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Sample records for induce incomplete maturation

  1. Cannabinoids induce incomplete maturation of cultured human leukemia cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Murison, G.; Chubb, C.B.H.; Maeda, S.; Gemmell, M.A.; Huberman, E.

    1987-08-01

    Monocyte maturation markers were induced in cultured human myeloblastic ML-2 leukemia cells after treatment for 1-6 days with 0.03-30 ..mu..M ..delta../sup 9/-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC), the major psychoactive component of marijuana. After a 2-day or longer treatment, 2- to 5-fold increases were found in the percentages of cells exhibiting reactivity with either the murine OKM1 monoclonal antibody of the Leu-M5 monoclonal antibody, staining positively for nonspecific esterase activity, and displaying a promonocyte morphology. The increases in these differentiation markers after treatment with 0.03-1 ..mu..M THC were dose dependent. At this dose range, THC did not cause an inhibition of cell growth. The THC-induced cell maturation was also characterized by specific changes in the patterns of newly synthesized proteins. The THC-induced differentiation did not, however, result in cells with a highly developed mature monocyte phenotype. However, treatment of these incompletely matured cells with either phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate of 1..cap alpha..,25-dihydroxycholecalciferol, which are inducers of differentiation in myeloid leukemia cells (including ML-2 cells), produced cells with a mature monocyte morphology. The ML-2 cell system described here may be a useful tool for deciphering critical biochemical events that lead to the cannabinoid-induced incomplete cell differentiation of ML-2 cells and other related cell types. Findings obtained from this system may have important implications for studies of cannabinoid effects on normal human bone-marrow progenitor cells.

  2. Induced maturation of hepatic progenitor cells in vitro

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Y., Bi; Y., He; J.Y., Huang; L., Xu; N., Tang; T.C., He; T., Feng.

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Hepatic progenitor cells (HPCs) are a potential cell source for liver cell transplantation but do not function like mature liver cells. We sought an effective and reliable method to induce HPC maturation. An immortalized HP14.5 albumin promoter-driven Gaussian luciferase (ALB-GLuc) ce [...] ll line was established from HPCs isolated from fetal mouse liver of post coitus day 14.5 mice to investigate the effect of induction factors on ALB promoter. HP14.5 parental cells were cultured in DMEM with different combinations of 2% horse serum (HS), 0.1 µM dexamethasone (DEX), 10 ng/mL hepatic growth factor (HGF), and/or 20 ng/mL fibroblast growth factor 4 (FGF4). Trypan blue and crystal violet staining were used to assess cell proliferation with different induction conditions. Expression of hepatic markers was measured by semi-quantitative RT-PCR, Western blot, and immunofluorescence. Glycogen storage and metabolism were detected by periodic acid-Schiff and indocyanine green (ICG) staining. GLuc activity indicated ALB expression. The combination of 2% HS+0.1 µM Dex+10 ng/mL HGF+20 ng/mL FGF4 induced the highest ALB-GLuc activity. Cell proliferation decreased in 2% HS but increased by adding FGF4. Upon induction, and consistent with hepatocyte development, DLK, AFP, and CK19 expression decreased, while ALB, CK18, and UGT1A expression increased. The maturity markers tyrosine aminotransferase and apolipoprotein B were detected at days 3 and 6 post-induction, respectively. ICG uptake and glycogen synthesis were detectable at day 6 and increased over time. Therefore, we demonstrated that HPCs were induced to differentiate into functional mature hepatocytes in vitro, suggesting that factor-treated HPCs may be further explored as a means of liver cell transplantation.

  3. Complete fusion, incomplete fusion and fission in heavy ion induced reactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In considering complete and incomplete fusion and fission induced by heavy ions, recent experiments are discussed which have been carried out to explore the following points: (1) Some products with properties quite similar to fission products might not originate from fully equilibrated compound nuclei but rather from long lived di-nuclear or composite systems decaying before equilibration of the mass asymmetry degree of freedom is achieved. (2) Many evaporation residues do not result only from the de-excitation of the compound nucleus itself but also from the de-excitation of nuclei issued from partial fusion. (3) Anomalies observed in the de-excitation of some compound nuclei cast some doubts on the use of the classical statistical theory for highly excited and highly spinning nuclei. (U.K.)

  4. Dimer formation of receptor activator of nuclear factor ?B induces incomplete osteoclast formation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Receptor activator of nuclear factor ?B-ligand (RANKL) transduces a differentiation signal appropriate to osteoclasts likely through induction a receptor homotrimer; however, biological importance of RANK-trimerizarion is unknown. To address the signaling mechanism of the RANK receptor, we analyzed the effect of two different types of homodimer inducers RANK-TM-FKBP36v and hEpoR-RANK-TM on osteoclastogenesis. Dimerizing component FKBP36v or extracellular portion of human erythropoietin receptor (hEpoR) was fused to RANK lacking the extracellular domain, and the dimerization of this fusion protein was induced by addition of the chemical inducer of dimerization AP20187 or erythropoietin, respectively. Such treatment resulted in induction of TRAP-activity, a marker of osteoclast in a dose dependent manner, with an efficiency equivalent to that of induction by RANKL. However, dimerized-RANK-induced osteoclasts showed relatively low levels of multinucleation, pit forming activity, and expression of calcitonin receptor and cathepsin K, compared with osteoclasts which were induced in the presence of RANKL. As expression of nuclear factor of activated T cells 1 (NFATc1) was also reduced in dimerized-RANK-induced osteoclasts, RANK oligomerization by RANKL is a critical event to generate fully matured osteoclasts through upregulation of NFATc1

  5. The role of phosphatidylinositol signaling pathway in regulating serotonin-induced oocyte maturation in Mercenaria mercenaria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Qing; Zhang, Tao

    2011-05-01

    Serotonin (5-HT) has been found to stimulate meiotic maturation of oocytes in many molluscs. During maturation, several signaling pathways are involved, especially the phosphatidylinositol and cAMP pathways. In order to examine the possible role of the phosphatidylinositol signaling pathway in regulating oocyte maturation in Mercenaria mercenaria, the effects of the activator/inhibitor of phospholipase (PLC) and protein kinase C (PKC) on serotonin-induced maturation were studied. Results show that high-concentrations of neomycin (inhibitor of PLC) blocked oocyte maturation, while 9, 10-dimethyl-1, 2-benzanthracene (DMBA, activator of PLC) promoted oocyte maturation in the presence of serotonin. It was also found that in the presence of serotonin, phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate (PMA, activator of PKC) inhibited oocyte maturation, while sphingosine (inhibitor of PKC) stimulated oocyte maturation. These results indicate that serotonin-induced oocyte maturation requires the activation of the phosphatidylinositol pathway. Decrease of PLC inhibited serotonin-induced oocyte maturation, whereas a decrease of PKC stimulated the maturation. Thus, our study indicates that serotonin promotes maturation of M. mercenaria oocytes through PLC stimulated increase in calcium ion concentration via inositol-1, 4, 5-trisphosphate (IP3) but not PKC.

  6. Investigation of the influence of incomplete fusion on complete fusion of 16O induced reactions at moderate excitation energies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahamad Tauseef

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available An attempt has been made to investigate for the reaction dynamics leading to incomplete fusion (ICF of heavy ions at moderate excitation energies, especially the influence of incomplete fusion on complete fusion (CF of 16O induced reactions at specific energies. Excitation functions (EFs of various reaction products populated via CF and/or ICF of 16O projectile with 45Sc target were measured at energies ?3-7 MeV/nucleon, using recoil catcher technique followed by offline ?-ray spectroscopy. The measured EFs were compared with theoretical values obtained using the statistical model code PACE4. The experimentally measured EFs were in general found to be in good agreement with the theoretical predictions for non ?-emitting channels in the present target projectile system. However, for ?-emitting channels the measured EFs were higher than the predictions of the theoretical model codes, which may be credited to incomplete fusion reactions at these energies.

  7. Fibroblast and T cells conditioned media induce maturation dendritic cell and promote T helper immune response

    OpenAIRE

    Masoumeh Asadi; Farah Farokhi; Nowruz Delirezh; Meysam Ganji Bakhsh; Vahid Nejati; Keykavos Golami

    2012-01-01

    Dendritic cells (DCs) induce pathogen-specific T cell responses. We comprehensively studied the effects of addition of maturation stimulus, fibroblasts (fibroblast conditioned medium), PHA activated T cells (T cell conditioned medium), and mixture of fibroblast & PHA activated T cells (FCM-TCCM) conditioned media on maturation of DCs. Monocytes were cultured with GM-CSF and IL-4 for five days. Maturation factors included MCM and TNF-? as control group. FCM and TCCM, or FCM-TCCM supernatant w...

  8. Platycodon grandiflorum polysaccharide induces dendritic cell maturation via TLR4 signaling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Mi Jeong; Ryu, Hwa Sun; Kim, Ji Sung; Lee, Hong Kyung; Kang, Jong Soon; Yun, Jieun; Kim, Sung Yeon; Lee, Mi Kyeong; Hong, Jin Tae; Kim, Youngsoo; Han, Sang-Bae

    2014-10-01

    Dendritic cell (DC) maturation is critical for initiation of the adoptive immune response. DC maturation is often attenuated in several pathological conditions including cancer. In this study, we report the effect of Platycodon grandiflorum polysaccharide (PG) on DC maturation. PG induced phenotypic maturation of DCs, as proved by the increase in the expression of CD40, CD80, CD86, and major histocompatibility complex (MHC)-I/II on the cell surface. PG also induced functional maturation of DCs, as proved by elevated production of interleukin (IL)-12, tumor necrosis factor-?, IL-1?, IL-6, IL-10, and interferon-?, and by enhanced allogeneic T cell stimulation ability of PG-treated DCs. PG efficiently induced maturation of DCs from C3H/HeN mice, which have normal Toll-like receptor-4 (TLR4), but not that of DCs from C3H/HeJ mice, which have mutated TLR4, suggesting that TLR4 might be one of the PG receptors in DCs. In line with TLR4 activation, PG increased the phosphorylation of ERK, p38, and JNK, and the nuclear translocation of p-c-Jun, p-CREB, and c-Fos. PG also activated NF-?B signaling, as evidenced by degradation of I?B?/? and nuclear translocation of p65 and p50. In summary, our data suggest that PG induces DC maturation by activating MAPK and NF-?B signaling downstream of TLR4. PMID:25019244

  9. In Vitro Matured Oocytes Are More Susceptible than In Vivo Matured Oocytes to Mock ICSI Induced Functional and Genetic Changes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salian, Sujit Raj; Singh, Vikram Jeet; Kalthur, Guruprasad; Adiga, Satish Kumar

    2015-01-01

    Background Concerns regarding the safety of ICSI have been intensified recently due to increased risk of birth defects in ICSI born children. Although fertilization rate is significantly higher in ICSI cycles, studies have failed to demonstrate the benefits of ICSI in improving the pregnancy rate. Poor technical skill, and suboptimal in vitro conditions may account for the ICSI results however, there is no report on the effects of oocyte manipulations on the ICSI outcome. Objective The present study elucidates the influence of mock ICSI on the functional and genetic integrity of the mouse oocytes. Methods Reactive Oxygen Species (ROS) level, mitochondrial status, and phosphorylation of H2AX were assessed in the in vivo matured and IVM oocytes subjected to mock ICSI. Results A significant increase in ROS level was observed in both in vivo matured and IVM oocytes subjected to mock ICSI (P<0.05-0.001) whereas unique mitochondrial distribution pattern was found only in IVM oocytes (P<0.01-0.001). Importantly, differential H2AX phosphorylation was observed in both in vivo matured and IVM oocytes subjected to mock ICSI (P <0.001). Conclusion The data from this study suggests that mock ICSI can alter genetic and functional integrity in oocytes and IVM oocytes are more vulnerable to mock ICSI induced changes. PMID:25786120

  10. Fibroblast and T cells conditioned media induce maturation dendritic cell and promote T helper immune response

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masoumeh Asadi

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Dendritic cells (DCs induce pathogen-specific T cell responses. We comprehensively studied the effects of addition of maturation stimulus, fibroblasts (fibroblast conditioned medium, PHA activated T cells (T cell conditioned medium, and mixture of fibroblast & PHA activated T cells (FCM-TCCM conditioned media on maturation of DCs. Monocytes were cultured with GM-CSF and IL-4 for five days. Maturation factors included MCM and TNF-? as control group. FCM and TCCM, or FCM-TCCM supernatant were considered as the treatment group. Tumor antigens were added at day five. Matured DCs were harvested at day seven. Phenotypic and functional analyses were carried out using anti (CD14, CD80, CD86, CD83 and HLA-DR monoclonal antibodies. Phagocytic activity, mixed lymphocyte reaction (MLR and cytokine production were also evaluated. At the end of culturing period, significantly fully matured DCs with large amount cytoplasm and copious dendritic projections were found in the presence of MCM, TNF-? with or without FCM, TCCM, FCM as well as TCCM. Flow cytometric analysis revealed that expression of CD14 decreased in particular in treated DCs, at the 5th day and expression of CD80, CD86 and HLA-DR was higher when FCM, TCCM, FCM plus TCCM were added to maturation factor. This study demonstrated that DCs matured with these methods had optimum function in comparison with either factor alone.

  11. Gamma-ray-induced bold seeded early maturing groundnut selections

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: ''Chico'' is an early maturing (85-90 days) erect groundnut (Arachis hypogaea L.) genotype utilised in groundnut improvement to incorporate earliness in high yielding varieties. Though it has high shelling out-turn, its yield potential is low since it has small seeds. Mutation breeding was started with the objective of improving the seed size. In a preliminary experiment, dry seeds were treated with 20, 30, 40 or 50 kR of gamma rays. The M1 generation was grown during the post rainy season of 1988-1989. The M2 generation was planted as individual plant progeny rows during the rainy season of 1989. 105 progeny rows were studied, the total number of M2 plants being 1,730. All the M2 plants were harvested 90 days after sowing. Seven mutants with bold seed size were obtained. The mutants had 100 kernel weight ranging from 22.2 to 40.4 g compared to 21.1 g of control. The study is in progress. (author)

  12. Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug-induced duodenal ulceration and perforation in a mature rottweiler

    OpenAIRE

    Reed, Suma

    2002-01-01

    A mature male rottweiler was evaluated for acute collapse and abdominal pain. The history consisted of concurrent administration of meloxicam and aspirin. On exploratory laparotomy, a large perforated ulcer was discovered in the proximal duodenum, with secondary peritonitis. The pathogenesis of NSAID-induced gastrointestinal ulceration and the supposed safety of COX-2 selective agents are discussed.

  13. Development of inositol trisphosphate-induced calcium release mechanism during maturation of hamster oocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujiwara, T; Nakada, K; Shirakawa, H; Miyazaki, S

    1993-03-01

    Mature hamster eggs exhibit repetitive increases in the intracellular Ca2+ concentration ([Ca2+]i) at fertilization, caused by inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate (InsP3)-induced Ca2+ release (IICR) from stores. Oscillating Ca2+ rises also occurred in inseminated immature oocytes at the germinal vesicle (GV) stage but the peak [Ca2+]i of each response was about half of that in mature eggs. Like the responses to sperm in the mature egg, those in the immature oocyte were also blocked by injection of a monoclonal antibody against the InsP3 receptor (18A10). Compared with mature eggs, immature oocytes were more sensitive to externally applied serotonin which caused repetitive IICR, but each response was smaller. The development of the IICR mechanism during oocyte maturation was investigated using iontophoretic injection of InsP3 and Ca2+ imaging with fura 2. In immature oocytes the rise in [Ca2+]i with an InsP3 pulse of 1.2 nA for 1 sec was 35% of that in mature eggs. The response increased with increasing doses of InsP3. The nearly maximum response, obtained with a 20-nA 2-sec pulse, was 80% of that in mature eggs, suggesting that immature oocytes are less sensitive to InsP3 but that most of Ca(2+)-releasable stores are already present in the immature oocyte. IICR developed in two phases during in vivo maturation. The sensitivity to InsP3 increased gradually between the GV stage and prometaphase of the first meiosis. Then a nonlinear dose-response relation developed during the second meiosis to metaphase II, resulting in regenerative, propagating Ca2+ release induced by a threshold pulse of 1 nA for 1 sec in mature eggs. Similar changes occurred during in vitro maturation of oocytes isolated from follicles at GV stage and cultured for up to 16 hr. The development of IICR is thought to be a prerequisite factor for the acquisition of the ability of an egg to undergo normal fertilization. PMID:8383620

  14. Dendritic Cell Activation and Maturation Induced by Mucosal Fluid from Women with Bacterial Vaginosis

    OpenAIRE

    Elizabeth P. St. John; Martinson, Jeff; Simoes, Jose A; Landay, Alan L.; Spear, Gregory T.

    2007-01-01

    Dendritic cells (DC) at mucosal surfaces mature when exposed to “danger” signals such as LPS. Bacterial vaginosis (BV) is a prevalent alteration of the vaginal bacterial flora associated with preterm childbirth and increased risk for HIV acquisition. We examined the effect of mucosal fluid from women with BV or healthy flora on DC function. IL-12, IL-23 and p40 production by monocyte-derived dendritic cells (MDDC) were all induced by BV samples. Activation/maturation markers HLA-DR, CD40, and...

  15. Adenosine blocks hormone-induced meiotic maturation by suppressing purine de novo synthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Downs, S M

    2000-06-01

    We have examined adenosine (Ado) suppression of FSH-induced germinal vesicle breakdown (GVB) and its relationship to purine de novo synthesis. Oocyte-cumulus cell complexes (OCC) from PMSG-primed, immature mice were cultured 17-18 hr in medium containing 4 mM hypoxanthine (HX) or 300 microM dibutyryl cAMP (dbcAMP) to maintain meiotic arrest, and FSH was added to stimulate meiotic maturation. In the absence of FSH, Ado (1-250 microM) had no effect in dbcAMP-arrested oocytes but dose-dependently suppressed maturation in HX-treated oocytes. FSH-induced maturation was prevented by Ado, though more effectively in dbcAMP-supplemented cultures. Ado affected the magnitude, but not the kinetics pattern, of the response to FSH. Inosine also blocked meiotic induction, but only in dbcAMP-arrested oocytes. Purine de novo synthesis was nearly doubled in OCC by FSH treatment, and this response was completely prevented by Ado. FSH had no effect on HX salvage, although Ado reduced this activity by 98%. Inosine effects on metabolism were intermediate between the control and Ado groups. Experiments with radiolabeled energy substrates showed that Ado suppressed FSH activation of the pentose phosphate pathway but did not prevent significant activation of glycolysis or oxidation of pyruvate. Finally, in cultured follicles from primed mice, hCG-induced maturation was blocked by Ado as effectively as by the purine de novo synthesis inhibitor, azaserine. It is concluded that Ado has an inhibitory action on hormone-induced maturation that is due, at least in part, to suppression of glucose metabolism, leading to compromised purine de novo synthesis. PMID:10813849

  16. Excitation functions for some Ne induced reactions with Holmium: incomplete fusion vs complete fusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reactions induced by 20Ne are expected to be considerably more complex than those of 12C, and 16O. As a part of the ongoing program to understand CF and ICF reaction mechanisms, it is of great interest to see whether the same experimental technique yield similarly valuable information for 20Ne induced reactions. In this present work an attempt has been made to measure the excitation functions for fifteen evaporation residues (ERs) identified in the interaction of 20Ne + 165Ho system in the energy range 4 -7 MeV/A

  17. Thidiazuron-induced high-frequency plant regeneration from leaf explants of Paulownia tomentosa mature trees

    OpenAIRE

    Corredoira, E.; Ballester, A.; Vie?itez Marti?n, Ana Mari?a

    2008-01-01

    Attempts were made to study the effect of thidiazuron (TDZ) on adventitious shoot induction and plant development in Paulownia tomentosa explants derived from mature trees. Media with different concentrations of TDZ in combination with an auxin were used to induce adventitious shoot-buds in two explant types: basal leaf halves with the petiole attached (leaf explant) and intact petioles. Optimal shoot regeneration was obtained in leaf explants cultured on induction medium containing TDZ (22.7...

  18. New Model for the Genesis and Maturation of Viroplasms Induced by Fijiviruses in Insect Vector Cells

    OpenAIRE

    Mao, Qianzhuo; Zheng, Shenglan; Han, Qingmei; Chen, Hongyan; Ma, Yuanyuan; Jia, Dongsheng; Chen, Qian; Wei, Taiyun

    2013-01-01

    Plant reoviruses are thought to replicate and assemble within cytoplasmic, nonmembranous structures called viroplasms. Here, we established continuous cell cultures of the white-backed planthopper (Sogatella furcifera Horváth) to investigate the mechanisms for the genesis and maturation of the viroplasm induced by Southern rice black-streaked dwarf virus (SRBSDV), a fijivirus in the family Reoviridae, during infection of its insect vector. Electron and confocal microscopy revealed that the v...

  19. Mesenchymal stem cells attenuated PLGA-induced inflammatory responses by inhibiting host DC maturation and function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Heng; Yang, Fei; Tang, Bo; Li, Xi-Mei; Chu, Ya-Nan; Liu, Yuan-Lin; Wang, Shen-Guo; Wu, De-Cheng; Zhang, Yi

    2015-06-01

    The poly lactic-co-glycolic acid (PLGA) bio-scaffold is a biodegradable scaffold commonly used for tissue repair. However, implanted PLGA scaffolds usually cause serious inflammatory responses around grafts. To improve PLGA scaffold-based tissue repair, it is important to control the PLGA-mediated inflammatory responses. Recent evidence indicated that PLGA induce dendritic cell (DC) maturation in vitro, which may initiate host immune responses. In the present study, we explored the modulatory effects of mesenchymal stem cells (MSC) on PLGA-induced DCs (PLGA-DC). We found that mouse MSCs inhibited PLGA-DC dendrite formation, as well as co-stimulatory molecule and pro-inflammatory factor expression. Functionally, MSC-educated PLGA-DCs promoted Th2 and regulatory T cell differentiation but suppressed Th1 and Th17 cell differentiation. Mechanistically, we determined that PLGA elicited DC maturation via inducing phosphorylation of p38/MAPK and ERK/MAPK pathway proteins in DCs. Moreover, MSCs suppressed PLGA-DCs by partially inactivating those pathways. Most importantly, we found that the MSCs were capable of suppressing DC maturation and immune function in vivo. Also, the proportion of mature DCs in the mice that received MSC-PLGA constructs greatly decreased compared with that of their PLGA-film implantation counterparts. Additionally, MSCs co-delivery increased regulatory T and Th2 cells but decreased the Th1 and Th17 cell numbers in the host spleens. Histological analysis showed that MSCs alleviated the inflammatory responses around the grafted PLGA scaffolds. In summary, our findings reveal a novel function for MSCs in suppressing PLGA-induced host inflammatory response and suggest that DCs are a new cellular target in improving PLGA scaffold-based tissue repair. PMID:25890764

  20. Incomplete fusion reactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Various aspects of the mechanism of heavy-ion induced reactions in the range of bombarding energies from a few to about 20 MeV/A are reviewed with special emphasis on the reactions for very asymmetric systems. Results of the experimental studies of binary reactions and particularly of the incomplete fusion reactions (selected by means of various coincidence techniques)are discussed. A model of generalized critical angular momentum is formulated. The model explains essential features of the incomplete fusion reactions and predicts that particular reaction channels are localized in well defined regions of angular momenta. An extension of this model (the sum-rule model) is also proposed in attempt to consistently describe the complete fusion reactions, incomplete fusion reactions and multibody reactions in the framework of statistical competition constrained by the angular momentum limitations. (author)

  1. Investigation of the influence of incomplete fusion on complete fusion of {sup 12}C-induced reactions at {approx} 4-7.2 MeV/nucleon

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Amanuel, F.K. [INFN, Laboratori Nazionali di Legnaro, Legnaro (Padova) (Italy); Zelalem, B.; Chaubey, A.K. [Addis Ababa University, Department of Physics, P.O.Box 1176, Addis Ababa (Ethiopia); Agarwal, Avinash [Bareilly College, Department of Physics, Bareilly (India); Rizvi, I.A.; Maheshwari, Anjana; Ahmed, Tauseef [Aligarh Muslim University, Department of Physics, Aligarh (India)

    2011-12-15

    In this paper, we present the results of our investigation of reaction dynamics leading to incomplete fusion of heavy ions at moderate excitation energies, especially the influence of incomplete fusion on complete fusion of {sup 12}C -induced reactions at specific energies {approx} 4-7.2M eV/nucleon. Excitation functions of various reaction products populated via complete and/or incomplete fusions of a {sup 12}C projectile with {sup 93}Nb, {sup 59}Co and {sup 52}Cr targets were measured at several specific energies {approx} 4-7.2 MeV/nucleon, using a recoil catcher technique, followed by off-line {gamma}-ray spectrometry. The measured excitation functions were compared with theoretical values obtained using the PACE4 statistical model code. For representative non-{alpha}-emitting channels in the {sup 12}C + {sup 93}Nb system, the experimentally measured excitation functions were, in general, found to be in good agreement with the theoretical predictions. However, for {alpha}-emitting channels in the {sup 12}C + {sup 93}Nb, {sup 12}C + {sup 59}Co, and {sup 12}C + {sup 52}Cr systems, the measured excitation functions were higher than the predictions of the theoretical model code, which may be credited to incomplete fusion reactions at these energies. An attempt was made to estimate the incomplete fusion fraction for the present systems, which revealed that the fraction was sensitive to the projectile energy and mass asymmetry of the entrance channel. (orig.)

  2. Investigation of the influence of incomplete fusion on complete fusion of 12C-induced reactions at ? 4-7.2 MeV/nucleon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this paper, we present the results of our investigation of reaction dynamics leading to incomplete fusion of heavy ions at moderate excitation energies, especially the influence of incomplete fusion on complete fusion of 12C -induced reactions at specific energies ? 4-7.2M eV/nucleon. Excitation functions of various reaction products populated via complete and/or incomplete fusions of a 12C projectile with 93Nb, 59Co and 52Cr targets were measured at several specific energies ? 4-7.2 MeV/nucleon, using a recoil catcher technique, followed by off-line ?-ray spectrometry. The measured excitation functions were compared with theoretical values obtained using the PACE4 statistical model code. For representative non-?-emitting channels in the 12C + 93Nb system, the experimentally measured excitation functions were, in general, found to be in good agreement with the theoretical predictions. However, for ?-emitting channels in the 12C + 93Nb, 12C + 59Co, and 12C + 52Cr systems, the measured excitation functions were higher than the predictions of the theoretical model code, which may be credited to incomplete fusion reactions at these energies. An attempt was made to estimate the incomplete fusion fraction for the present systems, which revealed that the fraction was sensitive to the projectile energy and mass asymmetry of ttile energy and mass asymmetry of the entrance channel. (orig.)

  3. Gamma rays induced variability in mature embryos of avocado (Persea americana Mill)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Induced mutation and biotechnology techniques are current approaches used in plant breeding. At present work, the induced mutation and embryo zygotic culture techniques were used in order to characterize the radiosensitivity of avocado commercial varieties, Hass and California. The induced diversity in plant material was also evaluated in morphological seedling descriptors as: height seedling, diameter seedling neck, leaves number, length of principal root and secondary root number. The obtained results showed high susceptibility of both varieties to gamma rays. California was the higher sensitivity variety. Percentage of entire shoot induction showed clear dependence of radiation dose in both varieties. Thus dose range for mutagenesis was determined. In general, variation of morphological seedling descriptors not was clearly agreed to increase of radiation dose. In addition, the results suggested that variation in morphological seedling descriptors also could be depending of genotypes. The useful of mature embryo culture of avocado for improvement of breeding approaches in this crop, was discussed

  4. Structural, phenotypic and functional maturation of bone marrow dendritic cells (BMDCs) induced by Chitosan (CTS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jia, Lihui; Gao, Xinghua; Wang, Yiqing; Yao, Na; Zhang, Xiaodong

    2014-11-01

    The objective of the present work was to explore the effect of CTS on structural, phenotypic and functional maturation of murine bone marrow derived dendritic cells (BMDCs). The maturity of BMDCs post treatment with CTS was evaluated using transmission electron microscopy (TEM) for structure changes, flow cytometry (FCM) for changes of key surface molecules, FITC-dextran bio-assay for phagocytosis, test of acid phosphatase activity (ACP) for biochemical changes and enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) for cytokine level. We found that CTS downregulated the numbers of phagosomes inside the BMDCs, up-regulated the expression of MHC II, CD40, CD83, CD80 and CD86 molecules on BMDCs, decreased activity of ACP and phagocytosis by BMDCs, and induced production of higher levels of IL-12 and TNF-?. It was therefore confirmed that CTS could effectively promote the maturation of BMDCs. Our study provided more detailed evidence and rationale to support the application of CTS as an immune stimulator for enhancing host immunity and as an adjuvant in the design of DC-based vaccines. PMID:25225119

  5. Differentiation of human induced pluripotent stem cells to mature functional Purkinje neurons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Shuyan; Wang, Bin; Pan, Na; Fu, Linlin; Wang, Chaodong; Song, Gongru; An, Jing; Liu, Zhongfeng; Zhu, Wanwan; Guan, Yunqian; Xu, Zhi-Qing David; Chan, Piu; Chen, Zhiguo; Zhang, Y Alex

    2015-01-01

    It remains a challenge to differentiate human induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) or embryonic stem (ES) cells to Purkinje cells. In this study, we derived iPSCs from human fibroblasts and directed the specification of iPSCs first to Purkinje progenitors, by adding Fgf2 and insulin to the embryoid bodies (EBs) in a time-sensitive manner, which activates the endogenous production of Wnt1 and Fgf8 from EBs that further patterned the cells towards a midbrain-hindbrain-boundary tissue identity. Neph3-positive human Purkinje progenitors were sorted out by using flow cytometry and cultured either alone or with granule cell precursors, in a 2-dimensional or 3-dimensional environment. However, Purkinje progenitors failed to mature further under above conditions. By co-culturing human Purkinje progenitors with rat cerebellar slices, we observed mature Purkinje-like cells with right morphology and marker expression patterns, which yet showed no appropriate membrane properties. Co-culture with human fetal cerebellar slices drove the progenitors to not only morphologically correct but also electrophysiologically functional Purkinje neurons. Neph3-posotive human cells could also survive transplantation into the cerebellum of newborn immunodeficient mice and differentiate to L7- and Calbindin-positive neurons. Obtaining mature human Purkinje cells in vitro has significant implications in studying the mechanisms of spinocerebellar ataxias and other cerebellar diseases. PMID:25782665

  6. Investigation of complete and incomplete fusion dynamics of 20Ne induced reactions at energies above the Coulomb barrier

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Experiment has been performed to explore the complete and incomplete fusion dynamics in heavy ion collisions using stacked foil activation technique. The measurement of excitation functions of the evaporation residues produced in the 20Ne+165Ho system at projectile energies ranges ? 4-8 MeV/nucleon have been done. Measured cumulative and direct cross-sections have been compared with the theoretical model code PACE-2, which takes into account only the complete fusion process. The analysis indicates the presence of contributions from incomplete fusion processes in some ?-emission channels following the break-up of the projectile 20Ne in the nuclear field of the target nucleus 165Ho

  7. Comparative effects of mature coconut water (Cocos nucifera) and glibenclamide on some biochemical parameters in alloxan induced diabetic rats

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    P. P., Preetha; V., Girija Devi; T., Rajamohan.

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available In the present study, comparative effects of mature coconut water (Cocos nucifera L., Arecaceae) and glibenclamide in alloxan induced diabetic rats were evaluated. Diabetes mellitus was induced in Sprague-Dawly rats using alloxan monohydrate (150 mg kg-1 body weight). Treatment with lyophilized form [...] of mature coconut water and glibenclamide in diabetic rats reduced the blood glucose and glycated hemoglobin along with improvement in plasma insulin level. Elevated levels of liver function enzymes markers like alkaline phosphatase, serum glutamate oxaloacetate transaminase and serum glutamate pyruvate transaminase in diabetic rats were significantly reduced on treatment with mature coconut water. In addition to this, diabetic rats showed altered levels of blood urea, serum creatinine, albumin, albumin/globulin ratio which were significantly improved by treatment with mature coconut water and glibenclamide. Activities of nitric oxide synthase in liver and plasma L-arginine were reduced significantly in alloxan induced diabetic rats while treatment with mature coconut water reversed these changes. The overall results show that mature coconut water has significant beneficial effects in diabetic rats and its effects were comparable to that of glibenclamide, a well known antidiabetic drug.

  8. Stock loans in incomplete markets

    OpenAIRE

    Grasselli, Matheus R.; Velez, Cesar G.

    2010-01-01

    A stock loan is a contract whereby a stockholder uses shares as collateral to borrow money from a bank or financial institution. In Xia and Zhou (2007), this contract is modeled as a perpetual American option with a time varying strike and analyzed in detail within a risk--neutral framework. In this paper, we extend the valuation of such loans to an incomplete market setting, which takes into account the natural trading restrictions faced by the client. When the maturity of ...

  9. Ly49Q ligand expressed by activated B cells induces plasmacytoid DC maturation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toma-Hirano, Makiko; Namiki, Sahori; Shibata, Yasue; Ishida, Koji; Arase, Hisashi; Miyatake, Shoichiro; Arai, Ken-ichi; Kamogawa-Schifter, Yumiko

    2009-05-01

    Ly49Q, a type II C-type lectin expressed on mouse plasmacytoid DC (pDC), contains a single carbohydrate recognition domain in its extracellular region and an ITIM in its cytoplasmic domain. We have identified the MHC class I molecule H-2K(b) as a Ly49Q ligand, confirming prior reports. Although H-2K(b) is expressed on essentially all hematopoietic cells, we found that only CpG-stimulated B cells were able to activate Ly49Q. This discovery correlated with our finding that although H-2K(b) forms clusters on CpG-activated B cells, it is diffusely expressed on resting B cells. Furthermore, CpG-stimulated, but not resting, B cells up-regulated co-stimulatory molecules on pDC. This finding was confirmed by the fact that binding by anti-Ly49Q mAb to Ly49Q led to pDC maturation in vitro. Our results suggest that clustered H-2K(b) on activated B cells act as ligands for Ly49Q and induce pDC maturation in vitro. PMID:19350550

  10. Maturation of osteoblast-like SaoS2 induced by carbon nanotubes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Osteogenic maturation of the osteoblast is crucial for bone formation. In this study, multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) and graphite (GP) were pressed as compacts. The greater ability of carbon nanotubes to adsorb proteins, compared with graphite, was shown. Human osteoblast-like SaoS2 cells were cultured and the cell response to the two kinds of compacts was compared in vitro. Meanwhile, we used cell culture on the culture plate as a control. Assays for osteonectin, osteopontin and osteocalcin gene expression, total protein (TP) amount, alkaline phosphatase activity (ALP) and DNA of cells cultured on the samples were done. During the conventional culture, significantly higher osteonectin, osteopontin and osteocalcin gene expression level, ALP/DNA and TP/DNA on carbon nanotubes were found. To confirm the hypothesis that the larger amount of specific proteins adsorbed on the carbon nanotubes was crucial for this, the compacts were pre-soaked in culture medium having additional recombinant human bone morphogenetic protein-2 (rhBMP-2) before cell culture. Compared with GP, osteonectin, osteopontin and osteocalcin gene expression level, ALP/DNA and TP/DNA of the cells tested increased more on the MWCNTs after the compacts were pre-soaked in the culture medium with rhBMP-2. The results indicated that the carbon nanotubes might induce osteogenic maturation of the osteoblast by adsorbing more specific proteins.

  11. Matured Hop Bittering Components Induce Thermogenesis in Brown Adipose Tissue via Sympathetic Nerve Activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morimoto-Kobayashi, Yumie; Ohara, Kazuaki; Takahashi, Chika; Kitao, Sayoko; Wang, Guanying; Taniguchi, Yoshimasa; Katayama, Mikio; Nagai, Katsuya

    2015-01-01

    Obesity is the principal symptom of metabolic syndrome, which refers to a group of risk factors that increase the likelihood of atherosclerosis. In recent decades there has been a sharp rise in the incidence of obesity throughout the developed world. Iso-?-acids, the bitter compounds derived from hops in beer, have been shown to prevent diet-induced obesity by increasing lipid oxidation in the liver and inhibition of lipid absorption from the intestine. Whereas the sharp bitterness induced by effective dose of iso-?-acids precludes their acceptance as a nutrient, matured hop bittering components (MHB) appear to be more agreeable. Therefore, we tested MHB for an effect on ameliorating diet-induced body fat accumulation in rodents. MHB ingestion had a beneficial effect but, compared to iso-?-acids and despite containing structurally similar compounds, acted via different mechanisms to reduce body fat accumulation. MHB supplementation significantly reduced body weight gain, epididymal white adipose tissue weight, and plasma non-esterified free fatty acid levels in diet-induced obese mice. We also found that uncoupling protein 1 (UCP1) expression in brown adipose tissue (BAT) was significantly increased in MHB-fed mice at both the mRNA and protein levels. In addition, MHB administration in rats induced the ?-adrenergic signaling cascade, which is related to cAMP accumulation in BAT, suggesting that MHB could modulate sympathetic nerve activity innervating BAT (BAT-SNA). Indeed, single oral administration of MHB elevated BAT-SNA in rats, and this elevation was dissipated by subdiaphragmatic vagotomy. Single oral administration of MHB maintained BAT temperature at a significantly higher level than in control rats. Taken together, these findings indicate that MHB ameliorates diet-induced body fat accumulation, at least partly, by enhancing thermogenesis in BAT via BAT-SNA activation. Our data suggests that MHB is a useful tool for developing functional foods or beverages to counteract the accumulation of body fat. PMID:26098641

  12. A Requirement for Fatty Acid Oxidation in the Hormone-Induced Meiotic Maturation of Mouse Oocytes1

    OpenAIRE

    Valsangkar, Deepa; DOWNS, STEPHEN M.

    2013-01-01

    We have previously shown that fatty acid oxidation (FAO) is required for AMP-activated protein kinase (PRKA)-induced maturation in vitro. In the present study, we have further investigated the role of this metabolic pathway in hormone-induced meiotic maturation. Incorporating an assay with 3H-palmitic acid as the substrate, we first examined the effect of PRKA activators on FAO levels. There was a significant stimulation of FAO in cumulus cell-enclosed oocytes (CEO) treated with 5-aminoimidaz...

  13. Investigation of complete and incomplete fusion dynamics of {sup 20}Ne induced reactions at energies above the Coulomb barrier

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Singh, D., E-mail: dsinghiuac@gmail.com [Centre for Applied Physics, Central University of Jharkhand, Ranchi-835 205 (India); Ali, R. [Department of Physics, G.F.(P.G.), College, Shahjahanpur-242 001 (India); Kumar, Harish; Ansari, M. Afzal [Department of Physics, Aligarh Muslim University, Aligarh-202 002 (India); Rashid, M. H.; Guin, R. [Variable Energy Cyclotron Centre, 1/AF, Bidhan Nagar, Kolkata-700 064 (India)

    2014-08-14

    Experiment has been performed to explore the complete and incomplete fusion dynamics in heavy ion collisions using stacked foil activation technique. The measurement of excitation functions of the evaporation residues produced in the {sup 20}Ne+{sup 165}Ho system at projectile energies ranges ? 4-8 MeV/nucleon have been done. Measured cumulative and direct cross-sections have been compared with the theoretical model code PACE-2, which takes into account only the complete fusion process. The analysis indicates the presence of contributions from incomplete fusion processes in some ?-emission channels following the break-up of the projectile {sup 20}Ne in the nuclear field of the target nucleus {sup 165}Ho.

  14. Development of early maturing and semi-dwarf in rice by induced mutations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Crop improvement using classical induced mutagenesis is now well standardized. A large number of new promising varieties in different crops have successfully been developed world wide using both physical and chemical mutagenes. Domsia is one of the best quality and local rice variety in Iran, but it is tall and nearly late in maturity. The dry seeds of this variety were treated with gamma rays at doses 100, 200 and 300 Gy. The irradiated seeds were seeded in nursery, and then transplanted in main land. At the end of first year of experiment, main panicle of some randomly selected plants were harvested and planted as a panicle-to-row at M2 generation. A semi-dwarf mutant line and an early maturity mutant line were obtained from 300 and 100 Gy respectively, at M2 generation. These mutant lines were showed no segregation at next generations. The height of semi-dwarf mutant line was 60cm shorter than the control (165cm). The length reduction of internodes 2 through 5 caused the height reduction in semi-dwarf line. Reduction in length of internode closed to panicle was more significant than the other internodes. There was no significant difference in panicle length between semi-dwarf mutant lines and control. The number of tillers in semi-dwarf mutant line was significantly more than the control (No.12). The yields of semi-dwarf line were less than control, because of some sterility caused by gamma rays. We are recovering fertility by back crossing ofe recovering fertility by back crossing of this line with control. Also an early maturity mutant line with 15 days earlier than parent was obtained. The yield of this mutant line was not significantly different from the control. Some traits were studied in mutant lines at M7 generation, they are includes: plant height, number of culm, uppermost internode length, second internode length, flag leaf length and width, days to heading, days to maturity, panicle length, grain length and width, Spikelet fertility, number of grain in panicle, grain yield, 100-grain weight, amylose (%), gel consistency and gelatination temperature. In this paper I will discuss the details of these traits. (author)

  15. Mycobacterium tuberculosislpdC, Rv0462, induces dendritic cell maturation and Th1 polarization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: ? Treatment with Rv0462 induces the expression of surface molecules and the production of cytokines in DCs. ? Rv0462 induces the activation of MAPKs. ? Rv0462-treated DCs enhances the proliferation of CD4+ T cells. -- Abstract: Mycobacterium tuberculosis, the etiological factor of pulmonary tuberculosis, causes significant morbidity and mortality worldwide. Activation of host immune responses for containment of mycobacterial infections involves participation of innate immune cells, such as dendritic cells (DCs). In this study, we demonstrated that the gene encoding lipoamide dehydrogenase C (lpdC) from M. tuberculosis, Rv0462, induce maturation and activation of DCs involved in the MAPKs signaling pathway. Moreover, Rv0462-treated DCs activated naive T cells, polarized CD4+ and CD8+ T cells to secrete IFN-? in syngeneic mixed lymphocyte reactions, which would be expected to contribute to Th1 polarization of the immune response. Our results suggest that Rv0462 can contribute to the innate and adaptive immune responses during tuberculosis infection, and thus modulate the clinical course of tuberculosis.

  16. Mycobacterium tuberculosislpdC, Rv0462, induces dendritic cell maturation and Th1 polarization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heo, Deok Rim [Department of Microbiology and Immunology, School of Medicine, Pusan National University, Beom-eo Ri, Mulgum Eop, Yangsan, Gyeongsangnam-do 626-770 (Korea, Republic of); Shin, Sung Jae; Kim, Woo Sik [Department of Microbiology, College of Medicine, Chungnam National University, Munwha-Dong, Jung-Ku, Daejeon 301-747 (Korea, Republic of); Noh, Kyung Tae; Park, Jin Wook; Son, Kwang Hee [Department of Microbiology and Immunology, School of Medicine, Pusan National University, Beom-eo Ri, Mulgum Eop, Yangsan, Gyeongsangnam-do 626-770 (Korea, Republic of); Park, Won Sun [Department of Physiology, Kangwon National University, School of Medicine, Chuncheon 200-701 (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Min-Goo [Department of Physiology, Korea University, College of Medicine, Anam-dong, Sungbuk-Gu, Seoul 136-705 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Daejin [Department of Anatomy, Chung-Ang University, College of Medicine, 221 Heuksuk-Dong, Dongjak-Ku, Seoul 156-756 (Korea, Republic of); Shin, Yong Kyoo [Department of Pharmacology, Chung-Ang University, College of Medicine, 221 Heuksuk-Dong, Dongjak-Ku, Seoul 156-756 (Korea, Republic of); Jung, In Duk, E-mail: jungid@pusan.ac.kr [Department of Microbiology and Immunology, School of Medicine, Pusan National University, Beom-eo Ri, Mulgum Eop, Yangsan, Gyeongsangnam-do 626-770 (Korea, Republic of); Research Institute of Convergence of Biomedical Science and Technology, Pusan National University Yangsan Hospital, Beom-eo Ri, Mulgum Eop, Yangsan, Gyeongsangnam-do 626-770 (Korea, Republic of); Park, Yeong-Min, E-mail: immunpym@pusan.ac.kr [Department of Microbiology and Immunology, School of Medicine, Pusan National University, Beom-eo Ri, Mulgum Eop, Yangsan, Gyeongsangnam-do 626-770 (Korea, Republic of); Research Institute of Convergence of Biomedical Science and Technology, Pusan National University Yangsan Hospital, Beom-eo Ri, Mulgum Eop, Yangsan, Gyeongsangnam-do 626-770 (Korea, Republic of)

    2011-08-05

    Highlights: {yields} Treatment with Rv0462 induces the expression of surface molecules and the production of cytokines in DCs. {yields} Rv0462 induces the activation of MAPKs. {yields} Rv0462-treated DCs enhances the proliferation of CD4{sup +} T cells. -- Abstract: Mycobacterium tuberculosis, the etiological factor of pulmonary tuberculosis, causes significant morbidity and mortality worldwide. Activation of host immune responses for containment of mycobacterial infections involves participation of innate immune cells, such as dendritic cells (DCs). In this study, we demonstrated that the gene encoding lipoamide dehydrogenase C (lpdC) from M. tuberculosis, Rv0462, induce maturation and activation of DCs involved in the MAPKs signaling pathway. Moreover, Rv0462-treated DCs activated naive T cells, polarized CD4{sup +} and CD8{sup +} T cells to secrete IFN-{gamma} in syngeneic mixed lymphocyte reactions, which would be expected to contribute to Th1 polarization of the immune response. Our results suggest that Rv0462 can contribute to the innate and adaptive immune responses during tuberculosis infection, and thus modulate the clinical course of tuberculosis.

  17. Progesterone improves the maturation of male-induced preovulatory follicles in anoestrous ewes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adib, Achraf; Freret, Sandrine; Touze, Jean-Luc; Lomet, Didier; Lardic, Lionel; Chesneau, Didier; Estienne, Anthony; Papillier, Pascal; Monniaux, Danielle; Pellicer-Rubio, Maria-Teresa

    2014-10-01

    The first ovulation induced by male effect in sheep during seasonal anoestrus usually results in the development of a short cycle that can be avoided by progesterone priming before ram introduction. In elucidating the involvement of the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis in the occurrence of short cycles, the effects of progesterone and the time of anoestrus on the development of male-induced preovulatory follicles were investigated in anoestrous ewes using morphological, endocrine and molecular approaches. Ewes were primed with progesterone for 2 (CIDR2) or 12 days (CIDR12) and untreated ewes used as controls during early (April) and late (June) anoestrus. The duration of follicular growth and the lifespan of the male-induced preovulatory follicles were prolonged by ?1.6 days in CIDR12 ewes compared with the controls. These changes were accompanied by a delay in the preovulatory LH and FSH surges and ovulation. Intra-follicular oestradiol concentration and mRNA levels of LHCGR and STAR in the granulosa and theca cells of the preovulatory follicles were higher in CIDR12 ewes than the control ewes. The expression of mRNA levels of CYP11A1 and CYP17A1 also increased in theca cells of CIDR12 ewes. CIDR2 ewes gave intermediate results. Moreover, ewes ovulated earlier in June than in April, without changes in the duration of follicular growth, but these effects were unrelated to the lifespan of corpus luteum. Our results give the first evidence supporting the positive effect of progesterone priming on the completion of growth and maturation of preovulatory follicles induced by male effect in seasonal anoestrous ewes, thereby preventing short cycles. PMID:25062803

  18. Radiation-induced variability for stem-fly (Melanagromyza sojae) resistance, yield and maturity in soybean (Glycine max)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Induced mutagenesis through gamma-rays with or without subsequent exposure to ultra-violet rays, in soybean varieties PK 472 and Bragg resulted in some desirable genetic changes, to give mutants with improved characters like resistance or tolerance to stem-fly damage, high yield and early maturity

  19. ?-fetoprotein involvement during glucocorticoid-induced precocious maturation in rat colon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Min Chen

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available AIM: To investigate the role of ?-fetoprotein (AFP, a cancer-associated fetal glycoprotein, in glucocorticoid-induced precocious maturation in rat colon. METHODS: Colons from suckling Sprague-Dawley rats were used in this study. Corticosterone acetate at a dose of 100 ?g/g body weight was given to normal pups on days 7, 9 and 11 after birth to induce hypercorticoidism. Control animals were injected with identical volumes of normal saline. Some rats receiving corticosterone 7 d after birth were also treated with mifepristone (RU38486, a glucocorticoid cytoplasm receptor antagonist to investigate the effects of glucocorticoids (GCs. The morphological changes of the crypt depth and villous height of the villous zone in colon were observed as indices of colon maturation. Expression levels of AFP in colons were detected by reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction and Western blotting. To identify the cellular localization of AFP in developing rat colons, double-immunofluorescent staining was performed using antibodies to specific mesenchymal cell marker and AFP. RESULTS: Corticosterone increased the crypt depth and villous height in the colon of 8- and 10-d-old rats with hypercorticoidism compared with that in the control animals (120% in 8-d-old rats and 118% in 10-d-old rats in villous height, P = 0.021; 145% in 8-d-old rats and 124% in 10-d-old rats in crypt depth, P = 0.017. These increases were accompanied by an increase of AFP expression in both mRNA and protein (2.5-folds in 8-d-old and 2.5-folds in 10-d-old rats higher than in control animals, P = 0.035; 1.8-folds in 8-d-old and 1.3-folds in 10-d-old rats higher than in control animals, P = 0.023. Increased crypt depth and villous height and increased expression of AFP in the colon of rats with hypercorticoidism were blocked by mifepristone. Both had positive staining for AFP or vimentin, and overlapped in mesenchymal cells at each tested colon. CONCLUSION: GCs promote the development of rat colon. AFP appears to be involved, in part, in mediating the effects of GCs in the developmental colon.

  20. Cooperative transcription activation by Nurr1 and Pitx3 induces embryonic stem cell maturation to the midbrain dopamine neuron phenotype

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Martinat, Cecile; Bacci, Jean-Jacques

    2006-01-01

    Midbrain dopamine (DA) neurons play a central role in the regulation of voluntary movement, and their degeneration is associated with Parkinson's disease. Cell replacement therapies, and in particular embryonic stem (ES) cell-derived DA neurons, offer a potential therapeutic venue for Parkinson's disease. We sought to identify genes that can potentiate maturation of ES cell cultures to the midbrain DA neuron phenotype. A number of transcription factors have been implicated in the development of midbrain DA neurons by expression analyses and loss-of-function knockout mouse studies, including Nurr1, Pitx3, Lmx1b, Engrailed-1, and Engrailed-2. However, none of these factors appear sufficient alone to induce the mature midbrain DA neuron phenotype in ES cell cultures in vitro, suggesting a more complex regulatory network. Here we show that Nurr1 and Pitx3 cooperatively promote terminal maturation to the midbrain DA neuron phenotype in murine and human ES cell cultures.

  1. Experimental investigation of changes in methane adsorption of bitumen-free Woodford Shale with thermal maturation induced by hydrous pyrolysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Haiyan; Zhang, Tongwei; Wiggins-Camacho, Jaclyn D.; Ellis, Geoffrey S.; Lewan, Michael D.; Zhang, Xialong

    2014-01-01

    This study quantifies the effects of organic-matter (OM) thermal maturity on methane (CH4) sorption, on the basis of five samples that were artificially matured through hydrous pyrolysis achieved by heating samples of immature Woodford Shale under five different time–temperature conditions. CH4-sorption isotherms at 35 °C, 50 °C, and 65 °C, and pressures up to 14 MPa on dry, solvent-extracted samples of the artificially matured Woodford Shale were measured. The results showed that CH4-sorption capacity, normalized to TOC, varied with thermal maturity, following the trend: maximum oil (367 °C) > oil cracking (400 °C) > maximum bitumen/early oil (333 °C) > early bitumen (300 °C) > immature stage (130 °C). The Langmuir constants for the samples at maximum-oil and oil-cracking stages are larger than the values for the bitumen-forming stages. The total pore volume, determined by N2 physisorption at 77 K, increases with increased maturation: mesopores, 2–50 nm in width, were created during the thermal conversion of organic-matter and a dramatic increase in porosity appeared when maximum-bitumen and maximum-oil generation stages were reached. A linear relationship between thermal maturity and Brunauer–Emmett–Teller (BET) surface area suggests that the observed increase in CH4-sorption capacity may be the result of mesopores produced during OM conversion. No obvious difference is observed in pore-size distribution and pore volume for samples with pores 2 physisorption at 273 K. The isosteric heat of adsorption and the standard entropy for artificially matured samples ranged from 17.9 kJ mol?1 to 21.9 kJ mol?1 and from ?85.4 J mol?1 K?1 to ?101.8 J mol?1 K?1, respectively. These values are similar to the values of immature Woodford kerogen concentrate previously observed, but are larger than naturally matured organic-rich shales. High-temperature hydrous pyrolysis might have induced Lewis acid sites on both organic and mineral surfaces, resulting to some extent, in chemical interactions between the adsorption site and the methane C–H bonds. The formation of abundant mesopores (2–50 nm) within organic matter during organic-matter thermal maturation makes a great contribution to the increase in both BET surface area and pore volume, and a significant increase in 2–6 nm pores occurs at maximum-oil-generation and oil-cracking to gas, ultimately controlling the methane-adsorption capacity. Therefore, consideration of pore-size effects and thermal maturity is very important for gas in place (GIP) prediction in organic-rich shales.

  2. Endotoxin-induced nitric oxide production rescues airway growth and maturation in atrophic fetal rat lung explants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Inflammation induces premature maturation of the fetal lung but the signals causing this effect remain unclear. We determined if nitric oxide (NO) synthesis, evoked by Escherichia coli lipopolysaccharide (LPS, 2 ?g ml-1), participated in this process. Fetal rat lung airway surface complexity rose 2.5-fold over 96 h in response to LPS and was associated with increased iNOS protein expression and activity. iNOS inhibition by N6-(1-iminoethyl)-L-lysine-2HCl (L-NIL) abolished this and induced airway atrophy similar to untreated explants. Surfactant protein-C (SP-C) expression was also induced by LPS and abolished by L-NIL. As TGF? suppresses iNOS activity, we determined if feedback regulation modulated NO-dependent maturation. LPS induced TGF?1 release and SMAD4 nuclear translocation 96 h after treatment. Treatment of explants with a blocking antibody against TGF?1 sustained NO production and airway morphogenesis whereas recombinant TGF?1 antagonized these effects. Feedback regulation of NO synthesis by TGF? may, thus, modulate airway branching and maturation of the fetal lung

  3. In vitro maturation (IVM as a new technique to treat polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS and induce pregnancy in Indonesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soegiharto Soebijanto

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Aim: To assesse the success of inducing pregnancies in the treatment of PCOS (Poly Cystic Ovary Syndrome cases with in vitro maturation as a newly application technique in Indonesia.Methods This paper is a report of 7 cases in Indonesia that used the newly developed technique. There were 7 cases confi rmed PCOS, in which 1 patient with a history of OHSS (Ovary Hyper Stimulation Syndrome in a previous IVF procedure and 1 patient with PCOS characteristics, suspected hyper responder, in the Family Hospital from January to May of 2009. Follicular induction was performed with a minimum dose, primming with HCG 10.000 IU, on the 10th day and 40 hours later ovum pick up was  performed, followed by in vitro maturation. Subsequently, insemination was performed and the inseminated follicle was assessed. Well qualifi ed embryos then transferred them into the uterus. We then performed assessment of pregnancy biochemically, by the presence of embryonic sac and embryonic heart beat.Results: We have performed the IVM (In Vitro Maturation technique in the Family Hospital, West Jakarta, along with the TRB team of the Family Hospital in seven PCOS cases. From these patients, we have found 156 antral follicles (average of 22 follicles per patient, 82 oocytes, and after maturation, 61  nature oocytes (75 %. In three cases, in vitro fertilization was performed, while in 4 cases ICSI (In Cystoplasmic Sperm Infection was performed. In these serial cases we obtained 41 embryos, and 22 fertilized embryos were transferred. Of 7 cases, we achieved two successful pregnancies (29%.Conclusion: In vitro maturation is an alternative procedures in solving infertility problems for PCOS patients with lower risk of OHSS and more cost effective than conventional IVF. (Med J Indones 2009; 18: 269-75Keywords: pregnancy, PCOS, in vitro maturation

  4. Alteration in the simian virus 40 maturation pathway after butyrate-induced hyperacetylation of histones.

    OpenAIRE

    Roman, A.

    1982-01-01

    The role of histone acetylation in the replication and maturation pathways of simian virus 40 was assessed. Histones were hyperacetylated by briefly exposing infected cells to sodium butyrate. Viral DNA in cells exposed to butyrate was found to reenter replication to a greater extent and mature to the previrion form to a lesser extent than viral DNA in control cells. Previrions formed in the presence of butyrate had altered sedimentation properties. These data suggest that increased acetylati...

  5. Interleukin 10 Induces the Maturation of Putative Tolerogenic Monocyte-derived Dendritic Cells as Revealed by GeneArray Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marianne A. Jakobsen

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available IL-10 is a multifunctional cytokine with known inhibitory effect on DC maturation. In the present study, we show that the presence of IL-10 during the first 6 days of maturation of Mo-DC has severe effects on the phenotype with IL-10 treated Mo-DC retaining a high expression of factors involved in antigen uptake and having low expression of costimulatory factors and MHC II. The effect of IL-10 on DC maturation is further characterized by a comprehensive investigation of the expression profile of 12500 genes using GeneArrays and comparing the data for IL-10 treated and untreated Mo-DC at day 6 and 8 with monocytes and macrophages. The data is confirmed with semi-quantitative RT-PCR. We find that the transcriptional pattern of IL-10 treated Mo-DC at day 6 and day 8 is distinct from both untreated Mo-DC and macrophages. IL-10 induces the expression of genes coding for CCL18, ILT3, ILT4 and TGF? while inhibiting the expression of IL-12 p40 mRNA, and genes coding for CCL17, CCL19 and CCL22 suggesting a likely effect of IL-10 on Mo-DC maturation to be the generation of tolerogenic Mo-DC.

  6. Complete and incomplete fusion competition in 11B-induced fission reaction on medium mass targets at intermediate energies

    CERN Document Server

    Demekhina, N A; Balabekyan, A R

    2014-01-01

    The cross sections for the binary fission of 197Au, 181Ta and 209Bi targets induced by 11B ions were measured at intermediate energies. The fission products cross sections were studied by means of activation analysis in off-line regime observed gamma-ray spectra. The fission cross section is reconstructed on the basis of charge and mass distribution of the fission products.

  7. A new model of radiation-induced myelopathy: A comparison of the response of mature and immature pigs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The purpose was development of an experimental model of radiation-induced myelopathy in the pig which would facilitate the study of the effects of clinically relevant treatment volumes. The effects of local spinal cord irradiation, to a standard 10 X 5 cm field, have been evaluated in mature (37-42.5 weeks) and immature (15.5-23 weeks) pigs. Irradiation was with single doses of 60Co ?rays at a dose-rate of 0.21-0.65 Gy/min. The incidence of paralysis was used as an endpoint. Irradiation of mature animals resulted in the development of frank paralysis with animals showing combined parenchymal and vascular pathologic changes in their white matter. These lesions, in common with those seen in patients, had a clear evidence of an inflammatory component. The latency for paralysis was short, 7.5-16.5 weeks, but within the wide range reported for patients. However, it was shorter than that reported in other large animal models. The ED50 value (±SE) for paralysis was 27.02±0.36 Gy, similar to that in rats taking into account dose-rate factors. The irradiation of immature pigs only resulted in transient neurological changes after doses comparable to those used in the mature animals, ED50 value (±SE) 26.09±0.37 Gy. The reasons for these transient neurological symptoms are uncertain. A reliable experimental model of radiation-induced myelopathy has been developed for mature pigs. This model is suitable for the study of clinically relevant vol the study of clinically relevant volume effects. 39 refs., 4 figs., 1 tab

  8. Repair capacity of fertilized mouse eggs for X-ray damage induced in sperm and mature oocytes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To study the repair capacity of fertilized mouse eggs for X-ray damage induced in sperm and mature oocytes, the potentiating effects of 3 well-known repair inhibitors, arabinofuranosyl cytosine (ara-C), 3-aminobenzamide (3AB) and caffeine, on the frequency of induced chromosome aberrations were examined in eggs fertilized with X-irradiated sperm or in eggs irradiated with X-rays at the mature oocyte stage immediately before fertilization. Gametic treatment, fertilization and embryo culture wer carried out in vitro. Ara-C treatment was done only in the pre-DNA replication period, while treatment with 3AB and caffeine was continuous from fertilization to the first-cleavage metaphase. The induction of chromosome aberrations by exposing sperm or oocytes to X-rays was remarkably potentiated by post-treatment incubation in the presence of each of the 3 inhibitors. This result indicates the possibility that X-ray damage induced in sperm or oocytes is reparable in the fertilized eggs and that various types of repair processes are involved. (author). 39 refs.; 3 figs.; 5 tabs

  9. Farnesyl transferase inhibitors induce extended remissions in transgenic mice with mature B cell lymphomas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Refaeli Yosef

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background We have used a mouse model based on overexpression of c-Myc in B cells genetically engineered to be self-reactive to test the hypothesis that farnesyl transferase inhibitors (FTIs can effectively treat mature B cell lymphomas. FTIs are undergoing clinical trials to treat both lymphoid and non-lymphoid malignancies and we wished to obtain evidence to support the inclusion of B cell lymphomas in future trials. Results We report that two FTIs, L-744,832 and SCH66336, blocked the growth of mature B cell lymphoma cells in vitro and in vivo. The FTI treatment affected the proliferation and survival of the transformed B cells to a greater extent than naïve B cells stimulated with antigen. In syngeneic mice transplanted with the transgenic lymphoma cells, L-744,832 treatment prevented the growth of the tumor cells and the morbidity associated with the resulting lymphoma progression. Tumors that arose from transplantation of the lymphoma cells regressed with as little as three days of treatment with L-744,832 or SCH66336. Treatment of these established lymphomas with L-744,832 for seven days led to long-term remission of the disease in approximately 25% of animals. Conclusion FTI treatment can block the proliferation and survival of self-reactive transformed B cells that overexpress Myc. In mice transplanted with mature B cell lymphomas, we found that FTI treatment led to regression of disease. FTIs warrant further consideration as therapeutic agents for mature B cell lymphomas and other lymphoid tumors.

