymocytes by adhesion to epithelial cells have been extensively investigated, whereas little is known on the opposite phenomenon. We have previously investigated this issue in a co-culture system composed of TEC cultures derived from human normal thymus and heterologous thymocytes. We demonstrated that thymocytes adhere to TEC involving beta1 and beta4 integrins and induce the clustering of alpha3beta1 and alpha6beta4 heterodimers at the TEC surface. In addition thymocyte adhesion was followed by activation of NF-kappaB and NF-IL6 gene transcription factors and enhanced IL-6 production. The two latter phenomena were reproduced by the cross-linking of the alpha3, alpha6, beta1 and beta4 integrins, thus implying that the alpha3beta1 and alpha6beta4 heterodimers can signal during thymocyte adhesion. We have extended our previous work investigating in the same experimental setting the inducing activity of non stimulated or activated policlonal or clonal mature T cells as representative of the more mature thymocyte subset. We found that adhesion of unstimulated T cell i) involved beta1, but not beta4 integrin functions at the surface ii) induced the clustering of alpha3beta1, but not alpha2beta1 heterodimers at the TEC surface and iii) up-regulated the nuclear binding activity of NF-kappaB transcription factor and the IL-6 secretion. We propose that alpha3beta1 and alpha6beta4 heterodimers are induced to cluster at the TEC surface recognizing yet unknown cellular ligands differentially expressed during T cell development. PMID:11097212

Fiorini, E; Marchisio, P C; Scupoli, M T; Poffe, O; Tagliabue, E; Brentegani, M; Colombatti, M; Santini, F; Tridente, G; Ramarli, D

2000-01-01

323

Adhesion of Immature and Mature T Cells Induces in Human Thymic Epithelial Cells (TEC) Activation of IL-6 Gene Trascription Factors (NF-?B And NF-IL6) and IL-6 Gene Expression : Role of ?t?1 and ?6?4 Integrins  

Science.gov (United States)

T cell precursors homed to thymus develop in close contact with stromal cells. Among them, thymic epithelial cells (TEC) are known to exert dominant roles in their survival and functional shaping. Key molecules mediating TEC/thymocytes interactions include cytokines and growth factors secreted by the two cell types and adhesion receptors mediating cell contact. Signaling events triggered in thymocytes by adhesion to epithelial cells have been extensively investigated, whereas little is known on the opposite phenomenon. We have previously investigated this issue in a co-culture system composed of TEC cultures derived from human normal thymus and heterologous thymocytes. We demonstrated that thymocytes adhere to TEC involving ?1 and ?4 integrins and induce the clustering of (?3?1 and ?6?4 heterodimers at the TEC surface. In addition thymocyte adhesion was followed by activation of NF-?B and NF-IL6 gene transciption factors and enhanced IL-6 production. The two latter phenomena were reproduced by the cross-linking of the ?3, ?6, ?1 and ?4 integrins, thus implying that the ?3?1 and ?6?4 heterodimers can signal during thymocyte adhesion. We have extended our previous work investigating in the same experimental setting the inducing activity of non stimulated or activated policlonal or clonal mature T cells as representative of the more mature thymocyte subset. We found that adhesion of unstimulated T cell i) involved ?1, but not ?4 integrin functions at the surface ii) induced the clustering of ?3?1 , but not ?2?1 heterodimers at the TEC surface and iii) up-regulated the nuclear binding activity of NF-?B transcription factor and the IL-6 secretion. We propose that ?3?1 and ?6?4 heterodimers are induced to cluster at the TEC surface recognizing yet unknown cellular ligands differentially expressed during T cell development. PMID:11097212

Fiorini, Emma; Marchisio, Pier Carlo; Scupoli, Maria Teresa; Poffe, Ornella; Tagliabue, Elda; Brentegani, Monica; Colombatti, Marco; Santini, Franscesco; Tridente, Giuseppe

2000-01-01

324

Essential role for Nix in autophagic maturation of erythroid cells.  

Science.gov (United States)

Erythroid cells undergo enucleation and the removal of organelles during terminal differentiation. Although autophagy has been suggested to mediate the elimination of organelles for erythroid maturation, the molecular mechanisms underlying this process remain undefined. Here we report a role for a Bcl-2 family member, Nix (also called Bnip3L), in the regulation of erythroid maturation through mitochondrial autophagy. Nix(-/-) mice developed anaemia with reduced mature erythrocytes and compensatory expansion of erythroid precursors. Erythrocytes in the peripheral blood of Nix(-/-) mice exhibited mitochondrial retention and reduced lifespan in vivo. Although the clearance of ribosomes proceeded normally in the absence of Nix, the entry of mitochondria into autophagosomes for clearance was defective. Deficiency in Nix inhibited the loss of mitochondrial membrane potential (DeltaPsi(m)), and treatment with uncoupling chemicals or a BH3 mimetic induced the loss of DeltaPsi(m) and restored the sequestration of mitochondria into autophagosomes in Nix(-/-) erythroid cells. These results suggest that Nix-dependent loss of DeltaPsi(m) is important for targeting the mitochondria into autophagosomes for clearance during erythroid maturation, and interference with this function impairs erythroid maturation and results in anaemia. Our study may also provide insights into molecular mechanisms underlying mitochondrial quality control involving mitochondrial autophagy. PMID:18454133

Sandoval, Hector; Thiagarajan, Perumal; Dasgupta, Swapan K; Schumacher, Armin; Prchal, Josef T; Chen, Min; Wang, Jin

2008-07-10

325

Bayesian Inference of Natural Rankings in Incomplete Competition Networks  

CERN Document Server

Competition between a complex system's constituents and a corresponding reward mechanism based on it have profound influence on the functioning, stability, and evolution of the system. But determining the dominance hierarchy or ranking among the constituent parts from the strongest to the weakest -- essential in determining reward or penalty -- is almost always an ambiguous task due to the incomplete nature of competition networks. Here we introduce ``Natural Ranking," a desirably unambiguous ranking method applicable to a complete (full) competition network, and formulate an analytical model based on the Bayesian formula inferring the expected mean and error of the natural ranking of nodes from an incomplete network. We investigate its potential and uses in solving issues in ranking by applying to a real-world competition network of economic and social importance.

Park, Juyong

2013-01-01

326

Consumption-Portfolio Optimization with Recursive Utility in Incomplete Markets  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

In an incomplete market, we study the optimal consumption-portfolio decision of an investor with recursive preferences of Epstein–Zin type. Applying a classical dynamic programming approach, we formulate the associated Hamilton–Jacobi–Bellman equation and provide a suitable verification theorem. The proof of this verification theorem is complicated by the fact that the Epstein–Zin aggregator is non-Lipschitz, so standard verification results (e.g. in Duffie and Epstein, Econometrica 60, 393–394, 1992) are not applicable. We provide new explicit solutions to the Bellman equation with Epstein–Zin preferences in an incomplete market for non-unit elasticity of intertemporal substitution (EIS) and apply our verification result to prove that they solve the consumption-investment problem. We also compare our exact solutions to the Campbell–Shiller approximation and assess its accuracy.

Kraft, Holger; Seifried, Frank Thomas

2013-01-01

327

Bayesian Inference of Natural Rankings in Incomplete Competition Networks  

Science.gov (United States)

Competition between a complex system's constituents and a corresponding reward mechanism based on it have profound influence on the functioning, stability, and evolution of the system. But determining the dominance hierarchy or ranking among the constituent parts from the strongest to the weakest - essential in determining reward and penalty - is frequently an ambiguous task due to the incomplete (partially filled) nature of competition networks. Here we introduce the ``Natural Ranking,'' an unambiguous ranking method applicable to a round robin tournament, and formulate an analytical model based on the Bayesian formula for inferring the expected mean and error of the natural ranking of nodes from an incomplete network. We investigate its potential and uses in resolving important issues of ranking by applying it to real-world competition networks.

Park, Juyong; Yook, Soon-Hyung

2014-08-01

328

Diagnosis and treatment of incomplete occlusion of fallopian tube  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Incomplete occlusion of fallopian tube is a common cause for fallopian tubal infertility. However, the spontaneous intrauterine pregnancy rate may be increased after the patients receive appropriate diagnosis and treatment. Laparoscopy combined with hysteroscopy has been regarded to be a golden standard for diagnosis and treatment of fallopian tubal infertility, but its clinical application has been markedly limited due to its invasiveness and great expense. As the first-line screening technique, hysterosalpingography has been widely used to evaluate the fallopian tube patency. Selective salpingography and fallopian tube recanalization are more superior to hysterosalpingography in diagnosing and treating incomplete occlusion of fallopian tube. Selective salpingography and fallopian tube recanalization can even be on a par with laparoscopy, and moreover, can dynamically observe the fallopian tube function as well. As a safe and economical technique with fewer side-effects, selective salpingography plus fallopian tube recanalization has been more widely employed in clinical practice. (authors)

329

Inpatient capsule endoscopy leads to frequent incomplete small bowel examinations  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available AIM: To examine the predictive factors of capsule endoscopy (CE completion rate (CECR including the effect of inpatient and outpatient status. METHODS: We identified 355 consecutive patients who completed CE at Rush University Medical Center between March 2003 and October 2005. Subjects for CE had either nothing by mouth or clear liquids for the afternoon and evening of the day before the procedure. CE exams were reviewed by two physicians who were unaware of the study hypotheses. After retrospective analysis, 21 cases were excluded due to capsule malfunction, prior gastric surgery, endoscopic capsule placement or insufficient data. Of the remaining 334 exams [264 out-patient (OP, 70 in-patient (IP], CE indications, findings, location of the patients [IP vs OP and intensive care unit (ICU vs general medical floor (GMF] and gastrointestinal transit times were analyzed. Statistical analysis was completed using SPSS version 17 (Chicago, IL. Chi-square, t test or fisher exact-tests were used as appropriate. Multivariate logistic regression analysis was used to identify variables associated with incomplete CE exams. RESULTS: The mean age for the entire study population was 54.7 years. Sixty-one percent of the study population was female, and gender was not different between IPs vs OPs (P = 0.07. The overall incomplete CECR was 14% in our study. Overt obscure gastrointestinal bleeding (OGB was significantly more common for the IP CE (P = 0.0001, while abdominal pain and assessment of IBD were more frequent indications for the OP CE exams (P = 0.002 and P = 0.01, respectively. Occult OGB was the most common indication and arteriovenous malformations were the most common finding both in the IPs and OPs. The capsule did not enter the small bowel (SB in 6/70 IPs and 8/264 OPs (P = 0.04. The capsule never reached the cecum in 31.4% (22/70 of IP vs 9.5% (25/ 264 of OP examinations (P < 0.001. The mean gastric transit time (GTT was delayed in IPs compared to OPs, 98.5 ± 139.5 min vs 60.4 ± 92.6 min (P = 0.008. Minimal SB transit time was significantly prolonged in the IP compared to the OP setting [IP = 275.1 ± 111.6 min vs OP = 244.0 ± 104.3 min (P = 0.037]. CECR was also significantly higher in the subgroup of patients with OGB who had OP vs IP exams (95% vs 80% respectively, P = 0.001. The proportion of patients with incomplete exams was higher in the ICU (n = 7/13, 54% as compared to the GMF (n = 15/57, 26% (P = 0.05. There was only a single permanent SB retention case which was secondary to a previously unknown SB stricture, and the remaining incomplete SB exams were due to slow transit. Medications which affect gastrointestinal system motility were tested both individually and also in aggregate in univariate analysis in hospitalized patients (ICU and GMF and were not predictive of incomplete capsule passage (P > 0.05. Patient location (IP vs OP and GTT were independent predictors of incomplete CE exams (P < 0.001 and P = 0.008, respectively. CONCLUSION: Incomplete CE is a multifactorial problem. Patient location and related factors such as severity of illness and sedentary status may contribute to incomplete exams.

