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1

Cannabinoids induce incomplete maturation of cultured human leukemia cells  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Monocyte maturation markers were induced in cultured human myeloblastic ML-2 leukemia cells after treatment for 1-6 days with 0.03-30 ..mu..M ..delta../sup 9/-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC), the major psychoactive component of marijuana. After a 2-day or longer treatment, 2- to 5-fold increases were found in the percentages of cells exhibiting reactivity with either the murine OKM1 monoclonal antibody of the Leu-M5 monoclonal antibody, staining positively for nonspecific esterase activity, and displaying a promonocyte morphology. The increases in these differentiation markers after treatment with 0.03-1 ..mu..M THC were dose dependent. At this dose range, THC did not cause an inhibition of cell growth. The THC-induced cell maturation was also characterized by specific changes in the patterns of newly synthesized proteins. The THC-induced differentiation did not, however, result in cells with a highly developed mature monocyte phenotype. However, treatment of these incompletely matured cells with either phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate of 1..cap alpha..,25-dihydroxycholecalciferol, which are inducers of differentiation in myeloid leukemia cells (including ML-2 cells), produced cells with a mature monocyte morphology. The ML-2 cell system described here may be a useful tool for deciphering critical biochemical events that lead to the cannabinoid-induced incomplete cell differentiation of ML-2 cells and other related cell types. Findings obtained from this system may have important implications for studies of cannabinoid effects on normal human bone-marrow progenitor cells.

Murison, G.; Chubb, C.B.H.; Maeda, S.; Gemmell, M.A.; Huberman, E.

1987-08-01

2

Maturation of barley cysteine endopeptidase expressed in Trichoderma reesei is distorted by incomplete processing.  

Science.gov (United States)

Maturation of barley cysteine endopeptidase B (EPB) in Trichoderma reesei was studied with metabolic in hibitors, Western blotting, and immuno microscopy. The inactive 42-kDa recombinant EPB proprotein, first detected in apical cells, was sequentially processed in a time-dependent manner to a secreted polypeptide of 38.5 kDa, and thereafter, to polypeptides of 37.5, 35.5, and 32 kDa exhibiting enzyme activity both in the hyphae and culture medium. The sizes of the different forms of recombinant EPB were in accordance with molecular masses calculated from the deduced amino acid sequence, assuming cleavage at four putative Kex2p sites present in the 42-kDa proprotein. Both the liquid and the zymogram in-gel activity assays indicated that the 32-kDa enzyme produced in T. reesei in vivo was 2 kDa larger and four times less active than the endogenous EPB. Brefeldin A treatment prevented the last Kex2p processing step of EPB from a 35.5- to a 32-kDa protein. This coincided with a significant increase in the immuno-gold label for EPB and in modified Golgi-like bodies, which suggests that the processing step probably took place in medial Golgi. A 30.5-kDa EPB polypeptide was observed when glycosylation was inhibited by tunicamycin (TM) or when deglycosylation was carried out enzymatically. Deglycosylation increased the enzyme activity twofold, which was also indicated by an increased fluorescence by TM treatment in the zymogram in-gel activity assay. Simultaneous incubation with TM and monensin produced a peptide of 31.5 kDa. Therefore, monensin may inhibit the final processing step of an unglycosylated EPB by an unknown protease in the fungus. In any case, the final recombinant EPB product in Trichoderma differs from the mature endogenous 30-kDa enzyme produced in barley. PMID:11958567

Nykänen, Marko J; Raudaskoski, Marjatta; Nevalainen, Helena; Mikkonen, Anita

2002-02-01

3

Histone deacetylase induces accelerated maturation in Xenopus laevis oocytes.  

Science.gov (United States)

In oocyte maturation in Xenopus laevis, nuclear material induces rapid maturation and is required for entry into meiosis II. Nuclear material contains a large number of RNAs and proteins, including histone deacetylase (HDAC); however, it is not known which materials induce accelerated maturation. The HDAC activity modifies transcription rate and is required for normal meiosis; however, its function in oocyte maturation is still unclear. We investigated the function of HDAC activity, which is localized in the nuclear material, in the regulation of the speed of oocyte maturation. Inhibition of HDAC activity with trichostatin A (TSA) induced hyperacetylation of histone H3 and prolonged oocyte maturation. In contrast, increase in HDAC activity with an injection of FLAG-tagged maternal histone deacetylase (HDACm-FLAG) mRNA induced deacetylation of histone H3 and reduced the duration of oocyte maturation. Cdc2 kinase, Cdc25C or mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK), which are key regulators of the meiosis, were activated coincidently with maturation progression. In oocytes, the mRNA level of Cdc25C, an activator of Cdc2, was increased by HDACm-FLAG mRNA-injection; in contrast, the mRNA level of Cdc2 inhibitor Wee1 was increased by TSA treatment. These results suggest that HDAC activity is involved in the control of maturation speed through the regulation of mRNA levels of cell cycle regulators. Thus, HDACm is a candidate for the nuclear material component that induces rapid maturation in Xenopus oocytes. PMID:23346879

Iwashita, Jun; Kodama, Ayumi; Konno, Yuuri; Abe, Tatsuya; Murata, Jun

2013-04-01

4

Induced maturation of hepatic progenitor cells in vitro  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in english Hepatic progenitor cells (HPCs) are a potential cell source for liver cell transplantation but do not function like mature liver cells. We sought an effective and reliable method to induce HPC maturation. An immortalized HP14.5 albumin promoter-driven Gaussian luciferase (ALB-GLuc) ce [...] ll line was established from HPCs isolated from fetal mouse liver of post coitus day 14.5 mice to investigate the effect of induction factors on ALB promoter. HP14.5 parental cells were cultured in DMEM with different combinations of 2% horse serum (HS), 0.1 µM dexamethasone (DEX), 10 ng/mL hepatic growth factor (HGF), and/or 20 ng/mL fibroblast growth factor 4 (FGF4). Trypan blue and crystal violet staining were used to assess cell proliferation with different induction conditions. Expression of hepatic markers was measured by semi-quantitative RT-PCR, Western blot, and immunofluorescence. Glycogen storage and metabolism were detected by periodic acid-Schiff and indocyanine green (ICG) staining. GLuc activity indicated ALB expression. The combination of 2% HS+0.1 µM Dex+10 ng/mL HGF+20 ng/mL FGF4 induced the highest ALB-GLuc activity. Cell proliferation decreased in 2% HS but increased by adding FGF4. Upon induction, and consistent with hepatocyte development, DLK, AFP, and CK19 expression decreased, while ALB, CK18, and UGT1A expression increased. The maturity markers tyrosine aminotransferase and apolipoprotein B were detected at days 3 and 6 post-induction, respectively. ICG uptake and glycogen synthesis were detectable at day 6 and increased over time. Therefore, we demonstrated that HPCs were induced to differentiate into functional mature hepatocytes in vitro, suggesting that factor-treated HPCs may be further explored as a means of liver cell transplantation.

Y., Bi; Y., He; J.Y., Huang; L., Xu; N., Tang; T.C., He; T., Feng.

2013-08-01

5

Malassezia enhances natural killer cell-induced dendritic cell maturation.  

Science.gov (United States)

Human natural killer (NK) cells can induce cell death in autologous dendritic cells (DCs), though an interaction between these two cell types can also lead to a reciprocal activation. We have recently shown cell contact between NK cells and DCs in vivo, in Malassezia-induced lesional skin of patients with atopic eczema, where the yeast acts as an allergen although it is part of the normal skin microflora. Here we characterize the interaction of human NK cells and monocyte-derived DCs (MDDCs) by using an in vitro system where short-term activated polyclonal NK cells are cocultured with autologous, immature, Malassezia-stimulated or lipopolysaccharide-matured MDDCs. We found that the number of CD83(+) MDDCs increased in the immature and Malassezia-stimulated MDDCs upon coculture with NK cells, while an increased number of CD86(+) cells was detected in the Malassezia-stimulated MDDCs. NK cell-MDDC interaction induced the production of interleukin-8 (IL-8). In conclusion, our results imply that NK cells provide maturation signals and may play a role in inducing IL-8 production in DCs. Furthermore, the increased expression of CD86 on Malassezia-stimulated MDDCs might have a function in subsequent T-cell activation by DCs, and indicate a role for NK cell-DC interaction in modulating the immune responses to microbial stimuli. PMID:15140062

Buentke, E; D'Amato, M; Scheynius, A

2004-05-01

6

Probiotics can induce follicle maturational competence: the Danio rerio case.  

Science.gov (United States)

In the present study, the effects of the probiotic Lactobacillus rhamnosus IMC 501 on the acquisition of oocyte maturational competence was examined in zebrafish (Danio rerio). L. rhamnosus administration induced the responsiveness of incompetent follicles (stage IIIa) to 17,20-dihydroxy-4-pregnen-3-one and their in vitro maturation. Acquisition of competence by the stage IIIa follicles was further validated by changes of lhr, mprb, inhbaa (activin betaA1), tgfb1, and gdf9 gene expression, which have recently emerged as key regulators of oocyte acquisition of maturational competence, and pou5f1 gene expression, which in other models has been shown to govern the establishment of developmental competence of oocytes. In addition, a DNA microarray experiment was conducted using the same follicles, and with relative gene ontology (GO) data analysis, the molecular effects of probiotic administration emerged. Molecular analysis using PCR-DGGE (denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis) approach, providing information about only the most abundant bacterial members of the microbial community, revealed that the probiotic was able to populate the gastrointestinal tract and modulate the microbial communities, causing a clear shift in them and specifically enhancing the presence of the lactic acid bacteria Streptococcus thermophilus. At the same time, PCR-DGGE analysis revealed that the probiotic was not directly associated with the ovaries. Finally, the effects of probiotic treatment on zebrafish follicle development were also analyzed by FPA (focal plane array) Fourier transform-infrared (FT-IR) imaging, a technique that provides the overall biochemical composition of samples. Changes were found above all in stage IIIa follicles from probiotic-exposed females; the modifications, observed in protein secondary structures as well as in hydration and in bands related to phosphate moieties, allowed us to hypothesize that probiotics act at this follicle stage, affecting the maturation phase. PMID:22088919

Gioacchini, Giorgia; Giorgini, Elisabetta; Merrifield, Daniel L; Hardiman, Gary; Borini, Andrea; Vaccari, Lisa; Carnevali, Oliana

2012-03-01

7

Amyloid-? peptide induces mitochondrial dysfunction by inhibition of preprotein maturation.  

Science.gov (United States)

Most mitochondrial proteins possess N-terminal presequences that are required for targeting and import into the organelle. Upon import, presequences are cleaved off by matrix processing peptidases and subsequently degraded by the peptidasome Cym1/PreP, which also degrades Amyloid-beta peptides (A?). Here we find that impaired turnover of presequence peptides results in feedback inhibition of presequence processing enzymes. Moreover, A? inhibits degradation of presequence peptides by PreP, resulting in accumulation of mitochondrial preproteins and processing intermediates. Dysfunctional preprotein maturation leads to rapid protein degradation and an imbalanced organellar proteome. Our findings reveal a general mechanism by which A? peptide can induce the multiple diverse mitochondrial dysfunctions accompanying Alzheimer's disease. PMID:25176146

Mossmann, Dirk; Vögtle, F-Nora; Taskin, Asli Aras; Teixeira, Pedro Filipe; Ring, Julia; Burkhart, Julia M; Burger, Nils; Pinho, Catarina Moreira; Tadic, Jelena; Loreth, Desiree; Graff, Caroline; Metzger, Friedrich; Sickmann, Albert; Kretz, Oliver; Wiedemann, Nils; Zahedi, René P; Madeo, Frank; Glaser, Elzbieta; Meisinger, Chris

2014-10-01

8

In vitro growth factor-induced bio engineering of mature articular cartilage  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Articular cartilage maturation is the postnatal development process that adapts joint surfaces to their site-specific biomechanical demands. Maturation involves gross morphological changes that occur through a process of synchronised growth and resorption of cartilage and generally ends at sexual maturity. The inability to induce maturation in biomaterial constructs designed for cartilage repair has been cited as a major cause for their failure in producing persistent cell-based repair of joi...

Khan, Ilyas M.; Francis, Lewis; Theobald, Peter S.; Perni, Stefano; Young, Robert D.; Prokopovich, Polina; Conlan, R. Steven; Archer, Charles W.

2013-01-01

9

Contribution to the study of incomplete fusion reactions induced in heavy ion collisions  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The objective of this research thesis work was to identify the mechanisms involved in incomplete fusion reactions, and more particularly to see whether projectile structure has an influence on the reaction, and to assess the level and width of the angular moment window associated with incomplete fusion alphas. The study focused on alpha emission by the 16O + 116,124Sn system. Various experimental data have been obtained: differential efficient cross sections for different incident energies, energy spectra of alphas and their evolution with respect to the angle, angular moments associated with fast alphas, coincidences between alphas and discrete gamma lines, measurement of circular polarization of gammas emitted in incomplete fusion reactions

10

Dendritic cell maturation is induced by mycoplasma infection but not by necrotic cells.  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

To identify environmental stimuli that induce dendritic cell (DC) maturation, we exposed human monocyte-derived immature DC to apoptotic or necrotic cells and measured the levels of expression of costimulatory molecules and cytokine production. While most necrotic or apoptotic cells did not have any effect, some induced DC maturation as detected by up-regulation of CD83 and B7.2 and production of IL-12 and IL-6. The capacity of these cell lines to induce DC maturation was due to their contami...

Salio, M.; Cerundolo, V.; Lanzavecchia, A.

2000-01-01

11

Insights into Eyestalk Ablation Mechanism to Induce Ovarian Maturation in the Black Tiger Shrimp  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Eyestalk ablation is commonly practiced in crustacean to induce ovarian maturation in captivity. The molecular mechanism of the ablation has not been well understood, preventing a search for alternative measures to induce ovarian maturation in aquaculture. This is the first study to employ cDNA microarray to examine effects of eyestalk ablation at the transcriptomic level and pathway mapping analysis to identify potentially affected biological pathways in the black tiger shrimp (Penaeus monod...

Uawisetwathana, Umaporn; Leelatanawit, Rungnapa; Klanchui, Amornpan; Prommoon, Juthatip; Klinbunga, Sirawut; Karoonuthaisiri, Nitsara

2011-01-01

12

Role of phosphatidylinositide metabolism in ras-induced Xenopus oocyte maturation.  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Microinjection of Xenopus oocytes with ras protein (p21) was used to investigate the role of phospholipid metabolism in ras-induced meiotic maturation. Induction of meiosis by ras was compared with induction by progesterone, insulin, and the phorbol ester 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate (TPA). Neomycin, which specifically binds to phosphatidylinositides and inhibits their metabolism, blocked meiotic maturation induced by ras or insulin but not by progesterone or TPA. In addition, p21 and...

Pan, B. T.; Cooper, G. M.

1990-01-01

13

Temperature Cycles Induce Early Maturation in Channel Catfish  

Science.gov (United States)

A major impediment in improvement of channel catfish by selective breeding is that a high percent of fish do not spawn until the third year. If the generation time could be shortened, genetic improvement could be achieved at a faster rate. The conditions that lead to sexual maturation in fish have...

14

EVIDENCE OF A BINARY-INDUCED SPIRAL FROM AN INCOMPLETE RING PATTERN OF CIT 6  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

With the advent of high-resolution high-sensitivity observations, spiral patterns have been revealed around several asymptotic giant branch (AGB) stars. Such patterns can provide possible evidence for the existence of central binary stars embedded in outflowing circumstellar envelopes. Here, we suggest the viability of explaining the previously observed incomplete ring-like patterns with the spiral-shell structure as being due to the motion of (unknown) binary components viewed at an inclination with respect to the orbital plane. We describe a method of extracting such spiral shells from an incomplete ring-like pattern to place constraints on the characteristics of the central binary stars. The use of gas kinematics is essential in facilitating detailed modeling for the three-dimensional structure of the circumstellar pattern. We show that a hydrodynamic radiative transfer model can reproduce the structure of the HC3N molecular line emission of the extreme carbon star, CIT 6. This method can be applied to other sources in the AGB phase and to the outer ring-like patterns of pre-planetary nebulae for probing the existence of embedded binary stars, which are highly anticipated with future observations using the Atacama Large Millimeter/submillimeter Array

15

EVIDENCE OF A BINARY-INDUCED SPIRAL FROM AN INCOMPLETE RING PATTERN OF CIT 6  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

With the advent of high-resolution high-sensitivity observations, spiral patterns have been revealed around several asymptotic giant branch (AGB) stars. Such patterns can provide possible evidence for the existence of central binary stars embedded in outflowing circumstellar envelopes. Here, we suggest the viability of explaining the previously observed incomplete ring-like patterns with the spiral-shell structure as being due to the motion of (unknown) binary components viewed at an inclination with respect to the orbital plane. We describe a method of extracting such spiral shells from an incomplete ring-like pattern to place constraints on the characteristics of the central binary stars. The use of gas kinematics is essential in facilitating detailed modeling for the three-dimensional structure of the circumstellar pattern. We show that a hydrodynamic radiative transfer model can reproduce the structure of the HC{sub 3}N molecular line emission of the extreme carbon star, CIT 6. This method can be applied to other sources in the AGB phase and to the outer ring-like patterns of pre-planetary nebulae for probing the existence of embedded binary stars, which are highly anticipated with future observations using the Atacama Large Millimeter/submillimeter Array.

Kim, Hyosun; Hsieh, I-Ta; Liu, Sheng-Yuan; Taam, Ronald E., E-mail: hkim@asiaa.sinica.edu.tw [Academia Sinica Institute of Astronomy and Astrophysics, P.O. Box 23-141, Taipei 10617, Taiwan (China)

2013-10-20

16

Search for systematic behavior of incomplete-fusion probability and complete-fusion suppression induced by 9Be on different targets  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

We present a trial to obtain a systematic behavior of the results available in the literature on the complete and incomplete fusion induced by the weakly bound projectile 9Be on targets with different masses and/or charges. We stress that although the incomplete-fusion probability and the complete-fusion suppression are very closely related quantities, the first is an experimental value whereas the later is model dependent. A trend of systematic behavior for the incomplete-fusion probability as a function of the target charge is achieved, but not for the complete-fusion suppression.

17

The Tec Family Tyrosine Kinase Btk Regulates RANKL-induced Osteoclast Maturation*S?  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

A spontaneous mutation in Bruton's tyrosine kinase (Btk) induces a defect in B-cell development that results in the immunodeficiency diseases X-linked agammaglobulinemia in humans and X-linked immunodeficiency (Xid) in mice. Here we show an unexpected role of Btk in osteoclast formation. When bone marrow cells derived from Xid mice were stimulated with receptor activator of NF-?B ligand, an osteoclast differentiation factor, they did not completely differentiate into ...

Lee, Seoung Hoon; Kim, Taesoo; Jeong, Daewon; Kim, Nacksung; Choi, Yongwon

2008-01-01

18

RAR-independent RXR signaling induces t(15;17) leukemia cell maturation.  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Although retinoic acid receptor alpha (RARalpha) agonists induce the maturation of t(15;17) acute promyelocytic leukemia (APL) cells, drug treatment also selects leukemic blasts expressing PML-RARalpha fusion proteins with mutated ligand-binding domains that no longer respond to all-trans retinoic acid (ATRA). Here we report a novel RARalpha-independent signaling pathway that induces maturation of both ATRA-sensitive and ATRA-resistant APL NB4 cells, and does not invoke the ligand-induced alt...

Benoit, G.; Altucci, L.; Flexor, M.; Ruchaud, S.; Lillehaug, J.; Raffelsberger, W.; Gronemeyer, H.; Lanotte, M.

1999-01-01

19

Probiotics Can Induce Follicle Maturational Competence: The Danio rerio Case1  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

In the present study, the effects of the probiotic Lactobacillus rhamnosus IMC 501 on the acquisition of oocyte maturational competence was examined in zebrafish (Danio rerio). L. rhamnosus administration induced the responsiveness of incompetent follicles (stage IIIa) to 17,20-dihydroxy-4-pregnen-3-one and their in vitro maturation. Acquisition of competence by the stage IIIa follicles was further validated by changes of lhr, mprb, inhbaa (activin betaA1), tgfb1, and gdf9 gene...

Gioacchini, Giorgia; Giorgini, Elisabetta; Merrifield, Daniel L.; Hardiman, Gary; Borini, Andrea; Vaccari, Lisa; Carnevali, Oliana

2011-01-01

20

The VP35 protein of Ebola virus impairs dendritic cell maturation induced by virus and lipopolysaccharide  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Ebola virus causes rapidly progressive haemorrhagic fever, which is associated with severe immuosuppression. In infected dendritic cells (DCs), Ebola virus replicates efficiently and inhibits DC maturation without inducing cytokine expression, leading to impaired T-cell proliferation. However, the underlying mechanism remains unclear. In this study, we report that Ebola virus VP35 impairs the maturation of mouse DCs. When expressed in mouse immature DCs, Ebola virus VP35 prevents virus-stimul...

Jin, Huali; Yan, Zhipeng; Prabhakar, Bellur S.; Feng, Zongdi; Ma, Yijie; Verpooten, Dustin; Ganesh, Balaji; He, Bin

2010-01-01

 
 
 
 
21

Extensive remodeling of DC function by rapid maturation-induced transcriptional silencing.  

Science.gov (United States)

The activation, or maturation, of dendritic cells (DCs) is crucial for the initiation of adaptive T-cell mediated immune responses. Research on the molecular mechanisms implicated in DC maturation has focused primarily on inducible gene-expression events promoting the acquisition of new functions, such as cytokine production and enhanced T-cell-stimulatory capacity. In contrast, mechanisms that modulate DC function by inducing widespread gene-silencing remain poorly understood. Yet the termination of key functions is known to be critical for the function of activated DCs. Genome-wide analysis of activation-induced histone deacetylation, combined with genome-wide quantification of activation-induced silencing of nascent transcription, led us to identify a novel inducible transcriptional-repression pathway that makes major contributions to the DC-maturation process. This silencing response is a rapid primary event distinct from repression mechanisms known to operate at later stages of DC maturation. The repressed genes function in pivotal processes--including antigen-presentation, extracellular signal detection, intracellular signal transduction and lipid-mediator biosynthesis--underscoring the central contribution of the silencing mechanism to rapid reshaping of DC function. Interestingly, promoters of the repressed genes exhibit a surprisingly high frequency of PU.1-occupied sites, suggesting a novel role for this lineage-specific transcription factor in marking genes poised for inducible repression. PMID:25104025

Seguín-Estévez, Queralt; Dunand-Sauthier, Isabelle; Lemeille, Sylvain; Iseli, Christian; Ibberson, Mark; Ioannidis, Vassilios; Schmid, Christoph D; Rousseau, Philippe; Barras, Emmanuèle; Geinoz, Antoine; Xenarios, Ioannis; Acha-Orbea, Hans; Reith, Walter

2014-09-01

22

Gamma-ray-induced bold seeded early maturing groundnut selections  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Full text: ''Chico'' is an early maturing (85-90 days) erect groundnut (Arachis hypogaea L.) genotype utilised in groundnut improvement to incorporate earliness in high yielding varieties. Though it has high shelling out-turn, its yield potential is low since it has small seeds. Mutation breeding was started with the objective of improving the seed size. In a preliminary experiment, dry seeds were treated with 20, 30, 40 or 50 kR of gamma rays. The M1 generation was grown during the post rainy season of 1988-1989. The M2 generation was planted as individual plant progeny rows during the rainy season of 1989. 105 progeny rows were studied, the total number of M2 plants being 1,730. All the M2 plants were harvested 90 days after sowing. Seven mutants with bold seed size were obtained. The mutants had 100 kernel weight ranging from 22.2 to 40.4 g compared to 21.1 g of control. The study is in progress. (author)

23

Skin irritants and contact sensitizers induce Langerhans cell migration and maturation at irritant concentration.  

Science.gov (United States)

Skin irritants and contact allergens reduce the number of Langerhans cells (LCs). It has been assumed that this reduction is due their migration to the draining lymph node (LN) for initiating immune sensitization in a host. Skin irritation, however, as opposed to contact allergy is not considered to be an immunological disease. Nevertheless, skin irritants are also known for their adjuvant-like effects on contact allergy, resulting in skin hypersensitivity reactions like toxic dermatitis. The human organotypic skin explant culture (hOSEC) model is used to study the characteristics of chemical-induced migration of CD1a(+) LCs out of the epidermis in relation to irritancy or toxicity. We analysed cells emigrating out of hOSEC for CD1a(+) LCs, CD83(+) mature dendritic cells (DCs) and CCR7(+) LN homing cells. After exposure to a toxic concentration of a non-immunogenic irritant, an increase of CD1a(+)CD83(+) LCs was found in the culture medium. A non-toxic concentration of an sensitizer induced an increase of CD1a(+) cells. About 50% of skin emigrating CD1a(+) LCs were CD83(-) (immature) but all were CCR7(+). Skin irritation by both non-allergenic and allergenic compounds induces LC migration and maturation. In contrast, only allergenic compounds induced LC migration with partial maturation at subtoxic concentration. This effectively demonstrates that irritation is physiologically needed stimuli for inducing LC maturation. PMID:16689859

Jacobs, John J L; Lehé, Cynthia L; Hasegawa, Hitoshi; Elliott, Graham R; Das, Pranab K

2006-06-01

24

Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug-induced duodenal ulceration and perforation in a mature rottweiler  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

A mature male rottweiler was evaluated for acute collapse and abdominal pain. The history consisted of concurrent administration of meloxicam and aspirin. On exploratory laparotomy, a large perforated ulcer was discovered in the proximal duodenum, with secondary peritonitis. The pathogenesis of NSAID-induced gastrointestinal ulceration and the supposed safety of COX-2 selective agents are discussed.

Reed, Suma

2002-01-01

25

Transforming ras proteins accelerate hormone-induced maturation and stimulate cyclic AMP phosphodiesterase in Xenopus oocytes.  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Transforming Harvey (Ha) ras oncogene products accelerated the time course of Xenopus oocyte maturation induced by insulin, insulinlike growth factor 1, or progesterone. The transforming constructs, [Val-12]Ha p21 and [Val-12, Thr-59]Ha p21, displayed equal potency and efficacy in their abilities to accelerate the growth peptide-induced response. Normal Ha p21 was only 60% as powerful and one-fifth as potent as the mutants containing valine in the 12 position. In contrast, two nontransforming...

Sadler, S. E.; Maller, J. L.; Gibbs, J. B.

1990-01-01

26

Complement protein C1q induces maturation of human dendritic cells  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Maturation of dendritic cells (DCs) is known to be induced by several stimuli, including microbial products, inflammatory cytokines and immobilized IgG, as demonstrated recently. Since immune complexes formed in vivo also contain C1q, moreover apoptotic cells and several pathogens fix C1q in the absence of antibodies, we undertook to investigate whether this complement protein has an impact on various functions of human DCs. Maturation of monocyte-derived immature DCs (imMDCs) cultured on immobilized C1q was followed by monitoring expression of CD80, CD83, CD86, MHCII and CCR7. The functional activity of the cells was assessed by measuring cytokine secretion and their ability to activate allogeneic T lymphocytes. Cytokine production by T cells co-cultured with C1q-matured DCs was also investigated. C1q, but not the structurally related mannose-binding lectin was found to bind to imMDC in a dose-dependent manner and induced NF-kappaB translocation to the nucleus. Immobilized C1q induced maturation of MDCs and enhanced secretion of IL-12 and TNF-alpha, moreover, elevated their T-cell stimulating capacity. As IFN-gamma levels were increased in supernatants of MDC-T cell co-cultures, our data suggest that C1q-induced DC maturation generates a Th1-type response. Interestingly, IL-10 levels were elevated by C1q-treated MDCs but not in the supernatant of their co-cultures with allogeneic T cells. Taken together, these results indicate that C1q-opsonized antigens may play a role in the induction and regulation of immune response. Moreover our data are relevant in view of the role of C1q in removal of apoptotic cells and the association between C1q-deficiency and autoimmunity.

Cosmor, E; Bajtay, Z

2007-01-01

27

Investigation of the influence of incomplete fusion on complete fusion of {sup 12}C-induced reactions at {approx} 4-7.2 MeV/nucleon  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

In this paper, we present the results of our investigation of reaction dynamics leading to incomplete fusion of heavy ions at moderate excitation energies, especially the influence of incomplete fusion on complete fusion of {sup 12}C -induced reactions at specific energies {approx} 4-7.2M eV/nucleon. Excitation functions of various reaction products populated via complete and/or incomplete fusions of a {sup 12}C projectile with {sup 93}Nb, {sup 59}Co and {sup 52}Cr targets were measured at several specific energies {approx} 4-7.2 MeV/nucleon, using a recoil catcher technique, followed by off-line {gamma}-ray spectrometry. The measured excitation functions were compared with theoretical values obtained using the PACE4 statistical model code. For representative non-{alpha}-emitting channels in the {sup 12}C + {sup 93}Nb system, the experimentally measured excitation functions were, in general, found to be in good agreement with the theoretical predictions. However, for {alpha}-emitting channels in the {sup 12}C + {sup 93}Nb, {sup 12}C + {sup 59}Co, and {sup 12}C + {sup 52}Cr systems, the measured excitation functions were higher than the predictions of the theoretical model code, which may be credited to incomplete fusion reactions at these energies. An attempt was made to estimate the incomplete fusion fraction for the present systems, which revealed that the fraction was sensitive to the projectile energy and mass asymmetry of the entrance channel. (orig.)

Amanuel, F.K. [INFN, Laboratori Nazionali di Legnaro, Legnaro (Padova) (Italy); Zelalem, B.; Chaubey, A.K. [Addis Ababa University, Department of Physics, P.O.Box 1176, Addis Ababa (Ethiopia); Agarwal, Avinash [Bareilly College, Department of Physics, Bareilly (India); Rizvi, I.A.; Maheshwari, Anjana; Ahmed, Tauseef [Aligarh Muslim University, Department of Physics, Aligarh (India)

2011-12-15

28

Retinoic acid induces autophagosome maturation through redistribution of the cation-independent mannose-6-phosphate receptor.  

Science.gov (United States)

Retinoic acids (RAs) have diverse biologic effects and regulate several cellular functions. Here, we investigated the role of RA on autophagy by studying its effects on autophagosome (AUT) maturation, as well as on upstream regulators of autophagosome biogenesis. Our studies, based on the use of pH-sensitive fluorescent reporter markers, suggested that RA promotes AUT acidification and maturation. By using competitive inhibitors and specific agonists, we demonstrated that this effect is not mediated by the classic RAR and RXR receptors. RA did not affect the levels of upstream regulators of autophagy, such as Beclin-1, phospho-mTOR, and phospho-Akt1, but induced redistribution of both endogenous cation-independent mannose-6-phosphate receptor CIMPR and transiently transfected GFP and RFP full-length CIMPR fusion proteins from the trans-Golgi region to acidified AUT structures. Those structures were found to be amphisomes (acidified AUTs) and not autophagolysosomes. The critical role of CIMPR in AUT maturation was further demonstrated by siRNA-mediated silencing of endogenous CIMPR. Transient CIMPR knockdown resulted in remarkable accumulation of nonacidified AUTs, a process that could not be reversed with RA. Our results suggest that RA induces AUT acidification and maturation, a process critical in the cellular autophagic mechanism. PMID:20812861

Rajawat, Yogendra; Hilioti, Zoe; Bossis, Ioannis

2011-06-01

29

Thidiazuron-induced high-frequency plant regeneration from leaf explants of Paulownia tomentosa mature trees  

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Attempts were made to study the effect of thidiazuron (TDZ) on adventitious shoot induction and plant development in Paulownia tomentosa explants derived from mature trees. Media with different concentrations of TDZ in combination with an auxin were used to induce adventitious shoot-buds in two explant types: basal leaf halves with the petiole attached (leaf explant) and intact petioles. Optimal shoot regeneration was obtained in leaf explants cultured on induction medium containing TDZ (22.7...

Corredoira, E.; Ballester, A.; Vie?itez Marti?n, Ana Mari?a

2008-01-01

30

New Model for the Genesis and Maturation of Viroplasms Induced by Fijiviruses in Insect Vector Cells  

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Plant reoviruses are thought to replicate and assemble within cytoplasmic, nonmembranous structures called viroplasms. Here, we established continuous cell cultures of the white-backed planthopper (Sogatella furcifera Horváth) to investigate the mechanisms for the genesis and maturation of the viroplasm induced by Southern rice black-streaked dwarf virus (SRBSDV), a fijivirus in the family Reoviridae, during infection of its insect vector. Electron and confocal microscopy revealed that the v...

Mao, Qianzhuo; Zheng, Shenglan; Han, Qingmei; Chen, Hongyan; Ma, Yuanyuan; Jia, Dongsheng; Chen, Qian; Wei, Taiyun

2013-01-01

31

NF-kB induces lung maturation during mouse lung morphogenesis.  

Science.gov (United States)

Lung maturation is hallmarked by the appearance of surfactant-producing alveoli during transition from the saccular to alveolar stage of lung development. Inflammation can disrupt this process and accelerate lung maturity following intrauterine amniotic infection (chorioamnionitis). Nuclear factor kB (NF-kB) is a transcription factor central to multiple inflammatory and developmental pathways, including dorsal-ventral patterning in fruit flies, limb and mammary and submandibular gland development in mice, and branching morphogenesis in chick lungs. Given its shared role in inflammation and developmental signaling, we hypothesized that overexpression of NF-kB targeted to the lung epithelium would exert maturational effects on alveolar development. We generated transgenic mice with lung-specific overexpression of the RelA subunit of NF-kB using a surfactant protein C promoter construct. Our results showed that RelA overexpression in the lung yields increased alveolar type I and type II cells. These findings are consistent with a model whereby NF-kB may induce maturation of lung development through decreased apoptosis of epithelial cells. PMID:18161062

Londhe, Vedang A; Nguyen, Hanh T; Jeng, Jade-Ming; Li, Xia; Li, Changgong; Tiozzo, Caterina; Zhu, Nianling; Minoo, Parviz

2008-02-01

32

IL-8 signaling does not mediate intra-amniotic LPS-induced inflammation and maturation in preterm fetal lamb lung  

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Preterm infants exposed to chorioamnionitis and preterm sheep fetuses exposed to intra-amniotic (IA) LPS have lung inflammation, increased IL-8 levels, and lung maturation. We tested the hypothesis that IL-8 signaling mediates IA LPS-induced lung inflammation and lung maturation. Two strategies were used: 1) we tested if IA injection of recombinant sheep IL-8 (rsIL-8) induced fetal inflammation and 2) if IL-8 signaling was blocked by a novel CXCR2 receptor blocker, nicotinanilide thioglycolat...

Kallapur, Suhas G.; Moss, Timothy J. M.; Auten, Richard L.; Nitsos, Ilias; Pillow, J. Jane; Kramer, Boris W.; Maeda, Dean Y.; Newnham, John P.; Ikegami, Machiko; Jobe, Alan H.

2009-01-01

33

Impact of laccase enzyme inducers on solid waste compost maturity and stability.  

Science.gov (United States)

The influence of inducers of laccase produced by Pleurotus ostreatus-P1 on the physicochemical properties of solid waste compost was investigated. In order to examine the degree of humification and time period for maturity and stability of compost, three different treatments (T: laccase; T1: laccase+CuSO4; and T2: laccase+CuSO4+CaCl2) were inoculated on solid waste in the initial stage of the composting process. During the composting process, the carbon nitrogen ratio (C/N), nitrate ([Formula: see text]), ammonium nitrogen ([Formula: see text]), cation exchange capacity (CEC), humic acid (HA) and fulvic acid (FA) humification rate (HR), Humification Index (HI), and degree of polymerization (DP) were assessed for the evaluation of compost maturity and stability, and it was found that T2 treatment C/N, CEC, and HI was greater, 46.8%, 37.2%, and 38.46%, respectively, than T at the end of the maturation phase. Optimum degree of maturity was also appraised by the Germination Index, 98.25% was attained by T2, whereas 88.65% and 71.23% by T1 and T, respectively. Significant Pearson correlation was also found between compost characteristics such as C/N, CEC, HA, FA, DP, HI, and HR. In addition, also obstinate the mineralization's of nitrogen under laboratory incubation, using soil amended by 50 and 100 kg-N/ha and examined an increasing trend in nitrogen mineralization with the application rate. Moreover, it was concluded that the laccase inducers increase the disintegration and humification process during solid waste composting. PMID:25244141

Nadeem, Amana; Baig, Shahjahan; Iqbal, Khalid; Sheikh, Nadeem

2014-12-01

34

Investigation of complete and incomplete fusion dynamics of 20Ne induced reactions at energies above the Coulomb barrier  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Experiment has been performed to explore the complete and incomplete fusion dynamics in heavy ion collisions using stacked foil activation technique. The measurement of excitation functions of the evaporation residues produced in the 20Ne+165Ho system at projectile energies ranges ? 4-8 MeV/nucleon have been done. Measured cumulative and direct cross-sections have been compared with the theoretical model code PACE-2, which takes into account only the complete fusion process. The analysis indicates the presence of contributions from incomplete fusion processes in some ?-emission channels following the break-up of the projectile 20Ne in the nuclear field of the target nucleus 165Ho

35

Investigation of complete and incomplete fusion dynamics of 20Ne induced reactions at energies above the Coulomb barrier  

Science.gov (United States)

Experiment has been performed to explore the complete and incomplete fusion dynamics in heavy ion collisions using stacked foil activation technique. The measurement of excitation functions of the evaporation residues produced in the 20Ne+165Ho system at projectile energies ranges ? 4-8 MeV/nucleon have been done. Measured cumulative and direct cross-sections have been compared with the theoretical model code PACE-2, which takes into account only the complete fusion process. The analysis indicates the presence of contributions from incomplete fusion processes in some ?-emission channels following the break-up of the projectile 20Ne in the nuclear field of the target nucleus 165Ho.

Singh, D.; Ali, R.; Kumar, Harish; Ansari, M. Afzal; Rashid, M. H.; Guin, R.

2014-08-01

36

Human B cells induce dendritic cell maturation and favour Th2 polarization by inducing OX-40 ligand.  

Science.gov (United States)

Dendritic cells (DCs) play a critical role in immune homeostasis by regulating the functions of various immune cells, including T and B cells. Notably, DCs also undergo education on reciprocal signalling by these immune cells and environmental factors. Various reports demonstrated that B cells have profound regulatory functions, although only few reports have explored the regulation of human DCs by B cells. Here we demonstrate that activated but not resting B cells induce maturation of DCs with distinct features to polarize Th2 cells that secrete interleukin (IL)-5, IL-4 and IL-13. B-cell-induced maturation of DCs is contact dependent and implicates signalling of B-cell activation molecules CD69, B-cell-activating factor receptor, and transmembrane activator and calcium-modulating cyclophilin ligand interactor. Mechanistically, differentiation of Th2 cells by B-cell-matured DCs is dependent on OX-40 ligand. Collectively, our results suggest that B cells have the ability to control their own effector functions by enhancing the ability of human DCs to mediate Th2 differentiation. PMID:24910129

Maddur, Mohan S; Sharma, Meenu; Hegde, Pushpa; Stephen-Victor, Emmanuel; Pulendran, Bali; Kaveri, Srini V; Bayry, Jagadeesh

2014-01-01

37

Calcium Signaling through Phospholipase C Activates Dendritic Cells To Mature and Is Necessary for the Activation and Maturation of Dendritic Cells Induced by Diverse Agonists  

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Calcium is an important second messenger in the phospholipase C (PLC) signal transduction pathway. Calcium signaling is involved in many biological processes, including muscle contraction, cellular activation, and cellular proliferation. Dendritic cell (DC) maturation is induced by many different stimuli, including bacterial lipopolysaccharide (LPS), bacterial toxins, inflammatory cytokines, prostaglandins, as well as calcium mobilization. In the present study, we determined the role of the P...

Bagley, Kenneth C.; Abdelwahab, Sayed F.; Tuskan, Robert G.; Lewis, George K.

2004-01-01

38

Neuregulin-1? induces mature ventricular cardiac differentiation from induced pluripotent stem cells contributing to cardiac tissue repair.  

Science.gov (United States)

Stem cell-derived cardiomyocytes (CMs) are often electrophysiologically immature and heterogeneous, which represents a major barrier to their in vitro and in vivo application. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to examine whether Neuregulin-1? (NRG-1?) treatment could enhance in vitro generation of mature "working-type" CMs from induced pluripotent stem (iPS) cells and assess the regenerative effects of these CMs on cardiac tissue after acute myocardial infarction (AMI). With that purpose, adult mouse fibroblast-derived iPS from ?-MHC-GFP mice were derived and differentiated into CMs through NRG-1? and/or dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) treatment. Cardiac specification and maturation of the iPS was analyzed by gene expression array, quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction, immunofluorescence, electron microscopy, and patch-clamp techniques. In vivo, the iPS-derived CMs or culture medium control were injected into the peri-infarct region of hearts after coronary artery ligation, and functional and histology changes were assessed from 1 to 8 weeks post-transplantation. On differentiation, the iPS displayed early and robust in vitro cardiogenesis, expressing cardiac-specific genes and proteins. More importantly, electrophysiological studies demonstrated that a more mature ventricular-like cardiac phenotype was achieved when cells were treated with NRG-1? and DMSO compared with DMSO alone. Furthermore, in vivo studies demonstrated that iPS-derived CMs were able to engraft and electromechanically couple to heart tissue, ultimately preserving cardiac function and inducing adequate heart tissue remodeling. In conclusion, we have demonstrated that combined treatment with NRG-1? and DMSO leads to efficient differentiation of iPS into ventricular-like cardiac cells with a higher degree of maturation, which are capable of preserving cardiac function and tissue viability when transplanted into a mouse model of AMI. PMID:25329043

Iglesias-García, Olalla; Baumgartner, Sven; Macrí-Pellizzeri, Laura; Rodriguez-Madoz, Juan Roberto; Abizanda, Gloria; Guruceaga, Elizabeth; Albiasu, Edurne; Corbacho, David; Benavides-Vallve, Carolina; Soriano-Navarro, Mario; González-Granero, Susana; Gavira, Juan José; Krausgrill, Benjamin; Rodriguez-Mañero, Moises; García-Verdugo, Jose Manuel; Ortiz-de-Solorzano, Carlos; Halbach, Marcel; Hescheler, Juergen; Pelacho, Beatriz; Prósper, Felipe

2015-02-15

39

Probiotics Can Induce Follicle Maturational Competence: The Danio rerio Case1  

Science.gov (United States)

ABSTRACT In the present study, the effects of the probiotic Lactobacillus rhamnosus IMC 501 on the acquisition of oocyte maturational competence was examined in zebrafish (Danio rerio). L. rhamnosus administration induced the responsiveness of incompetent follicles (stage IIIa) to 17,20-dihydroxy-4-pregnen-3-one and their in vitro maturation. Acquisition of competence by the stage IIIa follicles was further validated by changes of lhr, mprb, inhbaa (activin betaA1), tgfb1, and gdf9 gene expression, which have recently emerged as key regulators of oocyte acquisition of maturational competence, and pou5f1 gene expression, which in other models has been shown to govern the establishment of developmental competence of oocytes. In addition, a DNA microarray experiment was conducted using the same follicles, and with relative gene ontology (GO) data analysis, the molecular effects of probiotic administration emerged. Molecular analysis using PCR-DGGE (denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis) approach, providing information about only the most abundant bacterial members of the microbial community, revealed that the probiotic was able to populate the gastrointestinal tract and modulate the microbial communities, causing a clear shift in them and specifically enhancing the presence of the lactic acid bacteria Streptococcus thermophilus. At the same time, PCR-DGGE analysis revealed that the probiotic was not directly associated with the ovaries. Finally, the effects of probiotic treatment on zebrafish follicle development were also analyzed by FPA (focal plane array) Fourier transform-infrared (FT-IR) imaging, a technique that provides the overall biochemical composition of samples. Changes were found above all in stage IIIa follicles from probiotic-exposed females; the modifications, observed in protein secondary structures as well as in hydration and in bands related to phosphate moieties, allowed us to hypothesize that probiotics act at this follicle stage, affecting the maturation phase. PMID:22088919

Gioacchini, Giorgia; Giorgini, Elisabetta; Merrifield, Daniel L.; Hardiman, Gary; Borini, Andrea; Vaccari, Lisa; Carnevali, Oliana

2011-01-01

40

Acemannan purified from Aloe vera induces phenotypic and functional maturation of immature dendritic cells.  

Science.gov (United States)

Acemannan, a major carbohydrate fraction of Aloe vera gel, has been known to have antiviral and antitumoral activities in vivo through activation of immune responses. The present study was set out to define the immunomodulatory activity of acemannan on dendritic cells (DCs), which are the most important accessory cells for the initiation of primary immune responses. Immature DCs were generated from mouse bone marrow (BM) cells by culturing in a medium supplemented with GM-CSF and IL-4, and then stimulated with acemannan, sulfated acemannan, and LPS, respectively. The resultant DCs were examined for phenotypic and functional properties. Phenotypic analysis for the expression of class II MHC molecules and major co-stimulatory molecules such as B7-1, B7-2, CD40 and CD54 confirmed that acemannan could induce maturation of immature DCs. Functional maturation of immature DCs was supported by increased allogeneic mixed lymphocyte reaction (MLR) and IL-12 production. The differentiation-inducing activity of acemannan was almost completely abolished by chemical sulfation. Based on these results, we propose that the adjuvant activity of acemannan is at least in part due to its capacity to promote differentiation of immature DCs. PMID:11460308

Lee, J K; Lee, M K; Yun, Y P; Kim, Y; Kim, J S; Kim, Y S; Kim, K; Han, S S; Lee, C K

2001-07-01

 
 
 
 
41

Acidic polysaccharides isolated from Phellinus linteus induce phenotypic and functional maturation of murine dendritic cells.  

Science.gov (United States)

Acidic polysaccharides (PL) isolated from Phellinus linteus are known to stimulate the proliferation of T lymphocytes and humoral immune functions to act as a polyclonal activator of B cells, and to inhibit tumor growth and metastasis. However, little is known about their immunomodulating effects or the effects of its mechanisms on murine bone marrow (BM)-derived dendritic cells (DC). In this study, it profoundly increased CD80, CD86, MHC I, and MHC II expression in murine, GM-CSF and IL-4 stimulated, BM-derived myeloid DC. The ability of unstimulated DC to uptake dextran was higher than that of PL- or LPS-stimulated DC. We analyzed the concentration of IL-12 secreted by DC using flow cytometry and ELISA. Untreated DC secreted a low concentration of IL-12, while PL- or LPS-stimulated DC secreted higher levels of IL-12 than untreated DC. There were no remarkable differences in the concentrations of IL-12 produced by PL- or LPS-stimulated DC. However, polymyxin B (PB; an LPS inhibitor) effectively inhibited the surface molecules and IL-12 production induced by LPS, but had no effect on the PL in DC. PL-treated DC were much more potent antigen-presenting cells in allogeneic immune response than untreated DC. PL treatment not only formed morphologically mature DC but also induced predominant migration to lymphoid tissues. Moreover, the inhibitors of protein tyrosine kinase (PTK) or protein kinase C (PKC) significantly blocked the expression of surface molecules and IL-12 production in PL-stimulated DC. Treatment of DC with PL directly induced PKC activity and phosphorylated PTK. Furthermore, CD11b and/or CD18 partially mediated PL-induced DC maturation. PMID:14637158

Park, Soon-Kew; Kim, Gi-Young; Lim, Jae-Young; Kwak, Jong-Young; Bae, Yoe-Sik; Lee, Jae-Dong; Oh, Yang-Hyo; Ahn, Soon-Cheol; Park, Yeong-Min

2003-12-12

42

PKC? and ? Possibly Mediate FSH-Induced Mouse Oocyte Maturation via NOX-ROS-TACE Cascade Signaling Pathway  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

In mammals, gonadotropins stimulate oocyte maturation via the epidermal growth factor (EGF) network, and the protein kinase C (PKC) signaling pathway mediates this process. Tumor necrosis factor-? converting enzyme (TACE) is an important protein responding to PKC activation. However, the detailed signaling cascade between PKC and TACE in follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH)-induced oocyte maturation in vitro remains unclear. In this study, we found that rottlerin (mallotoxin, MTX), the inhibit...

Chen, Qian; Zhang, Wenqiang; Ran, Hao; Feng, Lizhao; Yan, Hao; Mu, Xinyi; Han, Yingying; Liu, Wei; Xia, Guoliang; Wang, Chao

2014-01-01

43

Comparative effects of mature coconut water (Cocos nucifera and glibenclamide on some biochemical parameters in alloxan induced diabetic rats  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In the present study, comparative effects of mature coconut water (Cocos nucifera L., Arecaceae and glibenclamide in alloxan induced diabetic rats were evaluated. Diabetes mellitus was induced in Sprague-Dawly rats using alloxan monohydrate (150 mg kg-1 body weight. Treatment with lyophilized form of mature coconut water and glibenclamide in diabetic rats reduced the blood glucose and glycated hemoglobin along with improvement in plasma insulin level. Elevated levels of liver function enzymes markers like alkaline phosphatase, serum glutamate oxaloacetate transaminase and serum glutamate pyruvate transaminase in diabetic rats were significantly reduced on treatment with mature coconut water. In addition to this, diabetic rats showed altered levels of blood urea, serum creatinine, albumin, albumin/globulin ratio which were significantly improved by treatment with mature coconut water and glibenclamide. Activities of nitric oxide synthase in liver and plasma L-arginine were reduced significantly in alloxan induced diabetic rats while treatment with mature coconut water reversed these changes. The overall results show that mature coconut water has significant beneficial effects in diabetic rats and its effects were comparable to that of glibenclamide, a well known antidiabetic drug.

P. P. Preetha

2013-06-01

44

Comparative effects of mature coconut water (Cocos nucifera) and glibenclamide on some biochemical parameters in alloxan induced diabetic rats  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in english In the present study, comparative effects of mature coconut water (Cocos nucifera L., Arecaceae) and glibenclamide in alloxan induced diabetic rats were evaluated. Diabetes mellitus was induced in Sprague-Dawly rats using alloxan monohydrate (150 mg kg-1 body weight). Treatment with lyophilized form [...] of mature coconut water and glibenclamide in diabetic rats reduced the blood glucose and glycated hemoglobin along with improvement in plasma insulin level. Elevated levels of liver function enzymes markers like alkaline phosphatase, serum glutamate oxaloacetate transaminase and serum glutamate pyruvate transaminase in diabetic rats were significantly reduced on treatment with mature coconut water. In addition to this, diabetic rats showed altered levels of blood urea, serum creatinine, albumin, albumin/globulin ratio which were significantly improved by treatment with mature coconut water and glibenclamide. Activities of nitric oxide synthase in liver and plasma L-arginine were reduced significantly in alloxan induced diabetic rats while treatment with mature coconut water reversed these changes. The overall results show that mature coconut water has significant beneficial effects in diabetic rats and its effects were comparable to that of glibenclamide, a well known antidiabetic drug.

P. P., Preetha; V., Girija Devi; T., Rajamohan.

2013-06-01

45

Paeoniflorin inhibits the maturation and immunostimulatory function of allergen-induced murine dendritic cells.  

Science.gov (United States)

Dendritic cells (DCs) as the front lines of defense play a crucial role in allergic contact dermatitis (ACD). Paeoniflorin (PF) has been clinically proven to be effective in the treatment of inflammatory skin diseases such as ACD. However, the mechanisms underlying the anti-inflammatory effect of PF remain unclear. The aim of this study was to explore the effect of PF on the maturation and immunostimulatory function of DCs in the murine model of ACD in vitro. Murine bone marrow-derived DCs were stimulated with the contact sensitizer 1-chloro-2, 4-dinitrobenze (DNCB) in vitro. Surface antigen expression of DCs (MHC II, CD40, CD80, and CD86), as an indicator of maturation DCs and cytokines (IL-12, IFN-?, IL-10, and TGF-?) after DNCB stimulation in the absence or presence of PF at different doses, was detected. Then, we detected that PF-treated DCs stimulated T cells in response to DNCB. PF inhibited the up-regulation of MHC II, CD80, CD86, and CD40, decreased IL-12p70 secretion, while increased the production of IL-10 and TGF-?, and had no effect on IFN-? cytokine production by murine bone marrow-derived DCs in response to DNCB. DCs exposed to PF had diminished capacity to stimulate allogeneic T cell proliferation and to activate IFN-?-producing CD4? T cells and induced CD4?CD25?Foxp3? T cells and IL-10-producing T cell expansion from naïve CD4? T cells. These results indicate that PF may be effective in preventing and treating ACD in vitro and other inflammatory responses possibly through inhibiting maturation of DCs and limiting their capacity to stimulate T cell responses. PMID:24534772

Shi, Dongmei; Ma, Aidong; Zheng, Haiyan; Huo, Guang; Yan, Hongxia; Fu, Hongjun; Qiu, Ying; Liu, Weida

2014-04-01

46

Tripeptidyl peptidase II promotes maturation of caspase-1 in Shigella flexneri-induced macrophage apoptosis.  

