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Sample records for induce incomplete maturation

  1. Cannabinoids induce incomplete maturation of cultured human leukemia cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Murison, G.; Chubb, C.B.H.; Maeda, S.; Gemmell, M.A.; Huberman, E.

    1987-08-01

    Monocyte maturation markers were induced in cultured human myeloblastic ML-2 leukemia cells after treatment for 1-6 days with 0.03-30 ..mu..M ..delta../sup 9/-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC), the major psychoactive component of marijuana. After a 2-day or longer treatment, 2- to 5-fold increases were found in the percentages of cells exhibiting reactivity with either the murine OKM1 monoclonal antibody of the Leu-M5 monoclonal antibody, staining positively for nonspecific esterase activity, and displaying a promonocyte morphology. The increases in these differentiation markers after treatment with 0.03-1 ..mu..M THC were dose dependent. At this dose range, THC did not cause an inhibition of cell growth. The THC-induced cell maturation was also characterized by specific changes in the patterns of newly synthesized proteins. The THC-induced differentiation did not, however, result in cells with a highly developed mature monocyte phenotype. However, treatment of these incompletely matured cells with either phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate of 1..cap alpha..,25-dihydroxycholecalciferol, which are inducers of differentiation in myeloid leukemia cells (including ML-2 cells), produced cells with a mature monocyte morphology. The ML-2 cell system described here may be a useful tool for deciphering critical biochemical events that lead to the cannabinoid-induced incomplete cell differentiation of ML-2 cells and other related cell types. Findings obtained from this system may have important implications for studies of cannabinoid effects on normal human bone-marrow progenitor cells.

  2. Plasmodium actin is incompletely folded by heterologous protein-folding machinery and likely requires the native Plasmodium chaperonin complex to enter a mature functional state.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olshina, Maya A; Baumann, Hella; Willison, Keith R; Baum, Jake

    2016-01-01

    Actin filament turnover underpins several processes in the life cycle of the malaria parasite, Plasmodium falciparum. Polymerization and depolymerization are especially important for gliding motility, a substrate-dependent form of cell movement that underpins the protozoan parasite's ability to disseminate and invade host cells. To date, given difficulties in extraction of native actins directly from parasites, much of our biochemical understanding of malarial actin has instead relied on recombinant protein extracted and purified from heterologous protein expression systems. Here, using in vitro transcription-translation methodologies and quantitative protein-binding assays, we explored the folding state of heterologously expressed P. falciparum actin 1 (PfACTI) with the aim of assessing the reliability of current recombinant-protein-based data. We demonstrate that PfACTI, when expressed in non-native systems, is capable of binding to and release from bacterial, yeast, and mammalian chaperonin complexes but appears to be incompletely folded. Characterization of the native Plasmodium folding machinery in silico, the chaperonin containing t-complex protein-1 complex, highlights key divergences between the different chaperonin systems that likely underpins this incomplete folded state. These results highlight the importance of characterizing actin's folded state and raise concerns about the interpretation of actin polymerization kinetics based solely on protein derived from heterologous expression systems.-Olshina, M. A., Baumann, H., Willison, K. R., Baum, J. Plasmodium actin is incompletely folded by heterologous protein-folding machinery and likely requires the native Plasmodium chaperonin complex to enter a mature functional state. PMID:26443825

  3. Induced maturation of hepatic progenitor cells in vitro

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    Y. Bi

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Hepatic progenitor cells (HPCs are a potential cell source for liver cell transplantation but do not function like mature liver cells. We sought an effective and reliable method to induce HPC maturation. An immortalized HP14.5 albumin promoter-driven Gaussian luciferase (ALB-GLuc cell line was established from HPCs isolated from fetal mouse liver of post coitus day 14.5 mice to investigate the effect of induction factors on ALB promoter. HP14.5 parental cells were cultured in DMEM with different combinations of 2% horse serum (HS, 0.1 µM dexamethasone (DEX, 10 ng/mL hepatic growth factor (HGF, and/or 20 ng/mL fibroblast growth factor 4 (FGF4. Trypan blue and crystal violet staining were used to assess cell proliferation with different induction conditions. Expression of hepatic markers was measured by semi-quantitative RT-PCR, Western blot, and immunofluorescence. Glycogen storage and metabolism were detected by periodic acid-Schiff and indocyanine green (ICG staining. GLuc activity indicated ALB expression. The combination of 2% HS+0.1 µM Dex+10 ng/mL HGF+20 ng/mL FGF4 induced the highest ALB-GLuc activity. Cell proliferation decreased in 2% HS but increased by adding FGF4. Upon induction, and consistent with hepatocyte development, DLK, AFP, and CK19 expression decreased, while ALB, CK18, and UGT1A expression increased. The maturity markers tyrosine aminotransferase and apolipoprotein B were detected at days 3 and 6 post-induction, respectively. ICG uptake and glycogen synthesis were detectable at day 6 and increased over time. Therefore, we demonstrated that HPCs were induced to differentiate into functional mature hepatocytes in vitro, suggesting that factor-treated HPCs may be further explored as a means of liver cell transplantation.

  4. Steroidogenic and maturation-inducing potency of native gonadotropic hormones in female chub mackerel, Scomber japonicus

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    Ohga Hirofumi

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The gonadotropins (GtHs, follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH and luteinizing hormone (LH are produced in the pituitary gland and regulates gametogenesis through production of gonadal steroids. However, respective roles of two GtHs in the teleosts are still incompletely characterized due to technical difficulties in the purification of native GtHs. Methods Native FSH and LH were purified from the pituitaries of adult chub mackerel, Scomber japonicus by anion-exchange chromatography and immunoblotting using specific antisera. The steroidogenic potency of the intact chub mackerel FSH (cmFSH and LH (cmLH were evaluated in mid- and late-vitellogenic stage follicles by measuring the level of gonadal steroids, estradiol-17beta (Ε2 and 17,20beta-dihydroxy-4-pregnen-3-one (17,20beta-P. In addition, we evaluated the maturation-inducing potency of the GtHs on same stage follicles. Results Both cmFSH and cmLH significantly stimulated E2 production in mid-vitellogenic stage follicles. In contrast, only LH significantly stimulated the production of 17,20beta-P in late-vitellogenic stage follicles. Similarly, cmLH induced final oocyte maturation (FOM in late-vitellogenic stage follicles. Conclusions Present results indicate that both FSH and LH may regulate vitellogenic processes, whereas only LH initiates FOM in chub mackerel.

  5. Investigation of the influence of incomplete fusion on complete fusion of 16O induced reactions at moderate excitation energies

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    Ahamad Tauseef

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available An attempt has been made to investigate for the reaction dynamics leading to incomplete fusion (ICF of heavy ions at moderate excitation energies, especially the influence of incomplete fusion on complete fusion (CF of 16O induced reactions at specific energies. Excitation functions (EFs of various reaction products populated via CF and/or ICF of 16O projectile with 45Sc target were measured at energies ?3-7 MeV/nucleon, using recoil catcher technique followed by offline ?-ray spectroscopy. The measured EFs were compared with theoretical values obtained using the statistical model code PACE4. The experimentally measured EFs were in general found to be in good agreement with the theoretical predictions for non ?-emitting channels in the present target projectile system. However, for ?-emitting channels the measured EFs were higher than the predictions of the theoretical model codes, which may be credited to incomplete fusion reactions at these energies.

  6. Scintigraphic diagnosis of stress-induced incomplete fractures of the proximal tibia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Incomplete stress fractures of the proximal tibial diaphysis can be diagnosed by bone scintigraphy. The scintigraphic appearance of incomplete rather than complete tibial stress fractures is apparently reported for the first time in this article. With no treatment other than restricted activity, this injury heals rapidly and completely in 4 to 6 weeks. The major threat to the patient's welfare is unfounded suspicion of tumor or infection which may lead to biopsy or inappropriate therapy

  7. Amyloid-? peptide induces mitochondrial dysfunction by inhibition of preprotein maturation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mossmann, Dirk; Vgtle, F-Nora; Taskin, Asli Aras; Teixeira, Pedro Filipe; Ring, Julia; Burkhart, Julia M; Burger, Nils; Pinho, Catarina Moreira; Tadic, Jelena; Loreth, Desiree; Graff, Caroline; Metzger, Friedrich; Sickmann, Albert; Kretz, Oliver; Wiedemann, Nils; Zahedi, Ren P; Madeo, Frank; Glaser, Elzbieta; Meisinger, Chris

    2014-10-01

    Most mitochondrial proteins possess N-terminal presequences that are required for targeting and import into the organelle. Upon import, presequences are cleaved off by matrix processing peptidases and subsequently degraded by the peptidasome Cym1/PreP, which also degrades Amyloid-beta peptides (A?). Here we find that impaired turnover of presequence peptides results in feedback inhibition of presequence processing enzymes. Moreover, A? inhibits degradation of presequence peptides by PreP, resulting in accumulation of mitochondrial preproteins and processing intermediates. Dysfunctional preprotein maturation leads to rapid protein degradation and an imbalanced organellar proteome. Our findings reveal a general mechanism by which A? peptide can induce the multiple diverse mitochondrial dysfunctions accompanying Alzheimer's disease. PMID:25176146

  8. Activation-induced deaminase in B lymphocyte maturation and beyond

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    Michel Cogné

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Activation-induced deaminase (AID, a member of the AID/apolipoprotein B mRNA-editing enzyme-catalytic (APOBEC family, deaminates DNA cytidines into uridines and is the major trans-acting player of immunoglobulin (Ig genes' diversification in mature B lymphocytes. It allows multiple antigen-driven Ig modifications through gene conversion and/or somatic hypermutation of variable region genes and also permits to switch from IgM expression to other antibody classes after class switch recombination, or to stop Ig expression after locus suicide recombination. AID is expressed at high levels into germinal center activated B cells with a very stringent temporal and spatial regulation. Despite multiple levels of regulation, off-target effects of AID are quite frequent in the B cell lineage and can affect a number of non-Ig genes, albeit at lower level than Ig genes. Beyond the immune system, AID also contributes to cytosine demethylation in undifferentiated cells by deaminating methylcytosines into thymines which are further processed by thymidine glycosylase. This contributes to the maintenance of pluripotency and to the limitation of genetic imprinting. Since AID attacks on DNA can induce replication errors, base excision repair, or mismatch repair, they are strongly mutagenic and are also driving forces of tumorigenesis, not only in B cell malignancies but also in some non-lymphoid tumors involving ectopic AID expression.

  9. Coombs Antiglobulin Test Using Brucella abortus 99 as Antigen To Detect Incomplete Antibodies Induced by B. abortus RB51 Vaccine in Cattle

    OpenAIRE

    Ciuchini, Franco; Adone, Rosanna; Pasquali, Paolo

    2002-01-01

    This study showed that vaccination of cattle with Brucella abortus rough strain RB51 induces incomplete antibodies that can be detectable by a Coombs antiglobulin test using the B. abortus 99 smooth strain.

  10. Insights into Eyestalk Ablation Mechanism to Induce Ovarian Maturation in the Black Tiger Shrimp

    OpenAIRE

    Uawisetwathana, Umaporn; Leelatanawit, Rungnapa; Klanchui, Amornpan; Prommoon, Juthatip; Klinbunga, Sirawut; Karoonuthaisiri, Nitsara

    2011-01-01

    Eyestalk ablation is commonly practiced in crustacean to induce ovarian maturation in captivity. The molecular mechanism of the ablation has not been well understood, preventing a search for alternative measures to induce ovarian maturation in aquaculture. This is the first study to employ cDNA microarray to examine effects of eyestalk ablation at the transcriptomic level and pathway mapping analysis to identify potentially affected biological pathways in the black tiger shrimp (Penaeus monod...

  11. Platycodon grandiflorum polysaccharide induces dendritic cell maturation via TLR4 signaling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Mi Jeong; Ryu, Hwa Sun; Kim, Ji Sung; Lee, Hong Kyung; Kang, Jong Soon; Yun, Jieun; Kim, Sung Yeon; Lee, Mi Kyeong; Hong, Jin Tae; Kim, Youngsoo; Han, Sang-Bae

    2014-10-01

    Dendritic cell (DC) maturation is critical for initiation of the adoptive immune response. DC maturation is often attenuated in several pathological conditions including cancer. In this study, we report the effect of Platycodon grandiflorum polysaccharide (PG) on DC maturation. PG induced phenotypic maturation of DCs, as proved by the increase in the expression of CD40, CD80, CD86, and major histocompatibility complex (MHC)-I/II on the cell surface. PG also induced functional maturation of DCs, as proved by elevated production of interleukin (IL)-12, tumor necrosis factor-α, IL-1β, IL-6, IL-10, and interferon-β, and by enhanced allogeneic T cell stimulation ability of PG-treated DCs. PG efficiently induced maturation of DCs from C3H/HeN mice, which have normal Toll-like receptor-4 (TLR4), but not that of DCs from C3H/HeJ mice, which have mutated TLR4, suggesting that TLR4 might be one of the PG receptors in DCs. In line with TLR4 activation, PG increased the phosphorylation of ERK, p38, and JNK, and the nuclear translocation of p-c-Jun, p-CREB, and c-Fos. PG also activated NF-κB signaling, as evidenced by degradation of IκBα/β and nuclear translocation of p65 and p50. In summary, our data suggest that PG induces DC maturation by activating MAPK and NF-κB signaling downstream of TLR4. PMID:25019244

  12. Incomplete fusion reactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Various aspects of the mechanism of heavy-ion induced reactions in the range of bombarding energies from a few to about 20 MeV/A are reviewed with special emphasis on the reactions for very asymmetric systems. Results of the experimental studies of binary reactions and particularly of the incomplete fusion reactions (selected by means of various coincidence techniques)are discussed. A model of generalized critical angular momentum is formulated. The model explains essential features of the incomplete fusion reactions and predicts that particular reaction channels are localized in well defined regions of angular momenta. An extension of this model (the sum-rule model) is also proposed in attempt to consistently describe the complete fusion reactions, incomplete fusion reactions and multibody reactions in the framework of statistical competition constrained by the angular momentum limitations. (author)

  13. Ethanol exposure during neurogenesis induces persistent effects on neural maturation: evidence from an ex vivo model of fetal cerebral cortical neuroepithelial progenitor maturation

    OpenAIRE

    Camarillo, Cynthia; Miranda, Rajesh C

    2008-01-01

    Ethanol is a significant neuroteratogen. We previously used fetal cortical-derived neurosphere cultures as an ex vivo model of the second-trimester ventricular neuroepithelium, and showed that ethanol directly induced fetal stem and progenitor cell proliferation and maturation without inducing death. However, ethanol is defined as a teratogen because of its capacity to persistently disrupt neural maturation beyond a specific exposure period. We therefore utilized a simplified neuronal maturat...

  14. Listeria monocytogenes protein fraction induces dendritic cells maturation and T helper 1 immune responses.

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    Azad Saei

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Fully mature dendritic cells (DCs play pivotal role in inducing immune responses and converting nave T lymphocytes into functional Th1 cells. We aimed to evaluate Listeria Monocytogenes-derived protein fractions to induce DC maturation and stimulating T helper (Th1 immune responses.In the present study, we fractionated Listeria Monocytogenes-derived proteins by adding of ammonium sulfate in a stepwise manner. DCs were also generated from C57BL/6 mice bone marrow precursor cells. Then, the effects of protein fractions on bone marrow derived DC (BMDC maturation were evaluated. In addition, we assessed the capacity of activated DCs to induce cytokine production and proliferation of lymphocytes.Listeria-derived protein fractions induced fully mature DCs expressing high costimulatory molecules such as CD80, CD86 and CD40. DCs that were activated by selected F3 fraction had low capacity to uptake exogenous antigens while secreted high levels of Interleukine (IL-12. Moreover, lymphocytes cultured with activated BMDCs produced high amounts of IFN-? and showed higher proliferation than control. Listeria derived protein fractions differently influenced DC maturation.In conclusion, Listeria protein activated-BMDCs can be used as a cell based vaccine to induce anti-tumor immune responses.

  15. Investigation of the influence of incomplete fusion on complete fusion of 12C-induced reactions at ∼ 4-7.2 MeV/nucleon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this paper, we present the results of our investigation of reaction dynamics leading to incomplete fusion of heavy ions at moderate excitation energies, especially the influence of incomplete fusion on complete fusion of 12C -induced reactions at specific energies ∼ 4-7.2M eV/nucleon. Excitation functions of various reaction products populated via complete and/or incomplete fusions of a 12C projectile with 93Nb, 59Co and 52Cr targets were measured at several specific energies ∼ 4-7.2 MeV/nucleon, using a recoil catcher technique, followed by off-line γ-ray spectrometry. The measured excitation functions were compared with theoretical values obtained using the PACE4 statistical model code. For representative non-α-emitting channels in the 12C + 93Nb system, the experimentally measured excitation functions were, in general, found to be in good agreement with the theoretical predictions. However, for α-emitting channels in the 12C + 93Nb, 12C + 59Co, and 12C + 52Cr systems, the measured excitation functions were higher than the predictions of the theoretical model code, which may be credited to incomplete fusion reactions at these energies. An attempt was made to estimate the incomplete fusion fraction for the present systems, which revealed that the fraction was sensitive to the projectile energy and mass asymmetry of the entrance channel. (orig.)

  16. Investigation of the influence of incomplete fusion on complete fusion of {sup 12}C-induced reactions at {approx} 4-7.2 MeV/nucleon

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Amanuel, F.K. [INFN, Laboratori Nazionali di Legnaro, Legnaro (Padova) (Italy); Zelalem, B.; Chaubey, A.K. [Addis Ababa University, Department of Physics, P.O.Box 1176, Addis Ababa (Ethiopia); Agarwal, Avinash [Bareilly College, Department of Physics, Bareilly (India); Rizvi, I.A.; Maheshwari, Anjana; Ahmed, Tauseef [Aligarh Muslim University, Department of Physics, Aligarh (India)

    2011-12-15

    In this paper, we present the results of our investigation of reaction dynamics leading to incomplete fusion of heavy ions at moderate excitation energies, especially the influence of incomplete fusion on complete fusion of {sup 12}C -induced reactions at specific energies {approx} 4-7.2M eV/nucleon. Excitation functions of various reaction products populated via complete and/or incomplete fusions of a {sup 12}C projectile with {sup 93}Nb, {sup 59}Co and {sup 52}Cr targets were measured at several specific energies {approx} 4-7.2 MeV/nucleon, using a recoil catcher technique, followed by off-line {gamma}-ray spectrometry. The measured excitation functions were compared with theoretical values obtained using the PACE4 statistical model code. For representative non-{alpha}-emitting channels in the {sup 12}C + {sup 93}Nb system, the experimentally measured excitation functions were, in general, found to be in good agreement with the theoretical predictions. However, for {alpha}-emitting channels in the {sup 12}C + {sup 93}Nb, {sup 12}C + {sup 59}Co, and {sup 12}C + {sup 52}Cr systems, the measured excitation functions were higher than the predictions of the theoretical model code, which may be credited to incomplete fusion reactions at these energies. An attempt was made to estimate the incomplete fusion fraction for the present systems, which revealed that the fraction was sensitive to the projectile energy and mass asymmetry of the entrance channel. (orig.)

  17. Fibroblast and T cells conditioned media induce maturation dendritic cell and promote T helper immune response

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    Masoumeh Asadi

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Dendritic cells (DCs induce pathogen-specific T cell responses. We comprehensively studied the effects of addition of maturation stimulus, fibroblasts (fibroblast conditioned medium, PHA activated T cells (T cell conditioned medium, and mixture of fibroblast & PHA activated T cells (FCM-TCCM conditioned media on maturation of DCs. Monocytes were cultured with GM-CSF and IL-4 for five days. Maturation factors included MCM and TNF-α as control group. FCM and TCCM, or FCM-TCCM supernatant were considered as the treatment group. Tumor antigens were added at day five. Matured DCs were harvested at day seven. Phenotypic and functional analyses were carried out using anti (CD14, CD80, CD86, CD83 and HLA-DR monoclonal antibodies. Phagocytic activity, mixed lymphocyte reaction (MLR and cytokine production were also evaluated. At the end of culturing period, significantly fully matured DCs with large amount cytoplasm and copious dendritic projections were found in the presence of MCM, TNF-α with or without FCM, TCCM, FCM as well as TCCM. Flow cytometric analysis revealed that expression of CD14 decreased in particular in treated DCs, at the 5th day and expression of CD80, CD86 and HLA-DR was higher when FCM, TCCM, FCM plus TCCM were added to maturation factor. This study demonstrated that DCs matured with these methods had optimum function in comparison with either factor alone.

  18. Investigation of contribution of incomplete fusion in the total fusion process induced by 9Be on 181Ta target at near barrier energies

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    Kharab, Rajesh; Chahal, Rajiv; Kumar, Rajiv

    2016-02-01

    We have studied the relative contribution of incomplete fusion (ICF) and complete fusion (CF) in total fusion (TF) induced by 9Be on 181Ta target at energies in the vicinity of Coulomb barrier using classical dynamical model and Wong's formula in conjugation with energy dependent Woods-Saxon formula. It is found that at above barrier energies ICF contributes almost 30% in TF while at energies below the barrier qualitatively its contribution is much more than thirty percent.

  19. Complement protein C1q induces maturation of human dendritic cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Csomor, Eszter; Bajtay, Zsuzsa; Sndor, Nomi; Kristf, Katalin; Arlaud, Grard J; Thiel, Steffen; Erdei, Anna

    2007-01-01

    Maturation of dendritic cells (DCs) is known to be induced by several stimuli, including microbial products, inflammatory cytokines and immobilized IgG, as demonstrated recently. Since immune complexes formed in vivo also contain C1q, moreover apoptotic cells and several pathogens fix C1q in the...

  20. Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug-induced duodenal ulceration and perforation in a mature rottweiler

    OpenAIRE

    Reed, Suma

    2002-01-01

    A mature male rottweiler was evaluated for acute collapse and abdominal pain. The history consisted of concurrent administration of meloxicam and aspirin. On exploratory laparotomy, a large perforated ulcer was discovered in the proximal duodenum, with secondary peritonitis. The pathogenesis of NSAID-induced gastrointestinal ulceration and the supposed safety of COX-2 selective agents are discussed.

  1. Insights into Eyestalk Ablation Mechanism to Induce Ovarian Maturation in the Black Tiger Shrimp

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    Uawisetwathana, Umaporn; Leelatanawit, Rungnapa; Klanchui, Amornpan; Prommoon, Juthatip; Klinbunga, Sirawut; Karoonuthaisiri, Nitsara

    2011-01-01

    Eyestalk ablation is commonly practiced in crustacean to induce ovarian maturation in captivity. The molecular mechanism of the ablation has not been well understood, preventing a search for alternative measures to induce ovarian maturation in aquaculture. This is the first study to employ cDNA microarray to examine effects of eyestalk ablation at the transcriptomic level and pathway mapping analysis to identify potentially affected biological pathways in the black tiger shrimp (Penaeus monodon). Microarray analysis comparing between gene expression levels of ovaries from eyestalk-intact and eyestalk-ablated brooders revealed 682 differentially expressed transcripts. Based on Hierarchical clustering of gene expression patterns, Gene Ontology annotation, and relevant functions of these differentially expressed genes, several gene groups were further examined by pathway mapping analysis. Reverse-transcriptase quantitative PCR analysis for some representative transcripts confirmed microarray data. Known reproductive genes involved in vitellogenesis were dramatically increased during the ablation. Besides these transcripts expected to be induced by the ablation, transcripts whose functions involved in electron transfer mechanism, immune responses and calcium signal transduction were significantly altered following the ablation. Pathway mapping analysis revealed that the activation of gonadotropin-releasing hormone signaling, calcium signaling, and progesterone-mediated oocyte maturation pathways were putatively crucial to ovarian maturation induced by the ablation. These findings shed light on several possible molecular mechanisms of the eyestalk ablation effect and allow more focused investigation for an ultimate goal of finding alternative methods to replace the undesirable practice of the eyestalk ablation in the future. PMID:21915325

  2. Thyroid hormone does not induce maturation of embryonic chicken cardiomyocytes in vitro

    Science.gov (United States)

    Svensson Holm, Ann?Charlotte B.; Lindgren, Isa; sterman, Hanna; Altimiras, Jordi

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Fetal cardiac growth in mammalian models occurs primarily by cell proliferation (hyperplasia). However, most cardiomyocytes lose the ability to proliferate close to term and heart growth continues by increasing cell size (hypertrophy). In mammals, the thyroid hormone triiodothyronine (T3) is an important driver of this process. Chicken cardiomyocytes, however, keep their proliferating ability long after hatching but little information is available on the mechanisms controlling cell growth and myocyte maturation in the chicken heart. Our aim was to study the role of T3 on proliferation and differentiation of embryonic chicken cardiomyocytes (ECCM), enzymatically isolated from 19?day?old embryos and to compare the effects to those of insulin?like growth factor?1 (IGF?1) and phenylephrine (PE). Hyperplasia was measured using a proliferation assay (MTS) and hypertrophy/multinucleation was analyzed morphologically by phalloidin staining of F?actin and nuclear staining with DAPI. We show that IGF?1 induces a significant increase in ECCM proliferation (30%) which is absent with T3 and PE. PE induced both hypertrophy (61%) and multinucleation (41%) but IGF?1 or T3 did not. In conclusion, we show that T3 does not induce maturation or proliferation of cardiomyocytes, while IGF?1 induces cardiomyocyte proliferation and PE induces maturation of cardiomyocytes. PMID:25501434

  3. Investigation of complete and incomplete fusion dynamics of {sup 20}Ne induced reactions at energies above the Coulomb barrier

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Singh, D., E-mail: dsinghiuac@gmail.com [Centre for Applied Physics, Central University of Jharkhand, Ranchi-835 205 (India); Ali, R. [Department of Physics, G.F.(P.G.), College, Shahjahanpur-242 001 (India); Kumar, Harish; Ansari, M. Afzal [Department of Physics, Aligarh Muslim University, Aligarh-202 002 (India); Rashid, M. H.; Guin, R. [Variable Energy Cyclotron Centre, 1/AF, Bidhan Nagar, Kolkata-700 064 (India)

    2014-08-14

    Experiment has been performed to explore the complete and incomplete fusion dynamics in heavy ion collisions using stacked foil activation technique. The measurement of excitation functions of the evaporation residues produced in the {sup 20}Ne+{sup 165}Ho system at projectile energies ranges ≈ 4-8 MeV/nucleon have been done. Measured cumulative and direct cross-sections have been compared with the theoretical model code PACE-2, which takes into account only the complete fusion process. The analysis indicates the presence of contributions from incomplete fusion processes in some α-emission channels following the break-up of the projectile {sup 20}Ne in the nuclear field of the target nucleus {sup 165}Ho.

  4. Spontaneous and LH-induced maturation in Bufo arenarum oocytes: importance of gap junctions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toranzo, G Sánchez; Oterino, J; Zelarayán, L; Bonilla, F; Bühler, M I

    2007-02-01

    It has been demonstrated in Bufo arenarum that fully grown oocytes are capable of meiotic resumption in the absence of a hormonal stimulus if they are deprived of their follicular envelopes. This event, called spontaneous maturation, only takes place in oocytes collected during the reproductive period, which have a metabolically mature cytoplasm. In Bufo arenarum, progesterone acts on the oocyte surface and causes modifications in the activities of important enzymes, such as a decrease in the activity of adenylate cyclase (AC) and the activation of phospholipase C (PLC). PLC activation leads to the formation of diacylglycerol (DAG) and inositol triphosphate (IP(3)), second messengers that activate protein kinase C (PKC) and cause an increase in intracellular Ca(2+). Recent data obtained from Bufo arenarum show that progesterone-induced maturation causes significant modifications in the level and composition of neutral lipids and phospholipids of whole fully grown ovarian oocytes and of enriched fractions in the plasma membrane. In amphibians, the luteinizing hormone (LH) is responsible for meiosis resumption through the induction of progesterone production by follicular cells. The aim of this work was to study the importance of gap junctions in the spontaneous and LH-induced maturation in Bufo arenarum oocytes. During the reproductive period, Bufo arenarum oocytes are capable of undergoing spontaneous maturation in a similar way to mammalian oocytes while, during the non-reproductive period, they exhibit the behaviour that is characteristic of amphibian oocytes, requiring progesterone stimulation for meiotic resumption (incapable oocytes). This different ability to mature spontaneously is coincident with differences in the amount and composition of the phospholipids in the oocyte membranes. Capable oocytes exhibit in their membranes higher quantities of phospholipids than incapable oocytes, especially of PC and PI, which are precursors of second messengers such as DAG and IP(3). The uncoupling of the gap junctions with 1-octanol or halothane fails to induce maturation in follicles from the non-reproductive period, whose oocytes are incapable of maturing spontaneously. However, if the treatment is performed during the reproductive period, with oocytes capable of undergoing spontaneous maturation, meiosis resumption occurs in high percentages, similar to those obtained by manual defolliculation. Interestingly, results show that LH is capable of inducing GVBD in both incapable oocytes and in oocytes capable of maturing spontaneously as long as follicle cells are present, which would imply the need for a communication pathway between the oocyte and the follicle cells. This possibility was analysed by combining LH treatment with uncoupling agents such as 1-octanol or halothane. Results show that maturation induction with LH requires a cell-cell coupling, as the uncoupling of the gap junctions decreases GVBD percentages. Experiments with LH in the presence of heparin, BAPTA/AM and theophylline suggest that the hormone could induce GVBD by means of the passage of IP(3) or Ca(2+) through the gap junctions, which would increase the Ca(2+) level in the oocyte cytoplasm and activate phosphodiesterase (PDE), thus contributing to the decrease in cAMP levels and allowing meiosis resumption. PMID:17391547

  5. Incomplete block designs

    CERN Document Server

    Dey, Aloke

    2010-01-01

    This book presents a systematic, rigorous and comprehensive account of the theory and applications of incomplete block designs. All major aspects of incomplete block designs are considered by consolidating vast amounts of material from the literature - the classical incomplete block designs, like the balanced incomplete block (BIB) and partially balanced incomplete block (PBIB) designs. Other developments like efficiency-balanced designs, nested designs, robust designs, C-designs and alpha designs are also discussed, along with more recent developments in incomplete block designs for special t

  6. Mesenchymal stem cells attenuated PLGA-induced inflammatory responses by inhibiting host DC maturation and function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Heng; Yang, Fei; Tang, Bo; Li, Xi-Mei; Chu, Ya-Nan; Liu, Yuan-Lin; Wang, Shen-Guo; Wu, De-Cheng; Zhang, Yi

    2015-01-01

    The poly lactic-co-glycolic acid (PLGA) bio-scaffold is a biodegradable scaffold commonly used for tissue repair. However, implanted PLGA scaffolds usually cause serious inflammatory responses around grafts. To improve PLGA scaffold-based tissue repair, it is important to control the PLGA-mediated inflammatory responses. Recent evidence indicated that PLGA induce dendritic cell (DC) maturation in vitro, which may initiate host immune responses. In the present study, we explored the modulatory effects of mesenchymal stem cells (MSC) on PLGA-induced DCs (PLGA-DC). We found that mouse MSCs inhibited PLGA-DC dendrite formation, as well as co-stimulatory molecule and pro-inflammatory factor expression. Functionally, MSC-educated PLGA-DCs promoted Th2 and regulatory T cell differentiation but suppressed Th1 and Th17 cell differentiation. Mechanistically, we determined that PLGA elicited DC maturation via inducing phosphorylation of p38/MAPK and ERK/MAPK pathway proteins in DCs. Moreover, MSCs suppressed PLGA-DCs by partially inactivating those pathways. Most importantly, we found that the MSCs were capable of suppressing DC maturation and immune function in vivo. Also, the proportion of mature DCs in the mice that received MSC-PLGA constructs greatly decreased compared with that of their PLGA-film implantation counterparts. Additionally, MSCs co-delivery increased regulatory T and Th2 cells but decreased the Th1 and Th17 cell numbers in the host spleens. Histological analysis showed that MSCs alleviated the inflammatory responses around the grafted PLGA scaffolds. In summary, our findings reveal a novel function for MSCs in suppressing PLGA-induced host inflammatory response and suggest that DCs are a new cellular target in improving PLGA scaffold-based tissue repair. PMID:25890764

  7. Complement protein C1q induces maturation of human dendritic cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cosmor, E; Bajtay, Z; Sndor, N; Kristf, K; Arlaud, GJ; Thiel, Steffen; Erdei, A

    2007-01-01

    -dependent manner and induced NF-kappaB translocation to the nucleus. Immobilized C1q induced maturation of MDCs and enhanced secretion of IL-12 and TNF-alpha, moreover, elevated their T-cell stimulating capacity. As IFN-gamma levels were increased in supernatants of MDC-T cell co-cultures, our data suggest that C1......Maturation of dendritic cells (DCs) is known to be induced by several stimuli, including microbial products, inflammatory cytokines and immobilized IgG, as demonstrated recently. Since immune complexes formed in vivo also contain C1q, moreover apoptotic cells and several pathogens fix C1q in the...... activity of the cells was assessed by measuring cytokine secretion and their ability to activate allogeneic T lymphocytes. Cytokine production by T cells co-cultured with C1q-matured DCs was also investigated. C1q, but not the structurally related mannose-binding lectin was found to bind to imMDC in a dose...

  8. Gamma rays induced variability in mature embryos of avocado (Persea americana Mill)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Induced mutation and biotechnology techniques are current approaches used in plant breeding. At present work, the induced mutation and embryo zygotic culture techniques were used in order to characterize the radiosensitivity of avocado commercial varieties, Hass and California. The induced diversity in plant material was also evaluated in morphological seedling descriptors as: height seedling, diameter seedling neck, leaves number, length of principal root and secondary root number. The obtained results showed high susceptibility of both varieties to gamma rays. California was the higher sensitivity variety. Percentage of entire shoot induction showed clear dependence of radiation dose in both varieties. Thus dose range for mutagenesis was determined. In general, variation of morphological seedling descriptors not was clearly agreed to increase of radiation dose. In addition, the results suggested that variation in morphological seedling descriptors also could be depending of genotypes. The useful of mature embryo culture of avocado for improvement of breeding approaches in this crop, was discussed

  9. Deoxynivalenol exposure induces autophagy/apoptosis and epigenetic modification changes during porcine oocyte maturation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Jun; Wang, Qiao-Chu; Zhu, Cheng-Cheng; Liu, Jun; Zhang, Yu; Cui, Xiang-Shun; Kim, Nam-Hyung; Sun, Shao-Chen

    2016-06-01

    Deoxynivalenol (DON) is a widespread trichothecene mycotoxin which contaminates agricultural staples and elicits a complex spectrum of toxic effects on humans and animals. It has been shown that DON impairs oocyte maturation, reproductive function and causes abnormal fetal development in mammals; however, the mechanisms remain unclear. In the present study, we investigate the possible reasons of the toxic effects of DON on porcine oocytes. Our results showed that DON significantly inhibited porcine oocyte maturation and disrupted meiotic spindle by reducing p-MAPK protein level, which caused retardation of cell cycle progression. In addition, up-regulated LC3 protein expression and aberrant Lamp2, LC3 and mTOR mRNA levels were observed with DON exposure, together with Annexin V-FITC staining assay analysis, these results indicated that DON treatment induced autophagy/apoptosis in porcine oocytes. We also showed that DON exposure increased DNA methylation level in porcine oocytes through altering DNMT3A mRNA levels. Histone methylation levels were also changed showing with increased H3K27me3 and H3K4me2 protein levels, and mRNA levels of their relative methyltransferase genes, indicating that epigenetic modifications were affected. Taken together, our results suggested that DON exposure reduced porcine oocytes maturation capability through affecting cytoskeletal dynamics, cell cycle, autophagy/apoptosis and epigenetic modifications. PMID:26988607

  10. Butyrate-stable monosaccharide derivatives induce maturation and apoptosis in human acute myeloid leukaemia cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santini, V; Scappini, B; Gozzini, A; Grossi, A; Villa, P; Ronco, G; Douillet, O; Pouillart, P; Bernabei, P A; Rossi Ferrini, P

    1998-06-01

    The rapid degradation and subsequent lack of efficacy of n-butyric acid in vivo has been improved by the synthesis of monosaccharide stable pro-drugs of butyric acid. We studied the effects of D1 (O-n-butanoyl-2,3-O-isopropylidene-alpha-D-mannofuranoside), G1 (1-O-n-butanoyl-D,L-xylitol), and F1 (1-O-n-butanoyl 2,3-O-isopropylidene-D,L-xylitol) on the maturation and proliferation of AML cell lines HL 60 and FLG 29.1 and of purified blast cells from 10 cases of de novo acute myeloid leukaemia (AML). AML cell maturation was measured by surface antigen expression, morphology and cytochemistry. Toxicology in mice was also evaluated (DL50 1000 mg/kg). In HL 60 cells G1 and D1 increased the expression of CD15 and CD11a (presenting 62% of promyelo-metamyelocytes), and in 7/10 cases of primary AMLs that of CD11a, CD11b, CD15, and myeloperoxidase. D1, G1 and F1 induced a dose-dependent inhibition of tritiated thymidine uptake. Apoptosis (evaluated by flow cytometry and agarose gel electrophoresis) was induced in AML blasts by D1 and F1 (79% and 94% respectively for HL 60 cells) and, with less effect, by G1 (27%). The persistence of maturative and apoptotic activity in these new pro-drugs of butyric acid, hydrolysed only inside the tumour cell, suggests a possible use in differentiation therapy of myelodysplastic syndromes and AMLs. PMID:9633898

  11. Complete and incomplete fusion competition in 11B-induced fission reaction on medium mass targets at intermediate energies

    OpenAIRE

    Demekhina, N. A.; Karapetyan, G. S.; Balabekyan, A. R.

    2014-01-01

    The cross sections for the binary fission of 197Au, 181Ta and 209Bi targets induced by 11B ions were measured at intermediate energies. The fission products cross sections were studied by means of activation analysis in off-line regime observed gamma-ray spectra. The fission cross section is reconstructed on the basis of charge and mass distribution of the fission products.

  12. Maturation of osteoblast-like SaoS2 induced by carbon nanotubes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li Xiaoming; Uo, Motohiro; Akasaka, Tsukasa; Abe, Shigeaki; Watari, Fumio [Department of Biomedical Materials and Engineering, Graduate School of Dental Medicine, Hokkaido University, Kita Ku Kita 13, Nishi 7, Sapporo 060-8586 (Japan); Gao Hong [Division of Applied Bioscience, Graduate School of Agriculture, Hokkaido University, Sapporo 060-8586 (Japan); Sato, Yoshinori [Graduate School of Environmental Studies, Tohoku University, Sendai (Japan); Feng Qingling; Cui Fuzhai, E-mail: x.m.li@hotmail.co [Key Laboratory of Advanced Materials, Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China)

    2009-02-15

    Osteogenic maturation of the osteoblast is crucial for bone formation. In this study, multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) and graphite (GP) were pressed as compacts. The greater ability of carbon nanotubes to adsorb proteins, compared with graphite, was shown. Human osteoblast-like SaoS2 cells were cultured and the cell response to the two kinds of compacts was compared in vitro. Meanwhile, we used cell culture on the culture plate as a control. Assays for osteonectin, osteopontin and osteocalcin gene expression, total protein (TP) amount, alkaline phosphatase activity (ALP) and DNA of cells cultured on the samples were done. During the conventional culture, significantly higher osteonectin, osteopontin and osteocalcin gene expression level, ALP/DNA and TP/DNA on carbon nanotubes were found. To confirm the hypothesis that the larger amount of specific proteins adsorbed on the carbon nanotubes was crucial for this, the compacts were pre-soaked in culture medium having additional recombinant human bone morphogenetic protein-2 (rhBMP-2) before cell culture. Compared with GP, osteonectin, osteopontin and osteocalcin gene expression level, ALP/DNA and TP/DNA of the cells tested increased more on the MWCNTs after the compacts were pre-soaked in the culture medium with rhBMP-2. The results indicated that the carbon nanotubes might induce osteogenic maturation of the osteoblast by adsorbing more specific proteins.

  13. Maturation of osteoblast-like SaoS2 induced by carbon nanotubes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Osteogenic maturation of the osteoblast is crucial for bone formation. In this study, multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) and graphite (GP) were pressed as compacts. The greater ability of carbon nanotubes to adsorb proteins, compared with graphite, was shown. Human osteoblast-like SaoS2 cells were cultured and the cell response to the two kinds of compacts was compared in vitro. Meanwhile, we used cell culture on the culture plate as a control. Assays for osteonectin, osteopontin and osteocalcin gene expression, total protein (TP) amount, alkaline phosphatase activity (ALP) and DNA of cells cultured on the samples were done. During the conventional culture, significantly higher osteonectin, osteopontin and osteocalcin gene expression level, ALP/DNA and TP/DNA on carbon nanotubes were found. To confirm the hypothesis that the larger amount of specific proteins adsorbed on the carbon nanotubes was crucial for this, the compacts were pre-soaked in culture medium having additional recombinant human bone morphogenetic protein-2 (rhBMP-2) before cell culture. Compared with GP, osteonectin, osteopontin and osteocalcin gene expression level, ALP/DNA and TP/DNA of the cells tested increased more on the MWCNTs after the compacts were pre-soaked in the culture medium with rhBMP-2. The results indicated that the carbon nanotubes might induce osteogenic maturation of the osteoblast by adsorbing more specific proteins.

  14. Observation and analysis of incomplete fusion reactions induced by (12C, 14N, 16O, 22Ne) ions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The mechanism of the reactions induced by heavy ions has been studied. The experiments were concerned with incident channels which lead to the formation of intermediate nuclei with atomic mass (6412C, 14N, 16O, 22Ne) as projectiles respectively. The detection of light fragments (2< Z<12) is studied. A three solid-state-detector telescope, with associated electronics is used which allows the separation of reaction products according to their charge. The main features of deep inelastic collisions are discussed: large kinetic energy loss, and important nucleon transfer as a function of the angular detection. The time evolution of the reaction has been studied, then the results are compared with a scattering model suggested by Noremberg. A theoretical calculation based on both classical and statistical approaches giving the total cross-sections for any exit channel has been proposed

  15. Development of early maturing and semi-dwarf in rice by induced mutations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Crop improvement using classical induced mutagenesis is now well standardized. A large number of new promising varieties in different crops have successfully been developed world wide using both physical and chemical mutagenes. Domsia is one of the best quality and local rice variety in Iran, but it is tall and nearly late in maturity. The dry seeds of this variety were treated with gamma rays at doses 100, 200 and 300 Gy. The irradiated seeds were seeded in nursery, and then transplanted in main land. At the end of first year of experiment, main panicle of some randomly selected plants were harvested and planted as a panicle-to-row at M2 generation. A semi-dwarf mutant line and an early maturity mutant line were obtained from 300 and 100 Gy respectively, at M2 generation. These mutant lines were showed no segregation at next generations. The height of semi-dwarf mutant line was 60cm shorter than the control (165cm). The length reduction of internodes 2 through 5 caused the height reduction in semi-dwarf line. Reduction in length of internode closed to panicle was more significant than the other internodes. There was no significant difference in panicle length between semi-dwarf mutant lines and control. The number of tillers in semi-dwarf mutant line was significantly more than the control (No.12). The yields of semi-dwarf line were less than control, because of some sterility caused by gamma rays. We are recovering fertility by back crossing of this line with control. Also an early maturity mutant line with 15 days earlier than parent was obtained. The yield of this mutant line was not significantly different from the control. Some traits were studied in mutant lines at M7 generation, they are includes: plant height, number of culm, uppermost internode length, second internode length, flag leaf length and width, days to heading, days to maturity, panicle length, grain length and width, Spikelet fertility, number of grain in panicle, grain yield, 100-grain weight, amylose (%), gel consistency and gelatination temperature. In this paper I will discuss the details of these traits. (author)

  16. Matured Hop Bittering Components Induce Thermogenesis in Brown Adipose Tissue via Sympathetic Nerve Activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morimoto-Kobayashi, Yumie; Ohara, Kazuaki; Takahashi, Chika; Kitao, Sayoko; Wang, Guanying; Taniguchi, Yoshimasa; Katayama, Mikio; Nagai, Katsuya

    2015-01-01

    Obesity is the principal symptom of metabolic syndrome, which refers to a group of risk factors that increase the likelihood of atherosclerosis. In recent decades there has been a sharp rise in the incidence of obesity throughout the developed world. Iso-α-acids, the bitter compounds derived from hops in beer, have been shown to prevent diet-induced obesity by increasing lipid oxidation in the liver and inhibition of lipid absorption from the intestine. Whereas the sharp bitterness induced by effective dose of iso-α-acids precludes their acceptance as a nutrient, matured hop bittering components (MHB) appear to be more agreeable. Therefore, we tested MHB for an effect on ameliorating diet-induced body fat accumulation in rodents. MHB ingestion had a beneficial effect but, compared to iso-α-acids and despite containing structurally similar compounds, acted via different mechanisms to reduce body fat accumulation. MHB supplementation significantly reduced body weight gain, epididymal white adipose tissue weight, and plasma non-esterified free fatty acid levels in diet-induced obese mice. We also found that uncoupling protein 1 (UCP1) expression in brown adipose tissue (BAT) was significantly increased in MHB-fed mice at both the mRNA and protein levels. In addition, MHB administration in rats induced the β-adrenergic signaling cascade, which is related to cAMP accumulation in BAT, suggesting that MHB could modulate sympathetic nerve activity innervating BAT (BAT-SNA). Indeed, single oral administration of MHB elevated BAT-SNA in rats, and this elevation was dissipated by subdiaphragmatic vagotomy. Single oral administration of MHB maintained BAT temperature at a significantly higher level than in control rats. Taken together, these findings indicate that MHB ameliorates diet-induced body fat accumulation, at least partly, by enhancing thermogenesis in BAT via BAT-SNA activation. Our data suggests that MHB is a useful tool for developing functional foods or beverages to counteract the accumulation of body fat. PMID:26098641

  17. Mycobacterium tuberculosislpdC, Rv0462, induces dendritic cell maturation and Th1 polarization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: → Treatment with Rv0462 induces the expression of surface molecules and the production of cytokines in DCs. → Rv0462 induces the activation of MAPKs. → Rv0462-treated DCs enhances the proliferation of CD4+ T cells. -- Abstract: Mycobacterium tuberculosis, the etiological factor of pulmonary tuberculosis, causes significant morbidity and mortality worldwide. Activation of host immune responses for containment of mycobacterial infections involves participation of innate immune cells, such as dendritic cells (DCs). In this study, we demonstrated that the gene encoding lipoamide dehydrogenase C (lpdC) from M. tuberculosis, Rv0462, induce maturation and activation of DCs involved in the MAPKs signaling pathway. Moreover, Rv0462-treated DCs activated naive T cells, polarized CD4+ and CD8+ T cells to secrete IFN-γ in syngeneic mixed lymphocyte reactions, which would be expected to contribute to Th1 polarization of the immune response. Our results suggest that Rv0462 can contribute to the innate and adaptive immune responses during tuberculosis infection, and thus modulate the clinical course of tuberculosis.

  18. Mycobacterium tuberculosislpdC, Rv0462, induces dendritic cell maturation and Th1 polarization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heo, Deok Rim [Department of Microbiology and Immunology, School of Medicine, Pusan National University, Beom-eo Ri, Mulgum Eop, Yangsan, Gyeongsangnam-do 626-770 (Korea, Republic of); Shin, Sung Jae; Kim, Woo Sik [Department of Microbiology, College of Medicine, Chungnam National University, Munwha-Dong, Jung-Ku, Daejeon 301-747 (Korea, Republic of); Noh, Kyung Tae; Park, Jin Wook; Son, Kwang Hee [Department of Microbiology and Immunology, School of Medicine, Pusan National University, Beom-eo Ri, Mulgum Eop, Yangsan, Gyeongsangnam-do 626-770 (Korea, Republic of); Park, Won Sun [Department of Physiology, Kangwon National University, School of Medicine, Chuncheon 200-701 (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Min-Goo [Department of Physiology, Korea University, College of Medicine, Anam-dong, Sungbuk-Gu, Seoul 136-705 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Daejin [Department of Anatomy, Chung-Ang University, College of Medicine, 221 Heuksuk-Dong, Dongjak-Ku, Seoul 156-756 (Korea, Republic of); Shin, Yong Kyoo [Department of Pharmacology, Chung-Ang University, College of Medicine, 221 Heuksuk-Dong, Dongjak-Ku, Seoul 156-756 (Korea, Republic of); Jung, In Duk, E-mail: jungid@pusan.ac.kr [Department of Microbiology and Immunology, School of Medicine, Pusan National University, Beom-eo Ri, Mulgum Eop, Yangsan, Gyeongsangnam-do 626-770 (Korea, Republic of); Research Institute of Convergence of Biomedical Science and Technology, Pusan National University Yangsan Hospital, Beom-eo Ri, Mulgum Eop, Yangsan, Gyeongsangnam-do 626-770 (Korea, Republic of); Park, Yeong-Min, E-mail: immunpym@pusan.ac.kr [Department of Microbiology and Immunology, School of Medicine, Pusan National University, Beom-eo Ri, Mulgum Eop, Yangsan, Gyeongsangnam-do 626-770 (Korea, Republic of); Research Institute of Convergence of Biomedical Science and Technology, Pusan National University Yangsan Hospital, Beom-eo Ri, Mulgum Eop, Yangsan, Gyeongsangnam-do 626-770 (Korea, Republic of)

    2011-08-05

    Highlights: {yields} Treatment with Rv0462 induces the expression of surface molecules and the production of cytokines in DCs. {yields} Rv0462 induces the activation of MAPKs. {yields} Rv0462-treated DCs enhances the proliferation of CD4{sup +} T cells. -- Abstract: Mycobacterium tuberculosis, the etiological factor of pulmonary tuberculosis, causes significant morbidity and mortality worldwide. Activation of host immune responses for containment of mycobacterial infections involves participation of innate immune cells, such as dendritic cells (DCs). In this study, we demonstrated that the gene encoding lipoamide dehydrogenase C (lpdC) from M. tuberculosis, Rv0462, induce maturation and activation of DCs involved in the MAPKs signaling pathway. Moreover, Rv0462-treated DCs activated naive T cells, polarized CD4{sup +} and CD8{sup +} T cells to secrete IFN-{gamma} in syngeneic mixed lymphocyte reactions, which would be expected to contribute to Th1 polarization of the immune response. Our results suggest that Rv0462 can contribute to the innate and adaptive immune responses during tuberculosis infection, and thus modulate the clinical course of tuberculosis.

  19. Extending incomplete information sources

    OpenAIRE

    Meghini, Carlo; Spyratos, Nicolas; Tzitzikas, Yannis

    2003-01-01

    The extraction of information from a source containing term-classified objects is plagued with uncertainty, due, among other things, to the possible incompleteness of the source index. To overcome this incompleteness, the study proposes to extend the index of the source, in a way that is as reasonable as possible with respect to the original classification of objects. By equating reasonableness with logical implication, the sought expansion turns out to be an explanation of the index, capture...

  20. Contextualism without incompleteness

    OpenAIRE

    Sbisá, Marina

    2009-01-01

    After summarizing the main intuitions and lines of reasoning at the basis of contextualism, I focus on the so-called Incompleteness Argument. I examine the discussion and rejection of this argument by Cappelen and Lepore (2005) and recognize that there are indeed some puzzling aspects to the intuition upon which the argument is based. After discussing why the incompleteness intuition seems to apply arbitrarily and be liable to infinite regress, and how it may have originated, I conclude that ...

  1. Reduced Connexin26 in the Mature Cochlea Increases Susceptibility to Noise-Induced Hearing Lossin Mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Xing-Xing; Chen, Sen; Xie, Le; Ji, Yu-Zi; Wu, Xia; Wang, Wen-Wen; Yang, Qi; Yu, Jin-Tao; Sun, Yu; Lin, Xi; Kong, Wei-Jia

    2016-01-01

    Connexin26 (Cx26, encoded by GJB2) mutations are the most common cause of non-syndromic deafness. GJB2 is thought to be involved in noise-induced hearing loss (NIHL). However, the role of Cx26 in NIHL is still obscure. To explore the association between Cx26 and NIHL, we established a Cx26 knockdown (KD) mouse model by conditional knockdown of Cx26 at postnatal day 18 (P18), and then we observed the auditory threshold and morphologic changes in these mice with or without noise exposure. The Cx26 KD mice did not exhibit substantial hearing loss and hair cell degeneration, while the Cx26 KD mice with acoustic trauma experienced higher hearing loss than simple noise exposure siblings and nearly had no recovery. Additionally, extensive outer hair cell loss and more severe destruction of the basal organ of Corti were observed in Cx26 KD mice after noise exposure. These data indicate that reduced Cx26 expression in the mature mouse cochlea may increase susceptibility to noise-induced hearing loss and facilitate the cell degeneration in the organ of Corti. PMID:26927086

  2. The viral mimetic polyinosinic:polycytidylic acid (poly I:C) induces cellular responses in primary cultures from rat brain sites with an incomplete blood-brain barrier.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ott, Daniela; Wuchert, Florian; Murgott, Jolanta; Rummel, Christoph; Gerstberger, Rüdiger; Roth, Joachim

    2012-11-14

    Primary microcultures of the organum vasculosum laminae terminalis (OVLT) and the area postrema (AP), brain sites with an incomplete blood-brain barrier, were established from topographically excised rat pup tissue, with cellular identification by marker protein-specific immunocytochemistry. Employing the ratio calcium imaging technique, we showed for the first time that polyinosinic:polycytidylic acid (poly I:C) can induce calcium signalling in single OVLT and AP cells. Poly I:C stimulation caused fast, transient rises in intracellular calcium in about 5% of neurons and astrocytes and some microglial cells. Frequently, the responses of astrocytes and microglial cells showed a shorter onset-latency compared to neurons. In addition, exposure to poly I:C led to a time dependent release of bioactive tumour necrosis factor (TNF) and interleukin-6 (IL-6) into the supernatants of OVLT and AP cultures. The demonstration of direct cellular responses of OVLT- and AP-intrinsic cells to stimulations with poly I:C is in agreement with the discovered existence of Toll-like receptor 3 (TLR3), the cognate receptor for poly I:C, in the brain. PMID:23022505

  3. A clinically approved oral vaccine against pneumotropic bacteria induces the terminal maturation of CD83+ immunostimulatory dendritic cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zelle-Rieser, C; Ramoner, R; Bartsch, G; Thurnher, M

    2001-02-01

    Dendritic cells (DCs) are important antigen-presenting cells of the immune system that have attracted interest as cellular adjuvants to induce immunity in clinical settings. We have investigated the effects of Broncho-Vaxom, an oral vaccine composed of lysates from eight pneumotropic bacteria, on human monocyte-derived dendritic cells (moDCs). Broncho-Vaxom induced the terminal maturation of CD83+ moDCs. MoDCs stimulated with Broncho-Vaxom displayed a phenotype of activated DCs with high levels of major histocompatibility complex (MHC) molecules and increased levels of adhesion and co-stimulatory molecules. In addition, moDCs activated with Broncho-Vaxom exhibited enhanced T cell-stimulatory capacity in the allogeneic mixed leukocyte reaction. Broncho-Vaxom at 100 microg/ml was as potent as TNF-alpha at 1000 U/ml in activating human moDCs. Neither LPS-like activity nor bacterial DNA was found to be responsible for the maturation-inducing activity of Broncho-Vaxom, suggesting that Broncho-Vaxom contains other bacterial factors that are capable of inducing the terminal maturation of moDCs. In DC-based immunotherapy, Broncho-Vaxom could be used as a stimulus of DC maturation, which meets the standards of good manufacturing practice (GMP). In addition, vaccination with Broncho-Vaxom-loaded moDCs may be an attractive treatment option in preventing recurrent airway infection in predisposed individuals. PMID:11222915

  4. Planning with Incomplete Information

    CERN Document Server

    Kakas, A C; Toni, F; Kakas, Antonis; Miller, Rob; Toni, Francesca

    2000-01-01

    Planning is a natural domain of application for frameworks of reasoning aboutactions and change. In this paper we study how one such framework, the LanguageE, can form the basis for planning under (possibly) incomplete information. Wedefine two types of plans: weak and safe plans, and propose a planner, calledthe E-Planner, which is often able to extend an initial weak plan into a safeplan even though the (explicit) information available is incomplete, e.g. forcases where the initial state is not completely known. The E-Planner is basedupon a reformulation of the Language E in argumentation terms and a naturalproof theory resulting from the reformulation. It uses an extension of thisproof theory by means of abduction for the generation of plans and adoptsargumentation-based techniques for extending weak plans into safe plans. Weprovide representative examples illustrating the behaviour of the E-Planner, inparticular for cases where the status of fluents is incompletely known.

  5. Selective contribution of IFN-/ signaling to the maturation of dendritic cells induced by double-stranded RNA or viral infection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Honda, Kenya; Sakaguchi, Shinya; Nakajima, Chigusa; Watanabe, Ai; Yanai, Hideyuki; Matsumoto, Misako; Ohteki, Toshiaki; Kaisho, Tsuneyasu; Takaoka, Akinori; Akira, Shizuo; Seya, Tsukasa; Taniguchi, Tadatsugu

    2003-09-01

    A complex mechanism may be operational for dendritic cell (DC) maturation, wherein Toll-like receptor and other signaling pathways may be coordinated differently depending on the nature of the pathogens, in order for DC maturation to be most effective to a given threat. Here, we show that IFN-/ signaling is selectively required for the maturation of DCs induced by double-stranded RNA or viral infection in vitro. Interestingly, the maturation is still observed in the absence of either of the two target genes of IFN-/, TLR3 and PKR (double-stranded-RNA-dependent protein kinase R), indicating the complexity of the IFN-/-induced transcriptional program in DCs. We also show that the DCs stimulated in vivo by these agents can migrate into the T cell zone of the spleen but fail to mature without the IFN signal. The immune system may have acquired the selective utilization of this cytokine system, which is essential for innate antiviral immunity, to effectively couple with the induction of adaptive immunity.

  6. Information-theoretic incompleteness

    CERN Document Server

    Chaitin, Gregory J

    1992-01-01

    In this mathematical autobiography, Gregory Chaitin presents a technical survey of his work and a nontechnical discussion of its significance. The volume is an essential companion to the earlier collection of Chaitin's papers Information, Randomness and Incompleteness, also published by World Scientific.The technical survey contains many new results, including a detailed discussion of LISP program size and new versions of Chaitin's most fundamental information-theoretic incompleteness theorems. The nontechnical part includes the lecture given by Chaitin in Gšdel's classroom at the University o

  7. Interferon-γ Added During Bacillus Calmette-Guerin Induced Dendritic Cell Maturation Stimulates Potent Th1 Immune Responses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pestano Linda A

    2003-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Dendritic cells (DC are increasingly prepared in vitro for use in immunotherapy trials. Mature DC express high levels of surface molecules needed for T cell activation and are superior at antigen-presentation than immature DC. Bacillus Calmette-Guerin (BCG is one of several products known to induce DC maturation, and interferon (IFN-γ has been shown to enhance the activity of DC stimulated with certain maturation factors. In this study, we investigated the use of IFN-γ in combination with the powerful maturation agent, BCG. The treatment of immature DC with IFN-γ plus BCG led to the upregulation of CD54, CD80, and CD86 in comparison with BCG treatment alone. In MLR or recall immune responses, the addition of IFN-γ at the time of BCG-treatment did not increase the number of antigen-specific T cells but enhanced the development of IFN-γ-producing Th1 cells. In primary immune responses, on the other hand, BCG and IFN-γ co-treated DC stimulated higher proportions of specific T cells as well as IFN-γ secretion by these T cells. Thus the use of IFN-γ during BCG-induced DC maturation differentially affects the nature of recall versus naïve antigen-specific T-cell responses. IFN-γ co-treatment with BCG was found to induce IL-12 and, in some instances, inhibit IL-10 secretion by DC. These findings greatly enhance the potential of BCG-matured dendritic cells for use in cancer immunotherapy.

  8. Production in incomplete markets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Crès, Hervé; Tvede, Mich

    In the present paper we study voting-based corporate control in a general equilibrium model with incomplete financial markets. Since voting takes place in a multi-dimensional setting, super-majority rules are needed to ensure existence of equilibrium. In a linear-quadratic setup we show that the...

  9. Production in Incomplete Markets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Crès, Hervé; Tvede, Mich

    Abstract In the present paper we study voting-based corporate control in a general equilibrium model with incomplete financial markets. Since voting takes place in a multi-dimensional setting, super-majority rules are needed to ensure existence of equilibrium. In a linear-quadratic setup we show...