Cemal Yazici

2012-01-01

330

Double-level Incomplete Spinal Cord Injuries: A case report  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Brown-Séquard Syndrome is a type of Incomplete Spinal Cord Injury characterized by a relatively greater ipsilateral loss of proprioception and motor function, with contralateral loss of pain and temperature sensations. The residual deficits in balance produced by such injury may render a person liable to fall that may result in vertebral fracture and another injury to the spinal cord. We present here a case who initially had Brown-Séquard Syndrome due to penetrating knife injury to the neck and later on developed Cauda Equina Syndrome (another Incomplete Spinal Cord Injury due to fractured LV1 following a fall. The fracture was fixed through Pedicle Screws and the patient underwent effective rehabilitation to gain maximum achievable independence in functional activities. [Cukurova Med J 2014; 39(2.000: 392-398

Saeed Bin Ayaz

2014-04-01

331

Incomplete dicephalous conjoined twins: prenatal US and MRI findings  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The authors report a case of incomplete dicephali conjoined twins, with prenatal diagnostic by ultrasound scan and confirmed with nuclear magnetic resonance. In this case the fetus presented two complete heads and necks, two parallel columns up to the coccyx, one single body, two complete arms and two complete legs. Thorax and abdominal organs were not double, however the heart had more than four cavities. This abnormality appears when the zygote division happens after the day 14 from fertilization and it is unable to cause the fission, resulting in an incomplete division. This kind of conjoined twins have practically no chance of surviving, due to the large number of shared organs. The prenatal diagnosis is important to separate these cases from those with a chance of living with surgical intervention. (author)

332

Mast cell maturation is driven via a group III phospholipase A2-prostaglandin D2–DP1 receptor paracrine axis  

OpenAIRE

Microenvironment-based alterations in phenotypes of mast cells influence the susceptibility to anaphylaxis, yet the mechanisms underlying proper maturation of mast cells toward an anaphylaxis-sensitive phenotype are incompletely understood. Here we report that PLA2G3, a mammalian homolog of anaphylactic bee venom phospholipase A2, regulates this process. PLA2G3 secreted from mast cells is coupled with fibroblastic lipocalin-type PGD2 synthase (L-PGDS) to provide PGD2, which facilitates mast-c...

Taketomi, Yoshitaka; Ueno, Noriko; Kojima, Takumi; Sato, Hiroyasu; Murase, Remi; Yamamoto, Kei; Tanaka, Satoshi; Sakanaka, Mariko; Nakamura, Masanori; Nishito, Yasumasa; Kawana, Momoko; Kambe, Naotomo; Ikeda, Kazutaka; Taguchi, Ryo; Nakamizo, Satoshi

2013-01-01

333

Monetary policy with incomplete exchange rate pass-through  

OpenAIRE

The central bank's optimal reaction to foreign and domestic shocks is analyzed in an inflation targeting model allowing for incomplete exchange rate pass-through. Limited pass-through is incorporated through nominal rigidities in an aggregate supply-aggregate demand model derived from some microfoundations. Three main results are obtained. First, the results suggest that the interest rate response to foreign shocks is smaller when pass-through is low. Second, the inflation-output variability ...

Adolfson, Malin

2001-01-01

334

A probabilistic approach to quantum Bayesian games of incomplete information  

OpenAIRE

A Bayesian game is a game of incomplete information in which the rules of the game are not fully known to all players. We consider the Bayesian game of Battle of Sexes that has several Bayesian Nash equilibria and investigate its outcome when the underlying probability set is obtained from generalized Einstein-Podolsky-Rosen experiments. We find that this probability set, which may become non-factorizable, results in a unique Bayesian Nash equilibrium of the game.

Iqbal, Azhar; Chappell, James M.; Li, Qiang; Pearce, Charles E. M.; Abbott, Derek

2012-01-01

335

Incomplete Lineage Sorting: Consistent Phylogeny Estimation From Multiple Loci  

CERN Document Server

We introduce a simple algorithm for reconstructing phylogenies from multiple gene trees in the presence of incomplete lineage sorting, that is, when the topology of the gene trees may differ from that of the species tree. We show that our technique is statistically consistent under standard stochastic assumptions, that is, it returns the correct tree given sufficiently many unlinked loci. We also show that it can tolerate moderate estimation errors.

Mossel, Elchanan

2008-01-01

336

An implication of G\\"odel's incompleteness theorem  

OpenAIRE

A proof of G\\"odel's incompleteness theorem is given. With this new proof a transfinite extension of G\\"odel's theorem is considered. It is shown that if one assumes the set theory ZFC on the meta level as well as on the object level, a contradiction arises. The cause is shown to be the implicit identification of the meta level and the object level hidden behind the G\\"odel numbering. An implication of these considerations is stated.

Kitada, Hitoshi

2009-01-01

337

Can we make the second incompleteness theorem coordinate free?  

OpenAIRE

Is it possible to give a coordinate free formulation of the Second Incompleteness Theorem? We pursue one possible approach to this question. We show that (i) cutfree consistency for finitely axiomatized theories can be uniquely characterized modulo EA-provable equivalence, (ii) consistency for finitely axiomatized sequential theories can be uniquely characterized modulo EA-provable equivalence. The case of infinitely axiomatized ce theories is more delicate. We carefully dis...

Visser, A.

2008-01-01

338

Some remarks on marginally trapped surfaces and geodesic incompleteness  

OpenAIRE

In a recent paper, Eichmair, Galloway and Pollack have proved a Gannon-Lee-type singularity theorem based on the existence of marginally outer trapped surfaces (MOTS) on noncompact initial data sets for globally hyperbolic spacetimes. However, one might wonder whether the corresponding incomplete geodesics could still be complete in a possible non-globally hyperbolic extension of spacetime. In this note, some variants of that result are given with weaker causality assumption...

Silva, I. P. Costa E.

2012-01-01

339

Plural Form in Franchising: An Incomplete Contracting Approach  

OpenAIRE

Plural form franchising is modeled from an incomplete contracting perspective. Complete franchising is the unique, efficient governance structure only when the plural form externality is limited and the costs of investment are low for both franchisees. Governance structure choice is irrelevant when the costs of investment are high for all franchisees, because no franchisee will invest. Finally, a plural form governance structure is the unique, efficient equilibrium in all other cases because ...

Hendrikse, G. W. J.; Jiang, T.

2005-01-01

340

Pareto Improving Price Regulation when the Asset Market is Incomplete  

OpenAIRE

When the asset market is incomplete, competitive equilibria are constrained suboptimal, which provides a scope for pareto improving interventions. Price regulation can be such a pareto improving policy, even when the welfare effects of rationing are taken into account. An appealing aspect of price regulation is that it that it operates anonymously on market variables. Fix - price equilibria exist under weak assumptions. Such equilibria permit a competitive analysis of an economy with an incom...

Herings, Jean-jacques; Polemarchakis, Heracles M.

1999-01-01

341

The Risky Value in the Capital Market of Incomplete Information  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Risk is everywhere, especially in the capital market of incomplete information, which is full of speculation, so it is particularly important for investors to define risk, identify risks, and control the investment activities with the application of risk value to. It is analyzed quantitatively on risk value in the paper, with the Knowledge of game theory, economics and mathematical statistics, on the basis of the explanation of risk and risk value.

Xuhong Tan

2009-02-01

342

INCOMPLETE MARKETS AND FINANCIAL INSTABILITY. THE ROLE OF INFORMATION  

OpenAIRE

Considering the way that the world economy has evolved over the last 30-40 years, there was a transition from a predominant real economy to a predominant financial economy. Once, there were prevalent economic crises (when the real economy was important); today, the economies all around the world face prevalent financial crises; therefore, it is extremely important to study the role of financial markets, especially the incomplete markets feature (given by the imperfect information). The paper ...

CRISTIAN IONESCU

2012-01-01

343

A Memetic Algorithm for Designing Balanced Incomplete Blocks  

OpenAIRE

The generation of balanced incomplete block designs (BIBD) is a hard constrained combinatorial problem whose applications are manifold. Although the BIBD problem can be easily formulated as a combinatorial optimization problem, its resolution still constitutes a formidable challenge for solving techniques. In this work we devise a memetic algorithm (MA) for tackling the BIBD problem. This MA features a heuristic recombination operator based on greedy procedures and a local search method embed...

David Rodríguez Rueda; Carlos Cotta; Ferna?ndez Leiva, Antonio J.

2011-01-01

344

Cross-section measurement of complete and incomplete fusion reactions  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The incomplete fusion (ICF) reaction is a very promising tool for the spectroscopic studies of nuclei close to the ?-stability line. The theoretical understanding indicates the good cross-section of ICF at the beam energy much higher than the Coulomb barrier energy. The aim of present study was to find the absolute cross-section of the ICF residues just above the Coulomb barrier energies and to understand theoretically the ICF reaction mechanism

345

A Multi-Threshold Granulation Model for Incomplete Decision Tables  

OpenAIRE

How to establish basic granules of knowledge is a fundamental issue for data mining from incomplete decision tables. In the existing methods, basic granules under similarity relation contain too many objects and disturb the later knowledge mining, while granules under limited similarity relation, although simplifying the granules through introducing a limited threshold on two objects satisfying similarity relation, still have problems such as high computation and low prediction precision. In ...

Renpu Li; Tao Yu; Chunjie Zhou; Hongbo Li

2014-01-01

346

On some recent results in incomplete information implementation  

OpenAIRE

This paper provides a review of some recent results on implementation in incomplete information environments. This literature is concerned with characterizing the class of social choice functions that can be implemented as equilibrium outcomes of appropriately constructed games. Different game forms (normal and extensive forms) and different equilibrium concepts (Nash equilibrium, sequential equilibrium, etc.) lead to different characterizations. The discussion focuses on the key diffic...

Bergin, James

1995-01-01

347

Insights into thermonuclear supernovae from the incomplete silicon burning process  

OpenAIRE

Type Ia supernova (SNIa) explosions synthesize a few tenths to several tenths of a solar mass, whose composition is the result of incomplete silicon burning that reaches peak temperatures of 4 GK to 5 GK. The elemental abundances are sensitive to the physical conditions in the explosion, making their measurement a promising clue to uncovering the properties of the progenitor star and of the explosion itself. Using a parameterized description of the thermodynamic history of m...

Bravo, E.

2012-01-01

348

Fabrication of Stable Cartilage Framework for Microtia in Incomplete Synchondrosis  

OpenAIRE

The synchondrosis between the sixth and seventh costal cartilage is usually used for the base frame in autogenous ear reconstruction. If the synchondrosis is loose, a variety of modifications can be devised. This report introduces new methods for these problems. In cases of incomplete synchondrosis, only the surface of the base block margin was smoothly tapered without carving for the removal of the conchal deepening. The secure fixation of the two segments (helix and antihelix) to the base b...

Byung Chae Cho; Jung Hun Lee; Kang Young Choi; Jung Dug Yang; Ho Yun Chung

2012-01-01

349

A hierarchical nest survival model integrating incomplete temporally varying covariates  

OpenAIRE

Nest success is a critical determinant of the dynamics of avian populations, and nest survival modeling has played a key role in advancing avian ecology and management. Beginning with the development of daily nest survival models, and proceeding through subsequent extensions, the capacity for modeling the effects of hypothesized factors on nest survival has expanded greatly. We extend nest survival models further by introducing an approach to deal with incompletely observed, temporally varyin...

Converse, Sarah J.; Royle, J. Andrew; Adler, Peter H.; Urbanek, Richard P.; Barzen, Jeb A.

2013-01-01

350

Fusion and in-complete fusion studies in 16O + 181Ta system in the energy range ? 4.7 - 6.2 MeV/A  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In the present work, to understand the complete and incomplete fusion reaction dynamics, the excitation function studies have been done for several reactions induced by 16O7+ ions on 181Ta target in the energy range ? 4.7 - 6.2 MeV/A, using gamma-ray spectrometry

351

Evaluating an Investment Project in an Incomplete Market  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Many studies on real options base their arguments upon the assumption thatsecurity market is complete to apply the risk-neutral valuation technique. However, whenthe market is incomplete, in which investment risk is not spanned by existing assets, theinvestor?s preferences are not risk-neutral, or management is refrained from certain tradingstrategies, there may exist no unique martingale price of uncertain income streams. In thispaper, a dynamic-programming framework for maximizing expected utility of an investor indiscrete time is presented to evaluate an investment opportunity in an incomplete market.It is suggested that certainty equivalent (CE could be applied to value such an investmentopportunity. We show that two approaches to certainty equivalent, i.e., the buying price andthe selling price approaches, are exactly equal in exponential utility, implying that CE is afair value for both the buyer and the seller in an incomplete market, subject to the degree ofrisk aversion. Therefore, the proposed approach, compared to other alternative approaches,is relatively intuitive and easy to apply. With the classic investment problem, it is shownthat the option embedded in a project is crucial in decision-making.

