WorldWideScience
 
 
1

Cogeneration potential in Indian sugar mills: a case study  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The Indian sugar industry has massive potential for the cogeneration of electrical power. The sugar manufacturing process generates bagasse as a by-product from cane-crushing. This bagasse can be used as a fuel for the boilers employed in steam raising for process use and cogeneration. In this study, the potential for power cogeneration in a typical plant under the existing boiler-turbine configuration has been estimated. An alternative configuration requiring capital investment in machinery has also been studied. Using a linear optimization method, the cost of cogenerating power, including the cost of fuel, operations, and capital services, wherever necessary, has been calculated for both these cases. The exercise allows for the use of multiple fuels, namely bagasse and coal, for cogeneration throughout the year including the cane-crushing season and the off-season. The per unit supply price of cogenerated power thus computed has been compared with the utility`s own cost with a view to sell the surplus cogenerated power to the grid. 9 refs., 2 figs., 1 tab.

Saha, A.R [Indraprastha College, New Delhi (India). Dept. of Economics

1998-11-01

2

Maharashtra's Mega Sugar Mill Cogen Project  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The Mega Sugar Mill Cogeneration Power Project involving sugar mills in the Indian state of Maharashtra's is led by the Maharashtra State Federation of Co-operative Sugar Mills Ltd (Sakhar Sangh) and MITCON. The Project, which aims to implement cogeneration projects at 55-60 sugar mills by October 2005, has the backing of national agencies and financial institutions. The criteria for mill selection, the three options for participating mills, the potential power generation and the support provided by Sakhar Sangh and MITCON are explained. Some of the mills that have started work are named. The difficulties in establishing cogeneration projects in India are summarised in a side box.

Matu, Sunil [MITCON, New Delhi (India)

2001-04-01

3

Bioremediation of Sugar Mill Effluent Using a Bacteria Staphylococcus aureus  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Industrial pollution has been and continues to be a major factor causing the degradation of the environment around us, affecting the water we use, the air we breathe and the soil we live on. Among the various industries, sugar mill is one of the largest and most important agro based industries in India. The sugar industry is playing an important role in the economic development of the Indian sub continent, but the effluents released produce a high degree of organic pollution in both aquatic and terrestrial ecosystems. They also alter the physico-chemical characteristics of the receiving aquatic bodies and affect aquatic flora and fauna. Bioremediation of sugar-mill industrial effluents by microorganisms serves as an effective method to substitute the conventional recovery and removal process. In the present study, attempt has been made to isolate the native bacteria present in the sugar mill effluent collected from the Cheyyiar Co-operative Sugar Mills Ltd., Thiruvannamalai District and were tested for their individual bioremedial efficiency. The Staphylococcus aureus were capable of bringing about the bioremediation of Sugarmill effluent in the different concentration (Effluent different dilution+bacteria, (Effluent+different density of bacteria, (different pH of effluent+bacteria. It has been identified in terms of measuring their percentage of reduction potentials of parameters such as pH, EC, TDS, OD, BOD and COD. Maximum biodegrading potentials have been observed in the case of bacteria Staphylococcus aureus in all the different studies. i.e., pH(-52.77%, EC(24.47%, TDS(24.44%, BOD(70.32% and COD(64.28% amongst all. This result suggests that this can be recommended for treating various effluents.

Buvaneswari.S

2013-02-01

4

21 CFR 173.320 - Chemicals for controlling microorganisms in cane-sugar and beet-sugar mills.  

Science.gov (United States)

...controlling microorganisms in cane-sugar and beet-sugar mills. 173.320 Section...controlling microorganisms in cane-sugar and beet-sugar mills. Agents for controlling microorganisms in cane-sugar and beet-sugar mills may be safely used...

2010-01-01

5

Promotion of biomass cogeneration with power export in the Indian sugar industry  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

To meet India`s projected power demand over the next 25 years, over 300,000 MW{sub e} of new generating capacity will need to be installed. Cogeneration, the combined generation of steam and electricity, is an efficient and cost-effective means to save energy and reduce pollution. Many studies around the world have identified sugar mill cogeneration as an attractive low-cost power option. Most studies estimate the cogeneration potential of India`s sugar mills at around 3500 MW{sub e}. The United States Agency for International Development (USAID) has implemented a Greenhouse Gas Pollution Prevention (GEP) Project to assist in the direction and pace of India`s power sector development. The objective of the Advanced Bagasse Cogeneration (ABC) Component of the GEP Project is to promote year-round cogeneration in Indian sugar mills with power export using only biomass as a fuel. The structure of the ABC Component, which is implemented through technical assistance and investment subcomponents, and the status of various activities are reviewed. Also, sugar production and economics are reviewed from both a global and local perspective to reveal how they impact the potential for cogeneration projects in Indian sugar mills. Progress in the Indian sugar industry should pave the way for cogeneration projects in other industrial sectors, such as paper, chemicals, and textiles. Contributions from these sectors are important if India is to meet its huge power generation needs. 23 refs., 2 figs., 8 tabs.

Smouse, S.M.; Staats, G.E.; Rao, S.N.; Goldman, R.; Hess, D. [USDOE Pittsburgh Energy Technology Center, Pittsburgh, PA (United States)

1998-03-01

6

Valuation of a Mexican Sugar Mill and Driving Value Factors  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This paper includes the methodology used to construct a financial cash flow and perform a valuation using the discounted cash flow analysis for a hypothetical Mexican sugar mill. The objective is to incorporate to the valuation model the most significant variables that are relevant to the sugar production process as well as the operational and financial factors of a common sugar mill which are driven by the current legislation in terms of sugarcane pricing and labor costs. It also includes so...

Carlos Acosta Calzado

2011-01-01

7

A methodological approach to sugar mill diversification and conversion  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Sugar industry diversification is complex, being constrained by biophysical and socioeconomic conditions. Ongoing work has shown the sugarcane industry’s potential as biorefinery or its sustainable use by offering products as raw material. However, few studies have studied how such potential could be achieved by promoting a conventional sugar mill through integrating its indicators for developing an efficient diversified processing plant which would contribute towards fossil energy saving and competitiveness. This paper presents a conceptual framework for analysis based on existing knowledge regarding sugar industry state-of-the-art for evaluating diversification, using analytical hierarchy process (AHP as a tool for analysing complex systems, identifying alternatives to the current situation and discussing them to facilitate collective decision-making. Sugar mill AHP scores enabled discussion about the variables most affecting sugar mill diversification (0.332 factory yield, 0.327 sugar mill products and 0.121 sugarcane quality. The results serve as a useful guidance for formulating strategies for the optimum use of by-products in a sugar mill while maximising benefits to modify/convert a traditional sugar mill to a so-called bio-refinery.

Noé Aguilar Rivera

2012-03-01

8

Valuation of a Mexican Sugar Mill and Driving Value Factors  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This paper includes the methodology used to construct a financial cash flow and perform a valuation using the discounted cash flow analysis for a hypothetical Mexican sugar mill. The objective is to incorporate to the valuation model the most significant variables that are relevant to the sugar production process as well as the operational and financial factors of a common sugar mill which are driven by the current legislation in terms of sugarcane pricing and labor costs. It also includes some macroeconomic variables that determine price for sugar, long term costs and the discount rates. With the financial model determined, we use Monte Carlo simulation in order to obtain a probabilistic distribution for the value of the sugar mill and finally we perform a sensitivity analysis to obtain the main variables that affect the resulting enterprise value. The model is constructed on data available for three sugar mills, but the cost structure will not change among other sugar mills, due to regulation and local market conditions; however, the model could be used for any mill by substituting the variables for each case.

Carlos Acosta Calzado

2011-01-01

9

Biodiesel production from microalgae: co-location with sugar mills.  

Science.gov (United States)

Co-location of algae production facilities with cane sugar mills can be a technically advantageous path towards production of biodiesel. Algal biodiesel production was integrated with cane sugar production in the material and energy balance simulation program Sugars™. A model was developed that allowed comparison of production scenarios involving dewatering the algae to 20% ds (dry solids) or 30% ds prior to thermal drying. The net energy ratio, E(R) (energy produced/energy consumed) of the proposed process was found to be 1.5. A sensitivity analysis showed that this number ranged from 0.9 to 1.7 when the range of values for oil content, CO(2) utilization, oil conversion, and harvest density reported in the literature were evaluated. By utilizing available waste-resources from a 10,000 ton/d cane sugar mill, a 530 ha algae farm can produce 5.8 million L of biodiesel/yr and reduce CO(2) emissions of the mill by 15% without the need for fossil fuels. PMID:22265980

Lohrey, Christian; Kochergin, Vadim

2012-03-01

10

Ergonomic design applied in a sugar mill interface  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Argentina | Language: English Abstract in english In tasks requiring human supervision in an industrial control room there are applied generic disciplines like automatic control and engineering systems. From the point of view of the human computer interaction applied to these disciplines it is necessary to add usability engineering and cognitive er [...] gonomics. This integrated framework is an example of human-centred design on automation systems. The main goal of this work is the application of a cognitive ergonomic guideline for supervisory control in order to improve the efficiency of a sugar mill interface design.

P., Ponsa; B., Amante; M., Díaz.

11

76 FR 2409 - Proclaiming Certain Lands, Golf Course Acquisition, as an Addition to the Bay Mills Indian...  

Science.gov (United States)

...INTERIOR Bureau of Indian Affairs Proclaiming Certain Lands, Golf Course Acquisition, as an Addition to the Bay Mills Indian Reservation...tribal membership. Bay Mills Indian Community Reservation, Golf Course Acquisition, Michigan Meridan, Superior Township,...

2011-01-13

12

Wind Resource Assessment Report: Mille Lacs Indian Reservation, Minnesota  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) launched the RE-Powering America's Land initiative to encourage development of renewable energy on potentially contaminated land and mine sites. EPA collaborated with the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE's) National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) and the Mille Lacs Band of Chippewa Indians to evaluate the wind resource and examine the feasibility of a wind project at a contaminated site located on the Mille Lacs Indian Reservation in Minnesota. The wind monitoring effort involved the installation of a 60-m met tower and the collection of 18 months of wind data at multiple heights above the ground. This report focuses on the wind resource assessment, the estimated energy production of wind turbines, and an assessment of the economic feasibility of a potential wind project sited this site.

Jimenez, A. C.

2013-12-01

13

SUGAR INDUSTRY IN MAHARASHTRA  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The Indian sugar industry is a key driver of rural development, supporting India's economic growth. The industry is inherently inclusive supporting over 50 million farmers and their families, along with workers and enter-preneurs almost 550 sugar mills. Indian sugar industry is a cyclical industry, as on one hand if serves the domestic market, the largest in the world. Sugar is a sector of significant importance to the national economy while consumption has been growing historically the production has been cyclical. In an era where there is a need for inclusive growth the sugar industry is amongst the few industries that have successfully contributed to the rural economy

PRATAP BAPUSO LAD

2013-04-01

14

Pyrolysis and thermal oxidation kinetics of sugar mill press mud  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Press mud, a solid waste obtained from the sugar mills, has the potential of energy generation through pyrolysis and gasification. The paper reports its proximate and ultimate analyses, deformation and fusion ash temperatures, lower and higher heating values, physico-chemical and thermal degradation in nitrogen and air atmospheres. The thermal degradation was conducted in a thermogravimetric analyzer from room temperature to 900 deg C at heating rates of 20 and 40 K min-1. The thermogravimetric, derivative thermogravimetric and differential thermal analyses were carried out to determine the rate of volatiles evolution, the effect of heating rates on the thermal degradation characteristics and to determine the global mass loss kinetics of thermal degradation. The thermal degradation was found to occur in several distinct phases: each phase giving volatile evolution in an independent parallel lump. Each decomposition phase was modeled by a single irreversible reaction with respect to the solid mass. Global mass loss kinetics was also determined for the entire decomposition process, as if occurring in one single step. The integral and differential techniques were used for the determination of kinetic parameters. Using the method of Agrawal and Sivasubramanian [R.K. Agrawal, M.S. Sivasubramanian, AIChE J. 33 (1987) 7] for the total degradation zone, the orders of reaction were found in the range of 1.00-2.50 in both the atmospheres (i.e. nitrogen and air) and the activation energy in the range of 27.84-33.44 and 57.41-88.92 kJ mol-1 in nitrogen and air, respectively. The pre-exponential factor was found in the range of 32.1-95.1 and 5.10 x 104 to 5.46 x 109 min-1 in nitrogen and air atmospheres, respectively

2005-04-01

15

Comparative Analysis of Milled Wood Lignins (MWLs Isolated from Sugar Maple (SM and Hot-Water Extracted Sugar Maple (ESM  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available To further elucidate the advantageous effects of hot-water extraction (HWE on delignification, milled wood lignin (MWL was isolated from sugar maple (SM and from hot-water extracted sugar maple (ESM. Ball-milled wood was analyzed for particle size distribution (PSD before and after dioxane:water (DW extraction. The MWL samples were analyzed by analytical and spectral methods. The results indicated that the MWL isolated from SM and ESM was mainly released from the middle lamella (ML and the secondary wall (SW, respectively. The cleavage of dibenzodioxocin (DB and spirodienone (SD lignin substructures during HWE is suggested. The removal of lignin during acetone:water (AW extraction of hot-water extracted wood indicates that including an additional operation in a hardwood HWE-based biorefinery would be beneficial for processing of wood.

Mangesh J. Goundalkar

2014-03-01

16

Corporate Governance of Sugar Mills in East Java: A Transaction Cost Economics Perspective  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Despite Indonesia?s overall achievements during the past two decades%2C the economy is encountering a series of problems. One of the biggest challenges is the unsatisfactory performance of the state-owned enterprises (SOEs). Subsidisies and uncovered loans to the SOEs have drained the government?s fiscal resources%2C and the signing off of employees creates many social problems. Compared with the SOEs in other sectors%2C state-owned sugar mills face more serious crises which not onl...

Ahmad Erani Yustika

2007-01-01

17

Energy Efficiency Feasibility Study and Resulting Plan for the Bay Mills Indian Community  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

In 2011 the Inter-Tribal Council of Michigan, Inc. was awarded an Energy Efficiency Development and Deployment in Indian Country grant from the U.S. Department of Energy’s Tribal Energy Program. This grant aimed to study select Bay Mills Indian Community community/government buildings to determine what is required to reduce each building’s energy consumption by 30%. The Bay Mills Indian Community (BMIC) buildings with the largest expected energy use were selected for this study and included the Bay Mills Ellen Marshall Health Center building, Bay Mills Indian Community Administration Building, Bay Mills Community College main campus, Bay Mills Charter School and the Waishkey Community Center buildings. These five sites are the largest energy consuming Community buildings and comprised the study area of this project titled “Energy Efficiency Feasibility Study and Resulting Plan for the Bay Mills Indian Community”. The end objective of this study, plan and the Tribe is to reduce the energy consumption at the Community’s most energy intensive buildings that will, in turn, reduce emissions at the source of energy production, reduce energy expenditures, create long lasting energy conscious practices and positively affect the quality of the natural environment. This project’s feasibility study and resulting plan is intended to act as a guide to the Community’s first step towards planned energy management within its buildings/facilities. It aims to reduce energy consumption by 30% or greater within the subject facilities with an emphasis on energy conservation and efficiency. The energy audits and related power consumption analyses conducted for this study revealed numerous significant energy conservation and efficiency opportunities for all of the subject sites/buildings. In addition, many of the energy conservation measures require no cost and serve to help balance other measures requiring capital investment. Reoccurring deficiencies relating to heating, cooling, thermostat setting inefficiencies, powering computers, lighting, items linked to weatherization and numerous other items were encountered that can be mitigated with the energy conservation measures developed and specified during the course of this project.

Kushman, Chris

2014-02-03

18

A methodological approach to sugar mill diversification and conversion / Enfoque metodológico de diversificación y reconversión de ingenios azucareros  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Colombia | Language: English Abstract in spanish La diversificación de la industria azucarera es compleja y se ve limitada por condiciones biofísicas y socioeconómicas. Muchos trabajos han demostrado su potencial como biorrefinería y la utilización sostenible de los subproductos como materia prima. Sin embargo, pocos estudios se ha focalizado a tr [...] avés de la integración de indicadores productivos de un ingenio azucarero y cómo este potencial podría lograr transformar un ingenio azucarero convencional en una eficiente planta diversificada que contribuya a reducir el consumo de energía fósil y alcanzar la competitividad. Este trabajo presenta un marco de análisis o metodología basada en el conocimiento existente sobre la industria azucarera o el estado del arte, con la finalidad de evaluar la diversificación mediante el proceso de jerarquías analíticas (AHP) como una herramienta adecuada para el análisis de sistemas complejos, la identificación de alternativas y su discusión de manera que facilite la toma de decisiones colectivas. El análisis AHP obtenido en este estudio ofrece una discusión acerca de las variables que explican la capacidad para diversificar los procesos en un ingenio azucarero (rendimiento de fábrica: 0.332, productos derivados del ingenio azucarero: 0.327 y calidad de materia prima o caña de azúcar: 0.121). Los resultados obtenidos sirven de guía en la formulación de estrategias para la utilización óptima de los recursos derivados de un ingenio azucarero, mientras que la maximización de sus beneficios, para diversificar o reconvertir ingenios azucareros en biorrefinerías. Abstract in english Sugar industry diversification is complex, being constrained by biophysical and socioeconomic conditions. Ongoing work has shown the sugarcane industry's potential as biorefinery or its sustainable use by offering products as raw material. However, few studies have studied how such potential could b [...] e achieved by promoting a conventional sugar mill through integrating its indicators for developing an efficient diversified processing plant which would contribute towards fossil energy saving and competitiveness. This paper presents a conceptual framework for analysis based on existing knowledge regarding sugar industry state-of-the-art for evaluating diversification, using analytical hierarchy process (AHP) as a tool for analysing complex systems, identifying alternatives to the current situation and discussing them to facilitate collective decision-making. Sugar mill AHP scores enabled discussion about the variables most affecting sugar mill diversification (0.332 factory yield, 0.327 sugar mill products and 0.121 sugarcane quality). The results serve as a useful guidance for formulating strategies for the optimum use of by-products in a sugar mill while maximising bene-fits to modify/convert a traditional sugar mill to a so-called bio-refinery.

N, Aguilar; G, Galindo; C, Contreras; J, Fortanelli.

19

Design of two bearings with sealing system for the top roll shaft of sugar cane mill  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Venezuela | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish Las chumaceras de bronce utilizadas actualmente en los molinos de caña de azúcar presentan elevado desgaste debido, entre otros factores, a la materia extraña que ingresa en ella cuando el eje superior se eleva (flota) por efecto del colchón de caña que pasa entre las mazas y al sobrecalentamiento c [...] ausado por fallas en los sistemas de lubricación y refrigeración. Con el objetivo de solucionar estos problemas dos diseños de chumaceras fueron realizados: uno con refrigeración en la caja y otro con refrigeración en la teja, ambos usando un sistema de sellado. Análisis por Elementos Finitos del comportamiento mecánico y térmico de los diseños garantiza un buen desempeño en operación. Abstract in english The bronze bearings currently used in sugar cane mills undergo an excessive wear due to both, the extraneous matter entering in the bearing gap when the shaft lift by effect of cane passing through the mill and heating caused by failures in both the lubrication and the refrigeration systems. In orde [...] r to solve this problems two bearing were designed: one cooled in the box and other cooled in the roofing tile, both using a sealing system. Finite Elements Analysis of the designs showed that they will have a good mechanical and thermal performance.

Walter, Mora Perdomo; John Sandro, Rivas Murillo; John Jairo, Coronado Marín.

20

Detection of Phytoplasma on Indian Fig (Opuntia ficus-indica Mill in Mexico Central Region  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Problem statement: The Indian fig (a species of prickly pear cactus, has been known as Nopal, comprises an approximate area of 100,000 ha, in plantations used for human consumption. ?Pyramids? Indian fig area located in the northeastern State of Mexico has been an important Indian-fig area in the country, with 15810 ha, where a phytoplasma has been consistently present in symptomatic plant. Approach: An unknown symptomatology in the Indian fig (prickly pear cactus (Opuntia ficus-indica Mill was analyzed through grafting and a nested-PCR reaction and graft on healthy plants grown in a greenhouse. Results: The symptoms found, deforming, buds proliferation, thickening and heart-shaping in cladodes, with arrested plant growth and deep yellowing of cladodes, were all attributed to the presence of a phytoplasma given the amplification of a 1200 pb fragment of the 16S rRNA gene using primers R16 F2/R2 and R16F2n/R2 and 80% of phytoplasma transmission efficiency of successful grafts. Conclusion: Although the symptoms observed did not completely match those described for this organism in the region, a 1200 pb fragment was amplified and PCR products restriction analysis leading us to assume that the phytoplasma corresponds to subgroup 16Srll, previously reported for other crops in others world regions.

Ricardo Gaspar

2009-01-01

 
 
 
 
21

Engenho sim, de açúcar não o engenho de farinha de Frans Post / Mills for manioc, not for sugar cane Frans Post's manioc mill  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese O capítulo toma um recém-lançado catálogo das obras completas de Frans Post para pensar o processamento da cana-de-açúcar e da mandioca no Brasil colonial. O pintor holandês do século XVII viveu no Brasil de 1637 a 1644, durante a ocupação holandesa e deixou uma rica coleção de óleos e desenhos, a m [...] aior parte deles representando paisagens do Nordeste, em particular engenhos de açúcar e grandes propriedades rurais. O texto se apóia em fontes escritas de época para demonstrar como as telas de Post podem nos levar a uma interessante análise sobre a produção e o consumo da farinha de mandioca e do açúcar na primeira metade do século XVII. Abstract in english The chapter takes a recently launched catalogue with the complete works by Frans Post to argue about the technology for processing sugar and manioc in colonial Brazil. The seventeenth century Dutch painter lived in Brazil from 1637 to 1644, during the Dutch occupation of Pernambuco, and left a rich [...] collection of paintings and sketches most of them representing the Northeastern landscape, in particular sugar mills and non-identified plantations. The paper relies also on contemporary written sources to demonstrate how Post canvas can leads us tointeresting analysis about the production and uses of manioc meal and sugar during the first half of seventeenth century.

Soares, Mariza de Carvalho.