  10. Cognition and Incomplete Contracts

    OpenAIRE

    Tirole, Jean

    2009-01-01

    Thinking about contingencies, designing covenants, and seeing through their implications is costly. Parties to a contract accordingly use heuristics and leave it incomplete. The paper develops a model of limited cognition and examines its consequences for contractual design. (JEL D23, D82, D86, L22)

  11. Maturational and Non-Maturational Factors in Heritage Language Acquisition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moon, Ji Hye

    2012-01-01

    This dissertation aims to understand the maturational and non-maturational aspects of early bilingualism and language attrition in heritage speakers who have acquired their L1 incompletely in childhood. The study highlights the influential role of age and input dynamics in early L1 development, where the timing of reduction in L1 input and the…

  12. Invariant chain induces B cell maturation in a process that is independent of its chaperonic activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matza, Didi; Lantner, Frida; Bogoch, Yoel; Flaishon, Liat; Hershkoviz, Rami; Shachar, Idit

    2002-01-01

    Early stages of B cell development take place in the bone marrow, resulting in formation of immature B cells, which migrate to the spleen for their final differentiation into mature cells. This final maturation step is essential for B cells to become responsive to antigens and to participate in the immune response. Previously, we showed that the MHC class II chaperone, invariant chain (Ii), controls the differentiation of B cells from the immature to the mature stage. In this study, by generating transgenic mice expressing truncated Ii lacking its luminal domain, we could dissect the chaperonin activity of Ii from its role in B cell maturation. We demonstrate in vivo that Ii N-terminal domain is directly involved in the maturation of B cells and is sufficient to promote B cell differentiation. PMID:11867743

  13. Cooperative transcription activation by Nurr1 and Pitx3 induces embryonic stem cell maturation to the midbrain dopamine neuron phenotype

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Martinat, Cecile; Bacci, Jean-Jacques; Leete, Thomas; Kim, Jongpil; Vanti, William B; Newman, Amy H; Cha, Joo H; Gether, Ulrik; Wang, Honggang; Abeliovich, Asa

    2006-01-01

    Midbrain dopamine (DA) neurons play a central role in the regulation of voluntary movement, and their degeneration is associated with Parkinson's disease. Cell replacement therapies, and in particular embryonic stem (ES) cell-derived DA neurons, offer a potential therapeutic venue for Parkinson......'s disease. We sought to identify genes that can potentiate maturation of ES cell cultures to the midbrain DA neuron phenotype. A number of transcription factors have been implicated in the development of midbrain DA neurons by expression analyses and loss-of-function knockout mouse studies, including Nurr1......, Pitx3, Lmx1b, Engrailed-1, and Engrailed-2. However, none of these factors appear sufficient alone to induce the mature midbrain DA neuron phenotype in ES cell cultures in vitro, suggesting a more complex regulatory network. Here we show that Nurr1 and Pitx3 cooperatively promote terminal maturation to...

  14. Effects of maturation-inducing hormone on heterologous gap junctional coupling in ovarian follicles of Atlantic croaker

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshizaki, G.; Patino, R.; Thomas, P.; Bolamba, D.; Chang, Xiaotian

    2001-01-01

    A previous ultrastructural study of heterologous (granulosa cell-oocyte) gap junction (GJ) contacts in ovarian follicles of Atlantic croaker suggested that these contacts disappear late during the process of resumption of oocyte meiosis. This observation suggested that, unlike scenarios proposed for a number of other species, uncoupling of GJ is not necessary for the onset of meiotic resumption in croaker follicles. However, the functionality of heterologous GJ contacts and the temporal association between maturation-inducing hormone (MIH)-induced changes in heterologous coupling and resumption of oocyte meiosis have not been examined in Atlantic croaker. These questions were addressed with a cell-cell coupling assay that is based on the transfer of a GJ marker, Lucifer Yellow, from oocytes to granulosa cells. Follicle-enclosed oocytes injected with Lucifer Yellow allowed transfer of the dye into the follicle cell layer, thus confirming that there is functional heterologous coupling between the oocyte and the granulosa cells. Dye transfer was observed in vitellogenic, full-grown/maturation-incompetent, and full-grown /maturation-competent follicles. Treatment of maturation-competent follicles with MIH caused a time-dependent decline in the number of follicles transferring dye. However, although GJ uncoupling in some of the follicles was observed before germinal vesicle breakdown (GVBD, index of meiotic resumption), about 50% of the follicles maintained the ability to transfer dye even after GVBD had occurred. Further, a known GJ inhibitor (phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate) blocked heterologous GJ within a time frame similar to that seen with MIH but without inducing any of the morphological changes (including GVBD) associated with follicular maturation. In conclusion, uncoupling of heterologous GJ seems insufficient and unnecessary for the onset of meiotic resumption in ovarian follicles of Atlantic croaker. ?? 2001 Elsevier Science.

  15. Bacillus amyloliquefaciens SQR9 induces dendritic cell maturation and enhances the immune response against inactivated avian influenza virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Lulu; Qin, Tao; Yin, YinYan; Gao, Xue; Lin, Jian; Yang, Qian; Yu, Qinghua

    2016-01-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the stimulatory effects of Bacillus amyloliquefaciens SQR9 on dendritic cells (DCs) and to verify its ability to enhance the immune response by modulating DC maturation. The results demonstrated that B. amyloliquefaciens SQR9 can adhere to the nasal epithelium and be taken up by DCs in the nasal mucosa, thereby inducing DC maturation and resulting in increased CD80, CD86, CD40 and MHCII expression and cytokine secretion. The frequencies of CD4(+) and CD8(+) T cells and CD69(+) memory T cells were increased in spleens after nasal immunization with virus plus B. amyloliquefaciens SQR9 compared to immunization with inactivated H9N2 AIV alone. Moreover, the levels of sIgA in the nasal cavity, the trachea, and the lung and the levels of IgG, IgG1, and IgG2a in serum were significantly increased in mice administered WIV plus SQR9 compared to mice administered H9N2 WIV alone. The results of this study demonstrated that B. amyloliquefaciens SQR9 can stimulate DC maturation to effectively induce an immune response. In conclusion, an effective immune response may result from the uptake of H9N2 by DCs in the nasal mucosa, thereby stimulating DC maturation and migration to cervical lymph nodes to initiate immune response. PMID:26892720

  16. The antagonism of histamine-induced tracheal and bronchial muscle contraction by diphenhydramine: effect of maturation.

    OpenAIRE

    Douglas, J. S.; Duncan, P. G.; Mukhopadhyay, A

    1984-01-01

    Airway reactivity in spontaneously breathing unanaesthetized female guinea-pigs was significantly reduced as a consequence of maturation. Threshold doses to histamine (% w/v base) were 0.08% +/- .01 and 0.27% +/- .04 in immature (110 g +/- 2; 1 week old) and mature (837 g +/- 29; 4 months old) animals, respectively. The potency of 2-(2-thiazolyl) ethylamine in tracheal tissues from mature animals was significantly less than that in tissues from immature animals (5.06 +/- .03 vs 5.26 +/- .07)....

  17. BIF. Balanced Incomplete Decomposition

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Tůma, Miroslav

    Liberec : Technical University, 2008. s. 129-130. ISBN 978-80-7372-298-2. [SNA '08 - Seminar on numerical analysis: modelling and simulation of challenging engineering problems. 28.01.2008-01.02.2008, Liberec] R&D Projects: GA AV ČR 1ET400300415; GA AV ČR IAA100300802 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10300504 Keywords : preconditioning * sparse linear systems * incomplete decomposition * iterative methods Subject RIV: BA - General Mathematics

  18. Egalitarianism under incomplete information

    OpenAIRE

    De Clippel, Geoffroy

    2010-01-01

    The paper aims at extending the egalitarian principle to environments with incomplete information. The approach is primarily axiomatic, focusing on the characteristic property of monotonicity: no member of the society should be worse off when more collective decisions are available. I start by showing the incompatibility of this property with incentive effciency, even in quasi-linear environments. This serious impossibility result does not follow from the mere presence of incentive constraint...

  19. Physicalism, Behaviorism and Incompleteness

    OpenAIRE

    Tao Li

    2011-01-01

    The content of this paper contains four parts. (1) First, physicalism gives the enlightenments to behaviorism: mind-body identity, objectivity like physics and completeness of reduction. (2) Secondly, there are difficulties which behaviorist could not overcome—both the reduction of the theory and the terms are unreliable, and the strict distinction between introspective method and inter-subjective method is also untenable. (3) Thirdly, It has inevitable incompleteness in one theory no matter ...

  20. Godel's Incompleteness Phenomenon - Computationally

    OpenAIRE

    Salehi, Saeed

    2012-01-01

    We argue that Godel's completeness theorem is equivalent to completability of consistent theories, and Godel's incompleteness theorem is equivalent to the fact that this completion is not constructive, in the sense that there are some consistent and recursively enumerable theories which cannot be extended to any complete and consistent and recursively enumerable theory. Though any consistent and decidable theory can be extended to a complete and consistent and decidable theory. Thus deduction...

  1. In vitro maturation (IVM as a new technique to treat polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS and induce pregnancy in Indonesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soegiharto Soebijanto

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Aim: To assesse the success of inducing pregnancies in the treatment of PCOS (Poly Cystic Ovary Syndrome cases with in vitro maturation as a newly application technique in Indonesia.Methods This paper is a report of 7 cases in Indonesia that used the newly developed technique. There were 7 cases confi rmed PCOS, in which 1 patient with a history of OHSS (Ovary Hyper Stimulation Syndrome in a previous IVF procedure and 1 patient with PCOS characteristics, suspected hyper responder, in the Family Hospital from January to May of 2009. Follicular induction was performed with a minimum dose, primming with HCG 10.000 IU, on the 10th day and 40 hours later ovum pick up was  performed, followed by in vitro maturation. Subsequently, insemination was performed and the inseminated follicle was assessed. Well qualifi ed embryos then transferred them into the uterus. We then performed assessment of pregnancy biochemically, by the presence of embryonic sac and embryonic heart beat.Results: We have performed the IVM (In Vitro Maturation technique in the Family Hospital, West Jakarta, along with the TRB team of the Family Hospital in seven PCOS cases. From these patients, we have found 156 antral follicles (average of 22 follicles per patient, 82 oocytes, and after maturation, 61  nature oocytes (75 %. In three cases, in vitro fertilization was performed, while in 4 cases ICSI (In Cystoplasmic Sperm Infection was performed. In these serial cases we obtained 41 embryos, and 22 fertilized embryos were transferred. Of 7 cases, we achieved two successful pregnancies (29%.Conclusion: In vitro maturation is an alternative procedures in solving infertility problems for PCOS patients with lower risk of OHSS and more cost effective than conventional IVF. (Med J Indones 2009; 18: 269-75Keywords: pregnancy, PCOS, in vitro maturation

  2. Ascophyllan purified from Ascophyllum nodosum induces Th1 and Tc1 immune responses by promoting dendritic cell maturation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Wei; Du, Jiang-Yuan; Jiang, Zedong; Okimura, Takasi; Oda, Tatsuya; Yu, Qing; Jin, Jun-O

    2014-07-01

    Marine-derived sulfated polysaccharides have been shown to possess certain anti-virus, anti-tumor, anti-inflammatory and anti-coagulant activities. However, the in vivo immunomodulatory effects of marine-derived pure compounds have been less well characterized. In this study, we investigated the effect of ascophyllan, a sulfated polysaccharide purified from Ascophyllum nodosum, on the maturation of mouse dendritic cells (DCs) in vitro and in vivo. Ascophyllan induced up-regulation of co-stimulatory molecules and production of pro-inflammatory cytokines in bone marrow-derived DCs (BMDCs). Moreover, in vivo administration of ascophyllan promotes up-regulation of CD40, CD80, CD86, MHC class I and MHC class II and production of IL-6, IL-12 and TNF-α in spleen cDCs. Interestingly, ascophyllan induced a higher degree of co-stimulatory molecule up-regulation and pro-inflammatory cytokine production than fucoidan, a marine-derived polysaccharide with well-defined effect for promoting DC maturation. Ascophyllan also promoted the generation of IFN-γ-producing Th1 and Tc1 cells in the presence of DCs in an IL-12-dependent manner. Finally, myeloid differentiation primary response 88 (MyD88) signaling pathway was essential for DC maturation induced by ascophyllan. Taken together, these results demonstrate that ascophyllan induces DC maturation, and consequently enhances Th1 and Tc1 responses in vivo. This knowledge could facilitate the development of novel therapeutic strategies to combat infectious diseases and cancer. PMID:25026264

  3. Ascophyllan Purified from Ascophyllum nodosum Induces Th1 and Tc1 Immune Responses by Promoting Dendritic Cell Maturation

    OpenAIRE

    Wei Zhang; Jiang-Yuan Du; Zedong Jiang; Takasi Okimura; Tatsuya Oda; Qing Yu; Jun-O Jin

    2014-01-01

    Marine-derived sulfated polysaccharides have been shown to possess certain anti-virus, anti-tumor, anti-inflammatory and anti-coagulant activities. However, the in vivo immunomodulatory effects of marine-derived pure compounds have been less well characterized. In this study, we investigated the effect of ascophyllan, a sulfated polysaccharide purified from Ascophyllum nodosum, on the maturation of mouse dendritic cells (DCs) in vitro and in vivo. Ascophyllan induced up-regulation of co-stim...

  4. Ascophyllan Purified from Ascophyllum nodosum Induces Th1 and Tc1 Immune Responses by Promoting Dendritic Cell Maturation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei Zhang

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Marine-derived sulfated polysaccharides have been shown to possess certain anti-virus, anti-tumor, anti-inflammatory and anti-coagulant activities. However, the in vivo immunomodulatory effects of marine-derived pure compounds have been less well characterized. In this study, we investigated the effect of ascophyllan, a sulfated polysaccharide purified from Ascophyllum nodosum, on the maturation of mouse dendritic cells (DCs in vitro and in vivo. Ascophyllan induced up-regulation of co-stimulatory molecules and production of pro-inflammatory cytokines in bone marrow-derived DCs (BMDCs. Moreover, in vivo administration of ascophyllan promotes up-regulation of CD40, CD80, CD86, MHC class I and MHC class II and production of IL-6, IL-12 and TNF-α in spleen cDCs. Interestingly, ascophyllan induced a higher degree of co-stimulatory molecule up-regulation and pro-inflammatory cytokine production than fucoidan, a marine-derived polysaccharide with well-defined effect for promoting DC maturation. Ascophyllan also promoted the generation of IFN-γ-producing Th1 and Tc1 cells in the presence of DCs in an IL-12-dependent manner. Finally, myeloid differentiation primary response 88 (MyD88 signaling pathway was essential for DC maturation induced by ascophyllan. Taken together, these results demonstrate that ascophyllan induces DC maturation, and consequently enhances Th1 and Tc1 responses in vivo. This knowledge could facilitate the development of novel therapeutic strategies to combat infectious diseases and cancer.

  5. Biological features of an early-maturity mutant of sweet sorghum induced by carbon ions irradiation and its genetic polymorphism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Xicun; Li, Wenjian

    2012-08-01

    It is well known that heavy ions irradiation is characterized by a high linear energy transfer (LET) and relative biological effectiveness (RBE). These characters are believed to increase mutation frequency and mutation spectrum of plants or mammalian cells irradiated by heavy ions. Here we describe an early-maturity mutant of sweet sorghum induced by carbon ion irradiation. The growth period of this mutant was shortened by about 20 days compared to the wild type. The proline content of the mutant was increased by 11.05% while the malondialdehyde content was significantly lower than that of wild type. In addition, the RAPD analysis indicated that the percentage of polymorphism between the mutant KFJT-1 and the control KFJT-CK reached 5.26%. The gain of early-maturity might solve the problem in the northwest region of China where seeds of sweet sorghum cannot be mature because of early frost. The early-maturity mutant may be important for future space cultivation.

  6. Improved Balanced Incomplete Factorization

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Bru, R.; Marín, J.; Mas, J.; Tůma, Miroslav

    2010-01-01

    Roč. 31, č. 5 (2010), s. 2431-2452. ISSN 0895-4798 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAA100300802 Grant ostatní: GA AV ČR(CZ) M100300902 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10300504 Source of funding: I - inštitucionálna podpora na rozvoj VO Keywords : preconditioned iterative methods * sparse matrices * incomplete decompositions * approximate inverses * Sherman-Morrison formula * nonsymmetric matrices Subject RIV: BA - General Mathematics Impact factor: 1.725, year: 2010

  7. Maturation of Shark Single-Domain (IgNAR) Antibodies: Evidence for Induced-Fit Binding

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stanfield, R.L.; Dooley, H.; Verdino, P.; Flajnik, M.F.; Wilson, I.A.; /Scripps Res. Inst. /Maryland U.

    2007-07-13

    Sharks express an unusual heavy-chain isotype called IgNAR, whose variable regions bind antigen as independent soluble domains. To further probe affinity maturation of the IgNAR response, we structurally characterized the germline and somatically matured versions of a type II variable (V) region, both in the presence and absence of its antigen, hen egg-white lysozyme. Despite a disulfide bond linking complementarity determining regions (CDRs) 1 and 3, both germline and somatically matured V regions displayed significant structural changes in these CDRs upon complex formation with antigen. Somatic mutations in the IgNAR V region serve to increase the number of contacts with antigen, as reflected by a tenfold increase in affinity, and one of these mutations appears to stabilize the CDR3 region. In addition, a residue in the HV4 loop plays an important role in antibody-antigen interaction, consistent with the high rate of somatic mutations in this non-CDR loop.

  8. A new model of radiation-induced myelopathy: A comparison of the response of mature and immature pigs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The purpose was development of an experimental model of radiation-induced myelopathy in the pig which would facilitate the study of the effects of clinically relevant treatment volumes. The effects of local spinal cord irradiation, to a standard 10 X 5 cm field, have been evaluated in mature (37-42.5 weeks) and immature (15.5-23 weeks) pigs. Irradiation was with single doses of 60Co γrays at a dose-rate of 0.21-0.65 Gy/min. The incidence of paralysis was used as an endpoint. Irradiation of mature animals resulted in the development of frank paralysis with animals showing combined parenchymal and vascular pathologic changes in their white matter. These lesions, in common with those seen in patients, had a clear evidence of an inflammatory component. The latency for paralysis was short, 7.5-16.5 weeks, but within the wide range reported for patients. However, it was shorter than that reported in other large animal models. The ED50 value (±SE) for paralysis was 27.02±0.36 Gy, similar to that in rats taking into account dose-rate factors. The irradiation of immature pigs only resulted in transient neurological changes after doses comparable to those used in the mature animals, ED50 value (±SE) 26.09±0.37 Gy. The reasons for these transient neurological symptoms are uncertain. A reliable experimental model of radiation-induced myelopathy has been developed for mature pigs. This model is suitable for the study of clinically relevant volume effects. 39 refs., 4 figs., 1 tab

  9. Physicalism, Behaviorism and Incompleteness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tao Li

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available The content of this paper contains four parts. (1 First, physicalism gives the enlightenments to behaviorism: mind-body identity, objectivity like physics and completeness of reduction. (2 Secondly, there are difficulties which behaviorist could not overcome—both the reduction of the theory and the terms are unreliable, and the strict distinction between introspective method and inter-subjective method is also untenable. (3 Thirdly, It has inevitable incompleteness in one theory no matter what it claims due to the limitations of human cognition. (4 Finally, the author concludes that we should treat various theories in a "both this and that" but "either this or that" way. Therefore, we should admit the contribution of behaviorism and its model philosophy—physicalism, although they has failed in seeking for completeness.

  10. Experimental investigation of changes in methane adsorption of bitumen-free Woodford Shale with thermal maturation induced by hydrous pyrolysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Haiyan; Zhang, Tongwei; Wiggins-Camacho, Jaclyn D.; Ellis, Geoffrey S.; Lewan, Michael D.; Zhang, Xiayong

    2014-01-01

    This study quantifies the effects of organic-matter (OM) thermal maturity on methane (CH4) sorption, on the basis of five samples that were artificially matured through hydrous pyrolysis achieved by heating samples of immature Woodford Shale under five different time–temperature conditions. CH4-sorption isotherms at 35 °C, 50 °C, and 65 °C, and pressures up to 14 MPa on dry, solvent-extracted samples of the artificially matured Woodford Shale were measured. The results showed that CH4-sorption capacity, normalized to TOC, varied with thermal maturity, following the trend: maximum oil (367 °C) > oil cracking (400 °C) > maximum bitumen/early oil (333 °C) > early bitumen (300 °C) > immature stage (130 °C). The Langmuir constants for the samples at maximum-oil and oil-cracking stages are larger than the values for the bitumen-forming stages. The total pore volume, determined by N2 physisorption at 77 K, increases with increased maturation: mesopores, 2–50 nm in width, were created during the thermal conversion of organic-matter and a dramatic increase in porosity appeared when maximum-bitumen and maximum-oil generation stages were reached. A linear relationship between thermal maturity and Brunauer–Emmett–Teller (BET) surface area suggests that the observed increase in CH4-sorption capacity may be the result of mesopores produced during OM conversion. No obvious difference is observed in pore-size distribution and pore volume for samples with pores 2 physisorption at 273 K. The isosteric heat of adsorption and the standard entropy for artificially matured samples ranged from 17.9 kJ mol−1 to 21.9 kJ mol−1 and from −85.4 J mol−1 K−1 to −101.8 J mol−1 K−1, respectively. These values are similar to the values of immature Woodford kerogen concentrate previously observed, but are larger than naturally matured organic-rich shales. High-temperature hydrous pyrolysis might have induced Lewis acid sites on both organic and mineral surfaces, resulting to some extent, in chemical interactions between the adsorption site and the methane C–H bonds. The formation of abundant mesopores (2–50 nm) within organic matter during organic-matter thermal maturation makes a great contribution to the increase in both BET surface area and pore volume, and a significant increase in 2–6 nm pores occurs at maximum-oil-generation and oil-cracking to gas, ultimately controlling the methane-adsorption capacity. Therefore, consideration of pore-size effects and thermal maturity is very important for gas in place (GIP) prediction in organic-rich shales.

  11. The types and genetic analysis of radiation induced early maturity mutants of rice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Observation and correlation analysis were made for 50 early mutant lines,The early mutant lines fall into late type of early-maturity rice, and early type of mid- maturity rice, some of which are valuable as materials of rice breeding.With shorter growing period, the mutants have less inter-nodes and leaf numbers on main culm, shorter leaf and panicle length, and less filled grains and yield per plant, but have higher Protein content.Among 20 traits observed, 7 were significantly correlated with the length of growing period.The genetic parameter analysis for the mutant lines indicates that the length of growing period, plant height, grain number per panicle, 1000-grain weight have high heritability, Non-filled grain rate, secondary branch, number of panicle, grain number per panicle have larger genetic coefficient of variation and larger gain of selection

  12. Maturation-promoting factor induces nuclear envelope breakdown in cycloheximide-arrested embryos of Xenopus laevis

    OpenAIRE

    1983-01-01

    We have studied the effect of maturation-promoting factor (MPF) on embryonic nuclei during the early cleavage stage of Xenopus laevis development. When protein synthesis is inhibited by cycloheximide during this stage, the embryonic cell cycle arrests in an artificially produced G2 phase-like state, after completion of one additional round of DNA synthesis. Approximately 100 nuclei can be arrested in a common cytoplasm if cytokinesis is first inhibited by cytochalasin B. Within 5 min after in...

  13. Maturation of the proteasome core particle induces an affinity switch that controls regulatory particle association

    OpenAIRE

    Wani, Prashant S.; Rowland, Michael A.; Ondracek, Alex; Deeds, Eric J.; Roelofs, Jeroen,

    2015-01-01

    Proteasome assembly is a complex process, requiring 66 subunits distributed over several subcomplexes to associate in a coordinated fashion. Ten proteasome-specific chaperones have been identified that assist in this process. For two of these, the Pba1-Pba2 dimer, it is well established that they only bind immature core particles (CP) in vivo. In contrast, the regulatory particle (RP) utilizes the same binding surface but only interacts with the mature CP in vivo. It is unclear how these bind...

  14. Farnesyl transferase inhibitors induce extended remissions in transgenic mice with mature B cell lymphomas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Refaeli Yosef

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background We have used a mouse model based on overexpression of c-Myc in B cells genetically engineered to be self-reactive to test the hypothesis that farnesyl transferase inhibitors (FTIs can effectively treat mature B cell lymphomas. FTIs are undergoing clinical trials to treat both lymphoid and non-lymphoid malignancies and we wished to obtain evidence to support the inclusion of B cell lymphomas in future trials. Results We report that two FTIs, L-744,832 and SCH66336, blocked the growth of mature B cell lymphoma cells in vitro and in vivo. The FTI treatment affected the proliferation and survival of the transformed B cells to a greater extent than naïve B cells stimulated with antigen. In syngeneic mice transplanted with the transgenic lymphoma cells, L-744,832 treatment prevented the growth of the tumor cells and the morbidity associated with the resulting lymphoma progression. Tumors that arose from transplantation of the lymphoma cells regressed with as little as three days of treatment with L-744,832 or SCH66336. Treatment of these established lymphomas with L-744,832 for seven days led to long-term remission of the disease in approximately 25% of animals. Conclusion FTI treatment can block the proliferation and survival of self-reactive transformed B cells that overexpress Myc. In mice transplanted with mature B cell lymphomas, we found that FTI treatment led to regression of disease. FTIs warrant further consideration as therapeutic agents for mature B cell lymphomas and other lymphoid tumors.

  15. Maturation of shark single-domain (IgNAR) antibodies: evidence for induced-fit binding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stanfield, Robyn L; Dooley, Helen; Verdino, Petra; Flajnik, Martin F; Wilson, Ian A

    2007-03-23

    Sharks express an unusual heavy-chain isotype called IgNAR, whose variable regions bind antigen as independent soluble domains. To further probe affinity maturation of the IgNAR response, we structurally characterized the germline and somatically matured versions of a type II variable (V) region, both in the presence and absence of its antigen, hen egg-white lysozyme. Despite a disulfide bond linking complementarity determining regions (CDRs) 1 and 3, both germline and somatically matured V regions displayed significant structural changes in these CDRs upon complex formation with antigen. Somatic mutations in the IgNAR V region serve to increase the number of contacts with antigen, as reflected by a tenfold increase in affinity, and one of these mutations appears to stabilize the CDR3 region. In addition, a residue in the HV4 loop plays an important role in antibody-antigen interaction, consistent with the high rate of somatic mutations in this non-CDR loop. PMID:17258766

  16. Repair capacity of fertilized mouse eggs for X-ray damage induced in sperm and mature oocytes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To study the repair capacity of fertilized mouse eggs for X-ray damage induced in sperm and mature oocytes, the potentiating effects of 3 well-known repair inhibitors, arabinofuranosyl cytosine (ara-C), 3-aminobenzamide (3AB) and caffeine, on the frequency of induced chromosome aberrations were examined in eggs fertilized with X-irradiated sperm or in eggs irradiated with X-rays at the mature oocyte stage immediately before fertilization. Gametic treatment, fertilization and embryo culture wer carried out in vitro. Ara-C treatment was done only in the pre-DNA replication period, while treatment with 3AB and caffeine was continuous from fertilization to the first-cleavage metaphase. The induction of chromosome aberrations by exposing sperm or oocytes to X-rays was remarkably potentiated by post-treatment incubation in the presence of each of the 3 inhibitors. This result indicates the possibility that X-ray damage induced in sperm or oocytes is reparable in the fertilized eggs and that various types of repair processes are involved. (author). 39 refs.; 3 figs.; 5 tabs

  17. Involvement of Polycomb Repressive Complex 2 in Maturation of Induced Pluripotent Stem Cells during Reprogramming of Mouse and Human Fibroblasts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khazaie, Niusha; Massumi, Mohammad; Wee, Ping; Salimi, Mahdieh; Mohammadnia, Abdulshakour; Yaqubi, Moein

    2016-01-01

    Induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) provide a reliable source for the study of regenerative medicine, drug discovery, and developmental biology. Despite extensive studies on the reprogramming of mouse and human fibroblasts into iPSCs, the efficiency of reprogramming is still low. Here, we used a bioinformatics and systems biology approach to study the two gene regulatory waves governing the reprogramming of mouse and human fibroblasts into iPSCs. Our results revealed that the maturation phase of reprogramming was regulated by a more complex regulatory network of transcription factors compared to the initiation phase. Interestingly, in addition to pluripotency factors, the polycomb repressive complex 2 (PRC2) members Ezh2, Eed, Jarid2, Mtf2, and Suz12 are crucially recruited during the maturation phase of reprogramming. Moreover, we found that during the maturation phase of reprogramming, pluripotency factors, via the expression and induction of PRC2 complex members, could silence the lineage-specific gene expression program and maintain a ground state of pluripotency in human and mouse naïve iPSCs. The findings obtained here provide us a better understanding of the gene regulatory network (GRN) that governs reprogramming, and the maintenance of the naïve state of iPSCs. PMID:26938987

  18. Maturation of the proteasome core particle induces an affinity switch that controls regulatory particle association

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wani, Prashant S.; Rowland, Michael A.; Ondracek, Alex; Deeds, Eric J.; Roelofs, Jeroen

    2015-01-01

    Proteasome assembly is a complex process, requiring 66 subunits distributed over several subcomplexes to associate in a coordinated fashion. Ten proteasome-specific chaperones have been identified that assist in this process. For two of these, the Pba1-Pba2 dimer, it is well established that they only bind immature core particles (CP) in vivo. In contrast, the regulatory particle (RP) utilizes the same binding surface but only interacts with the mature CP in vivo. It is unclear how these binding events are regulated. Here, we show that Pba1-Pba2 binds tightly to immature CP, preventing RP binding. Changes in the CP that occur upon maturation significantly reduce its affinity for Pba1-Pba2, enabling the RP to displace the chaperone. Mathematical modeling indicates that this affinity switch mechanism has likely evolved to improve assembly efficiency by preventing the accumulation of stable, non-productive intermediates. Our work thus provides mechanistic insights into a crucial step in proteasome biogenesis. PMID:25812915

  19. Time-dependent evolution of functional vs. remodeling signaling in induced pluripotent stem cell-derived cardiomyocytes and induced maturation with biomechanical stimulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Gwanghyun; Fajardo, Giovanni; Ribeiro, Alexandre J S; Kooiker, Kristina Bezold; Coronado, Michael; Zhao, Mingming; Hu, Dong-Qing; Reddy, Sushma; Kodo, Kazuki; Sriram, Krishna; Insel, Paul A; Wu, Joseph C; Pruitt, Beth L; Bernstein, Daniel

    2016-04-01

    Human induced pluripotent stem cell-derived cardiomyocytes (hiPSC-CMs) are a powerful platform for uncovering disease mechanisms and assessing drugs for efficacy/toxicity. However, the accuracy with which hiPSC-CMs recapitulate the contractile and remodeling signaling of adult cardiomyocytes is not fully known. We used β-adrenergic receptor (β-AR) signaling as a prototype to determine the evolution of signaling component expression and function during hiPSC-CM maturation. In "early" hiPSC-CMs (less than or equal to d 30), β2-ARs are a primary source of cAMP/PKA signaling. With longer culture, β1-AR signaling increases: from 0% of cAMP generation at d 30 to 56.8 ± 6.6% by d 60. PKA signaling shows a similar increase: 15.7 ± 5.2% (d 30), 49.8 ± 0.5% (d 60), and 71.0 ± 6.1% (d 90). cAMP generation increases 9-fold from d 30 to 60, with enhanced coupling to remodeling pathways (e.g., Akt and Ca(2+)/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase type II) and development of caveolin-mediated signaling compartmentalization. By contrast, cardiotoxicity induced by chronic β-AR stimulation, a major component of heart failure, develops much later: 5% cell death at d 30vs 55% at d 90. Moreover, β-AR maturation can be accelerated by biomechanical stimulation. The differential maturation of β-AR functionalvs remodeling signaling in hiPSC-CMs has important implications for their use in disease modeling and drug testing. We propose that assessment of signaling be added to the indices of phenotypic maturation of hiPSC-CMs.-Jung, G., Fajardo, G., Ribeiro, A. J. S., Kooiker, K. B., Coronado, M., Zhao, M., Hu, D.-Q., Reddy, S., Kodo, K., Sriram, K., Insel, P. A., Wu, J. C., Pruitt, B. L., Bernstein, D. Time-dependent evolution of functionalvs remodeling signaling in induced pluripotent stem cell-derived cardiomyocytes and induced maturation with biomechanical stimulation. PMID:26675706

  20. A Modified Approach to Inducing Bone Marrow Stromal Cells to Differentiate into Cells with Mature Schwann Cell Phenotypes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yutian; Chen, Jianghai; Liu, Wei; Lu, Xiaocheng; Liu, Zhenyu; Zhao, Xiaobo; Li, Gongchi; Chen, Zhenbing

    2016-02-15

    Marrow stromal cells (MSCs) can be induced to differentiate into Schwann-like cells under classical induction conditions. However, cells derived from this method are unstable, exhibiting a low neurotrophin expression level after the induction conditions are removed. In Schwann cell (SC) culture, progesterone (PROG) enhances neurotrophic synthesis and myelination, specifically regulating the expression of the myelin protein zero (P0)- and peripheral myelin protein 22 (PMP22)-encoding genes by acting in concert or in synergy with insulin and glucocorticoids (GLUCs). In the present study, we investigated whether combined PROG, GLUC, and insulin therapy induced MSCs to differentiate into modified SC-like cells with phenotypes similar to those of mature SCs. After being cultured for 2 weeks in modified differentiation medium, the modified SC-like cells showed increased expression of P0 and PMP22. In addition, morphological and phenotypic characterizations were conducted over a period of over 2 weeks, and functional characteristics persisted for more than 3 weeks after the induction reagents were withdrawn. The transplantation of green fluorescent protein-labeled, modified SC-like cells into transected sciatic nerves with a 10-mm gap significantly increased the proliferation of the original SCs and improved axon regeneration and myelination compared with original BM-SCs. Immunostaining for P0 revealed that more of the transplanted modified SC-like cells retained the phenotypic characteristics of SCs. Taken together, these results reveal that the combined application of PROG, GLUC, and insulin induces MSCs to differentiate into cells with phenotypic, molecular, and functional properties of mature SCs. PMID:26670188

  1. Role of arachidonic acid and protein kinase C during maturation-inducing hormone-dependent meiotic resumption and ovulation in ovarian follicles of Atlantic croaker

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patino, R.; Yoshizaki, G.; Bolamba, D.; Thomas, P.

    2003-01-01

    The roles of arachidonic acid (AA) and protein kinase C (PKC) during in vitro maturation-inducing hormone (MIH)-dependent meiotic resumption (maturation) and ovulation were studied in ovarian follicles of Atlantic croaker (Micropogonias undulatus). The requirement for cyclooxygenase (COX) metabolites of AA was examined using a nonspecific COX inhibitor, indomethacin (IM), as well as two COX products, prostaglandin (PG) F2?? and PGE2, whereas the role of lipoxygenase (LOX) was investigated using a specific LOX inhibitor, nordihydroguaiaretic acid (NDGA). The involvement of PKC was examined using phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate (PMA), a PKC activator, as well as GF109203X (GF), a specific inhibitor of PKC and 1-(5-isoquin- olinesulfonyl)-2-methylpiperazine (H7), nonspecific inhibitor of protein kinases. Genomic mechanisms were examined with the transcription-inhibitor actinomycin D (ActD) and the functionality of heterologous (oocyte-granulosa) gap junctions (GJ) with a dye transfer assay. The AA (100 ??M) and PGF2?? (5 ??M) did not induce maturation, and NDGA (10 ??M) did not affect MIH-dependent maturation. However, IM (100 ??M) partially inhibited MIH-dependent maturation. Conversely, AA and both PGs induced, and IM and NDGA inhibited, MIH-dependent ovulation in matured follicles. The PMA (1 ??g/ml) did not induce maturation but caused ovulation in matured follicles, whereas PKC inhibitors (GF, 5 ??M; H7, 50??M) did not affect MIH-dependent maturation but inhibited MIH- and PMA-dependent ovulation. The PMA-dependent ovulation was inhibited by IM but not by NDGA. In addition, ActD (5 ??M) blocked MIH-dependent, but not PMA-dependent, ovulation, and PGF2?? restored MIH-dependent ovulation in ActD-blocked follicles. The AA and PGs did not induce, and GF did not inhibit, MIH-dependent heterologous GJ uncoupling. In conclusion, AA and PKC mediate MIH-dependent ovulation but not meiotic resumption or heterologous GJ uncoupling in croaker follicles, but a permissive role of COX products of AA during maturation is possible. A novel model of MIH-dependent ovulation is proposed in which 1) LOX and COX metabolites of AA are both required for ovulation, but at upstream and downstream sites of the pathway, respectively, relative to PKC, and 2) PKC is downstream of genomic activation.

  2. Glycans from Fasciola hepatica Modulate the Host Immune Response and TLR-Induced Maturation of Dendritic Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodrguez, Ernesto; Noya, Vernica; Cervi, Laura; Chiribao, Mara Laura; Brossard, Natalie; Chiale, Carolina; Carmona, Carlos; Giacomini, Cecilia; Freire, Teresa

    2015-12-01

    Helminths express various carbohydrate-containing glycoconjugates on their surface, and they release glycan-rich excretion/secretion products that can be very important in their life cycles, infection and pathology. Recent evidence suggests that parasite glycoconjugates could play a role in the evasion of the immune response, leading to a modified Th2-polarized immune response that favors parasite survival in the host. Nevertheless, there is limited information about the nature or function of glycans produced by the trematode Fasciola hepatica, the causative agent of fasciolosis. In this paper, we investigate whether glycosylated molecules from F. hepatica participate in the modulation of host immunity. We also focus on dendritic cells, since they are an important target of immune-modulation by helminths, affecting their activity or function. Our results indicate that glycans from F. hepatica promote the production of IL-4 and IL-10, suppressing IFN? production. During infection, this parasite is able to induce a semi-mature phenotype of DCs expressing low levels of MHCII and secrete IL-10. Furthermore, we show that parasite glycoconjugates mediate the modulation of LPS-induced maturation of DCs since their oxidation restores the capacity of LPS-treated DCs to secrete high levels of the pro-inflammatory cytokines IL-6 and IL-12/23p40 and low levels of the anti-inflammatory cytokine IL-10. Inhibition assays using carbohydrates suggest that the immune-modulation is mediated, at least in part, by the recognition of a mannose specific-CLR that signals by recruiting the phosphatase Php2. The results presented here contribute to the understanding of the role of parasite glycosylated molecules in the modulation of the host immunity and might be useful in the design of vaccines against fasciolosis. PMID:26720149

  3. Early maturation and distinct tau pathology in induced pluripotent stem cell-derived neurons from patients with MAPT mutations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iovino, Mariangela; Agathou, Sylvia; Gonzlez-Rueda, Ana; Del Castillo Velasco-Herrera, Martin; Borroni, Barbara; Alberici, Antonella; Lynch, Timothy; O'Dowd, Sean; Geti, Imbisaat; Gaffney, Daniel; Vallier, Ludovic; Paulsen, Ole; Kradttir, Ragnhildur Thra; Spillantini, Maria Grazia

    2015-11-01

    Tauopathies, such as Alzheimer's disease, some cases of frontotemporal dementia, corticobasal degeneration and progressive supranuclear palsy, are characterized by aggregates of the microtubule-associated protein tau, which are linked to neuronal death and disease development and can be caused by mutations in the MAPT gene. Six tau isoforms are present in the adult human brain and they differ by the presence of 3(3R) or 4(4R) C-terminal repeats. Only the shortest 3R isoform is present in foetal brain. MAPT mutations found in human disease affect tau binding to microtubules or the 3R:4R isoform ratio by altering exon 10 splicing. We have differentiated neurons from induced pluripotent stem cells derived from fibroblasts of controls and patients with N279K and P301L MAPT mutations. Induced pluripotent stem cell-derived neurons recapitulate developmental tau expression, showing the adult brain tau isoforms after several months in culture. Both N279K and P301L neurons exhibit earlier electrophysiological maturation and altered mitochondrial transport compared to controls. Specifically, the N279K neurons show abnormally premature developmental 4R tau expression, including changes in the 3R:4R isoform ratio and AT100-hyperphosphorylated tau aggregates, while P301L neurons are characterized by contorted processes with varicosity-like structures, some containing both alpha-synuclein and 4R tau. The previously unreported faster maturation of MAPT mutant human neurons, the developmental expression of 4R tau and the morphological alterations may contribute to disease development. PMID:26220942

  4. Acute steroid-induced myopathy during lung Maturation in a patient with threatened preterm Delivery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rojas-Suarez José Antonio

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Myopathy caused by steroids is a serious and unusual side effect related with administration of high doses of steroids. In this article we had reported a possible deleterious and serious effect on the mother health when steroids are used in the treatment of preterm childbirth. The case of a pregnant patient of 28 gestational week that consults to the emergency department with signs of preterm birth, receives tocolysis and lung maturation with Betametasona (12 mg the first day and 12 mg at 24 hours after first dose; thereafter, patient refer dizziness and blurry vision, which progress rapidly to pain in lower limbs, with weakness, being generalized then to four limbs, for acute weakness and imminence of respiratory failure the patient was transferred to the intensive care unit (ICU for respiratory vigilance, possible ventilatory support and study of this weakness. Myopathy caused by steroids is generally related with high doses of steroids. These patients, present a clinical typical picture characterized by widespread weakness of four extremities, muscular atrophy, normal CK or moderately high and myopathic changes in the EMG, the clinical presentation improves slowly. This report invite us to questioning the apparent innocuousness of steroids in pulmonary maturity and the dose of the same one, as well as to using them well in agreement to the indication of the same one keeping in mind the risk - benefit of the medicine.RESUMENLa miopatía causada por esteroides es un efecto secundario grave muy poco frecuente asociado a la administración de dosis altas de esteroides. Se reportan los posibles efectos deletéreos sobre la salud materna que puede tener la administración de corticosteroides frente al riesgo de un parto pretérmino. Se presenta el caso de una paciente gestante de 28 semanas que consulta al servicio de urgencia por infección de vías urinarias y amenaza de parto pretérmino, que recibe uteroinhibicion y maduración pulmonar con Betametasona (12 mg primer día y 12 mg a las 24 horas de primera dosis; luego de segunda dosis de maduración pulmonar la paciente refiere vértigo y visión borrosa, la cual progresó rápidamente a dolor, con pérdida de fuerza muscular en miembros inferiores, generalizándose luego a las cuatro extremidades, por lo que ante la inminencia de falla respiratoria se traslada a unidad de cuidados intermedios para vigilancia ventilatoria y estudio de miopatía.Discusión: La miopatía por esteroides, se produce con dosis altas de corticoides. Estos pacientes, presentan un cuadro clínico típico caracterizado por debilidad generalizada de las cuatro extremidades, atrofia muscular, CK normal o moderadamente elevada y cambios miopáticos en el EMG, el cuadro clínico mejora aunque de forma lenta. Conclusiones: Este reporte nos invita a cuestionar la aparente inocuidad de los esteroides en maduración pulmonar y la dosis de la misma, así como a utilizarlos bien de acuerdo a la indicación del mismo teniendo en cuenta el riesgo – beneficio del medicamento.

  5. Skill formation under incomplete information

    OpenAIRE

    Weinschenk, Philipp

    2010-01-01

    We consider an economic model of child development with multiple stages. Due to incomplete information, parents are not able to tailor their investments to their child’s type when the child is young. We show that incomplete information weakens the importance of early investments in children when inter-stage investments are easily substitutable, but strengthens them when substitution is difficult. The latter case is empirically relevant.

  6. Incomplete information and correlated electrons

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, Qiuping A.

    2002-01-01

    Although G\\"odel's incompleteness theorem made mathematician recognize that no axiomatic system could completely prove its correctness and that there is an eternal hole between our knowledge and the world, physicists so far continue to work on the approaches based on the hypothesis to completely or approximately know the systems of interest. In this paper, however, I review the recent development of a different approach, a statistical theory based upon the notion of incomplete information. Th...

  7. Akt activation induces hypertrophy without contractile phenotypic maturation in airway smooth muscle

    OpenAIRE

    Ma, Lan; Brown, Melanie; Kogut, Paul; Serban, Karina; Li, Xiaojing; McConville, John; Chen, Bohao; Bentley, J. Kelley; Hershenson, Marc B.; Dulin, Nickolai; Solway, Julian; Camoretti-Mercado, Blanca

    2011-01-01

    Airway smooth muscle (ASM) hypertrophy is a cardinal feature of severe asthma, but the underlying molecular mechanisms remain uncertain. Forced protein kinase B/Akt 1 activation is known to induce myocyte hypertrophy in other muscle types, and, since a number of mediators present in asthmatic airways can activate Akt signaling, we hypothesized that Akt activation could contribute to ASM hypertrophy in asthma. To test this hypothesis, we evaluated whether Akt activation occurs naturally within...

  8. Induced Pluripotent Stem Cells from Familial Alzheimer's Disease Patients Differentiate into Mature Neurons with Amyloidogenic Properties

    OpenAIRE

    Mahairaki, Vasiliki; Ryu, Jiwon; PETERS, ANN; Chang, Qing; Li, Tong; Park, Tea Soon; Burridge, Paul W; Talbot, Conover C.; Asnaghi, Laura; Lee J Martin; Zambidis, Elias T.; Koliatsos, Vassilis E.

    2014-01-01

    Although the majority of Alzheimer's disease (AD) cases are sporadic, about 5% of cases are inherited in an autosomal dominant pattern as familial AD (FAD) and manifest at an early age. Mutations in the presenilin 1 (PSEN1) gene account for the majority of early-onset FAD. Here, we describe the generation of virus-free human induced pluripotent stem cells (hiPSCs) derived from fibroblasts of patients harboring the FAD PSEN1 mutation A246E and fibroblasts from healthy age-matched controls usin...

  9. Variation in eating quality of early maturing mutant lines of rice induced by space technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Variations in eating quality of 9 mutant lines derived from single season indica rice variety Jingxian 89 by the treatment of space technique were investigated. The result indicated that the exterior quality of some mutant lines including grain shape and endosperm appearance changed obviously. AAC was induced into three categories: low, moderate and high AAC. Alkali spreading value and starch viscosity of most mutant lines were significantly worse than those of the original parent. However, the gel consistence of mutant lines was similar or improved obviously. Except SP501, major agronomic traits of mutant lines were worse than those of the control, but one thousand grains weight increased obviously

  10. 18β-Glycyrrhetinic Acid Delivered Orally Induces Isolated Lymphoid Follicle Maturation at the Intestinal Mucosa and Attenuates Rotavirus Shedding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hendricks, Jay M.; Hoffman, Carol; Pascual, David W.; Hardy, Michele E.

    2012-01-01

    Glycyrrhizin, an abundant bioactive component of the medicinal licorice root is rapidly metabolized by gut commensal bacteria into 18β-glycyrrhetinic acid (GRA). Either or both of these compounds have been shown to have antiviral, anti-hepatotoxic, anti-ulcerative, anti-tumor, anti-allergenic and anti-inflammatory activity in vitro or in vivo. In this study, the ability of GRA to modulate immune responses at the small intestinal mucosa when delivered orally was investigated. Analysis of cytokine transcription in duodenal and ileal tissue in response to GRA treatment revealed a pattern of chemokine and chemokine receptor gene expression predictive of B cell recruitment to the gut. Consistent with this finding, GRA induced increases in CD19+ B cells in the lamina propria and B220+ B cell aggregates framed by CD11c+ dendritic cells in structures resembling isolated lymphoid follicles (ILF). Using a mouse model of rotavirus infection, GRA reduced the duration of viral antigen shedding, and endpoint serum antibody titers were higher in GRA-treated animals. Together the data suggest GRA delivered orally augments lymphocyte recruitment to the intestinal mucosa and induces maturation of B cell-rich ILF independently of ectopic antigenic stimulus. These results provide further support a role for dietary ligands in modulation of dynamic intestinal lymphoid tissue. PMID:23152913

  11. Establishment of maturity-onset diabetes of the young-induced pluripotent stem cells from a Japanese patient.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yabe, Shigeharu G; Iwasaki, Naoko; Yasuda, Kazuki; Hamazaki, Tatsuo S; Konno, Masamitsu; Fukuda, Satsuki; Takeda, Fujie; Kasuga, Masato; Okochi, Hitoshi

    2015-09-01

    Maturity-onset diabetes of the young (MODY) is a heterozygous monogenic diabetes; more than 13 disease genes have been identified. However, the pathogenesis of MODY is not fully understood, because the pancreatic ?-cells of the patients are inaccessable. Therefore, we attempted to establish MODY patient-derived induced pluripotent stem cells (MODY-iPS) cells to investigate the pathogenic mechanism of MODY by inducing pancreatic ?-cells. We established MODY5-iPS cells from a Japanese patient with MODY5 (R177X), and confirmed that MODY5-iPS cells possessed the characteristics of pluripotent stem cells. In the course of differentiation from MODY5-iPS cells into pancreatic ?-cells, we examined the disease gene, HNF1B messenger ribonucleic acid. We found that the amount of R177X mutant transcripts was much less than that of wild ones, but they increased after adding cycloheximide to the medium. These results suggest that these R177X mutant messenger ribonucleic acids are disrupted by nonsense-mediated messenger ribonucleic acid decay in MODY-iPS cells during the developmental stages of pancreatic ?-cells. PMID:26417411

  12. Reduced Connexin26 in the Mature Cochlea Increases Susceptibility to Noise-Induced Hearing Loss in Mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xing-Xing Zhou

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Connexin26 (Cx26, encoded by GJB2 mutations are the most common cause of non-syndromic deafness. GJB2 is thought to be involved in noise-induced hearing loss (NIHL. However, the role of Cx26 in NIHL is still obscure. To explore the association between Cx26 and NIHL, we established a Cx26 knockdown (KD mouse model by conditional knockdown of Cx26 at postnatal day 18 (P18, and then we observed the auditory threshold and morphologic changes in these mice with or without noise exposure. The Cx26 KD mice did not exhibit substantial hearing loss and hair cell degeneration, while the Cx26 KD mice with acoustic trauma experienced higher hearing loss than simple noise exposure siblings and nearly had no recovery. Additionally, extensive outer hair cell loss and more severe destruction of the basal organ of Corti were observed in Cx26 KD mice after noise exposure. These data indicate that reduced Cx26 expression in the mature mouse cochlea may increase susceptibility to noise-induced hearing loss and facilitate the cell degeneration in the organ of Corti.

  13. Effect of Vitamin D on basal and Luteinizing Hormone (LH) induced testosterone production and mitochondrial dehydrogenase activity in cultured Leydig cells from immature and mature rams.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Yang; Jin, Hui; Chen, Jianwei; Jiang, Xiaolong; Li, Pengfei; Ren, Youshe; Liu, Wenzhong; Yao, Jianbo; Folger, Joseph K; Smith, George W; Lv, Lihua

    2015-07-01

    The objectives of this study were to investigate the potential effects of 1?,25-(OH)2VD3 (biologically active form of Vitamin D) on basal and LH-induced testosterone production and mitochondrial dehydrogenase activity in Leydig cells from immature and mature rams cultured in vitro. Leydig cells were isolated from testes of immature and mature rams, treated without (control) or with increasing concentrations of LH (1, 10, 100ng/ml) and/or 1?,25-(OH)2VD3 (1, 10, 100nM). After 24h, concentrations of testosterone in culture media were measured. After 96h, mitochondrial dehydrogenase activity in Leydig cells were measured. In immature and mature ram Leydig cells, treatment with 10 and 100ng/ml LH increased testosterone production and mitochondrial dehydrogenase activity. Treatment with 1?,25-(OH)2VD3 in the absence of LH did not increase testosterone production, but 10 and 100nM 1?,25-(OH)2VD3 increased LH induced testosterone production for both immature and mature ram Leydig cells. Treatment with all doses of 1?,25-(OH)2VD3 in the absence of LH and 10 and 100ng/ml LH in the absence of 1?,25-(OH)2VD3 increased mitochondrial dehydrogenase activity for cultured Leydig cells from immature and mature rams and 1 and 10nM 1?,25-(OH)2VD3 treatment enhanced the LH induced increase in mitochondrial dehydrogenase activity. Result demonstrate Vitamin D3 induced regulation of function of Leydig cells from immature and mature rams cultured in the presence or absence of LH and support a potential role for Vitamin D3 in regulation of gonadal function in rams. PMID:26024964

  14. Incomplete Reossification After Craniosynostosis Surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noordzij, Niels; Brouwer, Roma; van der Horst, Chantal

    2016-01-01

    A patient with unicoronal craniosynostosis was treated by an open cranial vault remodeling procedure at 11 months of age. A calvarial defect persists at the site of the sagittal suture at 7 years follow-up. This unexpected outcome led us to evaluate current literature on incidence and possible causes of incomplete reossification after craniosynostosis surgery.English literature was searched from 1982 to 2013. Variables of interest were incidence, diagnose, type of surgery, age at operation, possible causes for incomplete reossification, and duration and type of follow-up.Incidence in unselected cohorts ranged from 0.5% to 18.2%. Incomplete reossification has been reported in syndromical and nonsyndromical cases, after multiple types of surgery for any type of suture. Follow-up was done by palpation, radiology or both, for a period of 6 to 264 months.Higher age at operation and a dura tear are associated with an increased risk of incomplete reossification.Type and duration of follow-up is inhomogeneous and there is a wide variety in the terminology used for incomplete reossification.To improve international communication on this topic, more long-term studies, using a consistent type and length of follow-up and uniform terminology are needed. PMID:26745196

  15. Forced cell cycle exit and modulation of GABAA, CREB, and GSK3β signaling promote functional maturation of induced pluripotent stem cell-derived neurons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Telezhkin, Vsevolod; Schnell, Christian; Yarova, Polina; Yung, Sun; Cope, Emma; Hughes, Alis; Thompson, Belinda A; Sanders, Philip; Geater, Charlene; Hancock, Jane M; Joy, Shona; Badder, Luned; Connor-Robson, Natalie; Comella, Andrea; Straccia, Marco; Bombau, Georgina; Brown, Jon T; Canals, Josep M; Randall, Andrew D; Allen, Nicholas D; Kemp, Paul J

    2016-04-01

    Although numerous protocols have been developed for differentiation of neurons from a variety of pluripotent stem cells, most have concentrated on being able to specify effectively appropriate neuronal subtypes and few have been designed to enhance or accelerate functional maturity. Of those that have, most employ time courses of functional maturation that are rather protracted, and none have fully characterized all aspects of neuronal function, from spontaneous action potential generation through to postsynaptic receptor maturation. Here, we describe a simple protocol that employs the sequential addition of just two supplemented media that have been formulated to separate the two key phases of neural differentiation, the neurogenesis and synaptogenesis, each characterized by different signaling requirements. Employing these media, this new protocol synchronized neurogenesis and enhanced the rate of maturation of pluripotent stem cell-derived neural precursors. Neurons differentiated using this protocol exhibited large cell capacitance with relatively hyperpolarized resting membrane potentials; moreover, they exhibited augmented:1) spontaneous electrical activity;2) regenerative induced action potential train activity;3) Na(+)current availability, and4) synaptic currents. This was accomplished by rapid and uniform development of a mature, inhibitory GABAAreceptor phenotype that was demonstrated by Ca(2+)imaging and the ability of GABAAreceptor blockers to evoke seizurogenic network activity in multielectrode array recordings. Furthermore, since this protocol can exploit expanded and frozen prepatterned neural progenitors to deliver mature neurons within 21 days, it is both scalable and transferable to high-throughput platforms for the use in functional screens. PMID:26718628

  16. Stochastic incompleteness of quantum mechanics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This article brings out in as conceptually clear terms as possible what seems to be a major incompleteness in the probability theory of particles offered by classical quantum mechanics. The exact nature of this incompleteness is illustrated by consideration of some simple quantum-mechanical examples. In addition, these examples are contrasted with the fundamental assumptions of Brownian motion in classical physics on the one hand, and with a controversey of a deecade ago in mathematical physchology. The central claim is that clasical quantum mechanics is radically incomplete in its probabilistic account of the motion of particles. In the last part of the article the time-dependent joint distribution of position and momentum of the linear harmonic oscillator is derived, and it is shown how the apparently physically paradoxical statistical independence of position and momentum has a natural explanation. The explanation is given within the framework of the non-quantum-mechanical stochastic theory constructed for such oscillators. (Auth.)

  17. Microinjection of pp60v-src into Xenopus oocytes increases phosphorylation of ribosomal protein S6 and accelerates the rate of progesterone-induced meiotic maturation.

    OpenAIRE

    Spivack, J G; Erikson, R. L.; Maller, J L

    1984-01-01

    Microinjection of purified pp60v-src into Xenopus oocytes caused the phosphorylation of ribosomal protein S6 on serine residues and also increased total protein phosphorylation, with almost a two-fold increase in the percentage of phosphotyrosine present. In addition, pp60v-src accelerated the time course of progesterone-induced oocyte maturation, suggesting that the biochemical pathway influenced by pp60v-src is related to that induced by progesterone.

  18. Chlorella sorokiniana-Induced Activation and Maturation of Human Monocyte-Derived Dendritic Cells through NF- κ B and PI3K/MAPK Pathways

    OpenAIRE

    Nien-Tzu Chou; Chieh-Fang Cheng; Hsin-Chieh Wu; Chin-Pen Lai; Li-Tsen Lin; I-Horng Pan; Ching-Huai Ko

    2012-01-01

    Chlorella sorokiniana (CS) is a unicellular green alga. The extracts of Chlorella have been used as treatments for relieving hypertension and modulating immune response. The detailed mechanisms are not clear yet. In this study, we sought to study the molecular mechanisms for the polysaccharide fraction of CS-induced immune response. We pulsed dendritic cells (DCs) with CS and found that CS could maturate DCs. CS-maturated DC could activate naïve T cells and stimulate T-cell proliferation and ...

  19. The Icsbp locus is a common proviral insertion site in mature B-cell lymphomas/plasmacytomas induced by exogenous murine leukemia virus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    ICSBP (interferon consensus sequence binding protein)/IRF8 (interferon regulatory factor 8) is an interferon gamma-inducible transcription factor expressed predominantly in hematopoietic cells, and down-regulation of this factor has been observed in chronic myelogenous leukemia and acute myeloid leukemia in man. By screening about 1200 murine leukemia virus (MLV)-induced lymphomas, we found proviral insertions at the Icsbp locus in 14 tumors, 13 of which were mature B-cell lymphomas or plasmacytomas. Only one was a T-cell lymphoma, although such tumors constituted about half of the samples screened. This indicates that the Icsbp locus can play a specific role in the development of mature B-lineage malignancies. Two proviral insertions in the last Icsbp exon were found to act by a poly(A)-insertion mechanism. The remaining insertions were found within or outside Icsbp. Since our results showed expression of Icsbp RNA and protein in all end-stage tumor samples, a simple tumor suppressor function of ICSBP is not likely. Interestingly, proviral insertions at Icsbp have not been reported from previous extensive screenings of mature B-cell lymphomas induced by endogenous MLVs. We propose that ICSBP might be involved in an early modulation of an immune response to exogenous MLVs that might also play a role in proliferation of the mature B-cell lymphomas

  20. A novel role for RGMa in modulation of bone marrow-derived dendritic cells maturation induced by lipopolysaccharide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Xuxu; Gao, Yan; Shan, Fengping; Feng, Juan

    2016-04-01

    Repulsive guidance molecule a (RGMa) is known to mediate immune responses and has been indicated to modulates T cell activation and autoimmune diseases by dendritic cells (DCs), which hints its significant function in the latter cells. The aim of our study, therefore, was to evaluate the function of RGMa in DC maturation. We found that small interfering RNA (siRNA) successfully silenced the expression of RGMa in DCs. Even after LPS stimulation, RGMa-silenced DCs displayed an immature morphology, characterized by small, round cells with a few cell processes and organelles, and many pinocytotic vesicles. In the presence of LPS, RGMa siRNA transfection markedly reduced levels of CD80, CD86, CD40, and MHC II expression, as well as the secretion of IL-12p70 and TNF-α. With LPS treatment, RGMa siRNA-transfected DCs also showed increased levels of IL-10 and endocytosis. Moreover, in the presence of LPS, RGMa siRNA-transfected DCs displayed a low ability to induce T cell proliferation and differentiation, compared with negative control (NTi)-transfected or control DCs (p<0.05 for both). We conclude that after LPS stimulation, RGMa siRNA-transfected DCs show immunoregulatory and tolerogenic characteristics, which provides new insights into the immune system. PMID:26896667

  1. Metabolomic changes in follicular fluid induced by soy isoflavones administered to rats from weaning until sexual maturity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Female Wistar rats at 21 days of age were treated with one of three concentrations of soy isoflavones (SIF) (50, 100 or 200 mg/kg body weight, orally, once per day) from weaning until sexual maturity (3 months) in order to evaluate the influence of SIF on ovarian follicle development. After treatment, the serum sex hormone levels and enumeration of ovarian follicles of the ovary were measured. The metabolic profile of follicular fluid was determined using HPLC-MS. Principal component analysis (PCA) and partial least-squares-discriminant analysis (PLS-DA) was used to identify differences in metabolites and reveal useful toxic biomarkers. The results indicated that modest doses of SIF affect ovarian follicle development, as demonstrated by decreased serum estradiol levels and increases in both ovarian follicle atresia and corpora lutea number in the ovary. SIF treatment-related metabolic alterations in follicular fluid were also found in the PCA and PLS-DA models. The 24 most significantly altered metabolites were identified, including primary sex hormones, amino acids, fatty acids and metabolites involved in energy metabolism. These findings may indicate that soy isoflavones affect ovarian follicle development by inducing metabolomic variations in the follicular fluid. - Highlights: ► Modest doses of soy isoflavones (SIF) do affect ovarian follicle development. ► SIF treatment-related metabolic alterations in follicular fluid were found. ► The 24 most significantly altered metabolites were identified

  2. Metabolomic changes in follicular fluid induced by soy isoflavones administered to rats from weaning until sexual maturity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Wenxiang [Department of Nutrition and Health Care, School of Public Health, Fujian Medical University, Fuzhou, Fujian (China); Zhang, Wenchang, E-mail: wenchang2002@sina.com [Department of Occupational and Environmental Health, School of Public Health, Fujian Medical University, Fuzhou, Fujian (China); Liu, Jin [Department of Occupational and Environmental Health, School of Public Health, Fujian Medical University, Fuzhou, Fujian (China); Sun, Yan [Center for Reproductive Medicine, Teaching Hospital of Fujian Medical University, Fujian Maternity and Child Health Hospital, Fuzhou, Fujian (China); Li, Yuchen; Li, Hong; Xiao, Shihua; Shen, Xiaohua [Department of Occupational and Environmental Health, School of Public Health, Fujian Medical University, Fuzhou, Fujian (China)

    2013-06-15

    Female Wistar rats at 21 days of age were treated with one of three concentrations of soy isoflavones (SIF) (50, 100 or 200 mg/kg body weight, orally, once per day) from weaning until sexual maturity (3 months) in order to evaluate the influence of SIF on ovarian follicle development. After treatment, the serum sex hormone levels and enumeration of ovarian follicles of the ovary were measured. The metabolic profile of follicular fluid was determined using HPLC-MS. Principal component analysis (PCA) and partial least-squares-discriminant analysis (PLS-DA) was used to identify differences in metabolites and reveal useful toxic biomarkers. The results indicated that modest doses of SIF affect ovarian follicle development, as demonstrated by decreased serum estradiol levels and increases in both ovarian follicle atresia and corpora lutea number in the ovary. SIF treatment-related metabolic alterations in follicular fluid were also found in the PCA and PLS-DA models. The 24 most significantly altered metabolites were identified, including primary sex hormones, amino acids, fatty acids and metabolites involved in energy metabolism. These findings may indicate that soy isoflavones affect ovarian follicle development by inducing metabolomic variations in the follicular fluid. - Highlights: ► Modest doses of soy isoflavones (SIF) do affect ovarian follicle development. ► SIF treatment-related metabolic alterations in follicular fluid were found. ► The 24 most significantly altered metabolites were identified.