George Yungchih Wang

2012-06-01

352

Incomplete domain decomposition preconditioning for coarse mesh neutron diffusion problems  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Incomplete domain decomposition preconditioning for parallel implementation of the conjugate gradient-like methods is applied to solve the two-group, three-dimensional, coarse mesh finite differenced neutron diffusion equation on the PARAGON XP/S-10 parallel computer. The linear system resulting from implicit time differencing of the time-dependent neutron diffusion equation is solved by the preconditioned biconjugate gradient squared method without employing the fission source iteration. An efficient domain decomposition preconditioning scheme is constructed by taking advantage of strong diagonal dominance of the coarse mesh finite difference formulation. Simplifications are made in the incomplete LU factorization process to construct a preconditioner for a three dimensional subdomain and the coupling between subdomains is approximated by incorporating only the effect of the non-leakage terms of neighboring subdomains. The method is applied to quarter core and full core fixed source problems which are created from the IAEA three-dimensional benchmark problem. Results show that on a single processor the computation time for the preconditioned biconjugate gradient method is comparable to other conventional iteration methods such as Line-SOR and the cyclic Chebyshev semi-iterative method. The effectiveness of the incomplete domain decomposition preconditioning on a multi-processor is evidenced by the small increase in the number of iterations as the number of subdomains of iterations as the number of subdomains increases. Speedups up to 32.1 are achievable with 64 processing elements for a 34x34x36 full core three-dimensional problem

353

Elective postoperative radiotherapy after incomplete resection of colorectal cancer  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

It is known that patients with incompletely resected epithelial cancers are at high risk of local recurrence. A prospective study to determine whether elective postoperative radiotherapy can decrease the incidence of local recurrence and thus improve survival of those patients with an incompletely resected tumor was made of 125 irradiated patients with locally advanced colorectal cancer (B2, C1, C2) 78 patients had rectosigmoid tumors and 47 had colonic cancers. Complete resection (R0) was performed in 94 patients (75 per cent). Thirteen (10 per cent) had microscopic (R1) and 18 (14 per cent) had gross residual disease (R2). Local control and survival (average follow-up, 38 months) of patients with microscopic residual cancer (RI) were 84 per cent (11/13) and 77 per cent (10/13) respectively. These results were identical to those obtained in patients without residual disease (R0). Patients with gross residual disease (R2) had a local control of 50 per cent (9/18) and a survival of 39 per cent (7/18). Radiation complication occurred in seven of 125 patients (6 per cent). One patient died, of radiation enteritis. One patient required a nephrostomy. The remaining five patients were treated conservatively. Elective postoperative radiotherapy given to patients who had incomplete resection of a colorectal cancer prevented local recurrence in the majority and may have increased survival

354

Targeting the mature consumer market.  

Science.gov (United States)

The aging population in the USA makes skill in marketing to the mature consumer increasingly important. The biophysical and psychosocial aging process create a need for specific strategies to address the changes brought on by age. This study attempts to ascertain the degree to which the health service providers recognize some of the needs of the elderly market and the degree to which marketing programs are addressing these needs. A comparison with other industries is also provided. The results indicate that 4 out of 16 strategies directed at the mature market have been used by more than 80% of health care respondents. In addition, there are significant differences between the health care industry and other industries for five of the strategies. All but two of the strategies are thought to be important by more than half of the survey respondents. PMID:10156916

Moschis, G P; Bellenger, D N; Kennett, P A; Aab, L E

1996-05-01

355

A Maturity Model of Enterprise Business Intelligence  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The implementation of an enterprise-level business intelligence initiative is a large-scale and complex undertaking, involving significant expenditure and multiple stakeholders over a lengthy period. It is therefore imperative to have systematic guidelines for business intelligence stakeholders in referring business intelligence maturity levels. Draw upon the prudent concepts of the Capability Maturity Model, this research proposes a multi-dimensional maturity model with distinct maturity levels for managing enterprise business intelligence initiatives. The maturity model, named Enterprise Business Intelligence Maturiy (EBIM, consists of five core maturity levels and four key dimensions, namely information quality, master data management, warehousing architecture, and analytics. It can be used to assist enterprises in benchmarking their business intelligence maturity level and identifying the critical areas to attain higher level of maturity.

Chee-Sok Tan

2011-03-01

356

7 CFR 1421.101 - Maturity dates.  

Science.gov (United States)

...7 Agriculture 10 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Maturity dates. 1421...DEFICIENCY PAYMENTS FOR 2008 THROUGH 201/span>2 Marketing Assistance Loans § 1421...maturity date. [67 FR 63511, Oct. 11, 2002, as amended at 74 FR...

2010-01-01

357

Development and maturation of Escherichia coli K-12 biofilms  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

The development and maturation of E. coli biofilms in flow-chambers was investigated. We found that the presence of transfer constitutive IncF plasmids induced biofilm development forming structures resembling those reported for Pseudomonas aeruginosa . The development occurred in a step-wise process: (i) attachment of cells to the substratum, (ii) clonal growth and microcolony formation, and (iii) differentiation into expanding structures rising 70-100 mum into the water phase. The first two steps were the same in the plasmid-carrying and plasmid-free strains, whereas the third step only occurred in conjugation pilus proficient plasmid-carrying strains. The final shapes of the expanding structures in the mature biofilm seem to be determined by the pilus configuration, as various mutants affected in the processing and activity of the transfer pili displayed differently structured biofilms. We further provide evidence that flagella, type 1 fimbriae, curli and Ag43 are all dispensable for the observed biofilm maturation. In addition, our results indicate that cell-to-cell signalling mediated by autoinducer 2 (AI-2) is not required for differentiation of E. coli within a biofilm community. We suggest on the basis of these results that E. coli K-12 biofilm development and maturation is dependent on cell-cell adhesion factors, which may act as inducers of self-assembly processes that result in differently structured biofilms depending on the adhesive properties on the cell surface.

Reisner, A.; Haagensen, J.A.J.

2003-01-01

358

On maturation of crack patterns  

OpenAIRE

Superficial (two dimensional) crack patterns appear when a thin layer of material elastically attached to a substrate contracts. We study numerically the maturation process undergone by these crack patterns when they are allowed to adapt in order to reduce its energy. The process models the evolution in depth of cracks in geological formations and in starch samples (`columnar jointing'), and also the time evolution (over thousands of years) of crack patterns in frozen soils....

Jagla, E. A.

2003-01-01

359

Glycoprotein maturation and the UPR  

OpenAIRE

Glycosylation is a complex form of protein modification occurring in the secretory pathway. The addition of N- and O-glycans affects intracellular processes like the folding and trafficking of most glycoproteins. To better understand the impact of glycosylation in protein folding and maturation, parameters like glycosylation site occupancy and oligosaccharide structure must be measured quantitatively. In this chapter, we describe current methods enabling the determination of N-glycosylation b...

Hu?lsmeier, A. J.; Welti, M.; Hennet, T.

2011-01-01

360

Maturation of the adolescent brain  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Mariam Arain, Maliha Haque, Lina Johal, Puja Mathur, Wynand Nel, Afsha Rais, Ranbir Sandhu, Sushil Sharma Saint James School of Medicine, Kralendijk, Bonaire, The Netherlands Abstract: Adolescence is the developmental epoch during which children become adults – intellectually, physically, hormonally, and socially. Adolescence is a tumultuous time, full of changes and transformations. The pubertal transition to adulthood involves both gonadal and behavioral maturation. Magnetic resonance imaging studies have discovered that myelinogenesis, required for proper insulation and efficient neurocybernetics, continues from childhood and the brain's region-specific neurocircuitry remains structurally and functionally vulnerable to impulsive sex, food, and sleep habits. The maturation of the adolescent brain is also influenced by heredity, environment, and sex hormones (estrogen, progesterone, and testosterone, which play a crucial role in myelination. Furthermore, glutamatergic neurotransmission predominates, whereas gamma-aminobutyric acid neurotransmission remains under construction, and this might be responsible for immature and impulsive behavior and neurobehavioral excitement during adolescent life. The adolescent population is highly vulnerable to driving under the influence of alcohol and social maladjustments due to an immature limbic system and prefrontal cortex. Synaptic plasticity and the release of neurotransmitters may also be influenced by environmental neurotoxins and drugs of abuse including cigarettes, caffeine, and alcohol during adolescence. Adolescents may become involved with offensive crimes, irresponsible behavior, unprotected sex, juvenile courts, or even prison. According to a report by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, the major cause of death among the teenage population is due to injury and violence related to sex and substance abuse. Prenatal neglect, cigarette smoking, and alcohol consumption may also significantly impact maturation of the adolescent brain. Pharmacological interventions to regulate adolescent behavior have been attempted with limited success. Since several factors, including age, sex, disease, nutritional status, and substance abuse have a significant impact on the maturation of the adolescent brain, we have highlighted the influence of these clinically significant and socially important aspects in this report. Keywords: myelinogenesis, neurocircuitry, molecular imaging, drug addiction, behavior, social adjustment

Arain M

2013-04-01

361

[Application of immunomodulators in the treatment of mandibular fractures in elderly patients with incomplete secondary adentia].  

Science.gov (United States)

The aim of the work was to study the experience of using complex pharmacotherapy in the treatment of mandibular fractures in elderly patients with incomplete secondary periodontitis, which were divided into two groups. In the first group, patients (n = 46; average age 69.0 ± 3.6) were treated using the authors' original device combined with application of antimicrobial MetrogilDenta gel onto gums two times a day during ten days. Patients in the second group (n = 52; average age 61.0 ± 3.1) were treated with the same device combined with (i) application of MetrogilDenta antimicrobial gel onto gums two times a day during ten days, (ii) application of 1.5 ml of Cycloferon 5% liniment by cotton pellet for 20 min during the same 10 days (30 minutes after the antimicrobial gel), and (iii) intramuscular injections of 6 mg of synthetic immunomodulator Polyoxidonium once a day for 3 days, then once every two days (for a total of 17 days). It is established that the use of the combination of interferon inducers of immunomodulator group--Cycloferon in the form of liniment and synthetic immunomodulator Polyoksidonium together with MetrogilDenta antimicrobial gel--led to the most pronounced regression of inflammatory and destructive processes in periodontal tissues (in 7.1%, ? = 0.05), optimized the state of local immunity of the oral cavity, and normalized microflora in periodontal pockets in elderly patients with incomplete secondary adentia. PMID:25365866

Abramov, A V; Parfenov, S A; Belov, V G; Parfenov, Iu A

2014-01-01

362

Epigenetic and hormonal profile during maturation of Quercus Suber L. somatic embryos.  

Science.gov (United States)

Somatic embryogenesis is a powerful alternative to conventional mass propagation of Quercus suber L. However, poor quality and incomplete maturation of somatic embryos restrict any application. Given that epigenetic and hormonal control govern many developmental stages, including maturation of zygotic embryos, global DNA methylation and abscisic acid (ABA) were analyzed during development and maturation of cork oak somatic embryos. Our results indicated that development of somatic embryos concurred with a decrease in 5-mdC. In contrast, endogenous ABA content showed a transient increase with a peak in immature E2 embryos denoting the onset of the maturation phase. A cold stratification phase was necessary for embryos to acquire germination ability, which coincided with a significant decrease in 5-mdC and ABA content. Immunohistochemical analyses showed that there was a specific spatial-temporal regulation during embryogenesis, particularly after the cold treatment. The acquisition of germination capacity concurred with a general low 5-mdC signal in the root meristem, while retention of the 5-mdC signal was mainly located in the shoot meristem and provascular tissues. Conversely, ABA immunolocalization was mainly located in the root and shoot apical meristems. Furthermore, a strong decrease in the ABA signal was observed in the root cap after the stratification treatment suggesting a role for the root cap during development of somatic embryos. These results suggest that, in addition to ABA, epigenetic control appears to play an important role for the correct maturation and subsequent germination of cork oak somatic embryos. PMID:25462078

Pérez, Marta; Viejo, Marcos; LaCuesta, Maite; Toorop, Peter; Cañal, María Jesús

2014-09-17

363

A Maturity Model of Enterprise Business Intelligence  

OpenAIRE

The implementation of an enterprise-level business intelligence initiative is a large-scale and complex undertaking, involving significant expenditure and multiple stakeholders over a lengthy period. It is therefore imperative to have systematic guidelines for business intelligence stakeholders in referring business intelligence maturity levels. Draw upon the prudent concepts of the Capability Maturity Model, this research proposes a multi-dimensional maturity model with distinct maturity lev...