  10. Proinsulin Atypical Maturation and Disposal Induces Extensive Defects in Mouse Ins2+/Akita ?-Cells

    OpenAIRE

    Yuan, Qingxin; Tang, Wei; Zhang, Xiaoping; Hinson, Jack A.; LIU, CHAO; Osei, Kwame; WANG, JIE

    2012-01-01

    Because of its low relative folding rate and plentiful manufacture in ?-cells, proinsulin maintains a homeostatic balance of natively and plentiful non-natively folded states (i.e., proinsulin homeostasis, PIHO) through the integration of maturation and disposal processes. PIHO is susceptible to genetic and environmental influences, and its disorder has been critically linked to defects in ?-cells in diabetes. To explore this hypothesis, we performed polymerase chain reaction (PCR), metabol...

  11. Relating Incomplete Data and Incomplete Theory

    CERN Document Server

    Binétruy, Pierre; Nelson, B D; Wang, L T; Wang, T T; Binétruy, Pierre; Nelson, Brent D.; Wang, Lian-Tao; Wang, Ting T.

    2003-01-01

    Assuming string theorists will not soon provide a compelling case for the primary theory underlying particle physics, the field will proceed as it has historically: with data stimulating and testing ideas. Ideally the soft supersymmetry breaking Lagrangian will be measured and its patterns will point to the underlying theory. But there are two new problems. First a matter of principle: the theory may be simplest at distance scales and in numbers of dimensions where direct experiments are not possible. Second a practical problem: in the foreseeable future (with mainly hadron collider data) too few observables can be measured to lead to direct connections between experiment and theory. In this paper we discuss and study these issues and consider ways to circumvent the problems, studying models to test methods. We propose a semi-quantitative method for focusing and sharpening thinking when trying to relate incomplete data to incomplete theory, as will probably be necessary.

  12. Relating incomplete data and incomplete theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Assuming string theorists will not soon provide a compelling case for the primary theory underlying particle physics, the field will proceed as it has historically: with data stimulating and testing ideas. Ideally the soft supersymmetry breaking Lagrangian will be measured and its patterns will point to the underlying theory. But there are two new problems. First a matter of principle: the theory may be simplest at distance scales and in numbers of dimensions where direct experiments are not possible. Second a practical problem: in the foreseeable future (with mainly hadron collider data) too few observables can be measured to lead to direct connections between experiment and theory. In this paper we discuss and study these issues and consider ways to circumvent the problems, studying models to test methods. We propose a semiquantitative method for focusing and sharpening thinking when trying to relate incomplete data to incomplete theory, as will probably be necessary

  13. Thidiazuron-induced shoot organogenesis from mature leaf explants of scented Pelargonium capitatum cultivars

    OpenAIRE

    Arshad, Muhammad; Silvestre, Je?ro?me; Merlina, Georges; Dumat, Camille; Pinelli, Eric; Kallerhoff, Jean

    2012-01-01

    Shoot organogenesis from mature leaf tissues of two scented Pelargonium capitatum cultivars, 'Attar of Roses' and 'Atomic Snowflake', grown in the greenhouse, were optimized in the presence of thidiazuron (TDZ). The protocol involved preculture of leaf sections on basal Murashige and Skoog (MS) medium supplemented with 10 lM TDZ, 4.4 lM of 6-benzyladenine (BA) and 5.4 lM a-naphtaleneacetic acid (NAA) for a period of 2 weeks and followed by subculture of explants to a fresh medium containing 4...

  14. Stimulation of Toll-like receptor 3 and 4 induces interleukin-1? maturation by caspase-8

    OpenAIRE

    Maelfait, Jonathan; Vercammen, Elisabeth; Janssens, Sophie; Schotte, Peter; Haegman, Mira; Magez, Stefan; Beyaert, Rudi

    2008-01-01

    The cytokine interleukin (IL)-1? is a key mediator of the inflammatory response and has been implicated in the pathophysiology of acute and chronic inflammation. IL-1? is synthesized in response to many stimuli as an inactive pro–IL-1? precursor protein that is further processed by caspase-1 into mature IL-1?, which is the secreted biologically active form of the cytokine. Although stimulation of membrane-bound Toll-like receptors (TLRs) up-regulates pro–IL-1? expression, activation ...

  15. The effects of maturation on self-induced dynamic body sway frequencies of girls performing acrobatics or classical dance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golomer, E; Dupui, P; Monod, H

    1997-01-01

    We investigated the effects of maturation on the dynamic body sways of healthy girls. Prepubertal and postpubertal girls practising professional physical activities requiring a good ability to maintain equilibrium (acrobats and dancers) were asked to stand on a free seesaw platform and the results compared to those for untrained age-matched girls. This platform (stabilometer) allows self-induced body sways. Stabilograms were obtained by a double integration of the angular acceleration from the recordings of the platform sways made with an accelerometer. Fast Fourier transform processing of stabilograms allowed spectral frequency analysis. The total spectrum energy and the energies of three frequency bands (0-0.5 Hz, 0.5-2 Hz, 2-20 Hz) were determined. ANOVA showed that, for all groups of different equilibrium activity and independent of visual input, prepubertal girls had higher energy values than postpubertal girls in the 0- to 0.5-Hz band whereas the opposite was true for 0.5- to 2-Hz band. Ballet dancers were more dependent than acrobats on visual inputs for the regulation of their postural control but were less dependent than untrained girls at both ages. Maturation seemed to shift body sways towards higher frequencies and the utilization of the cues of postural control was different according to the type of equilibrium activity practised by the subjects. PMID:9272772

  16. Induced Pluripotent Stem Cell-Derived Neural Cells Survive and Mature in the Nonhuman Primate Brain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marina E. Emborg

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The generation of induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs opens up the possibility for personalized cell therapy. Here, we show that transplanted autologous rhesus monkey iPSC-derived neural progenitors survive for up to 6 months and differentiate into neurons, astrocytes, and myelinating oligodendrocytes in the brains of MPTP-induced hemiparkinsonian rhesus monkeys with a minimal presence of inflammatory cells and reactive glia. This finding represents a significant step toward personalized regenerative therapies.

  17. HIV-1-derived lentiviral vectors directly activate plasmacytoid dendritic cells, which in turn induce the maturation of myeloid dendritic cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rossetti, Maura; Gregori, Silvia; Hauben, Ehud; Brown, Brian D; Sergi, Lucia Sergi; Naldini, Luigi; Roncarolo, Maria-Grazia

    2011-02-01

    Lentiviral vectors (LV) can induce type I interferon (IFN I) production from murine plasmacytoid dendritic cells (pDC), but not myeloid (my)DC. Here, we investigated whether this mechanism is conserved in human DC. MyDC and pDC were isolated from peripheral blood and transduced with increasing vector concentrations. Compared with in vitro differentiated monocyte-derived DC, the transduction efficiency of peripheral blood DC was low (ranging from pDC showing the lowest susceptibility to LV transduction. Phenotype and function of myDC were not directly modified by LV transduction; by contrast, pDC produced significant levels of IFN-? and tumor necrosis factor-?. pDC activation was dependent on functional vector particles and was mediated by Toll-like receptor 7/9 triggering. Coculture of myDC with pDC in the presence of LV resulted in myDC activation, with CD86 up-regulation and interleukin-6 secretion. These findings demonstrate that the induction of transgene-specific immunity is triggered by an innate immune response with pDC activation and consequent myDC maturation, a response that closely resembles the one induced by functional viruses. This information is important to design strategies aimed at using LV in humans for gene therapy, where adverse immune responses must be avoided, or for cancer immunotherapy, where inducing immunity is the goal. PMID:20825284

  18. Information-theoretic incompleteness

    CERN Document Server

    Chaitin, Gregory J

    1992-01-01

    In this mathematical autobiography, Gregory Chaitin presents a technical survey of his work and a nontechnical discussion of its significance. The volume is an essential companion to the earlier collection of Chaitin's papers Information, Randomness and Incompleteness, also published by World Scientific.The technical survey contains many new results, including a detailed discussion of LISP program size and new versions of Chaitin's most fundamental information-theoretic incompleteness theorems. The nontechnical part includes the lecture given by Chaitin in Gšdel's classroom at the University o

  19. Whey protein processing influences formula-induced gut maturation in preterm pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yanqi; Østergaard, Mette V; Jiang, Pingping; Chatterton, Dereck E W; Thymann, Thomas; Kvistgaard, Anne S; Sangild, Per T

    2013-12-01

    Immaturity of the gut predisposes preterm infants to nutritional challenges potentially leading to clinical complications such as necrotizing enterocolitis. Feeding milk formulas is associated with greater risk than fresh colostrum or milk, probably due to loss of bioactive proteins (e.g., immunoglobulins, lactoferrin, insulin-like growth factor, transforming growth factor-?) during industrial processing (e.g., pasteurization, filtration, spray-drying). We hypothesized that the processing method for whey protein concentrate (WPC) would affect gut maturation in formula-fed preterm pigs used as a model for preterm infants. Fifty-five caesarean-delivered preterm pigs were distributed into 4 groups given 1 of 4 isoenergetic diets: formula containing conventional WPC (filtration, multi-pasteurization, standard spray-drying) (CF); formula containing gently treated WPC (reduced filtration and pasteurization, gentle spray-drying) (GF); formula containing minimally treated WPC (rennet precipitation, reduced filtration, heat treatment concentrations than CF and GF pigs and intestinal interleukin-8 was lower in BC pigs than in the other groups (P concentrations of intestinal claudin-4, cleaved caspase-3, and phosphorylated c-Jun than CF pigs (P < 0.05). The conventional and gently treated WPCs had similar efficacy in stimulating proliferation of porcine intestinal epithelial cells. We conclude that processing of WPC affects intestinal structure, function, and integrity when included in formulas for preterm pigs. Optimization of WPC processing technology may be important to preserve the bioactivity and nutritional value of formulas for sensitive newborns. PMID:24047702

  20. Effect of Vitamin D on basal and Luteinizing Hormone (LH) induced testosterone production and mitochondrial dehydrogenase activity in cultured Leydig cells from immature and mature rams.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Yang; Jin, Hui; Chen, Jianwei; Jiang, Xiaolong; Li, Pengfei; Ren, Youshe; Liu, Wenzhong; Yao, Jianbo; Folger, Joseph K; Smith, George W; Lv, Lihua

    2015-07-01

    The objectives of this study were to investigate the potential effects of 1?,25-(OH)2VD3 (biologically active form of Vitamin D) on basal and LH-induced testosterone production and mitochondrial dehydrogenase activity in Leydig cells from immature and mature rams cultured in vitro. Leydig cells were isolated from testes of immature and mature rams, treated without (control) or with increasing concentrations of LH (1, 10, 100ng/ml) and/or 1?,25-(OH)2VD3 (1, 10, 100nM). After 24h, concentrations of testosterone in culture media were measured. After 96h, mitochondrial dehydrogenase activity in Leydig cells were measured. In immature and mature ram Leydig cells, treatment with 10 and 100ng/ml LH increased testosterone production and mitochondrial dehydrogenase activity. Treatment with 1?,25-(OH)2VD3 in the absence of LH did not increase testosterone production, but 10 and 100nM 1?,25-(OH)2VD3 increased LH induced testosterone production for both immature and mature ram Leydig cells. Treatment with all doses of 1?,25-(OH)2VD3 in the absence of LH and 10 and 100ng/ml LH in the absence of 1?,25-(OH)2VD3 increased mitochondrial dehydrogenase activity for cultured Leydig cells from immature and mature rams and 1 and 10nM 1?,25-(OH)2VD3 treatment enhanced the LH induced increase in mitochondrial dehydrogenase activity. Result demonstrate Vitamin D3 induced regulation of function of Leydig cells from immature and mature rams cultured in the presence or absence of LH and support a potential role for Vitamin D3 in regulation of gonadal function in rams. PMID:26024964

  1. Acute steroid-induced myopathy during lung Maturation in a patient with threatened preterm Delivery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rojas-Suarez José Antonio

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Myopathy caused by steroids is a serious and unusual side effect related with administration of high doses of steroids. In this article we had reported a possible deleterious and serious effect on the mother health when steroids are used in the treatment of preterm childbirth. The case of a pregnant patient of 28 gestational week that consults to the emergency department with signs of preterm birth, receives tocolysis and lung maturation with Betametasona (12 mg the first day and 12 mg at 24 hours after first dose; thereafter, patient refer dizziness and blurry vision, which progress rapidly to pain in lower limbs, with weakness, being generalized then to four limbs, for acute weakness and imminence of respiratory failure the patient was transferred to the intensive care unit (ICU for respiratory vigilance, possible ventilatory support and study of this weakness. Myopathy caused by steroids is generally related with high doses of steroids. These patients, present a clinical typical picture characterized by widespread weakness of four extremities, muscular atrophy, normal CK or moderately high and myopathic changes in the EMG, the clinical presentation improves slowly. This report invite us to questioning the apparent innocuousness of steroids in pulmonary maturity and the dose of the same one, as well as to using them well in agreement to the indication of the same one keeping in mind the risk - benefit of the medicine.RESUMENLa miopatía causada por esteroides es un efecto secundario grave muy poco frecuente asociado a la administración de dosis altas de esteroides. Se reportan los posibles efectos deletéreos sobre la salud materna que puede tener la administración de corticosteroides frente al riesgo de un parto pretérmino. Se presenta el caso de una paciente gestante de 28 semanas que consulta al servicio de urgencia por infección de vías urinarias y amenaza de parto pretérmino, que recibe uteroinhibicion y maduración pulmonar con Betametasona (12 mg primer día y 12 mg a las 24 horas de primera dosis; luego de segunda dosis de maduración pulmonar la paciente refiere vértigo y visión borrosa, la cual progresó rápidamente a dolor, con pérdida de fuerza muscular en miembros inferiores, generalizándose luego a las cuatro extremidades, por lo que ante la inminencia de falla respiratoria se traslada a unidad de cuidados intermedios para vigilancia ventilatoria y estudio de miopatía.Discusión: La miopatía por esteroides, se produce con dosis altas de corticoides. Estos pacientes, presentan un cuadro clínico típico caracterizado por debilidad generalizada de las cuatro extremidades, atrofia muscular, CK normal o moderadamente elevada y cambios miopáticos en el EMG, el cuadro clínico mejora aunque de forma lenta. Conclusiones: Este reporte nos invita a cuestionar la aparente inocuidad de los esteroides en maduración pulmonar y la dosis de la misma, así como a utilizarlos bien de acuerdo a la indicación del mismo teniendo en cuenta el riesgo – beneficio del medicamento.

  2. Stimulation of Toll-like receptor 3 and 4 induces interleukin-1beta maturation by caspase-8.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maelfait, Jonathan; Vercammen, Elisabeth; Janssens, Sophie; Schotte, Peter; Haegman, Mira; Magez, Stefan; Beyaert, Rudi

    2008-09-01

    The cytokine interleukin (IL)-1beta is a key mediator of the inflammatory response and has been implicated in the pathophysiology of acute and chronic inflammation. IL-1beta is synthesized in response to many stimuli as an inactive pro-IL-1beta precursor protein that is further processed by caspase-1 into mature IL-1beta, which is the secreted biologically active form of the cytokine. Although stimulation of membrane-bound Toll-like receptors (TLRs) up-regulates pro-IL-1beta expression, activation of caspase-1 is believed to be mainly initiated by cytosolic Nod-like receptors. In this study, we show that polyinosinic:polycytidylic acid (poly[I:C]) and lipopolysaccharide stimulation of macrophages induces pro-IL-1beta processing via a Toll/IL-1R domain-containing adaptor-inducing interferon-beta-dependent signaling pathway that is initiated by TLR3 and TLR4, respectively. Ribonucleic acid interference (RNAi)-mediated knockdown of the intracellular receptors NALP3 or MDA5 did not affect poly(I:C)-induced pro-IL-1beta processing. Surprisingly, poly(I:C)- and LPS-induced pro-IL-1beta processing still occurred in caspase-1-deficient cells. In contrast, pro-IL-1beta processing was inhibited by caspase-8 peptide inhibitors, CrmA or vFLIP expression, and caspase-8 knockdown via RNAi, indicating an essential role for caspase-8. Moreover, recombinant caspase-8 was able to cleave pro-IL-1beta in vitro at exactly the same site as caspase-1. These results implicate a novel role for caspase-8 in the production of biologically active IL-1beta in response to TLR3 and TLR4 stimulation. PMID:18725521

  3. Conditional Hypoxia Inducible Factor-1? Induction in Embryonic Pulmonary Epithelium Impairs Maturation and Augments Lymphangiogenesis

    OpenAIRE

    Bridges, James P.; Lin, Sui; Ikegami, Machiko; Shannon, John M.

    2011-01-01

    Hypoxia inducible factor (HIF) 1a, EPAS1 and NEPAS are expressed in the embryonic mouse lung and each isoform exhibits distinct spatiotemporal expression patterns throughout morphogenesis. To further assess the role of the HIF1a isoform in lung epithelial cell differentiation and homeostasis, we created transgenic mice that express a constitutively active isoform of human HIF-1a (HIF-1a three point mutant (TPM)), in a doxycycline-dependent manner. Expression of HIF1a TPM in the developing pul...

  4. BMP2 Induces Osteoblast Apoptosis in a Maturation State and Noggin-dependent Manner

    OpenAIRE

    Hyzy, Sharon L.; Olivares-navarrete, Rene; Schwartz, Zvi; Boyan, Barbara D.

    2012-01-01

    Large doses of bone morphogenetic protein 2 (BMP2) are used clinically to induce bone formation in challenging bone defects. However, complications after treatment include swelling, ectopic bone formation, and adjacent bone resorption. While BMP2 can be effective, it is important to characterize the mechanism of the deleterious effects to optimize its use. The aim of this study was to determine the effect of BMP2 on apoptosis in osteoblast lineage cells and to determine the role of the BMP in...

  5. Tripeptidyl Peptidase II Promotes Maturation of Caspase-1 in Shigella flexneri-Induced Macrophage Apoptosis

    OpenAIRE

    Hilbi, Hubert; Puro, Robyn J.; Zychlinsky, Arturo

    2000-01-01

    The invasive enteropathogenic bacterium Shigella flexneri activates apoptosis in macrophages. Shigella-induced apoptosis requires caspase-1. We demonstrate here that tripeptidyl peptidase II (TPPII), a cytoplasmic, high-molecular-weight protease, participates in the apoptotic pathway triggered by Shigella. The TPPII inhibitor Ala-Ala-Phe-chloromethylketone (AAF-cmk) and clasto-lactacystin ?-lactone (lactacystin), an inhibitor of both TPPII and the proteasome, protected macrophages from Shige...

  6. Possible mechanism of phorbol diester-induced maturation of human promyelocytic leukemia cells.

    OpenAIRE

    Vandenbark, G. R.; Kuhn, L. J.; Niedel, J. E.

    1984-01-01

    The phorbol diesters are the most potent inducers of differentiation of the promyelocytic leukemia cell line, HL-60. Soluble phorbol diester receptors from HL-60 cells were obtained from the cytosolic fraction and from the particulate fraction by either divalent ion chelation or detergent extraction. The partially purified soluble phorbol diester receptors required exogenous Ca2+ and phospholipid for maximal binding and displayed a dissociation constant (KD) of 8.1 nM for [3H]phorbol 12,13-di...

  7. Hemin-induced transcriptional activation of the HSP70 gene during erythroid maturation in K562 cells is due to a heat shock factor-mediated stress response.

    OpenAIRE

    Theodorakis, N G; Zand, D J; Kotzbauer, P T; Williams, G. T.; Morimoto, R I

    1989-01-01

    Hemin-induced differentiation of the human erythroleukemia cell line K562 results in the expression and accumulation of erythroid-specific gene products such as embryonic and fetal hemoglobins and the elevated synthesis of the major heat shock protein HSP70. This activity was suggested to represent activation of a heat shock gene during erythroid maturation independent of stress induction. In this study, we demonstrate that hemin induces the transcription of two members of the human HSP70 gen...

  8. Variation in eating quality of early maturing mutant lines of rice induced by space technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Variations in eating quality of 9 mutant lines derived from single season indica rice variety Jingxian 89 by the treatment of space technique were investigated. The result indicated that the exterior quality of some mutant lines including grain shape and endosperm appearance changed obviously. AAC was induced into three categories: low, moderate and high AAC. Alkali spreading value and starch viscosity of most mutant lines were significantly worse than those of the original parent. However, the gel consistence of mutant lines was similar or improved obviously. Except SP501, major agronomic traits of mutant lines were worse than those of the control, but one thousand grains weight increased obviously

  9. Evidence of a hemolymph-born factor that induces onset of maturation in Manduca sexta larvae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Helm, Bryan R; Davidowitz, Goggy

    2015-07-01

    Insect metamorphosis is a complex developmental transition determined and coordinated by hormonal signaling that begins at a critical weight late in the larval phase of life. Even though this hormonal signaling is well understood in insects, the internal factors that are assessed at the critical weight and that drive commitment to metamorphosis have remained unresolved in most species. The critical weight may represent either an autonomous decision by the neuroendocrine system without input from other developing larval tissues, or an assessment of developmental thresholds occurring throughout the body that are then integrated by the neuroendocrine tissues. The latter hypothesis predicts that there could be one or more developmental threshold signals that originate from developing tissues and ultimately induce the onset of metamorphosis. However, there is no evidence for such a signal in the organisms for which the critical weight is well described. Here we test for the evidence of this factor in Manduca sexta (Lepidoptera: Sphingidae) by transferring hemolymph from individuals that are either post- or pre-critical weight into pre-critical weight 5(th) instar larvae. We found that hemolymph from a post-critical weight donor induces a shortening of development time, though the mass at pupation is unaffected. This suggests that metamorphic commitment occurring at the critical weight is at least partially coordinated by signaling from developing tissues via a hemolymph-borne signaling factor. PMID:25958164

  10. Iterative incomplete factorization methods

    CERN Document Server

    Il'in, VP

    1992-01-01

    This book is devoted to numerical methods for solving sparse linear algebra systems of very large dimension which arise in the implementation of the mesh approximations of the partial differential equations. Incomplete factorization is the basis of the wide class of preconditioning interative processes with acceleration by conjugate gradients or the Chebyshev technique. Different kinds of explicit and implicit algorithms are considered. Theoretical grounds of correctness and estimates of the convergence velocity of iterations are presented. Together with the results of experimental investigati

  11. Godel's Incompleteness Phenomenon - Computationally

    OpenAIRE

    Salehi, Saeed

    2012-01-01

    We argue that Godel's completeness theorem is equivalent to completability of consistent theories, and Godel's incompleteness theorem is equivalent to the fact that this completion is not constructive, in the sense that there are some consistent and recursively enumerable theories which cannot be extended to any complete and consistent and recursively enumerable theory. Though any consistent and decidable theory can be extended to a complete and consistent and decidable theo...

  12. Improved Balanced Incomplete Factorization.

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Bru, R.; Marín, J.; Mas, J.; T?ma, Miroslav

    2010-01-01

    Ro?. 31, ?. 5 (2010), s. 2431-2452. ISSN 0895-4798 R&D Projects: GA AV ?R IAA100300802 Grant ostatní: GA AV ?R(CZ) M100300902 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10300504 Source of funding: I - inštitucionálna podpora na rozvoj VO Keywords : preconditioned iterative methods * sparse matrices * incomplete decompositions * approximate inverses * Sherman- Morrison formula * nonsymmetric matrices Subject RIV: BA - General Mathematics Impact factor: 1.725, year: 2010

  13. Protein-induced changes during the maturation process of human dendritic cells: A 2-D DIGE approach

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ferreira, Gb; Overbergh, L

    2008-01-01

    Dendritic cells (DCs) are unique antigen presenting cells, which upon maturation change from a specialized antigen-capturing cell towards a professional antigen presenting cells. In this study, a 2-D DIGE analysis of immature and mature DCs was performed, to identify proteins changing in expression upon maturation. The protein expression profile of immature and mature DCs, derived from CD14+ peripheral blood monocytes was investigated using two pH ranges (pH 4-7 and 6-9) (n = 4). Ninety one differentially expressed spots (p

  14. Metabolomic changes in follicular fluid induced by soy isoflavones administered to rats from weaning until sexual maturity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Wenxiang [Department of Nutrition and Health Care, School of Public Health, Fujian Medical University, Fuzhou, Fujian (China); Zhang, Wenchang, E-mail: wenchang2002@sina.com [Department of Occupational and Environmental Health, School of Public Health, Fujian Medical University, Fuzhou, Fujian (China); Liu, Jin [Department of Occupational and Environmental Health, School of Public Health, Fujian Medical University, Fuzhou, Fujian (China); Sun, Yan [Center for Reproductive Medicine, Teaching Hospital of Fujian Medical University, Fujian Maternity and Child Health Hospital, Fuzhou, Fujian (China); Li, Yuchen; Li, Hong; Xiao, Shihua; Shen, Xiaohua [Department of Occupational and Environmental Health, School of Public Health, Fujian Medical University, Fuzhou, Fujian (China)

    2013-06-15

    Female Wistar rats at 21 days of age were treated with one of three concentrations of soy isoflavones (SIF) (50, 100 or 200 mg/kg body weight, orally, once per day) from weaning until sexual maturity (3 months) in order to evaluate the influence of SIF on ovarian follicle development. After treatment, the serum sex hormone levels and enumeration of ovarian follicles of the ovary were measured. The metabolic profile of follicular fluid was determined using HPLC-MS. Principal component analysis (PCA) and partial least-squares-discriminant analysis (PLS-DA) was used to identify differences in metabolites and reveal useful toxic biomarkers. The results indicated that modest doses of SIF affect ovarian follicle development, as demonstrated by decreased serum estradiol levels and increases in both ovarian follicle atresia and corpora lutea number in the ovary. SIF treatment-related metabolic alterations in follicular fluid were also found in the PCA and PLS-DA models. The 24 most significantly altered metabolites were identified, including primary sex hormones, amino acids, fatty acids and metabolites involved in energy metabolism. These findings may indicate that soy isoflavones affect ovarian follicle development by inducing metabolomic variations in the follicular fluid. - Highlights: ? Modest doses of soy isoflavones (SIF) do affect ovarian follicle development. ? SIF treatment-related metabolic alterations in follicular fluid were found. ? The 24 most significantly altered metabolites were identified.

  15. Nicotine-induced Disturbances of Meiotic Maturation in Cultured Mouse Oocytes: Alterations of Spindle Integrity and Chromosome Alignment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zenzes Maria

    2004-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract We investigated whether nicotine exposure in vitro of mouse oocytes affects spindle and chromosome function during meiotic maturation (M-I and M-II. Oocytes in germinal vesicle (GV stage were cultured in nicotine for 8 h or for 16 h, to assess effects in M-I and in metaphase II (M-II. The latter culture setting used the three protocols: 8 h nicotine then 8 h medium (8N + 8M; 16 h nicotine (16N; 8 h medium then 8 h nicotine (8M + 8N. Non-toxic concentrations of nicotine at 1.0, 2.5, 5.0 and 10.0 mmol/L were used. Spindle-chromosome configurations were analyzed with wide-field optical sectioning microscopy. In 8 h cultures, nicotine exposure resulted in dose-related increased proportions of M-I oocytes with defective spindle-chromosome configurations. A dose-related delayed entry into anaphase I was also detected. In 16 h cultures, nicotine exposure for the first 8 h (8N + 8M, or for 16 h (16N, resulted in dose- and time-related increased proportions of oocytes arrested in M-I (10 mmol/L; 8 h: 53.2%, controls 9.6%; 16 h: 87.6%, controls 8.5%. Defects in M-I spindles and chromosomes caused M-I arrest leading to dose-related decreased proportions of oocytes that reached metaphase-II (10 mmol/L 8 h: 46.8%, controls 90.4%;16 h: 12.4%, controls 91.5%. A delayed anaphase-I affected the normal timing of M-II, leading to abnormal oocytes with dispersed chromosomes, or with double spindles and no polar body. Nicotine exposure during the second 8 h (8M + 8N resulted in dose-related, increased proportions of M-II oocytes with defective spindles and chromosomes (10 mmol/L: 42.9%, controls 2.0%. Nicotine has no adverse effects on GV break down, but induces spindle and chromosome defects compromising oocyte meiotic maturation and development.

  16. Mycobacterium abscessus MAB2560 induces maturation of dendritic cells via Toll-like receptor 4 and drives Th1 immune response.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Su Jung; Shin, Sung Jae; Lee, Seung Jun; Lee, Moon Hee; Kang, Tae Heung; Noh, Kyung Tae; Shin, Yong Kyoo; Kim, Han Wool; Yun, Cheol-Heui; Jung, In Duk; Park, Yeong-Min

    2014-09-01

    In this study, we showed that Mycobacterium abscessus MAB2560 induces the maturation of dendritic cells (DCs), which are representative antigen-presenting cells (APCs). M. abscessus MAB2560 stimulate the production of pro-inflammatory cytokines [interleukin (IL)-6, tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-?, IL-1?, and IL-12p70] and reduce the endocytic capacity and maturation of DCs. Using TLR4-/- DCs, we found that MAB2560 mediated DC maturation via Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4). MAB2560 also activated the MAPK signaling pathway, which was essential for DC maturation. Furthermore, MAB2560- treated DCs induced the transformation of naïve T cells to polarized CD4+ and CD8+ T cells, which would be crucial for Th1 polarization of the immune response. Taken together, our results indicate that MAB2560 could potentially regulate the host immune response to M. abscessus and may have critical implications for the manipulation of DC functions for developing DC-based immunotherapy. PMID:24667171

  17. On Incomplete Symmetric Decompositions.

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    T?ma, Miroslav

    Ostrava : Ústav geoniky AV ?R, 2014 - (Blaheta, R.; Starý, J.; Sysalová, D.). s. 74-75 ISBN 978-80-86407-47-0. [Modelling 2014. 02.06.2014-06.06.2014, Rožnov pod Radhošt?m] R&D Projects: GA ?R GA13-06684S; GA ?R(CZ) GAP108/11/0853 Grant ostatní: EPSRC EP/I013067/1 Institutional support: RVO:67985807 Keywords : preconditioning * sparse linear systems * incomplete decompositions * preconditioned iterative methods * symmetric and positive definite matrices Subject RIV: BA - General Mathematics

  18. Progressive behavioral changes during the maturation of rats with early radiation-induced hypoplasia of fascia dentata granule cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Localized exposure of the neonatal rat brain to X-rays produces neuronal hypoplasia specific to the granule cell layer of the hippocampal dentate gyrus. This brain damage causes locomotor hyperactivity, slowed acquisition of passive avoidance tasks and long bouts of spontaneous turning (without reversals) in a bowl apparatus. Here we report how these behavioral deficits change as a function of subject aging and behavioral test replications. Portions of the neonatal rat cerebral hemispheres were X-irradiated in order to selectively damage the granule cells of the dentate gyrus. The brains of experimental animals received a fractionated dose of X rays (13 Gy total) over postnatal days 1 to 16 and control animals were sham-irradiated. Rats between the ages of 71-462 days were tested 3 separate times on each of the following 3 behavioral tests: (1) spontaneous locomotion, (2) passive avoidance acquisition, and (3) spontaneous circling in a large plastic hemisphere. Rats with radiation-induced damage to the fascia dentata exhibited long bouts of slow turns without reversals. Once they began, irradiated subjects perseverated in turning to an extent significantly greater than sham-irradiated control subjects. This irradiation effect was significant during all test series. Moreover, in time, spontaneous perseverative turning was significantly potentiated in rats with hippocampal damage but increased only slightly in controls. Early radiation exposure produced locomotor hyperadiation exposure produced locomotor hyperactivity in young rats. While activity levels of controls remained fairly stable throughout the course of the experiment, the hyperactivity of the irradiated animals decreased significantly as they matured

  19. Dynamics of incomplete fusion-fission reactions

    OpenAIRE

    Crouzen, Paulus Caorlus Nicolaas

    1988-01-01

    Fifty years after its first observation, nuclear fission is still a lively field of research. The contemporary interest in this well established phenomenon is mainly related to heavy-ion physics, where fission provides a valuable means for the study of reaction mechanisms. Until recently, most of the experiments on heavy-ion induced fission reactions were inclusive and often could not distinguish between complete and incomplete fusion. The present thesis work, however, was specifically focuss...

  20. Boosting high-intensity focused ultrasound-induced anti-tumor immunity using a sparse-scan strategy that can more effectively promote dendritic cell maturation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhong Pei

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The conventional treatment protocol in high-intensity focused ultrasound (HIFU therapy utilizes a dense-scan strategy to produce closely packed thermal lesions aiming at eradicating as much tumor mass as possible. However, this strategy is not most effective in terms of inducing a systemic anti-tumor immunity so that it cannot provide efficient micro-metastatic control and long-term tumor resistance. We have previously provided evidence that HIFU may enhance systemic anti-tumor immunity by in situ activation of dendritic cells (DCs inside HIFU-treated tumor tissue. The present study was conducted to test the feasibility of a sparse-scan strategy to boost HIFU-induced anti-tumor immune response by more effectively promoting DC maturation. Methods An experimental HIFU system was set up to perform tumor ablation experiments in subcutaneous implanted MC-38 and B16 tumor with dense- or sparse-scan strategy to produce closely-packed or separated thermal lesions. DCs infiltration into HIFU-treated tumor tissues was detected by immunohistochemistry and flow cytometry. DCs maturation was evaluated by IL-12/IL-10 production and CD80/CD86 expression after co-culture with tumor cells treated with different HIFU. HIFU-induced anti-tumor immune response was evaluated by detecting growth-retarding effects on distant re-challenged tumor and tumor-specific IFN-?-secreting cells in HIFU-treated mice. Results HIFU exposure raised temperature up to 80 degrees centigrade at beam focus within 4 s in experimental tumors and led to formation of a well-defined thermal lesion. The infiltrated DCs were recruited to the periphery of lesion, where the peak temperature was only 55 degrees centigrade during HIFU exposure. Tumor cells heated to 55 degrees centigrade in 4-s HIFU exposure were more effective to stimulate co-cultured DCs to mature. Sparse-scan HIFU, which can reserve 55 degrees-heated tumor cells surrounding the separated lesions, elicited an enhanced anti-tumor immune response than dense-scan HIFU, while their suppressive effects on the treated primary tumor were maintained at the same level. Flow cytometry analysis showed that sparse-scan HIFU was more effective than dense-scan HIFU in enhancing DC infiltration into tumor tissues and promoting their maturation in situ. Conclusion Optimizing scan strategy is a feasible way to boost HIFU-induced anti-tumor immunity by more effectively promoting DC maturation.

  1. Incompleteness, Complexity, Randomness and Beyond

    CERN Document Server

    Calude, C S

    2001-01-01

    Goedel's Incompleteness Theorems have the same scientific status as Einstein's principle of relativity, Heisenberg's uncertainty principle, and Watson and Crick's double helix model of DNA. Our aim is to discuss some new faces of the incompleteness phenomenon unveiled by an information-theoretic approach to randomness and recent developments in quantum computing.

  2. Alcohol-induced decrease in muscle protein synthesis associated with increased binding of mTOR and raptor: Comparable effects in young and mature rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vary Thomas C

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Acute alcohol (EtOH intoxication decreases muscle protein synthesis via inhibition of mTOR-dependent translation initiation. However, these studies have been performed in relatively young rapidly growing rats in which muscle protein accretion is more sensitive to growth factor and nutrient stimulation. Furthermore, some in vivo-produced effects of EtOH vary in an age-dependent manner. The hypothesis tested in the present study was that young rats will show a more pronounced decrement in muscle protein synthesis than older mature rats in response to acute EtOH intoxication. Methods Male F344 rats were studied at approximately 3 (young or 12 (mature months of age. Young rats were injected intraperitoneally with 75 mmol/kg of EtOH, and mature rats injected with either 75 or 90 mmol/kg EtOH. Time-matched saline-injected control rats were included for both age groups. Gastrocnemius protein synthesis and the activity of the mTOR pathway were assessed 2.5 h after EtOH using [3H]-labeled phenylalanine and the phosphorylation of various protein factors known to regulate peptide-chain initiation. Results Blood alcohol levels (BALs were lower in mature rats compared to young rats after administration of 75 mmol/kg EtOH (154 ± 23 vs 265 ± 24 mg/dL. However, injection of 90 mmol/kg EtOH in mature rats produced BALs comparable to that of young rats (281 ± 33 mg/dL. EtOH decreased muscle protein synthesis similarly in both young and high-dose EtOH-treated mature rats. The EtOH-induced changes in both groups were associated with a concomitant reduction in 4E-BP1 phosphorylation, and redistribution of eIF4E between the active eIF4E·eIF4G and inactive eIF4E·4EBP1 complex. Moreover, EtOH increased the binding of mTOR with raptor in a manner which appeared to be AMPK- and TSC-independent. In contrast, although muscle protein synthesis was unchanged in mature rats given low-dose EtOH, compared to control values, the phosphorylation of rpS6 and eIF4G was decreased. Conclusion These data indicate that muscle protein synthesis is equally sensitive to the inhibitory effects of EtOH in young rapidly growing rats and older mature rats which are growing more slowly, but that mature rats must be given a relatively larger dose of EtOH to achieve the same BAL. Based on the differential response in mature rats to low- and high-dose EtOH, the decreased protein synthesis was associated with a reduction in mTOR activity which was selectively mediated via a reduction in 4E-BP1 phosphorylation and an increase in mTOR·raptor formation.

  3. Dynamic feedback circuits function as a switch for shaping a maturation-inducing steroid pulse in Drosophila

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    MØller, Morten Erik; Danielsen, Erik Thomas

    2013-01-01

    Steroid hormones trigger the onset of sexual maturation in animals by initiating genetic response programs that are determined by steroid pulse frequency, amplitude and duration. Although steroid pulses coordinate growth and timing of maturation during development, the mechanisms generating these pulses are not known. Here we show that the ecdysone steroid pulse that drives the juvenile-adult transition in Drosophila is determined by feedback circuits in the prothoracic gland (PG), the major steroid-producing tissue of insect larvae. These circuits coordinate the activation and repression of hormone synthesis, the two key parameters determining pulse shape (amplitude and duration). We show that ecdysone has a positive-feedback effect on the PG, rapidly amplifying its own synthesis to trigger pupariation as the onset of maturation. During the prepupal stage, a negative-feedback signal ensures the decline in ecdysone levels required to produce a temporal steroid pulse that drives developmental progression to adulthood. The feedback circuits rely on a developmental switch in the expression of Broad isoforms that transcriptionally activate or silence components in the ecdysone biosynthetic pathway. Remarkably, our study shows that the same well-defined genetic program that stimulates a systemic downstream response to ecdysone is also utilized upstream to set the duration and amplitude of the ecdysone pulse. Activation of this switch-like mechanism ensures a rapid, self-limiting PG response that functions in producing steroid oscillations that can guide the decision to terminate growth and promote maturation.

  4. Processing Of Incomplete Data Set

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahesh Babanrao Shelke

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available A large number of Data Sets are available, but they are incomplete in nature so that they cannot be used for real applications. These incomplete data sets are produced due to various reasons like system failure, privacy of data, incomplete input, time delay in system, lack of available resources. As common examples Weather data sets, sensor image data sets, Measurement Reflection in Agriculture Data Sets. For these cases we use conceptual data reconstruction by using statistical models of multiple linear Regressions to Predict Missing values in Data Sets.

  5. The incorporation of myo-inositol into phosphatidylinositol derivatives is stimulated during hormone-induced meiotic maturation of amphibian oocytes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The incorporation of myo-[3H]inositol into phosphatidylinositol and its phosphorylated derivatives was studied by microinjection of the radioactive precursor into Xenopus laevis oocytes. Induction of meiotic maturation of the oocytes by treatment with either progesterone one or insulin resulted in a significant increase in the incorporation of myo-[3H]inositol into the phospholipid fraction. This increase occurred 3-6 h after hormonal treatment, a time coincident with the start of the breakdown of the nuclear envelope, and requires protein synthesis. The effect of progesterone and insulin contrasts with the effect of acetylcholine, which acts through a muscarinic receptor causing the activation of phospholipase C, since the latter effector causes an increase in myo-[3H]inositol incorporation, which is more rapid and does not require protein synthesis. These results suggest that the meiotic maturation process is connected with changes in inositol metabolism in the amphibian oocyte

  6. Myd88-Dependent In Vivo Maturation of Splenic Dendritic Cells Induced by Leishmania donovani and Other Leishmania Species

    OpenAIRE

    de Trez, Carl; Brait, Maryse; Leo, Oberdan; Aebischer, Tony; Torrentera, Fabiola Aguilar; Carlier, Yves; Muraille, Eric

    2004-01-01

    The usual agent of visceral leishmaniasis in the Old World is Leishmania donovani, which typically produces systemic diseases in humans and mice. L. donovani has developed efficient strategies to infect and persist in macrophages from spleen and liver. Dendritic cells (DC) are sentinels of the immune system. Following recognition of evolutionary conserved microbial products, DC undergo a maturation process and activate antigen-specific naïve T cells. In the present report we provide new insi...

  7. Transferrin receptor number, synthesis, and endocytosis during erythropoietin-induced maturation of Friend virus-infected erythroid cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Erythropoietin (EP) responsive Friend virus-infected erythroid cells had 200,000 steady-state binding sites for transferrin at 370C when isolated from the spleens of Friend virus-infected mice. Upon culture of these cells with EP, the synthesis of transferrin receptors increased 4- to 7-fold and the number of transferrin-binding sites per cell doubled after 24 h. However, the rate of uptake of 59Fe from transferrin remained constant at approximately 35,000 atoms of 59Fe per minute per cell during this period in culture. The amount of 125I-transferrin internalized during the steady-state binding did not change during this culture period while the transferrin bound to the surface increased 3-fold. At all stages of erythroid maturation, the maximum rate of endocytosis was determined to be 18,000 molecules of transferrin per minute per cell, and the interval that 125I-transferrin remains in the interior of the cell was calculated to be 6.9 min. After 48 h of culture with EP, the number of steady-state transferrin-binding sites was reduced in part due to the sequestration of surface receptors within the cell. The uptake of iron from transferrin was limited by the level of endocytosis of transferrin during the initial phase of culture and the number of transferrin receptors at the cell surface during the latter stages of erythroid maturation of these cells

  8. Mechanics of bacteriophage maturation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roos, Wouter H; Gertsman, Ilya; May, Eric R; Brooks, Charles L; Johnson, John E; Wuite, Gijs J L

    2012-02-14

    Capsid maturation with large-scale subunit reorganization occurs in virtually all viruses that use a motor to package nucleic acid into preformed particles. A variety of ensemble studies indicate that the particles gain greater stability during this process, however, it is unknown which material properties of the fragile procapsids change. Using Atomic Force Microscopy-based nano-indentation, we study the development of the mechanical properties during maturation of bacteriophage HK97, a ?-like phage of which the maturation-induced morphological changes are well described. We show that mechanical stabilization and strengthening occurs in three independent ways: (i) an increase of the Young's modulus, (ii) a strong rise of the capsid's ultimate strength, and (iii) a growth of the resistance against material fatigue. The Young's modulus of immature and mature capsids, as determined from thin shell theory, fit with the values calculated using a new multiscale simulation approach. This multiscale calculation shows that the increase in Young's modulus isn't dependent on the crosslinking between capsomers. In contrast, the ultimate strength of the capsids does increase even when a limited number of cross-links are formed while full crosslinking appears to protect the shell against material fatigue. Compared to phage ?, the covalent crosslinking at the icosahedral and quasi threefold axes of HK97 yields a mechanically more robust particle than the addition of the gpD protein during maturation of phage ?. These results corroborate the expected increase in capsid stability and strength during maturation, however in an unexpected intricate way, underlining the complex structure of these self-assembling nanocontainers. PMID:22308333

  9. Parathyroid Hormone Induces Bone Cell Motility and Loss of Mature Osteocyte Phenotype through L-Calcium Channel Dependent and Independent Mechanisms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prideaux, Matthew; Dallas, Sarah L.; Zhao, Ning; Johnsrud, Erica D.; Veno, Patricia A.; Guo, Dayong; Mishina, Yuji; Harris, Stephen E.; Bonewald, Lynda F.

    2015-01-01

    Parathyroid Hormone (PTH) can exert both anabolic and catabolic effects on the skeleton, potentially through expression of the PTH type1 receptor (PTH1R), which is highly expressed in osteocytes. To determine the cellular and molecular mechanisms responsible, we examined the effects of PTH on osteoblast to osteocyte differentiation using primary osteocytes and the IDG-SW3 murine cell line, which differentiate from osteoblast to osteocyte-like cells in vitro and express GFP under control of the dentin matrix 1 (Dmp1) promoter. PTH treatment resulted in an increase in some osteoblast and early osteocyte markers and a decrease in mature osteocyte marker expression. The gene expression profile of PTH-treated Day 28 IDG-SW3 cells was similar to PTH treated primary osteocytes. PTH treatment induced striking changes in the morphology of the Dmp1-GFP positive cells in IDG-SW3 cultures and primary cells from Dmp1-GFP transgenic mice. The cells changed from a more dendritic to an elongated morphology and showed increased cell motility. E11/gp38 has been shown to be important for cell migration, however, deletion of the E11/gp38/podoplanin gene had no effect on PTH-induced motility. The effects of PTH on motility were reproduced using cAMP, but not with protein kinase A (PKA), exchange proteins activated by cAMP (Epac), protein kinase C (PKC) or phosphatidylinositol-4,5-bisphosphonate 3-kinase (Pi3K) agonists nor were they blocked by their antagonists. However, the effects of PTH were mediated through calcium signaling, specifically through L-type channels normally expressed in osteoblasts but decreased in osteocytes. PTH was shown to increase expression of this channel, but decrease the T-type channel that is normally more highly expressed in osteocytes. Inhibition of L-type calcium channel activity attenuated the effects of PTH on cell morphology and motility but did not prevent the downregulation of mature osteocyte marker expression. Taken together, these results show that PTH induces loss of the mature osteocyte phenotype and promotes the motility of these cells. These two effects are mediated through different mechanisms. The loss of phenotype effect is independent and the cell motility effect is dependent on calcium signaling. PMID:25942444

  10. Multiresolution Analysis of Incomplete Rankings

    OpenAIRE

    Clémençon, Stéphan; Jakubowicz, Jérémie; Sibony, Eric

    2014-01-01

    Incomplete rankings on a set of items $\\{1,\\; \\ldots,\\; n\\}$ are orderings of the form $a_{1}\\prec\\dots\\prec a_{k}$, with $\\{a_{1},\\dots a_{k}\\}\\subset\\{1,\\dots,n\\}$ and $k < n$. Though they arise in many modern applications, only a few methods have been introduced to manipulate them, most of them consisting in representing any incomplete ranking by the set of all its possible linear extensions on $\\{1,\\; \\ldots,\\; n\\}$. It is the major purpose of this paper to introduce a c...

  11. Detection of radiation-induced hydrocarbons in Camembert irradiated before and after the maturing process-comparison of florisil column chromatography and on-line coupled liquid chromatography-gas chromatography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The influence of the maturing process on the detection of radiation-induced volatile hydrocarbons in the fat of Camembert has been investigated. Two analytical methods for separation of the hydrocarbon fraction from the lipid were applied: Florisil column chromatography with subsequent gas chromatographic-mass spectrometric (GC-MS) determination as well as on-line coupled liquid chromatography-GC-MS. The maturing process had no influence on the detection of radiation-induced volatiles. Comparable results were achieved with both analytical methods. However, preference is given to the more effective on-line coupled LC-GC method

  12. GW5074 and PP2 kinase inhibitors implicate nontraditional c-Raf and Lyn function as drivers of retinoic acid-induced maturation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jensen, Holly A; Bunaciu, Rodica P; Varner, Jeffrey D; Yen, Andrew

    2015-08-01

    The multivariate nature of cancer necessitates multi-targeted therapy, and kinase inhibitors account for a vast majority of approved cancer therapeutics. While acute promyelocytic leukemia (APL) patients are highly responsive to retinoic acid (RA) therapy, kinase inhibitors have been gaining momentum as co-treatments with RA for non-APL acute myeloid leukemia (AML) differentiation therapies, especially as a means to treat relapsed or refractory AML patients. In this study GW5074 (a c-Raf inhibitor) and PP2 (a Src-family kinase inhibitor) enhanced RA-induced maturation of t(15;17)-negative myeloblastic leukemia cells and rescued response in RA-resistant cells. PD98059 (a MEK inhibitor) and Akti-1/2 (an Akt inhibitor) were less effective, but did tend to promote maturation-uncoupled G1/G0 arrest, while wortmannin (a PI3K inhibitor) did not enhance differentiation surface marker expression or growth arrest. PD98059 and Akti-1/2 did not enhance differentiation markers and have potential, antagonistic off-targets effects on the aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR), but neither could the AhR agonist 6-formylindolo(3,2-b)carbazole (FICZ) rescue differentiation events in the RA-resistant cells. GW5074 rescued early CD38 expression in RA-resistant cells exhibiting an early block in differentiation before CD38 expression, while for RA-resistant cells with differentiation blocked later, PP2 rescued the later differentiation marker CD11b; but surprisingly, the combination of the two was not synergistic. Kinases c-Raf, Src-family kinases Lyn and Fgr, and PI3K display highly correlated signaling changes during RA treatment, while activation of traditional downstream targets (Akt, MEK/ERK), and even the surface marker CD38, were poorly correlated with c-Raf or Lyn during differentiation. This suggests that an interrelated kinase module involving c-Raf, PI3K, Lyn and perhaps Fgr functions in a nontraditional way during RA-induced maturation or during rescue of RA induction therapy using inhibitor co-treatment in RA-resistant leukemia cells. PMID:25817574

  13. Lack of dendritic cell maturation by the plant toxin ricin.

    OpenAIRE

    Smith, Dc; Salio, M.; Lord, Jm; Roberts, Lm; Cerundolo, V.

    2004-01-01

    Several bacterial toxins either promote or inhibit the maturation of human monocyte-derived DC. Since the potent plant toxin ricin exploits the same cell entry pathway used by these bacterial toxins and shares identical catalytic activity with some of them, we have studied the capacity of ricin to induce DC maturation in vitro. Here, we show that in contrast to the bacterial proteins, ricin neither induces DC maturation nor interferes with LPS-induced DC maturation. There is no correlation be...

  14. Neurogenic maturation of human dental pulp stem cells following neurosphere generation induces morphological and electrophysiological characteristics of functional neurons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gervois, Pascal; Struys, Tom; Hilkens, Petra; Bronckaers, Annelies; Ratajczak, Jessica; Politis, Constantinus; Brône, Bert; Lambrichts, Ivo; Martens, Wendy

    2015-02-01

    Cell-based therapies are emerging as an alternative treatment option to promote functional recovery in patients suffering from neurological disorders, which are the major cause of death and permanent disability. The present study aimed to differentiate human dental pulp stem cells (hDPSCs) toward functionally active neuronal cells in vitro. hDPSCs were subjected to a two-step protocol. First, neuronal induction was acquired through the formation of neurospheres, followed by neuronal maturation, based on cAMP and neurotrophin-3 (NT-3) signaling. At the ultrastructural level, it was shown that the intra-spheral microenvironment promoted intercellular communication. hDPSCs grew out of the neurospheres in vitro and established a neurogenic differentiated hDPSC culture (d-hDPSCs) upon cAMP and NT-3 signaling. d-hDPSCs were characterized by the increased expression of neuronal markers such as neuronal nuclei, microtubule-associated protein 2, neural cell adhesion molecule, growth-associated protein 43, synapsin I, and synaptophysin compared with nondifferentiated hDPSCs. Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay demonstrated that the secretion of brain-derived neurotrophic factor, vascular endothelial growth factor, and nerve growth factor differed between d-hDPSCs and hDPSCs. d-hDPSCs acquired neuronal features, including multiple intercommunicating cytoplasmic extensions and increased vesicular transport, as shown by the electron microscopic observation. Patch clamp analysis demonstrated the functional activity of d-hDPSCs by the presence of tetrodotoxin- and tetraethyl ammonium-sensitive voltage-gated sodium and potassium channels, respectively. A subset of d-hDPSCs was able to fire a single action potential. The results reported in this study demonstrate that hDPSCs are capable of neuronal commitment following neurosphere formation, characterized by distinct morphological and electrophysiological properties of functional neuronal cells. PMID:25203005

  15. Uncertainty, incompleteness, chance, and design

    CERN Document Server

    Sols, Fernando

    2013-01-01

    The 20th century has revealed two important limitations of scientific knowledge. On the one hand, the combination of Poincar\\'e's nonlinear dynamics and Heisenberg's uncertainty principle leads to a world picture where physical reality is, in many respects, intrinsically undetermined. On the other hand, G\\"odel's incompleteness theorems reveal us the existence of mathematical truths that cannot be demonstrated. More recently, Chaitin has proved that, from the incompleteness theorems, it follows that the random character of a given mathematical sequence cannot be proved in general (it is 'undecidable'). I reflect here on the consequences derived from the indeterminacy of the future and the undecidability of randomness, concluding that the question of the presence or absence of finality in nature is fundamentally outside the scope of the scientific method.

  16. Absence of mature microRNAs inactivates the response of gene expression to carcinogenesis induced by N-ethyl-N-nitrosourea in mouse liver.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luan, Yang; Qi, Xinming; Xu, Liang; Ren, Jin; Chen, Tao

    2014-12-01

    This study aims to evaluate the role of microRNAs (miRNAs) in chemical tumorigenesis by evaluating genomic gene expression in miRNA knockout mice. Previous studies showed that mice without mature miRNAs due to hepatocyte-specific Dicer1 knockout (KO) had a much higher liver tumor incidence than wild-type mice. In this study, Dicer1 KO or the wild-type mice were treated intraperitoneally with genotoxic carcinogen N-ethyl-N-nitrosourea (ENU) at a single dose (150 mg kg(-1) that resulted in liver tumorigenesis) or the vehicle at 3 weeks of age. The animals were killed 2 weeks after treatment and the liver samples were collected for the gene expression study. Principal components analysis and hierarchical cluster analysis showed that gene expression was globally altered by the Dicer1 KO and ENU exposure. There were 5621, 3286 and 2565 differentially expressed genes for Dicer1 disruption, ENU treatment in wild-type mice and ENU treatment in Dicer1 KO mice, respectively. Functional analysis of the differentially expressed genes suggests that the Dicer1 KO mouse liver lost their capability to suppress the carcinogenesis induced by ENU exposure in genomic level. In addition, the miRNA-mediated BRCA1 and P53 signaling pathways were identified as the main pathways responsible for the tumorigenesis. We conclude that the mouse livers in the absence of mature miRNAs could not appropriately respond to carcinogenic insults from ENU treatment, indicating that miRNAs play a critical role in chemical carcinogenesis. PMID:24478143

  17. Seizure induces activation of multiple subtypes of neural progenitors and growth factors in hippocampus with neuronal maturation confined to dentate gyrus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adult hippocampal neurogenesis is altered in response to different physiological and pathological stimuli. GFAP+ve/nestin+ve radial glial like Type-1 progenitors are considered to be the resident stem cell population in adult hippocampus. During neurogenesis these Type-1 progenitors matures to GFAP-ve/nestin+ve Type-2 progenitors and then to Type-3 neuroblasts and finally differentiates into granule cell neurons. In our study, using pilocarpine-induced seizure model, we showed that seizure initiated activation of multiple progenitors in the entire hippocampal area such as DG, CA1 and CA3. Seizure induction resulted in activation of two subtypes of Type-1 progenitors, Type-1a (GFAP+ve/nestin+ve/BrdU+ve) and Type-1b (GFAP+ve/nestin+ve/BrdU-ve). We showed that majority of Type-1b progenitors were undergoing only a transition from a state of dormancy to activated form immediately after seizures rather than proliferating, whereas Type-1a showed maximum proliferation by 3 days post-seizure induction. Type-2 (GFAP-ve/nestin+ve/BrdU+ve) progenitors were few compared to Type-1. Type-3 (DCX+ve) progenitors showed increased expression of immature neurons only in DG region by 3 days after seizure induction indicating maturation of progenitors happens only in microenvironment of DG even though progenitors are activated in CA1 and CA3 regions of hippocampus. Also parallel increase in growth factors expression after seizure induction suggests that microenvironmental niche has a profound effect on stimulation of adult neural progenitors.

  18. Seizure induces activation of multiple subtypes of neural progenitors and growth factors in hippocampus with neuronal maturation confined to dentate gyrus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Indulekha, Chandrasekharan L.; Sanalkumar, Rajendran [Neuro Stem Cell Biology Laboratory, Department of Neurobiology, Rajiv Gandhi Center for Biotechnology, Thiruvananthapuram, Kerala 695 014 (India); Thekkuveettil, Anoopkumar [Molecular Medicine, Biomedical Technology Wing, Sree Chitra Thirunal Institute for Medical Sciences and Technology, Thiruvananthapuram, Kerala (India); James, Jackson, E-mail: jjames@rgcb.res.in [Neuro Stem Cell Biology Laboratory, Department of Neurobiology, Rajiv Gandhi Center for Biotechnology, Thiruvananthapuram, Kerala 695 014 (India)

    2010-03-19

    Adult hippocampal neurogenesis is altered in response to different physiological and pathological stimuli. GFAP{sup +ve}/nestin{sup +ve} radial glial like Type-1 progenitors are considered to be the resident stem cell population in adult hippocampus. During neurogenesis these Type-1 progenitors matures to GFAP{sup -ve}/nestin{sup +ve} Type-2 progenitors and then to Type-3 neuroblasts and finally differentiates into granule cell neurons. In our study, using pilocarpine-induced seizure model, we showed that seizure initiated activation of multiple progenitors in the entire hippocampal area such as DG, CA1 and CA3. Seizure induction resulted in activation of two subtypes of Type-1 progenitors, Type-1a (GFAP{sup +ve}/nestin{sup +ve}/BrdU{sup +ve}) and Type-1b (GFAP{sup +ve}/nestin{sup +ve}/BrdU{sup -ve}). We showed that majority of Type-1b progenitors were undergoing only a transition from a state of dormancy to activated form immediately after seizures rather than proliferating, whereas Type-1a showed maximum proliferation by 3 days post-seizure induction. Type-2 (GFAP{sup -ve}/nestin{sup +ve}/BrdU{sup +ve}) progenitors were few compared to Type-1. Type-3 (DCX{sup +ve}) progenitors showed increased expression of immature neurons only in DG region by 3 days after seizure induction indicating maturation of progenitors happens only in microenvironment of DG even though progenitors are activated in CA1 and CA3 regions of hippocampus. Also parallel increase in growth factors expression after seizure induction suggests that microenvironmental niche has a profound effect on stimulation of adult neural progenitors.

  19. Incomplete Contract and Divisional Structures

    OpenAIRE

    Bao, Te; Wang, Yongqin

    2009-01-01

    In this paper we want to analyze the internal divisional structure within an organi- zation in the framework of incomplete contract theory. We use the framework of Aghion and Tirole (1997) and define the managerial control structure as \\sequence of search". A key feature of this paper which differentiate it from other works in the literature is that we add add an ex post bargaining phase in which the managers can agree on the project which maximize their joint private benefit. ...

  20. Incomplete information and correlated electrons

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, Qiuping A.