  3. Progressive behavioral changes during the maturation of rats with early radiation-induced hypoplasia of fascia dentata granule cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Localized exposure of the neonatal rat brain to X-rays produces neuronal hypoplasia specific to the granule cell layer of the hippocampal dentate gyrus. This brain damage causes locomotor hyperactivity, slowed acquisition of passive avoidance tasks and long bouts of spontaneous turning (without reversals) in a bowl apparatus. Here we report how these behavioral deficits change as a function of subject aging and behavioral test replications. Portions of the neonatal rat cerebral hemispheres were X-irradiated in order to selectively damage the granule cells of the dentate gyrus. The brains of experimental animals received a fractionated dose of X rays (13 Gy total) over postnatal days 1 to 16 and control animals were sham-irradiated. Rats between the ages of 71-462 days were tested 3 separate times on each of the following 3 behavioral tests: (1) spontaneous locomotion, (2) passive avoidance acquisition, and (3) spontaneous circling in a large plastic hemisphere. Rats with radiation-induced damage to the fascia dentata exhibited long bouts of slow turns without reversals. Once they began, irradiated subjects perseverated in turning to an extent significantly greater than sham-irradiated control subjects. This irradiation effect was significant during all test series. Moreover, in time, spontaneous perseverative turning was significantly potentiated in rats with hippocampal damage but increased only slightly in controls. Early radiation exposure produced locomotor hyperactivity in young rats. While activity levels of controls remained fairly stable throughout the course of the experiment, the hyperactivity of the irradiated animals decreased significantly as they matured

  4. Insulin-like growth factor-1 receptor in mature osteoblasts is required for periosteal bone formation induced by reloading

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kubota, Takuo; Elalieh, Hashem Z.; Saless, Neema; Fong, Chak; Wang, Yongmei; Babey, Muriel; Cheng, Zhiqiang; Bikle, Daniel D.

    2013-11-01

    Skeletal loading and unloading has a pronounced impact on bone remodeling, a process also regulated by insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) signaling. Skeletal unloading leads to resistance to the anabolic effect of IGF-1, while reloading after unloading restores responsiveness to IGF-1. However, a direct study of the importance of IGF-1 signaling in the skeletal response to mechanical loading remains to be tested. In this study, we assessed the skeletal response of osteoblast-specific Igf-1 receptor deficient (Igf-1r-/-) mice to unloading and reloading. The mice were hindlimb unloaded for 14 days and then reloaded for 16 days. Igf-1r-/- mice displayed smaller cortical bone and diminished periosteal and endosteal bone formation at baseline. Periosteal and endosteal bone formation decreased with unloading in Igf-1r+/+ mice. However, the recovery of periosteal bone formation with reloading was completely inhibited in Igf-1r-/- mice, although reloading-induced endosteal bone formation was not hampered. These changes in bone formation resulted in the abolishment of the expected increase in total cross-sectional area with reloading in Igf-1r-/- mice compared to the control mice. These results suggest that the Igf-1r in mature osteoblasts has a critical role in periosteal bone formation in the skeletal response to mechanical loading.

  5. CD28 co-stimulation via tumour-specific chimaeric receptors induces an incomplete activation response in Epstein–Barr virus-specific effector memory T cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Altvater, B; Pscherer, S; Landmeier, S; Niggemeier, V; Juergens, H; Vormoor, J; Rossig, C

    2006-01-01

    Expression of tumour antigen-specific chimaeric receptors in T lymphocytes can redirect their effector functions towards tumour cells. Integration of the signalling domains of the co-stimulatory molecule CD28 into chRec enhances antigen-specific proliferation of polyclonal human T cell populations. While CD28 plays an essential role in the priming of naive CD4+ T cells, its contribution to effector memory T cell responses is controversial. We compared the function of the chRec with and without the CD28 co-stimulatory domain, expressing it in peripheral blood T cells or Epstein–Barr virus (EBV)-specific T cell lines. The chimaeric T cell receptors contain an extracellular single-chain antibody domain, to give specificity against the tumour ganglioside antigen GD2. The transduced cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTL) maintained their specificity for autologous EBV targets and their capacity to proliferate after stimulation with EBV-infected B cells. Intracellular cytokine staining demonstrated efficient and comparable antigen-specific interferon (IFN)-γ secretion by CTL following engagement of both the native and the chimaeric receptor, independent of chimaeric CD28 signalling. Furthermore, tumour targets were lysed in an antigen-specific manner by both chRec. However, while antigen engagement by CD28ζ chRec efficiently induced expansion of polyclonal peripheral blood lymphocytes in an antigen-dependent manner, CD28 signalling did not induce proliferation of EBV–CTL in response to antigen-expressing tumour cells. Thus, the co-stimulatory requirement for the efficient activation response of antigen-specific memory cells cannot be mimicked simply by combining CD28 and ζ signalling. The full potential of this highly cytolytic T cell population for adoptive immunotherapy of cancer requires further exploration of their co-stimulatory requirements. PMID:16734614

  6. CD28 co-stimulation via tumour-specific chimaeric receptors induces an incomplete activation response in Epstein-Barr virus-specific effector memory T cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Altvater, B; Pscherer, S; Landmeier, S; Niggemeier, V; Juergens, H; Vormoor, J; Rossig, C

    2006-06-01

    Expression of tumour antigen-specific chimaeric receptors in T lymphocytes can redirect their effector functions towards tumour cells. Integration of the signalling domains of the co-stimulatory molecule CD28 into chRec enhances antigen-specific proliferation of polyclonal human T cell populations. While CD28 plays an essential role in the priming of naive CD4(+) T cells, its contribution to effector memory T cell responses is controversial. We compared the function of the chRec with and without the CD28 co-stimulatory domain, expressing it in peripheral blood T cells or Epstein-Barr virus (EBV)-specific T cell lines. The chimaeric T cell receptors contain an extracellular single-chain antibody domain, to give specificity against the tumour ganglioside antigen G(D2). The transduced cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTL) maintained their specificity for autologous EBV targets and their capacity to proliferate after stimulation with EBV-infected B cells. Intracellular cytokine staining demonstrated efficient and comparable antigen-specific interferon (IFN)-gamma secretion by CTL following engagement of both the native and the chimaeric receptor, independent of chimaeric CD28 signalling. Furthermore, tumour targets were lysed in an antigen-specific manner by both chRec. However, while antigen engagement by CD28 zeta chRec efficiently induced expansion of polyclonal peripheral blood lymphocytes in an antigen-dependent manner, CD28 signalling did not induce proliferation of EBV-CTL in response to antigen-expressing tumour cells. Thus, the co-stimulatory requirement for the efficient activation response of antigen-specific memory cells cannot be mimicked simply by combining CD28 and zeta signalling. The full potential of this highly cytolytic T cell population for adoptive immunotherapy of cancer requires further exploration of their co-stimulatory requirements. PMID:16734614

  7. Quantization of singular systems and incomplete motions

    CERN Document Server

    Landsman, N P

    1998-01-01

    The need for a mathematically rigorous quantization procedure of singular spaces and incomplete motions is pointed out in connection with quantum cosmology. We put our previous suggestion for such a procedure, based on the theory of induced representations of C*-algebras, in the light of L. Schwartz' theory of Hilbert subspaces. This turns out to account for the freedom in the induction procedure, at the same time providing a basis for generalized eigenfunction expansions pertinent to the needs of quantum cosmology. Reinforcing our previous proposal for the wave-function of the Universe, we are now able to add a concrete prescription for its calculation.

  8. Protein-induced changes during the maturation process of human dendritic cells: A 2-D DIGE approach

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ferreira, Gb; Overbergh, L; Hansen, Kasper Lage; D'Hertog, W; Hansen, Daniel Aaen; Maris, M; Moreau, Y; Workman, Christopher; Waelkens, E; Mathieu, C

    2008-01-01

    Dendritic cells (DCs) are unique antigen presenting cells, which upon maturation change from a specialized antigen-capturing cell towards a professional antigen presenting cells. In this study, a 2-D DIGE analysis of immature and mature DCs was performed, to identify proteins changing in expressi...

  9. Maturation of human dendritic cells by monocyte-conditioned medium is dependent upon trace amounts of lipopolysaccharide inducing tumour necrosis factor alpha

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nersting, Jacob; Svenson, Morten; Andersen, Vagn; Bendtzen, Klaus

    2003-01-01

    We investigated the ability of monocyte-conditioned medium (MCM), generated by monocytes cultured on plastic-immobilised immunoglobulin, to stimulate maturation of human monocyte-derived dendritic cells (DC). Earlier reports suggest that MCM is a strong inducer of irreversible DC maturation......, whereas we find, that adding a small amount of lipopolysaccharide (LPS) to the MCM-generating cultures is required for the production of a DC-stimulatory MCM. Moreover, compared with addition of LPS directly to the DC cultures, stimulation via MCM cultures increases by several fold the DC......-stimulatory potency of LPS. Maturation by this procedure is mediated mainly by tumour necrosis factor alpha secreted from monocytes during the medium-conditioning period....

  10. Nicotine-induced Disturbances of Meiotic Maturation in Cultured Mouse Oocytes: Alterations of Spindle Integrity and Chromosome Alignment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zenzes Maria

    2004-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract We investigated whether nicotine exposure in vitro of mouse oocytes affects spindle and chromosome function during meiotic maturation (M-I and M-II. Oocytes in germinal vesicle (GV stage were cultured in nicotine for 8 h or for 16 h, to assess effects in M-I and in metaphase II (M-II. The latter culture setting used the three protocols: 8 h nicotine then 8 h medium (8N + 8M; 16 h nicotine (16N; 8 h medium then 8 h nicotine (8M + 8N. Non-toxic concentrations of nicotine at 1.0, 2.5, 5.0 and 10.0 mmol/L were used. Spindle-chromosome configurations were analyzed with wide-field optical sectioning microscopy. In 8 h cultures, nicotine exposure resulted in dose-related increased proportions of M-I oocytes with defective spindle-chromosome configurations. A dose-related delayed entry into anaphase I was also detected. In 16 h cultures, nicotine exposure for the first 8 h (8N + 8M, or for 16 h (16N, resulted in dose- and time-related increased proportions of oocytes arrested in M-I (10 mmol/L; 8 h: 53.2%, controls 9.6%; 16 h: 87.6%, controls 8.5%. Defects in M-I spindles and chromosomes caused M-I arrest leading to dose-related decreased proportions of oocytes that reached metaphase-II (10 mmol/L 8 h: 46.8%, controls 90.4%;16 h: 12.4%, controls 91.5%. A delayed anaphase-I affected the normal timing of M-II, leading to abnormal oocytes with dispersed chromosomes, or with double spindles and no polar body. Nicotine exposure during the second 8 h (8M + 8N resulted in dose-related, increased proportions of M-II oocytes with defective spindles and chromosomes (10 mmol/L: 42.9%, controls 2.0%. Nicotine has no adverse effects on GV break down, but induces spindle and chromosome defects compromising oocyte meiotic maturation and development.

  11. Uncertainty, incompleteness, chance, and design

    CERN Document Server

    Sols, Fernando

    2013-01-01

    The 20th century has revealed two important limitations of scientific knowledge. On the one hand, the combination of Poincar\\'e's nonlinear dynamics and Heisenberg's uncertainty principle leads to a world picture where physical reality is, in many respects, intrinsically undetermined. On the other hand, G\\"odel's incompleteness theorems reveal us the existence of mathematical truths that cannot be demonstrated. More recently, Chaitin has proved that, from the incompleteness theorems, it follows that the random character of a given mathematical sequence cannot be proved in general (it is 'undecidable'). I reflect here on the consequences derived from the indeterminacy of the future and the undecidability of randomness, concluding that the question of the presence or absence of finality in nature is fundamentally outside the scope of the scientific method.

  12. Growth hormone (GH) deprivation induced by passive immunization against rat GH-releasing factor does not disturb the course of sexual maturation and fertility in the female rat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gruaz, N M; Arsenijevic, Y; Wehrenberg, W B; Sizonenko, P C; Aubert, M L

    1994-08-01

    The importance of normal GH secretion for the onset of sexual maturation is a subject of controversy. Also, the need to achieve a minimal body size or body fat content has been postulated to be of importance for determining the timing of the onset of puberty. To evaluate the importance of GH secretion on the onset of sexual maturation in the female rat, GH deprivation has been induced by treating prepubertal rats with antirat GRF serum to passively immunize these animals against GRF. Chronic administration of anti-GRF serum produced in all series an impressive reduction in growth rate (from 5 to 2 g/day), resulting in a body weight averaging 50-60% the normal value at 50 days of life. Despite this deficit in growth, sexual maturation, as established by vaginal opening and first estrous cycles, occurred at the normal age in three of four series of rats; in one series, however, sexual maturation was delayed by 4 days, but thereafter, all parameters indicated that the gonadotropic axis was normally activated. In one series, fertility was tested at 59 days of age in females with a body weight corresponding to 51% of the control weight; these females conceived and delivered a reduced number of pups (9.4 +/- 0.7 instead of 14.2 +/- 0.8 in control dams), but the pups were of normal size. In a second experimental approach, the effect of GH deprivation was evaluated in a model of late sexual maturation obtained by severe food restriction followed by a switch to ad libitum feeding. Severe food restriction initiated at approximately 28 days, when the body weight was 75 g, drastically reduced the growth rate and completely prevented sexual maturation. A switch to ad libitum feeding at 50 days provoked an important compensatory growth and the occurrence of sexual maturation 4 days later. Passive immunization against GRF during this recovery phase did reduce the growth rate, but did not delay sexual maturation. Plasma insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF-I) secretion was very low in food-restricted rats and in each situation with induced GH deprivation. During food restriction, plasma IGF-binding protein-3 (IGFBP-3) and to a lesser extent IGFBP-1 were decreased, and IGFBP-2 was increased; after switching to ad libitum feeding, plasma levels of IGFBP-2 normalized, but levels of IGFBP-1 and IGFBP-3 remained low in the face of normalized plasma IGF-I levels.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 400 WORDS) PMID:7518382

  13. Improvement of efficient in vitro regeneration potential of mature callus induced from Malaysian upland rice seed (Oryza sativa cv. Panderas).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohd Din, Abd Rahman Jabir; Iliyas Ahmad, Fauziah; Wagiran, Alina; Abd Samad, Azman; Rahmat, Zaidah; Sarmidi, Mohamad Roji

    2016-01-01

    A new and rapid protocol for optimum callus production and complete plant regeneration has been assessed in Malaysian upland rice (Oryza sativa) cv. Panderas. The effect of plant growth regulator (PGR) on the regeneration frequency of Malaysian upland rice (cv. Panderas) was investigated. Mature seeds were used as a starting material for callus induction experiment using various concentrations of 2,4-D and NAA. Optimal callus induction frequency at 90% was obtained on MS media containing 2,4-D (3mgL(-1)) and NAA (2mgL(-1)) after 6weeks while no significant difference was seen on tryptophan and glutamine parameters. Embryogenic callus was recorded as compact, globular and light yellowish in color. The embryogenic callus morphology was further confirmed with scanning electron microscopy (SEM) analysis. For regeneration, induced calli were treated with various concentrations of Kin (0.5-1.5mgL(-1)), BAP, NAA and 0.5mgL(-1) of TDZ. The result showed that the maximum regeneration frequency (100%) was achieved on MS medium containing BAP (0.5mgL(-1)), Kin (1.5mgL(-1)), NAA (0.5mgL(-1)) and TDZ (0.5mgL(-1)) within four weeks. Developed shoots were successfully rooted on half strength MS free hormone medium and later transferred into a pot containing soil for acclimatization. This cutting-edge finding is unique over the other existing publishable data due to the good regeneration response by producing a large number of shoots. PMID:26858569

  14. Monetary Shocks Under Incomplete Markets

    OpenAIRE

    Algan, Yann; Allais, Olivier; Challe, Edouard; Ragot, Xavier

    2012-01-01

    This paper provides a systematic quantification of the short-run effects of monetary policy shocks under incomplete markets. Our framework of analysis is the benchmark flexible-price neoclassical growth model with infinitely-lived and ex ante identical individuals, which we augment with i. uninsurable idiosyncratic labor income shocks; ii. a liquidity motive for holding real money balances (via a money-in-the-utility specification); and iii. aggregate shocks to the rate of money growth. We ca...

  15. Transition Complexity of Incomplete DFAs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuan Gao

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we consider the transition complexity of regular languages based on the incomplete deterministic finite automata. A number of results on Boolean operations have been obtained. It is shown that the transition complexity results for union and complementation are very different from the state complexity results for the same operations. However, for intersection, the transition complexity result is similar to that of state complexity.

  16. Changes in homologous and heterologous gap junction contacts during maturation-inducing hormone-dependent meiotic resumption in ovarian follicles of Atlantic croaker

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bolamba, D.; Patino, R.; Yoshizaki, G.; Thomas, P.

    2003-01-01

    Homologous (granulosa cell-granulosa cell) gap junction (GJ) contacts increase in ovarian follicles of Atlantic croaker (Micropogonias undulatus) during the early (first) stage of maturation, but their profile during the second stage [i.e., during maturation-inducing hormone (MIH)-mediated meiotic resumption] is unknown. The profile of homologous GJ contacts during the second stage of maturation in croaker follicles was examined in this study and compared to that of heterologous (granulosa cell-oocyte) GJ, for which changes have been previously documented. Follicles were incubated with human chorionic gonadotropin to induce maturational competence (first stage), and then with MIH to induce meiotic resumption. The follicles were collected for examination immediately before and after different durations of MIH exposure until the oocyte had reached the stage of germinal vesicle breakdown (GVBD; index of meiotic resumption). Ultrathin sections were observed by transmission electron microscopy, and homologous and heterologous GJ contacts were quantified along a 100-??m segment of granulosa cell-zona radiata complex per follicle (three follicles/time/fish, n=3 fish). Relatively high numbers of both types of GJ were observed before and after the first few hours of MIH exposure (up to the stage of oil droplet coalescence). GJ numbers declined during partial yolk globule coalescence (at or near GVBD) and were just under 50% of starting values after the completion of GVBD (P<0.05). These results confirm earlier observations that GVBD temporally correlates with declining heterologous GJ contacts, and for the first time in teleosts show that there is a parallel decline in homologous GJ. The significance of the changes in homologous and heterologous GJ is uncertain and deserves further study. ?? 2003 Elsevier Science (USA). All rights reserved.

  17. Incomplete property rights and overinvestment

    OpenAIRE

    Amegashie, J. Atsu

    2009-01-01

    I consider a model in which an asset owner must decide how much to invest in his asset mindful of the fact that an encroachers valuation of the asset is increasing in the asset owners investment. Due to incomplete property rights, the encroacher and asset owner engage in a contest over the control of the asset after investment has taken place. A standard result is that the asset owner will underinvest in the asset relative to the first-best level of investment when property rights are compl...

  18. An Incomplete Pentalogy of Cantrell

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Mishaly

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Pentalogy of Cantrell is a rare entity of congenital defects involving the abdominal wall,sternum, diaphragm, pericardium and heart. The complete pentalogy and its variants havebeen described in the literature. We report a 47-day-old girl with an incomplete pentalogy ofCantrell presenting with congenital absence of the sternum, congenital heart defects, and anepigastric hernia. Two even rarer expressions of this disorder, tricuspid atresia type IIc andasymmetric kidneys, were also found. The patient was successfully managed with palliativepulmonary artery banding as preparation for a modified Fontan operation when she is older.We report this rare case, and discuss the pathologic findings and surgical strategy.

  19. Incomplete Contract and Divisional Structures

    OpenAIRE

    Bao, Te; Wang, Yongqin

    2009-01-01

    In this paper we want to analyze the internal divisional structure within an organi- zation in the framework of incomplete contract theory. We use the framework of Aghion and Tirole (1997) and define the managerial control structure as \\sequence of search". A key feature of this paper which differentiate it from other works in the literature is that we add add an ex post bargaining phase in which the managers can agree on the project which maximize their joint private benefit. Our model shows...

  20. Utility maximization in incomplete markets

    CERN Document Server

    Hu, Y; Mller, M; Hu, Ying; Imkeller, Peter; Muller, Matthias

    2005-01-01

    We consider the problem of utility maximization for small traders on incomplete financial markets. As opposed to most of the papers dealing with this subject, the investors' trading strategies we allow underly constraints described by closed, but not necessarily convex, sets. The final wealths obtained by trading under these constraints are identified as stochastic processes which usually are supermartingales, and even martingales for particular strategies. These strategies are seen to be optimal, and the corresponding value functions determined simply by the initial values of the supermartingales. We separately treat the cases of exponential, power and logarithmic utility.

  1. Chronic administration of leptin into the lateral ventricle induces sexual maturation in severely food-restricted female rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gruaz, N M; Lalaoui, M; Pierroz, D D; Englaro, P; Sizonenko, P C; Blum, W F; Aubert, M L

    1998-08-01

    In many species, delayed sexual maturation occurs when metabolic conditions are not satisfactory. Recently, leptin was shown to be involved in the regulation of food intake and body mass. Furthermore, leptin administration was shown to advance sexual maturation in mice and to rescue sexual function in adverse metabolic conditions. We examined plasma leptin levels in female rats during development and evaluated the role of leptin on sexual maturation in rats subjected to food restriction. In normal rats, plasma leptin levels were low at day 24 of life, then steadily increased during the juvenile period, reaching 740+/-56 pg/ml at 40 days at time of vaginal opening (VO) and further increasing by day 60 (957+/-73 pg/ml). Food restriction initiated at day 25 strongly impaired this increase, in proportion to the severity of the restriction. With a daily food intake reduced to 7-8 g/day, that permanently prevented VO, plasma leptin levels were very low at day 53 (169+/-67 pg/ml). Following switch to ad libitum feeding, plasma leptin reached high levels within 2 days (1577+/-123 pg/ml), and VO occurred 4 days later. If the severe food restriction was maintained and a central infusion of leptin (10 microg/day) was initiated, a significant decrease in body weight compared with vehicle-infused controls was observed. In these conditions, VO occurred in eight out of the nine leptin-treated rats, representing induction of the process of sexual maturation confirmed by increases in ovarian and uterine weights. This induction of sexual maturation exclusively results from a central effect of leptin because no leak of the i.c.v. administered leptin to the general circulation was observed. These data suggest that the rising plasma levels of leptin in the prepubertal period represent a signal to the brain indicating that the young animal is metabolically ready to go through the process of sexual maturation. PMID:9725715

  2. Semantic Borders and Incomplete Understanding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva-Filho, Waldomiro J; Dazzani, Maria Virgínia

    2016-03-01

    In this article, we explore a fundamental issue of Cultural Psychology, that is our "capacity to make meaning", by investigating a thesis from contemporary philosophical semantics, namely, that there is a decisive relationship between language and rationality. Many philosophers think that for a person to be described as a rational agent he must understand the semantic content and meaning of the words he uses to express his intentional mental states, e.g., his beliefs and thoughts. Our argument seeks to investigate the thesis developed by Tyler Burge, according to which our mastery or understanding of the semantic content of the terms which form our beliefs and thoughts is an "incomplete understanding". To do this, we discuss, on the one hand, the general lines of anti-individualism or semantic externalism and, on the other, criticisms of the Burgean notion of incomplete understanding - one radical and the other moderate. We defend our understanding that the content of our beliefs must be described in the light of the limits and natural contingencies of our cognitive capacities and the normative nature of our rationality. At heart, anti-individualism leads us to think about the fact that we are social creatures, living in contingent situations, with important, but limited, cognitive capacities, and that we receive the main, and most important, portion of our knowledge simply from what others tell us. Finally, we conclude that this discussion may contribute to the current debate about the notion of borders. PMID:26111737

  3. Boosting high-intensity focused ultrasound-induced anti-tumor immunity using a sparse-scan strategy that can more effectively promote dendritic cell maturation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhong Pei

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The conventional treatment protocol in high-intensity focused ultrasound (HIFU therapy utilizes a dense-scan strategy to produce closely packed thermal lesions aiming at eradicating as much tumor mass as possible. However, this strategy is not most effective in terms of inducing a systemic anti-tumor immunity so that it cannot provide efficient micro-metastatic control and long-term tumor resistance. We have previously provided evidence that HIFU may enhance systemic anti-tumor immunity by in situ activation of dendritic cells (DCs inside HIFU-treated tumor tissue. The present study was conducted to test the feasibility of a sparse-scan strategy to boost HIFU-induced anti-tumor immune response by more effectively promoting DC maturation. Methods An experimental HIFU system was set up to perform tumor ablation experiments in subcutaneous implanted MC-38 and B16 tumor with dense- or sparse-scan strategy to produce closely-packed or separated thermal lesions. DCs infiltration into HIFU-treated tumor tissues was detected by immunohistochemistry and flow cytometry. DCs maturation was evaluated by IL-12/IL-10 production and CD80/CD86 expression after co-culture with tumor cells treated with different HIFU. HIFU-induced anti-tumor immune response was evaluated by detecting growth-retarding effects on distant re-challenged tumor and tumor-specific IFN-γ-secreting cells in HIFU-treated mice. Results HIFU exposure raised temperature up to 80 degrees centigrade at beam focus within 4 s in experimental tumors and led to formation of a well-defined thermal lesion. The infiltrated DCs were recruited to the periphery of lesion, where the peak temperature was only 55 degrees centigrade during HIFU exposure. Tumor cells heated to 55 degrees centigrade in 4-s HIFU exposure were more effective to stimulate co-cultured DCs to mature. Sparse-scan HIFU, which can reserve 55 degrees-heated tumor cells surrounding the separated lesions, elicited an enhanced anti-tumor immune response than dense-scan HIFU, while their suppressive effects on the treated primary tumor were maintained at the same level. Flow cytometry analysis showed that sparse-scan HIFU was more effective than dense-scan HIFU in enhancing DC infiltration into tumor tissues and promoting their maturation in situ. Conclusion Optimizing scan strategy is a feasible way to boost HIFU-induced anti-tumor immunity by more effectively promoting DC maturation.

  4. Maturation induced internalization of beta 1-integrin by Xenopus oocytes and formation of the maternal integrin pool.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Müller, A H; Gawantka, V; Ding, X; Hausen, P

    1993-07-01

    A pool of beta 1-integrin, ready to be inserted into the cleavage membranes, is present in the cytoplasm of the Xenopus egg, while its plasma membrane is devoid of this membrane protein (Gawantka et al., 1992). The underlying mechanisms that lead to this specific pattern of beta 1-integrin distribution in the egg have been investigated. beta 1-Integrin is present on the oocyte membrane throughout oogenesis. During maturation the oocyte membrane is cleared of beta 1-integrin via internalization of the protein by the oocyte. Synthesis of beta 1-integrin precursor is stimulated moderately in the maturing oocyte. At the same time processing of the precursor into the mature form of beta 1-integrin and its complexing with a putative alpha-chain is greatly accelerated. This way a maternal integrin pool accumulates in the mature oocyte. It is localized in conspicuous yolk free patches which contain large amounts of endoplasmic reticulum, Golgi complexes and smooth vesicles. We suggest that membrane vesicles harbouring the beta 1-integrin are generated in these cytoplasmic regions and that this store of vesicles provides the material source for the rapid membrane formation during cleavage. PMID:7690240

  5. Variations in the gene expression of zona pellucida proteins, zpb and zpc, in female European eel (Anguilla anguilla) during induced sexual maturation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazzeo, I; Peñaranda, D S; Gallego, V; Hildahl, J; Nourizadeh-Lillabadi, R; Asturiano, J F; Pérez, L; Weltzien, F-A

    2012-09-01

    Vertebrate eggs are surrounded by an extracellular glycoprotein coat termed zona pellucida (ZP). Integrity of ZP is critical for a correct embryo development. Two zona pellucida protein genes (zpb and zpc) from European eel were characterized, specific qPCR assays developed and their expression in immature males and females carried out. An experimental group of silver-stage eel females was maintained at 18 °C and hormonally induced to sexual maturation by weekly injections of carp pituitary extract during 12 weeks. Changes in zpb and zpc expression during sexual maturation were studied in liver and ovary by qPCR. In liver, no changes were recorded during hormonal treatment, while in ovary expression of both genes decreased during sexual development. These results are a first step in the characterization of ZP in European eel and in the understanding of the mechanism underlying egg envelope formation. PMID:22750510

  6. Alcohol-induced decrease in muscle protein synthesis associated with increased binding of mTOR and raptor: Comparable effects in young and mature rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vary Thomas C

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Acute alcohol (EtOH intoxication decreases muscle protein synthesis via inhibition of mTOR-dependent translation initiation. However, these studies have been performed in relatively young rapidly growing rats in which muscle protein accretion is more sensitive to growth factor and nutrient stimulation. Furthermore, some in vivo-produced effects of EtOH vary in an age-dependent manner. The hypothesis tested in the present study was that young rats will show a more pronounced decrement in muscle protein synthesis than older mature rats in response to acute EtOH intoxication. Methods Male F344 rats were studied at approximately 3 (young or 12 (mature months of age. Young rats were injected intraperitoneally with 75 mmol/kg of EtOH, and mature rats injected with either 75 or 90 mmol/kg EtOH. Time-matched saline-injected control rats were included for both age groups. Gastrocnemius protein synthesis and the activity of the mTOR pathway were assessed 2.5 h after EtOH using [3H]-labeled phenylalanine and the phosphorylation of various protein factors known to regulate peptide-chain initiation. Results Blood alcohol levels (BALs were lower in mature rats compared to young rats after administration of 75 mmol/kg EtOH (154 23 vs 265 24 mg/dL. However, injection of 90 mmol/kg EtOH in mature rats produced BALs comparable to that of young rats (281 33 mg/dL. EtOH decreased muscle protein synthesis similarly in both young and high-dose EtOH-treated mature rats. The EtOH-induced changes in both groups were associated with a concomitant reduction in 4E-BP1 phosphorylation, and redistribution of eIF4E between the active eIF4EeIF4G and inactive eIF4E4EBP1 complex. Moreover, EtOH increased the binding of mTOR with raptor in a manner which appeared to be AMPK- and TSC-independent. In contrast, although muscle protein synthesis was unchanged in mature rats given low-dose EtOH, compared to control values, the phosphorylation of rpS6 and eIF4G was decreased. Conclusion These data indicate that muscle protein synthesis is equally sensitive to the inhibitory effects of EtOH in young rapidly growing rats and older mature rats which are growing more slowly, but that mature rats must be given a relatively larger dose of EtOH to achieve the same BAL. Based on the differential response in mature rats to low- and high-dose EtOH, the decreased protein synthesis was associated with a reduction in mTOR activity which was selectively mediated via a reduction in 4E-BP1 phosphorylation and an increase in mTORraptor formation.

  7. The consequences of incomplete disclosure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The disclosure requirements imposed on Canadian public companies are discussed. The basis of the capital market system in Canada is the integrity of full and true disclosure of all material facts in a prospectus and continuous disclosure of material changes and information, including financial results. Securities regulators have the right to report to the appropriate law enforcement agencies any company director who intentionally files misleading financial statements or press releases. The fundamental policy of Canadian stock exchanges is that all persons investing in securities listed on an exchange have equal access to information that may affect their investment decisions. Canadian stock exchanges have developed by-laws, rules and regulations relating to listed companies disclosure obligations, breach of which may lead to suspension of trading, delisting of the securities of the offending issuer, and substantial fines. Details of civil and criminal liability, current and proposed, for incomplete or inaccurate disclosure under Canadian securities legislation are explained. 59 refs

  8. An Incomplete Definition of Reality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Boris DeWiel

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available A reality may be defined incompletely as a perpetuating pattern of relations. This definition denies the name of reality to an utter and totalistic patternlessness, like a primal patternless stuff, because a patternless all-ness would be indistinguishable from a patternless nothingness. If reality began from a chaos or patternless stuff, it became a reality only when it became patterned. If there are orders of reality with perpetuating relations between them, as in Cartesian interactive substance dualism, the definition allows us to say that these orders belong to a common reality by virtue of those relations. However, the definition is silent on the question of whether reality is ultimately pluralistic. Some suggestions are made about the possibility of stuffless patterns, including those of the physical world, but the definition is not dependent on the possibility of stufflessness.

  9. The incorporation of myo-inositol into phosphatidylinositol derivatives is stimulated during hormone-induced meiotic maturation of amphibian oocytes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The incorporation of myo-[3H]inositol into phosphatidylinositol and its phosphorylated derivatives was studied by microinjection of the radioactive precursor into Xenopus laevis oocytes. Induction of meiotic maturation of the oocytes by treatment with either progesterone one or insulin resulted in a significant increase in the incorporation of myo-[3H]inositol into the phospholipid fraction. This increase occurred 3-6 h after hormonal treatment, a time coincident with the start of the breakdown of the nuclear envelope, and requires protein synthesis. The effect of progesterone and insulin contrasts with the effect of acetylcholine, which acts through a muscarinic receptor causing the activation of phospholipase C, since the latter effector causes an increase in myo-[3H]inositol incorporation, which is more rapid and does not require protein synthesis. These results suggest that the meiotic maturation process is connected with changes in inositol metabolism in the amphibian oocyte

  10. X-ray induced dominant lethal mutations in mature and immature oocytes of guinea-pigs and golden hamsters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The induction of dominant lethal mutations by doses of 100-400 rad X-rays in oocytes of the guinea-pig and golden hamster was studied using criteria of embryonic mortality. For both species higher yields were obtained from mature than from immature oocytes. Data on fertility indicated that in the golden hamster immature oocytes were more sensitive to killing by X-rays than mature oocytes but that the converse was true in the guinea-pig. The dose-response relationship for mutation to dominant lethals in pre-ovulatory oocytes of guinea-pigs and golden hamsters was linear, both when based on pre- and post-implantation loss only. The rate per unit dose was higher for the golden hamster, and the old golden hamsters were possibly slightly more sensitive than young ones

  11. Short-term environmental enrichment exposure induces proliferation and maturation of doublecortin-positive cells in the prefrontal cortex

    OpenAIRE

    Fan, Chunling; Zhang, Mengqi; Shang, Lei; Cynthia, Ngobe Akume; Li, Zhi; Yang, Zhenyu; Chen, Dan; Huang, Jufang; Xiong, Kun

    2014-01-01

    Previous studies have demonstrated that doublecortin-positive immature neurons exist predominantly in the superficial layer of the cerebral cortex of adult mammals such as guinea pigs, and these neurons exhibit very weak properties of self-proliferation during adulthood under physiological conditions. To verify whether environmental enrichment has an impact on the proliferation and maturation of these immature neurons in the prefrontal cortex of adult guinea pigs, healthy adult guinea pigs we...

  12. Cooperative transcription activation by Nurr1 and Pitx3 induces embryonic stem cell maturation to the midbrain dopamine neuron phenotype

    OpenAIRE

    Martinat, Cecile; Bacci, Jean-Jacques; Leete, Thomas; Kim, Jongpil; Vanti, William B.; Newman, Amy H.; Cha, Joo H.; Gether, Ulrik; Wang, Honggang; Abeliovich, Asa

    2006-01-01

    Midbrain dopamine (DA) neurons play a central role in the regulation of voluntary movement, and their degeneration is associated with Parkinson’s disease. Cell replacement therapies, and in particular embryonic stem (ES) cell-derived DA neurons, offer a potential therapeutic venue for Parkinson’s disease. We sought to identify genes that can potentiate maturation of ES cell cultures to the midbrain DA neuron phenotype. A number of transcription factors have been implicated in the development ...

  13. Nonspecific activation of murine lymphocytes. IV. Proliferation of a distinct, late maturing lymphocyte subpopulation induced by 2-mercaptoethanol

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The lymphocyte subpopulations that are activated by 2-ME, LPS, poly IC, and PPD were studied in terms of their maturational characteristics. Attempts to stimulate hepatic and splenic lymphoid cells from mice of different ages with these mitogens demonstrated a well ordered sequence for the emergency of mitogen responsiveness in C3H mice: reactivity to LPS and Poly IC was observed early in maturation and was followed by that to PPD, and finally by the development of responsiveness to 2-ME. The same sequence appeared when the mitogen responsiveness of lethally irradiated, fetal liver-reconstituted syngeneic adult recipients was examined. The mitogenic action of 2-ME was dissociated from its ability to enhance lymphocyte reactivity to other mitogens in mice too young to respond to 2-ME as a mitogen. Experiments in which additivity of responses was assayed by adding mitogens to culture singly or conjointly indicated that LPS and Poly IC activate nearly identical B lymphocyte subpopulations, whereas PPD stimulates a subset of cells distinct from that which is responsive to the former two mitogens. The mitogen responsiveness of CBA/N mice, relative to normal CBA/WEHI mice, was shown to decrease as a function of the maturity of the subpopulation of lymphocytes activated. The CBA/N mouse was shown to be unresponsive to stimulation by 2-ME

  14. Mutants at Ser277 of Xenopus cdc2 protein kinase induce oocyte maturation in the absence of the positive regulatory phosphorylation site Thr161.

    OpenAIRE

    Pickham, K M; Donoghue, D. J.

    1994-01-01

    The cdc2 protein kinase is an important regulatory protein for both meiosis and mitosis. Previously, we demonstrated that simultaneous mutation of Thr14-->Ala14 and Tyr15-->Phe15 in the Xenopus cdc2 protein results in an activated cdc2 mutant that induces maturation in resting oocytes. In addition, we confirmed the importance of the positive regulatory phosphorylation site, Thr161, by demonstrating that cdc2 mutants containing additional mutations of Thr161-->Ala161 or Glu161 are inactive in ...

  15. IL-2 gene inducibility in T cells before T cell receptor expression. Changes in signaling pathways and gene expression requirements during intrathymic maturation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rothenberg, E V; Diamond, R A; Pepper, K A; Yang, J A

    1990-03-01

    The ability to express the growth hormone IL-2 upon stimulation gives T lymphocytes one of their major effector functions in the immune system. IL-2 is apparently synthesized only by T cells, and only by a subset of T cells which constitutes a "helper" class. It remains unknown how and when the IL-2-producing lineage becomes distinct from other functional effector lineages. We have therefore examined immature T cell precursors to determine when IL-2 inducibility is acquired in relation to other maturation events, such as expression of an Ag-binding TCR, which is suspected to play an influential role in the determination of subclass commitment. In mature T cells, IL-2 is inducible via agonists of the phosphoinositide pathway, a network of signaling mediators shared by a wide variety of metazoan cell types. The universality of this activation pathway makes it seem less likely, a priori, to be a target of developmental change than the intrinsic susceptibility to induction of the IL-2 locus. However, our results presented here refute this expectation. In this report, we show that both TCR+ cells and pre-T cells too immature to express TCR can be induced to express IL-2 at high levels. The induction requirements for IL-2 expression, however, are different in TCR- and TCR+ cells. Even by using Ca2+ ionophore and phorbol ester to bypass the requirement for the TCR in cell activation, the TCR- cells also require the presence of the polypeptide hormone IL-1. By contrast, TCR+ mature cells not only can express IL-2 without IL-1, but also show no response to IL-1 when Ca2+ ionophore and phorbol ester are present. IL-1-dependent IL-2 producers appear in the thymus of repopulating radiation chimeras before "mature" (TCR+) T cells, whereas IL-1-independent IL-2 production is found only afterward. Thus, IL-2 inducibility per se apparently precedes TCR expression and all TCR-associated fate determination events. However, developmental alteration of signal transduction pathways may play a vital regulatory role in the later allocation of particular functional responses to appropriate lineages of T cells. PMID:2106551

  16. Seasonal changes in sexual maturity and fecundity, and HCG-induced breeding of the catfish, Heterobranchus longifilis val. (claridae), reared in Ebrie Lagoon (Ivory Coast)

    OpenAIRE

    Legendre, Marc

    1986-01-01

    Oocyte maturation and ovulation were induced with human chorionic gonadotropin (HCG) in the African catfish, #Heterobranchus longifilis$. Females with a mean oocyte diameter of at least 1.1 mm were used. 100 % ovulation was obtained after a single intramuscular HCG injection of between 1.0 and 2.5 I.U./g body weight ; a lower dose led to high variability in individual response. Latency time depended more on temperature than on the hormone dose. Eggs could be stripped within 14 h of a dose of ...

  17. Proteolytic cleavage of proBDNF into mature BDNF in the basolateral amygdala is necessary for defeat-induced social avoidance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dulka, Brooke N; Ford, Ellen C; Lee, Melissa A; Donnell, Nathaniel J; Goode, Travis D; Prosser, Rebecca; Cooper, Matthew A

    2016-04-01

    Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) is essential for memory processes. The present study tested whether proteolytic cleavage of proBDNF into mature BDNF (mBDNF) within the basolateral amygdala (BLA) regulates the consolidation of defeat-related memories. We found that acute social defeat increases the expression of mBDNF, but not proBDNF, in the BLA/central amygdala. We also showed that blocking plasmin in the BLA with microinjection of α2-antiplasmin immediately following social defeat decreases social avoidance 24 h later. These data suggest the proteolytic cleavage of BDNF in the BLA is necessary for defeat-induced social avoidance. PMID:26980783

  18. Item calibration in incomplete testing designs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Norman D. Verhelst

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available This study discusses the justifiability of item parameter estimation in incomplete testing designs in item response theory. Marginal maximum likelihood (MML as well as conditional maximum likelihood (CML procedures are considered in three commonly used incomplete designs: random incomplete, multistage testing and targeted testing designs. Mislevy and Sheenan (1989 have shown that in incomplete designs the justifiability of MML can be deduced from Rubin's (1976 general theory on inference in the presence of missing data. Their results are recapitulated and extended for more situations. In this study it is shown that for CML estimation the justification must be established in an alternative way, by considering the neglected part of the complete likelihood. The problems with incomplete designs are not generally recognized in practical situations. This is due to the stochastic nature of the incomplete designs which is not taken into account in standard computer algorithms. For that reason, incorrect uses of standard MML- and CML-algorithms are discussed.

  19. LA GLOBALIZACIN INCOMPLETA / INCOMPLETE GLOBALIZATION

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Alberto, Romero; Mary A, Vera-Colina.

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available El objetivo de este artculo es analizar el proceso de globalizacin, sus determinantes y los factores que limitan sus alcances. Metodolgicamente, el trabajo se basa en una exhaustiva revisin documental crtica sobre el tema, complementada con el anlisis de indicadores macroeconmicos de diferent [...] es pases. Los resultados muestran la creciente desigualdad econmica y social entre las regiones, en el marco de un proceso globalizador basado en un patrn de acumulacin capitalista, que tiende a profundizar esos desequilibrios. La globalizacin se caracteriza como incompleta, por el despliegue limitado de su potencial para lograr una distribucin ms equitativa y sustentable no solo en lo econmico, sino tambin en las esferas cientfica, tecnolgica, ambiental, poltica y social. Abstract in english The aim of this document is to analyze the process of globa-lization, its determinants and the factors limiting its scope. Methodologically, the work is based on a comprehensive critical literature review on the subject, supplemented with the analysis of macroeconomic indicators in different countri [...] es. The results show the growing economic and social inequality between regions, as part of a process of globalization based on a pattern of capitalist accumulation, which tends to exacerbate these imbalances. Glo-balization is characterized as incomplete, because of the limited deployment potential to achieve a more equitable and sustainable development, not only economically, but also in scientific, tech-nological, environmental, political and social issues.

  20. Indirect reciprocity under incomplete observation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakamura, Mitsuhiro; Masuda, Naoki

    2011-07-01

    Indirect reciprocity, in which individuals help others with a good reputation but not those with a bad reputation, is a mechanism for cooperation in social dilemma situations when individuals do not repeatedly interact with the same partners. In a relatively large society where indirect reciprocity is relevant, individuals may not know each other's reputation even indirectly. Previous studies investigated the situations where individuals playing the game have to determine the action possibly without knowing others' reputations. Nevertheless, the possibility that observers of the game, who generate the reputation of the interacting players, assign reputations without complete information about them has been neglected. Because an individual acts as an interacting player and as an observer on different occasions if indirect reciprocity is endogenously sustained in a society, the incompleteness of information may affect either role. We examine the game of indirect reciprocity when the reputations of players are not necessarily known to observers and to interacting players. We find that the trustful discriminator, which cooperates with good and unknown players and defects against bad players, realizes cooperative societies under seven social norms. Among the seven social norms, three of the four suspicious norms under which cooperation (defection) to unknown players leads to a good (bad) reputation enable cooperation down to a relatively small observation probability. In contrast, the three trustful norms under which both cooperation and defection to unknown players lead to a good reputation are relatively efficient. PMID:21829335

  1. Nano-stenciled RGD-gold patterns that inhibit focal contact maturation induce lamellipodia formation in fibroblasts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lutz, Roman; Pataky, Kristopher; Gadhari, Neha; Marelli, Mattia; Brugger, Juergen; Chiquet, Matthias

    2011-01-01

    Cultured fibroblasts adhere to extracellular substrates by means of cell-matrix adhesions that are assembled in a hierarchical way, thereby gaining in protein complexity and size. Here we asked how restricting the size of cell-matrix adhesions affects cell morphology and behavior. Using a nanostencil technique, culture substrates were patterned with gold squares of a width and spacing between 250 nm and 2 µm. The gold was functionalized with RGD peptide as ligand for cellular integrins, and mouse embryo fibroblasts were plated. Limiting the length of cell-matrix adhesions to 500 nm or less disturbed the maturation of vinculin-positive focal complexes into focal contacts and fibrillar adhesions, as indicated by poor recruitment of α5-integrin. We found that on sub-micrometer patterns, fibroblasts spread extensively, but did not polarize. Instead, they formed excessive numbers of lamellipodia and a fine actin meshwork without stress fibers. Moreover, these cells showed aberrant fibronectin fibrillogenesis, and their speed of directed migration was reduced significantly compared to fibroblasts on 2 µm square patterns. Interference with RhoA/ROCK signaling eliminated the pattern-dependent differences in cell morphology. Our results indicate that manipulating the maturation of cell-matrix adhesions by nanopatterned surfaces allows to influence morphology, actin dynamics, migration and ECM assembly of adhering fibroblasts. PMID:21980465

  2. Transferrin receptor number, synthesis, and endocytosis during erythropoietin-induced maturation of Friend virus-infected erythroid cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Erythropoietin (EP) responsive Friend virus-infected erythroid cells had 200,000 steady-state binding sites for transferrin at 370C when isolated from the spleens of Friend virus-infected mice. Upon culture of these cells with EP, the synthesis of transferrin receptors increased 4- to 7-fold and the number of transferrin-binding sites per cell doubled after 24 h. However, the rate of uptake of 59Fe from transferrin remained constant at approximately 35,000 atoms of 59Fe per minute per cell during this period in culture. The amount of 125I-transferrin internalized during the steady-state binding did not change during this culture period while the transferrin bound to the surface increased 3-fold. At all stages of erythroid maturation, the maximum rate of endocytosis was determined to be 18,000 molecules of transferrin per minute per cell, and the interval that 125I-transferrin remains in the interior of the cell was calculated to be 6.9 min. After 48 h of culture with EP, the number of steady-state transferrin-binding sites was reduced in part due to the sequestration of surface receptors within the cell. The uptake of iron from transferrin was limited by the level of endocytosis of transferrin during the initial phase of culture and the number of transferrin receptors at the cell surface during the latter stages of erythroid maturation of these cells

  3. Incomplete linear tibial fractures in two horses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Incomplete linear tibial fractures were identified in two horses with the aid of scintigraphy. Both horses were treated successfully by strict stall confinement, and both returned to normal athletic activity. Scintigraphy can be used to facilitate the generally difficult diagnosis of incomplete tibial fractures

  4. Beyond maturity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Nuclear Power Plant Simulator Industry has undergone to decades of evolution in experience, technology and business practices. Link-Miles Simulation Corporation (LMSC) has been contracted to build 68 Full Scope Nuclear Simulators during the 1970's and 1980's. Traditional approaches to design, development and testing have been used to satisfy specifications for initial customer requirements. However, the Industry has matured. All U.S. Nuclear Utilities own, or have under contract, at least one simulator. Other industrial nations have centralized training facilities to satisfy the simulator training needs. The customer of the future is knowledgeable and experienced in the development and service of nuclear simulators. The role of the simulator vendor is changing in order to alter the traditional approach for development. Covenants between the vendors and their customers solidify new complementary roles. This paper presents examples of current simulator project development with recommendations for future endeavors

  5. PREDNISOLONE INDUCED DIABETES MELLITUS, HYPERTENSION AND MATURE CATARACT: SERIOUS ADVERSE EVENT AS A CONSEQUENCE OF IMPROPER SELF MEDICATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dr Rajesh Ashok Kamtane

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available The main objective of this article is to enlighten the serious consequence of incorrect self medication. Prednisolone is a corticosteroid drug useful for the treatment of a wide range of inflammatory and auto-immune conditions. Here, we report a case of 34 years old male patient who presented with complaints of non healing ulcer and diminution of vision in both eyes. On work up, he was found to have denovo diabetes mellitus, hypertension and development of mature cataract in both eyes as a consequence of prolonged use of prednisolone. After admission, his blood sugar level and bloog pressure was brought under control, predisolone was withdrawn gradually with tapering dose and then surgery for cataract was performed. There were no other systemic or ophthalmic diseases revealed by the patient. Hence, awareness regarding these adverse drug reactions with steroids and proper patient education on complications and side effects of such medications can minimize complications and help in better patient management.

  6. MicroRNA Induced Cardiac Reprogramming In Vivo: Evidence for Mature Cardiac Myocytes and Improved Cardiac Function

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jayawardena, Tilanthi M.; Finch, Elizabeth A.; Zhang, Lunan; Zhang, Hengtao; Hodgkinson, Conrad P.; Pratt, Richard E.; Rosenberg, Paul B.; Mirotsou, Maria; Dzau, Victor J.

    2014-01-01

    Rationale A major goal for the treatment of heart tissue damaged by cardiac injury is to develop strategies for restoring healthy heart muscle through the regeneration and repair of damaged myocardium. We recently demonstrated that administration of a specific combination of micro-RNAs (miR combo) into the infarcted myocardium leads to direct in vivo reprogramming of non-cardiac myocytes to cardiac myocytes. However, the biologic and functional consequences of such reprogramming are not yet known. Objective The aim of this study was to determine whether non-cardiac myocytes directly reprogrammed using miRNAs in vivo develop into mature functional cardiac myocytes in situ, and whether reprogramming leads to improvement of cardiac function. Methods and Results We subjected FSP1-Cre mice/tdTomato mice to cardiac injury by permanent ligation of the left anterior descending coronary artery (LAD) and injected lentiviruses encoding miR combo or a control nontargeting miRNA. miR combo significantly increased the number of reprogramming events in vivo. Five-to-six weeks following injury, morphological and physiological properties of tdTomato− and tdTomato+ cardiac myocyte-like cells were analyzed ex vivo. tdTomato+ cells expressed cardiac myocyte markers, sarcomeric organization, excitation-contraction coupling, and action potentials characteristic of mature ventricular cardiac myocytes (tdTomato− cells). Reprogramming was associated with improvement of cardiac function, as analyzed by serial echocardiography. There was a time delayed and progressive improvement in fractional shortening and other measures of ventricular function, indicating that miR combo promotes functional recovery of damaged myocardium. Conclusions The findings from this study further validate the potential utility of miRNA-mediated reprogramming as a therapeutic approach to promote cardiac regeneration following myocardial injury. PMID:25351576

  7. Quantitative trait loci associated with tipburn, heat stress-induced physiological disorders, and maturity traits in crisphead lettuce.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jenni, Sylvie; Truco, Maria José; Michelmore, Richard W

    2013-09-28

    Crisphead lettuce (Lactuca sativa L.) crops exhibit several economically important, physiological disorders when grown in high temperature conditions. These include tipburn, rib discoloration, premature bolting, ribbiness, and internal rib cracking. We evaluated seven physiological disorders and three agronomic traits segregating in a recombinant inbred line (RIL) population consisting of 152 F7 RILs derived from an intra-specific cross between two crisphead cultivars, L. sativa cv. Emperor x L. sativa cv. El Dorado; evaluations were carried out at each of two parental maturities in one planting and at one intermediate maturity in a second planting in each of 2 years for a total of six evaluations. A genetic map was developed using 449 polymorphic SNP markers; it comprises 807 cM in 20 linkage groups that covered 51 % of the nine lettuce chromosomes. Composite interval mapping revealed a total of 36 significant QTLs for eight out of the ten traits evaluated. Significant QTLs were distributed in 11 linkage groups on seven of the chromosomes and accounted for up to 83 % of the phenotypic variation observed. The three largest QTLs for rib discoloration, which accounted individually for 7-21 % of the variation, were clustered with stem length, two with ribbiness and one with head firmness. Three major clusters of QTLs revealed pleiotropic effects or tight linkage between tipburn incidence and severity, head type, stem length, head firmness and ribbiness. One QTL, qTPB5.2, was detected in multiple trials and described 38-70 % of the variation in tipburn incidence. qTPB5.2 is, therefore, a useful candidate gene for breeding for tipburn resistance using marker-assisted selection. PMID:24078012

  8. 19 CFR 4.75 - Incomplete manifest; incomplete export declarations; bond.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 15 CFR 30.24), the port director may accept in lieu thereof an incomplete manifest (referred to as a... export declarations. Not later than the fourth business day after clearance from each port in the vessel... 19 Customs Duties 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Incomplete manifest; incomplete...

  9. Influence of water temperature on induced reproduction by hypophysation, sex steroids concentrations and final oocyte maturation of the "curimatã-pacu" Prochilodus argenteus (Pisces: Prochilodontidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arantes, Fábio P; Santos, Hélio B; Rizzo, Elizete; Sato, Yoshimi; Bazzoli, Nilo

    2011-07-01

    Most fishes with commercial importance from the São Francisco basin are migratory and do not complete the reproductive cycle in lentic environments, such as hydroelectric plant reservoirs, hence natural stocks are declining and there is an urgent need to reduce the pressure of fishing on those wild populations. Therefore, studies on reproductive biology and its relationship with endocrine and environmental factors are key to improving the cultivation techniques of Brazilian fish species. This study examined the influence of water temperature on sex steroid concentrations (testosterone, 17β-estradiol and 17α-hydroxyprogesterone), spawning efficiency, fecundity, fertilisation rate, larval abnormality rates and involvement of the cytoskeleton during the final oocyte maturation of Prochilodus argenteus under experimental conditions. The results of our study showed that in captivity, sex steroid plasma concentrations and spawning performance of P. argenteus were clearly different for fish kept in water with different temperature regimes. In lower water temperature (23°C), it was observed that: 33% of females did not ovulate, fecundity was lower and vitellogenic oocytes after the spawning induction procedure exhibited a smaller diameter. Moreover, concentrations of 17β-estradiol and 17α-hydroxyprogesterone were lower and there was a delay in the final oocyte maturation and, consequently, ovulation and spawning. Our experiments showed direct influence of water temperature in the process of induced spawning of P. argenteus. Changes in water temperature also suggest the tubulin involvement in the nuclear dislocation process and the possible action of actin filaments in the release of polar bodies during final oocyte maturation of P. argenteus. PMID:21501616

  10. Inhibition of PGE2 and LTB4 production by dendritic cells induced by Paracoccidioides brasiliensis is associated with the non maturation of these cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reginaldo Keller Fernandes

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available The fungus Paracoccidioides brasiliensis is the etiological agent of paracoccidioidomycosis, a systemic mycosis endemic in Latin America. Dendritic cells (DCs play a crucial role in the detection of pathogens, triggering an initial response from the host as well as the instruction of the adaptive immune response. Mediators released by DCs, by an autocrine way, modulate their functions. Among these, we highlight the prostaglandins and leukotrienes. We therefore assessed whether human DCs produce PGE2 and LTB4 in response to fungus, the participation of recognition receptors of molecular patterns (PRRs in this production, as well as the modulating role of these eicosanoids on phenotypic maturation of these cells. Human immature DCs (CD14-/ CD1ahigh/CD83low derived from the differentiation of monocytes cultured with GM-CSF and IL-4 (7 days released substantial concentrations of PGE2 and LTB4 which increased significantly in the case of PGE2, with incubation with LPS for 1h, 2h, 4h, 8h, 12h, 18h, 24h or 48h. However, the levels of PGE2 and LTB4 were significantly inhibited after challenge with two different strains of the fungus. Assays using monoclonal antibodies to block PRRS showed the involvement of mannose receptor in PGE2 inhibition by the fungus. Additionally, phenotyping assays showed that after challenge with the fungus, DCs did not change their phenotype of immature cells to mature ones. Accordingly, we detected a clear association between inhibition of the production of PGE2 and LTB4 fungus and inability to induce maturation of DCs. Assays using exogenous PGE2 and LTB4 confirmed this association.

  11. Postnatal brain maturation damage induced by prenatal irradiation: modes of effect manifestation and dose-response relations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The present paper reports murine studies and refers in particular to irradiation-induced disturbances in tigroid formation, myelination and branching of cortical neurons with special regard to the reaction chains occurring between effect induction and final damage manifestations. (author)

  12. ADAR2 induces reproducible changes in sequence and abundance of mature microRNAs in the mouse brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vesely, Cornelia; Tauber, Stefanie; Sedlazeck, Fritz J; Tajaddod, Mansoureh; von Haeseler, Arndt; Jantsch, Michael F

    2014-10-29

    Adenosine deaminases that act on RNA (ADARs) deaminate adenosines to inosines in double-stranded RNAs including miRNA precursors. A to I editing is widespread and required for normal life. By comparing deep sequencing data of brain miRNAs from wild-type and ADAR2 deficient mouse strains, we detect editing sites and altered miRNA processing at high sensitivity. We detect 48 novel editing events in miRNAs. Some editing events reach frequencies of up to 80%. About half of all editing events depend on ADAR2 while some miRNAs are preferentially edited by ADAR1. Sixty-four percent of all editing events are located within the seed region of mature miRNAs. For the highly edited miR-3099, we experimentally prove retargeting of the edited miRNA to novel 3' UTRs. We show further that an abundant editing event in miR-497 promotes processing by Drosha of the corresponding pri-miRNA. We also detect reproducible changes in the abundance of specific miRNAs in ADAR2-deficient mice that occur independent of adjacent A to I editing events. This indicates that ADAR2 binding but not editing of miRNA precursors may influence their processing. Correlating with changes in miRNA abundance we find misregulation of putative targets of these miRNAs in the presence or absence of ADAR2. PMID:25260591

  13. Major differences in the frequencies of radiation-induced malformations and eye color mutants in mature oocytes of the wasp Dahlbominus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A comparison of the effects of ? radiation over the range of exposures from 15.5 to 125 R on the production of malformations and eye color mutations in mature oocytes of Dahlbominus revealed several major differences in the two sorts of response. At all exposures, total malformations of all sorts appeared in larger numbers than eye color mutants, and the doubling dose for malformations was at least six times higher. It was concluded that the majority of the induced malformations in Dahlbominus may arise by a process other than point mutation, e.g., through nondisjunction, and that the genetic hazard from low doses for this type of injury will not be severe. (U.S.)