Chee-Sok Tan; Yee-Wai Sim; William Yeoh

2011-01-01

364

Changes in ovarian TGF-beta superfamily mRNA levels during oocyte maturation, and in response to 17,20beta-dihydroxy-4-pregnen-3-one treatment in vivo and in vitro, in rainbow trout  

Science.gov (United States)

BACKGROUND: Follicle maturation is a complex process regulated by the coordination of diverse hormones. The mechanisms and extent to which these different hormones interact to induce oocyte maturational competence, production of the maturation-inducing hormone (MIH), and the ability of the MIH to ...

365

Isospin Dependence of Incomplete Fusion Reactions at 25 Mev/a  

CERN Document Server

40Ca+40,48Ca,46Ti reactions at 25 MeV/A have been studied using the 4p CHIMERA detector. An isospin effect on the competition between incomplete fusion and dissipative binary reaction mechanisms has been observed. The probability of producing a compound system is observed to be lower in the case of N=Z colliding systems as compared to the case of reactions induced on the more neutron rich 48Ca target. Predictions based on CoMD-II calculations show that the competition between fusion-like and dissipative reactions, for the selected centrality, can strongly constraint the parameterization of symmetry energy and its density dependence in the nuclear equation of state.

Amorini, F; Giuliani, G; Papa, M; Agodi, C; Alba, R; Anzalone, A; Berceanu, I; Cavallaro, S; Chatterjee, M B; Coniglione, R; De Filippo, E; Di Pietro, A; Geraci, E; Grassi, L; Grzeszczuk, A; Figuera, P; La Guidara, E; Lanzalone, G; Neindre, N Le; Lombardo, I; Maiolino, C; Pagano, A; Pirrone, S; Politi, G; Pop, A; Porto, F; Rizzo, F; Russotto, P; Santonocito, D; Sapienza, P; Verde, G

2008-01-01

366

Sexual maturation of female Saguinus oedipus oedipus  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This study is an examination of the process of female sexual maturation in the cotton-top tamarin, Saguinus oedipus oedipus, a South-American primate of the family, Callitrichidae. Two types of questions are addressed. The first question is whether the type of social grouping in which a young female lives affects the rate of her sexual maturation. Specifically, is there a difference between the maturation rate of a female housed with a strange adult male and a female housed with her natal group (i.e., her parents and various siblings). Second, the effect of sexual maturation on various social interactions is examined. Specifically are male-female interactions in mated pairs and mother-daughter interactions in natal groups changed by the sexual maturation of the young females. The mother's presence was not related to the daughter's maturation age. However, whether the natal group, as a whole, inhibited maturation, or unrelated males accelerated maturation, or both, remains unknown. Most of the behavioral interactions involving maturing females were unchanged by maturation. There was some indication that certain behaviors were affected by maturation, but only if a strange unrelated male was present.

Tardif, S.D.

1982-01-01

367

Complete and incomplete fusion reactions in 16O+45Sc system. Measurement and analysis of excitation functions below 7 MeV/nucleon  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Complete and incomplete fusion reactions study in heavy ion induced reactions, by 16O ions on 45Sc at incident energies ranging between 39 and 114 MeV have been using the activation technique followed by ?-ray spectrometry. The excitation functions for eleven reactions have been measured using this technique. A comparison of the experimental data has been made with the calculations based on statistical model. Excitation function measurement of various reactions, for the above projectile-target system is being reported for the first time. Complete and incomplete fusion reaction channels have been identified in the production of various residual nuclei, by analysing the experimental data. The results indicate the occurrence of incomplete fusion involving breakup of 16O into 4He+12C and 8Be+8Be followed by fusion of one of the fragments with target nucleus 45Sc. (author)

368

Maturity and Spawning in Fish  

OpenAIRE

In order to manage a stock effectively it is very important to understand the dynamics of that stock. Three critical pieces of information required to manage any fishery properly are: (1) Location of spawning areas; (2) Timing of spawning seasons; (3) Estimation of size at maturity. This information can be obtained by studying the spawning patterns of a stock. This type of data was vital in the Irish Sea cod recovery programme (the closure of the Irish Sea box from February to May of this yea...

Institute, Marine

2006-01-01

369

Incomplete block SSOR preconditionings for high order discretizations  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This paper considers the solution of linear algebraic systems Ax = b resulting from the p-version of the Finite Element Method (FEM) using PCG iterations. Contrary to the h-version, the p-version ensures the desired accuracy of a discretization not by refining an original finite element mesh but by introducing higher degree polynomials as additional basis functions which permits to reduce the size of the resulting linear system as compared with the h-version. The suggested preconditionings are the so-called Incomplete Block SSOR (IBSSOR) preconditionings.

Kolotilina, L. [Steklov Mathematical Institute, St. Petersburg (Russian Federation)

1994-12-31

370

A Supernodal Approach to Incomplete LU Factorization with Partial Pivoting  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

We present a new supernode-based incomplete LU factorization method to construct a preconditioner for solving sparse linear systems with iterative methods. The new algorithm is primarily based on the ILUTP approach by Saad, and we incorporate a number of techniques to improve the robustness and performance of the traditional ILUTP method. These include the new dropping strategies that accommodate the use of supernodal structures in the factored matrix. We present numerical experiments to demonstrate that our new method is competitive with the other ILU approaches and is well suited for today's high performance architectures.

Li, Xiaoye Sherry; Shao, Meiyue

2009-06-25

371

A Short Guide to Gödel's Second Incompleteness Theorem  

OpenAIRE

The usual proof of Godel's second incompleteness theorem for weak theories like I Sigma 'subscript 1' is long and technically cumbersome. The details are rarely given in full and in most cases they are skipped altogether with dismissing vague sentences alluding to the reader's ability to fill them in. In the first part of this note we provide a guide through the main technical points of the usual proof of Godel's theorem for weak theories. In the second part we present a different and simpler...

Bagaria, Joan

2003-01-01

372

Information, randomness & incompleteness papers on algorithmic information theory  

CERN Document Server

The papers gathered in this book were published over a period of more than twenty years in widely scattered journals. They led to the discovery of randomness in arithmetic which was presented in the recently published monograph on "Algorithmic Information Theory" by the author. There the strongest possible version of Gödel's incompleteness theorem, using an information-theoretic approach based on the size of computer programs, was discussed. The present book is intended as a companion volume to the monograph and it will serve as a stimulus for work on complexity, randomness and unpredictabilit

Chaitin, Gregory J

1987-01-01

373

Asset pricing puzzles explained by incomplete Brownian equilibria  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

We examine a class of Brownian based models which produce tractable incomplete equilibria. The models are based on finitely many investors with heterogeneous exponential utilities over intermediate consumption who receive partially unspanned income. The investors can trade continuously on a finite time interval in a money market account as well as a risky security. Besides establishing the existence of an equilibrium, our main result shows that the resulting equilibrium can display a lower risk-free rate and a higher risk premium relative to the usual Pareto efficient equilibrium in complete markets. Consequently, our model can simultaneously help explaining the risk-free rate and equity premium puzzles.

Christensen, Peter Ove; Larsen, Kasper

2010-01-01

374

Incomplete block factorization preconditioning for indefinite elliptic problems  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The application of the finite difference method to approximate the solution of an indefinite elliptic problem produces a linear system whose coefficient matrix is block tridiagonal and symmetric indefinite. Such a linear system can be solved efficiently by a conjugate residual method, particularly when combined with a good preconditioner. We show that specific incomplete block factorization exists for the indefinite matrix if the mesh size is reasonably small. And this factorization can serve as an efficient preconditioner. Some efforts are made to estimate the eigenvalues of the preconditioned matrix. Numerical results are also given.

Guo, Chun-Hua [Univ. of Calgary, Alberta (Canada)

1996-12-31

375

An incomplete esophageal perforation masquerading as variceal bleeding  

OpenAIRE

What is new in this Letter to the Editor: This case and image emphasizes the importance of considering incomplete esophageal rupture in all patients who present with nausea, as well as in those patients who have hematemesis, as they are at high risk to progress to a complete rupture. We would like to emphasize that this presentation of Boerhaave's is unique in the sense that the patient denied any vomiting, and initially, neither had physical exam findings of pneumo-mediastinum nor any eviden...

Oza, Veeral M.; Pangulur, Prathima; Kirkpatrick, Robert

2013-01-01

376

Program generator for the Incomplete Cholesky Conjugate Gradient (ICCG) method  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The Incomplete Cholesky Conjugate Gradient (ICCG) method has been found very effective for the solution of sparse systems of linear equations. Its implementation on a computer, however, requires a considerable amount of careful coding to achieve good machine efficiency. Furthermore, the resulting code is necessarily inflexible and cannot be easily adapted to different problems. We present in this paper a code generator GENIC which, given a small amount of information concerning the sparsity pattern and size of the system of equations, generates a solver package. This package, called SOLIC, is tailor made for a particular problem and can be easily incorporated into any user program

377

Finding small OBDDs for incompletely specified truth tables is hard  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

We present an efficient reduction mapping undirected graphs G with n = 2^k vertices for integers k to tables of partially specified Boolean functions g: {0,1}^(4k+1) -> {0,1,*} so that for any integer m, G has a vertex colouring using m colours if and only if g has a consistent ordered binary decision diagram with at most (2m + 2)n^2 + 4n decision nodes. From this it follows that the problem of finding a minimum-sized consistent OBDD for an incompletely specified truth table is NP-hard and also hard to approximate

Kristensen, Jesper Torp; Miltersen, Peter Bro

2006-01-01

378

Conditioning analysis of incomplete Cholesky factorizations with orthogonal dropping  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The analysis of preconditioners based on incomplete Cholesky factorization in which the neglected (dropped) components are orthogonal to the approximations being kept is presented. General estimate for the condition number of the preconditioned system is given which only depends on the accuracy of individual approximations. The estimate is further improved if, for instance, only the newly computed rows of the factor are modified during each approximation step. In this latter case it is further shown to be sharp. The analysis is illustrated with some existing factorizations in the context of discretized elliptic partial differential equations.

Napov, Artem

2012-03-16

379

Entrance channel effect in the incomplete fusion reactions  

OpenAIRE

In the present work the effect of various entrance channel parameters on incomplete fusion strength and the reaction dynamics in 12C+159Tb system at energies ? 4-7MeV/A have been investigated by measuring the excitation functions of individual reaction channels. Experimental excitation functions have been analyzed in the framework of compound nucleus decay using statistical model code PACE4. Analysis of data suggests the production of xn/pxn-channels via complete fusion of 12C with 159...

Singh B.P.; Kumar R; Unnati; Singh Devendra P.; Sharma Manoj K.; Singh Pushpendra P; Sharma Vijay R.; Yadav Abhishek; Prasad R.; Bhowmik R. K.

2011-01-01

380

VPRS-Based Knowledge Discovery Approach in Incomplete Information System  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Through changing the equivalence relation in the incomplete information system, a new variable precision rough set model and an approach for knowledge reduction are proposed. To overcome no monotonic property of the lower approximation, a cumulative variable precision rough set model is explored, and the basic properties of cumulative lower and upper approximation operators are investigated. The example proves that the cumulative variable precision rough set model has wide range of applications and better result than variable precision rough set model.

Shibao Sun

2010-01-01

381

Incomplete optical shielding in cold sodium atom traps  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A simple two-channel model, based on the semiclassical Landau-Zener (LZ) approximation, with averaging over angle-dependent exponents, is proposed as a fast means for accounting for the incomplete optical shielding of collisions, as observed in recent experiments conducted by Weiner and co-workers on ultracold sodium-atom traps, and its dependence on the laser polarization. The model yields a reasonably good agreement with the recent quantum close-coupling calculations of Julienne and co-workers. The remaining discrepancy between both theories and the data is qualitatively attributed to a partial overlap of the collision ranges at which loss processes and optical shielding occur

382

Fabrication of Stable Cartilage Framework for Microtia in Incomplete Synchondrosis  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The synchondrosis between the sixth and seventh costal cartilage is usually used for thebase frame in autogenous ear reconstruction. If the synchondrosis is loose, a variety ofmodifications can be devised. This report introduces new methods for these problems. Incases of incomplete synchondrosis, only the surface of the base block margin was smoothlytapered without carving for the removal of the conchal deepening. The secure fixation ofthe two segments (helix and antihelix to the base block using fine wire sutures gave stabilityto the unstable basal frame. After confirming that all the segments were assembled in onestable piece, the remaining conchal deepening of the basal framework was removed, and theouter lower portion of the basal cartilage was trimmed along its whole length. A total of 10consecutive patients with microtia, ranging from 8 to 13 years old, were treated from 2008 to2009. The follow-up period was 6 months to 2 years. Despite incomplete synchondrosis, thestable frameworks were constructed using the authors’ method and aesthetically acceptableresults were achieved. The proposed method can provide an easy way to make a stablecartilage framework regardless of the variable conditions of synchondrosis.