    2002-01-01

    Although G\\"odel's incompleteness theorem made mathematician recognize that no axiomatic system could completely prove its correctness and that there is an eternal hole between our knowledge and the world, physicists so far continue to work on the approaches based on the hypothesis to completely or approximately know the systems of interest. In this paper, however, I review the recent development of a different approach, a statistical theory based upon the notion of incomple...

  1. Incomplete intestinal absorption of fructose.

    OpenAIRE

    Kneepkens, C. M.; Vonk, R. J.; Fernandes, J.

    1984-01-01

    Intestinal D-fructose absorption in 31 children was investigated using measurements of breath hydrogen. Twenty five children had no abdominal symptoms and six had functional bowel disorders. After ingestion of fructose (2 g/kg bodyweight), 22 children (71%) showed a breath hydrogen increase of more than 10 ppm over basal values, indicating incomplete absorption: the increase averaged 53 ppm, range 12 to 250 ppm. Four of these children experienced abdominal symptoms. Three of the six children ...

  2. Induction and inhibition of oocyte maturation by EDCs in zebrafish

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tokumoto Mika

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Oocyte maturation in lower vertebrates is triggered by maturation-inducing hormone (MIH, which acts on unidentified receptors on the oocyte surface and induces the activation of maturation-promoting factor (MPF in the oocyte cytoplasm. We previously described the induction of oocyte maturation in fish by an endocrine-disrupting chemical (EDC, diethylstilbestrol (DES, a nonsteroidal estrogen. Methods In this study, stimulatory and inhibitory effects of EDCs and natural steroids on oocyte maturation were examined in zebrafish. For effective agents, some details about the mechanism in induction or inhibition of maturation were examined. Possible groups of DES interacting with the MIH receptor are discussed based on relative potency of steroids to induce maturation. Results Among agents tested, tamoxifen (TAM and its metabolite 4-hydroxytamoxifen (4-OHT showed stimulatory activity similar to DES. The time courses of the change in germinal vesicle breakdown and an intracellular molecular event (the synthesis of cyclin B induced by TAM were indistinguishable from those induced by MIH. In contrast, pentachlorophenol (PCP had a potent inhibitory effect on MIH-induced oocyte maturation. PCP inhibited not only MIH-induced maturation but also DES- and TAM-induced maturation. Methoxychlor also inhibited maturation when oocytes were pre-treated with this agent. Conclusion These results suggest that EDCs act as agonists or antagonists in the induction of oocyte maturation in fish.

  3. Maturity and maturity models in lean construction

    OpenAIRE

    Claus Nesensohn; David James Bryde; Edward Ochieng; Damian Fearon

    2014-01-01

    In recent years there has been an increasing interest in maturity models in management-related disciplines; which reflects a growing recognition that becoming more mature and having a model to guide the route to maturity can help organisations in managing major transformational change. Lean Construction (LC) is an increasingly important improvement approach that organisations seek to embed. This study explores how to apply the maturity models to LC. Hence the attitudes, opinions and experienc...

  4. Pak2 is required for actin cytoskeleton remodeling, TCR signaling, and normal thymocyte development and maturation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phee, Hyewon; Au-Yeung, Byron B; Pryshchep, Olga; O'Hagan, Kyle Leonard; Fairbairn, Stephanie Grace; Radu, Maria; Kosoff, Rachelle; Mollenauer, Marianne; Cheng, Debra; Chernoff, Jonathan; Weiss, Arthur

    2014-01-01

    The molecular mechanisms that govern thymocyte development and maturation are incompletely understood. The P21-activated kinase 2 (Pak2) is an effector for the Rho family GTPases Rac and Cdc42 that regulate actin cytoskeletal remodeling, but its role in the immune system remains poorly understood. In this study, we show that T-cell specific deletion of Pak2 gene in mice resulted in severe T cell lymphopenia accompanied by marked defects in development, maturation, and egress of thymocytes. Pak2 was required for pre-TCR ?-selection and positive selection. Surprisingly, Pak2 deficiency in CD4 single positive thymocytes prevented functional maturation and reduced expression of S1P1 and KLF2. Mechanistically, Pak2 is required for actin cytoskeletal remodeling triggered by TCR. Failure to induce proper actin cytoskeletal remodeling impaired PLC?1 and Erk1/2 signaling in the absence of Pak2, uncovering the critical function of Pak2 as an essential regulator that governs the actin cytoskeleton-dependent signaling to ensure normal thymocyte development and maturation. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.02270.001 PMID:24843022

  5. An Incomplete Pentalogy of Cantrell

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Mishaly

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Pentalogy of Cantrell is a rare entity of congenital defects involving the abdominal wall,sternum, diaphragm, pericardium and heart. The complete pentalogy and its variants havebeen described in the literature. We report a 47-day-old girl with an incomplete pentalogy ofCantrell presenting with congenital absence of the sternum, congenital heart defects, and anepigastric hernia. Two even rarer expressions of this disorder, tricuspid atresia type IIc andasymmetric kidneys, were also found. The patient was successfully managed with palliativepulmonary artery banding as preparation for a modified Fontan operation when she is older.We report this rare case, and discuss the pathologic findings and surgical strategy.

  6. Uniform approximation by incomplete polynomials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. B. Saff

    1978-12-01

    Full Text Available For any θ with 0<θ<1, it is known that, for the set of all incomplete polynomials of type θ, i.e, {p(x=∑k=snakxk:s≥θ⋅n}, to have the Weierstrass property on [aθ,1], it is necessary that θ2≤aθ≤1. In this paper, we show that the above inequalities are essentially sufficient as well.

  7. A glyphosate-based herbicide induces necrosis and apoptosis in mature rat testicular cells in vitro, and testosterone decrease at lower levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clair, Emilie; Mesnage, Robin; Travert, Carine; Séralini, Gilles-Éric

    2012-03-01

    The major herbicide used worldwide, Roundup, is a glyphosate-based pesticide with adjuvants. Glyphosate, its active ingredient in plants and its main metabolite (AMPA) are among the first contaminants of surface waters. Roundup is being used increasingly in particular on genetically modified plants grown for food and feed that contain its residues. Here we tested glyphosate and its formulation on mature rat fresh testicular cells from 1 to 10000ppm, thus from the range in some human urine and in environment to agricultural levels. We show that from 1 to 48h of Roundup exposure Leydig cells are damaged. Within 24-48h this formulation is also toxic on the other cells, mainly by necrosis, by contrast to glyphosate alone which is essentially toxic on Sertoli cells. Later, it also induces apoptosis at higher doses in germ cells and in Sertoli/germ cells co-cultures. At lower non toxic concentrations of Roundup and glyphosate (1ppm), the main endocrine disruption is a testosterone decrease by 35%. The pesticide has thus an endocrine impact at very low environmental doses, but only a high contamination appears to provoke an acute rat testicular toxicity. This does not anticipate the chronic toxicity which is insufficiently tested, and only with glyphosate in regulatory tests. PMID:22200534

  8. Impacts of a GHG-induced climate change on crop yields: effects of acceleration in maturation, moisture stress and optimal temperature

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The present study involves using the Canadian Climate Centre (CCC) climate change scenario to evaluate the impacts of a CO2-induced climate change on agriculture in Quebec and vicinity. Climate change using the CCC General Circulating Model (GCM) data are fed into a crop model (FAO) so as to gauge the changes in agroclimatic factors such as growing season length and growing degree days, and subsequently potential yield changes for a variety of cereal (C3 and C4), leguminous, oleaginous, vegetable and special crops, for twelve major agricultural regions in southern Quebec. Our results show that depending upon the agricultural zone and crop type, yields may increase (ex. corn and sorghum by 20%) or decrease (ex. wheat and soybean by 20 to 30%). Also, these crop yield changes appear to be related to acceleration in maturation rates, mainly to change in moisture stress and to shifts in optimal thermal growth conditions. These possible shifts in agricultural production potentials would solicit the formulation of appropriate adaptation strategies. 77 refs., 6 figs., 5 tabs

  9. Radiation combined with hyperthermia induces HSP70-dependent maturation of dendritic cells and release of pro-inflammatory cytokines by dendritic cells and macrophages

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: Hyperthermia (HT) treatment of cancer patients was revived over the last years and has been proven to be beneficiary for many cancer entities when applied temperature controlled in multimodal treatments. We examined whether a combination of ionizing irradiation (X-ray) and HT (41.5 °C; 1 h) can induce the release of heat shock protein (HSP) 70 by tumor cells and thereby lead to the activation of dendritic cells and macrophages. Material and methods: Extracellular HSP70 was detected in supernatants (SN) of treated colorectal tumor cells by ELISA. Maturation of dendritic cells (DC) after contact with the SN was measured by flow-cytometry. Phagocytosis assays were conducted to get hints about the immune stimulating potential of the tumor cells after the respective treatments. Results: An increased surface expression of HSP70 was observed after X-ray or X-ray plus HT while the amount of extracellular HSP70 was only increased when HT was given additionally. A high up-regulation of the co-stimulation molecule CD80 and the chemokine receptor CCR7 on DC was measured after contact with SN of X-ray plus HT treated cells. This was dependent on extracellular HSP70. Combined treatments further led to significantly increased phagocytosis rates of macrophages and DC and increased pro-inflammatory cytokine (IL-8 and IL-12) secretion. Conclusion: X-ray combined with HT induces HSP70 dependent activation of immune cells and might generate a tumor microenvironment beneficial fate a tumor microenvironment beneficial for cure.

  10. Induction and inhibition of oocyte maturation by EDCs in zebrafish

    OpenAIRE

    Tokumoto Mika; Tokumoto Toshinobu; Nagahama Yoshitaka

    2005-01-01

    Abstract Background Oocyte maturation in lower vertebrates is triggered by maturation-inducing hormone (MIH), which acts on unidentified receptors on the oocyte surface and induces the activation of maturation-promoting factor (MPF) in the oocyte cytoplasm. We previously described the induction of oocyte maturation in fish by an endocrine-disrupting chemical (EDC), diethylstilbestrol (DES), a nonsteroidal estrogen. Methods In this study, stimulatory and inhibitory effects of EDCs and natural ...

  11. Optimizing Arteriovenous Fistula Maturation

    OpenAIRE

    Zangan, Steven M.; Falk, Abigail

    2009-01-01

    Autogenous arteriovenous fistulas are the preferred vascular access in patients undergoing hemodialysis. Increasing fistula prevalence depends on increasing fistula placement, improving the maturation of fistula that fail to mature and enhancing the long-term patency of mature fistula. Percutaneous methods for optimizing arteriovenous fistula maturation will be reviewed.

  12. Natural lysophospholipids reduce Mycobacterium tuberculosis-induced cytotoxicity and induce anti-mycobacterial activity by a phagolysosome maturation-dependent mechanism in A549 type II alveolar epithelial cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greco, Emanuela; Santucci, Marilina B; Sali, Michela; De Angelis, Francesca R; Papi, Massimiliano; De Spirito, Marco; Delogu, Giovanni; Colizzi, Vittorio; Fraziano, Maurizio

    2010-01-01

    Human alveolar epithelial cells actively contribute to the innate immune response in the lung and play an important role in mycobacterial dissemination during primary infection, by undergoing cell death and by releasing mycobacteria. In the present study, we report that natural lysophospholipids, such as lysophosphatidic acid or sphingosine 1-phosphate, reduce Mycobacterium tuberculosis-induced cytotoxicity and enhance anti-mycobacterial activity in the A549 cell line, used as a model of type II alveolar epithelial cells. Intracellular mycobacterial killing was strictly dependent on phagolysosome maturation, which in turn was promoted by the activation of a Ca(2+)dependent phospholipase D. Finally, the restriction of mycobacteria in highly microbiocidal compartments was associated, in vitro, with a significant decrease in mycobacterial dissemination to macrophages. Taken as whole, these results suggest that the pulmonary lysophospholipid microenvironment may play a protective role during the early phases of host-pathogen interaction by enhancing anti-mycobacterial activity in type II alveolar epithelial cells. PMID:19878354

  13. High performance liquid chromatographic separation of steroids from ovarian follicles of fresh water perch Anabas testudineus: identification and characterization of the maturation-inducing hormone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhattacharyya, Sanghamitra; Sen, Utpal; Bhattacharyya, Sachi Prasad; Mukherjee, Dilip

    2002-05-01

    Accurate separation and identification of steroids from the postvitellogenic ovarian follicles of Indian climbing perch Anabas testudineus was performed by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) and specific radioimmunoassay (RIA). The steroids from such follicles, incubated in Cortland's saline with or without homologous fish pituitary extract (FPE), were extracted with dichloromethane and separated on a micro Bondapak C(18) column. Identification of the HPLC fractions was further confirmed by thin layer chromatography. As HPLC peaks for 17 alpha, 20 beta-dihydroxy-4-pregnen-3-one (DHP) and testosterone (T) were close, clear separation of these steroids and accurate measurement of their quantities was achieved by RIA of HPLC fractions using specific antibodies. Altogether, nine eluted fractions in the FPE-untreated and ten in FPE-treated samples were obtained. Of these, six were identified as: 5 beta-pregnan-3 alpha,17 alpha,20 beta-triol (5 beta-3 alpha,17 alpha,20 beta-P); DHP; T; 17 alpha-hydroxyprogesterone (17 alpha-P(4)); progesterone (P(4)); and androstenedione (AD). Three fractions from untreated and four from FPE-treated samples, however, remained unidentified. Of all the HPLC fractions examined for their relative maturational inducing (MI) potency on full grown (postvitellogenic) ovarian follicles of perch, the fraction identified as DHP was found to be the most effective inducer of germinal vesicle breakdown (GVBD) both at low and high concentrations. Fractions identified as 5 beta-3 alpha, 17 alpha, 20 beta-P and 17alpha-P(4) could induce only 32% and 20% GVBD at their highest concentration, while none of the unidentified fractions showed any MI activity. FPE caused increased production of DHP, testosterone, and 5 beta-3 alpha, 17 alpha, 20 beta-P. The qualitative differences between the fractions obtained from FPE-treated samples and those from FPE-untreated samples were only the appearance of a new polar metabolite of unknown function. The present study showed that, as a single steroid, DHP was the most potent MIH for A. testudineus. PMID:12115939

  14. Item calibration in incomplete testing designs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Norman D. Verhelst

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available This study discusses the justifiability of item parameter estimation in incomplete testing designs in item response theory. Marginal maximum likelihood (MML as well as conditional maximum likelihood (CML procedures are considered in three commonly used incomplete designs: random incomplete, multistage testing and targeted testing designs. Mislevy and Sheenan (1989 have shown that in incomplete designs the justifiability of MML can be deduced from Rubin's (1976 general theory on inference in the presence of missing data. Their results are recapitulated and extended for more situations. In this study it is shown that for CML estimation the justification must be established in an alternative way, by considering the neglected part of the complete likelihood. The problems with incomplete designs are not generally recognized in practical situations. This is due to the stochastic nature of the incomplete designs which is not taken into account in standard computer algorithms. For that reason, incorrect uses of standard MML- and CML-algorithms are discussed.

  15. The consequences of incomplete disclosure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The disclosure requirements imposed on Canadian public companies are discussed. The basis of the capital market system in Canada is the integrity of full and true disclosure of all material facts in a prospectus and continuous disclosure of material changes and information, including financial results. Securities regulators have the right to report to the appropriate law enforcement agencies any company director who intentionally files misleading financial statements or press releases. The fundamental policy of Canadian stock exchanges is that all persons investing in securities listed on an exchange have equal access to information that may affect their investment decisions. Canadian stock exchanges have developed by-laws, rules and regulations relating to listed companies disclosure obligations, breach of which may lead to suspension of trading, delisting of the securities of the offending issuer, and substantial fines. Details of civil and criminal liability, current and proposed, for incomplete or inaccurate disclosure under Canadian securities legislation are explained. 59 refs

  16. The Incomplete Fusion reaction modeling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We would like to present a new model describing the dynamics of the Incomplete fusion reaction. Calculated mass distributions as well as alpha particle spectra will be compared to the set of experimental data. Our model is a development of Sum Rule Model. It is based on an assumption that incomplete fusion (ICF) is a two stage process. In the first stage, the projectile breaks apart when colliding with the target. In the second stage the projectile residue fuses with the target while the rest escapes in some effective potential. The escaping ('projectile like') fragment is emitted in forward angles, usually observed at ?51V+97Mo reaction at energy of 4.5 AMeV of 51V, measured with the ?-detector array GASP, have been compared to the predictions of our model. We would like to present the basics of the model as well as its software implementation - the COMPA code. It works in event by event mode, gives a complete information on the reaction products: the entry state spin and energy distribution, reaction point coordinates, directions and velocities of the recoil and emitted light particles. The stopping of the reaction products in the passive elements of the setup, like support, target and backing, is taken into account. This way the COMPA allows for easy comparison with the experimental results. Simulated ? particle spectra will be compared to the experimental data in approx.10 AMeV region for the reactions 12C+160Gd and 12C+51V as well as 20Ne+122Sn, studied with the new EAGLE array recently put into operation at Heavy Ion Laboratory of the University of Warsaw

  17. Incomplete Chromatin Condensation in Enlarged Rat Myelocytic Leukemia Cells

    OpenAIRE

    Trencsenyi, Gyorgy; Nagy, Gabor; Bako, Fruzsina; Kertai, Pal; Banfalvi, Gaspar

    2012-01-01

    The distinguishable morphologic features of nuclei of acute myelogenous leukemia cells with enlarged size and finely distributed nuclear chromatin indicate incomplete chromosome condensation that can be related to elevated gene expression. To confirm this, interphase chromosome structures were studied in exponentially growing rat myelomonocytic leukemia 1 cells isolated at the University of Debrecen (My1/De cells). This cell line was established from primary rat leukemia chemically induced by...

  18. A sea urchin lectin, SUL-1, from the Toxopneustid sea urchin induces DC maturation from human monocyte and drives Th1 polarization in vitro

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The sea urchin Toxopneustes pileolus belonging to the family Toxopneustidae, they have well-developed globiferous pedicellariae with pharmacologically active substances. We have purified a novel sea urchin lectin-1 (SUL-1) from the large globiferous pedicellariae of T. pileolus. Dendritic cells (DC) are professional APC and play a pivotal role in controlling immune responses. This study investigated whether SUL-1 can drive DC maturation from human immature monocyte-derived DC in vitro. Human monocytes were cultured with GM-CSF and IL-4 for 6 days followed by another 1 day in the presence of SUL-1 or LPS. DC harvested on day 7 were examined using functional assays. The expression levels of CD1a, CD80, CD83, CD86 and HLA-DR as expressed by mean fluorescence intensity (MFI) on DC differentiated from immature DC after culture with 1.0 ?g/ml of SUL-1 for 1 day were enhanced and decreased endocytic activity. SUL-1-treated DC also displayed enhanced T cell stimulatory capacity in an MLR, as measured by T cell proliferation. Cell surface expression of CD80, CD83 and CD86 on SUL-1-treated DC was inhibited by anti-DC-SIGN mAb, while anti-DC-SIGN mAb had no influence on allogeneic T cell proliferation by SUL-1-treated DC. DC differentiated with SUL-1 induced the differentiation of naive T cell towards a helper T cell type 1 (Th1) response at DC/T (1:5) cells ratio depending on IL-12 secretion. In CTL assay, the production of IFN-? and 51Cr release on SUL-1-treated Dup>51Cr release on SUL-1-treated DC were more augmented than of immature DC or LPS-treated DC. SUL-1-treated DC expressed CCR7 and had a high migration to MIP-3?. Intracellular Ca2+ mobilization in SUL-1-treated DC was also induced by MIP-3?. These results suggest that SUL-1 bindings to DC-SIGN on surface of immature DC may lead to differentiate DC from immature DC. Moreover, it suggests that SUL-1 may be used on DC-based vaccines for cancer immunotherapy

  19. Incomplete linear tibial fractures in two horses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Incomplete linear tibial fractures were identified in two horses with the aid of scintigraphy. Both horses were treated successfully by strict stall confinement, and both returned to normal athletic activity. Scintigraphy can be used to facilitate the generally difficult diagnosis of incomplete tibial fractures

  20. Mature Driver Laws

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mature Driver Laws More and more Americans are outliving their ability to drive safely. As a result of impairments ... requirements for older drivers. Learn More About Mature Drivers Issue Brief 33 States and the District of ...

  1. LA GLOBALIZACIÓN INCOMPLETA / INCOMPLETE GLOBALIZATION

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Alberto, Romero; Mary A, Vera-Colina.

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available El objetivo de este artículo es analizar el proceso de globalización, sus determinantes y los factores que limitan sus alcances. Metodológicamente, el trabajo se basa en una exhaustiva revisión documental crítica sobre el tema, complementada con el análisis de indicadores macroeconómicos de diferent [...] es países. Los resultados muestran la creciente desigualdad económica y social entre las regiones, en el marco de un proceso globalizador basado en un patrón de acumulación capitalista, que tiende a profundizar esos desequilibrios. La globalización se caracteriza como incompleta, por el despliegue limitado de su potencial para lograr una distribución más equitativa y sustentable no solo en lo económico, sino también en las esferas científica, tecnológica, ambiental, política y social. Abstract in english The aim of this document is to analyze the process of globa-lization, its determinants and the factors limiting its scope. Methodologically, the work is based on a comprehensive critical literature review on the subject, supplemented with the analysis of macroeconomic indicators in different countri [...] es. The results show the growing economic and social inequality between regions, as part of a process of globalization based on a pattern of capitalist accumulation, which tends to exacerbate these imbalances. Glo-balization is characterized as incomplete, because of the limited deployment potential to achieve a more equitable and sustainable development, not only economically, but also in scientific, tech-nological, environmental, political and social issues.

  2. Incompletely compacted equilibrated ordinary chondrites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sasso, M.R.; Macke, R.J.; Boesenberg, J.S.; Britt, D.T.; Rovers, M.L.; Ebel, D.S.; Friedrich, J.M.; (Fordham)

    2010-01-22

    We document the size distributions and locations of voids present within five highly porous equilibrated ordinary chondrites using high-resolution synchrotron X-ray microtomography ({mu}CT) and helium pycnometry. We found total porosities ranging from {approx}10 to 20% within these chondrites, and with {mu}CT we show that up to 64% of the void space is located within intergranular voids within the rock. Given the low (S1-S2) shock stages of the samples and the large voids between mineral grains, we conclude that these samples experienced unusually low amounts of compaction and shock loading throughout their entire post accretionary history. With Fe metal and FeS metal abundances and grain size distributions, we show that these chondrites formed naturally with greater than average porosities prior to parent body metamorphism. These materials were not 'fluffed' on their parent body by impact-related regolith gardening or events caused by seismic vibrations. Samples of all three chemical types of ordinary chondrites (LL, L, H) are represented in this study and we conclude that incomplete compaction is common within the asteroid belt.

  3. Maturity and maturity models in lean construction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claus Nesensohn

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available In recent years there has been an increasing interest in maturity models in management-related disciplines; which reflects a growing recognition that becoming more mature and having a model to guide the route to maturity can help organisations in managing major transformational change. Lean Construction (LC is an increasingly important improvement approach that organisations seek to embed. This study explores how to apply the maturity models to LC. Hence the attitudes, opinions and experiences of key industry informants with high levels of knowledge of LC were investigated. To achieve this, a review of maturity models was conducted, and data for the analysis was collected through a sequential process involving three methods. First a group interview with seven key informants. Second a follow up discussion with the same individuals to investigate some of the issues raised in more depth. Third an online discussion held via LinkedIn in which members shared their views on some of the results. Overall, we found that there is a lack of common understanding as to what maturity means in LC, though there is general agreement that the concept of maturity is a suitable one to reflect the path of evolution for LC within organisations.

  4. Debt renegotiation with incomplete contract

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulo de Melo Jorge Neto

    2005-09-01

    Full Text Available A debt contract usually does not include a provision about renegotiation. The right to seize the borrower’s asset and the rules of this process are usually stipulated in the contract. Such a promise not to renegotiate is not credible since renegotiation can mitigate the dead-weight loss of liquidating insolvent borrowers. Once the initial contract may not consider the renegotiation procedure and renegotiation may occur, this paper investigates why a complete contract is not offered. It shows that the lender does not need to stipulate the renegotiation procedure on the initial contract because he is indifferent about committing or not to the terms of a contract. This indicates that a complete contract gives the lender the same expected return as an incomplete contract, in which the renegotiation process is determined after the occurrence of default.Um contrato de débito geralmente não inclui uma cláusula sobre renegociação. O direito de liquidar os ativos do tomador e as regras do processo são habitualmente estipuladas no contrato. Tal promessa de não renegociar não é crível, já que a renegociação pode mitigar a perda bruta de se liquidar tomadores insolventes. Uma vez que o contrato inicial pode não considerar os procedimentos de renegociação, e esta pode, de fato, vir a ocorrer, este artigo investiga a razão de um contrato completo não ser ofertado. Mostra-se que o emprestador não precisa estipular os procedimentos de renegociação no contrato inicial porque ele é indiferente entre se comprometer ou não aos termos do contrato. Isto indica que um contrato completo dá ao emprestador o mesmo retorno esperado de um contrato incompleto, no qual os procedimentos de renegociação são determinados após a declaração de default.

  5. Topological effects of data incompleteness of gene regulatory networks

    CERN Document Server

    Sanz, J; Borge-Holthoefer, J; Moreno, Y

    2012-01-01

    The topological analysis of biological networks has been a prolific topic in network science during the last decade. A persistent problem with this approach is the inherent uncertainty and noisy nature of the data. One of the cases in which this situation is more marked is that of transcriptional regulatory networks (TRNs) in bacteria. The datasets are incomplete because regulatory pathways associated to a relevant fraction of bacterial genes remain unknown. Furthermore, direction, strengths and signs of the links are sometimes unknown or simply overlooked. Finally, the experimental approaches to infer the regulations are highly heterogeneous, in a way that induces the appearance of systematic experimental-topological correlations. And yet, the quality of the available data increases constantly. In this work we capitalize on these advances to point out the influence of data (in)completeness and quality on some classical results on topological analysis of TRNs, specially regarding modularity at different level...

  6. Quantum Bertrand duopoly of incomplete information

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We study Bertrand's duopoly of incomplete information. It is found that the effect of quantum entanglement on the outcome of the game is dramatically changed by the uncertainty of information. In contrast with the case of complete information where the outcome increases with entanglement, when information is incomplete the outcome is maximized at some finite entanglement. As a consequence, information and entanglement are both crucial factors that determine the properties of a quantum oligopoly

  7. Quantum Bertrand duopoly of incomplete information

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Qin Gan [Hefei National Laboratory for Physical Science at Microscale and Department of Modern Physics, University of Science and Technology of China, Hefei, 230026 (China); Chen Xi [Hefei National Laboratory for Physical Science at Microscale and Department of Modern Physics, University of Science and Technology of China, Hefei, 230026 (China); Sun Min [Hefei National Laboratory for Physical Science at Microscale and Department of Modern Physics, University of Science and Technology of China, Hefei, 230026 (China); Du Jiangfeng [Hefei National Laboratory for Physical Science at Microscale and Department of Modern Physics, University of Science and Technology of China, Hefei, 230026 (China)

    2005-05-13

    We study Bertrand's duopoly of incomplete information. It is found that the effect of quantum entanglement on the outcome of the game is dramatically changed by the uncertainty of information. In contrast with the case of complete information where the outcome increases with entanglement, when information is incomplete the outcome is maximized at some finite entanglement. As a consequence, information and entanglement are both crucial factors that determine the properties of a quantum oligopoly.

  8. Quantum Bertrand duopoly of incomplete information

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qin, Gan; Chen, Xi; Sun, Min; Du, Jiangfeng

    2005-05-01

    We study Bertrand's duopoly of incomplete information. It is found that the effect of quantum entanglement on the outcome of the game is dramatically changed by the uncertainty of information. In contrast with the case of complete information where the outcome increases with entanglement, when information is incomplete the outcome is maximized at some finite entanglement. As a consequence, information and entanglement are both crucial factors that determine the properties of a quantum oligopoly.

  9. Pareto improving taxation in incomplete markets

    OpenAIRE

    Turner, Sergio

    2006-01-01

    Focusing on tax policy with incomplete asset markets, we create a framework for proving the existence of Pareto improving taxes, for computing them, and for bounding the improvement. The protagonist is the price adjustment following an intervention. If the price adjustment is sufficiently sensitive to risk aversions, then generically in economies equilibria admit Pareto improving tax rates–if tax parameters and incompleteness exceed household heterogeneity, and multiple commodities exist. W...

  10. Incomplete Distal Renal Tubular Acidosis with Nephrocalcinosis

    OpenAIRE

    Choi, Joon Seok; Kim, Chang Seong; Park, Jeong Woo; Bae, Eun Hui; Ma, Seong Kwon; Kim, Soo Wan

    2011-01-01

    We report the case of a female patient with incomplete distal renal tubular acidosis with nephrocalcinosis. She was admitted to the hospital because of acute pyelonephritis. Imaging studies showed dual medullary nephrocalcinosis. Subsequent evaluations revealed hypokalemia, hypocalcemia, hypercalciuria, and hypocitraturia with normal acid-base status. A modified tubular acidification test with NH4Cl confirmed a defect of urine acidification, which is compatible with incomplete distal tubular ...

  11. Model for Incomplete Reconnection in Sawtooth Crashes

    OpenAIRE

    Beidler, Matthew T.; Cassak, Paul A.

    2011-01-01

    A model for incomplete reconnection in sawtooth crashes is presented. The reconnection inflow during the crash phase of sawteeth self-consistently convects the high pressure core toward the reconnection site, raising the pressure gradient there. Reconnection shuts off if the diamagnetic drift speed at the reconnection site exceeds a threshold, which may explain incomplete reconnection. The relaxation of magnetic shear after reconnection stops may explain the destabilization ...

  12. Binding Characteristics of Small Molecules that Mimic Nucleocapsid Protein-induced Maturation of Stem-loop-1 of HIV-1 RNA†

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung, Janet; Ulyanov, Nikolai B.; Guilbert, Christophe; Mujeeb, Anwer; James, Thomas L.

    2010-01-01

    As a retrovirus, the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV-1) packages two copies of the RNA genome as a dimer in the infectious virion. Dimerization is initiated at the dimer initiation site (DIS) which encompasses stem-loop 1 (SL1) in the 5’-UTR of the genome. Study of genomic dimerization has been facilitated by the discovery that short RNA fragments containing SL1 can dimerize spontaneously without any protein factors. Based on the palindromic nature of SL1, a kissing loop model has been proposed. First, a metastable kissing dimer is formed via standard Watson-Crick base pairs and then converted into a more stable extended dimer by the viral nucleocapsid protein (NCp7). This dimer maturation in vitro is believed to mimic initial steps in the RNA maturation in vivo, which is correlated with viral infectivity. We previously discovered a small molecule activator, Lys-Ala-7-amido-4-methylcoumarin (KA-AMC), which facilitates dimer maturation in vitro, and determined aspects of its structure-activity relationship. In this report, we present measurements of the binding affinity of the activators and characterization of their interactions with the SL1 RNA. Guanidinium groups and increasing positive charge on the side chain enhance affinity and activity, but features in the aromatic ring at least partially decouple affinity from activity. Although KA-AMC can bind to multiple structural motifs, NMR study showed KA-AMC preferentially binds to unique structural motifs, such as the palindromic loop and the G-rich internal loop in the SL1 RNA. NCp7 binds to SL1 only an order of magnitude tighter than the best small molecule ligand tested. The study presented here provides guidelines for design of superior small molecule binders to the SL1 RNA that have the potential of being developed as an antiviral by either interfering with SL1-NCp7 interaction at the packaging and/or maturation stages. PMID:20565056

  13. EMOTIONAL MATURITY AMONG ADOLECENTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.G.JADHAV

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available The present study was conducted to know the Emotional Maturity amongadolescents in relation to some personal background variables. The sample of this studyconsisted of 200 graduates (100 Arts & 100 Science students studying in Dharwad city.Yeshvir Singh and Mahesh Bhargava's Emotional Maturity scale was administered onthem to measure the Emotional Maturity. The data collected was subjected to statisticalanalysis in terms of Mean, SD, and 't' ratio. The findings show that, Science students arehaving significantly high Emotional Maturity than the Arts students. Where as there isno significant difference in Emotional Maturity of Boys and Girl adolescents,adolescents those who are coming from rural and urban area and adolescents those whobelongs to Scheduled Caste, Scheduled Tribes and General merit.

  14. CIMGS: An incomplete orthogonal factorization preconditioner

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, X.; Bramley, R. [Indiana Univ., Bloomington, IN (United States); Gallivan, K. [Univ. of Illinois, Urbana, IL (United States)

    1994-12-31

    This paper introduces, analyzes, and tests a preconditioning method for conjugate gradient (CG) type iterative methods. The authors start by examining incomplete Gram-Schmidt factorization (IGS) methods in order to motivate the new preconditioner. They show that the IGS family is more stable than IC, and they successfully factor any full rank matrix. Furthermore, IGS preconditioners are at least as effective in accelerating convergence of CG type iterative methods as the incomplete Cholesky (IC) preconditioner. The drawback of IGS methods are their high cost of factorization. This motivates finding a new algorithm, CIMGS, which can generate the same factor in a more efficient way.

  15. Pericoronal radiolucency associated with incomplete crown

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nah, Kyung Soo [Dept. of Oral and Maxillofacial Radiology, School of Dentistry, Pusan National University, Yangsan (Korea, Republic of)

    2013-12-15

    The author experienced 8 cases of pericoronal radiolucency involving an incomplete tooth crown that had not developed to form the cemento-enamel junction, and the underdeveloped crown sometimes appeared to be floating within the radiolucency radiographically. The first impression was that these cystic lesions had odontogenic keratocysts, but half of them turned out to be dentigerous cysts histopathologically. There has been no report concerning odontogenic cysts involving an incompletely developed crown. The purpose of this paper is to report that dentigerous cysts may develop before the completion of the cemento-enamel junction of a developing crown.

  16. Quantum Stackelberg duopoly with incomplete information

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We investigate the quantum version of the Stackelberg duopoly with incomplete information, especially how the quantum entanglement affects the first-mover advantage in the classical form. It is found that while positive entanglement enhances the first-mover advantage beyond the classical limit, the advantage is dramatically suppressed by negative entanglement. Moreover, despite that positive quantum entanglement improves the first-mover's tolerance for the informational incompleteness, the quantum effect does not change the basic fact that Firm A's lack of complete information of Firm B's unit cost is eradicating the first-mover advantage

  17. Contractual Incompleteness, Unemployment, and Labour Market Segmentation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Altmann, Steffen; Falk, Armin

    2014-01-01

    This article provides evidence that involuntary unemployment, and the segmentation of labour markets into firms offering "good" and "bad" jobs, may both arise as a consequence of contractual incompleteness.We provide a simple model that illustrates how unemployment and market segmentation may jointly emerge as part of a market equilibrium in environments where work effort is not third-party verifiable. Using experimental labour markets that differ only in the verifiability of effort, we demonstrate empirically that contractual incompleteness can cause unemployment and segmentation. Our data are also consistent with the key channels through which the model explains the emergence of both phenomena. © The Author 2013.

  18. Option Pricing Model for Incomplete Market

    CERN Document Server

    Fedotov, S; Fedotov, Sergei; Mikhailov, Sergei

    1998-01-01

    The problem of determining the European-style option price in the incomplete market has been examined within the framework of stochastic optimization. An analytic method based on the discrete dynamic programming equation (Bellman equation) has been developed that gives the general formalism for determining the option price and the optimal trading strategy (optimal control policy) that reduces total risk inherent in writing the option. The basic purpose of paper is to present an effective algorithm that can be used in practice. Keywords: option pricing, incomplete market, transaction costs, stochastic optimization, Bellman equation.

  19. Know-how disclosure and incomplete contracts

    OpenAIRE

    Rosenkranz, Stephanie; Schmitz, Patrick W.

    1999-01-01

    When two parties invest in human capital and at the same time decide on know-how disclosure it can be shown that joint ownership with veto power is the optimal ownership structure, given that only incomplete contracts can be written.

  20. Existence of Ricci flows of incomplete surfaces

    OpenAIRE

    Giesen, Gregor; Topping, Peter M.

    2010-01-01

    We prove a general existence result for instantaneously complete Ricci flows starting at an arbitrary Riemannian surface which may be incomplete and may have unbounded curvature. We give an explicit formula for the maximal existence time, and describe the asymptotic behaviour in most cases.

  1. Prune belly syndrome associated with incomplete VACTERL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ghritlaharey R

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available A Prune Belly syndrome with VATER/VACTERL association is an extremely rare. They are either stillborn or die within few days of life, only few such cases have been reported in literature. We are presenting here a male neonate of Prune Belly syndrome associated with incomplete VACTERL with brief review of literature.

  2. Randomly incomplete spectra and intermediate statistics

    OpenAIRE

    Bohigas, O.; Pato, M. P.

    2006-01-01

    By randomly removing a fraction of levels from a given spectrum a model is constructed that describes a crossover from this spectrum to a Poisson spectrum. The formalism is applied to the transitions towards Poisson from random matrix theory (RMT) spectra and picket fence spectra. It is shown that the Fredholm determinant formalism of RMT extends naturally to describe incomplete RMT spectra.

  3. Mechanics of bacteriophage maturation

    OpenAIRE

    Roos, Wouter H.; Gertsman, Ilya; May, Eric R.; Charles L. Brooks; Johnson, John E; Wuite, Gijs J. L.

    2012-01-01

    Capsid maturation with large-scale subunit reorganization occurs in virtually all viruses that use a motor to package nucleic acid into preformed particles. A variety of ensemble studies indicate that the particles gain greater stability during this process, however, it is unknown which material properties of the fragile procapsids change. Using Atomic Force Microscopy-based nano-indentation, we study the development of the mechanical properties during maturation of bacteriophage HK97, a ?-l...

  4. Successful Surgical Treatment of Mature Teratoma Arising From the Sella

    OpenAIRE

    Li, Yaxiong; Zhang, Yuekang; Xu, Jianguo; Chen, Ni

    2014-01-01

    Mature teratoma of the pituitary-hypothalamic region is rarely reported in the literature. In this article, we present a 13-year-old girl with clinical and radiological findings that were initially considered as germinoma. However, histological examinations disclosed a mature teratoma. This case highlights that the radiation-induced cerebral edema caused acute hydrocephalus. The mature teratoma is not radiosensitive, and the most appropriate treatment is direct surgery.

  5. Pak2 is required for actin cytoskeleton remodeling, TCR signaling, and normal thymocyte development and maturation

    OpenAIRE

    Phee, Hyewon; Au-Yeung, Byron B; Pryshchep, Olga; O'Hagan, Kyle Leonard; Fairbairn, Stephanie Grace; Radu, Maria; Kosoff, Rachelle; Mollenauer, Marianne; Cheng, Debra; Chernoff, Jonathan; Weiss, Arthur

    2014-01-01

    The molecular mechanisms that govern thymocyte development and maturation are incompletely understood. The P21-activated kinase 2 (Pak2) is an effector for the Rho family GTPases Rac and Cdc42 that regulate actin cytoskeletal remodeling, but its role in the immune system remains poorly understood. In this study, we show that T-cell specific deletion of Pak2 gene in mice resulted in severe T cell lymphopenia accompanied by marked defects in development, maturation, and egress of thymocytes. Pa...

  6. MATURATION OF POPCORN SEEDS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ANDRÉIA MÁRCIA SANTOS DE SOUZA DAVID

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to analyze the maturation process of the popcorn seeds DFT 2 (selection cycle 2. At approximately 30 days after full blooming, when about 50% of the plants exhibited receptive silks, the first harvest of the seeds was accomplished. The other harvests were accomplished at 7-day intervals until seeds reached approximately 12% moisture content (wet basis, which occurred upon the 10th harvesting. Just after each harvest, the seeds were manually husked, to determine their moisture content and the weight of the dry matter. Also the development of the black layer was visually evaluated. After the last harvesting, the seeds were evaluated for retention on sieves, germination and vigor (modified cold, accelerated aging and electric conductivity tests. The popcorn seeds reach the maximum dry matter weight (mass maturity 68 days after flowering, and the physiological maturity of the seeds (maximum germination and vigor achieves it from 62 to 68 days after blooming. The seeds show humidity in the grade from 17 to 20%, for occasion of the physiological maturity and mass maturity. The black layer is an efficient visual characteristic to identify the physiological maturity of the seeds.

  7. Is a decrease in cyclic AMP a necessary and sufficient signal for maturation of amphibian oocytes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Acetylcholine rapidly lowered the intracellular levels of cyclic AMP in stage 5 and 6 Xenopus laevis oocytes. Acetylcholine alone did not induce oocyte maturation, though it did accelerate maturation induced by progesterone. The effect of acetylcholine on oocyte maturation was independent of extracellular calcium concentration. Adenosine increased cyclic AMP and abolished the progesterone-induced decrease in cyclic AMP levels in follicles and in denuded oocytes. This effect of adenosine was blocked by the Ra purinergic receptor antagonist, theophylline. Despite those effects, adenosine alone induced maturation in stage 6 oocytes and accelerated progesterone-induced maturation in both stage 5 and 6 cells. Adenosine also induced a significant increase in the rate of 45Ca efflux from oocytes in the presence and the absence of external calcium. We suggest that the activation of cell surface receptors involved in the release of calcium from cellular stores may induce or accelerate oocyte maturation independently of small changes in intracellular cyclic AMP concentration

  8. Sexual maturation and administration of 17?-estradiol and testosterone induce complex gene expression changes in skin and increase resistance of Atlantic salmon to ectoparasite salmon louse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krasnov, Aleksei; Wesmajervi Breiland, Mette S; Hatlen, Bjarne; Afanasyev, Sergey; Skugor, Stanko

    2015-02-01

    The crustacean ectoparasitic salmon louse (Lepeophtheirus salmonis) is a major problem of Atlantic salmon aquaculture in the Northern hemisphere. Host-pathogen interactions in this system are highly complex. Resistance to the parasite involves variations in genetic background, nutrition, properties of skin, and status of the endocrine and immune systems. This study addressed the relationship between sex hormones and lice infection. Field observation revealed a sharp reduction of lice prevalence during sexual maturation with no difference between male and female fish. To determine if higher resistance against lice was related to sex hormones, post-smolt salmon were administered control feed and feeds containing 17?-estradiol (20 mg/kg) and testosterone (25 mg/kg) during a 3-week pre-challenge period. After challenge with lice, counts were reduced 2-fold and 1.5-fold in fish that received 17?-estradiol and testosterone, respectively. Gene expression analyses were performed from skin of salmon collected in the field trial and from the controlled lab experiment at three time points (end of feeding-before challenge, 3 days post challenge (dpc) and 16 dpc) using oligonucleotide microarray and qPCR. Differential expression was observed in genes associated with diverse biological processes. Both studies revealed similar changes of several antibacterial acute phase proteins; of note was induction of cathelicidin and down-regulation of a defensin gene. Treatment with hormones revealed their ability to modulate T helper cell (Th)-mediated immunity in skin. Enhanced protection achieved by 17?-estradiol administration might in part be due to the skewing of Th responses away from the prototypic anti-parasitic Th2 immunity and towards the more effective Th1 responses. Multiple genes involved in wound healing, differentiation and remodelling of skin tissue were stimulated during maturation but suppressed with sex hormones. Such opposite regulation suggested that these processes were not associated with resistance to the parasite under the studied conditions. Both studies revealed regulation of a suite of genes encoding putative large mucosal proteins found exclusively in fish. Marked decrease of erythrocyte markers indicated reduced circulation while down-regulation of multiple zymogen granule membrane proteins and transporters of cholesterol and other compounds suggested limited availability of nutrients for the parasites. PMID:25599658

  9. Evidence of reproductive disruption associated with neuroendocrine changes induced by UV–B filters, phtalates and nonylphenol during sexual maturation in rats of both gender

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Endocrine disruptors (EDs) are exogenous substances or xenoestrogens natural or synthetic, capable of interacting with different systems and altering their normal hormonal regulation, being the reproductive system one of the most affected. EDs produce their effects not only by acting on nuclear steroid receptors, but also on membrane receptors, steroidal and non-steroidal synthetic enzymatic pathways and/or metabolism. The incorporation to the body depend on each EDs, which are liposoluble and easily deposited in the tissue; thus ensuring a prolonged accumulation and release, even when the exposure is not continuous. In addition to cross the placenta, EDs may act in the offspring during the reproductive system formation and maturation key stages and its regulatory mechanisms. The effects of EDs can be multiple, but most acts mediating estrogenic and/or antiandrogenic effect. Three groups of EDs are widely used: in plastics (phtalates), sunscreens (cinnamate and methylbenzylcamphor), and detergents (nonylphenol). In this paper we review the effects of the exposure to these environmental chemicals on the reproductive system and the possible mechanisms by which they occur, focusing in the hypothalamic–pituitary neuroendocrine mechanisms that regulate the reproductive system

  10. Evidence of reproductive disruption associated with neuroendocrine changes induced by UV-B filters, phthalates and nonylphenol during sexual maturation in rats of both gender.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ponzo, Osvaldo J; Silvia, Carbone

    2013-09-01

    Endocrine disruptors (EDs) are exogenous substances or xenoestrogens natural or synthetic, capable of interacting with different systems and altering their normal hormonal regulation, being the reproductive system one of the most affected. EDs produce their effects not only by acting on nuclear steroid receptors, but also on membrane receptors, steroidal and non-steroidal synthetic enzymatic pathways and/or metabolism. The incorporation to the body depend on each EDs, which are liposoluble and easily deposited in the tissue; thus ensuring a prolonged accumulation and release, even when the exposure is not continuous. In addition to cross the placenta, EDs may act in the offspring during the reproductive system formation and maturation key stages and its regulatory mechanisms. The effects of EDs can be multiple, but most acts mediating estrogenic and/or antiandrogenic effect. Three groups of EDs are widely used: in plastics (phtalates), sunscreens (cinnamate and methylbenzylcamphor), and detergents (nonylphenol). In this paper we review the effects of the exposure to these environmental chemicals on the reproductive system and the possible mechanisms by which they occur, focusing in the hypothalamic-pituitary neuroendocrine mechanisms that regulate the reproductive system. PMID:23778080

  11. Association of anti-nucleoprotein autoantibodies with upregulation of Type I interferon-inducible gene transcripts and dendritic cell maturation in systemic lupus erythematosus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhuang, Haoyang; Narain, Sonali; Sobel, Eric; Lee, Pui Y; Nacionales, Dina C; Kelly, Kindra M; Richards, Hanno B; Segal, Mark; Stewart, Carol; Satoh, Minoru; Reeves, Westley H

    2005-12-01

    Lupus patients selectively produce autoantibodies against nucleoproteins. Since the RNA/DNA components of these autoantigens are endogenous TLR ligands capable of stimulating Type I interferon (IFN-I) production, we asked whether autoantibodies against the ribonucleoproteins Sm/RNP and Ro60 and double-stranded DNA are associated with high levels of IFN-I. IFN-I levels were increased in SLE (n = 88) vs. other autoimmune diseases (n = 82) and controls (n = 57) (P Sm/RNP, Ro60/La, and dsDNA but negatively with anti-phospholipid. Low numbers of circulating plasmacytoid and myeloid dendritic cells also were associated with these autoantibodies. The IFN-I and dendritic cell abnormalities correlated with disease severity and were not therapy-related. These findings suggest that immunostimulatory nucleic acid components of autoantigens may act as endogenous adjuvants by promoting IFN-I production and dendritic cell maturation, helping to explain the high prevalence of autoantibodies against nucleoprotein antigens in SLE. PMID:16126005

  12. Past incompleteness of a bouncing multiverse

    CERN Document Server

    Vilenkin, Alexander

    2014-01-01

    According to classical GR, Anti-de Sitter (AdS) bubbles in the multiverse terminate in big crunch singularities. It has been conjectured, however, that the fundamental theory may resolve these singularities and replace them by nonsingular bounces. This may have important implications for the beginning of the multiverse. Geodesics in cosmological spacetimes are known to be past-incomplete, as long as the average expansion rate along the geodesic is positive, but it is not clear that the latter condition is satisfied if the geodesic repeatedly passes through crunching AdS bubbles. We investigate this issue in a simple multiverse model, where the spacetime consists of a patchwork of FRW regions. The conclusion is that the spacetime is still past-incomplete, even in the presence of AdS bounces.

  13. Advanced incomplete factorization algorithms for Stiltijes matrices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Il`in, V.P. [Siberian Division RAS, Novosibirsk (Russian Federation)

    1996-12-31

    The modern numerical methods for solving the linear algebraic systems Au = f with high order sparse matrices A, which arise in grid approximations of multidimensional boundary value problems, are based mainly on accelerated iterative processes with easily invertible preconditioning matrices presented in the form of approximate (incomplete) factorization of the original matrix A. We consider some recent algorithmic approaches, theoretical foundations, experimental data and open questions for incomplete factorization of Stiltijes matrices which are {open_quotes}the best{close_quotes} ones in the sense that they have the most advanced results. Special attention is given to solving the elliptic differential equations with strongly variable coefficients, singular perturbated diffusion-convection and parabolic equations.

  14. Option Pricing Model for Incomplete Market

    OpenAIRE

    Fedotov, Sergei; Mikhailov, Sergei

    1998-01-01

    The problem of determining the European-style option price in the incomplete market has been examined within the framework of stochastic optimization. An analytic method based on the discrete dynamic programming equation (Bellman equation) has been developed that gives the general formalism for determining the option price and the optimal trading strategy (optimal control policy) that reduces total risk inherent in writing the option. The basic purpose of paper is to presen...

  15. Funding Value Adjustment and Incomplete Markets

    OpenAIRE

    Cornalba, Lorenzo

    2014-01-01

    Value adjustment of uncollateralized trades is determined within a risk-neutral pricing framework. When hedging such trades, investors cannot freely trade protection on their own name, thus facing an incomplete market. This fact is reflected in the non-uniqueness of the pricing measure, which is only constrained by the values of the hedging instruments tradable by the investor. Uncollateralized trades should then be considered not as derivatives but as new primary assets in ...

  16. On the diffuseness of incomplete information game

    OpenAIRE

    He, Wei; Sun, Xiang

    2013-01-01

    We introduce the "relative diffuseness" assumption to characterize the differences between payoff-relevant and strategy-relevant diffuseness of information. Based on this assumption, the existence of pure strategy equilibria in games with incomplete information and general action spaces can be obtained. Moreover, we introduce a new notion of "undistinguishable purification" which strengthens the standard purification concept, and its existence follows from the relative diffu...

  17. Sensor Robot Planning in Incomplete Environment

    OpenAIRE

    Yufeng Yao; Xudong Yin; Zhihua Yin; Shan Zhong

    2011-01-01

    Aiming at the former formalized methods of robot planning should give the environment state, can not obtain the new knowledge of the environment. In order to improve the reason ability for obtaining new knowledge of the environment state, the actions in the process of planning such as external action and sensing action are formalized. A formalized reasoning method—CPNI (Colored Petri Net for Planning in incomplete environment) based on two kinds of actions is proposed, and the reasoning rul...

  18. Dynamic Network Formation with Incomplete Information

    CERN Document Server

    Song, Yangbo

    2013-01-01

    How do networks form and what is their ultimate topology? Most of the literature that addresses these questions assumes complete information: agents know in advance the value of linking to other agents, even with agents they have never met and with whom they have had no previous interaction (direct or indirect). This paper addresses the same questions under what seems to us to be the much more natural assumption of incomplete information: agents do not know in advance -- but must learn -- the value of linking to agents they have never met. We show that the assumption of incomplete information has profound implications for the process of network formation and the topology of networks that ultimately form. Under complete information, the networks that form and are stable typically have a star, wheel or core-periphery form, with high-value agents in the core. Under incomplete information, the presence of positive externalities (the value of indirect links) implies that a much wider collection of network topologi...

  19. A new version of an old modal incompleteness theorem

    OpenAIRE

    Vosmaer, Jacob

    2012-01-01

    Thomason \\cite{Thomason74} showed that a certain modal logic $\\mathbf{L}\\subset \\mathbf{S4}$ is incomplete with respect to Kripke semantics. Later Gerson \\cite{Gerson75} showed that $\\mathbf{L}$ is also incomplete with respect to neighborhood semantics. In this paper we show that $\\mathbf{L}$ is in fact incomplete with respect to any class of complete Boolean algebras with operators, i.e. that it is completely incomplete.

  20. Induction of complete and incomplete chromosome aberrations by bleomycin in human lymphocytes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bleomycin (BLM) is a clastogenic compound, which due to the overdispersion in the cell distribution of induced dicentrics has been compared to the effect of high-LET radiation. Recently, it has been described that in fibroblast derived cell lines BLM induces incomplete chromosome elements more efficiently than any type of ionizing radiation. The objective of the present study was to evaluate in human lymphocytes the induction of dicentrics and incomplete chromosome elements by BLM. Peripheral blood samples have been treated with different concentrations of BLM. Two cytogenetic techniques were applied, fluorescence plus Giemsa (FPG) and FISH using pan-centromeric and pan-telomeric probes. The observed frequency of dicentric equivalents increases linearly with the BLM concentration, and for all BLM concentrations the distribution of dicentric equivalents was overdispersed. In the FISH study the ratio between total incomplete elements and multicentrics was 0.27. The overdispersion in the dicentric cell distribution, and the linear BLM-concentration dependence of dicentrics can be compared to the effect of high-LET radiation, on the contrary the ratio of incomplete elements and multicentrics is similar to the one induced by low-LET radiation (?0.40). The elevated proportion of interstitial deletions in relation to total acentric fragments, higher than any type of ionizing radiation could be a characteristic signature of the clastogenic effect of BLMgenic effect of BLM

  1. Goedel incompleteness theorems and the limits of their applicability. I

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This is a survey of results related to the Goedel incompleteness theorems and the limits of their applicability. The first part of the paper discusses Goedel's own formulations along with modern strengthenings of the first incompleteness theorem. Various forms and proofs of this theorem are compared. Incompleteness results related to algorithmic problems and mathematically natural examples of unprovable statements are discussed. Bibliography: 68 titles.

  2. XGef Mediates Early CPEB Phosphorylation during Xenopus Oocyte Meiotic Maturation

    OpenAIRE

    Marti?nez, Susana E.; Yuan, Lei; Lacza, Charlemagne; Ransom, Heather; Mahon, Gwendolyn M.; Whitehead, Ian P.; Hake, Laura E.

    2005-01-01

    Polyadenylation-induced translation is an important regulatory mechanism during metazoan development. During Xenopus oocyte meiotic progression, polyadenylation-induced translation is regulated by CPEB, which is activated by phosphorylation. XGef, a guanine exchange factor, is a CPEB-interacting protein involved in the early steps of progesterone-stimulated oocyte maturation. We find that XGef influences early oocyte maturation by directly influencing CPEB function. XGef and CPEB interact dur...

  3. Coordinated Development of Voltage-Gated Na+ and K+ Currents Regulates Functional Maturation of Forebrain Neurons Derived from Human Induced Pluripotent Stem Cells

    OpenAIRE

    Song, Mingke; Mohamad, Osama; Chen, Dongdong; Yu, Shan Ping

    2012-01-01

    Like embryonic stem (ES) cells, human induced pluripotent stem (hiPS) cells can differentiate into neuronal cells. However, it is unclear how their exquisite neuronal function is electrophysiologically coordinated during differentiation and whether they are functionally identical to human ES cell-derived neurons. In this study, we differentiated hiPS and ES cells into pyramidal-like neurons and conducted electrophysiological characterization over the 4-week terminal differentiation period. Th...

  4. Boosting high-intensity focused ultrasound-induced anti-tumor immunity using a sparse-scan strategy that can more effectively promote dendritic cell maturation

    OpenAIRE

    Zhong Pei; Li Chao; Hui Chun; Qiu Lei; Hu Zhenlin; Liu Fang; Zhang Junping

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Background The conventional treatment protocol in high-intensity focused ultrasound (HIFU) therapy utilizes a dense-scan strategy to produce closely packed thermal lesions aiming at eradicating as much tumor mass as possible. However, this strategy is not most effective in terms of inducing a systemic anti-tumor immunity so that it cannot provide efficient micro-metastatic control and long-term tumor resistance. We have previously provided evidence that HIFU may enhance systemic anti...

  5. Stress-Induced Neurogenic Inflammation in Murine Skin Skews Dendritic Cells Towards Maturation and Migration : Key Role of Intercellular Adhesion Molecule-1/Leukocyte Function-Associated Antigen Interactions

    OpenAIRE

    Joachim, Ricarda Alcira; Handjiski, Bori; Blois, Sandra Maria; Hagen, Evelin; Paus, Ralf; Arck, Petra Clara

    2008-01-01

    The skin continuously serves as a biosensor of multiple exogenous stressors and integrates the resulting responses with an individual’s central and peripheral endogenous response systems to perceived stress; it also acts to protect against external challenges such as wounding and infection. We have previously shown in mice that stress induces nerve growth factor- and substance P-dependent neurogenic inflammation, which includes the prominent clustering of MHC class II+ cells. Because the co...

  6. Jealousy and Moral Maturity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mathes, Eugene W.; Deuger, Donna J.

    Jealousy may be perceived as either good or bad depending upon the moral maturity of the individual. To investigate this conclusion, a study was conducted testing two hypothesis: a positive relationship exists between conventional moral reasoning (reference to norms and laws) and the endorsement and level of jealousy; and a negative relationship…

  7. Low energy incomplete fusion: Observation of a signi?cant incomplete fusion fraction at ?< ?crit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kumar Kamal

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available To study the low energy incomplete fusion, excitation functions have been measured in the 16O + 165 Ho system using a well-established activation technique. The analysis of the present work has been carried out in the frame work of the statistical model code PACE4. The results show that the yields of complete fusion channels agree well with the theoretical predictions of the model code PACE4. However, ?-emitting channels have a signi?cant incomplete fusion fraction even at ? < ?crit

  8. Incomplete flagellar structures in Escherichia coli mutants.

    OpenAIRE

    Suzuki, T.; Komeda, Y

    1981-01-01

    Escherichia coli mutants with defects in 29 flagellar genes identified so far were examined by electron microscopy for possession of incomplete flagellar structures in membrane-associated fractions. The results are discussed in consideration of the known transcriptional interaction of flagellar genes. Hook-basal body structures were detected in flaD, flaS, flaT, flbC, and hag mutants. The flaE mutant had a polyhook-basal body structure. An intact basal body appeared in flaK mutants. Putative ...

  9. A case of incomplete Carney's triad.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ujiie, Hideki; Okada, Daisuke; Nakajima, Yuki; Kinoshita, Hiroyasu; Akiyama, Hirohiko

    2014-05-27

    A 62-year-old woman, who had multiple pulmonary nodules noted 6 years earlier, and surgery for a gastrointestinal stromal tumor 2 years earlier, was found to have enlargement of her pulmonary nodules. Surgery was selected to make a definite diagnosis. Thoracoscopic segmentectomy of right segments 9 and 10 was performed, and pulmonary chondroma was diagnosed. Carney designated the combination of 3 rare soft tissue tumors (gastric leiomyosarcoma, pulmonary chondroma, and extraadrenal paraganglioma) as a syndrome. This patient may have had an incomplete type of Carney's triad with 2 lesions in the stomach and lung. PMID:24867050

  10. Audit Maturity Model

    OpenAIRE

    Bhattacharya, Uttam; Rahut, Amit Kumar; De, Sujoy

    2013-01-01

    Today it is crucial for organizations to pay even greater attention on quality management as the importance of this function in achieving ultimate business objectives is increasingly becoming clearer. Importance of the Quality Management Function in achieving basic need by ensuring compliance with Capability Maturity Model Integrated or International Organization for Standardization is a basic demand from business nowadays. However, Quality Management Function and its proces...

  11. Enuresis: A maturational lag

    OpenAIRE

    Cary, Paul

    2002-01-01

    Enuresis is not a disease, but a disorder caused by delays in the maturation of three physiological processes: persistence of spontaneous bladder contractions, bladder volume exceeding the nocturnal functional bladder capacity and persistence of elevated sleep/arousal thresholds. Enuresis has been subtyped into two different groups, depending on whether the predominant feature is frequent small voidings (excessive bladder contractions) or large urinary volume (volume-dependent). The clinical ...

  12. Robust pulmonary lobe segmentation against incomplete fissures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gu, Suicheng; Zheng, Qingfeng; Siegfried, Jill; Pu, Jiantao

    2012-03-01

    As important anatomical landmarks of the human lung, accurate lobe segmentation may be useful for characterizing specific lung diseases (e.g., inflammatory, granulomatous, and neoplastic diseases). A number of investigations showed that pulmonary fissures were often incomplete in image depiction, thereby leading to the computerized identification of individual lobes a challenging task. Our purpose is to develop a fully automated algorithm for accurate identification of individual lobes regardless of the integrity of pulmonary fissures. The underlying idea of the developed lobe segmentation scheme is to use piecewise planes to approximate the detected fissures. After a rotation and a global smoothing, a number of small planes were fitted using local fissures points. The local surfaces are finally combined for lobe segmentation using a quadratic B-spline weighting strategy to assure that the segmentation is smooth. The performance of the developed scheme was assessed by comparing with a manually created reference standard on a dataset of 30 lung CT examinations. These examinations covered a number of lung diseases and were selected from a large chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) dataset. The results indicate that our scheme of lobe segmentation is efficient and accurate against incomplete fissures.