  14. Lentivirus-induced interferon inhibits maturation and proliferation of monocytes and restricts the replication of caprine arthritis-encephalitis virus.

    OpenAIRE

    Zink, M. C.; Narayan, O.

    1989-01-01

    In this study, we investigated the effect of a lentivirus-induced interferon (LV-IFN) on the interaction of caprine arthritis-encephalitis virus and its host cell, the monocyte-macrophage. LV-IFN was produced in culture supernatant 48 h after adding fresh goat lymphocytes to caprine arthritis-encephalitis virus-infected goat macrophages. The culture supernatant contained IFN activity at a titer of 1:360 as assayed by inhibition of vesicular stomatitis virus-induced lysis of fibroblasts. LV-IF...

  15. Mycobacterium tuberculosis PE25/PPE41 protein complex induces activation and maturation of dendritic cells and drives Th2-biased immune responses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Wei; Bao, Yige; Chen, Xuerong; Burton, Jeremy; Gong, Xueli; Gu, Dongqing; Mi, Youjun; Bao, Lang

    2016-04-01

    Mycobacterium tuberculosis evades innate host immune responses by parasitizing macrophages and causes significant morbidity and mortality around the world. A mycobacterial antigen that can activate dendritic cells (DCs) and elicit effective host innate immune responses will be vital to the development of an effective TB vaccine. The M. tuberculosis genes PE25/PPE41 encode proteins which have been associated with evasion of the host immune response. We constructed a PE25/PPE41 complex gene via splicing by overlapping extension and expressed it successfully in E. coli. We investigated whether this protein complex could interact with DCs to induce effective host immune responses. The PE25/PPE41 protein complex induced maturation of isolated mouse DCs in vitro, increasing expression of cell surface markers (CD80, CD86 and MHC-II), thereby promoting Th2 polarization via secretion of pro-inflammatory cytokines IL-4 and IL-10. In addition, PE25/PPE41 protein complex-activated DCs induced proliferation of mouse CD4(+) and CD8(+) T cells, and a strong humoral response in immunized mice. The sera of five TB patients were also highly reactive to this antigen. These findings suggest that interaction of the PE25/PPE41 protein complex with DCs may be of great immunological significance. PMID:26318856

  16. Detection of radiation-induced hydrocarbons in Camembert irradiated before and after the maturing process-comparison of florisil column chromatography and on-line coupled liquid chromatography-gas chromatography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The influence of the maturing process on the detection of radiation-induced volatile hydrocarbons in the fat of Camembert has been investigated. Two analytical methods for separation of the hydrocarbon fraction from the lipid were applied: Florisil column chromatography with subsequent gas chromatographic-mass spectrometric (GC-MS) determination as well as on-line coupled liquid chromatography-GC-MS. The maturing process had no influence on the detection of radiation-induced volatiles. Comparable results were achieved with both analytical methods. However, preference is given to the more effective on-line coupled LC-GC method

  17. Angular momentum transfer in incomplete fusion

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    B S Tomar; K Surendra Babu; K Sudarshan; R Tripathi; A Goswami

    2005-02-01

    Isomeric cross-section ratios of evaporation residues formed in 12C+93Nb and 16O + 89Y reactions were measured by recoil catcher technique followed by off-line -ray spectrometry in the beam energy range of 55.7-77.5 MeV for 12C and 68-81 MeV for 16O. The isomeric cross-section ratios were resolved into that for complete and incomplete fusion reactions. The angular momentum of the intermediate nucleus formed in incomplete fusion was deduced from the isomeric cross-section ratio by considering the statistical de-excitation of the incompletely fused composite nucleus. The data show that incomplete fusion is associated with angular momenta slightly smaller than critical angular momentum for complete fusion, indicating the deeper interpenetration of projectile and target nuclei than that in peripheral collisions.

  18. Molecular and functional characterization of catfish (Heteropneustes fossilis) aquaporin-1b: changes in expression during ovarian development and hormone-induced follicular maturation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaube, Radha; Chauvigné, François; Tingaud-Sequeira, Angèle; Joy, Keerikkattil P; Acharjee, Arup; Singh, Varsha; Cerdà, Joan

    2011-01-01

    The oocytes of the freshwater catfish Heteropneustes fossilis hydrate during hormone-induced meiotic maturation. To investigate if this process may be mediated by aquaporins (AQPs), as it occurs in marine fish producing highly hydrated eggs, the cloning of ovarian AQPs in catfish was carried out. Using degenerate primers for conserved domains of the major intrinsic protein (MIP) family, and 5' and 3'end amplification procedures, a full-length cDNA encoding for an AQP1-like protein was isolated. The predicted protein showed the typical six transmembrane domains and two Asn-Pro-Ala (NPA) motifs conserved among the members of the AQP superfamily. Phylogenetic analysis indicated that the catfish AQP clustered with the teleost-specific aquaporin-1b subfamily, and accordingly it was termed HfAqp1b. Heterologous expression in Xenopus laevis oocytes indicated that HfAqp1b encoded for a functional AQP, water permeability being enhanced by cAMP. Site-directed mutagenesis revealed that cAMP induced the translocation of HfAqp1b into the oocyte plasma membrane most likely through the phosphorylation of HfAqp1b Ser(227). In adult catfish, hfaqp1b transcripts were detected exclusively in ovary and brain and showed significant seasonal variations; in the ovary, hfaqp1b was maximally expressed during the pre-spawning period, whereas in the brain the highest expression was detected during spawning. In vitro stimulation of isolated catfish ovarian follicles with vasotocin (VT) or human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG), which induce oocyte maturation and hydration, elevated the hfaqp1b transcript levels after 6 or 16 h of incubation, respectively. These results suggest that HfAqp1b may play a role during VT- and hCG-induced oocyte hydration in catfish, and that VT may regulate HfAqp1b at the transcriptional and post-translational level in a manner similar to the vasopressin-dependent mammalian AQP2. PMID:20937280

  19. Incomplete Derivative Markets and Portfolio Insurance

    OpenAIRE

    Charalambos Aliprantis; Brown, Donald J; J. Werner

    1997-01-01

    We present necessary and sufficient conditions on the asset span of incomplete derivative markets for insuring marketed portfolios. If the asset span is finite dimensional there exists a polynomial-time algorithm for deciding if every marketed portfolio is insurable, moreover this algorithm computes the minimum cost insurance portfolio. In addition, we extend the Cox-Leland characterization of optimal portfolio insurance in complete derivative markets to asset spans of incomplete derivative m...

  20. Quantum Bertrand duopoly of incomplete information

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We study Bertrand's duopoly of incomplete information. It is found that the effect of quantum entanglement on the outcome of the game is dramatically changed by the uncertainty of information. In contrast with the case of complete information where the outcome increases with entanglement, when information is incomplete the outcome is maximized at some finite entanglement. As a consequence, information and entanglement are both crucial factors that determine the properties of a quantum oligopoly

  1. Quantum Bertrand duopoly of incomplete information

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Qin Gan [Hefei National Laboratory for Physical Science at Microscale and Department of Modern Physics, University of Science and Technology of China, Hefei, 230026 (China); Chen Xi [Hefei National Laboratory for Physical Science at Microscale and Department of Modern Physics, University of Science and Technology of China, Hefei, 230026 (China); Sun Min [Hefei National Laboratory for Physical Science at Microscale and Department of Modern Physics, University of Science and Technology of China, Hefei, 230026 (China); Du Jiangfeng [Hefei National Laboratory for Physical Science at Microscale and Department of Modern Physics, University of Science and Technology of China, Hefei, 230026 (China)

    2005-05-13

    We study Bertrand's duopoly of incomplete information. It is found that the effect of quantum entanglement on the outcome of the game is dramatically changed by the uncertainty of information. In contrast with the case of complete information where the outcome increases with entanglement, when information is incomplete the outcome is maximized at some finite entanglement. As a consequence, information and entanglement are both crucial factors that determine the properties of a quantum oligopoly.

  2. Quantum Bertrand duopoly of incomplete information

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qin, Gan; Chen, Xi; Sun, Min; Du, Jiangfeng

    2005-05-01

    We study Bertrand's duopoly of incomplete information. It is found that the effect of quantum entanglement on the outcome of the game is dramatically changed by the uncertainty of information. In contrast with the case of complete information where the outcome increases with entanglement, when information is incomplete the outcome is maximized at some finite entanglement. As a consequence, information and entanglement are both crucial factors that determine the properties of a quantum oligopoly.

  3. Foreign market entry under incomplete contracts

    OpenAIRE

    Seidel, Tobias

    2010-01-01

    I show in this paper that incomplete contracts affect a firms decision about serving foreign customers through exports or local sales from an affiliated plant. When contracts between two agents within a firm are too costly to write, the share of multinational firms may be higher or lower compared to a world without contractual frictions. Incomplete contracts also provide a novel explanation for why horizontal multinational activity may increase when trade costs fall - a result that is at odd...

  4. Epistemological Consequences of the Incompleteness Theorems

    OpenAIRE

    Raguní, Giuseppe

    2016-01-01

    After highlighting the cases in which the semantics of a language cannot be mechanically reproduced (in which case it is called inherent), the main epistemological consequences of the first incompleteness Theorem for the two fundamental arithmetical theories are shown: the non-mechanizability for the truths of the first-order arithmetic and the peculiarities for the model of the second-order arithmetic. Finally, the common epistemological interpretation of the second incompleteness Theorem is...

  5. Incomplete Tribonacci-Lucas numbers and polynomials

    OpenAIRE

    Yilmaz, N.; Taskara, N.

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, we define Tribonacci-Lucas polynomials and present Tribonacci-Lucas numbers and polynomials as a binomial sum. Then, we introduce incomplete Tribonacci-Lucas numbers and polynomials. In addition we derive recurrence relations, some properties and generating functions of these numbers and polynomials. Also, we find the generating function of incomplete Tribonacci polynomials which is given as the open problem in [12].

  6. The dynamics of carbon stored in xylem sapwood to drought-induced hydraulic stress in mature trees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshimura, Kenichi; Saiki, Shin-Taro; Yazaki, Kenichi; Ogasa, Mayumi Y; Shirai, Makoto; Nakano, Takashi; Yoshimura, Jin; Ishida, Atsushi

    2016-01-01

    Climate-induced forest die-off is widespread in multiple biomes, strongly affecting the species composition, function and primary production in forest ecosystems. Hydraulic failure and carbon starvation in xylem sapwood are major hypotheses to explain drought-induced tree mortality. Because it is difficult to obtain enough field observations on drought-induced mortality in adult trees, the current understanding of the physiological mechanisms for tree die-offs is still controversial. However, the simultaneous examination of water and carbon uses throughout dehydration and rehydration processes in adult trees will contribute to clarify the roles of hydraulic failure and carbon starvation in tree wilting. Here we show the processes of the percent loss of hydraulic conductivity (PLC) and the content of nonstructural carbohydrates (NSCs) of distal branches in woody plants with contrasting water use strategy. Starch was converted to soluble sugar during PLC progression under drought, and the hydraulic conductivity recovered following water supply. The conversion of NSCs is strongly associated with PLC variations during dehydration and rehydration processes, indicating that stored carbon contributes to tree survival under drought; further carbon starvation can advance hydraulic failure. We predict that even slow-progressing drought degrades forest ecosystems via carbon starvation, causing more frequent catastrophic forest die-offs than the present projection. PMID:27079677

  7. The dynamics of carbon stored in xylem sapwood to drought-induced hydraulic stress in mature trees

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshimura, Kenichi; Saiki, Shin-Taro; Yazaki, Kenichi; Ogasa, Mayumi Y.; Shirai, Makoto; Nakano, Takashi; Yoshimura, Jin; Ishida, Atsushi

    2016-01-01

    Climate-induced forest die-off is widespread in multiple biomes, strongly affecting the species composition, function and primary production in forest ecosystems. Hydraulic failure and carbon starvation in xylem sapwood are major hypotheses to explain drought-induced tree mortality. Because it is difficult to obtain enough field observations on drought-induced mortality in adult trees, the current understanding of the physiological mechanisms for tree die-offs is still controversial. However, the simultaneous examination of water and carbon uses throughout dehydration and rehydration processes in adult trees will contribute to clarify the roles of hydraulic failure and carbon starvation in tree wilting. Here we show the processes of the percent loss of hydraulic conductivity (PLC) and the content of nonstructural carbohydrates (NSCs) of distal branches in woody plants with contrasting water use strategy. Starch was converted to soluble sugar during PLC progression under drought, and the hydraulic conductivity recovered following water supply. The conversion of NSCs is strongly associated with PLC variations during dehydration and rehydration processes, indicating that stored carbon contributes to tree survival under drought; further carbon starvation can advance hydraulic failure. We predict that even slow-progressing drought degrades forest ecosystems via carbon starvation, causing more frequent catastrophic forest die-offs than the present projection. PMID:27079677

  8. Multi-View Learning With Incomplete Views.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Chang; Tao, Dacheng; Xu, Chao

    2015-12-01

    One underlying assumption of the conventional multi-view learning algorithms is that all examples can be successfully observed on all the views. However, due to various failures or faults in collecting and pre-processing the data on different views, we are more likely to be faced with an incomplete-view setting, where an example could be missing its representation on one view (i.e., missing view) or could be only partially observed on that view (i.e., missing variables). Low-rank assumption used to be effective for recovering the random missing variables of features, but it is disabled by concentrated missing variables and has no effect on missing views. This paper suggests that the key to handling the incomplete-view problem is to exploit the connections between multiple views, enabling the incomplete views to be restored with the help of the complete views. We propose an effective algorithm to accomplish multi-view learning with incomplete views by assuming that different views are generated from a shared subspace. To handle the large-scale problem and obtain fast convergence, we investigate a successive over-relaxation method to solve the objective function. Convergence of the optimization technique is theoretically analyzed. The experimental results on toy data and real-world data sets suggest that studying the incomplete-view problem in multi-view learning is significant and that the proposed algorithm can effectively handle the incomplete views in different applications. PMID:26469202

  9. Malformations and maturation disturbances after prenatal irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Risk estimates for prenatally exposed humans in view to malformations and maturation disturbances are incomplete despite numerous single cases being described. In this situation support from animal data has necessarily to be taken into consideration. Outlines of recent knowledge in the field of experimental radioembryology will be given. Possibilities and limits of the transfer of animal data to man will be discussed and correlated with new medical evaluations. The discussions are focussed on developmental defects of the central nervous system. (orig.)

  10. Maturity and maturity models in lean construction

    OpenAIRE

    Claus Nesensohn; David James Bryde; Edward Ochieng; Damian Fearon

    2014-01-01

    In recent years there has been an increasing interest in maturity models in management-related disciplines; which reflects a growing recognition that becoming more mature and having a model to guide the route to maturity can help organisations in managing major transformational change. Lean Construction (LC) is an increasingly important improvement approach that organisations seek to embed. This study explores how to apply the maturity models to LC. Hence the attitudes, opinions and experienc...

  11. Sulpiride-Induced Hyperprolactinemia in Mature Female Rats: Evidence for Alterations in The Reproductive System, Pituitary and Ovarian Hormones

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mostafapour, Sara; Zare, Samad; Sadrkhanlou, Rajab Ali; Ahmadi, Abbas; Razi, Mazdak

    2014-01-01

    Background The prevalence of hyperprolactinemia following administration of conven- tional antipsychotic drugs requires further investigation. The current study is designed to evaluate the effect of sulpiride (SPD)-induced hyperprolactinemia on alterations to ovarian follicular growth, gonadotropins, and ovarian hormones and to analyze the extent of potential problems in mammary glands. Materials and Methods A total of 40 albino Wistar rats were divided into four groups: control (no treatment), control-sham (0.3 ml olive oil), low dose SPD (20 mg/kg) and high dose SPD (40 mg/kg). All compounds were intraperitoneally (IP) administered for a period of 28 days. Results After 28 days, we dissected the rats ovarian tissues, uterine horns and mammary glands which were sent for histological analyses. We counted the numbers of normal, atretic follicles and corpora lutea (CL). Serum levels of prolactin (PRL), estradiol, progesterone, follicle stimulating hormone (FSH) and luteinizing hormone (LH) were evaluated. SPD-administered animals showed sporadic follicular atresia in different sizes associated with higher numbers of CL on the ovaries. The mammary glands exhibited features of galactorrhea. There was remarkable (p<0.05) elevation in SPD-administered animals uterine horn endometrium, myometrium and perimetrium thicknesses. The serum levels of PRL and progesterone significantly (p<0.05) increased, while the serum concentration of estradiol, LH and FSH notably (p<0.05) decreased according to the SPD administered dose. No histological and biological changes occurred in control-sham animals. SPD-induced animals had unsuccessful attempts at mating and decreased pregnancy rates. Conclusion The present findings suggest that SPD-induced disturbances depend on PRL level. In addition, an increased PRL level is largely dependent on the administered doses of SPD. PMID:25083185

  12. Sulpiride-Induced Hyperprolactinemia in Mature Female Rats: Evidence for Alterations in The Reproductive System, Pituitary and Ovarian Hormones

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sara Mostafapour

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: The prevalence of hyperprolactinemia following administration of conventional antipsychotic drugs requires further investigation. The current study is designed to evaluate the effect of sulpiride (SPD-induced hyperprolactinemia on alterations to ovarian follicular growth, gonadotropins, and ovarian hormones and to analyze the extent of potential problems in mammary glands. Materials and Methods: A total of 40 albino Wistar rats were divided into four groups: control (no treatment, control-sham (0.3 ml olive oil, low dose SPD (20 mg/kg and high dose SPD (40 mg/kg. All compounds were intraperitoneally (IP administered for a period of 28 days. Results: After 28 days, we dissected the rats’ ovarian tissues, uterine horns and mammary glands which were sent for histological analyses. We counted the numbers of normal, atretic follicles and corpora lutea (CL. Serum levels of prolactin (PRL, estradiol, progesterone, follicle stimulating hormone (FSH and luteinizing hormone (LH were evaluated. SPD-administered animals showed sporadic follicular atresia in different sizes associated with higher numbers of CL on the ovaries. The mammary glands exhibited features of galactorrhea. There was remarkable (p<0.05 elevation in SPD-administered animals’ uterine horn endometrium, myometrium and perimetrium thicknesses. The serum levels of PRL and progesterone significantly (p<0.05 increased, while the serum concentration of estradiol, LH and FSH notably (p<0.05 decreased according to the SPD administered dose. No histological and biological changes occurred in control-sham animals. SPD-induced animals had unsuccessful attempts at mating and decreased pregnancy rates. Conclusion: The present findings suggest that SPD-induced disturbances depend on PRL level. In addition, an increased PRL level is largely dependent on the administered doses of SPD.

  13. Topological effects of data incompleteness of gene regulatory networks

    CERN Document Server

    Sanz, J; Borge-Holthoefer, J; Moreno, Y

    2012-01-01

    The topological analysis of biological networks has been a prolific topic in network science during the last decade. A persistent problem with this approach is the inherent uncertainty and noisy nature of the data. One of the cases in which this situation is more marked is that of transcriptional regulatory networks (TRNs) in bacteria. The datasets are incomplete because regulatory pathways associated to a relevant fraction of bacterial genes remain unknown. Furthermore, direction, strengths and signs of the links are sometimes unknown or simply overlooked. Finally, the experimental approaches to infer the regulations are highly heterogeneous, in a way that induces the appearance of systematic experimental-topological correlations. And yet, the quality of the available data increases constantly. In this work we capitalize on these advances to point out the influence of data (in)completeness and quality on some classical results on topological analysis of TRNs, specially regarding modularity at different level...

  14. Incomplete fusion in 16O+159Tb

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Vijay R.; Singh, Pushpendra P.; Shuaib, Mohd.; Yadav, Abhishek; Bala, Indu; Sharma, Manoj K.; Gupta, S.; Singh, D. P.; Kumar, R.; Muralithar, S.; Singh, R. P.; Singh, B. P.; Prasad, R.; Bhowmik, R. K.

    2016-02-01

    In heavy-ion induced reactions, incomplete fusion (ICF) has been found to be a process of greater importance and of distinct nature even at slightly above the barrier energies where complete fusion (CF) is supposed to be dominant. However, the studies are limited to a few projectile target combinations only. To confirm the distinctly different decay patterns observed in case of CF and ICF residues, and to understand the role of high ℓ-values in the onset of ICF, a particle-γ-coincidence technique has been employed to measure spin-distributions and feeding intensity profiles of CF and ICF residues populated via xn / pxn / αxn-channels in 16O+159Tb interactions at Elab ≈ 83.5 ± 1.5, 88.5 ± 1.5, 93.5 ± 1.5 and 97.6 ± 1.4 MeV. The Gamma Detector Array and the Charged Particles Detector Array have been used to detect prompt γ-rays in coincidence with charged particles (p and α). CF-α and ICF-α channels have been identified from backward (B)- and forward (F)-α-gated-γ-spectra, respectively. Reaction dependent decay patterns (thus, the feeding intensity profiles) have been observed in different α emitting channels. The CF channels are found to be widely populated and strongly fed over a broad spin range. In case of ICF-α channels, narrow range feeding was observed only for high-spin states or the low spin states were not populated. The mean ℓ-values involved in the production of ICF- αxn-channels are found to be higher than those involved in the production of CF- αxn-channels associated with fusion-evaporation reactions.

  15. Radiation combined with hyperthermia induces HSP70-dependent maturation of dendritic cells and release of pro-inflammatory cytokines by dendritic cells and macrophages

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: Hyperthermia (HT) treatment of cancer patients was revived over the last years and has been proven to be beneficiary for many cancer entities when applied temperature controlled in multimodal treatments. We examined whether a combination of ionizing irradiation (X-ray) and HT (41.5 °C; 1 h) can induce the release of heat shock protein (HSP) 70 by tumor cells and thereby lead to the activation of dendritic cells and macrophages. Material and methods: Extracellular HSP70 was detected in supernatants (SN) of treated colorectal tumor cells by ELISA. Maturation of dendritic cells (DC) after contact with the SN was measured by flow-cytometry. Phagocytosis assays were conducted to get hints about the immune stimulating potential of the tumor cells after the respective treatments. Results: An increased surface expression of HSP70 was observed after X-ray or X-ray plus HT while the amount of extracellular HSP70 was only increased when HT was given additionally. A high up-regulation of the co-stimulation molecule CD80 and the chemokine receptor CCR7 on DC was measured after contact with SN of X-ray plus HT treated cells. This was dependent on extracellular HSP70. Combined treatments further led to significantly increased phagocytosis rates of macrophages and DC and increased pro-inflammatory cytokine (IL-8 and IL-12) secretion. Conclusion: X-ray combined with HT induces HSP70 dependent activation of immune cells and might generate a tumor microenvironment beneficial for cure.

  16. Seizure induces activation of multiple subtypes of neural progenitors and growth factors in hippocampus with neuronal maturation confined to dentate gyrus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Indulekha, Chandrasekharan L.; Sanalkumar, Rajendran [Neuro Stem Cell Biology Laboratory, Department of Neurobiology, Rajiv Gandhi Center for Biotechnology, Thiruvananthapuram, Kerala 695 014 (India); Thekkuveettil, Anoopkumar [Molecular Medicine, Biomedical Technology Wing, Sree Chitra Thirunal Institute for Medical Sciences and Technology, Thiruvananthapuram, Kerala (India); James, Jackson, E-mail: jjames@rgcb.res.in [Neuro Stem Cell Biology Laboratory, Department of Neurobiology, Rajiv Gandhi Center for Biotechnology, Thiruvananthapuram, Kerala 695 014 (India)

    2010-03-19

    Adult hippocampal neurogenesis is altered in response to different physiological and pathological stimuli. GFAP{sup +ve}/nestin{sup +ve} radial glial like Type-1 progenitors are considered to be the resident stem cell population in adult hippocampus. During neurogenesis these Type-1 progenitors matures to GFAP{sup -ve}/nestin{sup +ve} Type-2 progenitors and then to Type-3 neuroblasts and finally differentiates into granule cell neurons. In our study, using pilocarpine-induced seizure model, we showed that seizure initiated activation of multiple progenitors in the entire hippocampal area such as DG, CA1 and CA3. Seizure induction resulted in activation of two subtypes of Type-1 progenitors, Type-1a (GFAP{sup +ve}/nestin{sup +ve}/BrdU{sup +ve}) and Type-1b (GFAP{sup +ve}/nestin{sup +ve}/BrdU{sup -ve}). We showed that majority of Type-1b progenitors were undergoing only a transition from a state of dormancy to activated form immediately after seizures rather than proliferating, whereas Type-1a showed maximum proliferation by 3 days post-seizure induction. Type-2 (GFAP{sup -ve}/nestin{sup +ve}/BrdU{sup +ve}) progenitors were few compared to Type-1. Type-3 (DCX{sup +ve}) progenitors showed increased expression of immature neurons only in DG region by 3 days after seizure induction indicating maturation of progenitors happens only in microenvironment of DG even though progenitors are activated in CA1 and CA3 regions of hippocampus. Also parallel increase in growth factors expression after seizure induction suggests that microenvironmental niche has a profound effect on stimulation of adult neural progenitors.

  17. Seizure induces activation of multiple subtypes of neural progenitors and growth factors in hippocampus with neuronal maturation confined to dentate gyrus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adult hippocampal neurogenesis is altered in response to different physiological and pathological stimuli. GFAP+ve/nestin+ve radial glial like Type-1 progenitors are considered to be the resident stem cell population in adult hippocampus. During neurogenesis these Type-1 progenitors matures to GFAP-ve/nestin+ve Type-2 progenitors and then to Type-3 neuroblasts and finally differentiates into granule cell neurons. In our study, using pilocarpine-induced seizure model, we showed that seizure initiated activation of multiple progenitors in the entire hippocampal area such as DG, CA1 and CA3. Seizure induction resulted in activation of two subtypes of Type-1 progenitors, Type-1a (GFAP+ve/nestin+ve/BrdU+ve) and Type-1b (GFAP+ve/nestin+ve/BrdU-ve). We showed that majority of Type-1b progenitors were undergoing only a transition from a state of dormancy to activated form immediately after seizures rather than proliferating, whereas Type-1a showed maximum proliferation by 3 days post-seizure induction. Type-2 (GFAP-ve/nestin+ve/BrdU+ve) progenitors were few compared to Type-1. Type-3 (DCX+ve) progenitors showed increased expression of immature neurons only in DG region by 3 days after seizure induction indicating maturation of progenitors happens only in microenvironment of DG even though progenitors are activated in CA1 and CA3 regions of hippocampus. Also parallel increase in growth factors expression after seizure induction suggests that microenvironmental niche has a profound effect on stimulation of adult neural progenitors.

  18. Addition of interferon-alpha to a standard maturation cocktail induces CD38 up-regulation and increases dendritic cell function

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Trepiakas, Redas; Pedersen, Anders Elm; Met, Ozcan; Svane, Inge Marie

    2009-01-01

    Monocyte-derived dendritic cells (DCs) are used as adjuvant cells in cancer immunotherapy and have shown promising results. In order to obtain full functional capacity, these DCs need to be maturated, and the current "gold standard" for this process is maturation with TNF-alpha, IL-1beta, IL-6 and...... PGE(2) used for generating standard DCs (sDC). Several studies indicate that IFN-alpha might also be important for DC differentiation and maturation. In this study, we tested the effect of IFN-alpha alone or as addition to the gold standard sDC cocktail. We observed that maturation by IFN...

  19. Matrix-M™ adjuvant induces local recruitment, activation and maturation of central immune cells in absence of antigen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reimer, Jenny M; Karlsson, Karin H; Lövgren-Bengtsson, Karin; Magnusson, Sofia E; Fuentes, Alexis; Stertman, Linda

    2012-01-01

    Saponin-based adjuvants are widely used to enhance humoral and cellular immune responses towards vaccine antigens, although it is not yet completely known how they mediate their stimulatory effects. The aim of this study was to elucidate the mechanism of action of adjuvant Matrix-M™ without antigen and Alum was used as reference adjuvant. Adjuvant Matrix-M™ is comprised of 40 nm nanoparticles composed of Quillaja saponins, cholesterol and phospholipid. BALB/c mice were subcutaneously injected once with, 3, 12 or 30 µg of Matrix-M™, resulting in recruitment of leukocytes to draining lymph nodes (dLNs) and spleen 48 h post treatment. Flow cytometry analysis identified CD11b(+) Gr-1(high) granulocytes as the cell population increasing most in dLNs and spleen. Additionally, dendritic cells, F4/80(int) cells, T-, B- and NK-cells were recruited to dLNs and in spleen the number of F4/80(int) cells, and to some extent, B cells and dendritic cells, increased. Elevated levels of early activation marker CD69 were detected on T-, B- and NK-cells, CD11b(+) Gr-1(high) cells, F4/80(int) cells and dendritic cells in dLNs. In spleen CD69 was mainly up-regulated on NK cells. B cells and dendritic cells in dLNs and spleen showed an increased expression of the co-stimulatory molecule CD86 and dendritic cells in dLNs expressed elevated levels of MHC class II. The high-dose (30 µg) of Matrix-M™ induced detectable serum levels of IL-6 and MIP-1β 4 h post administration, most likely representing spillover of locally produced cytokines. A lesser increase of IL-6 in serum after administration of 12 µg Matrix-M™ was also observed. In conclusion, early immunostimulatory properties were demonstrated by Matrix-M™ alone, as therapeutic doses resulted in a local transient immune response with recruitment and activation of central immune cells to dLNs. These effects may play a role in enhancing uptake and presentation of vaccine antigens to elicit a competent immune response. PMID:22844480

  20. CIMGS: An incomplete orthogonal factorization preconditioner

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, X.; Bramley, R. [Indiana Univ., Bloomington, IN (United States); Gallivan, K. [Univ. of Illinois, Urbana, IL (United States)

    1994-12-31

    This paper introduces, analyzes, and tests a preconditioning method for conjugate gradient (CG) type iterative methods. The authors start by examining incomplete Gram-Schmidt factorization (IGS) methods in order to motivate the new preconditioner. They show that the IGS family is more stable than IC, and they successfully factor any full rank matrix. Furthermore, IGS preconditioners are at least as effective in accelerating convergence of CG type iterative methods as the incomplete Cholesky (IC) preconditioner. The drawback of IGS methods are their high cost of factorization. This motivates finding a new algorithm, CIMGS, which can generate the same factor in a more efficient way.

  1. Contractual Incompleteness, Unemployment, and Labour Market Segmentation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Altmann, Steffen; Falk, Armin; Grunewald, Andreas; Huffman, David

    2014-01-01

    This article provides evidence that involuntary unemployment, and the segmentation of labour markets into firms offering "good" and "bad" jobs, may both arise as a consequence of contractual incompleteness.We provide a simple model that illustrates how unemployment and market segmentation may...... jointly emerge as part of a market equilibrium in environments where work effort is not third-party verifiable. Using experimental labour markets that differ only in the verifiability of effort, we demonstrate empirically that contractual incompleteness can cause unemployment and segmentation. Our data...

  2. Quantum Stackelberg duopoly with incomplete information

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We investigate the quantum version of the Stackelberg duopoly with incomplete information, especially how the quantum entanglement affects the first-mover advantage in the classical form. It is found that while positive entanglement enhances the first-mover advantage beyond the classical limit, the advantage is dramatically suppressed by negative entanglement. Moreover, despite that positive quantum entanglement improves the first-mover's tolerance for the informational incompleteness, the quantum effect does not change the basic fact that Firm A's lack of complete information of Firm B's unit cost is eradicating the first-mover advantage

  3. Influence of mass-asymmetry on incomplete fusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    During the last few decades, fusion process in heavy ion induced reaction at energies near and above the Coulomb barrier has been extensively studied. At energies not too much above the barrier, the fusion process plays an important role in reaction dynamics. The widely used model PACE-2, describes the fusion cross-section. While at higher energies, fusion process gives the way to incomplete fusion (ICF), where projectile fragmentation takes place and decreasing the reaction cross-section corresponding to the fusion. The ICF cross-section as a function of entrance channel mass asymmetry has been explained in terms of the model based on the interaction barrier, critical angular momentum and critical distance of approach. In case of ICF, an incompletely fused composite system is formed, where partial linear momentum of the projectile is given to the target nucleus and relatively less nucleonic degrees-of-freedom are involved as compared to CF. This incompletely fused composite system having less charge and mass in-comparison to completely fuse composite nucleus

  4. Optimizing Arteriovenous Fistula Maturation

    OpenAIRE

    Zangan, Steven M.; Falk, Abigail

    2009-01-01

    Autogenous arteriovenous fistulas are the preferred vascular access in patients undergoing hemodialysis. Increasing fistula prevalence depends on increasing fistula placement, improving the maturation of fistula that fail to mature and enhancing the long-term patency of mature fistula. Percutaneous methods for optimizing arteriovenous fistula maturation will be reviewed.

  5. Impacts of a GHG-induced climate change on crop yields: effects of acceleration in maturation, moisture stress and optimal temperature

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The present study involves using the Canadian Climate Centre (CCC) climate change scenario to evaluate the impacts of a CO2-induced climate change on agriculture in Quebec and vicinity. Climate change using the CCC General Circulating Model (GCM) data are fed into a crop model (FAO) so as to gauge the changes in agroclimatic factors such as growing season length and growing degree days, and subsequently potential yield changes for a variety of cereal (C3 and C4), leguminous, oleaginous, vegetable and special crops, for twelve major agricultural regions in southern Quebec. Our results show that depending upon the agricultural zone and crop type, yields may increase (ex. corn and sorghum by 20%) or decrease (ex. wheat and soybean by 20 to 30%). Also, these crop yield changes appear to be related to acceleration in maturation rates, mainly to change in moisture stress and to shifts in optimal thermal growth conditions. These possible shifts in agricultural production potentials would solicit the formulation of appropriate adaptation strategies. 77 refs., 6 figs., 5 tabs

  6. Non-fibrillar oligomeric species of the amyloid ABri peptide, implicated in familial British dementia, are more potent at inducing apoptotic cell death than protofibrils or mature fibrils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Agnaf, O M; Nagala, S; Patel, B P; Austen, B M

    2001-06-29

    Familial British dementia (FBD) is an autosomal dominant neurodegenerative disorder, with biochemical and pathological similarities to Alzheimer's disease. FBD is associated with a point mutation in the stop codon of the BRI gene. The mutation extends the length of the wild-type protein by 11 amino acids, and following proteolytic cleavage, results in the production of a cyclic peptide (ABri) 11 amino acids longer than the wild-type (WT) peptide produced from the normal gene BRI. ABri was found to be the main component of amyloid deposits in FBD brains. However, pathological examination of FBD brains has shown the presence of ABri as non-fibrillar deposits as well as amyloid fibrils. Taken together, the genetic, pathological and biochemical data support the hypothesis that ABri deposits play a central role in the pathogenesis of FBD. Here we report that ABri, but not WT peptide, can oligomerise and form amyloid-like fibrils. We show for the first time that ABri induces apoptotic cell death, whereas WT is not toxic to cells. Moreover, we report the novel findings that non-fibrillar oligomeric species of ABri are more toxic than protofibrils and mature fibrils. These findings provide evidence that non-fibrillar oligomeric species are likely to play a critical role in the pathogenesis of FBD and suggest that a similar process may also operate in other neurodegenerative diseases. PMID:11419943

  7. Induction and inhibition of oocyte maturation by EDCs in zebrafish

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tokumoto Mika

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Oocyte maturation in lower vertebrates is triggered by maturation-inducing hormone (MIH, which acts on unidentified receptors on the oocyte surface and induces the activation of maturation-promoting factor (MPF in the oocyte cytoplasm. We previously described the induction of oocyte maturation in fish by an endocrine-disrupting chemical (EDC, diethylstilbestrol (DES, a nonsteroidal estrogen. Methods In this study, stimulatory and inhibitory effects of EDCs and natural steroids on oocyte maturation were examined in zebrafish. For effective agents, some details about the mechanism in induction or inhibition of maturation were examined. Possible groups of DES interacting with the MIH receptor are discussed based on relative potency of steroids to induce maturation. Results Among agents tested, tamoxifen (TAM and its metabolite 4-hydroxytamoxifen (4-OHT showed stimulatory activity similar to DES. The time courses of the change in germinal vesicle breakdown and an intracellular molecular event (the synthesis of cyclin B induced by TAM were indistinguishable from those induced by MIH. In contrast, pentachlorophenol (PCP had a potent inhibitory effect on MIH-induced oocyte maturation. PCP inhibited not only MIH-induced maturation but also DES- and TAM-induced maturation. Methoxychlor also inhibited maturation when oocytes were pre-treated with this agent. Conclusion These results suggest that EDCs act as agonists or antagonists in the induction of oocyte maturation in fish.

  8. PIC (PRODUCTS OF INCOMPLETE COMBUSTION) ANALYSIS METHODS

    Science.gov (United States)

    The report gives results of method evaluations for products of incomplete combustion (PICs): 36 proposed PICs were evaluated by previously developed gas chromatography/flame ionization detection (GC/FID) and gas chromatography/mass spectroscopy (GC/MS) methods. It also gives resu...

  9. Randomly incomplete spectra and intermediate statistics

    CERN Document Server

    Bohigas, O

    2006-01-01

    By randomly removing a fraction of levels from a given spectrum a model is constructed that describes a crossover from this spectrum to a Poisson spectrum. The formalism is applied to the transitions towards Poisson from random matrix theory (RMT) spectra and picket fence spectra. It is shown that the Fredholm determinant formalism of RMT extends naturally to describe incomplete RMT spectra.

  10. 40 CFR 152.105 - Incomplete applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 23 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Incomplete applications. 152.105 Section 152.105 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) PESTICIDE PROGRAMS PESTICIDE REGISTRATION AND CLASSIFICATION PROCEDURES Agency Review of Applications § 152.105...

  11. Full and Incomplete Fetal Alcohol Syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J Gordon Millichap

    2004-11-01

    Full Text Available The clinical features and hospitalization rates of children with full or incomplete fetal alcohol syndrome (FAS were compared in retrospective case-controlled studies of affected Northern Plains American Indian children attending Aberdeen Area Indian Health Service hospitals, South Dakota.

  12. Incomplete proteasomal degradation of green fluorescent proteins in the context of tandem fluorescent protein timers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khmelinskii, Anton; Meurer, Matthias; Ho, Chi-Ting; Besenbeck, Birgit; Fller, Julia; Lemberg, Marius K; Bukau, Bernd; Mogk, Axel; Knop, Michael

    2016-01-15

    Tandem fluorescent protein timers (tFTs) report on protein age through time-dependent change in color, which can be exploited to study protein turnover and trafficking. Each tFT, composed of two fluorescent proteins (FPs) that differ in maturation kinetics, is suited to follow protein dynamics within a specific time range determined by the maturation rates of both FPs. So far, tFTs have been constructed by combining slower-maturing red fluorescent proteins (redFPs) with the faster-maturing superfolder green fluorescent protein (sfGFP). Toward a comprehensive characterization of tFTs, we compare here tFTs composed of different faster-maturing green fluorescent proteins (greenFPs) while keeping the slower-maturing redFP constant (mCherry). Our results indicate that the greenFP maturation kinetics influences the time range of a tFT. Moreover, we observe that commonly used greenFPs can partially withstand proteasomal degradation due to the stability of the FP fold, which results in accumulation of tFT fragments in the cell. Depending on the order of FPs in the timer, incomplete proteasomal degradation either shifts the time range of the tFT toward slower time scales or precludes its use for measurements of protein turnover. We identify greenFPs that are efficiently degraded by the proteasome and provide simple guidelines for the design of new tFTs. PMID:26609072

  13. Effect of C-Type Natriuretic Peptide on Maturation and Developmental Competence of Goat Oocytes Matured In Vitro

    OpenAIRE

    Zhang, Junhong; WEI, QIANG; Cai, Jiao; Zhao, Xiaoe; Ma, Baohua

    2015-01-01

    The developmental competence of oocytes during in vitro maturation (IVM) is compromised due to asynchronous nuclear and cytoplasmic maturation. To improve IVM efficiency, a pre-maturation culture or two-step maturation strategy has been established, involving meiosis arrest induced by pharmacological agents to provide oocytes with sufficient time to synchronize the maturation of the nucleus and cytoplasm. C-type natriuretic peptide (CNP), which has been demonstrated to function as an oocyte m...

  14. Effect of dietary co-administration of sodium selenite on sodium arsenite-induced ovarian and uterine disorders in mature albino rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chattopadhyay, Sandip; Pal Ghosh, Sampa; Ghosh, Debidas; Debnath, Jogen

    2003-10-01

    The subchronic treatment of mature female Wistar-strain albino rats in diestrous phase with sodium arsenite at a dose of 0.4 ppm/100 g body weight/rat/day via drinking water for period of 28 days (seven estrous cycles) caused a significant reduction in the plasma levels of leutinizing hormone (LH), follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH), and estradiol along with a significant decrease in ovarian activities of delta five, 3 beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase (Delta5,3beta-HSD), and 17 beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase (17beta-HSD) followed by a reduction in ovarian and uterine peroxidase activities. A significant weight loss of the ovary and uterus was also observed after this treatment, along with a prolonged diestrous phase and a high accumulation of arsenic in the plasma and these organs. Moreover, sodium arsenite was also responsible for ovarian follicular and uterine cell degeneration characterized by a high number of regressing follicles and a reduction in the uterine luminal diameter, respectively, in comparison with the controls. A dietary supplementation of sodium selenite at the dose of 0.6 mg/100 g body weight/rat/day for a period of 28 days along with arsenic treatment minimized the gonadal weight loss significantly and increased the activities of the ovarian steroidogenic enzymes as well as the ovarian and uterine peroxidase at the control level. Selenium was also able to increase the plasma levels of LH, FSH, and estradiol toward the control level. Vaginal smears showed normal estrous cyclicity in sodium selenite-supplemented arsenic-treated rats along with lower arsenic levels in the plasma and gonadal tissue in comparison with arsenic-only-treated rats. Histological sections of ovary and uterine tissues in the control and experimental groups confirmed that sodium selenite supplementation was able to prevent arsenic-induced histopathological changes in the ovary and uterus. Plasma levels of norepinephrine and dopamine in the midbrain and diencephalon decreased significantly, whereas the serotonin level was increased significantly after 28 days of sodium arsenite treatment. All of these parameters were, in most cases, unchanged from the control level when sodium selenite was co-administered with sodium arsenite. Arsenic intoxication was also associated with increased liver weight and elevation in the activities of hepatic and renal acid phosphatase, alkaline phosphatase, and transaminases, but selenium co-administration was not able to change these toxic effects of arsenic. The results of our experiments indicate the significant protective action of sodium selenite on arsenic-induced toxicity in the female reproductive system, while there was no significant protective effect of selenium on arsenic-induced toxicity in other organs. PMID:12883085

  15. Interleukin-5 induces maturation but not class switching of surface IgA-positive B cells into IgA-secreting cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsumoto, R; Matsumoto, M; Mita, S; Hitoshi, Y; Ando, M; Araki, S; Yamaguchi, N; Tominaga, A; Takatsu, K

    1989-01-01

    There is a body of evidence suggesting that IgA production is regulated by helper T cells or their products. To elucidate molecular mechanisms of IgA production, the role of lymphokines in the in vitro antigen-specific and polyclonal IgA responses was examined. Supernatants from antigen-stimulated T cells or mitogen-stimulated T-cell clones can enhance 2,4-dinitro phenyl (DNP)-specific IgM, IgG1 and IgA production in cultures of DNP-ovalbumin (OVA)-stimulated T-cell-depleted spleen cells from DNP-keyhole limpet haemocyanin-primed mice. The IgA enhancement was inhibited by anti-IL-5 monoclonal antibody. Purified recombinant IL-5 could also enhance anti-DNP IgA production in a dose-dependent manner. This enhancing effect was not substituted by IL-1, IL-2, IL-3 or IL-4. Polyclonal IgA secretion of lipopolysaccharide-stimulated normal B cells was augmented preferentially by IL-5, but not by IL-4. Surface IgA-positive (sIgA+) B cells, but not surface IgA-negative B cells, responded to IL-5 for the development of IgA-secreting cells. Limiting-dilution analysis revealed that IL-5 increases the frequency of IgA-secreting cells in sIgA+ B-cell populations. These results indicate that IL-5 plays an essential role in the antigen-specific and polyclonal IgA formation as a maturation-inducing factor rather than class-switching factor. PMID:15493259

  16. Human Induced Pluripotent Stem Cell-Derived Microvesicles Transmit RNAs and Proteins to Recipient Mature Heart Cells Modulating Cell Fate and Behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bobis-Wozowicz, Sylwia; Kmiotek, Katarzyna; Sekula, Malgorzata; Kedracka-Krok, Sylwia; Kamycka, Elzbieta; Adamiak, Marta; Jankowska, Urszula; Madetko-Talowska, Anna; Sarna, Michal; Bik-Multanowski, Miroslaw; Kolcz, Jacek; Boruczkowski, Dariusz; Madeja, Zbigniew; Dawn, Buddhadeb; Zuba-Surma, Ewa K

    2015-09-01

    Microvesicles (MVs) are membrane-enclosed cytoplasmic fragments released by normal and activated cells that have been described as important mediators of cell-to-cell communication. Although the ability of human induced pluripotent stem cells (hiPSCs) to participate in tissue repair is being increasingly recognized, the use of hiPSC-derived MVs (hiPSC-MVs) in this regard remains unknown. Accordingly, we investigated the ability of hiPSC-MVs to transfer bioactive molecules including mRNA, microRNA (miRNA), and proteins to mature target cells such as cardiac mesenchymal stromal cells (cMSCs), and we next analyzed effects of hiPSC-MVs on fate and behavior of such target cells. The results show that hiPSC-MVs derived from integration-free hiPSCs cultured under serum-free and feeder-free conditions are rich in mRNA, miRNA, and proteins originated from parent cells; however, the levels of expression vary between donor cells and MVs. Importantly, we found that transfer of hiPSC components by hiPSC-MVs impacted on transcriptome and proteomic profiles of target cells as well as exerted proliferative and protective effects on cMSCs, and enhanced their cardiac and endothelial differentiation potential. hiPSC-MVs also transferred exogenous transcripts from genetically modified hiPSCs that opens new perspectives for future strategies to enhance MV content. We conclude that hiPSC-MVs are effective vehicles for transferring iPSC attributes to adult somatic cells, and hiPSC-MV-mediated horizontal transfer of RNAs and proteins to injured tissues may be used for therapeutic tissue repair. In this study, for the first time, we propose a new concept of use of hiPSCs as a source of safe acellular bioactive derivatives for tissue regeneration. PMID:26031404

  17. Advanced incomplete factorization algorithms for Stiltijes matrices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Il`in, V.P. [Siberian Division RAS, Novosibirsk (Russian Federation)

    1996-12-31

    The modern numerical methods for solving the linear algebraic systems Au = f with high order sparse matrices A, which arise in grid approximations of multidimensional boundary value problems, are based mainly on accelerated iterative processes with easily invertible preconditioning matrices presented in the form of approximate (incomplete) factorization of the original matrix A. We consider some recent algorithmic approaches, theoretical foundations, experimental data and open questions for incomplete factorization of Stiltijes matrices which are {open_quotes}the best{close_quotes} ones in the sense that they have the most advanced results. Special attention is given to solving the elliptic differential equations with strongly variable coefficients, singular perturbated diffusion-convection and parabolic equations.

  18. Incomplete immune recovery in HIV infection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gaardbo, Julie C; Hartling, Hans J; Gerstoft, Jan; Poulsen, Susanne Dam

    2012-01-01

    Treatment of HIV-infected patients with highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) usually results in diminished viral replication, increasing CD4? cell counts, a reversal of most immunological disturbances, and a reduction in risk of morbidity and mortality. However, approximately 20% of all HIV...... tissue, perturbed frequencies of immune regulators such as regulatory T cells and Th17 cells, and increased immune activation, immunosenescence, and apoptosis. Importantly, INRs have an increased risk of morbidity and mortality compared to HIV-infected patients with an optimal immune reconstitution....... Additional treatment to HAART that may improve immune reconstitution has been investigated, but results thus far have proved disappointing. The reason for immunological nonresponse is incompletely understood. This paper summarizes the known and unknown factors regarding the incomplete immune reconstitution...

  19. Maturity and maturity models in lean construction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claus Nesensohn

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available In recent years there has been an increasing interest in maturity models in management-related disciplines; which reflects a growing recognition that becoming more mature and having a model to guide the route to maturity can help organisations in managing major transformational change. Lean Construction (LC is an increasingly important improvement approach that organisations seek to embed. This study explores how to apply the maturity models to LC. Hence the attitudes, opinions and experiences of key industry informants with high levels of knowledge of LC were investigated. To achieve this, a review of maturity models was conducted, and data for the analysis was collected through a sequential process involving three methods. First a group interview with seven key informants. Second a follow up discussion with the same individuals to investigate some of the issues raised in more depth. Third an online discussion held via LinkedIn in which members shared their views on some of the results. Overall, we found that there is a lack of common understanding as to what maturity means in LC, though there is general agreement that the concept of maturity is a suitable one to reflect the path of evolution for LC within organisations.

  20. Theory of Demand in Incomplete Markets

    OpenAIRE

    Turner, Sergio

    2006-01-01

    We develop the theory of demand for commodities and assets facing incompletely insurable uncertainty. First, a Slutsky matrix decomposes into substitution and income effects the derivative of demand with respect to prices and yield structure. Next, we identify the Slutsky matrix’s properties. The Slutsky matrix can be perturbed arbitrarily, subject only to preserving these properties, by perturbing the underlying utility’s Hessian, while fixing point demand and marginal utility. The key resul...

  1. Characterization Tensors of Balanced Incomplete Block Designs

    OpenAIRE

    Qi, Liqun; Luo, Ziyan

    2015-01-01

    Balanced incomplete block designs (BIBDs) have wide applications in engineering, business and sciences. In this paper, for each (v, k, \\lambda)-BIBD, we construct a strongly symmetric k-th order v-dimensional tensor. We call such a strongly symmetric tensor the characterization tensor of that BIBD, and the absolute value tensor of the characterization tensor the signless characterization tensor of that BIBD. We study some spectral properties of such characterization tensors and signless chara...

  2. Polarization study of incomplete fusion dynamics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Incomplete fusion reactions for 16O on 144Sm, 154Sm and 93Nb and 14N on 93Nb were studied using the Brookhaven tandem accelerator facility at energies from 95 to 140 MeV. Polarization of light charged particles from the reactions was studied by ? coincidence. Polarization is detected for ? particles but is near zero for protons. ? particle polarization shows energy dependence

  3. The Evolution of Conventions under Incomplete Information

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Whitta-Jacobsen, Hans Jørgen; Jensen, Mogens; Sloth, Birgitte

    We formulate an evolutionary learning process in the spirit of Young (1993a) for games of incomplete information. The process involves trembles. For many games, if the amount of trembling is small, play will be in accordance with the games' (semi- strict) Bayesian equilibria most of the time. This...... evolutionary learning is in favor of Bayesian equilibria where some types of players fail to coordinate, such that the outcome is inefficient...

  4. Firms, Incomplete Contracts and Organizational Learning

    OpenAIRE

    Foss, Nicolai J.

    2009-01-01

    This explorative paper argues that the central problem of economic organization is adaptation to unforeseen contingencies. However, flexibility is a rather neglected issue in the theory of economic organization. This contrasts with much organization theory, in which the seeking and processing of information about the organization's key uncertainties is seen as a determinant of organizational form. The notion of incomplete contracts is argued to provide a means to bridging ideas from organizat...

  5. Pareto improving monetary policy in incomplete markets

    OpenAIRE

    Turner, Sergio; Tumennasan, Norovsambuu

    2006-01-01

    We show that for generic economies, every equilibrium admits Pareto improving monetary policy, even with multiple commodities per state. The main assumption is that asset incompleteness be intermediate, in that household heterogeneity does not exceed the number of assets present and absent. We argue this as a special case of the general framework in Turner (2003b) for proving the generic existence of Pareto improving taxes.

  6. Securitization and Real Investment in Incomplete Markets

    OpenAIRE

    Vishal Gaur; Sridhar Seshadri; Subrahmanyam, Marti G.

    2011-01-01

    We study the impact of financial innovations on real investment decisions within the framework of an incomplete market economy comprised of firms, investors, and an intermediary. The firms face unique investment opportunities that arise in their business operations and can be undertaken at given reservation prices. The cash flows thus generated are not spanned by the securities traded in the financial market and cannot be valued uniquely. The intermediary purchases claims against these cash f...

  7. Essential Incompleteness of Arithmetic Verified by Coq

    OpenAIRE

    2005-01-01

    A constructive proof of the Goedel-Rosser incompleteness theorem has been completed using the Coq proof assistant. Some theory of classical first-order logic over an arbitrary language is formalized. A development of primitive recursive functions is given, and all primitive recursive functions are proved to be representable in a weak axiom system. Formulas and proofs are encoded as natural numbers, and functions operating on these codes are proved to be primitive recursive. The weak axiom sys...

  8. An Intuitively Complete Analysis of Godel's Incompleteness

    OpenAIRE

    Steinmetz, Jason W.

    2015-01-01

    A detailed and rigorous analysis of Godel's proof of his first incompleteness theorem is presented. The purpose of this analysis is two-fold. The first is to reveal what Godel actually proved to provide a clear and solid foundation upon which to base future research. The second is to construct a coherent explication of Godel's proof that is not only approachable by the non-specialist, but also brings to light the core principles underlying Godel's proof.

  9. Phase Transitions for Gödel Incompleteness

    OpenAIRE

    Weiermann, Andreas

    2009-01-01

    Gödel's first incompleteness result from 1931 states that there are true assertions about the natural numbers which do not follow from the Peano axioms. Since 1931 many researchers have been looking for natural examples of such assertions and breakthroughs have been obtained in the seventies by Jeff Paris (in part jointly with Leo Harrington and Laurie Kirby) and Harvey Friedman who produced first mathematically interesting independence results in Ramsey theory (Paris) and well-order an...

  10. A sea urchin lectin, SUL-1, from the Toxopneustid sea urchin induces DC maturation from human monocyte and drives Th1 polarization in vitro

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The sea urchin Toxopneustes pileolus belonging to the family Toxopneustidae, they have well-developed globiferous pedicellariae with pharmacologically active substances. We have purified a novel sea urchin lectin-1 (SUL-1) from the large globiferous pedicellariae of T. pileolus. Dendritic cells (DC) are professional APC and play a pivotal role in controlling immune responses. This study investigated whether SUL-1 can drive DC maturation from human immature monocyte-derived DC in vitro. Human monocytes were cultured with GM-CSF and IL-4 for 6 days followed by another 1 day in the presence of SUL-1 or LPS. DC harvested on day 7 were examined using functional assays. The expression levels of CD1a, CD80, CD83, CD86 and HLA-DR as expressed by mean fluorescence intensity (MFI) on DC differentiated from immature DC after culture with 1.0 μg/ml of SUL-1 for 1 day were enhanced and decreased endocytic activity. SUL-1-treated DC also displayed enhanced T cell stimulatory capacity in an MLR, as measured by T cell proliferation. Cell surface expression of CD80, CD83 and CD86 on SUL-1-treated DC was inhibited by anti-DC-SIGN mAb, while anti-DC-SIGN mAb had no influence on allogeneic T cell proliferation by SUL-1-treated DC. DC differentiated with SUL-1 induced the differentiation of naive T cell towards a helper T cell type 1 (Th1) response at DC/T (1:5) cells ratio depending on IL-12 secretion. In CTL assay, the production of IFN-γ and 51Cr release on SUL-1-treated DC were more augmented than of immature DC or LPS-treated DC. SUL-1-treated DC expressed CCR7 and had a high migration to MIP-3β. Intracellular Ca2+ mobilization in SUL-1-treated DC was also induced by MIP-3β. These results suggest that SUL-1 bindings to DC-SIGN on surface of immature DC may lead to differentiate DC from immature DC. Moreover, it suggests that SUL-1 may be used on DC-based vaccines for cancer immunotherapy

  11. Essays on incomplete contracts in regulatory activities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saavedra, Eduardo Humberto

    This dissertation consists of three essays. The first essay, The Hold-Up Problem in Public Infrastructure Franchising, characterizes the equilibria of the investment decisions in public infrastructure franchising under incomplete contracting and ex-post renegotiation. The parties (government and a firm) are unable to credibly commit to the contracted investment plan, so that a second step investment is renegotiated by the parties at the revision stage. As expected, the possibility of renegotiation affects initial non-verifiable investments. The main conclusion of this essay is that not only underinvestment but also overinvestment in infrastructure may arise in equilibrium, compared to the complete contracting case. The second essay, Alternative Institutional Arrangements in Network Utilities: An Incomplete Contracting Approach, presents a theoretical assessment of the efficiency implications of privatizing natural monopolies which are vertically related to potential competitive firms. Based on the incomplete contracts and asymmetric information paradigm. I develop a model that analyzes the relative advantages of different institutional arrangements---alternative ownership and market structures in the industry--- in terms of their allocative and productive efficiencies. The main policy conclusion of this essay is that both ownership and the existence of conglomerates in network industries matter. Among other conclusions, this essay provides an economic rationale for a mixed economy in which the network is public and vertical separation of the industry when the natural monopoly is under private ownership. The last essay, Opportunistic Behavior and Legal Disputes in the Chilean Electricity Sector, analyzes post-contractual disputes in this newly privatized industry. It discusses the presumption that opportunistic behavior and disputes arise due to inadequate market design, ambiguous regulation, and institutional weaknesses. This chapter also assesses the presumption that a large number of legal disputes are inhibited by the nonexistence of institutions able to verify and enforce contracts. An in-depth analysis of six cases of open conflict provides support for such a presumption and highlights the crucial role of an adequate market design.

  12. Understanding the onset of incomplete fusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The entrance channel effect on the onset and strength of incomplete fusion (ICF) has been studied in the present work. Several inclusive experiments have been performed to measure the ICF strength function in 12C,16O+169Tm systems at near and above barrier energies. Data obtained in these experiments suggest the existence of ICF even at slightly above barrier energies where complete fusion (CF) is supposed to be the sole contributor, and conclusively demonstrate strong projectile structure and energy dependence of ICF. The incomplete fusion strength functions for 16O,12,13C+159Tb and 16O,12,13C+181Ta systems are analyzed as a function of projectile α-Q-value at a constant νrel = 0.053c. It has been found that one neutron (1n) excess projectile 13C (as compared to 12C) results in less incomplete fusion contribution due to its relatively large negative α-Q-value. In order to understand the onset of ICF at such low energies, the driving input angular momenta (ℓ) involved in the production of different evaporation residues have been deduced from the analysis of experimentally measured spin-distributions for the same projectile-target combinations at the same incident energies. Higher ℓ-values, imparted into the system in non-central interactions, are found to be responsible for low energy ICF. The ICF-αxn/2αxn channels display involvement of higher ℓ-values than that observed in CF-xn/pxn/αxn/2αxn channels at the very same projectile energies. It has been observed that the mean value of ℓ increases with successively opened ICF channels and incident energy.

  13. On problem of optimization under incomplete information

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Volf, Petr

    Karviná : Silesian University in Opava, School of Business Administration in Karviná, 2012 - (Ramík, J.; Stavárek, D.), s. 968-973 ISBN 978-80-7248-779-0. [30th International Conference Mathematical Methods in Economics 2012. Karviná (CZ), 11.09.2012-13.09.2012] R&D Projects: GA ČR GAP402/10/0956 Institutional support: RVO:67985556 Keywords : optimization * censored data * Fisher information * product-limit estimate Subject RIV: BB - Applied Statistics, Operational Research http://library.utia.cas.cz/separaty/2012/SI/volf-on problem of optimization under incomplete information.pdf

  14. Incomplete Dirac reduction of constrained Hamiltonian systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chandre, C., E-mail: chandre@cpt.univ-mrs.fr

    2015-10-15

    First-class constraints constitute a potential obstacle to the computation of a Poisson bracket in Dirac’s theory of constrained Hamiltonian systems. Using the pseudoinverse instead of the inverse of the matrix defined by the Poisson brackets between the constraints, we show that a Dirac–Poisson bracket can be constructed, even if it corresponds to an incomplete reduction of the original Hamiltonian system. The uniqueness of Dirac brackets is discussed. The relevance of this procedure for infinite dimensional Hamiltonian systems is exemplified.

  15. Godel's Incompleteness Theorems and Platonic Metaphysics

    OpenAIRE

    Mikovic, Aleksandar

    2015-01-01

    We argue by using Godel's incompletness theorems in logic that platonism is the best metaphysics for science. This is based on the fact that a natural law in a platonic metaphysics represents a timeless order in the motion of matter, while a natural law in a materialistic metaphysics can be only defined as a temporary order which appears at random in the chaotic motion of matter. Although a logical possibility, one can argue that this type of metaphysics is highly implausible. Given that math...