Byung Chae Cho

2012-03-01

383

Magnetic resonance cholangiopancreatography after failed or incomplete endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Background. MRCP is a new noninvasive technique for examining the biliary and pancreatic ducts without the need for contrast medium and without any known side effects. MRCP could replace diagnostic ERCP and other invasive bile and pancreatic duct examination methods. Objectives. Evaluation of the usefulness of MRCP to delineate bile and pancreatic ducts and depict pathological fluid collection in the biliopancreatic region in patients after failed or incomplete ERCP. Material and Methods. MRCP was performed in 36 patients who had previously undergone an attempted ERCP. However, with ERCP complete duct visualization was obtained in only 17 patients, but it failed in 6 patients and opacification was incomplete in 13. MRCP was done using a 1.5.T Picker Edge Eclipse system (EXPRESS, TR: ? , TEeff: 268 ms, ETL: 200, slice thickness: 50-70 mm, matrix: 336 x 512, FOV: 38 cm). Results. Complete visualization of the ducts was obtained with MRCP in all 36 patients, whereas ERCP was successful in only 21 cases. In 6 patients, MRCP showed pseudocysts missed by ERCP. In 15 patients, no further invasive procedures were needed after MRCP. Conclusions. MRCP is a valuable diagnostic tool for evaluating patients after failed or unsuccessful ERCP. MRCP is a noninvasive technique that may avoid the use of other, invasive procedures. (authors)

384

An information propagation model considering incomplete reading behavior in microblog  

Science.gov (United States)

Microblog is one of the most popular communication channels on the Internet, and has already become the third largest source of news and public opinions in China. Although researchers have studied the information propagation in microblog using the epidemic models, previous studies have not considered the incomplete reading behavior among microblog users. Therefore, the model cannot fit the real situations well. In this paper, we proposed an improved model entitled Microblog-Susceptible-Infected-Removed (Mb-SIR) for information propagation by explicitly considering the user's incomplete reading behavior. We also tested the effectiveness of the model using real data from Sina Microblog. We demonstrate that the new proposed model is more accurate in describing the information propagation in microblog. In addition, we also investigate the effects of the critical model parameters, e.g., reading rate, spreading rate, and removed rate through numerical simulations. The simulation results show that, compared with other parameters, reading rate plays the most influential role in the information propagation performance in microblog.

Su, Qiang; Huang, Jiajia; Zhao, Xiande

2015-02-01

385

Regularised finite element model updating using measured incomplete modal data  

Science.gov (United States)

This paper presents an effective approach for directly updating finite element model from measured incomplete vibration modal data with regularised algorithms. The proposed method is based on the relationship between the perturbation of structural parameters such as stiffness change and the modal data measurements of the tested structure such as measured mode shape readings. In order to adjust structural parameters at detailed locations, structural updating parameters will be selected at critical point level to reflect the modelling errors at the connections of structural elements. These updating parameters are then evaluated by an iterative or a direct solution procedure, which gives optimised solutions in the least squares sense without requiring an optimisation technique. In order to reduce the influence of modal measurement uncertainty, the Tikhonov regularisation method incorporating the L-curve criterion is employed to produce reliable solutions for the chosen updating parameters. Numerical simulation investigations and experimental studies for the laboratory tested space steel frame structure are undertaken to verify the accuracy and effectiveness of the proposed methods for adjusting the stiffness at the joints of structural members. The results demonstrate that the proposed methods provide reliable estimates of finite element model updating using the measured incomplete modal data.

Chen, Hua-Peng; Maung, Than Soe

2014-10-01

386

Global stability of two models with incomplete treatment for tuberculosis  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Research highlights: Two tuberculosis models with incomplete treatment. Intuitive epidemiological interpretations for the basic reproduction numbers. Global dynamics of the two models. Strategies to control the spread of tuberculosis. - Abstract: Two tuberculosis (TB) models with incomplete treatment are investigated. It is assumed that the treated individuals may enter either the latent compartment due to the remainder of Mycobacterium tuberculosis or the infectious compartment due to the treatment failure. The first model is a simple one with treatment failure reflecting the current TB treatment fact in most countries with high tuberculosis incidence. The second model refines the simple one by dividing the latent compartment into slow and fast two kinds of progresses. This improvement can be used to describe the case that the latent TB individuals have been infected with some other chronic diseases (such as HIV and diabetes) which may weaken the immunity of infected individuals and shorten the latent period of TB. Both of the two models assume mass action incidence and exponential distributions of transfers between different compartments. The basic reproduction numbers of the two models are derived and their intuitive epidemiological interpretations are given. The global dynamics of two models are all proved by using Liapunov functions. At last, some strategies to control the spread of tuberculosis are discussed.

Yang Yali, E-mail: yylhgr@126.co [Department of Applied Mathematics, Xi' an Jiaotong University, Xi' an 710049 (China) and Department of Applied Mathematics and Physics, Air Force Engineering University, Xi' an 710051 (China); Li Jianquan, E-mail: jianq_li@263.ne [Department of Applied Mathematics and Physics, Air Force Engineering University, Xi' an 710051 (China); Ma Zhien, E-mail: zhma@mail.xjtu.edu.c [Department of Applied Mathematics, Xi' an Jiaotong University, Xi' an 710049 (China); Liu Luju, E-mail: dahai20401095@yahoo.com.c [Department of Mathematics, Henan University of Science and Technology, Luoyang 471003 (China)

2010-12-15

387

A Multi-Threshold Granulation Model for Incomplete Decision Tables  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available How to establish basic granules of knowledge is a fundamental issue for data mining from incomplete decision tables. In the existing methods, basic granules under similarity relation contain too many objects and disturb the later knowledge mining, while granules under limited similarity relation, although simplifying the granules through introducing a limited threshold on two objects satisfying similarity relation, still have problems such as high computation and low prediction precision. In this paper, a multi-threshold model is presented to establish basic knowledge units of incomplete decision table based on the idea of granular computing, comparison experiments on the new model with two existing models show that the new model is superior to the other models on prediction precision, time cost and attribute reduction. extension description logic--ALCD-ES. Syntax definition, semantic explanation and reasoning algorithm TableauD-ES are given in details, which lay the theoretical foundation for the automatic solving method of contradiction problem based on extension description logic reasoning.  

Renpu Li

2014-07-01

388

Global stability of two models with incomplete treatment for tuberculosis  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Research highlights: ? Two tuberculosis models with incomplete treatment. ? Intuitive epidemiological interpretations for the basic reproduction numbers. ? Global dynamics of the two models. ? Strategies to control the spread of tuberculosis. - Abstract: Two tuberculosis (TB) models with incomplete treatment are investigated. It is assumed that the treated individuals may enter either the latent compartment due to the remainder of Mycobacterium tuberculosis or the infectious compartment due to the treatment failure. The first model is a simple one with treatment failure reflecting the current TB treatment fact in most countries with high tuberculosis incidence. The second model refines the simple one by dividing the latent compartment into slow and fast two kinds of progresses. This improvement can be used to describe the case that the latent TB individuals have been infected with some other chronic diseases (such as HIV and diabetes) which may weaken the immunity of infected individuals and shorten the latent period of TB. Both of the two models assume mass action incidence and exponential distributions of transfers between different compartments. The basic reproduction numbers of the two models are derived and their intuitive epidemiological interpretations are given. The global dynamics of two models are all proved by using Liapunov functions. At last, some strategies to control the spread of tuberculosis are discussed.

389

Fabrication of stable cartilage framework for microtia in incomplete synchondrosis.  

Science.gov (United States)

The synchondrosis between the sixth and seventh costal cartilage is usually used for the base frame in autogenous ear reconstruction. If the synchondrosis is loose, a variety of modifications can be devised. This report introduces new methods for these problems. In cases of incomplete synchondrosis, only the surface of the base block margin was smoothly tapered without carving for the removal of the conchal deepening. The secure fixation of the two segments (helix and antihelix) to the base block using fine wire sutures gave stability to the unstable basal frame. After confirming that all the segments were assembled in one stable piece, the remaining conchal deepening of the basal framework was removed, and the outer lower portion of the basal cartilage was trimmed along its whole length. A total of 10 consecutive patients with microtia, ranging from 8 to 13 years old, were treated from 2008 to 2009. The follow-up period was 6 months to 2 years. Despite incomplete synchondrosis, the stable frameworks were constructed using the authors' method and aesthetically acceptable results were achieved. The proposed method can provide an easy way to make a stable cartilage framework regardless of the variable conditions of synchondrosis. PMID:22783518

Cho, Byung Chae; Lee, Jung Hun; Choi, Kang Young; Yang, Jung Dug; Chung, Ho Yun

2012-03-01

390

Vascular endothelial growth factor inhibits dendritic cell maturation  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Objective: In this paper we investigated the effects of vascularendothelial growth factor on dendritic cells differentiation andmaturation from monocytic precursors. Methods: CD14+/CD34-progenitor cells were obtained from umbilical cord blood, purifiedby magnetic cell sorting, and cultivated with IL-4 and GM-CSF, inthe presence or absence of vascular endothelial growth factor.Maturation of dendritic cells was induced after six days of cultureby 24h-treatment with lipopolysaccharide (LPS. Results:Expression of marker proteins for immature (CD14 and DC-SIGNand mature(CD83 dendritic cells was detected by fluorescencemicroscopy and flow cytometry using monoclonal antibodies(mAb. Under proper differentiating conditions, treatment withvascular endothelial growth factor did not change the expressionof immature DC markers. Following maturation with LPS, increasedamount of CD14+ and DC-SIGN+ cells and decreased CD83+ cellpopulation were detected in vascular endothelial growth factortreatedcultures. Conclusions: Our data suggest that vascularendothelial growth factor does not affect the differentiation ofCD14+/CD34- progenitor cells into immature dendritic cells, butit reduces the efficiency of dendritic cells maturation in vitro. Thisvascular endothelial growth factor-mediated effect on dendriticcells function may influence anti-tumor immune responses.

Luciana Cavalheiro Marti

2005-03-01

391

Lack of Rbl1/p107 Effects on Cell Proliferation and Maturation in the Inner Ear  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Loss of postnatal mammalian auditory hair cells (HCs is irreversible. Earlier studies have highlighted the importance of the Retinoblastoma family of proteins (pRBs (i.e., Rb1, Rbl1/p107, and Rbl2/p130 in the auditory cells’ proliferation and emphasized our lack of information on their specific roles in the auditory system. We have previously demonstrated that lack of Rbl2/p130 moderately affects HCs’ and supporting cells’ (SCs proliferation. Here, we present evidence supporting multiple roles for Rbl1/p107 inthe developing and mature mouse organ of Corti (OC. Like other pRBs, Rbl1/p107 is expressed in the OC, particularly in the Hensen’s and Deiters’ cells. Moreover, Rbl1/p107 impacts maturation and postmitotic quiescence of HCs and SCs, as evidenced by enhanced numbers of these cells and the presence of dividing cells in the postnatal Rbl1/p107?/?OC. These findings were further supported by microarray and bioinformatics analyses, suggesting downregulation of several bHLH molecules, as well as activation of the Notch/Hes/Hey signaling pathway in homozygous Rbl1/p107 mutant mice. Physiological assessments and detection of ectopic HC marker expression in postnatal spiral ganglion neurons (SGNs provided evidence for incomplete cell maturation and differentiation in Rbl1/p107?/?OC. Collectively, the present study highlights an important role for Rbl1/p107 inOC cell differentiation and maturation, which is distinct from other pRBs.

Sonia M. Rocha-Sanchez

2013-11-01

392

Towards a Curriculum Design Maturity Model  

OpenAIRE

The Capability Maturity Model (CMM) is used in the software industry to improve design process as well as product quality. Likewise, CMM is also used in the education sector for a similar purpose. This paper presents, in particular, a proposed maturity model for curriculum design for Institutions of Higher Learning in Malaysia. The Curriculum Design Maturity Model ONE (CDMM-1) is specifically aimed at guiding curriculum designers in producing quality curricula according to programme specifica...

Thong Chee Ling 1; Yusmadi Yah Jusoh 2; Rusli Abdullah 3; Nor Hayati Alwi

2012-01-01

393

Meteor Astronomy: A Mature Science?  