  13. In vitro Atrazine Exposure Affects the Phenotypic and Functional Maturation of Dendritic Cells

    OpenAIRE

    Pinchuk, Lesya M; Lee, Sang-Ryul; Filipov, Nikolay M

    2007-01-01

    Recent data suggest that some of the immunotoxic effects of the herbicide atrazine, a very widely used pesticide, may be due to perturbations in dendritic cell (DC) function. As consequences of atrazine exposure on the phenotypic and functional maturation of DC have not been studied, our objective was, using the murine DC line, JAWSII, to determine whether atrazine will interfere with DC maturation. First, we characterized the maturation of JAWSII cells in vitro by inducing them to mature in ...

  14. Immunogenic cell death of human ovarian cancer cells induced by cytosolic poly(I:C) leads to myeloid cell maturation and activates NK cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kübler, Kirsten; tho Pesch, Carola; Gehrke, Nadine; Riemann, Soheila; Dassler, Juliane; Coch, Christoph; Landsberg, Jennifer; Wimmenauer, Vera; Pölcher, Martin; Rudlowski, Christian; Tüting, Thomas; Kuhn, Walther; Hartmann, Gunther; Barchet, Winfried

    2011-10-01

    Owing to high rates of tumor relapse, ovarian cancer remains a fatal disease for which new therapeutic approaches are urgently needed. Accumulating evidence indicates that immune stimulation may delay or even prevent disease recurrence in ovarian cancer. In order to elicit proinflammatory signals that induce or amplify antitumor immune reactivity, we mimicked viral infection in ascites-derived ovarian cancer cells. By transfection or electroporation we targeted the synthetic double-stranded RNA poly(I:C) intracellularly in order to activate melanoma differentiation-associated gene-5 (MDA-5), a sensor of viral RNA in the cytosol of somatic cells. Cancer cells reacted with enhanced expression of HLA-class I, release of CXCL10, IL-6, and type I IFN as well as tumor cell apoptosis. Monocytes and monocyte-derived DCs (MoDCs) engulfed MDA-5-activated cancer cells, and subsequently upregulated HLA-class I/II and costimulatory molecules, and secreted CXCL10 and IFN-?. Further, this proinflammatory milieu promoted cytolytic activity and IFN-? secretion of NK cells. Thus, our data suggest that the engagement of MDA-5 in a whole tumor cell vaccine is a promising approach for the immunotherapy of ovarian cancer. PMID:21728171

  15. Building Chaotic Model From Incomplete Time Series

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siek, Michael; Solomatine, Dimitri

    2010-05-01

    This paper presents a number of novel techniques for building a predictive chaotic model from incomplete time series. A predictive chaotic model is built by reconstructing the time-delayed phase space from observed time series and the prediction is made by a global model or adaptive local models based on the dynamical neighbors found in the reconstructed phase space. In general, the building of any data-driven models depends on the completeness and quality of the data itself. However, the completeness of the data availability can not always be guaranteed since the measurement or data transmission is intermittently not working properly due to some reasons. We propose two main solutions dealing with incomplete time series: using imputing and non-imputing methods. For imputing methods, we utilized the interpolation methods (weighted sum of linear interpolations, Bayesian principle component analysis and cubic spline interpolation) and predictive models (neural network, kernel machine, chaotic model) for estimating the missing values. After imputing the missing values, the phase space reconstruction and chaotic model prediction are executed as a standard procedure. For non-imputing methods, we reconstructed the time-delayed phase space from observed time series with missing values. This reconstruction results in non-continuous trajectories. However, the local model prediction can still be made from the other dynamical neighbors reconstructed from non-missing values. We implemented and tested these methods to construct a chaotic model for predicting storm surges at Hoek van Holland as the entrance of Rotterdam Port. The hourly surge time series is available for duration of 1990-1996. For measuring the performance of the proposed methods, a synthetic time series with missing values generated by a particular random variable to the original (complete) time series is utilized. There exist two main performance measures used in this work: (1) error measures between the actual and missing value estimates; and (2) the accuracy of the built chaotic model predictions. The model results indicate that the proposed methods are able to build a chaotic model from incomplete time series and to provide reliable and accurate predictions.

  16. Inflaton dark matter from incomplete decay

    CERN Document Server

    Bastero-Gil, Mar; Rosa, Joao G

    2015-01-01

    We show that the decay of the inflaton field may be incomplete, while nevertheless successfully reheating the universe and leaving a stable remnant that accounts for the present dark matter abundance. We note, in particular, that since the mass of the inflaton decay products is field-dependent, one can construct models, endowed with an appropriate discrete symmetry, where inflaton decay is kinematically forbidden at late times and only occurs during the initial stages of field oscillations after inflation. We show that this is sufficient to ensure the transition to a radiation-dominated era and that inflaton particles typically thermalize in the process. They eventually decouple and freeze out, yielding a thermal dark matter relic. We discuss possible implementations of this generic mechanism within consistent cosmological and particle physics scenarios, for both single-field and hybrid inflation.

  17. Light particle revelation on incomplete fusion reactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Incomplete fusion reactions have been studied through light particles emission in the reaction 116Sn + 16O at 125 MeV (ALICE facility in Orsay). We measured energy angular distributions and correlations between any two of these particles (? particles, protons, neutrons), while ? multiplicity measurements provide us fuller informations. From collected data, the following pictures can be drawn: - the only fast particles observed are ? particles, while protons and neutrons seem to come only from statistical evaporation; - outgoing channels where two ? particles are emitted cannot be solely explained by the sequential emission of 8Be ? 2?: about half of the cross section proceeds from statistical evaporation of one ? particle. Accordingly, 2?xn channels do not necessarily agree with high value of angular momentum in the entrance channel. From the study of experimental results in the yrast plane, we can assign a large width to the angular momentum distribution

  18. Incomplete melting of the Au(100) surface

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We study the high-temperature disordering of the reconstructed Au(100) surface by molecular dynamics simulation using a many-body interatomic potential. We find that the surface deconstructs at 0.8Tm in good agreement with experimental data, but proper surface melting does not occur close to the bulk melting point. Instead there is an in-plane disordering of the two topmost layers. The thickness of the disordered region remains constant with increasing temperature, indicating blocked, or incomplete, melting of the (100) crystalline substrate. An analysis of the structure reveals that crystalline and disordered islands coexist on two first surface layers for temperature between deconstruction and bulk melting. (author). 24 refs, 10 figs

  19. The problem of maturation

    OpenAIRE

    Eik, Katrine

    2007-01-01

    SUMMARY THE PROBLEM OF MATURATION IN THE BELL JAR BY SYLVIA PLATH AND THE CATCHER IN THE RYE BY J.D. SALINGER In my Master?s thesis I have focused The Bell Jar by Sylvia Plath and The Catcher in the Rye by J.D. Salinger. I have compared the situations of the two protagonists Esther Greenwood and Holden Caulfield as they are growing up in the postwar period of the 1950s, in the American northeast. I have written 3 chapters where I discuss the themes of societal struggles, death and the symb...

  20. Regulatory perspective on incomplete control rod insertions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The incomplete control rod insertions experienced at South Texas Unit 1 and Wolf Creek are of safety concern to the NRC staff because they represent potential precursors to loss of shutdown margin. Even before it was determined if these events were caused by the control rods or by the fuel there was an apparent correlation of the problem with high burnup fuel. It was determined that there was also a correlation between high burnup and high drag forces as well as with rod drop time histories and lack of rod recoil. The NRC staff initial actions were aimed at getting a perspective on the magnitude of the problem as far as the number of plants and the amount of fuel that could be involved, as well as the safety significance in terms of shutdown margin. As tests have been performed and data has been analyzed the focus has shifted more toward understanding the problem and the ways to eliminate it. At this time the staff's understanding of the phenomena is that it was a combination of factors including burnup, power history and temperature. The problem appears to be very sensitive to these factors, the interaction of which is not clearly understood. The model developed by Westinghouse provides a possible explanation but there is not sufficient data to establish confidence levels and sensitivity studies involving the key parameters have not been done. While several fixes to the problem have been discussed, no definitive fixes have been proposed. Without complete understanding of the phenomena, or fixes that clearly eliminate the problem the safety concern remains. The safety significance depends on the amount of shutdown margin lost due to incomplete insertion of the control rods. Were the control rods to stick high in the core, the reactor could not be shutdown by the control rods and other means such as emergency boration would be required

  1. Regulatory perspective on incomplete control rod insertions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chatterton, M.

    1997-01-01

    The incomplete control rod insertions experienced at South Texas Unit 1 and Wolf Creek are of safety concern to the NRC staff because they represent potential precursors to loss of shutdown margin. Even before it was determined if these events were caused by the control rods or by the fuel there was an apparent correlation of the problem with high burnup fuel. It was determined that there was also a correlation between high burnup and high drag forces as well as with rod drop time histories and lack of rod recoil. The NRC staff initial actions were aimed at getting a perspective on the magnitude of the problem as far as the number of plants and the amount of fuel that could be involved, as well as the safety significance in terms of shutdown margin. As tests have been performed and data has been analyzed the focus has shifted more toward understanding the problem and the ways to eliminate it. At this time the staff`s understanding of the phenomena is that it was a combination of factors including burnup, power history and temperature. The problem appears to be very sensitive to these factors, the interaction of which is not clearly understood. The model developed by Westinghouse provides a possible explanation but there is not sufficient data to establish confidence levels and sensitivity studies involving the key parameters have not been done. While several fixes to the problem have been discussed, no definitive fixes have been proposed. Without complete understanding of the phenomena, or fixes that clearly eliminate the problem the safety concern remains. The safety significance depends on the amount of shutdown margin lost due to incomplete insertion of the control rods. Were the control rods to stick high in the core, the reactor could not be shutdown by the control rods and other means such as emergency boration would be required.

  2. Gibbs' theorem for open systems with incomplete statistics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gibbs' theorem, which is originally intended for canonical ensembles with complete statistics has been generalized to open systems with incomplete statistics. As a result of this generalization, it is shown that the stationary equilibrium distribution of inverse power law form associated with the incomplete statistics has maximum entropy even for open systems with energy or matter influx. The renormalized entropy definition given in this paper can also serve as a measure of self-organization in open systems described by incomplete statistics.

  3. The Surprise Examination Paradox and the Second Incompleteness Theorem

    OpenAIRE

    Kritchman, Shira; Raz, Ran

    2010-01-01

    We give a new proof for Godel's second incompleteness theorem, based on Kolmogorov complexity, Chaitin's incompleteness theorem, and an argument that resembles the surprise examination paradox. We then go the other way around and suggest that the second incompleteness theorem gives a possible resolution of the surprise examination paradox. Roughly speaking, we argue that the flaw in the derivation of the paradox is that it contains a hidden assumption that one can prove the ...

  4. Mass-asymmetry effects on incomplete fusion fraction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the present work, to explore the dynamics of incomplete fusion fraction (%FICF) with mass-asymmetry (AT/(AT+AP)), incomplete fusion fractions of different projectile-target combinations has been studied. The variation of %FICF with the normalized projectile energy is also studied. The percentage fraction of incomplete fusion (%FICF) for the 16O+45Sc and 12C+59Co systems has been calculated

  5. 10 CFR 782.7 - Incomplete notice of infringement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ...ENERGY CLAIMS FOR PATENT AND COPYRIGHT INFRINGEMENT Requirements and Procedures...7 Incomplete notice of infringement. (a) If a communication alleging patent or copyright infringement is received that...

  6. Extensive generalization of statistical mechanics based on incomplete information theory

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, Qiuping A.

    2000-01-01

    Statistical mechanics is generalized on the basis of an additive information theory for incomplete probability distributions. The incomplete normalization $\\sum_{i=1}^wp_i^q=1$ is used to obtain generalized entropy $S=-k\\sum_{i=1}^wp_i^q\\ln p_i$. The concomitant incomplete statistical mechanics is applied to some physical systems in order to show the effect of the incompleteness of information. It is shown that this extensive generalized statistics can be useful for the corr...

  7. Maduración visual retardada / Delayed visual maturation

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Yolelvis, Monfort Estévez; Teresita de Jesús, Méndez Sánchez.

    Full Text Available Retraso en la maduración visual es el término utilizado para describir aquellos niños con incapacidad de fijar o seguir objetos en el ambiente, que no responden ante la proximidad de un objeto amenazante o un destello de luz, por ejemplo, abrir y cerrar los ojos; pero luego mejora a la edad de 6 mes [...] es sin tratamiento. Se incluyen dentro de las posibles causas la falta de oxígeno antes, durante o después del nacimiento, enfermedades producidas por virus o bacterias como la meningitis y el citomegalovirus, o una lesión traumática,aunque hoy en día queda poco consenso en cuanto a la etiología de este fenómeno. Estos niños con retraso en la maduración visual parecen ciegos, incapaces de centrar la atención, fijar o seguir cualquier parte del mundo visual. La exploración ocular y neurológica del niño es completamente normal. Los síntomas se resuelven sin tratamiento y con frecuencia, no se encuentra ninguna causa para la presentación inicial. El retraso en la maduración visual se clasifica en 3 grupos: el primero con retraso en la maduración visual como única anomalía y una recuperación rápida y completa. El segundo incluye aquellos casos con problemas oculares, como estrabismo, error refractivo elevado, retraso mental, entre otros, logrando una recuperación más lenta y a menudo incompleta. El tercer grupo incluye los casos con otras anomalías oculares. Abstract in english Delayed visual maturation is the term used to describe those children with inability to fix their eyes with the object or to visually follow them in the environment, who do not react to a threatening object or a gleam of light close to them, for example, by opening and closing their eyes. However, t [...] hey generally improve their condition at the age of 6 months without any treatment. The possible causes of this disorder may be lack of oxygen, before, during or after birth, illnesses caused by viruses or bacteria, such as meningitis and cytomegalovirus, or a traumatic lesion, although there exists now minority consensus about the real etiology of this phenomenon. The children suffering delayed visual maturation seem to be blind, unable to focus attention, fix or visually follow any portion of the visual world. Ocular and neurological examination of the child is completely normal. Symptoms disappear without any treatment and the cause for the initial occurrence is usually unfound. The delayed visual maturation is classified into 3 groups, the first group with delayed visual maturation as the only anomaly and a quick and complete recovery. The second group includes those cases with ocular problems, namely strabismus, high refractive error, mental retardation, and others, in which recovery is slower and often incomplete. The third group includes cases with other ocular anomalies.

  8. Infrastructure integration and incomplete contracts: natural gas in the Southern Cone

    OpenAIRE

    Fernando H. Navajas

    2008-01-01

    This paper uses evidence on policies, markets and private transactions to discuss the experience of natural gas infrastructure integration in the Southern Cone of Latin America. The argument is that contracts on international exchanges supported by infrastructure may become incomplete due to contingencies related to policy-induced price distortions not anticipated at the moment of writing. Beyond regulatory risk mitigation, it calls for back-up contract provisions designed to cope with aggreg...

  9. Treadmill step training promotes spinal cord neural plasticity after incomplete spinal cord injury

    OpenAIRE

    Sun, Tiansheng; Ye, Chaoqun; WU, JUN; Zhang , Zhicheng; Cai, Yanhua; YUE, FENG

    2013-01-01

    A large body of evidence shows that spinal circuits are significantly affected by training, and that intrinsic circuits that drive locomotor tasks are located in lumbosacral spinal segments in rats with complete spinal cord transection. However, after incomplete lesions, the effect of treadmill training has been debated, which is likely because of the difficulty of separating spontaneous stepping from specific training-induced effects. In this study, rats with moderate spinal cord contusion w...

  10. Interaction of poxvirus intracellular mature virion proteins with the TPR domain of kinesin light chain in live infected cells revealed by two-photon-induced fluorescence resonance energy transfer fluorescence lifetime imaging microscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeshtadi, Ananya; Burgos, Pierre; Stubbs, Christopher D; Parker, Anthony W; King, Linda A; Skinner, Michael A; Botchway, Stanley W

    2010-12-01

    Using two-photon-induced fluorescence lifetime imaging microscopy, we corroborate an interaction (previously demonstrated by yeast two-hybrid domain analysis) of full-length vaccinia virus (VACV; an orthopoxvirus) A36 protein with the cellular microtubule motor protein kinesin. Quenching of enhanced green fluorescent protein (EGFP), fused to the C terminus of VACV A36, by monomeric red fluorescent protein (mDsRed), fused to the tetratricopeptide repeat (TPR) domain of kinesin, was observed in live chicken embryo fibroblasts infected with either modified vaccinia virus Ankara (MVA) or wild-type fowlpox virus (FWPV; an avipoxvirus), and the excited-state fluorescence lifetime of EGFP was reduced from 2.5 ± 0.1 ns to 2.1 ± 0.1 ns due to resonance energy transfer to mDsRed. FWPV does not encode an equivalent of intracellular enveloped virion surface protein A36, yet it is likely that this virus too must interact with kinesin to facilitate intracellular virion transport. To investigate possible interactions between innate FWPV proteins and kinesin, recombinant FWPVs expressing EGFP fused to the N termini of FWPV structural proteins Fpv140, Fpv168, Fpv191, and Fpv198 (equivalent to VACV H3, A4, p4c, and A34, respectively) were generated. EGFP fusions of intracellular mature virion (IMV) surface protein Fpv140 and type II membrane protein Fpv198 were quenched by mDsRed-TPR in recombinant FWPV-infected cells, indicating that these virion proteins are found within 10 nm of mDsRed-TPR. In contrast, and as expected, EGFP fusions of the IMV core protein Fpv168 did not show any quenching. Interestingly, the p4c-like protein Fpv191, which demonstrates late association with preassembled IMV, also did not show any quenching. PMID:20943972

  11. Scalable Tensor Factorizations for Incomplete Data

    CERN Document Server

    Acar, Evrim; Dunlavy, Daniel M; Morup, Morten

    2010-01-01

    The problem of incomplete data - i.e., data with missing or unknown values - in multi-way arrays is ubiquitous in biomedical signal processing, network traffic analysis, bibliometrics, social network analysis, chemometrics, computer vision, communication networks, etc. We consider the problem of how to factorize data sets with missing values with the goal of capturing the underlying latent structure of the data and possibly reconstructing missing values (i.e., tensor completion). We focus on one of the most well-known tensor factorizations that captures multi-linear structure, CANDECOMP/PARAFAC (CP). In the presence of missing data, CP can be formulated as a weighted least squares problem that models only the known entries. We develop an algorithm called CP-WOPT (CP Weighted OPTimization) that uses a first-order optimization approach to solve the weighted least squares problem. Based on extensive numerical experiments, our algorithm is shown to successfully factorize tensors with noise and up to 99% missing d...

  12. Analyzing Incomplete Discrete Longitudinal Clinical Trial Data

    CERN Document Server

    Jansen, I; Molenberghs, G; Verbeke, G; Mallinckrodt, C; Jansen, Ivy; Beunckens, Caroline; Molenberghs, Geert; Verbeke, Geert; Mallinckrodt, Craig

    2006-01-01

    Commonly used methods to analyze incomplete longitudinal clinical trial data include complete case analysis (CC) and last observation carried forward (LOCF). However, such methods rest on strong assumptions, including missing completely at random (MCAR) for CC and unchanging profile after dropout for LOCF. Such assumptions are too strong to generally hold. Over the last decades, a number of full longitudinal data analysis methods have become available, such as the linear mixed model for Gaussian outcomes, that are valid under the much weaker missing at random (MAR) assumption. Such a method is useful, even if the scientific question is in terms of a single time point, for example, the last planned measurement occasion, and it is generally consistent with the intention-to-treat principle. The validity of such a method rests on the use of maximum likelihood, under which the missing data mechanism is ignorable as soon as it is MAR. In this paper, we will focus on non-Gaussian outcomes, such as binary, categorica...

  13. Manejo estético y endodóncico de dientes con formación radicular incompleta / Aesthetic and endodontic management of teeth with incomplete root formation

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    L.A., Dávila Rodríguez; D.A., Barcha Barreto; E., León Barrios; M.A., Simancas Pallares.

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available La necrosis pulpar es una de las principales complicaciones de los traumatismos dentales lo que implica en un diente inmaduro la interrupción de la maduración de la raíz y el cierre apical. Una terapia llamada "apexificación" se requiere para inducir la formación de una barrera calcificada apical pe [...] rmitiendo un relleno permanente y hermético de la raíz. Numerosos materiales han sido recomendados para inducir apexificación y conservar la estética en dientes con ápices inmaduros como el mineral trióxido agregado (MTA), el hidróxido de calcio [Ca (OH)2], los postes de fibra de vidrio y entre los diversos materiales utilizados en prótesis, la cerámica que reproduce la apariencia de la dentición natural y tiene un comportamiento óptico muy similar a la de los tejidos duros dentales. El presente caso reporta paciente masculino de 17 años de edad con fractura coronaria complicada, conducto radicular expuesto a cavidad oral con formación radicular incompleta. El objetivo del presente caso clínico es describir la apexificación como primera alternativa para mantener un diente útil, utilizando la formación de una barrera apical con mineral trióxido agregado (MTA) y recuperar la estética del paciente. Conclusiones: La medicación intraconducto adecuada para la inducción a la formación de un cierre apical en un diente inmaduro o con formación radicular incompleta, es de trascendental importancia para el éxito del proceso de apexificación en donde juega un papel importante el MTA ya que en la actualidad es el material que brinda más ventajas en esta práctica como inductor de dicho proceso. Abstract in english Pulpal necrosis is one of the main complications of dental trauma which implies an interruption of the root maturation and the apical closure of an immature tooth. Apexification is a therapy used for inducing the creation of an apical calcified barrier allowing a permanent filling of the root. Sever [...] al materials have been recommended to induce apexification and preserve aesthetics in teeth with immature apex, such as mineral trioxide aggregate (MTA), calcium hydroxide [Ca (OH)2], glass fiber posts, as well as the different materials used in prosthetic dentistry, ceramics that reproduce the appearance of the natural dentition and show an optic behavior very similar to the hard tissues of the teeth. This case reports a 17 year old male patient with a complicated crown fracture, exposed root canal in the oral cavity with incomplete root formation. The purpose of this clinical case is to describe the use of apexification as the first choice to keep a useful tooth, using the formation of an apical barrier with mineral trioxide aggregate (MTA) and recover the patient aesthetics. Conclusions: The appropriate intracanal medication for inducing the formation of an apical closure in an immature tooth or with an incomplete root formation, is of vital importance for the success of the process of apexification where MTA plays an important role due to the fact that right now is the material that gives more advantages in this particular practice as an inducer in that process.

  14. Spinal cord mature cystic teratoma

    OpenAIRE

    Avci, Emel; Adil OZTURK ,; Ozardali, Ilyas

    2005-01-01

    Spinal cord teratoma is very rare lesion. Intradural spinal teratoma consists of 0,1% of all spinal tumours. Teratomas are classified into three groups: mature, immature and malignant teratomas. The authors report a 12 years old man with intradural lumbar mature teratoma

  15. Spinal cord mature cystic teratoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emel AVCI

    2005-03-01

    Full Text Available Spinal cord teratoma is very rare lesion. Intradural spinal teratoma consists of 0,1% of all spinal tumours. Teratomas are classified into three groups: mature, immature and malignant teratomas. The authors report a 12 years old man with intradural lumbar mature teratoma

  16. Emotional Maturity: Characteristics and Levels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dr. Umesh Chandra Kapri

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available "Mature" means a completed natural growth. Emotional maturity is not related to physical maturity which is expected to be but, does not grow with our chronological age. Emotionally mature people are sensible who do not whine, crib or play the blame game. They have full control over their lives. They reflect on their lives and on the role that they play in other people’s lives. Emotionally mature people lead a well-adjusted life due to their healthy outlook on life. There are various levels of emotional maturity. The final level is emotional detachment which is the direct consequence of the true understanding of emotions and therefore, letting go of all the emotions, either good or bad and feeling happy. Emotional maturity is a significant predictor of the level of success that an individual achieves in his/her lifetime. Success includes wealth, general level of happiness, self-confidence, success in relationships, etc. where emotional maturity plays a significant role to get success.

  17. Neural crest-derived pericytes promote egress of mature thymocytes at the corticomedullary junction

    OpenAIRE

    Zachariah, Marcus A.; Cyster, Jason G

    2010-01-01

    T cell egress from the thymus is essential for adaptive immunity, yet the requirements for and sites of egress are incompletely understood. We have shown that transgenic expression of sphingosine-1-phosphate receptor-1 (S1P1) in immature thymocytes leads to their perivascular accumulation and premature release into circulation. Using an intravascular procedure to label emigrating cells, we found that mature thymocytes exit via blood vessels at the corticomedullary junction. By deleting sphing...

  18. The topology of integrable systems with incomplete fields

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aleshkin, K. R.

    2014-09-01

    Liouville's theorem holds for Hamiltonian systems with complete Hamiltonian fields which possess a complete involutive system of first integrals; such systems are called Liouville-integrable. In this paper integrable systems with incomplete Hamiltonian fields are investigated. It is shown that Liouville's theorem remains valid in the case of a single incomplete field, while if the number of incomplete fields is greater, a certain analogue of the theorem holds. An integrable system on the algebra sl(3) is taken as an example. Bibliography: 11 titles.

  19. The topology of integrable systems with incomplete fields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liouville's theorem holds for Hamiltonian systems with complete Hamiltonian fields which possess a complete involutive system of first integrals; such systems are called Liouville-integrable. In this paper integrable systems with incomplete Hamiltonian fields are investigated. It is shown that Liouville's theorem remains valid in the case of a single incomplete field, while if the number of incomplete fields is greater, a certain analogue of the theorem holds. An integrable system on the algebra sl(3) is taken as an example. Bibliography: 11 titles

  20. Sublingual misoprostol versus standard surgical care for treatment of incomplete abortion in five sub-Saharan African countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shochet Tara

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In low-resource settings, where abortion is highly restricted and self-induced abortions are common, access to post-abortion care (PAC services, especially treatment of incomplete terminations, is a priority. Standard post-abortion care has involved surgical intervention but can be hard to access in these areas. Misoprostol provides an alternative to surgical intervention that could increase access to abortion care. We sought to gather additional evidence regarding the efficacy of 400 mcg of sublingual misoprostol vs. standard surgical care for treatment of incomplete abortion in the environments where need for economical non-surgical treatments may be most useful. Methods A total of 860 women received either sublingual misoprostol or standard surgical care for treatment of incomplete abortion in a multi-site randomized trial. Women with confirmed incomplete abortion, defined as past or present history of vaginal bleeding during pregnancy and an open cervical os, were eligible to participate. Participants returned for follow-up one week later to confirm clinical status. If abortion was incomplete at that time, women were offered an additional follow-up visit or immediate surgical evacuation. Results Both misoprostol and surgical evacuation are highly effective treatments for incomplete abortion (misoprostol: 94.4%, surgical: 100.0%. Misoprostol treatment resulted in a somewhat lower chance of success than standard surgical practice (RR = 0.90; 95% CI: 0.89-0.92. Both tolerability of side effects and women’s satisfaction were similar in the two study arms. Conclusion Misoprostol, much easier to provide than surgery in low-resource environments, can be used safely, successfully, and satisfactorily for treatment of incomplete abortion. Focus should shift to program implementation, including task-shifting the provision of post-abortion care to mid- and low- level providers, training and assurance of drug availability. Trial registration This study has been registered at clinicaltrials.gov as NCT00466999 and NCT01539408

  1. Radiation Processes in an Incompletely Ionized Plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The first part of the paper gives a simple analytical treatment of radiation transfer (line and recombination) in a plasma, assuming full frequency redistribution. A study is made of the effect of the type of kernel of the integral transport equation on the nature of its solutions and the corresponding physical characteristics of the main types of radiation transfer, true diffusion, ''trapping'' and free escape. Some approximate methods of solving the transport equation are analysed, and results are established which do not depend on the type of kernel. The difference between capture and true diffusion, which is known to amount to the difference in the relationship between photon escape time and the dimensions of the system, can also be formulated as the difference between two characteristic lengths, the diffusion length and the quenching length. The difference between diffusion and capture is marked only if there is strong non-equilibrium, and then it appears principally in the intermediate region of optical thicknesses corresponding to the ''pure scattering'' case. However, use of the photon escape time as a kind of phenomenological characteristic means that in this region, too, an approximate solution can be written in the ''invariant'' form. Radiation losses in the final volume of a non-equilibrium plasma are considered, and a relationship is derived between the optical thickness and the degree of non-equilibrium which delineates the regions of volume and surface ineates the regions of volume and surface emission. The range of applicability of the treatment in question is discussed in the light of recent works on related aspects of radiation transfer theory. The second part analyses the quasi-static (Holtzmark) approximation in the theory of Stark broadening' of spectral lines. The limits within which this approximation can be applied are discussed; these limits are imposed by dynamic effects caused both by thermal motion of the perturbing particles themselves and by some external quenching. The treatment is based on a more general approach which reveals the real range of applicability of the frequently used binary approach, and also yields a critical analysis of certain semi-intuitive, evident criteria for the quasi-static state which appear in the literature. Two types of criteria for the quasi-static state, ''modulation'' and ''quenching'', are compared. Some new relationships describing the influence of the dynamic effects mentioned above are given. The third part contains short reviews of a number of contemporary trends in the development of the theory of such phenomena as radiation processes in an incompletely ionized plasma, broadening of lines, radiation transfer, relaxation in multi-level systems, emission in a continuum, fluctuating microfields and certain thermodynamic effects. (author)

  2. New approach for evaluating incomplete and complete fusion cross sections with continuum-discretized coupled-channels method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We propose a new method for evaluating incomplete and complete fusion cross sections separately using the Continuum-Discretized Coupled-Channels method. This method is applied to analysis of the deuteron induced reaction on a 7Li target up to 50 MeV of the deuteron incident energy. Effects of deuteron breakup on this reaction are explicitly taken into account. Results of the method are compared with those of the Glauber model, and the difference between the two is discussed. It is found that the energy dependence of the incomplete fusion cross sections obtained by the present calculation is almost the same as that obtained by the Glauber model, while for the complete fusion cross section, the two models give markedly different energy dependence. We show also that a prescription for evaluating incomplete fusion cross sections proposed in a previous study gives much smaller result than an experimental value. (author)

  3. Protein phosphorylation and oocyte maturation. I. Induction of starfish oocyte maturation by intracellular microinjection of a phosphatase inhibitor, alpha-naphthylphosphate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pondaven, P; Meijer, L

    1986-04-01

    Oocyte maturation (meiosis re-initiation) in starfish is induced by the natural hormone 1-methyladenine (1-MeAde). Following hormonal stimulation of the oocyte, an intracellular Maturation Promoting Factor (MPF) appears in the cytoplasm which triggers nuclear envelope breakdown and maturation divisions. alpha-Naphthylphosphate (alpha-NP), a widely used phosphatase inhibitor/substrate, was found to induce oocyte maturation when microinjected intracellularly (50% maturation of 3.5 mM; 100% above 6mM, final intracellular concentration) into oocytes of Marthasterias and Asterias but not of Astropecten. As 1-MeAde, alpha-NP triggers a complete maturation, i.e. germinal vesicle breakdown, extrusion of the two polar bodies and formation of the female pronucleus. The kinetics of alpha-NP-induced maturation (35-45 min) is, however, longer than the kinetics of 1-MeAde-induced maturation (18-20 min). The addition of alpha-NP externally to oocytes does not trigger maturation. Among several reported phosphatase inhibitors, including two natural protein phosphatase inhibitors and several products structurally related to alpha-NP, only alpha-NP was found capable of inducing maturation when microinjection into oocytes. alpha-NP triggers the appearance of MPF activity in the cytoplasm of oocytes into which it has been injected. Although alpha-NP-induced maturation is insensitive to inhibitors whose action is known to be restricted to the hormone-dependent period (such as the protease inhibitor leupeptin), it is blocked by inhibitors of MPF action (such as nicotinamide and lithium). Finally it was found that alpha-NP-induced maturation is inhibited by simultaneous microinjection of protein phosphatase-2A; also, alpha-NP, classically used as an inhibitor of acid and alkaline phosphatases, is able to inhibit protein phosphatases, is able to inhibit protein phosphatases 1 and 2 A. The addition of alpha-NP to oocytes increases the level of phosphorylated proteins. These results constitute direct evidence that an elevated level of phosphorylated proteins is sufficient to trigger MPF activity and to induce maturation. PMID:3007182

  4. Decision Making: I I I - Incomplete Initial Information

    CERN Document Server

    Zhukovin, V

    2006-01-01

    In the item there are presented Interval Structure allow to extend the class of multicriteria decision making problems including incomplete Initial Information. this step will facilitate dada gathering in pairs matching for decision making.

  5. Effect of the Target Deformation on Incomplete Fusion Dynamics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Singh D.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available To investigate the role of target deformation on incomplete fusion dynamics, a particle-gamma coincidence experiment has been performed at Inter University Accelerator Centre, New Delhi. Spin distributions for various evaporation residues populated via complete and incomplete fusion of 16O with 124Sn at 6.3MeV/nucleon have been measured. Experimentally measured spin distributions of the residues produced as incomplete fusion products associated with fast ? and 2?-emission channels observed in forward cone are found to be distinctly different from those of the residues produced as complete fusion products. The mean value of input angular momentum J0 for evaporation residues produced through xn channels (complete fusion products is found to be J0? 7?, while the mean value of input angular momentum J0 for the residues produced through direct ?xn and 2?xn channels (incomplete fusion products in forward cone, are found to be J0 ? 9? and ? 12? respectively for 16O + 124Sn (spherical system [7]. The mean value of input angular momentum J0 for the system 16O + 169Tm (deformed reported in ref. [8], are found to be ?10? for xn-channels (complete fusion products and for direct ?xn and 2?xn channels (incomplete fusion products the value of J0 approaches to ? 13? and ?16?, respectively. The mean values of the input angular momentum observed for xn (complete fusion products, ?xn and 2?xn (incomplete fusion products in 16O + 124Sn (spherical system are smaller than that of the mean values of the input angular momentum observed for xn (complete fusion products, ?xn and 2?xn (incomplete fusion products in 16O + 169Tm (deformed system. The comparison of data inferred that the mean values of the input angular momentum are smaller in case of spherical target than that of deformed target at same projectile energy of 16O-ion beam. It means that the target deformation affect the incomplete fusion dynamics.

  6. Incomplete and Asymmetric Surplus Information in Labor Relations

    OpenAIRE

    Hennig-schmidt, Heike; Rockenbach, Bettina; Sadrieh, Abdolkarim

    2003-01-01

    Numerous laboratory experiments show that workers reciprocate to high wages with high effort, when there is perfect information on the surplus created. Recent field experiments, however, suggest that trust and reciprocity may be lower – or absent – when the information is incomplete. We report a laboratory experiment with symmetric and asymmetric incomplete surplus information in a ?bilateral gift exchange? setting. We find that trust and reciprocity have a significant positive effect on ...

  7. Effect of the Target Deformation on Incomplete Fusion Dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, D.; Ali, Rahbar; Afzal Ansari, M.; Kumar, R.; Singh, R. P.; Muralither, S.; Bhowmik, R. K.

    2015-01-01

    To investigate the role of target deformation on incomplete fusion dynamics, a particle-gamma coincidence experiment has been performed at Inter University Accelerator Centre, New Delhi. Spin distributions for various evaporation residues populated via complete and incomplete fusion of 16O with 124Sn at 6.3MeV/nucleon have been measured. Experimentally measured spin distributions of the residues produced as incomplete fusion products associated with fast ? and 2?-emission channels observed in forward cone are found to be distinctly different from those of the residues produced as complete fusion products. The mean value of input angular momentum J0 for evaporation residues produced through xn channels (complete fusion products) is found to be J0? 7?, while the mean value of input angular momentum J0 for the residues produced through direct ?xn and 2?xn channels (incomplete fusion products) in forward cone, are found to be J0 ? 9? and ? 12? respectively for 16O + 124Sn (spherical) system [7]. The mean value of input angular momentum J0 for the system 16O + 169Tm (deformed) reported in ref. [8], are found to be ?10? for xn-channels (complete fusion products) and for direct ?xn and 2?xn channels (incomplete fusion products) the value of J0 approaches to ? 13? and ?16?, respectively. The mean values of the input angular momentum observed for xn (complete fusion products), ?xn and 2?xn (incomplete fusion products) in 16O + 124Sn (spherical) system are smaller than that of the mean values of the input angular momentum observed for xn (complete fusion products), ?xn and 2?xn (incomplete fusion products) in 16O + 169Tm (deformed) system. The comparison of data inferred that the mean values of the input angular momentum are smaller in case of spherical target than that of deformed target at same projectile energy of 16O-ion beam. It means that the target deformation affect the incomplete fusion dynamics.

  8. Incomplete Financial Markets and Jumps in Asset Prices

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Crès, Hervé; Markeprand, Tobias Ejnar

    2009-01-01

    A dynamic pure-exchange general equilibrium model with uncertainty is studied. Fundamentals are supposed to depend continuously on states of nature. It is shown that: 1. if financial markets are complete, then asset prices vary continuously with states of nature, and; 2. if financial markets are incomplete, jumps in asset prices may be unavoidable. Consequently incomplete financial markets may increase volatility in asset prices significantly.

  9. An example of a stochastic equilibrium with incomplete markets

    OpenAIRE

    Zitkovic, Gordan

    2009-01-01

    We prove existence and uniqueness of stochastic equilibria in a class of incomplete continuous-time financial environments where the market participants are exponential utility maximizers with heterogeneous risk-aversion coefficients and general Markovian random endowments. The incompleteness featured in our setting - the source of which can be thought of as a credit event or a catastrophe - is genuine in the sense that not only the prices, but also the family of replicable ...

  10. A Method for Planning Given Uncertain and Incomplete Information

    OpenAIRE

    Mansell, Todd Michael

    2013-01-01

    This paper describes ongoing research into planning in an uncertain environment. In particular, it introduces U-Plan, a planning system that constructs quantitatively ranked plans given an incomplete description of the state of the world. U-Plan uses a DempsterShafer interval to characterise uncertain and incomplete information about the state of the world. The planner takes as input what is known about the world, and constructs a number of possible initial states with repre...

  11. A Brownian optimal switching problem under incomplete information

    OpenAIRE

    Olofsson, Marcus

    2015-01-01

    In this paper we study an incomplete information optimal switching problem in which the manager only has access to noisy observations of the underlying Brownian motion $\\{W_t\\}_{t \\geq 0}$. The manager can, at a fixed cost, switch between having the production facility open or closed and must find the optimal management strategy using only the noisy observations. Using the theory of linear stochastic filtering, we reduce the incomplete information problem to a full informati...

  12. Filtering, control and fault detection with randomly occurring incomplete information

    CERN Document Server

    Dong, Hongli; Gao, Huijun

    2013-01-01

    This book investigates the filtering, control and fault detection problems for several classes of nonlinear systems with randomly occurring incomplete information. It proposes new concepts, including RVNs, ROMDs, ROMTCDs, and ROQEs. The incomplete information under consideration primarily includes missing measurements, time-delays, sensor and actuator saturations, quantization effects and time-varying nonlinearities. The first part of this book focuses on the filtering, control and fault detection problems for several classes of nonlinear stochastic discrete-time systems and

  13. Unexpected show up of incomplete fusion at low projectile energies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Singh B.P.

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, some of the important ?ndings of recent measurements performed to study incomplete fusion at low bombarding energies (i.e., Elab ? 4-7 MeV/nucleon in 12C, 16O+169Tm systems are brie?y summarized. The spin-distributions of xn, pxn, ?xn/2?xn- channels have been measured to probe entirely different ?-emission patterns (and feeding intensity pro?les during the de-excitation of complete and incomplete fusion objects. Incomplete fusion strength function has been deduced (from the analysis of experimental excitation functions in context of equilibrated compound nucleus decay to achieve information of onset and strength of incomplete fusion in terms of various entrance channel parameters. Presence of incomplete fusion at slightly above barrier energies has been con?rmed by the measurement of linear momentum distribution of heavy recoils. Present results conclusively demonstrate, the existence of incomplete fusion at low bombarding energies, its strong dependence on entrance channel parameters, and the possibility to populate high spin states.

  14. Systematics of incomplete fusion probability and its correlation with complete fusion suppression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali, Sabir; Kumar, Kamal; Ahmad, Tauseef; Rizvi, I. A.; Agarwal, Avinash; Chaubey, A. K.

    2013-04-01

    The mechanism for the suppression of complete fusion, induced by different light alpha cluster projectiles (Z ? 10) on 51V target has been investigated through the measurement of break-up of the projectiles into different alpha fragments. The results from the present systems show substantial components from incomplete fusion in addition to complete fusion. The measurements also show significant reduction of complete fusion cross-section above the barrier energies for all the reactions when compared with the theoretical prediction of CCFULL code. CCFULL is a program that calculates fusion cross-sections and mean angular momenta of the compound nucleus under the influence of coupling between the relative motion and several collective nuclear motions. Moreover, measurements also show a systematics in complete fusion suppression with respect to CCFULL calculation, suggesting that the extent of suppression of complete fusion cross-sections is correlated with the alpha Q-value of the projectiles. Also, all the reactions were found to produce incomplete fusion products at energies near the respective Coulomb barriers with the alpha-particle emanating channel being the favored incomplete fusion process in all the cases.

  15. Pharmaceutical Options for Triggering of Final Oocyte Maturation in ART

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Castillo, Juan Carlos; Humaidan, Peter

    2014-01-01

    Since the pioneering days of in vitro fertilization, hCG has been the gold standard to induce final follicular maturation. We herein reviewed different pharmaceutical options for triggering of final oocyte maturation in ART. The new upcoming agent seems to be GnRHa with its potential advantages over hCG trigger. GnRHa triggering elicits a surge of gonadotropins resembling the natural midcycle surge of gonadotropins, without the prolonged action of hCG, resulting in the retrieval of more mature oocytes and a significant reduction in or elimination of OHSS as compared to hCG triggering. The induction of final follicular maturation using GnRHa represents a paradigm shift in the ovulation triggering concept in ART and, thus, a way to develop a safer IVF procedure. Kisspeptins are key central regulators of the neuroendocrine mechanisms of human reproduction, who have been shown to effectively elicit an LH surge and to induce final oocyte maturation in IVF cycles. This new trigger concept may, therefore, offer a completely new, "natural" pharmacological option for ovulation induction. Whether kisspeptins will be the future agent to trigger ovulation remains to be further explored.

  16. Prospects for In Vitro Myofilament Maturation in Stem Cell-Derived Cardiac Myocytes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwan, Jonas; Campbell, Stuart G

    2015-01-01

    Cardiomyocytes derived from human stem cells are quickly becoming mainstays of cardiac regenerative medicine, in vitro disease modeling, and drug screening. Their suitability for such roles may seem obvious, but assessments of their contractile behavior suggest that they have not achieved a completely mature cardiac muscle phenotype. This could be explained in part by an incomplete transition from fetal to adult myofilament protein isoform expression. In this commentary, we review evidence that supports this hypothesis and discuss prospects for ultimately generating engineered heart tissue specimens that behave similarly to adult human myocardium. We suggest approaches to better characterize myofilament maturation level in these in vitro systems, and illustrate how new computational models could be used to better understand complex relationships between muscle contraction, myofilament protein isoform expression, and maturation. PMID:26085788

  17. Partially balanced incomplete block designs associated with minimum perfect dominating sets of Clebsch graph

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vinay Kumar

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available A dominating set $S$ of a graph $G$ is perfect if each vertex of G is dominated by exactly one vertex in $S$. We study the minimum perfect dominating sets in the Petersen graph and in the Clebsch graph. In this paper we show that every minimum perfect dominating set in the Petersen graph and the Clebsch graph induces $K_{1,3}$ and $C_4$ respectively. Further we establish that these classes of minimum perfect dominating sets of Clebsch graph form Partially Balanced Incomplete Block Designs with the parameters (16, 40, 10, 4, 1, 4.

  18. Partially balanced incomplete block designs associated with minimum perfect dominating sets of Clebsch graph

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vinay Kumar

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available A dominating set $S$ of a graph $G$ is perfect if each vertex of G is dominated by exactly one vertex in $S$. We study the minimum perfect dominating sets in the Petersen graph and in the Clebsch graph. In this paper we show that every minimum perfect dominating set in the Petersen graph and the Clebsch graph induces $K_{1,3}$ and $C_4$ respectively. Further we establish that these classes of minimum perfect dominating sets of Clebsch graph form Partially Balanced Incomplete Block Designs with the parameters (16, 40, 10, 4, 1, 4.

  19. Immature, Semi-Mature, and Fully Mature Dendritic Cells: Toward a DC-Cancer Cells Interface That Augments Anticancer Immunity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dudek, Aleksandra M.; Martin, Shaun; Garg, Abhishek D.; Agostinis, Patrizia

    2013-01-01

    Dendritic cells (DCs) are the sentinel antigen-presenting cells of the immune system; such that their productive interface with the dying cancer cells is crucial for proper communication of the “non-self” status of cancer cells to the adaptive immune system. Efficiency and the ultimate success of such a communication hinges upon the maturation status of the DCs, attained following their interaction with cancer cells. Immature DCs facilitate tolerance toward cancer cells (observed for many apoptotic inducers) while fully mature DCs can strongly promote anticancer immunity if they secrete the correct combinations of cytokines [observed when DCs interact with cancer cells undergoing immunogenic cell death (ICD)]. However, an intermediate population of DC maturation, called semi-mature DCs exists, which can potentiate either tolerogenicity or pro-tumorigenic responses (as happens in the case of certain chemotherapeutics and agents exerting ambivalent immune reactions). Specific combinations of DC phenotypic markers, DC-derived cytokines/chemokines, dying cancer cell-derived danger signals, and other less characterized entities (e.g., exosomes) can define the nature and evolution of the DC maturation state. In the present review, we discuss these different maturation states of DCs, how they might be attained and which anticancer agents or cell death modalities (e.g., tolerogenic cell death vs. ICD) may regulate these states. PMID:24376443

  20. Sustaining Exploration in Mature Basins

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Exploration is a business like any other business driven by opportunity, resources and expectation of profit. Therefore, exploration will thrive anywhere the opportunities are significant, the resources are available and the outlook for profit (or value creation) is good. To sustain exploration activities anywhere, irrespective of the environment, there must be good understanding of the drivers of these key investment criteria. This paper will examine these investment criteria as they relate to exploration business and address the peculiarity of exploration in mature basin. Mature basins are unique environment that lends themselves a mix of fears, paradigms and realities, particularly with respect to the perception of value. To sustain exploration activities in a mature basin, we need to understand these perceptions relative to the true drivers of profitability. Exploration in the mature basins can be as profitable as exploration in emerging basins if the dynamics of value definition-strategic and fiscal values are understood by operators, regulators and co ventures alike. Some suggestions are made in this presentation on what needs to be done in addressing these dynamic investment parameters and sustaining exploration activities in mature basins

  1. Handling incomplete smoking history data in survival analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Furukawa, Kyoji; Preston, Dale L; Misumi, Munechika; Cullings, Harry M

    2014-10-26

    While data are unavoidably missing or incomplete in most observational studies, consequences of mishandling such incompleteness in analysis are often overlooked. When time-varying information is collected irregularly and infrequently over a long period, even precisely obtained data may implicitly involve substantial incompleteness. Motivated by an analysis to quantitatively evaluate the effects of smoking and radiation on lung cancer risks among Japanese atomic-bomb survivors, we provide a unique application of multiple imputation to incompletely observed smoking histories under the assumption of missing at random. Predicting missing values for the age of smoking initiation and, given initiation, smoking intensity and cessation age, analyses can be based on complete, though partially imputed, smoking histories. A simulation study shows that multiple imputation appropriately conditioned on the outcome and other relevant variables can produce consistent estimates when data are missing at random. Our approach is particularly appealing in large cohort studies where a considerable amount of time-varying information is incomplete under a mechanism depending in a complex manner on other variables. In application to the motivating example, this approach is expected to reduce estimation bias that might be unavoidable in naive analyses, while keeping efficiency by retaining known information. PMID:25348676

  2. Observation of incomplete fusion reactions at l < l {sub crit}

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yadav, Abhishek, E-mail: abhishekyadav117@gmail.com; Sharma, Vijay R., E-mail: abhishekyadav117@gmail.com; Singh, Devendra P., E-mail: abhishekyadav117@gmail.com; Unnati,; Singh, B. P.; Prasad, R. [Department of Physics, Aligarh Muslim University, Aligarh (UP) - 202 002 (India); Singh, Pushpendra P. [GSI-Helmholtz Centre for Heavy Ion Research GmbH, D-64291 Darmstadt (Germany); Bala, Indu; Kumar, R.; Muralithar, S.; Singh, R. P. [NP-Group: Inter-University Accelerator Center, Aruna Asaf Ali Marg, New Delhi - 110 067 (India); Sharma, M. K. [Department of Physics, S. V. College, Aligarh- 202 001 (India)

    2014-08-14

    In order to understand the presence of incomplete fusion at low energies i.e. 4-7MeV/nucleon and also to study its dependence on various entrance-channel parameters, the two type of measurements (i) excitation function for {sup 12}C+{sup 159}Tb, and (ii) forward recoil ranges for {sup 12}C+{sup 159}Tb systems have been performed. The experimentally measured excitation functions have been analyzed within the framework of compound nucleus decay using statistical model code PACE4. Analysis of data suggests the production of xn/px)n-channels via complete fusion, as these are found to be well reproduced by PACE4 predictions, while, a significant enhancement in the excitation functions of ?-emitting channels has been observed over the theoretical ones, which has been attributed due to the incomplete fusion processes. Further, the incomplete fusion events observed in case of forward recoil range measurements have been explained on the basis of the breakup fusion model, where these events may be attributed to the fusion of {sup 8}Be and/or {sup 4}He from {sup 12}C projectile to the target nucleus. In the present work, the SUMRULE model calculations are found to highly underestimate the observed incomplete fusion cross-sections which indicate that the l-values lower than l {sub crit} (limit of complete fusion) significantly contribute to the incomplete fusion reactions.

  3. Observation of incomplete fusion reactions at l crit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In order to understand the presence of incomplete fusion at low energies i.e. 4-7MeV/nucleon and also to study its dependence on various entrance-channel parameters, the two type of measurements (i) excitation function for 12C+159Tb, and (ii) forward recoil ranges for 12C+159Tb systems have been performed. The experimentally measured excitation functions have been analyzed within the framework of compound nucleus decay using statistical model code PACE4. Analysis of data suggests the production of xn/px)n-channels via complete fusion, as these are found to be well reproduced by PACE4 predictions, while, a significant enhancement in the excitation functions of ?-emitting channels has been observed over the theoretical ones, which has been attributed due to the incomplete fusion processes. Further, the incomplete fusion events observed in case of forward recoil range measurements have been explained on the basis of the breakup fusion model, where these events may be attributed to the fusion of 8Be and/or 4He from 12C projectile to the target nucleus. In the present work, the SUMRULE model calculations are found to highly underestimate the observed incomplete fusion cross-sections which indicate that the l-values lower than l crit (limit of complete fusion) significantly contribute to the incomplete fusion reactions

  4. Incomplete scan geometries in fast X-ray scanners

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    If the data delivered by an X-ray scanner are not available in a complete grid of scan positions, the reconstructed pictures are degraded by artefacts which are due to the lack of information gathered. The most prominent examples of incomplete scan geometries are: the incomplete range of viewing directions; and the spatial restriction of X-ray irradiation to a region of interest. Both are caused by the requirement of sacrificing some characteristics of conventional scanner geometries, either to get a very rapid scan or a reduction of patient dose without increasing the picture noise. The implications of such restrictions will be described and pictures will be presented which are reconstructed from true scan data which have been made incomplete by means of simulations software. Under certain conditions, unavailable data can be replaced by artificially calculated ones in order to reduce the artefacts. (orig.)

  5. THE THEORIES OF INCOMPLETE CONTRACTS IN ANALYZING THE COMPANY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pacala Anca

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Incomplete contracts theories have developed significantly in recent decades, although insistence for rigorous models left little room for empirical research. By formalizing and extending some results from other theories such as transaction costs, incomplete contracts theory tries to analyze the prudence displayed by the parties before the possible opportunistic behavior that would follow completing a contract, especially in the case of specific investments and how the insufficient contractual protection measures can lead to inefficient levels of investment. Even the name - incomplete contracts theory- suggests that the main concern is to consider the limits of contracts, that the contracts fail to specify not only the investment ex ante, but also many other unforeseen items that may appear ex post, and that would be desirable to be introduced in such an arrangement. Explanations can be either the bounded rationality or excessive cost that would involve writing of such contracts.\\r\

  6. Possible communicative cues to syntactic incompleteness in spoken dialogues

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hunyadi, László

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Due to the dynamic nature of dialogues, spoken utterances are often characterized by some degree of fragmentation. This fragmentation is directly reflected by the incompleteness of the syntactic structure of such utterances that represent a considerable challenge for automatic parsing. At the same time, syntactic incompleteness is also a reflection of some cognitive processes underlying the fragmentation of such an interaction. This fragmentation is often accompanied by a set of nonverbal gestures offering thereby the chance to attempt to find certain cues to these cognitive processes by studying the complex of aligning verbal and nonverbal elements. The present paper addresses the issue of the interaction of multimodal markers of conversation with the syntax of spoken utterances to find if certain communicative functions may be cues to the incompleteness of spoken syntax.

  7. Mast cell maturation is driven via a group III phospholipase A2-prostaglandin D2-DP1 receptor paracrine axis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taketomi, Yoshitaka; Ueno, Noriko; Kojima, Takumi; Sato, Hiroyasu; Murase, Remi; Yamamoto, Kei; Tanaka, Satoshi; Sakanaka, Mariko; Nakamura, Masanori; Nishito, Yasumasa; Kawana, Momoko; Kambe, Naotomo; Ikeda, Kazutaka; Taguchi, Ryo; Nakamizo, Satoshi; Kabashima, Kenji; Gelb, Michael H; Arita, Makoto; Yokomizo, Takehiko; Nakamura, Motonao; Watanabe, Kikuko; Hirai, Hiroyuki; Nakamura, Masataka; Okayama, Yoshimichi; Ra, Chisei; Aritake, Kosuke; Urade, Yoshihiro; Morimoto, Kazushi; Sugimoto, Yukihiko; Shimizu, Takao; Narumiya, Shuh; Hara, Shuntaro; Murakami, Makoto

    2013-06-01

    Microenvironment-based alterations in phenotypes of mast cells influence the susceptibility to anaphylaxis, yet the mechanisms underlying proper maturation of mast cells toward an anaphylaxis-sensitive phenotype are incompletely understood. Here we report that PLA2G3, a mammalian homolog of anaphylactic bee venom phospholipase A2, regulates this process. PLA2G3 secreted from mast cells is coupled with fibroblastic lipocalin-type PGD2 synthase (L-PGDS) to provide PGD2, which facilitates mast-cell maturation via PGD2 receptor DP1. Mice lacking PLA2G3, L-PGDS or DP1, mast cell-deficient mice reconstituted with PLA2G3-null or DP1-null mast cells, or mast cells cultured with L-PGDS-ablated fibroblasts exhibited impaired maturation and anaphylaxis of mast cells. Thus, we describe a lipid-driven PLA2G3-L-PGDS-DP1 loop that drives mast cell maturation. PMID:23624557

  8. Mast cell maturation is driven via a group III phospholipase A2-prostaglandin D2–DP1 receptor paracrine axis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taketomi, Yoshitaka; Ueno, Noriko; Kojima, Takumi; Sato, Hiroyasu; Murase, Remi; Yamamoto, Kei; Tanaka, Satoshi; Sakanaka, Mariko; Nakamura, Masanori; Nishito, Yasumasa; Kawana, Momoko; Kambe, Naotomo; Ikeda, Kazutaka; Taguchi, Ryo; Nakamizo, Satoshi; Kabashima, Kenji; Gelb, Michael H.; Arita, Makoto; Yokomizo, Takehiko; Nakamura, Motonao; Watanabe, Kikuko; Hirai, Hiroyuki; Nakamura, Masataka; Okayama, Yoshimichi; Ra, Chisei; Aritake, Kosuke; Urade, Yoshihiro; Morimoto, Kazushi; Sugimoto, Yukihiko; Shimizu, Takao; Narumiya, Shuh; Hara, Shuntaro; Murakami, Makoto

    2014-01-01

    Microenvironment-based alterations in phenotypes of mast cells influence the susceptibility to anaphylaxis, yet the mechanisms underlying proper maturation of mast cells toward an anaphylaxis-sensitive phenotype are incompletely understood. Here we report that PLA2G3, a mammalian homolog of anaphylactic bee venom phospholipase A2, regulates this process. PLA2G3 secreted from mast cells is coupled with fibroblastic lipocalin-type PGD2 synthase (L-PGDS) to provide PGD2, which facilitates mast-cell maturation via PGD2 receptor DP1. Mice lacking PLA2G3, L-PGDS or DP1, mast cell–deficient mice reconstituted with PLA2G3-null or DP1-null mast cells, or mast cells cultured with L-PGDS–ablated fibroblasts exhibited impaired maturation and anaphylaxis of mast cells. Thus, we describe a lipid-driven PLA2G3–L-PGDS–DP1 loop that drives mast cell maturation. PMID:23624557

  9. Additive habit formation: Consumption in incomplete markets with random endowments

    CERN Document Server

    Muraviev, Roman

    2011-01-01

    We provide a detailed characterization of the optimal consumption stream for the additive habit-forming utility maximization problem, in a framework of general discrete-time incomplete markets and random endowments. This characterization allows us to derive the monotonicity and concavity of the optimal consumption as a function of wealth, for several important classes of incomplete markets and preferences. These results yield a deeper understanding of the fine structure of the optimal consumption and provide a further theoretical support for the classical conjectures of Keynes (1936).

  10. Pricing the Option to Surrender in Incomplete Markets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Consiglio, Andrea; De Giovanni, Domenico

    2007-01-01

    New international accounting standards require insurers to reflect the value of embedded options and guarantees in their products. Pricing techniques based on the Black & Scholes paradigm are often used, however, the hypotheses underneath this model are rarely met. We propose a framework that encompasses the most known sources of incompleteness. We show that the surrender option, joined with a wide range of claims embedded in insurance contracts, can be priced through our tool, and deliver hedging portfolios to mitigate the risk arising from their positions. We provide extensive empirical analysis to highlight the effect of incompleteness on the fair value of the option.

  11. Contingent Claims in Incomplete Markets: A Case Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sure Mataramvura

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we revisit pricing contingent claims in incomplete markets. While a lot have been done on pricing in incomplete markets, there is still a gap on the categorization of the payoffs. Some contingent claims are attainable while others will not be attainable. We address the question of which contingent claims belong to each group. We also propose a generalization of the equivalent martingale measures used for pricing, a generalization which includes those studied so far. We also provide some examples of how to price in each class and introduce important definitions.

  12. The fungal pathogen Cryptococcus neoformans manipulates macrophage phagosome maturation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Leanne M; Dixon, Emily F; May, Robin C

    2015-05-01

    Phagocytosis by cells of the innate immune system, such as macrophages, and the subsequent successful maturation of the phagosome, is key for the clearance of pathogens. The fungal pathogen Cryptococcus?neoformans is known to overcome killing by host phagocytes and both replicate within these cells and also escape via a non-lytic process termed vomocytosis. Here we demonstrate that, during intracellular growth, cryptococci modify phagolysosome maturation. Live cryptococci, but not heat-killed pathogens or inert targets, induce the premature removal of the early phagosome markers Rab5 and Rab11. In addition, significant acidification of the phagosome, calcium flux and protease activity is hindered, thus rendering the phagosome permissive for cryptococcal proliferation. Interestingly, several attenuated cryptococcal mutants retain this ability to subvert phagosomal maturation, suggesting that hitherto unidentified pathogen mechanisms regulate this process. PMID:25394938

  13. Normal brain maturation in MRI

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Normal brain maturation was evaluated with MR imaging of 36 neonate to-2-year-old patients. The myelination process in centrum semiovale was quantitatively assessed in 50 6-months- to 15-year-old children, and 40 adults aged 16-60 years. Imaging was performed with a 0.35 T superconducting MR unit using spin echo pulse sequences. On T1-weighted images, 3 stages of maturation could be observed: 1. neonates within 1 month; 2. 1-6 months-of-age; and 3. adult configuration after 6-7 months-of-age. Also on T2-weighted images 3 maturation stages could be defined: 1. neonatal pattern in the first 6 months of life; 2. signal inversion between 6-18 months; and 3. adult appearance after 18 months. Thus, the combination of T1- and T2-weighted images could lead us to the assessment of brain maturation in infants younger than 2 years. The myelination process in centrum semiovale was fast during the first 3 years followed by a slow progression until 20-30 years of age. (author). 14 refs.; 14 figs.; 2 tabs

  14. Motivational Maturity and Helping Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haymes, Michael; Green, Logan

    1977-01-01

    Maturity in conative development (type of motivation included in Maslow's needs hierarchy) was found to be predictive of helping behavior in middle class white male college students. The effects of safety and esteem needs were compared, and the acceptance of responsibility was also investigated. (GDC)

  15. Mature Cystic Teratoma of Liver

    OpenAIRE

    Richa Gupta; Kalpana Bansal; Vivek Manchanda; Ruchika Gupta

    2013-01-01

    A four-year-old boy presented with constipation and mild abdominal distention for one year. Radiologic investigations showed a multiloculated cystic lesion in the caudate lobe of liver with focal calcification in the wall. The child underwent laparotomy with marsupialization of the cystic lesion. Histopathologic examination showed mature teratoma of liver.