22

Utilization of agricultural sugar cane wastes as fuel in modern cogeneration systems applied in sugar cane mills; Aprovechamiento de los residuos agricolas caneras como combustible en sistemas de cogeneracion modernos aplicados a ingenios  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Considering the new legal frame on cogeneration in Mexico, the possibility of heat and electricity supply required by the sugar mills to be made by an independent cogenerator of the sugar mill, operating with the sugar cane bagasse and agricultural sugar cane wastes, has been evaluated. Such modern cogenerator would be characterized, besides operating in an independent way of the sugar mill, by the use of high efficiency equipment in its process of heat and electricity generation. In this sense the Comision Nacional para el Ahorro de Energia (CONAE) through its Coordination Program and the Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas (IIE) carried out a joint project to determine the technical and economical viability that the sugar industry maintains the present sugar production without the need of burning fuel oil, installing adjacent to every sugar mill, a modern cogeneration system, operated by independent producers, that using sugar cane bagasse and agricultural sugar cane wastes, allows the supply of all the steam and electricity required by the sugar mill, and additionally can add firm capacity and the supply of electric power to the national grid, during the grinding season as well as out of grinding season. [Espanol] En consideracion al nuevo marco juridico de la cogeneracion en Mexico se ha evaluado la posibilidad de que el suministro de calor y electricidad requerido por los ingenios azucareros sea proporcionado por un cogenerador independiente de la planta de azucar, el cual opere utilizando el bagazo y residuos agricolas caneras (biomasa canera). Dicho cogenerador moderno se caracterizaria, ademas de operar de manera independiente a la planta de azucar, por el uso de equipos de alta eficiencia en su proceso de produccion de calor y electricidad. En este sentido la Comision Nacional para el Ahorro de Energia (CONAE) a traves de la Coordinacion de Programacion y el Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas (IIE) realizaron un trabajo en conjunto para determinar la viabilidad tecnica y economica de que la industria azucarera pueda mantener la produccion actual de azucar, sin tener necesidad de consumir combustoleo, instalando aledano a cada ingenio, un sistema de cogeneracion moderno, operado por productores independientes, que utilizando el bagazo y los residuos agricolas canera, permita suministrar todo el vapor y la electricidad requerida por la fabrica de azucar y, ademas, pueda suministrar capacidad firme y energia electrica a la red nacional, tanto en periodo de zafra como fuera de zafra.

Buendia Dominguez, Eduardo H. [Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas, Cuernavaca (Mexico); De Buen Rodriguez, Odon [Comision Nacional para el Ahorro de la Energia, Mexico, D. F. (Mexico)

1998-12-31

23

Feasibility Study for the Construction of Fertilizer and Soil Reconditioner Facilities at Kenya Sugar Mill Sites.  

Science.gov (United States)

The report recommends the planning and construction of a twenty five thousand ton per year Biofertilizer Production Facility to be sited in Kenya at, or adjacent to the Mumias Sugar Factory. It is further proposed that the percentage of production used fo...

1992-01-01

24

Blood sugar lowering potentiality of selected Cucurbitaceae plants of Indian origin.  

Science.gov (United States)

Using five experimental models, the blood sugar lowering efficacy of eight plants of Cucurbitaceae family has been assessed. The ethanolic extract of Cucumis sativus Linn, Cucumis melo utilissimum Roxb, Cucumis melo Linn, Benincasa hispida Thunb Cogn and Tricosanthes anguina Nees, when administered in 250 mg/kg dose, orally to rats failed to lower blood sugar or to depress the peak value, after glucose load. However, ethanolic extract of Momordica charantia Linn plant and Coccinia indica Whit and Arn root significantly lowered blood sugar in fasted model and depressed the peak value in glucose loaded model. Ethanolic extract of Tricosanthes dioica Roxb plant caused a significant lowering of blood sugar in fasted rats and depressed the peak value in glucose loaded single and longterm fed groups of rats. The ethanolic extract of the aerial part of T. dioica also induced significant depression in the peak values in the glucose loaded models. PMID:2620957

Chandrasekar, B; Mukherjee, B; Mukherjee, S K

1989-08-01

25

Detection of Phytoplasma on Indian Fig (Opuntia ficus-indica Mill) in Mexico Central Region  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Problem statement: The Indian fig (a species of prickly pear cactus), has been known as Nopal, comprises an approximate area of 100,000 ha, in plantations used for human consumption. ?Pyramids? Indian fig area located in the northeastern State of Mexico has been an important Indian-fig area in the country, with 15810 ha, where a phytoplasma has been consistently present in symptomatic plant. Approach: An unknown symptomatology in the Indian fig (prickly pear cactus) (<...

Ricardo Hernández-Pérez; Noa-carrazana, Juan C.; Ricardo Gaspar; Pedro Mata; Norma Flores-Estévez

2009-01-01

26

Survey of Indian issues in the state of New Mexico relating to uranium mining and milling  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Estimates of Indian uranium resources range from 11 to 50% of the US total resources. About 17% of New Mexico's reserves are known to be on Indian lands. New Mexico has produced almost half of the nation's uranium supply; over half of the known reserves are located within the state. However, the state has virtually no jurisdiction over development of Indian uranium. As a result, economic and environmental impacts on the state are beyond its control. The lack of state and federal control over these impacts is influencing how the Indians allow development to proceed. The impacts of Indian uranium development also influence state control of non-Indian. To the extent that these controls affect the availability of uranium concentrate, DOE needs to understand the issues involved. This issue paper identifies some of the related problems for both the Indians and the state and explores the reasons behind them

1979-01-01

27

The study of dimensioning and energy potential of the Rio de Janeiro State sugar and alcohol mills; Estudo de dimensionamento e potencial energetico das usinas de acucar e alcool do estado do Rio de Janeiro  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This paper verifies through mass and energy balances of the Rio de Janeiro State sugar mills and distilleries the regional energetic potential as well as and it also determines capacities and surfaces needed to the process equipment. Besides, it also approaches the influence of bagasse excess in relation to milling and distillation capacities and loss of time. 6 refs., 6 tabs.

Carvalho Goncalves, L.A. de; Vaillant, L.P.M. [Instituto do Acucar e do Alcool (IAA), Campos, RJ (Brazil)

1984-12-31

28

Consumer Acceptance and Preference Study [CAPS] on Brown and Under Milled Indian Rice Varieties in Chennai, India  

Science.gov (United States)

Objectives To study consumer acceptance of unmilled brown and under milled rice among urban south Indians. Methods Overweight and normal weight adults living in slum and non-slum residences in Chennai participated (n=82). Bapatla (BPT) and Uma (red pigmented) rice varieties were chosen. These rice varieties were dehusked (unmilled, 0% polish) and further milled to 2.3% and 4.4% polishing (under milled). Thus nine rice samples in both raw and parboiled forms were provided for consumer tasting over a period of three days. A hedonic 7-point scale was used to rate the consumer preferences. A validated questionnaire was used to collect demographic, anthropometric, medical history, physical activity, dietary intake data and willingness of the consumers to switch over to brown rice. Results Consumers reported that the color, appearance, texture, taste and overall quality of the 4.4% polished rice was strongly preferred in both varieties and forms. Ratings for 0% polished (brown rice) were substantially lower than those of 2.3% polished rice, which were intermediate in ratings between 0% and 4.4% polishing. However, most of the consumers (93%) expressed willingness to substitute brown or 2.3% polished rice if affordable after the taste tests and education on nutritional and health benefits of whole grains. Conclusion While most consumers’ preferred polished white rice, education regarding health benefits may help this population switch to brown or under milled rice. Cooking quality and appearance of the grains were perceived as the most important factors to consider when purchasing rice among Chennai urban adults.

Sudha, Vasudevan; Spiegelman, Donna; Hong, Biling; Malik, Vasanti; Jones, Clara; Wedick, Nicole M.; Hu, Frank B.; Willett, Walter; Bai, Mookambika Ramya; Ponnalagu, Muthu Mariyammal; Arumugam, Kokila; Mohan, Viswanathan

2013-01-01

29

Sugar Sugar  

Science.gov (United States)

This interactive Java applet is a game that challenges a student to solve problems by using logic and rudimentary engineering skills. The goal in each case is to create a conveyance that gets the required amount of sugar to pour into a mug or mugs. The game has 30 stages of increasing complexity.

Bonte, Bart

2012-01-01

30

Uranium exploration, mining and milling proposal, Navajo Indian Reservation, New Mexico  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The Secretary of the Interior has been requested to approve an exploration permit and mining lease which are part of a uranium exploration, mining, and milling Agreement, negotiated between the Navajo Tribe and the Exxon Corporation. The exploration area is a 400,000 acre tract located on the Navajo Reservation in San Juan County, New Mexico. If uranium ore in sufficient quantities to warrant development is discovered, Exxon is authorized to take a total of 51,200 acres to lease for mining, of which only 5,120 surface acres may be used for mining and milling purposes. While all exploration and predevelopment costs prior to mining must be borne by Exxon, the Navajo Tribe has reserved the right to participate in the venture on either a royalty basis or as a partner holding up to a 40 percent working interest. Impacts resulting from exploration will include disturbance of soils and vegetation and air quality degradation resulting from the vehicular movement and the operation of drilling equipment. If mining and milling takes place significant environmental impacts include: sub-surface water depletion, soils and vegetation disturbance, air quality degradation, interruption of the wildlife habitat, population increases, increased demands on community services and facilities, and disruption of established lifestyles and social patterns. Low levels of radioactive emissions will be found at mine and mill sites. Income and employment opportunities from the project to the Navajo Tribe, Navajo people, and the entire San Juan County community will be significant

1974-01-01

31

Lifting the veil: The face of TFP in an Indian rail mill  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

We use a proprietary data set on the floor-level operations at the Bhilai Rail and Structural Mill (RSM) in India to understand how output rose sharply in response to competitive pressures. Output increases came predominantly from reductions in production delays of various kinds. We model interruptions to the production process as a function of worker characteristics and training and find that a large part of the avoidable delay reductions are attributable to a particular form of training, su...

Das, Sanghamitra; Krishna, Kala M.; Lychagin, Sergey; Somanathan, Rohini

2011-01-01

32

Do engenho à biorrefinaria: a usina de açúcar como empreendimento industrial para a geração de produtos bioquímicos e biocombustíveis From the mill to a biorefinery: the sugar factory as an industrial enterprise for the generation of biochemicals and biofuels  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available A sugar cane mill is at the present moment a modest biorefinery producing few products such as sugar, ethanol and polyhydroxybutyrate (PHB. In the near future, this mill can expand its production using several renewable feedstock's to produce biofuels and high value biobased chemicals. However, the choice of appropriate products for addition to the portfolio is challenged by a lack of broad-based conversion technology coupled with a plethora of potential targets. The intent of this revision was to catalyze research efforts to expand the list of products and to present an updated evaluation of potential target structures for chemical production.

José Augusto R Rodrigues

2011-01-01

33

Electricity generation from rice husk in Indian rice mills: potential and financial viability  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Rice husk generated as a by-product of rice processing is an important energy resource. The availability of this resource in India has been assessed and the technologies for exploitation of its energy potential in the rice processing industry discussed. Nomographs have been developed for estimation of the husk required to meet the energy of parboiling, drying and milling operations. The unit cost of electricity using rice husk gasifier-based power generation systems has been calculated and its financial feasibility assessed in comparison with utility-supplied and diesel-generated electricity. With the cost and efficiency data assumed here, the unit cost of electricity produced by rice husk gasifier-dual fuel engine-generator system varies between Rs 2/kWh and Rs 7/kWh. (35 Rs approximates to SUS 1.). (author)

1998-01-01

34

Kano State Agro-Processing Project: Feasibility Study Report on Sugar Mini Mill, Vegetable Canning and Fresh Vegetable Operation.  

Science.gov (United States)

The Kano State Agriculture and Rural Development Authority (KNARDA) sought a feasibility study to evaluate the economic viability of a mini sugar refining plant installed in Kano in 2001-02. KNARDA also wanted to determine if the facility could be expande...

2004-01-01

35

Sugars profiles of different chestnut (Castanea sativa Mill.) and almond (Prunus dulcis) cultivars by HPLC-RI.  

Science.gov (United States)

Sugar profiles of different almond and chestnut cultivars were obtained by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC), by means of a refractive index (RI) detector. A solid-liquid extraction procedure was used in defatted and dried samples. The chromatographic separation was achieved using a Eurospher 100-5 NH(2) column using an isocratic elution with acetonitrile/water (70:30, v/v) at a flow rate of 1.0 ml/min. All the compounds were separated in 16 min. The method was optimized and proved to be reproducible and accurate. Generally, more than 95% of sugars were identified for both matrixes. Sugars profiles were quite homogeneous for almond cultivars; sucrose was the main sugar (11.46 +/- 0.14 in Marcona to 22.23 +/- 0.59 in Ferragnes g/100 g of dried weight), followed by raffinose (0.71 +/- 0.05 in Ferraduel to 2.11 +/- 0.29 in Duro Italiano), glucose (0.42 +/- 0.12 in Pegarinhos two seeded to 1.47 +/- 0.19 in Ferragnes) and fructose (0.11 +/- 0.02 in Pegarinhos two seeded to 0.59 +/- 0.05 in Gloriette). Commercial cultivars proved to have higher sucrose contents, except in the case of Marcona. Nevertheless, chestnut cultivars revealed a high heterogeneity. Sucrose was the main sugar in Aveleira (22.05 +/- 1.48), Judia (23.30 +/- 0.83) and Longal (9.56 +/- 0.91), while glucose was slightly prevalent in Boa Ventura (6.63 +/- 0.49). The observed variance could serve for inter-cultivar discrimination. PMID:20033298

Barreira, João C M; Pereira, José Alberto; Oliveira, M Beatriz P P; Ferreira, Isabel C F R

2010-03-01

36

La frescura de la caña de azúcar: Un caso de estudio en tres ingenios de México / Sugar cane cut-to-crush delay: a case study in three sugar mills of México  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Mexico | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish La frescura de la caña de azúcar es el tiempo transcurrido desde la quema o el corte del cultivo hasta que se recibe en los ingenios y es importante reducir este tiempo para evitar la pérdida de sacarosa. Por tanto, se realizó un estudio durante la zafra 2007-2008 en tres ingenios mexicanos: en Zaca [...] tepec, Morelos; en Casimiro Castillo, Jalisco; y en Ciudad Valles, San Luis Potosí. Se recopiló la información de la fecha y hora de entrada y salida de camiones, parcela de origen, identificación del camión, etc., lo cual se complementó con entrevistas a transportistas y conteos de camiones. Se elaboró un modelo matemático para analizar la influencia de varios factores que afectan la frescura. Se estableció que: 1) el tiempo de quema-corte-alzado de la caña es el componente más importante del tiempo de frescura (de 14.7 a 22.23 h, o 67 a 84 %); 2) el segundo componente más importante fue el tiempo de espera en batey (de 2.94 a 10.02 h, o 12 a 30 %); 3) el traslado tuvo la menor influencia (de 0.76 a 1.25 h, o 2.3 a 5.84 %); 4) en las parcelas con corte mecanizado y sin quema de la caña, el tiempo de frescura es aproximadamente la mitad que en las parcelas con corte manual; 5) el parque vehicular es excesivo, lo que se refleja en un muy reducido número de viajes que realiza cada unidad (0.8 a 1.63 viajes d-1), lo cual se traduce en un raquítico ingreso para los transportistas. Abstract in english Sugarcane cut-to-crush delay is the time lapse between cutting and reception in the sugar mills. It is important to reduce this time to avoid loss of sucrose. Therefore, this study was conducted during the 2007-2008 harvest in three Mexican sugar mills: Zacatepec, Morelos; Casimiro Castillo, Jalisco [...] ; and Ciudad Valles, San Luis Potosí. Information on the date and hour of truck entry and exit, origin of the sugar cane, truck identity, etc., was collected; this was complemented with interviews to truckers and truck counting. A mathematical model was developed to analyze the influence of several factors that affect cut-to-crush delay. It was established that: 1) the time between burning, cutting and pickup was the most important time component in cut-to-crush delay (14.7 to 22.23 h, or 67 to 84 %); 2) the second most important component was the waiting time at the mill (2.94 to 10.02 h, or 12 to 30 %); 3) transport to the mill had the least influence (0.76 to 1.25 h, or 2.3 to 5.84 %); 4) in the fields where cutting is mechanized and the cane leaves were not burned off, delay time was approximately half that in the fields where cutting was done manually; 5) the number of vehicles is excessive, that is, the number of trips made by each truck is very small (0.8 to 1.63 trips d-1), which translates into paltry incomes for the truckers.

Oscar L., Palacios-Vélez; Enrique, Mejía-Sáenz; Luis, Piñón-Sosa; Hugo, Sánchez-Hernández.

37

Energy and water saving measures at the Arloev sugar mill. Final report; Energi- och vattenbesparande aatgaerder vid Arloevs Sockerbruk. Slutrapport  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The project comprised several, mutually dependent, sub-projects; mapping, investigation of ways to reduce water consumption, membrane tests aiming to find ways to recover sugar, and pinch analysis to evaluate the possibilities for improved process integration. This final report deals with the overall project results. Identified savings opportunities and savings potentials are presented. The presented measures represent an overall optimisation based on the results of all the project parts. Already during the project, measures have been implemented that are calculated to save 65 000 m{sup 3} water annually, corresponding to 10 % of the total water consumption. This saving is in level with the goals for the project. In the table below, these and additional measures are presented with a total savings potential at approximately 200 000 m{sup 3} /year water. The project will then achieve a saving of just below 35 % of present water consumption. Also in the membrane study the results surpassed the expectations. It was found that with nano filtering a sugar concentration of more than 10 %(W) could be reached in the retentate at a flux 50al/m{sup 2}h. The total sugar losses were less than 5 %, i.e. 95 % should be possible to recover. In total, a savings potential of more than 300 tonnes sugar per year is indicated. The Energy savings in the project are calculated to 7,4 GWh/year, of which 0,2 GWh/year by reduced water consumption, 0,6 GWh/year by water recovery, 1,4 GWh/year by membrane technology and 5,2aGWh/year as a result of process integration. This should be compared to the target 2,5 GWh/year. Hence, the results are almost three times the expected. The savings in monetary terms are estimated at just under SEK 5 million per year. The investment is roughly estimated at between SEK 5 and 6 million, of which SEK 4 million for the membrane equipment and SEK 0,5 million for a process water buffer tank. The remaining investment costs cover heat exchangers, control equipment and piping. This means that the total package will have a payback time of approximately one year. The environmental benefits of this project are mainly a result of the reduced energy consumption. This leads to a 1 600 tonne reduction of carbon dioxide emissions annually from reduced natural gas firing. Furthermore, the results indicate possibilities for a profitable reduction of oxygen depleting substances by over 300 tonnes sugar annually. In addition, the reduction of water consumption by 200 000 cubic meters per year results in reduced electricity and chemicals consumption in both water and sewage treatment plants.

Wamsler, M. [AAF-Processdesign AB, Malmoe (Sweden)

2001-10-01

38

Do engenho à biorrefinaria: a usina de açúcar como empreendimento industrial para a geração de produtos bioquímicos e biocombustíveis / From the mill to a biorefinery: the sugar factory as an industrial enterprise for the generation of biochemicals and biofuels  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese [...] Abstract in english A sugar cane mill is at the present moment a modest biorefinery producing few products such as sugar, ethanol and polyhydroxybutyrate (PHB). In the near future, this mill can expand its production using several renewable feedstock's to produce biofuels and high value biobased chemicals. However, the [...] choice of appropriate products for addition to the portfolio is challenged by a lack of broad-based conversion technology coupled with a plethora of potential targets. The intent of this revision was to catalyze research efforts to expand the list of products and to present an updated evaluation of potential target structures for chemical production.

José Augusto R, Rodrigues.

39

Estrutura de um fragmento florestal no Engenho Humaitá, Catende, Pernambuco, Brasil Structure of a forest fragment at Humaitá sugar mill, Catende, PE, Brazil  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Avaliou-se, neste trabalho, a estrutura de um fragmento florestal antropizado denominado Mata das Galinhas, Engenho Humaitá, Catende, Pernambuco, e se utilizaram, para avaliar a composição florística e a estrutura fitossociológica, 14 parcelas de 10 x 25 m a fim de amostrar os indivíduos arbóreos com circunferência a 1,30 m do solo (CAP ? 10 cm. Foram estimados, então, densidade, frequência e dominância e valor de importância (VI e o índice de Shannon, além de registrados 438 indivíduos pertencentes a 63 espécies, 45 gêneros e 29 famílias. As famílias de maior importância foram Mimosaceae, Moraceae, Anacardiaceae e Lecythidaceae e as espécies com maiores valores de VI, foram Brosimum discolor, Parkia pendula, Eschweilera ovata, Thyrsodium spruceanum, Tapirira guianensis, Protium heptaphyllum, Casearia arborea, Helicostylis tomentosa, Dialium guianense, Schefflera morototoni, Himatanthus phagedaenicus e Cupania racemosa. Quando observado isoladamente, conclui-se que o fragmento estudado possui pouca relevância; entretanto, se considerado conjuntamente com outros fragmentos da área, sua diversidade é significativa o que justificaria esforços para sua conservação e manejo.The structure of a forest fragment, known as "Mata das Galinhas" at Humaitá sugar mill, Catende, Pernambuco, Brazil was evaluated. To evaluate the floristic composition and the phytosociological structure under anthropic action 14 plots of 10 x 25 m were used to sample the arboreal individuals with circumference at breast height (CBH ? 10 cm. The density, frequency, and dominance, the importance value (IV and the Shannon's index were calculated. A total of 438 individuals distributed into 63 species, 45 genera and 29 families were recorded. The families of larger importance in the study were Mimosaceae, Moraceae, Anacardiaceae and Lecythidaceae. The species with larger values of IV were Brosimum discolor, Parkia pendula, Eschweilera ovata, Thyrsodium spruceanum, Tapirira guianensis, Protium heptaphyllum, Casearia arborea, Helicostylis tomentosa, Dialium guianense, Schefflera morototoni, Himatanthus phagedaenicus and Cupania racemosa. When observed separately, the studied fragment possesses low relevance; however, when considered jointly with other fragments of the area, its diversity is significant, justifying efforts for conservation and management.

Francisco J. P. Guimarães

2009-12-01

40

Assessment of In vitro Multiple Shoot Bud Induction from Leaf Explants among Eleven Indian Cultivars of Pigeon Pea (Cajanus cajan L. Mill sp.  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In vitro multiple shoot bud induction from leaf explants of eleven Indian cultivars of pigeon pea (Cajanus cajan L. Mill sp. under the influence of variable concentration of three different cytokinins namely BAP, KIN and TDZ on MS media has been studied. Callus of variable morphology and nature was observed for most of the cultivars except four cultivars IPA-2013, Pusa-9, T-7 and IPA-98-3 showing multiple shoot bud induction. Among cytokinins used BAP was found to be most effective. Further elongation of multiple shoot buds was achieved in the same media while rooting of regenerated multiple shoots were attempted in MS media supplemented with variable concentration of three different auxins namely NAA, IAA and IBA. Efficient rooting was achieved in the presence of NAA. Regenerated plants were successfully established in soil with acclimatization frequency varying from 25-50% with cultivar IPA-2013 showing the best response.