Science.gov (United States)

In this article we attempt to trace the development of contemporary meteor science from C. 1830 to C. 1960. From its new beginnings in the early 1830's, the subject saw its most dramatic growth and development in those years surrounding the turn of the 19th century. While the period between C. 1910 to C. 1930 saw a decline in its greater interest, the period between C. 1920 to C. 1950 saw the science enter a stage of consolidation. Around the mid 1950's a stand-off between the theory of meteor ablation and observations arose forcing a re-evaluation of the meteoroid model. These recent developments in meteor studies would suggest that the science is mature in the sense described by Thomas Kuhn.

Beech, Martin

1988-11-01

394

Protein kinase A acts at multiple points to inhibit Xenopus oocyte maturation.  

OpenAIRE

In Xenopus oocytes, initiation of maturation is dependent on reduction of cyclic AMP-dependent protein kinase (PKA) activity and the synthesis of the mos proto-oncogene product. Mos is required during meiosis I for the activation of both maturation-promoting factor (MPF) and mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK). Here we show that injection of the catalytic subunit of PKA (PKAc) prevented progesterone-induced synthesis of endogenous Mos as well as downstream MPF and MAPK activation. However...

Matten, W.; Daar, I.; Vande Woude, G. F.

1994-01-01

395

Suppression of experimental autoimmune thyroiditis in the guinea pig by pretreatment with thyroglobulin in incomplete Freund's adjuvant  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Pretreatment of Strain 2 and Strain 13 guinea pigs with guinea pig thyroglobulin (GPTG)2 in incomplete Freund's adjuvant (IFA) reduced both the incidence and severity of experimental autoimmune thyroiditis (EAT) in animals subsequently challenged with GPTG in complete Freund's adjuvant (CFA). Antithyroglobulin antibody titers were reduced by pretreatment with GPTG in IFA in some, but not all, experiments while delayed hypersensitivity to GPTG was not affected. The suppressive effect induced by antigen pretreatment was transferrable by lymphoid cells but not by serum from pretreated animals

396

Efficient Maturation and Cytokine Production of Neonatal DCs Requires Combined Proinflammatory Signals  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Specific functional properties of dendritic cells (DCs have been suspected as being responsible for the impaired specific immune responses observed in human neonates. To analyze stimulatory requirements for the critical transition from immature, antigen-processing DCs to mature, antigen-presenting DCs, we investigated the effect of different proinflammatory mediators and antigens on phenotype and cytokine secretion of human neonatal DCs derived from hematopoietic progenitor cells (HPCs. Whereas single proinflammatory mediators were unable to induce the maturation of neonatal DCs, various combinations of IFNγ, CD40L, TNFα, LPS and antigens, induced the maturation of neonatal DCs documented by up-regulation of HLA-DR, CD83 and CD86. Combinations of proinflammatory mediators also increased cytokine secretion by neonatal DCs. Especially combined stimulation with LPS and IFNγ proved to be very efficient in inducing maturation and cytokine synthesis of neonatal DCs. In conclusion, neonatal DCs can be stimulated to express maturation as well as costimulatory surface molecules. However, induction of maturation requires combined stimulation with multiple proinflammatory signals.

Claudius U. Meyer

2005-01-01

397

Incomplete Continuous-Time Securities Markets with Stochastic Income Volatility  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

In an incomplete continuous-time securities market governed by Brownian motions, we derive closed-form solutions for the equilibrium risk-free rate and equity premium processes. The economy has a finite number of heterogeneous exponential utility investors, who receive partially unspanned income and can trade continuously on a finite time interval in a money market account and a single risky security. Besides establishing the existence of an equilibrium, our main result shows that if the investors' unspanned income has stochastic counter-cyclical volatility, the resulting equilibrium can display both lower risk-free rates and higher risk premia relative to the Pareto efficient equilibrium in an otherwise identical complete market. Consequently, our model can simultaneously help explaining the risk-free rate and equity premium puzzles.

Christensen, Peter Ove; Larsen, Kasper

2011-01-01

398

Research on Incomplete Transaction Footprints in Networked Software  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In networked software, interactive behaviors of software entities generate lots of behavioral footprints, some of them may lose tokens or tokens are useless. The paper studies the constructing process of State Transition Model (STM in which the process of incomplete transactions are satisfied with Markov property, it is pointed that the STM are originally extracted from behavior log files generated by the runtime behaviors of networked software. The contributions of this paper are to mark the partly tokenized behavior footprints in the STM through Maximum Flow (MF algorithm, then find the original source for each behavior footprint. The experiment results indicate that the maximum flow algorithm can accurately turn the partly tokenized behavior into complete footprint sequences.

Junfeng Man

2013-05-01

399

Endovascular treatment of remnants of intracranial aneurysms following incomplete clipping  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

We report clinical and angiographic findings in eight patients treated by the endovascular approach for an intracranial aneurysm remnant after incomplete surgical clipping. They were seven women and one man, mean age 38 years (range 14-50 years). In three, the remnant was responsible for a recurrent subarachnoid haemorrhage. All were treated by embolisation of the remnant using Guglielmi detachable coils. In two, a nondetachable balloon was inflated in front of the remnant during coil detachment because of a wide neck. Mean clinical and imaging follow-up was 19 months (range 12-24 months). Immediate angiography showed complete occlusion of the remnant and follow-up clinical examination showed good or excellent recovery in all patients. Imaging follow-up confirmed persistent occlusion of the remnant in all cases. (orig.)

400

Applying incomplete statistics to nonextensive systems with different q indices  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The nonextensive statistics based on the q-entropy Sq=--bar i=1v(pi-piq)1-q has been so far applied to systems in which the q value is uniformly distributed. For the systems containing different q's, the applicability of the theory is still a matter of investigation. The difficulty is that the class of systems to which the theory can be applied is actually limited by the usual nonadditivity rule of entropy which is no more valid when the systems contain non uniform distribution of q values. In this paper, within the framework of the so called incomplete information theory, we propose a more general nonadditivity rule of entropy prescribed by the zeroth law of thermodynamics. This new nonadditivity generalizes in a simple way the usual one and can be proved to lead uniquely to the q-entropy

401

Some remarks on marginally trapped surfaces and geodesic incompleteness  

CERN Document Server

In a recent paper, Eichmair, Galloway and Pollack have proved a Gannon-Lee-type singularity theorem based on the existence of marginally outer trapped surfaces (MOTS) on noncompact initial data sets for globally hyperbolic spacetimes. However, one might wonder whether the corresponding incomplete geodesics could still be complete in a possible non-globally hyperbolic extension of spacetime. In this note, some variants of that result are given with weaker causality assumptions, thus suggesting that the answer is generically negative, at least if the putative extension has no closed timelike curves. However, unlike in the case of MOTS, on which only the outgoing family of normal geodesics is constrained, we have found it necessary in our proofs to impose also a weak convergence condition on the ingoing family of normal geodesics. In other words, we consider marginally trapped surfaces (MTS) in chronological spacetimes, introducing the natural notion of a generic MTS. In particular, a Hawking-Penrose-type singul...

Silva, I P Costa e

2012-01-01

402

Expurgated PPM Using Symmetric Balanced Incomplete Block Designs  

CERN Document Server

In this letter, we propose a new pulse position modulation (PPM) scheme, called expurgated PPM (EPPM), for application in peak power limited communication systems, such as impulse radio (IR) ultra wide band (UWB) systems and free space optical (FSO) communications. Using the proposed scheme, the constellation size and the bit-rate can be increased significantly in these systems. The symbols are obtained using symmetric balanced incomplete block designs (BIBD), forming a set of pair-wise equidistance symbols. The performance of Q-ary EPPM is better than any Q-ary pulse position-based modulation scheme with the same symbol length. Since the code is cyclic, the receiver for EPPM is simpler compared to multipulse PPM (MPPM).

Noshad, Mohammad

2012-01-01

403

A Coupled Approach for Structural Damage Detection with Incomplete Measurements  

Science.gov (United States)

This historical work couples model order reduction, damage detection, dynamic residual/mode shape expansion, and damage extent estimation to overcome the incomplete measurements problem by using an appropriate undamaged structural model. A contribution of this work is the development of a process to estimate the full dynamic residuals using the columns of a spring connectivity matrix obtained by disassembling the structural stiffness matrix. Another contribution is the extension of an eigenvector filtering procedure to produce full-order mode shapes that more closely match the measured active partition of the mode shapes using a set of modified Ritz vectors. The full dynamic residuals and full mode shapes are used as inputs to the minimum rank perturbation theory to provide an estimate of damage location and extent. The issues associated with this process are also discussed as drivers of near-term development activities to understand and improve this approach.

James, George; Cao, Timothy; Kaouk, Mo; Zimmerman, David

2013-01-01

404

Dimension reduced kernel estimation for distribution function with incomplete data.  

Science.gov (United States)

This work focuses on the estimation of distribution functions with incomplete data, where the variable of interest Y has ignorable missingness but the covariate X is always observed. When X is high dimensional, parametric approaches to incorporate X - information is encumbered by the risk of model misspecification and nonparametric approaches by the curse of dimensionality. We propose a semiparametric approach, which is developed under a nonparametric kernel regression framework, but with a parametric working index to condense the high dimensional X - information for reduced dimension. This kernel dimension reduction estimator has double robustness to model misspecification and is most efficient if the working index adequately conveys the X - information about the distribution of Y. Numerical studies indicate better performance of the semiparametric estimator over its parametric and nonparametric counterparts. We apply the kernel dimension reduction estimation to an HIV study for the effect of antiretroviral therapy on HIV virologic suppression. PMID:21731174

Hu, Zonghui; Follmann, Dean A; Qin, Jing

2011-09-01

405

A Memetic Algorithm for Designing Balanced Incomplete Blocks  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The generation of balanced incomplete block designs (BIBD is a hard constrained combinatorial problem whose applications are manifold. Although the BIBD problem can be easily formulated as a combinatorial optimization problem, its resolution still constitutes a formidable challenge for solving techniques. In this work we devise a memetic algorithm (MA for tackling the BIBD problem. This MA features a heuristic recombination operator based on greedy procedures and a local search method embedded in the evolutionary cycle. An extensive empirical evaluation is done using 86 different instances of the problem. The results indicate that the two mentioned components of the MA contribute synergistically to the performance of the algorithm, whose results are better than those of other metaheuristics such as genetic algorithms, hill climbing, and tabu search (which was the previous incumbent for the problem.

David Rodríguez Rueda

2011-01-01

406

Evaluation of an incompletely measured spin density matrix  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A method for the determination of the density matrix of a resonant state using incomplete measurements pertaining to its decay is developed. In order to define the bounds on the density-matrix elements, the positivity and rank conditions are used. The method proceeds in two steps. First one obtains a particular density matrix which satisfies the positivity and rank conditions and reproduces the experimental data. This matrix is calculated by maximizing the information entropy. Then using this matrix as a starting point and the tolerance of the data presented by the experimental errors, the actual bounds on the density-matrix elements are found by means of a parametrization which assures both positivity and the rank condition. The method was successfully tested on data, for f production in the reaction ?-+p?f+n at 12 GeV/c and the subsequent decay f??++?-

407

The Gollin incomplete figures test: a flexible, computerised version.  

Science.gov (United States)

The Gollin incomplete figures test has been used as a measure of visual development, as a clinical test for parietal cortex dysfunction, and to examine long-term memory in amnesic patients. It has traditionally been administered by using a series of three or five stimulus cards, successive cards containing progressively more information. A study is reported in which digitised outline drawings of familiar objects were presented via a computer, the percentage of the figure on the screen slowly increasing from 0 to 100. The original findings of Gollin were successfully replicated; children's performance on the task improved markedly over the age range 2-5 years, and performance improved dramatically over three tests in all subjects. Computerisation of the Gollin task provides a precise and versatile alternative to the original card version. PMID:3444734

Foreman, N; Hemmings, R

1987-01-01

408

Incomplete and complete fusion studies at intermediate energies. Part I  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Last year we began a study of complete and incomplete fusion processes in the reaction of intermediate energy heavy ions with n-rich rare earth nuclei. During the past year, we completed a preliminary analysis of some of the data from the first experiments, prepared a manuscript summarizing our findings and have continued studying these phenomena using heavier intermediate energy projectiles (at GANIL) and different energy, lower mass projectiles (at CERN). In the first experiments to be completed, we measured the yields, angular distributions and differential range spectra for individual target fragments from the interaction of 8.5 MeV/A 16O, 19 MeV/A 16O, 35 MeV/A 12C and 86 MeV/A 12C with 154Sm. From the measured data, fragment isobaric yields and velocity spectra were deduced. Data are compared to model predictions

409

Complete and incomplete fusion of weakly bound nuclei  

Science.gov (United States)

Existing quantum mechanics methods to study fusion reactions with weakly bound nuclei cannot evaluate separately the complete fusion and the incomplete fusion cross sections. We develop a semiclassical procedure that can calculate these cross sections, apply it to Li6,7+Bi209 collisions at energies just above the barrier, and show that its predictions for the different fusion cross sections are in good agreement with the data. We find that the contribution from the sequential fusion of the Li fragments to the complete fusion cross section is substantial in the case of Li6, reaching almost 40% of that from the direct process, which illustrates the importance of calculating correctly the different components of the fusion cross section.