Science.gov (United States)

The invasive enteropathogenic bacterium Shigella flexneri activates apoptosis in macrophages. Shigella-induced apoptosis requires caspase-1. We demonstrate here that tripeptidyl peptidase II (TPPII), a cytoplasmic, high-molecular-weight protease, participates in the apoptotic pathway triggered by Shigella. The TPPII inhibitor Ala-Ala-Phe-chloromethylketone (AAF-cmk) and clasto-lactacystin beta-lactone (lactacystin), an inhibitor of both TPPII and the proteasome, protected macrophages from Shigella-induced apoptosis. AAF-cmk was more potent than lactacystin and irreversibly blocked Shigella-induced apoptosis by 95% at a concentration of 1 microM. Conversely, peptide aldehyde and peptide vinylsulfone proteasome inhibitors had little effect on Shigella-mediated cytotoxicity. Both AAF-cmk and lactacystin prevented the maturation of pro-caspase-1 and its substrate pro-interleukin 1beta in Shigella-infected macrophages, indicating that TPPII is upstream of caspase-1. Neither of these compounds directly inhibited caspase-1. AAF-cmk and lactacystin did not impair macrophage phagocytosis or the ability of Shigella to escape the macrophage phagosome. TPPII was also found to be involved in apoptosis induced by ATP and the protein kinase inhibitor staurosporine. We propose that TPPII participates in apoptotic pathways. PMID:10992446

Hilbi, H; Puro, R J; Zychlinsky, A

2000-10-01

47

Incomplete fusion reactions induced by /sup 12/C at 5.5--10 MeV/nucleon  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Evaporation residues following the interaction of /sup 12/C with targets of /sup 197/Au, /sup 160/Gd, and /sup 120/Sn were measured in the energy range of E/sub lab/ = 5.5--10 MeV/nucleon. The experimental system allowed the determination of the cross sections of the complete fusion (CF) and the incomplete fusion (ICF) processes with a sensitivity to ICF processes below the percent level. The ICF processes were observed at all bombarding energies studied, down to energies slightly above the Coulomb barrier. The two processes have very different angular distributions, with ICF peaked at a significantly larger angle than the CF

48

Generation of induced pluripotent stem cell-derived mice by reprogramming of a mature NKT cell.  

Science.gov (United States)

NKT cells are characterized by their expression of an NKT-cell-specific invariant antigen-receptor ? chain encoded by V?14J?18 gene segments. These NKT cells bridge the innate and acquired immune systems to mediate effective and augmented responses; however, the limited number of NKT cells in vivo hampers their analysis. Here, two lines of induced pluripotent stem cell-derived mice (NKT-iPSC-derived mice) were generated by reprogramming of mature NKT cells, where one harbors both rearranged V?14J?18 and V?7 genes and the other carries rearranged V?14J?18 on both alleles but germline V? loci. The analysis of NKT-iPSC-derived mice showed a significant increase in NKT cell numbers with relatively normal frequencies of functional subsets, but significantly enhanced in some cases, and acquired functional NKT cell maturation in peripheral lymphoid organs. NKT-iPSC-derived mice also showed normal development of other immune cells except for the absence of ??T cells and disturbed development of conventional CD4 ??T cells. These results suggest that the NKT-iPSC-derived mice are a better model for NKT cell development and function study rather than transgenic mouse models reported previously and also that the presence of a pre-rearranged V?14J?18 in the natural chromosomal context favors the developmental fate of NKT cells. PMID:24854340

Ren, Yue; Dashtsoodol, Nyambayar; Watarai, Hiroshi; Koseki, Haruhiko; Quan, Chengshi; Taniguchi, Masaru

2014-10-01

49

Development of early maturing and semi-dwarf in rice by induced mutations  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Crop improvement using classical induced mutagenesis is now well standardized. A large number of new promising varieties in different crops have successfully been developed world wide using both physical and chemical mutagenes. Domsia is one of the best quality and local rice variety in Iran, but it is tall and nearly late in maturity. The dry seeds of this variety were treated with gamma rays at doses 100, 200 and 300 Gy. The irradiated seeds were seeded in nursery, and then transplanted in main land. At the end of first year of experiment, main panicle of some randomly selected plants were harvested and planted as a panicle-to-row at M2 generation. A semi-dwarf mutant line and an early maturity mutant line were obtained from 300 and 100 Gy respectively, at M2 generation. These mutant lines were showed no segregation at next generations. The height of semi-dwarf mutant line was 60cm shorter than the control (165cm). The length reduction of internodes 2 through 5 caused the height reduction in semi-dwarf line. Reduction in length of internode closed to panicle was more significant than the other internodes. There was no significant difference in panicle length between semi-dwarf mutant lines and control. The number of tillers in semi-dwarf mutant line was significantly more than the control (No.12). The yields of semi-dwarf line were less than control, because of some sterility caused by gamma rays. We are recovering fertility by back crossing ofe recovering fertility by back crossing of this line with control. Also an early maturity mutant line with 15 days earlier than parent was obtained. The yield of this mutant line was not significantly different from the control. Some traits were studied in mutant lines at M7 generation, they are includes: plant height, number of culm, uppermost internode length, second internode length, flag leaf length and width, days to heading, days to maturity, panicle length, grain length and width, Spikelet fertility, number of grain in panicle, grain yield, 100-grain weight, amylose (%), gel consistency and gelatination temperature. In this paper I will discuss the details of these traits. (author)

50

Maturation of nematode-induced galls in Medicago truncatula is related to water status and primary metabolism modifications.  

Science.gov (United States)

Root-knot nematodes are obligatory plant parasitic worms that establish and maintain an intimate relationship with their host plants. During a compatible interaction, these nematodes induce the redifferentiation of root cells into multinucleate and hypertrophied giant cells (GCs). These metabolically active feeding cells constitute the exclusive source of nutrients for the nematode. We analyzed the modifications of water status, ionic content and accumulation of metabolites in development and mature galls induced by Meloidogyne incognita and in uninfected roots of Medicago truncatula plants. Water potential and osmotic pressure are significantly modified in mature galls compared to developing galls and control roots. Ionic content is significantly modified in galls compared to roots. Principal component analyses of metabolite content showed that mature gall metabolism is significantly modified compared to developing gall metabolism. The most striking differences were the three-fold increase of trehalose content associated to the five-fold diminution in glucose concentration in mature galls. Gene expression analysis showed that trehalose accumulation was, at least, partially linked to a significantly lower expression of the trehalase gene in mature galls. Our results point to significant modifications of gall physiology during maturation. PMID:25617326

Baldacci-Cresp, Fabien; Maucourt, Mickaël; Deborde, Catherine; Pierre, Olivier; Moing, Annick; Brouquisse, Renaud; Favery, Bruno; Frendo, Pierre

2015-03-01

51

PKC? and ? possibly mediate FSH-induced mouse oocyte maturation via NOX-ROS-TACE cascade signaling pathway.  

Science.gov (United States)

In mammals, gonadotropins stimulate oocyte maturation via the epidermal growth factor (EGF) network, and the protein kinase C (PKC) signaling pathway mediates this process. Tumor necrosis factor-? converting enzyme (TACE) is an important protein responding to PKC activation. However, the detailed signaling cascade between PKC and TACE in follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH)-induced oocyte maturation in vitro remains unclear. In this study, we found that rottlerin (mallotoxin, MTX), the inhibitor of PKC ? and ?, blocked FSH-induced maturation of mouse cumulus-oocyte complexes (COCs) in vitro. We further clarified the relationship between two molecules downstream of PKC ? and ? and TACE in COCs: nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NADPH) oxidase (NOX) and its products, reactive oxygen species (ROS). We proved that the respective inhibitors of NOX, ROS and TACE could block FSH-stimulated oocyte maturation dose-dependently, but these inhibitory effects could be reversed partially by amphiregulin (Areg), an EGF family member. Notably, inhibition of PKC ? and ? prevented FSH-induced translocation of two cytosolic components of NOX, p47phox and p67phox, to the plasma membrane in cumulus cells. Moreover, FSH-induced TACE activity in cumulus cells was decreased markedly by inhibition of NOX and ROS. In conclusion, PKC ? and ? possibly mediate FSH-induced meiotic resumption in mouse COCs via NOX-ROS-TACE signaling pathway. PMID:25350560

Chen, Qian; Zhang, Wenqiang; Ran, Hao; Feng, Lizhao; Yan, Hao; Mu, Xinyi; Han, Yingying; Liu, Wei; Xia, Guoliang; Wang, Chao

2014-01-01

52

PKC? and ? Possibly Mediate FSH-Induced Mouse Oocyte Maturation via NOX-ROS-TACE Cascade Signaling Pathway  

Science.gov (United States)

In mammals, gonadotropins stimulate oocyte maturation via the epidermal growth factor (EGF) network, and the protein kinase C (PKC) signaling pathway mediates this process. Tumor necrosis factor-? converting enzyme (TACE) is an important protein responding to PKC activation. However, the detailed signaling cascade between PKC and TACE in follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH)-induced oocyte maturation in vitro remains unclear. In this study, we found that rottlerin (mallotoxin, MTX), the inhibitor of PKC ? and ?, blocked FSH-induced maturation of mouse cumulus-oocyte complexes (COCs) in vitro. We further clarified the relationship between two molecules downstream of PKC ? and ? and TACE in COCs: nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NADPH) oxidase (NOX) and its products, reactive oxygen species (ROS). We proved that the respective inhibitors of NOX, ROS and TACE could block FSH-stimulated oocyte maturation dose-dependently, but these inhibitory effects could be reversed partially by amphiregulin (Areg), an EGF family member. Notably, inhibition of PKC ? and ? prevented FSH-induced translocation of two cytosolic components of NOX, p47phox and p67phox, to the plasma membrane in cumulus cells. Moreover, FSH-induced TACE activity in cumulus cells was decreased markedly by inhibition of NOX and ROS. In conclusion, PKC ? and ? possibly mediate FSH-induced meiotic resumption in mouse COCs via NOX-ROS-TACE signaling pathway. PMID:25350560

Ran, Hao; Feng, Lizhao; Yan, Hao; Mu, Xinyi; Han, Yingying; Liu, Wei; Xia, Guoliang; Wang, Chao

2014-01-01

53

The cumulus cell layer protects the bovine maturing oocyte against Fatty Acid-induced lipotoxicity.  

Science.gov (United States)

Mobilization of fatty acids from adipose tissue during metabolic stress increases the amount of free fatty acids in blood and follicular fluid and is associated with impaired female fertility. In a previous report, we described the effects of the three predominant fatty acids in follicular fluid (saturated palmitate and stearate and unsaturated oleate) on oocyte maturation and quality. In the current study, the effects of elevated fatty acid levels on cumulus cells were investigated. In a dose-dependent manner, the three fatty acids induced lipid storage in cumulus cells accompanied by an enhanced immune labeling of perilipin-2, a marker for lipid droplets. Lipidomic analysis confirmed incorporation of the administered fatty acids into triglyceride, resulting in a 3- to 6-fold increase of triglyceride content. In addition, palmitate selectively induced ceramide formation, which has been implicated in apoptosis. Indeed, of the three fatty acids tested, palmitate induced reactive oxygen species formation, caspase 3 activation, and mitochondria deterioration, leading to degeneration of the cumulus cell layers. This effect could be mimicked by addition of the ceramide-C2 analog and could be inhibited by the ceramide synthase inhibitor fumonisin-B1. Interfering with the intactness of the cumulus cell layers, either by mechanical force or by palmitate treatment, resulted in enhanced uptake of lipids in the oocyte and increased radical formation. Our results show that cumulus cells act as a barrier, protecting oocytes from in vitro induced lipotoxic effects. We suggest that this protective function of the cumulus cell layers is important for the developmental competence of the oocyte. The relevance of our findings for assisted reproduction technologies is discussed. PMID:25297544

Lolicato, Francesca; Brouwers, Jos F; de Lest, Chris H A van; Wubbolts, Richard; Aardema, Hilde; Priore, Paola; Roelen, Bernard A J; Helms, J Bernd; Gadella, Bart M

2015-01-01

54

Ascophyllan Purified from Ascophyllum nodosum Induces Th1 and Tc1 Immune Responses by Promoting Dendritic Cell Maturation  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Marine-derived sulfated polysaccharides have been shown to possess certain anti-virus, anti-tumor, anti-inflammatory and anti-coagulant activities. However, the in vivo immunomodulatory effects of marine-derived pure compounds have been less well characterized. In this study, we investigated the effect of ascophyllan, a sulfated polysaccharide purified from Ascophyllum nodosum, on the maturation of mouse dendritic cells (DCs in vitro and in vivo. Ascophyllan induced up-regulation of co-stimulatory molecules and production of pro-inflammatory cytokines in bone marrow-derived DCs (BMDCs. Moreover, in vivo administration of ascophyllan promotes up-regulation of CD40, CD80, CD86, MHC class I and MHC class II and production of IL-6, IL-12 and TNF-? in spleen cDCs. Interestingly, ascophyllan induced a higher degree of co-stimulatory molecule up-regulation and pro-inflammatory cytokine production than fucoidan, a marine-derived polysaccharide with well-defined effect for promoting DC maturation. Ascophyllan also promoted the generation of IFN-?-producing Th1 and Tc1 cells in the presence of DCs in an IL-12-dependent manner. Finally, myeloid differentiation primary response 88 (MyD88 signaling pathway was essential for DC maturation induced by ascophyllan. Taken together, these results demonstrate that ascophyllan induces DC maturation, and consequently enhances Th1 and Tc1 responses in vivo. This knowledge could facilitate the development of novel therapeutic strategies to combat infectious diseases and cancer.

Wei Zhang

2014-07-01

55

Ascophyllan purified from Ascophyllum nodosum induces Th1 and Tc1 immune responses by promoting dendritic cell maturation.  

Science.gov (United States)

Marine-derived sulfated polysaccharides have been shown to possess certain anti-virus, anti-tumor, anti-inflammatory and anti-coagulant activities. However, the in vivo immunomodulatory effects of marine-derived pure compounds have been less well characterized. In this study, we investigated the effect of ascophyllan, a sulfated polysaccharide purified from Ascophyllum nodosum, on the maturation of mouse dendritic cells (DCs) in vitro and in vivo. Ascophyllan induced up-regulation of co-stimulatory molecules and production of pro-inflammatory cytokines in bone marrow-derived DCs (BMDCs). Moreover, in vivo administration of ascophyllan promotes up-regulation of CD40, CD80, CD86, MHC class I and MHC class II and production of IL-6, IL-12 and TNF-? in spleen cDCs. Interestingly, ascophyllan induced a higher degree of co-stimulatory molecule up-regulation and pro-inflammatory cytokine production than fucoidan, a marine-derived polysaccharide with well-defined effect for promoting DC maturation. Ascophyllan also promoted the generation of IFN-?-producing Th1 and Tc1 cells in the presence of DCs in an IL-12-dependent manner. Finally, myeloid differentiation primary response 88 (MyD88) signaling pathway was essential for DC maturation induced by ascophyllan. Taken together, these results demonstrate that ascophyllan induces DC maturation, and consequently enhances Th1 and Tc1 responses in vivo. This knowledge could facilitate the development of novel therapeutic strategies to combat infectious diseases and cancer. PMID:25026264

Zhang, Wei; Du, Jiang-Yuan; Jiang, Zedong; Okimura, Takasi; Oda, Tatsuya; Yu, Qing; Jin, Jun-O

2014-07-01

56

Efficient and cost-effective generation of mature neurons from human induced pluripotent stem cells.  

Science.gov (United States)

For years, our ability to study pathological changes in neurological diseases has been hampered by the lack of relevant models until the recent groundbreaking work from Yamanaka's group showing that it is feasible to generate induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) from human somatic cells and to redirect the fate of these iPSCs into differentiated cells. In particular, much interest has focused on the ability to differentiate human iPSCs into neuronal progenitors and functional neurons for relevance to a large number of pathologies including mental retardation and behavioral or degenerative syndromes. Current differentiation protocols are time-consuming and generate limited amounts of cells, hindering use on a large scale. We describe a feeder-free method relying on the use of a chemically defined medium that overcomes the need for embryoid body formation and neuronal rosette isolation for neuronal precursors and terminally differentiated neuron production. Four days after induction, expression of markers of the neurectoderm lineage is detectable. Between 4 and 7 days, neuronal precursors can be expanded, frozen, and thawed without loss of proliferation and differentiation capacities or further differentiated. Terminal differentiation into the different subtypes of mature neurons found in the human brain were observed. At 6-35 days after induction, cells express typical voltage-gated and ionotrophic receptors for GABA, glycine, and acetylcholine. This specific and efficient single-step strategy in a chemically defined medium allows the production of mature neurons in 20-40 days with multiple applications, especially for modeling human pathologies. PMID:25355730

Badja, Cherif; Maleeva, Galyna; El-Yazidi, Claire; Barruet, Emilie; Lasserre, Manon; Tropel, Philippe; Binetruy, Bernard; Bregestovski, Piotr; Magdinier, Frédérique

2014-12-01

57

Age and size at maturity: a quantitative review of diet-induced reaction norms in insects.  

Science.gov (United States)

Optimality models predict that diet-induced bivariate reaction norms for age and size at maturity can have diverse shapes, with the slope varying from negative to positive. To evaluate these predictions, we perform a quantitative review of relevant data, using a literature-derived database of body sizes and development times for over 200 insect species. We show that bivariate reaction norms with a negative slope prevail in nearly all taxonomic and ecological categories of insects as well as in some other ectotherm taxa with comparable life histories (arachnids and amphibians). In insects, positive slopes are largely limited to species, which feed on discrete resource items, parasitoids in particular. By contrast, with virtually no meaningful exceptions, herbivorous and predatory insects display reaction norms with a negative slope. This is consistent with the idea that predictable resource depletion, a scenario selecting for positively sloped reaction norms, is not frequent for these insects. Another source of such selection-a positive correlation between resource levels and juvenile mortality rates-should similarly be rare among insects. Positive slopes can also be predicted by models which integrate life-history evolution and population dynamics. As bottom-up regulation is not common in most insect groups, such models may not be most appropriate for insects. PMID:25180817

Teder, Tiit; Vellau, Helen; Tammaru, Toomas

2014-11-01

58

Earliness in maturity and semi dwarf-ness in barley induced through mutation  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In Tanzania barley is used for malting, and to accelerate the release of new varieties, breeding strategies have been on improvement of existing cultivars. Under the project 'Enhanced Crop Productivity through Radiation URT/5/023' three barley varieties; Bima, Kusini and 8519 were treated with chemical mutagens. The cultivars were treated for three hours with 1.0mM NaN3 followed by three hours in 0.5mM MNH. From M2 generation individual plants showing earliness and semi dwarf-ness were selected. Evaluation of selected lines has been going on, agronomic the lines look similar to the mother cultivars except for the induced traits and now they are at M6 generation. The release of new promising cultivars (direct or after hybridization) in the near future is possible. Earliness in maturity helps as an escape mechanism to drought and semi dwarf-ness is important to avoid lodging in more humid and fertile areas. (author)

59

Induced pluripotent stem cells from familial Alzheimer's disease patients differentiate into mature neurons with amyloidogenic properties.  

Science.gov (United States)

Although the majority of Alzheimer's disease (AD) cases are sporadic, about 5% of cases are inherited in an autosomal dominant pattern as familial AD (FAD) and manifest at an early age. Mutations in the presenilin 1 (PSEN1) gene account for the majority of early-onset FAD. Here, we describe the generation of virus-free human induced pluripotent stem cells (hiPSCs) derived from fibroblasts of patients harboring the FAD PSEN1 mutation A246E and fibroblasts from healthy age-matched controls using nonintegrating episomal vectors. We have differentiated these hiPSC lines to the neuronal lineage and demonstrated that hiPSC-derived neurons have mature phenotypic and physiological properties. Neurons from mutant hiPSC lines express PSEN1-A246E mutations themselves and show AD-like biochemical features, that is, amyloidogenic processing of amyloid precursor protein (APP) indicated by an increase in ?-amyloid (A?)42/A?40 ratio. FAD hiPSCs harboring disease properties can be used as humanized models to test novel diagnostic methods and therapies and explore novel hypotheses for AD pathogenesis. PMID:25027006

Mahairaki, Vasiliki; Ryu, Jiwon; Peters, Ann; Chang, Qing; Li, Tong; Park, Tea Soon; Burridge, Paul W; Talbot, Conover C; Asnaghi, Laura; Martin, Lee J; Zambidis, Elias T; Koliatsos, Vassilis E

2014-12-15

60

Prenatal immune activation induces maturation-dependent alterations in the prefrontal GABAergic transcriptome.  

Science.gov (United States)

Neuronal dysfunctions in the cortical GABAergic system have been widely documented in neuropsychiatric disorders with prenatal infectious etiologies, including schizophrenia. At least some of these abnormalities may stem from transcriptional impairments in the GABAergic transcriptome. However, the extent to which prenatal exposure to immune challenge can induce long-term alterations in GABAergic gene transcription remains largely elusive. Here, we use an established mouse model of prenatal immune activation induced by maternal gestational administration of the viral mimetic poly(I:C) (= polyriboinosinic-polyribocytidilic acid) to demonstrate that prenatal immune activation causes maturation-dependent alterations in prefrontal GABAergic gene expression. The spectrum of abnormalities included altered mRNA expression levels of enzymes regulating ?-aminobutyric acid (GABA) biosynthesis (glutamic acid decarboxylase 65-kDa [GAD65] and GAD67), vesicular GABA transporter (VGAT), alpha-subunits of the GABA(A) receptor (?2, ?3, ?4, and ?5), and the chloride transporters sodium-potassium-chloride cotransporter 1 and potassium-chloride cotransporter 2. Additional western blot analyses confirmed the deficits in prefrontal GAD65/GAD67 and VGAT expression at the protein level. Intriguingly, the prefrontal GABAergic transcriptome was found to be more strongly affected in adult compared with peripubertal offspring born to immune-challenged mothers, and these age-dependent changes in GABAergic gene expression were paralleled by an adult onset of working memory deficiency. Collectively, our data emphasize a critical impact of prenatal immune-related insults on long-term GABAergic changes relevant to neuropsychiatric disorders with prenatal infectious etiologies, especially for those with delayed onset in early adulthood. PMID:23328159

Richetto, Juliet; Calabrese, Francesca; Riva, Marco A; Meyer, Urs

2014-03-01

 
 
 
 
61

High-frequency stimulation induces gradual immediate early gene expression in maturing adult-generated hippocampal granule cells.  

Science.gov (United States)

Increasing evidence shows that adult neurogenesis of hippocampal granule cells is advantageous for learning and memory. We examined at which stage of structural maturation and age new granule cells can be activated by strong synaptic stimulation. High-frequency stimulation of the perforant pathway in urethane-anesthetized rats elicited expression of the immediate early genes c-fos, Arc, zif268 and pCREB133 in almost 100% of mature, calbindin-positive granule cells. In contrast, it failed to induce immediate early gene expression in immature doublecortin-positive granule cells. Furthermore, doublecortin-positive neurons did not react with c-fos or Arc expression to mild theta-burst stimulation or novel environment exposure. Endogenous expression of pCREB133 was increasingly present in young cells with more elaborated dendrites, revealing a close correlation to structural maturation. Labeling with bromodeoxyuridine revealed cell age dependence of stimulation-induced c-fos, Arc and zif268 expression, with only a few cells reacting at 21 days, but with up to 75% of cells activated at 35-77 days of cell age. Our results indicate an increasing synaptic integration of maturing granule cells, starting at 21 days of cell age, but suggest a lack of ability to respond to activation with synaptic potentiation on the transcriptional level as long as immature cells express doublecortin. PMID:23425888

Jungenitz, Tassilo; Radic, Tijana; Jedlicka, Peter; Schwarzacher, Stephan W

2014-07-01

62

Fisheries-induced evolution in growth, maturation and reproductive investment of the sexually dimorphic North Sea plaice ( Pleuronectes platessa L.)  

Science.gov (United States)

Changes in the onset of sexual maturation, reproductive investment and growth of North Sea plaice are studied between three periods: 1900s, 1980s and 2000s. Probabilistic maturation reaction norms of both males and females, describing the probability of becoming mature conditional on age and size, shifted towards smaller sizes and younger ages, indicating a fisheries-induced evolutionary change. A higher rate of change was observed during the past 20 years, which may be related to higher temperature conditions. Reproductive investment was estimated from the decrease in lipid, protein, dry weight content and condition factor of the whole body between pre- and post-spawning adults. Reproductive investment expressed as the energy loss over the spawning period increased with body size from 19% at 20 cm to 30% at 40 cm in males and from 35% at 30 cm to 48% at 50 cm in females. No change in reproductive investment could be detected between the 1980s and the 2000s. Von Bertalanffy (VB) growth parameters showed a decrease in L? the asymptotic size and an increase in K, the velocity to reach L?, in both males and females. The changes in VB growth are consistent with an increase in energy acquisition and reproductive investment. The observed changes in maturation, reproductive investment and growth are consistent with fisheries-induced evolution, but the changes in reproductive investment and growth need further investigation to disentangle the role of phenotypic plasticity.

van Walraven, L.; Mollet, F. M.; van Damme, C. J. G.; Rijnsdorp, A. D.

2010-07-01

63

Complete and incomplete fusion competition in 11B-induced fission reaction on medium mass targets at intermediate energies  

CERN Document Server

The cross sections for the binary fission of 197Au, 181Ta and 209Bi targets induced by 11B ions were measured at intermediate energies. The fission products cross sections were studied by means of activation analysis in off-line regime observed gamma-ray spectra. The fission cross section is reconstructed on the basis of charge and mass distribution of the fission products.

Demekhina, N A; Balabekyan, A R

2014-01-01

64

Phosphorylation of conserved serine residues does not regulate the ability of mosxe protein kinase to induce oocyte maturation or function as cytostatic factor  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Expression of the mosxe protein kinase is required for the normal meiotic maturation of Xenopus oocytes and overexpression induces maturation in the absence of other stimuli. In addition, mosxe functions as a component of cytostatic factor (CSF), an activity responsible for arrest of the mature egg at metaphase II. After microinjection of Xenopus oocytes with in vitro synthesized RNA encoding either wild-type mosxe or kinase-inactive mosxe(R90), both proteins are phosphorylated exclusively on...

1992-01-01

65

In vitro maturation (IVM as a new technique to treat polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS and induce pregnancy in Indonesia  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Aim: To assesse the success of inducing pregnancies in the treatment of PCOS (Poly Cystic Ovary Syndrome cases with in vitro maturation as a newly application technique in Indonesia.Methods This paper is a report of 7 cases in Indonesia that used the newly developed technique. There were 7 cases confi rmed PCOS, in which 1 patient with a history of OHSS (Ovary Hyper Stimulation Syndrome in a previous IVF procedure and 1 patient with PCOS characteristics, suspected hyper responder, in the Family Hospital from January to May of 2009. Follicular induction was performed with a minimum dose, primming with HCG 10.000 IU, on the 10th day and 40 hours later ovum pick up was  performed, followed by in vitro maturation. Subsequently, insemination was performed and the inseminated follicle was assessed. Well qualifi ed embryos then transferred them into the uterus. We then performed assessment of pregnancy biochemically, by the presence of embryonic sac and embryonic heart beat.Results: We have performed the IVM (In Vitro Maturation technique in the Family Hospital, West Jakarta, along with the TRB team of the Family Hospital in seven PCOS cases. From these patients, we have found 156 antral follicles (average of 22 follicles per patient, 82 oocytes, and after maturation, 61  nature oocytes (75 %. In three cases, in vitro fertilization was performed, while in 4 cases ICSI (In Cystoplasmic Sperm Infection was performed. In these serial cases we obtained 41 embryos, and 22 fertilized embryos were transferred. Of 7 cases, we achieved two successful pregnancies (29%.Conclusion: In vitro maturation is an alternative procedures in solving infertility problems for PCOS patients with lower risk of OHSS and more cost effective than conventional IVF. (Med J Indones 2009; 18: 269-75Keywords: pregnancy, PCOS, in vitro maturation

Soegiharto Soebijanto

2009-11-01

66

Evasion of peptide, but not lipid antigen presentation, through pathogen-induced dendritic cell maturation  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Dendritic cells (DC) present lipid and peptide antigens to T cells on CD1 and MHC Class II (MHCII), respectively. The relative contribution of these systems during the initiation of adaptive immunity after microbial infection is not characterized. MHCII molecules normally acquire antigen and rapidly traffic from phagolysosomes to the plasma membrane as part of DC maturation, whereas CD1 molecules instead continually recycle between these sites before, during, and after DC maturation. We find ...

Hava, David L.; Wel, Nicole; Cohen, Nadia; Dascher, Christopher C.; Houben, Diane; Leo?n, Luis; Agarwal, Sandeep; Sugita, Masahiko; Zon, Maaike; Kent, Sally C.; Shams, Homayoun; Peters, Peter J.; Brenner, Michael B.

2008-01-01

67

Juvenile and mature MAP2 isoforms induce distinct patterns of process outgrowth.  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Microtubule-associated protein-2 (MAP2) is the most abundant MAP in neurons, where its distribution is restricted to the somatodendritic compartment. This molecule undergoes developmentally regulated alternative splicing, resulting in at least two isoforms, a juvenile isoform (termed MAP2c) and a mature isoform (MAP2), with greatly different molecular masses. Spodoptera frugiperda (Sf9) cell expression of the juvenile versus the mature MAP2 isoform generates two distinct patterns of process o...

Leclerc, N.; Baas, P. W.; Garner, C. C.; Kosik, K. S.

1996-01-01

68

Alteration in the simian virus 40 maturation pathway after butyrate-induced hyperacetylation of histones.  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The role of histone acetylation in the replication and maturation pathways of simian virus 40 was assessed. Histones were hyperacetylated by briefly exposing infected cells to sodium butyrate. Viral DNA in cells exposed to butyrate was found to reenter replication to a greater extent and mature to the previrion form to a lesser extent than viral DNA in control cells. Previrions formed in the presence of butyrate had altered sedimentation properties. These data suggest that increased acetylati...

Roman, A.

1982-01-01

69

Observation and analysis of incomplete fusion reactions induced by (12C, 14N, 16O, 22Ne) ions  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The mechanism of the reactions induced by heavy ions has been studied. The experiments were concerned with incident channels which lead to the formation of intermediate nuclei with atomic mass (6412C, 14N, 16O, 22Ne) as projectiles respectively. The detection of light fragments (2< Z<12) is studied. A three solid-state-detector telescope, with associated electronics is used which allows the separation of reaction products according to their charge. The main features of deep inelastic collisions are discussed: large kinetic energy loss, and important nucleon transfer as a function of the angular detection. The time evolution of the reaction has been studied, then the results are compared with a scattering model suggested by Noremberg. A theoretical calculation based on both classical and statistical approaches giving the total cross-sections for any exit channel has been proposed

70

Biological features of an early-maturity mutant of sweet sorghum induced by carbon ions irradiation and its genetic polymorphism  

Science.gov (United States)

It is well known that heavy ions irradiation is characterized by a high linear energy transfer (LET) and relative biological effectiveness (RBE). These characters are believed to increase mutation frequency and mutation spectrum of plants or mammalian cells irradiated by heavy ions. Here we describe an early-maturity mutant of sweet sorghum induced by carbon ion irradiation. The growth period of this mutant was shortened by about 20 days compared to the wild type. The proline content of the mutant was increased by 11.05% while the malondialdehyde content was significantly lower than that of wild type. In addition, the RAPD analysis indicated that the percentage of polymorphism between the mutant KFJT-1 and the control KFJT-CK reached 5.26%. The gain of early-maturity might solve the problem in the northwest region of China where seeds of sweet sorghum cannot be mature because of early frost. The early-maturity mutant may be important for future space cultivation.

Dong, Xicun; Li, Wenjian

2012-08-01

71

Statistical explanation of incomplete fusion-fission induced by 12C on 159Tb at 46.7 MeV/u  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The binary fission has been measured in 12C (46.7 Mev/u)+159Tb system. The conclusion is that fission events corresponded to incomplete fusion can be explained by cascade fission with competition of particle evaporation. The fragmentation after incomplete fusion is not considerable in the reaction

72

Relating incomplete data and incomplete theory  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Assuming string theorists will not soon provide a compelling case for the primary theory underlying particle physics, the field will proceed as it has historically: with data stimulating and testing ideas. Ideally the soft supersymmetry breaking Lagrangian will be measured and its patterns will point to the underlying theory. But there are two new problems. First a matter of principle: the theory may be simplest at distance scales and in numbers of dimensions where direct experiments are not possible. Second a practical problem: in the foreseeable future (with mainly hadron collider data) too few observables can be measured to lead to direct connections between experiment and theory. In this paper we discuss and study these issues and consider ways to circumvent the problems, studying models to test methods. We propose a semiquantitative method for focusing and sharpening thinking when trying to relate incomplete data to incomplete theory, as will probably be necessary

73

Characterization of early events involved in human dendritic cell maturation induced by sensitizers: Cross talk between MAPK signalling pathways  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Dendritic cells (DCs), efficient-antigen presenting cells play an important role in initiating and regulating immune responses. DC maturation following exposure to nickel or DNCB induced an up-regulation of phenotypic markers and inflammatory cytokine secretion. Early intracellular mechanisms involved in DC maturation required to be precise. To address this purpose, DCs derived from human monocytes were treated with sensitizers (nickel, DNCB or thimerosal) in comparison with an irritant (SDS). Our data confirming the up-regulation of CD86, CD54 and cytokine secretion (IL-8 and TNF?) induced by sensitizers but not by SDS, signalling transduction involved in DC maturation was investigated using these chemicals. Kinase activity measurement was assessed using two new sensitive procedures (FaceTM and CBA) requiring few cells. SDS did not induce changes in signalling pathways whereas NiSO4, DNCB and thimerosal markedly activated p38 MAPK and JNK, in contrast Erk1/2 phosphorylation was completely inhibited by DNCB or thimerosal and only activated by nickel. A pre-treatment with p38 MAPK inhibitor (SB203580) suppressed Erk1/2 inhibition induced by DNCB or thimerosal demonstrating a direct interaction between p38 MAPK and Erk1/2. A pre-treatment with an antioxidant, N-acetyl-L-cysteine (NAC) markedly reduced Erk1/2 inhibition and p38 MAPK phosphorylation induced by DNCB and thimerosal, suggesting a direct activation of p38 MAPK via an oxidative stress anon of p38 MAPK via an oxidative stress and a regulation of MAPK signalling pathways depending on chemicals. Because of a high sensitivity of kinase activity measurements, these procedures will be suitable for weak or moderate sensitizer screening

74

Maturation of Shark Single-Domain (IgNAR) Antibodies: Evidence for Induced-Fit Binding  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Sharks express an unusual heavy-chain isotype called IgNAR, whose variable regions bind antigen as independent soluble domains. To further probe affinity maturation of the IgNAR response, we structurally characterized the germline and somatically matured versions of a type II variable (V) region, both in the presence and absence of its antigen, hen egg-white lysozyme. Despite a disulfide bond linking complementarity determining regions (CDRs) 1 and 3, both germline and somatically matured V regions displayed significant structural changes in these CDRs upon complex formation with antigen. Somatic mutations in the IgNAR V region serve to increase the number of contacts with antigen, as reflected by a tenfold increase in affinity, and one of these mutations appears to stabilize the CDR3 region. In addition, a residue in the HV4 loop plays an important role in antibody-antigen interaction, consistent with the high rate of somatic mutations in this non-CDR loop.

Stanfield, R.L.; Dooley, H.; Verdino, P.; Flajnik, M.F.; Wilson, I.A.; /Scripps Res. Inst. /Maryland U.

2007-07-13

75

Nerve growth factor promotes TLR4 signaling-induced maturation of human dendritic cells in vitro through inducible p75NTR 1.  

Science.gov (United States)

Nerve growth factor (NGF) has been shown to play important roles in the differentiation, function, and survival of immune cells, contributing to immune responses and pathogenesis of autoimmune diseases. Dendritic cells (DCs) are a potent initiator for immune and inflammatory responses upon recognition of pathogens via Toll-like receptors (TLR). However, expression of NGF and its receptors on human monocyte-derived DCs (MoDCs) and the role of NGF in the response of DCs to TLR ligands remain to be investigated. In the present study, we demonstrate that there were weak expressions of NGF and no expression of NGF receptors p140(TrkA) and p75(NTR) on human immature MoDCs, however, the expression of NGF and p75(NTR) on MoDCs could be significantly up-regulated by LPS in a dose- and time-dependent manner. NGF could markedly promote LPS-induced expression of HLA-DR, CD40, CD80, CD83, CD86, CCR7, secretion of IL-12p40 and proinflammatory cytokines IL-1, IL-6, TNF-alpha, and the T cell-stimulating capacity of MoDCs, indicating that NGF can promote LPS-induced DC maturation. The promoting effect of NGF on LPS-induced MoDCs maturation could be completely abolished by pretreatment of MoDCs with p75(NTR) antagonist, suggesting that LPS-induced p75(NTR) mediates the effect. Furthermore, increased activation of the p38MAPK and NF-kappaB pathways has been shown to be responsible for the NGF-promoted DC maturation. Therefore, NGF facilitates TLR4 signaling-induced maturation of human DCs through LPS-up-regulated p75(NTR) via activation of p38 MAPK and NF-kappaB pathways, providing another mechanism for the involvement of NGF in the immune responses and pathogenesis of autoimmune diseases. PMID:17947706

Jiang, Yingming; Chen, Guoyou; Zhang, Yi; Lu, Lin; Liu, Shuxun; Cao, Xuetao

2007-11-01

76

A new model of radiation-induced myelopathy: A comparison of the response of mature and immature pigs  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The purpose was development of an experimental model of radiation-induced myelopathy in the pig which would facilitate the study of the effects of clinically relevant treatment volumes. The effects of local spinal cord irradiation, to a standard 10 X 5 cm field, have been evaluated in mature (37-42.5 weeks) and immature (15.5-23 weeks) pigs. Irradiation was with single doses of 60Co ?rays at a dose-rate of 0.21-0.65 Gy/min. The incidence of paralysis was used as an endpoint. Irradiation of mature animals resulted in the development of frank paralysis with animals showing combined parenchymal and vascular pathologic changes in their white matter. These lesions, in common with those seen in patients, had a clear evidence of an inflammatory component. The latency for paralysis was short, 7.5-16.5 weeks, but within the wide range reported for patients. However, it was shorter than that reported in other large animal models. The ED50 value (±SE) for paralysis was 27.02±0.36 Gy, similar to that in rats taking into account dose-rate factors. The irradiation of immature pigs only resulted in transient neurological changes after doses comparable to those used in the mature animals, ED50 value (±SE) 26.09±0.37 Gy. The reasons for these transient neurological symptoms are uncertain. A reliable experimental model of radiation-induced myelopathy has been developed for mature pigs. This model is suitable for the study of clinically relevant vol the study of clinically relevant volume effects. 39 refs., 4 figs., 1 tab

77

Decomposition of incomplete fusion  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The velocity distribution of fusion-like products formed in the reaction 701 MeV 28Si+100Mo is decomposed into 26 incomplete fusion channels. The momentum deficit of the residue per nonevaporative mass unit is approximately equal to the beam momentum per nucleon. The yields of the incomplete fusion channels correlate with the Q-value for projectile fragmentation rather than that for incomplete fusion. The backward angle multiplicities of light particles and heavy ions increase with momentum transfer, however, the heavy ion multiplicities also depend on the extent of the fragmentation of the incomplete fusion channel. These data indicate that at fixed linear momentum transfer, increased fragmentation of the unfused component is related to a reduced transferred angular momentum. 22 refs., 6 figs., 1 tab

78

Probiotic Bacteria Induce Maturation of Intestinal Claudin 3 Expression and Barrier Function  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

An immature intestinal epithelial barrier may predispose infants and children to many intestinal inflammatory diseases, such as infectious enteritis, inflammatory bowel disease, and necrotizing enterocolitis. Understanding the factors that regulate gut barrier maturation may yield insight into strategies to prevent these intestinal diseases. The claudin family of tight junction proteins plays an important role in regulating epithelial paracellular permeability. Previous reports demonstrate th...

Patel, Ravi M.; Myers, Loren S.; Kurundkar, Ashish R.; Maheshwari, Akhil; Nusrat, Asma; Lin, Patricia W.

2012-01-01

79

Vav1 modulates protein expression during ATRA-induced maturation of APL-derived promyelocytes: a proteomic-based analysis.  

Science.gov (United States)

Overexpression of Vav1 promotes the overcoming of the differentiation blockade that characterizes acute promyelocytic leukemia cells. At variance, down-modulation of Vav1 prevents ATRA-induced maturation, and in particular, the inhibition of its tyrosine phosphorylation prevents the neutrophil differentiation-related changes of cell morphology. These findings allowed to identify Vav1 as a crucial protein in the ATRA-dependent differentiation of tumoral promyelocytes. By means of a proteomic approach, here we have investigated a possible role for Vav1 in modulating protein expression during ATRA treatment of tumoral promyelocytes. We have performed high-resolution 2-DE coupled with mass spectra analysis of HL-60 and NB4 promyelocytic cell lines induced to differentiate with ATRA when the amounts or the tyrosine phosphorylation of Vav1 were forcedly reduced. We have found that the down-regulation of Vav1 affects the expression level of a number of proteins, including cell cycle/apoptosis- and cytoskeleton-related proteins. In particular, the expression of 14-3-3epsilon, alpha-enolase, alpha-tubulin and splice isoform 2 of alpha3 proteasome subunit changed as a consequence of the down-modulation of Vav1 during the differentiation of both HL-60 and NB4 cell lines, suggesting that these proteins may constitute a common part of the ATRA-induced pathway during maturation of APL-derived promyelocytes. These results indicate an unprecedented role for Vav1 in the maturation of myeloid cells as a regulator of protein expression. PMID:18642942

Bertagnolo, Valeria; Grassilli, Silvia; Bavelloni, Alberto; Brugnoli, Federica; Piazzi, Manuela; Candiano, Giovanni; Petretto, Andrea; Benedusi, Mascia; Capitani, Silvano

2008-09-01

80

Repair capacity of fertilized mouse eggs for X-ray damage induced in sperm and mature oocytes  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

To study the repair capacity of fertilized mouse eggs for X-ray damage induced in sperm and mature oocytes, the potentiating effects of 3 well-known repair inhibitors, arabinofuranosyl cytosine (ara-C), 3-aminobenzamide (3AB) and caffeine, on the frequency of induced chromosome aberrations were examined in eggs fertilized with X-irradiated sperm or in eggs irradiated with X-rays at the mature oocyte stage immediately before fertilization. Gametic treatment, fertilization and embryo culture wer carried out in vitro. Ara-C treatment was done only in the pre-DNA replication period, while treatment with 3AB and caffeine was continuous from fertilization to the first-cleavage metaphase. The induction of chromosome aberrations by exposing sperm or oocytes to X-rays was remarkably potentiated by post-treatment incubation in the presence of each of the 3 inhibitors. This result indicates the possibility that X-ray damage induced in sperm or oocytes is reparable in the fertilized eggs and that various types of repair processes are involved. (author). 39 refs.; 3 figs.; 5 tabs

 
 
 
 
81

Farnesyl transferase inhibitors induce extended remissions in transgenic mice with mature B cell lymphomas  

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Full Text Available Abstract Background We have used a mouse model based on overexpression of c-Myc in B cells genetically engineered to be self-reactive to test the hypothesis that farnesyl transferase inhibitors (FTIs can effectively treat mature B cell lymphomas. FTIs are undergoing clinical trials to treat both lymphoid and non-lymphoid malignancies and we wished to obtain evidence to support the inclusion of B cell lymphomas in future trials. Results We report that two FTIs, L-744,832 and SCH66336, blocked the growth of mature B cell lymphoma cells in vitro and in vivo. The FTI treatment affected the proliferation and survival of the transformed B cells to a greater extent than naïve B cells stimulated with antigen. In syngeneic mice transplanted with the transgenic lymphoma cells, L-744,832 treatment prevented the growth of the tumor cells and the morbidity associated with the resulting lymphoma progression. Tumors that arose from transplantation of the lymphoma cells regressed with as little as three days of treatment with L-744,832 or SCH66336. Treatment of these established lymphomas with L-744,832 for seven days led to long-term remission of the disease in approximately 25% of animals. Conclusion FTI treatment can block the proliferation and survival of self-reactive transformed B cells that overexpress Myc. In mice transplanted with mature B cell lymphomas, we found that FTI treatment led to regression of disease. FTIs warrant further consideration as therapeutic agents for mature B cell lymphomas and other lymphoid tumors.

Refaeli Yosef

2008-05-01

82

Information-theoretic incompleteness  

CERN Document Server

In this mathematical autobiography, Gregory Chaitin presents a technical survey of his work and a nontechnical discussion of its significance. The volume is an essential companion to the earlier collection of Chaitin's papers Information, Randomness and Incompleteness, also published by World Scientific.The technical survey contains many new results, including a detailed discussion of LISP program size and new versions of Chaitin's most fundamental information-theoretic incompleteness theorems. The nontechnical part includes the lecture given by Chaitin in Gšdel's classroom at the University o

Chaitin, Gregory J

1992-01-01

83

Microbeam Radiation-Induced Tissue Damage Depends on the Stage of Vascular Maturation  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Purpose: To explore the effects of microbeam radiation (MR) on vascular biology, we used the chick chorioallantoic membrane (CAM) model of an almost pure vascular system with immature vessels (lacking periendothelial coverage) at Day 8 and mature vessels (with coverage) at Day 12 of development. Methods and Materials: CAMs were irradiated with microplanar beams (width, ?25 ?m; interbeam spacing, ?200 ?m) at entrance doses of 200 or 300 Gy and, for comparison, with a broad beam (seamless radiation [SLR]), with entrance doses of 5 to 40 Gy. Results: In vivo monitoring of Day-8 CAM vasculature 6 h after 200 Gy MR revealed a near total destruction of the immature capillary plexus. Conversely, 200 Gy MR barely affected Day-12 CAM mature microvasculature. Morphological evaluation of Day-12 CAMs after the dose was increased to 300 Gy revealed opened interendothelial junctions, which could explain the transient mesenchymal edema immediately after irradiation. Electron micrographs revealed cytoplasmic vacuolization of endothelial cells in the beam path, with disrupted luminal surfaces; often the lumen was engorged with erythrocytes and leukocytes. After 30 min, the capillary plexus adopted a striated metronomic pattern, with alternating destroyed and intact zones, corresponding to the beam and the interbeam paths within the array. SLR at a dose of 10 Gy caused growth retardation, resulting in a remarkable reduction in the vascular endpoint density 24 h postirradiation. Aoint density 24 h postirradiation. A dose of 40 Gy damaged the entire CAM vasculature. Conclusions: The effects of MR are mediated by capillary damage, with tissue injury caused by insufficient blood supply. Vascular toxicity and physiological effects of MR depend on the stage of capillary maturation and appear in the first 15 to 60 min after irradiation. Conversely, the effects of SLR, due to the arrest of cell proliferation, persist for a longer time.

84

Thidiazuron-induced shoot organogenesis from mature leaf explants of scented Pelargonium capitatum cultivars  

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Shoot organogenesis from mature leaf tissues of two scented Pelargonium capitatum cultivars, 'Attar of Roses' and 'Atomic Snowflake', grown in the greenhouse, were optimized in the presence of thidiazuron (TDZ). The protocol involved preculture of leaf sections on basal Murashige and Skoog (MS) medium supplemented with 10 lM TDZ, 4.4 lM of 6-benzyladenine (BA) and 5.4 lM a-naphtaleneacetic acid (NAA) for a period of 2 weeks and followed by subculture of explants to a fresh medium containing 4...

Arshad, Muhammad; Silvestre, Je?ro?me; Merlina, Georges; Dumat, Camille; Pinelli, Eric; Kallerhoff, Jean

2012-01-01

85

Transgenic galectin-1 induces maturation of dendritic cells that elicit contrasting responses in naive and activated T cells.  

Science.gov (United States)

Dendritic cells (DC) are professional APC that control the balance between T cell immunity and tolerance. Genetic engineering of DC to regulate the outcome of the immune response is an area of intense research. Galectin (gal)-1 is an endogenous lectin that binds to glycoproteins and exerts potent regulatory effects on T cells. Consequently, gal-1 participates in central deletion of thymocytes and exerts therapeutic effects on experimental models of T cell-mediated autoimmune disorders and graft-vs-host disease. Together, these observations strongly indicate that engineering DC to express transgenic (tg) gal-1 may be beneficial to treat T cell-mediated disorders. In this study, we have investigated the impact of the expression of high levels of tg gal-1 on maturation/activation of DC and on their T cell stimulatory function. Murine DC were transduced with a recombinant adenovirus encoding hu gal-1 (gal-1-DC). Tg gal-1 was exported by a nonclassical pathway through exosomes and was retained on the DC surface inducing segregation of its ligand CD43. Expression of tg gal-1 triggered activation of DC determined by induction of a more mature phenotype, increased levels of mRNA for proinflammatory cytokines, and enhanced ability to stimulate naive T cells. Conversely, gal-1-DC induced rapid apoptosis of activated T cells. In vivo, gal-1-DC increased significantly the sensitization phase of contact hypersensitivity assays while inducing a drastic inhibition of the elicitation phase by triggering apoptosis of activated T cells in the dermis. Gal-1-DC represent a novel tool to control differentially the afferent and efferent arms of the T cell response. PMID:16751364

Perone, Marcelo J; Larregina, Adriana T; Shufesky, William J; Papworth, Glenn D; Sullivan, Mara L G; Zahorchak, Alan F; Stolz, Donna Beer; Baum, Linda G; Watkins, Simon C; Thomson, Angus W; Morelli, Adrian E

2006-06-15

86

Lipase maturation factor 1 (lmf1) is induced by endoplasmic reticulum stress through activating transcription factor 6? (Atf6?) signaling.  

Science.gov (United States)

Lipase maturation factor 1 (Lmf1) is a critical determinant of plasma lipid metabolism, as demonstrated by severe hypertriglyceridemia associated with its mutations in mice and human subjects. Lmf1 is a chaperone localized to the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) and required for the post-translational maturation and activation of several vascular lipases. Despite its importance in plasma lipid homeostasis, the regulation of Lmf1 remains unexplored. We report here that Lmf1 expression is induced by ER stress in various cell lines and in tunicamycin (TM)-injected mice. Using genetic deficiencies in mouse embryonic fibroblasts and mouse liver, we identified the Atf6? arm of the unfolded protein response as being responsible for the up-regulation of Lmf1 in ER stress. Experiments with luciferase reporter constructs indicated that ER stress activates the Lmf1 promoter through a GC-rich DNA sequence 264 bp upstream of the transcriptional start site. We demonstrated that Atf6? is sufficient to induce the Lmf1 promoter in the absence of ER stress, and this effect is mediated by the TM-responsive cis-regulatory element. Conversely, Atf6? deficiency induced by genetic ablation or a dominant-negative form of Atf6? abolished TM stimulation of the Lmf1 promoter. In conclusion, our results indicate that Lmf1 is an unfolded protein response target gene, and Atf6? signaling is sufficient and necessary for activation of the Lmf1 promoter. Importantly, the induction of Lmf1 by ER stress appears to be a general phenomenon not restricted to lipase-expressing cells, which suggests a lipase-independent cellular role for this protein in ER homeostasis. PMID:25035425

Mao, Hui Z; Ehrhardt, Nicole; Bedoya, Candy; Gomez, Javier A; DeZwaan-McCabe, Diane; Mungrue, Imran N; Kaufman, Randal J; Rutkowski, D Thomas; Péterfy, Miklós

2014-08-29

87

THYROID HORMONE TREATED ASTROCYTES INDUCE MATURATION OF CEREBRAL CORTICAL NEURONS THROUGH MODULATION OF PROTEOGLYCAN LEVELS  

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Full Text Available Proper brain neuronal circuitry formation and synapse development is dependent on specific cues, either genetic or epigenetic, provided by the surrounding neural environment. Within these signals, thyroid hormones (T3 and T4 play crucial role in several steps of brain morphogenesis including proliferation of progenitor cells, neuronal differentiation, maturation, migration, and synapse formation. The lack of thyroid hormones during childhood is associated with several impair neuronal connections, cognitive deficits, and mental disorders. Many of the thyroid hormones effects are mediated by astrocytes, although the mechanisms underlying these events are still unknown. In this work, we investigated the effect of 3, 5, 3’-triiodothyronine-treated (T3-treated astrocytes on cerebral cortex neuronal differentiation. Culture of neural progenitors from embryonic cerebral cortex mice onto T3-treated astrocyte monolayers yielded an increment in neuronal population, followed by enhancement of neuronal maturation, arborization and neurite outgrowth. In addition, real time PCR assays revealed an increase in the levels of the heparan sulfate proteoglycans, Glypican 1 (GPC-1 and Syndecans 3 e 4 (SDC-3 e SDC-4, followed by a decrease in the levels of the chondroitin sulfate proteoglycan, Versican. Disruption of glycosaminoglycan chains by chondroitinase AC or heparanase III completely abolished the effects of T3-treated astrocytes on neuronal morphogenesis. Our work provides evidence that astrocytes are key mediators of T3 actions on cerebral cortex neuronal development and identified potential molecules and pathways involved in neurite extension; which might eventually contribute to a better understanding of axonal regeneration, synapse formation and neuronal circuitry recover.

FlaviaCarvalho AlcantaraGomes

2013-08-01

88

Epo-induced erythroid maturation is dependent on Plc?1 signaling.  

Science.gov (United States)

Erythropoiesis is a tightly regulated process. Development of red blood cells occurs through differentiation of hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs) into more committed progenitors and finally into erythrocytes. Binding of erythropoietin (Epo) to its receptor (EpoR) is required for erythropoiesis as it promotes survival and late maturation of erythroid progenitors. In vivo and in vitro studies have highlighted the requirement of EpoR signaling through Janus kinase 2 (Jak2) tyrosine kinase and Stat5a/b as a central pathway. Here, we demonstrate that phospholipase C gamma 1 (Plc?1) is activated downstream of EpoR-Jak2 independently of Stat5. Plc?1-deficient pro-erythroblasts and erythroid progenitors exhibited strong impairment in differentiation and colony-forming potential. In vivo, suppression of Plc?1 in immunophenotypically defined HSCs (Lin(-)Sca1(+)KIT(+)CD48(-)CD150(+)) severely reduced erythroid development. To identify Plc?1 effector molecules involved in regulation of erythroid differentiation, we assessed changes occurring at the global transcriptional and DNA methylation level after inactivation of Plc?1. The top common downstream effector was H2afy2, which encodes for the histone variant macroH2A2 (mH2A2). Inactivation of mH2A2 expression recapitulated the effects of Plc?1 depletion on erythroid maturation. Taken together, our findings identify Plc?1 and its downstream target mH2A2, as a 'non-canonical' Epo signaling pathway essential for erythroid differentiation.Cell Death and Differentiation advance online publication, 14 November 2014; doi:10.1038/cdd.2014.186. PMID:25394487

Schnöder, T M; Arreba-Tutusaus, P; Griehl, I; Bullinger, L; Buschbeck, M; Lane, S W; Döhner, K; Plass, C; Lipka, D B; Heidel, F H; Fischer, T

2014-11-14

89

Induced Pluripotent Stem Cell-Derived Neural Cells Survive and Mature in the Nonhuman Primate Brain  

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Full Text Available The generation of induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs opens up the possibility for personalized cell therapy. Here, we show that transplanted autologous rhesus monkey iPSC-derived neural progenitors survive for up to 6 months and differentiate into neurons, astrocytes, and myelinating oligodendrocytes in the brains of MPTP-induced hemiparkinsonian rhesus monkeys with a minimal presence of inflammatory cells and reactive glia. This finding represents a significant step toward personalized regenerative therapies.