Manoj Kumar Yadav

2011-01-01

 
 
 
 
41

Estrutura de um fragmento florestal no Engenho Humaitá, Catende, Pernambuco, Brasil / Structure of a forest fragment at Humaitá sugar mill, Catende, PE, Brazil  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese Avaliou-se, neste trabalho, a estrutura de um fragmento florestal antropizado denominado Mata das Galinhas, Engenho Humaitá, Catende, Pernambuco, e se utilizaram, para avaliar a composição florística e a estrutura fitossociológica, 14 parcelas de 10 x 25 m a fim de amostrar os indivíduos arbóreos co [...] m circunferência a 1,30 m do solo (CAP) ? 10 cm. Foram estimados, então, densidade, frequência e dominância e valor de importância (VI) e o índice de Shannon, além de registrados 438 indivíduos pertencentes a 63 espécies, 45 gêneros e 29 famílias. As famílias de maior importância foram Mimosaceae, Moraceae, Anacardiaceae e Lecythidaceae e as espécies com maiores valores de VI, foram Brosimum discolor, Parkia pendula, Eschweilera ovata, Thyrsodium spruceanum, Tapirira guianensis, Protium heptaphyllum, Casearia arborea, Helicostylis tomentosa, Dialium guianense, Schefflera morototoni, Himatanthus phagedaenicus e Cupania racemosa. Quando observado isoladamente, conclui-se que o fragmento estudado possui pouca relevância; entretanto, se considerado conjuntamente com outros fragmentos da área, sua diversidade é significativa o que justificaria esforços para sua conservação e manejo. Abstract in english The structure of a forest fragment, known as "Mata das Galinhas" at Humaitá sugar mill, Catende, Pernambuco, Brazil was evaluated. To evaluate the floristic composition and the phytosociological structure under anthropic action 14 plots of 10 x 25 m were used to sample the arboreal individuals with [...] circumference at breast height (CBH) ? 10 cm. The density, frequency, and dominance, the importance value (IV) and the Shannon's index were calculated. A total of 438 individuals distributed into 63 species, 45 genera and 29 families were recorded. The families of larger importance in the study were Mimosaceae, Moraceae, Anacardiaceae and Lecythidaceae. The species with larger values of IV were Brosimum discolor, Parkia pendula, Eschweilera ovata, Thyrsodium spruceanum, Tapirira guianensis, Protium heptaphyllum, Casearia arborea, Helicostylis tomentosa, Dialium guianense, Schefflera morototoni, Himatanthus phagedaenicus and Cupania racemosa. When observed separately, the studied fragment possesses low relevance; however, when considered jointly with other fragments of the area, its diversity is significant, justifying efforts for conservation and management.

Guimarães, Francisco J. P.; Ferreira, Rinaldo L. C.; Marangon, Luiz C.; Silva, José A. A. da; Aparício, Perseu da S.; Alves Júnior, Francisco T..

42

Produção de açúcar e álcool vs. responsabilidade social corporativa: as ações desenvolvidas pelas usinas de cana-de-açúcar frente às externalidades negativas / Sugar and ethanol production vs. corporative social responsibility: the actions taken by the sugar cane mills confronted with negative externalizations  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese A responsabilidade social corporativa (RSC) é analisada neste estudo no ambiente organizacional das usinas de cana-de-açúcar paulistas que integram o agronegócio brasileiro de açúcar e álcool. Trata-se de uma pesquisa qualitativa que utiliza dados quantitativos para fins descritivos. Apoiada em dado [...] s secundários e primários, aborda-se um estudo exploratório no contexto das usinas de cana-de-açúcar do Estado de São Paulo. O objetivo geral foi estabelecer uma análise comparativa entre as externalidades negativas e as ações sociais e verificar se estas últimas tinham um papel compensatório. Foi possível identificar a relação entre imagem e RSC no cenário organizacional das usinas, ressaltando as principais ações sociais desenvolvidas pelas empresas, as quais vêm contribuindo para a melhoria da imagem do setor sucroalcooleiro como agente participante do desenvolvimento sustentável. Constatou-se que o foco das ações sociais está concentrado nas áreas educacional e ambiental, ocupando um plano secundário as ações relacionadas à cultura, ao esporte e à saúde. Os resultados demonstraram que o número de projetos sociais não está necessariamente relacionado ao porte das empresas pesquisadas. Abstract in english Corporative Social Responsibility (CSR) is analyzed in this study in the organizational environment of sugar cane mills in the state of São Paulo and which form the Brazilian agribusiness of sugar and ethanol. Following a qualitative research, the quantitative data was used to define objectives usin [...] g the primary and secondary data approach; an exploratory study in the context of the sugar-ethanol mills. The goal was to establish a comparative analysis between the negative external aspects and the social actions to investigate whether the latter had a significant role. It was possible to identify the relation between image and CSR in the organizational scenario of sugar-ethanol mills highlighting the main social actions developed by the enterprises which have contributed to improving the image of the sugar-ethanol sector as an active agent in the sustainable development. It was verified that the focus of social actions are concentrated in areas related to environment and education. Those related to culture, sport, and health seemed to be not as important. The results show that the number of social actions is not, necessarily, related to the size of the companies researched.

Bragato, Ivelise Rasera; Siqueira, Elisabete Stradiotto; Graziano, Graziela Oste; Spers, Eduardo Eugênio.

43

Epidemiologia da Esquistossomose Mansônica no Engenho Bela Rosa, município de São Lourenço da Mata, Pernambuco, Brasil Epidemiology of Mansonic Schistosomiasis in Bela Rosa Sugar Mill, municipality of São Lourenço da Mata, Pernambuco, Brazil  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Bela Rosa, um pequeno engenho localizado no município de São Lourenço da Mata, estado de Pernambuco, representa uma típica unidade produtora de açúcar situada na grande região da mata úmida do nordeste do Brasil. Os 370 habitantes do engenho vivem em níveis social e econômico muito baixos. A região é conhecida pelos seus elevados níveis de prevalência da esquistossomose e foi submetida nestes últimos anos a diferentes tipos de programas de controle da infecção. Utilizando dados de 1967 a 1986 e mais aqueles obtidos por um estudo epidemiológico transversal feito em 1989, os autores descrevem a tendência evolutiva da endemicidade da esquistossomose na área.Bela Rosa, a small sugar mill located in the county of São Lourenço da Mata, state of Pernambuco, is a typical sugar production unit of the large sugar cane belt along the humid and hot coast of northeast Brazil. The Bela Rosa's 370 inhabitants are living under very low social and economic levels. Known by its high prevalence rates for the disease, the region has been subjected to different types of control programs recently. Using data from 1967 to 1986 plus those from an epidemiological cross-section survey carried out in 1989, the authors describe the evolutional tendency of schistosomiasis endemicity in the area.

Constança S. Barbosa

1992-03-01

44

Phenol Metabolism by White Rot Fungus Phanerochaete chrysosporium Isolated from Indian Paper Mill Effluent Enriched Soil Samples  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The white rot fungus Phanerochaete chrysosporium isolated from paper mill effluent enriched soil samples degrading various phenol (Mono, di hydroxy and methoxy compounds. During five days of incubation period, 74% of para-hydroxy benzoic acid was utilized by the isolated Phanerochaete chrysosporium when glucose used as a co-substrate. There was 57% degradation of protocatechuic acid using fructose. The fungus degraded vanillin in the presence of co-substrates and the response was more in glucose and fructose than starch. The presence of laccase (EC.1.10.3.2 and polyphenol oxidase (EC.1.10.3.0 extracellular activity suggested that the microorganism secrete these enzymes into the extracellular medium.

P.C. Prabu

2005-01-01

45

Um modelo de otimização para o planejamento agregado da produção em usinas de açúcar e álcool An optimization model for the aggregate production planning in alcohol and sugar mills  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Neste trabalho apresentamos um modelo de otimização para o planejamento agregado da produção de usinas de açúcar e álcool. Este modelo se baseia nos modelos clássicos de seleção de processos e dimensionamento de lotes para representar o sistema de produção de açúcar, álcool e melaço, incluindo decisões da etapa agrícola, das fases de corte, carregamento e transporte de cana e, principalmente, decisões de moagem, escolha do processo produtivo e estoque dos produtos finais. As decisões são tomadas em períodos semanais e o horizonte de planejamento são as semanas de safra. Para resolver o modelo de programação linear inteira mista resultante, utilizamos a linguagem de modelagem GAMS e o solver CPLEX. Um estudo de caso foi realizado em uma usina de açúcar e álcool do estado de Alagoas. Neste estudo foi possível verificar a adequação do modelo proposto quando aplicado para auxiliar nas decisões envolvidas no planejamento agregado da produção de empresas deste tipo. Resultados computacionais são apresentados resolvendo um exemplo com dados de uma safra típica.The main concern of this work is related to the presentation of an aggregate production planning model of a sugar and alcohol milling company. The mathematical model is based on the process selection model and the production lot-sizing model, and aims to help the decision makers in the production planning and control process of determining the quantity of sugarcane crushed, the selection of sugarcane suppliers, the selection of sugarcane transport system suppliers, the selection of industrial process used in the sugar, alcohol and molasses production and the storage decisions related to these final products. The decisions are taken on a weekly basis and the planning horizon is the whole sugarcane harvesting season. To solve the mixed integer mathematical problem found in this model, we applied the GAMS modeling language and the CPLEX solver. A case study was developed in a sugar and alcohol milling company located in Rio Largo, state of Alagoas, Brazil. The results of this case study helped us to verify the applicability of the proposed model in the aggregate production planning of a milling company. Computational results are presented in real data application.

Rafael Piatti Oititica de Paiva

2007-04-01

46

Um modelo de otimização para o planejamento agregado da produção em usinas de açúcar e álcool / An optimization model for the aggregate production planning in alcohol and sugar mills  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese Neste trabalho apresentamos um modelo de otimização para o planejamento agregado da produção de usinas de açúcar e álcool. Este modelo se baseia nos modelos clássicos de seleção de processos e dimensionamento de lotes para representar o sistema de produção de açúcar, álcool e melaço, incluindo decis [...] ões da etapa agrícola, das fases de corte, carregamento e transporte de cana e, principalmente, decisões de moagem, escolha do processo produtivo e estoque dos produtos finais. As decisões são tomadas em períodos semanais e o horizonte de planejamento são as semanas de safra. Para resolver o modelo de programação linear inteira mista resultante, utilizamos a linguagem de modelagem GAMS e o solver CPLEX. Um estudo de caso foi realizado em uma usina de açúcar e álcool do estado de Alagoas. Neste estudo foi possível verificar a adequação do modelo proposto quando aplicado para auxiliar nas decisões envolvidas no planejamento agregado da produção de empresas deste tipo. Resultados computacionais são apresentados resolvendo um exemplo com dados de uma safra típica. Abstract in english The main concern of this work is related to the presentation of an aggregate production planning model of a sugar and alcohol milling company. The mathematical model is based on the process selection model and the production lot-sizing model, and aims to help the decision makers in the production pl [...] anning and control process of determining the quantity of sugarcane crushed, the selection of sugarcane suppliers, the selection of sugarcane transport system suppliers, the selection of industrial process used in the sugar, alcohol and molasses production and the storage decisions related to these final products. The decisions are taken on a weekly basis and the planning horizon is the whole sugarcane harvesting season. To solve the mixed integer mathematical problem found in this model, we applied the GAMS modeling language and the CPLEX solver. A case study was developed in a sugar and alcohol milling company located in Rio Largo, state of Alagoas, Brazil. The results of this case study helped us to verify the applicability of the proposed model in the aggregate production planning of a milling company. Computational results are presented in real data application.

Rafael Piatti Oititica de, Paiva; Reinaldo, Morabito.

47

Performance Of Sugar Industries In India  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available :India is on the first rank in sugar production with 20.2 Million tones followed by EU, Brazil, USA, China, Thailand, Mexico, Australia, Cuba and South Africa. Out of the 453 sugar mills in the country, 269 are in the cooperative sector, 184 in the private sector and 67 in the public sector. Besides, 136 units in the private sector are in various stages of implementation. In India sugar production follows a 5-7 year cycle. Sugar production increases over a 3-4 year period, reaches a high, which in turn, results in lower sugar prices. As a result of lower sugar price, realizations of sugar mills, the sugarcane arrears increase. The increase in sugarcane arrears results in lower sugarcane production, resulting in lower production for the next 2-3 years. Because of lower sugar production, the prices shoot up resulting in increased area under sugarcane cultivation during the next season.

Vrushali Balbhimrao Kute

2013-08-01

48

Sugar Backgrounder.  

Science.gov (United States)

The sugar title in the 2007 Farm Bill will determine how U.S. sugar policy is to be conducted. Currently, the U.S. sugar program uses domestic marketing allotments, price supports, and tariff-rate quotas to influence the amount of sugar available to the U...

M. Ali S. Haley

2007-01-01

49

Efeito da esquistossomose na produtividade do cortador de cana ao longo da safra de açúcar da usina catende, Pernambuco / Effect of schistosomiasis on the productivity of sugar cane cutters during the sugar harvest of the Catende mill, Pernambuco  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese Estudo prospectivo de pareamento entre dois grupos de trabalhadores do corte de cana infectados com esquistossomose na zona da mata do Estado de Pernambuco, foi realizado durante a safra de 1977-1978. O grupo de "casos" (forma hepatosplénica) foi comparado com o grupo "controle" (forma intestinal). [...] Os resultados mostraram não apenas que os portadores da forma hepatosplénica cortavam significativamente menos cana que seus controles, como também que a produção daqueles mantinha-se baixa ao longo da safra. Dois trabalhadores, dentre os "casos", tiveram que abandonar o trabalho de campo em vista da visível deterioração de seu estado geral de saúde. Abstract in english A prospective study of the effect of schistosomiasis on the productivity of canecutters was carried out in northeastern Brazil during the harvest season 1977-1978. This study revealed that field workers bearing the hepatosplenic form of the disease produce significantly less in terms of cane tons cu [...] t than their pairs (intestinal form, used as controls). Futhermore, the productivity is gradually reduced the period of the sugar-cane cut season. Two workers (cases) with the hepatosplenic form had to leave field work during the experiment due to visible deterioration of their general health.

Dirceu P. Pereira da, Costa; Frederico Simões, Barbosa.

50

The cogeneration potential of the sugar industry in Vietnam  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Vietnam produces about 15 million tons of sugarcane per year and about five mt of bagasse. There is the potential for cogeneration using bagasse, which can also help overcome power shortages in the country. This paper analyses the potential for cogeneration from the sugar industry in Vietnam under three different scenarios and finds that between 100 and 300 megawatts of power-generating capacity could be supported by the bagasse generated from sugar mills, depending on the technology considered for sugar mills and cogeneration and the possibility of renovation of the existing mills. The paper also assesses the expense of cogeneration and finds it to be a cost-effective option for all types of sugar mill. It is found that the cost savings from cogeneration would more than offset the cost of introducing cogeneration in sugar mills with inefficient cane processing technologies. Sugar mills with modern technologies would have a significant amount of excess power and most of these plants would break-even if they sold excess power at around 4.5 cents per kilowatt hour. The break-even cost and the average production cost are sensitive to the investment cost assumptions. The paper thus suggests that cogeneration from the sugar industry is an attractive option for investors in existing mills or new sugar mills alike. (Author)

Bhattacharyya, S.C. [Dundee Univ., Centre for Energy, Petroleum and Mineral Law and Policy, Dundee (United Kingdom); Thang, D.N.Q. [Asian Inst. of Technology, Hanoi (Viet Nam)

2004-03-01

51

Diseño de los acoplamientos cuadrados de hierro fundido para molinos de caña mediante el método de los elementos finitos / Design of cast iron square box couplings for sugar cane mills by the method of finite elements  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Colombia | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish Se realiza el estudio de las tensiones internas que se generan en los acoplamientos cuadrados de hierro fundido para molinos de caña. Además, se obtienen las expresiones matemáticas para calcular las tensiones equivalentes, teniendo en cuenta la influencia de parámetros como: diámetro exterior del a [...] coplamiento, dimensiones del agujero cuadrado, velocidad de rotación y potencia. Para la obtención de estas expresiones se empleó el método de elementos finitos (MEF). El análisis MEF se hizo a partir del cálculo estático lineal, utilizando para el programa de computación COSMOS/M, versión 2.6. Finalmente, se realizó una estandarización de los acoplamientos con el fin de reducir la variedad de éstos. Abstract in english The internal stresses generated in the square box couplings of cast iron for sugar cane mills are studied. Also, mathematical expressions are obtained to calculate the equivalent stresses, and the influence of parameters such as: external diameter of the square box coupling, dimensions of the square [...] hole, speed of rotation and power. For obtaining these expressions the Finite Elements Method was used (MEF), with the software COSMOS/M version 2.6. Finally, a standardization of the square box couplings was done with the purpose of reducing their variety.

Campos Pérez, Yamill; Franco Rodríguez, Rosendo.

52

Mill’s Perfectionism  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available J. S. Mill lays great emphasis on the importance of the notion of theindividual as a progressive being. The idea that we need to conceive the self as an object of cultivation and perfection runs through Mill’s writings on various topics, and has played a certain role in recent interpretations. In this paper I propose a specific interpretation of Mill’s understanding of the self, along the lines of what Stanley Cavell identifies as a “perfectionist” concern for the self. Various texts by Mill, ranging from the Logic to On Liberty, show an understanding of the self in which both the theoretical and the practical domain are presented as being internally connected to the transformation of the self. Mill elaborates a criticism of a notion of truth articulated by doctrines having a life independent of the self, as well as a notion of choice which is not the expression of one’s inner self. This internal relation of truth and choice to the self generates a special dialectic within the self, which Mill explores in On Liberty’s second and third chapters by means of several contrasts, such as passive vs. active knowledge, living vs. dead beliefs, or being oneself vs. liking and choosing in crowds.

PIERGIORGIO DONATELLI

2006-12-01

53

Influencia de la preparación de caña de azúcar a moler en la producción de azúcar en el Complejo Agroindustrial Azucarero “Manuel Fajardo” / Influence of the sugar cane preparation to milling in the sugar production on the Sugar Agroindustrial Complex “Manuel Fajardo”  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Cuba | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish La presente investigación se realizó en el Complejo Agroindustrial (CAI) Azucarero “Manuel Fajardo”, Provincia Mayabeque. En este se investigó el proceso tecnológico de preparación de la caña de azúcar a moler con el objetivo de evaluar su eficiencia y detectar los principales problemas en dicho pro [...] ceso. Como resultado se obtuvo que el valor del Índice de Preparación (IP) no fue superior al 72,8%, estando por debajo de los normados en Cuba y el mundo, el valor del Rendimiento Potencial Cañero promedio (RPC) fue de 13,22, considerándose un valor positivo lo que demuestra que la producción de azúcar no solo depende de la variedad y calidad de la caña, sino del uso, mantenimiento y reparaciones que se le brinde a la tecnología empleada para la preparación de la caña a moler y se determinó que por concepto de materia extraña el total de azúcar pérdida fue 743,61 t, lo cual representa una pérdida económica de $446 166.00 USD. Abstract in english The present research was carried out on the Sugar Agroindustrial Complex “Manuel Fajardo”, Mayabeque Province. In this work was researched the technological process of sugar cane preparation having as objective to evaluate his efficiency and find the principals problems in this process. As results w [...] as obtained that the Preparation Index value (IP) was not superior to 72,8%, is below to the national and international standards, the Cane Potencial Yield mean (RPC) was 13,22, it is a positive value showing that the sugar production don’t depend of the variety and quality of sugar cane, also is important consider the use, maintenance and reparation in the technology use to the sugar cane preparation and was determined that for strange material the total sugar losses was 743,61 t, showing an economical losses of $446 166.00 USD.

Yanoy, Morejón Mesa; Jorge, Revé Moracén.

54

Sintomas vocais e sensações laríngeas em trabalhadores de uma usina de álcool e açúcar expostos a riscos ocupacionais / Vocal symptoms and laryngeal sensations in workers of an ethanol and sugar mill exposed to occupational risks  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese OBJETIVO: Investigar os sintomas vocais e sensações laríngeas dos trabalhadores de uma usina de álcool e açúcar expostos a ruído e/ou substâncias químicas. MÉTODOS: Participaram 289 trabalhadores de uma usina de álcool e açúcar distribuídos em cinco grupos expostos (I- ruído; II- ruído, óleo, graxa, [...] derivação de petróleo; III- ruído, ácidos, sulfatos, cloretos, nitratos; IV- ruído, poeiras respiráveis e sílica livre cristalizada; V- óleo, graxa, derivação de petróleo) e um grupo controle que responderam o questionário Condições de Produção Vocal - Professor adaptado à categoria profissional. Os grupos foram comparados em relação aos sintomas vocais, sensações laríngeas, tabagismo e riscos físicos e químicos. Esta comparação foi realizada por meio de análise estatística. RESULTADOS: O sintoma vocal e a sensação laríngea mais relatados pelos trabalhadores foram voz grave e tosse com catarro, respectivamente. Considerando o risco físico no ambiente de trabalho, os grupos I e IV foram os que mais citaram presença de ruído. Devido à sua exposição, os mesmos aumentavam a intensidade da voz (Efeito de Lombard-Tarneaud) e, assim, mencionaram sintomas vocais. Em relação aos riscos químicos no ambiente ocupacional, o grupo IV foi o que mais referiu presença de poeira e fumaça, e estas eram compostas por poeiras respiráveis e sílica. Tais exposições ocasionam sintomas vocais e sensações laríngeas e, consequentemente, alterações vocais. CONCLUSÃO: Sintomas vocais e sensações laríngeas podem estar relacionados a atividade profissional em que haja exposição a riscos físicos e/ou químicos. Abstract in english PURPOSE: To investigate vocal symptoms and laryngeal sensations among workers of an ethanol and sugar mill exposed to noise and/or chemical substances. METHODS: Participants were 289 workers of an ethanol and sugar mill distributed into five exposure groups (I - noise; II - noise, oil, grease, petro [...] leum derivatives; III - noise, acids, sulfates, chlorides, nitrates; IV - noise, breathable dust and free crystalline silica; V - oil, grease, petroleum derivatives) and a control group, who answered the questionnaire Conditions of Vocal Production - Teacher adapted to the professional category. The groups were compared regarding vocal symptoms, laryngeal sensations, smoking habits, and exposure to physical and chemical risks. This comparison was conducted using statistical analyses. RESULTS: The most reported vocal symptom and laryngeal sensation were low-pitched voice and cough with phlegm, respectively. Considering the physical risk in the work environment, groups I and IV were the ones that most reported exposure to noise. Because of this exposure, they increase voice intensity (Effect of Lombard-Tarneaud) and, thus, also reported vocal symptoms. Regarding chemical risks in the occupational environment, group IV was the one that most referred presence of dust and smoke, which were composed by breathable dust and silica. Such exposures lead to vocal symptoms and laryngeal sensations and, consequently, to vocal alterations. CONCLUSION: Vocal symptoms and laryngeal sensations can be related to professional activities where workers are exposed to physical and/or chemical risks.

Sylvia Boechat, Coutinho; Ana Claudia, Fiorini; Iára Bittante de, Oliveira; Maria do Rosário Dias de Oliveira, Latorre; Léslie Piccolotto, Ferreira.

55

Cogeneration from sugar cane bagasse; Cogeracao a partir do bagaco de cana  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

By improving the efficiency of the whole energy cycle in sugar cane mills and alcohol distilleries, and by utilizing the own process refuse, the sugar cane bagasse, electric energy surpluses can be generated by cogenerated systems. 17 figs.

Sayeg Junior, D. [Zanini S.A. Equipamentos Pesados (Brazil); Jose Neto, A. [AKZ Turbinas S.A. (Brazil)

1987-12-31

56

Sugar Policy and the 2007 Farm Bill. CRS Report for Congress (Updated January 24, 2008).  

Science.gov (United States)

The current sugar program is designed to guarantee the minimum price received by growers of sugarcane and sugar beets, and by the firms (raw sugar mills and beet refiners) that process these crops into sugar. To accomplish this, the USDA limits the amount...