Marta, H. D.; Canto, L. F.; Donangelo, R.

2014-03-01

410

Proclaiming the validity of systematics for low energy incomplete fusion  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The phenomenon of incomplete fusion (ICF) in heavy ion (HI) interactions may be considered to take place when the projectile breaks up near the vicinity of target nuclear field, into fragments, one of which fuses with the target nucleus forming an excited composite system which may eventually de-excite by particle and ? emission, while the other part of fragment moves into the forward direction without any interaction and acts as spectator. In order to explore the underlined issues, the EFs of 13C+169Tm (present work) and 12C+169Tm systems at energies ? 4-7 MeV/A have been compared to study convincingly the projectile structure effects on the ICF reaction dynamics

411

Nonlinear stochastic systems with incomplete information filtering and control  

CERN Document Server

Nonlinear Stochastic Processes addresses the frequently-encountered problem of incomplete information. The causes of this problem considered here include: missing measurements; sensor delays and saturation; quantization effects; and signal sampling. Divided into three parts, the text begins with a focus on H? filtering and control problems associated with general classes of nonlinear stochastic discrete-time systems. Filtering problems are considered in the second part, and in the third the theory and techniques previously developed are applied to the solution of issues arising in complex networks with the design of sampled-data-based controllers and filters. Among its highlights, the text provides: ·         a unified framework for handling filtering and control problems in complex communication networks with limited bandwidth; ·         new concepts such as random sensor and signal saturations for more realistic modeling; and ·         demonstration of the use of techniques such...

Shen, Bo; Shu, Huisheng

2013-01-01

412

Parameter learning in MTE networks using incomplete data  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Bayesian networks with mixtures of truncated exponentials (MTEs) are gaining popularity as a flexible modelling framework for hybrid domains. MTEs support efficient and exact inference algorithms, but estimating an MTE from data has turned out to be a difficult task. Current methods suffer from a considerable computational burden as well as the inability to handle missing values in the training data. In this paper we describe an EM-based algorithm for learning the maximum likelihood parameters of an MTE network when confronted with incomplete data. In order to overcome the computational difficulties we make certain distributional assumptions about the domain being modeled, thus focusing on a subclass of the general class of MTE networks. Preliminary empirical results indicate that the proposed method offers results that are inline with intuition.

Fernández, Antonio; Langseth, Helge

413

Proton-Based Radiotherapy for Unresectable or Incompletely Resected Osteosarcoma  

Science.gov (United States)

Purpose To assess clinical outcome and the role of proton-therapy (PT) for local control (LC) of osteosarcoma (OSA). Methods All patients who received PT or mixed photon-proton radiotherapy from 1983–2009 at the Massachusetts General Hospital were reviewed. Criteria for PT were the need for high dose in the context of highly conformal radiotherapy of unresected or partially resected OSA, positive postoperative margins, postoperative imaging studies with macroscopic disease, or incomplete resection as defined by the surgeon. The primary endpoint was local control (LC) of the site treated; secondary endpoints were disease-free survival (DFS), overall survival (OS), long term toxicity, and prognostic factors associated with clinical outcome. Results 55 patients with a median age of 29 (2 to 76) were offered PT. The mean dose was 68.4 Gy, (standard deviation 5.4 Gy). 58.2% (11–100%) of the total dose was delivered with protons. LC after three and five years was 82 % and 72 %, respectively. The distant failure rate was 26% after three and five years. The five-year DFS was 65%, and the five-year OS was 67%. The extent of surgical resection did not correlate with outcome. Risk factors for local failure were ?2 grade disease (p<0.0001) and total treatment length (p=0.008). Grade 3–4 late toxicity was seen in 30.1 % of patients. One patient died from treatment-associated acute lymphocytic leukemia, and one from secondary carcinoma of the maxilla. Conclusion PT to deliver high RT doses allows organ-preserving locally curative treatment with high doses for unresectable or incompletely resected OSA. PMID:21448934

Ciernik, I. Frank; Niemierko, Andrzej; Harmon, David C.; Kobayashi, Wendy; Chen, Yen-Lin; Yock, Torunn; Ebb, David H.; Choy, Edwin; Raskin, Kevin A.; Liebsch, Norbert; Hornicek, Francis J.; DeLaney, Thomas F.

2011-01-01

414

Histologia da embriogênese somática induzida em embriões de sementes maduras de Urochloa brizantha apomítica / Histology of somatic embryogenesis induced in embryos of mature seeds of the apomictic Urochloa brizantha  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese O objetivo deste trabalho foi descrever o processo de embriogênese somática em Urochloa brizantha cv. Marandu (Syn. Brachiaria brizantha cv. Marandu) e fornecer subsídios para o aprimoramento dos métodos de cultura de tecidos e transformação genética. Calos embriogênicos foram obtidos por indução em [...] embriões isolados de sementes maduras, e cultivados in vitro, em meio de cultura que continha ácido 2,4-diclorofenoxiacético, 6-benzilaminopurina e caseína hidrolisada. Plântulas foram regeneradas a partir dos calos embriogênicos, na presença de ácido naftalenoacético e cinetina. Esse processo foi descrito morfologicamente por observações em microscopia de luz de secções seriadas semifinas de tecidos fixados, ao longo do processo de regeneração, em FAA [formaldeído (40%): ácido acético glacial: etanol (50%), a 5:5:90 v/v/v]. Os embriões das sementes de U. brizantha cv. Marandu não têm epiblasto e são classificados como do tipo panicoide. Nas condições estabelecidas de cultura in vitro, calos embriogênicos e embriões somáticos de U. brizantha cv. Marandu, desenvolvem-se a partir de células meristemáticas do escutelo. Abstract in english The objective of this work was to describe the process of somatic embryogenesis in Urochloa brizantha cv. Marandu (Syn. Brachiaria brizantha cv. Marandu) and to provide support for the improvement of tissue culture and genetic transformation methods. Embryogenic calli were obtained by induction in e [...] mbryos isolated from mature seeds, and cultivated in vitro in culture medium containing 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid, 6-benzylaminopurine and hydrolyzed casein. Plantlets were regenerated from the embryogenic calli in the presence of naphthaleneacetic acid and kinetin. This process was described by morphological observations of serial semithin sections of tissues fixed along the regeneration process in FAA (40% formaldehyde: acetic acid: 50% ethanol, at 5:5:90 v/v/v), using light microscopy. Seed embryos of U. brizantha cv. Marandu do not have epiblast and are classified as Panicum-type. Under in vitro culture conditions, embryogenic calli and somatic embryos of U. brizantha cv. Marandu develop from meristematic cells of the scutellum.

Sandra Janeth, Lenis-Manzano; Ana Claudia Guerra de, Araujo; Cacilda Borges do, Valle; Eliana de Fátima, Santana; Vera Tavares de Campos, Carneiro.

2010-05-01

415

Histologia da embriogênese somática induzida em embriões de sementes maduras de Urochloa brizantha apomítica Histology of somatic embryogenesis induced in embryos of mature seeds of the apomictic Urochloa brizantha  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi descrever o processo de embriogênese somática em Urochloa brizantha cv. Marandu (Syn. Brachiaria brizantha cv. Marandu e fornecer subsídios para o aprimoramento dos métodos de cultura de tecidos e transformação genética. Calos embriogênicos foram obtidos por indução em embriões isolados de sementes maduras, e cultivados in vitro, em meio de cultura que continha ácido 2,4-diclorofenoxiacético, 6-benzilaminopurina e caseína hidrolisada. Plântulas foram regeneradas a partir dos calos embriogênicos, na presença de ácido naftalenoacético e cinetina. Esse processo foi descrito morfologicamente por observações em microscopia de luz de secções seriadas semifinas de tecidos fixados, ao longo do processo de regeneração, em FAA [formaldeído (40%: ácido acético glacial: etanol (50%, a 5:5:90 v/v/v]. Os embriões das sementes de U. brizantha cv. Marandu não têm epiblasto e são classificados como do tipo panicoide. Nas condições estabelecidas de cultura in vitro, calos embriogênicos e embriões somáticos de U. brizantha cv. Marandu, desenvolvem-se a partir de células meristemáticas do escutelo.The objective of this work was to describe the process of somatic embryogenesis in Urochloa brizantha cv. Marandu (Syn. Brachiaria brizantha cv. Marandu and to provide support for the improvement of tissue culture and genetic transformation methods. Embryogenic calli were obtained by induction in embryos isolated from mature seeds, and cultivated in vitro in culture medium containing 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid, 6-benzylaminopurine and hydrolyzed casein. Plantlets were regenerated from the embryogenic calli in the presence of naphthaleneacetic acid and kinetin. This process was described by morphological observations of serial semithin sections of tissues fixed along the regeneration process in FAA (40% formaldehyde: acetic acid: 50% ethanol, at 5:5:90 v/v/v, using light microscopy. Seed embryos of U. brizantha cv. Marandu do not have epiblast and are classified as Panicum-type. Under in vitro culture conditions, embryogenic calli and somatic embryos of U. brizantha cv. Marandu develop from meristematic cells of the scutellum.

Sandra Janeth Lenis-Manzano

2010-05-01

416

Evaluation of zona pellucida birefringence intensity during in vitro maturation of oocytes from stimulated cycles  

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Full Text Available Abstract Background This study evaluated whether there is a relationship between the zona pellucida birefringence (ZP-BF intensity and the nuclear (NM and cytoplasmic (CM in vitro maturation of human oocytes from stimulated cycles. Results The ZP-BF was evaluated under an inverted microscope with a polarizing optical system and was scored as high/positive (when the ZP image presented a uniform and intense birefringence or low/negative (when the image presented moderate and heterogeneous birefringence. CM was analyzed by evaluating the distribution of cortical granules (CGs throughout the ooplasm by immunofluorescence staining. CM was classified as: complete, when CG was localized in the periphery; incomplete, when oocytes presented a cluster of CGs in the center; or in transition, when oocytes had both in clusters throughout cytoplasm and distributed in a layer in the cytoplasm periphery Nuclear maturation: From a total of 83 germinal vesicle (GV stage oocytes, 58 of oocytes (69.9% reached NM at the metaphase II stage. From these 58 oocytes matured in vitro, the high/positively scoring ZP-BF was presented in 82.7% of oocytes at the GV stage, in 75.8% of oocytes when at the metaphase I, and in 82.7% when oocytes reached MII. No relationship was observed between NM and ZP-BF positive/negative scores (P = 0.55. These variables had a low Pearson's correlation coefficient (r = 0.081. Cytoplasmic maturation: A total of 85 in vitro-matured MII oocytes were fixed for CM evaluation. Forty-nine oocytes of them (57.6% showed the complete CM, 30 (61.2% presented a high/positively scoring ZP-BF and 19 (38.8% had a low/negatively scoring ZP-BF. From 36 oocytes (42.3% with incomplete CM, 18 (50% presented a high/positively scoring ZPBF and 18 (50% had a low/negatively scoring ZP-BF. No relationship was observed between CM and ZP-BF positive/negative scores (P = 0.42. These variables had a low Pearson's correlation coefficient (r = 0.11. Conclusions The current study demonstrated an absence of relationship between ZP-BF high/positive or low/negative score and nuclear and cytoplasmic in vitro maturation of oocytes from stimulation cycles.

Silva Liliane FI

2011-04-01

417

How does incomplete fusion show up at slightly above barrier energies?  