Marina E. Emborg

2013-03-01

90

Physicalism, Behaviorism and Incompleteness  

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The content of this paper contains four parts. (1) First, physicalism gives the enlightenments to behaviorism: mind-body identity, objectivity like physics and completeness of reduction. (2) Secondly, there are difficulties which behaviorist could not overcome—both the reduction of the theory and the terms are unreliable, and the strict distinction between introspective method and inter-subjective method is also untenable. (3) Thirdly, It has inevitable incompleteness in one theory no matte...

Tao Li

2011-01-01

91

Godel's Incompleteness Phenomenon - Computationally  

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We argue that Godel's completeness theorem is equivalent to completability of consistent theories, and Godel's incompleteness theorem is equivalent to the fact that this completion is not constructive, in the sense that there are some consistent and recursively enumerable theories which cannot be extended to any complete and consistent and recursively enumerable theory. Though any consistent and decidable theory can be extended to a complete and consistent and decidable theo...

Salehi, Saeed

2012-01-01

92

Whey protein processing influences formula-induced gut maturation in preterm pigs.  

Science.gov (United States)

Immaturity of the gut predisposes preterm infants to nutritional challenges potentially leading to clinical complications such as necrotizing enterocolitis. Feeding milk formulas is associated with greater risk than fresh colostrum or milk, probably due to loss of bioactive proteins (e.g., immunoglobulins, lactoferrin, insulin-like growth factor, transforming growth factor-?) during industrial processing (e.g., pasteurization, filtration, spray-drying). We hypothesized that the processing method for whey protein concentrate (WPC) would affect gut maturation in formula-fed preterm pigs used as a model for preterm infants. Fifty-five caesarean-delivered preterm pigs were distributed into 4 groups given 1 of 4 isoenergetic diets: formula containing conventional WPC (filtration, multi-pasteurization, standard spray-drying) (CF); formula containing gently treated WPC (reduced filtration and pasteurization, gentle spray-drying) (GF); formula containing minimally treated WPC (rennet precipitation, reduced filtration, heat treatment concentrations than CF and GF pigs and intestinal interleukin-8 was lower in BC pigs than in the other groups (P concentrations of intestinal claudin-4, cleaved caspase-3, and phosphorylated c-Jun than CF pigs (P < 0.05). The conventional and gently treated WPCs had similar efficacy in stimulating proliferation of porcine intestinal epithelial cells. We conclude that processing of WPC affects intestinal structure, function, and integrity when included in formulas for preterm pigs. Optimization of WPC processing technology may be important to preserve the bioactivity and nutritional value of formulas for sensitive newborns. PMID:24047702

Li, Yanqi; Østergaard, Mette V; Jiang, Pingping; Chatterton, Dereck E W; Thymann, Thomas; Kvistgaard, Anne S; Sangild, Per T

2013-12-01

93

Acute steroid-induced myopathy during lung Maturation in a patient with threatened preterm Delivery  

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Full Text Available Myopathy caused by steroids is a serious and unusual side effect related with administration of high doses of steroids. In this article we had reported a possible deleterious and serious effect on the mother health when steroids are used in the treatment of preterm childbirth. The case of a pregnant patient of 28 gestational week that consults to the emergency department with signs of preterm birth, receives tocolysis and lung maturation with Betametasona (12 mg the first day and 12 mg at 24 hours after first dose; thereafter, patient refer dizziness and blurry vision, which progress rapidly to pain in lower limbs, with weakness, being generalized then to four limbs, for acute weakness and imminence of respiratory failure the patient was transferred to the intensive care unit (ICU for respiratory vigilance, possible ventilatory support and study of this weakness. Myopathy caused by steroids is generally related with high doses of steroids. These patients, present a clinical typical picture characterized by widespread weakness of four extremities, muscular atrophy, normal CK or moderately high and myopathic changes in the EMG, the clinical presentation improves slowly. This report invite us to questioning the apparent innocuousness of steroids in pulmonary maturity and the dose of the same one, as well as to using them well in agreement to the indication of the same one keeping in mind the risk - benefit of the medicine.RESUMENLa miopatía causada por esteroides es un efecto secundario grave muy poco frecuente asociado a la administración de dosis altas de esteroides. Se reportan los posibles efectos deletéreos sobre la salud materna que puede tener la administración de corticosteroides frente al riesgo de un parto pretérmino. Se presenta el caso de una paciente gestante de 28 semanas que consulta al servicio de urgencia por infección de vías urinarias y amenaza de parto pretérmino, que recibe uteroinhibicion y maduración pulmonar con Betametasona (12 mg primer día y 12 mg a las 24 horas de primera dosis; luego de segunda dosis de maduración pulmonar la paciente refiere vértigo y visión borrosa, la cual progresó rápidamente a dolor, con pérdida de fuerza muscular en miembros inferiores, generalizándose luego a las cuatro extremidades, por lo que ante la inminencia de falla respiratoria se traslada a unidad de cuidados intermedios para vigilancia ventilatoria y estudio de miopatía.Discusión: La miopatía por esteroides, se produce con dosis altas de corticoides. Estos pacientes, presentan un cuadro clínico típico caracterizado por debilidad generalizada de las cuatro extremidades, atrofia muscular, CK normal o moderadamente elevada y cambios miopáticos en el EMG, el cuadro clínico mejora aunque de forma lenta. Conclusiones: Este reporte nos invita a cuestionar la aparente inocuidad de los esteroides en maduración pulmonar y la dosis de la misma, así como a utilizarlos bien de acuerdo a la indicación del mismo teniendo en cuenta el riesgo – beneficio del medicamento.

Rojas-Suarez José Antonio

2010-06-01

94

Virus Maturation  

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We examined virus maturation of selected non-enveloped and enveloped ssRNA viruses; retroviruses; bacteriophages and herpes virus. Processes associated with maturation in the RNA viruses range from subtle (noda and picornaviruses) to dramatic (tetraviruses and togaviruses). The elaborate assembly and maturation pathway of HIV is discussed in contrast to the less sophisticated but highly efficient processes associated with togaviruses. Bacteriophage assembly and maturation are discussed in gen...

Veesler, David; Johnson, John E.

2012-01-01

95

Semiquinone-induced maturation of Bacillus anthracis ribonucleotide reductase by a superoxide intermediate.  

Science.gov (United States)

Ribonucleotide reductases (RNRs) catalyze the conversion of ribonucleotides to deoxyribonucleotides, and represent the only de novo pathway to provide DNA building blocks. Three different classes of RNR are known, denoted I-III. Class I RNRs are heteromeric proteins built up by ? and ? subunits and are further divided into different subclasses, partly based on the metal content of the ?-subunit. In subclass Ib RNR the ?-subunit is denoted NrdF, and harbors a manganese-tyrosyl radical cofactor. The generation of this cofactor is dependent on a flavodoxin-like maturase denoted NrdI, responsible for the formation of an active oxygen species suggested to be either a superoxide or a hydroperoxide. Herein we report on the magnetic properties of the manganese-tyrosyl radical cofactor of Bacillus anthracis NrdF and the redox properties of B. anthracis NrdI. The tyrosyl radical in NrdF is stabilized through its interaction with a ferromagnetically coupled manganese dimer. Moreover, we show through a combination of redox titration and protein electrochemistry that in contrast to hitherto characterized NrdIs, the B. anthracis NrdI is stable in its semiquinone form (NrdIsq) with a difference in electrochemical potential of ?110 mV between the hydroquinone and semiquinone state. The under anaerobic conditions stable NrdIsq is fully capable of generating the oxidized, tyrosyl radical-containing form of Mn-NrdF when exposed to oxygen. This latter observation strongly supports that a superoxide radical is involved in the maturation mechanism, and contradicts the participation of a peroxide species. Additionally, EPR spectra on whole cells revealed that a significant fraction of NrdI resides in its semiquinone form in vivo, underscoring that NrdIsq is catalytically relevant. PMID:25262022

Berggren, Gustav; Duraffourg, Nicolas; Sahlin, Margareta; Sjöberg, Britt-Marie

2014-11-14

96

Effects of induced hypoprolactinemia on testicular function during gonadal maturation in the rat.  

Science.gov (United States)

We have evaluated the effects of hypoprolactinemia during gonadal maturation in the male rat. Intact 30-day-old rats were injected daily for 10 days with three different doses of bromocriptine (0.75, 1.5 or 3.0 mg/kg of body weight/day). At the end of the treatment period, the animals were sacrificed, serum was collected for prolactin (PRL), LH, and androgen measurements. Intratesticular testosterone and 5 alpha-androstanediol (androstanediol) were measured following celite column chromatography and a specific radioimmunoassay. In addition, the production of androgens by decapsulated testes and dispersed Leydig cells was also studied in vitro. Serum levels of PRL (9.4 +/- 1.9 ng/ml) were suppressed to undetectable levels in the three bromocriptine-treated groups, whereas LH levels were not altered. All three doses of bromocriptine markedly depressed serum testosterone (plus DHT) and androstanediol. Intra-testicular testosterone and androstanediol were diminished (25% and 35%, respectively, P less than 0.05) during hypoprolactinemia. Decapsulated testes and dispersed Leydig cells from bromocriptine-treated animals showed a significant reduction in the basal secretion of testosterone (plus DHT) and androstanediol, and in androgen responses to submaximal hCG stimulation. Maximal steroidogenic responses from bromocriptine-treated rats were similar to controls. The present findings show that, during puberty, bromocriptine influences testicular steroidogenesis, and these effects may be partly due to changes in PRL levels. A direct effect of this dopaminergic agonist on the male gonad cannot be completely ruled out. PMID:3988624

Suescun, M O; González, S I; Chiauzzi, V A; Calandra, R S

1985-01-01

97

Downregulation of doxorubicin-induced myocardial apoptosis accompanies postnatal heart maturation  

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Doxorubicin is a highly effective chemotherapeutic agent used for treating a wide spectrum of tumors, but its usage is limited because of its dose-dependent cardiotoxicity, especially in pediatric patients. Accumulating evidence indicates that caspase-dependent apoptosis contributes to the cardiotoxicity of doxorubicin. However, less attention has been paid to the effects of age on doxorubicin-induced apoptosis signaling in myocardium. This study focused on investigating differential apoptoti...

Shi, Jianjian; Zhang, Lumin; Zhang, Yi-wei; Surma, Michelle; Mark Payne, R.; Wei, Lei

2012-01-01

98

Tripeptidyl Peptidase II Promotes Maturation of Caspase-1 in Shigella flexneri-Induced Macrophage Apoptosis  

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The invasive enteropathogenic bacterium Shigella flexneri activates apoptosis in macrophages. Shigella-induced apoptosis requires caspase-1. We demonstrate here that tripeptidyl peptidase II (TPPII), a cytoplasmic, high-molecular-weight protease, participates in the apoptotic pathway triggered by Shigella. The TPPII inhibitor Ala-Ala-Phe-chloromethylketone (AAF-cmk) and clasto-lactacystin ?-lactone (lactacystin), an inhibitor of both TPPII and the proteasome, protected macrophages from Shige...

Hilbi, Hubert; Puro, Robyn J.; Zychlinsky, Arturo

2000-01-01

99

BMP2 Induces Osteoblast Apoptosis in a Maturation State and Noggin-dependent Manner  

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Large doses of bone morphogenetic protein 2 (BMP2) are used clinically to induce bone formation in challenging bone defects. However, complications after treatment include swelling, ectopic bone formation, and adjacent bone resorption. While BMP2 can be effective, it is important to characterize the mechanism of the deleterious effects to optimize its use. The aim of this study was to determine the effect of BMP2 on apoptosis in osteoblast lineage cells and to determine the role of the BMP in...

Hyzy, Sharon L.; Olivares-navarrete, Rene; Schwartz, Zvi; Boyan, Barbara D.

2012-01-01

100

Incomplete lemierre syndrome.  

Science.gov (United States)

An invasive Fusobacterium infection may originate from an apparent routine pharyngitis and lead to significant distant septic complications. Even without internal jugular thrombosis, the same mechanism of disease exists, and therefore, the same morbidity, prognosis, and treatments are applicable, hence the suitable term incomplete Lemierre syndrome. We present a case of invasive Fusobacterium infection that meets all criteria for Lemierre syndrome except lacking internal jugular thrombosis. A review of the literature that forms the diagnostic criteria for this syndrome and the rationale for our creating this novel term is presented. PMID:25560619

Shiber, Joseph; Fontane, Emily; Rabinowitz, Ronald; Gens, David; Habashi, Nader; Scalea, Thomas

2015-01-01

 
 
 
 
101

Role of interleukin-1 beta, interleukin-6, and TNF-alpha in intestinal maturation induced by dietary spermine in rats.  

Science.gov (United States)

In the present investigation, the authors aimed to evaluate the role of cytokines in intestinal postnatal maturation induced by dietary polyamines. Neonatal rats were administered either saline (8 mumol) orally. Spermine increased interleukin-1 beta (IL-1 beta), IL-6, and TNF-alpha plasma concentration. The maximum concentrations of IL-1 beta, IL-6, and TNF-alpha were, respectively, observed at 4, 4, and 8 h posttreatment. Intraperitoneal (i.p.) injection of IL-1 beta increased the specific activity of sucrase in whole small intestine, whereas the specific activities of maltase and lactase were significantly enhanced only in the jejunum. IL-6 elicited sucrase and increased maltase specific activity in the whole small intestine, but lactase specific activity was not affected. TNF-alpha had no effect on sucrase and maltase specific activity, but a slight augmentation of lactase specific activity was detected in the jejunum. Spermine and spermidine content in the intestine was increased by i.p. injection of IL-1 beta and IL-6. Corticosterone secretion was elevated by single i.p. injection of IL-1 beta, IL-6, or TNF-alpha. These findings suggest that spermine could induce postnatal intestinal development and corticosterone secretion through a cytokine-dependent mechanism. PMID:9225134

Kaouass, M; Deloyer, P; Gouders, I; Peulen, O; Dandrifosse, G

1997-04-01

102

5-Azacytidine induces early stage apoptosis and promotes in vitro maturation by changing chromosomal construction in murine oocytes.  

Science.gov (United States)

As an anticancer drug, 5-azacytidine (5-AzaC) has been widely used to treat various cancers. To investigate the effect of 5-AzaC on mouse oocytes cultured in vitro, we have performed morphological and molecular biology studies to examine the behavior of chromosomes and oocyte development. In 5-AzaC-treated oocytes, chromosomes were decondensed and unstable. The mRNA levels of Caspase3, Caspase8, and Caspase9 increased with the occurrence of early stage apoptosis in oocytes following 5-AzaC treatment. Furthermore, the mRNA levels of Gdf9 and Bmp15 also increased with the corresponding morphological changes in 5-AzaC-treated oocytes. In conclusion, 5-AzaC not only induced early apoptosis through both extrinsic and intrinsic pathways, but also had a positive effect on the developmental competence of mouse oocytes during in vitro maturation. These effects may be due to changes in chromosomal construction induced by DNA hypomethylation. PMID:23395740

Zhao, F Y; Shao, C P; Li, Y; Ma, W Y; Tian, N; Zheng, J H

2013-06-01

103

Inhaled nitric oxide alleviates hyperoxia suppressed phosphatidylcholine synthesis in endotoxin-induced injury in mature rat lungs  

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Full Text Available Abstract Background We investigated efficacy of inhaled nitric oxide (NO in modulation of metabolism of phosphatidylcholine (PC of pulmonary surfactant and in anti-inflammatory mechanism of mature lungs with inflammatory injury. Methods Healthy adult rats were divided into a group of lung inflammation induced by i.v. lipopolysaccharides (LPS or a normal control (C for 24 h, and then exposed to: room air (Air, 95% oxygen (O, NO (20 parts per million, NO, both O and NO (ONO as subgroups, whereas [3H]-choline was injected i.v. for incorporation into PC of the lungs which were processed subsequently at 10 min, 4, 8, 12 and 24 h, respectively, for measurement of PC synthesis and proinflammatory cytokine production. Results LPS-NO subgroup had the lowest level of labeled PC in total phospholipids and disaturated PC in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid and lung tissue (decreased by 46–59%, along with the lowest activity of cytidine triphosphate: phosphocholine cytidylyltransferase (-14–18% in the lungs, compared to all other subgroups at 4 h (p Conclusion In LPS-induced lung inflammation in association with hyperoxia, depressed PC synthesis and enhanced proinflammatory cytokine production may be alleviated by iNO. NO alone only transiently suppressed the PC synthesis as a result of lower activity of cytidylyltransferase.

Huang Shibing

2006-01-01

104

Cross-linking of cell surface ganglioside GM1 induces the selective apoptosis of mature CD8+ T lymphocytes.  

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Gangliosides are glycosphingolipids found ubiquitously on the surface of mammalian cells. They contain a ceramide tail that is inserted into the membrane and exposed carbohydrate and sialic acid moieties. The non-toxic B subunit oligomer (EtxB) of Escherichia coli heat-labile enterotoxin (Etx) is a potent immunogen in vivo and has profound modulatory effects on EtxB-primed lymphocytes in vitro, properties which are dependent on its ability to bind to GM1 ganglioside receptors. Here, it is shown that cross-linking GM1 by EtxB causes a differential effect on mature CD4(+) and CD8(+) T cells from lymph node cultures proliferating in response to an unrelated antigen, ovalbumin. Addition of EtxB to such cultures led to the complete depletion of CD8(+) T cells compared with enhanced activation of CD4(+) cells [as measured by expression of CD25 (IL-2Ralpha)]. By contrast, addition of a mutant EtxB, EtxB(G33D), which does not bind to GM1, failed to trigger CD8(+) T cell depletion. When EtxB was added to isolated non-immune CD8(+) lymphocytes rapid (12-18 h) alterations in nuclear morphology and the appearance of sub-G0/G1 levels of DNA were induced; properties which are characteristic of cells undergoing apoptosis. EtxB(G33D) failed to trigger apoptosis, indicating that the induction of the apoptotic signal was dependent on the binding of GM1. These findings provide an insight into the potent immunogenicity and immunomodulatory properties of E. coli enterotoxins as well as heralding a novel method for the selective induction of apoptosis in mature CD8(+) T lymphocytes. PMID:8671661

Nashar, T O; Williams, N A; Hirst, T R; Nahar, T O

1996-05-01

105

Motoneurons derived from induced pluripotent stem cells develop mature phenotypes typical of endogenous spinal motoneurons.  

Science.gov (United States)

Induced pluripotent cell-derived motoneurons (iPSCMNs) are sought for use in cell replacement therapies and treatment strategies for motoneuron diseases such as amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS). However, much remains unknown about the physiological properties of iPSCMNs and how they compare with endogenous spinal motoneurons or embryonic stem cell-derived motoneurons (ESCMNs). In the present study, we first used a proteomic approach and compared protein expression profiles between iPSCMNs and ESCMNs to show that ALS. PMID:25609642

Toma, Jeremy S; Shettar, Basavaraj C; Chipman, Peter H; Pinto, Devanand M; Borowska, Joanna P; Ichida, Justin K; Fawcett, James P; Zhang, Ying; Eggan, Kevin; Rafuse, Victor F

2015-01-21

106

Microinjection of pp60v-src into Xenopus oocytes increases phosphorylation of ribosomal protein S6 and accelerates the rate of progesterone-induced meiotic maturation.  

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Microinjection of purified pp60v-src into Xenopus oocytes caused the phosphorylation of ribosomal protein S6 on serine residues and also increased total protein phosphorylation, with almost a two-fold increase in the percentage of phosphotyrosine present. In addition, pp60v-src accelerated the time course of progesterone-induced oocyte maturation, suggesting that the biochemical pathway influenced by pp60v-src is related to that induced by progesterone.

Spivack, J. G.; Erikson, R. L.; Maller, J. L.

1984-01-01

107

Cytokine maturation followed by CD40L mRNA electroporation results in a clinically relevant dendritic cell product capable of inducing a potent proinflammatory CTL response.  

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Dendritic cells (DC) for the immunotherapy of cancer and infectious disease require the appropriate maturation and activation signals to effectively present antigen to drive a proinflammatory response. Here we present a comparison of 4 different maturation protocols for antigen-encoded mRNA electroporated DC. Two protocols rely on cytokine-induced maturation given either preelectroporation or postelectroporation. In addition to the cytokine treatment, 2 further maturation protocols use coelectroporation of CD40L mRNA, with antigen-encoding RNA, to deliver CD40 signals. There were no significant differences in expression of costimulatory molecules such as CD80, CD83, and CD86 or the levels of expression of major histocompatibility complexes. However, results indicate that delivery of an inflammatory signal that includes interferon-gamma before the CD40 signal results in high levels of expression of interleukin-12 that was not seen in the absence of CD40L mRNA. All 4 preparations could induce expansion of primary MART-1-specific CD8+ T cells from healthy donors in vitro, but only the 2 processes receiving CD40L could induce interferon-gamma expression by those responder cells. Only DC electroporated with CD40L RNA after delivery of the inflammatory signal (PME-CD40L DC), could drive the long-term expansion of MART-1-reactive cells that displayed a CD28+/CD45RA- effector/memory phenotype with strong cytolytic activity. PMID:18779746

Calderhead, David M; DeBenedette, Mark A; Ketteringham, Helen; Gamble, Alicia H; Horvatinovich, Joe M; Tcherepanova, Irina Y; Nicolette, Charles A; Healey, Don G

2008-10-01

108

The Icsbp locus is a common proviral insertion site in mature B-cell lymphomas/plasmacytomas induced by exogenous murine leukemia virus  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

ICSBP (interferon consensus sequence binding protein)/IRF8 (interferon regulatory factor 8) is an interferon gamma-inducible transcription factor expressed predominantly in hematopoietic cells, and down-regulation of this factor has been observed in chronic myelogenous leukemia and acute myeloid leukemia in man. By screening about 1200 murine leukemia virus (MLV)-induced lymphomas, we found proviral insertions at the Icsbp locus in 14 tumors, 13 of which were mature B-cell lymphomas or plasmacytomas. Only one was a T-cell lymphoma, although such tumors constituted about half of the samples screened. This indicates that the Icsbp locus can play a specific role in the development of mature B-lineage malignancies. Two proviral insertions in the last Icsbp exon were found to act by a poly(A)-insertion mechanism. The remaining insertions were found within or outside Icsbp. Since our results showed expression of Icsbp RNA and protein in all end-stage tumor samples, a simple tumor suppressor function of ICSBP is not likely. Interestingly, proviral insertions at Icsbp have not been reported from previous extensive screenings of mature B-cell lymphomas induced by endogenous MLVs. We propose that ICSBP might be involved in an early modulation of an immune response to exogenous MLVs that might also play a role in proliferation of the mature B-cell lymphomas

109

Physicalism, Behaviorism and Incompleteness  

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Full Text Available The content of this paper contains four parts. (1 First, physicalism gives the enlightenments to behaviorism: mind-body identity, objectivity like physics and completeness of reduction. (2 Secondly, there are difficulties which behaviorist could not overcome—both the reduction of the theory and the terms are unreliable, and the strict distinction between introspective method and inter-subjective method is also untenable. (3 Thirdly, It has inevitable incompleteness in one theory no matter what it claims due to the limitations of human cognition. (4 Finally, the author concludes that we should treat various theories in a "both this and that" but "either this or that" way. Therefore, we should admit the contribution of behaviorism and its model philosophy—physicalism, although they has failed in seeking for completeness.

Tao Li

2011-04-01

110

Protein-induced changes during the maturation process of human dendritic cells: A 2-D DIGE approach  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Dendritic cells (DCs) are unique antigen presenting cells, which upon maturation change from a specialized antigen-capturing cell towards a professional antigen presenting cells. In this study, a 2-D DIGE analysis of immature and mature DCs was performed, to identify proteins changing in expression upon maturation. The protein expression profile of immature and mature DCs, derived from CD14+ peripheral blood monocytes was investigated using two pH ranges (pH 4-7 and 6-9) (n = 4). Ninety one differentially expressed spots (p

Ferreira, Gb; Overbergh, L

2008-01-01

111

Induction of a Citrus gene highly homologous to plant and yeast thi genes involved in thiamine biosynthesis during natural and ethylene-induced fruit maturation.  

Science.gov (United States)

Maturing citrus fruit undergo pigment changes which can be enhanced by exogenous ethylene. In order to identify genes induced by ethylene in citrus fruit peel, we cloned the gene c-thi1. mRNA corresponding to c-thi1 increased gradually in the peel during natural fruit maturation and in response to ethylene. GA3 pretreatment reduced the inductive effect of ethylene. Levels of c-thi1 increased also in juice sacs but the effect of ethylene was much less prominent. c-thi1 is homologous to yeast and plant genes encoding for an enzyme belonging to the pathway of thiamine biosynthesis. The data suggest that thiamine is involved in citrus fruit maturation. PMID:9349287

Jacob-Wilk, D; Goldschmidt, E E; Riov, J; Sadka, A; Holland, D

1997-11-01

112

Incomplete families child : competence peculiarity  

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The empiric research of education and competence peculiarity, took place in Vilnius, Zarasai and Shalchininkai cities between 5—7 years old children from complete and incomplete families. 155 children from incomplete families and 247 children from complete families took part in the research. The aim of the research was to find out whether children from incomplete families competence abilities level differs from the children with complete family. Also was looking forward to find out how the ...

Glebuviene?, Vitolda Sofija; C?iumakova, Violeta

2005-01-01

113

Analysis of visible mutations induced by X-rays and ethylmethanesulfonate in mature spermatozoa of rosophila melanogaster  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The spectrum of recessive visible mutations in the chromosome 2 induced by X-rays and ethylmethanesulphonate (EMS) in mature spermatazoa Drosophila melanogaster has been studied. It has been found that under the effect of both mutants in the line mei-9sup(LI) all 5 analyzed genes mutate, in the line D-32 - only 4. In case of comparison of mutation frequencies of the same gene in two different lines as a result of ethylmethanesulfonate treatment it has been found that mei-9sup(LI) mutation frequency of j, pr, cn genes for certain differs from that in the line D-32, for b, vg genes no reliable differences have been found. In the course of X-ray treatment the above differences have been revealed only for gene b. In the line D-32 mutation frequency of b, vg genes differs from control (in the course of EMS treatment) and j, pr, vg genes (under X-ray effect); in the line mei-9sup(LI)-mutation frequency of all 5 genes (under X-ray effect) and 4 out of 5 genes (in case of EMS treatment)

114

Metabolomic changes in follicular fluid induced by soy isoflavones administered to rats from weaning until sexual maturity  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Female Wistar rats at 21 days of age were treated with one of three concentrations of soy isoflavones (SIF) (50, 100 or 200 mg/kg body weight, orally, once per day) from weaning until sexual maturity (3 months) in order to evaluate the influence of SIF on ovarian follicle development. After treatment, the serum sex hormone levels and enumeration of ovarian follicles of the ovary were measured. The metabolic profile of follicular fluid was determined using HPLC-MS. Principal component analysis (PCA) and partial least-squares-discriminant analysis (PLS-DA) was used to identify differences in metabolites and reveal useful toxic biomarkers. The results indicated that modest doses of SIF affect ovarian follicle development, as demonstrated by decreased serum estradiol levels and increases in both ovarian follicle atresia and corpora lutea number in the ovary. SIF treatment-related metabolic alterations in follicular fluid were also found in the PCA and PLS-DA models. The 24 most significantly altered metabolites were identified, including primary sex hormones, amino acids, fatty acids and metabolites involved in energy metabolism. These findings may indicate that soy isoflavones affect ovarian follicle development by inducing metabolomic variations in the follicular fluid. - Highlights: ? Modest doses of soy isoflavones (SIF) do affect ovarian follicle development. ? SIF treatment-related metabolic alterations in follicular fluid were found. ? The 24 most significantly altered metabolites were identified.

Wang, Wenxiang [Department of Nutrition and Health Care, School of Public Health, Fujian Medical University, Fuzhou, Fujian (China); Zhang, Wenchang, E-mail: wenchang2002@sina.com [Department of Occupational and Environmental Health, School of Public Health, Fujian Medical University, Fuzhou, Fujian (China); Liu, Jin [Department of Occupational and Environmental Health, School of Public Health, Fujian Medical University, Fuzhou, Fujian (China); Sun, Yan [Center for Reproductive Medicine, Teaching Hospital of Fujian Medical University, Fujian Maternity and Child Health Hospital, Fuzhou, Fujian (China); Li, Yuchen; Li, Hong; Xiao, Shihua; Shen, Xiaohua [Department of Occupational and Environmental Health, School of Public Health, Fujian Medical University, Fuzhou, Fujian (China)

2013-06-15

115

Metabolomic changes in follicular fluid induced by soy isoflavones administered to rats from weaning until sexual maturity  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Female Wistar rats at 21 days of age were treated with one of three concentrations of soy isoflavones (SIF) (50, 100 or 200 mg/kg body weight, orally, once per day) from weaning until sexual maturity (3 months) in order to evaluate the influence of SIF on ovarian follicle development. After treatment, the serum sex hormone levels and enumeration of ovarian follicles of the ovary were measured. The metabolic profile of follicular fluid was determined using HPLC-MS. Principal component analysis (PCA) and partial least-squares-discriminant analysis (PLS-DA) was used to identify differences in metabolites and reveal useful toxic biomarkers. The results indicated that modest doses of SIF affect ovarian follicle development, as demonstrated by decreased serum estradiol levels and increases in both ovarian follicle atresia and corpora lutea number in the ovary. SIF treatment-related metabolic alterations in follicular fluid were also found in the PCA and PLS-DA models. The 24 most significantly altered metabolites were identified, including primary sex hormones, amino acids, fatty acids and metabolites involved in energy metabolism. These findings may indicate that soy isoflavones affect ovarian follicle development by inducing metabolomic variations in the follicular fluid. - Highlights: ? Modest doses of soy isoflavones (SIF) do affect ovarian follicle development. ? SIF treatment-related metabolic alterations in follicular fluid were found. ? The 24 most significantly altered metabolites were identified

116

Disorder induced modification of reflection and transmission spectra of a two-dimensional photonic crystal with an incomplete band-gap  

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Transmission and reflection of light in disordered two-dimensional photonic crystals with an incomplete photonic band-gap have been modelled for various levels of disorder. It is found that ballistic and scattered light display different behaviours as a function of the disorder parameter. For ballistic light, the dependence of the transmission coefficient on the disorder parameter exhibits a threshold-like behaviour, whereas the transmission of scattered light increases rapidly for small disorder. Unlike for photonic crystals with a complete band-gap, the minimum of the transmission for scattered light does not coincide with the centre of the photonic band-gap, and Fabry-Perot-type oscillations can be seen within the photonic band-gap.

Beggs, D M [Department of Physics, University of Durham, South Road, Durham DH1 3LE (United Kingdom); Kaliteevski, M A [Department of Physics, University of Durham, South Road, Durham DH1 3LE (United Kingdom); Brand, S [Department of Physics, University of Durham, South Road, Durham DH1 3LE (United Kingdom); Abram, R A [Department of Physics, University of Durham, South Road, Durham DH1 3LE (United Kingdom); Cassagne, D [Groupe d' Etude des Semiconducteurs CC074, Universite Montpellier II, Place Bataillon, 34095 Montpellier Cedex 05 (France); Albert, J P [Groupe d' Etude des Semiconducteurs CC074, Universite Montpellier II, Place Bataillon, 34095 Montpellier Cedex 05 (France)

2005-07-06

117

Nicotine-induced Disturbances of Meiotic Maturation in Cultured Mouse Oocytes: Alterations of Spindle Integrity and Chromosome Alignment  

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Full Text Available Abstract We investigated whether nicotine exposure in vitro of mouse oocytes affects spindle and chromosome function during meiotic maturation (M-I and M-II. Oocytes in germinal vesicle (GV stage were cultured in nicotine for 8 h or for 16 h, to assess effects in M-I and in metaphase II (M-II. The latter culture setting used the three protocols: 8 h nicotine then 8 h medium (8N + 8M; 16 h nicotine (16N; 8 h medium then 8 h nicotine (8M + 8N. Non-toxic concentrations of nicotine at 1.0, 2.5, 5.0 and 10.0 mmol/L were used. Spindle-chromosome configurations were analyzed with wide-field optical sectioning microscopy. In 8 h cultures, nicotine exposure resulted in dose-related increased proportions of M-I oocytes with defective spindle-chromosome configurations. A dose-related delayed entry into anaphase I was also detected. In 16 h cultures, nicotine exposure for the first 8 h (8N + 8M, or for 16 h (16N, resulted in dose- and time-related increased proportions of oocytes arrested in M-I (10 mmol/L; 8 h: 53.2%, controls 9.6%; 16 h: 87.6%, controls 8.5%. Defects in M-I spindles and chromosomes caused M-I arrest leading to dose-related decreased proportions of oocytes that reached metaphase-II (10 mmol/L 8 h: 46.8%, controls 90.4%;16 h: 12.4%, controls 91.5%. A delayed anaphase-I affected the normal timing of M-II, leading to abnormal oocytes with dispersed chromosomes, or with double spindles and no polar body. Nicotine exposure during the second 8 h (8M + 8N resulted in dose-related, increased proportions of M-II oocytes with defective spindles and chromosomes (10 mmol/L: 42.9%, controls 2.0%. Nicotine has no adverse effects on GV break down, but induces spindle and chromosome defects compromising oocyte meiotic maturation and development.

Zenzes Maria

2004-09-01

118

Influenza Virus–induced Dendritic Cell Maturation Is Associated with the Induction of Strong T Cell Immunity to a Coadministered, Normally Nonimmunogenic Protein  

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We evaluated the proposal that during microbial infection, dendritic cells (DCs) undergo maturation and present a mixture of peptides derived from the microbe as well as harmless environmental antigens. Mice were exposed to an aerosol of endotoxin free ovalbumin (OVA) in the absence or presence of influenza virus. In its absence, OVA failed to induce B and T cell responses and even tolerized, but with influenza, OVA-specific antibodies and CD8+ cytolytic T lymphocytes developed. With or witho...

Brimnes, Marie K.; Bonifaz, Laura; Steinman, Ralph M.; Moran, Thomas M.

2003-01-01

119

Effects of repeated anesthesia by thiopental in neonatal period on PTZ-induced convulsions and pain responses during maturation in rats  

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Full Text Available Introduction: General anesthetics during critical periods of brain development may cause some seriousmalformations or side effects. Anesthetic drugs can involve in the brain development and synaptogenesis atthe critical period of development. There are some controversy with regards the effects of(neurodegenerative or neuroprotective barbiturates on brain. The aim of the present study was toinvestigate the possible relation between repeated induced thiopental (a GABAA agonist anesthesia at thepostnatal period and pentylentetrazol-induced convulsions and pain responses in adult in the Wistar rats.Materials and methods: 40 male neonate rats were divided into experimental and sham groups. Theexperimental group (n=20 was deeply anesthetized with thiopental (30 mg/kg daily during 10 to 20-daysof post- natal period and physiologic serum was used for sham animals. After maturation of male rats, thePTZ-induced seizures were induced by daily interapritoneally injection of PTZ (45 mg/kg, and thelatency of the appearance of generalized epileptiform behaviors was recorded. Pain responses were alsoevaluated using tail-flick and formalin tests.Results: No significant differences were found in the lantency of the appearance of behaviouralconvulsions and pain sensitivity between experimental and sham groups.Conclusion: Our findings indicate that prior exposure to thiopental during nenonatal stage has no effectson PTZ-induced seizures and also pain responses after maturation. Developmental compensatorymechanisms may protect the brian against the possible damage that induced by repeated thipopental duringneonatal period.

Fatemeh Faghih Majidi

2012-06-01

120

Eco-genetic model to explore fishing-induced ecological and evolutionary effects on growth and maturation schedules  

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Eco-genetic individual-based models involve tracking the ecological dynamics of simulated individual organisms that are in part characterized by heritable parameters. We developed an eco-genetic individual-based model to explore ecological and evolutionary interactions of fish growth and maturation schedules. Our model is flexible and allows for exploration of the effects of heritable growth rates (based on von Bertalanffy and biphasic growth patterns), heritable maturation schedules (based o...

Wang, Hui-yu; Ho?o?k, Tomas O.

2009-01-01

 
 
 
 
121

Cortical changes in starfish (Asterina pectinifera) oocytes during 1-methyladenine-induced maturation and fertilisation/activation.  

Science.gov (United States)

Maturation of the starfish oocyte cortex to produce an effective cortical granule reaction and fertilisation envelope is believed to develop in three phases: (1) pre-methyladenine (1-MA) stimulation; (2) post-1-MA stimulation, pregerminal vesicle breakdown; and (3) post-germinal vesicle breakdown. The present study was initiated to identify what each of these phases may encompass, specifically with respect to structures associated with the oocyte cortex, including cortical granules, microvilli and vitelline layer. 1-MA treatment brought about an orientation of cortical granules such that they became positioned perpendicular to the oocyte surface, and an approximately 4-fold decrease in microvillar length. A-23187 activation of immature oocytes treated with (10 min; pregerminal vesicle breakdown) or without 1-MA resulted in a reduction in cortical granule number of 21% and 41%, respectively (mature oocytes underwent a 96% reduction in cortical granules). Elevation of the fertilisation envelope in both cases was significantly retarded compared with activated mature oocytes. In activated mature oocytes, the vitelline layer elevated 20.0 +/- 5.4 mu m from the egg's surface, whereas in immature oocytes treated with just A-23187 or with 1-MA (10 min) and A-23187, it lifted 0.35 +/- 0.1 and 0.17 +/- 0.04 mu m, respectively. The fertilisation envelopes of activated (or fertilised) immature oocytes also differed morphologically from those of mature oocytes. In activated, immature oocytes, the fertilisation envelope was not uniform in its thickness and possessed thick and thin regions as well as fenestrations. Additionally, it lacked a complete electron-dense stratum that characterised the fertilisation envelopes of mature oocytes. The nascent perivitelline space of immature oocytes was also distinguished by the presence of numerous vesicles which appeared to be derived from microvilli. Differences in the morphology of cortices from activated (fertilised) and non-activated, immature and mature oocytes substantiate previous investigations demonstrating three phases of cortical maturation, and are consistent with physiological changes that occur during oocyte maturation, involving ionic conductance of the plasma membrane, establishment of slow and fast blocks to polyspermy and elevation of a fertilisation envelope. PMID:8903792

Longo, F J; Woerner, M; Chiba, K; Hoshi, M

1995-08-01

122

Rough Approximations for Incomplete Information*  

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Full Text Available Rough set under incomplete information has been extensively studied. Based on valued tolerance relation for incomplete information system, several approaches were presented to dealing with the attribute reductions and rule extraction. We point out some drawbacks in the existing papers for valued tolerance relation based rough approximations and propose a new kind of rough approximation operators which is a generalization of Pawlak approximation operators for complete information system. Some basic properties of the approximation operators are investigated.

Jun-Fang LUO

2014-12-01

123

Boosting high-intensity focused ultrasound-induced anti-tumor immunity using a sparse-scan strategy that can more effectively promote dendritic cell maturation  

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Full Text Available Abstract Background The conventional treatment protocol in high-intensity focused ultrasound (HIFU therapy utilizes a dense-scan strategy to produce closely packed thermal lesions aiming at eradicating as much tumor mass as possible. However, this strategy is not most effective in terms of inducing a systemic anti-tumor immunity so that it cannot provide efficient micro-metastatic control and long-term tumor resistance. We have previously provided evidence that HIFU may enhance systemic anti-tumor immunity by in situ activation of dendritic cells (DCs inside HIFU-treated tumor tissue. The present study was conducted to test the feasibility of a sparse-scan strategy to boost HIFU-induced anti-tumor immune response by more effectively promoting DC maturation. Methods An experimental HIFU system was set up to perform tumor ablation experiments in subcutaneous implanted MC-38 and B16 tumor with dense- or sparse-scan strategy to produce closely-packed or separated thermal lesions. DCs infiltration into HIFU-treated tumor tissues was detected by immunohistochemistry and flow cytometry. DCs maturation was evaluated by IL-12/IL-10 production and CD80/CD86 expression after co-culture with tumor cells treated with different HIFU. HIFU-induced anti-tumor immune response was evaluated by detecting growth-retarding effects on distant re-challenged tumor and tumor-specific IFN-?-secreting cells in HIFU-treated mice. Results HIFU exposure raised temperature up to 80 degrees centigrade at beam focus within 4 s in experimental tumors and led to formation of a well-defined thermal lesion. The infiltrated DCs were recruited to the periphery of lesion, where the peak temperature was only 55 degrees centigrade during HIFU exposure. Tumor cells heated to 55 degrees centigrade in 4-s HIFU exposure were more effective to stimulate co-cultured DCs to mature. Sparse-scan HIFU, which can reserve 55 degrees-heated tumor cells surrounding the separated lesions, elicited an enhanced anti-tumor immune response than dense-scan HIFU, while their suppressive effects on the treated primary tumor were maintained at the same level. Flow cytometry analysis showed that sparse-scan HIFU was more effective than dense-scan HIFU in enhancing DC infiltration into tumor tissues and promoting their maturation in situ. Conclusion Optimizing scan strategy is a feasible way to boost HIFU-induced anti-tumor immunity by more effectively promoting DC maturation.

Zhong Pei

2010-01-01

124

Regulation of murine oocyte meiosis: evidence for a gonadotropin- induced, cAMP-dependent reduction in a maturation inhibitor  

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We have developed an assay that can detect relative changes in the amount of a non-cAMP inhibitor of maturation present in cumulus cells (Eppig et al., 1983, Dev. Biol., 100:39-49). Using this assay in which accelerated maturation of a group of treated cumulus cell-oocyte complexes relative to untreated complexes indicates a decrease in the amount of inhibitor, results of the experiments described here suggest a possible relationship between elevation of cAMP levels and subsequent decreased a...

1984-01-01

125

Dynamic feedback circuits function as a switch for shaping a maturation-inducing steroid pulse in Drosophila  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Steroid hormones trigger the onset of sexual maturation in animals by initiating genetic response programs that are determined by steroid pulse frequency, amplitude and duration. Although steroid pulses coordinate growth and timing of maturation during development, the mechanisms generating these pulses are not known. Here we show that the ecdysone steroid pulse that drives the juvenile-adult transition in Drosophila is determined by feedback circuits in the prothoracic gland (PG), the major steroid-producing tissue of insect larvae. These circuits coordinate the activation and repression of hormone synthesis, the two key parameters determining pulse shape (amplitude and duration). We show that ecdysone has a positive-feedback effect on the PG, rapidly amplifying its own synthesis to trigger pupariation as the onset of maturation. During the prepupal stage, a negative-feedback signal ensures the decline in ecdysone levels required to produce a temporal steroid pulse that drives developmental progression to adulthood. The feedback circuits rely on a developmental switch in the expression of Broad isoforms that transcriptionally activate or silence components in the ecdysone biosynthetic pathway. Remarkably, our study shows that the same well-defined genetic program that stimulates a systemic downstream response to ecdysone is also utilized upstream to set the duration and amplitude of the ecdysone pulse. Activation of this switch-like mechanism ensures a rapid, self-limiting PG response that functions in producing steroid oscillations that can guide the decision to terminate growth and promote maturation.

MØller, Morten Erik; Danielsen, Erik Thomas

2013-01-01

126

Expression of the new P2Y-like receptor GPR17 during oligodendrocyte precursor cell maturation regulates sensitivity to ATP-induced death.  

Science.gov (United States)

The P2Y-like receptor GPR17 is expressed by adult neural progenitor cells, suggesting a role in lineage determination. Here, we characterized GPR17 expression and function in mouse cortical primary astrocytes/precursor cell cultures. GPR17 is expressed by a subpopulation of oligodendrocyte precursor cells (OPCs), but not by astrocytes. This expression pattern was also confirmed in vivo. In vitro, GPR17 expression was markedly influenced by culturing conditions. In the presence of growth factors (GFs), no significant GPR17 expression was found. When cultures were shifted to a differentiating medium, a dramatic, time-dependent increase in the number of highly branched GPR17-positive cells was observed. Under these conditions, GPR17 was induced in the totality of O4-positive immature oligodendrocytes. Instead, in cultures originally grown in the absence of GFs, GPR17 was already expressed in morphologically more mature OPCs. Shifting of these cultures to differentiating conditions induced GPR17 only in a subpopulation of O4-positive cells. Under both culture protocols, appearance of more mature CNPase- and MBP-positive cells was associated to a progressive loss of GPR17. GPR17 expression also sensitized cells to adenine nucleotide-induced cytotoxicity, whereas activation with uracil nucleotides promoted differentiation towards a more mature phenotype. We suggest that GFs may keep OPCs in a less differentiated stage by restraining GPR17 expression, and that, under permissive conditions, GPR17 contributes to OPCs differentiation. However, upon high extracellular adenine nucleotide concentrations, as during trauma and ischemia, GPR17 sensitizes cells to cytotoxicity. This double-edged sword role may be exploited to unveil new therapeutic approaches to acute and chronic brain disorders. PMID:21264945

Ceruti, Stefania; Viganò, Francesca; Boda, Enrica; Ferrario, Silvia; Magni, Giulia; Boccazzi, Marta; Rosa, Patrizia; Buffo, Annalisa; Abbracchio, Maria P

2011-03-01

127

Quantization of singular systems and incomplete motions  

CERN Document Server

The need for a mathematically rigorous quantization procedure of singular spaces and incomplete motions is pointed out in connection with quantum cosmology. We put our previous suggestion for such a procedure, based on the theory of induced representations of C*-algebras, in the light of L. Schwartz' theory of Hilbert subspaces. This turns out to account for the freedom in the induction procedure, at the same time providing a basis for generalized eigenfunction expansions pertinent to the needs of quantum cosmology. Reinforcing our previous proposal for the wave-function of the Universe, we are now able to add a concrete prescription for its calculation.

Landsman, N P

1998-01-01

128

Human Beta Defensin 3 induces maturation of human langerhans cell like dendritic cells: An antimicrobial peptide that functions as an endogenous adjuvant  

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Human beta defensins (hBDs) are antimicrobial peptides that play an important role in innate immune responses at epithelial barriers such as the skin. However, the role that hBDs play in initiating cellular immune responses that contribute to antigen-specific adaptive immunity is not well understood. Here we show that one member of the hBD family, hBD3, can induce maturation and T helper type 1 (Th1) skewing function in human Langerhans cell-like DCs (LC-DCs). Specifically, hBD3 potently indu...

Ferris, Laura K.; Mburu, Yvonne K.; Mathers, Alicia R.; Fluharty, Eric R.; Larregina, Adriana T.; Ferris, Robert L.; Falo, Louis D.

2012-01-01

129

The incorporation of myo-inositol into phosphatidylinositol derivatives is stimulated during hormone-induced meiotic maturation of amphibian oocytes  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The incorporation of myo-[3H]inositol into phosphatidylinositol and its phosphorylated derivatives was studied by microinjection of the radioactive precursor into Xenopus laevis oocytes. Induction of meiotic maturation of the oocytes by treatment with either progesterone one or insulin resulted in a significant increase in the incorporation of myo-[3H]inositol into the phospholipid fraction. This increase occurred 3-6 h after hormonal treatment, a time coincident with the start of the breakdown of the nuclear envelope, and requires protein synthesis. The effect of progesterone and insulin contrasts with the effect of acetylcholine, which acts through a muscarinic receptor causing the activation of phospholipase C, since the latter effector causes an increase in myo-[3H]inositol incorporation, which is more rapid and does not require protein synthesis. These results suggest that the meiotic maturation process is connected with changes in inositol metabolism in the amphibian oocyte

130

Sphingosine-1-phosphate induces development of functionally mature chymase-expressing human mast cells from hematopoietic progenitors  

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Mast cells (MCs) play a critical role in both acute and chronic inflammation and mature in peripheral tissues from bone marrow-derived progenitors that circulate in the blood as immature precursors. MCs developed from cord blood-derived progenitors cultured with stem cell factor (SCF) alone express intragranular tryptase (MCTs), the phenotype predominant in the lung. MC progenitors are likely to encounter the serum-borne bioactive sphingolipid metabolite, sphingosine-1-phosphate (S1P), during...

Price, Megan M.; Kapitonov, Dmitri; Allegood, Jeremy; Milstien, Sheldon; Oskeritzian, Carole A.; Spiegel, Sarah

2009-01-01

131

3-Hydroxyl-3-methylglutaryl coenzyme A (HMG-CoA) reductase inhibitor (statin)-induced 28-kDa interleukin-1? interferes with mature IL-1? signaling.  

Science.gov (United States)

Multiple clinical trials have shown that the 3-hydroxyl-3-methylglutaryl coenzyme A (HMG-CoA) reductase inhibitors known as statins have anti-inflammatory effects. However, the underlying molecular mechanism remains unclear. The proinflammatory cytokine interleukin-1? (IL-1?) is synthesized as a non-active precursor. The 31-kDa pro-IL-1? is processed into the 17-kDa active form by caspase-1-activating inflammasomes. Here, we report a novel signaling pathway induced by statins, which leads to processing of pro-IL-1? into an intermediate 28-kDa form. This statin-induced IL-1? processing is independent of caspase-1- activating inflammasomes. The 28-kDa form of IL-1? cannot activate interleukin-1 receptor-1 (IL1R1) to signal inflammatory responses. Instead, it interferes with mature IL-1? signaling through IL-1R1 and therefore may dampen inflammatory responses initiated by mature IL-1?. These results may provide new clues to explain the anti-inflammatory effects of statins. PMID:24790079

Davaro, Facundo; Forde, Sorcha D; Garfield, Mark; Jiang, Zhaozhao; Halmen, Kristen; Tamburro, Nelsy Depaula; Kurt-Jones, Evelyn; Fitzgerald, Katherine A; Golenbock, Douglas T; Wang, Donghai

2014-06-01

132

Subtoxic concentrations of allergenic haptens induce LC migration and maturation in a human organotypic skin explant culture model: a novel method for identifying potential contact allergens.  

Science.gov (United States)

The accelerated migration of Langerhans cells (LCs) out of the epidermis and up-regulation of maturation markers, upon treatment with subtoxic concentrations of chemicals, were used as the criteria to determine the potential of allergenic chemicals capable of inducing a hapten-specific delayed-type hypersensitivity reaction. Here we report the findings of a study in which seven chemicals, coded and tested in a blind fashion, were classified as contact allergens or non-allergens using the human organotypic skin explant culture (hOSEC) model. All chemicals that were identified as a contact sensitizer on decoding induced a definite decrease in the number of CD1a and HLA-DR-positive epidermal LCs in the epidermis of the skin explants, as determined by both semiquantitative immunohistochemistry and quantitative flow cytometric analysis. A significant increase in the number of CD83(+) cells was accompanied by up-regulation of activation molecules in the epidermis of hOSEC exposed specifically to contact allergens. In contrast, there were only minor alterations in epidermal LC numbers, expression of CD83 and other activation markers by LCs when the biopsies were treated with non-toxic concentrations of non-allergenic irritants and vehicles. The data suggest that an increased epidermal LC migration and maturation accompanied by increased expression of activation markers could be used as end-point determinants to screen allergens in a non-animal alternative hOSEC model. PMID:16689858

Lehé, Cynthia L; Jacobs, John J L; Hua, Chi Mei; Courtellemont, P; Elliott, Graham R; Das, Pranab K

2006-06-01

133

Nano-Stenciled RGD-Gold Patterns That Inhibit Focal Contact Maturation Induce Lamellipodia Formation in Fibroblasts  

Science.gov (United States)

Cultured fibroblasts adhere to extracellular substrates by means of cell-matrix adhesions that are assembled in a hierarchical way, thereby gaining in protein complexity and size. Here we asked how restricting the size of cell-matrix adhesions affects cell morphology and behavior. Using a nanostencil technique, culture substrates were patterned with gold squares of a width and spacing between 250 nm and 2 µm. The gold was functionalized with RGD peptide as ligand for cellular integrins, and mouse embryo fibroblasts were plated. Limiting the length of cell-matrix adhesions to 500 nm or less disturbed the maturation of vinculin-positive focal complexes into focal contacts and fibrillar adhesions, as indicated by poor recruitment of ?5-integrin. We found that on sub-micrometer patterns, fibroblasts spread extensively, but did not polarize. Instead, they formed excessive numbers of lamellipodia and a fine actin meshwork without stress fibers. Moreover, these cells showed aberrant fibronectin fibrillogenesis, and their speed of directed migration was reduced significantly compared to fibroblasts on 2 µm square patterns. Interference with RhoA/ROCK signaling eliminated the pattern-dependent differences in cell morphology. Our results indicate that manipulating the maturation of cell-matrix adhesions by nanopatterned surfaces allows to influence morphology, actin dynamics, migration and ECM assembly of adhering fibroblasts. PMID:21980465

Lutz, Roman; Pataky, Kristopher; Gadhari, Neha; Marelli, Mattia; Brugger, Juergen; Chiquet, Matthias

2011-01-01

134

Experimentally induced, synergistic late effects of a single dose of radiation and aging: significance in LKS fraction as compared with mature blood cells.  