R. Jurenas

2008-01-01

57

Sugar test  

Science.gov (United States)

Metabolism is the conversion or breakdown of a substance from one form to another by a living organism for energy. Yeast is an indicator of how much sugar is in food. Yeast releases carbon dioxide and is a direct indicator of the rate of metabolism. An indicator is an object, material, or organism that tells you if a specific substance is present. Cereals contain sugars, which are carbohydrates. Carbohydrates are chemicals that provide energy.

Olivia Worland (Purdue University;Biological Sciences)

2008-06-06

58

Phenol Metabolism by White Rot Fungus Phanerochaete chrysosporium Isolated from Indian Paper Mill Effluent Enriched Soil Samples  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The white rot fungus Phanerochaete chrysosporium isolated from paper mill effluent enriched soil samples degrading various phenol (Mono, di hydroxy and methoxy) compounds. During five days of incubation period, 74% of para-hydroxy benzoic acid was utilized by the isolated Phanerochaete chrysosporium when glucose used as a co-substrate. There was 57% degradation of protocatechuic acid using fructose. The fungus degraded vanillin in the presence of co-substrates and the response ...

Prabu, P. C.; Udayasoorian, C.

2005-01-01

59

Passa-se uma engenhoca: ou como se faziam transações com terras, engenhos e crédito em mercados locais e imperfeitos (freguesia de Campo Grande, Rio de Janeiro, séculos XVIII e XIX 'Engenhocas' to sell!: or lands, sugar mills and credit’s trade in local and imperfect markets (Campo Grande civil parish, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, XVIII-XIX centuries  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available A questão central deste artigo é perceber como as hierarquias sociais e as políticas específicas do Antigo Regime nos Trópicos se refletiram em estratégias concretas, e compreender as engrenagens locais de um mercado imperfeito. Analisaremos as escolhas e trajetórias de agentes envolvidos em transações com terras, engenhos e concessão de crédito na freguesia de Campo Grande, no correr do século XVIII até o início do XIX, cuja especificidade foi conseguirem reproduzir sua condição senhorial. Metodologicamente, partimos da microanálise e compusemos redes sociais locais que sustentaram as estratégias dos agentes em questão. Propomos que as rendas criadas a partir das vendas a prazo, os vínculos pessoais entre compradores-credores-vendedores-devedores nas vendas dos engenhos e a sobreposição de vínculos de dependência locais foram fatores que possibilitaram a acumulação econômica e a reprodução ampliada da condição senhorial.Using the concept of ‘Ancien Régime on the Tropics’, this article aims to investigate how social hierarchies and politics in Brazil, during the 18th century, reflected into concrete local strategies. Our objective is to understand the gadgets of an imperfect market, based on agents’ choices who were all involved in lands, sugar mills and credit commercial transactions in the Campo Grande civil parish, in the Rio de Janeiro. All agents had gotten to reproduce its extended senhorial condition. Our methodology is based on microanalysis, so we composed local social nets we guest had supported the agents’ strategies in question. We consider strategies to achieve long term incomes; bonds between purchaser, creditor, salesman and debtors (both involving sugar mills commercial transactions; the overlapping of dependence bonds by strategic exchanges created by sugar mill masters among consanguineous, matrimonial and fictitious relatives had been factors that made possible the economic accumulation and the extended reproduction of the master condition.

Manoela Pedroza

2010-06-01

60

Managing your blood sugar  

Science.gov (United States)

Hyperglycemia - control; Hypoglycemia - control; Diabetes - blood sugar control ... Know how to: Recognize and treat low blood sugar (hypoglycemia) Recognize and treat high blood sugar (hyperglycemia) ...

 
 
 
 
61

Mill machines  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The paper looks at the application of hammer mills for lignite fragmentation. The Aubema hammer mill is being tested at a pilot drying plant in Germany. It has a rotor diameter of 2m and rotor width of 2.5 m. A second will can be connected in series to reduce grain size down to below 1 mm. 2 photos.

Goetz, B. [Aubema Maschinenfabrik GmbH (Germany)

2003-08-01

62

Heavy metals in sugar  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

130 samples of different sugars were analysed for their cadmium and lead contents. All analysed sugars and sugar products were slightly contaminated with lead and cadmium. Products as Kraut (kind of syrup) and molasses with an increased content of nonsugar components showed, compared with refined sugar in crystalls, higher lead contents.

Becker, K.F.; Weigert, P.; Klein, H.

1989-03-01

63

Supply optimization for the production of raw sugar  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Based on a case study from Venezuela, the production of raw sugar is investigated. Ideally, sugar mills operate at a constant production rate. However, safety stocks of the raw material cannot be maintained as sugar cane quality deteriorates very rapidly. Sugar cane is therefore continuously sourced in diverse quantities and qualities from hundreds of geographically dispersed haciendas and supplied to the milling process. Furthermore, due to weather conditions changing throughout the year, tight time windows must be observed for harvesting. The approach presented in this paper aims at preserving a constant supply while minimizing the associated costs. The entire planning problem is structured in a hierarchical fashion: (1) cultivation of the haciendas, (2) harvesting, and (3) dispatching of the harvesting crews and equipment. The corresponding optimization models and solution procedures are introduced and applied to the case study problem.

Grunow, Martin

2007-01-01

64

Steam consumption minimization model in a multiple evaporation effect in a sugar plant  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In this work, a mathematical model to minimize the steam consumption in a multiple effect evaporation system is shown. The model is based in the dynamic programming technique and the results are tested in a Colombian sugar mill

1992-04-01

65

Hyperactivity and sugar  

Science.gov (United States)

... more likely to be hyperactive if they eat sugar, artificial sweeteners, or certain food colorings. Other experts ... Some people claim that eating sugar (such as sucrose), aspartame (NutraSweet), ... and other behavior problems in children. They argue ...

66

Home blood sugar testing  

Science.gov (United States)

Check your blood sugar level as often as instructed by your health care provider. Write down the results. This will tell you how ... everyone with diabetes needs to check their blood sugar every day. And some people need to check ...

67

High blood sugar  

Science.gov (United States)

High blood sugar occurs when your body makes too little insulin or when your body is not able to use insulin ... a hormone that helps the body use glucose (sugar) for energy. Insulin is made by the pancreas. ...

68

Sugar and Salt Solutions  

Science.gov (United States)

What happens when sugar and salt are added to water? Pour in sugar, shake in salt, and evaporate water to see the effects on concentration and conductivity. Zoom in to see how different sugar and salt compounds dissolve. Zoom in again to explore the role of water.

Simulations, Phet I.; Lancaster, Kelly; Reid, Sam; Moore, Emily; Chamberlain, Julia; Loeblein, Trish

2011-10-12

69

Sugar exported: sugar packed in containers  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This paper presents a study in the port sector specialized in handling of bagged sugar. Sugar has always been exported in bags of 50 kg, placed directly in the holds of ships for general cargo. It appears that this form of transport has become obsolete now, the market for the direct form of transport of sugar packed in containers. Companies involved in this type of port handling need understand the reasons that are influencing this new mode of transportation as a way to fit and remain active and competitive in the industry.

José Alberto Yemal

2010-04-01

70

Sugar - a harmless indulgence?  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

The consumption of sugar is relatively high in Denmark - and other industrial countries - and many persons have a consumption which exceeds the recommended level of maximally 10% of energy intake. A high sugar consumption may reduce the nutrient density of the diet and increase the risk of vitamin and mineral deficiency, especially in low energy consumers. The sugar intake and the fat intake, expressed as percentage of energy, usually show an inverse association. This has lead to the statement that a diet with both a low sugar content and a low fat content is incompatible, but we will argue that this is not the fact. The significance of sugar for the development of obesity is not clarified. A high fat content in the diet seems to promote the development of obesity, while a high carbohydrate content tends to reduce obesity. It is not known if sugar in this connection is comparable to the other carbohydrates in the diet, primarily because of the high energy density of sugar. Diabetes mellitus and heart diseasesdo not seem to have any direct connection with a high sugar consumption. Sugar continues to be a risk factor for the development of caries. Further, it cannot be excluded that high sugar consumption is a risk factor for cancer in the gastrointestinal tract or for Crohn's disease. It seems reasonable to keep the current recommendations about sugar intake.

Rasmussen, Lone Banke; Andersen, Niels Lyhne

1998-01-01

71

Effect of processing variables on quality of milk burfi prepared with and without sugar  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Milk burfi is an Indian traditional confectionery prepared using concentrated milk and sugar. The texture and quality of burfi vary depending on processing conditions and storage period. The effect of processing variable namely total soluble solids (TSS) at the end of cooking and duration of storage on the texture and sensory quality of burfi prepared with and without sugar was studied by applying response surface methodology. Sorbitol with and without added aspartame was used as sugar altern...

Chetana, R.; Ravi, R.; Yella Reddy, S.

2010-01-01

72

Valoración económica sobre la aplicabilidad de inspección ultrasónica a los árboles de los molinos de caña de azúcar para la industria azucarera cubana / Economic feasibility study regarding the applicability of ultrasonic inspection of the Cuban sugar industry’s sugarcane mill shafts  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Colombia | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish Se presenta un análisis económico que evalúa la factibilidad de emplear inspección ultrasónica para los árboles de los molinos de caña de azúcar. Se emplean cuatro variantes de sustitución de los árboles de los molinos que recrean los escenarios más frecuentes. Se incluye la alternativa de utilizar [...] inspección ultrasónica, con periodos de tiempo entre inspecciones fijados según un modelo de propagación de grietas de fatiga. En la valoración económica se utiliza el criterio del costo del ciclo de vida; teniendo en cuenta los costos de operación, mantenimiento y energía que influyen sobre los árboles de los molinos de caña de azúcar. Se llega a la conclusión de que es bastante recomendable emplear inspección ultrasónica con un nivel alto en las especificaciones del procedimiento. Con la introducción de la inspección ultrasónica, según los tiempos obtenidos por el modelo de mecánica de la fractura, es posible lograr un ahorro de medio millón de dólares por año para las condiciones existentes en la industria azucarera cubana. Abstract in english This article evaluates the economic feasibility of carrying out ultrasonic inspection of sugar-mill shafts. Four alternatives are considered, including the most frequently encountered scenarios. How and when inspections are carried out is analysed, periods between inspections being established by a [...] fatigue-crack growth propagation approach. The lifecycle cost approach was applied for economic evaluation. Operation, maintenance and energy consumption costs were thus taken into consideration. The conclusion was drawn that it is highly advisable to use high performance ultrasonic inspection. Introducing ultrasonic inspection (according to the period of time obtained by fracture mechanics model) could lead to a saving of half a million dollars per year for the Cuban sugarcane industry in the current conditions.

Nelson, Arzola de la Peña.

73

Sugar and Sugar Beet Policy Reforms in Turkey  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The translog cost function is applied to analyze input demand in Turkey sugar beet production from 1975 to 2003. Sugar and sugar beet production became an important issue after the sugar act changed in 2001. Although the political aspects of sugar beet production have been studied extensively, few studies are available on the quantitative aspects of sugar beet production in Turkey. The main goal of the study was to estimate input substitution and the elasticity of demand for the factors of su...

Yasar Akcay; Meral Uzunoz

2006-01-01

74

Indian Summer  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This paper focuses on preserving and strengthening two resources culturally and socially important to the Shoshone-Bannock Indian Tribe on the Fort Hall Reservation in Idaho; their young people and the Pacific-Northwest Salmon. After learning that salmon were not returning in significant numbers to ancestral fishing waters at headwater spawning sites, tribal youth wanted to know why. As a result, the Indian Summer project was conceived to give Shoshone-Bannock High School students the opportunity to develop hands-on, workable solutions to improve future Indian fishing and help make the river healthy again. The project goals were to increase the number of fry introduced into the streams, teach the Shoshone-Bannock students how to use scientific methodologies, and get students, parents, community members, and Indian and non-Indian mentors excited about learning. The students chose an egg incubation experiment to help increase self-sustaining, natural production of steelhead trout, and formulated and carried out a three step plan to increase the hatch-rate of steelhead trout in Idaho waters. With the help of local companies, governmental agencies, scientists, and mentors students have been able to meet their project goals, and at the same time, have learned how to use scientific methods to solve real life problems, how to return what they have used to the water and land, and how to have fun and enjoy life while learning.

Galindo, E. [Sho-Ban High School, Fort Hall, ID (United States)

1997-08-01

75

Sugar and Sugar Beet Policy Reforms in Turkey  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The translog cost function is applied to analyze input demand in Turkey sugar beet production from 1975 to 2003. Sugar and sugar beet production became an important issue after the sugar act changed in 2001. Although the political aspects of sugar beet production have been studied extensively, few studies are available on the quantitative aspects of sugar beet production in Turkey. The main goal of the study was to estimate input substitution and the elasticity of demand for the factors of sugar beet production. The computed factor demand elasticities show that the demand for the four factor inputs (labor, land, energy and fertilizer considered in the analysis is inelastic with respect to changes in factor prices. Sugar beet production has a feature of traditional labor-intensive farming in Turkey. Current sugar and sugar beet policy may induce the farmers to adopt more efficient production and management techniques, enabling them to remain viable in a liberalized market setting.

Yasar Akcay

2006-01-01

76

Blood Sugar and Fats  

Science.gov (United States)

... of the HIV protease inhibitors. Low blood sugar (hypoglycemia) can cause fatigue, but there are other more ... is a project of the New Mexico AIDS Education and Training Center at the University of New ...

77

Magna Carta for Community: Bay Mills Charters Schools throughout Michigan  

Science.gov (United States)

For most of a full career in sociology and education, Aaron Tadgerson has dwelt on the relationship between communities and the school systems that purport to serve them. The special problems of Indian education derive from that relationship. Tadgerson serves as the recruiter, retention, and land grant development coordinator for Bay Mills

Reynolds, Jerry

2009-01-01

78

Plant sugar signaling  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

In plants, sugars are not merely a carbohydrate metabolite or a photoassimilate of photosynthesis. They also play an important role in the intricate machinery of signal transduction. Sugar signaling is part of an ancient system for cellular adjustment to shifting environments and has been found to be crucial in responses to various stimuli, most importantly to the carbohydrate status of the plant. Gene responses to a changing carbohydrate status can vary greatly between plants and plant tissu...

2007-01-01

79

Maufacture of raw cane sugar  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Procedures used at the Pepeekeo Sugar Factory in Hawaii for producing commercial sugar, molasses and bagasse from harvested sugar cane are described. The molasses is marketed, the sugar is refined elsewhere, and the bagasse is burned to produce steam and electric power for the Pepeekeo plant. (LCL)

1980-01-01

80

Environmental adequation of a sugar and alcohol mill in Brazil  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A cleaner production assessment aims at the identification, evaluation and implementation of CP opportunities in a company. A systematic working method, which facilitates the execution of a CP assessment, generally consists of three separate, interrelated options: method; procedure; and guidance and supervision. In addition to introducing these elements and their applications in the food processing industry, this article presents plant-level assessment results to illustrate the possible benefits of CO in various food processing sectors. (author)

Barreto, G. de F.; Mello, H.E.S. de; Garzon, Bruno

1995-01-01

 
 
 
 
81

Indian Jute in Australian Collections: Forgetting and Recollecting Transnational Networks  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Indian jute sacking played an essential role in Australian life for over 150 years, yet its contribution to Australian development and its Indian origins have been barely recognised in Australian public collections. What has Australian history gained by this erasing of jute from public memory? Wool, sugar and hop sacks are displayed in public collections as evidence of an Australian national story, but their national dimension depends on the cultural invisibility of jute and jute’s connecti...

Andrew Hassam

2011-01-01

82

Study of flow through a bowl mill model  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Bowl Mills are used in Thermal Power plants for pulverizing the raw coal, while drying, to the required fineness and achieve the desired combustion efficiency in the boiler. The Indian coals contain high ash content (some times as high as 60%) and as such the primary air has to handle media of different density namely the coal and the quartz. In this context, the distribution of air in the mill plays a significant role in the lifting of particles from the mill. The wear on the rotating components is increased through repetitive grinding because of improper distribution of air within the mill. Reduction of wear and enhancement of life of mill internals including the rotating components is a continuing goal and few more studies have been carried out in this direction. One such study is the replacement of rotating vane wheel and deflector in the separator body with an air guide ring and air diversion plate. Model studies have been carried out by traversing a five hole prove at different locations within the mill to study the distribution of flow as a result of this modification. The variation of absolute velocity and the associated flow direction has been calculated to describe the flow structure within the mill. The results are presented in non dimensional form to draw suitable conclusions. The present study indicated the possibility of improvement in the distribution of flow within the mill with increased magnitude of velocity at different locations.

Murty, G.V.R.; Babu, U.S.

1998-07-01

83

Thermoeconomic analysis of a cogeneration system in a cuban sugar cane plant; Analise termoeconomica de um sistema de cogeracao de uma usina acucareira cubana  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Cogeneration is usual practice in sugar-cane mills. In this work, thermo economic analysis is applied to a typical cuban sugar-cane mill. Two different cost distribution methods, the extraction method and the quality method are used to evaluate the exergy and monetary (operational) costs of each flux within the system, especially the steam and generated power. The methodology indicates the equipment responsible for the greatest irreversibilities in the system. (author)

Campo, Eduardo Rafael Barreda del [Universidad de Oriente, Santiago (Cuba). Centro de Estudio de Eficiencia Energetica; Cerqueira, Sergio Augusto Araujo da Gama [Fundacao de Ensino Superior de Sao Joao Del Rei (FUNREI), MG (Brazil). Dept. de Mecanica; Nebra, Silvia Azucena [Universidade Estadual de Campinas, SP (Brazil). Faculdade de Engenharia Mecanica. Dept. de Energia

1996-07-01

84

Converting sugars to sugar alcohols by aqueous phase catalytic hydrogenation  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The present invention provides a method of converting sugars to their corresponding sugar alcohols by catalytic hydrogenation in the aqueous phase. It has been found that surprisingly superior results can be obtained by utilizing a relatively low temperature (less than 120.degree. C.), selected hydrogenation conditions, and a hydrothermally stable catalyst. These results include excellent sugar conversion to the desired sugar alcohol, in combination with long life under hydrothermal conditions.

Elliott, Douglas C. (Richland, WA); Werpy, Todd A. (West Richland, WA); Wang, Yong (Richland, WA); Frye, Jr., John G. (Richland, WA)

2003-05-27

85

76 FR 62339 - Domestic Sugar Program-2011-Crop Cane Sugar and Beet Sugar Marketing Allotments and Company...  

Science.gov (United States)

...2011-Crop Cane Sugar and Beet Sugar Marketing Allotments and Company Allocations AGENCY...the fiscal year (FY) 2012 State sugar marketing allotments and company allocations to...establishing, adjusting, or suspending sugar marketing allotments in the Federal...

2011-10-07

86

Manage your blood sugar (image)  

Science.gov (United States)

Checking your blood sugar levels often and writing down the results will tell you how well you are managing your diabetes so you ... possible. The best times to check your blood sugar are before meals and at bedtime. Your blood ...

87

Frequently Asked Questions about Sugar  

Science.gov (United States)

... diets? Sugars can promote enjoyment of meals and snacks. It is preferable that discretionary calories from sugar ... sweeteners, but we will continue to assess the science on this topic and any relevance to the ...

88

Sugars tied to the spot  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The interactions of sugars and proteins underlie many biological processes, and cataloguing them is a daunting task. A technique for attaching sugars to microarrays offers a promising, high-throughput solution.

Flitsch, Sabine L.; Ulijn, Rein V.

2003-01-01

89

Refined sugar from sugar beet - Environmental Product Declarations - Product Category Rules  

... Refined sugar from sugar beet - Environmental Product Declarations - Product Category Rules Refined sugar from sugar beet - Environmental Product Declarations - ...Comment this PCR Post Using EPDs PCR Search Refined sugar from sugar beet Search Pcr Refined sugar from sugar beet PCR information This document ...assessment of the environmental performance of UN CPC 23521 (Refined sugar from sugar beet) and the declaration of this performance by an EPD. ... Detailed information Replacing : PCR 2002:04 Seasoning (de-registered) Name: Refined sugar from sugar beet CPC Code(s): 23520 Refined sugar 2352 Refined sugar ...

90

Selected Articles on Sugar Beet.  

Science.gov (United States)

Contents: Scientific and technical progress in beet growing; Structure of sugar beet root under a different mineral nutrition regime; Characteristics of growth and cell division in high-sugar and high-yielding strains of sugar beet; Intake of root nutriti...

1976-01-01

91

High Blood Sugar (in Type 1 Diabetes)  

Science.gov (United States)

... Diabetes Information / Control and Management / High Blood Sugar High Blood Sugar Definition and Symptoms High blood sugar, ... printer-friendly PDF version > What to Do About High Blood Sugar Levels The following recommendations are general ...

92

29 CFR 780.815 - Basic conditions of exemption; second part, processing of sugar beets, sugar-beet molasses...  

Science.gov (United States)

...processing of sugar beets, sugar-beet molasses, sugarcane, or maple sap. 780...Processing of Sugar Beets, Sugar-Beet Molasses, Sugarcane, or Maple Sap into Sugar...processing of sugar beets, sugar-beet molasses, sugarcane, or maple sap....

2009-07-01

93

Considerations about waste water irrigation characteristics at the Ciro Redondo Agroindustrial sugar complex; Consideraciones sobre las caracteristicas de las aguas residuales del CAI Ciro Redondo para el fertirriego  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The irrigation of wastewater from sugar industry and byproducts is today, in Cuba, the most useful way for the treatment of these waters. With the characterization of the waters from AIC Ciro Redondo it has been proved that these waters must be used as organic matter in the established way for sugar mill wastewaters mix with Torula yeast plants ones. (Author) 10 refs.

Obaya Abreu, M. C.; Valdes Jimenez, E.; Leon Perez, O. L.; Diez Perez, K.; Valencia Rodriguez, R.

2002-07-01

94

Solfach at Middle Mill  

Solfach at Middle Mill Last updated 21:00 on 07/04/2014 Summary The river level at Middle Mill is 0.32 metres. This measurement was recorded at 21:00 on 07/04/2014. The typical river level range for this location is between 0.15 metres and 0.51 metres. The highest river level recorded at this location… Related Searches: river level data middle mill

95

Concept on Sugar- A Review  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Sugars have a long history of safe use in foods. They are common food ingredients that add taste appeal and perform important functions in foods. Besides its pleasant sweetness, sugar performs a host of less obvious and important functions in cooking, baking, candy making and the like. As carbohydrates, sugars are a contributor of calories for the body. The ability to produce solutions of varying degrees of sweetness is important in many food applications, particularly in beverages and confectionery. Low-calorie sweeteners add a taste that is similar to that of sucrose. Intense sweeteners are generally several times sweeter than sucrose. On the other hand, sugar replacers are the bulk and volume providing sweeteners usually less sweet than and different tasting from sugar, commonly used on a one-for-one replacement basis for sugar in recipes. Sugars have been studied extensively for their impact on a variety of issues.