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Full Text Available Experimental results on the onset of incomplete fusion at slightly above barrier energies are discussed in this paper. Spin-distributions of evaporation residues populated via complete and/or incomplete fusion of 12C,16O (Elab ? 4–7 MeV with 169Tm have been measured to probe associated ?–values. Particle (Z=1,2 – ? – coincidence technique has been used for channel selection. Entirely different entry state spin populations have been observed during the de-excitation of complete and incomplete composites. The complete fusion residues are found to be strongly fed over a broad spin range. While, a narrow range feeding for only high spin states has been observed in case of incomplete fusion residues. In the present work, incomplete fusion is shown to be a promising tool to populate high spin states in final reaction products. For better insight into the onset and strength of incomplete fusion, the relative contributions of complete and incomplete fusion have been deduced from the analysis of excitation functions and forward recoil ranges. A significant fraction of ICF has been observed even at energy as low as ? 7% above the barrier. The relative strengths of complete and incomplete fusion deduced from the analysis of forward-recoil-ranges and excitation functions complement each other. All the available results are discussed in light of the Morgenstern’s mass-asymmetry systematics. Incomplete fusion fraction is found to be large for more mass-asymmetric systems for individual projectiles, which points towards the projectile structure effect on incomplete fusion fraction. Experimentally measured forward ranges of recoils complement the existence of incomplete fusion at slightly above barrier energies, where more than one linear-momentum-transfer components associated with full- and/or partial-fusion of projectile(s have been observed. Present results conclusively demonstrate the possibility to selectively populate high spin states via incomplete fusion.

Prasad R.

2012-02-01

418

Decision-Making Style and Vocational Maturity.  

Science.gov (United States)

Examined the relationship between decision-making style, scholastic achievement, and vocational maturity for college students (N=64). Results did not support the hypothesized relationship between rationality and attitudinal and cognitive maturity. Scholastic achievement and lack of dependent decision style were found to be moderately predictive of…

Phillips, Susan D.; Strohmer, Douglas C.

1982-01-01

419

Competition of complete and incomplete fusion leading to compound nuclei with A/sub CN/ < 100  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Velocity spectra of individually resolved evaporation residue masses of different compound systems have been measured. By varying the energy in the range 3-26 MeV/? the onset of incomplete and the limit to complete fusion have been determined. The dependence of the ratio of complete to incomplete fusion on the mass asymmetry in the entrance channel is discussed. Precise measurements of evaporation spectra just above the onset of incomplete fusion together with coincident observation of light particles lead to the presumption that massive-transfer reactions are responsible for the incomplete momentum transfer

420

Finite Hilbert transform with incomplete data: null-space and singular values  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Using the Gelfand–Graev formula, the interior problem of tomography reduces to the inversion of the finite Hilbert transform (FHT) from incomplete data. In this paper, we study several aspects of inverting the FHT when the data are incomplete. Using the Cauchy transform and an approach based on the Riemann–Hilbert problem, we derive a differential operator that commutes with the FHT. Our second result is the characterization of the null-space of the FHT in the case of incomplete data. Also, we derive the asymptotics of the singular values of the FHT in three different cases of incomplete data. (paper)

421

In vitro atrazine exposure affects the phenotypic and functional maturation of dendritic cells  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Recent data suggest that some of the immunotoxic effects of the herbicide atrazine, a very widely used pesticide, may be due to perturbations in dendritic cell (DC) function. As consequences of atrazine exposure on the phenotypic and functional maturation of DC have not been studied, our objective was, using the murine DC line, JAWSII, to determine whether atrazine will interfere with DC maturation. First, we characterized the maturation of JAWSII cells in vitro by inducing them to mature in the presence of growth factors and selected maturational stimuli in vitro. Next, we exposed the DC cell line to a concentration range of atrazine and examined its effects on phenotypic and functional maturation of DC. Atrazine exposure interfered with the phenotypic and functional maturation of DC at non-cytotoxic concentrations. Among the phenotypic changes caused by atrazine exposure was a dose-dependent removal of surface MHC-I with a significant decrease being observed at 1 ?M concentration. In addition, atrazine exposure decreased the expression of the costimulatory molecule CD86 and it downregulated the expression of the CD11b and CD11c accessory molecules and the myeloid developmental marker CD14. When, for comparative purposes, we exposed primary thymic DC to atrazine, MHC-I and CD11c expression was also decreased. Phenotypic changes in JAWSII DC maturation were associated with functional inhibition of maturation as, albeit at higher concentrations, receptor-mediated antier concentrations, receptor-mediated antigen uptake was increased by atrazine. Thus, our data suggest that atrazine directly targets DC maturation and that toxicants such as atrazine that efficiently remove MHC-I molecules from the DC surface are likely to contribute to immune evasion

422

The maturing of microbial ecology.  

Science.gov (United States)

A.J. Kluyver and C.B. van Niel introduced many scientists to the exceptional metabolic capacity of microbes and their remarkable ability to adapt to changing environments in The Microbe's Contribution to Biology. Beyond providing an overview of the physiology and adaptability of microbes, the book outlined many of the basic principles for the emerging discipline of microbial ecology. While the study of pure cultures was highlighted, provided a unifying framework for understanding the vast metabolic potential of microbes and their roles in the global cycling of elements, extrapolation from pure cultures to natural environments has often been overshadowed by microbiologists inability to culture many of the microbes seen in natural environments. A combination of genomic approaches is now providing a culture-independent view of the microbial world, revealing a more diverse and dynamic community of microbes than originally anticipated. As methods for determining the diversity of microbial communities become increasingly accessible, a major challenge to microbial ecologists is to link the structure of natural microbial communities with their functions. This article presents several examples from studies of aquatic and terrestrial microbial communities in which culture and culture-independent methods are providing an enhanced appreciation for the microbe's contribution to the evolution and maintenance of life on Earth, and offers some thoughts about the graduate-level educational programs needed to enhance the maturing field of microbial ecology. PMID:17061212

Schmidt, Thomas M

2006-09-01

423

Glucocorticoids promote structural and functional maturation of foetal cardiomyocytes: a role for PGC-1?  

Science.gov (United States)

Glucocorticoid levels rise dramatically in late gestation to mature foetal organs in readiness for postnatal life. Immature heart function may compromise survival. Cardiomyocyte glucocorticoid receptor (GR) is required for the structural and functional maturation of the foetal heart in vivo, yet the molecular mechanisms are largely unknown. Here we asked if GR activation in foetal cardiomyocytes in vitro elicits similar maturational changes. We show that physiologically relevant glucocorticoid levels improve contractility of primary-mouse-foetal cardiomyocytes, promote Z-disc assembly and the appearance of mature myofibrils, and increase mitochondrial activity. Genes induced in vitro mimic those induced in vivo and include PGC-1?, a critical regulator of cardiac mitochondrial capacity. SiRNA-mediated abrogation of the glucocorticoid induction of PGC-1? in vitro abolished the effect of glucocorticoid on myofibril structure and mitochondrial oxygen consumption. Using RNA sequencing we identified a number of transcriptional regulators, including PGC-1?, induced as primary targets of GR in foetal cardiomyocytes. These data demonstrate that PGC-1? is a key mediator of glucocorticoid-induced maturation of foetal cardiomyocyte structure and identify other candidate transcriptional regulators that may play critical roles in the transition of the foetal to neonatal heart.Cell Death and Differentiation advance online publication, 31 October 2014; doi:10.1038/cdd.2014.181. PMID:25361084

Rog-Zielinska, E A; Craig, M-A; Manning, J R; Richardson, R V; Gowans, G J; Dunbar, D R; Gharbi, K; Kenyon, C J; Holmes, M C; Hardie, D G; Smith, G L; Chapman, K E

2014-10-31

424

Complete and incomplete fusion of $^{12}C$ with $^{165}Ho$ below 7 MeV/nucleon Measurements and analysis of excitation functions  

CERN Document Server

This experiment has been done with a view to studying complete and incomplete fusion in heavy-ion-induced reactions. Excitation functions for several reactions induced by /sup 12/C/sup 5+/ ions on /sup 165/Ho at incident energies from 55 to 80 MeV have been measured using the activation technique. The analysis of the data has been done using the codes ALICE-91 and CASCADE. The parameter F/sub theta /, the ratio of actual moment of inertia to the rigid-body value, has been found to play an important role in the calculations done by the code CASCADE. Significant contributions from both the complete and the incomplete fusion channels have been observed. Further, in the case of the reaction (C, p3n) considerable contribution from the decay of higher charge isobar precursor has been observed. (23 refs).

Gupta, S; Musthafa, M M; Bhardwaj, H D; Prasadl, R

2000-01-01

425

Maturity Group Classification and Maturity Locus Genotyping of Early-Maturing Soybean Varieties from High-Latitude Cold Regions  

Science.gov (United States)

Background With the migration of human beings, advances of agricultural sciences, evolution of planting patterns and global warming, soybeans have expanded to both tropical and high-latitude cold regions (HCRs). Unlike other regions, HCRs have much more significant and diverse photoperiods and temperature conditions over seasons or across latitudes, and HCR soybeans released there show rich diversity in maturity traits. However, HCR soybeans have not been as well classified into maturity groups (MGs) as other places. Therefore, it is necessary to identify MGs in HCRs and to genotype the maturity loci. Methods Local varieties were collected from the northern part of Northeast China and the far-eastern region of Russia. Maturity group reference (MGR) soybeans of MGs MG000, MG00, and MG0 were used as references during field experiments. Both local varieties and MGR soybeans were planted for two years (2010-2011) in Heihe (N 50°15?, E 127°27?, H 168.5 m), China. The days to VE (emergence), R1 (beginning bloom) and R7 (beginning maturity) were recorded and statistically analyzed. Furthermore, some varieties were further genotyped at four molecularly-identified maturity loci E1, E2, E3 and E4. Results The HCR varieties were classified into MG0 or even more early-maturing. In Heihe, some varieties matured much earlier than MG000, which is the most early-maturing known MG, and clustered into a separate group. We designated the group as MG0000, following the convention of MGs. HCR soybeans had relatively stable days to beginning bloom from emergence. The HCR varieties diversified into genotypes of E1, E2, E3 and E4. These loci had different effects on maturity. Conclusion HCRs diversify early-maturing MGs of soybean. MG0000, a new MG that matures much earlier than known MGs, was developed. HCR soybean breeding should focus more on shortening post-flowering reproductive growth. E1, E2, E3, and E4 function differentially. PMID:24740097

Lu, Wencheng; Hou, Wensheng; Sun, Shi; Yan, Hongrui; Han, Tianfu

2014-01-01

426

A hierarchical nest survival model integrating incomplete temporally varying covariates.  

Science.gov (United States)

Nest success is a critical determinant of the dynamics of avian populations, and nest survival modeling has played a key role in advancing avian ecology and management. Beginning with the development of daily nest survival models, and proceeding through subsequent extensions, the capacity for modeling the effects of hypothesized factors on nest survival has expanded greatly. We extend nest survival models further by introducing an approach to deal with incompletely observed, temporally varying covariates using a hierarchical model. Hierarchical modeling offers a way to separate process and observational components of demographic models to obtain estimates of the parameters of primary interest, and to evaluate structural effects of ecological and management interest. We built a hierarchical model for daily nest survival to analyze nest data from reintroduced whooping cranes (Grus americana) in the Eastern Migratory Population. This reintroduction effort has been beset by poor reproduction, apparently due primarily to nest abandonment by breeding birds. We used the model to assess support for the hypothesis that nest abandonment is caused by harassment from biting insects. We obtained indices of blood-feeding insect populations based on the spatially interpolated counts of insects captured in carbon dioxide traps. However, insect trapping was not conducted daily, and so we had incomplete information on a temporally variable covariate of interest. We therefore supplemented our nest survival model with a parallel model for estimating the values of the missing insect covariates. We used Bayesian model selection to identify the best predictors of daily nest survival. Our results suggest that the black fly Simulium annulus may be negatively affecting nest survival of reintroduced whooping cranes, with decreasing nest survival as abundance of S. annulus increases. The modeling framework we have developed will be applied in the future to a larger data set to evaluate the biting-insect hypothesis and other hypotheses for nesting failure in this reintroduced population; resulting inferences will support ongoing efforts to manage this population via an adaptive management approach. Wider application of our approach offers promise for modeling the effects of other temporally varying, but imperfectly observed covariates on nest survival, including the possibility of modeling temporally varying covariates collected from incubating adults. PMID:24340185

Converse, Sarah J; Royle, J Andrew; Adler, Peter H; Urbanek, Richard P; Barzen, Jeb A

2013-11-01