  16. Godel's Incompleteness Theorems and Platonic Metaphysics

    CERN Document Server

    Mikovic, Aleksandar

    2015-01-01

    We argue by using Godel's incompletness theorems in logic that platonism is the best metaphysics for science. This is based on the fact that a natural law in a platonic metaphysics represents a timeless order in the motion of matter, while a natural law in a materialistic metaphysics can be only defined as a temporary order which appears at random in the chaotic motion of matter. Although a logical possibility, one can argue that this type of metaphysics is highly implausible. Given that mathematics fits naturally within platonism, we conclude that a platonic metaphysics is more preferable than a materialistic metaphysics.

  17. Topological effects of data incompleteness of gene regulatory networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanz Joaquin

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The topological analysis of biological networks has been a prolific topic in network science during the last decade. A persistent problem with this approach is the inherent uncertainty and noisy nature of the data. One of the cases in which this situation is more marked is that of transcriptional regulatory networks (TRNs in bacteria. The datasets are incomplete because regulatory pathways associated to a relevant fraction of bacterial genes remain unknown. Furthermore, direction, strengths and signs of the links are sometimes unknown or simply overlooked. Finally, the experimental approaches to infer the regulations are highly heterogeneous, in a way that induces the appearance of systematic experimental-topological correlations. And yet, the quality of the available data increases constantly. Results In this work we capitalize on these advances to point out the influence of data (incompleteness and quality on some classical results on topological analysis of TRNs, specially regarding modularity at different levels. Conclusions In doing so, we identify the most relevant factors affecting the validity of previous findings, highlighting important caveats to future prokaryotic TRNs topological analysis.

  18. Incomplete fusion in 12C+160Gd collisions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The mechanism of the production of fast α-particles in 12C induced reactions was studied over a wide range of bombarding energies (7.5-16.7 MeV/A) by measuring α-γ coincidences. Absolute cross sections for 160Gd(12C,αxn)sup(168-x)Er and 160Gd(12C,2αxn)sup(164-x)Dy reactions, as well as inclusive α-particle production cross sections, have been determined. Depending on the bombarding energy, a fraction of 0.2-0.4 of the singles α-particles can be explained as resulting from incomplete fusion reactions (12C,α) and (12C,2α) which correspond to a capture of '8Be' and '4He', respectively. The energy dependence of the cross sections for (12C,α) and (12C,2α) incomplete fusion as well as for (12C,3α) projectile breakup is given. (Auth.)

  19. Extensive Generalization of Statistical Mechanics Based on Incomplete Information Theory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qiuping A. Wang

    2003-06-01

    Full Text Available Statistical mechanics is generalized on the basis of an additive information theory for incomplete probability distributions. The incomplete normalization is used to obtain generalized entropy . The concomitant incomplete statistical mechanics is applied to some physical systems in order to show the effect of the incompleteness of information. It is shown that this extensive generalized statistics can be useful for the correlated electron systems in weak coupling regime.

  20. A new version of an old modal incompleteness theorem

    OpenAIRE

    Vosmaer, Jacob

    2012-01-01

    Thomason \\cite{Thomason74} showed that a certain modal logic $\\mathbf{L}\\subset \\mathbf{S4}$ is incomplete with respect to Kripke semantics. Later Gerson \\cite{Gerson75} showed that $\\mathbf{L}$ is also incomplete with respect to neighborhood semantics. In this paper we show that $\\mathbf{L}$ is in fact incomplete with respect to any class of complete Boolean algebras with operators, i.e. that it is completely incomplete.

  1. Goedel incompleteness theorems and the limits of their applicability. I

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This is a survey of results related to the Goedel incompleteness theorems and the limits of their applicability. The first part of the paper discusses Goedel's own formulations along with modern strengthenings of the first incompleteness theorem. Various forms and proofs of this theorem are compared. Incompleteness results related to algorithmic problems and mathematically natural examples of unprovable statements are discussed. Bibliography: 68 titles.

  2. EMOTIONAL MATURITY AMONG ADOLECENTS

    OpenAIRE

    S.G. JADHAV; RAMESH R. PUJAR

    2013-01-01

    The present study was conducted to know the Emotional Maturity amongadolescents in relation to some personal background variables. The sample of this studyconsisted of 200 graduates (100 Arts & 100 Science students) studying in Dharwad city.Yeshvir Singh and Mahesh Bhargava's Emotional Maturity scale was administered onthem to measure the Emotional Maturity. The data collected was subjected to statisticalanalysis in terms of Mean, SD, and 't' ratio. The findings show that, Science students ar...

  3. The Flight from Maturity

    OpenAIRE

    Gary B. Gorton; Andrew Metrick; Lei Xie

    2014-01-01

    Why did the failure of Lehman Brothers make the financial crisis dramatically worse? The financial crisis was a process of a build-up of risk during the crisis prior to the Lehman failure. Market participants tried to preserve an option or exit by shortening maturities - the "flight from maturity". With increasingly short maturities, lenders created the possibility of fast exit. The failure of Lehman Brothers was the tipping point of this build-up of systemic fragility. We produce a chronolog...

  4. Audit Maturity Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bhattacharya Uttam

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Today it is crucial for organizations to pay even greater attention on quality management as the importance of this function in achieving ultimate business objectives is increasingly becoming clearer. Importance of the Quality Management (QM Function in achieving basic need by ensuring compliance with Capability Maturity Model Integrated (CMMI / International Organization for Standardization (ISO is a basic demand from business nowadays. However, QM Function and its processes need to be made much more mature to prevent delivery outages and to achieve business excellence through their review and auditing capability. Many organizations now face challenges in determining the maturity of the QM group along with the service offered by them and the right way to elevate the maturity of the same. The objective of this whitepaper is to propose a new model the Audit Maturity Model (AMM which will provide organizations with a measure of their maturity in quality management in the perspective of auditing, along with recommendations for preventing delivery outage, and identifying risk to achieve business excellence. This will enable organizations to assess QM maturity higher than basic hygiene and will also help them to identify gaps and to take corrective actions for achieving higher maturity levels. Hence the objective is to envisage a new auditing model as a part of organisation quality management function which can be a guide for them to achieve higher level of maturity and ultimately help to achieve delivery and business excellence.

  5. Building Chaotic Model From Incomplete Time Series

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siek, Michael; Solomatine, Dimitri

    2010-05-01

    This paper presents a number of novel techniques for building a predictive chaotic model from incomplete time series. A predictive chaotic model is built by reconstructing the time-delayed phase space from observed time series and the prediction is made by a global model or adaptive local models based on the dynamical neighbors found in the reconstructed phase space. In general, the building of any data-driven models depends on the completeness and quality of the data itself. However, the completeness of the data availability can not always be guaranteed since the measurement or data transmission is intermittently not working properly due to some reasons. We propose two main solutions dealing with incomplete time series: using imputing and non-imputing methods. For imputing methods, we utilized the interpolation methods (weighted sum of linear interpolations, Bayesian principle component analysis and cubic spline interpolation) and predictive models (neural network, kernel machine, chaotic model) for estimating the missing values. After imputing the missing values, the phase space reconstruction and chaotic model prediction are executed as a standard procedure. For non-imputing methods, we reconstructed the time-delayed phase space from observed time series with missing values. This reconstruction results in non-continuous trajectories. However, the local model prediction can still be made from the other dynamical neighbors reconstructed from non-missing values. We implemented and tested these methods to construct a chaotic model for predicting storm surges at Hoek van Holland as the entrance of Rotterdam Port. The hourly surge time series is available for duration of 1990-1996. For measuring the performance of the proposed methods, a synthetic time series with missing values generated by a particular random variable to the original (complete) time series is utilized. There exist two main performance measures used in this work: (1) error measures between the actual and missing value estimates; and (2) the accuracy of the built chaotic model predictions. The model results indicate that the proposed methods are able to build a chaotic model from incomplete time series and to provide reliable and accurate predictions.

  6. Relational data clustering with incomplete data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hathaway, Richard J.; Overstreet, Dessa D.; Murphy, Thomas E.; Bezdek, James C.

    2001-03-01

    We consider the problem of clustering a set of objects which are represented by rational data in the form of a dissimilarity matrix which has missing values. Three methods are developed to estimate the missing values, all based on simple triangle inequality-based approximation schemes. With few exceptions, any relational clustering algorithm can then be applied to the completed data matrix to obtain nice clusters. We illustrate our approach by clustering incomplete data built from several data sets. The primary clustering method chosen for our numerical experiments is the non-Euclidean relational fuzzy c-means algorithm. Our examples show that satisfactory clusters can still be obtained even when roughly half of the distance values are missing before completion.

  7. Light particle revelation on incomplete fusion reactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Incomplete fusion reactions have been studied through light particles emission in the reaction 116Sn + 16O at 125 MeV (ALICE facility in Orsay). We measured energy angular distributions and correlations between any two of these particles (? particles, protons, neutrons), while ? multiplicity measurements provide us fuller informations. From collected data, the following pictures can be drawn: - the only fast particles observed are ? particles, while protons and neutrons seem to come only from statistical evaporation; - outgoing channels where two ? particles are emitted cannot be solely explained by the sequential emission of 8Be ? 2?: about half of the cross section proceeds from statistical evaporation of one ? particle. Accordingly, 2?xn channels do not necessarily agree with high value of angular momentum in the entrance channel. From the study of experimental results in the yrast plane, we can assign a large width to the angular momentum distribution

  8. Incomplete melting of the Au(100) surface

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We study the high-temperature disordering of the reconstructed Au(100) surface by molecular dynamics simulation using a many-body interatomic potential. We find that the surface deconstructs at 0.8Tm in good agreement with experimental data, but proper surface melting does not occur close to the bulk melting point. Instead there is an in-plane disordering of the two topmost layers. The thickness of the disordered region remains constant with increasing temperature, indicating blocked, or incomplete, melting of the (100) crystalline substrate. An analysis of the structure reveals that crystalline and disordered islands coexist on two first surface layers for temperature between deconstruction and bulk melting. (author). 24 refs, 10 figs

  9. Is Complexity a Source of Incompleteness?

    CERN Document Server

    Calude, C S; Calude, Cristian S.; Juergensen, helmut

    2004-01-01

    In this paper we prove a formal form of Chaitin's ``heuristic principle'', for an appropriate measure of complexity: ``the theorems of a finitely specified theory cannot be significantly more complex than the theory itself`''. For this measure, the theorems of a consistent finitely specified theory strong enough to formalize arithmetic (like Zermelo-Fraenkel set theory with choice or Peano Arithmetic) have bounded complexity, hence every statement of the theory which is significantly more complex than the theory is unprovable. Previous results showing that incompleteness is not accidental, but ubiquitous are here reinforced in probabilistic terms: the probability that an $n$-bit statement is provable in such a theory tends to zero when $n$ tends to infinity.

  10. In praise of the incomplete leader.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ancona, Deborah; Malone, Thomas W; Orlikowski, Wanda J; Senge, Peter M

    2007-02-01

    Today's top executives are expected to do everything right, from coming up with solutions to unfathomably complex problems to having the charisma and prescience to rally stakeholders around a perfect vision of the future. But no one leader can be all things to all people. It's time to end the myth of the complete leader, say the authors. Those at the top must come to understand their weaknesses as well as their strengths. Only by embracing the ways in which they are incomplete can leaders fill in the gaps in their knowledge with others' skills. The incomplete leader has the confidence and humility to recognize unique talents and perspectives throughout the organization--and to let those qualities shine. The authors' work studying leadership over the past six years has led them to develop a framework of distributed leadership. Within that model, leadership consists of four capabilities: sensemaking, relating, "visioning," and inventing. Sensemaking involves understanding and mapping the context in which a company and its people operate. A leader skilled in this area can quickly identify the complexities of a given situation and explain them to others. The second capability, relating, means being able to build trusting relationships with others through inquiring (listening with intention), advocating (explaining one's own point of view), and connecting (establishing a network of allies who can help a leader accomplish his or her goals). Visioning, the third capability, means coming up with a compelling image of the future. It is a collaborative process that articulates what the members of an organization want to create. Finally, inventing involves developing new ways to bring that vision to life. Rarely will a single person be skilled in all four areas. That's why it's critical that leaders find others who can offset their limitations and complement their strengths. Those who don't will not only bear the burden of leadership alone but will find themselves at the helm of an unbalanced ship. PMID:17345683

  11. Regulatory perspective on incomplete control rod insertions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chatterton, M.

    1997-01-01

    The incomplete control rod insertions experienced at South Texas Unit 1 and Wolf Creek are of safety concern to the NRC staff because they represent potential precursors to loss of shutdown margin. Even before it was determined if these events were caused by the control rods or by the fuel there was an apparent correlation of the problem with high burnup fuel. It was determined that there was also a correlation between high burnup and high drag forces as well as with rod drop time histories and lack of rod recoil. The NRC staff initial actions were aimed at getting a perspective on the magnitude of the problem as far as the number of plants and the amount of fuel that could be involved, as well as the safety significance in terms of shutdown margin. As tests have been performed and data has been analyzed the focus has shifted more toward understanding the problem and the ways to eliminate it. At this time the staff`s understanding of the phenomena is that it was a combination of factors including burnup, power history and temperature. The problem appears to be very sensitive to these factors, the interaction of which is not clearly understood. The model developed by Westinghouse provides a possible explanation but there is not sufficient data to establish confidence levels and sensitivity studies involving the key parameters have not been done. While several fixes to the problem have been discussed, no definitive fixes have been proposed. Without complete understanding of the phenomena, or fixes that clearly eliminate the problem the safety concern remains. The safety significance depends on the amount of shutdown margin lost due to incomplete insertion of the control rods. Were the control rods to stick high in the core, the reactor could not be shutdown by the control rods and other means such as emergency boration would be required.

  12. Regulatory perspective on incomplete control rod insertions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The incomplete control rod insertions experienced at South Texas Unit 1 and Wolf Creek are of safety concern to the NRC staff because they represent potential precursors to loss of shutdown margin. Even before it was determined if these events were caused by the control rods or by the fuel there was an apparent correlation of the problem with high burnup fuel. It was determined that there was also a correlation between high burnup and high drag forces as well as with rod drop time histories and lack of rod recoil. The NRC staff initial actions were aimed at getting a perspective on the magnitude of the problem as far as the number of plants and the amount of fuel that could be involved, as well as the safety significance in terms of shutdown margin. As tests have been performed and data has been analyzed the focus has shifted more toward understanding the problem and the ways to eliminate it. At this time the staff's understanding of the phenomena is that it was a combination of factors including burnup, power history and temperature. The problem appears to be very sensitive to these factors, the interaction of which is not clearly understood. The model developed by Westinghouse provides a possible explanation but there is not sufficient data to establish confidence levels and sensitivity studies involving the key parameters have not been done. While several fixes to the problem have been discussed, no definitive fixes have been proposed. Without complete understanding of the phenomena, or fixes that clearly eliminate the problem the safety concern remains. The safety significance depends on the amount of shutdown margin lost due to incomplete insertion of the control rods. Were the control rods to stick high in the core, the reactor could not be shutdown by the control rods and other means such as emergency boration would be required

  13. Incomplete markets, liquidation risk and the term structure of interest rates

    OpenAIRE

    Challe, Edouard; Le Grand, François; Ragot, Xavier

    2007-01-01

    We analyse the term structure of interest rates in a general equilibrium model with incomplete markets, borrowing constraint, and positive net supply of government bonds. Uninsured idiosyncratic shocks generate bond trades, while aggregate shocks cause ‡uctuations in the trading price of bonds. Long bonds command a “liquidation risk premium” over short bonds, because they may have to be liquidated before maturity –following a bad idiosyncratic shock– precisely when their resale value is low –...

  14. NK Cell-Specific Gata3 Ablation Identifies the Maturation Program Required for Bone Marrow Exit and Control of Proliferation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali, Alaa Kassim; Oh, Jun Seok; Vivier, Eric; Busslinger, Meinrad; Lee, Seung-Hwan

    2016-02-15

    NK cells are innate lymphocytes capable of eliciting an innate immune response to pathogens. NK cells develop and become mature in the bone marrow (BM) before they migrate out to peripheral organs. Although the developmental program leading to mature NK cells has been studied in the context of several transcription factors, the stage-specific role of GATA3 in NK cell development has been incompletely understood. Using NKp46-Cre-Gata3(fl/fl) mice in which Gata3 deficiency was induced as early as the immature stage of NK cell differentiation, we demonstrated that GATA3 is required for the NK cell maturation beyond the CD27 single-positive stage and is indispensable for the maintenance of liver-resident NK cells. The frequencies of NK cells from NKp46-Cre-Gata3(fl/fl) mice were found higher in the BM but lower in peripheral organs compared with control littermates, indicating that GATA3 controls the maturation program required for BM egress. Despite the defect in maturation, upon murine CMV infection, NK cells from NKp46-Cre-Gata3(fl/fl) mice expanded vigorously, achieving NK cell frequencies surpassing those in controls and therefore provided comparable protection. The heightened proliferation of NK cells from NKp46-Cre-Gata3(fl/fl) mice was cell intrinsic and associated with enhanced upregulation of CD25 expression. Taken together, our results demonstrate that GATA3 is a critical regulator for NK cell terminal maturation and egress out of the BM and that immature NK cells present in the periphery of NKp46-Cre-Gata3(fl/fl) mice can rapidly expand and provide a reservoir of NK cells capable of mounting an efficient cytotoxic response upon virus infection. PMID:26773150

  15. Induction of complete and incomplete chromosome aberrations by bleomycin in human lymphocytes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Benkhaled, L.; Xuncla, M.; Caballin, M.R. [Universitat Autonoma de Barcelona, Unitat d' Antropologia Biologica, Departament de Biologia Animal, Biologia Vegetal i Ecologia, E-08193 Bellaterra (Spain); Barrios, L. [Universitat Autonoma de Barcelona, Unitat de Biologia Cel.lular, Departament de Biologia Cel.lular, Fisiologia i Immunologia (Spain); Barquinero, J.F. [Universitat Autonoma de Barcelona, Unitat d' Antropologia Biologica, Departament de Biologia Animal, Biologia Vegetal i Ecologia, E-08193 Bellaterra (Spain)], E-mail: Francesc.Barquinero@uab.es

    2008-01-01

    Bleomycin (BLM) is a clastogenic compound, which due to the overdispersion in the cell distribution of induced dicentrics has been compared to the effect of high-LET radiation. Recently, it has been described that in fibroblast derived cell lines BLM induces incomplete chromosome elements more efficiently than any type of ionizing radiation. The objective of the present study was to evaluate in human lymphocytes the induction of dicentrics and incomplete chromosome elements by BLM. Peripheral blood samples have been treated with different concentrations of BLM. Two cytogenetic techniques were applied, fluorescence plus Giemsa (FPG) and FISH using pan-centromeric and pan-telomeric probes. The observed frequency of dicentric equivalents increases linearly with the BLM concentration, and for all BLM concentrations the distribution of dicentric equivalents was overdispersed. In the FISH study the ratio between total incomplete elements and multicentrics was 0.27. The overdispersion in the dicentric cell distribution, and the linear BLM-concentration dependence of dicentrics can be compared to the effect of high-LET radiation, on the contrary the ratio of incomplete elements and multicentrics is similar to the one induced by low-LET radiation ({approx}0.40). The elevated proportion of interstitial deletions in relation to total acentric fragments, higher than any type of ionizing radiation could be a characteristic signature of the clastogenic effect of BLM.

  16. Induction of complete and incomplete chromosome aberrations by bleomycin in human lymphocytes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bleomycin (BLM) is a clastogenic compound, which due to the overdispersion in the cell distribution of induced dicentrics has been compared to the effect of high-LET radiation. Recently, it has been described that in fibroblast derived cell lines BLM induces incomplete chromosome elements more efficiently than any type of ionizing radiation. The objective of the present study was to evaluate in human lymphocytes the induction of dicentrics and incomplete chromosome elements by BLM. Peripheral blood samples have been treated with different concentrations of BLM. Two cytogenetic techniques were applied, fluorescence plus Giemsa (FPG) and FISH using pan-centromeric and pan-telomeric probes. The observed frequency of dicentric equivalents increases linearly with the BLM concentration, and for all BLM concentrations the distribution of dicentric equivalents was overdispersed. In the FISH study the ratio between total incomplete elements and multicentrics was 0.27. The overdispersion in the dicentric cell distribution, and the linear BLM-concentration dependence of dicentrics can be compared to the effect of high-LET radiation, on the contrary the ratio of incomplete elements and multicentrics is similar to the one induced by low-LET radiation (∼0.40). The elevated proportion of interstitial deletions in relation to total acentric fragments, higher than any type of ionizing radiation could be a characteristic signature of the clastogenic effect of BLM

  17. Organic maturity, hydrous pyrolysis and elastic properties in shales

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zargari, S.; Prasad, M.; Mba, K. C.; Mattson, E. D. [Society of Petroleum Engineers (Canada)

    2011-07-01

    This works focuses on organic-rich shales (ORS), their maturity behavior and the geological and mechanical changes involved. The objective of this work is to investigate the mechanical changes in ORS over time and to help in constructing effective rock models. The ORS were treated as composite materials and their mechanical properties were calculated accordingly. Ten rock samples obtained from different locations and depths in the Bakken region were investigated in this work. Some of the samples were later subjected to a synthetic maturing process. Elastic properties were investigated before and after maturing, and FESEM imaging was performed during the course of this work. Results showed that elasticity modulus increased in naturally matured rocks. Moreover, synthetically maturing the samples caused the modulus to increase in already mature samples and to decrease in less mature samples. Finally, FESEM images were used to analyze kerogen texture changes, it was shown that kerogen particles became smaller and isolated in natural or induced maturing.

  18. M-Plasty for Correction of Incomplete Penoscrotal Transposition

    OpenAIRE

    Manjunath, KN; Venkatesh, MS

    2014-01-01

    Penoscrotal transposition (PST) is a rare anomaly of the external genitalia that can be complete or incomplete while incomplete type is more common. Various surgical methods are described for correction of incomplete PST. Modified Glenn Anderson’s method is commonly used. This method is known to cause major penile lymphoedema following surgery. Various modifications have been described to preserve the dorsal penile skin to reduce this lymphoedema. We present here our experience with M-Plasty,...

  19. Gibbs' theorem for open systems with incomplete statistics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gibbs' theorem, which is originally intended for canonical ensembles with complete statistics has been generalized to open systems with incomplete statistics. As a result of this generalization, it is shown that the stationary equilibrium distribution of inverse power law form associated with the incomplete statistics has maximum entropy even for open systems with energy or matter influx. The renormalized entropy definition given in this paper can also serve as a measure of self-organization in open systems described by incomplete statistics.

  20. Goedel incompleteness theorems and the limits of their applicability. I

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beklemishev, Lev D [Steklov Mathematical Institute, Russian Academy of Sciences, Moscow (Russian Federation)

    2011-01-25

    This is a survey of results related to the Goedel incompleteness theorems and the limits of their applicability. The first part of the paper discusses Goedel's own formulations along with modern strengthenings of the first incompleteness theorem. Various forms and proofs of this theorem are compared. Incompleteness results related to algorithmic problems and mathematically natural examples of unprovable statements are discussed. Bibliography: 68 titles.

  1. The Surprise Examination Paradox and the Second Incompleteness Theorem

    OpenAIRE

    Kritchman, Shira; Raz, Ran

    2010-01-01

    We give a new proof for Godel's second incompleteness theorem, based on Kolmogorov complexity, Chaitin's incompleteness theorem, and an argument that resembles the surprise examination paradox. We then go the other way around and suggest that the second incompleteness theorem gives a possible resolution of the surprise examination paradox. Roughly speaking, we argue that the flaw in the derivation of the paradox is that it contains a hidden assumption that one can prove the consistency of the...

  2. Scalable tensor factorizations with incomplete data.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morup, Morten (Technical University of Denmark); Dunlavy, Daniel M. (Sandia National Laboratories, Albuquerque, NM); Acar, Evrim (Information Technologies Institute, Turkey); Kolda, Tamara Gibson

    2010-07-01

    The problem of incomplete data - i.e., data with missing or unknown values - in multi-way arrays is ubiquitous in biomedical signal processing, network traffic analysis, bibliometrics, social network analysis, chemometrics, computer vision, communication networks, etc. We consider the problem of how to factorize data sets with missing values with the goal of capturing the underlying latent structure of the data and possibly reconstructing missing values (i.e., tensor completion). We focus on one of the most well-known tensor factorizations that captures multi-linear structure, CANDECOMP/PARAFAC (CP). In the presence of missing data, CP can be formulated as a weighted least squares problem that models only the known entries. We develop an algorithm called CP-WOPT (CP Weighted OPTimization) that uses a first-order optimization approach to solve the weighted least squares problem. Based on extensive numerical experiments, our algorithm is shown to successfully factorize tensors with noise and up to 99% missing data. A unique aspect of our approach is that it scales to sparse large-scale data, e.g., 1000 x 1000 x 1000 with five million known entries (0.5% dense). We further demonstrate the usefulness of CP-WOPT on two real-world applications: a novel EEG (electroencephalogram) application where missing data is frequently encountered due to disconnections of electrodes and the problem of modeling computer network traffic where data may be absent due to the expense of the data collection process.

  3. Scalable Tensor Factorizations for Incomplete Data

    CERN Document Server

    Acar, Evrim; Dunlavy, Daniel M; Morup, Morten

    2010-01-01

    The problem of incomplete data - i.e., data with missing or unknown values - in multi-way arrays is ubiquitous in biomedical signal processing, network traffic analysis, bibliometrics, social network analysis, chemometrics, computer vision, communication networks, etc. We consider the problem of how to factorize data sets with missing values with the goal of capturing the underlying latent structure of the data and possibly reconstructing missing values (i.e., tensor completion). We focus on one of the most well-known tensor factorizations that captures multi-linear structure, CANDECOMP/PARAFAC (CP). In the presence of missing data, CP can be formulated as a weighted least squares problem that models only the known entries. We develop an algorithm called CP-WOPT (CP Weighted OPTimization) that uses a first-order optimization approach to solve the weighted least squares problem. Based on extensive numerical experiments, our algorithm is shown to successfully factorize tensors with noise and up to 99% missing d...

  4. Robust Localization from Incomplete Local Information

    CERN Document Server

    Karbasi, Amin

    2011-01-01

    We consider the problem of localizing wireless devices in an ad-hoc network embedded in a d-dimensional Euclidean space. Obtaining a good estimation of where wireless devices are located is crucial in wireless network applications including environment monitoring, geographic routing and topology control. When the positions of the devices are unknown and only local distance information is given, we need to infer the positions from these local distance measurements. This problem is particularly challenging when we only have access to measurements that have limited accuracy and are incomplete. We consider the extreme case of this limitation on the available information, namely only the connectivity information is available, i.e., we only know whether a pair of nodes is within a fixed detection range of each other or not, and no information is known about how far apart they are. Further, to account for detection failures, we assume that even if a pair of devices is within the detection range, it fails to detect t...

  5. Skyline Sets Queries for Incomplete Data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Shamsul Arefin

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available With the increase of data volume, advanced query operators, such as skyline queries, are necessary inorder to help users to handle the huge amount of available data by identifying a set of interesting dataobjects. Skyline queries help us to filter unnecessary information efficiently and provide us clues forvarious decision making tasks.Most of the existing skyline algorithms cannot preserve individual’s privacy and are not well suited fordata with outliers and frequently updated data. Considering these issues, earlier we have proposed skylinesets queries from databases where all dimensions are available for all data items and considered anefficient algorithm for computing convex skyline sets. In this paper, we use that idea for skyline sets queriesfor incomplete data and propose a method, namely, RBSSQ. RBSSQ method uses a replacement-basedapproach and is applicable to the databases having any number of missing dimensions in the databaseobjects. We have conducted several experiments in terms of computational cost and found that ourproposed method can efficiently compute skyline sets from data items with missing values.

  6. CAREER MATURITY OF ADOLESCENTS IN RELATION TO THEIR EMOTIONAL MATURITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ms. Rita Saini,

    Full Text Available The present study attempts to study the relationship between career maturity and emotional maturity of adolescents. It also purports to find out difference between male and female, urban and rural in terms of career maturity and emotional maturity. The simple random sample consists of 240 students selected from twelve schools of Faridabad district. The results revealed a negative relationship between career maturity and emotional maturity. It was also found that male adolescents were better than female adolescents and urban adolescents were better than rural adolescents with regard their career maturity and emotional maturity.

  7. Counseling the Mature Woman

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baribien, Marietta N.

    1971-01-01

    When the mature woman has finished rearing a family, she may face many problems in seeking to reenter the vocational world. A counselor can be of immense help in helping the adult woman overcome many of these problems. (MR)

  8. MATURATION OF POPCORN SEEDS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ANDRÉIA MÁRCIA SANTOS DE SOUZA DAVID

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to analyze the maturation process of the popcorn seeds DFT 2 (selection cycle 2. At approximately 30 days after full blooming, when about 50% of the plants exhibited receptive silks, the first harvest of the seeds was accomplished. The other harvests were accomplished at 7-day intervals until seeds reached approximately 12% moisture content (wet basis, which occurred upon the 10th harvesting. Just after each harvest, the seeds were manually husked, to determine their moisture content and the weight of the dry matter. Also the development of the black layer was visually evaluated. After the last harvesting, the seeds were evaluated for retention on sieves, germination and vigor (modified cold, accelerated aging and electric conductivity tests. The popcorn seeds reach the maximum dry matter weight (mass maturity 68 days after flowering, and the physiological maturity of the seeds (maximum germination and vigor achieves it from 62 to 68 days after blooming. The seeds show humidity in the grade from 17 to 20%, for occasion of the physiological maturity and mass maturity. The black layer is an efficient visual characteristic to identify the physiological maturity of the seeds.

  9. A Clinical Study on Management of Incomplete Abortion by Manual Vacuum Aspiration (MVA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arifa Akter Jahan

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: Abortion is an important social and public health issue. In Bangladesh complication from unsafe abortion is one of the leading causes of maternal mortality. It is a serious health problem. World Health Organisation estimates that 14% of maternal deaths which occur every year in the countries of South Asia including Bangladesh are due to abortion. Study shows manual vacuum aspiration procedure is safe and effective in incomplete abortion. Very few clinical trials were carried out in Bangladesh to assess the safety and effectivity of manual vacuum aspiration in managing incomplete abortion. Objective: To find out the outcome of manual vacuum aspiration in the management of patients of incomplete abortion. Materials and Methods: This observational descriptive study was conducted in the department of Obstetrics & Gynaecology, Dhaka Medical College & Hospital from June to December, 2004. One hundred cases of diagnosed incomplete abortion up to 12 weeks of gestation were managed by manual vacuum aspiration during this period. A data recording sheet was designed for this purpose. Haemodynamically stable patients with no history of induced abortion and fever were enrolled. Results: Procedure time of manual vacuum aspiration was short, average duration was 7 minutes. Bleeding was minimum (20-30 mL in 67% cases and weighted mean was 29.80 mL. Eighty three percent patients were stable during the procedure and only 3% needed blood transfusion. Nonnarcotic analgesics were used in 59% cases and 33% needed only proper counselling. Average duration of hospital stay was 2 hours. Effectiveness of the procedure was about 98% with very low post procedure complication rate (2%. Conclusion: MVA procedure is a safe and effective technique of uterine evacuation in incomplete abortion. It is quick, less expensive, effective and less painful. Hospital stay and chance of perforation of uterus is less. So this procedure should be considered by health care system in Bangladesh for improving treatment of incomplete abortion to reduce both maternal morbidity and mortality.

  10. 19 CFR 122.74 - Incomplete (pro forma) manifest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Incomplete (pro forma) manifest. 122.74 Section 122.74 Customs Duties U.S. CUSTOMS AND BORDER PROTECTION, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY; DEPARTMENT... Aircraft Departing From the United States 122.74 Incomplete (pro forma) manifest. (a)...

  11. Role of arachidonic acid cascade in Rhinella arenarum oocyte maturation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ortiz, Maria Eugenia; Arias-Torres, Ana Josefina; Zelarayn, Liliana Isabel

    2015-08-01

    There are no studies that document the production of prostaglandins (PGs) or their role in Rhinella arenarum oocyte maturation. In this study, we analysed the effect of arachidonic acid (AA) and prostaglandins (PGs) on maturation, activation and pronuclear formation in R. arenarum oocytes. Our results demonstrated that AA was capable of inducing maturation in time-dependent and dose-dependent manner. Arachidonic acid-induced maturation was inhibited by indomethacin. PGs from AA hydrolysis, such as prostaglandin F2? (PGF2?) and, to a lesser extent, PGE2, induced meiosis resumption. Oocyte maturation in response to PGF2? was similar to that produced by progesterone (P4). Oocyte response to PGE1 was scarce. Rhinella arenarum oocyte PGF2?-induced maturation showed seasonal variation. From February to June, oocytes presented low sensitivity to PGF2?. In following periods, this response increased until a maximum was reached during October to January, a close temporal correlation with oocyte response to P4 being observed. The effect of PGF2? on maturation was verified by analysing the capacity of oocytes to activate and form pronuclei after being injected with homologous sperm. The cytological analysis of activated oocytes demonstrated the absence of cortical granules in oocytes, suggesting that PGF2? induces germinal vesicle breakdown (GVBD) and meiosis resumption up to metaphase II. In turn, oocytes matured by the action of PGF2? were able to form pronuclei after fertilization in a similar way to oocyte maturated by P4. In microinjection of mature cytoplasm experiments, the transformation of pre-maturation promoting factor (pre-MPF) to MPF was observed when oocytes were treated with PGF2?. In summary, our results illustrated the participation of the AA cascade and its metabolites in maturation, activation and pronuclei formation in R. arenarum. PMID:24964276

  12. Histology of salmonid testes during maturation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dziewulska, Katarzyna; Domagała, Józef

    2003-03-01

    The commonly applied classification systems of fish gonad maturity divide the maturation process into certain stages. However, the scales do not entirely reflect the continuity of the maturation process. Based on light microscope observations, the paper describes a comprehensive pattern of testicular transformations during maturation. The study was carried out on precocious underyearling and 1-year-old males of sea trout (Salmo trutta m. trutta L.), 1-year-old males of salmon (Salmo salar L.), and males of brown trout (Salmo trutta m. fario L.) aged from 7 months to 4 years. A total of 821 gonads collected during all seasons of the year were examined. The fish were fixed in Bouin's fluid. Histological slides of the mid-part of the gonad were made using the standard paraffin technique. The 3-6 microm sections were stained with Heidenhain haematoxylin. Histological changes of testes during maturation were similar in the three species studied. Immature and resting gonads contained type A spermatogonia in lobules only. The appearance of cystic structures containing type B spermatogonia in the lobules signalled the beginning of the sexual cycle in male gonads. Type B spermatogonia underwent synchronous mitotic divisions resulting in an increase in the total number of spermatogonia. As the spermatogenesis continued, the gonads showed a gradual increase in the number of cysts containing cells at all the spermatogenetic stages: type B spermatogonia, primary and secondary spermatocytes, spermatids, and spermatozoa. The well-formed spermatozoa were released to the lobule lumen once the Sertoli cells and spermatozoa connections broke up and the cyst disappeared. This was a continuous process observed throughout the spawning season. The spermatozoa were moved to the efferent duct. While some of the germ cells were completing spermatogenesis, the lobules contained less and less cysts with type B spermatogonia, primary and secondary spermatocytes, and spermatids; eventually all the cells completed spermatogenesis. At the end of maturation, vacuoles, up to 18.9 microm in final diameter (brown trout), appeared in the Sertoli cells. The vacuoles were visible in the lobule wall epithelium for a prolonged period of time. In most salmonid individuals examined, the reproductive cycles were observed to overlap. In some fish, the preparation for another cycle began very early, i.e., at the and of preceding spermatogenesis, which had not been observed before. Gonad maturation in some males was incomplete. PMID:14666143

  13. Incomplete Pentalogy of Cantrell - A Case Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali, M A; Tazmin, T; Latif, T; Haque, S A; Hossain, M A; Islam, M N; Khan, R H; Hoque, M A

    2016-01-01

    Cantrell's Pentalogy is a rare congenital malformation consists of supraumbilical abdominal wall defect, defect in the lower part of sternum, agenesis of anterior portion of diaphragm, an absence of the diaphragmatic part of the pericardium and intracardiac malformation. This case report presents a female neonate, who was born at 40weeks of gestation weighing 2400gm and was admitted 4 hours after delivery with the complaints of something coming out from chest. On physical examination her vital signs were within normal limit, she had a systolic murmur on heart at lower left sternal area and there was a vascular structure present on the upper part of abdomen which was pulsatile and pulsation was synchronized with cardiac pulsation. On investigation chest X-ray lateral view showed absence of lower part of sternum, echocardiography findings were different in different institutes. Echocardiography findings at Mymensingh medical college hospital (MMCH) were large VSD (Ventriculo septal defect), ASD (Atrial septal defect) and rotated heart. On colour Doppler ultrasonogram at MMCH showed there were VSD, ASD, and a small epigastric swelling which was vascular and appears to be attached to the apex of the heart. On the other hand echocardiography findings of LAB AID hospital in Dhaka were Dextrocardia, complete AV (atrio ventricular) canal defect, almost common atrium, almost single ventricle, common AV valve, double outlet right ventricle (DORV), Cortriatriatum, mild A-V valve regurgitation and severe pulmonary hypertension (PAH). Echocardiography was also done at national heart foundation hospital in Dhaka. Findings were situs solitus, mesocardia to dextrocardia, DORV, large VSD, mild mitral inflow, mild TR (triuspid regurgitation), good LV (left ventricle) and RV (right ventricle) systolic function. Cardiologists at Dhaka in Bangladesh were suggested for surgery. Then the patient was consulted at Naryan Institute of Cardiac Science, Chennai in India. Here echocardiography findings were dextroversion/dextrocardia, DILV (Double inlet left ventricle), large inlet VSD with bidirectional shunt, mild TR, severe PAH with good ventricular function. Cardiologists in India were given comment about this patient. This patient was highly risky for surgery. They advised medical treatment and requested to review after one year. By taking medical treatment patient condition is well except failure to thrive and cyanosis develops during feeding and crying according to the statement of guardian of the patient. This case has 3 criterias among the five criteria of Cantrell's Pentalogy. So, it is incomplete Pentalogy of Cantrell. PMID:26931266

  14. Radiation Processes in an Incompletely Ionized Plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The first part of the paper gives a simple analytical treatment of radiation transfer (line and recombination) in a plasma, assuming full frequency redistribution. A study is made of the effect of the type of kernel of the integral transport equation on the nature of its solutions and the corresponding physical characteristics of the main types of radiation transfer, true diffusion, ''trapping'' and free escape. Some approximate methods of solving the transport equation are analysed, and results are established which do not depend on the type of kernel. The difference between capture and true diffusion, which is known to amount to the difference in the relationship between photon escape time and the dimensions of the system, can also be formulated as the difference between two characteristic lengths, the diffusion length and the quenching length. The difference between diffusion and capture is marked only if there is strong non-equilibrium, and then it appears principally in the intermediate region of optical thicknesses corresponding to the ''pure scattering'' case. However, use of the photon escape time as a kind of phenomenological characteristic means that in this region, too, an approximate solution can be written in the ''invariant'' form. Radiation losses in the final volume of a non-equilibrium plasma are considered, and a relationship is derived between the optical thickness and the degree of non-equilibrium which delineates the regions of volume and surface emission. The range of applicability of the treatment in question is discussed in the light of recent works on related aspects of radiation transfer theory. The second part analyses the quasi-static (Holtzmark) approximation in the theory of Stark broadening' of spectral lines. The limits within which this approximation can be applied are discussed; these limits are imposed by dynamic effects caused both by thermal motion of the perturbing particles themselves and by some external quenching. The treatment is based on a more general approach which reveals the real range of applicability of the frequently used binary approach, and also yields a critical analysis of certain semi-intuitive, evident criteria for the quasi-static state which appear in the literature. Two types of criteria for the quasi-static state, ''modulation'' and ''quenching'', are compared. Some new relationships describing the influence of the dynamic effects mentioned above are given. The third part contains short reviews of a number of contemporary trends in the development of the theory of such phenomena as radiation processes in an incompletely ionized plasma, broadening of lines, radiation transfer, relaxation in multi-level systems, emission in a continuum, fluctuating microfields and certain thermodynamic effects. (author)

  15. Mature Vegetation along Roads

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hyk O.

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The article deals with the issue of vegetation, particularly mature vegetation, along transport routes. Since rather heated discussions on this topic have recently appeared, particularly in relation to road safety, the authors of this article decided to present this issue in wider context and from various viewpoints. The starting point for this issue is mentioned in the introduction. The next part deals with the history of planting tree alleys in the Czech Republic. Subsequently, a brief summary of advantages and drawbacks of mature vegetation along transport routes is presented. The next part of the article discusses the environmental bases and, last but not least, the article deals with the impact of mature vegetation on road safety.

  16. SUMO routes ribosome maturation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finkbeiner, Elisabeth; Haindl, Markus; Raman, Nithya; Muller, Stefan

    2011-01-01

    The control of ribosome biogenesis is a critical cellular nodal point, which ensures that protein synthesis is coordinated with cell growth and proliferation. Prior to their cytoplasmic assembly the 40S and 60S ribosomal subunits pass through the nucleolus and the nucleoplasm via a maturation pathway that involves a set of non-coding RNAs and non-ribosomal regulatory trans-acting factors. In mammalian cells the inventory of the required protein components is still fragmentary and it is largely unclear what drives the subcellular transitions and the exchange of protein components along the maturation pathway. However, recent data indicate that the dynamic post-translational modification by the ubiquitin-like SUMO modifier is critically involved in these processes. In particular, removal of SUMO from trans-acting factors by the SUMO-specific isopeptidase SENP3 is instrumental in the 60S maturation pathway in mammals. In an attempt to pinpoint the relevant targets of SENP3 we identified a novel SENP3-associated protein complex comprised of PELP1, TEX10 and WDR18. We demonstrated that this complex is involved in the nucleolar steps of 28S rRNA maturation and the subsequent nucleoplasmic transit of the 60S ribosomal subunit. Importantly, we found that PELP1 is a SENP3-sensitive target of SUMO and observed that lack of SENP3-mediated desumoylation prevents the nucleolar partitioning of the PELP1-TEX10-WDR18 complex. SUMO-dependent subnuclear trafficking may thus assist in coordinating the rate of ribosome formation. Here we propose that sumoylation of PELP1 serves as a quality control mechanism that restricts pre-mature loading of the PELP1-WDR18-TEX10 complex to 60S particles thereby limiting ribosome maturation. We further hypothesize that the PELP1-associated AAA-ATPase MDN1 may be part of this surveillance pathway. PMID:22064470

  17. Long Maturity Forward Rates

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christiansen, Charlotte

    2001-01-01

    The paper aims to improve the knowledge of the empirical properties of the long maturity region of the forward rate curve. Firstly, the theoretical negative correlation between the slope at the long end of the forward rate curve and the term structure variance is recovered empirically and found to...... be statistically significant. Secondly, the expectations hypothesis is analyzed for the long maturity region of the forward rate curve using "forward rate" regressions. The expectations hypothesis is numerically close to being accepted but is statistically rejected. The findings provide mixed support...

  18. Sexual maturation and administration of 17?-estradiol and testosterone induce complex gene expression changes in skin and increase resistance of Atlantic salmon to ectoparasite salmon louse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krasnov, Aleksei; Wesmajervi Breiland, Mette S; Hatlen, Bjarne; Afanasyev, Sergey; Skugor, Stanko

    2015-02-01

    The crustacean ectoparasitic salmon louse (Lepeophtheirus salmonis) is a major problem of Atlantic salmon aquaculture in the Northern hemisphere. Host-pathogen interactions in this system are highly complex. Resistance to the parasite involves variations in genetic background, nutrition, properties of skin, and status of the endocrine and immune systems. This study addressed the relationship between sex hormones and lice infection. Field observation revealed a sharp reduction of lice prevalence during sexual maturation with no difference between male and female fish. To determine if higher resistance against lice was related to sex hormones, post-smolt salmon were administered control feed and feeds containing 17?-estradiol (20 mg/kg) and testosterone (25 mg/kg) during a 3-week pre-challenge period. After challenge with lice, counts were reduced 2-fold and 1.5-fold in fish that received 17?-estradiol and testosterone, respectively. Gene expression analyses were performed from skin of salmon collected in the field trial and from the controlled lab experiment at three time points (end of feeding-before challenge, 3 days post challenge (dpc) and 16 dpc) using oligonucleotide microarray and qPCR. Differential expression was observed in genes associated with diverse biological processes. Both studies revealed similar changes of several antibacterial acute phase proteins; of note was induction of cathelicidin and down-regulation of a defensin gene. Treatment with hormones revealed their ability to modulate T helper cell (Th)-mediated immunity in skin. Enhanced protection achieved by 17?-estradiol administration might in part be due to the skewing of Th responses away from the prototypic anti-parasitic Th2 immunity and towards the more effective Th1 responses. Multiple genes involved in wound healing, differentiation and remodelling of skin tissue were stimulated during maturation but suppressed with sex hormones. Such opposite regulation suggested that these processes were not associated with resistance to the parasite under the studied conditions. Both studies revealed regulation of a suite of genes encoding putative large mucosal proteins found exclusively in fish. Marked decrease of erythrocyte markers indicated reduced circulation while down-regulation of multiple zymogen granule membrane proteins and transporters of cholesterol and other compounds suggested limited availability of nutrients for the parasites. PMID:25599658

  19. HIFI: a computer code for projectile fragmentation accompanied by incomplete fusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A brief summary of a model proposed to describe projectile fragmentation accompanied by incomplete fusion and the instructions for the use of the computer code HIFI are given. The code HIFI calculates single inclusive spectra, coincident spectra and excitation functions resulting from particle-induced reactions. It is a multipurpose program which can calculate any type of coincident spectra as long as the reaction is assumed to take place in two steps

  20. Evidence of reproductive disruption associated with neuroendocrine changes induced by UV–B filters, phtalates and nonylphenol during sexual maturation in rats of both gender

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Endocrine disruptors (EDs) are exogenous substances or xenoestrogens natural or synthetic, capable of interacting with different systems and altering their normal hormonal regulation, being the reproductive system one of the most affected. EDs produce their effects not only by acting on nuclear steroid receptors, but also on membrane receptors, steroidal and non-steroidal synthetic enzymatic pathways and/or metabolism. The incorporation to the body depend on each EDs, which are liposoluble and easily deposited in the tissue; thus ensuring a prolonged accumulation and release, even when the exposure is not continuous. In addition to cross the placenta, EDs may act in the offspring during the reproductive system formation and maturation key stages and its regulatory mechanisms. The effects of EDs can be multiple, but most acts mediating estrogenic and/or antiandrogenic effect. Three groups of EDs are widely used: in plastics (phtalates), sunscreens (cinnamate and methylbenzylcamphor), and detergents (nonylphenol). In this paper we review the effects of the exposure to these environmental chemicals on the reproductive system and the possible mechanisms by which they occur, focusing in the hypothalamic–pituitary neuroendocrine mechanisms that regulate the reproductive system

  1. Association of anti-nucleoprotein autoantibodies with upregulation of Type I interferon-inducible gene transcripts and dendritic cell maturation in systemic lupus erythematosus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhuang, Haoyang; Narain, Sonali; Sobel, Eric; Lee, Pui Y; Nacionales, Dina C; Kelly, Kindra M; Richards, Hanno B; Segal, Mark; Stewart, Carol; Satoh, Minoru; Reeves, Westley H

    2005-12-01

    Lupus patients selectively produce autoantibodies against nucleoproteins. Since the RNA/DNA components of these autoantigens are endogenous TLR ligands capable of stimulating Type I interferon (IFN-I) production, we asked whether autoantibodies against the ribonucleoproteins Sm/RNP and Ro60 and double-stranded DNA are associated with high levels of IFN-I. IFN-I levels were increased in SLE (n = 88) vs. other autoimmune diseases (n = 82) and controls (n = 57) (P < 0.0001) and were associated positively with autoantibodies against Sm/RNP, Ro60/La, and dsDNA but negatively with anti-phospholipid. Low numbers of circulating plasmacytoid and myeloid dendritic cells also were associated with these autoantibodies. The IFN-I and dendritic cell abnormalities correlated with disease severity and were not therapy-related. These findings suggest that immunostimulatory nucleic acid components of autoantigens may act as endogenous adjuvants by promoting IFN-I production and dendritic cell maturation, helping to explain the high prevalence of autoantibodies against nucleoprotein antigens in SLE. PMID:16126005

  2. Perinatal exposure to benzyl butyl phthalate induces alterations in neuronal development/maturation protein expression, estrogen responses, and fear conditioning in rodents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeBartolo, Danielle; Jayatilaka, Sahani; Yan Siu, Nga; Rose, Melissa; Ramos, Raddy L; Betz, Adrienne J

    2016-02-01

    Phthalate exposure has recently been associated with behavioral actions that are linked to its endocrine-disrupting properties. The purpose of this study was to investigate the molecular, anatomical, and behavioral effects of indirect perinatal benzyl butyl phthalate (BBP) exposure in offspring of BBP-treated pregnant dams. In two separate experiments, we administered BBP (10.0 μg/ml) on food pellets to pregnant dams and examined the offspring. The first experiment revealed reproductive anatomical abnormalities linked to BBP's endocrine-disrupting properties, whereas histological analysis revealed preserved hippocampal neuronal migration. The second experiment demonstrated learning and memory impairments accompanied by molecular abnormalities in multiple brain regions. Offspring from BBP-treated dams had altered levels of several proteins important for neuronal circuitry formation, tissue development, and maturation. We suggest that BBP administration disrupts normal learning and that these effects could be related to alterations in brain development and result in a phenotype similar to that observed in neurodevelopmental disorders. PMID:26376073

  3. WASp stings mature lymphocytes

    OpenAIRE

    Severinson, Eva

    2008-01-01

    WAS is an X-linked immunodeficiency disease caused by mutations in WASp.1 Meyer-Bahlburg and colleagues and Westerberg and colleagues in this issue of Blood have investigated lymphocyte subpopulations in WASp+/- mice and found that WASp confers a selective advantage to the most mature T and B cells.

  4. Incomplete fusion reactions in 16O+165Ho

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Anil Sharma; B Bindu Kumar; S Mukherjee; S Chakrabarty; B S Tomar; A Goswami; G K Gubbi; S B Manohar; A K Sinha; S K Datta

    2000-03-01

    Excitation functions for evaporation residues of the system 16O+165Ho have been measured up to 100 MeV. Recoil range distribution of long lived reaction products were measured at 16O beam energy of 100 MeV. Detailed Monte Carlo simulation of recoil range distributions of products were performed with the help of PACE2 code, in order to extract the contributions of incomplete fusion in the individual channels. The results clearly show the incomplete fusion contributions in the tantalum and thulium products. This is confirmed by the predictions of breakup fusion model of the incomplete fusion.

  5. The topology of integrable systems with incomplete fields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liouville's theorem holds for Hamiltonian systems with complete Hamiltonian fields which possess a complete involutive system of first integrals; such systems are called Liouville-integrable. In this paper integrable systems with incomplete Hamiltonian fields are investigated. It is shown that Liouville's theorem remains valid in the case of a single incomplete field, while if the number of incomplete fields is greater, a certain analogue of the theorem holds. An integrable system on the algebra sl(3) is taken as an example. Bibliography: 11 titles

  6. The topology of integrable systems with incomplete fields

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aleshkin, K R [M.V.Lomonosov Moscow State University, Faculty of Mechanics and Mathematics, Moscow (Russian Federation)

    2014-09-30

    Liouville's theorem holds for Hamiltonian systems with complete Hamiltonian fields which possess acomplete involutive system of first integrals; such systems are called Liouville-integrable. In this paper integrable systems with incomplete Hamiltonian fields are investigated. It is shown that Liouville's theorem remains valid in the case of asingle incomplete field, while if the number of incomplete fields is greater, acertain analogue of the theorem holds. An integrable system on the algebra sl(3) is taken as an example. Bibliography: 11 titles.

  7. Phagocytosis and LPS alter the maturation state of ?-amyloid precursor protein and induce different A? peptide release signatures in human mononuclear phagocytes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kornhuber Johannes

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The classic neuritic ?-amyloid plaque of Alzheimer's disease (AD is typically associated with activated microglia and neuroinflammation. Similarly, cerebrovascular ?-amyloid (A? deposits are surrounded by perivascular macrophages. Both observations indicate a contribution of the mononuclear phagocyte system to the development of ?-amyloid. Methods Human CD14-positive mononuclear phagocytes were isolated from EDTA-anticoagulated blood by magnetic activated cell sorting. After a cultivation period of 72 hours in serum-free medium we assessed the protein levels of amyloid precursor protein (APP as well as the patterns and the amounts of released A? peptides by ELISA or one-dimensional and two-dimensional urea-based SDS-PAGE followed by western immunoblotting. Results We observed strong and significant increases in A? peptide release upon phagocytosis of acetylated low density lipoprotein (acLDL or polystyrene beads and also after activation of the CD14/TLR4 pathway by stimulation with LPS. The proportion of released N-terminally truncated A? variants was increased after stimulation with polystyrene beads and acLDL but not after stimulation with LPS. Furthermore, strong shifts in the proportions of single A?1-40 and A?2-40 variants were detected resulting in a stimulus-specific A? signature. The increased release of A? peptides was accompanied by elevated levels of full length APP in the cells. The maturation state of APP was correlated with the release of N-terminally truncated A? peptides. Conclusions These findings indicate that mononuclear phagocytes potentially contribute to the various N-truncated A? variants found in AD ?-amyloid plaques, especially under neuroinflammatory conditions.

  8. Pharmaceutical Options for Triggering of Final Oocyte Maturation in ART

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Castillo, Juan Carlos; Humaidan, Peter; Bernabéu, Rafael

    2014-01-01

    Since the pioneering days of in vitro fertilization, hCG has been the gold standard to induce final follicular maturation. We herein reviewed different pharmaceutical options for triggering of final oocyte maturation in ART. The new upcoming agent seems to be GnRHa with its potential advantages...

  9. Hairpin Incompletion : An Extension of Bounded Hairpin Completion

    CERN Document Server

    Okubo, Fumiya

    2011-01-01

    Hairpin completion and its restricted variant called bounded hairpin completion are operations on formal languages, inspired by a hairpin formation in molecular biology. We introduce a new operation of this kind, called {\\it hairpin incompletion} which is in fact an extension of bounded hairpin completion. Further, the hairpin incompletion operation provides a formal language theoretic framework that models a bio-molecular technique nowadays known as Whiplash PCR. We study the closure properties of language families under both the operation and its iterated version. We show that a family of languages closed under intersection with regular sets, concatenation with regular sets, and finite union is closed under iterated hairpin incompletion, and that a family of languages containing all linear languages and closed under circular permutation, left derivative and substitution is also closed under iterated hairpin incompletion.

  10. Methodological consequences of Gödel's incompleteness theorem

    OpenAIRE

    Podnieks, Karlis

    1992-01-01

    Published as: K. Podnieks. Methodological consequences of Gödel's incompleteness theorem. European Summer Meeting of the Association for Symbolic Logic, Berlin, 1989. The Journal of Symbolic Logic, Vol. 57, No. 1, March, 1992, pp.326-327

  11. Incomplete Financial Markets and Jumps in Asset Prices

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Crès, Hervé; Markeprand, Tobias Ejnar; Tvede, Mich

    A dynamic pure-exchange general equilibrium model with uncertainty is studied. Fundamentals are supposed to depend continuously on states of nature. It is shown that: 1. if financial markets are complete, then asset prices vary continuously with states of nature, and; 2. if financial markets are...... incomplete, jumps in asset prices may be unavoidable. Consequently incomplete financial markets may increase volatility in asset prices significantly....

  12. Filtering, control and fault detection with randomly occurring incomplete information

    CERN Document Server

    Dong, Hongli; Gao, Huijun

    2013-01-01

    This book investigates the filtering, control and fault detection problems for several classes of nonlinear systems with randomly occurring incomplete information. It proposes new concepts, including RVNs, ROMDs, ROMTCDs, and ROQEs. The incomplete information under consideration primarily includes missing measurements, time-delays, sensor and actuator saturations, quantization effects and time-varying nonlinearities. The first part of this book focuses on the filtering, control and fault detection problems for several classes of nonlinear stochastic discrete-time systems and

  13. ON TWO METHODS OF ANALYSING BALANCED INCOMPLETE BLOCK DESIGNS

    OpenAIRE

    Chigozie Kelechi Acha

    2012-01-01

    The paper briefly discusses the balanced incompleteblock design (BIBDs) and further compares two methods of analyzing them-the classical and vector space analysis of variance (ANOVA) methods. These methods are applied differently to the data arising from the balanced incomplete block designs (BIBDs). The basic interest is to compare the performance of the two methods of analysis on the available data from National Root Crop Research Institute (N.R.C.R.I) Umudike, Abia Sta...

  14. Incomplete spinal cord injury, exercise and life satisfaction

    OpenAIRE

    Lannem, Anne Marie; Sørensen, Marit; Frøslie, Kathrine Frey; Hjeltnes, Nils

    2008-01-01

    STUDY DESIGN: Cross-sectional survey. OBJECTIVE: This study investigates the role of physical exercise, perceived exercise mastery and fitness on life satisfaction of a sample of individuals with incomplete spinal cord injury (SCI). SETTING: Sunnaas Rehabilitation Hospital and the Norwegian School of Sport Sciences, Norway. METHODS: A questionnaire measuring life satisfaction, self-rated physical exercise and self-perceptions were mailed to persons with incomplete SCI. RESULTS: In total, 100 ...

  15. Theorems of Tarski's Undefinability and Godel's Second Incompleteness - Computationally

    OpenAIRE

    Salehi, Saeed

    2015-01-01

    We show that the existence of a finitely axiomatized theory which can prove all the true $\\Sigma_1$ sentences may imply Godel's Second Incompleteness Theorem, by incorporating some bi-theoretic version of the derivability conditions (first discussed by Detlefsen~2001). We also argue that Tarski's theorem on the undefinability of truth is Godel's first incompleteness theorem relativized to definable oracles; here a unification of these two theorems is shown.

  16. Unexpected show up of incomplete fusion at low projectile energies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Singh B.P.

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, some of the important findings of recent measurements performed to study incomplete fusion at low bombarding energies (i.e., Elab ≈ 4-7 MeV/nucleon in 12C, 16O+169Tm systems are briefly summarized. The spin-distributions of xn, pxn, αxn/2αxn- channels have been measured to probe entirely different γ-emission patterns (and feeding intensity profiles during the de-excitation of complete and incomplete fusion objects. Incomplete fusion strength function has been deduced (from the analysis of experimental excitation functions in context of equilibrated compound nucleus decay to achieve information of onset and strength of incomplete fusion in terms of various entrance channel parameters. Presence of incomplete fusion at slightly above barrier energies has been confirmed by the measurement of linear momentum distribution of heavy recoils. Present results conclusively demonstrate, the existence of incomplete fusion at low bombarding energies, its strong dependence on entrance channel parameters, and the possibility to populate high spin states.

  17. Audit Maturity Model

    OpenAIRE

    Bhattacharya Uttam; Rahut Amit Kumar; Sujoy

    2013-01-01

    Today it is crucial for organizations to pay even greater attention on quality management as the importance of this function in achieving ultimate business objectives is increasingly becoming clearer. Importance of the Quality Management Function in achieving basic need by ensuring compliance with Capability Maturity Model Integrated or International Organization for Standardization is a basic demand from business nowadays. However, Quality Management Function and its processes need to be mad...

  18. Enterovirus-71 Virus-Like Particles Induce the Activation and Maturation of Human Monocyte-Derived Dendritic Cells through TLR4 Signaling

    OpenAIRE

    Lin, Yu-Li; Hu, Yu-Chen; Liang, Cheng-Chao; Lin, Shih-Yeh; Liang, Yu-Chih; Yuan, Hui-ping; Chiang, Bor-Luen

    2014-01-01

    Enterovirus 71 (EV71) causes seasonal epidemics of hand-foot-and-mouth disease and has a high mortality rate among young children. We recently demonstrated potent induction of the humoral and cell-mediated immune response in monkeys immunized with EV71 virus-like particles (VLPs), with a morphology resembling that of infectious EV71 virions but not containing a viral genome, which could potentially be safe as a vaccine for EV71. To elucidate the mechanisms through which EV71 VLPs induce cell-...