  16. Glia maturation factor gamma regulates the migration and adherence of human T lymphocytes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lippert Dustin ND

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Lymphocyte migration and chemotaxis are essential for effective immune surveillance. A critical aspect of migration is cell polarization and the extension of pseudopodia in the direction of movement. However, our knowledge of the underlying molecular mechanisms responsible for these events is incomplete. Proteomic analysis of the isolated leading edges of CXCL12 stimulated human T cell lines was used to identify glia maturation factor gamma (GMFG as a component of the pseudopodia. This protein is predominantly expressed in hematopoietic cells and it has been shown to regulate cytoskeletal branching. The present studies were undertaken to examine the role of GMFG in lymphocyte migration. Results Microscopic analysis of migrating T-cells demonstrated that GMFG was distributed along the axis of movement with enrichment in the leading edge and behind the nucleus of these cells. Inhibition of GMFG expression in T cell lines and IL-2 dependent human peripheral blood T cells with shRNAmir reduced cellular basal and chemokine induced migration responses. The failure of the cells with reduced GMFG to migrate was associated with an apparent inability to detach from the substrates that they were moving on. It was also noted that these cells had an increased adherence to extracellular matrix proteins such as fibronectin. These changes in adherence were associated with altered patterns of ?1 integrin expression and increased levels of activated integrins as detected with the activation specific antibody HUTS4. GMFG loss was also shown to increase the expression of the ?2 integrin LFA-1 and to increase the adhesion of these cells to ICAM-1. Conclusions The present studies demonstrate that GMFG is a component of human T cell pseudopodia required for migration. The reduction in migration and increased adherence properties associated with inhibition of GMFG expression suggest that GMFG activity influences the regulation of integrin mediated adhesion.

  17. Male silver eels mature by swimming

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Spaink Herman P

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background If European silver eels are prevented from reproductive migration, they remain in a prepubertal stage by dopaminergic inhibition of pituitary activity. Because this inhibition is likely a requirement for an extended female growth stage, we tested if it is sex-specific by subjecting both sexes to stimulation by GnRHa (Gonadotropin-Releasing Hormone agonist – injection or 3-months swimming in seawater. Results In contrast to females, males showed a two- to three-fold higher LH? (luteinising hormone ? subunit – expression, a three- to five-fold higher GSI (Gonadosomatic index and induced spermatogenesis when compared with the untreated control group. Conclusion Dopaminergic inhibition is thus not effective in males and swimming results in natural maturation, probably via GnRH-release.

  18. On Positive Semidefinite Modification Schemes for Incomplete Cholesky Factorization.

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Scott, J.; T?ma, Miroslav

    2014-01-01

    Ro?. 36, ?. 2 (2014), A609-A633. ISSN 1064-8275 R&D Projects: GA ?R GA13-06684S Institutional support: RVO:67985807 Keywords : sparse matrices * sparse linear systems * positive-definite symmetric systems * iterative solvers * preconditioning * incomplete Cholesky factorization Subject RIV: BA - General Mathematics Impact factor: 1.854, year: 2014

  19. Incomplete inactivation of sodium currents in nonperfused squid axon.

    OpenAIRE

    Shoukimas, J. J.; French, R. J.

    1980-01-01

    Perfused squid axons in which K-conductance is blocked show, under voltage clamp, incomplete inactivation of the sodium conductance. The presence of this phenomenon in nonperfused axons was found by comparing membrane current records before and after tetrodotoxin addition to the bathing solution. Sodium currents in nonperfused axons are comparable in behavior at positive potentials to those seen in Cs-perfused axons.

  20. Study of incomplete fusion dynamics: analysis of excitation functions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    With a view to study complete fusion and incomplete fusion in several projectile target combinations, a programme of precise measurements of cross-sections and analysis of excitation functions has been undertaken. As a part of the ongoing programme, excitation functions for six reactions in 16O + 169Tm system have been measured

  1. Vulvar myiasis following suction and evacuation for incomplete abortion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Anju; Goel, Bharti; Rani, Shikha

    2015-07-01

    Myiasis is caused by fly larva capable of penetrating healthy or necrotic tissue, usually in tropical and subtropical countries. The involvement of an exposed area is common; however it may very rarely involve the genital region. We present a rare case of vulvar myiasis which occurred after suction and evacuation performed for incomplete abortion. PMID:25740831

  2. Root cause of incomplete control rod insertions at Westinghouse reactors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ray, S. [Westinghouse, Monroeville, PA (United States)

    1997-01-01

    Within the past year, incomplete RCCA insertions have been observed on high burnup fuel assemblies at two Westinghouse PWRs. Initial tests at the Wolf Creek site indicated that the direct cause of the incomplete insertions observed at Wolf Creek was excessive fuel assembly thimble tube distortion. Westinghouse committed to the NRC to perform a root cause analysis by the end of August, 1996. The root cause analysis process used by Westinghouse included testing at ten sites to obtain drag, growth and other characteristics of high burnup fuel assemblies. It also included testing at the Westinghouse hot cell of two of the Wolf Creek incomplete insertion assemblies. A mechanical model was developed to calculate the response of fuel assemblies when subjected to compressive loads. Detailed manufacturing reviews were conducted to determine if this was a manufacturing related issue. In addition, a review of available worldwide experience was performed. Based on the above, it was concluded that the thimble tube distortion observed on the Wolf Creek incomplete insertion assemblies was caused by unusual fuel assembly growth over and above what would typically be expected as a result of irradiation exposure. It was determined that the unusual growth component is a combination of growth due to oxide accumulation and accelerated growth, and would only be expected in high temperature plants on fuel assemblies that see long residence times and high power duties.

  3. A qualitative model for temporal reasoning with incomplete information

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Geffner, H. [Universidad Simon Bolivar, Caracas (Venezuela)

    1996-12-31

    We develop a qualitative framework for temporal reasoning with incomplete information that features a modeling language based on rules and a semantics based on infinitesimal probabilities. The framework relates logical and probabilistical models, and accommodates in a natural way features that have been found problematic in other models like non-determinism, action qualifications, parallel actions, and abduction to actions and fluents.

  4. Incomplete inversion of the hippocampus - a common developmental anomaly

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bajic, Dragan; Wang, Chen; Raininko, Raili [Uppsala University Hospital, Department of Radiology, Uppsala (Sweden); Kumlien, Eva; Mattsson, Peter [Uppsala University Hospital, Department of Neurology, Uppsala (Sweden); Lundberg, Staffan; Eeg-Olofsson, Orvar [Uppsala University Hospital, Department of Child Neurology, Uppsala (Sweden)

    2008-01-15

    Incomplete inversion of the hippocampus, an imperfect fetal development, has been described in patients with epilepsy or severe midline malformations. We studied this condition in a nonepileptic population without obvious developmental anomalies. We analyzed the coronal MR images of 50 women and 50 men who did not have epilepsy. Twenty of them were healthy volunteers and 80 were patients without obvious intracranial developmental anomalies, intracranial masses, hydrocephalus or any condition affecting the temporal lobes. If the entire hippocampus (the head could not be evaluated) were affected, the incomplete inversion was classified as total, otherwise as partial. Incomplete inversion of the hippocampus was found in 19/100 subjects (9 women, 10 men). It was unilateral, always on the left side, in 13 subjects (4 women, 9 men): 9 were of the total type, 4 were partial. It was bilateral in six subjects (five women, one man): four subjects had total types bilaterally, two had a combination of total and partial types. The collateral sulcus was vertically oriented in all subjects with a deviating hippocampal shape. We conclude that incomplete inversion of the hippocampus is not an unusual morphologic variety in a nonepileptic population without other obvious intracranial developmental anomalies. (orig.)

  5. Incomplete nonextensive statistics and zeroth law of thermodynamics

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, Qiuping A.

    2000-01-01

    We show that the zeroth law of thermodynamics holds within an alternative version of nonextensive statistical mechanics based on {\\it incomplete probability distribution}. The generalized zeroth law leads to a generalized definition of thermodynamic functions which are possible to be used for systems with important nonextensivity (nonadditivity) in energy, volume or other external variables.

  6. Incompleteness of Representation Theory: Hidden Symmetries and Quantum Nonintegrability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Representation theory is shown to be incomplete in terms of enumerating all integrable limits of quantum systems. As a consequence, one can find exactly solvable Hamiltonians which have apparently strongly broken symmetry. The number of these hidden symmetries depends upon the realization of the Hamiltonian. copyright 1997 The American Physical Society

  7. Entrance channel effect in the incomplete fusion reactions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Singh B.P.

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available In the present work the effect of various entrance channel parameters on incomplete fusion strength and the reaction dynamics in 12C+159Tb system at energies ? 4-7MeV/A have been investigated by measuring the excitation functions of individual reaction channels. Experimental excitation functions have been analyzed in the framework of compound nucleus decay using statistical model code PACE4. Analysis of data suggests the production of xn/pxn-channels via complete fusion of 12C with 159Tb, as these are found to be well reproduced by PACE4 predictions, while, a significant enhancement in the excitation functions of ?-emitting channels has been observed over the theoretical ones. This enhancement has been attributed due to incomplete fusion. For better insight into the underlying dynamics, fraction of incomplete fusion to the total fusion has been deduced and compared with 16O+159Tb and other nearby systems as a function of various entrance channel parameters. The fraction of incomplete fusion has been found to be sensitive to the projectile type, energy and entrance-channel mass-asymmetry.

  8. Incomplete molar pregnancy with live coexisting fetus: a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leila Pourali

    2014-03-01

    Conclusion: The rate of pregnancy complications such as hypertension, hyperthyroidism, and obstetrics hemorrhage and also the risk of Gestational Trophoblastic Neoplasm (GTN are increasing in incomplete molar pregnancy. Therefore, early diagnosis and timely treatment of molar pregnancy is very important to reduce maternal morbidity and mortality.

  9. 49 CFR 630.6 - Late and incomplete reports.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ...its report. FTA will treat a failure to submit the required report...date or the extension date as failure to report data under § 630.5. (b) Incomplete...the reference documents as a failure to report data under § 630.5, unless...

  10. Dopamine in the ink defence system of Sepia officinalis: biosynthesis, vesicular compartmentation in mature ink gland cells, nitric oxide (NO)/cGMP-induced depletion and fate in secreted ink.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fiore, Gabriella; Poli, Annarita; Di Cosmo, Anna; d'Ischia, Marco; Palumbo, Anna

    2004-03-15

    The biosynthesis, localization and fate of catecholamines in the ink gland of the cuttlefish Sepia officinalis were investigated by combined biochemical and immunohistocytochemical methodologies. HPLC analysis of crude ink gland extracts indicated the presence of dopa (2.18+/-0.82 nmol/mg of protein) and DA (dopamine, 0.06+/-0.02 nmol/mg of protein), but no detectable noradrenaline or adrenaline. DA was shown to derive from L-tyrosine, according to experiments performed by incubating intact ink glands with [L-14C]tyrosine. The biosynthetic process involves a tyrosine hydroxylase and a dopa decarboxylase pathway and is independent of tyrosinase. The tyrosine hydroxylase activity was detected under conditions of tyrosinase suppression in the cytosolic fraction, but not in the melanosomal fraction, of ink gland extracts, and the presence of the enzyme was confirmed by Western-blot analysis. Dopa and DA were found to be released from the ink glands by processes controlled through the NMDA-nitric oxide-cGMP (where NMDA stands for N -methyl-D-aspartate) signalling pathway, as apparent from incubation experiments performed with [L-14C]tyrosine in the presence of NMDA, diethylamine NONOate (diethylamine diazeniumdiolate), a nitric oxide donor, 8-bromo-cGMP or a guanylyl cyclase inhibitor. Immunohistochemical results coupled with electron microscopy indicated that DA was concentrated in vesicles specifically localized in the mature melanin-producing cells of the ink gland proximal to the lumen and separated from the melanin-containing melanosomes. NMDA receptor stimulation or exposure to an NO donor caused a marked loss of DA immunoreactivity in mature cells, consistent with a release process. In the lumen of the ink gland, where mature exhausted cells pour their contents, DA immunoreactivity was found to be associated with the melanin granules, due apparently to physical adsorption. Overall, these results point to DA as a marker of cell maturation in Sepia ink gland subject to release by the NO/cGMP signalling pathway, and disclose apparently overlooked DA-melanin interactions in secreted ink of possible relevance to the defence mechanism. PMID:14670074

  11. Mast cell maturation is driven via a group III phospholipase A2-prostaglandin D2–DP1 receptor paracrine axis

    OpenAIRE

    TAKETOMI, YOSHITAKA; Ueno, Noriko; Kojima, Takumi; Sato, Hiroyasu; Murase, Remi; Yamamoto, Kei; TANAKA, SATOSHI; Sakanaka, Mariko; NAKAMURA, MASANORI; Nishito, Yasumasa; Kawana, Momoko; Kambe, Naotomo; Ikeda, Kazutaka; Taguchi, Ryo; Nakamizo, Satoshi

    2013-01-01

    Microenvironment-based alterations in phenotypes of mast cells influence the susceptibility to anaphylaxis, yet the mechanisms underlying proper maturation of mast cells toward an anaphylaxis-sensitive phenotype are incompletely understood. Here we report that PLA2G3, a mammalian homolog of anaphylactic bee venom phospholipase A2, regulates this process. PLA2G3 secreted from mast cells is coupled with fibroblastic lipocalin-type PGD2 synthase (L-PGDS) to provide PGD2, which facilitates mast-c...

  12. Development and maturation of Escherichia coli K-12 biofilms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Reisner, A.; Haagensen, J.A.J.

    2003-01-01

    The development and maturation of E. coli biofilms in flow-chambers was investigated. We found that the presence of transfer constitutive IncF plasmids induced biofilm development forming structures resembling those reported for Pseudomonas aeruginosa . The development occurred in a step-wise process: (i) attachment of cells to the substratum, (ii) clonal growth and microcolony formation, and (iii) differentiation into expanding structures rising 70-100 mum into the water phase. The first two steps were the same in the plasmid-carrying and plasmid-free strains, whereas the third step only occurred in conjugation pilus proficient plasmid-carrying strains. The final shapes of the expanding structures in the mature biofilm seem to be determined by the pilus configuration, as various mutants affected in the processing and activity of the transfer pili displayed differently structured biofilms. We further provide evidence that flagella, type 1 fimbriae, curli and Ag43 are all dispensable for the observed biofilm maturation. In addition, our results indicate that cell-to-cell signalling mediated by autoinducer 2 (AI-2) is not required for differentiation of E. coli within a biofilm community. We suggest on the basis of these results that E. coli K-12 biofilm development and maturation is dependent on cell-cell adhesion factors, which may act as inducers of self-assembly processes that result in differently structured biofilms depending on the adhesive properties on the cell surface.

  13. Epigenetic and hormonal profile during maturation of Quercus Suber L. somatic embryos.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez, Marta; Viejo, Marcos; LaCuesta, Maite; Toorop, Peter; Cañal, María Jesús

    2014-09-17

    Somatic embryogenesis is a powerful alternative to conventional mass propagation of Quercus suber L. However, poor quality and incomplete maturation of somatic embryos restrict any application. Given that epigenetic and hormonal control govern many developmental stages, including maturation of zygotic embryos, global DNA methylation and abscisic acid (ABA) were analyzed during development and maturation of cork oak somatic embryos. Our results indicated that development of somatic embryos concurred with a decrease in 5-mdC. In contrast, endogenous ABA content showed a transient increase with a peak in immature E2 embryos denoting the onset of the maturation phase. A cold stratification phase was necessary for embryos to acquire germination ability, which coincided with a significant decrease in 5-mdC and ABA content. Immunohistochemical analyses showed that there was a specific spatial-temporal regulation during embryogenesis, particularly after the cold treatment. The acquisition of germination capacity concurred with a general low 5-mdC signal in the root meristem, while retention of the 5-mdC signal was mainly located in the shoot meristem and provascular tissues. Conversely, ABA immunolocalization was mainly located in the root and shoot apical meristems. Furthermore, a strong decrease in the ABA signal was observed in the root cap after the stratification treatment suggesting a role for the root cap during development of somatic embryos. These results suggest that, in addition to ABA, epigenetic control appears to play an important role for the correct maturation and subsequent germination of cork oak somatic embryos. PMID:25462078

  14. The enrichment industry reaches maturity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    As the nuclear power industry enters the 1980s, uranium enrichment supply can no longer be considered one of the critical problem areas of the nuclear fuel cycle. It has become an industrial and commercial activity which has reached a high degree of maturity. Three main aspects of this maturity are discussed: 1. the availability of enrichment services from several facilities with very diverse ownership; 2. the involvement of private industry, especially in Europe, and the application of normal commercial rules to enrichment contracts; 3. the ability of the enrichment industry to cope with recent setbacks in the advancement of nuclear power programmes whilst carrying out an active research and development programme that will help to ensure its future technical and economic viability. (U.K.)

  15. A Maturity Model of Enterprise Business Intelligence

    OpenAIRE

    Chee-Sok Tan; Yee-Wai Sim; William Yeoh

    2011-01-01

    The implementation of an enterprise-level business intelligence initiative is a large-scale and complex undertaking, involving significant expenditure and multiple stakeholders over a lengthy period. It is therefore imperative to have systematic guidelines for business intelligence stakeholders in referring business intelligence maturity levels. Draw upon the prudent concepts of the Capability Maturity Model, this research proposes a multi-dimensional maturity model with distinct maturity lev...

  16. Maturation of the adolescent brain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arain M

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Mariam Arain, Maliha Haque, Lina Johal, Puja Mathur, Wynand Nel, Afsha Rais, Ranbir Sandhu, Sushil Sharma Saint James School of Medicine, Kralendijk, Bonaire, The Netherlands Abstract: Adolescence is the developmental epoch during which children become adults – intellectually, physically, hormonally, and socially. Adolescence is a tumultuous time, full of changes and transformations. The pubertal transition to adulthood involves both gonadal and behavioral maturation. Magnetic resonance imaging studies have discovered that myelinogenesis, required for proper insulation and efficient neurocybernetics, continues from childhood and the brain's region-specific neurocircuitry remains structurally and functionally vulnerable to impulsive sex, food, and sleep habits. The maturation of the adolescent brain is also influenced by heredity, environment, and sex hormones (estrogen, progesterone, and testosterone, which play a crucial role in myelination. Furthermore, glutamatergic neurotransmission predominates, whereas gamma-aminobutyric acid neurotransmission remains under construction, and this might be responsible for immature and impulsive behavior and neurobehavioral excitement during adolescent life. The adolescent population is highly vulnerable to driving under the influence of alcohol and social maladjustments due to an immature limbic system and prefrontal cortex. Synaptic plasticity and the release of neurotransmitters may also be influenced by environmental neurotoxins and drugs of abuse including cigarettes, caffeine, and alcohol during adolescence. Adolescents may become involved with offensive crimes, irresponsible behavior, unprotected sex, juvenile courts, or even prison. According to a report by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, the major cause of death among the teenage population is due to injury and violence related to sex and substance abuse. Prenatal neglect, cigarette smoking, and alcohol consumption may also significantly impact maturation of the adolescent brain. Pharmacological interventions to regulate adolescent behavior have been attempted with limited success. Since several factors, including age, sex, disease, nutritional status, and substance abuse have a significant impact on the maturation of the adolescent brain, we have highlighted the influence of these clinically significant and socially important aspects in this report. Keywords: myelinogenesis, neurocircuitry, molecular imaging, drug addiction, behavior, social adjustment

  17. Changes in ovarian TGF-beta superfamily mRNA levels during oocyte maturation, and in response to 17,20beta-dihydroxy-4-pregnen-3-one treatment in vivo and in vitro, in rainbow trout

    Science.gov (United States)

    BACKGROUND: Follicle maturation is a complex process regulated by the coordination of diverse hormones. The mechanisms and extent to which these different hormones interact to induce oocyte maturational competence, production of the maturation-inducing hormone (MIH), and the ability of the MIH to ...

  18. Incomplete dicephalous conjoined twins: prenatal US and MRI findings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The authors report a case of incomplete dicephali conjoined twins, with prenatal diagnostic by ultrasound scan and confirmed with nuclear magnetic resonance. In this case the fetus presented two complete heads and necks, two parallel columns up to the coccyx, one single body, two complete arms and two complete legs. Thorax and abdominal organs were not double, however the heart had more than four cavities. This abnormality appears when the zygote division happens after the day 14 from fertilization and it is unable to cause the fission, resulting in an incomplete division. This kind of conjoined twins have practically no chance of surviving, due to the large number of shared organs. The prenatal diagnosis is important to separate these cases from those with a chance of living with surgical intervention. (author)

  19. Inpatient capsule endoscopy leads to frequent incomplete small bowel examinations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cemal Yazici

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available AIM: To examine the predictive factors of capsule endoscopy (CE completion rate (CECR including the effect of inpatient and outpatient status. METHODS: We identified 355 consecutive patients who completed CE at Rush University Medical Center between March 2003 and October 2005. Subjects for CE had either nothing by mouth or clear liquids for the afternoon and evening of the day before the procedure. CE exams were reviewed by two physicians who were unaware of the study hypotheses. After retrospective analysis, 21 cases were excluded due to capsule malfunction, prior gastric surgery, endoscopic capsule placement or insufficient data. Of the remaining 334 exams [264 out-patient (OP, 70 in-patient (IP], CE indications, findings, location of the patients [IP vs OP and intensive care unit (ICU vs general medical floor (GMF] and gastrointestinal transit times were analyzed. Statistical analysis was completed using SPSS version 17 (Chicago, IL. Chi-square, t test or fisher exact-tests were used as appropriate. Multivariate logistic regression analysis was used to identify variables associated with incomplete CE exams. RESULTS: The mean age for the entire study population was 54.7 years. Sixty-one percent of the study population was female, and gender was not different between IPs vs OPs (P = 0.07. The overall incomplete CECR was 14% in our study. Overt obscure gastrointestinal bleeding (OGB was significantly more common for the IP CE (P = 0.0001, while abdominal pain and assessment of IBD were more frequent indications for the OP CE exams (P = 0.002 and P = 0.01, respectively. Occult OGB was the most common indication and arteriovenous malformations were the most common finding both in the IPs and OPs. The capsule did not enter the small bowel (SB in 6/70 IPs and 8/264 OPs (P = 0.04. The capsule never reached the cecum in 31.4% (22/70 of IP vs 9.5% (25/ 264 of OP examinations (P < 0.001. The mean gastric transit time (GTT was delayed in IPs compared to OPs, 98.5 ± 139.5 min vs 60.4 ± 92.6 min (P = 0.008. Minimal SB transit time was significantly prolonged in the IP compared to the OP setting [IP = 275.1 ± 111.6 min vs OP = 244.0 ± 104.3 min (P = 0.037]. CECR was also significantly higher in the subgroup of patients with OGB who had OP vs IP exams (95% vs 80% respectively, P = 0.001. The proportion of patients with incomplete exams was higher in the ICU (n = 7/13, 54% as compared to the GMF (n = 15/57, 26% (P = 0.05. There was only a single permanent SB retention case which was secondary to a previously unknown SB stricture, and the remaining incomplete SB exams were due to slow transit. Medications which affect gastrointestinal system motility were tested both individually and also in aggregate in univariate analysis in hospitalized patients (ICU and GMF and were not predictive of incomplete capsule passage (P > 0.05. Patient location (IP vs OP and GTT were independent predictors of incomplete CE exams (P < 0.001 and P = 0.008, respectively. CONCLUSION: Incomplete CE is a multifactorial problem. Patient location and related factors such as severity of illness and sedentary status may contribute to incomplete exams.

  20. G\\"odel Incompleteness and the Black Hole Information Paradox

    CERN Document Server

    Srikanth, R

    2007-01-01

    The black hole information paradox suggests that the process by which an object collapses into a black hole and then evaporates by emitting Hawking radiation may destroy information. Further, there seems to be no unique prediction on where the information about the collapsing body is localized. We argue that the latter aspect of the paradox is a manifestation of an inconsistent self-reference in the semiclassical theory of black hole evolution. This suggests the inadequacy of the semiclassical approach or that standard quantum mechanics and general relavity are fundamentally incompatible. One option for its resolution is to identify the G\\"odel-like incompleteness that corresponds to an imposition of consistency, and introduce possibly new physics that supplies this incompleteness. Another option is to modify the theory in such a way as to prohibit self-reference. We discuss various possible scenarios to implement these options, including eternally collapsing objects, black hole remnants, black hole final sta...

  1. On the general properties of symmetric incomplete Airy beams.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jáuregui, R; Quinto-Su, P A

    2014-11-01

    We study the general properties of a class of Airy beams symmetric under reflection of the transverse coordinates. Following a recent proposal, their angular spectra depend on the absolute value of the third power of the transverse components of the wave vector. The proposed beams are shown to be described by symmetric superpositions of incomplete Airy special functions. Their angular spectra do not correspond to any of those described by standard catastrophe optics. However, the morphologies of the symmetric beams are similar to some of those already classified within that scheme, differing mainly on the scaling exponents. Finally, the structural stability of three-dimensional symmetric incomplete Airy beams is experimentally probed. PMID:25401361

  2. Quantum Stackelberg Duopoly with Continuous Distributed Incomplete Information

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A general model of the quantum Stackelberg duopoly is constructed by introducing the 'minimal' quantum structure into the Stackelberg duopoly with continuous distributed incomplete information, where both players only know the continuous distribution of the competitor's unit cost. In this model, the cases with complete information, discrete distributed incomplete information, and continuous distributed asymmetric information are all involved. Because of different roles played by the total information uncertainty and the information asymmetry, the game exhibits some new interesting features, such as the total information uncertainty can counteract or improve the first-mover advantage according to the value of the quantum entanglement. What's more, this general model will be helpful for the government to reduce the abuses of oligopolistic competition and to improve the economic efficiency

  3. Diagnosis and treatment of incomplete occlusion of fallopian tube

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Incomplete occlusion of fallopian tube is a common cause for fallopian tubal infertility. However, the spontaneous intrauterine pregnancy rate may be increased after the patients receive appropriate diagnosis and treatment. Laparoscopy combined with hysteroscopy has been regarded to be a golden standard for diagnosis and treatment of fallopian tubal infertility, but its clinical application has been markedly limited due to its invasiveness and great expense. As the first-line screening technique, hysterosalpingography has been widely used to evaluate the fallopian tube patency. Selective salpingography and fallopian tube recanalization are more superior to hysterosalpingography in diagnosing and treating incomplete occlusion of fallopian tube. Selective salpingography and fallopian tube recanalization can even be on a par with laparoscopy, and moreover, can dynamically observe the fallopian tube function as well. As a safe and economical technique with fewer side-effects, selective salpingography plus fallopian tube recanalization has been more widely employed in clinical practice. (authors)

  4. Bayesian Inference of Natural Rankings in Incomplete Competition Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Juyong; Yook, Soon-Hyung

    2014-08-01

    Competition between a complex system's constituents and a corresponding reward mechanism based on it have profound influence on the functioning, stability, and evolution of the system. But determining the dominance hierarchy or ranking among the constituent parts from the strongest to the weakest - essential in determining reward and penalty - is frequently an ambiguous task due to the incomplete (partially filled) nature of competition networks. Here we introduce the ``Natural Ranking,'' an unambiguous ranking method applicable to a round robin tournament, and formulate an analytical model based on the Bayesian formula for inferring the expected mean and error of the natural ranking of nodes from an incomplete network. We investigate its potential and uses in resolving important issues of ranking by applying it to real-world competition networks.

  5. Consumption-Portfolio Optimization with Recursive Utility in Incomplete Markets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kraft, Holger; Seifried, Frank Thomas

    2013-01-01

    In an incomplete market, we study the optimal consumption-portfolio decision of an investor with recursive preferences of Epstein–Zin type. Applying a classical dynamic programming approach, we formulate the associated Hamilton–Jacobi–Bellman equation and provide a suitable verification theorem. The proof of this verification theorem is complicated by the fact that the Epstein–Zin aggregator is non-Lipschitz, so standard verification results (e.g. in Duffie and Epstein, Econometrica 60, 393–394, 1992) are not applicable. We provide new explicit solutions to the Bellman equation with Epstein–Zin preferences in an incomplete market for non-unit elasticity of intertemporal substitution (EIS) and apply our verification result to prove that they solve the consumption-investment problem. We also compare our exact solutions to the Campbell–Shiller approximation and assess its accuracy.

  6. Double-level Incomplete Spinal Cord Injuries: A case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saeed Bin Ayaz

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Brown-Séquard Syndrome is a type of Incomplete Spinal Cord Injury characterized by a relatively greater ipsilateral loss of proprioception and motor function, with contralateral loss of pain and temperature sensations. The residual deficits in balance produced by such injury may render a person liable to fall that may result in vertebral fracture and another injury to the spinal cord. We present here a case who initially had Brown-Séquard Syndrome due to penetrating knife injury to the neck and later on developed Cauda Equina Syndrome (another Incomplete Spinal Cord Injury due to fractured LV1 following a fall. The fracture was fixed through Pedicle Screws and the patient underwent effective rehabilitation to gain maximum achievable independence in functional activities. [Cukurova Med J 2014; 39(2.000: 392-398

  7. Incomplete RCCA Insertion Observations in Westinghouse-Fueled Plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper (a series of slides) describes some incomplete RCCA insertion events (1995-1996) in Westinghouse-fueled plants. It presents the safety assessments that have been conducted, the determination of susceptible plants and root cause, a site testing program that has been completed and its results, hot cell testing and results, a review of manufacturing and material properties, industry and operational experience, mechanical model conclusions, and susceptible design evaluation. As a conclusion, the incomplete RCCA insertion was due to excessive thimble tube distortion, distortion caused by excessive fuel assembly compressive load, and compressive load caused by high fuel assembly growth. The high growth is due to a combination of oxide accumulation, accelerated growth, both being temperature sensitive; the high growth is only observed in high temperature plants with certain types of power histories

  8. Comparison of incomplete burn condition between MELCOR and MAAP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The ignition criteria and the completeness of combustion with and without ignition source are compared between MELCOR and MAAP, which are two representative severe accident analysis codes. While MELCOR uses a simple correlation to determine the ignition criteria, MAAP constructs a flammability limit diagram based on gas temperature and various gas mole fraction. If there is no ignition source, then both codes estimate only the complete combustion as long as the ignition criteria are satisfied. If the ignition source is available, the incomplete burn as well as the complete burn is allowed in the two codes. As the gas temperature increases, MAAP predicts combustion initiation at the lower fuel concentration and MAAP calculates a wider range of fuel concentration for the incomplete burn. Also, the default values set in MELCOR generates similar ignition criteria to MAAP for the gas temperature of 500K

  9. Incomplete nonextensive statistics and the zeroth law of thermodynamics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    On the basis of the entropy of incomplete statistics (IS) and the joint probability factorization condition, two controversial problems existing in IS are investigated: one is what expression of the internal energy is reasonable for a composite system and the other is whether the traditional zeroth law of thermodynamics is suitable for IS. Some new equivalent expressions of the internal energy of a composite system are derived through accurate mathematical calculation. Moreover, a self-consistent calculation is used to expound that the zeroth law of thermodynamics is also suitable for IS, but it cannot be proven theoretically. Finally, it is pointed out that the generalized zeroth law of thermodynamics for incomplete nonextensive statistics is unnecessary and the nonextensive assumptions for the composite internal energy will lead to mathematical contradiction. (general)

  10. Introduction of misoprostol for the treatment of incomplete abortion beyond 12 weeks of pregnancy in Benin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adisso, Sosthène; Hounkpatin, Benjamin I B; Komongui, Gounnou D; Sambieni, Olivier; Perrin, René X

    2014-07-01

    Improving the care of women who have undergone a spontaneous or induced abortion is an important step in reducing abortion-related morbidity and mortality. Both the International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics (FIGO) and the World Health Organization recommend the use of manual vacuum aspiration (MVA) and misoprostol rather than sharp curettage to treat incomplete abortion. MVA was introduced into the public healthcare service in Benin in 2006 and since 2008 misoprostol has been available in 3 large maternity hospitals. The present study opted to use an oral dose of 800 ?g and not to limit to pregnancies of up to 12 weeks, but to include women with second trimester abortions. After 5 years, results show that around three-quarters of the women treated with misoprostol at 13-18 weeks of pregnancy required MVA to complete uterine evacuation and approximately one-quarter had severe bleeding, confirming that the indication of misoprostol for incomplete abortion should be limited to pregnancies of up to 12 weeks. PMID:24800660

  11. Hedging options including transaction costs in incomplete markets

    OpenAIRE

    Safarian, Mher

    2014-01-01

    In this paper we study a hedging problem for European options taking into account the presence of transaction costs. In incomplete markets, i.e. markets without classical restriction, there exists a unique martingale measure. Our approach is based on the Föllmer-Schweizer-Sondermann concept of risk minimizing. In discret time Markov market mo del we construct a risk minimizing strategy by backwards iteration. The strategy gives a closed-form formula. A continuous time market mo del using mar...

  12. Expectation-maximization estimators for incompletely observed data

    OpenAIRE

    Vasi? Vladimir V.

    2004-01-01

    Expectation-maximization is a broadly applicable approach to the iterative computation of maximum likelihood estimates. Each iteration of expectation-maximization method consists of two steps: the expectation step and the maximization step. Expectation-maximization method is useful in a variety of problems where the maximum likelihood estimates are very difficult to find. The basic idea of expectation-maximization method is to relate incomplete data problems to complete data problems where es...

  13. Pricing the Option to Surrender in Incomplete Markets

    OpenAIRE

    Consiglio, Andrea; Giovanni, Domenico

    2007-01-01

    New international accounting standards require insurers to reflect the value of embedded options and guarantees in their products. Pricing techniques based on the Black & Scholes paradigm are often used, however, the hypotheses underneath this model are rarely met. We propose a framework that encompasses the most known sources of incompleteness. We show that the surrender option, joined with a wide range of claims embedded in insurance contracts, can be priced through our tool, and deliver he...

  14. Distributed control systems with incomplete and uncertain information

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Jingpeng

    Scientific and engineering advances in wireless communication, sensors, propulsion, and other areas are rapidly making it possible to develop unmanned air vehicles (UAVs) with sophisticated capabilities. UAVs have come to the forefront as tools for airborne reconnaissance to search for, detect, and destroy enemy targets in relatively complex environments. They potentially reduce risk to human life, are cost effective, and are superior to manned aircraft for certain types of missions. It is desirable for UAVs to have a high level of intelligent autonomy to carry out mission tasks with little external supervision and control. This raises important issues involving tradeoffs between centralized control and the associated potential to optimize mission plans, and decentralized control with great robustness and the potential to adapt to changing conditions. UAV capabilities have been extended several ways through armament (e.g., Hellfire missiles on Predator UAVs), increased endurance and altitude (e.g., Global Hawk), and greater autonomy. Some known barriers to full-scale implementation of UAVs are increased communication and control requirements as well as increased platform and system complexity. One of the key problems is how UAV systems can handle incomplete and uncertain information in dynamic environments. Especially when the system is composed of heterogeneous and distributed UAVs, the overall system complexity is increased under such conditions. Presented through the use of published papers, this dissertation lays the groundwork for the study of methodologies for handling incomplete and uncertain information for distributed control systems. An agent-based simulation framework is built to investigate mathematical approaches (optimization) and emergent intelligence approaches. The first paper provides a mathematical approach for systems of UAVs to handle incomplete and uncertain information. The second paper describes an emergent intelligence approach for UAVs, again in handling incomplete and uncertain information. The third paper combines mathematical and emergent intelligence approaches.

  15. Incomplete Lineage Sorting: Consistent Phylogeny Estimation From Multiple Loci

    CERN Document Server

    Mossel, Elchanan

    2008-01-01

    We introduce a simple algorithm for reconstructing phylogenies from multiple gene trees in the presence of incomplete lineage sorting, that is, when the topology of the gene trees may differ from that of the species tree. We show that our technique is statistically consistent under standard stochastic assumptions, that is, it returns the correct tree given sufficiently many unlinked loci. We also show that it can tolerate moderate estimation errors.

  16. Monetary Policy with Incomplete Exchange Rate Pass-Through

    OpenAIRE

    Adolfson, Malin

    2001-01-01

    The central bank's optimal reaction to foreign and domestic shocks is analyzed in an inflation targeting model allowing for incomplete exchange rate pass-through. Limited pass-through is incorporated through nominal rigidities in an aggregate supply-aggregate demand model derived from some microfoundations. Three main results are obtained. First, the results suggest that the interest rate response to foreign shocks is smaller when pass-through is low. Second, the inflation-output variability ...

  17. A Multi-Threshold Granulation Model for Incomplete Decision Tables

    OpenAIRE

    Renpu Li; Tao Yu; Chunjie Zhou; Hongbo Li

    2014-01-01

    How to establish basic granules of knowledge is a fundamental issue for data mining from incomplete decision tables. In the existing methods, basic granules under similarity relation contain too many objects and disturb the later knowledge mining, while granules under limited similarity relation, although simplifying the granules through introducing a limited threshold on two objects satisfying similarity relation, still have problems such as high computation and low prediction precision. In ...

  18. The Risky Value in the Capital Market of Incomplete Information

    OpenAIRE

    Xuhong Tan; Mingjun Tan

    2009-01-01

    Risk is everywhere, especially in the capital market of incomplete information, which is full of speculation, so it is particularly important for investors to define risk, identify risks, and control the investment activities with the application of risk value to. It is analyzed quantitatively on risk value in the paper, with the Knowledge of game theory, economics and mathematical statistics, on the basis of the explanation of risk and risk value.

  19. A hierarchical nest survival model integrating incomplete temporally varying covariates

    OpenAIRE

    Converse, Sarah J.; Royle, J. Andrew; Adler, Peter H.; Urbanek, Richard P.; Barzen, Jeb A.

    2013-01-01

    Nest success is a critical determinant of the dynamics of avian populations, and nest survival modeling has played a key role in advancing avian ecology and management. Beginning with the development of daily nest survival models, and proceeding through subsequent extensions, the capacity for modeling the effects of hypothesized factors on nest survival has expanded greatly. We extend nest survival models further by introducing an approach to deal with incompletely observed, temporally varyin...

  20. The Risky Value in the Capital Market of Incomplete Information

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xuhong Tan

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available Risk is everywhere, especially in the capital market of incomplete information, which is full of speculation, so it is particularly important for investors to define risk, identify risks, and control the investment activities with the application of risk value to. It is analyzed quantitatively on risk value in the paper, with the Knowledge of game theory, economics and mathematical statistics, on the basis of the explanation of risk and risk value.

  1. Some remarks on marginally trapped surfaces and geodesic incompleteness

    OpenAIRE

    Silva, I. P. Costa e

    2012-01-01

    In a recent paper, Eichmair, Galloway and Pollack have proved a Gannon-Lee-type singularity theorem based on the existence of marginally outer trapped surfaces (MOTS) on noncompact initial data sets for globally hyperbolic spacetimes. However, one might wonder whether the corresponding incomplete geodesics could still be complete in a possible non-globally hyperbolic extension of spacetime. In this note, some variants of that result are given with weaker causality assumption...

  2. Hilbert's Incompleteness, Chaitin's $\\Omega$ number and Quantum Physics

    OpenAIRE

    Kieu, Tien D

    2001-01-01

    To explore the limitation of a class of quantum algorithms originally proposed for the Hilbert's tenth problem, we consider two further classes of mathematically non-decidable problems, those of a modified version of the Hilbert's tenth problem and of the computation of the Chaitin's $\\Omega$ number, which is a representation of the G\\"odel's Incompletness theorem. Some interesting connection to Quantum Field Theory is pointed out.

  3. Causal Incompleteness: A New Perspective on Quantum Non-locality

    OpenAIRE

    T.N.Palmer

    2005-01-01

    The mathematical notion of incompleteness (eg of rational numbers, Turing-computable functions, and arithmetic proof) does not play a key role in conventional physics. Here, a reformulation of the kinematics of quantum theory is attempted, based on an inherently granular and discontinuous state space, in which the quantum wavefunction is associated with a finite set of finite bit strings, and the unitary transformations of complex Hilbert space are reformulated as finite per...

  4. Einstein, incompleteness, and the epistemic view of quantum states

    OpenAIRE

    Harrigan, Nicholas; Robert W Spekkens

    2007-01-01

    Does the quantum state represent reality or our knowledge of reality? In making this distinction precise, we are led to a novel classification of hidden variable models of quantum theory. Indeed, representatives of each class can be found among existing constructions for two-dimensional Hilbert spaces. Our approach also provides a fruitful new perspective on arguments for the nonlocality and incompleteness of quantum theory. Specifically, we show that for models wherein the ...

  5. Tax and Transfer Programs in an Incomplete Markets Model

    OpenAIRE

    Alonso Ortiz, Jorge; Rogerson, Richard

    2009-01-01

    We assess the consequences of increases in the scale of tax and transfer programs in the context of a model with idiosyncratic productivity shocks and incomplete markets. We contrast the outcomes for both hours worked and welfare relative to the results obtained in a stand-in household model, featuring no idiosyncratic shocks and complete markets. Our main finding is that the impact on hours remains very large, but the welfare consequences are very different. The analysis also suggests that t...

  6. Pareto improving social security reform when financial markets are incomplete!?

    OpenAIRE

    Krueger, Dirk; Kubler, Felix

    2005-01-01

    This paper studies an overlapping generations model with stochastic production and incomplete markets to assess whether the introduction of an unfunded social security system leads to a Pareto improvement. When returns to capital and wages are imperfectly correlated a system that endows retired households with claims to labor income enhances the sharing of aggregate risk between generations. Our quantitative analysis shows that, abstracting from the capital crowding-out effect, the introducti...

  7. Acute inflammation at a mandibular solitary horizontal incompletely impacted molar

    OpenAIRE

    Minoru Yamaoka; Yusuke Ono; Masahide Ishizuka; Yoko Hasumi-Nakayama; Ryosuke Doto; Kouichi Yasuda; Takashi Uematsu; Kiyofumi Furusawa

    2009-01-01

    Minoru Yamaoka, Yusuke Ono, Masahide Ishizuka, Yoko Hasumi-Nakayama, Ryosuke Doto, Kouichi Yasuda, Takashi Uematsu, Kiyofumi FurusawaOral and Maxillofacial Surgery, Matsumoto Dental University School of Dentistry, Shiojiri, Nagano, JapanAbstract: Acute inflammation is frequently seen in the elderly around incompletely impacted molars located apart from molars or premolars. To identify the factors causing acute inflammation in the solitary molars without second molars or without second and fir...

  8. An implication of G\\"odel's incompleteness theorem

    CERN Document Server

    Kitada, Hitoshi

    2009-01-01

    A proof of G\\"odel's incompleteness theorem is given. With this new proof a transfinite extension of G\\"odel's theorem is considered. It is shown that if one assumes the set theory ZFC on the meta level as well as on the object level, a contradiction arises. The cause is shown to be the implicit identification of the meta level and the object level hidden behind the G\\"odel numbering. An implication of these considerations is stated.

  9. Recursive equilibrium in endogenous growth models with incomplete markets

    OpenAIRE

    Krebs, Tom

    2002-01-01

    This paper analyzes the existence of recursive equilibria in a class of convex growth models with incomplete markets. Households have identical CRRA-preferences, production displays constant returns to scale with respect to physical and human capital, and all markets are competitive. There are aggregate productivity shocks that affect the aggregate returns to physical and human capital investment (stock returns and wages), and there are idiosyncratic shocks to human capital (idiosyncratic dep...

  10. Pareto improving price regulation when the asset market is incomplete

    OpenAIRE

    Herings, Jean-jacques; Polemarchakis, Heracles M.

    2001-01-01

    When the asset market is incomplete, competitive equilibria are constrained suboptimal, which provides a scope for pareto improving interventions. Price regulation can be such a pareto improving policy, even when the welfare effects of rationing are taken into account. An appealing aspect of price regulation is that it that it operates anonymously on market variables. Fix - price equilibria exist under weak assumptions. Such equilibria permit a competitive analysis of an economy with an incom...

  11. Using Incomplete Citation Data for MEDLINE Results Ranking

    OpenAIRE

    Herskovic, Jorge R.; Bernstam, Elmer V.

    2005-01-01

    Information overload is a significant problem for modern medicine. Searching MEDLINE for common topics often retrieves more relevant documents than users can review. Therefore, we must identify documents that are not only relevant, but also important. Our system ranks articles using citation counts and the PageRank algorithm, incorporating data from the Science Citation Index. However, citation data is usually incomplete. Therefore, we explore the relationship between the qu...

  12. Incomplete quantum process tomography and principle of maximal entropy

    OpenAIRE

    Ziman, Mario

    2008-01-01

    The main goal of this paper is to extend and apply the principle of maximum entropy (MaxEnt) to incomplete quantum process estimation tasks. We will define a so-called process entropy function being the von Neumann entropy of the state associated with the quantum process via Choi-Jamiolkowski isomorphism. It will be shown that an arbitrary process estimation experiment can be reformulated in a unified framework and MaxEnt principle can be consistently exploited. We will argu...

  13. Finding the solution for incomplete small bowel capsule endoscopy

    OpenAIRE

    Cotter, Jorge

    2013-01-01

    To evaluate whether the use of real time viewer (RTV) and administration of domperidone to patients with delayed gastric passage of the capsule could reduce the rate of incomplete examinations (IE) and improve the diagnostic yield of small bowel capsule endoscopy (SBCE). METHODS: Prospective single center interventional study, from June 2012 to February 2013. Capsule location was systematically checked one hour after ingestion using RTV. If it remained in the stomach, the patient rec...

  14. Optimal portfolio selection and compression in an incomplete market

    OpenAIRE

    Dokuchaev, Nikolai; Haussmann, Ulrich

    2002-01-01

    We investigate an optimal investment problem with a general performance criterion which, in particular, includes discontinuous functions. Prices are modeled as diffusions and the market is incomplete. We find an explicit solution for the case of limited diversification of the portfolio, i.e. for the portfolio compression problem. By this we mean that an admissible strategies may include no more than m different stocks concurrently, where m may be less than the total number n...

  15. Optimal portfolio selection and compression in an incomplete market

    CERN Document Server

    Dokuchaev, N; Dokuchaev, Nikolai; Haussmann, Ulrich

    2001-01-01

    We investigate an optimal investment problem with a general performance criterion which, in particular, includes discontinuous functions. Prices are modeled as diffusions and the market is incomplete. We find an explicit solution for the case of limited diversification of the portfolio, i.e. for the portfolio compression problem. By this we mean that an admissible strategies may include no more than m different stocks concurrently, where m may be less than the total number n of available stocks.

  16. Incomplete domain decomposition preconditioning for coarse mesh neutron diffusion problems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Incomplete domain decomposition preconditioning for parallel implementation of the conjugate gradient-like methods is applied to solve the two-group, three-dimensional, coarse mesh finite differenced neutron diffusion equation on the PARAGON XP/S-10 parallel computer. The linear system resulting from implicit time differencing of the time-dependent neutron diffusion equation is solved by the preconditioned biconjugate gradient squared method without employing the fission source iteration. An efficient domain decomposition preconditioning scheme is constructed by taking advantage of strong diagonal dominance of the coarse mesh finite difference formulation. Simplifications are made in the incomplete LU factorization process to construct a preconditioner for a three dimensional subdomain and the coupling between subdomains is approximated by incorporating only the effect of the non-leakage terms of neighboring subdomains. The method is applied to quarter core and full core fixed source problems which are created from the IAEA three-dimensional benchmark problem. Results show that on a single processor the computation time for the preconditioned biconjugate gradient method is comparable to other conventional iteration methods such as Line-SOR and the cyclic Chebyshev semi-iterative method. The effectiveness of the incomplete domain decomposition preconditioning on a multi-processor is evidenced by the small increase in the number of iterations as the number of subdomains of iterations as the number of subdomains increases. Speedups up to 32.1 are achievable with 64 processing elements for a 34x34x36 full core three-dimensional problem

  17. Acute inflammation at a mandibular solitary horizontal incompletely impacted molar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Minoru Yamaoka

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Minoru Yamaoka, Yusuke Ono, Masahide Ishizuka, Yoko Hasumi-Nakayama, Ryosuke Doto, Kouichi Yasuda, Takashi Uematsu, Kiyofumi FurusawaOral and Maxillofacial Surgery, Matsumoto Dental University School of Dentistry, Shiojiri, Nagano, JapanAbstract: Acute inflammation is frequently seen in the elderly around incompletely impacted molars located apart from molars or premolars. To identify the factors causing acute inflammation in the solitary molars without second molars or without second and first molars, ages of patients and rates of acute inflammation in 75 horizontal incompletely impacted mandibular molars in contact or not in contact with molars in subjects 41 years old or older were studied using orthopantomographs. Acute inflammation was seen in nine third molars out of 48 third molars in contact with second molars (18.8%, whereas acute inflammation was seen in 11 molars out of 19 solitary molars without second molars or without first and second molars (57.9% (p < 0.01. The mean age of 48 subjects with third molars in contact with the second molar was 50.42 ± 7.62 years, and the mean age of 19 subjects with isolated molars was 65.16 ± 10.41 years (p < 0.0001. These indicate that a solitary horizontal incompletely impacted molar leads more frequently to acute inflammation along with aging due to possible bone resorption resulting from teeth loss.Keywords: mandible, third molar, impaction, elderly, acute inflammation, solitary molar

  18. Evaluating an Investment Project in an Incomplete Market

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    George Yungchih Wang

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Many studies on real options base their arguments upon the assumption thatsecurity market is complete to apply the risk-neutral valuation technique. However, whenthe market is incomplete, in which investment risk is not spanned by existing assets, theinvestor?s preferences are not risk-neutral, or management is refrained from certain tradingstrategies, there may exist no unique martingale price of uncertain income streams. In thispaper, a dynamic-programming framework for maximizing expected utility of an investor indiscrete time is presented to evaluate an investment opportunity in an incomplete market.It is suggested that certainty equivalent (CE could be applied to value such an investmentopportunity. We show that two approaches to certainty equivalent, i.e., the buying price andthe selling price approaches, are exactly equal in exponential utility, implying that CE is afair value for both the buyer and the seller in an incomplete market, subject to the degree ofrisk aversion. Therefore, the proposed approach, compared to other alternative approaches,is relatively intuitive and easy to apply. With the classic investment problem, it is shownthat the option embedded in a project is crucial in decision-making.

  19. Oocyte Maturation Process and Affecting Factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yurdun Kuyucu

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Normal female fertility depends on normally occuring oogenesis and maturation progress. Oogenesis and folliculogenesis are different progresses but occure in a harmony and at the same time. Oogenesis includes the events that take place matur ovum produced from primordial germ cells. Although folliculogenesis includes the stages primordial, primary, secondary, matur (Graaf follicules in the influece of gonadotropines and local growth factors. During oocyte maturation meiosis is distrupted till the puberty. Under LH influence it starts again and first meiosis completes before ovulation. Oocyte maturation can be regarded as the process of coming metaphase II from prophase I of oocyte at the puberty and can be studied as nuclear and cytoplasmic maturation. Meiosis is completed when fertilization occures and zygot is formed. In this article oogenesis, folliculogenesis and oocyte maturation process are summerized with related studies and reiews are revised. [Archives Medical Review Journal 2009; 18(4.000: 227-240

  20. [Maturation of the hemagglutinin and neuraminidase polypeptides of the influenza virus in infected cells].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Selimova, L M; Akishpaeva, O T; Za?des, V M

    1981-01-01

    Maturation of virus-specific hemagglutinin and neuraminidase polypeptides was studied in chick embryo fibroblasts infected with influenza A virus, the WSN strain. Hemagglutinin maturation is accompanied by a decrease in the electrophoretic mobility of the protein. The processes occurring in maturation are localized on the part of the molecule corresponding to the major hemagglutinin subunit. The previously reported virus-induced proteins III and IV have been identified as immature precursor and mature polypeptide of virus neuraminidase, respectively. This is concluded on the basis of the membrane localization of both proteins, the presence of sugars in at least one of them, the antigenic specificity of the proteins, their behavior in electrophoresis under nonreducing conditions, as well as the results of "pulse'chase" label experiments. The nature of the modifications accompanying viral neuraminidase maturation remains obscure; some possibilities are considered. PMID:7293166

  1. A proliferation-inducing ligand sustains the proliferation of human naïve (CD27(-)) B cells and mediates their differentiation into long-lived plasma cells in vitro via transmembrane activator and calcium modulator and cyclophilin ligand interactor and B-cell mature antigen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsuda, Yoshiko; Haneda, Masataka; Kadomatsu, Kenji; Kobayashi, Takaaki

    2015-06-01

    Long-lived plasma cells (PCs) contribute to humoral immunity through an undefined mechanism. Memory B cells, but not human naïve B cells, can be induced to differentiate into long-lived PCs in vitro. Because evidence links a proliferation-inducing ligand (APRIL), a tumor necrosis factor family member, to the ability of bone marrow to mediate long-term PC survival, we reasoned that APRIL influences the proliferation and differentiation of naïve B cells. We describe here the development of a simple cell culture system that allowed us to show that APRIL sustained the proliferation of naïve human B cells and induced them to differentiate into long-lived PCs. Blocking the transmembrane activator and calcium modulator and cyclophilin ligand interactor or B-cell mature antigen shows they were required for the differentiation of naïve B cells into long-lived PCs in vitro. Our in vitro culture system will reveal new insights into the biology of long-lived PCs. PMID:25880104

  2. Vascular endothelial growth factor inhibits dendritic cell maturation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luciana Cavalheiro Marti

    2005-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective: In this paper we investigated the effects of vascularendothelial growth factor on dendritic cells differentiation andmaturation from monocytic precursors. Methods: CD14+/CD34-progenitor cells were obtained from umbilical cord blood, purifiedby magnetic cell sorting, and cultivated with IL-4 and GM-CSF, inthe presence or absence of vascular endothelial growth factor.Maturation of dendritic cells was induced after six days of cultureby 24h-treatment with lipopolysaccharide (LPS. Results:Expression of marker proteins for immature (CD14 and DC-SIGNand mature(CD83 dendritic cells was detected by fluorescencemicroscopy and flow cytometry using monoclonal antibodies(mAb. Under proper differentiating conditions, treatment withvascular endothelial growth factor did not change the expressionof immature DC markers. Following maturation with LPS, increasedamount of CD14+ and DC-SIGN+ cells and decreased CD83+ cellpopulation were detected in vascular endothelial growth factortreatedcultures. Conclusions: Our data suggest that vascularendothelial growth factor does not affect the differentiation ofCD14+/CD34- progenitor cells into immature dendritic cells, butit reduces the efficiency of dendritic cells maturation in vitro. Thisvascular endothelial growth factor-mediated effect on dendriticcells function may influence anti-tumor immune responses.

  3. Isospin Dependence of Incomplete Fusion Reactions at 25 Mev/a

    CERN Document Server

    Amorini, F; Giuliani, G; Papa, M; Agodi, C; Alba, R; Anzalone, A; Berceanu, I; Cavallaro, S; Chatterjee, M B; Coniglione, R; De Filippo, E; Di Pietro, A; Geraci, E; Grassi, L; Grzeszczuk, A; Figuera, P; La Guidara, E; Lanzalone, G; Neindre, N Le; Lombardo, I; Maiolino, C; Pagano, A; Pirrone, S; Politi, G; Pop, A; Porto, F; Rizzo, F; Russotto, P; Santonocito, D; Sapienza, P; Verde, G

    2008-01-01

    40Ca+40,48Ca,46Ti reactions at 25 MeV/A have been studied using the 4p CHIMERA detector. An isospin effect on the competition between incomplete fusion and dissipative binary reaction mechanisms has been observed. The probability of producing a compound system is observed to be lower in the case of N=Z colliding systems as compared to the case of reactions induced on the more neutron rich 48Ca target. Predictions based on CoMD-II calculations show that the competition between fusion-like and dissipative reactions, for the selected centrality, can strongly constraint the parameterization of symmetry energy and its density dependence in the nuclear equation of state.

  4. Factors involved in the maturation of murine dendritic cells transduced with adenoviral vector variants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adenoviral vector (Ad)-mediated gene transfer is an attractive method for manipulating the immunostimulatory properties of dendritic cells (DCs) for cancer immunotherapy. DCs treated with Ad have phenotype alterations (maturation) that facilitate T cell sensitization. We investigated the mechanisms of DC maturation with Ad transduction. Expression levels of a maturation marker (CD40) on DCs treated with conventional Ad, fiber-modified Ads (AdRGD, AdF35, AdF35?RGD), or a different serotype Ad (Ad35) were correlated with their transduction efficacy. The ?v-integrin directional Ad, AdRGD, exhibited the most potent ability to enhance both foreign gene expression and CD40 expression, and induced secretion of interleukin-12, tumor necrosis factor-?, and interferon-? in DCs. The presence of a foreign gene expression cassette in AdRGD was not necessary for DC maturation. Maturation of DCs treated with AdRGD was suppressed by destruction of the Ad genome, inhibition of endocytosis, or endosome acidification, whereas proteasome inhibition increased CD40 expression levels on DCs. Moreover, inhibition of ?v-integrin signal transduction and blockade of cytokine secretion affected the maturation of DCs treated with AdRGD only slightly or not at all, respectively. Thus, our data provide evidence that Ad-induced DC maturation is due to Ad invasion of the DCs, followed by nuclear transport of the Ad genome, and not to the expression of foreign genes expression of foreign genes

  5. Purine metabolism in myeloid precursor cells during maturation. Studies with the HL-60 cell line.

    OpenAIRE

    Lucas, D. L.; Webster, H. K.; Wright, D. G.

    1983-01-01

    In studies with the human promyelocytic leukemia cell line HL-60, we defined changes in intermediary purine metabolism that appear to contribute to the regulation of terminal maturation in myeloid cells. When HL-60 cells were exposed to compounds that induce maturation, consistent alterations in purine metabolism were found to occur within 24 h of culture. Perturbation of guanosine nucleotide synthesis and decreases of up to 50% in intracellular guanylate pool sizes were associated with the i...

  6. The classical progesterone receptor mediates Xenopus oocyte maturation through a nongenomic mechanism

    OpenAIRE

    Bayaa, Mustafa; Booth, Ronald A.; Sheng, Yinglun; Liu, X. Johne?

    2000-01-01

    Xenopus laevis oocytes are physiologically arrested at G2 of meiosis I. Resumption of meiosis, or oocyte maturation, is triggered by progesterone. Progesterone-induced Xenopus oocyte maturation is mediated via an extranuclear receptor and is independent of gene transcription. The identity of this extranuclear oocyte progesterone receptor (PR), however, has remained a longstanding problem. We have isolated the amphibian homologue of human PR from a Xenopus oocyt...

  7. Mybl2, downregulated during colon epithelial cell maturation, is suppressed by miR-365

    OpenAIRE

    Papetti, Michael; Augenlicht, Leonard H.

    2011-01-01

    Altered profiles of gene expression reflect the reprogramming of intestinal epithelial cells during their maturation along the crypt-luminal axis. To focus on genes important in this process, and how they in turn are regulated, we identified 14 transcripts commonly downregulated in expression during lineage-specific maturation of the immortalized cell lines Caco-2 (absorptive), HT29Cl16E (goblet), and HT29Cl19A (secretory) induced by contact inhibition of growth or the short-chain fatty acid ...

  8. Neurogenin3 inhibits proliferation in endocrine progenitors by inducing Cdkn1a

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miyatsuka, Takeshi; Kosaka, Yasuhiro; Kim, Hail; German, Michael S.