Science.gov (United States)

The number of murine mature blood cells recovered within 6?weeks after 2-Gy whole-body irradiation at 6?weeks of age, whereas in the case of the undifferentiated hematopoietic stem/progenitor cell (HSC/HPC) compartment [cells in the lineage-negative, c-kit-positive and stem-cell-antigen-1-positive (LKS) fraction], the numerical differences between mice with and without irradiation remained more than a year, but conclusively the cells showed numerical recovery. When mice were exposed to radiation at 6?months of age, acute damages of mature blood cells were rather milder probably because of their maturation with age; but again, cells in the LKS fraction were specifically damaged, and their numerical recovery was significantly delayed probably as a result of LKS-specific cellular damages. Interestingly, in contrast to the recovery of the number of cells in the LKS fraction, their quality was not recovered, which was quantitatively assessed on the basis of oxidative-stress-related fluorescence intensity. To investigate why the recovery in the number of cells in the LKS fraction was delayed, expression levels of genes related to cellular proliferation and apoptosis of cells in the bone marrow and LKS fraction were analyzed by real-time polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). In the case of 21-month-old mice after radiation exposure, Ccnd1, PiK3r1 and Fyn were overexpressed solely in cells in the LKS fraction. Because Ccnd1and PiK3r1 upregulated by aging were further upregulated by radiation, single-dose radiation seemed to induce the acceleration of aging, which is related to the essential biological responses during aging based on a lifetime-dependent relationship between a living creature and xenobiotic materials. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. PMID:25413632

Hirabayashi, Yoko; Tsuboi, Isao; Nakachi, Kei; Kusunoki, Yoichiro; Inoue, Tohru

2015-03-01

135

Uncertainty, incompleteness, chance, and design  

CERN Document Server

The 20th century has revealed two important limitations of scientific knowledge. On the one hand, the combination of Poincar\\'e's nonlinear dynamics and Heisenberg's uncertainty principle leads to a world picture where physical reality is, in many respects, intrinsically undetermined. On the other hand, G\\"odel's incompleteness theorems reveal us the existence of mathematical truths that cannot be demonstrated. More recently, Chaitin has proved that, from the incompleteness theorems, it follows that the random character of a given mathematical sequence cannot be proved in general (it is 'undecidable'). I reflect here on the consequences derived from the indeterminacy of the future and the undecidability of randomness, concluding that the question of the presence or absence of finality in nature is fundamentally outside the scope of the scientific method.

Sols, Fernando

2013-01-01

136

Bilateral incomplete superficial palmar arch  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available A rare variation of bilateral incomplete palmar arch was observed during routine dissection of a cadaver. Ulnar arteries gave rise to two common palmar digital arteries supplying the ring and little fingers and one proper palmar digital artery, which supplied ulnar side of little finger. Radial artery gave rise to two common palmar digital arteries that supplied the remaining fingers. Right side also had a palmar carpal branch from deep palmar arch.

Lakshmiprabha R

2009-08-01

137

Incomplete information and correlated electrons  

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Although G\\"odel's incompleteness theorem made mathematician recognize that no axiomatic system could completely prove its correctness and that there is an eternal hole between our knowledge and the world, physicists so far continue to work on the approaches based on the hypothesis to completely or approximately know the systems of interest. In this paper, however, I review the recent development of a different approach, a statistical theory based upon the notion of incomple...

Wang, Qiuping A.

2002-01-01

138

An Incomplete Pentalogy of Cantrell  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Pentalogy of Cantrell is a rare entity of congenital defects involving the abdominal wall,sternum, diaphragm, pericardium and heart. The complete pentalogy and its variants havebeen described in the literature. We report a 47-day-old girl with an incomplete pentalogy ofCantrell presenting with congenital absence of the sternum, congenital heart defects, and anepigastric hernia. Two even rarer expressions of this disorder, tricuspid atresia type IIc andasymmetric kidneys, were also found. The ...

David Mishaly; Amihay Shinfeld; Shi-Min Yuan

2008-01-01

139

Transition Complexity of Incomplete DFAs  

CERN Document Server

In this paper, we consider the transition complexity of regular languages based on the incomplete deterministic finite automata. A number of results on Boolean operations have been obtained. It is shown that the transition complexity results for union and complementation are very different from the state complexity results for the same operations. However, for intersection, the transition complexity result is similar to that of state complexity.

Gao, Yuan; Yu, Sheng; 10.4204/EPTCS.31.12

2010-01-01

140

Melatonin Induced Changes in Specific Growth Rate, Gonadal Maturity, Lipid and Protein Production in Nile Tilapia Oreochromis niloticus (Linnaeus 1758).  

Science.gov (United States)

We have investigated the effect of melatonin (MLT) on specific growth rate (SGR% day(-1)), condition factor (k), gonado-somatic-index (GSI), histological structures of gonads, serum as well as gonadal protein and lipid in Nile tilapia Oreochromis niloticus. MLT treatment in the dose of 25 ?g/L for three weeks reduced SGR% day(-1) (0.9±0.04) as compared to control (1.23±0.026). The GSI value was significantly (pfish was more or less similar. It is concluded that exogenous melatonin suppressed SGR% day(-1), GSI, ovarian cellular activity, protein and lipid biosynthesis, in tilapia suggesting that melatonin is useful in manipulating the gonadal maturity in fishes. PMID:25049476

Singh, Ruchi; Singh, A K; Tripathi, Madhu

2012-01-01

 
 
 
 
141

MicroRNA Induced Cardiac Reprogramming In Vivo: Evidence for Mature Cardiac Myocytes and Improved Cardiac Function.  

Science.gov (United States)

Rationale: A major goal for the treatment of heart tissue damaged by cardiac injury is to develop strategies for restoring healthy heart muscle through the regeneration and repair of damaged myocardium. We recently demonstrated that administration of a specific combination of micro-RNAs (miR combo) into the infarcted myocardium leads to direct in vivo reprogramming of non-cardiac myocytes to cardiac myocytes. However, the biologic and functional consequences of such reprogramming are not yet known. Objective: The aim of this study was to determine whether non-cardiac myocytes directly reprogrammed using miRNAs in vivo develop into mature functional cardiac myocytes in situ, and whether reprogramming leads to improvement of cardiac function. Methods and Results: We subjected FSP1-Cre mice/tdTomato mice to cardiac injury by permanent ligation of the left anterior descending coronary artery (LAD) and injected lentiviruses encoding miR combo or a control nontargeting miRNA. miR combo significantly increased the number of reprogramming events in vivo. Five-to-six weeks following injury, morphological and physiological properties of tdTomato(-) and tdTomato(+) cardiac myocyte-like cells were analyzed ex vivo. tdTomato(+) cells expressed cardiac myocyte markers, sarcomeric organization, excitation-contraction coupling, and action potentials characteristic of mature ventricular cardiac myocytes (tdTomato(-) cells). Reprogramming was associated with improvement of cardiac function, as analyzed by serial echocardiography. There was a time delayed and progressive improvement in fractional shortening and other measures of ventricular function, indicating that miR combo promotes functional recovery of damaged myocardium. Conclusions: The findings from this study further validate the potential utility of miRNA-mediated reprogramming as a therapeutic approach to promote cardiac regeneration following myocardial injury. PMID:25351576

Jayawardena, Tilanthi M; Finch, Elizabeth A; Zhang, Lunan; Zhang, Hengtao; Hodgkinson, Conrad; Pratt, Richard E; Rosenberg, Paul B; Mirotsou, Maria; Dzau, Victor J

2014-10-28

142

Quantitative trait loci associated with tipburn, heat stress-induced physiological disorders, and maturity traits in crisphead lettuce.  

Science.gov (United States)

Crisphead lettuce (Lactuca sativa L.) crops exhibit several economically important, physiological disorders when grown in high temperature conditions. These include tipburn, rib discoloration, premature bolting, ribbiness, and internal rib cracking. We evaluated seven physiological disorders and three agronomic traits segregating in a recombinant inbred line (RIL) population consisting of 152 F7 RILs derived from an intra-specific cross between two crisphead cultivars, L. sativa cv. Emperor x L. sativa cv. El Dorado; evaluations were carried out at each of two parental maturities in one planting and at one intermediate maturity in a second planting in each of 2 years for a total of six evaluations. A genetic map was developed using 449 polymorphic SNP markers; it comprises 807 cM in 20 linkage groups that covered 51 % of the nine lettuce chromosomes. Composite interval mapping revealed a total of 36 significant QTLs for eight out of the ten traits evaluated. Significant QTLs were distributed in 11 linkage groups on seven of the chromosomes and accounted for up to 83 % of the phenotypic variation observed. The three largest QTLs for rib discoloration, which accounted individually for 7-21 % of the variation, were clustered with stem length, two with ribbiness and one with head firmness. Three major clusters of QTLs revealed pleiotropic effects or tight linkage between tipburn incidence and severity, head type, stem length, head firmness and ribbiness. One QTL, qTPB5.2, was detected in multiple trials and described 38-70 % of the variation in tipburn incidence. qTPB5.2 is, therefore, a useful candidate gene for breeding for tipburn resistance using marker-assisted selection. PMID:24078012

Jenni, Sylvie; Truco, Maria José; Michelmore, Richard W

2013-09-28

143

229 short-term exposure of mature oocytes to a nitric oxide donor for inducing oxidative stress resistance on in vitro-produced bovine embryos.  

Science.gov (United States)

Recent studies have shown that short-term exposure of oocytes to stressors such as hydrostatic pressure, osmotic stress, and oxidative stress might induce stress tolerance in embryos. In this research we studied the effect of short-term exposure of bovine in vitro-matured cumulus-oocyte complexes (COC) with a nitric oxide donor (SNP) on IVF, embryo development, embryo quality, and relative gene expression related to cell redox state regulation. The COC were selected and matured in TCM 199 supplemented with 10% inactivated FBS, 6mgmL(-1) of LH, 6mgmL(-1) of FSH, 1mgmL(-1) of oestradiol, and 0.2mmol of pyruvate and then incubated for 22 to 24h at 38.5°C in 5% CO2 in a humidified atmosphere (n=12). Before IVF, mature COC were incubated during 1h with different concentration of sodium nitroprusside, SNP (control without SNP, 10(-6)M, 10(-5)M, and 10(-4)M SNP) in maturation media at 38.5°C and 5% CO2 in a humidified atmosphere. For IVF procedure, oocytes of each treatment and sperm of one bull were co-incubated for 18 to 20h at 38.5°C and 5% CO2. Presumptive zygotes were separately cultured until Day 7 under mineral oil at 38.5°C and 5% CO2, 5%O2, and 90% N2 in a humidified atmosphere. Embryo quality was analysed by staining with CDX2 antibody for trophectoderm cells and compared with total embryo cells stained with Hoechst 33342. Relative gene expression for each treatment were evaluated after RNA extraction and cDNA synthesis in Stratagene MX 3000P real-time equipment with Agilent qPCR software MX pro 4.1 version. Differences between experimental groups (n=12) were measured using a one-way ANOVA test in the STATGRAPHICS plus 5.1 version software. PICM: TE). No significant differences in gene expression after SNP exposure was observed (iNOS, eNOS, nNOS, PRDX5, HSP70, HSP90, HIF1A, BCL2A). Oocytes incubated with a high concentration of SNP showed lower cleavage and blastocyst rates, showing that this treatment was deleterious for in vitro embryo production in bovine. However, there were no significant differences on embryo quality assessed by ICM:TE ratio and/or in gene expression pattern of 7-day cultured expanded blastocysts. PMID:25472277

Cheuquemán, C; Loren, P; Arias, M; Risopatrón, J; Felmer, R; Alvarez, J; Mogas, T; Sánchez, R

2014-12-01

144

Influence of a mouse female genotype on the incidence of dominant lethal mutations induced by ionizing radiation in mature germ cells of CBA males  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

CBA male mice were exposed to 60Co-?-rays (5.5 Gy) and mated with CBA, A/He, AKR, C57BL/6, C57BL/Mib and BALB/c females. The yield of dominant lethal mutations (DLM) induced by radiation in mature germ cells was estimated. It was established that the yield of DLM depends on the genotype of a female: a maximum yield of DLM was registered in CBA, A/He and C57BL/6 females, and a minimum yield, in C57BL/Mib females. It is assumed that different yields of DLM in females of different lines might be related to different effectiveness of repair of premutational damages to spermia chromosomes by the enzymatic systems of female gametes

145

Major differences in the frequencies of radiation-induced malformations and eye color mutants in mature oocytes of the wasp Dahlbominus  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A comparison of the effects of ? radiation over the range of exposures from 15.5 to 125 R on the production of malformations and eye color mutations in mature oocytes of Dahlbominus revealed several major differences in the two sorts of response. At all exposures, total malformations of all sorts appeared in larger numbers than eye color mutants, and the doubling dose for malformations was at least six times higher. It was concluded that the majority of the induced malformations in Dahlbominus may arise by a process other than point mutation, e.g., through nondisjunction, and that the genetic hazard from low doses for this type of injury will not be severe. (U.S.)

146

Detection of radiation-induced hydrocarbons in Camembert irradiated before and after the maturing process-comparison of florisil column chromatography and on-line coupled liquid chromatography-gas chromatography  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The influence of the maturing process on the detection of radiation-induced volatile hydrocarbons in the fat of Camembert has been investigated. Two analytical methods for separation of the hydrocarbon fraction from the lipid were applied: Florisil column chromatography with subsequent gas chromatographic-mass spectrometric (GC-MS) determination as well as on-line coupled liquid chromatography-GC-MS. The maturing process had no influence on the detection of radiation-induced volatiles. Comparable results were achieved with both analytical methods. However, preference is given to the more effective on-line coupled LC-GC method

147

Skeletal maturity leads to a reduction in the strain magnitudes induced within the bone: A murine tibia study.  

Science.gov (United States)

Bone adapts to changes in the local mechanical environment (e.g. strains) through formation and resorption processes. However, the bone adaptation response is significantly reduced with increasing age. The mechanical strains induced within the bone by external loading are determined by bone morphology and tissue material properties. Although it is known that changes in bone mass, architecture and bone tissue quality occur with age, to what extent they contribute to the altered bone adaptation response remains to be determined. This study investigated alterations in strains induced in the tibia of different aged female C57Bl/6J mice (young, 10-week-old; adult, 26-week-old; and elderly, 78-week-old) subjected to in vivo compressive loading. Using a combined in vivo/in silico approach, the strains in the bones were assessed by both strain gauging and finite element modeling experiments. In cortical bone, strain magnitudes induced at the mid-diaphysis decreased by 20% from young to adult mice and by 15% from adult to elderly mice. In the cancellous bone (at the proximal metaphysis), induced strains were 70% higher in young compared with adult and elderly mice. Taking into account previous studies showing a reduced bone adaptation response to mechanical loading in adulthood, these results suggest that the diminished adaptive response is in part due to a reduction in the strains induced within the bone. PMID:25463494

Razi, Hajar; Birkhold, Annette I; Zaslansky, Paul; Weinkamer, Richard; Duda, Georg N; Willie, Bettina M; Checa, Sara

2015-02-01

148

An Incomplete Pentalogy of Cantrell  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Pentalogy of Cantrell is a rare entity of congenital defects involving the abdominal wall,sternum, diaphragm, pericardium and heart. The complete pentalogy and its variants havebeen described in the literature. We report a 47-day-old girl with an incomplete pentalogy ofCantrell presenting with congenital absence of the sternum, congenital heart defects, and anepigastric hernia. Two even rarer expressions of this disorder, tricuspid atresia type IIc andasymmetric kidneys, were also found. The patient was successfully managed with palliativepulmonary artery banding as preparation for a modified Fontan operation when she is older.We report this rare case, and discuss the pathologic findings and surgical strategy.

David Mishaly

2008-06-01

149

Malformations and maturation disturbances after prenatal irradiation  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Risk estimates for prenatally exposed humans in view to malformations and maturation disturbances are incomplete despite numerous single cases being described. In this situation support from animal data has necessarily to be taken into consideration. Outlines of recent knowledge in the field of experimental radioembryology will be given. Possibilities and limits of the transfer of animal data to man will be discussed and correlated with new medical evaluations. The discussions are focussed on developmental defects of the central nervous system. (orig.)

150

Neurogenic maturation of human dental pulp stem cells following neurosphere generation induces morphological and electrophysiological characteristics of functional neurons.  

Science.gov (United States)

Cell-based therapies are emerging as an alternative treatment option to promote functional recovery in patients suffering from neurological disorders, which are the major cause of death and permanent disability. The present study aimed to differentiate human dental pulp stem cells (hDPSCs) toward functionally active neuronal cells in vitro. hDPSCs were subjected to a two-step protocol. First, neuronal induction was acquired through the formation of neurospheres, followed by neuronal maturation, based on cAMP and neurotrophin-3 (NT-3) signaling. At the ultrastructural level, it was shown that the intra-spheral microenvironment promoted intercellular communication. hDPSCs grew out of the neurospheres in vitro and established a neurogenic differentiated hDPSC culture (d-hDPSCs) upon cAMP and NT-3 signaling. d-hDPSCs were characterized by the increased expression of neuronal markers such as neuronal nuclei, microtubule-associated protein 2, neural cell adhesion molecule, growth-associated protein 43, synapsin I, and synaptophysin compared with nondifferentiated hDPSCs. Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay demonstrated that the secretion of brain-derived neurotrophic factor, vascular endothelial growth factor, and nerve growth factor differed between d-hDPSCs and hDPSCs. d-hDPSCs acquired neuronal features, including multiple intercommunicating cytoplasmic extensions and increased vesicular transport, as shown by the electron microscopic observation. Patch clamp analysis demonstrated the functional activity of d-hDPSCs by the presence of tetrodotoxin- and tetraethyl ammonium-sensitive voltage-gated sodium and potassium channels, respectively. A subset of d-hDPSCs was able to fire a single action potential. The results reported in this study demonstrate that hDPSCs are capable of neuronal commitment following neurosphere formation, characterized by distinct morphological and electrophysiological properties of functional neuronal cells. PMID:25203005

Gervois, Pascal; Struys, Tom; Hilkens, Petra; Bronckaers, Annelies; Ratajczak, Jessica; Politis, Constantinus; Brône, Bert; Lambrichts, Ivo; Martens, Wendy

2015-02-01

151

Lack of dendritic cell maturation by the plant toxin ricin.  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Several bacterial toxins either promote or inhibit the maturation of human monocyte-derived DC. Since the potent plant toxin ricin exploits the same cell entry pathway used by these bacterial toxins and shares identical catalytic activity with some of them, we have studied the capacity of ricin to induce DC maturation in vitro. Here, we show that in contrast to the bacterial proteins, ricin neither induces DC maturation nor interferes with LPS-induced DC maturation. There is no correlation be...

Smith, Dc; Salio, M.; Lord, Jm; Roberts, Lm; Cerundolo, V.

2004-01-01

152

The Incomplete Superficial Palmar Arch  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Introduction: Superficial palmar arch (SPA is dominant vascular structure in palm of hand. In present study we described a case of Ulnar / Radiopalmar pattern of incomplete SPA in an Iranian cadaver. When the SPA is complete, the superficial palmer branches of the radial artery contribute to the ulnar artery. In incomplete type of SPA, there was no anastomosis between the ulnar and radial arteries (UA, RA. Case Report: In the present case, the brachial artery divided into RA and UA at the cubital fossa. There was no anastomosis between radial and ulnar arteries (RA, UA in the palm of the hand. UA gave three palmar digital arteries; proper palmar digital artery and two common palmar digital arteries. RA gave proper palmar digital artery and arteria princeps pollicis. Conclusion: Knowledge of anatomical variation of SPA is important for the hand surgical interventions and this is a very rare variation which can be easily tested clinically by Allen’s test. Keywords: Superficial palmar arch, Ulnar artery, Radial artery

Anneh Mohammad Gharravi

2013-04-01

153

The decomposition of incomplete fusion  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The velocity distribution of fusion-like products formed in the reaction of 701 MeV 28Si+100Mo is decomposed into 26 incomplete fusion channels. This is accomplished by detecting the evaporation residue in coincidence with most of the associated charged particles, as well as most neutrons and ?-rays emitted to laboratory angles greater than 35 degree. The incomplete fusion channels are defined by the forward non-evaporative charge (Zf) and its associated mass (Zf). The momentum deficit of the residue per non-evaporative mass unit is approximately equal to the beam momentum per projectile nucleon (P0/Ap). The multiplicity of neutrons, light charged particles and heavy ions emitted in the backward direction are all indicators of the extent of momentum transfer, with the heavy-ion multiplicity being the most sensitive. Proton angular distributions coincident with residues which have velocities greater than that for full momentum transfer exhibit backward peaking. While this is expected from momentum conservation considerations, it may be an indication of backward nucleon jetting

154

LH-Induced Neuregulin 1 (NRG1) Type III Transcripts Control Granulosa Cell Differentiation and Oocyte Maturation  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Epidermal growth factor (EGF)-like factors [amphiregulin (AREG), betacellulin, and epiregulin] are induced by LH and activate the EGF receptor (ERBB1)/ERK1/2 pathway in granulosa cells and cumulus cells of preovulatory follicles to impact ovulation. However, the expression and roles of other ERBB family members and their ligands have not been explored in detail. Herein, we document that two transcripts of the neuregulin (Nrg1) gene are expressed in granulosa cells, and that the type III Nrg1 ...

Noma, Noritaka; Kawashima, Ikko; Fan, Heng-yu; Fujita, Youko; Kawai, Tomoko; Tomoda, Yoshinori; Mihara, Toshihiro; Richards, Joanne S.; Shimada, Masayuki

2011-01-01

155

Sulpiride-Induced Hyperprolactinemia in Mature Female Rats: Evidence for Alterations in The Reproductive System, Pituitary and Ovarian Hormones  

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Background: The prevalence of hyperprolactinemia following administration of conventional antipsychotic drugs requires further investigation. The current study is designed to evaluate the effect of sulpiride (SPD)-induced hyperprolactinemia on alterations to ovarian follicular growth, gonadotropins, and ovarian hormones and to analyze the extent of potential problems in mammary glands. Materials and Methods: A total of 40 albino Wistar rats were divided into four groups: con...

Sara Mostafapour; Samad Zare; Rajab Ali Sadrkhanlou; Abbas Ahmadi; Mazdak Razi

2014-01-01

156

Respiratory sensitizer hexamethylene diisocyanate inhibits SOD 1 and induces ERK-dependent detoxifying and maturation pathways in dendritic-like cells.  

Science.gov (United States)

Respiratory allergy to low-molecular-weight chemicals is a current concern in the context of occupational health, and a certified method to identify respiratory allergens is still under investigation. The aim of this work was to unveil some of the poorly understood initial molecular events and toxicity pathways underlying respiratory sensitization, which might be crucial to disclosing the key building blocks of new testing strategies and may contribute to the development of a valid in vitro method for the identification of respiratory allergens. Immortalized human dendritic cell (DC)-like THP-1 cells were exposed to the respiratory allergen hexamethylene diisocyanate (HDI) for 6h, and the activation of several signaling pathways was analyzed. Mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP) alterations, superoxide anion (O2(-)) production, and gene expression modulation in HDI-treated cells were also evaluated. According to our results, HDI induces O2(-) increase (P < 0.001) through enzymatic inhibition of cytoplasmic superoxide dismutase 1 (P < 0.05), which might reduce MMP, further leading to mitochondrial O2(-) production. Increased O2(-) levels promote ERK phosphorylation (approx sixfold compared to control; P < 0.001) and downstream transcriptional increase of several genes: HMOX1 (P < 0.05), involved in the protection of chemical reactive species; MDR1 (P < 0.01), responsible for the efflux of xenobiotics in the cell; and CD83 (P < 0.05), a DC maturation marker. These results raise new perspectives on the action of respiratory allergens in DCs and point out key molecular events that are crucial for the development of the so-called adverse outcome pathways, particularly regarding O2(-) increase through enzymatic inhibition, and important for ERK activation. Furthermore, our results highlight the role of ERK signaling, but not p38 MAPK, in the activation of vital mechanisms in cells exposed to a respiratory allergen, such as cell detoxification, migration, and maturation. PMID:24742817

Silva, Ana; Nunes, Carla; Martins, João; Dinis, Teresa C P; Lopes, Celeste; Neves, Bruno; Cruz, Teresa

2014-07-01

157

Seizure induces activation of multiple subtypes of neural progenitors and growth factors in hippocampus with neuronal maturation confined to dentate gyrus  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Adult hippocampal neurogenesis is altered in response to different physiological and pathological stimuli. GFAP{sup +ve}/nestin{sup +ve} radial glial like Type-1 progenitors are considered to be the resident stem cell population in adult hippocampus. During neurogenesis these Type-1 progenitors matures to GFAP{sup -ve}/nestin{sup +ve} Type-2 progenitors and then to Type-3 neuroblasts and finally differentiates into granule cell neurons. In our study, using pilocarpine-induced seizure model, we showed that seizure initiated activation of multiple progenitors in the entire hippocampal area such as DG, CA1 and CA3. Seizure induction resulted in activation of two subtypes of Type-1 progenitors, Type-1a (GFAP{sup +ve}/nestin{sup +ve}/BrdU{sup +ve}) and Type-1b (GFAP{sup +ve}/nestin{sup +ve}/BrdU{sup -ve}). We showed that majority of Type-1b progenitors were undergoing only a transition from a state of dormancy to activated form immediately after seizures rather than proliferating, whereas Type-1a showed maximum proliferation by 3 days post-seizure induction. Type-2 (GFAP{sup -ve}/nestin{sup +ve}/BrdU{sup +ve}) progenitors were few compared to Type-1. Type-3 (DCX{sup +ve}) progenitors showed increased expression of immature neurons only in DG region by 3 days after seizure induction indicating maturation of progenitors happens only in microenvironment of DG even though progenitors are activated in CA1 and CA3 regions of hippocampus. Also parallel increase in growth factors expression after seizure induction suggests that microenvironmental niche has a profound effect on stimulation of adult neural progenitors.

Indulekha, Chandrasekharan L.; Sanalkumar, Rajendran [Neuro Stem Cell Biology Laboratory, Department of Neurobiology, Rajiv Gandhi Center for Biotechnology, Thiruvananthapuram, Kerala 695 014 (India); Thekkuveettil, Anoopkumar [Molecular Medicine, Biomedical Technology Wing, Sree Chitra Thirunal Institute for Medical Sciences and Technology, Thiruvananthapuram, Kerala (India); James, Jackson, E-mail: jjames@rgcb.res.in [Neuro Stem Cell Biology Laboratory, Department of Neurobiology, Rajiv Gandhi Center for Biotechnology, Thiruvananthapuram, Kerala 695 014 (India)

2010-03-19

158

Seizure induces activation of multiple subtypes of neural progenitors and growth factors in hippocampus with neuronal maturation confined to dentate gyrus  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Adult hippocampal neurogenesis is altered in response to different physiological and pathological stimuli. GFAP+ve/nestin+ve radial glial like Type-1 progenitors are considered to be the resident stem cell population in adult hippocampus. During neurogenesis these Type-1 progenitors matures to GFAP-ve/nestin+ve Type-2 progenitors and then to Type-3 neuroblasts and finally differentiates into granule cell neurons. In our study, using pilocarpine-induced seizure model, we showed that seizure initiated activation of multiple progenitors in the entire hippocampal area such as DG, CA1 and CA3. Seizure induction resulted in activation of two subtypes of Type-1 progenitors, Type-1a (GFAP+ve/nestin+ve/BrdU+ve) and Type-1b (GFAP+ve/nestin+ve/BrdU-ve). We showed that majority of Type-1b progenitors were undergoing only a transition from a state of dormancy to activated form immediately after seizures rather than proliferating, whereas Type-1a showed maximum proliferation by 3 days post-seizure induction. Type-2 (GFAP-ve/nestin+ve/BrdU+ve) progenitors were few compared to Type-1. Type-3 (DCX+ve) progenitors showed increased expression of immature neurons only in DG region by 3 days after seizure induction indicating maturation of progenitors happens only in microenvironment of DG even though progenitors are activated in CA1 and CA3 regions of hippocampus. Also parallel increase in growth factors expression after seizure induction suggests that microenvironmental niche has a profound effect on stimulation of adult neural progenitors.

159

The consequences of incomplete disclosure  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The disclosure requirements imposed on Canadian public companies are discussed. The basis of the capital market system in Canada is the integrity of full and true disclosure of all material facts in a prospectus and continuous disclosure of material changes and information, including financial results. Securities regulators have the right to report to the appropriate law enforcement agencies any company director who intentionally files misleading financial statements or press releases. The fundamental policy of Canadian stock exchanges is that all persons investing in securities listed on an exchange have equal access to information that may affect their investment decisions. Canadian stock exchanges have developed by-laws, rules and regulations relating to listed companies disclosure obligations, breach of which may lead to suspension of trading, delisting of the securities of the offending issuer, and substantial fines. Details of civil and criminal liability, current and proposed, for incomplete or inaccurate disclosure under Canadian securities legislation are explained. 59 refs

160

An Incomplete Definition of Reality  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available A reality may be defined incompletely as a perpetuating pattern of relations. This definition denies the name of reality to an utter and totalistic patternlessness, like a primal patternless stuff, because a patternless all-ness would be indistinguishable from a patternless nothingness. If reality began from a chaos or patternless stuff, it became a reality only when it became patterned. If there are orders of reality with perpetuating relations between them, as in Cartesian interactive substance dualism, the definition allows us to say that these orders belong to a common reality by virtue of those relations. However, the definition is silent on the question of whether reality is ultimately pluralistic. Some suggestions are made about the possibility of stuffless patterns, including those of the physical world, but the definition is not dependent on the possibility of stufflessness.

Boris DeWiel

2013-07-01

 
 
 
 
161

Optimizing Arteriovenous Fistula Maturation  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Autogenous arteriovenous fistulas are the preferred vascular access in patients undergoing hemodialysis. Increasing fistula prevalence depends on increasing fistula placement, improving the maturation of fistula that fail to mature and enhancing the long-term patency of mature fistula. Percutaneous methods for optimizing arteriovenous fistula maturation will be reviewed.

Zangan, Steven M.; Falk, Abigail

2009-01-01

162

The use of calcium phosphate nanoparticles encapsulating Toll-like receptor ligands and the antigen hemagglutinin to induce dendritic cell maturation and T cell activation.  

Science.gov (United States)

Dendritic cells (DCs) are potent antigen-presenting cells that possess the ability to stimulate naïve T cells. Antigen presentation by mature (activated) DCs is a prerequisite for the stimulation of antigen-specific T cells, whereas antigen presentation by immature DCs results in the generation of specific tolerance. Our aim was to develop calcium phosphate nanoparticles which can serve as carriers of immunoactive oligonucleotides into dendritic cells for their activation. We analyzed size, surface charge, and morphology of calcium phosphate nanoparticles loaded with the TLR ligands CpG and poly(I:C) and also with the antigen hemagglutinin (HA) by scanning electron microscopy, dynamic light scattering, Brownian motion analysis and ultracentrifugation. The uptake of fluorescence-labeled nanoparticles into dendritic cells was illustrated by confocal laser scanning microscopy. Immunostimulatory effects of these nanoparticles on DCs were studied, i.e., cytokine production and activation of the cells in terms of upregulation of surface molecules. We show that functionalized calcium phosphate nanoparticles are capable to induce both innate and adaptive immunity by activation of DCs. PMID:20417963

Sokolova, Viktoriya; Knuschke, Torben; Kovtun, Anna; Buer, Jan; Epple, Matthias; Westendorf, Astrid Maria

2010-07-01

163

Impacts of a GHG-induced climate change on crop yields: effects of acceleration in maturation, moisture stress and optimal temperature  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The present study involves using the Canadian Climate Centre (CCC) climate change scenario to evaluate the impacts of a CO2-induced climate change on agriculture in Quebec and vicinity. Climate change using the CCC General Circulating Model (GCM) data are fed into a crop model (FAO) so as to gauge the changes in agroclimatic factors such as growing season length and growing degree days, and subsequently potential yield changes for a variety of cereal (C3 and C4), leguminous, oleaginous, vegetable and special crops, for twelve major agricultural regions in southern Quebec. Our results show that depending upon the agricultural zone and crop type, yields may increase (ex. corn and sorghum by 20%) or decrease (ex. wheat and soybean by 20 to 30%). Also, these crop yield changes appear to be related to acceleration in maturation rates, mainly to change in moisture stress and to shifts in optimal thermal growth conditions. These possible shifts in agricultural production potentials would solicit the formulation of appropriate adaptation strategies. 77 refs., 6 figs., 5 tabs

164

Matrix-M™ adjuvant induces local recruitment, activation and maturation of central immune cells in absence of antigen.  

Science.gov (United States)

Saponin-based adjuvants are widely used to enhance humoral and cellular immune responses towards vaccine antigens, although it is not yet completely known how they mediate their stimulatory effects. The aim of this study was to elucidate the mechanism of action of adjuvant Matrix-M™ without antigen and Alum was used as reference adjuvant. Adjuvant Matrix-M™ is comprised of 40 nm nanoparticles composed of Quillaja saponins, cholesterol and phospholipid. BALB/c mice were subcutaneously injected once with, 3, 12 or 30 µg of Matrix-M™, resulting in recruitment of leukocytes to draining lymph nodes (dLNs) and spleen 48 h post treatment. Flow cytometry analysis identified CD11b(+) Gr-1(high) granulocytes as the cell population increasing most in dLNs and spleen. Additionally, dendritic cells, F4/80(int) cells, T-, B- and NK-cells were recruited to dLNs and in spleen the number of F4/80(int) cells, and to some extent, B cells and dendritic cells, increased. Elevated levels of early activation marker CD69 were detected on T-, B- and NK-cells, CD11b(+) Gr-1(high) cells, F4/80(int) cells and dendritic cells in dLNs. In spleen CD69 was mainly up-regulated on NK cells. B cells and dendritic cells in dLNs and spleen showed an increased expression of the co-stimulatory molecule CD86 and dendritic cells in dLNs expressed elevated levels of MHC class II. The high-dose (30 µg) of Matrix-M™ induced detectable serum levels of IL-6 and MIP-1? 4 h post administration, most likely representing spillover of locally produced cytokines. A lesser increase of IL-6 in serum after administration of 12 µg Matrix-M™ was also observed. In conclusion, early immunostimulatory properties were demonstrated by Matrix-M™ alone, as therapeutic doses resulted in a local transient immune response with recruitment and activation of central immune cells to dLNs. These effects may play a role in enhancing uptake and presentation of vaccine antigens to elicit a competent immune response. PMID:22844480

Reimer, Jenny M; Karlsson, Karin H; Lövgren-Bengtsson, Karin; Magnusson, Sofia E; Fuentes, Alexis; Stertman, Linda

2012-01-01

165

Effect of stress during handling, seawater acclimation, confinement, and induced spawning on plasma ion levels and somatolactin-expressing cells in mature female Liza ramada.  

Science.gov (United States)

The present experiments were designed to determine the effect of different stress factors; handling, seawater acclimation, confinement, and induced spawning on plasma cortisol, hydro mineral balance as well as changes in size, number and integrated intensity of somatolactin (SL)-expressing cells in Liza ramada mature females confined to fresh water ponds. The plasma levels of cortisol, PO(4)(3-), Na(+), and K(+) were higher, while Ca(2+) and Mg(2+) were lower than controls during transportation without anesthesia. By using clove oil (5 mg L(-1)) as an anesthetic during transportation, the plasma cortisol, PO(4) (3-), Na(+), and K(+) were similar to controls, while Ca(2+) and Mg(2+) were higher. During seawater acclimation, the plasma cortisol and minerals were significantly higher except Na(+) which was lower than controls. In addition, during induction of spawning, the plasma levels of cortisol, PO(4)(3-), Na(+), K(+), and Mg(2+) were significantly higher than controls. The SL-producing cells are located in the pars intermedia (PI) bordering the neurohypophysis. The stress affected the number, size, and immunostaining of SL-expressing cells. During seawater acclimation, the size and the integrated intensity of SL immunoreactivity were lower, but the number of these cells was higher than controls. Furthermore, the number, size, and the integrated intensity of SL immunoreactivity were significantly lower than controls during handling and after spawning, which was opposite to confinement. The response of SL-expressing cells in PI in parallel with changes in cortisol and hydro mineral balance induced by stress support the possible role of SL in the adaptive response of fish to stress. PMID:22628286

Khalil, Noha A; Hashem, Amal M; Ibrahim, Amal A E; Mousa, Mostafa A

2012-08-01

166

Induction and inhibition of oocyte maturation by EDCs in zebrafish  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Abstract Background Oocyte maturation in lower vertebrates is triggered by maturation-inducing hormone (MIH), which acts on unidentified receptors on the oocyte surface and induces the activation of maturation-promoting factor (MPF) in the oocyte cytoplasm. We previously described the induction of oocyte maturation in fish by an endocrine-disrupting chemical (EDC), diethylstilbestrol (DES), a nonsteroidal estrogen. Methods In this study, stimulatory and inhibito...

Tokumoto Mika; Tokumoto Toshinobu; Nagahama Yoshitaka

2005-01-01

167

LA GLOBALIZACIÓN INCOMPLETA / INCOMPLETE GLOBALIZATION  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Colombia | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish El objetivo de este artículo es analizar el proceso de globalización, sus determinantes y los factores que limitan sus alcances. Metodológicamente, el trabajo se basa en una exhaustiva revisión documental crítica sobre el tema, complementada con el análisis de indicadores macroeconómicos de diferent [...] es países. Los resultados muestran la creciente desigualdad económica y social entre las regiones, en el marco de un proceso globalizador basado en un patrón de acumulación capitalista, que tiende a profundizar esos desequilibrios. La globalización se caracteriza como incompleta, por el despliegue limitado de su potencial para lograr una distribución más equitativa y sustentable no solo en lo económico, sino también en las esferas científica, tecnológica, ambiental, política y social. Abstract in english The aim of this document is to analyze the process of globa-lization, its determinants and the factors limiting its scope. Methodologically, the work is based on a comprehensive critical literature review on the subject, supplemented with the analysis of macroeconomic indicators in different countri [...] es. The results show the growing economic and social inequality between regions, as part of a process of globalization based on a pattern of capitalist accumulation, which tends to exacerbate these imbalances. Glo-balization is characterized as incomplete, because of the limited deployment potential to achieve a more equitable and sustainable development, not only economically, but also in scientific, tech-nological, environmental, political and social issues.

Alberto, Romero; Mary A, Vera-Colina.

2014-01-01

168

Incomplete linear tibial fractures in two horses  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Incomplete linear tibial fractures were identified in two horses with the aid of scintigraphy. Both horses were treated successfully by strict stall confinement, and both returned to normal athletic activity. Scintigraphy can be used to facilitate the generally difficult diagnosis of incomplete tibial fractures

169

Vaccination with Mage-3a1 Peptide–Pulsed Mature, Monocyte-Derived Dendritic Cells Expands Specific Cytotoxic T Cells and Induces Regression of Some Metastases in Advanced Stage IV Melanoma  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Dendritic cells (DCs) are considered to be promising adjuvants for inducing immunity to cancer. We used mature, monocyte-derived DCs to elicit resistance to malignant melanoma. The DCs were pulsed with Mage-3A1 tumor peptide and a recall antigen, tetanus toxoid or tuberculin. 11 far advanced stage IV melanoma patients, who were progressive despite standard chemotherapy, received five DC vaccinations at 14-d intervals. The first three vaccinations were administered into the skin, 3 × 106 DCs ...

Thurner, Beatrice; Haendle, Ina; Ro?der, Claudia; Dieckmann, Detlef; Keikavoussi, Petra; Jonuleit, Helmut; Bender, Armin; Maczek, Christian; Schreiner, Doris; Von Den Driesch, Peter; Bro?cker, Eva B.; Steinman, Ralph M.; Enk, Alexander; Ka?mpgen, Eckhart; Schuler, Gerold

1999-01-01

170

Nitric Oxide and Cellular Maturity Are Key Components of Pro-Inflammatory Cytokine-Induced Apoptosis of Human Fetal Lung Epithelial Cells  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Inflammation is a major contributor to the pathogenesis of bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD). BPD is associated with prematurity of birth, sepsis, with increased production of both cytokines and nitric oxide, and with the shedding of bronchial epithelial cells. The pathological mechanisms involved in this disease remain unclear, in particular the role that epithelial maturity plays. The effects of pro-inflammatory cytokines upon immature and mature cells are examined within this study, using p...

Posencheg, Michael A.; Gow, Andrew J.; Wang, Ping; Gonzales, Linda W.; Guo, Changjiang

2011-01-01

171

A sea urchin lectin, SUL-1, from the Toxopneustid sea urchin induces DC maturation from human monocyte and drives Th1 polarization in vitro  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The sea urchin Toxopneustes pileolus belonging to the family Toxopneustidae, they have well-developed globiferous pedicellariae with pharmacologically active substances. We have purified a novel sea urchin lectin-1 (SUL-1) from the large globiferous pedicellariae of T. pileolus. Dendritic cells (DC) are professional APC and play a pivotal role in controlling immune responses. This study investigated whether SUL-1 can drive DC maturation from human immature monocyte-derived DC in vitro. Human monocytes were cultured with GM-CSF and IL-4 for 6 days followed by another 1 day in the presence of SUL-1 or LPS. DC harvested on day 7 were examined using functional assays. The expression levels of CD1a, CD80, CD83, CD86 and HLA-DR as expressed by mean fluorescence intensity (MFI) on DC differentiated from immature DC after culture with 1.0 ?g/ml of SUL-1 for 1 day were enhanced and decreased endocytic activity. SUL-1-treated DC also displayed enhanced T cell stimulatory capacity in an MLR, as measured by T cell proliferation. Cell surface expression of CD80, CD83 and CD86 on SUL-1-treated DC was inhibited by anti-DC-SIGN mAb, while anti-DC-SIGN mAb had no influence on allogeneic T cell proliferation by SUL-1-treated DC. DC differentiated with SUL-1 induced the differentiation of naive T cell towards a helper T cell type 1 (Th1) response at DC/T (1:5) cells ratio depending on IL-12 secretion. In CTL assay, the production of IFN-? and 51Cr release on SUL-1-treated Dup>51Cr release on SUL-1-treated DC were more augmented than of immature DC or LPS-treated DC. SUL-1-treated DC expressed CCR7 and had a high migration to MIP-3?. Intracellular Ca2+ mobilization in SUL-1-treated DC was also induced by MIP-3?. These results suggest that SUL-1 bindings to DC-SIGN on surface of immature DC may lead to differentiate DC from immature DC. Moreover, it suggests that SUL-1 may be used on DC-based vaccines for cancer immunotherapy

172

Topological effects of data incompleteness of gene regulatory networks  

CERN Document Server

The topological analysis of biological networks has been a prolific topic in network science during the last decade. A persistent problem with this approach is the inherent uncertainty and noisy nature of the data. One of the cases in which this situation is more marked is that of transcriptional regulatory networks (TRNs) in bacteria. The datasets are incomplete because regulatory pathways associated to a relevant fraction of bacterial genes remain unknown. Furthermore, direction, strengths and signs of the links are sometimes unknown or simply overlooked. Finally, the experimental approaches to infer the regulations are highly heterogeneous, in a way that induces the appearance of systematic experimental-topological correlations. And yet, the quality of the available data increases constantly. In this work we capitalize on these advances to point out the influence of data (in)completeness and quality on some classical results on topological analysis of TRNs, specially regarding modularity at different level...

Sanz, J; Borge-Holthoefer, J; Moreno, Y

2012-01-01

173

An unusual case of incomplete isosexual precocious puberty in a young girl with juvenile hypothyroidism  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Long-standing untreated primary hypothyroidism is an uncommon cause of praecocious puberty. The hypothyroidism, incomplete sexual maturation, galactorrhoea, and pituitary enlargement are reversed or corrected by levothyroxine therapy within a few months. We report a young girl with juvenile hypothyroidism who presented with early onset of menarche with failure of growth who was treated successfully with levothyroxine with resolution of early onset pubertal changes.

Pk, Sahana; As, Deshmukh; Sengupta N; Das C; Dasgupta R

2014-01-01

174

An unusual case of incomplete isosexual precocious puberty in a young girl with juvenile hypothyroidism  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Long-standing untreated primary hypothyroidism is an uncommon cause of praecocious puberty. The hypothyroidism, incomplete sexual maturation, galactorrhoea, and pituitary enlargement are reversed or corrected by levothyroxine therapy within a few months. We report a young girl with juvenile hypothyroidism who presented with early onset of menarche with failure of growth who was treated successfully with levothyroxine with resolution of early onset pubertal changes.

Sahana PK

2014-07-01

175

Incomplete albinism in Discoglossus pictus (Otth, 1837  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The authors present an incomplete albinism case in a Discoglossus pictus subject found in Sicily. This is the first note for Italian territory, the second for the species and the third for Discoglossus genus.

Gianni Insacco

2010-12-01

176

Quantum Bertrand duopoly of incomplete information  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

We study Bertrand's duopoly of incomplete information. It is found that the effect of quantum entanglement on the outcome of the game is dramatically changed by the uncertainty of information. In contrast with the case of complete information where the outcome increases with entanglement, when information is incomplete the outcome is maximized at some finite entanglement. As a consequence, information and entanglement are both crucial factors that determine the properties of a quantum oligopoly

177

Incomplete Distal Renal Tubular Acidosis with Nephrocalcinosis  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

We report the case of a female patient with incomplete distal renal tubular acidosis with nephrocalcinosis. She was admitted to the hospital because of acute pyelonephritis. Imaging studies showed dual medullary nephrocalcinosis. Subsequent evaluations revealed hypokalemia, hypocalcemia, hypercalciuria, and hypocitraturia with normal acid-base status. A modified tubular acidification test with NH4Cl confirmed a defect of urine acidification, which is compatible with incomplete distal tubular ...

Choi, Joon Seok; Kim, Chang Seong; Park, Jeong Woo; Bae, Eun Hui; Ma, Seong Kwon; Kim, Soo Wan

2011-01-01

178

Testing out contractual incompleteness : evidence from soccer  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The theory of incomplete contracting is rival to that of complete contracting as a frame of reference to understand contractual relationships. Both approaches rest upon diametrically opposed postulates and lead to very different policy conclusions. From a theoretical viewpoint, scrutiny of the postulates has revealed that both frameworks are reasonable. This paper designs and implements an empirical test to discern whether contracts are complete or incomplete. We analyze a problem where the p...

Carbonell-nicolau, Oriol; Comin, Diego

2005-01-01

179

Quantum Bertrand duopoly of incomplete information  

Science.gov (United States)

We study Bertrand's duopoly of incomplete information. It is found that the effect of quantum entanglement on the outcome of the game is dramatically changed by the uncertainty of information. In contrast with the case of complete information where the outcome increases with entanglement, when information is incomplete the outcome is maximized at some finite entanglement. As a consequence, information and entanglement are both crucial factors that determine the properties of a quantum oligopoly.

Qin, Gan; Chen, Xi; Sun, Min; Du, Jiangfeng

2005-05-01

180

Quantum Bertrand duopoly of incomplete information  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

We study Bertrand's duopoly of incomplete information. It is found that the effect of quantum entanglement on the outcome of the game is dramatically changed by the uncertainty of information. In contrast with the case of complete information where the outcome increases with entanglement, when information is incomplete the outcome is maximized at some finite entanglement. As a consequence, information and entanglement are both crucial factors that determine the properties of a quantum oligopoly.

Qin Gan [Hefei National Laboratory for Physical Science at Microscale and Department of Modern Physics, University of Science and Technology of China, Hefei, 230026 (China); Chen Xi [Hefei National Laboratory for Physical Science at Microscale and Department of Modern Physics, University of Science and Technology of China, Hefei, 230026 (China); Sun Min [Hefei National Laboratory for Physical Science at Microscale and Department of Modern Physics, University of Science and Technology of China, Hefei, 230026 (China); Du Jiangfeng [Hefei National Laboratory for Physical Science at Microscale and Department of Modern Physics, University of Science and Technology of China, Hefei, 230026 (China)

2005-05-13

 
 
 
 
181

Src Homology 3-interacting Domain of Rv1917c of Mycobacterium tuberculosis Induces Selective Maturation of Human Dendritic Cells by Regulating PI3K-MAPK-NF-?B Signaling and Drives Th2 Immune Responses*  

Science.gov (United States)

Mycobacterium tuberculosis, an etiological agent of pulmonary tuberculosis, causes significant morbidity and mortality worldwide. Pathogenic mycobacteria survive in the host by subverting host innate immunity. Dendritic cells (DCs) are professional antigen-presenting cells that are vital for eliciting immune responses to infectious agents, including pathogenic mycobacteria. DCs orchestrate distinct Th responses based on the signals they receive. In this perspective, deciphering the interactions of the proline-glutamic acid/proline-proline-glutamic acid (PE/PPE) family of proteins of M. tuberculosis with DCs assumes significant pathophysiological attributes. In this study, we demonstrate that Rv1917c (PPE34), a representative member of the proline-proline-glutamic-major polymorphic tandem repeat family, interacts with TLR2 and triggers functional maturation of human DCs. Signaling perturbations implicated a critical role for integrated cross-talk among PI3K-MAPK and NF-?B signaling cascades in Rv1917c-induced maturation of DCs. However, this maturation of DCs was associated with a secretion of high amounts of anti-inflammatory cytokine IL-10, whereas Th1-polarizing cytokine IL-12 was not induced. Consistent with these results, Rv1917c-matured DCs favored secretion of IL-4, IL-5, and IL-10 from CD4+ T cells and contributed to Th2-skewed cytokine balance ex vivo in healthy individuals and in patients with pulmonary tuberculosis. Interestingly, the Rv1917c-skewed Th2 immune response involved induced expression of cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) in DCs. Taken together, these results indicate that Rv1917c facilitates a shift in the ensuing immunity toward the Th2 phenotype and could aid in immune evasion by mycobacteria. PMID:20837474

Bansal, Kushagra; Sinha, Akhauri Yash; Ghorpade, Devram Sampat; Togarsimalemath, Shambhuprasad Kotresh; Patil, Shripad A.; Kaveri, Srini V.; Balaji, Kithiganahalli Narayanaswamy; Bayry, Jagadeesh

2010-01-01

182

The structure and development of incompletely closed carpels in an apocarpous species, Sagittaria trifolia (Alismataceae).  

Science.gov (United States)

• Premise of the study: Carpel closure is commonly considered as a key innovation in angiosperms; however, some families continue to exhibit a variety of forms of incomplete carpel closure. The carpel of Sagittaria species contains an unusual structure. In this study, we confirm the closure type of the carpel of Sagittaria trifolia and discuss its development and evolution.• Methods: Scanning electron microscopy and light microscopy of semithin sections were used to observe the development and the mature structure of the carpel. Pollen tube growth in the carpel and seed germination in the achene was also studied.• Key results: During late carpel development, the middle parts of the carpel margins underwent postgenital fusion. However, at maturity the lowest and uppermost parts of the carpel margins remained open. The mature carpel was incompletely closed and contained a secretion-filled canal, which extended from the stigma to the opening at the carpel base. At that site, pollen tubes could either grow to the ovule or exit the carpel and grow to other carpels. The basal opening also served as an exit point for the seedling to emerge.• Conclusions: Incomplete carpel closure by S. trifolia differs from the closure types recorded in previous studies because two entrances link the ovary in the carpel to the outside environment. This type of carpel closure occurs as a result of the lack of fusion of the carpel margins at the base of the carpel and could improve the seed set and seedling germination of S. trifolia. PMID:25030350

Huang, Lan-Jie; Wang, Xiao-Wen; Wang, Xiao-Fan

2014-07-16

183

Interleukin 2 induces both, growth and maturation of lectin reactive Lyt-2+ but not Lyt-2-precursor cells and regulates the cytolytic potential of effector cells.  

Science.gov (United States)

This study investigated the requirements for lymphokines derived by recombinant (rec.) DNA technology for the induction of growth and maturation in highly purified lectin reactive T cell subsets. Nylon purified C57BL/6 lymph node T cells were treated with monoclonal anti-Lyt-2.2 or anti-L3T4 antibodies and fluorescence labeled (FITC) anti-immunoglobulin antibodies and were positively selected into Lyt-2+ (L3T4-) and Lyt-2- (L3T4+) lymphocyte subsets using a fluorescence-activated cell sorter. Sorted T lymphocytes, which were devoid of accessory cells were incubated either in bulk culture (2 X 10(2) - 3 X 10(4) cells/microculture) or under limiting dilution conditions (2.5-1,000 cells/well) with lectin (Concanavalin A, Leukoagglutinin) and rec. human Interleukin 2 (rec. hIL-2) and/or rec. mouse Interferon gamma (rec. mIFN-gamma). The data show that Lyt-2+ lymphocytes respond to lectin and rec. hIL-2 with growth and development of cytolytic activity in the absence of other exogenous factor(s) or accessory cells. The presence of monoclonal antibodies to the Interleukin 2 receptor during the sensitization phase ablated the induction of Con A reactive precursor cells of cytolytic lymphocytes (CTL-P) by either rec. hIL-2 or conventional IL-2 containing lymphokine sources, indicating the essential role of IL-2 during activation of Lyt-2+ T lymphocytes. In contrast, Lyt-2- lymphocytes could not be induced by lectin and rec. hIL-2 alone for proliferation and always required the presence of accessory cells for significant growth. Exogenous rec. m IFN gamma was unable to induce growth and cytolytic activity in Con A reactive Lyt-2+ cells and did not significantly effect their response to rec. hIL-2. Limiting dilution experiments revealed that 10-16% of the Lyt-2+ lymphocytes responded to Con A and rec. hIL-2 with growth (GTL-P). The frequencies of CTL-P, determined under similar conditions, were always lower compared to GTL-P. However the results suggest that the differences observed between both precursor populations is due to differential sensitivity of the detection system rather than to the recruitment of distinct T cell subsets. Furthermore, it was shown that at least 50% of lectin reactive CTL-P were induced by rec. hIL-2 to secrete IFN-gamma under optimal conditions. The finding that some of the conventional lymphokine sources were superior to rec. hIL-2 in the induction of growth and cytolytic activity suggests the existence of mediators distinct from IL-2 that regulate the expansion of CTL-P.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 400 WORDS) PMID:3086217

Hochgeschwender, U; Diamantstein, T; Prester, M; Nerz, G; Simon, M M

1986-04-01

184

Pericoronal radiolucency associated with incomplete crown  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The author experienced 8 cases of pericoronal radiolucency involving an incomplete tooth crown that had not developed to form the cemento-enamel junction, and the underdeveloped crown sometimes appeared to be floating within the radiolucency radiographically. The first impression was that these cystic lesions had odontogenic keratocysts, but half of them turned out to be dentigerous cysts histopathologically. There has been no report concerning odontogenic cysts involving an incompletely developed crown. The purpose of this paper is to report that dentigerous cysts may develop before the completion of the cemento-enamel junction of a developing crown.