  19. Water deficit stress tolerance in maize conferred by expression of an isopentenyltransferase (IPT) gene driven by a stress- and maturation-induced promoter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dcima Oneto, Cecilia; Otegui, Mara Elena; Baroli, Irene; Beznec, Ailin; Faccio, Paula; Bossio, Ezequiel; Blumwald, Eduardo; Lewi, Dalia

    2016-02-20

    Senescence can be delayed in transgenic plants overexpressing the enzyme isopentenyltransferase (IPT) due to stress-induced increased levels of endogenous cytokinins. This trait leads to sustained photosynthetic activity and improved tolerance to abiotic stress. The aim of this study was to generate and characterize transgenic plants of maize (Zea mays L.) transformed with the IPT gene sequence under the regulation of SARK promoter (protein kinase receptor-associated senescence). Three independent transgenic events and their segregating null controls were evaluated in two watering regimes (WW: well watered; WD: water deficit) imposed for two weeks around anthesis. Our results show that the WD treatment induced IPT expression with the concomitant increase in cytokinin levels, which prolonged the persistence of total green leaf area, and maintained normal photosynthetic rate and stomatal conductance. These trends were accompanied by a minor decrease in number of grains per plant, individual grain weight and plant grain yield as compared to WW plants. Plants expressing the IPT gene under WD had PGR, anthesis and silking dates and biomass levels similar to WW plants. Our results demonstrate that expression of the IPT gene under the regulation of the SARK promoter helps improve productivity under WD conditions in C4 plants like maize. PMID:26784988

  20. Role of the critical angular momentum on incomplete fusion dynamics above the Coulomb barrier

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The study of incomplete fusion (ICF) of heavy ions (HI) with different targets has been a growing interest at energies above the Coulomb barrier. Observations of HI induced reactions show that at projectile energies above the Coulomb barrier, complete fusion (CF) and incomplete fusion (ICF) are dominant nuclear reaction mechanisms. In case of CF process, the projectile completely fuses with the target nucleus and the highly excited nuclear system decays by evaporating low energy nucleons and alpha particles. Using these experimentally measured total and theoretically calculated total cross-section of ERs, critical angular momentum have been calculated for the above projectile target systems at projectile energy ? 4-7 MeV/nucleon. Role of the ?crit on ICF dynamics above the Coulomb barrier for these two projectile target combinations have been discussed and presented in this paper

  1. Is a decrease in cyclic AMP a necessary and sufficient signal for maturation of amphibian oocytes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gelerstein, S.; Shapira, H.; Dascal, N.; Yekuel, R.; Oron, Y.

    1988-05-01

    Acetylcholine rapidly lowered the intracellular levels of cyclic AMP in stage 5 and 6 Xenopus laevis oocytes. Acetylcholine alone did not induce oocyte maturation, though it did accelerate maturation induced by progesterone. The effect of acetylcholine on oocyte maturation was independent of extracellular calcium concentration. Adenosine increased cyclic AMP and abolished the progesterone-induced decrease in cyclic AMP levels in follicles and in denuded oocytes. This effect of adenosine was blocked by the Ra purinergic receptor antagonist, theophylline. Despite those effects, adenosine alone induced maturation in stage 6 oocytes and accelerated progesterone-induced maturation in both stage 5 and 6 cells. Adenosine also induced a significant increase in the rate of /sup 45/Ca efflux from oocytes in the presence and the absence of external calcium. We suggest that the activation of cell surface receptors involved in the release of calcium from cellular stores may induce or accelerate oocyte maturation independently of small changes in intracellular cyclic AMP concentration.

  2. Observation of incomplete fusion reactions at l < l {sub crit}

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yadav, Abhishek, E-mail: abhishekyadav117@gmail.com; Sharma, Vijay R., E-mail: abhishekyadav117@gmail.com; Singh, Devendra P., E-mail: abhishekyadav117@gmail.com; Unnati,; Singh, B. P.; Prasad, R. [Department of Physics, Aligarh Muslim University, Aligarh (UP) - 202 002 (India); Singh, Pushpendra P. [GSI-Helmholtz Centre for Heavy Ion Research GmbH, D-64291 Darmstadt (Germany); Bala, Indu; Kumar, R.; Muralithar, S.; Singh, R. P. [NP-Group: Inter-University Accelerator Center, Aruna Asaf Ali Marg, New Delhi - 110 067 (India); Sharma, M. K. [Department of Physics, S. V. College, Aligarh- 202 001 (India)

    2014-08-14

    In order to understand the presence of incomplete fusion at low energies i.e. 4-7MeV/nucleon and also to study its dependence on various entrance-channel parameters, the two type of measurements (i) excitation function for {sup 12}C+{sup 159}Tb, and (ii) forward recoil ranges for {sup 12}C+{sup 159}Tb systems have been performed. The experimentally measured excitation functions have been analyzed within the framework of compound nucleus decay using statistical model code PACE4. Analysis of data suggests the production of xn/px)n-channels via complete fusion, as these are found to be well reproduced by PACE4 predictions, while, a significant enhancement in the excitation functions of α-emitting channels has been observed over the theoretical ones, which has been attributed due to the incomplete fusion processes. Further, the incomplete fusion events observed in case of forward recoil range measurements have been explained on the basis of the breakup fusion model, where these events may be attributed to the fusion of {sup 8}Be and/or {sup 4}He from {sup 12}C projectile to the target nucleus. In the present work, the SUMRULE model calculations are found to highly underestimate the observed incomplete fusion cross-sections which indicate that the l-values lower than l {sub crit} (limit of complete fusion) significantly contribute to the incomplete fusion reactions.

  3. Observation of incomplete fusion reactions at l crit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In order to understand the presence of incomplete fusion at low energies i.e. 4-7MeV/nucleon and also to study its dependence on various entrance-channel parameters, the two type of measurements (i) excitation function for 12C+159Tb, and (ii) forward recoil ranges for 12C+159Tb systems have been performed. The experimentally measured excitation functions have been analyzed within the framework of compound nucleus decay using statistical model code PACE4. Analysis of data suggests the production of xn/px)n-channels via complete fusion, as these are found to be well reproduced by PACE4 predictions, while, a significant enhancement in the excitation functions of α-emitting channels has been observed over the theoretical ones, which has been attributed due to the incomplete fusion processes. Further, the incomplete fusion events observed in case of forward recoil range measurements have been explained on the basis of the breakup fusion model, where these events may be attributed to the fusion of 8Be and/or 4He from 12C projectile to the target nucleus. In the present work, the SUMRULE model calculations are found to highly underestimate the observed incomplete fusion cross-sections which indicate that the l-values lower than l crit (limit of complete fusion) significantly contribute to the incomplete fusion reactions

  4. Mature Cystic Renal Teratoma

    OpenAIRE

    Yavuz, Alpaslan; Ceken, Kagan; Alimoglu, Emel; Bahar AKKAYA

    2014-01-01

    Teratomas are rare germline tumors that originate from one or more embryonic germ cell layers. Teratoma of the kidney is extremely rare, and less than 30 cases of primary intrarenal teratomas have been published to date. We report the main radiologic features of an unusual case of mature cystic teratoma arising from the left kidney in a two-year-old boy. A left-sided abdominal mass was detected on physical examination and B-Mod Ultrasound (US) examination revealed a heterogeneous mass with ce...

  5. Sublingual misoprostol versus standard surgical care for treatment of incomplete abortion in five sub-Saharan African countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shochet Tara

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In low-resource settings, where abortion is highly restricted and self-induced abortions are common, access to post-abortion care (PAC services, especially treatment of incomplete terminations, is a priority. Standard post-abortion care has involved surgical intervention but can be hard to access in these areas. Misoprostol provides an alternative to surgical intervention that could increase access to abortion care. We sought to gather additional evidence regarding the efficacy of 400 mcg of sublingual misoprostol vs. standard surgical care for treatment of incomplete abortion in the environments where need for economical non-surgical treatments may be most useful. Methods A total of 860 women received either sublingual misoprostol or standard surgical care for treatment of incomplete abortion in a multi-site randomized trial. Women with confirmed incomplete abortion, defined as past or present history of vaginal bleeding during pregnancy and an open cervical os, were eligible to participate. Participants returned for follow-up one week later to confirm clinical status. If abortion was incomplete at that time, women were offered an additional follow-up visit or immediate surgical evacuation. Results Both misoprostol and surgical evacuation are highly effective treatments for incomplete abortion (misoprostol: 94.4%, surgical: 100.0%. Misoprostol treatment resulted in a somewhat lower chance of success than standard surgical practice (RR = 0.90; 95% CI: 0.89-0.92. Both tolerability of side effects and women’s satisfaction were similar in the two study arms. Conclusion Misoprostol, much easier to provide than surgery in low-resource environments, can be used safely, successfully, and satisfactorily for treatment of incomplete abortion. Focus should shift to program implementation, including task-shifting the provision of post-abortion care to mid- and low- level providers, training and assurance of drug availability. Trial registration This study has been registered at clinicaltrials.gov as NCT00466999 and NCT01539408

  6. Incomplete scan geometries in fast X-ray scanners

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    If the data delivered by an X-ray scanner are not available in a complete grid of scan positions, the reconstructed pictures are degraded by artefacts which are due to the lack of information gathered. The most prominent examples of incomplete scan geometries are: the incomplete range of viewing directions; and the spatial restriction of X-ray irradiation to a region of interest. Both are caused by the requirement of sacrificing some characteristics of conventional scanner geometries, either to get a very rapid scan or a reduction of patient dose without increasing the picture noise. The implications of such restrictions will be described and pictures will be presented which are reconstructed from true scan data which have been made incomplete by means of simulations software. Under certain conditions, unavailable data can be replaced by artificially calculated ones in order to reduce the artefacts. (orig.)

  7. Two Incomplete Kawasaki Disease Cases Presenting With Rare Symptoms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fadıl Vardar

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Early recognition and prompt treatment of Kawasaki disease are essential to ensure a successful outcome of coronary artery involvement. A specific diagnostic test is not available and the diagnosis is based on the presence of characteristic clinical findings. However, in some patients with lack of sufficient clinical signs to fulfill the diagnostic criteria are called incomplete Kawasaki disease. There may be problems in diagnosing infants presenting with rare symptoms. Here we presented two infants diagnosed with incomplete Kawasaki disease who presented with rare symptoms. The first patient presented with a history of persistent fever for seven days, irritability and strawberry tongue. Subsequently erythema with induration was noticed around the BCG site. The second patient presented with fever, maculopapular rash and transient hemiparesis. The coronary abnormalities were observed by echocardiography in both patients. Incomplete Kawasaki disease was diagnosed, and therapy with acetylsalicylic acid and intravenous gamma globulin was initiated in both patients.

  8. THE THEORIES OF INCOMPLETE CONTRACTS IN ANALYZING THE COMPANY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pacala Anca

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Incomplete contracts theories have developed significantly in recent decades, although insistence for rigorous models left little room for empirical research. By formalizing and extending some results from other theories such as transaction costs, incomplete contracts theory tries to analyze the prudence displayed by the parties before the possible opportunistic behavior that would follow completing a contract, especially in the case of specific investments and how the insufficient contractual protection measures can lead to inefficient levels of investment. Even the name - incomplete contracts theory- suggests that the main concern is to consider the limits of contracts, that the contracts fail to specify not only the investment ex ante, but also many other unforeseen items that may appear ex post, and that would be desirable to be introduced in such an arrangement. Explanations can be either the bounded rationality or excessive cost that would involve writing of such contracts.\\r\

  9. Possible communicative cues to syntactic incompleteness in spoken dialogues

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hunyadi, Lszl

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Due to the dynamic nature of dialogues, spoken utterances are often characterized by some degree of fragmentation. This fragmentation is directly reflected by the incompleteness of the syntactic structure of such utterances that represent a considerable challenge for automatic parsing. At the same time, syntactic incompleteness is also a reflection of some cognitive processes underlying the fragmentation of such an interaction. This fragmentation is often accompanied by a set of nonverbal gestures offering thereby the chance to attempt to find certain cues to these cognitive processes by studying the complex of aligning verbal and nonverbal elements. The present paper addresses the issue of the interaction of multimodal markers of conversation with the syntax of spoken utterances to find if certain communicative functions may be cues to the incompleteness of spoken syntax.

  10. Incomplete fuzzy data processing systems using artificial neural network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patyra, Marek J.

    1992-01-01

    In this paper, the implementation of a fuzzy data processing system using an artificial neural network (ANN) is discussed. The binary representation of fuzzy data is assumed, where the universe of discourse is decartelized into n equal intervals. The value of a membership function is represented by a binary number. It is proposed that incomplete fuzzy data processing be performed in two stages. The first stage performs the 'retrieval' of incomplete fuzzy data, and the second stage performs the desired operation on the retrieval data. The method of incomplete fuzzy data retrieval is proposed based on the linear approximation of missing values of the membership function. The ANN implementation of the proposed system is presented. The system was computationally verified and showed a relatively small total error.

  11. New approach for evaluating incomplete and complete fusion cross sections with continuum-discretized coupled-channels method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We propose a new method for evaluating incomplete and complete fusion cross sections separately using the Continuum-Discretized Coupled-Channels method. This method is applied to analysis of the deuteron induced reaction on a 7Li target up to 50 MeV of the deuteron incident energy. Effects of deuteron breakup on this reaction are explicitly taken into account. Results of the method are compared with those of the Glauber model, and the difference between the two is discussed. It is found that the energy dependence of the incomplete fusion cross sections obtained by the present calculation is almost the same as that obtained by the Glauber model, while for the complete fusion cross section, the two models give markedly different energy dependence. We show also that a prescription for evaluating incomplete fusion cross sections proposed in a previous study gives much smaller result than an experimental value. (author)

  12. Incomplete chromosome exchanges are not fingerprints of high LET neutrons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A new fluorescence in situ hybridisation (FISH) technique combining whole chromosome specific DNA libraries with pan-centromeric DNA and telomeric PNA probes was introduced to investigate the induction of chromosome exchanges in human lymphocytes after exposure to low (4 Gy X rays) and high (1 Gy neutrons) linear energy transfer radiation. This combination of probes allowed accurate detection of exchange aberrations involving the painted chromosomes and an unambiguous discrimination between complete and incomplete exchanges, as well as terminal and interstitial deletions. Data obtained in the present study using combined FISH assay with telomeres detection showed no differences between two types of radiation regarding the induction of incomplete exchanges. (author)

  13. Effect of the Target Deformation on Incomplete Fusion Dynamics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Singh D.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available To investigate the role of target deformation on incomplete fusion dynamics, a particle-gamma coincidence experiment has been performed at Inter University Accelerator Centre, New Delhi. Spin distributions for various evaporation residues populated via complete and incomplete fusion of 16O with 124Sn at 6.3MeV/nucleon have been measured. Experimentally measured spin distributions of the residues produced as incomplete fusion products associated with fast α and 2α-emission channels observed in forward cone are found to be distinctly different from those of the residues produced as complete fusion products. The mean value of input angular momentum J0 for evaporation residues produced through xn channels (complete fusion products is found to be J0≈ 7ħ, while the mean value of input angular momentum J0 for the residues produced through direct αxn and 2αxn channels (incomplete fusion products in forward cone, are found to be J0 ≈ 9ħ and ≈ 12ħ respectively for 16O + 124Sn (spherical system [7]. The mean value of input angular momentum J0 for the system 16O + 169Tm (deformed reported in ref. [8], are found to be ≈10ħ for xn-channels (complete fusion products and for direct αxn and 2αxn channels (incomplete fusion products the value of J0 approaches to ≈ 13ħ and ≈16ħ, respectively. The mean values of the input angular momentum observed for xn (complete fusion products, αxn and 2αxn (incomplete fusion products in 16O + 124Sn (spherical system are smaller than that of the mean values of the input angular momentum observed for xn (complete fusion products, αxn and 2αxn (incomplete fusion products in 16O + 169Tm (deformed system. The comparison of data inferred that the mean values of the input angular momentum are smaller in case of spherical target than that of deformed target at same projectile energy of 16O-ion beam. It means that the target deformation affect the incomplete fusion dynamics.

  14. A Revision to Godel’s Incompleteness Theorem by Neutrosophy

    OpenAIRE

    Fu, Yuhua

    2008-01-01

    According to Smarandache’s neutrosophy, the G¨odel’s incompleteness theorem contains the truth, the falsehood, and the indeterminacy of a statement under consideration. It is shown in this paper that the proof of G¨odel’s incompleteness theorem is faulty, because all possible situations are not considered (such as the situation where from some axioms wrong results can be deducted, for example, from the axiom of choice the paradox of the doublin...

  15. Systematics of incomplete fusion probability and its correlation with complete fusion suppression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali, Sabir; Kumar, Kamal; Ahmad, Tauseef; Rizvi, I. A.; Agarwal, Avinash; Chaubey, A. K.

    2013-04-01

    The mechanism for the suppression of complete fusion, induced by different light alpha cluster projectiles (Z ≤ 10) on 51V target has been investigated through the measurement of break-up of the projectiles into different alpha fragments. The results from the present systems show substantial components from incomplete fusion in addition to complete fusion. The measurements also show significant reduction of complete fusion cross-section above the barrier energies for all the reactions when compared with the theoretical prediction of CCFULL code. CCFULL is a program that calculates fusion cross-sections and mean angular momenta of the compound nucleus under the influence of coupling between the relative motion and several collective nuclear motions. Moreover, measurements also show a systematics in complete fusion suppression with respect to CCFULL calculation, suggesting that the extent of suppression of complete fusion cross-sections is correlated with the alpha Q-value of the projectiles. Also, all the reactions were found to produce incomplete fusion products at energies near the respective Coulomb barriers with the alpha-particle emanating channel being the favored incomplete fusion process in all the cases.

  16. Maduracin visual retardada / Delayed visual maturation

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Yolelvis, Monfort Estvez; Teresita de Jess, Mndez Snchez.

    Full Text Available Retraso en la maduracin visual es el trmino utilizado para describir aquellos nios con incapacidad de fijar o seguir objetos en el ambiente, que no responden ante la proximidad de un objeto amenazante o un destello de luz, por ejemplo, abrir y cerrar los ojos; pero luego mejora a la edad de 6 mes [...] es sin tratamiento. Se incluyen dentro de las posibles causas la falta de oxgeno antes, durante o despus del nacimiento, enfermedades producidas por virus o bacterias como la meningitis y el citomegalovirus, o una lesin traumtica,aunque hoy en da queda poco consenso en cuanto a la etiologa de este fenmeno. Estos nios con retraso en la maduracin visual parecen ciegos, incapaces de centrar la atencin, fijar o seguir cualquier parte del mundo visual. La exploracin ocular y neurolgica del nio es completamente normal. Los sntomas se resuelven sin tratamiento y con frecuencia, no se encuentra ninguna causa para la presentacin inicial. El retraso en la maduracin visual se clasifica en 3 grupos: el primero con retraso en la maduracin visual como nica anomala y una recuperacin rpida y completa. El segundo incluye aquellos casos con problemas oculares, como estrabismo, error refractivo elevado, retraso mental, entre otros, logrando una recuperacin ms lenta y a menudo incompleta. El tercer grupo incluye los casos con otras anomalas oculares. Abstract in english Delayed visual maturation is the term used to describe those children with inability to fix their eyes with the object or to visually follow them in the environment, who do not react to a threatening object or a gleam of light close to them, for example, by opening and closing their eyes. However, t [...] hey generally improve their condition at the age of 6 months without any treatment. The possible causes of this disorder may be lack of oxygen, before, during or after birth, illnesses caused by viruses or bacteria, such as meningitis and cytomegalovirus, or a traumatic lesion, although there exists now minority consensus about the real etiology of this phenomenon. The children suffering delayed visual maturation seem to be blind, unable to focus attention, fix or visually follow any portion of the visual world. Ocular and neurological examination of the child is completely normal. Symptoms disappear without any treatment and the cause for the initial occurrence is usually unfound. The delayed visual maturation is classified into 3 groups, the first group with delayed visual maturation as the only anomaly and a quick and complete recovery. The second group includes those cases with ocular problems, namely strabismus, high refractive error, mental retardation, and others, in which recovery is slower and often incomplete. The third group includes cases with other ocular anomalies.

  17. Mature Cystic Renal Teratoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Teratomas are rare germline tumors that originate from one or more embryonic germ cell layers. Teratoma of the kidney is extremely rare, and less than 30 cases of primary intrarenal teratomas have been published to date. We report the main radiologic features of an unusual case of mature cystic teratoma arising from the left kidney in a two-year-old boy. A left-sided abdominal mass was detected on physical examination and B-Mod Ultrasound (US) examination revealed a heterogeneous mass with central cystic component. Computed tomography (CT) demonstrated a lobulated, heterogeneous, hypodense mass extending craniocaudally from the splenic hilum to the level of the left iliac fossa. Nephrectomy was performed and a large, fatty mass arising from the left kidney was excised. The final pathologic diagnosis was confirmed as cystic renal teratoma

  18. Antibody affinity maturation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skjødt, Mette Louise

    Yeast surface display is an effective tool for antibody affinity maturation because yeast can be used as an all-in-one workhorse to assemble, display and screen diversified antibody libraries. By employing the natural ability of yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae to efficiently recombine multiple DNA...... fragments by in vivo homologous recombination large combinatorial antibody libraries can easily be generated. We have optimized ordered assembly of three CDR fragments into a gapped vector and observed increased transformation efficiency in a yeast strain carrying a deletion of the SGS1 helicase......-encoding gene. The SGS1 deletion was combined with deletions of the three protease-encoding genes PEP4, PRB1 and YPS1 to increase stability of the displayed antibody molecules. A display system based on cell surface anchoring via the cell wall protein Flo1 was developed and using a model antibody we analyzed...

  19. Information Security Maturity Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Information Security Maturity Model

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available To ensure security, it is important to build-in security in both the planning and the design phases andadapt a security architecture which makes sure that regular and security related tasks, are deployedcorrectly. Security requirements must be linked to the business goals. We identified four domains thataffect security at an organization namely, organization governance, organizational culture, thearchitecture of the systems, and service management. In order to identify and explore the strength andweaknesses of particular organizations security, a wide range model has been developed. This model isproposed as an information security maturity model (ISMM and it is intended as a tool to evaluate theability of organizations to meet the objectives of security.

  20. Study of incomplete fusion dynamics: analysis of excitation functions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    With a view to study complete fusion and incomplete fusion in several projectile target combinations, a programme of precise measurements of cross-sections and analysis of excitation functions has been undertaken. As a part of the ongoing programme, excitation functions for six reactions in 16O + 169Tm system have been measured

  1. Maximum likelihood estimation for complete or incomplete discrete data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Selvin, S

    1980-04-01

    A computer program is presented that provides estimates of parameters from mathematical models describing discrete data. The program calculates maximum likelihood estimates for both complete and incomplete cases. Also included are the standard errors of the estimates, the expected values and a chi-square criterion for assessing 'goodness of fit". PMID:7389319

  2. Incomplete Andreev reflection in a clean SFS junction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We study the stationary Josephson effect in a ballistic superconductor/ferromagnet/superconductor junction for arbitrarily large spin polarizations. Due to the exchange interaction in the ferromagnet, the Andreev reflection is incomplete. We describe how this effect modifies the Josephson current in the crossover from a superconductor/normal metal/superconductor junction to a superconductor/half metal/superconductor junction

  3. Root cause of incomplete control rod insertions at Westinghouse reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Within the past year, incomplete RCCA insertions have been observed on high burnup fuel assemblies at two Westinghouse PWRs. Initial tests at the Wolf Creek site indicated that the direct cause of the incomplete insertions observed at Wolf Creek was excessive fuel assembly thimble tube distortion. Westinghouse committed to the NRC to perform a root cause analysis by the end of August, 1996. The root cause analysis process used by Westinghouse included testing at ten sites to obtain drag, growth and other characteristics of high burnup fuel assemblies. It also included testing at the Westinghouse hot cell of two of the Wolf Creek incomplete insertion assemblies. A mechanical model was developed to calculate the response of fuel assemblies when subjected to compressive loads. Detailed manufacturing reviews were conducted to determine if this was a manufacturing related issue. In addition, a review of available worldwide experience was performed. Based on the above, it was concluded that the thimble tube distortion observed on the Wolf Creek incomplete insertion assemblies was caused by unusual fuel assembly growth over and above what would typically be expected as a result of irradiation exposure. It was determined that the unusual growth component is a combination of growth due to oxide accumulation and accelerated growth, and would only be expected in high temperature plants on fuel assemblies that see long residence times and high power duties

  4. Entrance channel effect in the incomplete fusion reactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the present work the effect of various entrance channel parameters on incomplete fusion strength and the reaction dynamics in 12C+159Tb system at energies ∼ 4-7 MeV/A have been investigated by measuring the excitation functions of individual reaction channels. Experimental excitation functions have been analyzed in the framework of compound nucleus decay using statistical model code PACE4. Analysis of data suggests the production of xn/pxn-channels via complete fusion of 12C with 159Tb, as these are found to be well reproduced by PACE4 predictions, while, a significant enhancement in the excitation functions of α-emitting channels has been observed over the theoretical ones. This enhancement has been attributed due to incomplete fusion. For better insight into the underlying dynamics, the fraction of incomplete fusion to the total fusion has been deduced and compared with 16O+159Tb and other nearby systems as a function of various entrance channel parameters. The fraction of incomplete fusion has been found to be sensitive to the projectile type, energy and entrance-channel mass-asymmetry. (authors)

  5. The AI&M procedure for learning from incomplete data

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jaeger, Manfred

    We investigate methods for parameter learning from incomplete data that is not missing at random. Likelihood-based methods then require the optimization of a profile likelihood that takes all possible missingness mechanisms into account. Optimizing this profile likelihood poses two main difficult...

  6. Nonallelic heterogeneity in autosomal dominant retinitis pigmentosa with incomplete penetrance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, S.K.; Berson, E.L.; Dryja, T.P. [Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA (United States)] [and others

    1994-08-01

    Retinitis pigmentosa is a group of retinal diseases in which photoreceptor cells throughout the retina degenerate. Although there is considerable genetic heterogeneity (autosomal dominant, autosomal recessive, and X-linked forms exist), there is a possibility that some clinically defined subtypes of the disease may be the result of mutations at the same locus. One possible clinically defined subtype is that of autosomal dominant retinitis pigmentosa (ADRP) with incomplete penetrance. Whereas in most families with ADRP, carriers can be clearly identified because of visual loss, ophthalmological findings, or abnormal electroretinograms (ERGs), in occasional families some obligate carriers are asymptomatic and have normal or nearly normal ERGs even late in life. A recent paper reported the mapping of the diseases locus in one pedigree (designated adRP7) with ADRP with incomplete penetrance to chromosome 7p. To test the idea that ADRP with incomplete penetrance may be genetically homogeneous, we have evaluated whether a different family with incomplete penetrance also has a disease gene linked to the same region. 4 refs., 1 fig., 1 tab.

  7. Entrance channel effect in the incomplete fusion reactions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Singh B.P.

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available In the present work the effect of various entrance channel parameters on incomplete fusion strength and the reaction dynamics in 12C+159Tb system at energies ? 4-7MeV/A have been investigated by measuring the excitation functions of individual reaction channels. Experimental excitation functions have been analyzed in the framework of compound nucleus decay using statistical model code PACE4. Analysis of data suggests the production of xn/pxn-channels via complete fusion of 12C with 159Tb, as these are found to be well reproduced by PACE4 predictions, while, a significant enhancement in the excitation functions of ?-emitting channels has been observed over the theoretical ones. This enhancement has been attributed due to incomplete fusion. For better insight into the underlying dynamics, fraction of incomplete fusion to the total fusion has been deduced and compared with 16O+159Tb and other nearby systems as a function of various entrance channel parameters. The fraction of incomplete fusion has been found to be sensitive to the projectile type, energy and entrance-channel mass-asymmetry.

  8. 49 CFR 529.4 - Requirements for incomplete automobile manufacturers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... determined by the incomplete automobile manufacturer for the automobile in accordance with 40 CFR part 600... economy label specified in paragaph (b)(2) of this section to that automobile in accordance with 40 CFR... take into account the presence of air conditioning. (2) A fuel economy label conforming with 40...

  9. Root cause of incomplete control rod insertions at Westinghouse reactors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ray, S. [Westinghouse, Monroeville, PA (United States)

    1997-01-01

    Within the past year, incomplete RCCA insertions have been observed on high burnup fuel assemblies at two Westinghouse PWRs. Initial tests at the Wolf Creek site indicated that the direct cause of the incomplete insertions observed at Wolf Creek was excessive fuel assembly thimble tube distortion. Westinghouse committed to the NRC to perform a root cause analysis by the end of August, 1996. The root cause analysis process used by Westinghouse included testing at ten sites to obtain drag, growth and other characteristics of high burnup fuel assemblies. It also included testing at the Westinghouse hot cell of two of the Wolf Creek incomplete insertion assemblies. A mechanical model was developed to calculate the response of fuel assemblies when subjected to compressive loads. Detailed manufacturing reviews were conducted to determine if this was a manufacturing related issue. In addition, a review of available worldwide experience was performed. Based on the above, it was concluded that the thimble tube distortion observed on the Wolf Creek incomplete insertion assemblies was caused by unusual fuel assembly growth over and above what would typically be expected as a result of irradiation exposure. It was determined that the unusual growth component is a combination of growth due to oxide accumulation and accelerated growth, and would only be expected in high temperature plants on fuel assemblies that see long residence times and high power duties.

  10. Effect of relative velocity on incomplete fusion dynamics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In order to study the effect of relative velocity on incomplete fusion dynamics, experiments have been performed using 20Ne and 16O-ion beams delivered from VECC-machine (Kolkata) and 15UD Pelletron (New Delhi). The details of the experimental set-up are given elsewhere. Activation technique has been used for the present measurements

  11. Vulvar myiasis following suction and evacuation for incomplete abortion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Anju; Goel, Bharti; Rani, Shikha

    2015-07-01

    Myiasis is caused by fly larva capable of penetrating healthy or necrotic tissue, usually in tropical and subtropical countries. The involvement of an exposed area is common; however it may very rarely involve the genital region. We present a rare case of vulvar myiasis which occurred after suction and evacuation performed for incomplete abortion. PMID:25740831

  12. Pricing the Option to Surrender in Incomplete Markets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Consiglio, Andrea; De Giovanni, Domenico

    encompasses the most known sources of incompleteness. We show that the surrender option, joined with a wide range of claims embedded in insurance contracts, can be priced through our tool, and deliver hedging portfolios to mitigate the risk arising from their positions. We provide extensive empirical analysis...

  13. New experimental evidence on the incomplete transformation phenomenon in steel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this work, the carbon distribution in austenite during isothermal bainite formation and the incomplete reaction phenomenon was analyzed by means of X-ray diffraction and atom-probe tomography in high-silicon, manganese-alloyed steels. The results provide new evidence on the temporary cessation of bainitic ferrite formation at abnormally low transformation temperatures

  14. Parameter learning in MTE networks using incomplete data

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fernández, Antonio; Langseth, Helge; Nielsen, Thomas Dyhre; Salmerón, Antonio

    considerable computational burden as well as the inability to handle missing values in the training data. In this paper we describe an EM-based algorithm for learning the maximum likelihood parameters of an MTE network when confronted with incomplete data. In order to overcome the computational difficulties we...

  15. Incompleteness of Representation Theory: Hidden Symmetries and Quantum Nonintegrability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Representation theory is shown to be incomplete in terms of enumerating all integrable limits of quantum systems. As a consequence, one can find exactly solvable Hamiltonians which have apparently strongly broken symmetry. The number of these hidden symmetries depends upon the realization of the Hamiltonian. copyright 1997 The American Physical Society

  16. Incomplete inversion of the hippocampus - a common developmental anomaly

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Incomplete inversion of the hippocampus, an imperfect fetal development, has been described in patients with epilepsy or severe midline malformations. We studied this condition in a nonepileptic population without obvious developmental anomalies. We analyzed the coronal MR images of 50 women and 50 men who did not have epilepsy. Twenty of them were healthy volunteers and 80 were patients without obvious intracranial developmental anomalies, intracranial masses, hydrocephalus or any condition affecting the temporal lobes. If the entire hippocampus (the head could not be evaluated) were affected, the incomplete inversion was classified as total, otherwise as partial. Incomplete inversion of the hippocampus was found in 19/100 subjects (9 women, 10 men). It was unilateral, always on the left side, in 13 subjects (4 women, 9 men): 9 were of the total type, 4 were partial. It was bilateral in six subjects (five women, one man): four subjects had total types bilaterally, two had a combination of total and partial types. The collateral sulcus was vertically oriented in all subjects with a deviating hippocampal shape. We conclude that incomplete inversion of the hippocampus is not an unusual morphologic variety in a nonepileptic population without other obvious intracranial developmental anomalies. (orig.)

  17. Limit Pricing with Incomplete Information: Answers to Frequently Asked Questions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sorenson, Timothy L.

    2004-01-01

    Strategic pricing is an important and exciting topic in industrial organization and the economics of strategy. A wide range of texts use what has become a standard version of the Milgrom and Roberts (1982a) limit-pricing model to convey the essential ideas of strategic pricing under incomplete information. In addition to providing a formal, but

  18. On a continuous time game with incomplete information

    CERN Document Server

    Cardaliaguet, Pierre

    2008-01-01

    For zero-sum two-player continuous-time games with integral payoff and incomplete information on one side, one shows that the optimal strategy of the informed player can be computed through an auxiliary optimization problem over some martingale measures. One also characterizes the optimal martingale measures and compute it explicitely in several examples.

  19. New experimental evidence on the incomplete transformation phenomenon in steel

    OpenAIRE

    García Caballero, Francisca; García Mateo, Carlos; Santofimia, M. J.; Miller, M K; García de Andrés, Carlos

    2009-01-01

    The aim of this work is to analyse the carbon distribution in austenite during isothermal bainite formation and the incomplete reaction phenomenon by means of X-ray diffraction analysis and atom-probe tomography in high silicon, manganese alloyed steels. Results will provide new evidence on the temporary cessation of bainitic ferrite formation at abnormally low transformation temperatures.

  20. Is there incomplete fusion mechanism beyond 100A MeV?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Presented is a universal description of the generalized fusion excitation function which indicates that the fusion reaction mechanism should vanish at center-of-mass energy per nucleon of about 13 MeV/nucleon independently of the specific heavy-ion reaction system. Placing reliance on this result and comforted by semiclassical transport model simulations we suggest that the proposed persistence of the incomplete fusion cross sections in the measurement of the 14N induced reactions on heavy targets at beam energies between 100A and 155A MeV should be attributed to a geometrical participant-spectator-like reaction mechanism

  1. Is there incomplete fusion mechanism beyond 100A MeV?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eudes, P. [SUBATECH, EMN-IN2P3/CNRS-Université de Nantes, Nantes (France); Basrak, Z., E-mail: basrak@irb.hr [Ruđer Bošković Institute, Zagreb (Croatia); Mota, V. de la; Royer, G. [SUBATECH, EMN-IN2P3/CNRS-Université de Nantes, Nantes (France)

    2014-10-15

    Presented is a universal description of the generalized fusion excitation function which indicates that the fusion reaction mechanism should vanish at center-of-mass energy per nucleon of about 13 MeV/nucleon independently of the specific heavy-ion reaction system. Placing reliance on this result and comforted by semiclassical transport model simulations we suggest that the proposed persistence of the incomplete fusion cross sections in the measurement of the {sup 14}N induced reactions on heavy targets at beam energies between 100A and 155A MeV should be attributed to a geometrical participant-spectator-like reaction mechanism.

  2. Closed-Form Bounds to the Rice and Incomplete Toronto Functions and Incomplete Lipschitz-Hankel Integrals

    CERN Document Server

    Sofotasios, Paschalis C

    2011-01-01

    This article provides novel analytical results for the Rice function, the incomplete Toronto function and the incomplete Lipschitz-Hankel Integrals. Firstly, upper and lower bounds are derived for the Rice function, $Ie(k,x)$. Secondly, explicit expressions are derived for the incomplete Toronto function, $T_{B}(m,n,r)$, and the incomplete Lipschitz-Hankel Integrals of the modified Bessel function of the first kind, $Ie_{\\mu,n}(a,z)$, for the case that $n$ is an odd multiple of 0.5 and $m \\geq n$. By exploiting these expressions, tight upper and lower bounds are subsequently proposed for both $T_{B}(m,n,r)$ function and $Ie_{\\mu,n}(a,z)$ integrals. Importantly, all new representations are expressed in closed-form whilst the proposed bounds are shown to be rather tight. Based on these features, it is evident that the offered results can be utilized effectively in analytical studies related to wireless communications. Indicative applications include, among others, the performance evaluation of digital communica...

  3. Emotional Maturity: Characteristics and Levels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dr. Umesh Chandra Kapri

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available "Mature" means a completed natural growth. Emotional maturity is not related to physical maturity which is expected to be but, does not grow with our chronological age. Emotionally mature people are sensible who do not whine, crib or play the blame game. They have full control over their lives. They reflect on their lives and on the role that they play in other peoples lives. Emotionally mature people lead a well-adjusted life due to their healthy outlook on life. There are various levels of emotional maturity. The final level is emotional detachment which is the direct consequence of the true understanding of emotions and therefore, letting go of all the emotions, either good or bad and feeling happy. Emotional maturity is a significant predictor of the level of success that an individual achieves in his/her lifetime. Success includes wealth, general level of happiness, self-confidence, success in relationships, etc. where emotional maturity plays a significant role to get success.

  4. Robust Sparse Representation for Incomplete and Noisy Data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiarong Shi

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Owing to the robustness of large sparse corruptions and the discrimination of class labels, sparse signal representation has been one of the most advanced techniques in the fields of pattern classification, computer vision, machine learning and so on. This paper investigates the problem of robust face classification when a test sample has missing values. Firstly, we propose a classification method based on the incomplete sparse representation. This representation is boiled down to an l1 minimization problem and an alternating direction method of multipliers is employed to solve it. Then, we provide a convergent analysis and a model extension on incomplete sparse representation. Finally, we conduct experiments on two real-world face datasets and compare the proposed method with the nearest neighbor classifier and the sparse representation-based classification. The experimental results demonstrate that the proposed method has the superiority in classification accuracy, completion of the missing entries and recovery of noise.

  5. Quantum Stackelberg Duopoly with Continuous Distributed Incomplete Information

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A general model of the quantum Stackelberg duopoly is constructed by introducing the 'minimal' quantum structure into the Stackelberg duopoly with continuous distributed incomplete information, where both players only know the continuous distribution of the competitor's unit cost. In this model, the cases with complete information, discrete distributed incomplete information, and continuous distributed asymmetric information are all involved. Because of different roles played by the total information uncertainty and the information asymmetry, the game exhibits some new interesting features, such as the total information uncertainty can counteract or improve the first-mover advantage according to the value of the quantum entanglement. What's more, this general model will be helpful for the government to reduce the abuses of oligopolistic competition and to improve the economic efficiency

  6. Quantum Stackelberg Duopoly with Continuous Distributed Incomplete Information

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xia; Hu, Cheng-Zheng

    2012-12-01

    A general model of the quantum Stackelberg duopoly is constructed by introducing the minimal" quantum structure into the Stackelberg duopoly with continuous distributed incomplete information, where both players only know the continuous distribution of the competitor's unit cost. In this model, the cases with complete information, discrete distributed incomplete information, and continuous distributed asymmetric information are all involved. Because of different roles played by the total information uncertainty and the information asymmetry, the game exhibits some new interesting features, such as the total information uncertainty can counteract or improve the first-mover advantage according to the value of the quantum entanglement. What's more, this general model will be helpful for the government to reduce the abuses of oligopolistic competition and to improve the economic efficiency.

  7. Incomplete RCCA Insertion Observations in Westinghouse-Fueled Plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper (a series of slides) describes some incomplete RCCA insertion events (1995-1996) in Westinghouse-fueled plants. It presents the safety assessments that have been conducted, the determination of susceptible plants and root cause, a site testing program that has been completed and its results, hot cell testing and results, a review of manufacturing and material properties, industry and operational experience, mechanical model conclusions, and susceptible design evaluation. As a conclusion, the incomplete RCCA insertion was due to excessive thimble tube distortion, distortion caused by excessive fuel assembly compressive load, and compressive load caused by high fuel assembly growth. The high growth is due to a combination of oxide accumulation, accelerated growth, both being temperature sensitive; the high growth is only observed in high temperature plants with certain types of power histories

  8. Causal Incompleteness: A New Perspective on Quantum Non-locality

    CERN Document Server

    Palmer, T N

    2005-01-01

    The mathematical notion of incompleteness (eg of rational numbers, Turing-computable functions, and arithmetic proof) does not play a key role in conventional physics. Here, a reformulation of the kinematics of quantum theory is attempted, based on an inherently granular and discontinuous state space, in which the quantum wavefunction is associated with a finite set of finite bit strings, and the unitary transformations of complex Hilbert space are reformulated as finite permutation and related operators incorporating complex and hyper-complex structure. Such a reformulation, consistent with Wheeler's `It from Bit' programme, provides the basis for a novel interpretation of the Bell theorem: that the experimental violation of the Bell inequalities reveals the inevitable incompleteness of the causal structure of physical theory. The kinematic reformulation of quantum theory so developed, provides a new perspective on the age-old dichotomy of free will versus determinism.

  9. Einstein's Boxes: Incompleteness of Quantum Mechanics Without a Separation Principle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Held, Carsten

    2015-09-01

    Einstein made several attempts to argue for the incompleteness of quantum mechanics (QM), not all of them using a separation principle. One unpublished example, the box parable, has received increased attention in the recent literature. Though the example is tailor-made for applying a separation principle and Einstein indeed applies one, he begins his discussion without it. An analysis of this first part of the parable naturally leads to an argument for incompleteness not involving a separation principle. I discuss the argument and its systematic import. Though it should be kept in mind that the argument is not the one Einstein intends, I show how it suggests itself and leads to a conflict between QM's completeness and a physical principle more fundamental than the separation principle, i.e. a principle saying that QM should deliver probabilities for physical systems possessing properties at definite times.

  10. Consumption-Portfolio Optimization with Recursive Utility in Incomplete Markets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kraft, Holger; Seifried, Frank Thomas; Steffensen, Mogens

    2013-01-01

    In an incomplete market, we study the optimal consumption-portfolio decision of an investor with recursive preferences of Epstein–Zin type. Applying a classical dynamic programming approach, we formulate the associated Hamilton–Jacobi–Bellman equation and provide a suitable verification theorem....... The proof of this verification theorem is complicated by the fact that the Epstein–Zin aggregator is non-Lipschitz, so standard verification results (e.g. in Duffie and Epstein, Econometrica 60, 393–394, 1992) are not applicable. We provide new explicit solutions to the Bellman equation with Epstein......–Zin preferences in an incomplete market for non-unit elasticity of intertemporal substitution (EIS) and apply our verification result to prove that they solve the consumption-investment problem. We also compare our exact solutions to the Campbell–Shiller approximation and assess its accuracy....

  11. Consumption-Portfolio Optimization with Recursive Utility in Incomplete Markets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kraft, Holger; Seifried, Frank Thomas; Steffensen, Mogens

    2013-01-01

    In an incomplete market, we study the optimal consumption-portfolio decision of an investor with recursive preferences of EpsteinZin type. Applying a classical dynamic programming approach, we formulate the associated HamiltonJacobiBellman equation and provide a suitable verification theorem....... The proof of this verification theorem is complicated by the fact that the EpsteinZin aggregator is non-Lipschitz, so standard verification results (e.g. in Duffie and Epstein, Econometrica 60, 393394, 1992) are not applicable. We provide new explicit solutions to the Bellman equation with Epstein......Zin preferences in an incomplete market for non-unit elasticity of intertemporal substitution (EIS) and apply our verification result to prove that they solve the consumption-investment problem. We also compare our exact solutions to the CampbellShiller approximation and assess its accuracy....

  12. Cooperation under Incomplete Information on the Discount Factors

    CERN Document Server

    Maor, C

    2010-01-01

    In the repeated Prisoner's Dilemma, when every player has a different discount factor, the grim-trigger strategy is an equilibrium if and only if the discount factor of each player is higher than some threshold. What happens if the players have incomplete information regarding the discount factors? In this work we look at repeated games in which each player has incomplete information regarding the other player's discount factor, and ask when a pair of grim-trigger strategies is an equilibrium. We provide necessary and sufficient conditions for such strategies to be an equilibrium. We characterize the states of the world in which the strategies are not triggered, i.e., the players cooperate, in such equilibria (or $\\epsilon$-equilibria), and ask whether these "cooperation events" are close to those in the complete information case, when the information is "almost" complete, in several senses.

  13. Incomplete dicephalous conjoined twins: prenatal US and MRI findings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The authors report a case of incomplete dicephali conjoined twins, with prenatal diagnostic by ultrasound scan and confirmed with nuclear magnetic resonance. In this case the fetus presented two complete heads and necks, two parallel columns up to the coccyx, one single body, two complete arms and two complete legs. Thorax and abdominal organs were not double, however the heart had more than four cavities. This abnormality appears when the zygote division happens after the day 14 from fertilization and it is unable to cause the fission, resulting in an incomplete division. This kind of conjoined twins have practically no chance of surviving, due to the large number of shared organs. The prenatal diagnosis is important to separate these cases from those with a chance of living with surgical intervention. (author)

  14. Bayesian Inference of Natural Rankings in Incomplete Competition Networks

    CERN Document Server

    Park, Juyong

    2013-01-01

    Competition between a complex system's constituents and a corresponding reward mechanism based on it have profound influence on the functioning, stability, and evolution of the system. But determining the dominance hierarchy or ranking among the constituent parts from the strongest to the weakest -- essential in determining reward or penalty -- is almost always an ambiguous task due to the incomplete nature of competition networks. Here we introduce ``Natural Ranking," a desirably unambiguous ranking method applicable to a complete (full) competition network, and formulate an analytical model based on the Bayesian formula inferring the expected mean and error of the natural ranking of nodes from an incomplete network. We investigate its potential and uses in solving issues in ranking by applying to a real-world competition network of economic and social importance.

  15. ON TWO METHODS OF ANALYSING BALANCED INCOMPLETE BLOCK DESIGNS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chigozie Kelechi Acha

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available The paper briefly discusses the balanced incomplete–block design (BIBD’s and further compares two methods of analyzing them-the classical and vector space analysis of variance (ANOVA methods. These methods are applied differently to the data arising from the balanced incomplete block designs (BIBD’s. The basic interest is to compare the performance of the two methods of analysis on the available data from National Root Crop Research Institute (N.R.C.R.I Umudike, Abia State. To achieve this, we shall consider treatment (adjusted, block (adjusted treatment (not adjusted in the classical ANOVA method and the vector space ANOVA method.  Block is adjusted to know if the experiment is symmetric balanced incomplete block design (SBIBD. The classical ANOVA method was easier to compute and more convenient to handle than the vector ANOVA method. The classical ANOVA method is found to be preferable to the vector space ANOVA method.

  16. Can we make the second incompleteness theorem coordinate free?

    OpenAIRE

    Visser, A.

    2008-01-01

    Is it possible to give a coordinate free formulation of the Second Incompleteness Theorem? We pursue one possible approach to this question. We show that (i) cutfree consistency for finitely axiomatized theories can be uniquely characterized modulo EA-provable equivalence, (ii) consistency for finitely axiomatized sequential theories can be uniquely characterized modulo EA-provable equivalence. The case of infinitely axiomatized ce theories is more delicate. We carefully dis...

  17. Learning Bayesian Networks from Incomplete Data with Stochastic Search Algorithms

    OpenAIRE

    Myers, James W.; Laskey, Kathryn Blackmond; Levitt, Tod S.

    2013-01-01

    This paper describes stochastic search approaches, including a new stochastic algorithm and an adaptive mutation operator, for learning Bayesian networks from incomplete data. This problem is characterized by a huge solution space with a highly multimodal landscape. State-of-the-art approaches all involve using deterministic approaches such as the expectation-maximization algorithm. These approaches are guaranteed to find local maxima, but do not explore the landscape for other modes. Our app...

  18. Optimal portfolio selection and compression in an incomplete market

    OpenAIRE

    Nikolai Dokuchaev; Ulrich Haussmann

    2002-01-01

    We investigate an optimal investment problem with a general performance criterion which, in particular, includes discontinuous functions. Prices are modeled as diffusions and the market is incomplete. We find an explicit solution for the case of limited diversification of the portfolio, i.e. for the portfolio compression problem. By this we mean that an admissible strategies may include no more than m different stocks concurrently, where m may be less than the total number n of available stocks.

  19. Some remarks on marginally trapped surfaces and geodesic incompleteness

    OpenAIRE

    Silva, I. P. Costa e

    2012-01-01

    In a recent paper, Eichmair, Galloway and Pollack have proved a Gannon-Lee-type singularity theorem based on the existence of marginally outer trapped surfaces (MOTS) on noncompact initial data sets for globally hyperbolic spacetimes. However, one might wonder whether the corresponding incomplete geodesics could still be complete in a possible non-globally hyperbolic extension of spacetime. In this note, some variants of that result are given with weaker causality assumptions, thus suggesting...

  20. Risk Measure Pricing and Hedging in Incomplete Markets

    OpenAIRE

    Mingxin Xu

    2004-01-01

    This article attempts to extend the complete market option pricing theory to incomplete markets. Instead of eliminating the risk by a perfect hedging portfolio, partial hedging will be adopted and some residual risk at expiration will be tolerated. The risk measure (or risk indifference) prices charged for buying or selling an option are associated to the capital required for dynamic hedging so that the risk exposure will not increase. The associated optimal hedging portfolio is decided by mi...

  1. Fabrication of Stable Cartilage Framework for Microtia in Incomplete Synchondrosis

    OpenAIRE

    Byung Chae Cho; Jung Hun Lee; Kang Young Choi; Jung Dug Yang; Ho Yun Chung

    2012-01-01

    The synchondrosis between the sixth and seventh costal cartilage is usually used for the base frame in autogenous ear reconstruction. If the synchondrosis is loose, a variety of modifications can be devised. This report introduces new methods for these problems. In cases of incomplete synchondrosis, only the surface of the base block margin was smoothly tapered without carving for the removal of the conchal deepening. The secure fixation of the two segments (helix and antihelix) to the base b...

  2. 04131 Abstracts Collection -- Geometric Properties from Incomplete Data

    OpenAIRE

    Klette, Reinhard; Kozera, Ryszard; Noakes, Lyle; Weickert, Joachim

    2006-01-01

    From 21.03.04 to 26.03.04, the Dagstuhl Seminar 04131 ``Geometric Properties from Incomplete Data'' was held in the International Conference and Research Center (IBFI), Schloss Dagstuhl. During the seminar, several participants presented their current research, and ongoing work and open problems were discussed. Abstracts of the presentations given during the seminar as well as abstracts of seminar results and ideas are put together in this paper. The first section describes the...

  3. Tariff Policy for a Monopolist Under Incomplete Information

    OpenAIRE

    PRUSA, Thomas J; Kolev, Dobrin

    1998-01-01

    We examine the incentives for a government to levy an optimal tariff on a foreign monopolist. With complete information, the home government uses tariffs to extract rents and therefore implements a policy of discriminatory tariffs entailing higher tariffs on more efficient firms. By contrast if the government is incompletely informed about costs, we show that under reasonable conditions the unique self-enforcing outcome involves pooling where firms export the same quantity regardless of effic...

  4. Familial occurrence of congenital incomplete prepyloric mucosal diaphragm.

    OpenAIRE

    Gahukamble, D B

    1998-01-01

    Incomplete prepyloric mucosal diaphragm (IPMD) is an uncommon congenital anomaly that leads to gastric outlet obstruction in infancy and childhood. This report describes the occurrence of IPMD in six children in a closely knit tribal family from a geographically isolated desert town with a small population in the Sahara. Their records showed similarities of clinical, radiological, operative, and histopathological features. These features, as well as its occurrence in brothers, sisters, and co...

  5. Evaluating an Investment Project in an Incomplete Market

    OpenAIRE

    George Yungchih Wang

    2012-01-01

    Many studies on real options base their arguments upon the assumption that security market is complete to apply the risk-neutral valuation technique. However, when the market is incomplete, in which investment risk is not spanned by existing assets, the investor.s preferences are not risk-neutral, or management is refrained from certain trading strategies, there may exist no unique martingale price of uncertain income streams. In this paper, a dynamic-programming framework for maximizing expe...

  6. Construction of a natural partition of incomplete horseshoes

    CERN Document Server

    Jung, C

    2003-01-01

    A method is presented to construct a partition of an incomplete horseshoe in a Poincare map which is only based on unstable manifolds of outermost fixed points and eventually their limits. Thereby this partition becomes natural from the point of view of asymptotic scattering observations. The symbolic dynamics derived from this partition coincides with the one derived from the hierarchical structure of the singularities of scattering functions.

  7. Contributions to the theory of incomplete tension bay

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schapitz, E

    1937-01-01

    The present report offers an approximate theory for the stress and deformation condition after buckling of the skin in reinforced panels and shells loaded in simple shear and compression and under combined stresses. The theory presents a unified scheme for stresses of these types. It is based upon the concept of a nonuniform stress distribution in the metal panel and its marked power of resistance against compressive stresses ("incomplete" tension bay).

  8. Dynamic Financial Constraints: Distinguishing Mechanism Design From Exogenously Incomplete Regimes

    OpenAIRE

    Karaivanov, Alexander; Townsend, Robert

    2013-01-01

    We formulate and solve a range of dynamic models of constrained credit/insurance that allow for moral hazard and limited commitment. We compare them to full insurance and exogenously incomplete financial regimes (autarky, saving only, borrowing and lending in a single asset). We develop computational methods based on mechanism design, linear programming, and maximum likelihood to estimate, compare, and statistically test these alternative dynamic models with financial/information constraints....

  9. Risk-Sharing and Retrading in Incomplete Markets

    OpenAIRE

    Gottardi, Piero; Rahi, Rohit

    2012-01-01

    At a competitive equilibrium of an incomplete-markets economy agents’ marginal valuations for the tradable assets are equalized ex-ante. We characterize the finest partition of the state space conditional on which this equality holds for any economy. This leads naturally to a necessary and sufficient condition on information that would lead to retrade, if such information were to become publicly available after the initial round of trade.

  10. Can we make the second incompleteness theorem coordinate free?

    OpenAIRE

    Visser, A.

    2008-01-01

    Is it possible to give a coordinate free formulation of the Second Incompleteness Theorem? We pursue one possible approach to this question. We show that (i) cutfree consistency for finitely axiomatized theories can be uniquely characterized modulo EA-provable equivalence, (ii) consistency for finitely axiomatized sequential theories can be uniquely characterized modulo EA-provable equivalence. The case of infinitely axiomatized ce theories is more delicate. We carefully discuss this in the p...

  11. An implication of G\\"odel's incompleteness theorem

    OpenAIRE

    Kitada, Hitoshi

    2009-01-01

    A proof of G\\"odel's incompleteness theorem is given. With this new proof a transfinite extension of G\\"odel's theorem is considered. It is shown that if one assumes the set theory ZFC on the meta level as well as on the object level, a contradiction arises. The cause is shown to be the implicit identification of the meta level and the object level hidden behind the G\\"odel numbering. An implication of these considerations is stated.

  12. Hilbert's Incompleteness, Chaitin's $\\Omega$ number and Quantum Physics

    OpenAIRE

    Kieu, Tien D.

    2001-01-01

    To explore the limitation of a class of quantum algorithms originally proposed for the Hilbert's tenth problem, we consider two further classes of mathematically non-decidable problems, those of a modified version of the Hilbert's tenth problem and of the computation of the Chaitin's $\\Omega$ number, which is a representation of the G\\"odel's Incompletness theorem. Some interesting connection to Quantum Field Theory is pointed out.

  13. Einstein, incompleteness, and the epistemic view of quantum states

    OpenAIRE

    Harrigan, Nicholas; Spekkens, Robert W.

    2007-01-01

    Does the quantum state represent reality or our knowledge of reality? In making this distinction precise, we are led to a novel classification of hidden variable models of quantum theory. Indeed, representatives of each class can be found among existing constructions for two-dimensional Hilbert spaces. Our approach also provides a fruitful new perspective on arguments for the nonlocality and incompleteness of quantum theory. Specifically, we show that for models wherein the quantum state has ...

  14. Causal Incompleteness: A New Perspective on Quantum Non-locality

    OpenAIRE

    Palmer, T. N.

    2005-01-01

    The mathematical notion of incompleteness (eg of rational numbers, Turing-computable functions, and arithmetic proof) does not play a key role in conventional physics. Here, a reformulation of the kinematics of quantum theory is attempted, based on an inherently granular and discontinuous state space, in which the quantum wavefunction is associated with a finite set of finite bit strings, and the unitary transformations of complex Hilbert space are reformulated as finite permutation and relat...

  15. Inflation and output volatility under asymmetric incomplete information

    OpenAIRE

    Carboni, Giacomo; Ellison, Martin

    2010-01-01

    The assumption of asymmetric and incomplete information in a standard New Keynesian model creates strong incentives for monetary policy transparency. We assume that the central bank has better information about its objectives than the private sector, and that the private sector has better information about shocks than the central bank. Transparency has the potential to trigger a virtuous circle in which all agents find it easier to make inferences and the economy is better stabilised. Our ana...

  16. Expectation-maximization estimators for incompletely observed data

    OpenAIRE

    Vasić Vladimir V.

    2004-01-01

    Expectation-maximization is a broadly applicable approach to the iterative computation of maximum likelihood estimates. Each iteration of expectation-maximization method consists of two steps: the expectation step and the maximization step. Expectation-maximization method is useful in a variety of problems where the maximum likelihood estimates are very difficult to find. The basic idea of expectation-maximization method is to relate incomplete data problems to complete data problems where es...

  17. An Incomplete Markets Explanation to the UIP Puzzle

    OpenAIRE

    Katrin Rabitsch

    2014-01-01

    A large literature has related the failure of interest rate parity in the foreign exchange market to the existence of a time-varying risk premium. Nevertheless, most modern open economy DSGE models imply a (near) perfect interest rate parity condition. This paper presents a stylized two-country incomplete-markets model in which countries have strong precautionary motives because they face international liquidity constraints, the presence of which successfully generates a time-varying risk ...

  18. UNILATERAL INCOMPLETE SUPERFICIAL PALMAR ARCH: A CASE REPORT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Subhankar Chakraborty

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The functional importance of hand is revealed by its rich vascularity contributed by superficial and deep palmar arches (SPA and DPA.Superficial palmar arch is located superficial to flexor tendons, and deep palmar arch deep to lumbrical muscles. Variations are found more often in SPA than DPA, later being more or less constant. During routine undergraduate dissection, we observed, unilateral incomplete SPA being formed by superficial palmar branches of ulnar and radial artery in the right hand of a male cadaver. These two arteries remained independent without anastomosis forming incomplete arch (SPA.The superficial branch of ulnar artery entered hand superficial to flexor retinaculum and supplied middle, ring and little finger by three branches. The superficial branch of radial artery via its two branches supplied index finger and thumb. Classical SPA formation was seen on left side. The presence of an incomplete SPA as in this case is a potential danger in RA harvesting for CABG.Variations in SPA play a pivotal role in microvascular surgical procedures of hand, RAinterventions and arterial graft applications.

  19. Evaluating an Investment Project in an Incomplete Market

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    George Yungchih Wang

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Many studies on real options base their arguments upon the assumption thatsecurity market is complete to apply the risk-neutral valuation technique. However, whenthe market is incomplete, in which investment risk is not spanned by existing assets, theinvestor’s preferences are not risk-neutral, or management is refrained from certain tradingstrategies, there may exist no unique martingale price of uncertain income streams. In thispaper, a dynamic-programming framework for maximizing expected utility of an investor indiscrete time is presented to evaluate an investment opportunity in an incomplete market.It is suggested that certainty equivalent (CE could be applied to value such an investmentopportunity. We show that two approaches to certainty equivalent, i.e., the buying price andthe selling price approaches, are exactly equal in exponential utility, implying that CE is afair value for both the buyer and the seller in an incomplete market, subject to the degree ofrisk aversion. Therefore, the proposed approach, compared to other alternative approaches,is relatively intuitive and easy to apply. With the classic investment problem, it is shownthat the option embedded in a project is crucial in decision-making.

  20. Incomplete domain decomposition preconditioning for coarse mesh neutron diffusion problems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Incomplete domain decomposition preconditioning for parallel implementation of the conjugate gradient-like methods is applied to solve the two-group, three-dimensional, coarse mesh finite differenced neutron diffusion equation on the PARAGON XP/S-10 parallel computer. The linear system resulting from implicit time differencing of the time-dependent neutron diffusion equation is solved by the preconditioned biconjugate gradient squared method without employing the fission source iteration. An efficient domain decomposition preconditioning scheme is constructed by taking advantage of strong diagonal dominance of the coarse mesh finite difference formulation. Simplifications are made in the incomplete LU factorization process to construct a preconditioner for a three dimensional subdomain and the coupling between subdomains is approximated by incorporating only the effect of the non-leakage terms of neighboring subdomains. The method is applied to quarter core and full core fixed source problems which are created from the IAEA three-dimensional benchmark problem. Results show that on a single processor the computation time for the preconditioned biconjugate gradient method is comparable to other conventional iteration methods such as Line-SOR and the cyclic Chebyshev semi-iterative method. The effectiveness of the incomplete domain decomposition preconditioning on a multi-processor is evidenced by the small increase in the number of iterations as the number of subdomains increases. Speedups up to 32.1 are achievable with 64 processing elements for a 34x34x36 full core three-dimensional problem

  1. To Mature or not to Mature: The Information Systems Conundrum

    OpenAIRE

    Carl Marnewick

    2013-01-01

    Research has been done within the South African information technology (IT) industry over the last decade with regard to project management maturity (PMM) and the impact it has on delivering information systems (IS) projects successfully. The research was done to determine whether IS PMM per knowledge area has improved over the last decade. It investigates if there is a correlation between maturity levels and project success. Four independent surveys over the last decade focused on IS PMM ...