    2011-01-01

    During organogenesis, the final size of mature cell populations depends on their rates of differentiation and expansion. Because transient expression of Neurogenin3 (Neurog3) in progenitor cells in the developing pancreas initiates their differentiation to mature islet cells, we examined the role of Neurog3 in cell cycle control during this process. We found that mitotically active pancreatic progenitor cells in mouse embryos exited the cell cycle after the initiation of Neurog3 expression. Transcriptome analysis demonstrated that the Neurog3-expressing cells dramatically up-regulated the mRNA encoding cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor 1a (Cdkn1a). In Neurog3 null mice, the islet progenitor cells failed to activate Cdkn1a expression and continued to proliferate, showing that their exit from the cell cycle requires Neurog3. Furthermore, induced transgenic expression of Neurog3 in mouse ?-cells in vivo markedly decreased their proliferation, increased Cdkn1a levels, and eventually caused profound hyperglycemia. In contrast, in Cdkn1a null mice, proliferation was incompletely suppressed in the Neurog3-expressing cells. These studies reveal a crucial role for Neurog3 in regulating the cell cycle during the differentiation of islet cells and demonstrate that the subsequent down-regulation of Neurog3 allows the mature islet cell population to expand. PMID:21173230

  9. Histone methyltransferase setd8 represses gata2 expression and regulates erythroid maturation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malik, Jeffrey; Getman, Michael; Steiner, Laurie A

    2015-06-15

    Setd8 is the sole histone methyltransferase in mammals capable of monomethylating histone H4 lysine 20 (H4K20me1). Setd8 is expressed at significantly higher levels in erythroid cells than any other cell or tissue type, suggesting that Setd8 has an erythroid-cell-specific function. To test this hypothesis, stable Setd8 knockdown was established in extensively self-renewing erythroblasts (ESREs), a well-characterized, nontransformed model of erythroid maturation. Knockdown of Setd8 resulted in impaired erythroid maturation characterized by a delay in hemoglobin accumulation, larger mean cell area, persistent ckit expression, incomplete nuclear condensation, and lower rates of enucleation. Setd8 knockdown did not alter ESRE proliferation or viability or result in accumulation of DNA damage. Global gene expression analyses following Setd8 knockdown demonstrated that in erythroid cells, Setd8 functions primarily as a repressor. Most notably, Gata2 expression was significantly higher in knockdown cells than in control cells and Gata2 knockdown rescued some of the maturation impairments associated with Setd8 disruption. Setd8 occupies critical regulatory elements in the Gata2 locus, and knockdown of Setd8 resulted in loss of H4K20me1 and gain of H4 acetylation at the Gata2 1S promoter. These results suggest that Setd8 is an important regulator of erythroid maturation that works in part through repression of Gata2 expression. PMID:25848090

  10. Balloon dacryocystoplasty: Incomplete versus complete obstruction of the nasolacrimal system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Balloon dilatation of nasolacrimal drainage apparatus was attempted for the treatment of stenoses or obstructures of the nasolacrimal system in 49 eyes of 41 consecutive patients with complete obstructions and 16 eyes of 14 patients with incomplete obstructions. These two groups were compared with regards to the effectiveness of balloon dacryocystoplasty. All patients suffered from severe epiphora had already undergone multiple probings. A 0.018 inch hair or ball guide wire was introduced through the superior punctum into the inferior meatus of the nasal cavity and pulled out through the nasal aperture using a hemostat under nasal endoscopy. A deflated angiography balloon catheter was then introduced in a retrograde direction and dilated under fluoroscopic control. No major complications occurred in any of the patients. At 7 days after balloon dilatation, 25 of 49 eyes with complete obstruction demonstrated improvement in epiphora (initial success rate: 51.0%) and among them 17 eyes showed complete resolution of symptoms. Reocclusion occurred in 12 of the 25 eyes with initial improvement at the 2 months follow up. For the 16 eyes with incomplete obstruction, and improvement of epiphora was attained in 11 eyes (initial success rate 68.8%): 5 of these eyes showed complete resolution of epiphora, and 3 was failed to maintain initial improvement at the 2 month follow up. Although this study demonstrate that results of balloon dacryocystoplasty are not encouraging because yocystoplasty are not encouraging because of the high failure and recurrence rate, balloon dacryocystoplasty is a simple and safe nonsurgical technique that can be used to treat for obstructions of the nasolacrimal system. In addition, balloon dacryocystoplasty shows better results in incomplete obstruction than in complete obstruction than complete obstruction of the nasolacrimal system

  11. Incomplete block factorization preconditioning for indefinite elliptic problems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guo, Chun-Hua [Univ. of Calgary, Alberta (Canada)

    1996-12-31

    The application of the finite difference method to approximate the solution of an indefinite elliptic problem produces a linear system whose coefficient matrix is block tridiagonal and symmetric indefinite. Such a linear system can be solved efficiently by a conjugate residual method, particularly when combined with a good preconditioner. We show that specific incomplete block factorization exists for the indefinite matrix if the mesh size is reasonably small. And this factorization can serve as an efficient preconditioner. Some efforts are made to estimate the eigenvalues of the preconditioned matrix. Numerical results are also given.

  12. Bilateral transaction bargaining between independent utilities under incomplete information

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A new approach to designing bilateral power transaction bargaining models between two independent utilities in a deregulated electricity market is proposed. In the paper it is assumed that each utility (a seller or a buyer) knows its own operating costs but does not know those of its opponent. The bilateral power transaction problem is then considered as non-cooperative bargaining under incomplete information. Each participant develops its own bargaining strategy based on estimates of the opponent's operating costs and bargaining strategy. Two bargaining models are developed and examples are employed for demonstration. (Author)

  13. Incomplete Continuous-time Securities Markets with Stochastic Income Volatility

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Peter Ove; Larsen, Kasper

    2014-01-01

    We derive closed-form solutions for the equilibrium interest rate and market price of risk processes in an incomplete continuous-time market with uncertainty generated by Brownian motions. The economy has a finite number of heterogeneous exponential utility investors, who receive partially unspanned income and can trade continuously. Countercyclical stochastic income volatility generates a countercyclical equilibrium market price of risk process and a procyclical equilibrium interest rate process. We show that when the investors' unspanned income volatility is countercyclical, the resulting equilibrium displays both lower interest rates and higher risk premia compared to the equilibrium in an otherwise identical complete market.

  14. Asset pricing puzzles explained by incomplete Brownian equilibria

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Peter Ove; Larsen, Kasper

    2010-01-01

    We examine a class of Brownian based models which produce tractable incomplete equilibria. The models are based on finitely many investors with heterogeneous exponential utilities over intermediate consumption who receive partially unspanned income. The investors can trade continuously on a finite time interval in a money market account as well as a risky security. Besides establishing the existence of an equilibrium, our main result shows that the resulting equilibrium can display a lower risk-free rate and a higher risk premium relative to the usual Pareto efficient equilibrium in complete markets. Consequently, our model can simultaneously help explaining the risk-free rate and equity premium puzzles.

  15. Onset of incomplete momentum transfer in fusion-like processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Velocity spectra of evaporation residues from the reactions 16O + Al, Ca, and Ni have been measured at bombarding energies of 8.8, 13.6, and 19.6 MeV/u. Comparison with statistical model predictions shows clear evidence for the onset of incomplete momentum transfer at about 5 MeV/u above the interaction barrier. To first order, the results are similar for all targets, suggesting that the missing momentum is mainly associated with the projectile. The fraction of transferred linear momentum appears to decrease linearly with increasing relative velocity of the colliding nuclei at the barrier

  16. Hilbert's Incompleteness, Chaitin's $\\Omega$ number and Quantum Physics

    CERN Document Server

    Kieu, T D

    2001-01-01

    To explore the limitation of a class of quantum algorithms originally proposed for the Hilbert's tenth problem, we consider two further classes of mathematically non-decidable problems, those of a modified version of the Hilbert's tenth problem and of the computation of the Chaitin's $\\Omega$ number, which is a representation of the G\\"odel's Incompletness theorem. Some interesting connection to Quantum Field Theory is pointed out, but a direct generalisation of the quantum algorithms cannot satisfy, among others, the requirement of finite energy.

  17. Incomplete block SSOR preconditionings for high order discretizations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kolotilina, L. [Steklov Mathematical Institute, St. Petersburg (Russian Federation)

    1994-12-31

    This paper considers the solution of linear algebraic systems Ax = b resulting from the p-version of the Finite Element Method (FEM) using PCG iterations. Contrary to the h-version, the p-version ensures the desired accuracy of a discretization not by refining an original finite element mesh but by introducing higher degree polynomials as additional basis functions which permits to reduce the size of the resulting linear system as compared with the h-version. The suggested preconditionings are the so-called Incomplete Block SSOR (IBSSOR) preconditionings.

  18. Information, randomness & incompleteness papers on algorithmic information theory

    CERN Document Server

    Chaitin, Gregory J

    1987-01-01

    The papers gathered in this book were published over a period of more than twenty years in widely scattered journals. They led to the discovery of randomness in arithmetic which was presented in the recently published monograph on "Algorithmic Information Theory" by the author. There the strongest possible version of Gödel's incompleteness theorem, using an information-theoretic approach based on the size of computer programs, was discussed. The present book is intended as a companion volume to the monograph and it will serve as a stimulus for work on complexity, randomness and unpredictabilit

  19. A Short Guide to Gödel's Second Incompleteness Theorem

    OpenAIRE

    Bagaria, Joan

    2003-01-01

    The usual proof of Godel's second incompleteness theorem for weak theories like I Sigma 'subscript 1' is long and technically cumbersome. The details are rarely given in full and in most cases they are skipped altogether with dismissing vague sentences alluding to the reader's ability to fill them in. In the first part of this note we provide a guide through the main technical points of the usual proof of Godel's theorem for weak theories. In the second part we present a different and simpler...

  20. Finding small OBDDs for incompletely specified truth tables is hard

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristensen, Jesper Torp; Miltersen, Peter Bro

    2006-01-01

    We present an efficient reduction mapping undirected graphs G with n = 2^k vertices for integers k to tables of partially specified Boolean functions g: {0,1}^(4k+1) -> {0,1,*} so that for any integer m, G has a vertex colouring using m colours if and only if g has a consistent ordered binary decision diagram with at most (2m + 2)n^2 + 4n decision nodes. From this it follows that the problem of finding a minimum-sized consistent OBDD for an incompletely specified truth table is NP-hard and also hard to approximate

  1. Conditioning analysis of incomplete Cholesky factorizations with orthogonal dropping

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Napov, Artem

    2012-03-16

    The analysis of preconditioners based on incomplete Cholesky factorization in which the neglected (dropped) components are orthogonal to the approximations being kept is presented. General estimate for the condition number of the preconditioned system is given which only depends on the accuracy of individual approximations. The estimate is further improved if, for instance, only the newly computed rows of the factor are modified during each approximation step. In this latter case it is further shown to be sharp. The analysis is illustrated with some existing factorizations in the context of discretized elliptic partial differential equations.

  2. Incomplete quantum process tomography and principle of maximal entropy

    CERN Document Server

    Ziman, Mario

    2008-01-01

    The main goal of this paper is to extend and apply the principle of maximum entropy (MaxEnt) to incomplete quantum process estimation tasks. We will define a so-called process entropy function being the von Neumann entropy of the state associated with the quantum process via Choi-Jamiolkowski isomorphism. It will be shown that an arbitrary process estimation experiment can be reformulated in a unified framework and MaxEnt principle can be consistently exploited. We will argue that the suggested choice for the process entropy satisfies natural list of properties and it reduces to the state MaxEnt principle, if applied to preparator devices.

  3. Towards a Curriculum Design Maturity Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thong Chee Ling 1

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available The Capability Maturity Model (CMM is used in the software industry to improve design process as well as product quality. Likewise, CMM is also used in the education sector for a similar purpose. This paper presents, in particular, a proposed maturity model for curriculum design for Institutions of Higher Learning in Malaysia. The Curriculum Design Maturity Model ONE (CDMM-1 is specifically aimed at guiding curriculum designers in producing quality curricula according to programme specifications. In this study, CDMM-1, which is derived from the proposed maturity model, has both process and product components. However, this paper only focuses on the product quality aspect.

  4. Seeking process maturity with DSDM atern

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stasys Peldžius

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available It is important for an organization to know what capability/maturity of the process a chosen methodology could ensure. This paper is focused on DSDM Atern process maturity by CMMI. The goal is to assess DSDM Atern by CMMI-DEV version 1.3 and propose the improvements to reach CMMI maturity level 3. A capability profile ensured by DSDM Atern has been obtained. The appraisal results showed that DSDM Atern ensures CMMI maturity level 2. Constraints and problematic areas of DSDM Atern methodology were discovered. In order to reach CMMI level 3 some recommendations for DSDM Atern additions were developed.

  5. The maturity of Nuclear Law

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The ever-increasing use of atomic energy since 1950 has generated a set of rules called for practical reasons Nuclear Law. This branch of law covers a wide scope of related activities and, specialized studies have apparently foreseen all conceivable hypotheses. The international character of Nuclear Law explains the basic harmony of international legislation. The methods of comparative Law and International Private Law as well as the joint, indepth work of scientists and jurists will bring about steady progress towards legislative unity and prompt solution to conflicts. The expectable revitalization of nuclear-electric programs early in the 21st. century will give rise to a Nuclear juridical community which can already be perceived through the maturity Nuclear Law has reached. (Author)

  6. Muramyl dipeptide-induced adjuvant arthritis.

    OpenAIRE

    Nagao, S .; Tanaka, A

    1980-01-01

    Muramyl dipeptide, N-acetylmuramyl-L-alanyl-D-isoglutamine, induced adjuvant arthritis in WKA rats when injected in a water-in-oil emulsion prepared with Freund incomplete adjuvant (Difco), but not when emulsified with Drackeol and Arlacel A.

  7. Precursor IGF-II (proIGF-II) and mature IGF-II (mIGF-II) induce Bcl-2 And Bcl-X L expression through different signaling pathways in breast cancer cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, S Kalla; Moretta, D; Almaguel, F; De León, M; De León, Daisy D

    2008-04-01

    IGF-II plays a crucial role in fetal and cancer development by signaling through the IGF-I receptor. We have shown that inhibition of IGF-II by resveratrol (RSV) induced apoptosis and that proIGF-II (highly expressed in cancer) was more potent than mIGF-II in inhibiting this effect. Thus, we hypothesized that IGF-II differentially regulates the signaling cascade of the IGF-I receptor to stimulate the anti-apoptotic proteins Bcl-2 and Bcl-X(L) to prevent apoptosis. RSV treatment to breast cancer cells inhibited Bcl-2 and Bcl-X(L) expression and induced mitochondrial membrane depolarization. ProIGF-II was more potent than mIGF-II in: (1) activating the PI3/Akt pathway, (2) regulating Bcl-2 and Bcl-X(L) expression, and (3) inducing phosphorylation/nuclear translocation of Cyclic AMP-responsive element binding protein. Furthermore, IGF-II differentially regulated the intracellular translocation of Bcl-2 and Bcl-X(L), a critical process in breast cancer progression to hormone-independence. Our study provides a novel mechanism of how proIGF-II promotes progression and chemoresistance in breast cancer development. PMID:18428028

  8. Truly incomplete and complex exchanges in prematurely condensed chromosomes of human fibroblasts exposed in vitro to energetic heavy ions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Honglu; Durante, Marco; Furusawa, Yoshiya; George, Kerry; Kawata, Tetsuya; Cucinotta, Francis A.

    2003-01-01

    Confluent human fibroblast cells (AG1522) were irradiated with gamma rays, 490 MeV/nucleon silicon ions, or iron ions at either 200 or 500 MeV/nucleon. The cells were allowed to repair at 37 degrees C for 24 h after exposure, and a chemically induced premature chromosome condensation (PCC) technique was used to condense chromosomes in the G2 phase of the cell cycle. Incomplete and complex exchanges were analyzed in the irradiated samples. To verify that chromosomal breaks were truly unrejoined, chromosome aberrations were analyzed using a combination of whole-chromosome specific probes and probes specific for the telomere region of the chromosome. Results showed that the frequency of unrejoined chromosome breaks was higher after irradiation with the heavy ions of high LET, and consequently the ratio of incomplete to complete exchanges increased steadily with LET up to 440 keV/microm, the highest LET included in the present study. For samples exposed to 200 MeV/nucleon iron ions, chromosome aberrations were analyzed using the multicolor FISH (mFISH) technique, which allows identification of both complex and truly incomplete exchanges. Results of the mFISH study showed that 0.7 and 3 Gy iron ions produced similar ratios of complex to simple exchanges and incomplete to complete exchanges; these ratios were higher than those obtained after exposure to 6 Gy gamma rays. After 0.7 Gy of iron ions, most complex aberrations were found to involve three or four chromosomes, which is a likely indication of the maximum number of chromosome domains traversed by a single iron-ion track.

  9. Evaluation of zona pellucida birefringence intensity during in vitro maturation of oocytes from stimulated cycles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silva Liliane FI

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background This study evaluated whether there is a relationship between the zona pellucida birefringence (ZP-BF intensity and the nuclear (NM and cytoplasmic (CM in vitro maturation of human oocytes from stimulated cycles. Results The ZP-BF was evaluated under an inverted microscope with a polarizing optical system and was scored as high/positive (when the ZP image presented a uniform and intense birefringence or low/negative (when the image presented moderate and heterogeneous birefringence. CM was analyzed by evaluating the distribution of cortical granules (CGs throughout the ooplasm by immunofluorescence staining. CM was classified as: complete, when CG was localized in the periphery; incomplete, when oocytes presented a cluster of CGs in the center; or in transition, when oocytes had both in clusters throughout cytoplasm and distributed in a layer in the cytoplasm periphery Nuclear maturation: From a total of 83 germinal vesicle (GV stage oocytes, 58 of oocytes (69.9% reached NM at the metaphase II stage. From these 58 oocytes matured in vitro, the high/positively scoring ZP-BF was presented in 82.7% of oocytes at the GV stage, in 75.8% of oocytes when at the metaphase I, and in 82.7% when oocytes reached MII. No relationship was observed between NM and ZP-BF positive/negative scores (P = 0.55. These variables had a low Pearson's correlation coefficient (r = 0.081. Cytoplasmic maturation: A total of 85 in vitro-matured MII oocytes were fixed for CM evaluation. Forty-nine oocytes of them (57.6% showed the complete CM, 30 (61.2% presented a high/positively scoring ZP-BF and 19 (38.8% had a low/negatively scoring ZP-BF. From 36 oocytes (42.3% with incomplete CM, 18 (50% presented a high/positively scoring ZPBF and 18 (50% had a low/negatively scoring ZP-BF. No relationship was observed between CM and ZP-BF positive/negative scores (P = 0.42. These variables had a low Pearson's correlation coefficient (r = 0.11. Conclusions The current study demonstrated an absence of relationship between ZP-BF high/positive or low/negative score and nuclear and cytoplasmic in vitro maturation of oocytes from stimulation cycles.

  10. Incomplete hippocampal inversion - is there a relation to epilepsy?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Incomplete hippocampal inversion (IHI) has been described in patients with epilepsy or severe midline malformations but also in nonepileptic subjects without obvious developmental anomalies. We studied the frequency of IHI in different epilepsy syndromes to evaluate their relationship. Three hundred patients were drawn from the regional epilepsy register. Of these, 99 were excluded because of a disease or condition affecting the temporal lobes or incomplete data. Controls were 150 subjects without epilepsy or obvious intracranial developmental anomalies. The coronal MR images were analysed without knowledge of the clinical data. Among epilepsy patients, 30% had IHI (40 left-sided, 4 right-sided, 16 bilateral). Of controls, 18% had IHI (20 left-sided, 8 bilateral). The difference was statistically significant (P<0.05). Of temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE) patients, 25% had IHI, which was not a significantly higher frequency than in controls (P=0.34). There was no correlation between EEG and IHI laterality. A total of 44% of Rolandic epilepsy patients and 57% of cryptogenic generalised epilepsy patients had IHI. The IHI frequency was very high in some epileptic syndromes, but not significantly higher in TLE compared to controls. No causality between TLE and IHI could be found. IHI can be a sign of disturbed cerebral development affecting other parts of the brain, maybe leading to epilepsy. (orig.)

  11. Insights into thermonuclear supernovae from the incomplete silicon burning process

    CERN Document Server

    Bravo, E

    2012-01-01

    Type Ia supernova (SNIa) explosions synthesize a few tenths to several tenths of a solar mass, whose composition is the result of incomplete silicon burning that reaches peak temperatures of 4 GK to 5 GK. The elemental abundances are sensitive to the physical conditions in the explosion, making their measurement a promising clue to uncovering the properties of the progenitor star and of the explosion itself. Using a parameterized description of the thermodynamic history of matter undergoing incomplete silicon burning, we computed the final composition for a range of parameters wide enough to encompass current models of SNIa. Then, we searched for combinations of elemental abundances that trace the parameters values and are potentially measurable. For this purpose, we divide the present study into two epochs of SNIa, namely the optical epoch, from a few weeks to several months after the explosion, and the X-ray epoch, which refers to the time period in which the supernova remnant is young, starting one or two ...

  12. A Multi-Threshold Granulation Model for Incomplete Decision Tables

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renpu Li

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available How to establish basic granules of knowledge is a fundamental issue for data mining from incomplete decision tables. In the existing methods, basic granules under similarity relation contain too many objects and disturb the later knowledge mining, while granules under limited similarity relation, although simplifying the granules through introducing a limited threshold on two objects satisfying similarity relation, still have problems such as high computation and low prediction precision. In this paper, a multi-threshold model is presented to establish basic knowledge units of incomplete decision table based on the idea of granular computing, comparison experiments on the new model with two existing models show that the new model is superior to the other models on prediction precision, time cost and attribute reduction. extension description logic--ALCD-ES. Syntax definition, semantic explanation and reasoning algorithm TableauD-ES are given in details, which lay the theoretical foundation for the automatic solving method of contradiction problem based on extension description logic reasoning.  

  13. Global stability of two models with incomplete treatment for tuberculosis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang Yali, E-mail: yylhgr@126.co [Department of Applied Mathematics, Xi' an Jiaotong University, Xi' an 710049 (China) and Department of Applied Mathematics and Physics, Air Force Engineering University, Xi' an 710051 (China); Li Jianquan, E-mail: jianq_li@263.ne [Department of Applied Mathematics and Physics, Air Force Engineering University, Xi' an 710051 (China); Ma Zhien, E-mail: zhma@mail.xjtu.edu.c [Department of Applied Mathematics, Xi' an Jiaotong University, Xi' an 710049 (China); Liu Luju, E-mail: dahai20401095@yahoo.com.c [Department of Mathematics, Henan University of Science and Technology, Luoyang 471003 (China)

    2010-12-15

    Research highlights: Two tuberculosis models with incomplete treatment. Intuitive epidemiological interpretations for the basic reproduction numbers. Global dynamics of the two models. Strategies to control the spread of tuberculosis. - Abstract: Two tuberculosis (TB) models with incomplete treatment are investigated. It is assumed that the treated individuals may enter either the latent compartment due to the remainder of Mycobacterium tuberculosis or the infectious compartment due to the treatment failure. The first model is a simple one with treatment failure reflecting the current TB treatment fact in most countries with high tuberculosis incidence. The second model refines the simple one by dividing the latent compartment into slow and fast two kinds of progresses. This improvement can be used to describe the case that the latent TB individuals have been infected with some other chronic diseases (such as HIV and diabetes) which may weaken the immunity of infected individuals and shorten the latent period of TB. Both of the two models assume mass action incidence and exponential distributions of transfers between different compartments. The basic reproduction numbers of the two models are derived and their intuitive epidemiological interpretations are given. The global dynamics of two models are all proved by using Liapunov functions. At last, some strategies to control the spread of tuberculosis are discussed.

  14. Global stability of two models with incomplete treatment for tuberculosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Research highlights: ? Two tuberculosis models with incomplete treatment. ? Intuitive epidemiological interpretations for the basic reproduction numbers. ? Global dynamics of the two models. ? Strategies to control the spread of tuberculosis. - Abstract: Two tuberculosis (TB) models with incomplete treatment are investigated. It is assumed that the treated individuals may enter either the latent compartment due to the remainder of Mycobacterium tuberculosis or the infectious compartment due to the treatment failure. The first model is a simple one with treatment failure reflecting the current TB treatment fact in most countries with high tuberculosis incidence. The second model refines the simple one by dividing the latent compartment into slow and fast two kinds of progresses. This improvement can be used to describe the case that the latent TB individuals have been infected with some other chronic diseases (such as HIV and diabetes) which may weaken the immunity of infected individuals and shorten the latent period of TB. Both of the two models assume mass action incidence and exponential distributions of transfers between different compartments. The basic reproduction numbers of the two models are derived and their intuitive epidemiological interpretations are given. The global dynamics of two models are all proved by using Liapunov functions. At last, some strategies to control the spread of tuberculosis are discussed.

  15. Incomplete hippocampal inversion - is there a relation to epilepsy?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bajic, Dragan [Uppsala University Hospital, Department of Radiology, Uppsala (Sweden); Kumlien, Eva; Mattsson, Peter [Uppsala University Hospital, Department of Neuroscience, Neurology, Uppsala (Sweden); Lundberg, Staffan [Uppsala University Hospital, Department of Women' s and Children' s Health, Uppsala (Sweden); Wang, Chen [Karolinska University Hospital, Department of Neuroradiology, Stockholm (Sweden); Raininko, Raili [Uppsala University, Department of Radiology, Uppsala (Sweden)

    2009-10-15

    Incomplete hippocampal inversion (IHI) has been described in patients with epilepsy or severe midline malformations but also in nonepileptic subjects without obvious developmental anomalies. We studied the frequency of IHI in different epilepsy syndromes to evaluate their relationship. Three hundred patients were drawn from the regional epilepsy register. Of these, 99 were excluded because of a disease or condition affecting the temporal lobes or incomplete data. Controls were 150 subjects without epilepsy or obvious intracranial developmental anomalies. The coronal MR images were analysed without knowledge of the clinical data. Among epilepsy patients, 30% had IHI (40 left-sided, 4 right-sided, 16 bilateral). Of controls, 18% had IHI (20 left-sided, 8 bilateral). The difference was statistically significant (P<0.05). Of temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE) patients, 25% had IHI, which was not a significantly higher frequency than in controls (P=0.34). There was no correlation between EEG and IHI laterality. A total of 44% of Rolandic epilepsy patients and 57% of cryptogenic generalised epilepsy patients had IHI. The IHI frequency was very high in some epileptic syndromes, but not significantly higher in TLE compared to controls. No causality between TLE and IHI could be found. IHI can be a sign of disturbed cerebral development affecting other parts of the brain, maybe leading to epilepsy. (orig.)

  16. An information propagation model considering incomplete reading behavior in microblog

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Qiang; Huang, Jiajia; Zhao, Xiande

    2015-02-01

    Microblog is one of the most popular communication channels on the Internet, and has already become the third largest source of news and public opinions in China. Although researchers have studied the information propagation in microblog using the epidemic models, previous studies have not considered the incomplete reading behavior among microblog users. Therefore, the model cannot fit the real situations well. In this paper, we proposed an improved model entitled Microblog-Susceptible-Infected-Removed (Mb-SIR) for information propagation by explicitly considering the user's incomplete reading behavior. We also tested the effectiveness of the model using real data from Sina Microblog. We demonstrate that the new proposed model is more accurate in describing the information propagation in microblog. In addition, we also investigate the effects of the critical model parameters, e.g., reading rate, spreading rate, and removed rate through numerical simulations. The simulation results show that, compared with other parameters, reading rate plays the most influential role in the information propagation performance in microblog.

  17. In vitro atrazine exposure affects the phenotypic and functional maturation of dendritic cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Recent data suggest that some of the immunotoxic effects of the herbicide atrazine, a very widely used pesticide, may be due to perturbations in dendritic cell (DC) function. As consequences of atrazine exposure on the phenotypic and functional maturation of DC have not been studied, our objective was, using the murine DC line, JAWSII, to determine whether atrazine will interfere with DC maturation. First, we characterized the maturation of JAWSII cells in vitro by inducing them to mature in the presence of growth factors and selected maturational stimuli in vitro. Next, we exposed the DC cell line to a concentration range of atrazine and examined its effects on phenotypic and functional maturation of DC. Atrazine exposure interfered with the phenotypic and functional maturation of DC at non-cytotoxic concentrations. Among the phenotypic changes caused by atrazine exposure was a dose-dependent removal of surface MHC-I with a significant decrease being observed at 1 ?M concentration. In addition, atrazine exposure decreased the expression of the costimulatory molecule CD86 and it downregulated the expression of the CD11b and CD11c accessory molecules and the myeloid developmental marker CD14. When, for comparative purposes, we exposed primary thymic DC to atrazine, MHC-I and CD11c expression was also decreased. Phenotypic changes in JAWSII DC maturation were associated with functional inhibition of maturation as, albeit at higher concentrations, receptor-mediated antier concentrations, receptor-mediated antigen uptake was increased by atrazine. Thus, our data suggest that atrazine directly targets DC maturation and that toxicants such as atrazine that efficiently remove MHC-I molecules from the DC surface are likely to contribute to immune evasion

  18. Glucocorticoids promote structural and functional maturation of foetal cardiomyocytes: a role for PGC-1?.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rog-Zielinska, E A; Craig, M-A; Manning, J R; Richardson, R V; Gowans, G J; Dunbar, D R; Gharbi, K; Kenyon, C J; Holmes, M C; Hardie, D G; Smith, G L; Chapman, K E

    2015-07-01

    Glucocorticoid levels rise dramatically in late gestation to mature foetal organs in readiness for postnatal life. Immature heart function may compromise survival. Cardiomyocyte glucocorticoid receptor (GR) is required for the structural and functional maturation of the foetal heart in vivo, yet the molecular mechanisms are largely unknown. Here we asked if GR activation in foetal cardiomyocytes in vitro elicits similar maturational changes. We show that physiologically relevant glucocorticoid levels improve contractility of primary-mouse-foetal cardiomyocytes, promote Z-disc assembly and the appearance of mature myofibrils, and increase mitochondrial activity. Genes induced in vitro mimic those induced in vivo and include PGC-1?, a critical regulator of cardiac mitochondrial capacity. SiRNA-mediated abrogation of the glucocorticoid induction of PGC-1? in vitro abolished the effect of glucocorticoid on myofibril structure and mitochondrial oxygen consumption. Using RNA sequencing we identified a number of transcriptional regulators, including PGC-1?, induced as primary targets of GR in foetal cardiomyocytes. These data demonstrate that PGC-1? is a key mediator of glucocorticoid-induced maturation of foetal cardiomyocyte structure and identify other candidate transcriptional regulators that may play critical roles in the transition of the foetal to neonatal heart. PMID:25361084

  19. A novel activation pathway for mature thymocytes. Costimulation of CD2 (T,p50) and CD28 (T,p44) induces autocrine interleukin 2/interleukin 2 receptor-mediated cell proliferation

    OpenAIRE

    1988-01-01

    Prior studies have shown that thymocytes, unlike peripheral T cells, do not proliferate in response to mitogenic combinations of anti-CD2 mAbs. The present study demonstrated that stimulation by a mitogenic anti-CD2 combination (9-1 plus 9.6) with anti-CD28 induced vigorous thymocyte proliferation in the absence of exogenous IL-2. This thymocyte proliferation was IL-2 dependent as shown by the complete inhibition using anti-IL-2-R mAbs. Induction of IL-2-R transcripts was detected in thymocyt...

  20. New definitions for cotton fiber maturity ratio

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cotton fiber maturity affects fiber physical, mechanical, and chemical properties, as well as the processability and qualities of yarn and fabrics. New definitions of cotton fiber maturity ratio are introduced. The influences of sampling, sample preparation, measurement method, and correlations am...

  1. Motivation and Maturity Patterns in Marital Success.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McClelland, David C.; And Others

    1978-01-01

    Married couples rated their marital satisfaction and played interpersonal competitive games which revealed the success with which they interacted. Younger husbands who scored more maturely on the Stewart measure of psychosocial maturity belonged to more successful marriages, as did college-educated wives who showed less immaturity and more phallic…

  2. Biochemical Changes in the Maturing Reticulocyte

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Our report deals with some of the biochemical changes characterizing the transformation of reticulocytes into mature erythroid elements and with certain aspects of the mechanism responsible for the regulation of this process. Reticulocytes were chosen because their maturation is known to be associated with drastic biochemical alterations, such as the loss of protein synthesizing ability and also because they can be easily obtained

  3. Inhibiting STAT5 by the BET bromodomain inhibitor JQ1 disrupts human dendritic cell maturation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toniolo, Patricia A; Liu, Suhu; Yeh, Jennifer E; Moraes-Vieira, Pedro M; Walker, Sarah R; Vafaizadeh, Vida; Barbuto, José Alexandre M; Frank, David A

    2015-04-01

    Maturation of dendritic cells (DCs) is required to induce T cell immunity, whereas immature DCs can induce immune tolerance. Although the transcription factor STAT5 is suggested to participate in DC maturation, its role in this process remains unclear. In this study, we investigated the effect of STAT5 inhibition on LPS-induced maturation of human monocyte-derived DCs (Mo-DCs). We inhibited STAT5 by treating Mo-DCs with JQ1, a selective inhibitor of BET epigenetic readers, which can suppress STAT5 function. We found that JQ1 inhibits LPS-induced STAT5 phosphorylation and nuclear accumulation, thereby attenuating its transcriptional activity in Mo-DCs. The diminished STAT5 activity results in impaired maturation of Mo-DCs, as indicated by defective upregulation of costimulatory molecules and CD83, as well as reduced secretion of IL-12p70. Expression of constitutively activated STAT5 in JQ1-treated Mo-DCs overcomes the effects of JQ1 and enhances the expression of CD86, CD83, and IL-12. The activation of STAT5 in Mo-DCs is mediated by GM-CSF produced following LPS stimulation. Activated STAT5 then leads to increased expression of both GM-CSF and GM-CSFR, triggering an autocrine loop that further enhances STAT5 signaling and enabling Mo-DCs to acquire a more mature phenotype. JQ1 decreases the ability of Mo-DCs to induce allogeneic CD4(+) and CD8(+) T cell proliferation and production of proinflammatory cytokines. Furthermore, JQ1 leads to a reduced generation of inflammatory CD8(+) T cells and decreased Th1 differentiation. Thus, JQ1 impairs LPS-induced Mo-DC maturation by inhibiting STAT5 activity, thereby generating cells that can only weakly stimulate an adaptive-immune response. Therefore, JQ1 could have beneficial effects in treating T cell-mediated inflammatory diseases. PMID:25725100

  4. The MDM-2 Antagonist Nutlin-3 Promotes the Maturation of Acute Myeloid Leukemic Blasts1

    OpenAIRE

    SECCHIERO, PAOLA; Zerbinati, Carlotta; Melloni, Elisabetta; Milani, Daniela; Campioni, Diana; Fadda, Roberto; Tiribelli, Mario; Zauli, Giorgio

    2007-01-01

    The small-molecule inhibitor of murine double minute (MDM-2), Nutlin-3, induced variable apoptosis in primary acute myeloid leukemia (AML) blasts and promoted myeloid maturation of surviving cells, as demonstrated by analysis of CD11b and CD14 surface antigens and by morphologic examination. Although the best-characterized activity of Nutlin-3 is activation of the p53 pathway, Nutlin-3 induced maturation also in one AML sample characterized by p53 deletion, as well as in the p53-/- human myel...

  5. Proclaiming the validity of systematics for low energy incomplete fusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The phenomenon of incomplete fusion (ICF) in heavy ion (HI) interactions may be considered to take place when the projectile breaks up near the vicinity of target nuclear field, into fragments, one of which fuses with the target nucleus forming an excited composite system which may eventually de-excite by particle and ? emission, while the other part of fragment moves into the forward direction without any interaction and acts as spectator. In order to explore the underlined issues, the EFs of 13C+169Tm (present work) and 12C+169Tm systems at energies ? 4-7 MeV/A have been compared to study convincingly the projectile structure effects on the ICF reaction dynamics

  6. Incomplete Continuous-Time Securities Markets with Stochastic Income Volatility

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Peter Ove; Larsen, Kasper

    2011-01-01

    In an incomplete continuous-time securities market governed by Brownian motions, we derive closed-form solutions for the equilibrium risk-free rate and equity premium processes. The economy has a finite number of heterogeneous exponential utility investors, who receive partially unspanned income and can trade continuously on a finite time interval in a money market account and a single risky security. Besides establishing the existence of an equilibrium, our main result shows that if the investors' unspanned income has stochastic counter-cyclical volatility, the resulting equilibrium can display both lower risk-free rates and higher risk premia relative to the Pareto efficient equilibrium in an otherwise identical complete market. Consequently, our model can simultaneously help explaining the risk-free rate and equity premium puzzles.

  7. Self-Financing, Replicating Hedging Strategies, an incomplete thermodynamic analogy

    CERN Document Server

    McCauley, J L

    2002-01-01

    In the theory of riskfree hedges in continuous time finance, one can start with the delta-hedge and derive the option pricing equation, or one can start with the replicating, self-financing hedging strategy and derive both the delta-hedge and the option pricing partial differential equation. Approximately reversible trading is implicitly assumed in both cases. The option pricing equation is not restricted to the standard Black-Scholes equation when nontrivial volatility is assumed, but produces option pricing in agreement with the empirical distribution for the right choice of volatility in a stochastic description of fluctuations. The replicating, self-financing hedging strategy provides us with an incomplete analogy with thermodynamics where liquidity plays the role of the heat bath, the absence of arbitrage is analgous to thermal equilibrium, but there is no role played by the entropy of the returns distribution, which cannot reach a maximum/equilibrium. We emphasize strongly that the no-arbitrage assumpti...

  8. Parameter learning in MTE networks using incomplete data

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fernández, Antonio; Langseth, Helge

    Bayesian networks with mixtures of truncated exponentials (MTEs) are gaining popularity as a flexible modelling framework for hybrid domains. MTEs support efficient and exact inference algorithms, but estimating an MTE from data has turned out to be a difficult task. Current methods suffer from a considerable computational burden as well as the inability to handle missing values in the training data. In this paper we describe an EM-based algorithm for learning the maximum likelihood parameters of an MTE network when confronted with incomplete data. In order to overcome the computational difficulties we make certain distributional assumptions about the domain being modeled, thus focusing on a subclass of the general class of MTE networks. Preliminary empirical results indicate that the proposed method offers results that are inline with intuition.

  9. Some remarks on marginally trapped surfaces and geodesic incompleteness

    CERN Document Server

    Silva, I P Costa e

    2012-01-01

    In a recent paper, Eichmair, Galloway and Pollack have proved a Gannon-Lee-type singularity theorem based on the existence of marginally outer trapped surfaces (MOTS) on noncompact initial data sets for globally hyperbolic spacetimes. However, one might wonder whether the corresponding incomplete geodesics could still be complete in a possible non-globally hyperbolic extension of spacetime. In this note, some variants of that result are given with weaker causality assumptions, thus suggesting that the answer is generically negative, at least if the putative extension has no closed timelike curves. However, unlike in the case of MOTS, on which only the outgoing family of normal geodesics is constrained, we have found it necessary in our proofs to impose also a weak convergence condition on the ingoing family of normal geodesics. In other words, we consider marginally trapped surfaces (MTS) in chronological spacetimes, introducing the natural notion of a generic MTS. In particular, a Hawking-Penrose-type singul...

  10. Applying incomplete statistics to nonextensive systems with different q indices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The nonextensive statistics based on the q-entropy Sq=--bar i=1v(pi-piq)1-q has been so far applied to systems in which the q value is uniformly distributed. For the systems containing different q's, the applicability of the theory is still a matter of investigation. The difficulty is that the class of systems to which the theory can be applied is actually limited by the usual nonadditivity rule of entropy which is no more valid when the systems contain non uniform distribution of q values. In this paper, within the framework of the so called incomplete information theory, we propose a more general nonadditivity rule of entropy prescribed by the zeroth law of thermodynamics. This new nonadditivity generalizes in a simple way the usual one and can be proved to lead uniquely to the q-entropy

  11. Distribution of Mutual Information from Complete and Incomplete Data

    CERN Document Server

    Hutter, M; Hutter, Marcus; Zaffalon, Marco

    2004-01-01

    Mutual information is widely used, in a descriptive way, to measure the stochastic dependence of categorical random variables. In order to address questions such as the reliability of the descriptive value, one must consider sample-to-population inferential approaches. This paper deals with the posterior distribution of mutual information, as obtained in a Bayesian framework by a second-order Dirichlet prior distribution. The exact analytical expression for the mean, and analytical approximations for the variance, skewness and kurtosis are derived. These approximations have a guaranteed accuracy level of the order O(1/n^3), where n is the sample size. Leading order approximations for the mean and the variance are derived in the case of incomplete samples. The derived analytical expressions allow the distribution of mutual information to be approximated reliably and quickly. In fact, the derived expressions can be computed with the same order of complexity needed for descriptive mutual information. This makes ...

  12. Orientation analysis of bulk YBCO from incomplete neutron diffraction data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highly incomplete pole figures of a magnetic-field-aligned melt-textured superconducting sample of the Y-Ba-Cu-O system were measured by neutron diffraction. The orientation distribution of the main superconducting 123 and a minor 211 phase have been derived with the WIMV algorithm. The 123 phase is strongly textured with a (001) maximum around 22 times that of a random distribution (m.r.d.) and a texture index of 30. There are two orientation components present that have no apparent relationship with the applied magnetic field. The texture of the 211 phase is weak, with a maximum of 1.7 m.r.d. The textures of the two phases appear to be correlated. (orig.)

  13. Nonlinear stochastic systems with incomplete information filtering and control

    CERN Document Server

    Shen, Bo; Shu, Huisheng

    2013-01-01

    Nonlinear Stochastic Processes addresses the frequently-encountered problem of incomplete information. The causes of this problem considered here include: missing measurements; sensor delays and saturation; quantization effects; and signal sampling. Divided into three parts, the text begins with a focus on H? filtering and control problems associated with general classes of nonlinear stochastic discrete-time systems. Filtering problems are considered in the second part, and in the third the theory and techniques previously developed are applied to the solution of issues arising in complex networks with the design of sampled-data-based controllers and filters. Among its highlights, the text provides: ·         a unified framework for handling filtering and control problems in complex communication networks with limited bandwidth; ·         new concepts such as random sensor and signal saturations for more realistic modeling; and ·         demonstration of the use of techniques such...

  14. The value of incomplete mouse models of Alzheimer's disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To study Alzheimer's disease (AD), a variety of mouse models has been generated through the overexpression of the amyloid precursor protein and/or the presenilins harboring one or several mutations found in familial AD. With aging, these mice develop several lesions similar to those of AD, including diffuse and neuritic amyloid deposits, cerebral amyloid angiopathy, dystrophic neurites and synapses, and amyloid-associated neuroinflammation. Other characteristics of AD, such as neurofibrillary tangles and nerve cell loss, are not satisfactorily reproduced in these models. Mouse models that recapitulate only specific aspects of AD pathogenesis are of great advantage when deciphering the complexity of the disease and can contribute substantially to diagnostic and therapeutic innovations. Incomplete mouse models have been key to the development of A?42-targeted therapies, as well as to the current understanding of the interrelationship between cerebral ?-amyloidosis and tau neurofibrillary lesions, and are currently being used to develop novel diagnostic agents for in vivo imaging. (orig.)

  15. Role of entrance channel parameters on incomplete fusion reaction dynamics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In recent time the keen interest has been observed in the study of incomplete fusion (ICF) reactions and its dependence on various entrance channel parameters: projectile type/energy, angular momentum imparted to the system, alpha-Q-value of the projectile, mass asymmetry of the interacting partners etc. The fusion reaction proceeds for the energy of projectile capable of overcoming the fusion barrier resulting from the sum of repulsive Coulomb and attractive nuclear potentials. However, the breakup becomes an important process and influences the flux of fusion reactions. Further, the influence of the projectile breakup on fusion is not yet well understood, thus continues to be an active area of investigations. In view of the above facts, the excitation functions of several evaporated residues in the 16O + 115In at energies 4-7 MeV/nucleon have been measured. The influence of various entrance channel parameters on ICF reaction dynamics has been studied

  16. Expurgated PPM Using Symmetric Balanced Incomplete Block Designs

    CERN Document Server

    Noshad, Mohammad

    2012-01-01

    In this letter, we propose a new pulse position modulation (PPM) scheme, called expurgated PPM (EPPM), for application in peak power limited communication systems, such as impulse radio (IR) ultra wide band (UWB) systems and free space optical (FSO) communications. Using the proposed scheme, the constellation size and the bit-rate can be increased significantly in these systems. The symbols are obtained using symmetric balanced incomplete block designs (BIBD), forming a set of pair-wise equidistance symbols. The performance of Q-ary EPPM is better than any Q-ary pulse position-based modulation scheme with the same symbol length. Since the code is cyclic, the receiver for EPPM is simpler compared to multipulse PPM (MPPM).

  17. On a class of incomplete gamma functions with applications

    CERN Document Server

    Chaudhry, M Aslam

    2001-01-01

    The subject of special functions is rich and expanding continuously with the emergence of new problems encountered in engineering and applied science applications. The development of computational techniques and the rapid growth in computing power have increased the importance of the special functions and their formulae for analytic representations. However, problems remain, particularly in heat conduction, astrophysics, and probability theory, whose solutions seem to defy even the most general classes of special functions.On a Class of Incomplete Gamma Functions with Applications introduces a class of special functions, developed by the authors, useful in the analytic study of several heat conduction problems. It presents some basic properties of these functions, including their recurrence relations, special cases, asymptotic representations, and integral transform relationships. The authors explore applications of these generalized functions to problems in transient heat conduction, special cases of laser s...

  18. Isolation and functional characterization for oocyte maturation and sperm motility of the oocyte maturation arresting factor from the Japanese scallop, Patinopecten yessoensis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Yuan; Tanabe, Toru; Maekawa, Fumihito; Inaba, Kazuo; Maeda, Yusuke; Itoh, Naoki; Takahashi, Keisuke G; Osada, Makoto

    2012-12-01

    In bivalves, serotonin (5-hydroxytriptamine, 5-HT) acts as a major promotional factor in oocyte maturation, sperm motility, and sequential spawning. The previously reported novel neuronal protein, oocyte maturation arresting factor (OMAF) that was found in the central nervous system and hemolymph of the Japanese scallop, Patinopecten yessoensis, has an inhibitory activity in the 5-HT-induced oocyte maturation via a receptor-mediated mechanism, resulting in an arrest of spawning [30]. In this study, OMAF protein was isolated from the supernatant of hemolymph of the scallop using gel and anion-exchange chromatography, and SDS-PAGE. Three digested partial peptides with 4, 11, and 16 amino acid residues were determined through reversed-phase HPLC and amino acid sequencing. The anti-OMAF antibodies generated against the obtained peptides with 11 and 16 amino acid residues were applied to immunohistochemistry and 5-HT-induced spawning and oocyte maturation assays. Fusiform OMAF neurons were localized in the external area of the anterior lobe of the cerebral ganglion, supporting our presumption that OMAF was secreted from the cerebral and pedal ganglia (CPG). Pretreatment with anti-OMAF antibody on three kinds of bivalve species showed a strong in vivo amplification of 5-HT-induced release of egg and sperm, and an in vitro restoration of 5-HT-induced germinal vesicle breakdown (GVBD) from inhibition by the CPG extract, suggesting the release from suppressive activity of OMAF due to the absorption with antibody. These results confirm that the isolated peptides are from OMAF and OMAF acts as an inhibitor of 5-HT-induced oocyte maturation and sperm motility as previously reported. PMID:23000641

  19. Warranty forecasting from incomplete two-dimensional warranty data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Warranty modelling with incomplete data is a major issue in reliability analysis. The incomplete failure region characterized by warranty field data may be classified into several domains representing failures from manufacturing/assembly defects, usage or fatigue. In the present paper a data driven approach has been suggested to demark the regions optimally through estimation of the change point in a hazard function. In the perspective of bivariate warranty analysis, as relevant in automobiles, we have assumed the lifetime distribution to be a mixture of distributions corresponding to the burn-in period and the useful life period. The proportions of observations in different regions demarketed by the warranty policy in the bivariate plane have been estimated by considering mileage along with age. The estimation scheme has been verified and validated through extensive simulation studies. The utilities of the results have been demonstrated by addressing several issues through a real life synthetic warranty data set from a large automobile company. - Highlights: • Detailed responses to all comments of the reviewers are attached in a separate file. Almost all of the suggestions of the reviewers are incorporated in the revised manuscript. • Some recent works of different authors as mentioned by the reviewers have been included in the revised manuscript. • The term change point with reference to the transition from $DFR$ to $CFR$ part of the bath-tub curve has been elaborated. • A sample of real life data has been given in the revised manuscript in Table $4$, by following the suggestion of reviewer 2. • The findings have been summarised in a better way in the conclusion part. In this portion we have emphasized on the take away of our work. Scopes for future work have also been mentioned

  20. Debt and incomplete financial markets: a case for nominal GDP targeting

    OpenAIRE

    Sheedy, Kevin D.

    2013-01-01

    Financial markets are incomplete, thus for many agents borrowing is possible only by accepting a financial contract that specifies a fixed repayment. However, the future income that will repay this debt is uncertain, so risk can be inefficiently distributed. This paper argues that a monetary policy of nominal GDP targeting can improve the functioning of incomplete financial markets when incomplete contracts are written in terms of money. By insulating agents' nominal incomes from aggregate re...

  1. How does incomplete fusion show up at slightly above barrier energies?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prasad R.

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Experimental results on the onset of incomplete fusion at slightly above barrier energies are discussed in this paper. Spin-distributions of evaporation residues populated via complete and/or incomplete fusion of 12C,16O (Elab ? 4–7 MeV with 169Tm have been measured to probe associated ?–values. Particle (Z=1,2 – ? – coincidence technique has been used for channel selection. Entirely different entry state spin populations have been observed during the de-excitation of complete and incomplete composites. The complete fusion residues are found to be strongly fed over a broad spin range. While, a narrow range feeding for only high spin states has been observed in case of incomplete fusion residues. In the present work, incomplete fusion is shown to be a promising tool to populate high spin states in final reaction products. For better insight into the onset and strength of incomplete fusion, the relative contributions of complete and incomplete fusion have been deduced from the analysis of excitation functions and forward recoil ranges. A significant fraction of ICF has been observed even at energy as low as ? 7% above the barrier. The relative strengths of complete and incomplete fusion deduced from the analysis of forward-recoil-ranges and excitation functions complement each other. All the available results are discussed in light of the Morgenstern’s mass-asymmetry systematics. Incomplete fusion fraction is found to be large for more mass-asymmetric systems for individual projectiles, which points towards the projectile structure effect on incomplete fusion fraction. Experimentally measured forward ranges of recoils complement the existence of incomplete fusion at slightly above barrier energies, where more than one linear-momentum-transfer components associated with full- and/or partial-fusion of projectile(s have been observed. Present results conclusively demonstrate the possibility to selectively populate high spin states via incomplete fusion.

  2. CXCR4 engagement promotes dendritic cell survival and maturation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    It has been reported that human monocyte derived-dendritic cells (DCs) express CXCR4, responsible for chemotaxis to CXCL12. However, it remains unknown whether CXCR4 is involved in other functions of DCs. Initially, we found that CXCR4 was expressed on bone marrow-derived DCs (BMDCs). The addition of specific CXCR4 antagonist, 4-F-Benzoyl-TN14003, to the culture of mouse BMDCs decreased their number, especially the mature subset of them. The similar effect was found on the number of Langerhans cells (LCs) but not keratinocytes among epidermal cell suspensions. Since LCs are incapable of proliferating in vitro, these results indicate that CXCR4 engagement is important for not only maturation but also survival of DCs. Consistently, the dinitrobenzene sulfonic acid-induced, antigen-specific in vitro proliferation of previously sensitized lymph node cells was enhanced by CXCL12, and suppressed by CXCR4 antagonist. These findings suggest that CXCL12-CXCR4 engagement enhances DC maturation and survival to initiate acquired immune response

  3. Effects of interleukin-8 on granulation tissue maturation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moyer, K E; Saggers, G C; Allison, G M; Mackay, D R; Ehrlich, H P

    2002-11-01

    The inflammatory alpha-chemokine, interleukin-8 (IL-8), affects the function and recruitment of various inflammatory cells, fibroblasts, and keratinocytes. Gap junctions are anatomical channels that facilitate the direct passage of small molecules between cells. The hypothesis is that IL-8 enhances gap junctional intercellular communication (GJIC) between fibroblasts in granulation tissue, which increases the rate of granulation tissue maturation. In vitro, human dermal fibroblasts were incubated with IL-8 prior to scrape loading, a technique that quantifies GJIC. Polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) sponges were implanted within subcutaneous pockets in rats and received local injections of either IL-8 or saline and were harvested on day 11. In vitro, IL-8 treated fibroblasts demonstrated an increase in GJIC by scrape loading compared to saline treated controls. In vivo, IL-8 treated PVA sponges demonstrated a decrease in cell density and an increase in vascularization compared to saline controls by H&E staining. Polarized light viewed Sirius red-stained specimens demonstrated greater collagen birefringence intensity, indicating thicker, more-mature collagen fibers. IL-8 increases GJIC in cultured fibroblasts and induces a more rapid maturation of granulation tissue. PMID:12384994

  4. Ca(2+) response to cADPr during maturation and fertilization of starfish oocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nusco, Gilda A; Lim, Dmitri; Sabala, Pawel; Santella, Luigia

    2002-01-25

    During the reinitiation of the meiotic cycle (maturation) induced by the hormone 1-methyladenine (1-MA), starfish oocytes undergo structural and biochemical changes in preparation for successful fertilization. Previous work has shown that the sensitivity of internal Ca(2+) stores to InsP(3) increases during maturation of the oocytes. Since Astropecten auranciacus oocytes also respond to cADPr, we have studied whether the response to cADPr also changes during maturation. We have found that the photoactivation of injected cADPr in immature oocytes immediately induces multiple patches of Ca(2+) release in the cortical region. The Ca(2+) signal then spreads from these initial points of increase to the entire cell. In mature oocytes, the uncaging of cADPr induces instead a single (or at most a dual) initial point of Ca(2+) release, which is immediately followed by the formation of a cortical Ca(2+) flash and then by the globalization of the wave and by the elevation of the fertilization envelope. External Ca(2+) plays a role in the Ca(2+) responses. Inhibition of L-type Ca(2+) channels does not affect the initial Ca(2+) release, but abolishes the cortical flash and impairs the elevation of the fertilization envelope. External Ca(2+) has other effects, as shown by the irregular appearance of the surface of oocytes incubated in Ca(2+)-free sea water. The sequence of Ca(2+) responses induced by cADPr in mature oocytes mimics those seen at fertilization, i.e., a first localized Ca(2+) increase followed by a cortical flash and by the globalization of the Ca(2+) signal. As in the case of maturation, L-type Ca(2+) channel blockers abolish the sperm induced cortical flash. PMID:11798176

  5. Finite Hilbert transform with incomplete data: null-space and singular values

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Using the Gelfand–Graev formula, the interior problem of tomography reduces to the inversion of the finite Hilbert transform (FHT) from incomplete data. In this paper, we study several aspects of inverting the FHT when the data are incomplete. Using the Cauchy transform and an approach based on the Riemann–Hilbert problem, we derive a differential operator that commutes with the FHT. Our second result is the characterization of the null-space of the FHT in the case of incomplete data. Also, we derive the asymptotics of the singular values of the FHT in three different cases of incomplete data. (paper)

  6. Competition of complete and incomplete fusion leading to compound nuclei with A/sub CN/ < 100

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Velocity spectra of individually resolved evaporation residue masses of different compound systems have been measured. By varying the energy in the range 3-26 MeV/? the onset of incomplete and the limit to complete fusion have been determined. The dependence of the ratio of complete to incomplete fusion on the mass asymmetry in the entrance channel is discussed. Precise measurements of evaporation spectra just above the onset of incomplete fusion together with coincident observation of light particles lead to the presumption that massive-transfer reactions are responsible for the incomplete momentum transfer

  7. [NiFe]-hydrogenase maturation in vitro: analysis of the roles of the HybG and HypD accessory proteins1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soboh, Basem; Lindenstrauss, Ute; Granich, Claudia; Javed, Mahwish; Herzberg, Martin; Thomas, Claudia; Stripp, Sven T

    2014-12-01

    [NiFe]-hydrogenases (Hyd) bind a nickel-iron-based cofactor. The Fe ion of the cofactor is bound by two cyanide ligands and a single carbon monoxide ligand. Minimally six accessory proteins (HypA-HypF) are necessary for NiFe(CN)2CO cofactor biosynthesis in Escherichia coli. It has been shown that the anaerobically purified HypC-HypD-HypE scaffold complex carries the Fe(CN)2CO moiety of this cofactor. In the present study, we have purified the HybG-HypDE complex and used it to successfully reconstitute in vitro active Hyd from E. coli. HybG is a homologue of HypC that is specifically required for the maturation of Hyd-2 and also functions in the maturation of Hyd-1 of E. coli. Maturation of active Hyd-1 and Hyd-2 could be demonstrated in extracts derived from HybG- and HypD-deficient E. coli strains by adding anaerobically purified HybG-HypDE complex. In vitro maturation was dependent on ATP, carbamoylphosphate, nickel and reducing conditions. Hydrogenase maturation was prevented when the purified HybG-HypDE complex used in the maturation assay lacked a bound Fe(CN)2CO moiety. These findings demonstrate that it is possible to isolate incompletely processed intermediates on the maturation pathway and to use these to activate apo-forms of [NiFe]-hydrogenase large subunits. PMID:25184670

  8. Cell Recruitment and Cytokines in Skin Mice Sensitized with the Vaccine Adjuvants: Saponin, Incomplete Freund’s Adjuvant, and Monophosphoryl Lipid A

    OpenAIRE

    Vitoriano-Souza, Juliana; Moreira, Nádia das Dores; Teixeira-Carvalho, Andréa; CARNEIRO Cláudia Martins; Siqueira, Fernando Augusto Mathias; Vieira, Paula Melo de Abreu; Giunchetti, Rodolfo Cordeiro; de Moura, Sandra Aparecida Lima; Fujiwara, Ricardo Toshio; MELO Maria Norma; Reis, Alexandre Barbosa

    2012-01-01

    Vaccine adjuvants are substances associated with antigens that are fundamental to the formation of an intense, durable, and fast immune response. In this context, the use of vaccine adjuvants to generate an effective cellular immune response is crucial for the design and development of vaccines against visceral leishmaniasis. The objective of this study was to evaluate innate inflammatory response induced by the vaccine adjuvants saponin (SAP), incomplete Freund’s adjuvant (IFA), and monophos...

  9. Service Quality and Process Maturity Assessment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Serek Radomir

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available This article deals with service quality and the methods for its measurement and improvements to reach the so called service excellence. Besides older methods such as SERVQUAL and SERPERF, there are also shortly described capability maturity models based on which the own methodology is developed and used for process maturity assessment in organizations providing technical services. This method is equally described and accompanied by examples on pictures. The verification of method functionality is explored on finding a correlation between service employee satisfaction and average process maturity in a service organization. The results seem to be quite promising and open an arena for further studies.

  10. Persistent abnormalities of membrane excitability in regenerated mature motor axons in cat

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Moldovan, Mihai; Krarup, Christian

    2004-01-01

    The purpose of our study was to assess by threshold tracking internodal and nodal membrane excitability during the maturation process after tibial nerve crush in cat. Various excitability indices (EI) were computed non-invasively by comparing the threshold of a submaximal compound motor potential at different stimulation durations (strength-duration relationship), after a conditioning nerve impulse (recovery of excitability), or during the application of a polarizing current (threshold electrotonus). Four months after the lesion, regenerated nerves showed a higher rheobase, shorter chronaxie, shorter refractory period and higher than normal threshold variations during threshold electrotonus (TE). A partial recovery was observed during the first 2 years of maturation. The recovery to depolarizing TE seemed complete but all other EI remained abnormal even after 5 years of regeneration, the most pronounced being the 157 +/- 8% (mean +/- S.E.M.) increase in threshold during hyperpolarizing TE compared with 94 +/-4% in controls. These EI abnormalities are consistent with increased input impedance. Nevertheless, the time course of maturation and incomplete recovery of EI could only be partially explained by changes in fibre morphology. The highly abnormal response to hyperpolarizing but not to depolarizing TE suggests that voltage-dependent membrane function also remained abnormal, possibly due to membrane hyperpolarization.

  11. Induction of central nervous system plasticity by repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation to promote sensorimotor recovery in incomplete spinal cord injury

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Ellaway

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Cortical and spinal cord plasticity may be induced with non-invasive transcranial magnetic stimulation to encourage long term potentiation or depression of neuronal circuits. Such plasticity inducing stimulation provides an attractive approach to promote changes in sensorimotor circuits that have been degraded by spinal cord injury (SCI. If residual corticospinal circuits can be conditioned appropriately there should be the possibility that the changes are accompanied by functional recovery. This article reviews the attempts that have been made to restore sensorimotor function and to obtain functional benefits from the application of repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS of the cortex following incomplete spinal cord injury (iSCI. The confounding issues that arise with the application of rTMS, specifically in SCI, are enumerated. Finally, consideration is given to the potential for rTMS to be used in the restoration of bladder and bowel sphincter function and consequent functional recovery of the guarding reflex.