Nah, Kyung Soo [Dept. of Oral and Maxillofacial Radiology, School of Dentistry, Pusan National University, Yangsan (Korea, Republic of)

2013-12-15

185

CIMGS: An incomplete orthogonal factorization preconditioner  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This paper introduces, analyzes, and tests a preconditioning method for conjugate gradient (CG) type iterative methods. The authors start by examining incomplete Gram-Schmidt factorization (IGS) methods in order to motivate the new preconditioner. They show that the IGS family is more stable than IC, and they successfully factor any full rank matrix. Furthermore, IGS preconditioners are at least as effective in accelerating convergence of CG type iterative methods as the incomplete Cholesky (IC) preconditioner. The drawback of IGS methods are their high cost of factorization. This motivates finding a new algorithm, CIMGS, which can generate the same factor in a more efficient way.

Wang, X.; Bramley, R. [Indiana Univ., Bloomington, IN (United States); Gallivan, K. [Univ. of Illinois, Urbana, IL (United States)

1994-12-31

186

Organic maturity, hydrous pyrolysis and elastic properties in shales  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This works focuses on organic-rich shales (ORS), their maturity behavior and the geological and mechanical changes involved. The objective of this work is to investigate the mechanical changes in ORS over time and to help in constructing effective rock models. The ORS were treated as composite materials and their mechanical properties were calculated accordingly. Ten rock samples obtained from different locations and depths in the Bakken region were investigated in this work. Some of the samples were later subjected to a synthetic maturing process. Elastic properties were investigated before and after maturing, and FESEM imaging was performed during the course of this work. Results showed that elasticity modulus increased in naturally matured rocks. Moreover, synthetically maturing the samples caused the modulus to increase in already mature samples and to decrease in less mature samples. Finally, FESEM images were used to analyze kerogen texture changes, it was shown that kerogen particles became smaller and isolated in natural or induced maturing.

Zargari, S.; Prasad, M.; Mba, K. C.; Mattson, E. D. [Society of Petroleum Engineers (Canada)

2011-07-01

187

Thymic hormones in radiation-induced immunodeficiency. I. Induction of mature interleukin 1 responsive cell in the thymus by thymosin fraction 5  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The restorative effect of thymosin fraction 5 (TF5) on the thymus of gamma-irradiated mice was examined. Four different mouse strains were used in this study since earlier work determined that the degree of response to TF5 is strain dependent. The responsiveness to comitogenic effect of interleukin 1 (IL-1) was used to measure the rate of recovery of immunocompetent cells in the thymus, since only more mature PNA-, Lyt-1+-2- medullary cells respond to this monokine. Contrary to several earlier reports that radioresistant cells repopulating the thymus within the first 10 days after irradiation are mature, corticosteroid resistant, immunocompetent cells, the thymic cells from irradiated mice in all strains used had greatly reduced responses to IL-1. Daily intraperitoneal injections of TF5 increased significantly the responses of thymic cells to IL-1 in 10- to 13-weeks-old C57Bl/KsJ, C57Bl/6, C3H/HeJ, and DBA/1 mice. Older mice, 5 months or more in age, of DBA/1 strain did not respond to treatment with TF5. However, C3H/HeJ mice of the same age were highly responsive. In conclusion, (1) cells repopulating the thymus within 12 days after irradiation contain lower than normal fraction of mature IL-1 responsive cells, (2) thymic hormones increase the rate of recovery of immunocompetent cells in the thymus, and (3) the effect of thymic hormones is strain and age dependent

188

Orthography and underlying form in incomplete neutralization  

Science.gov (United States)

Either orthographic distinctions or underlying morphological distinctions might cause incomplete neutralization. Much previous work has found small durational differences between pairs such as German ``Rad'' ``wheel'' and ``Rat'' ``advice,'' which are traditionally said to be neutralized to [rat] in both cases. Incomplete neutralization effects are stronger when the task emphasizes orthography, and when the underlying distinction is orthographically encoded. Previous work by the authors investigated a case where orthography differs, but the underlying form of the two words is arguably the same, e.g., Dutch ``heten'' ``to be called'' and ``heetten'' ``they were called,'' both /he:t schwa n/. Incomplete neutralization was found, indicating a role for orthography rather than an underlying form. However, that case may also be interpreted as having a difference in the underlying form because of the past tense morpheme /-t/ in ``heetten.'' The current work investigates pairs which have the same underlying morphological difference, but no difference in spelling, e.g., ``(ik) laat'' (/la:t/) ``(I) leave'' and ``(hij) laat'' (/la:t-t/) ``(he) leaves.'' These pairs show no significant durational differences, despite an experimental design with quite high power. Thus, incomplete neutralization effects can be caused by an orthographic difference, but cannot be caused by this type of morphological difference.

Warner, Natasha; Good, Erin; Jongman, Allard; Sereno, Joan

2003-10-01

189

Prune belly syndrome associated with incomplete VACTERL  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

A Prune Belly syndrome with VATER/VACTERL association is an extremely rare. They are either stillborn or die within few days of life, only few such cases have been reported in literature. We are presenting here a male neonate of Prune Belly syndrome associated with incomplete VACTERL with brief review of literature.

Ghritlaharey R; Gupta Gaurav; Kushwaha A; Chanchlani R

2007-01-01

190

Prune belly syndrome associated with incomplete VACTERL  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available A Prune Belly syndrome with VATER/VACTERL association is an extremely rare. They are either stillborn or die within few days of life, only few such cases have been reported in literature. We are presenting here a male neonate of Prune Belly syndrome associated with incomplete VACTERL with brief review of literature.

Ghritlaharey R

2007-01-01

191

Randomly incomplete spectra and intermediate statistics  

CERN Document Server

By randomly removing a fraction of levels from a given spectrum a model is constructed that describes a crossover from this spectrum to a Poisson spectrum. The formalism is applied to the transitions towards Poisson from random matrix theory (RMT) spectra and picket fence spectra. It is shown that the Fredholm determinant formalism of RMT extends naturally to describe incomplete RMT spectra.

Bohigas, O

2006-01-01

192

EMOTIONAL MATURITY AMONG ADOLECENTS  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The present study was conducted to know the Emotional Maturity amongadolescents in relation to some personal background variables. The sample of this studyconsisted of 200 graduates (100 Arts & 100 Science students studying in Dharwad city.Yeshvir Singh and Mahesh Bhargava's Emotional Maturity scale was administered onthem to measure the Emotional Maturity. The data collected was subjected to statisticalanalysis in terms of Mean, SD, and 't' ratio. The findings show that, Science students arehaving significantly high Emotional Maturity than the Arts students. Where as there isno significant difference in Emotional Maturity of Boys and Girl adolescents,adolescents those who are coming from rural and urban area and adolescents those whobelongs to Scheduled Caste, Scheduled Tribes and General merit.

S.G.JADHAV

2013-02-01

193

Estimate of true incomplete exchanges using fluorescence in situ hybridization with telomere probes  

Science.gov (United States)

PURPOSE: To study the frequency of true incomplete exchanges in radiation-induced chromosome aberrations. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Human lymphocytes were exposed to 2 Gy and 5 Gy of gamma-rays. Chromosome aberrations were studied using the fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) technique with whole chromosome-specific probes, together with human telomere probes. Chromosomes 2 and 4 were chosen in the present study. RESULTS: The percentage of incomplete exchanges was 27% when telomere signals were not considered. After excluding false incomplete exchanges identified by the telomere signals, the percentage of incomplete exchanges decreased to 11%. Since telomere signals appear on about 82% of the telomeres, the percentage of true incomplete exchanges should be even lower and was estimated to be 3%. This percentage was similar for chromosomes 2 and 4 and for doses of both 2 Gy and 5 Gy. CONCLUSIONS: The percentage of true incomplete exchanges is significantly lower in gamma-irradiated human lymphocytes than the frequencies reported in the literature.

Wu, H.; George, K.; Yang, T. C.

1998-01-01

194

Protein syntehsis during soybean seed maturation  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The authors previous work has demonstrated that physiological and biochemical changes specifically associated with soybean seed maturation can be separated from events associated with seed development. The objective of this study was to determine if soybean seed metabolism is altered during maturation drying at the level of protein synthesis. Seed harvested 35 days after flowering (0% seedling growth) were induced to mature (100% seedling growth) through controlled dehydration. Proteins labeled with [35S]-methionine were extracted and analyzed by 1-D PAGE coupled with autoradiography and densitometry. Results show a 31 kD and 128 kD polypeptide synthesized de novo during dehydration and precocious maturation. The same two polypeptides are synthesized during natural dehydration and maturation (>60 days after flowering). Furthermore, these polypeptides persist during rehydration and germination of both precociously and naturally matured seed, but specifically disappear during early seedling growth. The authors are currently investigating the role of protein synthesis during soybean seed maturation and if it is required for establishment of a soybean seedling

195

Advanced incomplete factorization algorithms for Stiltijes matrices  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The modern numerical methods for solving the linear algebraic systems Au = f with high order sparse matrices A, which arise in grid approximations of multidimensional boundary value problems, are based mainly on accelerated iterative processes with easily invertible preconditioning matrices presented in the form of approximate (incomplete) factorization of the original matrix A. We consider some recent algorithmic approaches, theoretical foundations, experimental data and open questions for incomplete factorization of Stiltijes matrices which are {open_quotes}the best{close_quotes} ones in the sense that they have the most advanced results. Special attention is given to solving the elliptic differential equations with strongly variable coefficients, singular perturbated diffusion-convection and parabolic equations.

Il`in, V.P. [Siberian Division RAS, Novosibirsk (Russian Federation)

1996-12-31

196

UNILATERAL INCOMPLETE SUPERFICIAL PALMAR ARCH VARIATION  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In this case report, we want to present a truly incomplete superficial palmar arch on right side which is not completed by any of the branches of radial or median artery. On the left side of the same individual, the SPA is classical, completed by superficial branch of radial artery. The areria nervi mediana is not participating in arch formation on both the sides. Four palmar digital branches: digital branch to medial side of little finger and three common palmar digital arteries to the adjacent sides of medial four digits are seen arising from incomplete palmar arch. Awareness of the variation among the individual patient’s both hands need to be well thought-out during hand surgeries.

Rejeena P Raj, Anju Balaji More* and Kunjumon PC

2014-01-01

197

Theory of demand in incomplete markets  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

We develop the theory of demand for commodities and assets facing incompletely insurable uncertainty. First, a Slutsky matrix decomposes into substitution and income effects the derivative of demand with respect to prices and yield structure. Next, we identify the Slutsky matrix’s properties. The Slutsky matrix can be perturbed arbitrarily, subject only to preserving these properties, by perturbing the underlying utility’s Hessian, while fixing point demand and marginal utility. The key r...

Turner, Sergio

2005-01-01

198

Essential incompleteness of arithmetic verified by Coq  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

A constructive proof of the Goedel-Rosser incompleteness theorem has been completed using the Coq proof assistant. Some theory of classical first-order logic over an arbitrary language is formalized. A development of primitive recursive functions is given, and all primitive recursive functions are proved to be representable in a weak axiom system. Formulas and proofs are encoded as natural numbers, and functions operating on these codes are proved to be primitive recursive. ...

O Connor, Russell

2005-01-01

199

Airway maturation in Drosophila  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Tubes are a fundamental unit of organ design. Most of our major organs like the lung, kidney and vasculature are composed primarily of tubes. To identify fundamental biological principles of tubular organ formation we used the respiratory organ of Drosophila melanogaster, the trachea.This work dissects embryonic trachea maturation. Three precise epithelial transitions occur during airway maturation. A secretion burst deposits proteins into the lumen; then luminal material is cleared and final...

Tiklova?, Katari?na

2011-01-01

200

MATURATION OF POPCORN SEEDS  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The objective of this study was to analyze the maturation process of the popcorn seeds DFT 2 (selection cycle 2. At approximately 30 days after full blooming, when about 50% of the plants exhibited receptive silks, the first harvest of the seeds was accomplished. The other harvests were accomplished at 7-day intervals until seeds reached approximately 12% moisture content (wet basis, which occurred upon the 10th harvesting. Just after each harvest, the seeds were manually husked, to determine their moisture content and the weight of the dry matter. Also the development of the black layer was visually evaluated. After the last harvesting, the seeds were evaluated for retention on sieves, germination and vigor (modified cold, accelerated aging and electric conductivity tests. The popcorn seeds reach the maximum dry matter weight (mass maturity 68 days after flowering, and the physiological maturity of the seeds (maximum germination and vigor achieves it from 62 to 68 days after blooming. The seeds show humidity in the grade from 17 to 20%, for occasion of the physiological maturity and mass maturity. The black layer is an efficient visual characteristic to identify the physiological maturity of the seeds.

ANDRÉIA MÁRCIA SANTOS DE SOUZA DAVID

2003-12-01

 
 
 
 
201

Histology of salmonid testes during maturation.  

Science.gov (United States)

The commonly applied classification systems of fish gonad maturity divide the maturation process into certain stages. However, the scales do not entirely reflect the continuity of the maturation process. Based on light microscope observations, the paper describes a comprehensive pattern of testicular transformations during maturation. The study was carried out on precocious underyearling and 1-year-old males of sea trout (Salmo trutta m. trutta L.), 1-year-old males of salmon (Salmo salar L.), and males of brown trout (Salmo trutta m. fario L.) aged from 7 months to 4 years. A total of 821 gonads collected during all seasons of the year were examined. The fish were fixed in Bouin's fluid. Histological slides of the mid-part of the gonad were made using the standard paraffin technique. The 3-6 microm sections were stained with Heidenhain haematoxylin. Histological changes of testes during maturation were similar in the three species studied. Immature and resting gonads contained type A spermatogonia in lobules only. The appearance of cystic structures containing type B spermatogonia in the lobules signalled the beginning of the sexual cycle in male gonads. Type B spermatogonia underwent synchronous mitotic divisions resulting in an increase in the total number of spermatogonia. As the spermatogenesis continued, the gonads showed a gradual increase in the number of cysts containing cells at all the spermatogenetic stages: type B spermatogonia, primary and secondary spermatocytes, spermatids, and spermatozoa. The well-formed spermatozoa were released to the lobule lumen once the Sertoli cells and spermatozoa connections broke up and the cyst disappeared. This was a continuous process observed throughout the spawning season. The spermatozoa were moved to the efferent duct. While some of the germ cells were completing spermatogenesis, the lobules contained less and less cysts with type B spermatogonia, primary and secondary spermatocytes, and spermatids; eventually all the cells completed spermatogenesis. At the end of maturation, vacuoles, up to 18.9 microm in final diameter (brown trout), appeared in the Sertoli cells. The vacuoles were visible in the lobule wall epithelium for a prolonged period of time. In most salmonid individuals examined, the reproductive cycles were observed to overlap. In some fish, the preparation for another cycle began very early, i.e., at the and of preceding spermatogenesis, which had not been observed before. Gonad maturation in some males was incomplete. PMID:14666143

Dziewulska, Katarzyna; Domaga?a, Józef

2003-03-01

202

A new version of an old modal incompleteness theorem  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Thomason \\cite{Thomason74} showed that a certain modal logic $\\mathbf{L}\\subset \\mathbf{S4}$ is incomplete with respect to Kripke semantics. Later Gerson \\cite{Gerson75} showed that $\\mathbf{L}$ is also incomplete with respect to neighborhood semantics. In this paper we show that $\\mathbf{L}$ is in fact incomplete with respect to any class of complete Boolean algebras with operators, i.e. that it is completely incomplete.

Vosmaer, Jacob

2012-01-01

203

Successful surgical treatment of mature teratoma arising from the sella.  

Science.gov (United States)

Mature teratoma of the pituitary-hypothalamic region is rarely reported in the literature. In this article, we present a 13-year-old girl with clinical and radiological findings that were initially considered as germinoma. However, histological examinations disclosed a mature teratoma. This case highlights that the radiation-induced cerebral edema caused acute hydrocephalus. The mature teratoma is not radiosensitive, and the most appropriate treatment is direct surgery. PMID:25436031

Li, Yaxiong; Zhang, Yuekang; Xu, Jianguo; Chen, Ni

2015-02-01

204

Goedel incompleteness theorems and the limits of their applicability. I  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This is a survey of results related to the Goedel incompleteness theorems and the limits of their applicability. The first part of the paper discusses Goedel's own formulations along with modern strengthenings of the first incompleteness theorem. Various forms and proofs of this theorem are compared. Incompleteness results related to algorithmic problems and mathematically natural examples of unprovable statements are discussed. Bibliography: 68 titles.

205

Peptidylarginine deiminase inhibition impairs Toll-like receptor agonist-induced functional maturation of dendritic cells, resulting in the loss of T cell-proliferative capacity: a partial mechanism with therapeutic potential in inflammatory settings.  

Science.gov (United States)

Cl-amidine, which is a small-molecule inhibitor of PAD, has therapeutic potential for inflammation-mediated diseases. However, little is known regarding the manner by which PAD inhibition by Cl-amidine regulates inflammatory conditions. Here, we investigated the effects of PAD inhibition by Cl-amidine on the functioning of DCs, which are pivotal immune cells that mediate inflammatory diseases. When DC maturation was induced by TLR agonists, reduced cytokine levels (IL-6, IL-1?, and IL-12p70) were observed in Cl-amidine-treated DCs. Cl-amidine-treated, LPS-activated DCs exhibited alterations in their mature and functional statuses with up-regulated antigen uptake, down-regulated CD80, and MHC molecules. In addition, Cl-amidine-treated DCs dysregulated peptide-MHC class formations. Interestingly, the decreased cytokines were independent of MAPK/NF-?B signaling pathways and transcription levels, indicating that PAD inhibition by Cl-amidine may be involved in post-transcriptional steps of cytokine production. Transmission electron microscopy revealed morphotypical changes with reduced dendrites in the Cl-amidine-treated DCs, along with altered cellular compartments, including fragmented ERs and the formation of foamy vesicles. Furthermore, in vitro and in vivo Cl-amidine treatments impaired the proliferation of naïve CD4(+) and CD8(+) T cells. Overall, our findings suggest that Cl-amidine has therapeutic potential for treating inflammation-mediated diseases. PMID:25420918

Jang, Byungki; Kim, Ho Won; Kim, Jong-Seok; Kim, Woo Sik; Lee, Bo Ryeong; Kim, Sojeong; Kim, Hongmin; Han, Seung Jung; Ha, Sang-Jun; Shin, Sung Jae

2015-02-01

206

HIV gag mRNA transfection of dendritic cells (DC) delivers encoded antigen to MHC class I and II molecules, causes DC maturation, and induces a potent human in vitro primary immune response.  

Science.gov (United States)

Dendritic cells (DC) are the major APCs involved in naive T cell activation making them prime targets of vaccine research. We observed that mRNA was efficiently transfected, resulting in superior translation in DC compared with other professional APCs. A single stimulation of T cells by HIV gag-encoded mRNA-transfected DC in vitro resulted in primary CD4(+) and CD8(+) T cell immune responses at frequencies of Ag-specific cells (5-12.5%) similar to primary immune responses observed in vivo in murine models. Additionally, mRNA transfection also delivered a maturation signal to DC. Our results demonstrated that mRNA-mediated delivery of encoded Ag to DC induced potent primary T cell responses in vitro. mRNA transfection of DC, which mediated efficient delivery of antigenic peptides to MHC class I and II molecules, as well as delivering a maturation signal to DC, has the potential to be a potent and effective anti-HIV T cell-activating vaccine. PMID:11035115

Weissman, D; Ni, H; Scales, D; Dude, A; Capodici, J; McGibney, K; Abdool, A; Isaacs, S N; Cannon, G; Karikó, K

2000-10-15

207

Closed-Form Bounds to the Rice and Incomplete Toronto Functions and Incomplete Lipschitz-Hankel Integrals  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This article provides novel analytical results for the Rice function, the incomplete Toronto function and the incomplete Lipschitz-Hankel Integrals. Firstly, upper and lower bounds are derived for the Rice function, $Ie(k,x)$. Secondly, explicit expressions are derived for the incomplete Toronto function, $T_{B}(m,n,r)$, and the incomplete Lipschitz-Hankel Integrals of the modified Bessel function of the first kind, $Ie_{\\mu,n}(a,z)$, for the case that $n$ is an odd multiple...

Sofotasios, Paschalis C.; Freear, Steven

2011-01-01

208

Induction of complete and incomplete chromosome aberrations by bleomycin in human lymphocytes  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Bleomycin (BLM) is a clastogenic compound, which due to the overdispersion in the cell distribution of induced dicentrics has been compared to the effect of high-LET radiation. Recently, it has been described that in fibroblast derived cell lines BLM induces incomplete chromosome elements more efficiently than any type of ionizing radiation. The objective of the present study was to evaluate in human lymphocytes the induction of dicentrics and incomplete chromosome elements by BLM. Peripheral blood samples have been treated with different concentrations of BLM. Two cytogenetic techniques were applied, fluorescence plus Giemsa (FPG) and FISH using pan-centromeric and pan-telomeric probes. The observed frequency of dicentric equivalents increases linearly with the BLM concentration, and for all BLM concentrations the distribution of dicentric equivalents was overdispersed. In the FISH study the ratio between total incomplete elements and multicentrics was 0.27. The overdispersion in the dicentric cell distribution, and the linear BLM-concentration dependence of dicentrics can be compared to the effect of high-LET radiation, on the contrary the ratio of incomplete elements and multicentrics is similar to the one induced by low-LET radiation ({approx}0.40). The elevated proportion of interstitial deletions in relation to total acentric fragments, higher than any type of ionizing radiation could be a characteristic signature of the clastogenic effect of BLM.

Benkhaled, L.; Xuncla, M.; Caballin, M.R. [Universitat Autonoma de Barcelona, Unitat d' Antropologia Biologica, Departament de Biologia Animal, Biologia Vegetal i Ecologia, E-08193 Bellaterra (Spain); Barrios, L. [Universitat Autonoma de Barcelona, Unitat de Biologia Cel.lular, Departament de Biologia Cel.lular, Fisiologia i Immunologia (Spain); Barquinero, J.F. [Universitat Autonoma de Barcelona, Unitat d' Antropologia Biologica, Departament de Biologia Animal, Biologia Vegetal i Ecologia, E-08193 Bellaterra (Spain)], E-mail: Francesc.Barquinero@uab.es

2008-01-01

209

Induction of complete and incomplete chromosome aberrations by bleomycin in human lymphocytes  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Bleomycin (BLM) is a clastogenic compound, which due to the overdispersion in the cell distribution of induced dicentrics has been compared to the effect of high-LET radiation. Recently, it has been described that in fibroblast derived cell lines BLM induces incomplete chromosome elements more efficiently than any type of ionizing radiation. The objective of the present study was to evaluate in human lymphocytes the induction of dicentrics and incomplete chromosome elements by BLM. Peripheral blood samples have been treated with different concentrations of BLM. Two cytogenetic techniques were applied, fluorescence plus Giemsa (FPG) and FISH using pan-centromeric and pan-telomeric probes. The observed frequency of dicentric equivalents increases linearly with the BLM concentration, and for all BLM concentrations the distribution of dicentric equivalents was overdispersed. In the FISH study the ratio between total incomplete elements and multicentrics was 0.27. The overdispersion in the dicentric cell distribution, and the linear BLM-concentration dependence of dicentrics can be compared to the effect of high-LET radiation, on the contrary the ratio of incomplete elements and multicentrics is similar to the one induced by low-LET radiation (?0.40). The elevated proportion of interstitial deletions in relation to total acentric fragments, higher than any type of ionizing radiation could be a characteristic signature of the clastogenic effect of BLMgenic effect of BLM

210

Evidence of reproductive disruption associated with neuroendocrine changes induced by UV–B filters, phtalates and nonylphenol during sexual maturation in rats of both gender  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Endocrine disruptors (EDs) are exogenous substances or xenoestrogens natural or synthetic, capable of interacting with different systems and altering their normal hormonal regulation, being the reproductive system one of the most affected. EDs produce their effects not only by acting on nuclear steroid receptors, but also on membrane receptors, steroidal and non-steroidal synthetic enzymatic pathways and/or metabolism. The incorporation to the body depend on each EDs, which are liposoluble and easily deposited in the tissue; thus ensuring a prolonged accumulation and release, even when the exposure is not continuous. In addition to cross the placenta, EDs may act in the offspring during the reproductive system formation and maturation key stages and its regulatory mechanisms. The effects of EDs can be multiple, but most acts mediating estrogenic and/or antiandrogenic effect. Three groups of EDs are widely used: in plastics (phtalates), sunscreens (cinnamate and methylbenzylcamphor), and detergents (nonylphenol). In this paper we review the effects of the exposure to these environmental chemicals on the reproductive system and the possible mechanisms by which they occur, focusing in the hypothalamic–pituitary neuroendocrine mechanisms that regulate the reproductive system

211

Is a decrease in cyclic AMP a necessary and sufficient signal for maturation of amphibian oocytes  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Acetylcholine rapidly lowered the intracellular levels of cyclic AMP in stage 5 and 6 Xenopus laevis oocytes. Acetylcholine alone did not induce oocyte maturation, though it did accelerate maturation induced by progesterone. The effect of acetylcholine on oocyte maturation was independent of extracellular calcium concentration. Adenosine increased cyclic AMP and abolished the progesterone-induced decrease in cyclic AMP levels in follicles and in denuded oocytes. This effect of adenosine was blocked by the Ra purinergic receptor antagonist, theophylline. Despite those effects, adenosine alone induced maturation in stage 6 oocytes and accelerated progesterone-induced maturation in both stage 5 and 6 cells. Adenosine also induced a significant increase in the rate of 45Ca efflux from oocytes in the presence and the absence of external calcium. We suggest that the activation of cell surface receptors involved in the release of calcium from cellular stores may induce or accelerate oocyte maturation independently of small changes in intracellular cyclic AMP concentration

212

A detour to mature.  

Science.gov (United States)

In this issue of Molecular Cell, Ye et al. (2012) show an unexpected cytoplasmic assembly of Arabidopsis ARGONAUTE4/siRNA complexes and that siRNA binding could facilitate the nuclear import of mature AGO4/siRNA complexes, revealing a key regulatory process during RNA-directed DNA methylation (RdDM). PMID:22749397

Stunnenberg, Rieka; Bühler, Marc

2012-06-29

213

Lipid raft disruption protects mature neurons against amyloid oligomer toxicity  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Abstract A specific neuronal vulnerability to amyloid protein toxicity may account for brain susceptibility to protein misfolding diseases. To investigate this issue, we compared the effects induced by oligomers from salmon calcitonin (sCTOs), a neurotoxic amyloid protein, on cells of different histogenesis: mature and immature primary hippocampal neurons, primary astrocytes, MG63 osteoblasts and NIH-3T3 fibroblasts. In mature neurons, sCTOs increased apoptosis and induced neuritic...

Malchiodi-albedi, Fiorella; Contrusciere, Valentina; Raggi, Carla; Fecchi, Katia; Rainaldi, Gabriella; Paradisi, Silvia; Matteucci, Andrea; Santini, Maria Teresa; Sargiacomo, Massimo; Frank, Claudio; Gaudiano, Maria Cristina; Diociaiuti, Marco

2010-01-01

214

Rapid Generation of Mature Hepatocyte-Like Cells from Human Induced Pluripotent Stem Cells by an Efficient Three-Step Protocol  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Liver transplantation is the only definitive treatment for end-stage cirrhosis and fulminant liver failure, but the lack of available donor livers is a major obstacle to liver transplantation. Recently, induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) derived from the reprogramming of somatic fibroblasts, have been shown to resemble embryonic stem (ES) cells in that they have pluripotent properties and the potential to differentiate into all cell lineages in vitro, including hepatocytes. Thus, iPSCs co...

Chen, Yu-fan; Tseng, Chien-yu; Wang, Hsei-wei; Kuo, Hung-chih; Yang, Vincent W.; Lee, Oscar K.

2012-01-01

215

Recombinant interferon alpha can induce rearrangement of T-cell antigen receptor alpha-chain genes and maturation to cytotoxicity in T-lymphocyte clones in vitro.  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

T-cell receptor genes are found in the germ-line configuration as well as in rearranged forms, as detected in T lymphocytes by different patterns in Southern blot analysis. We have recently shown that cytotoxic T-lymphocyte (CTL) "precursor" clones, in which rearrangements are not detected in the gene encoding the T-cell receptor alpha-chain (TCRA), acquire specific lytic function induced by treatment with recombinant interferon alpha or gamma. We now report that, coincident with the acquisit...

Chen, L. K.; Mathieu-mahul, D.; Bach, F. H.; Dausset, J.; Bensussan, A.; Sasportes, M.

1986-01-01

216

Effects of repeated anesthesia by thiopental in neonatal period on PTZ-induced convulsions and pain responses during maturation in rats  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Introduction: General anesthetics during critical periods of brain development may cause some seriousmalformations or side effects. Anesthetic drugs can involve in the brain development and synaptogenesis atthe critical period of development. There are some controversy with regards the effects of(neurodegenerative or neuroprotective) barbiturates on brain. The aim of the present study was toinvestigate the possible relation between repeated induced thiopental (a GABAA agonist) anesthesia at t...

Fatemeh Faghih Majidi; Ali Moghimi; Masoud Fereidoni

2012-01-01

217

Light particle revelation on incomplete fusion reactions  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Incomplete fusion reactions have been studied through light particles emission in the reaction 116Sn + 16O at 125 MeV (ALICE facility in Orsay). We measured energy angular distributions and correlations between any two of these particles (? particles, protons, neutrons), while ? multiplicity measurements provide us fuller informations. From collected data, the following pictures can be drawn: - the only fast particles observed are ? particles, while protons and neutrons seem to come only from statistical evaporation; - outgoing channels where two ? particles are emitted cannot be solely explained by the sequential emission of 8Be ? 2?: about half of the cross section proceeds from statistical evaporation of one ? particle. Accordingly, 2?xn channels do not necessarily agree with high value of angular momentum in the entrance channel. From the study of experimental results in the yrast plane, we can assign a large width to the angular momentum distribution

218

Effective hamiltonian calculations using incomplete model spaces  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

It appears that the danger of encountering ''intruder states'' is substantially reduced if an effective hamiltonian formalism is developed for incomplete model spaces (IMS). In a Fock-space approach, the proof a ''connected diagram theorem'' is fairly straightforward with exponential-type of ansatze for the wave-operator W, provided the normalization chosen for W is separable. Operationally, one just needs a suitable categorization of the Fock-space operators into ''diagonal'' and ''non-diagonal'' parts that is generalization of the corresponding procedure for the complete model space. The formalism is applied to prototypical 2-electron systems. The calculations have been performed on the Cyber 205 super-computer. The authors paid special attention to an efficient vectorization for the construction and solution of the resulting coupled non-linear equations

219

Incomplete melting of the Au(100) surface  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

We study the high-temperature disordering of the reconstructed Au(100) surface by molecular dynamics simulation using a many-body interatomic potential. We find that the surface deconstructs at 0.8Tm in good agreement with experimental data, but proper surface melting does not occur close to the bulk melting point. Instead there is an in-plane disordering of the two topmost layers. The thickness of the disordered region remains constant with increasing temperature, indicating blocked, or incomplete, melting of the (100) crystalline substrate. An analysis of the structure reveals that crystalline and disordered islands coexist on two first surface layers for temperature between deconstruction and bulk melting. (author). 24 refs, 10 figs

220

Enhanced photoabsorption efficiency of incomplete nanoshells.  

Science.gov (United States)

The rather low scattering or extinction efficiency of small nanoparticles, metallic and otherwise, is significantly enhanced when they are adsorbed on a larger core particle. But the photoabsorption by particles with varying surface area fractions on a larger core particle is found to be limited by saturation. It is found that the core-shell particle can have a lower absorption efficiency than a dielectric core with its surface partially nucleated with absorbing particles-an "incomplete nanoshell" particle. We have both numerically and experimentally studied the optical efficiencies of titania (TiO2) nucleated in various degrees on silica (SiO2) nanospheres. We show that optimal surface nucleation over cores of appropriate sizes and optical properties will have a direct impact on the applications exploiting the absorption and scattering properties of such composite particles. PMID:23988933

Venkatapathi, Murugesan; Dastidar, Sudipta G; Bharath, P; Roy, Arindam; Ghosh, Anupam

2013-09-01

 
 
 
 
221

Inflaton dark matter from incomplete decay  

CERN Document Server

We show that the decay of the inflaton field may be incomplete, while nevertheless successfully reheating the universe and leaving a stable remnant that accounts for the present dark matter abundance. We note, in particular, that since the mass of the inflaton decay products is field-dependent, one can construct models, endowed with an appropriate discrete symmetry, where inflaton decay is kinematically forbidden at late times and only occurs during the initial stages of field oscillations after inflation. We show that this is sufficient to ensure the transition to a radiation-dominated era and that inflaton particles typically thermalize in the process. They eventually decouple and freeze out, yielding a thermal dark matter relic. We discuss possible implementations of this generic mechanism within consistent cosmological and particle physics scenarios, for both single-field and hybrid inflation.

Bastero-Gil, Mar; Rosa, Joao G

2015-01-01

222

Relational data clustering with incomplete data  

Science.gov (United States)

We consider the problem of clustering a set of objects which are represented by rational data in the form of a dissimilarity matrix which has missing values. Three methods are developed to estimate the missing values, all based on simple triangle inequality-based approximation schemes. With few exceptions, any relational clustering algorithm can then be applied to the completed data matrix to obtain nice clusters. We illustrate our approach by clustering incomplete data built from several data sets. The primary clustering method chosen for our numerical experiments is the non-Euclidean relational fuzzy c-means algorithm. Our examples show that satisfactory clusters can still be obtained even when roughly half of the distance values are missing before completion.

Hathaway, Richard J.; Overstreet, Dessa D.; Murphy, Thomas E.; Bezdek, James C.

2001-03-01

223

Regulatory perspective on incomplete control rod insertions  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The incomplete control rod insertions experienced at South Texas Unit 1 and Wolf Creek are of safety concern to the NRC staff because they represent potential precursors to loss of shutdown margin. Even before it was determined if these events were caused by the control rods or by the fuel there was an apparent correlation of the problem with high burnup fuel. It was determined that there was also a correlation between high burnup and high drag forces as well as with rod drop time histories and lack of rod recoil. The NRC staff initial actions were aimed at getting a perspective on the magnitude of the problem as far as the number of plants and the amount of fuel that could be involved, as well as the safety significance in terms of shutdown margin. As tests have been performed and data has been analyzed the focus has shifted more toward understanding the problem and the ways to eliminate it. At this time the staff`s understanding of the phenomena is that it was a combination of factors including burnup, power history and temperature. The problem appears to be very sensitive to these factors, the interaction of which is not clearly understood. The model developed by Westinghouse provides a possible explanation but there is not sufficient data to establish confidence levels and sensitivity studies involving the key parameters have not been done. While several fixes to the problem have been discussed, no definitive fixes have been proposed. Without complete understanding of the phenomena, or fixes that clearly eliminate the problem the safety concern remains. The safety significance depends on the amount of shutdown margin lost due to incomplete insertion of the control rods. Were the control rods to stick high in the core, the reactor could not be shutdown by the control rods and other means such as emergency boration would be required.

Chatterton, M.

1997-01-01

224

A Clinical Study on Management of Incomplete Abortion by Manual Vacuum Aspiration (MVA  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Background: Abortion is an important social and public health issue. In Bangladesh complication from unsafe abortion is one of the leading causes of maternal mortality. It is a serious health problem. World Health Organisation estimates that 14% of maternal deaths which occur every year in the countries of South Asia including Bangladesh are due to abortion. Study shows manual vacuum aspiration procedure is safe and effective in incomplete abortion. Very few clinical trials were carried out in Bangladesh to assess the safety and effectivity of manual vacuum aspiration in managing incomplete abortion. Objective: To find out the outcome of manual vacuum aspiration in the management of patients of incomplete abortion. Materials and Methods: This observational descriptive study was conducted in the department of Obstetrics & Gynaecology, Dhaka Medical College & Hospital from June to December, 2004. One hundred cases of diagnosed incomplete abortion up to 12 weeks of gestation were managed by manual vacuum aspiration during this period. A data recording sheet was designed for this purpose. Haemodynamically stable patients with no history of induced abortion and fever were enrolled. Results: Procedure time of manual vacuum aspiration was short, average duration was 7 minutes. Bleeding was minimum (20-30 mL in 67% cases and weighted mean was 29.80 mL. Eighty three percent patients were stable during the procedure and only 3% needed blood transfusion. Nonnarcotic analgesics were used in 59% cases and 33% needed only proper counselling. Average duration of hospital stay was 2 hours. Effectiveness of the procedure was about 98% with very low post procedure complication rate (2%. Conclusion: MVA procedure is a safe and effective technique of uterine evacuation in incomplete abortion. It is quick, less expensive, effective and less painful. Hospital stay and chance of perforation of uterus is less. So this procedure should be considered by health care system in Bangladesh for improving treatment of incomplete abortion to reduce both maternal morbidity and mortality.

Arifa Akter Jahan

2012-07-01

225

TRANSPARENT LEAF AREA1 encodes a secreted proteolipid required for anther maturation, morphogenesis, and differentiation during leaf development in maize.  

Science.gov (United States)

We report the identification and functional analysis of TRANSPARENT LEAF AREA1 (TLA1), a maize (Zea mays) gene representing a novel class of secreted, extremely hydrophobic peptides (proteolipids) with a C-terminal Caax box-like motif. ZmTLA1 encodes 27 amino acid residues and is most strongly expressed in the egg cell and microspores. Lower transcript amounts were detected during vegetative development. Transgenic maize expressing an antisense transcript displayed a variety of phenotypes. The most visible phenotypes were dwarfism and transparent leaf areas resulting from defective morphogenesis of mesophyll, bundle sheath, stomatal, and epidermal cells during leaf development. Incomplete cell walls were observed, indicating a defect of cytokinesis. The accumulation of gerontoplasts was probably a secondary effect caused by defects of leaf cell morphogenesis. A defect of anther maturation was observed in approximately 30% of the plants displaying the tla phenotype. Male sterility was mainly caused by incomplete disintegration of the tapetal cell layers and tetrad callose as 90% of the microspores developed into functional pollen. Overexpression of ZmTLA1 seemed to have a lethal effect both in maize and Arabidopsis thaliana. Development of primary roots, root hairs, primary leaves, and chloroplasts was suppressed in Arabidopsis seedlings expressing an inducible ZmTLA1-green fluorescent protein (GFP) fusion protein. GFP signals were exclusively detected in cell walls. Based on our observations, we suggest that the ZmTLA1 peptide represents a class of novel plant morphogens required for the development and maturation of leaf and reproductive tissues. PMID:15705951

Dresselhaus, Thomas; Amien, Suseno; Márton, Mihaela; Strecke, Anemone; Brettschneider, Reinhold; Cordts, Simone

2005-03-01

226

MATURATION OF POPCORN SEEDS  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The objective of this study was to analyze the maturation process of the popcorn seeds DFT 2 (selection cycle 2). At approximately 30 days after full blooming, when about 50% of the plants exhibited receptive silks, the first harvest of the seeds was accomplished. The other harvests were accomplished at 7-day intervals until seeds reached approximately 12% moisture content (wet basis), which occurred upon the 10th harvesting. Just after each harvest, the seeds were manually husked, to determi...

ANDRÉIA MÁRCIA SANTOS SOUZA DAVID; EDUARDO FONTES ARAÚJO; GLAUCO VIEIRA MIRANDA; DENISE CUNHA FERNANDES DOS SANTOS DIAS; JOÃO CARLOS CARDOSO GALVÃO; VERÔNICA CARNEIRO

2003-01-01

227

Mass-asymmetry effects on incomplete fusion fraction  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In the present work, to explore the dynamics of incomplete fusion fraction (%FICF) with mass-asymmetry (AT/(AT+AP)), incomplete fusion fractions of different projectile-target combinations has been studied. The variation of %FICF with the normalized projectile energy is also studied. The percentage fraction of incomplete fusion (%FICF) for the 16O+45Sc and 12C+59Co systems has been calculated

228

The Surprise Examination Paradox and the Second Incompleteness Theorem  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

We give a new proof for Godel's second incompleteness theorem, based on Kolmogorov complexity, Chaitin's incompleteness theorem, and an argument that resembles the surprise examination paradox. We then go the other way around and suggest that the second incompleteness theorem gives a possible resolution of the surprise examination paradox. Roughly speaking, we argue that the flaw in the derivation of the paradox is that it contains a hidden assumption that one can prove the ...

Kritchman, Shira; Raz, Ran

2010-01-01

229

Gibbs' theorem for open systems with incomplete statistics  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Gibbs' theorem, which is originally intended for canonical ensembles with complete statistics has been generalized to open systems with incomplete statistics. As a result of this generalization, it is shown that the stationary equilibrium distribution of inverse power law form associated with the incomplete statistics has maximum entropy even for open systems with energy or matter influx. The renormalized entropy definition given in this paper can also serve as a measure of self-organization in open systems described by incomplete statistics.

230

Goedel incompleteness theorems and the limits of their applicability. I  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This is a survey of results related to the Goedel incompleteness theorems and the limits of their applicability. The first part of the paper discusses Goedel's own formulations along with modern strengthenings of the first incompleteness theorem. Various forms and proofs of this theorem are compared. Incompleteness results related to algorithmic problems and mathematically natural examples of unprovable statements are discussed. Bibliography: 68 titles.

Beklemishev, Lev D [Steklov Mathematical Institute, Russian Academy of Sciences, Moscow (Russian Federation)

2011-01-25

231

MYB118 represses endosperm maturation in seeds of Arabidopsis.  

Science.gov (United States)

In the exalbuminous species Arabidopsis thaliana, seed maturation is accompanied by the deposition of oil and storage proteins and the reduction of the endosperm to one cell layer. Here, we consider reserve partitioning between embryo and endosperm compartments. The pattern of deposition, final amount, and composition of these reserves differ between the two compartments, with the embryo representing the principal storage tissue in mature seeds. Complex regulatory mechanisms are known to prevent activation of maturation-related programs during embryo morphogenesis and, later, during vegetative growth. Here, we describe a regulator that represses the expression of maturation-related genes during maturation within the endosperm. MYB118 is transcriptionally induced in the maturing endosperm, and seeds of myb118 mutants exhibit an endosperm-specific derepression of maturation-related genes associated with a partial relocation of storage compounds from the embryo to the endosperm. Moreover, MYB118 activates endosperm-induced genes through the recognition of TAACGG elements. These results demonstrate that the differential partitioning of reserves between the embryo and endosperm in exalbuminous Arabidopsis seeds does not only result from developmental programs that establish the embryo as the preponderant tissue within seeds. This differential partitioning is also regulated by MYB118, which regulates the biosynthesis of reserves at the spatial level during maturation. PMID:25194028

Barthole, Guillaume; To, Alexandra; Marchive, Chloé; Brunaud, Véronique; Soubigou-Taconnat, Ludivine; Berger, Nathalie; Dubreucq, Bertrand; Lepiniec, Loïc; Baud, Sébastien

2014-09-01

232

Emotional Maturity: Characteristics and Levels  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

"Mature" means a completed natural growth. Emotional maturity is not related to physical maturity which is expected to be but, does not grow with our chronological age. Emotionally mature people are sensible who do not whine, crib or play the blame game. They have full control over their lives. They reflect on their lives and on the role that they play in other people’s lives. Emotionally mature people lead a well-adjusted life due to their healthy outlook on life. There are various levels ...

Dr. Umesh Chandra Kapri; Dr. Neelam Rani

2014-01-01

233

TOPSIS-based consensus model for group decision-making with incomplete interval fuzzy preference relations.  

Science.gov (United States)

Due to the vagueness of real-world environments and the subjective nature of human judgments, it is natural for experts to estimate their judgements by using incomplete interval fuzzy preference relations. In this paper, based on the technique for order preference by similarity to ideal solution method, we present a consensus model for group decision-making (GDM) with incomplete interval fuzzy preference relations. To do this, we first define a new consistency measure for incomplete interval fuzzy preference relations. Second, a goal programming model is proposed to estimate the missing interval preference values and it is guided by the consistency property. Third, an ideal interval fuzzy preference relation is constructed by using the induced ordered weighted averaging operator, where the associated weights of characterizing the operator are based on the defined consistency measure. Fourth, a similarity degree between complete interval fuzzy preference relations and the ideal one is defined. The similarity degree is related to the associated weights, and used to aggregate the experts' preference relations in such a way that more importance is given to ones with the higher similarity degree. Finally, a new algorithm is given to solve the GDM problem with incomplete interval fuzzy preference relations, which is further applied to partnership selection in formation of virtual enterprises. PMID:24081882

Liu, Fang; Zhang, Wei-Guo

2014-08-01

234

Enamel maturation: a brief background with implications for some enamel dysplasias.  

Science.gov (United States)

The maturation stage of enamel development begins once the final tissue thickness has been laid down. Maturation includes an initial transitional pre-stage during which morphology and function of the enamel organ cells change. When this is complete, maturation proper begins. Fully functional maturation stage cells are concerned with final proteolytic degradation and removal of secretory matrix components which are replaced by tissue fluid. Crystals, initiated during the secretory stage, then grow replacing the tissue fluid. Crystals grow in both width and thickness until crystals abut each other occupying most of the tissue volume i.e. full maturation. If this is not complete at eruption, a further post eruptive maturation can occur via mineral ions from the saliva. During maturation calcium and phosphate enter the tissue to facilitate crystal growth. Whether transport is entirely active or not is unclear. Ion transport is also not unidirectional and phosphate, for example, can diffuse out again especially during transition and early maturation. Fluoride and magnesium, selectively taken up at this stage can also diffuse both in an out of the tissue. Crystal growth can be compromised by excessive fluoride and by ingress of other exogenous molecules such as albumin and tetracycline. This may be exacerbated by the relatively long duration of this stage, 10 days or so in a rat incisor and up to several years in human teeth rendering this stage particularly vulnerable to ingress of foreign materials, incompletely mature enamel being the result. PMID:25339913

Robinson, Colin

2014-01-01

235

Skyline Sets Queries for Incomplete Data  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available With the increase of data volume, advanced query operators, such as skyline queries, are necessary inorder to help users to handle the huge amount of available data by identifying a set of interesting dataobjects. Skyline queries help us to filter unnecessary information efficiently and provide us clues forvarious decision making tasks.Most of the existing skyline algorithms cannot preserve individual’s privacy and are not well suited fordata with outliers and frequently updated data. Considering these issues, earlier we have proposed skylinesets queries from databases where all dimensions are available for all data items and considered anefficient algorithm for computing convex skyline sets. In this paper, we use that idea for skyline sets queriesfor incomplete data and propose a method, namely, RBSSQ. RBSSQ method uses a replacement-basedapproach and is applicable to the databases having any number of missing dimensions in the databaseobjects. We have conducted several experiments in terms of computational cost and found that ourproposed method can efficiently compute skyline sets from data items with missing values.

Mohammad Shamsul Arefin

2012-11-01

236

Robust Localization from Incomplete Local Information  

CERN Document Server

We consider the problem of localizing wireless devices in an ad-hoc network embedded in a d-dimensional Euclidean space. Obtaining a good estimation of where wireless devices are located is crucial in wireless network applications including environment monitoring, geographic routing and topology control. When the positions of the devices are unknown and only local distance information is given, we need to infer the positions from these local distance measurements. This problem is particularly challenging when we only have access to measurements that have limited accuracy and are incomplete. We consider the extreme case of this limitation on the available information, namely only the connectivity information is available, i.e., we only know whether a pair of nodes is within a fixed detection range of each other or not, and no information is known about how far apart they are. Further, to account for detection failures, we assume that even if a pair of devices is within the detection range, it fails to detect t...

Karbasi, Amin

2011-01-01

237

Scalable Tensor Factorizations for Incomplete Data  

CERN Document Server

The problem of incomplete data - i.e., data with missing or unknown values - in multi-way arrays is ubiquitous in biomedical signal processing, network traffic analysis, bibliometrics, social network analysis, chemometrics, computer vision, communication networks, etc. We consider the problem of how to factorize data sets with missing values with the goal of capturing the underlying latent structure of the data and possibly reconstructing missing values (i.e., tensor completion). We focus on one of the most well-known tensor factorizations that captures multi-linear structure, CANDECOMP/PARAFAC (CP). In the presence of missing data, CP can be formulated as a weighted least squares problem that models only the known entries. We develop an algorithm called CP-WOPT (CP Weighted OPTimization) that uses a first-order optimization approach to solve the weighted least squares problem. Based on extensive numerical experiments, our algorithm is shown to successfully factorize tensors with noise and up to 99% missing d...

Acar, Evrim; Dunlavy, Daniel M; Morup, Morten

2010-01-01

238

Scalable tensor factorizations for incomplete data  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

The problem of incomplete data—i.e., data with missing or unknown values—in multi-way arrays is ubiquitous in biomedical signal processing, network traffic analysis, bibliometrics, social network analysis, chemometrics, computer vision, communication networks, etc. We consider the problem of how to factorize data sets with missing values with the goal of capturing the underlying latent structure of the data and possibly reconstructing missing values (i.e., tensor completion). We focus on one of the most well-known tensor factorizations that captures multi-linear structure, CANDECOMP/PARAFAC (CP). In the presence of missing data, CP can be formulated as a weighted least squares problem that models only the known entries. We develop an algorithm called CP-WOPT (CP Weighted OPTimization) that uses a first-order optimization approach to solve the weighted least squares problem. Based on extensive numerical experiments, our algorithm is shown to successfully factorize tensors with noise and up to 99% missing data.A unique aspect of our approach is that it scales to sparse large-scale data, e.g., 1000 × 1000 × 1000 with five million known entries (0.5% dense). We further demonstrate the usefulness of CP-WOPT on two real-world applications: a novel EEG (electroencephalogram) application where missing data is frequently encountered due to disconnections of electrodes and the problem of modeling computer network traffic where data may be absent due to the expense of the data collection process.

Acar, Evrim; Dunlavy, Daniel M.

2011-01-01

239

Scalable tensor factorizations with incomplete data.  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The problem of incomplete data - i.e., data with missing or unknown values - in multi-way arrays is ubiquitous in biomedical signal processing, network traffic analysis, bibliometrics, social network analysis, chemometrics, computer vision, communication networks, etc. We consider the problem of how to factorize data sets with missing values with the goal of capturing the underlying latent structure of the data and possibly reconstructing missing values (i.e., tensor completion). We focus on one of the most well-known tensor factorizations that captures multi-linear structure, CANDECOMP/PARAFAC (CP). In the presence of missing data, CP can be formulated as a weighted least squares problem that models only the known entries. We develop an algorithm called CP-WOPT (CP Weighted OPTimization) that uses a first-order optimization approach to solve the weighted least squares problem. Based on extensive numerical experiments, our algorithm is shown to successfully factorize tensors with noise and up to 99% missing data. A unique aspect of our approach is that it scales to sparse large-scale data, e.g., 1000 x 1000 x 1000 with five million known entries (0.5% dense). We further demonstrate the usefulness of CP-WOPT on two real-world applications: a novel EEG (electroencephalogram) application where missing data is frequently encountered due to disconnections of electrodes and the problem of modeling computer network traffic where data may be absent due to the expense of the data collection process.

Morup, Morten (Technical University of Denmark); Dunlavy, Daniel M. (Sandia National Laboratories, Albuquerque, NM); Acar, Evrim (Information Technologies Institute, Turkey); Kolda, Tamara Gibson

2010-07-01

240

MRI in the diagnosis of incomplete testicular torsion  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

We present a case of subacute left testicular pain and enlargement. Scrotal Doppler ultrasound revealed an enlarged left testicle with symmetrical intra-testicular colour flow bilaterally. Contrast-enhanced MRI demonstrated incomplete testicular torsion which was verified at surgery. To our knowledge, this is the first report on the use of contrast-enhanced MRI in the diagnosis of incomplete testicular torsion.

Gotto, G. T.; Chang, S. D.; Nigro, Mark K.

2010-01-01

 
 
 
 
241

Effectiveness of Incomplete Myocardial Revascularization in Chronic Coronary Occlusions  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The aim of the investigation was to assess the effectiveness of incomplete and complete myocardial revascularization in patients with multivessel disease of coronary circulation combined with chronic total occlusion (CTO localized in the right or left coronary artery.Material and methods. There were analyzed the results of interventions in 80 patients (60 male (75% and 20 female (25% aged 37–76 years (mean age 53.9±2.8 years with CTO. Incomplete revascularization was performed in 40 patients, complete revascularization — in 40 cases. Echocardiography findings of left ventricular function were compared in both groups before and after incomplete and complete endovascular revascularization.Results. Twelve months after incomplete and complete revascularization there was found significant improvement or normalization of left ventricular myocardial function in both groups compared to basic data. The results of incomplete myocardial revascularization one year after the intervention turned out to be as effective as those after CTO recanalization.

E.B. Shakhov

2012-12-01

242

Information Security Maturity Model  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available To ensure security, it is important to build-in security in both the planning and the design phases andadapt a security architecture which makes sure that regular and security related tasks, are deployedcorrectly. Security requirements must be linked to the business goals. We identified four domains thataffect security at an organization namely, organization governance, organizational culture, thearchitecture of the systems, and service management. In order to identify and explore the strength andweaknesses of particular organization’s security, a wide range model has been developed. This model isproposed as an information security maturity model (ISMM and it is intended as a tool to evaluate theability of organizations to meet the objectives of security.