  2. BUSINESS PROCESS MANAGEMENT MATURITY MODEL - SERBIAN ENTERPRISES' MATURITY LEVEL

    OpenAIRE

    Marija Anđelković Pešić; Vesna Janković Milić; Aleksandra Anđelković

    2012-01-01

    Business process management maturity model enables description of "as-is" enterprise's state, in terms of presence and acceptance of process approach.The heart of this model includes five factors or levers, critical for successful implementation of business process management. These factors are: strategic approach, process management, technology, employee management, and business culture. The above-mentioned factors influence the level of enterprise's maturity. At each level, an enterprise is...

  3. Sublingual misoprostol versus standard surgical care for treatment of incomplete abortion in five sub-Saharan African countries

    OpenAIRE

    Shochet Tara; Diop Ayisha; Gaye Alioune; Nayama Madi; Sall Aissata; Bukola Fawole; Blandine Thieba; Abiola Okunlola; Dao Blami; Olayinka Ogunbode; Winikoff Beverly

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Background In low-resource settings, where abortion is highly restricted and self-induced abortions are common, access to post-abortion care (PAC) services, especially treatment of incomplete terminations, is a priority. Standard post-abortion care has involved surgical intervention but can be hard to access in these areas. Misoprostol provides an alternative to surgical intervention that could increase access to abortion care. We sought to gather additional evidence regarding the ef...

  4. Disruption of nuclear maturation and rearrangement of cytoskeletal elements in bovine oocytes exposed to heat shock during maturation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roth, Z; Hansen, P J

    2005-02-01

    Meiotic maturation in mammalian oocytes is a complex process which involves extensive rearrangement of microtubules, actin filaments and chromosomes. Since cytoskeletal elements are sensitive to disruption by heat shock, a series of experiments were performed to determine whether physiologically relevant heat shock disrupts the progression of the oocyte through meiosis, fertilization and zygote formation. Cumulus-oocyte complexes were cultured at 38.5, 40.0 or 41.0 degrees C for the first 12 h of maturation. Incubation during the last 10 h of maturation and 18 h after fertilization was at 38.5 degrees C and in 5% (v/v) CO2 for both treatments. Examination of the cytoskeleton and the chromosome organization in matured oocytes revealed that oocytes matured at 38.5 degrees C were mostly at metaphase II (MII) stage, while the majority of heat-shocked oocytes were blocked at the first metaphase (MI), first anaphase or first telophase stages. A subset of heat-shocked oocytes possessed misshapen MI spindles with disorganized microtubules and unaligned chromosomes. A higher percentage of TUNEL-positive oocytes was noted for oocytes matured at 41.0 degrees C. Addition of 50 nmol/l sphingosine 1-phosphate to maturation medium blocked the effect of heat shock on progression through meiosis and apoptosis and increased the proportion of oocytes matured at 41.0 degrees C that were at MII. Following insemination, a high percentage of heat-shocked oocytes were unfertilized, while the majority of the control zygotes were fertilized and had two visible pronuclei. In conclusion, heat shock disrupts nuclear maturation and induces apoptosis. These alterations are likely to be involved in the mechanism underlying heat-shock-induced disruption of oocyte capacity for fertilization and subsequent development. PMID:15695618

  5. White Matter Maturation in Holoprosencephaly

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J Gordon Millichap

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available White matter maturation in holoprosencephaly (HPE was assessed by MRI scans in 47 patients (age 1 day to 16 years, median age 7 months evaluated at the University of California, San Francisco.

  6. Structural and functional maturation of rat gastrointestinal barrier with thyroxine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    It has been noted that the closure of the intestinal barrier to immunoglobulins is a normal maturational process in the rat. It has also been noted that the microvillus membrane (MVM) of newborn animals differs from adult MVM. The purpose of this study is to document whether thyroid hormone can induce closure in vivo in the rat and to relate this effect of thyroxine to the structural and functional maturation of the intestinal MVM. To assess closure, 2-wk-old rats were fed in rat immunoglobulin G (IgG), and serum antibody binding activity was measured 4 h later. The antibody binding activity of treated animals (T) was 1.5-2 times less than that of controls (C), indicating that thyroxine stimulates closure. The MVM similarly showed signs of maturation. Structural maturation was demonstrated by the lower fluidity of the thyroid-treated animals' membranes. Under the influence of thyroxine, the number of receptors on the MVM for IgG had decreased, while the K/sub a/ remained the same, demonstrating the functional maturation of the MVM. In conclusion, thryoid hormone can induce both structural and functional maturation of the intestinal MVM and can enhance the intestinal mucosal barrier by decreasing the penetration of antibodies

  7. Social Interactions under Incomplete Information: Games, Equilibria, and Expectations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Chao

    My dissertation research investigates interactions of agents' behaviors through social networks when some information is not shared publicly, focusing on solutions to a series of challenging problems in empirical research, including heterogeneous expectations and multiple equilibria. The first chapter, "Social Interactions under Incomplete Information with Heterogeneous Expectations", extends the current literature in social interactions by devising econometric models and estimation tools with private information in not only the idiosyncratic shocks but also some exogenous covariates. For example, when analyzing peer effects in class performances, it was previously assumed that all control variables, including individual IQ and SAT scores, are known to the whole class, which is unrealistic. This chapter allows such exogenous variables to be private information and models agents' behaviors as outcomes of a Bayesian Nash Equilibrium in an incomplete information game. The distribution of equilibrium outcomes can be described by the equilibrium conditional expectations, which is unique when the parameters are within a reasonable range according to the contraction mapping theorem in function spaces. The equilibrium conditional expectations are heterogeneous in both exogenous characteristics and the private information, which makes estimation in this model more demanding than in previous ones. This problem is solved in a computationally efficient way by combining the quadrature method and the nested fixed point maximum likelihood estimation. In Monte Carlo experiments, if some exogenous characteristics are private information and the model is estimated under the mis-specified hypothesis that they are known to the public, estimates will be biased. Applying this model to municipal public spending in North Carolina, significant negative correlations between contiguous municipalities are found, showing free-riding effects. The Second chapter "A Tobit Model with Social Interactions under Incomplete Information", is an application of the first chapter to censored outcomes, corresponding to the situation when agents" behaviors are subjected to some binding restrictions. In an interesting empirical analysis for property tax rates set by North Carolina municipal governments, it is found that there is a significant positive correlation among near-by municipalities. Additionally, some private information about its own residents is used by a municipal government to predict others' tax rates, which enriches current empirical work about tax competition. The third chapter, "Social Interactions under Incomplete Information with Multiple Equilibria", extends the first chapter by investigating effective estimation methods when the condition for a unique equilibrium may not be satisfied. With multiple equilibria, the previous model is incomplete due to the unobservable equilibrium selection. Neither conventional likelihoods nor moment conditions can be used to estimate parameters without further specifications. Although there are some solutions to this issue in the current literature, they are based on strong assumptions such as agents with the same observable characteristics play the same strategy. This paper relaxes those assumptions and extends the all-solution method used to estimate discrete choice games to a setting with both discrete and continuous choices, bounded and unbounded outcomes, and a general form of incomplete information, where the existence of a pure strategy equilibrium has been an open question for a long time. By the use of differential topology and functional analysis, it is found that when all exogenous characteristics are public information, there are a finite number of equilibria. With privately known exogenous characteristics, the equilbria can be represented by a compact set in a Banach space and be approximated by a finite set. As a result, a finite-state probability mass function can be used to specify a probability measure for equilibrium selection, which completes the model. From Monte Carlo experiments about two types of binary choice models, it is found that assuming equilibrium uniqueness can bring in estimation biases when the true value of interaction intensity is large and there are multiple equilibria in the data generating process.

  8. Antibody Affinity Maturation in Fishes—Our Current Understanding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brad G. Magor

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available It has long been believed that fish lack antibody affinity maturation, in part because they were thought to lack germinal centers. Recent research done on sharks and bony fishes indicates that these early vertebrates are able to affinity mature their antibodies. This article reviews the functionality of the fish homologue of the immunoglobulin (Ig mutator enzyme activation-induced cytidine deaminase (AID. We also consider the protein and molecular evidence for Ig somatic hypermutation and antibody affinity maturation. In the context of recent evidence for a putative proto-germinal center in fishes we propose some possible reasons that observed affinity maturation in fishes often seems lacking and propose future work that might shed further light on this process in fishes.

  9. Antibody Affinity Maturation in Fishes—Our Current Understanding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magor, Brad G.

    2015-01-01

    It has long been believed that fish lack antibody affinity maturation, in part because they were thought to lack germinal centers. Recent research done on sharks and bony fishes indicates that these early vertebrates are able to affinity mature their antibodies. This article reviews the functionality of the fish homologue of the immunoglobulin (Ig) mutator enzyme activation-induced cytidine deaminase (AID). We also consider the protein and molecular evidence for Ig somatic hypermutation and antibody affinity maturation. In the context of recent evidence for a putative proto-germinal center in fishes we propose some possible reasons that observed affinity maturation in fishes often seems lacking and propose future work that might shed further light on this process in fishes. PMID:26264036

  10. Antibody Affinity Maturation in Fishes-Our Current Understanding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magor, Brad G

    2015-01-01

    It has long been believed that fish lack antibody affinity maturation, in part because they were thought to lack germinal centers. Recent research done on sharks and bony fishes indicates that these early vertebrates are able to affinity mature their antibodies. This article reviews the functionality of the fish homologue of the immunoglobulin (Ig) mutator enzyme activation-induced cytidine deaminase (AID). We also consider the protein and molecular evidence for Ig somatic hypermutation and antibody affinity maturation. In the context of recent evidence for a putative proto-germinal center in fishes we propose some possible reasons that observed affinity maturation in fishes often seems lacking and propose future work that might shed further light on this process in fishes. PMID:26264036

  11. Incomplete Continuous-time Securities Markets with Stochastic Income Volatility

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Peter Ove; Larsen, Kasper

    2014-01-01

    We derive closed-form solutions for the equilibrium interest rate and market price of risk processes in an incomplete continuous-time market with uncertainty generated by Brownian motions. The economy has a finite number of heterogeneous exponential utility investors, who receive partially...... unspanned income and can trade continuously. Countercyclical stochastic income volatility generates a countercyclical equilibrium market price of risk process and a procyclical equilibrium interest rate process. We show that when the investors' unspanned income volatility is countercyclical, the resulting...... equilibrium displays both lower interest rates and higher risk premia compared to the equilibrium in an otherwise identical complete market....

  12. Conditioning analysis of incomplete Cholesky factorizations with orthogonal dropping

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Napov, Artem

    2012-03-16

    The analysis of preconditioners based on incomplete Cholesky factorization in which the neglected (dropped) components are orthogonal to the approximations being kept is presented. General estimate for the condition number of the preconditioned system is given which only depends on the accuracy of individual approximations. The estimate is further improved if, for instance, only the newly computed rows of the factor are modified during each approximation step. In this latter case it is further shown to be sharp. The analysis is illustrated with some existing factorizations in the context of discretized elliptic partial differential equations.

  13. Incomplete block factorization preconditioning for indefinite elliptic problems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guo, Chun-Hua [Univ. of Calgary, Alberta (Canada)

    1996-12-31

    The application of the finite difference method to approximate the solution of an indefinite elliptic problem produces a linear system whose coefficient matrix is block tridiagonal and symmetric indefinite. Such a linear system can be solved efficiently by a conjugate residual method, particularly when combined with a good preconditioner. We show that specific incomplete block factorization exists for the indefinite matrix if the mesh size is reasonably small. And this factorization can serve as an efficient preconditioner. Some efforts are made to estimate the eigenvalues of the preconditioned matrix. Numerical results are also given.

  14. Incomplete block SSOR preconditionings for high order discretizations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kolotilina, L. [Steklov Mathematical Institute, St. Petersburg (Russian Federation)

    1994-12-31

    This paper considers the solution of linear algebraic systems Ax = b resulting from the p-version of the Finite Element Method (FEM) using PCG iterations. Contrary to the h-version, the p-version ensures the desired accuracy of a discretization not by refining an original finite element mesh but by introducing higher degree polynomials as additional basis functions which permits to reduce the size of the resulting linear system as compared with the h-version. The suggested preconditionings are the so-called Incomplete Block SSOR (IBSSOR) preconditionings.

  15. A Supernodal Approach to Incomplete LU Factorization with Partial Pivoting

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Xiaoye Sherry; Shao, Meiyue

    2009-06-25

    We present a new supernode-based incomplete LU factorization method to construct a preconditioner for solving sparse linear systems with iterative methods. The new algorithm is primarily based on the ILUTP approach by Saad, and we incorporate a number of techniques to improve the robustness and performance of the traditional ILUTP method. These include the new dropping strategies that accommodate the use of supernodal structures in the factored matrix. We present numerical experiments to demonstrate that our new method is competitive with the other ILU approaches and is well suited for today's high performance architectures.

  16. Incomplete McCune-Albright Syndrome: A Case Report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nagehan Aslan

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Fibrous dysplasia of bone is a genetic, non-inheritable disease that can cause bone pain, bone deformities and fracture. It has a large clinic spectrum from benign monostotic fibrous dysplasia to McCune-Albright syndrome. Rare McCune-Albright syndrome is characterized by precocious puberty, cafe au lait spots and fibrous dysplasia. Herein we presented a case who was preferred to hospital with pathological fractures and diagnosed with Incomplet McCune Albright syndrome because of the lack of endocrine hyperfunction and developed early puberty at clinical course.

  17. Finding small OBDDs for incompletely specified truth tables is hard

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristensen, Jesper Torp; Miltersen, Peter Bro

    We present an efficient reduction mapping undirected graphs G with n = 2^k vertices for integers k to tables of partially specified Boolean functions g: {0,1}^(4k+1) -> {0,1,*} so that for any integer m, G has a vertex colouring using m colours if and only if g has a consistent ordered binary...... decision diagram with at most (2m + 2)n^2 + 4n decision nodes. From this it follows that the problem of finding a minimum-sized consistent OBDD for an incompletely specified truth table is NP-hard and also hard to approximate...

  18. Acoustooptic refraction-influenced generation of tunable incomplete Airy beams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the process of acoustooptic refraction of an incident-finite- aperture light beam on a standing acoustic wave, there arises a cubic phase modulation of the beam in passing through an acoustooptic cell. After the Fourier transformation of the transmitted field, an Airy-type beam is formed with varying in time parameters. The propagation of such a beam is described explicitly with diffraction integral. By using the numerical simulation, it is established that the transverse intensity profile, acceleration and additional modulation of oscillations of a generated incomplete Airy beam are dependent on the frequency and power of an acoustic wave. (paper)

  19. Online Identification and Tracking of Subspaces from Highly Incomplete Information

    CERN Document Server

    Balzano, Laura; Recht, Benjamin

    2010-01-01

    This work presents GROUSE (Grassmanian Rank-One Update Subspace Estimation), an efficient online algorithm for tracking subspaces from highly incomplete observations. GROUSE requires only basic linear algebraic manipulations at each iteration, and each subspace update can be performed in linear time in the dimension of the subspace. The algorithm is derived by analyzing incremental gradient descent on the Grassmannian manifold of subspaces. With a slight modification, GROUSE can also be used as an online incremental algorithm for the matrix completion problem of imputing missing entries of a low-rank matrix. GROUSE performs exceptionally well in practice both in tracking subspaces and as an online algorithm for matrix completion.

  20. Bilateral transaction bargaining between independent utilities under incomplete information

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A new approach to designing bilateral power transaction bargaining models between two independent utilities in a deregulated electricity market is proposed. In the paper it is assumed that each utility (a seller or a buyer) knows its own operating costs but does not know those of its opponent. The bilateral power transaction problem is then considered as non-cooperative bargaining under incomplete information. Each participant develops its own bargaining strategy based on estimates of the opponent's operating costs and bargaining strategy. Two bargaining models are developed and examples are employed for demonstration. (Author)

  1. On the determination of dipoles from incomplete galaxy catalogues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The spherical harmonic and random filling methods, used to account for incomplete sky coverage in dipole calculations, are investigated. A study of their comparative performances is carried out and the former method is shown to be more accurate. Using both these methods, an attempt is made to find the regions responsible for the dipole in the Lahav optical catalogue. We find that the Virgo-Centaurus region provides most of the dipole power. We also find strong indications that these structures are embedded within a global underlying anisotropy. (author)

  2. A Short Guide to Gödel's Second Incompleteness Theorem

    OpenAIRE

    Bagaria, Joan

    2003-01-01

    The usual proof of Godel's second incompleteness theorem for weak theories like I Sigma 'subscript 1' is long and technically cumbersome. The details are rarely given in full and in most cases they are skipped altogether with dismissing vague sentences alluding to the reader's ability to fill them in. In the first part of this note we provide a guide through the main technical points of the usual proof of Godel's theorem for weak theories. In the second part we present a different and simpler...

  3. Joint probabilities of noncommuting operators and incompleteness of quantum mechanics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We use joint probabilities to analyze the EPR argument in the Bohm's example of spins. The properties of distribution functions for two, three, or more noncommuting spin components are explicitly studied and their limitations are pointed out. Within the statistical ensemble interpretation of quantum theory (where only statements about repeated events can be made), the incompleteness of quantum theory does not follow, as the consistent use of joint probabilities shows. This does not exclude a completion of quantum mechanics, going beyond it, by a more general theory of single events, using hidden variables, for example

  4. Information, randomness & incompleteness papers on algorithmic information theory

    CERN Document Server

    Chaitin, Gregory J

    1987-01-01

    The papers gathered in this book were published over a period of more than twenty years in widely scattered journals. They led to the discovery of randomness in arithmetic which was presented in the recently published monograph on "Algorithmic Information Theory" by the author. There the strongest possible version of Gödel's incompleteness theorem, using an information-theoretic approach based on the size of computer programs, was discussed. The present book is intended as a companion volume to the monograph and it will serve as a stimulus for work on complexity, randomness and unpredictabilit

  5. Endogenous Financing of Production in General Equilibrium with Incomplete Markets

    OpenAIRE

    Pascal Christian Stiefenhofer

    2010-01-01

    This paper considers the financing of production in a two period general equilibrium model with incomplete markets. This requires a model where the efficient boundary of the production set available to a producer in period two in every state of the world is not independent of the financial activities of the firm in period one. The novelty of the paper is a definition of a class of long run profit maximization objective functions of the firm which is independent of any average utility of the o...

  6. Maturity Model of Software Product with Educational Maturity Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R.Manjula

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Software product line engineering is an inter-disciplinary concept. It spans the dimensions of business, architecture, process,and the organization. Similarly, Education System engineering is also an inter-disciplinary concept, which spans the dimensions of academic, infrastructure, facilities, administration etc. Some of the potential benefits of this approach includecontinuous improvements in System quality and adhering to global standards. The increasing competency in IT and Educational Sectors necessitates a process maturity evaluation methodology. Accordingly, this paper presents an organizational maturity model for Education system for evaluating the maturity of multi- dimension factors and attributes of an Education System. Assessment questionnaires and a rating methodology comprise the framework of this Educational maturity model. The objective and design of the questionnaires are to collect information about the Education system engineering process from the multi perspectives of academic, infrastructure, administration, facilities etc. Furthermore, we conducted one case study and reported the assessment results using the organizational maturity model presented in this paper.

  7. [Application of immunomodulators in the treatment of mandibular fractures in elderly patients with incomplete secondary adentia].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abramov, A V; Parfenov, S A; Belov, V G; Parfenov, Iu A

    2014-01-01

    The aim of the work was to study the experience of using complex pharmacotherapy in the treatment of mandibular fractures in elderly patients with incomplete secondary periodontitis, which were divided into two groups. In the first group, patients (n = 46; average age 69.0 3.6) were treated using the authors' original device combined with application of antimicrobial MetrogilDenta gel onto gums two times a day during ten days. Patients in the second group (n = 52; average age 61.0 3.1) were treated with the same device combined with (i) application of MetrogilDenta antimicrobial gel onto gums two times a day during ten days, (ii) application of 1.5 ml of Cycloferon 5% liniment by cotton pellet for 20 min during the same 10 days (30 minutes after the antimicrobial gel), and (iii) intramuscular injections of 6 mg of synthetic immunomodulator Polyoxidonium once a day for 3 days, then once every two days (for a total of 17 days). It is established that the use of the combination of interferon inducers of immunomodulator group--Cycloferon in the form of liniment and synthetic immunomodulator Polyoksidonium together with MetrogilDenta antimicrobial gel--led to the most pronounced regression of inflammatory and destructive processes in periodontal tissues (in 7.1%, ? = 0.05), optimized the state of local immunity of the oral cavity, and normalized microflora in periodontal pockets in elderly patients with incomplete secondary adentia. PMID:25365866

  8. Task Parallel Incomplete Cholesky Factorization using 2D Partitioned-Block Layout

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Kyungjoo [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Rajamanickam, Sivasankaran [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Stelle, George Widgery [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Edwards, Harold C. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Olivier, Stephen Lecler [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2016-01-01

    We introduce a task-parallel algorithm for sparse incomplete Cholesky factorization that utilizes a 2D sparse partitioned-block layout of a matrix. Our factorization algorithm follows the idea of algorithms-by-blocks by using the block layout. The algorithm-byblocks approach induces a task graph for the factorization. These tasks are inter-related to each other through their data dependences in the factorization algorithm. To process the tasks on various manycore architectures in a portable manner, we also present a portable tasking API that incorporates different tasking backends and device-specific features using an open-source framework for manycore platforms i.e., Kokkos. A performance evaluation is presented on both Intel Sandybridge and Xeon Phi platforms for matrices from the University of Florida sparse matrix collection to illustrate merits of the proposed task-based factorization. Experimental results demonstrate that our task-parallel implementation delivers about 26.6x speedup (geometric mean) over single-threaded incomplete Choleskyby- blocks and 19.2x speedup over serial Cholesky performance which does not carry tasking overhead using 56 threads on the Intel Xeon Phi processor for sparse matrices arising from various application problems.

  9. Entrance channel effects on preequilibrium emission and incomplete fusion in Promptly Emitted Particle model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In intermediate energy heavy ion collision prompt particles emitted in the early stages of the reaction affect the properties of the incompletely fused composite. We have studied the entrance channel effects on preequilibrium proton emission and various observables, like temperature, residual velocity, and linear momentum transfer of the incompletely fused residue, in the framework of Promptly Emitted Particle (PEP) model. The calculated preequilibrium proton energy spectra for Oxygen and Sulphur induced reactions on various targets have been confronted with the respective experimental data and the agreement between the two has been found to be quite satisfactory. Proton multiplicity has been found to decrease/increase with the increase in target/projectile mass. Residual velocity and linear momentum transfer have been found to have weak dependance on target mass. With the increase in incident energy, the calculation predicts a tendency towards limiting the temperature of the residue for all the target masses. The limiting temperature has been found to decrease with increase in the mass of the residue which is in accordance with the experimental observations. (orig.)

  10. Microbiological and Morphological Analysis of Dental Implants Removed for Incomplete Osseointegration

    OpenAIRE

    Passariello, C; Berlutti, F.; Selan, L.; Amodeo, C; Comodi-Ballanti, M. R.; L. Serafino; Thaller, M. C.

    2011-01-01

    Dental implants may share both severe infection and incomplete osseointegration in the absence of obvious clinical signs of infection. While microbiological data have been collected on peri-implant infections, no previous studies have investigated microbiologically incompletely osseointegrated implants. This paper presents microbiological and scanning electron microscopy observations on 30 implants showing incomplete osseointegration. All the 30 implants were colonised by bacterial species th...

  11. From Crescent to Mature Virion: Vaccinia Virus Assembly and Maturation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liang Liu

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Vaccinia virus (VACV has achieved unprecedented success as a live viral vaccine for smallpox which mitigated eradication of the disease. Vaccinia virus has a complex virion morphology and recent advances have been made to answer some of the key outstanding questions, in particular, the origin and biogenesis of the virion membrane, the transformation from immature virion (IV to mature virus (MV, and the role of several novel genes, which were previously uncharacterized, but have now been shown to be essential for VACV virion formation. This new knowledge will undoubtedly contribute to the rational design of safe, immunogenic vaccine candidates, or effective antivirals in the future. This review endeavors to provide an update on our current knowledge of the VACV maturation processes with a specific focus on the initiation of VACV replication through to the formation of mature virions.

  12. Incomplete hippocampal inversion - is there a relation to epilepsy?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Incomplete hippocampal inversion (IHI) has been described in patients with epilepsy or severe midline malformations but also in nonepileptic subjects without obvious developmental anomalies. We studied the frequency of IHI in different epilepsy syndromes to evaluate their relationship. Three hundred patients were drawn from the regional epilepsy register. Of these, 99 were excluded because of a disease or condition affecting the temporal lobes or incomplete data. Controls were 150 subjects without epilepsy or obvious intracranial developmental anomalies. The coronal MR images were analysed without knowledge of the clinical data. Among epilepsy patients, 30% had IHI (40 left-sided, 4 right-sided, 16 bilateral). Of controls, 18% had IHI (20 left-sided, 8 bilateral). The difference was statistically significant (P<0.05). Of temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE) patients, 25% had IHI, which was not a significantly higher frequency than in controls (P=0.34). There was no correlation between EEG and IHI laterality. A total of 44% of Rolandic epilepsy patients and 57% of cryptogenic generalised epilepsy patients had IHI. The IHI frequency was very high in some epileptic syndromes, but not significantly higher in TLE compared to controls. No causality between TLE and IHI could be found. IHI can be a sign of disturbed cerebral development affecting other parts of the brain, maybe leading to epilepsy. (orig.)

  13. Evolutionary ultimatum game on complex networks under incomplete information

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bo, Xianyu; Yang, Jianmei

    2010-03-01

    This paper studies the evolutionary ultimatum game on networks when agents have incomplete information about the strategies of their neighborhood agents. Our model assumes that agents may initially display low fairness behavior, and therefore, may have to learn and develop their own strategies in this unknown environment. The Genetic Algorithm Learning Classifier System (GALCS) is used in the model as the agent strategy learning rule. Aside from the Watts-Strogatz (WS) small-world network and its variations, the present paper also extends the spatial ultimatum game to the Barabási-Albert (BA) scale-free network. Simulation results show that the fairness level achieved is lower than in situations where agents have complete information about other agents’ strategies. The research results display that fairness behavior will always emerge regardless of the distribution of the initial strategies. If the strategies are randomly distributed on the network, then the long-term agent fairness levels achieved are very close given unchanged learning parameters. Neighborhood size also has little effect on the fairness level attained. The simulation results also imply that WS small-world and BA scale-free networks have different effects on the spatial ultimatum game. In ultimatum game on networks with incomplete information, the WS small-world network and its variations favor the emergence of fairness behavior slightly more than the BA network where agents are heterogeneously structured.

  14. Fabrication of Stable Cartilage Framework for Microtia in Incomplete Synchondrosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Byung Chae Cho

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available The synchondrosis between the sixth and seventh costal cartilage is usually used for thebase frame in autogenous ear reconstruction. If the synchondrosis is loose, a variety ofmodifications can be devised. This report introduces new methods for these problems. Incases of incomplete synchondrosis, only the surface of the base block margin was smoothlytapered without carving for the removal of the conchal deepening. The secure fixation ofthe two segments (helix and antihelix to the base block using fine wire sutures gave stabilityto the unstable basal frame. After confirming that all the segments were assembled in onestable piece, the remaining conchal deepening of the basal framework was removed, and theouter lower portion of the basal cartilage was trimmed along its whole length. A total of 10consecutive patients with microtia, ranging from 8 to 13 years old, were treated from 2008 to2009. The follow-up period was 6 months to 2 years. Despite incomplete synchondrosis, thestable frameworks were constructed using the authors method and aesthetically acceptableresults were achieved. The proposed method can provide an easy way to make a stablecartilage framework regardless of the variable conditions of synchondrosis.

  15. Global stability of two models with incomplete treatment for tuberculosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Research highlights: → Two tuberculosis models with incomplete treatment. → Intuitive epidemiological interpretations for the basic reproduction numbers. → Global dynamics of the two models. → Strategies to control the spread of tuberculosis. - Abstract: Two tuberculosis (TB) models with incomplete treatment are investigated. It is assumed that the treated individuals may enter either the latent compartment due to the remainder of Mycobacterium tuberculosis or the infectious compartment due to the treatment failure. The first model is a simple one with treatment failure reflecting the current TB treatment fact in most countries with high tuberculosis incidence. The second model refines the simple one by dividing the latent compartment into slow and fast two kinds of progresses. This improvement can be used to describe the case that the latent TB individuals have been infected with some other chronic diseases (such as HIV and diabetes) which may weaken the immunity of infected individuals and shorten the latent period of TB. Both of the two models assume mass action incidence and exponential distributions of transfers between different compartments. The basic reproduction numbers of the two models are derived and their intuitive epidemiological interpretations are given. The global dynamics of two models are all proved by using Liapunov functions. At last, some strategies to control the spread of tuberculosis are discussed.

  16. Insights into thermonuclear supernovae from the incomplete silicon burning process

    CERN Document Server

    Bravo, E

    2012-01-01

    Type Ia supernova (SNIa) explosions synthesize a few tenths to several tenths of a solar mass, whose composition is the result of incomplete silicon burning that reaches peak temperatures of 4 GK to 5 GK. The elemental abundances are sensitive to the physical conditions in the explosion, making their measurement a promising clue to uncovering the properties of the progenitor star and of the explosion itself. Using a parameterized description of the thermodynamic history of matter undergoing incomplete silicon burning, we computed the final composition for a range of parameters wide enough to encompass current models of SNIa. Then, we searched for combinations of elemental abundances that trace the parameters values and are potentially measurable. For this purpose, we divide the present study into two epochs of SNIa, namely the optical epoch, from a few weeks to several months after the explosion, and the X-ray epoch, which refers to the time period in which the supernova remnant is young, starting one or two ...

  17. Definite integrals of generalized certain class of incomplete elliptic integrals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ravi Shanker Dubey

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Elliptic- integral have their importance and potential in certain problems in radiation physics and nuclear technology, studies of crystallographic minimal surfaces, the theory of scattering of acoustic or electromagnetic waves by means of an elliptic disk, studies of elliptical crack problems in fracture mechanics. A number of earlier works on the subject contains remarkably large number of general families of elliptic- integrals and indeed also many definite integrals of such families with respect to their modulus (or complementary modulus are known to arise naturally. Motivated essentially by these and many other potential avenues of their applications, our aim here is to give a systematic account of the theory of a certain family of generalized incomplete elliptic integrals in a unique and generalized manner. The results established in this paper are of manifold generality and basic in nature. By making use of the familiar Riemann-Liouville fractional differ integral operators, we establish many explicit hypergeometric representations and apply these representation in deriving several definite integrals pertaining to their, not only with respect to the modulus (or complementary modulus, but also with respect to the amplitude of generalized incomplete elliptic integrals involved therein.

  18. Global stability of two models with incomplete treatment for tuberculosis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang Yali, E-mail: yylhgr@126.co [Department of Applied Mathematics, Xi' an Jiaotong University, Xi' an 710049 (China) and Department of Applied Mathematics and Physics, Air Force Engineering University, Xi' an 710051 (China); Li Jianquan, E-mail: jianq_li@263.ne [Department of Applied Mathematics and Physics, Air Force Engineering University, Xi' an 710051 (China); Ma Zhien, E-mail: zhma@mail.xjtu.edu.c [Department of Applied Mathematics, Xi' an Jiaotong University, Xi' an 710049 (China); Liu Luju, E-mail: dahai20401095@yahoo.com.c [Department of Mathematics, Henan University of Science and Technology, Luoyang 471003 (China)

    2010-12-15

    Research highlights: Two tuberculosis models with incomplete treatment. Intuitive epidemiological interpretations for the basic reproduction numbers. Global dynamics of the two models. Strategies to control the spread of tuberculosis. - Abstract: Two tuberculosis (TB) models with incomplete treatment are investigated. It is assumed that the treated individuals may enter either the latent compartment due to the remainder of Mycobacterium tuberculosis or the infectious compartment due to the treatment failure. The first model is a simple one with treatment failure reflecting the current TB treatment fact in most countries with high tuberculosis incidence. The second model refines the simple one by dividing the latent compartment into slow and fast two kinds of progresses. This improvement can be used to describe the case that the latent TB individuals have been infected with some other chronic diseases (such as HIV and diabetes) which may weaken the immunity of infected individuals and shorten the latent period of TB. Both of the two models assume mass action incidence and exponential distributions of transfers between different compartments. The basic reproduction numbers of the two models are derived and their intuitive epidemiological interpretations are given. The global dynamics of two models are all proved by using Liapunov functions. At last, some strategies to control the spread of tuberculosis are discussed.

  19. Incomplete fusion in 12C + 160Gd collisions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A study of the mechanism of the production of fast α-particels in 12C + 160Gd collisions has been performed. Experiments have been performed at four bombarding energies 90, 120, 160 and 200 MeV. The energy spectra of singles α-particles were taken at several laboratory angles, and the singles γ-ray spectra compared with the spectra of γ-rays in prompt coincidences with α-particles. Absolute cross sections were deduced for (12C, α) and (12C, 2α) reactions. The conclusion is that depending on the bombarding energy, a fraction of 0.2-0.4 of the inclusive α-particle production cross section can be explained as resulting from incomplete fusion reactions. A large part of the cross section must be then attributed to 3α-particle breakup. Energy dependence of the cross sections for (12C, α) and (12C, 2α) reactions indicates that incomplete fusion reactions begin to be important only above the critical energy, i.e. when the grazing angular momentum becomes greater than the critical angular momentum for complete fusion. (C.F.)

  20. Distributed Cooperation among Cognitive Radios with Complete and Incomplete Information

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giupponi, Lorenza; Ibars, Christian

    2009-12-01

    This paper proposes that secondary unlicensed users are allowed to opportunistically use the radio spectrum allocated to the primary licensed users, as long as they agree on facilitating the primary user communications by cooperating with them. The proposal is characterized by feasibility since the half-duplex option is considered, and incomplete knowledge of channel state information can be assumed. In particular, we consider two situations, where the users in the scenario have complete or incomplete knowledge of the surrounding environment. In the first case, we make the hypothesis of the existence of a Common Control Channel (CCC) where users share this information. In the second case, the hypothesis of the CCC is avoided, which improves the robustness and feasibility of the cognitive radio network. To model these schemes we make use of theory of exact and Bayesian potential games. We analyze the convergence properties of the proposed games, and we evaluate the outputs in terms of quality of service perceived by both primary and secondary users, showing that cooperation for cognitive radios is a promising framework and that the lack of complete information in the decision process only slightly reduces system performance.

  1. Cooperative coalition for formation flight scheduling based on incomplete information

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meng Linghang

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This study analyzes the cooperative coalition problem for formation scheduling based on incomplete information. A multi-agent cooperative coalition framework is developed to optimize the formation scheduling problem in a decentralized manner. The social class differentiation mechanism and role-assuming mechanism are incorporated into the framework, which, in turn, ensures that the multi-agent system (MAS evolves in the optimal direction. Moreover, a further differentiation pressure can be achieved to help MAS escape from local optima. A Bayesian coalition negotiation algorithm is constructed, within which the Harsanyi transformation is introduced to transform the coalition problem based on incomplete information to the Bayesian-equivalent coalition problem based on imperfect information. The simulation results suggest that the distribution of agents’ expectations of other agents’ unknown information approximates to the true distribution after a finite set of generations. The comparisons indicate that the MAS cooperative coalition algorithm produces a significantly better utility and possesses a more effective capability of escaping from local optima than the proposal-engaged marriage algorithm and the Simulated Annealing algorithm.

  2. Public Sector IS Maturity Models

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zinner Henriksen, Helle; Andersen, Kim Normann; Medaglia, Rony

    2011-01-01

    Online applications and processing of tax forms, driver licenses, and construction permits are examples of where policy attention and research have been united in efforts aiming to categorize the maturity level of e-services. Less attention has been attributed to policy areas with continuous online...... citizenpublic interaction, such as in public education. In this paper we use a revised version of the Public Sector Process Rebuilding (PPR) maturity model for mapping 200 websites of public primary schools in Denmark. Findings reveal a much less favorable picture of the digitization of the Danish public sector...... compared to the high ranking it has received in the international benchmark studies. This paper aims at closing the gap between the predominant scope of maturity models and the frequency of citizen-public sector interaction, and calls for increased attention to the activities of government where the scale...

  3. Isospin Dependence of Incomplete Fusion Reactions at 25 Mev/a

    CERN Document Server

    Amorini, F; Giuliani, G; Papa, M; Agodi, C; Alba, R; Anzalone, A; Berceanu, I; Cavallaro, S; Chatterjee, M B; Coniglione, R; De Filippo, E; Di Pietro, A; Geraci, E; Grassi, L; Grzeszczuk, A; Figuera, P; La Guidara, E; Lanzalone, G; Neindre, N Le; Lombardo, I; Maiolino, C; Pagano, A; Pirrone, S; Politi, G; Pop, A; Porto, F; Rizzo, F; Russotto, P; Santonocito, D; Sapienza, P; Verde, G

    2008-01-01

    40Ca+40,48Ca,46Ti reactions at 25 MeV/A have been studied using the 4p CHIMERA detector. An isospin effect on the competition between incomplete fusion and dissipative binary reaction mechanisms has been observed. The probability of producing a compound system is observed to be lower in the case of N=Z colliding systems as compared to the case of reactions induced on the more neutron rich 48Ca target. Predictions based on CoMD-II calculations show that the competition between fusion-like and dissipative reactions, for the selected centrality, can strongly constraint the parameterization of symmetry energy and its density dependence in the nuclear equation of state.

  4. 7 CFR 1421.101 - Maturity dates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Maturity dates. 1421.101 Section 1421.101 Agriculture... Maturity dates. (a)(1) All marketing assistance loans shall mature on demand by CCC and no later than the... filed and disbursed except, for transferred marketing assistance loan collateral. The maturity date...

  5. 38 CFR 7.7 - Maturity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Maturity. 7.7 Section 7.7... Soldiers' and Sailors' Civil Relief Act Amendments of 1942 § 7.7 Maturity. (a) The phrase maturity of a policy as a death claim or otherwise (SSCRA, as amended) will not include a termination or maturity of...

  6. The Forgotten Promise of E-government Maturity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Kim Normann; Medaglia, Rony; Vatrapu, Ravi; Zinner Henriksen, Helle; Gauld, Robin

    2011-01-01

    Assessing e-government responsiveness is one of the major gaps in the currently dominant e-government maturity models. While we have a relatively large pool of models focusing on technological and organizational integration from a supply side perspective, measures of responsiveness of e-government...... systems from a user perspective are still lacking. Replicating a study from New Zealand and Australia, this study explores the response time and quality of e-mail response in Danish local and central governments (N = 175). Despite that Denmark is high ranking in international benchmark studies, we find...... that one third of central government agencies did not respond at all, and close to 80% of the ministries provided none or incomplete answers. Local government responds faster and provides answers that are more complete and accurate than those provided by central government. Implications for e-government...

  7. The cost of maturing early in a solitary carnivore.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nilsen, Erlend B; Brseth, Henrik; Odden, John; Linnell, John D C

    2010-12-01

    Central to the theory of life history evolution is the existence of trade-offs between different traits, such as the trade-off between early maturity and an extended period of body growth. Based on analysis of the reproductive tracts of harvested Eurasian lynx (Lynx lynx) females in Norway, we find that females that mature early are generally heavier than those that postpone maturation. A higher proportion of 1.5-year-old females showed signs of ovulation in areas with high prey density, where they were also heavier. Further, we show that female Eurasian lynx that mature early have the same number of placental scars (an index of breeding investment and litter size) as older females, suggesting that they have a relatively high investment in their first litter. This induces a cost in terms of body weight development, as those females that had matured at the age of 1.5 years were substantially lighter by the age of 2.5 years than those that postponed breeding. This effect tended to be more pronounced in areas with low prey density. We discuss to what extent this might affect their future fitness prospects, and suggest that such costs of maturing early in terms of body weight development might be high in terrestrial large carnivores due to a prolonged period of postnatal care. PMID:20607292

  8. Altered maturation of small intestinal function in the absence of intraluminal nutrients: rapid normalization with refeeding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castillo, R O; Feng, J J; Stevenson, D K; Kwong, L K

    1991-02-01

    The absence of intraluminal nutrients during weaning in rats was shown to result in altered intestinal growth and maturation. In this study intestinal length, mucosal weight, DNA, protein, and total disaccharidase activities were significantly lower in animals sustained by intravenous nutrients over the normal weaning age than were normally weaned controls but were greater than preweaning values. Absorptive capacity for sucrose (assessed by hydrogen-gas production) was diminished, directly linking incomplete maturation of sucrase to diminished intestinal function. To determine whether these alterations were permanent, rats previously deprived of intraluminal nutrients over the weaning period were refed. Eight days after refeeding, all variables except total lactase had attained values found in normally weaned age-matched controls, including absorptive capacity for sucrose. Although intestinal growth and maturation is abnormal in the absence of intraluminal nutrients during weaning, the abnormalities are not permanent and are rapidly corrected upon refeeding. PMID:1899174

  9. Incomplete Continuous-Time Securities Markets with Stochastic Income Volatility

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Peter Ove; Larsen, Kasper

    In an incomplete continuous-time securities market governed by Brownian motions, we derive closed-form solutions for the equilibrium risk-free rate and equity premium processes. The economy has a finite number of heterogeneous exponential utility investors, who receive partially unspanned income...... and can trade continuously on a finite time interval in a money market account and a single risky security. Besides establishing the existence of an equilibrium, our main result shows that if the investors' unspanned income has stochastic counter-cyclical volatility, the resulting equilibrium can...... display both lower risk-free rates and higher risk premia relative to the Pareto efficient equilibrium in an otherwise identical complete market. Consequently, our model can simultaneously help explaining the risk-free rate and equity premium puzzles....

  10. A Memetic Algorithm for Designing Balanced Incomplete Blocks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Rodríguez Rueda

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The generation of balanced incomplete block designs (BIBD is a hard constrained combinatorial problem whose applications are manifold. Although the BIBD problem can be easily formulated as a combinatorial optimization problem, its resolution still constitutes a formidable challenge for solving techniques. In this work we devise a memetic algorithm (MA for tackling the BIBD problem. This MA features a heuristic recombination operator based on greedy procedures and a local search method embedded in the evolutionary cycle. An extensive empirical evaluation is done using 86 different instances of the problem. The results indicate that the two mentioned components of the MA contribute synergistically to the performance of the algorithm, whose results are better than those of other metaheuristics such as genetic algorithms, hill climbing, and tabu search (which was the previous incumbent for the problem.

  11. The value of incomplete mouse models of Alzheimer's disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To study Alzheimer's disease (AD), a variety of mouse models has been generated through the overexpression of the amyloid precursor protein and/or the presenilins harboring one or several mutations found in familial AD. With aging, these mice develop several lesions similar to those of AD, including diffuse and neuritic amyloid deposits, cerebral amyloid angiopathy, dystrophic neurites and synapses, and amyloid-associated neuroinflammation. Other characteristics of AD, such as neurofibrillary tangles and nerve cell loss, are not satisfactorily reproduced in these models. Mouse models that recapitulate only specific aspects of AD pathogenesis are of great advantage when deciphering the complexity of the disease and can contribute substantially to diagnostic and therapeutic innovations. Incomplete mouse models have been key to the development of Aβ42-targeted therapies, as well as to the current understanding of the interrelationship between cerebral β-amyloidosis and tau neurofibrillary lesions, and are currently being used to develop novel diagnostic agents for in vivo imaging. (orig.)

  12. Applying incomplete statistics to nonextensive systems with different q indices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The nonextensive statistics based on the q-entropy Sq=--bar i=1v(pi-piq)1-q has been so far applied to systems in which the q value is uniformly distributed. For the systems containing different q's, the applicability of the theory is still a matter of investigation. The difficulty is that the class of systems to which the theory can be applied is actually limited by the usual nonadditivity rule of entropy which is no more valid when the systems contain non uniform distribution of q values. In this paper, within the framework of the so called incomplete information theory, we propose a more general nonadditivity rule of entropy prescribed by the zeroth law of thermodynamics. This new nonadditivity generalizes in a simple way the usual one and can be proved to lead uniquely to the q-entropy

  13. Symmetry of interactions rules in incompletely connected random replicator ecosystems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kärenlampi, Petri P

    2014-06-01

    The evolution of an incompletely connected system of species with speciation and extinction is investigated in terms of random replicators. It is found that evolving random replicator systems with speciation do become large and complex, depending on speciation parameters. Antisymmetric interactions result in large systems, whereas systems with symmetric interactions remain small. A co-dominating feature is within-species interaction pressure: large within-species interaction increases species diversity. Average fitness evolves in all systems, however symmetry and connectivity evolve in small systems only. Newcomers get extinct almost immediately in symmetric systems. The distribution in species lifetimes is determined for antisymmetric systems. The replicator systems investigated do not show any sign of self-organized criticality. The generalized Lotka-Volterra system is shown to be a tedious way of implementing the replicator system. PMID:24965155

  14. [Incomplete Carney's Triad and arterial hypertension in a young woman].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allievi, Alberto; Araya, Valentina; Calvar, Cecilia; Cimino, Conrado; Delle Piane, Hugo; Diaz, Gabriela; Gianni, Marta; Prudkin, Ludmila

    2006-01-01

    The case of young woman with arterial hypertension diagnosed two years before, is here presented; she had a ferropenic anemia caused by digestive loss of blood. Multiple gastric tumors and pararenal non functioning paraganglioma were found. No chondromas were detected. An incomplete Carney's Triad was diagnosed. We remark that multiple gastric tumors in a young adult suggest the possibility of gastrointestinal stromal tumors (GIST) Endoscopic biopsy frequently is not effective because these tumors are deep placed in the muscular gastric layers. The importance of specific techniques for a positive diagnosis are emphasized. Continuous follow up is needed because these tumors have uncertain prognosis. Lung chondromas may appear years later after the GIST was removed and might be confused with GIST metastases. PMID:16555728

  15. Distribution of Mutual Information from Complete and Incomplete Data

    CERN Document Server

    Hutter, M; Hutter, Marcus; Zaffalon, Marco

    2004-01-01

    Mutual information is widely used, in a descriptive way, to measure the stochastic dependence of categorical random variables. In order to address questions such as the reliability of the descriptive value, one must consider sample-to-population inferential approaches. This paper deals with the posterior distribution of mutual information, as obtained in a Bayesian framework by a second-order Dirichlet prior distribution. The exact analytical expression for the mean, and analytical approximations for the variance, skewness and kurtosis are derived. These approximations have a guaranteed accuracy level of the order O(1/n^3), where n is the sample size. Leading order approximations for the mean and the variance are derived in the case of incomplete samples. The derived analytical expressions allow the distribution of mutual information to be approximated reliably and quickly. In fact, the derived expressions can be computed with the same order of complexity needed for descriptive mutual information. This makes ...

  16. Finding small OBDDs for incompletely specified truth tables is hard

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Miltersen, Peter Bro; Kristensen, Jesper Torp

    We present an efficient reduction mapping undirected graphs G with n = 2^k vertices for integers k to tables of partially specified Boolean functions g: {0,1}^(4k+1) -> {0,1,*} so that for any integer m, G has a vertex colouring using m colours if and only if g has a consistent ordered binary dec...... decision diagram with at most (2m + 2)n^2 + 4n decision nodes. From this it follows that the problem of finding a minimum-sized consistent OBDD for an incompletely specified truth table is NP-hard and also hard to approximate.......We present an efficient reduction mapping undirected graphs G with n = 2^k vertices for integers k to tables of partially specified Boolean functions g: {0,1}^(4k+1) -> {0,1,*} so that for any integer m, G has a vertex colouring using m colours if and only if g has a consistent ordered binary...

  17. On a class of incomplete gamma functions with applications

    CERN Document Server

    Chaudhry, M Aslam

    2001-01-01

    The subject of special functions is rich and expanding continuously with the emergence of new problems encountered in engineering and applied science applications. The development of computational techniques and the rapid growth in computing power have increased the importance of the special functions and their formulae for analytic representations. However, problems remain, particularly in heat conduction, astrophysics, and probability theory, whose solutions seem to defy even the most general classes of special functions.On a Class of Incomplete Gamma Functions with Applications introduces a class of special functions, developed by the authors, useful in the analytic study of several heat conduction problems. It presents some basic properties of these functions, including their recurrence relations, special cases, asymptotic representations, and integral transform relationships. The authors explore applications of these generalized functions to problems in transient heat conduction, special cases of laser s...

  18. Elementary calculation of clip connections with incomplete sweep of shaft

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivan P. Shatsky

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The article describes promising structures of clip (screw and friction connections with incomplete sweep of shaft used in machines and mechanisms for the oil and gas industry. The contact problems of interaction between semi-hubs and shaft for the symmetric and asymmetric connections are formulated. For structures that are asymmetric relatively the joint bolt two types of interaction are investigated: with and without lateral displacement. Based on a priori assumption about the distribution laws of contact pressure accepted in traditional courses of “Machine Details” an engineering method for calculating of clip connections is developed. Herewith different types of details coupling (with a gap, matched, with tension correspond to concentrated, cosine and sustainable (linear distributions of contact stresses. There are determined an analytical dependences of boundary points and breakloose force on spanning angles, bolt tightening force and tribological properties of joined parts of subassembly.

  19. An incompleteness theorem for βn-models

    OpenAIRE

    Mummert, Carl; Simpson, Stephen G.

    2004-01-01

    Let n be a positive integer. By a βn-model we mean an ω-model which is elementary with respect to Σ1n formulas. We prove the following βn-model version of Gödel’s Second Incompleteness Theorem. For any recursively axiomatized theory S in the language of second order arithmetic, if there exists a βn-model of S, then there exists a βn-model of S + “there is no countable βn-model of S”. We also prove a βn-model version of Löb’s Theorem. As a corollary, we obtain a βn-mode...

  20. Expurgated PPM Using Symmetric Balanced Incomplete Block Designs

    CERN Document Server

    Noshad, Mohammad

    2012-01-01

    In this letter, we propose a new pulse position modulation (PPM) scheme, called expurgated PPM (EPPM), for application in peak power limited communication systems, such as impulse radio (IR) ultra wide band (UWB) systems and free space optical (FSO) communications. Using the proposed scheme, the constellation size and the bit-rate can be increased significantly in these systems. The symbols are obtained using symmetric balanced incomplete block designs (BIBD), forming a set of pair-wise equidistance symbols. The performance of Q-ary EPPM is better than any Q-ary pulse position-based modulation scheme with the same symbol length. Since the code is cyclic, the receiver for EPPM is simpler compared to multipulse PPM (MPPM).

  1. Exchangeability and the Law of Maturity

    OpenAIRE

    Bonassi, Fernando Vieira; Stern, Rafael Bassi; Wechsler, Sergio; Peixoto, Claudia Monteiro

    2014-01-01

    The law of maturity is the belief that less-observed events are becoming mature and, therefore, more likely to occur in the future. Previous studies have shown that the assumption of infinite exchangeability contradicts the law of maturity. In particular, it has been shown that infinite exchangeability contradicts probabilistic descriptions of the law of maturity such as the gambler's belief and the belief in maturity. We show that the weaker assumption of finite exchangeability is compatible...

  2. Warranty forecasting from incomplete two-dimensional warranty data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Warranty modelling with incomplete data is a major issue in reliability analysis. The incomplete failure region characterized by warranty field data may be classified into several domains representing failures from manufacturing/assembly defects, usage or fatigue. In the present paper a data driven approach has been suggested to demark the regions optimally through estimation of the change point in a hazard function. In the perspective of bivariate warranty analysis, as relevant in automobiles, we have assumed the lifetime distribution to be a mixture of distributions corresponding to the burn-in period and the useful life period. The proportions of observations in different regions demarketed by the warranty policy in the bivariate plane have been estimated by considering mileage along with age. The estimation scheme has been verified and validated through extensive simulation studies. The utilities of the results have been demonstrated by addressing several issues through a real life synthetic warranty data set from a large automobile company. - Highlights: Detailed responses to all comments of the reviewers are attached in a separate file. Almost all of the suggestions of the reviewers are incorporated in the revised manuscript. Some recent works of different authors as mentioned by the reviewers have been included in the revised manuscript. The term change point with reference to the transition from $DFR$ to $CFR$ part of the bath-tub curve has been elaborated. A sample of real life data has been given in the revised manuscript in Table $4$, by following the suggestion of reviewer 2. The findings have been summarised in a better way in the conclusion part. In this portion we have emphasized on the take away of our work. Scopes for future work have also been mentioned

  3. Motivational Maturity and Helping Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haymes, Michael; Green, Logan

    1977-01-01

    Maturity in conative development (type of motivation included in Maslow's needs hierarchy) was found to be predictive of helping behavior in middle class white male college students. The effects of safety and esteem needs were compared, and the acceptance of responsibility was also investigated. (GDC)

  4. Leadership Development and Organizational Maturity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iannuzzi, Patricia

    1992-01-01

    Urges the design and implementation of strategies in academic libraries for the development of leadership potential. Discusses the components of organizations that lead to organizational maturity, and calls for library leaders with vision, skill, and commitment to nurture an organizational culture that emphasizes leadership development. (20…

  5. Jobfinding Techniques for Mature Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terlin, Rose

    Written by the Chief of Special Projects of the Women's Bureau as a guide for assisting the mature woman in preparing for and finding employment, this pamphlet contains sections on: (1) How to Do a Self-Inventory, (2) How to Prepare a Resume, (3) The Jobhunt, (4) How to Prepare a Letter of Application, (5) Guides to an Effective Interview, and (6)

  6. Optimal investment with random endowments in incomplete markets

    CERN Document Server

    Hugonnier, J; Hugonnier, Julien; Kramkov, Dmitry

    2004-01-01

    In this paper, we study the problem of expected utility maximization of an agent who, in addition to an initial capital, receives random endowments at maturity. Contrary to previous studies, we treat as the variables of the optimization problem not only the initial capital but also the number of units of the random endowments. We show that this approach leads to a dual problem, whose solution is always attained in the space of random variables. In particular, this technique does not require the use of finitely additive measures and the related assumption that the endowments are bounded.

  7. To Mature or not to Mature: The Information Systems Conundrum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carl Marnewick

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Research has been done within the South African information technology (IT industry over the last decade with regard to project management maturity (PMM and the impact it has on delivering information systems (IS projects successfully. The research was done to determine whether IS PMM per knowledge area has improved over the last decade. It investigates if there is a correlation between maturity levels and project success. Four independent surveys over the last decade focused on IS PMM and the longitudinal analysis provides a benchmark for whether IS PMM has increased or not. This article focuses on whether certain knowledge areas are more of a problem within the IT industry and to determine what the overall IS PMM is. The longitudinal analysis indicates trends and highlights areas of concern. It indicates that most IT companies are still operating at level 3 and that risk and procurement management are the knowledge areas of concern. A comparative analysis indicates that there is no difference between South African and international maturity levels. The results provide a South African perspective of IS PMM. It highlights that risk management is still a knowledge area that is neglected and that emphasis must be placed on managing risk within IT projects.

  8. Development and maturation of Escherichia coli K-12 biofilms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Reisner, A.; Haagensen, J.A.J.; Schembri, Mark; Zechner, E.L.; Molin, Søren

    2003-01-01

    The development and maturation of E. coli biofilms in flow-chambers was investigated. We found that the presence of transfer constitutive IncF plasmids induced biofilm development forming structures resembling those reported for Pseudomonas aeruginosa . The development occurred in a step-wise pro......The development and maturation of E. coli biofilms in flow-chambers was investigated. We found that the presence of transfer constitutive IncF plasmids induced biofilm development forming structures resembling those reported for Pseudomonas aeruginosa . The development occurred in a step....... We further provide evidence that flagella, type 1 fimbriae, curli and Ag43 are all dispensable for the observed biofilm maturation. In addition, our results indicate that cell-to-cell signalling mediated by autoinducer 2 (AI-2) is not required for differentiation of E. coli within a biofilm community....... We suggest on the basis of these results that E. coli K-12 biofilm development and maturation is dependent on cell-cell adhesion factors, which may act as inducers of self-assembly processes that result in differently structured biofilms depending on the adhesive properties on the cell surface....

  9. Green ICT Maturity Model for Czech SMEs

    OpenAIRE

    Alena Buchalcevova

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents a design of a Green ICT maturity model that is aimed at maturity assessment of a Green ICT capability in SMEs that figure as users of ICT services. Based on a literature review and internet search, six maturity models in the Green ICT area were detected and further analysed. Since these maturity models do not suit maturity assessment in non-ICT SMEs, a new Green ICT maturity model for SMEs was developed. This paper introduces the process of model development, description o...

  10. Effects of polyunsaturated fatty acids and prostaglandins on oocyte maturation in a marine teleost, the European sea bass (Dicentrarchus labrax).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sorbera, L A; Asturiano, J F; Carrillo, M; Zanuy, S

    2001-01-01

    The effects of the polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs), arachidonic acid (AA), eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA), docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), and prostaglandins (PGs) on oocyte maturation were investigated in a marine teleost, the sea bass (Dicentrarchus labrax). Follicle-enclosed postvitellogenic, preovulatory oocytes were cultured in vitro and maturation was verified by assessing volume increase, lipid droplet coalescence, yolk clarification, and germinal vesicle migration and breakdown. Human chorionic gonadotropin was administered as the maturation-inducing gonadotropin (GTH) and was capable of inducing maturation in a time- and dose-dependent manner. Free AA induced maturation in a dose- and time-dependent manner and enhanced GTH-induced maturation, while EPA, DHA, and oleic acid were ineffective. Maturation induced by GTH was significantly suppressed by a phospholipase A(2) blocker, suggesting that mobilization of AA was involved in GTH-induced maturation. Moreover, EPA and DHA exhibited a significant, dose-dependent attenuation of GTH-induced maturation. Maturation induced by GTH was inhibited in the presence of a cyclooxygenase inhibitor, indomethacin, and this inhibition was reversed by addition of AA, PGE(2), or PGF(2alpha). PGE(2) and PGF(2alpha) alone were both effective stimulators of maturation, while PGE(1) and PGE(3) were ineffective. The effect of PUFAs on oocyte maturation in vitro were corroborated with studies in vivo. Oocytes were obtained from females fed a commercial, PUFA-enriched diet (RD) and maturational behavior was compared with oocytes from females fed a natural diet (ND) with a higher EPA content and n-3:n-6 ratio. Although no significant difference was observed in the rate of spontaneous oocyte maturation, a higher percentage of GTH-induced maturation and lower percentage of atresia were observed in RD oocytes. Moreover, while basal PGE production from oocytes from both groups was the same, RD oocytes produced significantly higher levels of PGE in the presence of hCG. The results from this study provide evidence for the participation of AA metabolism in GTH-induced oocyte maturation, and suggest that other PUFAs and PGs may play important roles in the induction of maturation in a marine teleost. PMID:11133697

  11. The enrichment industry reaches maturity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    As the nuclear power industry enters the 1980s, uranium enrichment supply can no longer be considered one of the critical problem areas of the nuclear fuel cycle. It has become an industrial and commercial activity which has reached a high degree of maturity. Three main aspects of this maturity are discussed: 1. the availability of enrichment services from several facilities with very diverse ownership; 2. the involvement of private industry, especially in Europe, and the application of normal commercial rules to enrichment contracts; 3. the ability of the enrichment industry to cope with recent setbacks in the advancement of nuclear power programmes whilst carrying out an active research and development programme that will help to ensure its future technical and economic viability. (U.K.)

  12. Male silver eels mature by swimming

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Spaink Herman P

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background If European silver eels are prevented from reproductive migration, they remain in a prepubertal stage by dopaminergic inhibition of pituitary activity. Because this inhibition is likely a requirement for an extended female growth stage, we tested if it is sex-specific by subjecting both sexes to stimulation by GnRHa (Gonadotropin-Releasing Hormone agonist – injection or 3-months swimming in seawater. Results In contrast to females, males showed a two- to three-fold higher LHβ (luteinising hormone β subunit – expression, a three- to five-fold higher GSI (Gonadosomatic index and induced spermatogenesis when compared with the untreated control group. Conclusion Dopaminergic inhibition is thus not effective in males and swimming results in natural maturation, probably via GnRH-release.

  13. Structural MRI Predicts Biological Maturity

    OpenAIRE

    Budhachandra Singh Khundrakpam; Jussi Tohka

    2013-01-01

    Structural MRI has considerably advanced our knowledge about the complicated process behind brain maturation. Developmental trajectories of grey matter show an inverted-U shaped pattern peaking around puberty, suggesting a biological mechanism of synaptic overproduction followed by pruning [Giedd et al. 1999; Giedd, 2008]. Cognitive milestones happen concurrently with these structural changes, and a delay in such changes has been implicated in developmental disorders such as ADHD [Giedd and R...