  12. Obesity accelerates secondary sexual maturity in girls

    OpenAIRE

    Meiriani Sari; Endy Paryanto Prawirohartono; Madarina Julia2)

    2012-01-01

    Background Worldwide incidence of obesity in children is increasing. Obesity may have many health effects including advancement of sexual maturity. Objective The aim of this study was to assess the timing of secondary sexual maturation in obese vs. non-obese girls. Methods Subjects were 105 obese and 105 non-obese girls, aged 7 to 8 years who had not entered puberty. Breast and pubic hair growth, secondary sexual characteristics, were assessed at baseline and every 4 months for two ye...

  13. Does Debt Maturity Matter for Investment Decisions?

    OpenAIRE

    Nam, Chang Woon; Radulescu, Doina Maria

    2004-01-01

    In the conventional literature related to investment decisions, less attention has been paid to the length of maturity when investment is debt-financed. In such a case a firm pays the creditor not only the sum of annual interest (initial investment cost multiplied by real interest rate) for the entire borrowing years but also the total amount of initial investment cost at the end of the borrowing period. In this study, the effects of selecting different maturity years on firms? investment de...

  14. Mature teratoma of the posterior mediastinum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The vast majority of germ cell tumors in the thorax arise at or near the thymus. We report a case of a 41-year-old man with mature teratoma of the posterior mediastinum. He was asymptomatic and was incidentally found to have a posterior mediastinal mass. Computed tomography was helpful in suggesting a diagnosis of mature teratoma by demonstrating the presence of fat and calcification. The differential diagnosis included neurogenic tumors, liposarcoma, and extramedullary hematopoiesis. (orig.)

  15. Oligodendroglioma Arising in Mature Cystic Teratoma

    OpenAIRE

    Xdc Nal, Bet Xfc L.; Xfc Le Xe, Faruk G.; Edele, Murat X. E.

    2014-01-01

    Background. Development of neuroepithelial tumors from mature cystic teratoma is very rare. We present a case of oligodendroglioma developing inside mature cystic teratoma. Case. Eighteen-years-old female, right adnexal mass with solid and cystic areas was detected. Sections showed all three germ layers. Also, a tumoral lesion was observed in a glial fibrillary matrix. Tumor was composed of monotonous, uniform cells which have oval-round nucleus, perinuclear halo, and indistinct cytoplasm...

  16. Effect of EGF and AREG Treatment During Porcine in vitro Maturation on in vitro Developmental Potential of Preimplantation Embryos

    OpenAIRE

    Sang-Hwan Hyun; Eui-Bae Jeung; Kyung-Chul Choi; Dibyendu Biswas; Yu-Byeol Jeon; Se-Heon Jeung

    2012-01-01

    Porcine In Vitro Maturation (IVM) and In Vitro Fertilization (IVF) technique has been used and improved. However, polyspermic penetration, low rate of Blastocyst (BL) formation and poor quality of BLs are induced by imperfect nuclear and cytoplasmic maturation. It has been reported that Epidermal Growth Factor (EGF) is beneficial for oocyte maturation to improve the IVM system and Amphiregulin (AREG) is a growth factor containing an EGF-like domain. Consequently, the present study was perform...

  17. Mature students' perspectives of studying radiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The study set out to explore the experiences of all final year mature students on a diagnostic radiography course, in one United Kingdom University. The aims were to identify any difficulties they may have had and to make recommendations to improve mature students' learning experiences with the hope of lowering attrition rates in this group. A qualitative study involving one-to-one audio recorded interviews was utilised. Analysis of the transcripts of interviews suggested that the group believed that their maturity and previous experiences helped them in the clinical environment and put them in a good position, when asked, to counsel younger students. However for some of the mature students these experiential skills did not extend fully into seeking appropriate support for themselves. The mature students were found to be highly motivated but there was a conflict between balancing clinical and academic aspects of studying as well as balancing studying with home life. The group was found to be unprepared for the volume of academic work and its detrimental effect on family life as they sacrificed other aspects of their lives in order to complete the course. It is recommended that forewarning and forearming prospective mature students be considered by radiography education providers. Setting up and utilising an on-line forum providing a 24/7 peer support environment would aid in coping with academic, clinical or personal problems

  18. A hierarchical nest survival model integrating incomplete temporally varying covariates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Converse, Sarah J.; Royle, J. Andrew; Adler, Peter H.; Urbanek, Richard P.; Barzan, Jeb A.

    2013-01-01

    Nest success is a critical determinant of the dynamics of avian populations, and nest survival modeling has played a key role in advancing avian ecology and management. Beginning with the development of daily nest survival models, and proceeding through subsequent extensions, the capacity for modeling the effects of hypothesized factors on nest survival has expanded greatly. We extend nest survival models further by introducing an approach to deal with incompletely observed, temporally varying covariates using a hierarchical model. Hierarchical modeling offers a way to separate process and observational components of demographic models to obtain estimates of the parameters of primary interest, and to evaluate structural effects of ecological and management interest. We built a hierarchical model for daily nest survival to analyze nest data from reintroduced whooping cranes (Grus americana) in the Eastern Migratory Population. This reintroduction effort has been beset by poor reproduction, apparently due primarily to nest abandonment by breeding birds. We used the model to assess support for the hypothesis that nest abandonment is caused by harassment from biting insects. We obtained indices of blood-feeding insect populations based on the spatially interpolated counts of insects captured in carbon dioxide traps. However, insect trapping was not conducted daily, and so we had incomplete information on a temporally variable covariate of interest. We therefore supplemented our nest survival model with a parallel model for estimating the values of the missing insect covariates. We used Bayesian model selection to identify the best predictors of daily nest survival. Our results suggest that the black fly Simulium annulus may be negatively affecting nest survival of reintroduced whooping cranes, with decreasing nest survival as abundance of S. annulus increases. The modeling framework we have developed will be applied in the future to a larger data set to evaluate the biting-insect hypothesis and other hypotheses for nesting failure in this reintroduced population; resulting inferences will support ongoing efforts to manage this population via an adaptive management approach. Wider application of our approach offers promise for modeling the effects of other temporally varying, but imperfectly observed covariates on nest survival, including the possibility of modeling temporally varying covariates collected from incubating adults.

  19. Aflatoxin B1 is toxic to porcine oocyte maturation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jun; Wang, Qiao-Chu; Han, Jun; Xiong, Bo; Sun, Shao-Chen

    2015-07-01

    As a toxic secondary metabolite of Aspergillus species, Aflatoxin B1 (AFB1) is a major food and feed contaminant in tropical and sub-tropical regions with high temperature and humidity. It has been reported to be toxic to the female reproductive system in laboratory and domestic animals. In the present study, the influence of acute exposure to AFB1 (10 and 50 ?M, 44h) on porcine oocyte maturation and its possible mechanism were investigated. The maturation rates of oocytes decreased significantly in the presence of 50 ?M of AFB1. Cell cycle analysis showed that most oocytes were arrested at germinal vesicle breakdown or meosis I stage. However, actin assembly, spindle structure and chromosome alignment were not disrupted after exposure to 50 ?M AFB1. Further study showed that DNA methylation levels increased in treated oocytes (50 ?M). Histone methylation levels were also analysed after treatment (50 ?M): H3K27me3 and H3K4me2 levels decreased, whereas H3K9me3 level increased, indicating that epigenetic modification was affected. AFB1 treatment (50 ?M) also induced oxidative stress and further led to autophagy, as shown by accumulation of reactive oxygen species, up-regulated LC3 protein expression and increased mRNA levels of ATG3, ATG5 and ATG7. Annexin V-FITC staining assay revealed that AFB1 treatment (50 ?M) resulted in oocyte early apoptosis, which was confirmed by increased Bak, Bax, Bcl-xl mRNA levels. Collectively, our results suggest that AFB1 disrupts porcine oocyte maturation through changing epigenetic modifications as well as inducing oxidative stress, excessive autophagy and apoptosis. PMID:25778688

  20. Reducing the Length of Questionnaires through Structurally Incomplete Designs: An Illustration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smits, Niels; Vorst, Harrie C. M.

    2007-01-01

    This paper serves as an illustration of the usefulness of structurally incomplete designs as an approach to reduce the length of educational questionnaires. In structurally incomplete test designs, respondents only fill out a subset of the total item set, while all items are still provided to the whole sample. The scores on the unadministered…

  1. The range of derivative's arbitrage prices in a general incomplete market

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvia Romagnoli

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we work in a general incomplete market driven by a mixed diffusion of finite dimension and we characterize the range of derivative's arbitrage prices by the super-replication approach in the deterministic interest rate hypothesis (DIRH and in the stochastic interest rate hypothesis (SIRH. We give some examples of applications of this models in particular incomplete situations.

  2. Maturation of bacteriophage SPPI DNA: limited precision in the sizing of mature bacteriophage genomes.

    OpenAIRE

    Humphreys, G. O.; Trautner, T. A.

    1981-01-01

    Maturation of bacteriophage SPPI is imprecise. Although terminally redundant and circularly permuted molecules were always formed, individual molecules varied by more than 200 base pairs from each other.

  3. CBC-ARS2 stimulates 3'-end maturation of multiple RNA families and favors cap-proximal processing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hallais, Marie; Pontvianne, Frédéric

    2013-01-01

    The nuclear cap-binding complex (CBC) stimulates multiple steps in several RNA maturation pathways, but how it functions in humans is incompletely understood. For small, capped RNAs such as pre-snRNAs, the CBC recruits PHAX. Here, we identify the CBCAP complex, composed of CBC, ARS2 and PHAX, and show that both CBCAP and CBC-ARS2 complexes can be reconstituted from recombinant proteins. ARS2 stimulates PHAX binding to the CBC and snRNA 3'-end processing, thereby coupling maturation with export. In vivo, CBC and ARS2 bind similar capped noncoding and coding RNAs and stimulate their 3'-end processing. The strongest effects are for cap-proximal polyadenylation sites, and this favors premature transcription termination. ARS2 functions partly through the mRNA 3'-end cleavage factor CLP1, which binds RNA Polymerase II through PCF11. ARS2 is thus a major CBC effector that stimulates functional and cryptic 3'-end processing sites.

  4. Dendritic Cells Activate and Mature after Infection with Mycobacterium tuberculosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mamo Gezahagne

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Dendritic cells (DCs can take up an array of different antigens, including microorganisms which they can process and present more effectively than any other antigen presenting cell. However, whether the interaction between the human DC and Mycobacterium tuberculosis represents a defense mechanism by the invaded host, or helping the invader to evade the defense mechanism of the host is still not clearly understood. Findings To analyze the interactions between M. tuberculosis and immune cells, human peripheral blood monocyte-derived immature DCs were infected with M. tuberculosis H37Rv wild type strain and flow cytometry was used to analyse cell surface expression markers. The ability of the M. tuberculosis infected DC to induce T cell proliferation using 5 and 6-carboxyfluorescein diacetate succinimidyl ester (CFSE dilution technique was also investigated. DCs were found to internalize the mycobacteria and show dose dependent infection and necrosis with different multiplicity of infection. Flow cytometry analysis of cell surface expression markers CD40, CD54, CD80, CD83, CD86 and HLA DR in infected DC revealed significant (p M. tuberculosis in comparison to immature DC with no stimulation. Lipopolysaccharide (LPS from Salmonella abortus equi, a known DC maturation agent, was used as a positive control and showed a comparable up regulation of cell surface markers as observed with M. tuberculosis infected DC. It was revealed that the M. tuberculosis infected DC induced T cell proliferation. Conclusion These data clearly demonstrate that M. tuberculosis induces activation and maturation of human monocyte-derived immature DC as well as induces T cell proliferation in vitro.

  5. Uterine rupture following incomplete molar pregnancy: a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pourali L

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: In molar pregnancy, when hydatidiform changes are local and some embryonic components are observed, the term of partial mole is used. The risk of persistent trophoblastic tumor after partial mole is much lower than complete mole. In this persistent cases almost all are non metastatic. The aim of this study is to report a case of uterine rupture following incomplete molar pregnancy.Case presentation: The patient was a 26 year old woman with obstetric history of an abortion and one molar pregnancy and no child. She was referred to emergency unit in Ghaem University Hospital, Mashhad, Iran in May 2011. She had an evacuation curettage following molar pregnancy three months before and without any follow up visit. The patient was referred to emergency unit with hemorrhagic shock. She immediately underwent laparotomy. The uterine fundal rupture was repaired and evacuation curettage performed. In post operative evaluation, she had a nine millimeter metastatic nodule in base of right Lung. As a patient in low risk stage III, she received weekly intramuscular methotrexate (40mg/m2 for six courses. In follow up visit ?-hCG titer was negative (<10miu/ml at 5th week. Conclusion: In cases of in complete molar pregnancy risk of metastasis is very low. Serial beta-hCG titer is the most accurate method for detection of persistent gestational trophoblastic disease (GTN. In neglected cases like this case preservation of ruptured uterus in GTN is possible.

  6. Plant development, auxin, and the subsystem incompleteness theorem.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niklas, Karl J; Kutschera, Ulrich

    2012-01-01

    Plant morphogenesis (the process whereby form develops) requires signal cross-talking among all levels of organization to coordinate the operation of metabolic and genomic subsystems operating in a larger network of subsystems. Each subsystem can be rendered as a logic circuit supervising the operation of one or more signal-activated system. This approach simplifies complex morphogenetic phenomena and allows for their aggregation into diagrams of progressively larger networks. This technique is illustrated here by rendering two logic circuits and signal-activated subsystems, one for auxin (IAA) polar/lateral intercellular transport and another for IAA-mediated cell wall loosening. For each of these phenomena, a circuit/subsystem diagram highlights missing components (either in the logic circuit or in the subsystem it supervises) that must be identified experimentally if each of these basic plant phenomena is to be fully understood. We also illustrate the "subsystem incompleteness theorem," which states that no subsystem is operationally self-sufficient. Indeed, a whole-organism perspective is required to understand even the most simple morphogenetic process, because, when isolated, every biological signal-activated subsystem is morphogenetically ineffective. PMID:22645582

  7. Synesthesia in twins: incomplete concordance in monozygotes suggests extragenic factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bosley, Hannah G; Eagleman, David M

    2015-06-01

    Colored-sequence synesthesia (CSS) is a neurological condition in which sequential stimuli such as letters, numbers, or days of the week trigger simultaneous, involuntary color perception. Although the condition appears to run in families and several studies have sought a genetic link, the genetic contribution to synesthesia remains unclear. We conducted the first comparative twin study of CSS and found that CSS has a pairwise concordance of 73.9% in monozygotic twins, and a pairwise concordance of 36.4% in dizygotic twins. In line with previous studies, our results suggest a heritable element of synesthesia. However, consonant with the findings of previous single-pair case studies, our large sample size verifies that synesthesia is not completely conferred by genetics; if it were, monozygotic twins should have 100% concordance. These findings implicate a genetic mechanism of CSS that may work differently than previously thought: collectively, our data suggest that synesthesia is a heritable condition with incomplete penetrance that is substantially influenced by epigenetic and environmental factors. PMID:25704836

  8. Spectral Regularization Algorithms for Learning Large Incomplete Matrices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazumder, Rahul; Hastie, Trevor; Tibshirani, Robert

    2010-03-01

    We use convex relaxation techniques to provide a sequence of regularized low-rank solutions for large-scale matrix completion problems. Using the nuclear norm as a regularizer, we provide a simple and very efficient convex algorithm for minimizing the reconstruction error subject to a bound on the nuclear norm. Our algorithm Soft-Impute iteratively replaces the missing elements with those obtained from a soft-thresholded SVD. With warm starts this allows us to efficiently compute an entire regularization path of solutions on a grid of values of the regularization parameter. The computationally intensive part of our algorithm is in computing a low-rank SVD of a dense matrix. Exploiting the problem structure, we show that the task can be performed with a complexity linear in the matrix dimensions. Our semidefinite-programming algorithm is readily scalable to large matrices: for example it can obtain a rank-80 approximation of a 10(6) × 10(6) incomplete matrix with 10(5) observed entries in 2.5 hours, and can fit a rank 40 approximation to the full Netflix training set in 6.6 hours. Our methods show very good performance both in training and test error when compared to other competitive state-of-the art techniques. PMID:21552465

  9. A Plasmodium yoelii soluble factor inhibits the phenotypic maturation of dendritic cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ocaña-Morgner Carlos

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Infection with the protozoan parasite Plasmodium is the cause of malaria. Plasmodium infects host erythrocytes causing the pathology of the disease. Plasmodium-infected erythrocytes can modulate the maturation of dendritic cells (DCs and alter their capacity to activate T cells. Methods Mice infected with Plasmodium yoelii and isolated P. yoelii-infected erythrocytes were used to study their effect on the maturation of mouse dendritic cells. Results DCs are not able to mature in response to LPS injection during the late stage of P. yoelii infection in mice, indicating impaired functionality of these cells in vivo. P. yoelii- infected erythrocytes inhibit the maturation of DCs in vitro in a dose-dependent manner, which is consistent with the inhibition found during late infection when parasite burden is highest. The inhibition of DC maturation and the cytokine secretion profile of DCs are modulated by soluble factors released by P. yoelii-infected erythrocytes. A small, heat-stable, non-hydrophobic molecule of P. yoelii-infected erythrocytes rapidly inhibits the LPS induced phenotypic maturation of DCs in a reversible manner. Conclusion These findings add evidence to the malaria associated immune suppression in vivo and in vitro and provide insight into the nature and mechanism of the Plasmodium factor(s responsible for altering DC functions.

  10. Neuropeptides trigger oocyte maturation and subsequent spawning in the hydrozoan jellyfish Cytaeis uchidae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takeda, Noriyo; Nakajima, Yoko; Koizumi, Osamu; Fujisawa, Toshitaka; Takahashi, Toshio; Matsumoto, Midori; Deguchi, Ryusaku

    2013-03-01

    Oocyte maturation and subsequent spawning in hydrozoan jellyfish are generally triggered by light-dark cycles. To examine if the initiation of the maturation process after light stimulus is mediated by neurotransmitters, neuropeptides isolated originally from Hydra magnipapillata were applied to sexually mature female medusae of the hydrozoan jellyfish Cytaeis uchidae. Among the Hydra neuropeptides tested, Hym-53 (NPYPGLW-NH2 ), as well as a nonphysiological peptide, CGLWamide (CGLW-NH2 ), were most effective in inducing oocyte maturation and spawning. Hym-355 (FPQSFLPRG-NH2 ) also triggered these events, but the stimulatory effect was weaker. Since Hym-53-OH (NPYPGLW) and Hym-355-OH (FPQSFLPRG) had no effect, amidation at the C-terminus may be critical for the stimulatory activities of the peptides. Exposure to Hym-53 for 2 min was sufficient to trigger of oocyte maturation, and the spawned eggs were able to be fertilized and to develop normally. Transmission electron microscopy confirmed that bundles of axon-like structures that contain dense-core synaptic vesicles and microtubules are present in the ovarian ectodermal epithelium overlying the oocytes. In addition, immunohistological analyses revealed that some of the neurons in the ectodermal epithelium are GLWamide- and PRGamide-positive. These results suggest that a neuropeptide signal transduction pathway is involved in mediating the induction of oocyte maturation and spawning in this jellyfish. PMID:23341254

  11. Maturation Pathways of Cross-Reactive HIV-1 Neutralizing Antibodies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dimiter S. Dimitrov

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Several human monoclonal antibodies (hmAbs and antibody fragments, including the best characterized in terms of structure-function b12 and Fab X5, exhibit relatively potent and broad HIV-1 neutralizing activity. However, the elicitation of b12 or b12-like antibodies in vivo by vaccine immunogens based on the HIV-1 envelope glycoprotein (Env has not been successful. B12 is highly divergent from the closest corresponding germline antibody while X5 is less divergent. We have hypothesized that the relatively high degree of specific somatic hypermutations may preclude binding of the HIV-1 envelope glycoprotein (Env to closest germline antibodies, and that identifying antibodies that are intermediates in the pathways to maturation could help design novel vaccine immunogens to guide the immune system for their enhanced elicitation. In support of this hypothesis we have previously found that a germline-like b12 (monovalent and bivalent scFv as an Fc fusion protein or IgG lacks measurable binding to an Env as measured by ELISA with a sensitivity in the ?M range [1]; here we present evidence confirming and expanding these findings for a panel of Envs. In contrast, a germline-like scFv X5 bound Env with high (nM affinity. To begin to explore the maturation pathways of these antibodies we identified several possible b12 intermediate antibodies and tested their neutralizing activity. These intermediate antibodies neutralized only some HIV-1 isolates and with relatively weak potency. In contrast, germline-like scFv X5 neutralized a subset of the tested HIV-1 isolates with comparable efficiencies to that of the mature X5. These results could help explain the relatively high immunogenicity of the coreceptor binding site on gp120 and the abundance of CD4-induced (CD4i antibodies in HIV-1-infected patients (X5 is a CD4i antibody as well as the maturation pathway of X5. They also can help identify antigens that can bind specifically to b12 germline and intermediate antibodies that together with Envs could be used as a conceptually novel type of candidate vaccines. Such candidate vaccines based on two or more immunogens could help guiding the immune system through complex maturation pathways for elicitation of antibodies that are similar or identical to antibodies with known properties.

  12. GnRHa to trigger final oocyte maturation: a time to reconsider

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Al Humaidan, Peter Samir Heskjær; Papanikolaou, E G

    2009-01-01

    Recently GnRH antagonist protocols for the prevention of a premature LH surge were introduced, allowing final oocyte maturation to be triggered with a single bolus of a GnRH agonist (GnRHa). GnRHa is as effective as hCG for the induction of ovulation, and apart from the LH surge a FSH surge is also induced. Until recently, prospective randomized studies reported a poor clinical outcome when GnRHa was used to trigger final oocyte maturation in IVF/ICSI antagonist protocols, presumably due to a luteal phase deficiency, despite standard luteal phase supplementation with progesterone and estradiol. As GnRHa triggering of final oocyte maturation could possess advantages over hCG triggering in terms of a reduced if not eliminated risk of ovarian hyperstimulation syndrome (OHSS) and the retrieval of more mature oocytes, the challenge has been to rescue the luteal phase. In the literature now several studies report a luteal phase rescue with a reproductive outcome comparable to that of hCG induced final oocyte maturation. Although more research is needed, GnRHa triggering is now a valid alternative with potential benefits.

  13. Neuromuscular stimulation therapy after incomplete spinal cord injury promotes recovery of interlimb coordination during locomotion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, R.; Belanger, A.; Kanchiku, T.; Fairchild, M.; Abbas, J. J.

    2009-10-01

    The mechanisms underlying the effects of neuromuscular electrical stimulation (NMES) induced repetitive limb movement therapy after incomplete spinal cord injury (iSCI) are unknown. This study establishes the capability of using therapeutic NMES in rodents with iSCI and evaluates its ability to promote recovery of interlimb control during locomotion. Ten adult female Long Evans rats received thoracic spinal contusion injuries (T9; 156 ± 9.52 Kdyne). 7 days post-recovery, 6/10 animals received NMES therapy for 15 min/day for 5 days, via electrodes implanted bilaterally into hip flexors and extensors. Six intact animals served as controls. Motor function was evaluated using the BBB locomotor scale for the first 6 days and on 14th day post-injury. 3D kinematic analysis of treadmill walking was performed on day 14 post-injury. Rodents receiving NMES therapy exhibited improved interlimb coordination in control of the hip joint, which was the specific NMES target. Symmetry indices improved significantly in the therapy group. Additionally, injured rodents receiving therapy more consistently displayed a high percentage of 1:1 coordinated steps, and more consistently achieved proper hindlimb touchdown timing. These results suggest that NMES techniques could provide an effective therapeutic tool for neuromotor treatment following iSCI.

  14. Effect of robotic gait training on cardiorespiratory system in incomplete spinal cord injury

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Femke Hoekstra, MSc

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available The objectives in this study were to investigate the effect of robot-assisted gait training on cardiorespiratory fitness in subjects with motor incomplete spinal cord injury and document the exercise intensity of robotic walking in comparison with the recommended guidelines. Ten patients followed a 24-session training program with a robotic gait orthosis in addition to physiotherapy sessions completed within 10 to 16 wk. Cardiorespiratory fitness was determined in a graded arm crank exercise test before and after the training program. To assess the intensity of robot-assisted walking, oxygen consumption (VO2 and heart rate (HR were measured during a training session early in and at the end of the training program, and exercise intensity measures (percentage of VO2 reserve [%VO2R], percentage of HR reserve [%HRR], and metabolic equivalents [METs] were calculated. Whereas no changes were found in peak VO2, the resting and submaximal HR at a constant work load were significantly lower after training. Most subjects exercised at low intensity (3.0 METs. In spite of the low exercise intensity of the training program and no changes in peak VO2, robot-assisted gait training induced some improvement in cardiorespiratory fitness, as suggested by lower resting and submaximal HR values.

  15. Capability Maturity Assessment Method of Civil Aircraft Customer Service System

    OpenAIRE

    Xu Jun; Chen Lin; Sun Lei

    2014-01-01

    According to the basic ideas of the maturity model (Capability Maturity Model, CMM), the maturity model and its capability maturity comprehensive evaluation method of civil aircrafts’ customer service system are established from five aspects: Engineering and technical support, marketing and customer support, spare parts support, flight training and technical publications. Referencing survey results of the customer service satisfaction from airlines, weights was...

  16. Examination of potential measures of vine maturity in potato

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plant maturity is a complex physiological trait. The criteria used to characterize plant maturity are not universal among crop plants. In potato, vine characteristics are typically used to estimate plant maturity. This study investigates several reported measures of vine maturity in potato cultivars...

  17. The Forgotten Promise of E-government Maturity : Assessing Responsiveness in the Digital Public Sector

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Kim Normann; Medaglia, Rony

    2011-01-01

    Assessing e-government responsiveness is one of the major gaps in the currently dominant e-government maturity models. While we have a relatively large pool of models focusing on technological and organizational integration from a supply side perspective, measures of responsiveness of e-government systems from a user perspective are still lacking. Replicating a study from New Zealand and Australia, this study explores the response time and quality of e-mail response in Danish local and central governments (N = 175). Despite that Denmark is high ranking in international benchmark studies, we find that one third of central government agencies did not respond at all, and close to 80% of the ministries provided none or incomplete answers. Local government responds faster and provides answers that are more complete and accurate than those provided by central government. Implications for e-government are discussed.

  18. Protein synthesis inhibitors prevent both spontaneous and hormone-dependent maturation of isolated mouse oocytes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The present study was carried out to examine the role of protein synthesis in mouse oocyte maturation in vitro. In the first part of this study, the effects of cycloheximide (CX) were tested on spontaneous meiotic maturation when oocytes were cultured in inhibitor-free medium. CX reversibly suppressed maturation of oocytes as long as maturation was either initially prevented by the phosphodiesterase inhibitor, 3-isobutyl-1-methyl-xanthine (IBMX), or delayed by follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH). In the second part of this study, the actions of protein synthesis inhibitors were tested on hormone-induced maturation. CEO were maintained in meiotic arrest for 21-22 h with hypoxanthine, and germinal vesicle breakdown (GVB) was induced with follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH). Three different protein synthesis inhibitors [CX, emetine (EM), and puromycin (PUR)] each prevented the stimulatory action of FSH on GVB in a dose-dependent fashion. This was accompanied by a dose-dependent suppression of 3H-leucine incorporation by oocyte-cumulus cell complexes. The action of these inhibitors on FSH- and epidermal growth factor (EGF)-induced GVB was next compared. All three drugs lowered the frequency of GVB in the FSH-treated groups, below even that of the controls (drug + hypoxanthine); the drugs maintained meiotic arrest at the control frequencies in the EGF-treated groups. Puromycin aminonucleoside, an analog of PUR with no inhibitory action on protein synthesis, had no effect. Thon on protein synthesis, had no effect. The three inhibitors also suppressed the stimulatory action of FSH on oocyte maturation when meiotic arrest was maintained with the cAMP analog, dbcAMP

  19. Incomplete similarity of internal solitary waves with trapped cores

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maderich, V.; Jung, K. T.; Terletska, K.; Brovchenko, I.; Talipova, T.

    2015-06-01

    The dynamics and internal structure of internal solitary waves (ISWs) with trapped cores propagating in a thin pycnocline near the bottom or surface for a wide range of wave amplitudes and stratifications are studied numerically within the framework of Navier–Stokes equations for laboratory and ocean scales. It is shown that the most important characteristics of wave dynamics are the local Froude number Frm, calculated as the ratio of the maximum local velocity to the phase velocity of the waves, the minimum Richardson number Rimin, the ratio of the basin depth to the pycnocline thickness ? and the effective Reynolds number Reeff, defined as a ratio of the product of the phase velocity of the wave and the wave amplitude a to the kinematic viscosity. Depending on the parameter values Frm and Rimin three main classes of ISW propagating in the pycnocline layer over or under homogeneous deep layers can be identified: (i) the weakly nonlinear waves at Rimin > 1, Frm computed dependence of the horizontal size of the trapped core on the height of the trapped core also demonstrate the self-similarity of the trapped core shape. However, the incomplete similarity of Rimin is found when the dependence on viscosity does not vanish at large Reeff implying a viscosity effect on the stability of ISW. This dependence is approximated by the power law R{{i}min }? {{(a/h)}-1.19}\\operatorname{Re}eff-1.19. With the time wave damping occurs, and thus Rimin grows following this self-similar dependence.

  20. Voluntary intake, digestibility and nitrogen utilization by sheep fed ensiled grass clover mixture harvested at three stages of maturity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marina Vrani?

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this experiment was to study the effects of grass maturity at harvest on silage ad libitum intake, in vivo digestibility and N retention in wether sheep. The sward was harvested at the stem elongation, tasseling and flowering growth stages of orchardgrass (Dactylis glomerata. Three silages were offered to four Charolais wether sheep in an incomplete change over design with four periods. As the crop matured, there was an increase (P<0.001 in dry matter (DM, organic matter (OM and acid detergent fiber (ADF concentration and a decrease in crude protein (CP concentration (P<0.001. Increasing maturity of grass ensiled showed a linear decrease (P<0.01 in voluntary silage intake of DM, OM, neutral detergent fiber (NDF, a linear decrease (P<0.01 in digestibility of silage DM, OM, NDF, ADF, CP, and a linear decrease in nitrogen balance (P<0.01. No quadratic response was recorded in silage intake, digestibility or N balance. The results suggest that grass maturity at harvest influences the nutritive value of grass silage, in terms of ad libitum intake, in vivo digestibility and N retention in sheep, as a result of changes in chemical composition.

  1. Maturity acceleration of Italian dried sausage by Staphylococcus carnosus - Relationship between maturity and flavor compounds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stahnke, Louise Heller; Holck, A.

    2002-01-01

    The mature flavor of Salame Milano, an Italian dried sausage, was increased in two ways: by increasing maturation time or with a strain of Staphylococcus carnosus. The sensory and volatile profiles of the sausages were determined and the data analyzed by analysis of variance and chemometrics. Sausages with S. carnosus 833 matured more than 2 wk faster than control sausages. Maturity correlated significantly with higher amounts of branched-chain aldehydes and alcohols and both branched- and straight-chain methyl ketones-compounds arising from the breakdown of the amino acids leucine, isoleucine, and valine, or from microbial beta-oxidation of fatty acids. Also, sulfur compounds arising from added garlic correlated positively with mature flavor.

  2. Incomplete medication adherence of chronically ill patients in German primary care

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hüther, Jakob; von Wolff, Alessa; Stange, Dorit; Härter, Martin; Baehr, Michael; Dartsch, Dorothee C; Kriston, Levente

    2013-01-01

    Background Incomplete medication adherence is a major problem in health care worldwide. Patients who adhere to medical treatment have a better prognosis and create fewer costs. Objective To assess the degree of incomplete adherence of chronically ill routine primary care patients in a German setting and analyze the association between incomplete medication adherence, as well as clinical and sociodemographic patient characteristics. Methods: In a cross-sectional survey, chronically ill patients were asked to assess their adherence in primary care retrospectively using the Medication Adherence Report Scale (MARS-D) questionnaire. To investigate the association of incomplete adherence with sociodemographic and clinical data, univariate and multivariate analyses were conducted. Results In total, 62.1% of 190 patients were categorized as incompletely adherent. The mean MARS-D score was 23.5 (standard deviation = 2.7). Analyses revealed no statistically significant associations at P < 0.05 between degree of adherence and patient characteristics. The total explained variance amounted to 11.8% (Nagelkerke’s R2 = 0.118) in the multivariate analysis. Conclusion Previously reported results regarding associations of sociodemographic and clinical data with incomplete medication adherence could not be confirmed for this sample of chronically ill patients. In order to be able to provide guidelines for the reduction of incomplete medication adherence in German primary care, further research is needed. PMID:23569363

  3. Calcium ion currents mediating oocyte maturation events

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tosti Elisabetta

    2006-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract During maturation, the last phase of oogenesis, the oocyte undergoes several changes which prepare it to be ovulated and fertilized. Immature oocytes are arrested in the first meiotic process prophase, that is morphologically identified by a germinal vesicle. The removal of the first meiotic block marks the initiation of maturation. Although a large number of molecules are involved in complex sequences of events, there is evidence that a calcium increase plays a pivotal role in meiosis re-initiation. It is well established that, during this process, calcium is released from the intracellular stores, whereas less is known on the role of external calcium entering the cell through the plasma membrane ion channels. This review is focused on the functional role of calcium currents during oocyte maturation in all the species, from invertebrates to mammals. The emerging role of specific L-type calcium channels will be discussed.

  4. Moving towards maturity in business model definitions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Christian; Lund, Morten

    2014-01-01

    The field of business models has, as is the case with all emerging fields of practice, slowly matured through the development of frameworks, models, concepts and ideas over the last 15 years. New concepts, theories and models typically transcend a series of maturity phases. For the concept of Business Models, we are at the verge of moving from phase 2 to 3, after having spent a lot of time during the 1990’s and 2000’s arguing for the importance of understanding business models properly and discussing the content and potential building blocks of them. Therefore, in terms of maturity – the time for focusing on the more complex and dynamic aspects of business models seems to be right - right now!

  5. Mutation in Fas Ligand Impairs Maturation of Thymocytes Bearing Moderate Affinity T Cell Receptors

    OpenAIRE

    Boursalian, Tamar E.; Pamela J. Fink

    2003-01-01

    Fas ligand, best known as a death-inducer, is also a costimulatory molecule required for maximal proliferation of mature antigen-specific CD4+ and CD8+ T cells. We now extend the role of Fas ligand by showing that it can also influence thymocyte development. T cell maturation in some, but not all, strains of TCR transgenic mice is severely impaired in thymocytes expressing mutant Fas ligand incapable of interacting with Fas. Mutant Fas ligand inhibits neither negative selection nor death by n...

  6. Mechanosensitive Kinases Regulate Stiffness-Induced Cardiomyocyte Maturation

    OpenAIRE

    Young, Jennifer L.; Kyle Kretchmer; Matthew G. Ondeck; Alexander C. Zambon; Engler, Adam J

    2014-01-01

    Cells secrete and assemble extracellular matrix throughout development, giving rise to time-dependent, tissue-specific stiffness. Mimicking myocardial matrix stiffening, i.e. ~10-fold increase over 1 week, with a hydrogel system enhances myofibrillar organization of embryonic cardiomyocytes compared to static hydrogels, and thus we sought to identify specific mechanosensitive proteins involved. Expression and/or phosphorylation state of 309 unique protein kinases were examined in embryonic ca...

  7. Obesity accelerates secondary sexual maturity in girls

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meiriani Sari

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Background Worldwide incidence of obesity in children is increasing. Obesity may have many health effects including advancement of sexual maturity. Objective The aim of this study was to assess the timing of secondary sexual maturation in obese vs. non-obese girls. Methods Subjects were 105 obese and 105 non-obese girls, aged 7 to 8 years who had not entered puberty. Breast and pubic hair growth, secondary sexual characteristics, were assessed at baseline and every 4 months for two years. Onset of puberty was defined as Tanner stage for secondary sexual maturation of ? breast Tanner stage II (B2 and/or ? pubic hair Tanner stage II (P2. Survival analyses were used to estimate time to puberty in both groups. Cox regressions were used to analyze possible factors affecting secondary sexual maturation. Results Mean onset of breast budding (B2 was 7.8 (95% CI 7.7 to 7.8 years in obese girls vs. 8.6 (95% CI 8.5 to 8.6 years in non-obese girls (P<0.001. Mean onset of pubarche (P2 was 8.7 (95% CI 8.6 to 8.8 years in obese girls vs. 9.0 (95% CI 8.9 to 9.0 years in non-obese girls (P<0.001. Hazard ratios of obese girls to experience an earlier secondary sexual maturation at maturity level B2, B3 and P2 were 1.34 (95% CI 1.19 to 1.52, 6.91 (95% CI 3.90 to 12.24 and 3.78 (95% CI 2.42 to 5.89, respectively. Conclusions Obesity was associated with earlier onset of puberty in girls. Obese girls entered puberty approximately 3 to 9 months earlier than their non-obese peers.

  8. The MDM-2 Antagonist Nutlin-3 Promotes the Maturation of Acute Myeloid Leukemic Blasts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paola Secchiero

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available The small-molecule inhibitor of murine double minute (MDM-2, Nutlin-3, induced variable apoptosis in primary acute myeloid leukemia (AML blasts, promoted myeloid maturation of surviving cells, as demonstrated by analysis of CD11 b, CD14 surface antigens, by morphologic examination. Although the best-characterized activity of Nutlin-3 is activation of the p53 pathway, Nutlin-3 induced maturation also in one AML sample characterized by p53 deletion, as well as in the p53-/- human myeloblastic HL-60 cell line. At the molecular level, the maturational activity of Nutlin-3 in HL-60 cells was accompanied by the induction of E2F1 transcription factor, it was significantly counteracted by specific gene knockdown with small interfering RNA for E2F1. Moreover, Nutlin-3, as well as tumor necrosis factor (TNF ?, potentiated the maturational activity of recombinant TNF-related apoptosis-inducing lig, (TRAIL in HL-60 cells. However, although TNF-? significantly counteracted the proapoptotic activity of TRAIL, Nutlin-3 did not interfere with the proapoptotic activity of TRAIL. Taken together, these data disclose a novel, potentially relevant therapeutic role for Nutlin-3 in the treatment of both p53 wild-type, p53-/- AML, possibly in association with recombinant TRAIL.

  9. The MDM-2 Antagonist Nutlin-3 Promotes the Maturation of Acute Myeloid Leukemic Blasts1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Secchiero, Paola; Zerbinati, Carlotta; Melloni, Elisabetta; Milani, Daniela; Campioni, Diana; Fadda, Roberto; Tiribelli, Mario; Zauli, Giorgio

    2007-01-01

    The small-molecule inhibitor of murine double minute (MDM-2), Nutlin-3, induced variable apoptosis in primary acute myeloid leukemia (AML) blasts and promoted myeloid maturation of surviving cells, as demonstrated by analysis of CD11b and CD14 surface antigens and by morphologic examination. Although the best-characterized activity of Nutlin-3 is activation of the p53 pathway, Nutlin-3 induced maturation also in one AML sample characterized by p53 deletion, as well as in the p53-/- human myeloblastic HL-60 cell line. At the molecular level, the maturational activity of Nutlin-3 in HL-60 cells was accompanied by the induction of E2F1 transcription factor, and it was significantly counteracted by specific gene knockdown with small interfering RNA for E2F1. Moreover, Nutlin-3, as well as tumor necrosis factor (TNF) ?, potentiated the maturational activity of recombinant TNF-related apoptosis-inducing ligand (TRAIL) in HL-60 cells. However, although TNF-? significantly counteracted the proapoptotic activity of TRAIL, Nutlin-3 did not interfere with the proapoptotic activity of TRAIL. Taken together, these data disclose a novel, potentially relevant therapeutic role for Nutlin-3 in the treatment of both p53 wild-type and p53-/- AML, possibly in association with recombinant TRAIL. PMID:17971905

  10. HIV-1 assembly, release and maturation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freed, Eric O

    2015-08-01

    Major advances have occurred in recent years in our understanding of HIV-1 assembly, release and maturation, as work in this field has been propelled forwards by developments in imaging technology, structural biology, and cell and molecular biology. This increase in basic knowledge is being applied to the development of novel inhibitors designed to target various aspects of virus assembly and maturation. This Review highlights recent progress in elucidating the late stages of the HIV-1 replication cycle and the related interplay between virology, cell and molecular biology, and drug discovery. PMID:26119571

  11. On Valuing Constant Maturity Swap Spread Derivatives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leonard Tchuindjo

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Motivated by statistical tests on historical data that confirm the normal distribution assumption on the spreads between major constant maturity swap (CMS indexes, we propose an easy-to-implement two-factor model for valuing CMS spread link instruments, in which each forward CMS spread rate is modeled as a Gaussian process under its relevant measure, and is related to the lognormal martingale process of a corresponding maturity forward LIBOR rate through a Brownian motion. An illustrating example is provided. Closed-form solutions for CMS spread options are derived.

  12. Debt maturity, risk, and asymmetric information

    OpenAIRE

    Berger, Allen N.; Espinosa-Vega, Marco A.; Frame, W. Scott; Miller, Nathan H.

    2004-01-01

    We test the implications of Flannery’s (1986) and Diamond’s (1991) models concerning the effects of risk and asymmetric information in determining debt maturity, and we examine the overall importance of informational asymmetries in debt maturity choices. We employ data from more than 6,000 commercial loans from 53 large U.S. banks. Our results for low-risk firms are consistent with the predictions of both theoretical models, but our findings for high-risk firms conflict with the predictions o...

  13. Closure duration analysis of incomplete stop consonants due to stop-stop interaction

    OpenAIRE

    Ghosh, Prasanta Kumar; Narayanan, Shrikanth S.

    2009-01-01

    An incomplete stop consonant is characterized either by an indistinguishable closure or a missing burst. If an incomplete stop happens due to a stop following another stop [stop-stop interaction (SSI)], its acoustics typically resemble that of a complete stop—one closure followed by a single burst. As a consequence, stop detectors would fail to distinguish an SSI from a complete stop. Analysis of the TIMIT corpus shows 35.04% incomplete stops (14.97% SSI). It is shown that by using automatica...

  14. Estimation from incomplete multinomial data. Ph.D. Thesis - Harvard Univ.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Credeur, K. R.

    1978-01-01

    The vector of multinomial cell probabilities was estimated from incomplete data, incomplete in that it contains partially classified observations. Each such partially classified observation was observed to fall in one of two or more selected categories but was not classified further into a single category. The data were assumed to be incomplete at random. The estimation criterion was minimization of risk for quadratic loss. The estimators were the classical maximum likelihood estimate, the Bayesian posterior mode, and the posterior mean. An approximation was developed for the posterior mean. The Dirichlet, the conjugate prior for the multinomial distribution, was assumed for the prior distribution.

  15. Scintigraphic detection of 'yo-yo' phenomenon in incomplete ureteric duplication

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    'Yo-yo' reflux in an incompletely duplicated renal system was demonstrated on 99mTc-mercaptoacetyltriglycine (MAG3) renal scintigraphy in a 7-year-old girl presenting with low-grade fever and pyelonephritis. Incomplete duplication and a bifid renal pelvis, which may be seen in up to 4% of the North American population, occasionally causes symptoms because of recurrent urinary tract infection or loin pain. 99mTc-MAG3 renal scintigraphy can demonstrate 'yo-yo' reflux in patients with incomplete renal duplication and should be considered in cases with unexplained loin pain, even if 99mTc-dimercaptosuccinic acid (DMSA) renal scintigraphy is normal. (orig.)

  16. Human dendritic cell maturation and cytokine secretion upon stimulation with Bordetella pertussis filamentous haemagglutinin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dirix, Violette; Mielcarek, Nathalie; Debrie, Anne-Sophie; Willery, Eve; Alonso, Sylvie; Versheure, Virginie; Mascart, Françoise; Locht, Camille

    2014-07-01

    In addition to antibodies, Th1-type T cell responses are also important for long-lasting protection against pertussis. However, upon immunization with the current acellular vaccines, many children fail to induce Th1-type responses, potentially due to immunomodulatory effects of some vaccine antigens, such as filamentous haemagglutinin (FHA). We therefore analysed the ability of FHA to modulate immune functions of human monocyte-derived dendritic cells (MDDC). FHA was purified from pertussis toxin (PTX)-deficient or from PTX- and adenylate cyclase-deficient Bordetella pertussis strains, and residual endotoxin was neutralized with polymyxin B. FHA from both strains induced phenotypic maturation of human MDDC and cytokine secretion (IL-10, IL-12p40, IL-12p70, IL-23 and IL-6). To identify the FHA domains responsible for MDDC immunomodulation, MDDC were stimulated with FHA containing a Gly?Ala substitution at its RGD site (FHA-RAD) or with an 80-kDa N-terminal moiety of FHA (Fha44), containing its heparin-binding site. Whereas FHA-RAD induced maturation and cytokine production comparable to those of FHA, Fha44 did not induce IL-10 production, but maturated MDDC at least partially. Nevertheless, Fha44 induced the secretion of IL-12p40, IL-12p70, IL-23 and IL-6 by MDDC, albeit at lower levels than FHA. Thus, FHA can modulate MDDC responses in multiple ways, and IL-10 induction can be dissociated from the induction of other cytokines. PMID:24801497

  17. Project management maturity: An assessment of maturity for developing pilot plants

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    H.K., Mittermaier; H., Steyn.

    Full Text Available Despite the current economic climate, the South African mining and engineering industry is experiencing a very promising future, with a large number of capital projects in the offing. It is inevitable that pilot plant development will form part of this future as a risk mitigation technique. This stu [...] dy found that, even though the terms 'pilot plant' and 'project management maturity' are familiar within the industry, no link between these two could be found in the literature. A number of maturity models exist; and one developed by PMSolutions was selected to perform an assessment of the current level of project management maturity within the South African mining and engineering industry pertaining to the development of pilot plants. The Delphi technique was used to determine the views of experts in the South African mining, mineral processing, petrochemical, nuclear, and mechanical sectors regarding this maturity. A significant difference was observed between the current level of maturity and the required level of maturity in all but one of the nine knowledge areas defined by the Project Management Institute. The two knowledge areas of project time and risk management showed significant differences between current and required maturity levels, and were identified as key areas for improvement.

  18. Incomplete fusion reactions in 12C+59Co

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heavy ion induced reactions with projectile energies closed to coulomb barrier are dominated by compound nucleus and direct reactions. The excitation functions for the reactions 59Co(C,?)67Ga, 59Co(C,?n)66Ga, and 59Co(C,?2n)65Ga have been measured in

  19. General classification of maturation reaction-norm shape from size-based processes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, AsbjØrn; Andersen, Ken Haste

    2011-01-01

    Phenotypic plasticity of size at maturation is commonly described using size–age maturation reaction norms (MRNs). MRNs for age and size at maturation are analyzed and classified into three general categories related to different size scalings of growth and mortality. The underlying model for growth and mortality is based on processes at the level of the individual, and is motivated by the energy budget of fish. MRN shape is a balance between opposing factors and depends on subtle details of size dependence of growth and mortality. MRNs with both positive and negative slopes are predicted, and for certain mortality conditions also a lower critical spawning mass. The model is applied to predict a generic fishery-induced evolutionary response and allows assessment of climate change impact on MRNs. Our work stresses the importance of using realistic size dependence of mortality and growth, since this strongly influences the predicted MRNs and sensitivity to harvest pressure.

  20. Effect of lipoarabinomannan from Mycobacterium avium subsp avium in Freund’s incomplete adjuvant on the immune response of cattle

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    S.B., Colavecchia; A., Jolly; B., Fernández; A.M., Fontanals; E., Fernández; S.L., Mundo.

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the present study was to determine whether lipoarabinomannan (LAM), in combination with Freund’s incomplete adjuvant (FIA), was able to improve cell-mediated and antibody-mediated immune responses against ovalbumin (OVA) in cattle. Twenty-three calves were assigned to four treatment group [...] s, which were subcutaneously immunized with either OVA plus FIA, OVA plus FIA and LAM from Mycobacterium avium subsp avium, FIA plus LAM, or FIA alone. Lymphoproliferation, IFN-? production and cell subpopulations on peripheral blood mononuclear cells before and 15 days after treatment were evaluated. Delayed hypersensitivity was evaluated on day 57. Specific humoral immune response was measured by ELISA. Inoculation with LAM induced higher levels of lymphoproliferation and IFN-? production in response to ConA and OVA (P

  1. Asset Stripping in a Mature Market Economy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Klarskov Jeppesen, Kim; MØller, Ulrik Gorm

    2011-01-01

    Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to document a Danish fraud scheme, in which a large number of limited companies were stripped of their assets leaving them with nothing but tax debt, eventually causing the Danish Tax and Customs Administration to lose large sums. Furthermore, the purpose is to analyse why the asset-stripping schemes occurred in a mature market economy with a strong corporate governance system and a low level of corruption. Design/methodology/approach – The research is conducted as a longitudinal single case study based on documentary research. Findings – The Danish case indicates that asset stripping may take place in mature market economies to the extent that perpetrators are able to circumvent the corporate governance system by giving lawyers, public accountants and banks incentives to act less critically towards dubious business transactions. Research limitations/implications – The opportunity and rationalisations supporting the fraud are particular to the Danish context. Practical implications – The paper provides insights into the consequences of professionals disregarding their duty to serve the public interest. Social implications – The paper provides an example on how to circumvent the social supervisory system of a mature market economy. Originality/value – The paper contributes to the knowledge about asset stripping by documenting and analysing the phenomenon in a mature market economy context.

  2. TESTING HARDENED CONCRETE USING THE MATURITY CONCEPT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    George Ilinoiu

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper provides an overview of different methods that can be used for concrete maturity determination, outlining Romanian Concrete Code Specification (NE 012-99 in relation to using an effective and rational method in evaluating in-situ concrete strength at different ages.

  3. Bluetongue Virus Capsid Assembly and Maturation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bjorn-Patrick Mohl

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Maturation is an intrinsic phase of the viral life cycle and is often intertwined with egress. In this review we focus on orbivirus maturation by using Bluetongue virus (BTV as a representative. BTV, a member of the genus Orbivirus within the family Reoviridae, has over the last three decades been subjected to intense molecular study and is thus one of the best understood viruses. BTV is a non-enveloped virus comprised of two concentric protein shells that encapsidate 10 double-stranded RNA genome segments. Upon cell entry, the outer capsid is shed, releasing the core which does not disassemble into the cytoplasm. The polymerase complex within the core then synthesizes transcripts from each genome segment and extrudes these into the cytoplasm where they act as templates for protein synthesis. Newly synthesized ssRNA then associates with the replicase complex prior to encapsidation by inner and outer protein layers of core within virus-triggered inclusion bodies. Maturation of core occurs outside these inclusion bodies (IBs via the addition of the outer capsid proteins, which appears to be coupled to a non-lytic, exocytic pathway during early infection. Similar to the enveloped viruses, BTV hijacks the exocytosis and endosomal sorting complex required for trafficking (ESCRT pathway via a non-structural glycoprotein. This exquisitely detailed understanding is assembled from a broad array of assays, spanning numerous and diverse in vitro and in vivo studies. Presented here are the detailed insights of BTV maturation and egress.

  4. TESTING HARDENED CONCRETE USING THE MATURITY CONCEPT

    OpenAIRE

    George Ilinoiu

    2003-01-01

    The paper provides an overview of different methods that can be used for concrete maturity determination, outlining Romanian Concrete Code Specification (NE 012-99) in relation to using an effective and rational method in evaluating in-situ concrete strength at different ages.

  5. Assessment of banana fruit maturity by image processing technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Surya Prabha, D; Satheesh Kumar, J

    2015-03-01

    Maturity stage of fresh banana fruit is an important factor that affects the fruit quality during ripening and marketability after ripening. The ability to identify maturity of fresh banana fruit will be a great support for farmers to optimize harvesting phase which helps to avoid harvesting either under-matured or over-matured banana. This study attempted to use image processing technique to detect the maturity stage of fresh banana fruit by its color and size value of their images precisely. A total of 120 images comprising 40 images from each stage such as under-mature, mature and over-mature were used for developing algorithm and accuracy prediction. The mean color intensity from histogram; area, perimeter, major axis length and minor axis length from the size values, were extracted from the calibration images. Analysis of variance between each maturity stage on these features indicated that the mean color intensity and area features were more significant in predicting the maturity of banana fruit. Hence, two classifier algorithms namely, mean color intensity algorithm and area algorithm were developed and their accuracy on maturity detection was assessed. The mean color intensity algorithm showed 99.1 % accuracy in classifying the banana fruit maturity. The area algorithm classified the under-mature fruit at 85 % accuracy. Hence the maturity assessment technique proposed in this paper could be used commercially to develop a field based complete automatic detection system to take decision on the right time of harvest by the banana growers. PMID:25745200

  6. Incomplete water securitization in coupled hydro-human production sytems

    Science.gov (United States)

    van den Boom, B.; Pande, S.

    2012-04-01

    Due to the dynamics, the externalities and the contingencies involved in managing local water resource for production, the water allocation at basin-level is a subtle balance between laws of nature (gravity; flux) and laws of economics (price; productivity). We study this balance by looking at inter-temporal basin-level water resource allocations in which subbasins enjoy a certain degree of autonomy. Each subbasin is represented as an economic agent i, following a gravity ordering with i=1 representing the most upstream area and i=I the downstream boundary. The water allocation is modeled as a decentralized equilibrium in a coupled conceptual hydro-human production system. Agents i=1,2,...,I in the basin produce a composite good according to a technology that requires water as a main input and that is specific to the subbasin. Agent i manages her use Xi and her storage Si, conceptualizing surface and subsurface water, of water with the purpose of maximizing the utility derived from consumption Ci of the composite good, where Ci is a scalar and Xi and Si are vectors which are composed of one element for each time period and for each contingency. A natural way to consume the good would be to absorb the own production. Yet, the agent may have two more option, namely, she might get a social transfer from other agents or she could use an income from trading water securities with her contiguous neighbors. To study these options, we compare water allocations (Ci, Xi, Si) all i=1,2,...,I for three different settings. We look at allocations without water securitization (water autarky equilibrium EA) first. Next, we describe the imaginary case of full securitization (contingent water markets equilibrium ECM) and, in between, we study limited securitization (incomplete water security equilibrium EWS). We show that allocations under contingent water markets ECM are efficient in the sense that, for the prevailing production technologies, no other allocation exists that is at least good as for all the agents and that makes at least one agent better off . On the other hand, allocations under autarky EA will tend to be inefficient, meaning that other allocations may exist that would be preferred by some agents without compromising the interest of the others. By the same token, the in-between case with water securities will generally also fail to achieve full efficiency. Nonetheless, some securitization will always be at least as good as none while it will be better under conditions of water scarcity that are common in dryland area river basins. Hence water allocations under EWS will generally lead to an improvement over those under EA. It should be noted that the fully efficient equilibrium is only imaginary because it requires a separate water security for every agent, for every period and for every contingency that nature might hold. Clearly, because of dimensionality, this amount of securities will be beyond reach. Therefore, water securitization with a limited number of securities remains as the only practical option to deal with the inefficiency of water allocations under autarky. The economic theory of incomplete markets provides a useful framework to study limited water securitization. We apply the theory in the context of our water allocation framework using an institutional setting where downstream agent i may secure water from upstream agent (i-1) through an agreement that pays for (i-1)'s water savings. In this manner we identify (I-1) water securities, one for each pair of contiguous agents. Each security addresses, at the local level, the interaction of flows over time and over contingencies that might occur. Under scarcity conditions prevalent in many river basins, agents will show an interest to supply and demand such securities. In particular, downstream area can often make more productive use of water. Accordingly, in the water autarky equilibrium EA, they would be willing to pay for more water, while, at the same time, upstream users would be prepared to make water savings to the extent that the payment for the securit

  7. Influence of fruit maturity in the susceptibility of Navelina oranges to develop postharvest non-chilling peel pitting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alferez, Fernando; Zacarías, Lorenzo

    2014-04-01

    Peel pitting is a disorder occurring mostly during postharvest storage at non-chilling temperatures in different varieties of citrus fruit and consists in collapse of flavedo and albedo tissues that may affect oil glands. It has been demonstrated that during postharvest, sharp variations in water potential of cells from flavedo and albedo are sufficient to provoke fractures in cell walls from external albedo resulting in tissue collapse. However, morphology and composition of cells and cell walls in flavedo and albedo varies during fruit maturation and this may affect water flow through the different fruit peel layers and susceptibility of fruit to develop peel pitting. In this paper, we have studied the influence of the stage of maturation in the susceptibility of Navelina orange to develop peel pitting. Except in mature-green fruit, peel pitting increased with maturation after transferring fruit from 45% to 95% relative humidity and was also more severe as more dehydrated was the tissue before transference. Also, differences in water potential of fruit maintained at 45 or 95% relative humidity increased as fruit matured, suggesting that tissue reduces the ability of water adjustment during maturation. In this sense, only mature-green fruit flavedo was able to recover water potential when transferred from 45 to 95% relative humidity. Ethylene production upon transfer from low to high relative humidity increased only in mature tissue and was rapid and transient, and before initial symptoms of peel pitting. Flavedo and albedo water potential (?w) was substantially reduced during fruit maturation. As lower was the ?w of freshly harvested fruit, minor variations were observed by changes in the storage relative humidity and higher the induced damage. Therefore, the increasing susceptibility of Navelina fruits to develop peel pitting with fruit maturation may be related to a reduced ability to regulate peel evapotranspiration and osmotic adjustment during postharvest storage. PMID:23733827

  8. Closure duration analysis of incomplete stop consonants due to stop-stop interaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghosh, Prasanta Kumar; Narayanan, Shrikanth S.

    2009-01-01

    An incomplete stop consonant is characterized either by an indistinguishable closure or a missing burst. If an incomplete stop happens due to a stop following another stop [stop-stop interaction (SSI)], its acoustics typically resemble that of a complete stop—one closure followed by a single burst. As a consequence, stop detectors would fail to distinguish an SSI from a complete stop. Analysis of the TIMIT corpus shows 35.04% incomplete stops (14.97% SSI). It is shown that by using automatically estimated (and hand-labeled) closure duration, complete stops can be distinguished from incomplete stops due to SSI with 69.66% (79.14%) accuracy. PMID:19603847

  9. On Puu's incomplete information formulation for the standard and multi-team Bertrand game

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Puu's incomplete information dynamical system is introduced and applied for Bertrand Duopoly. Multi-team Bertrand game is formulated. It is a generalization of Liu's work to dynamical non-convex multi-team games (author)

  10. Adapted parameterization of incomplete ionization in aluminum-doped silicon and impact on numerical device simulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steinkemper, Heiko; Rauer, Michael; Altermatt, Pietro; Heinz, Friedemann D.; Schmiga, Christian; Hermle, Martin

    2015-02-01

    The amount of incomplete ionization of aluminum-doped silicon is measured at room temperature by comparing electrochemical capacitance-voltage measurements with micro Raman spectroscopy. It is shown that commonly used parameterizations significantly underestimate the effect of incomplete ionization in Al doped Si. Based on the experimental data, we propose new parameter values for the parameterization of incomplete ionization given in Altermatt et al., J. Appl. Phys. 100, 113715 (2006). Using these new values, the saturation current density J0,p+ of the Al-alloyed region of a standard silicon solar cell is determined by means of numerical device modeling. It is shown that the parameterization influences J0,p+ significantly. Additionally, the weakening effect of incomplete ionization on band gap narrowing (BGN) should be taken into account in modeling that aims to predict device behavior after changes made to the Al-alloyed region.

  11. On Puu's incomplete information formulation for the standard and multi-team Bertrand game

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Puu's incomplete information dynamical system is introduced and applied for Bertrand Duopoly. Multi-team Bertrand game is formulated. It is a generalization of Liu's work to dynamical non-convex multi-team games

  12. Endogenous laminin is required for human airway smooth muscle cell maturation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tran Thai

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Airway smooth muscle (ASM contraction underlies acute bronchospasm in asthma. ASM cells can switch between a synthetic-proliferative phenotype and a contractile phenotype. While the effects of extracellular matrix (ECM components on modulation of ASM cells to a synthetic phenotype have been reported, the role of ECM components on maturation of ASM cells to a contractile phenotype in adult lung is unclear. As both changes in ECM components and accumulation of contractile ASM are features of airway wall remodelling in asthma, we examined the role of the ECM protein, laminin, in the maturation of contractile phenotype in human ASM cells. Methods Human ASM cells were made senescence-resistant by stable expression of human telomerase reverse transcriptase. Maturation to a contractile phenotype was induced by 7-day serum deprivation, as assessed by immunoblotting for desmin and calponin. The role of laminin on ASM maturation was investigated by comparing the effects of exogenous laminin coated on culture plates, and of soluble laminin peptide competitors. Endogenous expression of laminin chains during ASM maturation was also measured. Results Myocyte binding to endogenously expressed laminin was required for ASM phenotype maturation, as laminin competing peptides (YIGSR or GRGDSP significantly reduced desmin and calponin protein accumulation that otherwise occurs with prolonged serum deprivation. Coating of plastic cell culture dishes with different purified laminin preparations was not sufficient to further promote accumulation of desmin or calponin during 7-day serum deprivation. Expression of ?2, ?1 and ?1 laminin chains by ASM cells was specifically up-regulated during myocyte maturation, suggesting a key role for laminin-2 in the development of the contractile phenotype. Conclusion While earlier reports suggest exogenously applied laminin slows the spontaneous modulation of ASM to a synthetic phenotype, we show for the first time that endogenously expressed laminin is required for ASM maturation to the contractile phenotype. As endogenously expressed laminin chains ?2, ?1 and ?1 are uniquely increased during myocyte maturation, these laminin chains may be key in this process. Thus, human ASM maturation appears to involve regulated endogenous expression of a select set of laminin chains that are essential for accumulation of contractile phenotype myocytes.