Zakaria Ahmed

2001-01-01

96

Sugar Price Analysis in Indonesia  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This study examines the dynamic relationship between sugar price, exchange rate, oil price, rice price, and consumer price index (CPI; and to detect is there any difference between exchange rate, oil price, rice price, and CPI in effecting sugar price. We employ Vector Auto-regressions methods for a time series of monthly data from January 1998 to December 2011. Generally, the Impulse Response Function results provide the positive response of Indonesian sugar price from shock of the change of world sugar price, oil price, rice price and CPI; but there is negative response of Indonesian sugar price from shock of the change of exchange rate. The empirical results in variance decomposition test provide evidence that variability of the change of Indonesian sugar price are vary between each variable. Overall variance decomposition results are below than ten percent. These results indicate there is low transmission of international prices into Indonesian sugar prices.

Kumara Jati

2013-07-01

97

Sugar receptors in Drosophila  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Detection and discrimination of chemical compounds in potential foods are essential sensory processes when animals feed. The fruit fly Drosophila melanogaster employs 68 different gustatory receptors (GRs) for the detection of mostly non-volatile chemicals that include sugars, a diverse group of toxic compounds present in many inedible plants and spoiled foods, and pheromones [1–6]. With the exception of a trehalose (GR5a) and a caffeine (GR66a) receptor [7–9], the functions of GRs involv...

Slone, Jesse; Daniels, Joseph; Amrein, Hubert

2007-01-01

98

AMAX for Flint Mill  

AMAX for Flint Mill Back to station AMAX Data for: Wharfe at Flint Mill (27002) QMED = 230.6m 3/s Note: Place the mouse cursor over a column heading to view a description of the data in that column Rank Water Year Date Time Stage Flow Rating Source Ref Available Data Comments 4 1936-37 14/12/1936 00…

99

Corn Wet Milling Lab  

Science.gov (United States)

Description: Wet Corn Milling is an industrial process that that converts corn to a wide variety of by-products. The wet milling industry is the largest non-feed user of corn, using approximately 1 billion bushels annually. This lab looks at the separation steps in the industrial processing of corn.

Olson, Eric; Warren, Noreen

2008-10-27

100

Ratings for Loverley Mill  

Ratings for Loverley Mill Back to station Rating History for: Allen at Loverley Mill (43010) Note: Place the mouse cursor over a column heading to view a description of the data in that column Ref Limb Details Equation Start Date Max Stage End Date 4 a new 2 hatches closed Q = 3.862*(h + 0.00)^1.507…

 
 
 
 
101

Compound taper milling machine  

Science.gov (United States)

Simple, inexpensive milling machine tapers panels from a common apex to a uniform height at panel edge regardless of the panel perimeter configuration. The machine consists of an adjustable angled beam upon which the milling tool moves back and forth above a rotatable table upon which the workpiece is held.

Campbell, N. R.

1969-01-01

102

AMAX for Sprint Mill  

AMAX for Sprint Mill Back to station AMAX Data for: Sprint at Sprint Mill (73009) QMED = 42.2m 3/s Note: Place the mouse cursor over a column heading to view a description of the data in that column Rank Water Year Date Time Stage Flow Rating Source Ref Available Data Comments 8 1969-70 17/09/1970 07…

103

DETERMINATION OF PRIMARY METABOLITES IN CEREAL MILLING FRACTIONS  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The aim of this study was to determine of primary metabolites (content of starch, total dietary fibre, reducing sugars, proteins and amino acids) in four milling fractions of selected cereals (barley, wheat, oat, spelt, rye, triticale) grew in the year 2009. It was found that flour fractions (break flour and reduction flour) showed the lower content of primary metabolites than bran fractions (fine bran and coarse bran). The aim of this study was also to mention the potential use of bran parts...

2013-01-01

104

Comments on PCR Refined Sugar From Sugar Beet - Environmental Product Declarations - Product Category Rules  

... Comments on PCR Refined Sugar From Sugar Beet - Environmental Product Declarations - Product Category Rules /en/PCR/PCR-Forum/Comments-on-PCR-Refined-Sugar-From-Sugar-Beet/ Comments ...on PCR Refined Sugar From Sugar Beet - Environmental Product Declarations - Product Category Rules Log on to environdec Remember me Not a member?...Search Using EPDs PCR Forum Comments on PCR Refined Sugar From Sugar Beet PCR Forum Refined sugar from sugar beet Comments on PCR Refined ...Sugar From Sugar Beet by: Alessandro Cerutti (Alessandro Cerutti) 11 February 2013, 11:19:30 AM (GMT +1)...

105

Energy saving in the sugar cane agroindustry; Ahorro de energia en la agroindustria azucarera canera  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The traditional sugar mill is inefficient from the energy point of view. Most of the sugar mills were designed to use all the available bagasse, due to the risk of spontaneous ignition and environmental pollution. Consequently, the steam generators, the turbines and other components were designed to work with low efficiencies. Each ton of sugar produced generates a power potential equivalent to four to six oil barrels (bagasse and residues). That is to say, a sugar mill is capable of producing 500 ton/day of sugar, equivalent to an oil well of 2000 to 3000 barrels/day and one thermoelectric power plant of 15,000 kW. Under this context an analysis is made of the sugar mills in Latin America and the Caribbean as one of the ways of increasing their efficiency and obtain great energy savings. As far as steam generation the appropriate use of energy is dictated by the boilers' efficiency. [Spanish] El ingenio azucarero tradicional es ineficiente desde el punto de vista energetico. La mayoria de los ingenios azucareros se disenaron para usar todo el bagazo disponible, debido al riesgo de ignicion espontanea y contaminacion. En consecuencia, los generadores de vapor, las turbinas y demas componentes fueron disenados para trabajar con bajas eficiencias. Cada tonelada de azucar producida genera una potencialidad energetica equivalente de cuatro a seis barriles de petroleo (bagazo y residuos). Es decir, un ingenio capaz de producir 500 ton/dia de azucar equivalente a un pozo de petroleo de 2000 a 3000 barriles/dia y una termoelectrica de 15000 kW. Bajo este contexto se hace un analisis del ingenio azucarero en Latinoamerica y el Caribe como una de las vias para incrementar su eficiencia y lograr grandes ahorros en la energia. En cuanto a generacion de vapor se refiere, el buen uso de la energia viene expresado por la eficiencia de las calderas.

Zedillo Ponce de Leon, Luis [Grupo de paises Latinoamericanos y del Caribe exportadores de azucar (Mexico)

1996-07-01

106

77 FR 76514 - Indian Gaming  

Science.gov (United States)

...INTERIOR Bureau of Indian Affairs Indian Gaming AGENCY: Bureau of Indian Affairs, Interior...Approved Amended Tribal-State Class III Gaming Compact taking effect...L. Hart, Director, Office of Indian Gaming, Office of the Deputy Assistant...

2012-12-28

107

75 FR 38833 - Indian Gaming  

Science.gov (United States)

...INTERIOR Bureau of Indian Affairs Indian Gaming AGENCY: Bureau of Indian Affairs, Interior...Notice of Approved Tribal-State Class III Gaming Compact...Paula Hart, Director, Office of Indian Gaming, Office of the Deputy Assistant...

2010-07-06

108

77 FR 5566 - Indian Gaming  

Science.gov (United States)

...INTERIOR Bureau of Indian Affairs Indian Gaming AGENCY: Bureau of Indian Affairs, Interior...Notice of Tribal--State Class III Gaming Compact Taking Effect...L. Hart, Director, Office of Indian Gaming, Office of the Deputy Assistant...

2012-02-03

109

76 FR 165 - Indian Gaming  

Science.gov (United States)

...INTERIOR Bureau of Indian Affairs Indian Gaming AGENCY: Bureau of Indian Affairs, Interior...Tribe'') and the State of Wisconsin Gaming Compact of 1992, as Amended in 1999...L. Hart, Director, Office of Indian Gaming, Office of the Deputy Assistant...

2011-01-03

110

77 FR 76513 - Indian Gaming  

Science.gov (United States)

...INTERIOR Bureau of Indian Affairs Indian Gaming AGENCY: Bureau of Indian Affairs, Interior...Approved Amended Tribal-State Class III Gaming Compact taking effect...L. Hart, Director, Office of Indian Gaming, Office of the Deputy Assistant...

2012-12-28

111

76 FR 49505 - Indian Gaming  

Science.gov (United States)

...INTERIOR Bureau of Indian Affairs Indian Gaming AGENCY: Bureau of Indian Affairs, Interior...ACTION: Notice of Tribal-State Class III Gaming Compact taking effect...L. Hart, Director, Office of Indian Gaming, Office of the Deputy Assistant...

2011-08-10

112

Sugar Price Analysis in Indonesia  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This study examines the dynamic relationship between sugar price, exchange rate, oil price, rice price, and consumer price index (CPI); and to detect is there any difference between exchange rate, oil price, rice price, and CPI in effecting sugar price. We employ Vector Auto-regressions methods for a time series of monthly data from January 1998 to December 2011. Generally, the Impulse Response Function results provide the positive response of Indonesian sugar price from shock of the change o...

2013-01-01

113

Concept on Sugar- A Review  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Sugars have a long history of safe use in foods. They are common food ingredients that add taste appeal and perform important functions in foods. Besides its pleasant sweetness, sugar performs a host of less obvious and important functions in cooking, baking, candy making and the like. As carbohydrates, sugars are a contributor of calories for the body. The ability to produce solutions of varying degrees of sweetness is important in many food applications, particularly in beverages and...

Zakaria Ahmed; Hasina Banu; Firaza Akhter; Faruquzzaman, M.; Shamsul Haque

2001-01-01

114

PROGRESS AND PROBLEMS OF AGRO-BASED INDUSTRIES IN INDIA: A STUDY OF SUGAR INDUSTRY  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Agro-based industries play a vital role in the development of Indian rural economy. India's 70 per cent of total population directly depends on agriculture and agro-based industries. Sugar industry is one of the most important agro-based industries in the development process of rural India. Therefore, the study has selected this agrobased industry and analysed sugarcane and sugar production, trends of sugarcane and sugar product, recovery of cane during the period 1950-51 to 2010-11. Maharashtra and Uttar Pradesh are two largest sugar producer states in India. So, the study has also discussed the comparative growth of sugarcane production and sugar industries in Maharashtra and Uttar Pradesh states of India. The study has revealed that India is the second largest producer of sugar in the world. India has produced 24394 thousand tones sugar from 527 factories in the year 2010-11. The study has also found that near about 61 per cent of total sugar production in India has produced in Maharashtra and Uttar Pradesh states only.

DINKAR P. TAKALE

2013-02-01

115

Sprint at Sprint Mill (73009)  

Sprint at Sprint Mill (73009) Back to search results Sprint at Sprint Mill in North Area * Station name Sprint Mill * NRFA reference 73009 * Gauging authority North West * Gauging authority reference 730203 * Watercourse Sprint * Area North * Hydrometric Area 73 - Kent Group * NGR SD5140096100 * Catchment… Related Searches: sprint mill

116

76 FR 58076 - Designation of the Indian Mujahideen, Also Known as Indian Mujahedeen, Also Known as Indian...  

Science.gov (United States)

...Mujahideen, Also Known as Indian Mujahedeen, Also Known as Indian Mujahidin, Also Known as Islamic Security Force-Indian Mujahideen...Mujahideen, also known as Indian Mujahedeen, also known as Indian Mujahidin, also known as Islamic Security Force-Indian...

2011-09-19

117

Alcohol from sugar beet. The Austrian sugar industry project  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The Austrian sugar industry has developed a project for the manufacture of alcohol that is geared to the conditions in that country and is based on sugar beet as raw material. An alcohol production plant could be integrated in a sugar factory and operate all the year round at a capacity of 120,000 l/d. In this factory, the fermentation raw material would be in the form of green syrup (also thick juice if the need arose) and would be supplied from other sugar factories operating without molasses. The vinasse is to be concentrated and used or burnt. The project provides new possibilities for agriculture, and the sugar industry expects an improvement in plant utilization and a diversification.

Duebell, W.

1983-12-01

118

75 FR 60715 - Domestic Sugar Program-FY 2010 and FY 2011 Cane Sugar and Beet Sugar Marketing Allotments and...  

Science.gov (United States)

...DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE Commodity Credit Corporation Domestic Sugar Program--FY 2010 and FY 2011 Cane Sugar and Beet Sugar Marketing Allotments and Company Allocations AGENCY: Commodity Credit Corporation,...

2010-10-01

119

Optimization of hammer mills  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A simple mathematical model is proposed for the residence time distribution of crushed grain in hammer mills. The residence time distribution of the crushed grain, product quality, and the total energy consumption under various operation conditions (number of hammer rows, number of hammers in a row, mesh size of screen, velocity and output of the mill has been used as variables) was studied on a pilot hammer mill. The radiotracer was used for the experimental verification of the model and for the determination of a holdup (the magnitude of the rotating grist layer) on the pilot scale and partly also on the full-scale mills. The impulse responses were influenced by transport processes behind the screen. This effect had to be taken into account during the analysis of experimental data. The method of a non-linear regression analysis was applied for the evaluation of parameters of the mathematical model. (author)

1989-04-01

120

POT for Burnt Mill  

…for Burnt Mill Back to station POT Data for: Rhee at Burnt Mill (33021) Note: Place the mouse cursor over a column heading to view a description of the data in that column Rank Date Time Stage Flow Rating Source Ref Comments 127 06/03/1963 00:00 0.610 5.89 In Range CEHPOT 31 Oct 1972 2c Extraction…

 
 
 
 
121

POT for Syston Mill  

POT for Syston Mill Back to station POT Data for: Wreake at Syston Mill (28024) Note: Place the mouse cursor over a column heading to view a description of the data in that column Rank Date Time Stage Flow Rating Source Ref Comments 171 21/12/1969 00:00 1.560 20.93 In Range CEH POTs Ab 156 10/01/1970…

122

POT for Frog Mill  

POT for Frog Mill Back to station POT Data for: Hamble at Frog Mill (42011) Note: Place the mouse cursor over a column heading to view a description of the data in that column Rank Date Time Stage Flow Rating Source Ref Comments 154 06/12/1972 00:00 0.820 5.76 In Range CEH files 2c 141 12/01/1974 00…

123

POT for Sprint Mill  

POT for Sprint Mill Back to station POT Data for: Sprint at Sprint Mill (73009) Note: Place the mouse cursor over a column heading to view a description of the data in that column Rank Date Time Stage Flow Rating Source Ref Comments 83 22/04/1970 22:00 1.020 30.80 In Range Mfiche 4b 8 17/09/1970 07…

124

POT for Ashford Mill  

POT for Ashford Mill Back to station POT Data for: Isle at Ashford Mill (52004) Note: Place the mouse cursor over a column heading to view a description of the data in that column Rank Date Time Stage Flow Rating Source Ref Comments 11 14/02/1963 00:00 2.100 34.61 In Range CEH files 1c 120 09/03/1963…

125

POT for Loverley Mill  

POT for Loverley Mill Back to station POT Data for: Allen at Loverley Mill (43010) Note: Place the mouse cursor over a column heading to view a description of the data in that column Rank Date Time Stage Flow Rating Source Ref Comments 16 12/03/1972 00:00 0.000 4.85 Protcd. CEH 31 18/12/1972 00:00 0…

126

POT for Ebley Mill  

POT for Ebley Mill Back to station POT Data for: Frome at Ebley Mill (54027) Note: Place the mouse cursor over a column heading to view a description of the data in that column Rank Date Time Stage Flow Rating Source Ref Comments 30 31/01/1971 22:15 0.771 10.91 In Range Digital Archive 63 145 15/03…

127

POT for Iping Mill  

POT for Iping Mill Back to station POT Data for: Rother at Iping Mill (41011) Note: Place the mouse cursor over a column heading to view a description of the data in that column Rank Date Time Stage Flow Rating Source Ref Comments 1 16/09/1968 00:00 2.970 114.69 In Range CEH files 3h Flow from rating… Related Searches: ip

128

POT for Ormiston Mill  

POT for Ormiston Mill Back to station POT Data for: Teviot at Ormiston Mill (21008) Note: Place the mouse cursor over a column heading to view a description of the data in that column Rank Date Time Stage Flow Rating Source Ref Comments 235 01/12/1960 00:00 2.200 180.31 In Range FSR VOL 4 9 32 26/12…

129

POT for Flint Mill  

POT for Flint Mill Back to station POT Data for: Wharfe at Flint Mill (27002) Note: Place the mouse cursor over a column heading to view a description of the data in that column Rank Date Time Stage Flow Rating Source Ref Comments 4 14/12/1936 00:00 0.000 393.96 Protcd. Chart 3a 121 06/01/1937 00:00…

130

Ratings for Sprint Mill  

Ratings for Sprint Mill Back to station Rating History for: Sprint at Sprint Mill (73009) Note: Place the mouse cursor over a column heading to view a description of the data in that column Ref Limb Details Equation Start Date Max Stage End Date 4 a Q = 34.509*(h + 0.0110)^2.654 24/10/1969 0.36 01/02…

131

1963 Sugar Beet Feasibility Study.  

Science.gov (United States)

The 1963 study had the broad objectives of determining the feasibility of growing sugar beets on selected soils in Central New York and to determine the extent of resources available in this proposed sugar beet growing area. More specific objectives relat...

N. C. Brady

1964-01-01

132

Sugar intolerance complicating acute gastroenteritis.  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Sugar intolerance occurred in 31 of 200 children admitted to hospital with acute gastroenteritis. In 28 this was transient and settled rapidly, but in the remaining three it indicated a more serious and persistent problem. The most important predisposing factor was viral infection, in particular with rotavirus. The current regimen for the management of sugar intolerance complicating acute gastroenteritis at this hospital is outlined.

Trounce, J. Q.; Walker-smith, J. A.

1985-01-01

133

Potential of rice mill`s cogeneration in Thailand  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

In 1994 in Thailand, there were 312 rice mills of which 52 were par-boiled rice mills and 260 were white rice mills, each with a production capacity over 100 tons/day. These rice mills were taken into consideration for the potential of electricity generation within the mill using husk fuel. As rice mills used both electrical and thermal energy, there was the potential of cogeneration systems for rice mills. The objectives of this paper were to analyze the electrical and thermal energy consumption in white rice mills and par-boiled rice mills, and to present the application of cogeneration system for rice mills as well as the appropriate electricity price to be bought back by electricity producers. The operation of rice mills are described and the comparative cost of cogeneration systems is outlined. From the analysis of energy consumption of the equipment in white rice mills and par-boiled rice mills, it could be concluded that electricity consumption in white rice mills were 190 MJ/ton paddy and 242 Mj/ton paddy respectively. From the study it was found that average cost in reducing CO{sub 2} by forestation was 0.38 baht/kWh or 593 baht/ton CO{sub 2}. (author). 4 tabs., 3 figs., 3 refs.

Ekasilp, W.; Soponronnarit, S.; Therdyothin, A. [King Mongkut`s Inst. of Tech., Bangkok (Thailand)

1996-12-31

134

SWOT ANALYSIS OF INDIAN JUTE INDUSTRY  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Jute Industrial sector is an important segment of Indian economy. Jute has been the most versatile natural fibre. The jute sector produces products ranging from low value geo-textile to high end garments, decorative, upholstery etc. Many of the jute plants or mills are now engaged in producing jute blended yarns. The jute industry scenario in India has been changed from making traditional hessian to high end fashion garments. The jute export counts to about 1000 crore, the import of raw jute has been dropped by 66 per cent in 2008-09. The Indian jute industry is having plenty of opportunity by its side; it is not only one of the oldest industries of India but also among the major employer of the nation. There are a lot of strengths and also much chance to seize them but it could only be done if it overcomes its weaknesses and threats.

G. KARTHIK AND N. RAMYA

2012-11-01

135

Clinical epidemiological profile of American tegumentary leishmaniasis at the Pinto Sugar Mill in Moreno Municipality, Greater Metropolitan Recife, Pernambuco State, Brazil Perfil clínico-epidemiológico da leishmaniose tegumentar americana no Engenho Pinto, Município de Moreno, Região Metropolitana do Recife, Pernambuco, Brasil  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

American tegumentary leishmaniasis (ATL) is present in all regions of Pernambuco State, Brazil, where it is spreading, with the emergence of foci in new areas like the Municipality (County) of Moreno in Greater Metropolitan Recife. The objective of the current study was to assess the prevalence of infection and identify autochthonous cases of ATL. In April 2006 a population survey was performed using a questionnaire and the Montenegro skin test (MST) in 481 individuals from the Pinto Sugar Mi...

Maria Edileuza Felinto de Brito; Cláudio Júlio Silva; Cristiane Máximo Silva; Pedro Raposo Salazar; Juliana Santos Coutinho; Luiza de Campos Reis; Valéria Rego Alves Pereira; Sinval Pinto Brandão-Filho; Ângela Cristina Rapela Medeiros

2008-01-01

136

An Overview of Indian Novel Traditional Medicinal Plants with Anti-Diabetic Potentials  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Diabetes mellitus is a global metabolic epidemic affecting essential biochemical activities in almost every age group. Indian literatures like Ayurveda have already mentioned herbal remediation for a number of human ailments. Among Indian traditional medicinal plants several potential anti-diabetic plants and herbs are being used as part of our diet since prehistoric time. India has a long list of native medicinal plants with confirmed blood sugar lowering property. Some of these have proved ...

Gupta, Rahul; Bajpai, Kumar Gaurav; Johri, Samta; Saxena, Am

2007-01-01

137

Health-hazard evaluation report HETA 85-043-1760, American Crystal Sugar Company, Hillsboro, North Dakota  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

In response to a request from management of the American Crystal Sugar Company (ACSCO) and the American Federation of Grain Millers International Union, employee exposures to welding fumes during facility maintenance and to airborne contaminants during beet processing were determined at a sugar-beet mill owned by ACSCO. Exposures exceeding the most stringent environmental criteria were found for calcium carbonate and carbon monoxide in lime kiln workers and sugar dust in sugar bin workers. Beet pulp dust was considered a potential hazard based on its content of crystalline silica. Welding produced excessive exposures to total welding fumes, hexavalent chromium, nickel, iron-oxide, and calcium-oxide. Chromium and nickel posed potential cancer risks. The authors conclude that workers were overexposed to calcium carbonate, carbon monoxide, sugar dust, total welding fumes, hexavalent chromium, iron oxide, nickel, and calcium oxide fumes at this facility. The authors recommend dust containment, ventilation, respiratory protection, and correction of slipping hazards.

Boiano, J.M.; Almaguer, D.

1986-12-01

138

Health-hazard evaluation report HETA 85-046-1763, American Crystal Sugar Company, East Grand Forks, Minnesota  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Following a request from the American Federation of Grain Millers International Union and management of the American Crystal Sugar Company (ACSCO), employee exposures to airborne contaminants during beet processing and welding fumes during facility maintenance were determined at a sugar beet mill owned by ACSCO. Exposures in excess of the most stringent criteria were found for calcium oxide and calcium carbonate in lime kiln workers, sugar dust in sugar bin workers, insoluble hexavalent chromium and nickel during welding, total welding fumes in one case, and nickel during a metal coating spray process. Quartz was found in several settled dust samples and high volume air samples. Nickel and chromium exposure presented potential cancer risks. The authors conclude that workers were overexposed to calcium oxide, calcium carbonate, sugar dust, total welding fumes, hexavalent chromium, and nickel at this facility. Recommendations include particulate containment, ventilation, and respiratory protection where appropriate.

Boiano, J.M.; Almaguer, D.