  14. Glycoprotein maturation and the UPR

    OpenAIRE

    Hlsmeier, A J; Welti, M; Hennet, T

    2011-01-01

    Glycosylation is a complex form of protein modification occurring in the secretory pathway. The addition of N- and O-glycans affects intracellular processes like the folding and trafficking of most glycoproteins. To better understand the impact of glycosylation in protein folding and maturation, parameters like glycosylation site occupancy and oligosaccharide structure must be measured quantitatively. In this chapter, we describe current methods enabling the determination of N-glycosylation b...

  15. Maturation of the adolescent brain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arain M

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Mariam Arain, Maliha Haque, Lina Johal, Puja Mathur, Wynand Nel, Afsha Rais, Ranbir Sandhu, Sushil Sharma Saint James School of Medicine, Kralendijk, Bonaire, The Netherlands Abstract: Adolescence is the developmental epoch during which children become adults – intellectually, physically, hormonally, and socially. Adolescence is a tumultuous time, full of changes and transformations. The pubertal transition to adulthood involves both gonadal and behavioral maturation. Magnetic resonance imaging studies have discovered that myelinogenesis, required for proper insulation and efficient neurocybernetics, continues from childhood and the brain's region-specific neurocircuitry remains structurally and functionally vulnerable to impulsive sex, food, and sleep habits. The maturation of the adolescent brain is also influenced by heredity, environment, and sex hormones (estrogen, progesterone, and testosterone, which play a crucial role in myelination. Furthermore, glutamatergic neurotransmission predominates, whereas gamma-aminobutyric acid neurotransmission remains under construction, and this might be responsible for immature and impulsive behavior and neurobehavioral excitement during adolescent life. The adolescent population is highly vulnerable to driving under the influence of alcohol and social maladjustments due to an immature limbic system and prefrontal cortex. Synaptic plasticity and the release of neurotransmitters may also be influenced by environmental neurotoxins and drugs of abuse including cigarettes, caffeine, and alcohol during adolescence. Adolescents may become involved with offensive crimes, irresponsible behavior, unprotected sex, juvenile courts, or even prison. According to a report by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, the major cause of death among the teenage population is due to injury and violence related to sex and substance abuse. Prenatal neglect, cigarette smoking, and alcohol consumption may also significantly impact maturation of the adolescent brain. Pharmacological interventions to regulate adolescent behavior have been attempted with limited success. Since several factors, including age, sex, disease, nutritional status, and substance abuse have a significant impact on the maturation of the adolescent brain, we have highlighted the influence of these clinically significant and socially important aspects in this report. Keywords: myelinogenesis, neurocircuitry, molecular imaging, drug addiction, behavior, social adjustment

  16. A NOVEL ALGORITHM FOR ASSOCIATION RULE MINING FROM DATA WITH INCOMPLETE AND MISSING VALUES

    OpenAIRE

    K. Rameshkumar

    2011-01-01

    Missing values and incomplete data are a natural phenomenon in real datasets. If the association rules mine incomplete disregard of missing values, mistaken rules are derived. In association rule mining, treatments of missing values and incomplete data are important. This paper proposes novel technique to mine association rule from data with missing values from large voluminous databases. The proposed technique is decomposed into two sub problems: database scrutinizes and rules mining phases....

  17. On statistical indistinguishability of complete and incomplete discrete time market models

    OpenAIRE

    Nikolai Dokuchaev

    2015-01-01

    We investigate the possibility of statistical evaluation of the market completeness for discrete time stock market models. It is known that the market completeness is not a robust property: small random deviations of the coefficients convert a complete market model into a incomplete one. The paper shows that market incompleteness is also non-robust. We show that, for any incomplete market from a wide class of discrete time models, there exists a complete market model with arbitrarily close st...

  18. How does incomplete fusion show up at slightly above barrier energies?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prasad R.

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Experimental results on the onset of incomplete fusion at slightly above barrier energies are discussed in this paper. Spin-distributions of evaporation residues populated via complete and/or incomplete fusion of 12C,16O (Elab ≈ 4–7 MeV with 169Tm have been measured to probe associated ℓ–values. Particle (Z=1,2 – γ – coincidence technique has been used for channel selection. Entirely different entry state spin populations have been observed during the de-excitation of complete and incomplete composites. The complete fusion residues are found to be strongly fed over a broad spin range. While, a narrow range feeding for only high spin states has been observed in case of incomplete fusion residues. In the present work, incomplete fusion is shown to be a promising tool to populate high spin states in final reaction products. For better insight into the onset and strength of incomplete fusion, the relative contributions of complete and incomplete fusion have been deduced from the analysis of excitation functions and forward recoil ranges. A significant fraction of ICF has been observed even at energy as low as ≈ 7% above the barrier. The relative strengths of complete and incomplete fusion deduced from the analysis of forward-recoil-ranges and excitation functions complement each other. All the available results are discussed in light of the Morgenstern’s mass-asymmetry systematics. Incomplete fusion fraction is found to be large for more mass-asymmetric systems for individual projectiles, which points towards the projectile structure effect on incomplete fusion fraction. Experimentally measured forward ranges of recoils complement the existence of incomplete fusion at slightly above barrier energies, where more than one linear-momentum-transfer components associated with full- and/or partial-fusion of projectile(s have been observed. Present results conclusively demonstrate the possibility to selectively populate high spin states via incomplete fusion.

  19. Uterine rupture following incomplete molar pregnancy: a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pourali L

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: In molar pregnancy, when hydatidiform changes are local and some embryonic components are observed, the term of partial mole is used. The risk of persistent trophoblastic tumor after partial mole is much lower than complete mole. In this persistent cases almost all are non metastatic. The aim of this study is to report a case of uterine rupture following incomplete molar pregnancy.Case presentation: The patient was a 26 year old woman with obstetric history of an abortion and one molar pregnancy and no child. She was referred to emergency unit in Ghaem University Hospital, Mashhad, Iran in May 2011. She had an evacuation curettage following molar pregnancy three months before and without any follow up visit. The patient was referred to emergency unit with hemorrhagic shock. She immediately underwent laparotomy. The uterine fundal rupture was repaired and evacuation curettage performed. In post operative evaluation, she had a nine millimeter metastatic nodule in base of right Lung. As a patient in low risk stage III, she received weekly intramuscular methotrexate (40mg/m2 for six courses. In follow up visit ?-hCG titer was negative (<10miu/ml at 5th week. Conclusion: In cases of in complete molar pregnancy risk of metastasis is very low. Serial beta-hCG titer is the most accurate method for detection of persistent gestational trophoblastic disease (GTN. In neglected cases like this case preservation of ruptured uterus in GTN is possible.

  20. Incomplete water securitization in coupled hydro-human production sytems

    Science.gov (United States)

    van den Boom, B.; Pande, S.

    2012-04-01

    Due to the dynamics, the externalities and the contingencies involved in managing local water resource for production, the water allocation at basin-level is a subtle balance between laws of nature (gravity; flux) and laws of economics (price; productivity). We study this balance by looking at inter-temporal basin-level water resource allocations in which subbasins enjoy a certain degree of autonomy. Each subbasin is represented as an economic agent i, following a gravity ordering with i=1 representing the most upstream area and i=I the downstream boundary. The water allocation is modeled as a decentralized equilibrium in a coupled conceptual hydro-human production system. Agents i=1,2,...,I in the basin produce a composite good according to a technology that requires water as a main input and that is specific to the subbasin. Agent i manages her use Xi and her storage Si, conceptualizing surface and subsurface water, of water with the purpose of maximizing the utility derived from consumption Ci of the composite good, where Ci is a scalar and Xi and Si are vectors which are composed of one element for each time period and for each contingency. A natural way to consume the good would be to absorb the own production. Yet, the agent may have two more option, namely, she might get a social transfer from other agents or she could use an income from trading water securities with her contiguous neighbors. To study these options, we compare water allocations (Ci, Xi, Si) all i=1,2,...,I for three different settings. We look at allocations without water securitization (water autarky equilibrium EA) first. Next, we describe the imaginary case of full securitization (contingent water markets equilibrium ECM) and, in between, we study limited securitization (incomplete water security equilibrium EWS). We show that allocations under contingent water markets ECM are efficient in the sense that, for the prevailing production technologies, no other allocation exists that is at least good as for all the agents and that makes at least one agent better off . On the other hand, allocations under autarky EA will tend to be inefficient, meaning that other allocations may exist that would be preferred by some agents without compromising the interest of the others. By the same token, the in-between case with water securities will generally also fail to achieve full efficiency. Nonetheless, some securitization will always be at least as good as none while it will be better under conditions of water scarcity that are common in dryland area river basins. Hence water allocations under EWS will generally lead to an improvement over those under EA. It should be noted that the fully efficient equilibrium is only imaginary because it requires a separate water security for every agent, for every period and for every contingency that nature might hold. Clearly, because of dimensionality, this amount of securities will be beyond reach. Therefore, water securitization with a limited number of securities remains as the only practical option to deal with the inefficiency of water allocations under autarky. The economic theory of incomplete markets provides a useful framework to study limited water securitization. We apply the theory in the context of our water allocation framework using an institutional setting where downstream agent i may secure water from upstream agent (i-1) through an agreement that pays for (i-1)'s water savings. In this manner we identify (I-1) water securities, one for each pair of contiguous agents. Each security addresses, at the local level, the interaction of flows over time and over contingencies that might occur. Under scarcity conditions prevalent in many river basins, agents will show an interest to supply and demand such securities. In particular, downstream area can often make more productive use of water. Accordingly, in the water autarky equilibrium EA, they would be willing to pay for more water, while, at the same time, upstream users would be prepared to make water savings to the extent that the payment for the security will exceed the value of foregone production losses. Thus, although inevitably incomplete, water securitization could play a significant role in increasing the efficiency of the allocation of water resources at the basin-level. Evidence from river basins in various parts of the world suggests that gains could be sizeable. This paper dwells upon the advantages and challenges of a transdisciplinary approach that blends the laws of nature with those of economics. It aims to identify efficiency gains from water securitization while addressing the institutional difficulties of implementation due to inherent incompleteness in markets that allow trade in such securities.

  1. Genetic diagnosis of one family with incomplete clinical data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Shiyan; Bhajoo, Sirsingh H; Jiang, Weiying

    2013-01-01

    A 6-day-old female patient suddenly died of congestive heart failure, hepatomegaly and hypoglycemic encephalopathy. Tandem mass spectrometry (MS) analysis revealed a possibility of carnitine deficiency. However, many of the clinical symptoms had not yet occurred at that time, and the clinical data was incomplete. We aim to derive a systematic procedure of identifying pathogenic mutations for similar patients. Physicians could save patients' lives with effective treatment at a much earlier stage. Direct sequencing of the exons and exon-intron boundaries of GAA, SLC25A5, CPT1, CPT2, SLC25A20 and MUT genes were performed on the parents of the patient. DNA from the blood spots of the patient was analyzed for the MUT gene. The results revealed that the patient was a compound heterozygote with MUT. c. 729_730insTT and c. 1677-1G>A. cDNA sequence demonstrated MUT c. 1677-1G>A resulting in the deletion of eight nucleotides and the introduction of 13 novel amino acids before premature termination. PMID:23729607

  2. Spectral Regularization Algorithms for Learning Large Incomplete Matrices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazumder, Rahul; Hastie, Trevor; Tibshirani, Robert

    2010-03-01

    We use convex relaxation techniques to provide a sequence of regularized low-rank solutions for large-scale matrix completion problems. Using the nuclear norm as a regularizer, we provide a simple and very efficient convex algorithm for minimizing the reconstruction error subject to a bound on the nuclear norm. Our algorithm Soft-Impute iteratively replaces the missing elements with those obtained from a soft-thresholded SVD. With warm starts this allows us to efficiently compute an entire regularization path of solutions on a grid of values of the regularization parameter. The computationally intensive part of our algorithm is in computing a low-rank SVD of a dense matrix. Exploiting the problem structure, we show that the task can be performed with a complexity linear in the matrix dimensions. Our semidefinite-programming algorithm is readily scalable to large matrices: for example it can obtain a rank-80 approximation of a 10(6) × 10(6) incomplete matrix with 10(5) observed entries in 2.5 hours, and can fit a rank 40 approximation to the full Netflix training set in 6.6 hours. Our methods show very good performance both in training and test error when compared to other competitive state-of-the art techniques. PMID:21552465

  3. Nonlinear stochastic systems with incomplete information filtering and control

    CERN Document Server

    Shen, Bo; Shu, Huisheng

    2013-01-01

    Nonlinear Stochastic Processes addresses the frequently-encountered problem of incomplete information. The causes of this problem considered here include: missing measurements; sensor delays and saturation; quantization effects; and signal sampling. Divided into three parts, the text begins with a focus on H∞ filtering and control problems associated with general classes of nonlinear stochastic discrete-time systems. Filtering problems are considered in the second part, and in the third the theory and techniques previously developed are applied to the solution of issues arising in complex networks with the design of sampled-data-based controllers and filters. Among its highlights, the text provides: ·         a unified framework for handling filtering and control problems in complex communication networks with limited bandwidth; ·         new concepts such as random sensor and signal saturations for more realistic modeling; and ·         demonstration of the use of techniques such...

  4. General Relativity Theory - Well Proven and Also Incomplete: Further Arguments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brandes, Jrgen

    In the former article "General Relativity Theory - well proven and also incomplete?" with a few arguments it was proven that general relativity (GRT) makes contradictory predictions about the total energy of a particle resting in the gravitational field. With a few further arguments it was proven that this contradiction is resolved by expanding general relativity. General relativity is contradictious in energy questions since on one side the total energy of a particle resting in the gravitational field is lower than its rest mass (there is energy needed to pull out the particle from the gravitational field) while on the other side it is equal to its rest mass (this is a consequence of the equivalence principle). In the following article these considerations are generalized to a moving particle. A particle moving in the gravitational field has a total energy less than its rest mass times the relativistic ?-factor since there is energy needed to pull the particle out without changing its velocity. On the other side total energy of a moving particle is equal to its rest mass times the relativistic ?-factor (this is a consequence of the equivalence principle, too). This contradiction is resolved by expanding general relativity in the same manner as above. The other fact: Though it is not the aim of the author to reject general relativity but to expand it, he is treated as some uncritical anti-relativist - since the start of his considerations and meanwhile for more than 20 years.

  5. The Complete Semiconductor Transistor and Its Incomplete Forms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper describes the definition of the complete transistor. For semiconductor devices, the complete transistor is always bipolar, namely, its electrical characteristics contain both electron and hole currents controlled by their spatial charge distributions. Partially complete or incomplete transistors, via coined names or/and designed physical geometries, included the 1949 Shockley p/n junction transistor (later called Bipolar Junction Transistor, BJT), the 1952 Shockley unipolar 'field-effect' transistor (FET, later called the p/n Junction Gate FET or JGFET), as well as the field-effect transistors introduced by later investigators. Similarities between the surface-channel MOS-gate FET (MOSFET) and the volume-channel BJT are illustrated. The bipolar currents, identified by us in a recent nanometer FET with 2-MOS-gates on thin and nearly pure silicon base, led us to the recognition of the physical makeup and electrical current and charge compositions of a complete transistor and its extension to other three or more terminal signal processing devices, and also the importance of the terminal contacts.

  6. Plant development, auxin, and the subsystem incompleteness theorem.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niklas, Karl J; Kutschera, Ulrich

    2012-01-01

    Plant morphogenesis (the process whereby form develops) requires signal cross-talking among all levels of organization to coordinate the operation of metabolic and genomic subsystems operating in a larger network of subsystems. Each subsystem can be rendered as a logic circuit supervising the operation of one or more signal-activated system. This approach simplifies complex morphogenetic phenomena and allows for their aggregation into diagrams of progressively larger networks. This technique is illustrated here by rendering two logic circuits and signal-activated subsystems, one for auxin (IAA) polar/lateral intercellular transport and another for IAA-mediated cell wall loosening. For each of these phenomena, a circuit/subsystem diagram highlights missing components (either in the logic circuit or in the subsystem it supervises) that must be identified experimentally if each of these basic plant phenomena is to be fully understood. We also illustrate the "subsystem incompleteness theorem," which states that no subsystem is operationally self-sufficient. Indeed, a whole-organism perspective is required to understand even the most simple morphogenetic process, because, when isolated, every biological signal-activated subsystem is morphogenetically ineffective. PMID:22645582

  7. CT colonography with fecal tagging after incomplete colonoscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The objective of this study was to evaluate dietary fecal tagging (FT) as a cleansing method prior to CT colonography (CTC) in patients with incomplete conventional colonoscopy (CC). After written informed consent was obtained, 24 patients had standard colonoscopic preparation (ScCl), and 25 patients had FT as cleansing method. Segmental distention, fluid levels, fecal residues, tagged appearance of fluid levels, and residual stool were evaluated. Mann-Whitney U test was used to test for significant differences between FT and ScCl groups. Compared with ScCl, FT improved distention (p=0.001), reduced the amount of fluid (p=0.043), but suffered from residual stool (p=0.046). A clear correlation was found between distention and fluid. No differences were found in stool size between FT and ScCl. FT showed a good labeling of fecal residues, and acceptable labeling of fluid levels. Compared with ScCl, FT reduces fluid, favors distention, but suffers from fecal residues. The tagged nature of these residues, however, allows differentiation from polyps. (orig.)

  8. CT colonography with fecal tagging after incomplete colonoscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gryspeerdt, S.; Lefere, P.; Herman, M.; Baekelandt, M.; Holsbeeck, B. van [Stedelijk Ziekenhuis, Department of Radiology, Roeselare (Belgium); Deman, R. [H. Hart Ziekenhuis, Department of Radiology, Roeselare (Belgium); Rutgeerts, L.; Ghillebert, G.; Baert, F. [H. Hart Ziekenhuis, Department of Gastroenterology, Roeselare (Belgium)

    2005-06-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate dietary fecal tagging (FT) as a cleansing method prior to CT colonography (CTC) in patients with incomplete conventional colonoscopy (CC). After written informed consent was obtained, 24 patients had standard colonoscopic preparation (ScCl), and 25 patients had FT as cleansing method. Segmental distention, fluid levels, fecal residues, tagged appearance of fluid levels, and residual stool were evaluated. Mann-Whitney U test was used to test for significant differences between FT and ScCl groups. Compared with ScCl, FT improved distention (p=0.001), reduced the amount of fluid (p=0.043), but suffered from residual stool (p=0.046). A clear correlation was found between distention and fluid. No differences were found in stool size between FT and ScCl. FT showed a good labeling of fecal residues, and acceptable labeling of fluid levels. Compared with ScCl, FT reduces fluid, favors distention, but suffers from fecal residues. The tagged nature of these residues, however, allows differentiation from polyps. (orig.)

  9. Glia maturation factor gamma regulates the migration and adherence of human T lymphocytes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lippert Dustin ND

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Lymphocyte migration and chemotaxis are essential for effective immune surveillance. A critical aspect of migration is cell polarization and the extension of pseudopodia in the direction of movement. However, our knowledge of the underlying molecular mechanisms responsible for these events is incomplete. Proteomic analysis of the isolated leading edges of CXCL12 stimulated human T cell lines was used to identify glia maturation factor gamma (GMFG as a component of the pseudopodia. This protein is predominantly expressed in hematopoietic cells and it has been shown to regulate cytoskeletal branching. The present studies were undertaken to examine the role of GMFG in lymphocyte migration. Results Microscopic analysis of migrating T-cells demonstrated that GMFG was distributed along the axis of movement with enrichment in the leading edge and behind the nucleus of these cells. Inhibition of GMFG expression in T cell lines and IL-2 dependent human peripheral blood T cells with shRNAmir reduced cellular basal and chemokine induced migration responses. The failure of the cells with reduced GMFG to migrate was associated with an apparent inability to detach from the substrates that they were moving on. It was also noted that these cells had an increased adherence to extracellular matrix proteins such as fibronectin. These changes in adherence were associated with altered patterns of β1 integrin expression and increased levels of activated integrins as detected with the activation specific antibody HUTS4. GMFG loss was also shown to increase the expression of the β2 integrin LFA-1 and to increase the adhesion of these cells to ICAM-1. Conclusions The present studies demonstrate that GMFG is a component of human T cell pseudopodia required for migration. The reduction in migration and increased adherence properties associated with inhibition of GMFG expression suggest that GMFG activity influences the regulation of integrin mediated adhesion.

  10. Suppression of experimental autoimmune thyroiditis in the guinea pig by pretreatment with thyroglobulin in incomplete Freund's adjuvant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pretreatment of Strain 2 and Strain 13 guinea pigs with guinea pig thyroglobulin (GPTG)2 in incomplete Freund's adjuvant (IFA) reduced both the incidence and severity of experimental autoimmune thyroiditis (EAT) in animals subsequently challenged with GPTG in complete Freund's adjuvant (CFA). Antithyroglobulin antibody titers were reduced by pretreatment with GPTG in IFA in some, but not all, experiments while delayed hypersensitivity to GPTG was not affected. The suppressive effect induced by antigen pretreatment was transferrable by lymphoid cells but not by serum from pretreated animals

  11. A new approach to detection of incomplete antibodies using hydrogel chromatography medium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, HongMei; Chen, YeZhou; Ding, ShaoHua; Duan, ShengBao; Tian, JingJing; Meng, QingLin; Wei, ShuangShi; Li, Yong

    2015-12-01

    In assays for incomplete antibody detection, several washing steps are required to remove unbound globulins which may cause false negatives. Here, we present an improved approach employing hydrogel chromatography medium (HCM) in the detection of incomplete antibodies. After a rapid single-step centrifugation, incomplete antibodies, attached to red blood cells (RBCs), were separated from the reaction mixture using HCM and sedimentation. This method obviates the need for multiple centrifugation steps found in conventional Tube-Coombs tests. The HCM-Coombs tests may have a wide range of applications for incomplete antibody detection. PMID:26099667

  12. Structure of Debt Maturity across Firm Types

    OpenAIRE

    Orman, Cüneyt; Bülent, Köksal

    2015-01-01

    We investigate if and when the leading theories of debt maturity are useful in understanding the maturity choices of nonfinancial firms in a major developing economy, Turkey. Unlike most research, we use a dataset that provides financial information on not only large, publicly-traded firms but also small, privately-held firms across a wide variety of industries. Our strongest finding is that firms that have high leverage also have long maturity. Size, asset maturity, and credit quality are al...

  13. A Maturity Model of Enterprise Business Intelligence

    OpenAIRE

    Chee-Sok Tan; Yee-Wai Sim; William Yeoh

    2011-01-01

    The implementation of an enterprise-level business intelligence initiative is a large-scale and complex undertaking, involving significant expenditure and multiple stakeholders over a lengthy period. It is therefore imperative to have systematic guidelines for business intelligence stakeholders in referring business intelligence maturity levels. Draw upon the prudent concepts of the Capability Maturity Model, this research proposes a multi-dimensional maturity model with distinct maturity lev...

  14. Overview of Business Intelligence Maturity Models

    OpenAIRE

    Hribar Rajterič, Irena

    2010-01-01

    Today, companies wish to evaluate and justify their investments into Business Intelligence systems, which requires measurement of their business value and comparison with similar systems in other companies. Maturity models offer an adequate baseline for comparison. Maturity models define levels of definition, efficiency, manageability and measurement of the monitored environment. This paper briefly describes and analyzes six different maturity models that can be used for the maturity of BI sy...

  15. 7 CFR 906.11 - Maturity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Maturity. 906.11 Section 906.11 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements... RIO GRANDE VALLEY IN TEXAS Order Regulating Handling Definitions § 906.11 Maturity. Maturity...

  16. 7 CFR 989.213 - Maturity dockage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Maturity dockage. 989.213 Section 989.213 Agriculture... CALIFORNIA Supplementary Regulations § 989.213 Maturity dockage. (a) General. Subject to prior agreement... weight dockage system. The creditable weight of each lot of raisins acquired under the maturity...

  17. 7 CFR 29.3039 - Maturity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Maturity. 29.3039 Section 29.3039 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing... Maturity. The degree of ripeness. Tobacco is mature when it reaches its prime state of development....

  18. 25 CFR 101.14 - Maturity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Maturity. 101.14 Section 101.14 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR FINANCIAL ACTIVITIES LOANS TO INDIANS FROM THE REVOLVING LOAN FUND § 101.14 Maturity. The maturity of any United States direct loan shall not exceed thirty years....

  19. 24 CFR 242.27 - Maturity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Maturity. 242.27 Section 242.27 Housing and Urban Development Regulations Relating to Housing and Urban Development (Continued) OFFICE OF... FOR HOSPITALS Mortgage Requirements § 242.27 Maturity. The mortgage shall have a maturity not...

  20. 13 CFR 120.933 - Maturity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 13 Business Credit and Assistance 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Maturity. 120.933 Section 120.933... Program (504) 504 Loans and Debentures § 120.933 Maturity. From time to time, SBA will publish in the Federal Register the available maturities for a 504 loan and the Debenture that funds it. Such...

  1. 7 CFR 966.12 - Maturity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Maturity. 966.12 Section 966.12 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements... Regulating Handling Definitions § 966.12 Maturity. Maturity means any of the various degrees of ripeness...

  2. 7 CFR 51.1904 - Maturity classification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Maturity classification. 51.1904 Section 51.1904... STANDARDS) United States Consumer Standards for Fresh Tomatoes Size and Maturity Classification § 51.1904 Maturity classification. Tomatoes which are characteristically red when ripe, but are not overripe or...

  3. Projectile - Mass asymmetry systematics for low energy incomplete fusion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Singh Pushpendra P.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In the present work, low energy incomplete fusion (ICF in which only a part of projectile fuses with target nucleus has been investigated in terms of various entrance channel parameters. The ICF strength function has been extracted from the analysis of experimental excitation functions (EFs measured for different projectile-target combinations from near- to well above- barrier energies in 12C,16O(from 1.02Vb to 1.64Vb+169Tm systems. Experimental EFs have been analysed in the framework statistical model code PACE4 based on the idea of equilibrated compound nucleus decay. It has been found that the value of ICF fraction (FICF increases with incident projectile energy. A substantial fraction of ICF (FICF ≈ 7 % has been accounted even at energy as low as ≈ 7.5% above the barrier (at relative velocity νrel ≈0.027 in 12C+169Tm system, and FICF ≈ 10 % at νrel ≈0.014 in 16O+169Tm system. The probability of ICF is discussed in light of the Morgenstern’s mass-asymmetry systematics. The value of FICF for 16O+169Tm systems is found to be 18.3 % higher than that observed for 12C+169Tm systems. Present results together with the re-analysis of existing data for nearby systems conclusively demonstrate strong competition of ICF with CF even at slightly above barrier energies, and strong projectile dependence that seems to supplement the Morgenstern’s systematics.

  4. Accounting for Incomplete Species Detection in Fish Community Monitoring

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McManamay, Ryan A [ORNL; Orth, Dr. Donald J [Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University; Jager, Yetta [ORNL

    2013-01-01

    Riverine fish assemblages are heterogeneous and very difficult to characterize with a one-size-fits-all approach to sampling. Furthermore, detecting changes in fish assemblages over time requires accounting for variation in sampling designs. We present a modeling approach that permits heterogeneous sampling by accounting for site and sampling covariates (including method) in a model-based framework for estimation (versus a sampling-based framework). We snorkeled during three surveys and electrofished during a single survey in suite of delineated habitats stratified by reach types. We developed single-species occupancy models to determine covariates influencing patch occupancy and species detection probabilities whereas community occupancy models estimated species richness in light of incomplete detections. For most species, information-theoretic criteria showed higher support for models that included patch size and reach as covariates of occupancy. In addition, models including patch size and sampling method as covariates of detection probabilities also had higher support. Detection probability estimates for snorkeling surveys were higher for larger non-benthic species whereas electrofishing was more effective at detecting smaller benthic species. The number of sites and sampling occasions required to accurately estimate occupancy varied among fish species. For rare benthic species, our results suggested that higher number of occasions, and especially the addition of electrofishing, may be required to improve detection probabilities and obtain accurate occupancy estimates. Community models suggested that richness was 41% higher than the number of species actually observed and the addition of an electrofishing survey increased estimated richness by 13%. These results can be useful to future fish assemblage monitoring efforts by informing sampling designs, such as site selection (e.g. stratifying based on patch size) and determining effort required (e.g. number of sites versus occasions).

  5. Mechanosensitivity of dental pulp stem cells is related to their osteogenic maturity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kraft, David C E; Bindslev, Dorthe A; Melsen, Birte; Abdallah, Basem; Kassem, Moustapha; Klein-Nulend, Jenneke

    2010-01-01

    -mature exhibited higher osteocalcin and alkaline phosphatase gene expression and activity than PDSC-immature. Pulsating fluid flow (PFF) stimulated nitric oxide production within 5 min by PDSC-mature but not by PDSC-immature. In PDSC-mature, PFF induced prostaglandin E(2) production, and cyclooxygenase 2 gene......For engineering bone tissue, mechanosensitive cells are needed for bone (re)modelling. Local bone mass and architecture are affected by mechanical loading, which provokes a cellular response via loading-induced interstitial fluid flow. We studied whether human dental pulp-derived mesenchymal stem...

  6. The effects of incomplete protein interaction data on structural and evolutionary inferences

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    de Silva, E; Thorne, T; Ingram, P; Agrafioti, I; Swire, J; Wiuf, Carsten; Stumpf, MPH

    2006-01-01

    inherent noise in protein interaction data. The effects of the incomplete nature of network data become very noticeable, especially for so-called network motifs. We also consider the effect of incomplete network data on functional and evolutionary inferences. Conclusion Crucially, when only small, partial...

  7. The (Il)logical Problem of Heritage Speaker Bilingualism and Incomplete Acquisition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cabo, Diego Pascual Y.; Rothman, Jason

    2012-01-01

    This Forum challenges and problematizes the term "incomplete acquisition," which has been widely used to describe the state of competence of heritage speaker (HS) bilinguals for well over a decade (see, e.g., Montrul, 2008). It is suggested and defended that HS competence, while often different from monolingual peers, is in fact not incomplete

  8. Do You See What I See? Infants' Reasoning about Others' Incomplete Perceptions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Yuyan; Beck, Whitney

    2010-01-01

    Twelve-month-olds realize that when an agent cannot see an object, her incomplete perceptions still guide her goal-directed actions. What would happen if the agent had incomplete perceptions because she could see only one part of the object, for example one side of a screen? In the present research, 16-month-olds were first shown an agent who…

  9. 14 CFR 302.306 - Dismissal or rejection of incomplete applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Dismissal or rejection of incomplete... Exemption and Certain Other Proceedings § 302.306 Dismissal or rejection of incomplete applications. (a) Dismissal or rejection. The Department may dismiss or reject any application for exemption that does...

  10. Maturity Models Development in IS Research

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lasrado, Lester Allan; Vatrapu, Ravi; Andersen, Kim Normann

    2015-01-01

    Maturity models are widespread in IS research and in particular, IT practitioner communities. However, theoretically sound, methodologically rigorous and empirically validated maturity models are quite rare. This literature review paper focuses on the challenges faced during the development of...... maturity models. Specifically, it explores maturity models literature in IS and standard guidelines, if any to develop maturity models, challenges identified and solutions proposed. Our systematic literature review of IS publications revealed over hundred and fifty articles on maturity models. Extant...... literature reveals that researchers have primarily focused on developing new maturity models pertaining to domain-specific problems and/or new enterprise technologies. We find rampant re-use of the design structure of widely adopted models such as Nolan’s Stage of Growth Model, Crosby’s Grid, and Capability...

  11. Oocyte Maturation Process and Affecting Factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yurdun Kuyucu

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Normal female fertility depends on normally occuring oogenesis and maturation progress. Oogenesis and folliculogenesis are different progresses but occure in a harmony and at the same time. Oogenesis includes the events that take place matur ovum produced from primordial germ cells. Although folliculogenesis includes the stages primordial, primary, secondary, matur (Graaf follicules in the influece of gonadotropines and local growth factors. During oocyte maturation meiosis is distrupted till the puberty. Under LH influence it starts again and first meiosis completes before ovulation. Oocyte maturation can be regarded as the process of coming metaphase II from prophase I of oocyte at the puberty and can be studied as nuclear and cytoplasmic maturation. Meiosis is completed when fertilization occures and zygot is formed. In this article oogenesis, folliculogenesis and oocyte maturation process are summerized with related studies and reiews are revised. [Archives Medical Review Journal 2009; 18(4.000: 227-240

  12. Logical settings for concept learning from incomplete examples in First Order Logic

    CERN Document Server

    Bouthinon, D; Vento, V; Bouthinon, Dominique; Soldano, Henry

    2006-01-01

    We investigate here concept learning from incomplete examples. Our first purpose is to discuss to what extent logical learning settings have to be modified in order to cope with data incompleteness. More precisely we are interested in extending the learning from interpretations setting introduced by L. De Raedt that extends to relational representations the classical propositional (or attribute-value) concept learning from examples framework. We are inspired here by ideas presented by H. Hirsh in a work extending the Version space inductive paradigm to incomplete data. H. Hirsh proposes to slightly modify the notion of solution when dealing with incomplete examples: a solution has to be a hypothesis compatible with all pieces of information concerning the examples. We identify two main classes of incompleteness. First, uncertainty deals with our state of knowledge concerning an example. Second, generalization (or abstraction) deals with what part of the description of the example is sufficient for the learnin...

  13. [NiFe]-Hydrogenase Maturation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lacasse, Michael J; Zamble, Deborah B

    2016-03-29

    [NiFe]-hydrogenases catalyze the reversible conversion of hydrogen gas into protons and electrons and are vital metabolic components of many species of bacteria and archaea. At the core of this enzyme is a sophisticated catalytic center comprising nickel and iron, as well as cyanide and carbon monoxide ligands, which is anchored to the large hydrogenase subunit through cysteine residues. The production of this multicomponent active site is accomplished by a collection of accessory proteins and can be divided into discrete stages. The iron component is fashioned by the proteins HypC, HypD, HypE, and HypF, which functionalize iron with cyanide and carbon monoxide. Insertion of the iron center signals to the metallochaperones HypA, HypB, and SlyD to selectively deliver the nickel to the active site. A specific protease recognizes the completed metal cluster and then cleaves the C-terminus of the large subunit, resulting in a conformational change that locks the active site in place. Finally, the large subunit associates with the small subunit, and the complete holoenzyme translocates to its final cellular position. Beyond this broad overview of the [NiFe]-hydrogenase maturation process, biochemical and structural studies are revealing the fundamental underlying molecular mechanisms. Here, we review recent work illuminating how the accessory proteins contribute to the maturation of [NiFe]-hydrogenase and discuss some of the outstanding questions that remain to be resolved. PMID:26919691

  14. Incomplete Spring Turnover in Small Deep Lakes in SE Michigan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Denys, Lisa

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available While temperate lakes are commonly thought to turnover twice annually, in the fall and the spring, there are several factors that can reduce the probability of turnover. Whether or not a lake turns over has important implications for nutrient dynamics and food webs. In this study, we investigated several small deep lakes in SE Michigan to determine whether spring turnover had occurred. One factor affected by lake turnover is the distribution of oxygen in the lake. Lakes receive oxygen from the atmosphere at their surface and from small plant-like organisms called phytoplankton within the body of the lake. Photosynthesizing phytoplankton are typically more productive in the in the upper water layers because light is extinguished with depth. Oxygen is consumed over winter by bacteria in sediments at the bottom of the lake, which respire as they decompose debris, releasing nutrients. Wind forces and temperature changes in the spring and fall drive the water layers to mix. This process helps maintain a balance by circulating oxygen from the epilimnion (upper water layer to the hypolimnion (bottom water layer and nutrients from the hypolimnion to the upper layers. Factors that could affect whether a lake mixes include higher densities (from salinity, depth, temperature, and the shape of the lake in relation to wind direction. If a lake does not mix, we expect to find anoxic (oxygen depleted conditions in the hypolimnion and lower nutrient concentrations in the epilimnion, resulting in a change in the distribution and productivity of phytoplankton. Whether spring mixing events are occurring in small deep lakes in SE Michigan was the focus of this study. The results of the research show that complete mixing in spring occurred in only 2 of 5 lakes surveyed. In lakes with incomplete mixing, we found anoxic conditions in the hypolimnion and higher phytoplankton productivity in the metalimnion (middle layer instead of the epilimnion. While the importance of monitoring lakes is acknowledged by the state of Michigan, annual surveys are rare due to budget constraints. More frequent monitoring would allow us to determine whether lack of turnover varies annually and what combination of factors increases the probability of turnover in small deep lakes.

  15. Effect of robotic gait training on cardiorespiratory system in incomplete spinal cord injury

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Femke Hoekstra, MSc

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available The objectives in this study were to investigate the effect of robot-assisted gait training on cardiorespiratory fitness in subjects with motor incomplete spinal cord injury and document the exercise intensity of robotic walking in comparison with the recommended guidelines. Ten patients followed a 24-session training program with a robotic gait orthosis in addition to physiotherapy sessions completed within 10 to 16 wk. Cardiorespiratory fitness was determined in a graded arm crank exercise test before and after the training program. To assess the intensity of robot-assisted walking, oxygen consumption (VO2 and heart rate (HR were measured during a training session early in and at the end of the training program, and exercise intensity measures (percentage of VO2 reserve [%VO2R], percentage of HR reserve [%HRR], and metabolic equivalents [METs] were calculated. Whereas no changes were found in peak VO2, the resting and submaximal HR at a constant work load were significantly lower after training. Most subjects exercised at low intensity (3.0 METs. In spite of the low exercise intensity of the training program and no changes in peak VO2, robot-assisted gait training induced some improvement in cardiorespiratory fitness, as suggested by lower resting and submaximal HR values.

  16. Neuromuscular stimulation therapy after incomplete spinal cord injury promotes recovery of interlimb coordination during locomotion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, R.; Belanger, A.; Kanchiku, T.; Fairchild, M.; Abbas, J. J.

    2009-10-01

    The mechanisms underlying the effects of neuromuscular electrical stimulation (NMES) induced repetitive limb movement therapy after incomplete spinal cord injury (iSCI) are unknown. This study establishes the capability of using therapeutic NMES in rodents with iSCI and evaluates its ability to promote recovery of interlimb control during locomotion. Ten adult female Long Evans rats received thoracic spinal contusion injuries (T9; 156 ± 9.52 Kdyne). 7 days post-recovery, 6/10 animals received NMES therapy for 15 min/day for 5 days, via electrodes implanted bilaterally into hip flexors and extensors. Six intact animals served as controls. Motor function was evaluated using the BBB locomotor scale for the first 6 days and on 14th day post-injury. 3D kinematic analysis of treadmill walking was performed on day 14 post-injury. Rodents receiving NMES therapy exhibited improved interlimb coordination in control of the hip joint, which was the specific NMES target. Symmetry indices improved significantly in the therapy group. Additionally, injured rodents receiving therapy more consistently displayed a high percentage of 1:1 coordinated steps, and more consistently achieved proper hindlimb touchdown timing. These results suggest that NMES techniques could provide an effective therapeutic tool for neuromotor treatment following iSCI.

  17. The maturity of Nuclear Law

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The ever-increasing use of atomic energy since 1950 has generated a set of rules called for practical reasons Nuclear Law. This branch of law covers a wide scope of related activities and, specialized studies have apparently foreseen all conceivable hypotheses. The international character of Nuclear Law explains the basic harmony of international legislation. The methods of comparative Law and International Private Law as well as the joint, indepth work of scientists and jurists will bring about steady progress towards legislative unity and prompt solution to conflicts. The expectable revitalization of nuclear-electric programs early in the 21st. century will give rise to a Nuclear juridical community which can already be perceived through the maturity Nuclear Law has reached. (Author)

  18. Optical maturation of asteroid surfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shestopalov, D. I.; Golubeva, L. F.; Cloutis, E. A.

    2013-07-01

    Analysis of laboratory experiments simulating space weathering optical effects on atmosphereless planetary bodies reveals that the time needed to alter the spectrum of an ordinary chondrite meteorite to resemble the overall spectral shape and slope of an S-type asteroid is about 105 yr. The time required to reduce the visible albedo of samples to 0.05 is 106 yr. Since both these timescales are much less than the average collisional lifetime of asteroids larger than several kilometers in size, numerous low-albedo asteroids having reddish spectra with subdued absorption bands should be observed instead of an S-type dominated population. This is not the case because asteroid surfaces cannot be considered as undisturbed, unlike laboratory samples. We have estimated the number of collisions occurring in the time of 105 yr between asteroids and projectiles of various sizes and show that impact-activated motions of regolith particles counteract the progress of optical maturation of asteroid surfaces. We suppose that the maturation level of asteroid surfaces may be a compromise resulting from a competition between impact resurfacing and solar wind darkening, and that after reaching some steady state after a relatively short time (7 105 yr), thereafter depends only slightly on time. Spectroscopic analysis, using relatively invariant spectral parameters, such as band centers and band area ratios, can determine whether the surface of an S asteroid has chondritic composition or not. In this sense, the bodies with the ordinary chondrite composition cannot be masked among S asteroids. Differences in the environment of the main asteroid belt versus that at 1 AU, and the physical difference between the Moon and main belt asteroids (i.e., size) can account for the lack of lunar-type weathering on main belt asteroids.

  19. The Incomplete Impact Record and Implications for Ice Core Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bay, R. C.; Rohde, R. A.; Price, P. B.

    2007-12-01

    The impact risk is extremely uncertain for objects of order 0.1-1 km diameter, with kinetic energies in the range 100 to 1 million Mt (megaton TNT ~ 41015 J) and recurrence times estimated in thousands to many tens of thousands of years. Millennial timescales are especially interesting, since the character of explosions (e.g. impacts, large volcanic eruptions) that only occur every 103 to 104 years lies just beyond the reckoning of modern cultural history. The impact rate predicted for the Earth based on observing nearby objects is much higher than the endemic rate estimated by counting known craters on Earth's surface. We have examined the latest account of confirmed craters from the Earth Impact Database (http://www.unb.ca/passc/ImpactDatabase/) over the last 100 Ma. The cratering record contains a large gap between 35 and 5 Ma, during which the apparent impact rate drops by an order of magnitude. The gap occurs during a period of substantial climate change, notably the initiation of large scale permanent glaciers, based on climate proxies from deep-sea sediment cores. A likely partial explanation is that climate change eroded or precluded crater formation in the recent geologic past. Taken together with constraints from inner solar system cratering and observations of near earth objects, the apparent gap in crater formation suggests that the terrestrial impact record is grossly incomplete over timescales much shorter than 100 Ma. If the true impact rate is more commensurate with the higher rates inferred from the local planetary environment, then some of the explosive fallout layers now observed in ice cores may actually be the result of recent impacts rather than volcanic eruptions. Like very large eruptions, impact ejecta are likely to be widely distributed, since impactors disrupt all levels of the atmosphere and generate ballistic debris and vapor plumes that can rise above the stratosphere. Polar ice core records of the last ~50-100 ka have become sufficiently extensive and synchronized to suggest an emerging pattern between explosive volcanic layers and abrupt climate change, although atmospheric focusing and preservation of deposits complicate analysis. By comparing ice core ash and acid signals of explosive volcanic fallout in Antarctica and Greenland, we have identified a number of common horizons which likely resulted from "eruptions" that dispersed material world-wide. These events appear to have preferentially occurred during onsets or intensifications of cooling phases, contributing to long-standing debates over possible feedbacks between climatic and geologic phenomena. The correlation may be evidence that abrupt climate change and associated changes in sea level and ice sheets can trigger volcanism. An intriguing and conspicuous alternative possibility is that catastrophic explosions force long term cooling. A relatively high rate for small impact events (objects hundreds of meters in size) could imply that impacts (instead of volcanism) are a causal factor in some of the climate variations observed during the last million years. Our method of optically probing outward from the boreholes created by ice coring missions is capable of detecting particulate layers which are invisible or largely missing in the cores, identifying candidate horizons for chemical analyses. Deliberate and discriminative analysis of the "ash" layers in ice cores could shed light on the recent impact rate. This research was supported by grant NSF ANT-0440609.

  20. A smooth transition between multifragmentation and incomplete fusion in heavy-ion collisions within a schematic phenomenological model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Using the same approach introduced in a previous paper to describe the transition between incomplete fusion and multifragmentation processes, we propose to extend our schematic phenomenological model to non-zero impact-parameter collisions. The approach is based on a two-step process. In the first step, the thermalization and the emission of prompt particles are described using a preequilibrium model. In the second step, the evolution of the thermalized system is followed with a simple isentropic model where the magnitude of the fluctuations of the mean field are checked at each stage of the evolution using a site-bond percolation model on a 3-dimensional lattice. Multifragmentation corresponds to the case where these fluctuations become large. In this case, the system breaks up in several pieces. Otherwise, the projectile and the target may fuse. In the present work, a dynamical model and geometric considerations allow us to study the influence of the impact parameter of the collision. Moreover, since we are dealing with systems containing a small number of particles, we show that the transition between incomplete fusion and multifragmentation is smooth and it extends over a broad incident energy range. Finally, we calculate both incomplete fusion and multifragmentation excitation functions for collisions induced by C, Ne, Ar beams on Ag and Au targets. Together with fragment multiplicities, the obtained results can be directly compared with experimental data. For the sake of completeness, we have derived analytical expressions for most of the quantities which are calculated in the model. In the appendix, we describe a general procedure to obtain a complete set of results. (orig.)

  1. Mature Teratoma Confined to the Posterior Fossa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daugherty, Christopher; Ngo, Thang; Drehner, Dennis; Maugans, Todd

    2016-01-01

    Mature teratomas located solely in the posterior fossa are rare. We describe a girl who presented with hydrocephalus caused by a posterior fossa tumor that was ultimately diagnosed as a mature teratoma following complete extirpation. Unusual imaging characteristics which produced confusion preoperatively were, however, very consistent with mature teratomas that are encountered in the gonads. Immature elements were universally absent; therefore, extirpation was curative. Hydrocephalus is unlikely to resolve after tumor removal, and cerebrospinal fluid diversion may be required. PMID:26730985

  2. Migraine without aura is not associated with incomplete circle of Willis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ezzatian-Ahar, Shabnam; Amin, Faisal Mohammad; Obaid, Hayder Ghani; Arngrim, Nanna; Hougaard, Anders; Larsson, Henrik B W; Ashina, Messoud

    2014-01-01

    the prevalence of incomplete circle of Willis in migraineurs and controls. In the present study we compared the prevalence of incomplete circle of Willis in female migraine patients without aura to female healthy non-migraine controls.Using 3-Tesla magnetic resonance angiography we recorded three......-dimensional time-of-flight angiograms in 85 female participants (48 migraine patients without aura [median age 28 years] and 37 healthy controls [median age 25 years]). The images were subsequently analysed blindly by a neuroradiologist to detect incomplete circle of Willis. FINDINGS: We found no difference...

  3. Estimation from incomplete multinomial data. Ph.D. Thesis - Harvard Univ.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Credeur, K. R.

    1978-01-01

    The vector of multinomial cell probabilities was estimated from incomplete data, incomplete in that it contains partially classified observations. Each such partially classified observation was observed to fall in one of two or more selected categories but was not classified further into a single category. The data were assumed to be incomplete at random. The estimation criterion was minimization of risk for quadratic loss. The estimators were the classical maximum likelihood estimate, the Bayesian posterior mode, and the posterior mean. An approximation was developed for the posterior mean. The Dirichlet, the conjugate prior for the multinomial distribution, was assumed for the prior distribution.

  4. Hypersonic flow around a sphere with CLL model of incomplete energy accommodation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, H. L.; Shen, C.

    2001-08-01

    Hypersonic rarefied flow of nitrogen over a sphere is simulated by the Direct Simulation Monte Carlo (DSMC) calculations to study the drag coefficient under Lord's diffuse scattering modelwith incomplete energy accommodation. The flow field and drag results from free-molecule flow to transition regime flow are obtained for extreme cases of complete energy accommodation and zero accommodation (diffuse elastic reflection). Available wind tunnel experimental data agree with the complete energy accommodation limit. But incomplete energy accommodation may have remarkable influence on orbital drag of a satellite. The parameters needed for this incomplete energy accommodation model are usually determined by the analysis on the result of the experiment.

  5. Configuration Management Maturity in Scientific Facilities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masoud Niknam

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Since the effectiveness of the development and operation of scientific facilities (especially those presenting specific hazards, such as ionizing radiations relies heavily on state of the art practices, such as systems engineering and product lifecycle management, configuration management (CM is becoming a key management process. However, while some maturity models exist to assess the degree of the implementation and effectiveness of many management processes, such as project management or systems engineering, there is no specific framework available to assess the degree of maturity of an organization towards CM. This paper focuses on revealing the important maturity dimensions and levels for CM as a means towards developing a CM maturity model.

  6. Towards a Curriculum Design Maturity Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thong Chee Ling 1

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available The Capability Maturity Model (CMM is used in the software industry to improve design process as well as product quality. Likewise, CMM is also used in the education sector for a similar purpose. This paper presents, in particular, a proposed maturity model for curriculum design for Institutions of Higher Learning in Malaysia. The Curriculum Design Maturity Model ONE (CDMM-1 is specifically aimed at guiding curriculum designers in producing quality curricula according to programme specifications. In this study, CDMM-1, which is derived from the proposed maturity model, has both process and product components. However, this paper only focuses on the product quality aspect.

  7. Incomplete bone regeneration of rabbit calvarial defects using different membranes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aaboe, M; Pinholt, E M; Schou, S; Hjørting-Hansen, E

    1998-01-01

    the membrane. The calvarial defects of 2 groups were covered by an outer expanded polytetrafluoroethylene (ePTFE) membrane respectively by a Polyglactin 910 membrane. Bicortical ePTFE membranes or Polyglactin 910 membranes were used in 2 other groups. The defects were not covered by membranes in the...... herniation into the defects. Subsequently, bone regeneration was impaired. The cellular reactions due to degradation of the material were minor and did not interfere with bone healing. Defects covered bicortically by ePTFE membranes revealed the largest amount of regenerated bone. The ePTFE membrane induced...

  8. Dengue Hemorrhagic Fever-Associated Immunomediators Induced via Maturation of Dengue Virus Nonstructural 4B Protein in Monocytes Modulate Endothelial Cell Adhesion Molecules and Human Microvascular Endothelial Cells Permeability

    OpenAIRE

    Kelley, James F.; Kaufusi, Pakieli H.; Nerurkar, Vivek R

    2011-01-01

    We previously demonstrated that dengue virus (DENV) nonstructural 4B protein (NS4B) induced dengue hemorrhagic fever (DHF)-associated immunomediators in THP-1 monocytes. Moreover, cleavage of NS4AB polyprotein by the NS2B3 protease, significantly increased immunomediator production to levels found after DENV infection. In this report using primary human microvascular endothelial cells (HMVEC) transwell permeability model and HMVEC monolayer, we demonstrate that the immunomediators secreted in...

  9. On Puu's incomplete information formulation for the standard and multi-team Bertrand game

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Puu's incomplete information dynamical system is introduced and applied for Bertrand Duopoly. Multi-team Bertrand game is formulated. It is a generalization of Liu's work to dynamical non-convex multi-team games

  10. Statistical Distribution of a Completely Open System Based on Incomplete Shannon Entropy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Micro canonical, canonical and grand canonical systems are special cases of completely open systems. Within the framework of non-extensive and incomplete statistics, we derive the statistical distribution for a completely open system on the basis of incomplete Shannon entropy, using the maximum entropy principle. We calculate the physical properties of a linear filament using this distribution. The results are the same as those calculated using the incomplete E-V distribution, except that average values of the thermodynamic variables replace the corresponding constant values. However, the relative fluctuations in thermodynamic variables are completely different. In the canonical and grand canonical distributions, relative fluctuations are proportional to l/√N. In the incomplete statistical distribution for a completely open system, the relative fluctuations are proportional to 1. This result can explain some phenomenon that traditional and current statistical mechanics cannot explain, such as the large fluctuations of critical, super-cooled and overheated states.

  11. On Puu's incomplete information formulation for the standard and multi-team Bertrand game

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Puu's incomplete information dynamical system is introduced and applied for Bertrand Duopoly. Multi-team Bertrand game is formulated. It is a generalization of Liu's work to dynamical non-convex multi-team games (author)

  12. Flexible Rule Mining for Difference Rules and Exception Rules from Incomplete Database

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shimada, Kaoru; Hirasawa, Kotaro

    Two flexible rule mining methods from incomplete database are proposed using Genetic Network Programing (GNP). GNP is one of the evolutionary optimization techniques, which uses the directed graph structure. One of the methods extracts the rules showing the different characteristics between different classes in a database. The method can obtain the rules like 'if P then Q' is interesting only in the focusing class. The other one mines interesting rules like even if itemset X and Y have weak or no statistical relation to class item C, the join of X and Y has strong relation to class item C. An incomplete database includes missing data in some tuples. Generally, it is not easy for Apriori-like methods to extract difference rules and exception rules from incomplete database. We have estimated the performances of the rule extraction using incomplete data in the environmental and medical field.

  13. Effect of projectile structure on evaporation residue yields in incomplete fusion reactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The excitation functions of heavy residues, representing complete and incomplete fusion products, produced in the reaction of 12C and 13C on 181Ta have been measured over the projectile energy range of 5 to 6.5 MeV/nucleon by the recoil catcher method and off-line γ-ray spectrometry. Comparison of the measured excitation functions with those calculated using the PACE2 code based on the statistical model revealed the occurrence of incomplete fusion reactions in the formation of α emission products. The fraction of incomplete fusion cross sections in the 12C + 181Ta reaction was found to be higher, by a factor of ∼2, than that in the 13C + 181Ta reaction. The results have been discussed in terms of the effect of alpha cluster structure of the projectile on incomplete fusion reactions

  14. Incomplete information system and rough set theory models and attribute reductions

    CERN Document Server

    Yang, Xibei

    2012-01-01

    This study of the theory of generalizations of rough-set models in incomplete information systems discusses not only the regular attributes but also the criteria in these systems, and presents practical approaches to computing a number of reducts.

  15. An Iterative Method for Identification of ARX Models from Incomplete Data

    OpenAIRE

    Wallin, Ragnar; Isaksson, Alf; Ljung, Lennart

    2000-01-01

    This paper describes a very simple and intuitive algorithm to estimate parameters of ARX models from incomplete data sets. An iterative scheme involving two least squares steps and a bias correction is all that is needed.

  16. Histologia da embriogênese somática induzida em embriões de sementes maduras de Urochloa brizantha apomítica Histology of somatic embryogenesis induced in embryos of mature seeds of the apomictic Urochloa brizantha

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandra Janeth Lenis-Manzano

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi descrever o processo de embriogênese somática em Urochloa brizantha cv. Marandu (Syn. Brachiaria brizantha cv. Marandu e fornecer subsídios para o aprimoramento dos métodos de cultura de tecidos e transformação genética. Calos embriogênicos foram obtidos por indução em embriões isolados de sementes maduras, e cultivados in vitro, em meio de cultura que continha ácido 2,4-diclorofenoxiacético, 6-benzilaminopurina e caseína hidrolisada. Plântulas foram regeneradas a partir dos calos embriogênicos, na presença de ácido naftalenoacético e cinetina. Esse processo foi descrito morfologicamente por observações em microscopia de luz de secções seriadas semifinas de tecidos fixados, ao longo do processo de regeneração, em FAA [formaldeído (40%: ácido acético glacial: etanol (50%, a 5:5:90 v/v/v]. Os embriões das sementes de U. brizantha cv. Marandu não têm epiblasto e são classificados como do tipo panicoide. Nas condições estabelecidas de cultura in vitro, calos embriogênicos e embriões somáticos de U. brizantha cv. Marandu, desenvolvem-se a partir de células meristemáticas do escutelo.The objective of this work was to describe the process of somatic embryogenesis in Urochloa brizantha cv. Marandu (Syn. Brachiaria brizantha cv. Marandu and to provide support for the improvement of tissue culture and genetic transformation methods. Embryogenic calli were obtained by induction in embryos isolated from mature seeds, and cultivated in vitro in culture medium containing 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid, 6-benzylaminopurine and hydrolyzed casein. Plantlets were regenerated from the embryogenic calli in the presence of naphthaleneacetic acid and kinetin. This process was described by morphological observations of serial semithin sections of tissues fixed along the regeneration process in FAA (40% formaldehyde: acetic acid: 50% ethanol, at 5:5:90 v/v/v, using light microscopy. Seed embryos of U. brizantha cv. Marandu do not have epiblast and are classified as Panicum-type. Under in vitro culture conditions, embryogenic calli and somatic embryos of U. brizantha cv. Marandu develop from meristematic cells of the scutellum.

  17. Observation of entrance channel mass-asymmetry effect on incomplete fusion reaction for {sup 20}Ne+{sup 165}Ho system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Singh, D., E-mail: dsinghiuac@gmail.com [Nuclear Physics Group, Inter-University Accelerator Centre, New Delhi-110 067 (India); Nuclear Physics Laboratory, Department of Physics, Aligarh Muslim University, Aligarh-202 002 (India); Ali, Rahbar [Nuclear Physics Laboratory, Department of Physics, Aligarh Muslim University, Aligarh-202 002 (India); Afzal Ansari, M., E-mail: drmafzalansari@yahoo.com [Nuclear Physics Laboratory, Department of Physics, Aligarh Muslim University, Aligarh-202 002 (India); Tomar, B.S. [Radio-chemistry Division, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Trombay, Mumbai-400085 (India); Rashid, M.H. [Accelerator Physics Group, Variable Energy Cyclotron Centre, 1/AF, Bidhan Nagar, Kolkata-700 064 (India); Guin, R.; Das, S.K. [Radio-chemistry Group, Variable Energy Cyclotron Centre, 1/AF, Bidhan Nagar, Kolkata-700 064 (India)

    2012-04-01

    An experiment has been performed to explore the incomplete fusion (ICF) reaction dynamics in heavy ion induced reactions. Excitation functions (EFs) for eighteen evaporation residues (ERs) produced in the system {sup 20}Ne+{sup 165}Ho have been measured in the energy range Almost-Equal-To 88-164 MeV. Some of the ERs have significant contribution from precursor decay, which has been separated out from the measured cumulative cross-sections to get direct production cross-sections. Parameters of the statistical model code PACE-2 are optimized to reproduce the ERs populated in complete fusion reactions such as in xn and pxn channels. Using the same parameters, EFs for the residues produced in {alpha}-particle(s) emission channels have been calculated. A significant enhancement in the measured EFs of the ERs produced in {alpha}-particle(s) emission channels over the PACE-2 predictions have been observed which indicates the occurrence of incomplete fusion reaction process. In the ICF process the break-up of projectile {sup 20}Ne into {sup 4}He+{sup 16}O and/or {sup 8}Be+{sup 12}C takes place followed by fusion of one of the fragments with the target nucleus {sup 165}Ho. The present data analyses suggest that probability of incomplete fusion reaction increases with projectile energy. The ICF fraction F{sup ICF} has been estimated and found to increase with increasing mass-asymmetry [A{sub T}/(A{sub T}+A{sub P})] of the partners in entrance channel. It is also observed that critical angular momentum associated with incomplete fusion channels at higher projectile energy may be associated with Script-Small-L -values lower than that of peripheral collisions, indicating that the incomplete fusion competes with complete fusion even at angular momentum values little lower than critical angular momentum.

  18. pcaMethods - a bioconductor package providing PCA methods for incomplete data

    OpenAIRE

    Stacklies, W.; Redestig, H.; Scholz, M.; Walther, D.(Helmholtz Institut für Strahlen- und Kernphysik, Universität Bonn, Germany); Selbig, J.

    2007-01-01

    pcaMethods is a Bioconductor compliant library for computing principal component analysis (PCA) on incomplete data sets. The results can be analyzed directly or used to estimate missing values to enable the use of missing value sensitive statistical methods. The package was mainly developed with microarray and metabolite data sets in mind, but can be applied to any other incomplete data set as well.

  19. The effects of incomplete employee wage information: a cross-country analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Solomon W Polachek; Xiang, Jun

    2005-01-01

    In this paper, we define a tractable procedure to measure worker incomplete information in the labor market. The procedure, which makes use of earnings distribution skewness, is based on econometric frontier estimation techniques, and is consistent with search theory. We apply the technique to eleven countries over various years, and find that incomplete information leads workers to receive on average about 30-35% less pay than they otherwise would have earned, had they information on what ea...

  20. From Walrasian general equilibrium to incomplete contracts : making sense of institutions

    OpenAIRE

    Vahabi, Mehrdad

    2008-01-01

    This article explores the specific contribution of recent literature on incomplete contracts in comparison with the acontractual Walrasian general equilibrium as well as the complete optimal contracts of the Agency theory regarding the institutional identity of agents. It underlines a tension between the theoretical justification of contractual incompleteness on the one hand, and rationality postulate, on the other hand. It concludes the relevance of bounded rationality assumption and tempora...