Information Security Maturity Model

2011-08-01

243

Manejo estético y endodóncico de dientes con formación radicular incompleta / Aesthetic and endodontic management of teeth with incomplete root formation  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Spain | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish La necrosis pulpar es una de las principales complicaciones de los traumatismos dentales lo que implica en un diente inmaduro la interrupción de la maduración de la raíz y el cierre apical. Una terapia llamada "apexificación" se requiere para inducir la formación de una barrera calcificada apical pe [...] rmitiendo un relleno permanente y hermético de la raíz. Numerosos materiales han sido recomendados para inducir apexificación y conservar la estética en dientes con ápices inmaduros como el mineral trióxido agregado (MTA), el hidróxido de calcio [Ca (OH)2], los postes de fibra de vidrio y entre los diversos materiales utilizados en prótesis, la cerámica que reproduce la apariencia de la dentición natural y tiene un comportamiento óptico muy similar a la de los tejidos duros dentales. El presente caso reporta paciente masculino de 17 años de edad con fractura coronaria complicada, conducto radicular expuesto a cavidad oral con formación radicular incompleta. El objetivo del presente caso clínico es describir la apexificación como primera alternativa para mantener un diente útil, utilizando la formación de una barrera apical con mineral trióxido agregado (MTA) y recuperar la estética del paciente. Conclusiones: La medicación intraconducto adecuada para la inducción a la formación de un cierre apical en un diente inmaduro o con formación radicular incompleta, es de trascendental importancia para el éxito del proceso de apexificación en donde juega un papel importante el MTA ya que en la actualidad es el material que brinda más ventajas en esta práctica como inductor de dicho proceso. Abstract in english Pulpal necrosis is one of the main complications of dental trauma which implies an interruption of the root maturation and the apical closure of an immature tooth. Apexification is a therapy used for inducing the creation of an apical calcified barrier allowing a permanent filling of the root. Sever [...] al materials have been recommended to induce apexification and preserve aesthetics in teeth with immature apex, such as mineral trioxide aggregate (MTA), calcium hydroxide [Ca (OH)2], glass fiber posts, as well as the different materials used in prosthetic dentistry, ceramics that reproduce the appearance of the natural dentition and show an optic behavior very similar to the hard tissues of the teeth. This case reports a 17 year old male patient with a complicated crown fracture, exposed root canal in the oral cavity with incomplete root formation. The purpose of this clinical case is to describe the use of apexification as the first choice to keep a useful tooth, using the formation of an apical barrier with mineral trioxide aggregate (MTA) and recover the patient aesthetics. Conclusions: The appropriate intracanal medication for inducing the formation of an apical closure in an immature tooth or with an incomplete root formation, is of vital importance for the success of the process of apexification where MTA plays an important role due to the fact that right now is the material that gives more advantages in this particular practice as an inducer in that process.

L.A., Dávila Rodríguez; D.A., Barcha Barreto; E., León Barrios; M.A., Simancas Pallares.

2013-08-01

244

Purification and structural determination of an inhibitor of starfish oocyte maturation from a Bacillus species.  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Inhibitors of bacterial origins of starfish oocyte maturation were sought to obtain biologically active substances which act on either hormonal signal transduction or cell cycle regulation. An oocyte maturation-inhibiting substance found in culture fluid of a Bacillus species was purified to homogeneity. This substance possessed the nature of a detergent and specifically inhibited 1-methyladenine-induced oocyte maturation (50% inhibitory concentration, 3.3 microM) but not dithiothreitol-induc...

Toraya, T.; Maoka, T.; Tsuji, H.; Kobayashi, M.

1995-01-01

245

Radiation Processes in an Incompletely Ionized Plasma  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The first part of the paper gives a simple analytical treatment of radiation transfer (line and recombination) in a plasma, assuming full frequency redistribution. A study is made of the effect of the type of kernel of the integral transport equation on the nature of its solutions and the corresponding physical characteristics of the main types of radiation transfer, true diffusion, ''trapping'' and free escape. Some approximate methods of solving the transport equation are analysed, and results are established which do not depend on the type of kernel. The difference between capture and true diffusion, which is known to amount to the difference in the relationship between photon escape time and the dimensions of the system, can also be formulated as the difference between two characteristic lengths, the diffusion length and the quenching length. The difference between diffusion and capture is marked only if there is strong non-equilibrium, and then it appears principally in the intermediate region of optical thicknesses corresponding to the ''pure scattering'' case. However, use of the photon escape time as a kind of phenomenological characteristic means that in this region, too, an approximate solution can be written in the ''invariant'' form. Radiation losses in the final volume of a non-equilibrium plasma are considered, and a relationship is derived between the optical thickness and the degree of non-equilibrium which delineates the regions of volume and surface ineates the regions of volume and surface emission. The range of applicability of the treatment in question is discussed in the light of recent works on related aspects of radiation transfer theory. The second part analyses the quasi-static (Holtzmark) approximation in the theory of Stark broadening' of spectral lines. The limits within which this approximation can be applied are discussed; these limits are imposed by dynamic effects caused both by thermal motion of the perturbing particles themselves and by some external quenching. The treatment is based on a more general approach which reveals the real range of applicability of the frequently used binary approach, and also yields a critical analysis of certain semi-intuitive, evident criteria for the quasi-static state which appear in the literature. Two types of criteria for the quasi-static state, ''modulation'' and ''quenching'', are compared. Some new relationships describing the influence of the dynamic effects mentioned above are given. The third part contains short reviews of a number of contemporary trends in the development of the theory of such phenomena as radiation processes in an incompletely ionized plasma, broadening of lines, radiation transfer, relaxation in multi-level systems, emission in a continuum, fluctuating microfields and certain thermodynamic effects. (author)

246

Involvement of PLA2, COX and LOX in Rhinella arenarum oocyte maturation.  

Science.gov (United States)

In Rhinella arenarum, progesterone is the physiological nuclear maturation inducer that interacts with the oocyte surface and starts a cascade of events that leads to germinal vesicle breakdown (GVBD). Polyunsaturated fatty acids and their metabolites produced through cyclooxygenase (COX) and lipoxygenase (LOX) pathways play an important role in reproductive processes. In amphibians, to date, the role of arachidonic acid (AA) metabolites in progesterone (P4)-induced oocyte maturation has not been clarified. In this work we studied the participation of three enzymes involved in AA metabolism - phospholipase A2 (PLA2), COX and LOX in Rhinella arenarum oocyte maturation. PLA2 activation induced maturation in Rhinella arenarum oocytes in a dose-dependent manner. Oocytes when treated with 0.08 ?M melittin showed the highest response (78 ± 6% GVBD). In follicles, PLA2 activation did not significantly induce maturation at the assayed doses (12 ± 3% GVBD). PLA2 inhibition with quinacrine prevented melittin-induced GVBD in a dose-dependent manner, however PLA2 inactivation did not affect P4-induced maturation. This finding suggests that PLA2 is not the only phospholipase involved in P4-induced maturation in this species. P4-induced oocyte maturation was inhibited by the COX inhibitors indomethacin and rofecoxib (65 ± 3% and 63 ± 3% GVBD, respectively), although COX activity was never blocked by their addition. Follicles showed a similar response following the addition of these inhibitors. Participation of LOX metabolites in maturation seems to be correlated with seasonal variation in ovarian response to P4. During the February to June period (low P4 response), LOX inhibition by nordihydroguaiaretic acid or lysine clonixinate increased maturation by up to 70%. In contrast, during the July to January period (high P4 response), LOX inhibition had no effect on hormone-induced maturation. PMID:23443017

Ortiz, Maria Eugenia; Bühler, Marta Inés; Zelarayán, Liliana Isabel

2014-11-01

247

Interaction of poxvirus intracellular mature virion proteins with the TPR domain of kinesin light chain in live infected cells revealed by two-photon-induced fluorescence resonance energy transfer fluorescence lifetime imaging microscopy.  

Science.gov (United States)

Using two-photon-induced fluorescence lifetime imaging microscopy, we corroborate an interaction (previously demonstrated by yeast two-hybrid domain analysis) of full-length vaccinia virus (VACV; an orthopoxvirus) A36 protein with the cellular microtubule motor protein kinesin. Quenching of enhanced green fluorescent protein (EGFP), fused to the C terminus of VACV A36, by monomeric red fluorescent protein (mDsRed), fused to the tetratricopeptide repeat (TPR) domain of kinesin, was observed in live chicken embryo fibroblasts infected with either modified vaccinia virus Ankara (MVA) or wild-type fowlpox virus (FWPV; an avipoxvirus), and the excited-state fluorescence lifetime of EGFP was reduced from 2.5 ± 0.1 ns to 2.1 ± 0.1 ns due to resonance energy transfer to mDsRed. FWPV does not encode an equivalent of intracellular enveloped virion surface protein A36, yet it is likely that this virus too must interact with kinesin to facilitate intracellular virion transport. To investigate possible interactions between innate FWPV proteins and kinesin, recombinant FWPVs expressing EGFP fused to the N termini of FWPV structural proteins Fpv140, Fpv168, Fpv191, and Fpv198 (equivalent to VACV H3, A4, p4c, and A34, respectively) were generated. EGFP fusions of intracellular mature virion (IMV) surface protein Fpv140 and type II membrane protein Fpv198 were quenched by mDsRed-TPR in recombinant FWPV-infected cells, indicating that these virion proteins are found within 10 nm of mDsRed-TPR. In contrast, and as expected, EGFP fusions of the IMV core protein Fpv168 did not show any quenching. Interestingly, the p4c-like protein Fpv191, which demonstrates late association with preassembled IMV, also did not show any quenching. PMID:20943972

Jeshtadi, Ananya; Burgos, Pierre; Stubbs, Christopher D; Parker, Anthony W; King, Linda A; Skinner, Michael A; Botchway, Stanley W

2010-12-01

248

Incomplete Kloosterman sums and multiplicative inverses in short intervals  

CERN Document Server

We investigate the solubility of the congruence xy=1 (mod p), where p is a prime and x,y are restricted to lie in suitable short intervals. Our work relies on a mean value theorem for incomplete Kloosterman sums.

Browning, Tim

2012-01-01

249

Complete and incomplete fusion in transition energy range  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Some experiments investigating different interaction conditions (complete or incomplete fusion, hot points, deep inelastic collisions) in the transition energy range (20 MeV/A at 200 MeV/A) are exposed.

Harar, S.

1983-04-01

250

Emotional Maturity: Characteristics and Levels  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available "Mature" means a completed natural growth. Emotional maturity is not related to physical maturity which is expected to be but, does not grow with our chronological age. Emotionally mature people are sensible who do not whine, crib or play the blame game. They have full control over their lives. They reflect on their lives and on the role that they play in other people’s lives. Emotionally mature people lead a well-adjusted life due to their healthy outlook on life. There are various levels of emotional maturity. The final level is emotional detachment which is the direct consequence of the true understanding of emotions and therefore, letting go of all the emotions, either good or bad and feeling happy. Emotional maturity is a significant predictor of the level of success that an individual achieves in his/her lifetime. Success includes wealth, general level of happiness, self-confidence, success in relationships, etc. where emotional maturity plays a significant role to get success.

Dr. Umesh Chandra Kapri

2014-02-01

251

The Mature Students' Three Rs.  

Science.gov (United States)

The mature students' three R's framework was formulated from a study investigating mature students' experience of higher education: motivations, expectations, and outcomes. The study was based on new paradigm research methods. The three R's framework is of interest to, and useful for, advisers and counselors working with adults in the process of…

Walters, Megan

2000-01-01

252

Spinal cord mature cystic teratoma  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Spinal cord teratoma is very rare lesion. Intradural spinal teratoma consists of 0,1% of all spinal tumours. Teratomas are classified into three groups: mature, immature and malignant teratomas. The authors report a 12 years old man with intradural lumbar mature teratoma

Emel AVCI

2005-03-01

253

Spinal cord mature cystic teratoma  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Spinal cord teratoma is very rare lesion. Intradural spinal teratoma consists of 0,1% of all spinal tumours. Teratomas are classified into three groups: mature, immature and malignant teratomas. The authors report a 12 years old man with intradural lumbar mature teratoma

Avci, Emel; Adil OZTURK ,; Ozardali, Ilyas

2005-01-01

254

A Method for Planning Given Uncertain and Incomplete Information  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This paper describes ongoing research into planning in an uncertain environment. In particular, it introduces U-Plan, a planning system that constructs quantitatively ranked plans given an incomplete description of the state of the world. U-Plan uses a DempsterShafer interval to characterise uncertain and incomplete information about the state of the world. The planner takes as input what is known about the world, and constructs a number of possible initial states with repre...

Mansell, Todd Michael

2013-01-01

255

A Revision to Godel’s Incompleteness Theorem by Neutrosophy  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

According to Smarandache’s neutrosophy, the G¨odel’s incompleteness theorem contains the truth, the falsehood, and the indeterminacy of a statement under consideration. It is shown in this paper that the proof of G¨odel’s incompleteness theorem is faulty, because all possible situations are not considered (such as the situation where from some axioms wrong results can be deducted, for example, from the axiom of choice the paradox of the&nbs...

Fu, Yuhua

2008-01-01

256

Neural Control based on Incomplete Derivative PID Algorithm  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In the actual control, complete differential digital PID algorithms have been widely used. But the differential will amplify high-frequency noise. If the differential response is too sensitive, it is easy to cause the control process oscillation, incomplete PID control algorithms can overcome the differential oscillation. Incomplete derivative PID algorithm combined with neural network improves the system control quality, it has the important practical significance. The simulation shows it has good position tracking performance and high robustness.

QiZhi Wang

2013-04-01

257

Filtering, control and fault detection with randomly occurring incomplete information  

CERN Document Server

This book investigates the filtering, control and fault detection problems for several classes of nonlinear systems with randomly occurring incomplete information. It proposes new concepts, including RVNs, ROMDs, ROMTCDs, and ROQEs. The incomplete information under consideration primarily includes missing measurements, time-delays, sensor and actuator saturations, quantization effects and time-varying nonlinearities. The first part of this book focuses on the filtering, control and fault detection problems for several classes of nonlinear stochastic discrete-time systems and

Dong, Hongli; Gao, Huijun

2013-01-01

258

Sublingual misoprostol versus standard surgical care for treatment of incomplete abortion in five sub-Saharan African countries  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background In low-resource settings, where abortion is highly restricted and self-induced abortions are common, access to post-abortion care (PAC services, especially treatment of incomplete terminations, is a priority. Standard post-abortion care has involved surgical intervention but can be hard to access in these areas. Misoprostol provides an alternative to surgical intervention that could increase access to abortion care. We sought to gather additional evidence regarding the efficacy of 400 mcg of sublingual misoprostol vs. standard surgical care for treatment of incomplete abortion in the environments where need for economical non-surgical treatments may be most useful. Methods A total of 860 women received either sublingual misoprostol or standard surgical care for treatment of incomplete abortion in a multi-site randomized trial. Women with confirmed incomplete abortion, defined as past or present history of vaginal bleeding during pregnancy and an open cervical os, were eligible to participate. Participants returned for follow-up one week later to confirm clinical status. If abortion was incomplete at that time, women were offered an additional follow-up visit or immediate surgical evacuation. Results Both misoprostol and surgical evacuation are highly effective treatments for incomplete abortion (misoprostol: 94.4%, surgical: 100.0%. Misoprostol treatment resulted in a somewhat lower chance of success than standard surgical practice (RR = 0.90; 95% CI: 0.89-0.92. Both tolerability of side effects and women’s satisfaction were similar in the two study arms. Conclusion Misoprostol, much easier to provide than surgery in low-resource environments, can be used safely, successfully, and satisfactorily for treatment of incomplete abortion. Focus should shift to program implementation, including task-shifting the provision of post-abortion care to mid- and low- level providers, training and assurance of drug availability. Trial registration This study has been registered at clinicaltrials.gov as NCT00466999 and NCT01539408

Shochet Tara

2012-11-01

259

A select set of opioid ligands induce up-regulation by promoting the maturation and stability of the rat kappa-opioid receptor in human embryonic kidney 293 cells.  

Science.gov (United States)

Ligand-induced regulation of the rat kappa-opioid receptor (rKOR) was investigated in human embryonic kidney 293 cells stably expressing the FLAG-tagged rKOR. Incubation of rKOR cells with naltrexone for 24 h increased the B(max) >3-fold, with no change in the affinity of [(3)H]diprenorphine. Two immunoreactive receptor species were present in cell lysates: naltrexone treatment caused a >3-fold increase in the 52-kDa species while decreasing the level of the 42-kDa species. Dynorphin(1-13), U69,593 [(5alpha,7alpha,8beta)-(+)-N-methyl-N-(7-[1-pyrrolidinyl]-1-oxaspiro[4,5]dec-8-yl)benzeneacetamide], or salvinorin A [2S,4aR,6aR,7R,9S,10aS, 10bR)-9-(acetyloxy)-2-(3-furanyl)dodecahydro-6a,10b-dimethyl-4,10-dioxo-2H-naphtho[2,1c]pyran-7-carboxylic acid methyl ester] treatment did not alter the level of immunoreactive rKOR protein, whereas etorphine, cyclazocine, naloxone, and naloxone methiodide increased the 52-kDa and decreased the 42-kDa rKOR bands. Receptor up-regulation was associated with an increase in the number of cell surface receptors and a 2-fold increase in the E(max) for guanosine 5'-O-(3-[(35)S]thio)triphosphate binding. Glycosidase digestion indicated that the 52- and 42-kDa receptors contained complex and high-mannose N-glycans, respectively, Pulse-chase analysis and glycosidase digestion sensitivities suggested that the 42-kDa rKOR species was a precursor of the 52-kDa species. Naltrexone did not alter rKOR mRNA levels or translational efficiency, and rKOR up-regulation was not inhibited by cycloheximide. Brefeldin A caused accumulation of intracellular rKOR intermediates, and coincubation with naltrexone increased the levels of the brefeldin-induced species significantly. These results suggest that select opioid ligands up-regulate rKOR by enhancing the rate of receptor folding and maturation and by protecting the receptor from degradation, resulting in an increase in the number of rKOR binding sites, immunoreactive protein, and functional receptors. PMID:17720886

Wannemacher, Kenneth M; Yadav, Prem N; Howells, Richard D

2007-11-01

260

A New Incomplete Pattern Classification Method Based on Evidential Reasoning.  

Science.gov (United States)

The classification of incomplete patterns is a very challenging task because the object (incomplete pattern) with different possible estimations of missing values may yield distinct classification results. The uncertainty (ambiguity) of classification is mainly caused by the lack of information of the missing data. A new prototype-based credal classification (PCC) method is proposed to deal with incomplete patterns thanks to the belief function framework used classically in evidential reasoning approach. The class prototypes obtained by training samples are respectively used to estimate the missing values. Typically, in a c-class problem, one has to deal with c prototypes, which yield c estimations of the missing values. The different edited patterns based on each possible estimation are then classified by a standard classifier and we can get at most c distinct classification results for an incomplete pattern. Because all these distinct classification results are potentially admissible, we propose to combine them all together to obtain the final classification of the incomplete pattern. A new credal combination method is introduced for solving the classification problem, and it is able to characterize the inherent uncertainty due to the possible conflicting results delivered by different estimations of the missing values. The incomplete patterns that are very difficult to classify in a specific class will be reasonably and automatically committed to some proper meta-classes by PCC method in order to reduce errors. The effectiveness of PCC method has been tested through four experiments with artificial and real data sets. PMID:25014989

Liu, Zhun-Ga; Pan, Quan; Mercier, Gregoire; Dezert, Jean

2014-07-01

 
 
 
 
261

New approach for evaluating incomplete and complete fusion cross sections with continuum-discretized coupled-channels method  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

We propose a new method for evaluating incomplete and complete fusion cross sections separately using the Continuum-Discretized Coupled-Channels method. This method is applied to analysis of the deuteron induced reaction on a 7Li target up to 50 MeV of the deuteron incident energy. Effects of deuteron breakup on this reaction are explicitly taken into account. Results of the method are compared with those of the Glauber model, and the difference between the two is discussed. It is found that the energy dependence of the incomplete fusion cross sections obtained by the present calculation is almost the same as that obtained by the Glauber model, while for the complete fusion cross section, the two models give markedly different energy dependence. We show also that a prescription for evaluating incomplete fusion cross sections proposed in a previous study gives much smaller result than an experimental value. (author)

262

Permissive Roles of Phosphatidyl Inositol 3-Kinase and Akt in Skeletal Myocyte Maturation  

Science.gov (United States)

Skeletal muscle differentiation, maturation, and regeneration are regulated by interactions between signaling pathways activated by hormones and growth factors, and intrinsic genetic programs controlled by myogenic transcription factors, including members of the MyoD and myocyte enhancer factor 2 (MEF2) families. Insulin-like growth factors (IGFs) play key roles in muscle development in the embryo, and in the maintenance and hypertrophy of mature muscle in the adult, but the precise signaling pathways responsible for these effects remain incompletely defined. To study mechanisms of IGF action in muscle, we have developed a mouse myoblast cell line termed C2BP5 that is dependent on activation of the IGF-I receptor and the phosphatidyl inositol 3-kinase (PI3-kinase)-Akt pathway for initiation of differentiation. Here, we show that differentiation of C2BP5 myoblasts could be induced in the absence of IGF action by recombinant adenoviruses expressing MyoD or myogenin, but it was reversibly impaired by the PI3-kinase inhibitor LY294002. Similar results were observed using a dominant-negative version of Akt, a key downstream component of PI3-kinase signaling, and also were seen in C3H 10T1/2 fibroblasts. Inhibition of PI3-kinase did not prevent accumulation of muscle differentiation-specific proteins (myogenin, troponin T, or myosin heavy chain), did not block transcriptional activation of E-box containing muscle reporter genes by MyoD or myogenin, and did not inhibit the expression or function of endogenous MEF2C or MEF2D. An adenovirus encoding active Akt could partially restore terminal differentiation of MyoD-expressing and LY294002-treated myoblasts, but the resultant myofibers contained fewer nuclei and were smaller and thinner than normal, indicating that another PI3-kinase-stimulated pathway in addition to Akt is required for full myocyte maturation. Our results support the idea that an IGF-regulated PI3-kinase pathway functions downstream of or in parallel with MyoD, myogenin, and MEF2 in muscle development to govern the late steps of differentiation that lead to multinucleated myotubes. PMID:14595115

Wilson, Elizabeth M.; Tureckova, Jolana; Rotwein, Peter

2004-01-01

263

Obesity and secondary sexual maturity in boys  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Background Obesity induces earlier secondary sexual maturity in girls. However, results of studies in boys have been inconclusive. Objective To assess for an association between obesity and sexual maturity in boys. Methods This was a prospective cohort study on 133 obese and 133 matched-for-age, non-obese, prepubertal boys, aged 9 to 10 years. They were observed every 4 months for a two year period. Obesity was defined as the BMI ?the 95th percentile, according to the Centers for Disease Control 2000 growth charts. Secondary sexual maturity was defined as testicular volume of ?4 mL and Tanner staging of pubic hair of ?P2. Two trained nurses and a pediatric resident collected the data. Results By the end of the study period, 106 (79.7% obese boys had attained a testicular volume of 4 mL or more, vs. 85 (63.9% non-obese boys (RR 1.78; 95%CI 1.19 to 2.67; P=0.004. Furthermore, 81 (60.9% obese boys attained pubic hair states of Tanner stage P2 vs. 37 (27.8% non-obese boys (RR 1.85 95%CI 1.46 to 2.34; P<0.001. The mean durations for achieving testicular volume of ?4 mL were 21.25 (95%CI 20.75 to 21.74 months in obese boys and 22.26 (95%CI 21.80 to 22.72 months in non-obese boys (P=0.007. The mean durations for achieving Tanner stage P2 were 17.04 (95%CI 16.44 to 17.63 months in obese boys and 20.87 (95%CI 20.05 to 21.68 months in non-obese boys. Conclusion Obesity is associated with earlier onset of sexual maturity in boys. [Paediatr Indones. 2013;53:283-6.].

Modella Rahmani Femina

2013-09-01

264

H5 N-terminal ? sheet promotes oligomerization of H7-HA1 that induces better antibody affinity maturation and enhanced protection against H7N7 and H7N9 viruses compared to inactivated influenza vaccine.  

Science.gov (United States)

Initiation of mass vaccination is critical in response to influenza pandemic. There is an urgent need of a simple, rapid method for production of influenza vaccine that is more effective than current traditional influenza vaccines. Recent H7N9 transmissions to humans in China with high morbidity/mortality initiated extensive vaccine evaluation. We produced the HA1 domains (amino acids 1-320) from H7N9 and H7N7 strains in E. coli. Both were found to contain primarily monomers/trimers with low oligomeric content. However, when residues from the N-terminal ? sheet (first 8 amino acid) of H7 HA1 domains were swapped with the corresponding amino acids from H5N1, functional oligomeric H7 HA1 were produced (HA1-DS), demonstrating strong receptor binding and hemagglutination. In rabbits, the HA1-DS from either H7N9 or H7N7 generated high neutralization titers against both homologous and heterologous H7 strains, superior to the unmodified H7 HA1 proteins. In ferrets, HA1-DS from H7N7 elicited higher (and faster) HI titers, better protected ferrets from lethality, weight loss, and reduced viral loads following challenge with wild-type highly pathogenic H7N7 virus compared with inactivated H7N7 subunit vaccine. HA1-DS vaccinated ferrets were also better protected from weight loss after challenge with the heterologous H7N9 virus compared with inactivated H7N7 subunit vaccine. Importantly, the H7N7 HA1-DS vaccine induced antibody affinity maturation far superior to the inactivated H7N7 subunit vaccine, which strongly correlated with control of viral loads in the nasal washes after challenge with either H7N7 or H7N9 strains. We conclude that N-terminus ? sheet domain-swap can be used to produce stable functional oligomeric forms of better recombinant HA1 vaccines in simple, inexpensive bacterial system for rapid response to emerging pandemic threat for the global population. PMID:25284811

Khurana, Surender; Coyle, Elizabeth M; Verma, Swati; King, Lisa R; Manischewitz, Jody; Crevar, Corey J; Carter, Donald M; Ross, Ted M; Golding, Hana

2014-11-12

265

Assessing harvest maturity in nectarines  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The maturity at harvest of nectarines can be assessed with the novel technique of time-resolved reflectance spectroscopy (TRS) measuring the light absorption at 670 nm in the fruit flesh. A kinetic model was developed that links this absorption coefficient (¿a), expressed as the biological shift factor, to firmness decrease during ripening. The model thus includes the variations in maturity at harvest of the individual fruit. In non-linear regression analyses of data from four different seas...

Tijskens, L. M. M.; Zerbini, F. M.; Schouten, R. E.; Vanoli, M.; Jacob, S.; Grassi, M.; Cubeddu, R.; Spinelli, L.; Torricelli, A.

2007-01-01

266

Partially balanced incomplete block designs associated with minimum perfect dominating sets of Clebsch graph  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available A dominating set $S$ of a graph $G$ is perfect if each vertex of G is dominated by exactly one vertex in $S$. We study the minimum perfect dominating sets in the Petersen graph and in the Clebsch graph. In this paper we show that every minimum perfect dominating set in the Petersen graph and the Clebsch graph induces $K_{1,3}$ and $C_4$ respectively. Further we establish that these classes of minimum perfect dominating sets of Clebsch graph form Partially Balanced Incomplete Block Designs with the parameters (16, 40, 10, 4, 1, 4.

Vinay Kumar

2012-05-01

267

Partially balanced incomplete block designs associated with minimum perfect dominating sets of Clebsch graph  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available A dominating set $S$ of a graph $G$ is perfect if each vertex of G is dominated by exactly one vertex in $S$. We study the minimum perfect dominating sets in the Petersen graph and in the Clebsch graph. In this paper we show that every minimum perfect dominating set in the Petersen graph and the Clebsch graph induces $K_{1,3}$ and $C_4$ respectively. Further we establish that these classes of minimum perfect dominating sets of Clebsch graph form Partially Balanced Incomplete Block Designs with the parameters (16, 40, 10, 4, 1, 4.

Vinay Kumar

2012-04-01

268

Partially balanced incomplete block designs associated with minimum perfect dominating sets of Clebsch graph  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

A dominating set $S$ of a graph $G$ is perfect if each vertex of G is dominated by exactly one vertex in $S$. We study the minimum perfect dominating sets in the Petersen graph and in the Clebsch graph. In this paper we show that every minimum perfect dominating set in the Petersen graph and the Clebsch graph induces $K_{1,3}$ and $C_4$ respectively. Further we establish that these classes of minimum perfect dominating sets of Clebsch graph form Partially Balanced Incomplete Block Designs wit...

Vinay Kumar,; Nandappa, D. S.; Mahabaleswar, U. S.

2012-01-01

269

ON TWO METHODS OF ANALYSING BALANCED INCOMPLETE BLOCK DESIGNS  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The paper briefly discusses the balanced incomplete–block design (BIBD’s and further compares two methods of analyzing them-the classical and vector space analysis of variance (ANOVA methods. These methods are applied differently to the data arising from the balanced incomplete block designs (BIBD’s. The basic interest is to compare the performance of the two methods of analysis on the available data from National Root Crop Research Institute (N.R.C.R.I Umudike, Abia State. To achieve this, we shall consider treatment (adjusted, block (adjusted treatment (not adjusted in the classical ANOVA method and the vector space ANOVA method.  Block is adjusted to know if the experiment is symmetric balanced incomplete block design (SBIBD. The classical ANOVA method was easier to compute and more convenient to handle than the vector ANOVA method. The classical ANOVA method is found to be preferable to the vector space ANOVA method.

Chigozie Kelechi Acha

2012-11-01

270

Possible communicative cues to syntactic incompleteness in spoken dialogues  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Due to the dynamic nature of dialogues, spoken utterances are often characterized by some degree of fragmentation. This fragmentation is directly reflected by the incompleteness of the syntactic structure of such utterances that represent a considerable challenge for automatic parsing. At the same time, syntactic incompleteness is also a reflection of some cognitive processes underlying the fragmentation of such an interaction. This fragmentation is often accompanied by a set of nonverbal gestures offering thereby the chance to attempt to find certain cues to these cognitive processes by studying the complex of aligning verbal and nonverbal elements. The present paper addresses the issue of the interaction of multimodal markers of conversation with the syntax of spoken utterances to find if certain communicative functions may be cues to the incompleteness of spoken syntax.

Hunyadi, László

2013-01-01

271

Maduración visual retardada / Delayed visual maturation  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Cuba | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish Retraso en la maduración visual es el término utilizado para describir aquellos niños con incapacidad de fijar o seguir objetos en el ambiente, que no responden ante la proximidad de un objeto amenazante o un destello de luz, por ejemplo, abrir y cerrar los ojos; pero luego mejora a la edad de 6 mes [...] es sin tratamiento. Se incluyen dentro de las posibles causas la falta de oxígeno antes, durante o después del nacimiento, enfermedades producidas por virus o bacterias como la meningitis y el citomegalovirus, o una lesión traumática,aunque hoy en día queda poco consenso en cuanto a la etiología de este fenómeno. Estos niños con retraso en la maduración visual parecen ciegos, incapaces de centrar la atención, fijar o seguir cualquier parte del mundo visual. La exploración ocular y neurológica del niño es completamente normal. Los síntomas se resuelven sin tratamiento y con frecuencia, no se encuentra ninguna causa para la presentación inicial. El retraso en la maduración visual se clasifica en 3 grupos: el primero con retraso en la maduración visual como única anomalía y una recuperación rápida y completa. El segundo incluye aquellos casos con problemas oculares, como estrabismo, error refractivo elevado, retraso mental, entre otros, logrando una recuperación más lenta y a menudo incompleta. El tercer grupo incluye los casos con otras anomalías oculares. Abstract in english Delayed visual maturation is the term used to describe those children with inability to fix their eyes with the object or to visually follow them in the environment, who do not react to a threatening object or a gleam of light close to them, for example, by opening and closing their eyes. However, t [...] hey generally improve their condition at the age of 6 months without any treatment. The possible causes of this disorder may be lack of oxygen, before, during or after birth, illnesses caused by viruses or bacteria, such as meningitis and cytomegalovirus, or a traumatic lesion, although there exists now minority consensus about the real etiology of this phenomenon. The children suffering delayed visual maturation seem to be blind, unable to focus attention, fix or visually follow any portion of the visual world. Ocular and neurological examination of the child is completely normal. Symptoms disappear without any treatment and the cause for the initial occurrence is usually unfound. The delayed visual maturation is classified into 3 groups, the first group with delayed visual maturation as the only anomaly and a quick and complete recovery. The second group includes those cases with ocular problems, namely strabismus, high refractive error, mental retardation, and others, in which recovery is slower and often incomplete. The third group includes cases with other ocular anomalies.

Yolelvis, Monfort Estévez; Teresita de Jesús, Méndez Sánchez.

272

The PI3K pathway drives the maturation of mast cells via microphthalmia transcription factor  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Mast cell maturation is poorly understood. We show that enhanced PI3K activation results in accelerated maturation of mast cells by inducing the expression of microphthalmia transcription factor (Mitf). Conversely, loss of PI3K activation reduces the maturation of mast cells by inhibiting the activation of AKT, leading to reduced Mitf but enhanced Gata-2 expression and accumulation of Gr1+Mac1+ myeloid cells as opposed to mast cells. Consistently, overexpression of Mitf accelerates the matura...

Ma, Peilin; Mali, Raghuveer Singh; Munugalavadla, Veerendra; Krishnan, Subha; Ramdas, Baskar; Sims, Emily; Martin, Holly; Ghosh, Joydeep; Li, Shuo; Chan, Rebecca J.; Krystal, Gerald; Craig, Andrew W.; Takemoto, Clifford; Kapur, Reuben

2011-01-01

273

Statistics of incomplete quotients of continued fractions of quadratic irrationalities  

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V.I. Arnold has experimentally established that the limit of the statistics of incomplete quotients of partial continued fractions of quadratic irrationalities coincides with the Gauss--Kuz'min statistics. Below we briefly prove this fact for roots of the equation $r x^2+p x=q$ with fixed $p$ and $r$ ($r>0$), and with random $q$, $q\\le R$, $R\\to \\infty$. In Section 3 we estimate the sum of incomplete quotients of the period. According to the obtained bound, prior to the pass...

Lerner, E. Yu

2008-01-01

274

Pricing the Option to Surrender in Incomplete Markets  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

New international accounting standards require insurers to reflect the value of embedded options and guarantees in their products. Pricing techniques based on the Black & Scholes paradigm are often used, however, the hypotheses underneath this model are rarely met. We propose a framework that encompasses the most known sources of incompleteness. We show that the surrender option, joined with a wide range of claims embedded in insurance contracts, can be priced through our tool, and deliver hedging portfolios to mitigate the risk arising from their positions. We provide extensive empirical analysis to highlight the effect of incompleteness on the fair value of the option.

Consiglio, Andrea; De Giovanni, Domenico

2007-01-01

275

Tsallis Entropy, Escort Probability and the Incomplete Information Theory  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Non-extensive statistical mechanics appears as a powerful way to describe complex systems. Tsallis entropy, the main core of this theory has been remained as an unproven assumption. Many people have tried to derive the Tsallis entropy axiomatically. Here we follow the work of Wang (EPJB, 2002 and use the incomplete information theory to retrieve the Tsallis entropy. We change the incomplete information axioms to consider the escort probability and obtain a correct form of Tsallis entropy in comparison with Wang’s work.

Parvin Sadeghi

2010-12-01

276

Incomplete chromosome exchanges are not fingerprints of high LET neutrons  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A new fluorescence in situ hybridisation (FISH) technique combining whole chromosome specific DNA libraries with pan-centromeric DNA and telomeric PNA probes was introduced to investigate the induction of chromosome exchanges in human lymphocytes after exposure to low (4 Gy X rays) and high (1 Gy neutrons) linear energy transfer radiation. This combination of probes allowed accurate detection of exchange aberrations involving the painted chromosomes and an unambiguous discrimination between complete and incomplete exchanges, as well as terminal and interstitial deletions. Data obtained in the present study using combined FISH assay with telomeres detection showed no differences between two types of radiation regarding the induction of incomplete exchanges. (author)

277

INCOMPLETE MARKETS AND FINANCIAL INSTABILITY. THE ROLE OF INFORMATION  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Considering the way that the world economy has evolved over the last 30-40 years, there was a transition from a predominant real economy to a predominant financial economy. Once, there were prevalent economic crises (when the real economy was important; today, the economies all around the world face prevalent financial crises; therefore, it is extremely important to study the role of financial markets, especially the incomplete markets feature (given by the imperfect information. The paper aims to analyze the relationship between imperfect information and incomplete financial markets and the way they are affecting the financial stability.

CRISTIAN IONESCU

2012-01-01

278

Early maturing, dwarf mutant of Urdbean [Vigna mungo (L.) Hepper  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Induced mutation work on urdbean [Vigna mungo (L.) Hepper] has been taken up to improve the agronomic characteristics. From gamma irradiated M2 populations various types of mutant were isolated including one early maturing, dwarf mutant. The mutant line was evaluated in the M4 and is being reported in this paper. (author)

279

Sustaining Exploration in Mature Basins  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Exploration is a business like any other business driven by opportunity, resources and expectation of profit. Therefore, exploration will thrive anywhere the opportunities are significant, the resources are available and the outlook for profit (or value creation) is good. To sustain exploration activities anywhere, irrespective of the environment, there must be good understanding of the drivers of these key investment criteria. This paper will examine these investment criteria as they relate to exploration business and address the peculiarity of exploration in mature basin. Mature basins are unique environment that lends themselves a mix of fears, paradigms and realities, particularly with respect to the perception of value. To sustain exploration activities in a mature basin, we need to understand these perceptions relative to the true drivers of profitability. Exploration in the mature basins can be as profitable as exploration in emerging basins if the dynamics of value definition-strategic and fiscal values are understood by operators, regulators and co ventures alike. Some suggestions are made in this presentation on what needs to be done in addressing these dynamic investment parameters and sustaining exploration activities in mature basins

280

Pharmaceutical Options for Triggering of Final Oocyte Maturation in ART  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Since the pioneering days of in vitro fertilization, hCG has been the gold standard to induce final follicular maturation. We herein reviewed different pharmaceutical options for triggering of final oocyte maturation in ART. The new upcoming agent seems to be GnRHa with its potential advantages over hCG trigger. GnRHa triggering elicits a surge of gonadotropins resembling the natural midcycle surge of gonadotropins, without the prolonged action of hCG, resulting in the retrieval of more mature oocytes and a significant reduction in or elimination of OHSS as compared to hCG triggering. The induction of final follicular maturation using GnRHa represents a paradigm shift in the ovulation triggering concept in ART and, thus, a way to develop a safer IVF procedure. Kisspeptins are key central regulators of the neuroendocrine mechanisms of human reproduction, who have been shown to effectively elicit an LH surge and to induce final oocyte maturation in IVF cycles. This new trigger concept may, therefore, offer a completely new, "natural" pharmacological option for ovulation induction. Whether kisspeptins will be the future agent to trigger ovulation remains to be further explored.

Castillo, Juan Carlos; Humaidan, Peter

2014-01-01

 
 
 
 
281

On a continuous time game with incomplete information  

CERN Document Server

For zero-sum two-player continuous-time games with integral payoff and incomplete information on one side, one shows that the optimal strategy of the informed player can be computed through an auxiliary optimization problem over some martingale measures. One also characterizes the optimal martingale measures and compute it explicitely in several examples.

Cardaliaguet, Pierre

2008-01-01

282

Projectile-target dependence of incomplete fusion processes  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The results of recent heavy-ion studies indicate that at higher bombarding energies not all central collisions result in the fusion of the projectile and target, but rather that an increasing fraction of these collisions involve the emission of a particle or particles from the projectile or target prior to fusion (i.e., incomplete fusion processes). To obtain information regarding the projectile-target dependence of complete and incomplete fusion processes, measurements of the velocity spectra of the evaporation residues from fusion reactions have been performed using beams of 16O, 24Mg, 28Si, 32S on a series of light- and medium-weight target nuclei. Deviations of the spectra constitute evidence for contributions from incomplete fusion processes and provide an indication of their magnitude. The analysis of these measurements have been completed, revealing evidence that for asymmetric systems (i.e., A/sub proj./ A/sub targ./) incomplete fusion processes begin to contribute above some threshold velocity, contributing as much as 30% of the ER yields at the highest energy studied (E/sub Lab/ = 9 MeV/nucleon)

283

Root cause of incomplete control rod insertions at Westinghouse reactors  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Within the past year, incomplete RCCA insertions have been observed on high burnup fuel assemblies at two Westinghouse PWRs. Initial tests at the Wolf Creek site indicated that the direct cause of the incomplete insertions observed at Wolf Creek was excessive fuel assembly thimble tube distortion. Westinghouse committed to the NRC to perform a root cause analysis by the end of August, 1996. The root cause analysis process used by Westinghouse included testing at ten sites to obtain drag, growth and other characteristics of high burnup fuel assemblies. It also included testing at the Westinghouse hot cell of two of the Wolf Creek incomplete insertion assemblies. A mechanical model was developed to calculate the response of fuel assemblies when subjected to compressive loads. Detailed manufacturing reviews were conducted to determine if this was a manufacturing related issue. In addition, a review of available worldwide experience was performed. Based on the above, it was concluded that the thimble tube distortion observed on the Wolf Creek incomplete insertion assemblies was caused by unusual fuel assembly growth over and above what would typically be expected as a result of irradiation exposure. It was determined that the unusual growth component is a combination of growth due to oxide accumulation and accelerated growth, and would only be expected in high temperature plants on fuel assemblies that see long residence times and high power duties.

Ray, S. [Westinghouse, Monroeville, PA (United States)

1997-01-01

284

Statistical evaluations of current sampling procedures and incomplete core recovery  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This document develops two formulas that describe the effects of incomplete recovery on core sampling results for the Hanford waste tanks. The formulas evaluate incomplete core recovery from a worst-case (i.e.,biased) and best-case (i.e., unbiased) perspective. A core sampler is unbiased if the sample material recovered is a random sample of the material in the tank, while any sampler that preferentially recovers a particular type of waste over others is a biased sampler. There is strong evidence to indicate that the push-mode sampler presently used at the Hanford site is a biased one. The formulas presented here show the effects of incomplete core recovery on the accuracy of composition measurements, as functions of the vertical variability in the waste. These equations are evaluated using vertical variability estimates from previously sampled tanks (B110, U110, C109). Assuming that the values of vertical variability used in this study adequately describes the Hanford tank farm, one can use the formulas to compute the effect of incomplete recovery on the accuracy of an average constituent estimate. To determine acceptable recovery limits, we have assumed that the relative error of such an estimate should be no more than 20%

285

Incompleteness of Representation Theory: Hidden Symmetries and Quantum Nonintegrability  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Representation theory is shown to be incomplete in terms of enumerating all integrable limits of quantum systems. As a consequence, one can find exactly solvable Hamiltonians which have apparently strongly broken symmetry. The number of these hidden symmetries depends upon the realization of the Hamiltonian. copyright 1997 The American Physical Society

286

Angular momentum transfer in incomplete-fusion reactions  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The measured correlation of charged-particle energies and angles with ?-ray multiplicities indicate that the average angular momentum transferred in the capture of 4He, 8Be, and 12C from 153-MeV 16O projectiles by a 154Sm target increases linearly with captured mass. These incomplete-fusion processes are shown to originate from undamped peripheral collisions

287

Sublingual misoprostol versus standard surgical care for treatment of incomplete abortion in five sub-Saharan African countries  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Abstract Background In low-resource settings, where abortion is highly restricted and self-induced abortions are common, access to post-abortion care (PAC) services, especially treatment of incomplete terminations, is a priority. Standard post-abortion care has involved surgical intervention but can be hard to access in these areas. Misoprostol provides an alternative to surgical intervention that could increase access to abortion care. We sought to gather additional evidence...

Shochet Tara; Diop Ayisha; Gaye Alioune; Nayama Madi; Sall Aissata; Bukola Fawole; Blandine Thieba; Abiola Okunlola; Dao Blami; Olayinka Ogunbode; Winikoff Beverly

2012-01-01

288

Maturation and migration of cutaneous dendritic cells.  

Science.gov (United States)

Dendritic cells have been isolated from the epidermis, dermis, and lymphatics of skin. Cells from each cutaneous compartment can exhibit the distinct morphology, surface phenotype, and strong T-cell-stimulating activity of dendritic cells that are isolated from other organs. Of importance are the mechanisms by which the maturation and movement of dendritic cells are regulated within intact tissues. Epidermal dendritic cells turn over slowly in the steady state. Stimuli, including contact allergens and transplantation, perhaps by inducing a release of cytokines such as granulocyte macrophage-colony-stimulating factor, mobilize these dendritic cells into the dermis and lymph. This migration is accompanied by the maturation of dendritic cell functions; e.g., antigen-presenting major histocompatibility complex molecules and B7 costimulators increase markedly. On the other hand, there is a sizable, steady-state flux of dendritic cells in afferent lymph draining the skin, which suggests a constant traffic through the dermis that is independent of sessile epidermal dendritic cells. When explants of skin are placed in organ culture, dendritic cells emigrate into the medium for 1-3 d. The dendritic cells are mature and can bind tightly to small memory T cells that also migrate in these cultures. The emigrated mixtures of dendritic cells and T cells should be useful in the study of many clinical states. This is illustrated by recent experiments showing that migratory skin cells are readily infected with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-1. A strong productive infection takes place in the absence of exogenous cytokines, foreign sera, or mitogens or antigens. The dendritic cell-T-cell conjugates are the essential site for infection. This cellular milieu may model events during the sexual transmission of HIV-1, where relevant mucosal surfaces are covered by skin-like epithelia. The capture of CD4+ memory T cells by dendritic cells may explain the chronic drain of immune memory in HIV infection. PMID:7615992

Steinman, R; Hoffman, L; Pope, M

1995-07-01

289

Normal brain maturation in MRI  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Normal brain maturation was evaluated with MR imaging of 36 neonate to-2-year-old patients. The myelination process in centrum semiovale was quantitatively assessed in 50 6-months- to 15-year-old children, and 40 adults aged 16-60 years. Imaging was performed with a 0.35 T superconducting MR unit using spin echo pulse sequences. On T1-weighted images, 3 stages of maturation could be observed: 1. neonates within 1 month; 2. 1-6 months-of-age; and 3. adult configuration after 6-7 months-of-age. Also on T2-weighted images 3 maturation stages could be defined: 1. neonatal pattern in the first 6 months of life; 2. signal inversion between 6-18 months; and 3. adult appearance after 18 months. Thus, the combination of T1- and T2-weighted images could lead us to the assessment of brain maturation in infants younger than 2 years. The myelination process in centrum semiovale was fast during the first 3 years followed by a slow progression until 20-30 years of age. (author). 14 refs.; 14 figs.; 2 tabs

290

Motivational Maturity and Helping Behavior  

Science.gov (United States)

Maturity in conative development (type of motivation included in Maslow's needs hierarchy) was found to be predictive of helping behavior in middle class white male college students. The effects of safety and esteem needs were compared, and the acceptance of responsibility was also investigated. (GDC)

Haymes, Michael; Green, Logan

1977-01-01

291

Mature Cystic Teratoma of Liver  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

A four-year-old boy presented with constipation and mild abdominal distention for one year. Radiologic investigations showed a multiloculated cystic lesion in the caudate lobe of liver with focal calcification in the wall. The child underwent laparotomy with marsupialization of the cystic lesion. Histopathologic examination showed mature teratoma of liver.

Richa Gupta; Kalpana Bansal; Vivek Manchanda; Ruchika Gupta

2013-01-01

292

Diversification of phytochrome contributions to germination as a function of seed-maturation environment.  

Science.gov (United States)

Environmental conditions during seed maturation influence germination, but the genetic basis of maternal environmental effects on germination is virtually unknown. Using single and multiple mutants of phytochromes, it is shown here that different phytochromes contributed to germination differently, depending on seed-maturation conditions. Arabidopsis thaliana wild-type seeds that were matured under cool temperatures were intensely dormant compared with seeds matured at warmer temperature, and this dormancy was broken only after warm seed-stratification followed by cold seed-stratification. The warm-cold stratification broke dormancy in fresh seeds but not in dry after-ripened seeds. Functional PHYB and PHYD were necessary to break cool-induced dormancy, which indicates a previously unknown and ecologically important function for PHYD. Disruption of PHYA in combination with PHYD (but not PHYB) restored germination to near wild-type levels, indicating that PHYA contributes to the maintenance of cool-induced dormancy on a phyD background. Effects of seed-maturation temperature were much stronger than effects of seed-maturation photoperiod. PHYB contributed to germination somewhat more strongly in seeds matured under short days, whereas PHYD contributed to germination somewhat more strongly in seeds matured under long days. The variable contributions of different phytochromes to germination as a function of seed-maturation conditions reveal further functional diversification of the phytochromes during the process of germination. This study identifies among the first genes to be associated with maternal environmental effects on germination. PMID:18028293

Donohue, Kathleen; Heschel, M Shane; Butler, Colleen M; Barua, Deepak; Sharrock, Robert A; Whitelam, Garry C; Chiang, George C K

2008-01-01

293

Licensed human natural killer cells aid dendritic cell maturation via TNFSF14/LIGHT  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

As well as having potent cytotoxic activity, natural killer (NK) cells have a regulatory role and interactions between NK cells and dendritic cells (DCs) aid DC maturation and adaptive immunity. However, the mechanisms underpinning NK–DC cross-talk are poorly defined. We show that tumor cells induce rapid production of the cytokine TNF superfamily member 14 (TNFSF14) in human NK cells and that these NK cells induce DC maturation in a TNFSF14-dependent manner. The synergistic activity of NK ...

Holmes, Tim D.; Wilson, Erica B.; Black, Emma V. I.; Benest, Andrew V.; Vaz, Candida; Tan, Betty; Tanavde, Vivek M.; Cook, Graham P.

2014-01-01

294

Calculating Weights Methods in Complete Matrices and Incomplete Matrices  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available It is well known that the Analytic Hierarchy Process (AHP of Saaty is one of the most powerful approach for decision aid in solving of a multi criteria decision making (MCDM problem. Several computing weights methods in AHP are analyzed. Based on least square method, three methods for calculating weights using the least the sum of squares of error criterion, the least the sum of error absolute value criterion and the least the error absolute value criterion are proposed. New least squares method is translated into linear system and Minimax method and absolute deviation method are translated into linear programming. New proposed methods can apply to the ranking estimation in incomplete AHP, which is very important to estimate incomplete comparisons data to have alternative’s weights. The computation methods and results are given through numerical examples.

Shang Gao

2010-03-01

295

Consumption-Portfolio Optimization with Recursive Utility in Incomplete Markets  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

In an incomplete market, we study the optimal consumption-portfolio decision of an investor with recursive preferences of Epstein–Zin type. Applying a classical dynamic programming approach, we formulate the associated Hamilton–Jacobi–Bellman equation and provide a suitable verification theorem. The proof of this verification theorem is complicated by the fact that the Epstein–Zin aggregator is non-Lipschitz, so standard verification results (e.g. in Duffie and Epstein, Econometrica 60, 393–394, 1992) are not applicable. We provide new explicit solutions to the Bellman equation with Epstein–Zin preferences in an incomplete market for non-unit elasticity of intertemporal substitution (EIS) and apply our verification result to prove that they solve the consumption-investment problem. We also compare our exact solutions to the Campbell–Shiller approximation and assess its accuracy.

Kraft, Holger; Seifried, Frank Thomas

2013-01-01

296

Vulnerability of complex networks under intentional attack with incomplete information  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

We study the vulnerability of complex networks under intentional attack with incomplete information, which means that one can only preferentially attack the most important nodes among a local region of a network. The known random failure and the intentional attack are two extreme cases of our study. Using the generating function method, we derive the exact value of the critical removal fraction fc of nodes for the disintegration of networks and the size of the giant component. To validate our model and method, we perform simulations of intentional attack with incomplete information in scale-free networks. We show that the attack information has an important effect on the vulnerability of scale-free networks. We also demonstrate that hiding a fraction of the nodes information is a cost-efficient strategy for enhancing the robustness of complex networks

297

Diagnosis and treatment of incomplete occlusion of fallopian tube  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Incomplete occlusion of fallopian tube is a common cause for fallopian tubal infertility. However, the spontaneous intrauterine pregnancy rate may be increased after the patients receive appropriate diagnosis and treatment. Laparoscopy combined with hysteroscopy has been regarded to be a golden standard for diagnosis and treatment of fallopian tubal infertility, but its clinical application has been markedly limited due to its invasiveness and great expense. As the first-line screening technique, hysterosalpingography has been widely used to evaluate the fallopian tube patency. Selective salpingography and fallopian tube recanalization are more superior to hysterosalpingography in diagnosing and treating incomplete occlusion of fallopian tube. Selective salpingography and fallopian tube recanalization can even be on a par with laparoscopy, and moreover, can dynamically observe the fallopian tube function as well. As a safe and economical technique with fewer side-effects, selective salpingography plus fallopian tube recanalization has been more widely employed in clinical practice. (authors)

298

Male silver eels mature by swimming  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background If European silver eels are prevented from reproductive migration, they remain in a prepubertal stage by dopaminergic inhibition of pituitary activity. Because this inhibition is likely a requirement for an extended female growth stage, we tested if it is sex-specific by subjecting both sexes to stimulation by GnRHa (Gonadotropin-Releasing Hormone agonist – injection or 3-months swimming in seawater. Results In contrast to females, males showed a two- to three-fold higher LH? (luteinising hormone ? subunit – expression, a three- to five-fold higher GSI (Gonadosomatic index and induced spermatogenesis when compared with the untreated control group. Conclusion Dopaminergic inhibition is thus not effective in males and swimming results in natural maturation, probably via GnRH-release.