1986-12-01

139

Mining and milling of uranium ore: Indian scenario  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The occurrence of uranium minerals in Singhbhum Thrust belt of Eastern India has been known since 1937. In 1950, a team of geologists of the Atomic Minerals Division was assigned to closely examine this 160 km long belt. Since then, several occurrences of uranium have been found and a few of them have sufficient grade and tonnage for commercial exploitation. In 1967, the Government of India formed Uranium Corporation of India Ltd., under the administrative control of the Department of Atomic Energy, with the specific objective of mining and processing of uranium ore and produce uranium concentrates. At present the Corporation operates three underground uranium mines, one ore processing plant with expanded capacity, and two uranium recovery plants. Continuing investigations by the Atomic Mineral Division has discovered several new deposits and favourable areas. The most notable is the large Domiasiat deposit of the sandstone type found in the State of Meghalaya. This deposit is now being considered for commercial exploitation using the in-situ leaching technology. (author)

2001-09-01

140

Dual string packer mill  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A packer mill is described comprising: an annular sleeve; means on the lower end of the sleeve for milling the periphery of a packer; an axial mandrel inside the sleeve; means on the lower end of the mandrel for milling an axial hole into the upper end of a packer at an elevation above the milling of the periphery of the packer; an axial slidable gripper sleeve on the mandrel including longitudinally extending fingers. Each of the fingers comprises outwardly facing serrations for gripping the walls of the hole in the packer; a camming sleeve on the mandrel inside the gripper sleeve for camming the fingers radially outwardly for engaging the walls of the axial hole milled in the packer for supporting the packer; a release ring around the mandrel engaging an end of the camming sleeve; and means for bursting the ring in hoop tension upon application of sufficient axial force between the mandrel and camming sleeve for releasing the camming sleeve for axially sliding away from the gripper sleeve for permitting the fingers to collapse radially inwardly.

Desai, P.C.

1987-09-29

 
 
 
 
141

Development and Installation of High Pressure Boilers for Co-Generation Plant in Sugar Industries  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The sugar cane containing minimum 30% fiber was referred as bagasse and used the generation of power required for the operation of sugar mill. The bagasse is fired in the boiler for producing steam at high pressure, which is extracted through various single high capacity turbines and used in the process. The installation of high pressure boilers and high pressure turbo-generators has provision for the operation of co-generation plant during the off-season also that enhances the power generati...

2010-01-01

142

Process for whole cell saccharification of lignocelluloses to sugars using a dual bioreactor system  

Science.gov (United States)

The present invention describes a process for saccharification of lignocelluloses to sugars using whole microbial cells, which are enriched from cultures inoculated with paper mill waste water, wood processing waste and soil. A three-member bacterial consortium is selected as a potent microbial inocula and immobilized on inedible plant fibers for biomass saccharification. The present invention further relates the design of a dual bioreactor system, with various biocarriers for enzyme immobilization and repeated use. Sugars are continuously removed eliminating end-product inhibition and consumption by cell.

Lu, Jue (Okemos, MI); Okeke, Benedict (Montgomery, AL)

2012-03-27

143

portrush mill strand bathing water profile 2012  

...Mill Strand) Bathing Water Profile Northern Ireland...Bathing Water Profile — Portrush (Mill Strand) 2 This is one of...Quality History at Portrush (Mill Strand) Portrush (Mill Strand) bathing water was identified in...

144

Dangers of High and Low Blood Sugar  

Science.gov (United States)

... On Track Dangers of High and Low Blood Sugar Dangers of High and Low Blood Sugar htmDiab1OnTrack_Dangers Illness, insulin, food and exercise all can affect blood sugar. When these elements get out of balance, sugar ...

145

Sugar crops as a solar energy converter  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The agriculture, processing, and conversion of sugar crop for fuel EtOH, chemical, and food manufacture are discussed. The sugar crops considered are sugarcane, sugar beet, and sweet sorghum. The ecology problems in large-scale EtOH manufacture from sugar crops are considered.

Lipinsky, E.S.; Kresovich, S.

1982-01-01

146

National Indian Gaming Commission  

Science.gov (United States)

The National Indian Gaming Commission is an independent federal regulatory agency, and along with regulating gaming activities on Indian lands, they are also responsible for "shielding Indian tribes from organized crime and other corrupting influences." The Commission's website is designed to inform interested parties about their ongoing activities, and visitors will find that the information here ranges from calendars of upcoming conferences to official decisions and actions taken by the Commission. First-time visitors may wish to start by looking over the FAQ section within the "About Us" area. Once there, they can find the answers to questions like "Do Indian tribes pay taxes?" and "What happens to the profits from Indian gaming operations?" Moving on, the "Laws & Regulations" area contains the text of such important documents as the Indian Gaming Regulatory Act and the Johnson Act. The site is rounded out by the "Reading Room", which contains recent and past bulletins, gaming ordinances, and a list of tribal gaming operations.

147

Yeo at Pen Mill (52006)  

Yeo at Pen Mill (52006) Back to search results Yeo at Pen Mill in North Wessex Area * Station name Pen Mill * NRFA reference 52006 * Gauging authority South West * Gauging authority reference 520240 * Watercourse Yeo * Area North Wessex * Hydrometric Area 52 - Somerset Rivers Group * NGR ST57301610 *…

148

Reconstructing Indian Population History  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

India has been underrepresented in genome-wide surveys of human variation. We analyze 25 diverse groups to provide strong evidence for two ancient populations, genetically divergent, that are ancestral to most Indians today. One, the “Ancestral North Indians” (ANI), is genetically close to Middle Easterners, Central Asians, and Europeans, while the other, the “Ancestral South Indians” (ASI), is as distinct from ANI and East Asians as they are from each other. By introducing methods th...

2009-01-01

149

77 FR 43110 - Indian Gaming  

Science.gov (United States)

...INTERIOR Bureau of Indian Affairs Indian Gaming AGENCY: Bureau of Indian Affairs, Interior...of Approved Tribal--State Class III Gaming Compact...This notice publishes an extension of Gaming between the Rosebud Sioux Tribe and...

2012-07-23

150

75 FR 55823 - Indian Gaming  

Science.gov (United States)

...INTERIOR Bureau of Indian Affairs Indian Gaming AGENCY: Bureau of Indian Affairs, Interior...Notice of approved Tribal-State Class III Gaming Compact...This notice publishes an extension of Gaming between the Oglala Sioux Tribe and...

2010-09-14

151

78 FR 15738 - Indian Gaming  

Science.gov (United States)

...INTERIOR Bureau of Indian Affairs Indian Gaming AGENCY: Bureau of Indian Affairs, Interior...of Approved Tribal--State Class III Gaming Compact...This notice publishes an extension of the gaming compact between the Rosebud Sioux...

2013-03-12

152

76 FR 52968 - Indian Gaming  

Science.gov (United States)

...INTERIOR Bureau of Indian Affairs Indian Gaming AGENCY: Bureau of Indian Affairs, Interior...of Approved Tribal--State Class III Gaming Compact...This notice publishes an extension of Gaming between the Rosebud Sioux Tribe and...

2011-08-24

153

78 FR 33435 - Indian Gaming  

Science.gov (United States)

...INTERIOR Bureau of Indian Affairs Indian Gaming AGENCY: Bureau of Indian Affairs, Interior...Notice of Approved Tribal-State Class III Gaming Amendments...to Amend the Class III Tribal-State Gaming Compact between the Salt River...

2013-06-04

154

75 FR 61511 - Indian Gaming  

Science.gov (United States)

...INTERIOR Bureau of Indian Affairs Indian Gaming AGENCY: Bureau of Indian Affairs, Interior...Notice of Approved Tribal-State Class III Gaming Compact...This notice publishes an extension of Gaming Compact between the Rosebud Sioux...

2010-10-05

155

76 FR 11258 - Indian Gaming  

Science.gov (United States)

...INTERIOR Bureau of Indian Affairs Indian Gaming AGENCY: Bureau of Indian Affairs, Interior...Notice of Tribal--State Class III Gaming Compact taking effect...Tribal-State Compact for Regulation of Class III Gaming between the Confederated Tribes of...

2011-03-01

156

77 FR 59641 - Indian Gaming  

Science.gov (United States)

...INTERIOR Bureau of Indian Affairs Indian Gaming AGENCY: Bureau of Indian Affairs, Interior...Notice of Approved Tribal-State Class III Gaming Compact...This notice publishes an extension of Gaming between the Rosebud Sioux Tribe and...

2012-09-28

157

78 FR 44146 - Indian Gaming  

Science.gov (United States)

...INTERIOR Bureau of Indian Affairs Indian Gaming AGENCY: Bureau of Indian Affairs, Interior...ACTION: Notice of Tribal-State Class III Gaming Compact taking effect...III Amended and Restated Tribal-State Gaming Compact between the Shingle Springs...

2013-07-23

158

77 FR 41200 - Indian Gaming  

Science.gov (United States)

...INTERIOR Bureau of Indian Affairs Indian Gaming AGENCY: Bureau of Indian Affairs, Interior...of Approved Tribal--State Class III Gaming Compact...Department of an extension to the Class III Gaming Compact between the State of...

2012-07-12

159

76 FR 8375 - Indian Gaming  

Science.gov (United States)

...INTERIOR Bureau of Indian Affairs Indian Gaming AGENCY: Bureau of Indian Affairs, Interior...Notice of Approved Tribal-State Class III Gaming Compact...This notice publishes an extension of the Gaming Compact between the Oglala Sioux...

2011-02-14

160

78 FR 17428 - Indian Gaming  

Science.gov (United States)

...INTERIOR Bureau of Indian Affairs Indian Gaming AGENCY: Bureau of Indian Affairs, Interior...Notice of Approved Tribal-State Class III Gaming Compact...approval of the Class III Tribal- State Gaming Compact between the Pyramid Lake...

2013-03-21

 
 
 
 
161

75 FR 8108 - Indian Gaming  

Science.gov (United States)

...INTERIOR Bureau of Indian Affairs Indian Gaming AGENCY: Bureau of Indian Affairs, Interior...Notice of Approved Tribal-State Class III Gaming Compact...the State of Nevada Governing Class III Gaming. DATES: Effective Date: February...

2010-02-23

162

78 FR 17427 - Indian Gaming  

Science.gov (United States)

...INTERIOR Bureau of Indian Affairs Indian Gaming AGENCY: Bureau of Indian Affairs, Interior...ACTION: Notice of Approved Amended Gaming Compact...publishes the approval of the Amended Gaming Compact between the...

2013-03-21

163

76 FR 65208 - Indian Gaming  

Science.gov (United States)

...INTERIOR Bureau of Indian Affairs Indian Gaming AGENCY: Bureau of Indian Affairs, Interior...of Approved Tribal--State Class III Gaming Compact...This notice publishes an Approval of the Gaming Compact between the Confederated...

2011-10-20

164

75 FR 68823 - Indian Gaming  

Science.gov (United States)

...INTERIOR Bureau of Indian Affairs Indian Gaming AGENCY: Bureau of Indian Affairs, Interior...Notice of Approved Tribal-State Class III Gaming Amendment...approval of the Amendments to the Class III Gaming Compact (Amendment) between the...

2010-11-09

165

78 FR 11221 - Indian Gaming  

Science.gov (United States)

...INTERIOR Bureau of Indian Affairs Indian Gaming AGENCY: Bureau of Indian Affairs, Interior...Notice of Approved Tribal-State Class III Gaming Compact...This notice publishes an extension of the gaming compact between the Oglala Sioux...

2013-02-15

166

77 FR 30550 - Indian Gaming  

Science.gov (United States)

...INTERIOR Bureau of Indian Affairs Indian Gaming AGENCY: Bureau of Indian Affairs, Interior...of Approved Tribal--State Class III Gaming Compact...Department of an extension to the Class III Gaming Compact between the Pyramid Lake...

2012-05-23

167

76 FR 33341 - Indian Gaming  

Science.gov (United States)

...INTERIOR Bureau of Indian Affairs Indian Gaming AGENCY: Bureau of Indian Affairs, Interior...of Approved Tribal--State Class III Gaming Compact...This notice publishes an extension of Gaming between the Rosebud Sioux Tribe and...

2011-06-08

168

78 FR 10203 - Indian Gaming  

Science.gov (United States)

...INTERIOR Bureau of Indian Affairs Indian Gaming AGENCY: Bureau of Indian Affairs, Interior...Notice of Approved Tribal State Class III Gaming Compact...Approval of the Class III Tribal- State Gaming Compact between the Chippewa-Cree...

2013-02-13

169

76 FR 56466 - Indian Gaming  

Science.gov (United States)

...INTERIOR Bureau of Indian Affairs Indian Gaming AGENCY: Bureau of Indian Affairs, Interior...of Approved Tribal--State Class III Gaming Compact...This notice publishes an approval of the gaming compact between the Flandreau Santee...

2011-09-13

170

77 FR 45371 - Indian Gaming  

Science.gov (United States)

...INTERIOR Bureau of Indian Affairs Indian Gaming AGENCY: Bureau of Indian Affairs, Interior...of Approved Tribal--State Class III Gaming Compact...This notice publishes an extension of Gaming between the Oglala Sioux Tribe and...

2012-07-31

171

Autogenous Milling of Kimberlite,  

Science.gov (United States)

During the treatment of kimberlite for the liberation of diamonds, the ore is crushed to smaller than 25 mm and then scrubbed to liberate the diamonds. These crushing and scrubbing stages could possibly be replaced by a single open-circuit autogenous-mill...

D. I. Hoyer

1988-01-01

172

Sugar substitutes: Health controversy over perceived benefits  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Sugar is an inseparable part of the food we consume. But too much sugar is not ideal for our teeth and waistline. There have been some controversial suggestions that excessive sugar may play an important role in certain degenerative diseases. So artificial sweeteners or artificially sweetened products continue to attract consumers. A sugar substitute (artificial sweetener) is a food additive that duplicates the effect of sugar in taste, but usually has less food energy. Besides its benefits, ...

Tandel, Kirtida R.

2011-01-01

173

Fritz Scholder: Indian/Not Indian  

Science.gov (United States)

The Smithsonian National Museum of the American Indian has a beautiful online exhibit, Fritz Scholder: Indian/Not Indian which is meant to accompany the in situ exhibition in Washington D.C. and New York. Scholder's work is the subject of much debate in the world of Native Art, as his work has no obvious Native American imagery in it and he oftentimes denied he was Native American. By clicking on "Biography" near the top of the page, a list of links, "The Early Years", "The IAIA Years", and "The 70s and After" will appear. Below these links a clickable timeline also appears which advances when rolled over with the mouse. Another way to get an introduction to Scholder's life and the exhibit is to click on the "Podcasts" link near the top of the page. The first podcast listed is "Fritz Scholder: Indian/Not Indian". Visitors should also not miss looking at his bold and sometimes disturbing paintings and sculptures, under the "Works" tab near the top of the page. They can be viewed by either D.C. or New York displays, as well as by "Curator's Choice", which is the default view. Each piece of work is also accompanied by commentary offered by the curators. Just click on the artwork, and under the bottom right hand corner of the image is a speaker to click on, complete with the name of the curator doing the commentary.

2008-01-01

174

76 FR 36512 - USDA Increases the Domestic Sugar Overall Allotment Quantity, Reassigns Domestic Cane Sugar...  

Science.gov (United States)

...AGRICULTURE Office of the Secretary USDA Increases the Domestic Sugar Overall Allotment Quantity, Reassigns Domestic Cane Sugar Allotments, and Increases the Fiscal Year 2011 Raw Sugar Tariff-Rate Quota AGENCY: Office of the Secretary,...

2011-06-22

175

The Efficiency Analyses of Croatian Sugar Industry by Using the Concept of Intellectual Capital  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available During the last fi ve years the sugar industry has become one of the most important branches of Croatian food industry. It is connected with a signifi cant number of various industries in a complex way and employs a signifi cant number of people. A development of the sugar industry stimulates development of commerce, logistics, and a number of correlated industries whose products are necessary in sugar production. Croatian sugar factories have been present at the neighbouring markets and the European Union market for several years. Th e share of sugar in the total export of agricultural products increases every year and in the year 2004, it was 26.8% with the tendency of increasing in the year 2005. Th e foundation of the Intellectual capital (IC concept, as a method of increasing the entire business effi ciency, can be found in the papers of economic theoreticians in the middle of the last century but it reached its real break through in the past 15 years when the concept got more applied and the theory of intellectual capital was developed. In order to prepare Croatian economy for the competition that is expecting Croatia by joining the European Union with full membership, especially the agricultural sector, the application of the IC concept is expected to result with an increase of business effi ciency. Th e intellectual capital concept represents a recommended base, which will help Croatian sugar mills in achieving a better position at the highly competitive market of the European Union.

Dražen Holmik

2006-03-01

176

Sugar sensing by enterocytes combines polarity, membrane bound detectors and sugar metabolism.  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Sugar consumption and subsequent sugar metabolism are known to regulate the expression of genes involved in intestinal sugar absorption and delivery. Here we investigate the hypothesis that sugar-sensing detectors in membranes facing the intestinal lumen or the bloodstream can also modulate intestinal sugar absorption. We used wild-type and GLUT2-null mice, to show that dietary sugars stimulate the expression of sucrase-isomaltase (SI) and L-pyruvate kinase (L-PK) by GLUT2-dependent mechanism...

Le Gall, Maude; Tobin, Vanessa; Stolarczyk, Emilie; Dalet, Ve?ronique; Leturque, Armelle; Brot-laroche, Edith

2007-01-01

177

Indians of Arizona.  

Science.gov (United States)

Briefly describing each tribe within Arizona's four major American Indian groups, this handbook presents information relative to the cultural background and socioeconomic development of the following tribes: (1) Athapascan Tribes (Navajos and Apaches); (2) Pueblo Indians (Hopis); (3) Desert Rancheria Tribes (Pimas, Yumas, Papagos, Maricopas,…

Bureau of Indian Affairs (Dept. of Interior), Washington, DC.

178

Improvement of the supply chain for the sugar cane exportation process employing discrete events simulation techniques - doi: 10.4025/actascitechnol.v35i4.17468  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Current paper proposes a reduction on all logistic costs involved in the sugar cane exportation process for an important medium-size cargo harbor in South America. The strategy consisted in studying and improving the efficiency of the logistics transportation flow of merchandise between the sugar cane mills and the cargo ports by employing discrete events simulation as a methodology and the ProModel software as a simulation platform. The simulated scenarios show 89% reducti...

Maria Alejandra Guerrero Hernandez; André Felipe Henriques Librantz

2013-01-01

179

Modeling analysis of sugar fermentation  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The metabolism of glucose and xylose by a naturally occurring anaerobic bacteria, Klebsiella planticola, was studied by using in-vivo NMR techniques and substrates selectively enriched with {sup 13}C to follow the step-by-step transformation process to ethanol. A modelling approach based on compartmental analysis of energy flows was used to study the metabolic constants. The transformation processes for the two sugars followed different mechanisms. Glucose was linked to the basic metabolic activities of the bacteria. Its conversion to ethanol depended only upon the concentration of active cells and therefore was independent of the sugar concentration. The transformation of xylose was linked to an autocatalytic process that demonstrated the secondary nature of the xylose consumption. This process depends on both the concentration of active cells and the concentration of sugar. (author)

Rossi, C.; Loiselle, S.; Bastianoni, S.; Picchi, M.P.; Bonechi, C.; Porcelli, M. [University of Siena (Italy)

1997-07-01

180

Uranium mill tailings  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This bibliography contains information on uranium mill tailings included in the Department of Energy's Energy Data Base from January 1981 through October 1982. The abstracts are grouped by subject category as shown in the table of contents. Entries in the subject index also facilitate access by subject, e.g., Mill Tailings/Radiation Hazards. Within each category the arrangement is by report number for reports, followed by nonreports in reverse chronological order. These citations are to research reports, journal articles, books, patents, theses, and conference papers from worldwide sources. Five indexes, each preceded by a brief description, are provided: Corporate Author, Personal Author, Subject, Contract Number, and Report Number. (335 abstracts).

McLaren, L.H. (ed.)

1982-11-01

 
 
 
 
181

N. S. W. (New South Wales) sugar cane to fuel ethanol. Feasibility study report  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The feasibility, including consideration of technical and economic aspects of producing fuel ethanol from sugar cane for blending with petrol, was investigated by a working party from CSR, Ltd., the NSW Sugar Milling Cooperative, Department of Agriculture, and the Energy Authority of New South Wales (NSW). The working party considered that although ethanol was an expensive alternative-fuel option and that interest in ethanol had waned as a result of an oversupply of crude-oil on world markets, it would be prudent to proceed with the feasibility study as the world crude oil oversupply situation is seen to be a temporary phenomenon. Ethanol from sugar cane is seen as an alternative which, under some circumstances, could substitute for a part of Australia's fuel requirements.

1986-08-01

182

Development and Installation of High Pressure Boilers for Co-Generation Plant in Sugar Industries  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The sugar cane containing minimum 30% fiber was referred as bagasse and used the generation of power required for the operation of sugar mill. The bagasse is fired in the boiler for producing steam at high pressure, which is extracted through various single high capacity turbines and used in the process. The installation of high pressure boilers and high pressure turbo-generators has provision for the operation of co-generation plant during the off-season also that enhances the power generation from 9MW to 23MW. The annual monetary benefits achieved are Rs. 204.13 million and this was based on cost of power sold to the grid @ Rs 2.548 per unit, sugar season of 219 days and off season of 52 days. This required an investment of Rs 820.6 million. The investment had an attractive simple payback period of 48 months.

Kolar Seenappa Venkatesh

2010-05-01

183

POT for Ormiston Mill  

…to station POT Data for: Teviot at Ormiston Mill (21008) Note: Place the mouse cursor over a column heading to view a description of the data in that column Rank Date Time Stage Flow Rating Source Ref Comments 235 01/12/1960 00:00 2.200 180.31 In Range FSR VOL 4 9 32 26/12/1960 00:00 3.180 347.41 In…

184

AMAX for Burnt Mill  

…for: Rhee at Burnt Mill (33021) QMED = 8.24m 3/s Note: Place the mouse cursor over a column heading to view a description of the data in that column Rank Water Year Date Time Stage Flow Rating Source Ref Available Data Comments 35 1962-63 06/03/1963 00:00 0.610 5.89 In Range CEHPOT 31 Oct 1972 2c Extraction…

185

Ion Milling of Sapphire  

Science.gov (United States)

The ion figuring system at the Marshall Space Flight Center has been successfully used for at least three previous investigations into the ion milling of metals. The research was directed toward improving the surface quality of X-ray directing optics. These studies were performed on surfaces that were already hand polished to an excellent surface quality and were intended to remove the residual unwanted figure left by those techniques. The ion milling was typically carried out on test surfaces or mandrels that were several centimeters in width and length. The good thermal conductivity of the metal samples allowed the ion beam to be directed onto the sample for an indefinite period of time. This is not true of sapphire or most electrical insulators and problems have arisen in recent attempts to ion mill thin samples of sapphire. The failure and fracture of the material was likely due to thermal stresses and the relatively low thermal conductivity of sapphire (compared to most metals), These assumed stresses actually provided the key as to how they might be monitored. A thermal gradient in the sapphire sample will induce an effective index of refraction change and because of the shape constraint and the crystal structure and simple thermal expansion, this index change will be nonuniform across the sample. In all but simple cubic crystal structures, this leads to a spatially nonuniform optical retardance induced on any polarized optical beam traversing the sample, and it is this retardance that can be monitored using standard polarimetric procedures.