  13. A Drosophila Model to Image Phagosome Maturation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Douglas A. Brooks

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Phagocytosis involves the internalization of extracellular material by invagination of the plasma membrane to form intracellular vesicles called phagosomes, which have functions that include pathogen degradation. The degradative properties of phagosomes are thought to be conferred by sequential fusion with endosomes and lysosomes; however, this maturation process has not been studied in vivo. We employed Drosophila hemocytes, which are similar to mammalian professional macrophages, to establish a model of phagosome maturation. Adult Drosophila females, carrying transgenic Rab7-GFP endosome and Lamp1-GFP lysosome markers, were injected with E. coli DH5? and the hemocytes were collected at 15, 30, 45 and 60 minutes after infection. In wild-type females, E. coli were detected within enlarged Rab7-GFP positive phagosomes at 15 to 45 minutes after infection; and were also observed in enlarged Lamp1-GFP positive phagolysosomes at 45 minutes. Two-photon imaging of hemocytes in vivo confirmed this vesicle morphology, including enlargement of Rab7-GFP and Lamp1-GFP structures that often appeared to protrude from hemocytes. The interaction of endosomes and lysosomes with E. coli phagosomes observed in Drosophila hemocytes was consistent with that previously described for phagosome maturation in human ex vivo macrophages. We also tested our model as a tool for genetic analysis using 14-3-3e mutants, and demonstrated altered phagosome maturation with delayed E. coli internalization, trafficking and/or degradation. These findings demonstrate that Drosophila hemocytes provide an appropriate, genetically amenable, model for analyzing phagosome maturation ex vivo and in vivo.

  14. Incomplete functional recovery after delirium in elderly people: a prospective cohort study

    OpenAIRE

    Freter Susan H; Andrew Melissa K; Rockwood Kenneth

    2005-01-01

    Abstract Background Delirium often has a poor outcome, but why some people have incomplete recovery is not well understood. Our objective was to identify factors associated with short-term (by discharge) and long-term (by 6 month) incomplete recovery of function following delirium. Methods In a prospective cohort study of elderly patients with delirium seen by geriatric medicine services, function was assessed at baseline, at hospital discharge and at six months. Results Of 77 patients, vital...

  15. Hepatic paraganglioma and multifocal gastrointestinal stromal tumor in a female: Incomplete Carney triad

    OpenAIRE

    Seong Woo Hong; Woo Yong Lee; Hye Kyung Lee

    2013-01-01

    The Carney triad (CT) describes the coexistence of multiple neoplasms including gastrointestinal stromal tumors (GISTs), extra-adrenal paraganglioma and pulmonary chondroma. At least two neoplastic tumors are required for diagnosis. In most cases, however, CT is incomplete. We report a case of an incomplete CT in a 34-year-old woman with a multifocal GIST and non-functional paraganglioma of the liver. Preoperative evaluation with a gastrofiberscope and abdominal computed tomography revealed m...

  16. Incomplete fusion dynamics in 19F + 154Sm system at the rate 110 MeV

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the study of incomplete fusion dynamics the production of fast projectile-like fragments (PLFs) has been a topic of growing interest at projectile energies near and/ above the Coulomb barrier. Enough evidences are available in the literature to believe that complete fusion (CF) and incomplete fusion (ICF) are the only dominant reaction modes at projectile energies below 8 MeV/nucleon. Britt and Quinton first investigated the production of fast PLFs in ICF dynamics in their pioneering measurements

  17. Capability Maturity Assessment Method of Civil Aircraft Customer Service System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xu Jun

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available According to the basic ideas of the maturity model (Capability Maturity Model, CMM, the maturity model and its capability maturity comprehensive evaluation method of civil aircrafts’ customer service system are established from five aspects: Engineering and technical support, marketing and customer support, spare parts support, flight training and technical publications. Referencing survey results of the customer service satisfaction from airlines, weights was determined by expert advice and the multi-level fuzzy comprehensive evaluation method was used, to evaluate maturity level on the actual customer service system of Comac's customer service center and to make the current maturity level clear. Finally, the continuous improvement suggestions were put forward.

  18. Micropropagation of mature wych elm (Ulmus glabra Huds.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biroscíková, M; Spisáková, K; Lipták, S; Pichler, V; Durkovic, J

    2004-04-01

    Explants of mature vigorous donor trees of wych elm ( Ulmus glabra Huds.) that had not been previously exposed to Dutch elm disease were investigated for the influence of phytohormones and media on shoot multiplication rates and organogenic capacity. The regenerates were micropropagated from cultures that originated from 15-year-old progeny of plus trees. Two plus trees aged over 70 years showed recalcitrant responses. Thidiazuron in combination with 6-benzylaminopurine (BAP) induced a significantly higher number of shoots per explant than the most optimal BAP treatment (5.88 vs. 3.05 shoots). Woody plant medium and Dubovský minimal medium had no significant effects on shoot formation and multiplication rates. All plantlets raised in vitro were phenotypically normal and successfully hardened to ex vitro conditions. Two experimental field plots with 3-year-old in vitro-propagated trees were established. PMID:14758503

  19. Oncogenic Src requires a wild-type counterpart to regulate invadopodia maturation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelley, Laura C.; Ammer, Amanda Gatesman; Hayes, Karen E.; Martin, Karen H.; Machida, Kazuya; Jia, Lin; Mayer, Bruce J.; Weed, Scott A.

    2010-01-01

    The proto-oncogene Src tyrosine kinase (Src) is overexpressed in human cancers and is currently a target of anti-invasive therapies. Activation of Src is an essential catalyst of invadopodia production. Invadopodia are cellular structures that mediate extracellular matrix (ECM) proteolysis, allowing invasive cell types to breach confining tissue barriers. Invadopodia assembly and maturation is a multistep process, first requiring the targeting of actin-associated proteins to form pre-invadopodia, which subsequently mature by recruitment and activation of matrix metalloproteases (MMPs) that facilitate ECM degradation. We demonstrate that active, oncogenic Src alleles require the presence of a wild-type counterpart to induce ECM degradation at invadopodia sites. In addition, we identify the phosphorylation of the invadopodia regulatory protein cortactin as an important mediator of invadopodia maturation downstream of wild-type Src. Distinct phosphotyrosine-based protein-binding profiles in cells forming pre-invadopodia and mature invadopodia were identified by SH2-domain array analysis. These results indicate that although elevated Src kinase activity is required to target actin-associated proteins to pre-invadopodia, regulated Src activity is required for invadopodia maturation and matrix degradation activity. Our findings describe a previously unappreciated role for proto-oncogenic Src in enabling the invasive activity of constitutively active Src alleles. PMID:20980387

  20. Mybl2, downregulated during colon epithelial cell maturation, is suppressed by miR-365.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papetti, Michael; Augenlicht, Leonard H

    2011-09-01

    Altered profiles of gene expression reflect the reprogramming of intestinal epithelial cells during their maturation along the crypt-luminal axis. To focus on genes important in this process, and how they in turn are regulated, we identified 14 transcripts commonly downregulated in expression during lineage-specific maturation of the immortalized cell lines Caco-2 (absorptive), HT29Cl16E (goblet), and HT29Cl19A (secretory) induced by contact inhibition of growth or the short-chain fatty acid butyrate. One such gene, Mybl2 (Myb-related protein B), has been linked to the stem cell phenotype, and we report is also markedly suppressed in maturing cells along the crypt-luminal axis in vivo. Mybl2 is not significantly downregulated transcriptionally during colon cell maturation, but we identified a potential micro-RNA (miRNA)-binding sequence in the Mybl2 3'-untranslated region that mediates reporter gene suppression in differentiating colon cells. Accordingly, miRNAs predicted to bind this functional target are upregulated in differentiating colon epithelial cells in vitro and in vivo; expression of one of these, hsa-miR-365 (but not hsa-324-5p), suppresses Mybl2 protein expression in proliferating Caco-2 cells. These data demonstrate that miRNA silencing plays an important role in regulating gene expression in maturing colon epithelial cells, and that utilizing a target-centered approach, rather than profiling global miRNA expression, can identify physiologically relevant, functional miRNAs. PMID:21737779

  1. Leveraging People-Related Maturity Issues for Achieving Higher Maturity and Capability Levels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buglione, Luigi

    During the past 20 years Maturity Models (MM) become a buzzword in the ICT world. Since the initial Crosby's idea in 1979, plenty of models have been created in the Software & Systems Engineering domains, addressing various perspectives. By analyzing the content of the Process Reference Models (PRM) in many of them, it can be noticed that people-related issues have little weight in the appraisals of the capabilities of organizations while in practice they are considered as significant contributors in traditional process and organizational performance appraisals, as stressed instead in well-known Performance Management models such as MBQA, EFQM and BSC. This paper proposes some ways for leveraging people-related maturity issues merging HR practices from several types of maturity models into the organizational Business Process Model (BPM) in order to achieve higher organizational maturity and capability levels.

  2. Study of incomplete fusion probability induced by 20Ne on different targets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Recently, it has been observed by the comparison of fusion data with theoretical predictions (which do not take into account the dynamic breakup plus transfer channel effect) that for energies not too much above the barrier, CF involving the weakly bound projectiles 6,7Li and 9Be on heavy targets (208Pb and 209Bi) are suppressed by around 30% where as TF for the same projectile on the target of any mass does not seem to be affected by the dynamic breakup + transfer effect. The suppression of CF is attributed to the presence of ICF. So far, there is no systematic behaviour of the CF suppression as a function of the charge or mass of the target. As the charge of the target decreases, one expects that the Coulomb breakup become weaker, and consequently ICF probability decreases

  3. Effect of aphidicolin on Friend erythroleukemia cell maturation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aphidicolin, a specific and reversible inhibitor of DNA polymerase alpha, was examined as a potential tool to evaluate the relationship between proliferative and differentiative events in Friend erythroleukemia cell (FELC) maturation. Since FELC can be induced to differentiate alone the erythrocytic pathway with a variety of inducing agents, the effects of aphidicolin were tested on proliferating FELC and cells which were induced to differentiate with the potent inducer, hexamethylene bisacetamide (HMBA). Exposure of FELC to aphidicolin resulted in unbalanced growth within 24 h, as reflected by abnormally large cells, compared with untreated cells. Continuous exposure of FELC from 24-96 h with doses of aphidicolin ranging from 0.5 to 50 ?M was more effective for differentiation induction than was short-term exposure (1, 2, 4, 12 h) to the drug. When cells were treated with HMBA (5 mM0 and aphidicolin (1, 5, 10 ?M), in combination, aphidicolin shifted the time of onset of differentiation from 72 to 48 h, but did not act synergistically or additively with HMBA. In contrast, suboptimal doses of aphidicolin (0.5 ?M) in combination with HMBA (2.5 mM) produced an additive effect on FELC differentiation. In addition, [3H]thymidine experiments demonstrated that aphidicolin reversibly blocked FELC in S phase and at G1-S interface of the cell cycle. These results indicate that aphidicolin can induce the differentiation of FELC, and that a complete round of replicaC, and that a complete round of replicative DNA synthesis is not required for differentiation to occur

  4. Global impact of mature biofilm lifestyle on Escherichia coli K-12 gene expression

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Beloin, C.; Valle, J.

    2004-01-01

    The formation of biofilm results in a major lifestyle switch that is thought to affect the expression of multiple genes and operons. We used DNA arrays to study the global effect of biofilm formation on gene expression in mature Escherichia coli K-12 biofilm. We show that, when biofilm is compared with the exponential growth phase, 1.9% of the genes showed a consistent up- or downregulation by a factor greater than two, and that 10% of the E. coli genome is significantly differentially expressed. The functions of the genes induced in these conditions correspond to stress response as well as energy production, envelope biogenesis and unknown functions. We provide evidence that the expression of stress envelope response genes, such as the psp operon or elements of the cpx and rpoE pathways, is a general feature of E. coli mature biofilms. We also compared biofilm with the stationary growth phase and showed that the biofilm lifestyle, although sharing similarities with the stationary growth phase, triggers the expression of specific sets of genes. Using gene disruption of 54 of the most biofilm-induced genes followed by a detailed phenotypic study, we validated the biological relevance of our analysis and showed that 20 of these genes are required for the formation of mature biofilm. This group includes 11 genes of previously unknown function. These results constitute a comprehensive analysis of the global transcriptional response triggered in mature E. coli biofilms and provide insights into its physiological signature.

  5. 48 CFR 32.304-4 - Guarantee amount and maturity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ...2010-10-01 false Guarantee amount and maturity. 32.304-4 Section 32.304-4 Federal Acquisition Regulations System FEDERAL...FINANCING Loan Guarantees for Defense Production 32.304-4 Guarantee amount and maturity. The...

  6. Calcium waves in the the maturing oocyte

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ullah, Aman; Ullah, Ghanim; Jung, Peter; Machaca, Khaled

    2009-03-01

    Calcium waves in oocytes are sustained by release of Ca2+ from the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) through clustered release channels. As the oocytes matures, a) the calcium waves slow down by about a factor of two, b) the overall duration of Ca2+ elevation grows substantially, and c) the cell is more susceptible to wave initiation. At the same time, the kinetics of release of Ca2+ from a single cluster is changed only insignificantly. Based on a computational model that accurately reproduces elemental Ca2+ release kinetics from channel clusters, we propose that the changing spatial organization of signaling effectors is a common underlying cause for all the above described observations as the Ca2+ signaling machinery matures.

  7. Development of a maturity model for telemedicine

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    L., van Dyk; C.S.L., Schutte.

    Full Text Available For more than a decade, the South African National Department of Health (DoH) has recognised the potential benefit of information and communication technology (ICT) in the delivery of health care to rural areas. Despite generous funding and proven technology, not many telemedicine systems have prove [...] d sustainable after the pilot phase. The purpose of this paper is to develop a maturity model that can be implemented to measure and manage the capability of a health system, for use in the delivery of sustainable health care after the pilot phase of a telemedicine project. The validity of the telemedicine maturity model (TMMM) is tested within the context of the South African public health sector.

  8. Cytological Investigation of Pollen Development in Sorghum Line with Male Sterility Induced by Sodium Ascorbate in Tissue Culture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marina I. Tsvetova

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Investigation of male sterility mutations is an effective approach for identification of genes involved in anther and pollen development. The comparison of “cytological phenotypes” of newly induced mutants with phenotypes determined by already known genes favors elucidation of genetic control of diverse microsporo- and gametogenesis stages. In this paper, we describe pollen development in the grain sorghum line Zh10-asc1 with mutation of male sterility. This line was obtained from callus culture treated by sodium ascorbate. A wide spectrum of abnormalities in microsporogenesis have been found, such as cytomixis, chromosomal laggards, chromosome disjunction, adhesion of chromosomes, disturbed cytokinesis, and others. In tapetum, the cells with one nucleus, with unequal nuclei, and with micronuclei have been observed. During pollen grain (PG maturation abnormalities in starch accumulation and delay of development often took place. In mature anthers, a variety of pollen grain types have been revealed: fertile, of irregular shape, incompletely filled with starch, PGs delayed at the uni-nucleate or bi-nucleate gametophyte stages, with partially or fully degenerated contents, and with abnormal coloration. Variation in spectrum and the frequency of disturbances between the flowers of one and the same plant have been revealed. The reasons for significant genetic and epigenetic instability are discussed.

  9. Examination of Potential Measures of Vine Maturity in Potato

    OpenAIRE

    Shelley Jansky; Brooke Weber; Emily Haga

    2012-01-01

    Plant maturity is a complex physiological trait routinely evaluated by plant breeders because of its agronomic, economic, and breeding implications. In potato, plant maturity is typically estimated by monitoring vine characteristics. This study investigates several reported measures of vine maturity in potato cultivars, including examination of flower development, leaf chlorophyll content, and leaf peroxidase activity to see what method is most appropriate for maturity classification in tempe...

  10. Maturity Assessment and Characterisation of Jurassic Crude Oils

    OpenAIRE

    K.S. Okiongbo

    2011-01-01

    In this study, the thermal maturity of crude oil samples from the Kimmeridge Clay Formation (UK) were assessed and characterised using the following methods: calibration of the oil samples against source rock biomarker dataset of which the maturities are known, use of established empirical relationships between Vitrinite Reflectance Equivalent (VRE) and aromatic molecular ratios, use of phase diagram as a relative maturity indicator and use of GOR as a relative maturity indicator. The results...

  11. Sardinia between Product Maturity and International Competition

    OpenAIRE

    Stefano Renoldi

    2014-01-01

    The paper proposes the analyses of medium-long term dynamics experienced by the accommodation system of Sardinia in the light of growing maturity signals for regional tourist product. Potentials referring to a progressive diversification of incoming markets have been assessed in the light of domestic and international outgoing flows, as well as of megatrends crossing international tourism market. Results underline an only apparent inconsistency with respect to the positive evolution of macroe...

  12. Maintenance management based on organization maturity level

    OpenAIRE

    Oliveira, Marcelo M.; Lopes, Isabel da Silva; Figueiredo, Danielle

    2012-01-01

    This article aims to discuss the management processes of the maintenance function of a company depending on the degree of maturity of the organization in connection with the maintenance, redefining training strategies, collection and analysis of failures, study and action plan to improve operational performance according to the organization's strategies. The maintenance management makes use of some tools and techniques to improve efficiency and minimize their impacts, such as the Reliability ...

  13. The LEGO maturity & capability model approach

    OpenAIRE

    Buglione, Luigi; Gresse Von Wangenheim, Christiane; Hauck, Jean Carlo R.; Mc Caffery, Fergal

    2011-01-01

    Maturity model” (MM) (based on Crosby’s original idea) has been one of the main buzzwords over the past 20 years. A variety of MMs have been created in several application domains, from Software Engineering to Contract Management. Despite several models intending to cover the same domain, their PRMs (Process Reference Models) typically have different scopes, do not always cover the same set of processes, or have different levels of depth, or do not express the same level of granularity...

  14. Mature Cluster’s Risk Evaluation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fei Gao

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available In view of the adverse effect of declining cluster, a method of analyzing and assessing declining risks of mature cluster is studied. Through analyzing causes of declining risks, an evaluation index system for declining risks is built. According to the index system, the characteristic patterns of different risk levels are described. Owing to the complexity and uncertainty of cluster system, a TOPSIS comprehensive evaluation method based on fuzzy nearness degree is proposed to assess declining risks.

  15. HIV-1 Assembly, Release and Maturation

    OpenAIRE

    Laurence Briant; Bernard Gay; Christian Devaux; Nathalie Chazal

    2011-01-01

    Late steps of HIV-1 life cycle are determinant for optimal dissemination of the virus to new target cells. These steps include assembly of structural precursors, budding of the new particle and maturation into fully infectious virions. Each step is finely tuned and timely regulated to allow the appropriate assembly of structural components, the efficient recruitment of viral and cell partners and the timely regulated proteolytic processing of the protein precursors. Despite the huge number of...

  16. Elevated Social Anxiety among Early Maturing Girls

    OpenAIRE

    Blumenthal, Heidemarie; Leen-Feldner, Ellen W.; Babson, Kimberly A.; Gahr, Jessica L.; Trainor, Casey D.; Frala, Jamie L.

    2011-01-01

    Adolescence is a key period in terms of the development of anxiety psychopathology. An emerging literature suggests that early pubertal maturation is associated with enhanced vulnerability for anxiety symptomatology, although few studies have examined this association with regard to social anxiety. Accordingly, the current study was designed to further elucidate the relation between pubertal timing and social anxiety, with a focus on clarifying the role of gender. Participants were 138 adoles...

  17. HIV-1 Assembly, Budding, and Maturation

    OpenAIRE

    Sundquist, Wesley I.; Kra?usslich, Hans-georg

    2012-01-01

    A defining property of retroviruses is their ability to assemble into particles that can leave producer cells and spread infection to susceptible cells and hosts. Virion morphogenesis can be divided into three stages: assembly, wherein the virion is created and essential components are packaged; budding, wherein the virion crosses the plasma membrane and obtains its lipid envelope; and maturation, wherein the virion changes structure and becomes infectious. All of these stages are coordinated...

  18. Mature Cluster’s Risk Evaluation

    OpenAIRE

    Fei Gao; Kai Li; Yaning Li

    2009-01-01

    In view of the adverse effect of declining cluster, a method of analyzing and assessing declining risks of mature cluster is studied. Through analyzing causes of declining risks, an evaluation index system for declining risks is built. According to the index system, the characteristic patterns of different risk levels are described. Owing to the complexity and uncertainty of cluster system, a TOPSIS comprehensive evaluation method based on fuzzy nearness degree is proposed to assess declining...

  19. Configuration Management Maturity in Scientific Facilities

    OpenAIRE

    Masoud Niknam; Pierre Bonnal; Jivka Ovtcharova

    2013-01-01

    Since the effectiveness of the development and operation of scientific facilities (especially those presenting specific hazards, such as ionizing radiations) relies heavily on state of the art practices, such as systems engineering and product lifecycle management, configuration management (CM) is becoming a key management process. However, while some maturity models exist to assess the degree of the implementation and effectiveness of many management processes, such as project management or ...

  20. Incomplete medication adherence of chronically ill patients in German primary care

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huther J

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Jakob Hüther,1 Alessa von Wolff,1 Dorit Stange,2 Martin Härter,1 Michael Baehr,2 Dorothee C Dartsch,3 Levente Kriston11Department of Medical Psychology, University Medical Center Hamburg-Eppendorf, Hamburg, Germany; 2Hospital Pharmacy, University Medical Center Hamburg-Eppendorf, Hamburg, Germany; 3Institute of Pharmacy, University of Hamburg, Hamburg, GermanyBackground: Incomplete medication adherence is a major problem in health care worldwide. Patients who adhere to medical treatment have a better prognosis and create fewer costs.Objective: To assess the degree of incomplete adherence of chronically ill routine primary care patients in a German setting and analyze the association between incomplete medication adherence, as well as clinical and sociodemographic patient characteristics.Methods: In a cross-sectional survey, chronically ill patients were asked to assess their adherence in primary care retrospectively using the Medication Adherence Report Scale (MARS-D questionnaire. To investigate the association of incomplete adherence with sociodemographic and clinical data, univariate and multivariate analyses were conducted.Results: In total, 62.1% of 190 patients were categorized as incompletely adherent. The mean MARS-D score was 23.5 (standard deviation = 2.7. Analyses revealed no statistically significant associations at P < 0.05 between degree of adherence and patient characteristics. The total explained variance amounted to 11.8% (Nagelkerke’s R2 = 0.118 in the multivariate analysis.Conclusion: Previously reported results regarding associations of sociodemographic and clinical data with incomplete medication adherence could not be confirmed for this sample of chronically ill patients. In order to be able to provide guidelines for the reduction of incomplete medication adherence in German primary care, further research is needed.Keywords: medication, adherence, chronic illness, primary care, Germany, MARS

  1. HIV-1 Assembly, Release and Maturation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laurence Briant

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Late steps of HIV-1 life cycle are determinant for optimal dissemination of the virus to new target cells. These steps include assembly of structural precursors, budding of the new particle and maturation into fully infectious virions. Each step is finely tuned and timely regulated to allow the appropriate assembly of structural components, the efficient recruitment of viral and cell partners and the timely regulated proteolytic processing of the protein precursors. Despite the huge number of studies devoted to the definition of molecular mechanisms regulating these steps, a number of question remains to be answered before they are clearly apprehended. The elucidation of the role played by each viral proteins, nucleic acids as well as host-encoded factors will provide new clues in the understanding of the retroviral assembly/maturation process and will allow further development of new antiviral compounds. This review reports the most recent progress as well as the questions that remain to be answered in the field of HIV-1 assembly, release and maturation. Finally, we also describe the data available on the design and use of new antiretroviral drugs targeting these specific steps of the retroviral replication.

  2. Rapidly growing mature teratoma in the anterior mediastinum: case report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mature teratoma is a benign tumor composed of a number of different types of well-differentiated tissues. Mature teratomas of the mediastinum usually grow slowly and are commonly asymptomatic. We report a case of mediastinal mature teratoma with rapid growth resulting in rupture

  3. Maturity Assessment and Characterisation of Jurassic Crude Oils

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K.S. Okiongbo

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available In this study, the thermal maturity of crude oil samples from the Kimmeridge Clay Formation (UK were assessed and characterised using the following methods: calibration of the oil samples against source rock biomarker dataset of which the maturities are known, use of established empirical relationships between Vitrinite Reflectance Equivalent (VRE and aromatic molecular ratios, use of phase diagram as a relative maturity indicator and use of GOR as a relative maturity indicator. The results show that the biomarker maturity parameters are only diagnostic of a broad maturity range (VRo ~ 0.65-1.0%, aside, there was no significant increase in the ratios of virtually all parameters (e.g., %29?? sterane, %29?? sterane, %27Ts, %29Ts in this maturity range, and in most cases their inversion complicates their application. Vitrinite reflection equivalent (VRE values derived from the aromatic molecular ratios mainly range from ~0.64-0.89%. These results indicate that virtually all the oils are early mature to mid mature. This assertion is only broadly true as reservoired oils are mixtures of petroleums from source rocks at different levels of maturity. Our dataset also displays poor correlation between GOR and biomarker/aromatic related maturity parameters, indicating the need to (a carefully consider how these parameters should be used and (b unravel the effects of petroleum mixing when looking for trends between maturity and bulk composition.

  4. TRA2? controls Mypt1 exon 24 splicing in the developmental maturation of mouse mesenteric artery smooth muscle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Xiaoxu; Reho, John J; Wirth, Brunhilde; Fisher, Steven A

    2015-02-15

    Diversity of smooth muscle within the vascular system is generated by alternative splicing of exons, yet there is limited understanding of its timing or control mechanisms. We examined splicing of myosin phosphatase regulatory subunit (Mypt1) exon 24 (E24) in relation to smooth muscle myosin heavy chain (Smmhc) and smoothelin (Smtn) alternative exons (Smmhc E6 and Smtn E20) during maturation of mouse mesenteric artery (MA) smooth muscle. The role of transformer 2? (Tra2?), a master regulator of splicing in flies, in maturation of arterial smooth muscle was tested through gene inactivation. Splicing of alternative exons in bladder smooth muscle was examined for comparative purposes. MA smooth muscle maturation began after postnatal week 2 and was complete at maturity, as indicated by switching to Mypt1 E24+ and Smtn E20- splice variants and 11-fold induction of Smmhc. Similar changes in bladder were complete by postnatal day 3. Splicing of Smmhc E6 was temporally dissociated from Mypt1 E24 and Smtn E20 and discordant between arteries and bladder. Tamoxifen-induced smooth muscle-specific inactivation of Tra2? within the first week of life but not in maturity reduced splicing of Mypt1 E24 in MAs. Inactivation of Tra2? causing a switch to the isoform of MYPT1 containing the COOH-terminal leucine zipper motif (E24-) increased arterial sensitivity to cGMP-mediated relaxation. In conclusion, maturation of mouse MA smooth muscle begins postnatally and continues until sexual maturity. TRA2? is required for specification during this period of maturation, and its inactivation alters the contractile properties of mature arterial smooth muscle. PMID:25428883

  5. Human Stem Cell-Derived Spinal Cord Astrocytes with Defined Mature or Reactive Phenotypes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laurent Roybon

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Differentiation of astrocytes from human stem cells has significant potential for analysis of their role in normal brain function and disease, but existing protocols generate only immature astrocytes. Using early neuralization, we generated spinal cord astrocytes from mouse or human embryonic or induced pluripotent stem cells with high efficiency. Remarkably, short exposure to fibroblast growth factor 1 (FGF1 or FGF2 was sufficient to direct these astrocytes selectively toward a mature quiescent phenotype, as judged by both marker expression and functional analysis. In contrast, tumor necrosis factor alpha and interleukin-1?, but not FGFs, induced multiple elements of a reactive inflammatory phenotype but did not affect maturation. These phenotypically defined, scalable populations of spinal cord astrocytes will be important both for studying normal astrocyte function and for modeling human pathological processes in vitro.

  6. Hydrostatic Pressure Affects In Vitro Maturation of Oocytes and Follicles and Increases Granulosa Cell Death

    OpenAIRE

    Isac Karimi; Ali Amini; Mehri Azadbakht; Zahra Rashidi

    2013-01-01

    Objective: This study examines the effects of hydrostatic pressure on in vitro maturation (IVM) of oocytes derived from in vitro grown follicles.Materials and Methods: In this experimental study, preantral follicles were isolated from 12-day-old female NMRI mice. Each follicle was cultured individually in Alpha Minimal Essential Medium (?-MEM) under mineral oil for 12 days. Then, follicles were induced for IVM and divided into two groups, control and experiment. In the experiment group folli...

  7. Leishmania donovani lipophosphoglycan inhibits phagosomal maturation via action on membrane rafts

    OpenAIRE

    Winberg Tinnerfelt, Martin; Holm, ?sa; Särndahl, Eva; Vinet, Adrien F.; Descoteaux, Albert; Magnusson, Karl-Eric; Rasmusson, Birgitta; Lerm, Maria

    2009-01-01

    Lipophosphoglycan (LPG), the major surface glycoconjugate on Leishmania donovani promastigotes, is crucial for the establishment of infection inside macrophages. LPG comprises a polymer of repeating Gal beta 1,4Man alpha-PO4 attached to a lysophosphatidylinositol membrane anchor. LPG is transferred from the parasite to the host macrophage membrane during phagocytosis and induces periphagosomal F-actin accumulation correlating with an inhibition of phagosomal maturation. The biophysical proper...

  8. Injurious Effects of Curcumin on Maturation of Mouse Oocytes, Fertilization and Fetal Development via Apoptosis

    OpenAIRE

    Wen-Hsiung Chan; Chia-Chi Chen

    2012-01-01

    Curcumin, a common dietary pigment and spice, is a hydrophobic polyphenol derived from the rhizome of the herb Curcuma longa. Previously, we reported a cytotoxic effect of curcumin on mouse embryonic stem cells and blastocysts and its association with defects in subsequent development. In the present study, we further investigated the effects of curcumin on oocyte maturation and subsequent pre- and post-implantation development, both in vitro and in vivo. Notably, curcumin induced a significa...

  9. Incomplete fusion at energies ? 4-7 MeV/nucleon: recent results

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prasad R.

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Aiming to investigate the presence of incomplete fusion at low projectile energies, experiments have been carried out using light heavy-ion (A ? 16 beams at ? 4-7 MeV/nucleon. Excitation functions, forward recoil ranges, and spin-distributions of heavy reaction products have been measured. In order to have an insight into the influence of incomplete fusion on complete fusion, percentage fraction of incomplete fusion has been deduced from the experimentally measured excitation functions. However, the proof of fractional linearmomentum transfer in case of incomplete fusion has been obtained from the measurement of forward recoil ranges of heavy reaction products. A piece of information on driving angular momenta involved in the production of xn/pxn/?xn/2?xn-channels has been obtained from the analysis of experimentally measured spin-distributions. Results presented in this paper strongly suggest that incomplete fusion is a process of greater importance at energies ? 4-7 MeV/nucleon and can selectively populate high spin states in final reaction products.

  10. Differential localization of P-selectin and von Willebrand factor during megakaryocyte maturation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zingariello, M; Fabucci, M E

    2010-01-01

    An important step in megakaryocyte maturation is the appropriate assembly of at least two distinct subsets of alpha-granules. The mechanism that sorts the alpha-granule components into distinct structures and mediates their release in response to specific stimuli is now emerging. P-selectin and von Willebrand factor are two proteins present in the alpha-granules that recognize P-selectin glycoprotein ligand on neutrophils and collagen in the subendothelial matrix. These proteins may play an important role in determining the differential release of the alpha-granule contents in response to external stimuli. If P-selectin and von Willebrand factor are localized in the same or different alpha-granules is not known. To clarify this question, we analyzed by immunoelectron microscopy the localization of von Willebrand factor and P-selectin during the maturation of wild-type and Gata1(low) megakaryocytes induced in vivo by treating animals with thrombopoietin. Gata1(low) is a hypomorphic mutation that blocks megakaryocyte maturation, reduces the levels of von Willebrand factor expression and displaces P-selectin on the demarcation membrane system. The maturation block induced by this mutation is partially rescued by treatment in vivo with thrombopoietin. In immature megakaryocytes, both wild-type and Gata1(low), the two receptors were co-localized in the same cytoplasmic structures. By contrast, the two proteins were segregated to separate alpha-granule subsets as the megakaryocytes matured. These observations support the hypothesis that P-selectin and von Willebrand factor may ensure differential release of the alpha-granule content in response to external stimuli.

  11. Renegotiating Incomplete Contracts: Over and Under-Investment in Public Infraestructure Renegotiating Incomplete Contracts: Over and Under-Investment in Public Infraestructure

    OpenAIRE

    Eduardo Saavedra

    1998-01-01

    This paper characterizes the equilibria of infrastructure franchising under incomplete contracting and ex–post renegotiation. The parties (government and a firm) are unable to credibly commit to the contracted investment plan, so that a second step investment (labeled as investments in service quality) is renegotiated by the parties in the revision stage. As expected, the possibility of renegotiation affects initial non-verifiable investments. The main conclusion of this paper is that n...

  12. Maturation arrest of human oocytes at germinal vesicle stage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chen Zhi

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Maturation arrest of human oocytes may occur at various stages of the cell cycle. A total failure of human oocytes to complete meiosis is rarely observed during assisted conception cycles. We describe here a case of infertile couples for whom all oocytes repeatedly failed to mature at germinal vesicle (GV stage during in vitro fertilization/Intra cytoplasmic sperm injection (IVF/ICSI. The patient underwent controlled ovarian stimulation followed by oocyte retrieval and IVF/ICSI. The oocytes were stripped off cumulus cells prior to the ICSI procedure and their maturity status was defined. The oocyte maturation was repeatedly arrested at the GV. Oocyte maturation arrest may be the cause of infertility in this couple. The recognition of oocyte maturation arrest as a specific medical condition may contribute to the characterization of the currently known as "oocyte factor." The cellular and genetic mechanisms causing oocyte maturation arrest should be the subject for further investigation.

  13. Maturation arrest of human oocytes at germinal vesicle stage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Zhi Qin; Ming, Teng Xiao; Nielsen, Hans Ingolf

    2010-09-01

    Maturation arrest of human oocytes may occur at various stages of the cell cycle. A total failure of human oocytes to complete meiosis is rarely observed during assisted conception cycles. We describe here a case of infertile couples for whom all oocytes repeatedly failed to mature at germinal vesicle (GV) stage during in vitro fertilization/Intra cytoplasmic sperm injection (IVF/ICSI). The patient underwent controlled ovarian stimulation followed by oocyte retrieval and IVF/ICSI. The oocytes were stripped off cumulus cells prior to the ICSI procedure and their maturity status was defined. The oocyte maturation was repeatedly arrested at the GV. Oocyte maturation arrest may be the cause of infertility in this couple. The recognition of oocyte maturation arrest as a specific medical condition may contribute to the characterization of the currently known as "oocyte factor." The cellular and genetic mechanisms causing oocyte maturation arrest should be the subject for further investigation. PMID:21234179

  14. Experimental study of incomplete oxidation of methane in a ring channel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuznetsov, V. V.; Vitovsky, O. V.; Gasenko, O. A.

    2007-09-01

    Chemical transformations at incomplete methane oxidation in the air medium were studied experimentally at reaction activation on the wall of an annular microchannel. Methane was oxidized incompletely on a rhodium catalyst deposited on an inner wall of the channel. Concentrations of the products of chemical transformations were measured in the outlet gas mixture for different reactor temperatures and stay times. We have determined the range of channel wall temperatures and stay times of the mixture corresponding to an increase in the portion of hydrogen and carbon dioxide indicating transition from predominant methane combustion to cascade chemical reactions with activation of steam and carbon dioxide methane conversions. It is shown that the kinetic model of chemical transformations of methane in the air medium depends significantly on the temperature of channel walls and stay time of the mixture. The effect of outer diffusion deceleration on the rate of chemical transformations at incomplete methane oxidation under the strained conditions is determined.

  15. Comparison of the Effect of Incomplete Charge Collection on DQE of Various Direct Conversion Detectors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Han, Jong Chul; Kim, Ho Kyung [Pusan National University, Busan (Korea, Republic of)

    2012-05-15

    In the direct conversion detector, the signal is transferred by the flow of charges generated when the interaction occurs in the photoconductor by incident energy. In this moment, if the charges generated are trapped by various factors while in constant time they travel to the electrodes, the loss of signal and addition of noise happen. This incomplete charge collection results in the degradation of the detector performance. So it is very important to investigate how the incomplete charge collection affects the performance of detector depending on different photoconductors to choose the best material and design the detector system. In this study, we investigated how the performance of the detector system is degraded due to incomplete charge collection in various photoconductors in terms of detective quantum efficiency

  16. Research on defect detection from incomplete scanning of X-ray

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Computed tomography (CT) is an advanced means of non-destructive testing, which has been widely used in medical and industrial fields. Aiming at the non-destructive testing problem of large industrial components, It presents a defect detection method from incomplete scanning of X-ray. Firstly, a set of incomplete scanning projection data before using the component has been obtained, then reconstruct them by algebraic re- construction technique (ART), and take the reconstructed images as the norm images. Then, the incomplete projection data of different times during the use of the component has been obtained, and reconstruct them by ART algorithm. Finally, It makes digital subtraction operation by the reconstructed images and the norm images, the defection can be detected clearly and intuitively from the subtraction image. Experimental result shows the proposed method is effective. (authors)

  17. Hepatic paraganglioma and multifocal gastrointestinal stromal tumor in a female: Incomplete Carney triad.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Seong Woo; Lee, Woo Yong; Lee, Hye Kyung

    2013-07-27

    The Carney triad (CT) describes the coexistence of multiple neoplasms including gastrointestinal stromal tumors (GISTs), extra-adrenal paraganglioma and pulmonary chondroma. At least two neoplastic tumors are required for diagnosis. In most cases, however, CT is incomplete. We report a case of an incomplete CT in a 34-year-old woman with a multifocal GIST and non-functional paraganglioma of the liver. Preoperative evaluation with a gastrofiberscope and abdominal computed tomography revealed multiple gastric tumors resembling GISTs and a single liver lesion which was assumed to have metastasized from the gastric tumors. The patient underwent total gastrectomy and partial hepatectomy. Histologic findings confirmed multiple gastric GISTs and paraganglioma of the liver. We report a case of a patient with incomplete expression of CT. PMID:23894692

  18. Hepatic paraganglioma and multifocal gastrointestinal stromal tumor in a female: Incomplete Carney triad

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seong Woo Hong

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The Carney triad (CT describes the coexistence of multiple neoplasms including gastrointestinal stromal tumors (GISTs, extra-adrenal paraganglioma and pulmonary chondroma. At least two neoplastic tumors are required for diagnosis. In most cases, however, CT is incomplete. We report a case of an incomplete CT in a 34-year-old woman with a multifocal GIST and non-functional paraganglioma of the liver. Preoperative evaluation with a gastrofiberscope and abdominal computed tomography revealed multiple gastric tumors resembling GISTs and a single liver lesion which was assumed to have metastasized from the gastric tumors. The patient underwent total gastrectomy and partial hepatectomy. Histologic findings confirmed multiple gastric GISTs and paraganglioma of the liver. We report a case of a patient with incomplete expression of CT.

  19. Incomplete bone regeneration of rabbit calvarial defects using different membranes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aaboe, M; Pinholt, E M

    1998-01-01

    The present study describes the use of a degradable and a non-degradable material for guided bone regeneration. Forty rabbits were divided into 5 groups. Bicortical defects 15 mm in diameter were prepared in rabbit calvaria. A titanium microplate was placed over the defect to prevent collapse of the membrane. The calvarial defects of 2 groups were covered by an outer expanded polytetrafluoroethylene (ePTFE) membrane respectively by a Polyglactin 910 membrane. Bicortical ePTFE membranes or Polyglactin 910 membranes were used in 2 other groups. The defects were not covered by membranes in the control group. Undecalcified sections were prepared for histologic evaluation after an observation period of 8 weeks. Complete bone healing of the defects was not observed in any of the specimens. The Polyglactin 910 material lacks physical strength, resulting in collapse of the membrane and brain tissue herniation into the defects. Subsequently, bone regeneration was impaired. The cellular reactions due to degradation of the material were minor and did not interfere with bone healing. Defects covered bicortically by ePTFE membranes revealed the largest amount of regenerated bone. The ePTFE membrane induced a severe cellular reaction, but no inhibition of bone regeneration was noted.

  20. Maturation of hemolysin-producing cell clones. II. The appearance and localization of precursor units in lymphoid tissues of neonatal mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saunders, G C; Swartzendruber, D

    1970-06-01

    Cells capable of reacting with sheep erythrocyte (SRBC) antigen to maturate and produce hemolysin appear simultaneously in the bone marrow and spleen of 1-day old Swiss-Webster mice. However, hemolysin-producing cell clones (HPCC) do not result. Complete functional precursor units generally appear in the spleens of mice older than 3 days. In vivo and in vitro data correlate well in this regard. Complete precursor units are not seen in the bone marrow and only very rarely in the thymus. The efficiency of precursor units of neonatal mice when they become functional approximates that of the mature animal when based on the doubling time of plaque-forming cells (PFC). Possible explanations of the initial appearance of incomplete precursor units have been discussed. PMID:5463218

  1. Interrelationships between the interfering capacity of an incomplete virus and its infectivity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kantorovich-Prokudina, E.N.; Semenova, N.P.; Kaverin, N.V.; Miasnikova, I.A.; Berezina, O.N.

    1979-09-01

    A comparative analysis of uv inactivation curves of the interfering activity of incomplete influenza virus and infectivity showed certain differences in the structures responsible for these functions. All the data suggest that RNA is responsible for this interference. The size of the target of the incomplete virus interfering capacity calculated on the basis of sensitivity to uv-light is approximately 40 times as small as that of the target responsible for infectivity. The analogous pattern of uv inactivation in the standard influenza virus and the so-called Magnus virus suggests that in the latter the infectivity is due to the presence of complete virions in the preparation.

  2. Incomplete optical shielding in cold atom traps: three-dimensional Landau-Zener theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ultracold atom collisions in the presence of a linearly polarized blueshifted laser field are studied theoretically. An analytical solution is presented within the framework of the Landau-Zener approximation. The effect of incomplete shielding is mostly accounted for by incorporating the three-dimensional character of the collisions, using a partial-wave analysis with space degeneracy. A model of two electronic states, including effects of indistinguishability of the colliding atoms, is used. The model associates the incomplete shielding with a process involving two crossing points. The theory is applied to the case of metastable xenon traps, obtaining a fair agreement with the experimental data. copyright 1997 The American Physical Society

  3. Dominance-based Matrix algorithm for Knowledge Reductions in Incomplete Fuzzy Information System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lixin Fan

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available In this paper?definitions of knowledge granulation and rough entropy are proposed based on dominance relations in incomplete fuzzy information system, and important properties are obtained. It can be found that using the definitions can measure uncertainty of an attribute set in the incomplete fuzzy information systems. A matrix algorithm for attributes reduction is acquired in the systems. An example illustrates the validity of this algorithm, and results of compared with other existing methods show that the algorithm is an efficient tool for data mining.  

  4. Investigation of complete and incomplete fusion in 20Ne + 51V system using recoil range measurement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Sabir

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Recoil range distributions of evaporation residues, populated in 20Ne + 51V reaction at Elab ? 145 MeV, have been studied to determine the degree of momentum transferred through the complete and incomplete fusion reactions. Evaporation residues (ERs populated through the complete and incomplete fusion reactions have been identified on the basis of their recoil range in the Al catcher medium. Measured recoil range of evaporation residues have been compared with the theoretical value calculated using the code SRIM. Range integrated cross section of observed ERs have been compared with the value predicted by statistical model code PACE4.

  5. Incomplete fusion dynamics in 16O + 154Sm system by using particle gamma coincidence technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The study of incomplete fusion (ICF) of heavy ions with different targets has been a topic of growing interest. In these reactions complete fusion (CF) and incomplete fusion (ICF) process are the dominant mode. In ICF reaction, only a part of projectile fuses with the target nucleus, while remaining part of projectile moves in the forward cone. In the complete fusion (CF) process, the projectile is completely fused with the target nucleus, forming a highly excited composite system from which nuclear particles and/or ?-rays may be emitted subsequently during its de-excitation at equilibrium stage

  6. Incomplete fusion reactions in 16O+159Tb system: Spin distribution measurements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sharma Vijay R.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In order to explore the reaction modes on the basis of their entry state spin population, an experiment has been done by employing particle-? coincidence technique carried out at the Inter University Accelerator Centre, New Delhi. The preliminary analysis conclusively demonstrates, spin distribution for some reaction products populated via complete and/or incomplete fusion of 16O with 159Tb system found to be distinctly different. Further, the existence of incomplete fusion at low bombarding energies indicates the possibility to populate high spin states.

  7. Compound semiconductor electronics the age of maturity

    CERN Document Server

    Shur, Michael S

    1996-01-01

    In many respects, compound semiconductor technology has reached the age of maturity when applications will have been defined, yields are high enough and well established, and gallium arsenide and related compounds have carved many important niches in electronics. This book reviews the state-of-the-art of compound semiconductor electronics. It covers the microwave, millimeter wave, and submillimeter wave devices, monolithic microwave and digital integrated circuits made from compound semiconductors and emerging wide band semiconductor materials. The book is written by leading experts in compoun

  8. eBusiness Maturity and Regional Development

    OpenAIRE

    Beynon-davies, P.

    2007-01-01

    This paper describes the experience of a major research centre supporting knowledge transfer in the area of eCommerce to SMEs. It debates with issues surrounding the integration of academic research with practical support to the SME community. For this purpose the use of an eBusiness framework as a platform for eBusiness maturity assessment is proposed. These devices are seen as key to the work of research centres such as ours in addressing the future challenges for smeeBusiness.

  9. Ovarian Mature Cystic Teratoma Containing Multiple Mobile

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A 48-year-old woman was admitted to our hospital with a palpable mass in her lower abdomen. A left ovarian, cystic mass containing multiple mobile globules was seen on CT and MR images. The outer portion of the globules showed fat components on CT and fat-saturated T1-weighted MR images. Ultrasonography showed multiple echogenic, mobile globules with some sound attenuation and hyper echoic lines and dots within the cystic mass, which corresponded with the presence of lipid globules and hair shafts of ovarian mature cystic teratoma, respectively

  10. Cullin-3 regulates late endosome maturation.

    OpenAIRE

    Huotari J; Meyer-Schaller N; Hubner M; Stauffer S; Katheder N; Horvath P.; Mancini R; Helenius A; Peter M

    2012-01-01

    Cullin-3 (Cul3) functions as a scaffolding protein in the Bric-a-brac, Tramtrack, Broad-complex (BTB)–Cul3–Rbx1 ubiquitin E3 ligase complex. Here, we report a previously undescribed role for Cul3 complexes in late endosome (LE) maturation. RNAi-mediated depletion of Cul3 results in a trafficking defect of two cargoes of the endolysosomal pathway, influenza A virus (IAV) and epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR). IAV is able to reach an acidic endosomal compartment, coinciding with LE/ly...

  11. Reticulocyte maturity indices in iron deficiency anemia

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Muriel, Wollmann; Branca Maria Cerezer, Gerzson; Vanessa, Schwert; Rafael Weber, Figuera; Guilherme de Oliveira, Ritzel.

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The aim of this study was to analyze the reticulocyte maturity indices (low, medium, and high fluorescence ratios) in iron deficient 1- to 6-year-old children, and identify the prevalence of iron deficiency anemia in this population. Methods: The present study included 39 subjects, [...] divided into two groups: control subjects (n = 33), and subjects with iron deficiency anemia (n = 6). The results were analyzed by Student's t-test for comparison of means. Differences were considered significant when two-tailed p-value

  12. Does a mature AIDS epidemic threaten growth?

    OpenAIRE

    Cuesta, Jose?

    2008-01-01

    This paper models the impact on economic growth of HIV/AIDS when the epidemic is in a mature phase, in contrast with previous studies focused on periods of expansion, as in African countries. Simulations for Honduras, the epicenter of the epidemic in Central America, show that AIDS is not likely to threaten economic growth through either labor or capital accumulation channels; impacts are estimated between 0.007 and 0.27 percent points of GDP growth annually for the period 2001-10. Likewise, ...

  13. Investigation of incomplete fusion in 19F + 159Tb reaction at beam energy of ~ 5 MeV/nucleon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Formation cross-sections of evaporation residues have been measured in 19F + 159Tb reaction at Elab=83, 88, 93, 98 and 103 MeV using recoil catcher technique followed by off-line gamma-ray spectrometry. Significant contribution from incomplete fusion has been observed at these low beam energies indicating the contribution to incomplete fusion from collision trajectories with angular momentum (l) less than the critical angular momentum for complete fusion (lcr(CF)). Incomplete fusion cross-sections could be explained using a modified sum-rule model which allows effective competition from incomplete fusion for collision trajectories with lcr(CF). (author)

  14. Injurious Effects of Curcumin on Maturation of Mouse Oocytes, Fertilization and Fetal Development via Apoptosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wen-Hsiung Chan

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Curcumin, a common dietary pigment and spice, is a hydrophobic polyphenol derived from the rhizome of the herb Curcuma longa. Previously, we reported a cytotoxic effect of curcumin on mouse embryonic stem cells and blastocysts and its association with defects in subsequent development. In the present study, we further investigated the effects of curcumin on oocyte maturation and subsequent pre- and post-implantation development, both in vitro and in vivo. Notably, curcumin induced a significant reduction in the rate of oocyte maturation, fertilization, and in vitro embryonic development. Treatment of oocytes with curcumin during in vitro maturation (IVM led to increased resorption of postimplantation embryos and decreased fetal weight. Experiments with an in vivo mouse model disclosed that consumption of drinking water containing 40 ?M curcumin led to decreased oocyte maturation and in vitro fertilization as well as early embryonic developmental injury. Finally, pretreatment with a caspase-3-specific inhibitor effectively prevented curcumin-triggered injury effects, suggesting that embryo impairment by curcumin occurs mainly via a caspase-dependent apoptotic process.

  15. Effect of Exogenous Plant Growth Regulators on Embryonic Development of Vigna radiata (Mung Bean: Differential Expression of Amylase in Immature and Mature Embryos Cultured In vitro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Mohsin

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available The precocious germination of excised embryos from immature and mature seeds at different developmental stages was studied taking into consideration the expression of ?-amylase. Effect of growth hormones on enzyme activity was also analyzed in an attempt to outline their contribution to the process of embryo maturity and germination. Immature embryos excised from developing seeds of ages 7,10 and 12 Days After Flowering (DAF were cultured in vitro in presence of different plant growth regulators viz, GA3, ABA, IAA and 2,4-D, administered singly along with one combination i.e., of GA3 and ABA. Amylase activity showed a strong, negative impact of ABA, GA3 and their combination in the premature embryos of age 7 and 10 DAF. This inhibition pattern was consistent up to the near mature embryos of age 12 DAF, thereby preventing precocious germination and keeping embryos in the embryogenetic mode. The response to GA gradually changed from inhibition to induction as embryonic age advanced. Amongst the two auxins applied, IAA was less inhibitory than 2,4-D at younger ages, while in the near mature set the two auxins induced amylase significantly. Embryonic axes removed from dormant seeds and treated similarly showed response to ABA and GA comparable to that in the premature and near mature sets. Maximum activity was recorded in the GA3 treated set while minimum amylase was observed in ABA. The auxin IAA at lower concentration induced amylase in the mature set while IAA100?M and 2,4-D caused strong inhibition. These results were significant at p<0.05. It is suggested that the release of amylase from the embryonic axes of developing seeds is inhibited by ABA and GA3 until the embryos reach the near mature stage, the enzyme being induced in pre-mature and mature embryos by gibberellic acid, which may be the growth regulator released from the seed.

  16. Role of protein haptenation in triggering maturation events in the dendritic cell surrogate cell line THP-1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dendritic cell (DC) maturation in response to contact sensitizers is a crucial step in the induction of sensitization reactions; however the underlying mechanism of activation remains unknown. To test whether the extent of protein haptenation is a determinant in DC maturation, we tested the effect of five dinitrophenyl (DNP) analogues of different reactivity, on maturation markers in the cell line, THP-1. The potencies of the test compounds in upregulating CD54 levels, inducing IL-8 release and triggering p38 MAPK phosphorylation did not correlate with their ability to deplete intracellular glutathione (GSH) levels or cause cell toxicity. However, the compounds' potency at inducing p38 phosphorylation was significantly associated with the amount of intracellular protein adducts formed (p < 0.05). Inhibition experiments show that, at least for DNFB, p38 MAP kinase signalling controls compound-specific changes in CD54 expression and IL-8 release. 2D-PAGE analysis revealed that all the DNP analogues appeared to bind similar proteins. The analogues failed to activate NFkB, however, they activated Nrf2, which was used as a marker of oxidative stress. Neither GSH depletion, by use of buthionine sulfoximine, nor treatment with the strongly lysine-reactive hapten penicillin elicited maturation. We conclude that protein haptenation, probably through reactive cysteine residues may be a trigger for maturation events in this in vitro model and that p38 activation may be a discriml and that p38 activation may be a discriminatory marker for the classification of potency of chemical sensitizers.

  17. Developmental Plasticity in Child Growth and Maturation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ze'evHochberg

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available The ability of a given genotype to produce different phenotypes in response to different environments is termed "plasticity", and is part of the organism's "adaptability" to environmental cues. The expressions of suites of genes, particularly during development or life-history transitions, probably underlie the fundamental plasticity of an organism. Plasticity in developmental programming has evolved in order to provide the best chances of survival and reproductive success to organisms under changing environments. Environmental conditions that are experienced in early life can profoundly influence human biology, child growth and maturation, and long-term health and longevity. Developmental origins of health and disease and life history transitions are purported to use placental, nutritional, and endocrine cues for setting long-term biological, mental, and behavioral strategies for child growth and maturation in response to local ecological and/or social conditions. The window of developmental plasticity extends from conception to early childhood, and even beyond to the transition from juvenility to adoelscence, and could be transmitted transgenerationally. It involves epigenetic responses to environmental changes, which exert their effects during life history phase-transitions.

  18. Effect of EGF and AREG Treatment During Porcine in vitro Maturation on in vitro Developmental Potential of Preimplantation Embryos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sang-Hwan Hyun

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Porcine In Vitro Maturation (IVM and In Vitro Fertilization (IVF technique has been used and improved. However, polyspermic penetration, low rate of Blastocyst (BL formation and poor quality of BLs are induced by imperfect nuclear and cytoplasmic maturation. It has been reported that Epidermal Growth Factor (EGF is beneficial for oocyte maturation to improve the IVM system and Amphiregulin (AREG is a growth factor containing an EGF-like domain. Consequently, the present study was performed to investigate whether during porcine IVM system EGF and/or AREG supplementation is profitable for improving oocyte maturation and embryo development. In Experiment 1, oocytes were maturated with EGF (15 ng mL-1 or AREG (15 ng mL-1 or combination of both and after 44 h, oocytes were stained with Hoechst and metaphase II and development rate were evaluated. Without any growth factor served as a control. In Experiment 2, maturated oocytes from the previous groups were fertilized with proven sperm and penetration rate after 10 h of post-insemination was evaluated. In Experiment 3 in vitro matured porcine oocytes were stained with fluorescein isothiocyanate-labeled peanut agglutinin and the distribution of Cortical Granules (CGs was evaluated by laser confocal microscopy. In Experiment 1, the oocytes maturation rate were significantly higher in EGF, AREG or combined group (70.9±15.5, 75.8±9.8 and 70.5±10.8%, respectively compared to control (51.6±18.3% but no significant difference among the treatments group. In Experiment 2, there was no significance of sperm penetration rate among the groups however, polyspermy and sperm number per oocytes were decreased significantly (pin vitro system and that there is due to synergistic effect of EGF and AREG during oocytes and embryonic development.

  19. Neonatal androgenization of hypogonadal (hpg male mice does not abolish estradiol-induced FSH production and spermatogenesis

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    Kerr Jeffrey B

    2005-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Testicular development is arrested in the hypogonadal (hpg mouse due to a congenital deficiency in hypothalamic gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH synthesis. Chronic treatment of male hpg mice with estradiol induces FSH synthesis and secretion, and causes testicular maturation and qualitatively normal spermatogenesis. As estradiol negative feedback normally inhibits FSH production in the male, this study tested whether this paradoxical response to estradiol in the male hpg mouse might be due to inadequate masculinisation or incomplete defeminization in the neonatal period. Previous studies have demonstrated that treatment of hpg mice with testosterone propionate in the immediate neonatal period is necessary to allow full reproductive behaviors to be expressed following suitable endocrine stimulation at adult ages. Methods Hpg mice were treated with 100 ?g testosterone propionate or vehicle on postnatal day 2. At 35 days of age, subgroups of these mice were treated with silastic implants containing estradiol or cholesterol. Reproductive behavior was scored in tests with steroid-primed female mice, then testicular development was assessed histologically, and measures of pituitary FSH content made at 85 days of age. Results The neonatal testosterone propionate treatment successfully defeminized female litter mates, as revealed by impaired vaginal opening and deficiencies in lordosis behavior, and it allowed appropriate male reproductive behavior to be expressed in a proportion of the hpg males when tested at an adult age. However, neonatal androgen supplementation did not block or even reduce the subsequent actions of estradiol in increasing pituitary FSH content, nor did it affect the ability of estradiol to induce qualitatively normal spermatogenesis. Conclusion The ability of the hpg male to show a "female" neuroendocrine response to estradiol is not a result of inadequate androgenization during neonatal development, and thus the actions of estradiol revealed in this rodent model are not an artefact of incomplete sexual differentiation, but reflect a physiological role of estradiol occurring during a specific early temporal window of male reproductive development.

  20. PROJECT MANAGEMENT MATURITY: AN ASSESSMENT OF MATURITY FOR DEVELOPING PILOT PLANTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H.K. Mittermaier

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available

    ENGLISH ABSTRACT: Despite the current economic climate, the South African mining and engineering industry is experiencing a very promising future, with a large number of capital projects in the offing. It is inevitable that pilot plant development will form part of this future as a risk mitigation technique. This study found that, even though the terms ‘pilot plant’ and ‘project management maturity’ are familiar within the industry, no link between these two could be found in the literature. A number of maturity models exist; and one developed by PMSolutions was selected to perform an assessment of the current level of project management maturity within the South African mining and engineering industry pertaining to the development of pilot plants. The Delphi technique was used to determine the views of experts in the South African mining, mineral processing, petrochemical, nuclear, and mechanical sectors regarding this maturity. A significant difference was observed between the current level of maturity and the required level of maturity in all but one of the nine knowledge areas defined by the Project Management Institute. The two knowledge areas of project time and risk management showed significant differences between current and required maturity levels, and were identified as key areas for improvement.

    AFRIKAANSE OPSOMMING: Ten spyte van die huidige ekonomiese klimaat ondervind die Suid-Afrikaanse mynbou- en ingenieursbedryf ’n baie bemoedigende toekoms, met ’n groot aantal kapitaalprojekte in die vooruitsig. Ten einde risiko’s te verlaag, sal die ontwikkeling van loodsaanlegte noodwendig deel van hierdie toekoms uitmaak. Daar is gevind dat, alhoewel die terme ‘loodsaanleg’ en ‘projekbestuur volwassenheid’ in die nywerheid bekend is, geen skakeling van hierdie twee terme in die literatuur opgespoor kon word nie. ’n Aantal volwassenheid modelle bestaan; en een wat deur PMSolutions ontwikkel is, is gekies om die huidige vlak van projekbestuur volwassenheid in die Suid-Afrikaanse mynbou- en ingenieursbedryf ten opsigte van loodsaanlegte te bepaal. Die Delphi tegniek is gebruik om die sienings van deskundiges in die Suid-Afrikaanse mynbou-, mineraalprosessering-, petrochemiese-, kern-, en meganiese sektore oor die genoemde volwassenheid te bepaal. ’n Beduidende verskil is waargeneem tussen die huidige en die gewensde vlakke van volwassenheid in agt van die nege kennisareas soos gedefinieer deur die Amerikaanse Project Management Institute. Beduidende verskille tussen huidige en gewensde vlakke van volwassenheid is veral in die twee kennisareas projek tydbestuur en projek risikobestuur gevind, en dui op areas vir verbetering.