Spaink Herman P

2008-07-01

299

Observation of entrance channel mass-asymmetry effect on incomplete fusion reaction for Ne20+Ho165 system  

Science.gov (United States)

An experiment has been performed to explore the incomplete fusion (ICF) reaction dynamics in heavy ion induced reactions. Excitation functions (EFs) for eighteen evaporation residues (ERs) produced in the system Ne20+Ho165 have been measured in the energy range ?88-164 MeV. Some of the ERs have significant contribution from precursor decay, which has been separated out from the measured cumulative cross-sections to get direct production cross-sections. Parameters of the statistical model code PACE-2 are optimized to reproduce the ERs populated in complete fusion reactions such as in xn and pxn channels. Using the same parameters, EFs for the residues produced in ?-particle(s) emission channels have been calculated. A significant enhancement in the measured EFs of the ERs produced in ?-particle(s) emission channels over the PACE-2 predictions have been observed which indicates the occurrence of incomplete fusion reaction process. In the ICF process the break-up of projectile 20Ne into He4+O16 and/or Be8+C12 takes place followed by fusion of one of the fragments with the target nucleus 165Ho. The present data analyses suggest that probability of incomplete fusion reaction increases with projectile energy. The ICF fraction FICF has been estimated and found to increase with increasing mass-asymmetry [AT/(AT+AP)] of the partners in entrance channel. It is also observed that critical angular momentum associated with incomplete fusion channels at higher projectile energy may be associated with ?-values lower than that of peripheral collisions, indicating that the incomplete fusion competes with complete fusion even at angular momentum values little lower than critical angular momentum.

Singh, D.; Ali, Rahbar; Afzal Ansari, M.; Tomar, B. S.; Rashid, M. H.; Guin, R.; Das, S. K.

2012-04-01

300

Simon's bleedings in case of incomplete hanging: a case report.  

Science.gov (United States)

Simon's bleedings are hemorrhages into the anterior aspect of the intervertebral discs of the lumbar region and are usually considered a classic sign of vitality in cases of hanging with full suspension of the body. The presented case shows that such a finding can also occur in cases of incomplete hanging. This paper renews the knowledge of this important sign classically described in the German medicolegal literature. PMID:19259025

Fracasso, Tony; Pfeiffer, Heidi

2008-12-01

 
 
 
 
301

On the forecast of periodic events from incomplete records  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In practice several natural phenomena like wind direction, death rates, egg production ,etc. follow circular normal distribution. In this paper the problem of estimating the parameters of this distribution from incomplete records has been worked out by the method of maximum likelihood. Second order partial derivatives are given to determine the standard error of the estimates. A numerical example is added to illustrate the practical application of the method.

Naunihal Singh

2014-05-01

302

Comparison of Tests for Association and Linkage in Incomplete Families  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

To analyze incomplete families, the following statistical tests can be used: LRAT-a simple likelihood-based association test, TRANSMIT, SIBASSOC/STDT, and RCTDT. We compared these four tests, for the diallelic case, on simulated data sets. The comparisons focused on the power to detect linkage and association when different familial structures, resistance to population stratification, resistance to misclassification of the disease status of the healthy sib, and the effect of nonpaternity were...

Cervino, Ac; Hill, Av

2000-01-01

303

Incomplete information, higher-order beliefs and price inertia  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This paper investigates how incomplete information impacts the response of prices to nominal shocks. Our baseline model is a variant of the Calvo model in which firms observe the underlying nominal shocks with noise. In this model, the response of prices is pinned down by three parameters: the precision of available information about the nominal shock; the frequency of price adjustment; and the degree of strategic complementarity in pricing decisions. This result synthesizes th...

Angeletos, George-marios; La O, Jennifer

2009-01-01

304

Uncertainty aversion and equilibrium existence in games with incomplete information  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

We consider games with incomplete information a la Harsanyi, where the payoff of a player depends on an unknown state of nature as well as on the profile of chosen actions. As opposed to the standard model, players' preferences over state--contingent utility vectors are represented by arbitrary functionals. The definitions of Nash and Bayes equilibria naturally extend to this generalized setting. We characterize equilibrium existence in terms of the preferences of the participating players...

Azrieli, Yaron; Teper, Roee

2009-01-01

305

Placenta Percreta Resulting in Incomplete Spontaneous Abortion in First Trimester  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Placenta percreta is a rare complication potentially fatal to fetus and the mother. We present here a 41-year-old female patient who underwent curettage for incomplete abortion at 6th week of pregnancy. She had persistent vaginal bleeding for 2 months after the curettage, for which she was treated with hysterectomy. Preoperative ultrasonography and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) made the diagnosis of placenta percreta. Postoperative pathological examination confirmed this diagno...

Mine Genc; Berhan Genc; Aynur Solak; Oya Nermin Sivrikoz

2014-01-01

306

Monetary Policy with Incomplete Exchange Rate Pass-Through  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The central bank's optimal reaction to foreign and domestic shocks is analyzed in an inflation targeting model allowing for incomplete exchange rate pass-through. Limited pass-through is incorporated through nominal rigidities in an aggregate supply-aggregate demand model derived from some microfoundations. Three main results are obtained. First, the results suggest that the interest rate response to foreign shocks is smaller when pass-through is low. Second, the inflation-output variability ...

Adolfson, Malin

2001-01-01

307

A probabilistic approach to quantum Bayesian games of incomplete information  

Science.gov (United States)

A Bayesian game is a game of incomplete information in which the rules of the game are not fully known to all players. We consider the Bayesian game of Battle of Sexes that has several Bayesian Nash equilibria and investigate its outcome when the underlying probability set is obtained from generalized Einstein-Podolsky-Rosen experiments. We find that this probability set, which may become non-factorizable, results in a unique Bayesian Nash equilibrium of the game.

Iqbal, Azhar; Chappell, James M.; Li, Qiang; Pearce, Charles E. M.; Abbott, Derek

2014-12-01

308

Can we make the second incompleteness theorem coordinate free?  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Is it possible to give a coordinate free formulation of the Second Incompleteness Theorem? We pursue one possible approach to this question. We show that (i) cutfree consistency for finitely axiomatized theories can be uniquely characterized modulo EA-provable equivalence, (ii) consistency for finitely axiomatized sequential theories can be uniquely characterized modulo EA-provable equivalence. The case of infinitely axiomatized ce theories is more delicate. We carefully dis...

Visser, A.

2008-01-01

309

Some remarks on marginally trapped surfaces and geodesic incompleteness  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

In a recent paper, Eichmair, Galloway and Pollack have proved a Gannon-Lee-type singularity theorem based on the existence of marginally outer trapped surfaces (MOTS) on noncompact initial data sets for globally hyperbolic spacetimes. However, one might wonder whether the corresponding incomplete geodesics could still be complete in a possible non-globally hyperbolic extension of spacetime. In this note, some variants of that result are given with weaker causality assumption...

Silva, I. P. Costa E.

2012-01-01

310

An implication of G\\"odel's incompleteness theorem  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

A proof of G\\"odel's incompleteness theorem is given. With this new proof a transfinite extension of G\\"odel's theorem is considered. It is shown that if one assumes the set theory ZFC on the meta level as well as on the object level, a contradiction arises. The cause is shown to be the implicit identification of the meta level and the object level hidden behind the G\\"odel numbering. An implication of these considerations is stated.

Kitada, Hitoshi

2009-01-01

311

Improvement of wheat in Zambia using incomplete resistance against rusts  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The programme of wheat improvement developed in Zambia used local facilities (finance, personnel, infrastructure), low budget, and few personnel. Incomplete resistance against rusts was used to obtain durable resistance.The abiotic conditions, socio-economic status of the farmers, cropping methods, economic aims of wheat production and the status of research are described. Pests and diseases are discussed including some which are yet of minor importance. Possible grain yield losses are estima...

Milliano, W. A. J.

1983-01-01

312

The Risky Value in the Capital Market of Incomplete Information  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Risk is everywhere, especially in the capital market of incomplete information, which is full of speculation, so it is particularly important for investors to define risk, identify risks, and control the investment activities with the application of risk value to. It is analyzed quantitatively on risk value in the paper, with the Knowledge of game theory, economics and mathematical statistics, on the basis of the explanation of risk and risk value.

Xuhong Tan

2009-02-01

313

The Risky Value in the Capital Market of Incomplete Information  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Risk is everywhere, especially in the capital market of incomplete information, which is full of speculation, so it is particularly important for investors to define risk, identify risks, and control the investment activities with the application of risk value to. It is analyzed quantitatively on risk value in the paper, with the Knowledge of game theory, economics and mathematical statistics, on the basis of the explanation of risk and risk value.

Xuhong Tan; Mingjun Tan

2009-01-01

314

Multirate control with incomplete information over Profibus-DP network  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

When a process ¿eld bus-decentralized peripherals (Pro¿bus-DP) network is used in an industrial environment, a deterministic behaviour is usually claimed. However, due to some concerns such as bandwidth limitations, lack of synchronisation among different clocks and existence of time-varying delays, a more complex problem must be faced. This problem implies the transmission of irregular and, even, random sequences of incomplete information. The main consequence of this issue is ...

Salt Llobregat, Julia?n Jose?; Casanova Calvo, Vicente; Cuenca Lacruz, A?ngel Miguel; Piza? Ferna?ndez, Ricardo

2014-01-01

315

Pareto improving social security reform when financial markets are incomplete!?  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This paper studies an overlapping generations model with stochastic production and incomplete markets to assess whether the introduction of an unfunded social security system leads to a Pareto improvement. When returns to capital and wages are imperfectly correlated a system that endows retired households with claims to labor income enhances the sharing of aggregate risk between generations. Our quantitative analysis shows that, abstracting from the capital crowding-out effect, the introducti...

Krueger, Dirk; Kubler, Felix

2005-01-01

316

Multivariate logistic regression with incomplete covariate and auxiliary information  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

In this article, we propose and explore a multivariate logistic regression model for analyzing multiple binary outcomes with incomplete covariate data where auxiliary information is available. The auxiliary data are extraneous to the regression model of interest but predictive of the covariate with missing data. describe how the auxiliary information can be incorporated into a regression model for a single binary outcome with missing covariates, and hence the efficiency of the regression esti...

Sinha, Sanjoy K.; Laird, Nan M.; Fitzmaurice, Garrett M.

2010-01-01

317

INCOMPLETE MARKETS AND FINANCIAL INSTABILITY. THE ROLE OF INFORMATION  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Considering the way that the world economy has evolved over the last 30-40 years, there was a transition from a predominant real economy to a predominant financial economy. Once, there were prevalent economic crises (when the real economy was important); today, the economies all around the world face prevalent financial crises; therefore, it is extremely important to study the role of financial markets, especially the incomplete markets feature (given by the imperfect information). The paper ...

CRISTIAN IONESCU

2012-01-01

318

Placenta Percreta Resulting in Incomplete Spontaneous Abortion in First Trimester  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Placenta percreta is a rare complication potentially fatal to fetus and the mother. We present here a 41-year-old female patient who underwent curettage for incomplete abortion at 6th week of pregnancy. She had persistent vaginal bleeding for 2 months after the curettage, for which she was treated with hysterectomy. Preoperative ultrasonography and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI made the diagnosis of placenta percreta. Postoperative pathological examination confirmed this diagnosis.

Mine Genc

2014-11-01

319

Accelerated thymocyte maturation in IL-12R?2-deficient mice contributes to increased susceptibility to autoimmune inflammatory demyelination  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

IL-12R?2?/? mice, which are unresponsive to IL-12, develop severe experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE). The mechanisms for enhanced autoimmunity are incompletely understood. We report that in IL-12R?2?/? mice, thymocytes undergo markedly accelerated maturation. This occurs at the transition from double positive (DP) to single positive (SP) phenotype, resulting in higher numbers of CD4 and CD8 SP cells, and to a lesser extend at the transition from double negative (DN) to ...

Gran, B.; Yu, S.; Zhang, G. X.; Rostami, A.

2010-01-01

320

Elective postoperative radiotherapy after incomplete resection of colorectal cancer  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

It is known that patients with incompletely resected epithelial cancers are at high risk of local recurrence. A prospective study to determine whether elective postoperative radiotherapy can decrease the incidence of local recurrence and thus improve survival of those patients with an incompletely resected tumor was made of 125 irradiated patients with locally advanced colorectal cancer (B2, C1, C2) 78 patients had rectosigmoid tumors and 47 had colonic cancers. Complete resection (R0) was performed in 94 patients (75 per cent). Thirteen (10 per cent) had microscopic (R1) and 18 (14 per cent) had gross residual disease (R2). Local control and survival (average follow-up, 38 months) of patients with microscopic residual cancer (RI) were 84 per cent (11/13) and 77 per cent (10/13) respectively. These results were identical to those obtained in patients without residual disease (R0). Patients with gross residual disease (R2) had a local control of 50 per cent (9/18) and a survival of 39 per cent (7/18). Radiation complication occurred in seven of 125 patients (6 per cent). One patient died, of radiation enteritis. One patient required a nephrostomy. The remaining five patients were treated conservatively. Elective postoperative radiotherapy given to patients who had incomplete resection of a colorectal cancer prevented local recurrence in the majority and may have increased survival

 
 
 
 
321

Incomplete domain decomposition preconditioning for coarse mesh neutron diffusion problems  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Incomplete domain decomposition preconditioning for parallel implementation of the conjugate gradient-like methods is applied to solve the two-group, three-dimensional, coarse mesh finite differenced neutron diffusion equation on the PARAGON XP/S-10 parallel computer. The linear system resulting from implicit time differencing of the time-dependent neutron diffusion equation is solved by the preconditioned biconjugate gradient squared method without employing the fission source iteration. An efficient domain decomposition preconditioning scheme is constructed by taking advantage of strong diagonal dominance of the coarse mesh finite difference formulation. Simplifications are made in the incomplete LU factorization process to construct a preconditioner for a three dimensional subdomain and the coupling between subdomains is approximated by incorporating only the effect of the non-leakage terms of neighboring subdomains. The method is applied to quarter core and full core fixed source problems which are created from the IAEA three-dimensional benchmark problem. Results show that on a single processor the computation time for the preconditioned biconjugate gradient method is comparable to other conventional iteration methods such as Line-SOR and the cyclic Chebyshev semi-iterative method. The effectiveness of the incomplete domain decomposition preconditioning on a multi-processor is evidenced by the small increase in the number of iterations as the number of subdomains of iterations as the number of subdomains increases. Speedups up to 32.1 are achievable with 64 processing elements for a 34x34x36 full core three-dimensional problem

322

Prophylactic Antibiotics for Suction Curettage in Incomplete Abortion  

Science.gov (United States)

Objective: The purpose of this study was to investigate the efficacy of 200 mg of prophylactic doxycycline in preventing pelvic infection after curettage for spontaneous (incomplete) abortion. Methods: A randomized, prospective, double-blinded study was carried out involving 300 women with an incomplete abortion who were given either placebo or 200 mg of doxycycline orally 30–60 min prior to curettage. A hematocrit, WBC count, pregnancy test, syphilis serology, Neisseria gonorrhoeae culture, and Micro Trak (monoclonal antibody test, Syba, San Jose, CA) for Chlamydia trachomatis were performed. The patients were scheduled for follow-up 2 weeks later. Antibiotic administration for any reason as well as the postoperative infection rate in these women was assessed. Results: Eleven women were excluded from analysis, leaving 289 evaluable. N. gonorrhoeae was isolated from 6 (2%) women and C. trachomatis from 8 (3%) women, and the syphilis serology was serofast in 4 (1%) women. Endometritis complicated the procedure in 4 women who received placebo and in 1 woman who received doxycycline (P = 0.22). Conclusion: Prophylactic doxycycline is not effective in preventing pelvic infection after curettage for spontaneous (incomplete) abortion. PMID:18475395

Ramin, Kirk D.; Hemsell, Patricia G.; Nobles, Brenda J.; Heard, Molly C.; Johnson, Vivian B.; Hemsell, David L.

1995-01-01

323

47 CFR 73.4015 - Applications for AM and FM construction permits, incomplete or defective.  

Science.gov (United States)

...2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Applications for AM and FM construction permits, incomplete or defective. 73.4015...All Broadcast Stations § 73.4015 Applications for AM and FM construction permits, incomplete or defective. See...

2010-10-01

324

Introduction of misoprostol for the treatment of incomplete abortion beyond 12 weeks of pregnancy in Benin.  

Science.gov (United States)

Improving the care of women who have undergone a spontaneous or induced abortion is an important step in reducing abortion-related morbidity and mortality. Both the International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics (FIGO) and the World Health Organization recommend the use of manual vacuum aspiration (MVA) and misoprostol rather than sharp curettage to treat incomplete abortion. MVA was introduced into the public healthcare service in Benin in 2006 and since 2008 misoprostol has been available in 3 large maternity hospitals. The present study opted to use an oral dose of 800 ?g and not to limit to pregnancies of up to 12 weeks, but to include women with second trimester abortions. After 5 years, results show that around three-quarters of the women treated with misoprostol at 13-18 weeks of pregnancy required MVA to complete uterine evacuation and approximately one-quarter had severe bleeding, confirming that the indication of misoprostol for incomplete abortion should be limited to pregnancies of up to 12 weeks. PMID:24800660

Adisso, Sosthène; Hounkpatin, Benjamin I B; Komongui, Gounnou D; Sambieni, Olivier; Perrin, René X

2014-07-01

325

On maturation of crack patterns  

CERN Document Server

Superficial (two dimensional) crack patterns appear when a thin layer of material elastically attached to a substrate contracts. We study numerically the maturation process undergone by these crack patterns when they are allowed to adapt in order to reduce its energy. The process models the evolution in depth of cracks in geological formations and in starch samples (`columnar jointing'), and also the time evolution (over thousands of years) of crack patterns in frozen soils. We observe an evolution towards a polygonal pattern that consist of a fixed distribution of polygons with mainly five, six and seven sides. They compare very well with known experimental examples. The evolution of one of these `mature' patterns upon reduction of the degree of contraction is also considered. We find that the pattern adapts by closing some of the cracks and rearranging those in the immediate neighborhood. This produces a change of the mean size of the polygons, but remarkably no changes of the statistical properties of the ...

Jagla, E A

2003-01-01

326

Maturation of the adolescent brain  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Mariam Arain, Maliha Haque, Lina Johal, Puja Mathur, Wynand Nel, Afsha Rais, Ranbir Sandhu, Sushil Sharma Saint James School of Medicine, Kralendijk, Bonaire, The Netherlands Abstract: Adolescence is the developmental epoch during which children become adults – intellectually, physically, hormonally, and socially. Adolescence is a tumultuous time, full of changes and transformations. The pubertal transition to adulthood involves both gonadal and behavioral maturation. Magnetic resonance imaging studies have discovered that myelinogenesis, required for proper insulation and efficient neurocybernetics, continues from childhood and the brain's region-specific neurocircuitry remains structurally and functionally vulnerable to impulsive sex, food, and sleep habits. The maturation of the adolescent brain is also influenced by heredity, environment, and sex hormones (estrogen, progesterone, and testosterone, which play a crucial role in myelination. Furthermore, glutamatergic neurotransmission predominates, whereas gamma-aminobutyric acid neurotransmission remains under construction, and this might be responsible for immature and impulsive behavior and neurobehavioral excitement during adolescent life. The adolescent population is highly vulnerable to driving under the influence of alcohol and social maladjustments due to an immature limbic system and prefrontal cortex. Synaptic plasticity and the release of neurotransmitters may also be influenced by environmental neurotoxins and drugs of abuse including cigarettes, caffeine, and alcohol during adolescence. Adolescents may become involved with offensive crimes, irresponsible behavior, unprotected sex, juvenile courts, or even prison. According to a report by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, the major cause of death among the teenage population is due to injury and violence related to sex and substance abuse. Prenatal neglect, cigarette smoking, and alcohol consumption may also significantly impact maturation of the adolescent brain. Pharmacological interventions to regulate adolescent behavior have been attempted with limited success. Since several factors, including age, sex, disease, nutritional status, and substance abuse have a significant impact on the maturation of the adolescent brain, we have highlighted the influence of these clinically significant and socially important aspects in this report. Keywords: myelinogenesis, neurocircuitry, molecular imaging, drug addiction, behavior, social adjustment

Arain M

2013-04-01

327

Cloud computing capability maturity model  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Cloud computing, like software development in the 1960's and 1970's, is creating dramatic changes in the penetration of computing in everyday life. The software capability maturity model (CMM) was developed to address the quality and process issues found in developing software for the Department of Defense (DoD). Similar models, like System Security Engineering-CMM, have been created to address in other facets of computing. As a result of this study, a CMM for cloud computing was developed to...

Truong, My D.

2012-01-01

328

Sovereign Debt: Indexation and Maturity  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

In this paper we review the literature on sovereign debt with particular emphasis on indexation and maturity and the main policy proposals related to these topics. We also advance some implications derived from our work. In Alfaro and Kanczuk (2005a, b, c), we modeled sovereign debt as a contingent claim following the framework developed by Grossman and Van Huyck (1988). Our framework, however, recognizes that contingent debt might be associated with incentive problems. Applying this framewor...

Alfaro, Laura; Kanczuk, Fabio

2006-01-01

329

On maturation of crack patterns  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Superficial (two dimensional) crack patterns appear when a thin layer of material elastically attached to a substrate contracts. We study numerically the maturation process undergone by these crack patterns when they are allowed to adapt in order to reduce its energy. The process models the evolution in depth of cracks in geological formations and in starch samples (`columnar jointing'), and also the time evolution (over thousands of years) of crack patterns in frozen soils....

Jagla, E. A.

2003-01-01

330

Development and maturation of Escherichia coli K-12 biofilms  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

The development and maturation of E. coli biofilms in flow-chambers was investigated. We found that the presence of transfer constitutive IncF plasmids induced biofilm development forming structures resembling those reported for Pseudomonas aeruginosa . The development occurred in a step-wise process: (i) attachment of cells to the substratum, (ii) clonal growth and microcolony formation, and (iii) differentiation into expanding structures rising 70-100 mum into the water phase. The first two steps were the same in the plasmid-carrying and plasmid-free strains, whereas the third step only occurred in conjugation pilus proficient plasmid-carrying strains. The final shapes of the expanding structures in the mature biofilm seem to be determined by the pilus configuration, as various mutants affected in the processing and activity of the transfer pili displayed differently structured biofilms. We further provide evidence that flagella, type 1 fimbriae, curli and Ag43 are all dispensable for the observed biofilm maturation. In addition, our results indicate that cell-to-cell signalling mediated by autoinducer 2 (AI-2) is not required for differentiation of E. coli within a biofilm community. We suggest on the basis of these results that E. coli K-12 biofilm development and maturation is dependent on cell-cell adhesion factors, which may act as inducers of self-assembly processes that result in differently structured biofilms depending on the adhesive properties on the cell surface.

Reisner, A.; Haagensen, J.A.J.

2003-01-01

331

A Maturity Model of Enterprise Business Intelligence  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The implementation of an enterprise-level business intelligence initiative is a large-scale and complex undertaking, involving significant expenditure and multiple stakeholders over a lengthy period. It is therefore imperative to have systematic guidelines for business intelligence stakeholders in referring business intelligence maturity levels. Draw upon the prudent concepts of the Capability Maturity Model, this research proposes a multi-dimensional maturity model with distinct maturity lev...

Chee-Sok Tan; Yee-Wai Sim; William Yeoh

2011-01-01

332

Toward a Concept of Psychosocial Maturity.  

Science.gov (United States)

The first in a series of related reports (see TM 000 775), this paper attempts to define a concept of psychosocial maturity which would be appropriate as a comprehensive educational goal. Biological, sociological, psychological and temporal formulations of maturity are discussed and compared. Am interdisciplinary model of maturity is evolved which…

Greenberger, Ellen; Sorensen, Aage B.

333

Seed maturity of the Mediterranean seagrass Cymodocea nodosa  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The germination of seeds in aquaria and posterior planting in the sea is an approach that may be applied in seagrass restoration projects. Hypo-salinity is known to induce germination of Cymodocea nodosa but the appropriate period for seed collection is useful information that has not been considered until now. The aim of this study was to evaluate the maturity of C. nodosa seeds by comparing the effectiveness of the hypo-salinity induction of germination in seeds collected in August, Septemb...

Domi?nguez, Marta; Infantes, Eduardo; Terrados, Jorge

2010-01-01

334

Analytical Solution for Reactive Solute Transport Considering Incomplete Mixing  

Science.gov (United States)

The laboratory experiments of Gramling et al. (2002) showed that incomplete mixing at the pore scale exerts a significant impact on transport of reactive solutes and that assuming complete mixing leads to overestimation of product concentration in bimolecular reactions. We consider here the family of equilibrium reactions for which the concentration of the reactants and the product can be expressed as a function of the mixing ratio, the concentration of a fictitious non reactive solute. For this type of reactions we propose, in agreement with previous studies, to model the effect of incomplete mixing at scales smaller than the Darcy scale assuming that the mixing ratio is distributed within an REV according to a Beta distribution. We compute the parameters of the Beta model by imposing that the mean concentration is equal to the value that the concentration assumes at the continuum Darcy scale, while the variance decays with time as a power law. We show that our model reproduces the concentration profiles of the reaction product measured in the Gramling et al. (2002) experiments using the transport parameters obtained from conservative experiments and an instantaneous reaction kinetic. The results are obtained applying analytical solutions both for conservative and for reactive solute transport, thereby providing a method to handle the effect of incomplete mixing on multispecies reactive solute transport, which is simpler than other previously developed methods. Gramling, C. M., C. F. Harvey, and L. C. Meigs (2002), Reactive transport in porous media: A comparison of model prediction with laboratory visualization, Environ. Sci. Technol., 36(11), 2508-2514.

Bellin, A.; Chiogna, G.

2013-12-01

335

Sexual maturation of female Saguinus oedipus oedipus  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This study is an examination of the process of female sexual maturation in the cotton-top tamarin, Saguinus oedipus oedipus, a South-American primate of the family, Callitrichidae. Two types of questions are addressed. The first question is whether the type of social grouping in which a young female lives affects the rate of her sexual maturation. Specifically, is there a difference between the maturation rate of a female housed with a strange adult male and a female housed with her natal group (i.e., her parents and various siblings). Second, the effect of sexual maturation on various social interactions is examined. Specifically are male-female interactions in mated pairs and mother-daughter interactions in natal groups changed by the sexual maturation of the young females. The mother's presence was not related to the daughter's maturation age. However, whether the natal group, as a whole, inhibited maturation, or unrelated males accelerated maturation, or both, remains unknown. Most of the behavioral interactions involving maturing females were unchanged by maturation. There was some indication that certain behaviors were affected by maturation, but only if a strange unrelated male was present.

Tardif, S.D.

1982-01-01

336

Oocyte Maturation Process and Affecting Factors  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Normal female fertility depends on normally occuring oogenesis and maturation progress. Oogenesis and folliculogenesis are different progresses but occure in a harmony and at the same time. Oogenesis includes the events that take place matur ovum produced from primordial germ cells. Although folliculogenesis includes the stages primordial, primary, secondary, matur (Graaf follicules in the influece of gonadotropines and local growth factors. During oocyte maturation meiosis is distrupted till the puberty. Under LH influence it starts again and first meiosis completes before ovulation. Oocyte maturation can be regarded as the process of coming metaphase II from prophase I of oocyte at the puberty and can be studied as nuclear and cytoplasmic maturation. Meiosis is completed when fertilization occures and zygot is formed. In this article oogenesis, folliculogenesis and oocyte maturation process are summerized with related studies and reiews are revised. [Archives Medical Review Journal 2009; 18(4.000: 227-240

Yurdun Kuyucu

2009-08-01

337

Conditioning analysis of incomplete Cholesky factorizations with orthogonal dropping  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The analysis of preconditioners based on incomplete Cholesky factorization in which the neglected (dropped) components are orthogonal to the approximations being kept is presented. General estimate for the condition number of the preconditioned system is given which only depends on the accuracy of individual approximations. The estimate is further improved if, for instance, only the newly computed rows of the factor are modified during each approximation step. In this latter case it is further shown to be sharp. The analysis is illustrated with some existing factorizations in the context of discretized elliptic partial differential equations.

Napov, Artem

2012-03-16

338

Incomplete block factorization preconditioning for indefinite elliptic problems  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The application of the finite difference method to approximate the solution of an indefinite elliptic problem produces a linear system whose coefficient matrix is block tridiagonal and symmetric indefinite. Such a linear system can be solved efficiently by a conjugate residual method, particularly when combined with a good preconditioner. We show that specific incomplete block factorization exists for the indefinite matrix if the mesh size is reasonably small. And this factorization can serve as an efficient preconditioner. Some efforts are made to estimate the eigenvalues of the preconditioned matrix. Numerical results are also given.

Guo, Chun-Hua [Univ. of Calgary, Alberta (Canada)

1996-12-31

339

Program generator for the Incomplete Cholesky Conjugate Gradient (ICCG) method  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The Incomplete Cholesky Conjugate Gradient (ICCG) method has been found very effective for the solution of sparse systems of linear equations. Its implementation on a computer, however, requires a considerable amount of careful coding to achieve good machine efficiency. Furthermore, the resulting code is necessarily inflexible and cannot be easily adapted to different problems. We present in this paper a code generator GENIC which, given a small amount of information concerning the sparsity pattern and size of the system of equations, generates a solver package. This package, called SOLIC, is tailor made for a particular problem and can be easily incorporated into any user program

340

Finding small OBDDs for incompletely specified truth tables is hard  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

We present an efficient reduction mapping undirected graphs G with n = 2^k vertices for integers k to tables of partially specified Boolean functions g: {0,1}^(4k+1) -> {0,1,*} so that for any integer m, G has a vertex colouring using m colours if and only if g has a consistent ordered binary decision diagram with at most (2m + 2)n^2 + 4n decision nodes. From this it follows that the problem of finding a minimum-sized consistent OBDD for an incompletely specified truth table is NP-hard and also hard to approximate.

Miltersen, Peter Bro; Kristensen, Jesper Torp

2006-01-01

 
 
 
 
341

Output Feedback Control for Stabilizable and Incompletely Observable Nonlinear Systems  

CERN Document Server

This paper introduces a new approach for output feedback stabilization of SISO systems which, unlike most of the techniques found in the literature, does not use high-gain observers and control input saturation to achieve separation between the state feedback and observer designs. Rather, we show that by using nonlinear observers, together with a projection algorithm, the same kind of separation principle is achieved for a larger class of systems, namely stabilizable and incompletely observable plants. Furthermore, this new approach avoids using knowledge of the inverse of the observability mapping, which is needed by most techniques in the literature when controlling general stabilizable systems.

Maggiore, Michele; Maggiore, Manfredi; Passino, Kevin

2000-01-01

342

Incomplete block SSOR preconditionings for high order discretizations  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This paper considers the solution of linear algebraic systems Ax = b resulting from the p-version of the Finite Element Method (FEM) using PCG iterations. Contrary to the h-version, the p-version ensures the desired accuracy of a discretization not by refining an original finite element mesh but by introducing higher degree polynomials as additional basis functions which permits to reduce the size of the resulting linear system as compared with the h-version. The suggested preconditionings are the so-called Incomplete Block SSOR (IBSSOR) preconditionings.

Kolotilina, L. [Steklov Mathematical Institute, St. Petersburg (Russian Federation)

1994-12-31

343

VPRS-Based Knowledge Discovery Approach in Incomplete Information System  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Through changing the equivalence relation in the incomplete information system, a new variable precision rough set model and an approach for knowledge reduction are proposed. To overcome no monotonic property of the lower approximation, a cumulative variable precision rough set model is explored, and the basic properties of cumulative lower and upper approximation operators are investigated. The example proves that the cumulative variable precision rough set model has wide range of applications and better result than variable precision rough set model.

Shibao Sun

2010-01-01

344

Incomplete urethral duplication with cyst formation in a dog  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Incomplete urethral duplication with cyst formation was diagnosed in a dog that had soft, fluctuant, subcutaneous swellings in the ventral perineal and penile areas and a history of nocturia and incontinence during recumbency that were unresponsive to treatment with antibiotics. Retrograde urethrocystography, voiding urethrography, double-contrast cystography, radiography after direct administration of contrast medium into cystic structures, and excretory urography were performed to evaluate the urinary tract. Communication between the cysts and the urethra was demonstrated radiographically only after intralesional injection of contrast medium. Nocturia and incontinence resolved after surgical removal of the urethral duplication and cysts. The dog was clinically normal 1 year after surgery

345

A Short Guide to Gödel's Second Incompleteness Theorem  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The usual proof of Godel's second incompleteness theorem for weak theories like I Sigma 'subscript 1' is long and technically cumbersome. The details are rarely given in full and in most cases they are skipped altogether with dismissing vague sentences alluding to the reader's ability to fill them in. In the first part of this note we provide a guide through the main technical points of the usual proof of Godel's theorem for weak theories. In the second part we present a different and simpler...

Bagaria, Joan

2003-01-01

346

Information, randomness & incompleteness papers on algorithmic information theory  

CERN Document Server

The papers gathered in this book were published over a period of more than twenty years in widely scattered journals. They led to the discovery of randomness in arithmetic which was presented in the recently published monograph on "Algorithmic Information Theory" by the author. There the strongest possible version of Gödel's incompleteness theorem, using an information-theoretic approach based on the size of computer programs, was discussed. The present book is intended as a companion volume to the monograph and it will serve as a stimulus for work on complexity, randomness and unpredictabilit

Chaitin, Gregory J

1987-01-01

347

Incomplete Data and Data Dependencies in Relational Databases  

CERN Document Server

The chase has long been used as a central tool to reason about dependencies and their effect on queries. It has been applied to different relevant problems in database theory such as query optimization, query containment and equivalence, dependency implication, and database schema design. Recent years have seen a renewed interest in the chase as an important tool in several database applications like data exchange and integration, query answering in incomplete data, and many others.It is well known that the chase algorithm might be non-terminating and thus, in order for it to find practical ap

Greco, Sergio

2012-01-01

348

Actuarial values calculated using the incomplete Gamma function  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The complete expectation-of-life for a person and the actuarial present value of continuous life annuities are defined by integrals. In all of them at least one of the factors is a survival function value ratio. If de Moivre’s law of mortality is chosen, such integrals can easily be evaluated; but if the Makeham survival function is adopted, they are used to be calculated numerically. For the above actuarial figures, closed form integrations are hereafter provided by means of the incomplete Gamma function.

Giovanni Mingari Scarpello

2013-03-01

349

A Supernodal Approach to Incomplete LU Factorization with Partial Pivoting  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

We present a new supernode-based incomplete LU factorization method to construct a preconditioner for solving sparse linear systems with iterative methods. The new algorithm is primarily based on the ILUTP approach by Saad, and we incorporate a number of techniques to improve the robustness and performance of the traditional ILUTP method. These include the new dropping strategies that accommodate the use of supernodal structures in the factored matrix. We present numerical experiments to demonstrate that our new method is competitive with the other ILU approaches and is well suited for today's high performance architectures.

Li, Xiaoye Sherry; Shao, Meiyue

2009-06-25

350

Asset pricing puzzles explained by incomplete Brownian equilibria  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

We examine a class of Brownian based models which produce tractable incomplete equilibria. The models are based on finitely many investors with heterogeneous exponential utilities over intermediate consumption who receive partially unspanned income. The investors can trade continuously on a finite time interval in a money market account as well as a risky security. Besides establishing the existence of an equilibrium, our main result shows that the resulting equilibrium can display a lower risk-free rate and a higher risk premium relative to the usual Pareto efficient equilibrium in complete markets. Consequently, our model can simultaneously help explaining the risk-free rate and equity premium puzzles.

Christensen, Peter Ove; Larsen, Kasper

2010-01-01

351

Incomplete information and the closed-end fund discount  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

We model the closed-end fund discount/premium in a version of Merton’s (1978) asset pricing model with incomplete information. In this economy, investors trade only assets which they “ know about” . The model generates a closed-end fund discount or premium, depending on risk-aversion parameters. The fund share price reverts to the net asset value on open-ending of the fund. The discount/premium is a result of two economic forces: (1) the fund manager’s objective is to maximize expecte...

Barone-adesi, Giovanni; Kim, Youngsoo

2008-01-01

352

On balanced incomplete block designs with specified weak chromatic number  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

A weak $c$-colouring of a balanced incomplete block design (BIBD) is a colouring of the points of the design with $c$ colours in such a way that no block of the design has all of its vertices receive the same colour. A BIBD is said to be weakly $c$-chromatic if $c$ is the smallest number of colours with which the design can be weakly coloured. In this paper we show that for all $c \\geq 2$ and $k \\geq 3$ with $(c,k) \

Horsley, Daniel; Pike, David A.

2012-01-01

353

Cross prediction studies on spring barley : 1. Estimation of genetical and environmental control of morphological and maturity characters.  

Science.gov (United States)

The genetical and environmental control of three height characters, two maturity characters and neck length in five barley pair crosses was studied using both F2 triple test cross and model fitting analysis.Significant additive and dominance effects were found for all six characters with some evidence of epistasis for each character. Generally, dominance was incomplete for the height characters but was significantly directional for increased height in those crosses where dwarfing genes were segregating. Variable dominance effects were found for both the maturity characters. Complete dominance was found in three cases, otherwise incomplete dominance was found. Significant directional dominance for earliness was found for both maturity characters in one cross but this was attributed to the presence of a daylength insensitivity factor in one of the parents. Most of the genetic variation for neck length was additive, though some evidence of dominance was found.Broad sense and narrow sense heritability estimates generally were found to be high for the height and maturity characters but low for neck length. It was concluded that early generation selection for height at ear emergence, for final height and for awn emergence was worthwhile. Early generation selection for neck length was not recommended from the results of this study. PMID:24265084

Thomas, W T; Tapsell, C R

1983-03-01

354

Lectin chaperones help direct the maturation of glycoproteins in the endoplasmic reticulum  

Science.gov (United States)

Eukaryotic secretory pathway cargo fold to their native structures within the confines of the endoplasmic reticulum (ER). To ensure a high degree of folding fidelity, a multitude of covalent and noncovalent constraints are imparted upon nascent proteins. These constraints come in the form of topological restrictions or membrane tethers, covalent modifications, and interactions with a series of molecular chaperones. N-linked glycosylation provides inherent benefits to proper folding, and creates a platform for interactions with specific chaperones and Cys modifying enzymes. Recent insights into this timeline of protein maturation have revealed mechanisms for protein glycosylation, and iterative targeting of incomplete folding intermediates, which provides nurturing interactions with molecular chaperones that assist in the efficient maturation of proteins in the eukaryotic secretory pathway. PMID:19891995

Pearse, Bradley R.; Hebert, Daniel N.

2009-01-01

355

Rapid induction of medullary thymocyte phenotypic maturation and egress inhibition by nanomolar sphingosine 1-phosphate receptor agonist  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Only a small number of T cells generated in the thymus each day are selected to replenish the peripheral T cell pool. Much is known about thymic selection; however, little is known of the mechanisms regulating medullary maturation and the release of mature T cells into the blood. Here we demonstrate a rapid acceleration of medullary thymocyte phenotypic maturation through loss of CD69 induced by sphingosine 1-phosphate (S1P) receptor agonist. Low nanomolar agonist concentrations selectively i...

Rosen, Hugh; Alfonso, Christopher; Surh, Charles D.; Mcheyzer-williams, Michael G.

2003-01-01

356

Induction of dendritic cell maturation in the skin microenvironment by soluble factors derived from colon carcinoma.  

Science.gov (United States)

Autologous tumor cell-based vaccines provide a wide range of tumor antigens and personalized neo-epitopes based on individual tumors' unique antigenic mutanome signatures. However, tumor-derived factors may hamper in situ maturation of dendritic cells (DC) and thus interfere with the generation of effective anti-tumor immunity. As the skin is a preferred site for tumor vaccine delivery, we investigated the influence of primary colon carcinoma-derived soluble factors on the maturation state of migrating DC in a human skin explant model. Primary tumor-derived supernatants (TDSN) enhanced the phenotypic maturation state of skin-emigrated DC, resulting in an increased T-cell stimulatory ability in an allogeneic mixed leukocyte response. In case of monocyte-derived DC a similar TDSN-induced maturation induction was found to entirely depend on cyclooxygenase (COX)-regulated prostaglandins. In contrast, the increase in skin-emigrated DC maturation was completely prostaglandin-independent, as evidenced by the inability of the COX inhibitor indomethacin to abrogate this TDSN-induced effect. Although TDSN conditioning affected a drop in IL-12p70 release by the skin-emigrated DC and induced a predominant Th17/Th22 transcriptional profile in subsequently stimulated T-cells, Th cell subset differentiation, as assessed by intracellular cytokine expression upon polyclonal priming and re-stimulation, was not affected. Comparative analysis of phenotypic and transcriptional profiles suggests that the observed maturational effects in skin-derived DC may have been induced by tumor-derived GM-CSF. In conclusion, soluble factors derived from whole-cell colon tumor vaccines will not negatively impact DC migration and maturation in human skin, but rather induce DC maturation that will facilitate the priming of a poly-functional Th cell response. PMID:24732313

Lindenberg, Jelle J; van de Ven, Rieneke; Oosterhoff, Dinja; Sombroek, Claudia C; Lougheed, Sinéad M; Stam, Anita G M; Koenen, Hans J P M; van den Eertwegh, Alfons J M; Scheper, Rik J; de Gruijl, Tanja D

2014-01-01

357

Comparison of tests for association and linkage in incomplete families.  

Science.gov (United States)

To analyze incomplete families, the following statistical tests can be used: LRAT-a simple likelihood-based association test, TRANSMIT, SIBASSOC/STDT, and RCTDT. We compared these four tests, for the diallelic case, on simulated data sets. The comparisons focused on the power to detect linkage and association when different familial structures, resistance to population stratification, resistance to misclassification of the disease status of the healthy sib, and the effect of nonpaternity were considered. The simulations lead to the following conclusions. The type I errors of TRANSMIT, SIBASSOC/STDT, and RCTDT were not affected by population stratification. LRAT showed bias under strong population stratification. High nonpaternity rates can lead to inflated type I errors, highlighting the importance of identification of half sibs. Under different homogeneous models, the power of TRANSMIT was very similar to that of LRAT, and, similarly, no difference in power was observed between SIBASSOC/STDT and RCTDT. Under various recessive and additive models, TRANSMIT was slightly more powerful than SIBASSOC/STDT when monoparental families with one affected and one unaffected sib were analyzed. Under various dominant models, SIBASSOC/STDT was slightly more powerful than TRANSMIT. Misclassification of the disease status of healthy sibs, as well as the discarding of incomplete families, resulted in a consistent loss of power. PMID:10841813

Cervino, A C; Hill, A V

2000-07-01

358

Fabrication of Stable Cartilage Framework for Microtia in Incomplete Synchondrosis  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The synchondrosis between the sixth and seventh costal cartilage is usually used for thebase frame in autogenous ear reconstruction. If the synchondrosis is loose, a variety ofmodifications can be devised. This report introduces new methods for these problems. Incases of incomplete synchondrosis, only the surface of the base block margin was smoothlytapered without carving for the removal of the conchal deepening. The secure fixation ofthe two segments (helix and antihelix to the base block using fine wire sutures gave stabilityto the unstable basal frame. After confirming that all the segments were assembled in onestable piece, the remaining conchal deepening of the basal framework was removed, and theouter lower portion of the basal cartilage was trimmed along its whole length. A total of 10consecutive patients with microtia, ranging from 8 to 13 years old, were treated from 2008 to2009. The follow-up period was 6 months to 2 years. Despite incomplete synchondrosis, thestable frameworks were constructed using the authors’ method and aesthetically acceptableresults were achieved. The proposed method can provide an easy way to make a stablecartilage framework regardless of the variable conditions of synchondrosis.

Byung Chae Cho

2012-03-01

359

Incomplete hippocampal inversion - is there a relation to epilepsy?  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Incomplete hippocampal inversion (IHI) has been described in patients with epilepsy or severe midline malformations but also in nonepileptic subjects without obvious developmental anomalies. We studied the frequency of IHI in different epilepsy syndromes to evaluate their relationship. Three hundred patients were drawn from the regional epilepsy register. Of these, 99 were excluded because of a disease or condition affecting the temporal lobes or incomplete data. Controls were 150 subjects without epilepsy or obvious intracranial developmental anomalies. The coronal MR images were analysed without knowledge of the clinical data. Among epilepsy patients, 30% had IHI (40 left-sided, 4 right-sided, 16 bilateral). Of controls, 18% had IHI (20 left-sided, 8 bilateral). The difference was statistically significant (P<0.05). Of temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE) patients, 25% had IHI, which was not a significantly higher frequency than in controls (P=0.34). There was no correlation between EEG and IHI laterality. A total of 44% of Rolandic epilepsy patients and 57% of cryptogenic generalised epilepsy patients had IHI. The IHI frequency was very high in some epileptic syndromes, but not significantly higher in TLE compared to controls. No causality between TLE and IHI could be found. IHI can be a sign of disturbed cerebral development affecting other parts of the brain, maybe leading to epilepsy. (orig.)

360

Distributed Cooperation among Cognitive Radios with Complete and Incomplete Information  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This paper proposes that secondary unlicensed users are allowed to opportunistically use the radio spectrum allocated to the primary licensed users, as long as they agree on facilitating the primary user communications by cooperating with them. The proposal is characterized by feasibility since the half-duplex option is considered, and incomplete knowledge of channel state information can be assumed. In particular, we consider two situations, where the users in the scenario have complete or incomplete knowledge of the surrounding environment. In the first case, we make the hypothesis of the existence of a Common Control Channel (CCC where users share this information. In the second case, the hypothesis of the CCC is avoided, which improves the robustness and feasibility of the cognitive radio network. To model these schemes we make use of theory of exact and Bayesian potential games. We analyze the convergence properties of the proposed games, and we evaluate the outputs in terms of quality of service perceived by both primary and secondary users, showing that cooperation for cognitive radios is a promising framework and that the lack of complete information in the decision process only slightly reduces system performance.

Lorenza Giupponi

2009-01-01

 
 
 
 
361

Incomplete hippocampal inversion - is there a relation to epilepsy?  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Incomplete hippocampal inversion (IHI) has been described in patients with epilepsy or severe midline malformations but also in nonepileptic subjects without obvious developmental anomalies. We studied the frequency of IHI in different epilepsy syndromes to evaluate their relationship. Three hundred patients were drawn from the regional epilepsy register. Of these, 99 were excluded because of a disease or condition affecting the temporal lobes or incomplete data. Controls were 150 subjects without epilepsy or obvious intracranial developmental anomalies. The coronal MR images were analysed without knowledge of the clinical data. Among epilepsy patients, 30% had IHI (40 left-sided, 4 right-sided, 16 bilateral). Of controls, 18% had IHI (20 left-sided, 8 bilateral). The difference was statistically significant (P<0.05). Of temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE) patients, 25% had IHI, which was not a significantly higher frequency than in controls (P=0.34). There was no correlation between EEG and IHI laterality. A total of 44% of Rolandic epilepsy patients and 57% of cryptogenic generalised epilepsy patients had IHI. The IHI frequency was very high in some epileptic syndromes, but not significantly higher in TLE compared to controls. No causality between TLE and IHI could be found. IHI can be a sign of disturbed cerebral development affecting other parts of the brain, maybe leading to epilepsy. (orig.)

Bajic, Dragan [Uppsala University Hospital, Department of Radiology, Uppsala (Sweden); Kumlien, Eva; Mattsson, Peter [Uppsala University Hospital, Department of Neuroscience, Neurology, Uppsala (Sweden); Lundberg, Staffan [Uppsala University Hospital, Department of Women' s and Children' s Health, Uppsala (Sweden); Wang, Chen [Karolinska University Hospital, Department of Neuroradiology, Stockholm (Sweden); Raininko, Raili [Uppsala University, Department of Radiology, Uppsala (Sweden)

2009-10-15

362

An information propagation model considering incomplete reading behavior in microblog  

Science.gov (United States)

Microblog is one of the most popular communication channels on the Internet, and has already become the third largest source of news and public opinions in China. Although researchers have studied the information propagation in microblog using the epidemic models, previous studies have not considered the incomplete reading behavior among microblog users. Therefore, the model cannot fit the real situations well. In this paper, we proposed an improved model entitled Microblog-Susceptible-Infected-Removed (Mb-SIR) for information propagation by explicitly considering the user's incomplete reading behavior. We also tested the effectiveness of the model using real data from Sina Microblog. We demonstrate that the new proposed model is more accurate in describing the information propagation in microblog. In addition, we also investigate the effects of the critical model parameters, e.g., reading rate, spreading rate, and removed rate through numerical simulations. The simulation results show that, compared with other parameters, reading rate plays the most influential role in the information propagation performance in microblog.

Su, Qiang; Huang, Jiajia; Zhao, Xiande

2015-02-01

363

Global stability of two models with incomplete treatment for tuberculosis  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Research highlights: ? Two tuberculosis models with incomplete treatment. ? Intuitive epidemiological interpretations for the basic reproduction numbers. ? Global dynamics of the two models. ? Strategies to control the spread of tuberculosis. - Abstract: Two tuberculosis (TB) models with incomplete treatment are investigated. It is assumed that the treated individuals may enter either the latent compartment due to the remainder of Mycobacterium tuberculosis or the infectious compartment due to the treatment failure. The first model is a simple one with treatment failure reflecting the current TB treatment fact in most countries with high tuberculosis incidence. The second model refines the simple one by dividing the latent compartment into slow and fast two kinds of progresses. This improvement can be used to describe the case that the latent TB individuals have been infected with some other chronic diseases (such as HIV and diabetes) which may weaken the immunity of infected individuals and shorten the latent period of TB. Both of the two models assume mass action incidence and exponential distributions of transfers between different compartments. The basic reproduction numbers of the two models are derived and their intuitive epidemiological interpretations are given. The global dynamics of two models are all proved by using Liapunov functions. At last, some strategies to control the spread of tuberculosis are discussed.

364

Global stability of two models with incomplete treatment for tuberculosis  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Research highlights: Two tuberculosis models with incomplete treatment. Intuitive epidemiological interpretations for the basic reproduction numbers. Global dynamics of the two models. Strategies to control the spread of tuberculosis. - Abstract: Two tuberculosis (TB) models with incomplete treatment are investigated. It is assumed that the treated individuals may enter either the latent compartment due to the remainder of Mycobacterium tuberculosis or the infectious compartment due to the treatment failure. The first model is a simple one with treatment failure reflecting the current TB treatment fact in most countries with high tuberculosis incidence. The second model refines the simple one by dividing the latent compartment into slow and fast two kinds of progresses. This improvement can be used to describe the case that the latent TB individuals have been infected with some other chronic diseases (such as HIV and diabetes) which may weaken the immunity of infected individuals and shorten the latent period of TB. Both of the two models assume mass action incidence and exponential distributions of transfers between different compartments. The basic reproduction numbers of the two models are derived and their intuitive epidemiological interpretations are given. The global dynamics of two models are all proved by using Liapunov functions. At last, some strategies to control the spread of tuberculosis are discussed.

Yang Yali, E-mail: yylhgr@126.co [Department of Applied Mathematics, Xi' an Jiaotong University, Xi' an 710049 (China) and Department of Applied Mathematics and Physics, Air Force Engineering University, Xi' an 710051 (China); Li Jianquan, E-mail: jianq_li@263.ne [Department of Applied Mathematics and Physics, Air Force Engineering University, Xi' an 710051 (China); Ma Zhien, E-mail: zhma@mail.xjtu.edu.c [Department of Applied Mathematics, Xi' an Jiaotong University, Xi' an 710049 (China); Liu Luju, E-mail: dahai20401095@yahoo.com.c [Department of Mathematics, Henan University of Science and Technology, Luoyang 471003 (China)

2010-12-15

365

Data repair method in incomplete free-surface measurement  

Science.gov (United States)

Measurement instrument such as coordinate measuring machine or laser scanner is widely applied in the modern industrial manufacturing to reconstruct the shapes of free-surface. However this reconstruction method is determined by the extraction integrity of the shape parameter in the measured part. Some problems occur frequently for the partial surface damage, measurement block, accessible extent, etc., and which result in the measured data incomplete. This paper presents a data repair method based on the gray model combined with neural network theory. The data of the defect surface is divided into different part and the new data sequence is generated. The accumulated generation operation is applied to the new sequence. The normalization processing can then be done before the gray accumulation generation input into the neural network model. The relevant factor sequence by accumulation generation of normalization processing is taken as the RBF neural network input, while the accumulated feature sequence is considered as the output of the network. The defect surface to be repaired is composed of point cloud data. The value of each point can be calculated in the three directions so that the output of the neural network also has three characteristic data. The simulation experimental results show this method can be applied easily in the data repair in the incomplete free-surface with a high accuracy.

Wang, Zhongyu; Li, Qiang; Yan, Hu; Wang, Qian

2013-10-01

366

Insights into thermonuclear supernovae from the incomplete silicon burning process  

CERN Document Server

Type Ia supernova (SNIa) explosions synthesize a few tenths to several tenths of a solar mass, whose composition is the result of incomplete silicon burning that reaches peak temperatures of 4 GK to 5 GK. The elemental abundances are sensitive to the physical conditions in the explosion, making their measurement a promising clue to uncovering the properties of the progenitor star and of the explosion itself. Using a parameterized description of the thermodynamic history of matter undergoing incomplete silicon burning, we computed the final composition for a range of parameters wide enough to encompass current models of SNIa. Then, we searched for combinations of elemental abundances that trace the parameters values and are potentially measurable. For this purpose, we divide the present study into two epochs of SNIa, namely the optical epoch, from a few weeks to several months after the explosion, and the X-ray epoch, which refers to the time period in which the supernova remnant is young, starting one or two ...