Gregory, Don A.

2002-01-01

186

Effect of steam pretreatment on oil palm empty fruit bunch for the production of sugars  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Lignocellulose into fuel ethanol is the most feasible conversion route strategy in terms of sustainability. Oil palm empty fruit bunch (EFB) generated from palm oil production is a huge source of cellulosic material and represents a cheap renewable feedstock which awaits further commercial exploitation. The purpose of this study was to investigate the feasibility of using steam at 0.28 MPa and 140 °C generated from the palm oil mill boiler as a pretreatment to enhance the digestibility of EFB for sugars production. The effects of steam pretreatment or autohydrolysis on chemical composition changes, polysaccharide conversion, sugar production and morphology alterations of four different types of EFB namely fresh EFB (EFB1), sterilized EFB (EFB2), shredded EFB (EFB3) and ground EFB (EFB4) were evaluated. In this study, the effects of steam pretreatment showed major alterations in the morphology of EFB as observed under the scanning electron microscope. Steam pretreated EFB2 was found to have the highest total conversion of 30% to sugars with 209 g kg?1 EFB. This production was 10.5 fold higher than for EFB1 and 1.6 fold and 1.7 fold higher than EFB3 and EFB4, respectively. The results suggested that pretreatment of EFB by autohydrolysis using steam from the mill boiler could be considered as being a suitable pretreatment process for the production of sugars. These sugars can be utilized as potential substrates for the production of various products such as fuel ethanol. -- Highlights: ? We investigate the feasibility of steam pretreatment to enhance digestibility of EFB. ? Steam pretreatment increased sugars to 3.4 fold and caused major alteration in EFB morphology under SEM. ? Autohydrolysis which does not require the addition of chemicals is an attractive pretreatment approach to EFB.

2012-01-01

187

Indian Students and College Preparation.  

Science.gov (United States)

A study examined the extent to which high schools are preparing American Indian students for college. Counselors were surveyed at 47 on- and off-reservation high schools serving Indian students in 16 states. Only 17 percent of Indian students in the schools were enrolling in college. Under 10 percent of Indian students were taking 4 years of…

Chavers, Dean

188

75 FR 68618 - Indian Gaming  

Science.gov (United States)

...INTERIOR Bureau of Indian Affairs Indian Gaming AGENCY: Bureau of Indian Affairs, Interior...Tribe'') and the State of Wisconsin Gaming Compact of 1991, as Amended in 1999 and...L. Hart, Director, Office of Indian Gaming, Office of the Deputy Assistant...

2010-11-08

189

The American Indian Development Bank?  

Science.gov (United States)

In 1990, the Indian Finance Corporation Act died in committee for lack of Indian support. A model for an American Indian Development Bank is proposed, based on the International Finance Corporation of the World Bank. Two case studies illustrate how this model can meet Indian economic development needs. (SV)

Pottinger, Richard

1992-01-01

190

Indian Academy of Sciences - New associates, 2012  

Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

indian academy of sciences - new associates, 2012   1. shivani agarwal, indian institute of science, bangalore  3. sujit kumar ghosh, indian institute of science education and research, pune  4. m. jeganmohan, indian institute of science education and research, pune  5. santanu mukherjee, indian institute of science, bangalore  6. nisanth nair, indian institute of technology, kanpur  7. supratim ray, indian institute of scien ...

191

Indian Academy of Sciences - New associates, 2012  

Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

indian academy of sciences - new associates, 2012   2. melinda k. bera, indian institute of science education and research, kolkata   3. neena gupta, indian statistical institute, kolkata  4. vishwesha gutta, indian institute of science, bangalore   5. rajan jha, indian institute of technology, bhubaneswar   7. debabrata maiti, indian institute of technology, mumbai   8. abha misra, indian institute of science, bangalore&nb ...

192

Health-hazard evaluation report HETA 85-044-1761, American Crystal Sugar Company, Drayton, North Dakota  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Employee exposures to airborne contaminants during sugar-beet processing and to welding fumes during facility maintenance were evaluated at a sugar beet mill 2063) owned by the American Crystal Sugar Company (ACSCO), in response to a request from the American Federation of Grain Millers International Union and ACSCO's management. Personal and general air samples were collected and analyzed for several chemicals, total and respirable dusts, and metals and welding fumes. Methods included gravimetric analysis, chromatography, spectroscopy, and x-ray diffraction. Exposures in excess of the most-stringent criteria were found for calcium-oxide, coal dust, crystalline silica, sugar dust, and formaldehyde. Areas of greatest exposure included lime-kiln operation, coal handling, and storage-bin housekeeping. Recommendations include use of respiratory protection, dust and fume containment, and formaldehyde replacement.

Boiano, J.M.; Almaguer, D.

1986-12-01

193

Studies on the fortification of cane sugar with iron and ascorbic acid.  

Science.gov (United States)

1. The feasibility of improving iron nutrition by fortifying cane sugar with Fe and ascorbic acid was studied. 2. It was found to be possible to add a number of Fe salts together with ascorbic acid to sugar without affecting its appearance or storage properties. 3. The absorption of Fe from fortified sugar eaten with maize-meal porridge or made into jam or biscuits was measured in ninety-four volunteer multiparous Indian women using the 59-Fe erythrocyte utlization method. 4. The absorption of Fe from sugar fortified with ascorbic acid and ferrous sulphate and eaten with maize-meal porridge was increased about twofold in the ratio, ascorbic acid:Fe was 10:1 by weight. If the ratio was increased to 20:2, Fe absorption was increased a further threefold. 5. Sugar fortified with soluble Fe salts, including FeSO4.7H2O, discoloured both tea and coffee; sugar fortified with ferric orthophosphate did not have this effect. 6. Fe from FePO4.H2O was poorly absorbed when added with sugar to maize-meal porridge, and also when added with adequate quantities of ascorbic acid. This form of Fe was absorbed much less well than was the intrinsic Fe present in the maize. 7. When sugar fortified with FePO4.H2O and ascorbic acid was added to maize-meal porridge before cooling or was made into jam there was a several-fold increase in the amount of Fe absorbed. PMID:1148151

Disler, P B; Lynch, S R; Charlton, R W; Bothwell, T H; Walker, R B; Mayet, F

1975-07-01

194

Agriculture: Bioconversion of sugar cane molasses.  

Science.gov (United States)

Auxein Corporation is demonstrating for commercial use an organic acid phytochelate, derived from what would otherwise be a discarded portion of sugar cane, that could increase the domestic sugar industry's profit margin from near zero to 7%. Along with h...

P. Simon

1999-01-01

195

Health Tip: Cut Down on Sugar  

Science.gov (United States)

... please enable JavaScript. Health Tip: Cut Down on Sugar Watch how much you eat and drink (*this ... Kohnle Friday, February 21, 2014 Related MedlinePlus Page Carbohydrates (HealthDay News) -- Too much sugar in your diet ...

196

Combined pretreatment using ozonolysis and wet-disk milling to improve enzymatic saccharification of Japanese cedar.  

Science.gov (United States)

Ozonolysis and subsequent wet-disk milling (DM) were carried out on Japanese cedar (Cryptomeria japonica) to improve sugar production by enzymatic saccharification. When the moisture content reached more than 40%, ozone consumption decreased, resulting in less delignification. Ozone treatment removed mainly lignin, but also small amounts of polysaccharides. The application of DM following the ozone treatment further increased glucose and xylose yields, but had no significant effect on mannose yield, due to the loss of mannan in the ozone-treated product and the lack of mannose-releasing activity in the hemicellulase used. Sugar concentration increased with substrate concentration, when a constant ratio of enzyme to substrate was used. PMID:23073106

Miura, Toyokazu; Lee, Seung-Hwan; Inoue, Seiichi; Endo, Takashi

2012-12-01

197

Remembering nutrient quality of sugar in Drosophila  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Taste is an early stage in food and drink selection for most animals [1, 2]. Detecting sweetness indicates the presence of sugar and possible caloric content. However, sweet taste can be an unreliable predictor of nutrient value because some sugars cannot be metabolized. In addition, discrete sugars are detected by the same sensory neurons in the mammalian [3] and insect gustatory systems [4, 5], making it difficult for animals to readily distinguish the identity of different sugars using tas...

Burke, Christopher J.; Waddell, Scott

2011-01-01

198

Saccharification of recalcitrant biomass and integration options for lignocellulosic sugars from Catchlight Energy’s sugar process (CLE Sugar  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background Woody biomass is one of the most abundant biomass feedstocks, besides agriculture residuals in the United States. The sustainable harvest residuals and thinnings alone are estimated at about 75 million tons/year. These forest residuals and thinnings could produce the equivalent of 5 billion gallons of lignocellulosic ethanol annually. Softwood biomass is the most recalcitrant biomass in pretreatment before an enzymatic hydrolysis. To utilize the most recalcitrant lignocellulosic materials, an efficient, industrially scalable and cost effective pretreatment method is needed. Results Obtaining a high yield of sugar from recalcitrant biomass generally requires a high severity of pretreatment with aggressive chemistry, followed by extensive conditioning, and large doses of enzymes. Catchlight Energy’s Sugar process, CLE Sugar, uses a low intensity, high throughput variation of bisulfite pulping to pretreat recalcitrant biomass, such as softwood forest residuals. By leveraging well-proven bisulfite technology and the rapid progress of enzyme suppliers, CLE Sugar can achieve a high yield of total biomass carbohydrate conversion to monomeric lignocellulosic sugars. For example, 85.8% of biomass carbohydrates are saccharified for un-debarked Loblolly pine chips (softwood, and 94.0% for debarked maple chips (hardwood. Furan compound formation was 1.29% of biomass feedstock for Loblolly pine and 1.10% for maple. At 17% solids hydrolysis of pretreated softwood, an enzyme dose of 0.075 g Sigma enzyme mixture/g dry pretreated (unwashed biomass was needed to achieve 8.1% total sugar titer in the hydrolysate and an overall prehydrolysate liquor plus enzymatic hydrolysis conversion yield of 76.6%. At a much lower enzyme dosage of 0.044 g CTec2 enzyme product/g dry (unwashed pretreated softwood, hydrolysis at 17% solids achieved 9.2% total sugar titer in the hydrolysate with an overall sugar yield of 85.0% in the combined prehydrolysate liquor and enzymatic hydrolysate. CLE Sugar has been demonstrated to be effective on hardwood and herbaceous biomass, making it truly feedstock flexible. Conclusions Different options exist for integrating lignocellulosic sugar into sugar-using operations. A sugar conversion plant may be adjacent to a CLE Sugar plant, and the CLE Sugar can be concentrated from the initial 10% sugar as needed. Concentrated sugars, however, can be shipped to remote sites such as ethanol plants or other sugar users. In such cases, options for shipping a dense form of sugars include (1 pretreated biomass with enzyme addition, (2 lignocellulosic sugar syrup, and (3 lignocellulosic sugar solid. These could provide the advantage of maximizing the use of existing assets.

Gao Johnway

2013-01-01

199

Stable isotope studies of Indian rivers  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

To understand the surface water characteristics in India, the nine most important rivers have been sampled around the sub-continent. Both Oxygen 18 and Deuterium have been measured to determine the origin of the water and the possible evaporation process. Also the main ions have been analyzed to obtain complementary information. Where some basins have been previously studies, mainly in the North, this is a first attempt at a wider investigation of Indian rivers. If we compare our results with the mean isotopic variation of rainfall over Indian as seen from the GNIP data set, a general NW/ SE isotopic gradient is revealed. The west coast and the south part of Dekkan are the least depleted in heavy isotopes, with a ?18O values of between 0 and -2 per mille, and this relate to the Kaveri, Nethvrati and Krishna rivers. The area below the Thar desert displays a ?18O value of around -3 per mille, as in the Narmada and Tapti rivers. The central part of the Dekkan and the east coast are characterised by ?18O values of around -5 per mille, like for the Godavari and Mahanadi rivers. The North India big plains present ?18O value of between -6 and -12 per mille, like for the Ganga and Brahmaputra rivers. For the Ganga and the Brahmaputra rivers, the seasonal effect is stronger due to significant variations in different water sources i.e.: i) perennial tributaries coming from the inland hills, or the ground water discharge, which contributes water moderately depleted in 18O (winter and spring), ii) Himalayan tributaries fed by snow and glacier melt which are very depleted in heavy isotopes (sommer and fall), and iii) the heavy monsoon rainfall (early summer) which can travel deep inland more lighter water. As seen from the slope of the ?18O and ?2H regression and the calculation of the deuterium excess, the water of these rivers evaporates only slightly during the wet monsoon season (June-September). Evaporation could be more intense before in the hot and dry season (April-May), as seen from sampling on the Yamuna River, the main tributary of the Ganga. Better understanding the characteristics and water origin of these rivers will help to improve the management of the substantial water needs (potable water, irrigation, industry) of this expanding country. But also it can contribute to our understanding of means of flood control, drought prevention, hydroelectric power generation, and improvements in environmental quality

2003-05-19

200

Approximating Mills ratio  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Consider the Mills ratio $f(x)=\\big(1-\\Phi(x)\\big)/\\phi(x), \\, x\\ge 0$, where $\\phi$ is the density function of the standard Gaussian law and $\\Phi$ its cumulative distribution.We introduce a general procedure to approximate $f$ on the whole $[0,\\infty)$ which allows to prove interesting properties where $f$ is involved. As applications we present a new proof that $1/f$ is strictly convex, and we give new sharp bounds of $f$ involving rational functions, functions with squar...

Gasull, Armengol; Utzet, Frederic

2013-01-01

 
 
 
 
201

Indian Summer for Wayfarers  

Science.gov (United States)

A recreational program involving hiking and camping emphasizes teaching young participants through archeology and adventure experiences about American Indians, their technology, and their means of survival in the wilderness. (JD)

Kaltenbronn, Kyra

1977-01-01

202

Depression in Indian history.  

Science.gov (United States)

This write up on some aspects of Indian history of depression touches briefly on references to some aspects of depression in Ayurveda, in philosophical texts and in the epics Ramayana and Mahabharata. PMID:11002619

Rao, A V

2000-05-01

203

Natural radionuclides as dirt tracers in sugar cane consignments  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Soil is usually carried out to the mills, as an impurity in sugar cane, leading to economic drawbacks for the industry. The quantification of this dirt is important to identify its causes and for routine quality control. Several methods have been used for this purpose, however, no single one has been pointed out as an industrial standard. The use of a ?-ray emitting radionuclide of natural occurence was investigated and, after several soil and cane radioactivity analyses, 212Pb was chosen as the best tracer. Calibration curves developed with the addition of soil in clean cane, from 0 to 10% (dry mass), demonstrated the linearity of the method. Analyses of eleven samples taken from consignments showed that the procedure was consistent and reliable when compared to the traditional ash method. (author)

1998-09-01

204

Indian transplant registry  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

An ‘Indian transplant registry’ has been established over the past two years due to the efforts of the Indian Society of Organ Transplantation. This society is about 20 years old with over 450 members who are doctors and basic scientist. The registry is currently in the first phase of its development and can be partly viewed at www.transplantindia.com. The endeavor has been undertaken with the objective of having a centralized repository of information of the various transplants that are ...

2007-01-01

205

Indian Cosmological Ideas  

CERN Multimedia

This paper, third in the series on Indian tradition of physics, describes conceptions of the cosmos with ideas that are clearly spelt out in texts such as Yoga Vasishtha.In particular, the conception of multiple universes that occurs often in this text will be examined in the framework of the Indian physics. The other surprising concepts that are discussed include flow of time and its variability with respect to different observers, and the possibility of passage across universes.

Narayan, R

2007-01-01

206

Ratings for S.Wimbledon (Connolly's Mill)  

Ratings for S.Wimbledon (Connolly's Mill) Back to station No Rating History data available for: Wandle at S.Wimbledon (Connolly's Mill) (39003) Ratings for Wandle at S.Wimbledon (Connolly's Mill) (39003)

207

Microsoft Word - Portrush Mill.doc  

...MICROBIOLOGIOCAL RESULTS FOR PORTRUSH MILL BATHING WATER IN NORTHERN IRELAND...faecal streptococci cfu/100ml PORTRUSH (MILL) 06/06/2002 1800 460...2002 1800 460 38 PORTRUSH (MILL) 12/06/2002 50 14...

208

29 CFR 516.18 - Employees employed in certain tobacco, cotton, sugar cane or sugar beet services, who are...  

Science.gov (United States)

...Employees employed in certain tobacco, cotton, sugar cane or sugar beet services, who are partially exempt from overtime pay...Employees employed in certain tobacco, cotton, sugar cane or sugar beet services, who are partially exempt from overtime...

2009-07-01

209

75 FR 22095 - USDA Reassigns Domestic Cane Sugar Allotments and Increases the Fiscal Year 2010 Raw Sugar Tariff...  

Science.gov (United States)

...the Secretary USDA Reassigns Domestic Cane Sugar Allotments and Increases the Fiscal Year 2010 Raw Sugar Tariff-Rate Quota AGENCY: Office of the...today announced a reassignment of surplus sugar under domestic cane sugar allotments of...

2010-04-27

210

29 CFR 780.815 - Basic conditions of exemption; second part, processing of sugar beets, sugar-beet molasses...  

Science.gov (United States)

...conditions of exemption; second part, processing of sugar beets, sugar-beet molasses, sugarcane, or maple sap. 780... Employment in Ginning of Cotton and Processing of Sugar Beets, Sugar-Beet Molasses, Sugarcane, or...

2009-07-01

211

76 FR 20305 - USDA Reassigns Domestic Cane Sugar Allotments and Increases the Fiscal Year 2011 Raw Sugar Tariff...  

Science.gov (United States)

...the Secretary USDA Reassigns Domestic Cane Sugar Allotments and Increases the Fiscal Year 2011 Raw Sugar Tariff-Rate Quota AGENCY: Office of the...today announced a reassignment of surplus sugar under domestic cane sugar allotments of...

2011-04-12

212

75 FR 38764 - USDA Reassigns Domestic Cane Sugar Allotments and Increases the Fiscal Year 2010 Raw Sugar Tariff...  

Science.gov (United States)

...the Secretary USDA Reassigns Domestic Cane Sugar Allotments and Increases the Fiscal Year 2010 Raw Sugar Tariff-Rate Quota AGENCY: Office of the...today announced a reassignment of surplus sugar under domestic cane sugar allotments of...

2010-07-06

213

29 CFR 780.815 - Basic conditions of exemption; second part, processing of sugar beets, sugar-beet molasses...  

Science.gov (United States)

...conditions of exemption; second part, processing of sugar beets, sugar-beet molasses, sugarcane, or maple sap. 780.815 ...Employment in Ginning of Cotton and Processing of Sugar Beets, Sugar-Beet Molasses, Sugarcane, or Maple...

2009-07-01

214

Japan steel mill perspective  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The international and Japan's steel industry, the coking coal market, and Japan's expectations from Canada's coal industry are discussed. Japan's steel mills are operating at full capacity. Crude steel production for the first half of 2004 was 55.8 million tons. The steel mills are profitable, but costs are high, and there are difficulties with procuring raw materials. Japan is trying to enhance the quality of coke, in order to achieve higher productivity in the production of pig iron. Economic growth is rising disproportionately in the BRICs (Brazil, Russia, India, and China), with a large increase in coking coal demand from China. On the supply side, there are several projects underway in Australia and Canada to increase production. These include new developments by Elk Valley Coal Corporation, Grande Cache Coal, Western Canadian Coal, and Northern Energy and Mining in Canada. The Elga Mine in the far eastern part of Russia is under development. But the market is expected to remain tight for some time. Japan envisions Canadian coal producers will provide a stable coal supply, expansion of production and infrastructure capabilities, and stabilization of price. 16 slides/overheads are included.

Murase, K. [Kobe Steel Ltd., Tokyo (Japan)

2004-07-01

215

Fossil energy savings potential of sugar cane bio-energy systems  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

One important rationale for bio-energy systems is their potential to save fossil energy. Converting a conventional sugar mill into a bio-energy process plant would contribute to fossil energy savings via the extraction of renewable electricity and ethanol substituting for fossil electricity and gasoline, respectively. This paper takes a closer look at the Thai sugar industry and examines two practical approaches that will enhance fossil energy savings. The first one addresses an efficient extraction of energy in the form of electricity from the excess bagasse and cane trash. The second while proposing to convert molasses or sugar cane to ethanol stresses the use of bagasse as well as distillery spent wash to replace coal in meeting ethanol plants' energy needs. The savings potential achieved with extracting ethanol from surplus sugar versus current practice in sugar industry in Thailand amounts to 15 million barrels of oil a year. Whether the saving benefits could be fully realized, however, depends on how well the potential land use change resulting from an expansion of ethanol production is managed. The results presented serve as a useful guidance to formulate strategies that enable optimum utilization of biomass as an energy source

Nguyen, Thu Lan T; Hermansen, John Erik

2009-01-01

216

Haitians’ Labor and Leisure on Cuban Sugar Plantations: The Limits of Company Control  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This article challenges the common notion that Cuban sugar companies controlled the labor and social relations of Haitian immigrant laborers fully and without challenge during the first half of the 20th century. It begins by showing the way that Cuban newspapers and sugar company administrators projected an image of Haitians as a homogenous group of powerless, culturally isolated cane cutters who were separated from other groups through an idealized labor hierarchy. Then it details Haitians’ laboring lives on Cuban sugar plantations to demonstrate three things. First, that Haitians participated in other aspects of sugar production, including skilled positions within centrales. Second, that cane cutters themselves were divided by their skill levels and (informal hierarchies. Third, that Haitians worked alongside individuals of other nationalities in both sugar fields and the mills where cane was processed. The essay ends by analyzing Haitians’ attempts to carve out autonomy in their work and leisure hours by exerting control over their labor and creating various types of commercial and social networks with individuals of other nationalities on plantations.

Matthew Casey

2011-06-01

217

Bioassay for uranium mill tailings  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Uranium mill tailings are composed of fine sand that contains, among other things, some uranium (U/sup 238/ primarily), and all of the uranium daughters starting with /sup 230/Th that are left behind after the usable uranium is removed in the milling process. Millions of pounds of tailings are and continue to be generated at uranium mills around the United States. Discrete uranium mill tailings piles exist near the mills. In addition, the tailings materials were used in communities situated near mill sites for such purposes as building materials, foundations for buildings, pipe runs, sand boxes, gardens, etc. The Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action Project (UMTRAP) is a U.S. Department of Energy Program designed with the intention of removing or stabilizing the mill tailings piles and the tailings used to communities so that individuals are not exposed above the EPA limits established for such tailings materials. This paper discusses the bioassay programs that are established for workers who remove tailings from the communities in which they are placed

1986-01-01

218

POT for Old Mill Bridge  

POT for Old Mill Bridge Back to station POT Data for: Harpers Brook at Old Mill Bridge (32003) Note: Place the mouse cursor over a column heading to view a description of the data in that column Rank Date Time Stage Flow Rating Source Ref Comments 293 28/12/1938 00:00 1.190 4.17 In Range CEH POTS…

219

DO INDIAN RESEARCHERS READ INDIAN RESEARCH?  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

It is the authors' experience that papers in the Indian Journal of Psychiatry (IJP) under-reference relevant research previously published in the journal. To empirically address this issue, four volumes of the IJP, from 1989 to 1992 (both years inclusive), were surveyed. It was found that of 292 articles examined, 133 articles (45.5%) had neglected to cite relevant articles previously published in the IJP. The overall ratio of IJP reference included to IJP reference omitted was 1:1. Surprisin...