Bravo, E

2012-01-01

367

Magnetic resonance cholangiopancreatography after failed or incomplete endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Background. MRCP is a new noninvasive technique for examining the biliary and pancreatic ducts without the need for contrast medium and without any known side effects. MRCP could replace diagnostic ERCP and other invasive bile and pancreatic duct examination methods. Objectives. Evaluation of the usefulness of MRCP to delineate bile and pancreatic ducts and depict pathological fluid collection in the biliopancreatic region in patients after failed or incomplete ERCP. Material and Methods. MRCP was performed in 36 patients who had previously undergone an attempted ERCP. However, with ERCP complete duct visualization was obtained in only 17 patients, but it failed in 6 patients and opacification was incomplete in 13. MRCP was done using a 1.5.T Picker Edge Eclipse system (EXPRESS, TR: ? , TEeff: 268 ms, ETL: 200, slice thickness: 50-70 mm, matrix: 336 x 512, FOV: 38 cm). Results. Complete visualization of the ducts was obtained with MRCP in all 36 patients, whereas ERCP was successful in only 21 cases. In 6 patients, MRCP showed pseudocysts missed by ERCP. In 15 patients, no further invasive procedures were needed after MRCP. Conclusions. MRCP is a valuable diagnostic tool for evaluating patients after failed or unsuccessful ERCP. MRCP is a noninvasive technique that may avoid the use of other, invasive procedures. (authors)

368

Antiapoptotic Role for Ornithine Decarboxylase during Oocyte Maturation?  

Science.gov (United States)

Ornithine decarboxylase (ODC), the rate-limiting enzyme in polyamine biosynthesis, is a nonredundant and essential gene in all eukaryotes. During the mitotic cell cycle, ODC exhibits two activity peaks: one at the G1/S transition and one during the G2/M transition. The physiological role of this cell cycle-dependent ODC activity dynamic is not clear. Previous studies have reported a significant elevation of ODC activity during Xenopus oocyte maturation, which resembles mitotic G2/M transition. In order to study the roles of ODC activity in the oocytes, we utilized antisense morpholino (xODC mo) oligonucleotides to inhibit ODC translation. We report here that xODC mo abolished ODC activity increase during oocyte maturation. xODC mo-injected oocytes underwent germinal vesicle breakdown, emitted the first polar body, and reached metaphase II, thus completing nuclear maturation. However, the metaphase II oocytes exhibited high levels of reactive oxygen species and became apoptotic. When transferred to host frogs and subsequently ovulated, these eggs were fertilized but exhibited embryo fragmentation. Translation of ODC is therefore integral to cytoplasmic maturation, protecting metaphase II oocytes from reactive oxygen species-induced apoptosis. PMID:19158268

Zhou, Yong; Ma, Chunqi; Karmouch, Jennifer; Katbi, Hadia Arabi; Liu, X. Johné

2009-01-01

369

Dual effect of Plasmodium-infected erythrocytes on dendritic cell maturation  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background Infection with Plasmodium is the cause of malaria, a disease characterized by a high inflammatory response in the blood. Dendritic cells (DC participate in both adaptive and innate immune responses, influencing the generation of inflammatory responses. DC can be activated through different receptors, which recognize specific molecules in microbes and induce the maturation of DC. Methods Using Plasmodium yoelii, a rodent malaria model, the effect of Plasmodium-infected erythrocytes on DC maturation and TLR responses have been analysed. Results It was found that intact erythrocytes infected with P. yoelii do not induce maturation of DC unless they are lysed, suggesting that accessibility of parasite inflammatory molecules to their receptors is a key issue in the activation of DC by P. yoelii. This activation is independent of MyD88. It was also observed that pre-incubation of DC with intact P. yoelii-infected erythrocytes inhibits the maturation response of DC to other TLR stimuli. The inhibition of maturation of DC is reversible, parasite-specific and increases with the stage of parasite development, with complete inhibition induced by schizonts (mature infected erythrocytes. Plasmodium yoelii-infected erythrocytes induce a broad inhibitory effect rendering DC non-responsive to ligands for TLR2, TLR3, TLR4, TLR5, TLR7 and TLR9. Conclusions Despite the presence of inflammatory molecules within Plasmodium-infected erythrocytes, which are probably responsible for DC maturation induced by lysates, intact Plasmodium-infected erythrocytes induce a general inhibition of TLR responsiveness in DC. The observed effect on DC could play an important role in the pathology and suboptimal immune response observed during the disease. These results help to explain why immune functions are altered during malaria, and provide a system for the identification of a parasite-derived broad inhibitor of TLR-mediated signaling pathways.

Ocaña-Morgner Carlos

2010-03-01

370

Sexual maturity in western Atlantic bluefin tuna.  

Science.gov (United States)

We introduce a novel endocrine approach for assessing the unresolved matter of the timing of sexual maturation in western Atlantic bluefin tuna (ABFT), a highly migratory population whose status remains uncertain. Ratios of follicle stimulating hormone to luteinizing hormone, a sexual maturity indicator, in all ABFT ?134?cm curved fork length (CFL) were <0.4, similar to Mediterranean spawners, indicating that western ABFT mature at considerably smaller sizes and at a much younger age than currently assumed (?185?cm CFL). PMID:25431301

Heinisch, Gilad; Rosenfeld, Hanna; Knapp, Jessica M; Gordin, Hillel; Lutcavage, Molly E

2014-01-01

371

Postradiation atrophy of mature bone  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The primary event of radiation damage to bone is atrophy and true necrosis of bone is uncommon. The postradiation atrophic changes of bone are the result of combined cellular and vascular damage, the former being more important. The damage to the osteoblast resulting in decreased matrix production is apparently the primary histopathologic event. Radiation damaged bone is susceptible to superimposed complications of fracture, infection, necrosis, and sarcoma. The primary radiographic evidence of atrophy, localized osteopenia, is late in appearing. Contrary to former views, the mature bone is quite radiosensitive and reacts quickly to even small doses of radiation. The differentiation of postirradiation atrophy and metastasis may be difficult. Biopsy should be the last resort because of the possibility of causing true necrosis in atrophic bone by trauma and infection

372

The effects of immobilization on the maturation of the anterior cruciate ligament of the rabbit knee.  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Immobilization-induced alterations occurred in young anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) samples, including the loss of the rounded appearance of the cells. The mature ACL was minimally altered by immobilization at the light microscopy level. In the immobilized young ACL the fibroblasts became elongated and there was loss of the normal pericellular matrix. The immobilized mature ACL differed from controls primarily in the intracellular composition, as there was significantly more rough endoplasm...

Amiel, D.; Wallace, C. D.; Harwood, F. L.

1994-01-01

373

Mybl2, downregulated during colon epithelial cell maturation, is suppressed by miR-365  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Altered profiles of gene expression reflect the reprogramming of intestinal epithelial cells during their maturation along the crypt-luminal axis. To focus on genes important in this process, and how they in turn are regulated, we identified 14 transcripts commonly downregulated in expression during lineage-specific maturation of the immortalized cell lines Caco-2 (absorptive), HT29Cl16E (goblet), and HT29Cl19A (secretory) induced by contact inhibition of growth or the short-chain fatty acid ...

Papetti, Michael; Augenlicht, Leonard H.

2011-01-01

374

Seeking process maturity with DSDM atern  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available It is important for an organization to know what capability/maturity of the process a chosen methodology could ensure. This paper is focused on DSDM Atern process maturity by CMMI. The goal is to assess DSDM Atern by CMMI-DEV version 1.3 and propose the improvements to reach CMMI maturity level 3. A capability profile ensured by DSDM Atern has been obtained. The appraisal results showed that DSDM Atern ensures CMMI maturity level 2. Constraints and problematic areas of DSDM Atern methodology were discovered. In order to reach CMMI level 3 some recommendations for DSDM Atern additions were developed.

Stasys Peldžius

2013-09-01

375

Towards a Curriculum Design Maturity Model  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The Capability Maturity Model (CMM is used in the software industry to improve design process as well as product quality. Likewise, CMM is also used in the education sector for a similar purpose. This paper presents, in particular, a proposed maturity model for curriculum design for Institutions of Higher Learning in Malaysia. The Curriculum Design Maturity Model ONE (CDMM-1 is specifically aimed at guiding curriculum designers in producing quality curricula according to programme specifications. In this study, CDMM-1, which is derived from the proposed maturity model, has both process and product components. However, this paper only focuses on the product quality aspect.

Thong Chee Ling 1

2012-10-01

376

Spectral ordering techniques for incomplete LU preconditoners for CG methods  

Science.gov (United States)

The effectiveness of an incomplete LU (ILU) factorization as a preconditioner for the conjugate gradient method can be highly dependent on the ordering of the matrix rows during its creation. Detailed justification for two heuristics commonly used in matrix ordering for anisotropic problems is given. The bandwidth reduction and weak connection following heuristics are implemented through an ordering method based on eigenvector computations. This spectral ordering is shown to be a good representation of the heuristics. Analysis and test cases in two and three dimensional diffusion problems demonstrate when ordering is important, and when an ILU decomposition will be ordering insensitive. The applicability of the heuristics is thus evaluated and placed on a more rigorous footing.

Clift, Simon S.; Simon, Horst D.; Tang, Wei-Pai

1995-01-01

377

Role of entrance channel parameters on incomplete fusion reaction dynamics  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In recent time the keen interest has been observed in the study of incomplete fusion (ICF) reactions and its dependence on various entrance channel parameters: projectile type/energy, angular momentum imparted to the system, alpha-Q-value of the projectile, mass asymmetry of the interacting partners etc. The fusion reaction proceeds for the energy of projectile capable of overcoming the fusion barrier resulting from the sum of repulsive Coulomb and attractive nuclear potentials. However, the breakup becomes an important process and influences the flux of fusion reactions. Further, the influence of the projectile breakup on fusion is not yet well understood, thus continues to be an active area of investigations. In view of the above facts, the excitation functions of several evaporated residues in the 16O + 115In at energies 4-7 MeV/nucleon have been measured. The influence of various entrance channel parameters on ICF reaction dynamics has been studied

378

On a class of incomplete gamma functions with applications  

CERN Document Server

The subject of special functions is rich and expanding continuously with the emergence of new problems encountered in engineering and applied science applications. The development of computational techniques and the rapid growth in computing power have increased the importance of the special functions and their formulae for analytic representations. However, problems remain, particularly in heat conduction, astrophysics, and probability theory, whose solutions seem to defy even the most general classes of special functions.On a Class of Incomplete Gamma Functions with Applications introduces a class of special functions, developed by the authors, useful in the analytic study of several heat conduction problems. It presents some basic properties of these functions, including their recurrence relations, special cases, asymptotic representations, and integral transform relationships. The authors explore applications of these generalized functions to problems in transient heat conduction, special cases of laser s...

Chaudhry, M Aslam

2001-01-01

379

A Coupled Approach for Structural Damage Detection with Incomplete Measurements  

Science.gov (United States)

This historical work couples model order reduction, damage detection, dynamic residual/mode shape expansion, and damage extent estimation to overcome the incomplete measurements problem by using an appropriate undamaged structural model. A contribution of this work is the development of a process to estimate the full dynamic residuals using the columns of a spring connectivity matrix obtained by disassembling the structural stiffness matrix. Another contribution is the extension of an eigenvector filtering procedure to produce full-order mode shapes that more closely match the measured active partition of the mode shapes using a set of modified Ritz vectors. The full dynamic residuals and full mode shapes are used as inputs to the minimum rank perturbation theory to provide an estimate of damage location and extent. The issues associated with this process are also discussed as drivers of near-term development activities to understand and improve this approach.

James, George; Cao, Timothy; Kaouk, Mo; Zimmerman, David

2013-01-01

380

Parameter learning in MTE networks using incomplete data  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Bayesian networks with mixtures of truncated exponentials (MTEs) are gaining popularity as a flexible modelling framework for hybrid domains. MTEs support efficient and exact inference algorithms, but estimating an MTE from data has turned out to be a difficult task. Current methods suffer from a considerable computational burden as well as the inability to handle missing values in the training data. In this paper we describe an EM-based algorithm for learning the maximum likelihood parameters of an MTE network when confronted with incomplete data. In order to overcome the computational difficulties we make certain distributional assumptions about the domain being modeled, thus focusing on a subclass of the general class of MTE networks. Preliminary empirical results indicate that the proposed method offers results that are inline with intuition.

Fernández, Antonio; Langseth, Helge

 
 
 
 
381

Applying incomplete statistics to nonextensive systems with different q indices  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The nonextensive statistics based on the q-entropy Sq=--bar i=1v(pi-piq)1-q has been so far applied to systems in which the q value is uniformly distributed. For the systems containing different q's, the applicability of the theory is still a matter of investigation. The difficulty is that the class of systems to which the theory can be applied is actually limited by the usual nonadditivity rule of entropy which is no more valid when the systems contain non uniform distribution of q values. In this paper, within the framework of the so called incomplete information theory, we propose a more general nonadditivity rule of entropy prescribed by the zeroth law of thermodynamics. This new nonadditivity generalizes in a simple way the usual one and can be proved to lead uniquely to the q-entropy

382

Some remarks on marginally trapped surfaces and geodesic incompleteness  

CERN Document Server

In a recent paper, Eichmair, Galloway and Pollack have proved a Gannon-Lee-type singularity theorem based on the existence of marginally outer trapped surfaces (MOTS) on noncompact initial data sets for globally hyperbolic spacetimes. However, one might wonder whether the corresponding incomplete geodesics could still be complete in a possible non-globally hyperbolic extension of spacetime. In this note, some variants of that result are given with weaker causality assumptions, thus suggesting that the answer is generically negative, at least if the putative extension has no closed timelike curves. However, unlike in the case of MOTS, on which only the outgoing family of normal geodesics is constrained, we have found it necessary in our proofs to impose also a weak convergence condition on the ingoing family of normal geodesics. In other words, we consider marginally trapped surfaces (MTS) in chronological spacetimes, introducing the natural notion of a generic MTS. In particular, a Hawking-Penrose-type singul...

Silva, I P Costa e

2012-01-01

383

Incomplete rod insertion at Doel 4 and Tihange 3  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The present paper deals with the Incomplete Rod Insertion (IRI) problems experienced at the Belgian nuclear power plants (NPPs) of Doel-Unit 4 and Tihange-Unit 3 and presents the various remedial action taken to try to address the cause of such abnormal situations. A chronological description is made of the major events that developed at both units since the IRI problem was detected, i.e. since June '96 at Doel 4 and since October '96 at Tihange 3. The problems that arose from IRI are discussed as well as the position adopted by the Belgian Safety Authorities (BSA) and the action taken by the plant operator, his engineer and by the fuel suppliers. Also described are the consequences on how fuel supply and operation cycles of both units are managed. (authors)

384

Incomplete rod insertion at Doel 4 and Tihange 3  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The present paper deals with the Incomplete Rod Insertion (IRI) problems experienced at the Belgian nuclear power plants (NPPs) of Doel-Unit 4 and Tihange-Unit 3 and presents the various remedial action taken to try to address the cause of such abnormal situations. A chronological description is made of the major events that developed at both units since the IRI problem was detected, i.e. since June '96 at Doel 4 and since October '96 at Tihange 3. The problems that arose from IRI are discussed as well as the position adopted by the Belgian Safety Authorities (BSA) and the action taken by the plant operator, his engineer and by the fuel suppliers. Also described are the consequences on how fuel supply and operation cycles of both units are managed. (authors)

Jadot, J.J.; Frans, C.; Goethals, S. [Tractebel Energy Engineering, Brussels (Belgium); Baenst, H. de [ELECTRABEL, DAN, Brussels (Belgium)

1999-07-01

385

Mass estimates for visual binaries with incomplete orbits  

CERN Document Server

The problem of estimating the total mass of a visual binary when its orbit is incomplete is treated with Bayesian methods. The posterior mean of a mass estimator is approximated by a triple integral over orbital period, time of periastron and orbital eccentricity. This reduction to 3-D from the 7-D space defined by the conventional Campbell parameters is achieved by adopting the Thiele-Innes elements and exploiting the linearity with respect to the four Thiele-Innes constants. The formalism is tested on synthetic observational data covering a variable fraction of a model binary's orbit. The posterior mean of the mass estimator is numerically found to be unbiased when the data cover > 40% of the orbit.

Lucy, L B

2013-01-01

386

Incomplete Continuous-Time Securities Markets with Stochastic Income Volatility  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

In an incomplete continuous-time securities market governed by Brownian motions, we derive closed-form solutions for the equilibrium risk-free rate and equity premium processes. The economy has a finite number of heterogeneous exponential utility investors, who receive partially unspanned income and can trade continuously on a finite time interval in a money market account and a single risky security. Besides establishing the existence of an equilibrium, our main result shows that if the investors' unspanned income has stochastic counter-cyclical volatility, the resulting equilibrium can display both lower risk-free rates and higher risk premia relative to the Pareto efficient equilibrium in an otherwise identical complete market. Consequently, our model can simultaneously help explaining the risk-free rate and equity premium puzzles.

Christensen, Peter Ove; Larsen, Kasper

2011-01-01

387

Nonlinear stochastic systems with incomplete information filtering and control  

CERN Document Server

Nonlinear Stochastic Processes addresses the frequently-encountered problem of incomplete information. The causes of this problem considered here include: missing measurements; sensor delays and saturation; quantization effects; and signal sampling. Divided into three parts, the text begins with a focus on H? filtering and control problems associated with general classes of nonlinear stochastic discrete-time systems. Filtering problems are considered in the second part, and in the third the theory and techniques previously developed are applied to the solution of issues arising in complex networks with the design of sampled-data-based controllers and filters. Among its highlights, the text provides: ·         a unified framework for handling filtering and control problems in complex communication networks with limited bandwidth; ·         new concepts such as random sensor and signal saturations for more realistic modeling; and ·         demonstration of the use of techniques such...

Shen, Bo; Shu, Huisheng

2013-01-01

388

How does incomplete fusion show up at slightly above barrier energies?  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Experimental results on the onset of incomplete fusion at slightly above barrier energies are discussed in this paper. Spin-distributions of evaporation residues populated via complete and/or incomplete fusion of 12C,16O (Elab ? 4–7 MeV with 169Tm have been measured to probe associated ?–values. Particle (Z=1,2 – ? – coincidence technique has been used for channel selection. Entirely different entry state spin populations have been observed during the de-excitation of complete and incomplete composites. The complete fusion residues are found to be strongly fed over a broad spin range. While, a narrow range feeding for only high spin states has been observed in case of incomplete fusion residues. In the present work, incomplete fusion is shown to be a promising tool to populate high spin states in final reaction products. For better insight into the onset and strength of incomplete fusion, the relative contributions of complete and incomplete fusion have been deduced from the analysis of excitation functions and forward recoil ranges. A significant fraction of ICF has been observed even at energy as low as ? 7% above the barrier. The relative strengths of complete and incomplete fusion deduced from the analysis of forward-recoil-ranges and excitation functions complement each other. All the available results are discussed in light of the Morgenstern’s mass-asymmetry systematics. Incomplete fusion fraction is found to be large for more mass-asymmetric systems for individual projectiles, which points towards the projectile structure effect on incomplete fusion fraction. Experimentally measured forward ranges of recoils complement the existence of incomplete fusion at slightly above barrier energies, where more than one linear-momentum-transfer components associated with full- and/or partial-fusion of projectile(s have been observed. Present results conclusively demonstrate the possibility to selectively populate high spin states via incomplete fusion.

Prasad R.

2012-02-01

389

Reliability of three-dimensional gait analysis in adults with acquired incomplete spinal cord injury  

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Background: Incomplete spinal cord injury (SCI) results in varying degrees of gait impairments. Three-dimensional (3D) gait analysis has been recommended as part of a standardised gait assessment for individuals with incomplete SCI. However, reliability of 3D gait analysis has not been established for this population. The aim of the present study was to investigate intra- and inter-session reliability of gait kinematics in a group of individuals with incomplete SCI. We also sought to estimate...

Wedege, Pia

2013-01-01

390

Evaluation of zona pellucida birefringence intensity during in vitro maturation of oocytes from stimulated cycles  

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Full Text Available Abstract Background This study evaluated whether there is a relationship between the zona pellucida birefringence (ZP-BF intensity and the nuclear (NM and cytoplasmic (CM in vitro maturation of human oocytes from stimulated cycles. Results The ZP-BF was evaluated under an inverted microscope with a polarizing optical system and was scored as high/positive (when the ZP image presented a uniform and intense birefringence or low/negative (when the image presented moderate and heterogeneous birefringence. CM was analyzed by evaluating the distribution of cortical granules (CGs throughout the ooplasm by immunofluorescence staining. CM was classified as: complete, when CG was localized in the periphery; incomplete, when oocytes presented a cluster of CGs in the center; or in transition, when oocytes had both in clusters throughout cytoplasm and distributed in a layer in the cytoplasm periphery Nuclear maturation: From a total of 83 germinal vesicle (GV stage oocytes, 58 of oocytes (69.9% reached NM at the metaphase II stage. From these 58 oocytes matured in vitro, the high/positively scoring ZP-BF was presented in 82.7% of oocytes at the GV stage, in 75.8% of oocytes when at the metaphase I, and in 82.7% when oocytes reached MII. No relationship was observed between NM and ZP-BF positive/negative scores (P = 0.55. These variables had a low Pearson's correlation coefficient (r = 0.081. Cytoplasmic maturation: A total of 85 in vitro-matured MII oocytes were fixed for CM evaluation. Forty-nine oocytes of them (57.6% showed the complete CM, 30 (61.2% presented a high/positively scoring ZP-BF and 19 (38.8% had a low/negatively scoring ZP-BF. From 36 oocytes (42.3% with incomplete CM, 18 (50% presented a high/positively scoring ZPBF and 18 (50% had a low/negatively scoring ZP-BF. No relationship was observed between CM and ZP-BF positive/negative scores (P = 0.42. These variables had a low Pearson's correlation coefficient (r = 0.11. Conclusions The current study demonstrated an absence of relationship between ZP-BF high/positive or low/negative score and nuclear and cytoplasmic in vitro maturation of oocytes from stimulation cycles.

Silva Liliane FI

2011-04-01

391

Interaction of Poxvirus Intracellular Mature Virion Proteins with the TPR Domain of Kinesin Light Chain in Live Infected Cells Revealed by Two-Photon-Induced Fluorescence Resonance Energy Transfer Fluorescence Lifetime Imaging Microscopy ?  

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Using two-photon-induced fluorescence lifetime imaging microscopy, we corroborate an interaction (previously demonstrated by yeast two-hybrid domain analysis) of full-length vaccinia virus (VACV; an orthopoxvirus) A36 protein with the cellular microtubule motor protein kinesin. Quenching of enhanced green fluorescent protein (EGFP), fused to the C terminus of VACV A36, by monomeric red fluorescent protein (mDsRed), fused to the tetratricopeptide repeat (TPR) domain of kinesin, was observed in...

Jeshtadi, Ananya; Burgos, Pierre; Stubbs, Christopher D.; Parker, Anthony W.; King, Linda A.; Skinner, Michael A.; Botchway, Stanley W.

2010-01-01

392

Optimal investment with random endowments in incomplete markets  

CERN Document Server

In this paper, we study the problem of expected utility maximization of an agent who, in addition to an initial capital, receives random endowments at maturity. Contrary to previous studies, we treat as the variables of the optimization problem not only the initial capital but also the number of units of the random endowments. We show that this approach leads to a dual problem, whose solution is always attained in the space of random variables. In particular, this technique does not require the use of finitely additive measures and the related assumption that the endowments are bounded.

Hugonnier, J; Hugonnier, Julien; Kramkov, Dmitry

2004-01-01

393

Finite Hilbert transform with incomplete data: null-space and singular values  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Using the Gelfand–Graev formula, the interior problem of tomography reduces to the inversion of the finite Hilbert transform (FHT) from incomplete data. In this paper, we study several aspects of inverting the FHT when the data are incomplete. Using the Cauchy transform and an approach based on the Riemann–Hilbert problem, we derive a differential operator that commutes with the FHT. Our second result is the characterization of the null-space of the FHT in the case of incomplete data. Also, we derive the asymptotics of the singular values of the FHT in three different cases of incomplete data. (paper)

394

Histologia da embriogênese somática induzida em embriões de sementes maduras de Urochloa brizantha apomítica Histology of somatic embryogenesis induced in embryos of mature seeds of the apomictic Urochloa brizantha  

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Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi descrever o processo de embriogênese somática em Urochloa brizantha cv. Marandu (Syn. Brachiaria brizantha cv. Marandu e fornecer subsídios para o aprimoramento dos métodos de cultura de tecidos e transformação genética. Calos embriogênicos foram obtidos por indução em embriões isolados de sementes maduras, e cultivados in vitro, em meio de cultura que continha ácido 2,4-diclorofenoxiacético, 6-benzilaminopurina e caseína hidrolisada. Plântulas foram regeneradas a partir dos calos embriogênicos, na presença de ácido naftalenoacético e cinetina. Esse processo foi descrito morfologicamente por observações em microscopia de luz de secções seriadas semifinas de tecidos fixados, ao longo do processo de regeneração, em FAA [formaldeído (40%: ácido acético glacial: etanol (50%, a 5:5:90 v/v/v]. Os embriões das sementes de U. brizantha cv. Marandu não têm epiblasto e são classificados como do tipo panicoide. Nas condições estabelecidas de cultura in vitro, calos embriogênicos e embriões somáticos de U. brizantha cv. Marandu, desenvolvem-se a partir de células meristemáticas do escutelo.The objective of this work was to describe the process of somatic embryogenesis in Urochloa brizantha cv. Marandu (Syn. Brachiaria brizantha cv. Marandu and to provide support for the improvement of tissue culture and genetic transformation methods. Embryogenic calli were obtained by induction in embryos isolated from mature seeds, and cultivated in vitro in culture medium containing 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid, 6-benzylaminopurine and hydrolyzed casein. Plantlets were regenerated from the embryogenic calli in the presence of naphthaleneacetic acid and kinetin. This process was described by morphological observations of serial semithin sections of tissues fixed along the regeneration process in FAA (40% formaldehyde: acetic acid: 50% ethanol, at 5:5:90 v/v/v, using light microscopy. Seed embryos of U. brizantha cv. Marandu do not have epiblast and are classified as Panicum-type. Under in vitro culture conditions, embryogenic calli and somatic embryos of U. brizantha cv. Marandu develop from meristematic cells of the scutellum.

Sandra Janeth Lenis-Manzano

2010-05-01

395

Secretion of a Truncated Osteopetrosis-associated Transmembrane Protein 1 (OSTM1) Mutant Inhibits Osteoclastogenesis through Down-regulation of the B Lymphocyte-induced Maturation Protein 1 (BLIMP1)-Nuclear Factor of Activated T Cells c1 (NFATc1) Axis.  

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Genetic mutations in osteoclastogenic genes are closely associated with osteopetrotic bone diseases. Genetic defects in OSTM1 (osteopetrosis-associated transmembrane protein 1) cause autosomal recessive osteopetrosis in humans. In particular, OSTM1 mutations that exclude the transmembrane domain might lead to the production of a secreted form of truncated OSTM1. However, the precise role of the secreted form of truncated OSTM1 remains unknown. In this study, we analyzed the functional role of truncated OSTM1 in osteoclastogenesis. Here, we showed that a secreted form of truncated OSTM1 binds to the cell surface of osteoclast (OC) precursors and inhibits the formation of multinucleated OCs through the reduction of cell fusion and survival. Truncated OSTM1 significantly inhibited the expression of OC marker genes through the down-regulation of the BLIMP1 (B lymphocyte-induced maturation protein 1)-NFATc1 (nuclear factor of activated T cells c1) axis. Finally, we demonstrated that truncated OSTM1 reduces lipopolysaccharide-induced bone destruction in vivo. Thus, these findings suggest that autosomal recessive osteopetrosis patients with an OSTM1 gene mutation lacking the transmembrane domain produce a secreted form of truncated OSTM1 that inhibits osteoclastogenesis. PMID:25359771

Shin, Bongjin; Yu, Jungeun; Park, Eui-Soon; Choi, Seunga; Yu, Jiyeon; Hwang, Jung Me; Yun, Hyeongseok; Chung, Young-Ho; Hong, Kwan Soo; Choi, Jong-Soon; Takami, Masamichi; Rho, Jaerang

2014-12-26

396

Biochemical Changes in the Maturing Reticulocyte  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Our report deals with some of the biochemical changes characterizing the transformation of reticulocytes into mature erythroid elements and with certain aspects of the mechanism responsible for the regulation of this process. Reticulocytes were chosen because their maturation is known to be associated with drastic biochemical alterations, such as the loss of protein synthesizing ability and also because they can be easily obtained

397

The FMI: Dimensions of Follower Maturity  

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The Follower Maturity Index (FMI) is an instrument derived from leadership theory and based on observations of verbal and nonverbal behavior of followers in task groups. Dimensions of follower maturity--achievement, responsibility, experience, activity, dependence, variety, interests, perspective, position, and awareness--are discussed. For…

Moore, Loren I.

1976-01-01

398

In vitro atrazine exposure affects the phenotypic and functional maturation of dendritic cells  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Recent data suggest that some of the immunotoxic effects of the herbicide atrazine, a very widely used pesticide, may be due to perturbations in dendritic cell (DC) function. As consequences of atrazine exposure on the phenotypic and functional maturation of DC have not been studied, our objective was, using the murine DC line, JAWSII, to determine whether atrazine will interfere with DC maturation. First, we characterized the maturation of JAWSII cells in vitro by inducing them to mature in the presence of growth factors and selected maturational stimuli in vitro. Next, we exposed the DC cell line to a concentration range of atrazine and examined its effects on phenotypic and functional maturation of DC. Atrazine exposure interfered with the phenotypic and functional maturation of DC at non-cytotoxic concentrations. Among the phenotypic changes caused by atrazine exposure was a dose-dependent removal of surface MHC-I with a significant decrease being observed at 1 ?M concentration. In addition, atrazine exposure decreased the expression of the costimulatory molecule CD86 and it downregulated the expression of the CD11b and CD11c accessory molecules and the myeloid developmental marker CD14. When, for comparative purposes, we exposed primary thymic DC to atrazine, MHC-I and CD11c expression was also decreased. Phenotypic changes in JAWSII DC maturation were associated with functional inhibition of maturation as, albeit at higher concentrations, receptor-mediated antier concentrations, receptor-mediated antigen uptake was increased by atrazine. Thus, our data suggest that atrazine directly targets DC maturation and that toxicants such as atrazine that efficiently remove MHC-I molecules from the DC surface are likely to contribute to immune evasion

399

Postradiation atrophy of mature bone  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The growing number of oncological patients subjected to radiotherapy require the diagnostic radiologist to be aware of expected bone changes following irradiation and the differentiation of this entity from metastasis. The primary event of radiation damage to bone is atrophy and true necrosis of bone is uncommon. The postradiation atrophic changes of bone are the result of combined cellular and vascular damage, the former being more important. The damage to the osteoblast resulting in decreased matrix production is apparently the primary histopathologic event. Radiation damaged bone is susceptible to superimposed complications of fracture, infection, necrosis, and sarcoma. The primary radiographic evidence of atrophy, localized osteopenia, is late in appearing, mainly because of the relative insensitivity of radiographs in detecting demineralization. Contrary to former views, the mature bone is quite radiosensitive and reacts quickly to even small doses of radiation. In vivo midrodensitometric analysis and radionuclide bone and bone marrow scans can reveal early changes following irradiation. The differentiation of postirradiation atrophy and metastasis may be difficult. Biopsy should be the last resort because of the possibility of causing true necrosis in atrophic bone by trauma and infection

400

Postradiation atrophy of mature bone  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The growing number of oncological patients subjected to radiotherapy require the diagnostic radiologist to be aware of expected bone changes following irradiation and the differentiation of this entity from metastasis. The primary event of radiation damage to bone is atrophy and true necrosis of bone is uncommon. The postradiation atrophic changes of bone are the result of combined cellular and vascular damage, the former being more important. The damage to the osteoblast resulting in decreased matrix production is apparently the primary histopathologic event. Radiation damaged bone is susceptible to superimposed complications of fracture, infection, necrosis, and sarcoma. The primary radiographic evidence of atrophy, localized osteopenia, is late in appearing, mainly because of the relative insensitivity of radiographs in detecing demineralization. Contrary to former views, the mature bone is quite radiosensitive and reacts quickly to even small doses of radiation. In vivo midrodensitometric analysis and radionuclide bone and bone marrow scans can reveal early changes following irradiation. The differentiation of postirradiation atrophy and metastasis may be difficult. Biopsy should be the last resort because of the possibility of causing true necrosis in atrophic bone by trauma and infection

 
 
 
 
401

Antenatal assessment of fetal maturity  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

334 ultrasound-cephalometries and 231 X-ray fetographies were performed for antenatal assessment of fetal maturity as well as for exact estimation of gestational age in women with unknown date of confinement. The accuracy of the predictions was compared. Ultrasound-cephalometry gave best results when performed until the 20th week of gestation. A correct prediction was obtained in 80.4% of cases. After the 20th week of gestation, the accuracy of prediction decreased. Radiology on the contrary gave optimal results at the end of pregnancy. A correct prediction of the date of confinement was obtained in 73.8% of cases, when the X-ray fetography was performed between the 37th and 40th week of gestation. At the end of gestation radiography should be performed, if there is a discrepancy between ultrasound and clinical estimation or if ultrasound-cephalometry was not carried out in early pregnancy - especially if induction of labour is necessary. (author)

402

Motivational maturity and helping behavior.  

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This study was undertaken to examine the independent influences of conative development (the Maslow needs hierarchy) upon behavioral aspects of prosocial orientations. It provides a behavioral demonstration of conative effects in a helping paradigm, among college-age men. A comparison of the conative data across the ages of 15-22 provided a cross-sectional view of conative development itself. Conative maturity was found to be predictive of greater helping among college-age men. Situational demands were demonstrated which tended to mask, but not override, these predispositional influences on helping. The cross-sectional data on conative development point to probable movement to early esteem concerns among high school men who have reached the conative level of love and belonging. On the other hand, the stability across the years of 15-22 of proportion of safety concerns suggests fixation of such concerns in those exhibiting them in high school. Results are discussed in terms of conative growth for development of prosocial orientations. PMID:24408562

Haymes, M; Green, L

1977-12-01

403

Muramyl dipeptide-induced adjuvant arthritis.  

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Muramyl dipeptide, N-acetylmuramyl-L-alanyl-D-isoglutamine, induced adjuvant arthritis in WKA rats when injected in a water-in-oil emulsion prepared with Freund incomplete adjuvant (Difco), but not when emulsified with Drackeol and Arlacel A.

Nagao, S.; Tanaka, A.

1980-01-01

404

A hierarchical nest survival model integrating incomplete temporally varying covariates  

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Nest success is a critical determinant of the dynamics of avian populations, and nest survival modeling has played a key role in advancing avian ecology and management. Beginning with the development of daily nest survival models, and proceeding through subsequent extensions, the capacity for modeling the effects of hypothesized factors on nest survival has expanded greatly. We extend nest survival models further by introducing an approach to deal with incompletely observed, temporally varying covariates using a hierarchical model. Hierarchical modeling offers a way to separate process and observational components of demographic models to obtain estimates of the parameters of primary interest, and to evaluate structural effects of ecological and management interest. We built a hierarchical model for daily nest survival to analyze nest data from reintroduced whooping cranes (Grus americana) in the Eastern Migratory Population. This reintroduction effort has been beset by poor reproduction, apparently due primarily to nest abandonment by breeding birds. We used the model to assess support for the hypothesis that nest abandonment is caused by harassment from biting insects. We obtained indices of blood-feeding insect populations based on the spatially interpolated counts of insects captured in carbon dioxide traps. However, insect trapping was not conducted daily, and so we had incomplete information on a temporally variable covariate of interest. We therefore supplemented our nest survival model with a parallel model for estimating the values of the missing insect covariates. We used Bayesian model selection to identify the best predictors of daily nest survival. Our results suggest that the black fly Simulium annulus may be negatively affecting nest survival of reintroduced whooping cranes, with decreasing nest survival as abundance of S. annulus increases. The modeling framework we have developed will be applied in the future to a larger data set to evaluate the biting-insect hypothesis and other hypotheses for nesting failure in this reintroduced population; resulting inferences will support ongoing efforts to manage this population via an adaptive management approach. Wider application of our approach offers promise for modeling the effects of other temporally varying, but imperfectly observed covariates on nest survival, including the possibility of modeling temporally varying covariates collected from incubating adults.

Converse, Sarah J.; Royle, J. Andrew; Adler, Peter H.; Urbanek, Richard P.; Barzan, Jeb A.

2013-01-01

405

[Age and aging as incomplete architecture of human ontogenesis].  

Science.gov (United States)

The focus is on the basic biological-genetic and social-cultural architecture of human development across the life span. The starting point is the frame provided by past evolutionary forces. A first conclusion is that for modern times and the relative brevity of the time windows involved in modernity, further change in human functioning is primarily dependent on the evolution of new cultural forms of knowledge rather than evolution-based changes in the human genome. A second conclusion concerns the general architecture of the life course. Three governing lifespan developmental principles coexist. First, because long-term evolutionary selection evince a negative age correlation, genome-based plasticity and biological potential decrease with age. Second, for growth aspects of human development to extend further into the life span, culture-based resources are required at ever increasing levels. Third, because of age-related losses in biological plasticity and negative effects associated with some principles of learning (e.g., negative transfer), the efficiency of culture is reduced as lifespan development unfolds. Joint application of these principles suggests that the lifespan architecture becomes more and more incomplete with age. Three examples are given to illustrate the implications of the lifespan architecture outlined. The first is a general theory of development involving the orchestration of three component processes and their age-related dynamics: Selection, optimization, and compensation. The second example is theory and research on lifespan intelligence that distinguishes between the biology-based mechanics and culture-based pragmatics of intelligence and specifies distinct age gradients for the two categories of intellectual functioning. The third example considers the goal of evolving a positive biological and cultural scenario for the last phase of life (fourth age). Because of the general lifespan architecture outlined, this objective becomes increasingly difficult to achieve. In fact, for other reasons (such as the obsolescence created by rapid technological change) the 21st century can be considered as the century of the permanently incomplete mind. The advent of intervention genetics creates a new scenario with promise and despair. Promise because of the possibility to complete the biological-genetic architecture of the life course through a priori and a posteriori genetic engineering, despair because of a new schism created by the risk of dissociation of the time course of genetic intervention and cultural evolution. For the first time in history, humankind is truly in charge of it's biocultural "natural" destiny. PMID:10654382

Baltes, P B

1999-12-01

406

A hierarchical nest survival model integrating incomplete temporally varying covariates.  

Science.gov (United States)

Nest success is a critical determinant of the dynamics of avian populations, and nest survival modeling has played a key role in advancing avian ecology and management. Beginning with the development of daily nest survival models, and proceeding through subsequent extensions, the capacity for modeling the effects of hypothesized factors on nest survival has expanded greatly. We extend nest survival models further by introducing an approach to deal with incompletely observed, temporally varying covariates using a hierarchical model. Hierarchical modeling offers a way to separate process and observational components of demographic models to obtain estimates of the parameters of primary interest, and to evaluate structural effects of ecological and management interest. We built a hierarchical model for daily nest survival to analyze nest data from reintroduced whooping cranes (Grus americana) in the Eastern Migratory Population. This reintroduction effort has been beset by poor reproduction, apparently due primarily to nest abandonment by breeding birds. We used the model to assess support for the hypothesis that nest abandonment is caused by harassment from biting insects. We obtained indices of blood-feeding insect populations based on the spatially interpolated counts of insects captured in carbon dioxide traps. However, insect trapping was not conducted daily, and so we had incomplete information on a temporally variable covariate of interest. We therefore supplemented our nest survival model with a parallel model for estimating the values of the missing insect covariates. We used Bayesian model selection to identify the best predictors of daily nest survival. Our results suggest that the black fly Simulium annulus may be negatively affecting nest survival of reintroduced whooping cranes, with decreasing nest survival as abundance of S. annulus increases. The modeling framework we have developed will be applied in the future to a larger data set to evaluate the biting-insect hypothesis and other hypotheses for nesting failure in this reintroduced population; resulting inferences will support ongoing efforts to manage this population via an adaptive management approach. Wider application of our approach offers promise for modeling the effects of other temporally varying, but imperfectly observed covariates on nest survival, including the possibility of modeling temporally varying covariates collected from incubating adults. PMID:24340185

Converse, Sarah J; Royle, J Andrew; Adler, Peter H; Urbanek, Richard P; Barzen, Jeb A

2013-11-01

407

Incompleteness and harm avoidance in OCD symptom dimensions.  

Science.gov (United States)

Incompleteness (INC) and harm avoidance (HA) are motivational core dimensions of OCD. While HA-related concepts (e.g., inflated responsibility, overestimation of threat) are a main focus of current cognitive-behavioural OCD research, there is also a renewed interest in INC feelings and "not just right experiences" with an inability to achieve "closure" concerning actions/perceptions. This study systematically examines the association of OCD symptom dimensions with INC and HA in a large clinical OCD sample (n=202). Hierarchical linear multiple regression analyses controlling for anxiety, depression and symptom severity demonstrated a unique association of symmetry/ordering and checking (but not of contamination/washing and obsessional thoughts) with INC, and of obsessional thoughts and checking with HA. Thus, in contrast with symmetry/ordering (predominantly INC-related) and obsessional thoughts (predominantly HA-related), checking was motivationally heterogeneous, i.e., associated with INC and HA to a comparable and substantial degree. Contamination/washing failed to show a unique association with HA in two of three analyses, and with INC in all three analyses. Symptom severity uniquely contributed to INC in two of three analyses, but not to HA. Clinically, our results indicate that a conceptualization of OCD as an anxiety disorder is too narrow. PMID:18514616

Ecker, Willi; Gönner, Sascha

2008-08-01

408

The AI&M procedure for learning from incomplete data  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

We investigate methods for parameter learning from incomplete data that is not missing at random. Likelihood-based methods then require the optimization of a profile likelihood that takes all possible missingness mechanisms into account. Optimizing this profile likelihood poses two main difficulties: multiple (local) maxima, and its very high-dimensional parameter space. In this paper a new method is presented for optimizing the profile likelihood that addresses the second difficulty: in the proposed AI\\&M (adjusting imputation and maximization) procedure the optimization is performed by operations in the space of data completions, rather than directly in the parameter space of the profile likelihood. We apply the AI\\&M method to learning parameters for Bayesian networks. The method is compared against conservative inference, which takes into account each possible data completion, and against EM. The results indicate that likelihood-based inference is still feasible in the case of unknown missingness mechanisms, and that conservative inference is unnecessarily weak. On the other hand, our results also provide evidence that the EM algorithm is still quite effective when the data is not missing at random.

Jaeger, Manfred

2006-01-01

409

Plant development, auxin, and the subsystem incompleteness theorem.  

Science.gov (United States)

Plant morphogenesis (the process whereby form develops) requires signal cross-talking among all levels of organization to coordinate the operation of metabolic and genomic subsystems operating in a larger network of subsystems. Each subsystem can be rendered as a logic circuit supervising the operation of one or more signal-activated system. This approach simplifies complex morphogenetic phenomena and allows for their aggregation into diagrams of progressively larger networks. This technique is illustrated here by rendering two logic circuits and signal-activated subsystems, one for auxin (IAA) polar/lateral intercellular transport and another for IAA-mediated cell wall loosening. For each of these phenomena, a circuit/subsystem diagram highlights missing components (either in the logic circuit or in the subsystem it supervises) that must be identified experimentally if each of these basic plant phenomena is to be fully understood. We also illustrate the "subsystem incompleteness theorem," which states that no subsystem is operationally self-sufficient. Indeed, a whole-organism perspective is required to understand even the most simple morphogenetic process, because, when isolated, every biological signal-activated subsystem is morphogenetically ineffective. PMID:22645582

Niklas, Karl J; Kutschera, Ulrich

2012-01-01

410

Survival Analysis of Gastric Cancer Patients with Incomplete Data  

Science.gov (United States)

Purpose Survival analysis of gastric cancer patients requires knowledge about factors that affect survival time. This paper attempted to analyze the survival of patients with incomplete registered data by using imputation methods. Materials and Methods Three missing data imputation methods, including regression, expectation maximization algorithm, and multiple imputation (MI) using Monte Carlo Markov Chain methods, were applied to the data of cancer patients referred to the cancer institute at Imam Khomeini Hospital in Tehran in 2003 to 2008. The data included demographic variables, survival times, and censored variable of 471 patients with gastric cancer. After using imputation methods to account for missing covariate data, the data were analyzed using a Cox regression model and the results were compared. Results The mean patient survival time after diagnosis was 49.1±4.4 months. In the complete case analysis, which used information from 100 of the 471 patients, very wide and uninformative confidence intervals were obtained for the chemotherapy and surgery hazard ratios (HRs). However, after imputation, the maximum confidence interval widths for the chemotherapy and surgery HRs were 8.470 and 0.806, respectively. The minimum width corresponded with MI. Furthermore, the minimum Bayesian and Akaike information criteria values correlated with MI (-821.236 and -827.866, respectively). Conclusions Missing value imputation increased the estimate precision and accuracy. In addition, MI yielded better results when compared with the expectation maximization algorithm and regression simple imputation methods. PMID:25580358

Tapak, Lily; Roshanaei, Ghodaratolla; Mahjub, Hossein

2014-01-01

411

Spectral Regularization Algorithms for Learning Large Incomplete Matrices.  

Science.gov (United States)

We use convex relaxation techniques to provide a sequence of regularized low-rank solutions for large-scale matrix completion problems. Using the nuclear norm as a regularizer, we provide a simple and very efficient convex algorithm for minimizing the reconstruction error subject to a bound on the nuclear norm. Our algorithm Soft-Impute iteratively replaces the missing elements with those obtained from a soft-thresholded SVD. With warm starts this allows us to efficiently compute an entire regularization path of solutions on a grid of values of the regularization parameter. The computationally intensive part of our algorithm is in computing a low-rank SVD of a dense matrix. Exploiting the problem structure, we show that the task can be performed with a complexity linear in the matrix dimensions. Our semidefinite-programming algorithm is readily scalable to large matrices: for example it can obtain a rank-80 approximation of a 10(6) × 10(6) incomplete matrix with 10(5) observed entries in 2.5 hours, and can fit a rank 40 approximation to the full Netflix training set in 6.6 hours. Our methods show very good performance both in training and test error when compared to other competitive state-of-the art techniques. PMID:21552465

Mazumder, Rahul; Hastie, Trevor; Tibshirani, Robert

2010-03-01

412

Congenital incomplete fusion of superior mesenteric artery mimicking dissection.  

Science.gov (United States)

Background Both spontaneous SMA dissection and anatomical variants of GIT vasculature are well known entities. We present a case initially diagnosed as an SMA dissection on CT, but upon detailed review of the imaging findings was considered to be incompletely fused ventral segmental arteries - a rare anatomic variant not well described before. This finding is clinically significant, as it can mimic a vascular dissection and such a wrong diagnosis will lead to unnecessary investigation and intervention. Case Report A 62-year-old male patient presented with abdominal pain of uncertain etiology. The initial CT revealed an abnormal appearance of the superior mesenteric artery (SMA) which was diagnosed as SMA dissection. However, the appearance of this 'dissection' was unusual and there was a mismatch between the clinical presentation and radiological findings. The scan was reviewed and a 3D reconstruction of the abdominal aortal and visceral arteries was performed. The abnormal appearance of the SMA was deemed to be from a congenital anatomical variant. A review of the embryological origin of gut vasculature provides a likely explanation for this appearance. Conclusions Ours is an unusual case of a developmental variant that has not been well described hitherto. Attention to the ancillary radiological signs and understanding the embryological origin of the abdominal vasculature is important to distinguish such variants from pathology. PMID:25623118

Sharma, Vasu Keshav; H'ng, Martin Weng Chin

2015-01-01

413

Involvement of catecholamines in the regulation of oocyte maturation in frogs.  

Science.gov (United States)

The present study investigates the role of catecholamines in the regulation of Bufo arenarum oocyte maturation. The metabolic changes in the oxidation of carbohydrates and the meiotic resumption evinced by the germinal vesicle breakdown were used as indicators of cytoplasmic and nuclear maturation, respectively. The results obtained suggest that noradrenaline (norepinephrine) could be one of the factors responsible for the metabolic behaviour that characterises cytoplasmically immature oocytes. The use of adrenaline (epinephrine), on the other hand, induced a metabolic change which made oocytes cytoplasmically mature. The effect of both catecholamines, which was dose-dependent, was observed in ovarian oocytes (surrounded by follicle cells) as well as in coelomic oocytes (free from follicle cells), suggesting the presence of adrenergic receptors in the gamete. The results obtained using adrenergic agonists and antagonists suggest that the effect of adrenaline would be due to an interaction with beta2-receptors. Although catecholamines have an influence on the determination of the stage of cytoplasmic maturation of the oocytes, they do not affect nuclear maturation by themselves. Nevertheless, pretreatment of follicles with adrenaline caused a significant inhibition in progesterone-induced nuclear maturation even though this effect was markedly weaker when using noradrenaline. PMID:12214809

Ramos, Inés; Cisint, Susana; Crespo, Claudia A; Medina, Marcela F; Fernández, Silvia N

2002-08-01

414

A case of incomplete and refractory Kawasaki disease: Diagnostic and therapeutic challenges  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO South Africa | Language: English Abstract in english The diagnosis of incomplete Kawasaki disease (KD) - i.e. cases that do not fulfil all the diagnostic criteria - requires a high index of suspicion. We report a case of incomplete KD that was refractory to treatment with intravenous immunoglobulin and subsequently responded to treatment with intraven [...] ous methylprednisolone.

S, Mehndiratta; K, Rajeshwari; A P, Dubey; R, Kumar.

2014-02-01

415

Functional switch from pro-neurotrophins to mature neurotrophins.  

Science.gov (United States)

Growing evidence has shown that the proforms of several neurotrophins, e.g., nerve growth factor (NGF), brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), neurotrophin3 (NT3) can be synthesized, secreted from neurons or glial cells and function actively in mammalian nervous system. By the intracellular and extracellular enzymatic cleavage processing, mature neurotrophins are generated and exert their functions in the developing, physiological and pathological activities. While mature neurotrophins exhibit neuroprotective roles via tyrosine kinase receptors (TrkA, TrkB and TrkC), the proforms of neurotrophins show totally-different biological effects that may induce apoptotic cell death of neurons by triggering p75NTR-sortilin signaling cascades. In addition, another key neurotrophic factor named glial-derived neurotrophic factor (GDNF) also appears to be a product generated from proGDNF, and its cleavage and potential biological function of proGDNF remains an unrevealed problem. Obviously, accumulating studies indicated that the exact or timely cleavage processing should be essential for the functional switch from proneurotrophins to mature neurotrophins, while dysfunction in the enzymatic cleavage, aberrant extracellular release, and abnormal subunit organization of binding receptors might be also crucially involved in neurodegeneration of the central neurons, pathogenesis, and even disease progression of various neurodegenerative diseases in human beings. PMID:24106968

Sun, Xiao-Long; Chen, Bei-Yu; Xia, Yi; Wang, Jing-Jie; Chen, Liang-Wei

2013-11-01

416

CXCR4 engagement promotes dendritic cell survival and maturation  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

It has been reported that human monocyte derived-dendritic cells (DCs) express CXCR4, responsible for chemotaxis to CXCL12. However, it remains unknown whether CXCR4 is involved in other functions of DCs. Initially, we found that CXCR4 was expressed on bone marrow-derived DCs (BMDCs). The addition of specific CXCR4 antagonist, 4-F-Benzoyl-TN14003, to the culture of mouse BMDCs decreased their number, especially the mature subset of them. The similar effect was found on the number of Langerhans cells (LCs) but not keratinocytes among epidermal cell suspensions. Since LCs are incapable of proliferating in vitro, these results indicate that CXCR4 engagement is important for not only maturation but also survival of DCs. Consistently, the dinitrobenzene sulfonic acid-induced, antigen-specific in vitro proliferation of previously sensitized lymph node cells was enhanced by CXCL12, and suppressed by CXCR4 antagonist. These findings suggest that CXCL12-CXCR4 engagement enhances DC maturation and survival to initiate acquired immune response

417

Maturation trends in red deer females over 39 years in harvested populations.  

Science.gov (United States)

1. There is increasing awareness that heavy harvesting can lead to rapid evolution towards earlier sexual maturation. With increased harvest pressure, individuals that begin reproduction at light weights have a greater chance of reproducing at least once compared with individuals that begin reproduction at heavier weights and hence later in life. Although well documented in fish, this has not been empirically tested for harvested populations of mammals in terrestrial ecosystems differing in many environmental aspects. 2. Using data from 3856 female red deer (Cervus elaphus L.) from three harvested populations, we tested whether red deer maturity changed from 1967 to 2006. In these populations, density has increased markedly over the time period reducing body mass of deer, which has decreased the proportion of females maturing as yearlings. We therefore assessed trends in maturation as yearlings after controlling for body mass. Long-lived iteroparous ungulate females are expected to have a prudent life history not risking their future survival and reproduction under harsh conditions (e.g. at high density). An alternative to the harvest-induced evolution hypothesis is that maturation is driven mainly by phenotypic responses to increased density, and we predicted later maturation even after controlling for the reduction in body mass. 3. There was a marked trend towards later age at maturation in one out of three populations (after controlling for the effect of reduced body mass due to increased density), while there was no marked trend in the two other populations. The harvesting-induced evolution hypothesis was therefore not supported. However, although the decline was predicted from the prudent life-history tactic hypothesis, the estimate for the density effect was positive rather than negative after accounting for the year trend. Although we did not find support for the harvest-induced earlier maturation hypothesis, evidence was not clearly in favour of the alternative hypothesis. 4. Our study contrasts results from trophy-hunting traditions targeting large males, and points to a potential role of the cultural tradition. Harvesting in Scandinavia mainly aims for meat targeting calves and yearlings (and males), which is less likely to yield an evolutionary response in maturation of females. Our results, although being on a plastic trait and not directly on genetic make-up, are indicative that harvesting-induced evolution is weak on age at maturation in these populations under the current management regime. PMID:19379140

Mysterud, Atle; Yoccoz, Nigel G; Langvatn, Rolf

2009-05-01