1994-01-01

220

Sugar recognition by human galactokinase  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Abstract Background Galactokinase catalyses the first committed step of galactose catabolism in which the sugar is phosphorylated at the expense of MgATP. Recent structural studies suggest that the enzyme makes several contacts with galactose – five side chain and two main chain hydrogen bonds. Furthermore, it has been suggested that inhibition of galactokinase may help sufferers of the genetic disease classical galactosemia which is caused by defects in another enzyme of t...

Timson David J; Reece Richard J

2003-01-01

 
 
 
 
221

Fermentation inhibitor in sugar beet  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Low yields of alcohol from whole sugar-beet juice of variety Ramonskaya is due to the presence of a heat-labile inhibitor. The inhibitory substance does not affect the growth of yeast cells but has a special effect on alcohol production. It can be denatured or removed by heat treatment, while a number of chemicals also neutralize the inhibitory effect. Alum and CaCO3 were the most promising of these chemicals.

Vadehra, D.V.; Hashia, R.; Mehta, P.; Chandan, N.C.; Gupta, J.K.

1984-01-01

222

Cogeneration alternatives in sugar and alcohol industries. Case of study; Alternativas de cogeracao na industria sucro-alcooleira. Estudo de caso  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

In the present work, a cogeneration system of sugar-alcohol cane mill is evaluated. Using the Exergetic Cost Theory, a thermo economic analysis is made for the crop corresponding to the year 2000. Previously a detailed energetic analysis was made in order to determine of the first law efficiency for steam boilers and the fuel consumption involved. The first and second law equipment's efficiencies were calculated as well as some performance criteria of the overall system. The fundamental aim of the evaluation was to obtain the cost of the principal fluxes of the system, considering a discount rate of 15 % and a capital recovery period of fifteen years for the energetic equipment in the sugar mill for the monetary cost calculations. In the analysis, was included the sugar mill juice extraction system as a control volume in order to determine the variation in the bagasse cost and its influence in the cost of other fluxes. A Thermodynamic analysis is also made, in which the increase of thermodynamic parameters is studied as a way of improving the fuel economy in Sugar Mill Factories focusing the electric energy obtained in the different alternatives. Diverse strategies are discussed, and as a result, the thermodynamic evaluations of two Proposals of Steam Cogeneration Systems are accomplished as well as the calculations of the exergetic cost. (author)

Sanchez Prieto, Mario Gabriel

2003-07-01

223

Pyrolytic sugars from cellulosic biomass.  

Science.gov (United States)

Depolymerization of cellulose offers the prospect of inexpensive sugars from biomass. Breaking the glycosidic bonds of cellulose to liberate glucose has usually been pursued by acid or enzymatic hydrolysis although a purely thermal depolymerization route to sugars is also possible. Fast pyrolysis of pure cellulose yields primarily the anhydrosugar levoglucosan (LG) whereas the presence of naturally occurring alkali and alkaline earth metals (AAEMs) in biomass strongly catalyzes ring-breaking reactions that favor formation of light oxygenates. Here, we show a method of significantly increasing the yield of sugars from biomass by purely thermal means through infusion of certain mineral acids (phosphoric and sulfuric acid) into the biomass to convert the AAEMs into thermally stable salts (particularly potassium sulfates and phosphates). These salts not only passivate AAEMs that normally catalyze fragmentation of pyranose rings, but also buffer the system at pH levels that favor glycosidic bond breakage. It appears that AAEM passivation contributes to 80?% of the enhancement in LG yield while the buffering effect of the acid salts contributes to the balance of the enhancement. PMID:22976992

Kuzhiyil, Najeeb; Dalluge, Dustin; Bai, Xianglan; Kim, Kwang Ho; Brown, Robert C

2012-11-01

224

BIOTECHNOLOGICAL EMPLOYMENT OF OLIVE OIL MILL WASTEWATERS FOR WATER REMEDIATION AND POTENTIAL BIODIESEL PRODUCTION  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Olive oil mill wastewaters (OMW) are dark-colored wastes characterized by high values of COD (chemical oxygen demand) and BOD (biological oxygen demand). OMW contains high amounts of organic and inorganic compounds. The first category includes mostly sugars, polyphenols, organic acids, proteins, fatty substances, mixed phenol-polysaccharide polymers, polyalcohols, cellulose and hemicellulose, pectins and tannins. The inorganic substance, present in lower amount, includes mainly potassium and,...

2010-01-01

225

75 FR 77042 - Determination of Trade Surplus in Certain Sugar and Syrup Goods and Sugar Containing Products of...  

Science.gov (United States)

...Determination of Trade Surplus in Certain Sugar and Syrup Goods and Sugar Containing Products of...the trade surplus in certain sugar and syrup goods and sugar-containing products of...goods relates to the quantity of sugar and syrup goods and sugar-containing products...

2010-12-10

226

78 FR 146 - Determination of Trade Surplus in Certain Sugar and Syrup Goods and Sugar-Containing Products of...  

Science.gov (United States)

...Determination of Trade Surplus in Certain Sugar and Syrup Goods and Sugar-Containing Products of...the trade surplus in certain sugar and syrup goods and sugar containing products of...Determination of Trade Surplus in Certain Sugar and Syrup Goods and Sugar-Containing Products...

2013-01-02

227

Mechanism study of sugar and sugar alcohol hydrogenolysis using 1,3-diol model compounds  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Knowledge of the bond cleavage mechanism governing sugar and sugar alcohol hydrogenolysis is important to control of the selectivity of sugar and sugar alcohol hydrogenolysis. Previous work by others has resulted in the suggestion of a variety of mechanisms to explain the C{single_bond}C cleavage in sugar and sugar alcohol hydrogenolysis, and has not provided any definitive evidence to elucidate either the C{single_bond}C or C{single_bond}O cleavage mechanism. In this work, the authors present a mechanism study carried out using 1,3-diol model compounds. Experimental results indicate that cleavage of the C{single_bond}C and C{single_bond}O bonds in hydrogenolysis is through retro-aldolization and dehydration of a {beta}-hydroxyl carbonyl, respectively. The structure of this {beta}-hydroxyl carbonyl is already contained in an open-chain sugar molecule, and is generated from the sugar alcohol molecule by dehydrogenation. The intermediates from both C{single_bond}C and C{single_bond}O cleavage are subsequently hydrogenated to yield alcohols or polyols. This mechanism of sugar and sugar alcohol hydrogenolysis provides a good background to understand factors that control the selectivity in sugar and sugar alcohol hydrogenolysis. Based on this understanding, a rational approach to control of the selectivity of sugar and sugar alcohol hydrogenolysis may be developed.

Wang, K.; Hawley, M.C.; Furney, T.D. [Michigan State Univ., East Lansing, MI (United States). Dept. of Chemical Engineering

1995-11-01

228

Fermentation of hemicellulosic sugars and sugar mixtures by Candida shehatae  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

In the experiments described here, batchwise fermentations were employed with Candida shehatae cells induced by growth on either glucose or xylose, and fermentation kinetic constants were determined. Results show that ethanol production rates were higher with xylose-grown inocula than with glucose-grown inocula. This comparison held true for all of the combinations of glucose and xylose tested. The ethanol production rate was highest for a fermentation of 6% xylose supplemented with 3% glucose by xylose-grown inoculum. The next highest rates were obtained with the fermentation of pure glucose and the glucose-xylose mixture by xylose-grown inoculum. Ethanol yields did not appear to be greatly affected by the sugars tested. The rates of mannose, glucose, xylose, galactose, and L-arabinose utilization by xylose-grown inocula were determined in a separate experiment. Mannose (6%) was used at a higher rate than any of the other sugars tested. Mannose also showed the highest rate of ethanol production. Most of the mannose taken up, however, could not be accounted for in the ethanol produced, so it is possible that significant amounts of mannitol were formed. The D-galactose was fermented at a significantly lower rate than glucose, xylose, or mannose. The L-arabinose was not consumed. The ethanol fermentation rate observed was much lower with an autoclaved acid hydrolysate than with the conditioned hydrolysate or a mixture of individual sugars. Contacting the hydrolysate with cells for an extended period of time prior to autoclaving greatly improved fermentability, but this strain of C. shehatae was still very susceptible to inhibition by components in the hydrolysate (Table III).

Jeffries, T.W.; Sreenath, H.K.

1988-04-05

229

78 FR 62650 - Indian Gaming  

Science.gov (United States)

...Affairs [DR.5B711.IA000813] Indian Gaming AGENCY: Bureau of Indian Affairs, Interior...extension of Tribal-State Class III Gaming Compact...notice of the extension of the Class III gaming compact between the Rosebud Sioux...

2013-10-22

230

78 FR 78377 - Indian Gaming  

Science.gov (United States)

...Affairs [DR.5B711.IA000814] Indian Gaming AGENCY: Bureau of Indian Affairs, Interior...extension of Tribal-State Class III Gaming Compact...notice of the extension of the Class III gaming compact between the Yankton Sioux...

2013-12-26

231

78 FR 54670 - Indian Gaming  

Science.gov (United States)

...Affairs [DR.5B711.IA000813] Indian Gaming AGENCY: Bureau of Indian Affairs, Interior...extension of Tribal--State Class III Gaming Compact...notice of the Extension of the Class III gaming compact between the Yankton Sioux...

2013-09-05

232

Energy consumption in Canadian mills  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The continuing increase in costs for power and fuel are affecting significantly the cost of milling Canadian ores. In order to ascertain the scope and source of energy consumption in Canadian mills for further energy conservation opportunities, CANMET, in cooperation with the Canadian Mineral Processors, carried out a detailed survey on the metallic mineral processing plants. Sixty-seven mills representing almost 300 million tons of annual capacity participated in the survey. The results indicated that, in general, copper and iron ore mills, representing the bulk of the tonnage, consumed relatively low levels of energy per ton. Nickel-copper, zinc-copper and lead-zinc ore mills were moderate in energy consumption, and uranium and some copper-lead-zinc mills reported much higher consumptions due primarily to the increased heat requirements of the ore pulp. Although plant heating costs varied somewhat with location, it was apparent that the lowest heating costs were achieved by those plants built with proper insulation and energy conservation design. If the cost per million British thermal units is taken as $2.00, the mill energy costs generally ranged from 40 cents to $1.20 per ton. (auth)

1979-01-01

233

BIO-SUPERPHOSPHATE (BIO-SP APPLICATION ON SUGAR CANE (Saccharum officinarum L.  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The highest expense on sugarcane management is fertilization in which one of them is phosphate fertilizer produced by imported raw materials. An innovation was made by using the local phosphate deposits with low reactivity processed further to improve their effectiveness for sugarcane. The objective of this study was to investigate the growth, yield and quality of sugarcane as affected by bio-superphosphate (Bio-SP application on a highly weathered tropical soil. A nine-month field experiment was conducted at Jatitujuh Sugar Mill area, West Java, Indonesia, comparing between sugarcane fertilized with Bio-SP to replace conventional single superphosphate (SP-36 and that fertilized with SP-36. Urea and MOP (Muriate of Potash were applied at similar dosages as recommended by division of Jatitujuh Sugar Mill Agronomy Research. Bio-SP was formulated by reacting a Central Java Rock Phosphate with liquid culture supernatant (LCS and phosphoric acid characterized by 33% total soluble P2O5, 23.1, and 10.7 % citric acid and water-soluble P2O5, respectively. The results indicated that Bio-SP at 50% dosage of SP-36 was as effective as the SP-36 in supporting sugarcane growth and improved yield up to 8% as crystal sugar. Further consequence of this finding is that the application of Bio-SP reduced 9.2% of fertilizer cost for sugarcane.

Didiek Hadjar Goenadi

2014-02-01

234

Critical management issues for the Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) Project  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The Uranium Mill Tailings Radiation Control Act of 1978 (PL95-604) authorized the Secretary of Energy to enter into cooperative agreements with certain states and Indian Tribes to clean up 24 inactive uranium mill tailing sites and associated vicinity properties. The Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) Project includes the three Federal agencies (EPA, DOE, and NRC), eleven state, Indian Tribes, and at least four major contractors. The UMTRA Project extends over a period of ten years. The standards for the Project require a design life of 1000 years with a minimum performance period of 200 years. This paper discusses the critical management issues in dealing with the UMTRA Project and identifies the development of solutions for many of those issues. The highlights to date are promulgation of EPA standards, continued support from Congress and participating states and Indian Tribes, significant leadership shown at all levels, establishment of credibility with the public, and continued motivation of the team. The challenge for tomorrow is making certain NRC will license the sites and maintaining the high level of coordination exhibited to date to assure Project completion on schedule

1985-03-24

235

The energy and water cost of sugar production in a semi-arid context: a comparative analysis of sugar beet and sugar cane production and processing in Morocco  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A comparative analysis of the production and processing of sugar beet and sugar cane in Morocco was carried out with regards to energy and water use. Total agricultural energy inputs for sugar beet were 33.79 GJ/ha and in the case of sugar cane were 59.33 GJ/ha for plant cane and 35.65 GJ/ha for ratoons. The major energy inputs for both were diesel fuel, electricity and fertilisers. In sugar beet production fertiliser application accounted for move than 50% of total agricultural energy inputs. The most energy intensive operations in sugar cane production were irrigation (37%) and fertiliser application (29%). The input:output energy ratios were 1:3.2 for sugar beet and 1:3.7 for sugar cane. Total energy used in processing was 26.19 GJ/tonne white sugar (tws) from sugar beet and 3.02 GJ/tws from sugar cane. Direct energy in processing was 22.51 GJ/tws for sugar beet and 1.27 GJ/tws for sugar cane. Overall (production + processing) input:output energy ratio was 1:1.5 for sugar beet and 1:4.2 for sugar cane. Overall analysis demonstrated that the production of sugar from sugar beet is more energy intensive than from sugar cane while the sugar cane requires larger inputs of water. (author)

Mohamed Mrini [Centre Technique des Cultures Sucrieres, Kenitra (Morocco); Faouzi Senhaji [Institut Agronomique Hassan II., Rabat (Morocco). Dept. GIA; Pimentel, D. [Cornell University, Ithaca, NY (United States). College of Agriculture and Life Science

2001-05-01

236

Mechanical milling of aluminum powder using planetary ball milling process  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Mechanical alloying has recently attracted considerable attention as researchers strive to enhance nanocomposite properties and extend their utility. The process can be performed at room temperature and homogeneous nanocomposite powders can be produced. In this paper, we investigated the effect of different ball milling parameters and operating conditions (milling time, ball size, processing control agent (PCA and speed in mechanical alloying of aluminum powder to achieve particle size reduction with less contamination. Two types of PCA, i.e. stearic acid and methanol have been used and microstructure evolutions at different operating conditions were studied. It was shown that the optimized milling parameters for aluminium composite are 100 stainless steel ball (10 mm, 200 rpm rotation speed with direction reversal and 1 min pause time after every 15 min running time, under argon gas for 30 hr of milling.

M. Ramezani

2012-12-01

237

Underground milling of uranium ores  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Full text: This paper presents and analyzes the new concept of underground milling of high-grade uranium ore. Compared to conventional milling on surface, the underground milling scheme appears to offer significant cost savings and a lower environmental impact. The paper describes the underground milling scheme, presents process flowsheets and plant layouts, and provides an assessment of potential benefits from underground milling. In response to the current supply/demand situation for uranium, there has been, for the past few years, a 'uranium rush' in many parts of the world, including the resource-rich Athabasca basin situated in northern Saskatchewan. In a recent count, there were over forty uranium companies looking for uranium in this region. Positive results from any of these exploration activities could, depending on their location, potentially provide a source of additional feedstock for any of the existing milling centres in northern Saskatchewan and/or result in the establishment of additional new milling capacity. Underground milling would be considered in the latter instance. The above flowsheet shows the basics of the proposed underground milling scheme, which assumes the existence of a high-grade underground uranium mine, similar to the current McArthur River mine or the planned Cigar Lake mine. Grinding, leaching, solid/liquid separation and tailings deposition are all carried out underground. Leach liquor is pumped to surface for impurity removal, precipitation and drying. The impurities, removed as chemical precipitates, are moved back underground for disposal. Expected environmental benefits are significant and include reduction of surface visual impact, leach residues remain underground, and no tailings management facility on surface. Indeed the process residue is arguably more isolated from the environment than was the ore before mining. Contaminant transport from the stored tailings to surface waters is extremely slow. Application of membrane technology to water treatment for the underground milling scheme is expected to provide an aqueous effluent with minimal loading to the environment. In addition to these substantial environmental benefits, underground milling is expected to give a capital cost saving on the order of 35% and an operating cost saving on the order of 30% relative to conventional mining and milling. (author)

2009-06-22

238

Indian Ocean Traffic: Introduction  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Like the Mediterranean, the Indian Ocean has been a privileged site of cross-cultural contact since ancient times. In this special issue, our contributors track disparate movements of people and ideas around the Indian Ocean region and explore the cultural implications of these contacts and their role in processes that we would come to call transnationalization and globalisation. The nation is a relatively recent phenomenon anywhere on the globe, and in many countries around the Indian Ocean it was a product of colonisation and independence. So the processes of exchange, migration and cultural influence going on there for many centuries were mostly based on the economics of goods and trade routes, rather than on national identity and state policy.

Lola Sharon Davidson

2012-06-01

239

Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action Project (UMTRAP) Public Participation Plan  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The purpose of this Public Participation Plan is to explain the Department of Energy`s plan for involving the public in the decision-making process related to the Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) Project. This project was authorized by Congress in the Uranium Mill Tailings Radiation Control Act of 1978. The Act provides for a cooperative effort with affected states and Indian tribes for the eventual cleanup of abandoned or inactive uranium mill tailings sites, which are located in nine western states and in Pennsylvania. Section 111 of the Act states, ``in carrying out the provisions of this title, including the designation of processing sites, establishing priorities for such sites, the selection of remedial actions and the execution of cooperative agreements, the Secretary (of Energy), the Administrator (of the Environmental Protection Agency), and the (Nuclear Regulatory) Commission shall encourage public participation and, where appropriate, the Secretary shall hold public hearings relative to such matters in the States where processing sites and disposal sites are located.`` The objective of this document is to show when, where, and how the public will be involved in this project.

NONE

1981-05-01

240

78 FR 26801 - Indian Gaming  

Science.gov (United States)

...Affairs [DR.5B711.IA000813] Indian Gaming AGENCY: Bureau of Indian Affairs, Interior...Notice of Approved Tribal-State Class III Gaming Compact...amendment to the Class III Tribal-State Gaming Compact between the Menominee Indian...

2013-05-08

 
 
 
 
241

Sugar recognition by human galactokinase  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background Galactokinase catalyses the first committed step of galactose catabolism in which the sugar is phosphorylated at the expense of MgATP. Recent structural studies suggest that the enzyme makes several contacts with galactose – five side chain and two main chain hydrogen bonds. Furthermore, it has been suggested that inhibition of galactokinase may help sufferers of the genetic disease classical galactosemia which is caused by defects in another enzyme of the pathway galactose-1-phosphate uridyl transferase. Galactokinases from different sources have a range of substrate specificities and a diversity of kinetic mechanisms. Therefore only studies on the human enzyme are likely to be of value in the design of therapeutically useful inhibitors. Results Using recombinant human galactokinase expressed in and purified from E. coli we have investigated the sugar specificity of the enzyme and the kinetic consequences of mutating residues in the sugar-binding site in order to improve our understanding of substrate recognition by this enzyme. D-galactose and 2-deoxy-D-galactose are substrates for the enzyme, but N-acetyl-D-galactosamine, L-arabinose, D-fucose and D-glucose are all not phosphorylated. Mutation of glutamate-43 (which forms a hydrogen bond to the hydroxyl group attached to carbon 6 of galactose to alanine results in only minor changes in the kinetic parameters of the enzyme. Mutation of this residue to glycine causes a ten-fold drop in the turnover number. In contrast, mutation of histidine 44 to either alanine or isoleucine results in insoluble protein following expression in E. coli. Alteration of the residue that makes hydrogen bonds to the hydroxyl attached to carbons 3 and 4 (aspartate 46 results in an enzyme that although soluble is essentially inactive. Conclusions The enzyme is tolerant to small changes at position 2 of the sugar ring, but not at positions 4 and 6. The results from site directed mutagenesis could not have been predicted from the crystal structure alone and needed to be determined experimentally.

Timson David J

2003-11-01

242

The sugar industry in Peru  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Since the early Colonial times sugar production has been a key sector in the Peruvian export economy. This article analyzes its evolution as from the beginning of its modern phase by mid 19th Century, its consolidation in the Northern coastal region, and its concentration in scale-economy plants. The prosperity of this type of production contributed to the formation of both an oligarchy which governed the country until 1968, and the populist party (APRA) and its electoral basis (the so-called...

Klaren, Peter F.

2005-01-01

243

Indian Jute in Australian Collections: Forgetting and Recollecting Transnational Networks  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Indian jute sacking played an essential role in Australian life for over 150 years, yet its contribution to Australian development and its Indian origins have been barely recognised in Australian public collections. What has Australian history gained by this erasing of jute from public memory? Wool, sugar and hop sacks are displayed in public collections as evidence of an Australian national story, but their national dimension depends on the cultural invisibility of jute and jute’s connections to the stories of other communities in other places. Developing an awareness of the contribution of Indian jute to the development of Australia requires an awareness not simply that jute comes from India but that the construction of national identity by collecting institutions relies on forgetting those transnational connections evident in their own collections. Where jute sacks have been preserved, it is because they are invested with memories of a collective way of life, yet in attempting to speak on behalf of the nation, the public museum denies more multidimensional models of cultural identity that are less linear and less place-based. If Indian jute is to be acknowledged as part of ‘the Australian story’, the concept of an Australian story must change and exhibitions need to explore, rather than ignore, transnational networks.

Andrew Hassam

2011-12-01

244

Sugar-induced signal transduction in plants  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Sugars have important signaling functions throughout all stages of the plant's life cycle. This review presents our current understanding of the different mechanisms of sugar sensing and sugar-induced signal transduction, including the experimental approaches used. In plants separate sensing systems are present for hexose and sucrose. Hexokinase-dependent and -independent hexose sensing systems can further be distinguished. There has been progress in understanding the signal tr...

Smeekens, J. C. M.

2000-01-01

245

Root rot diseases of sugar beet  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Root rot diseases of sugar beet caused by Rhizoctonia solani (AG 2-2 IIIB and AG 2-2 IV), R. crocorum, Aphanomyces cochlioides, Phoma betae, Macrophomina phaeseolina, Fusarium oxysporum f.sp. radicis-betae, Pythium aphanidermatum Phytophthora drechsleri, Rhizopus stolonifer, R. arrhizus and Sclerotium rolfsii cause significant losses wherever sugar beets are grown. However, not all these soil-borne pathogens have been reported in all sugar beet production areas. Losses include reduced harvest...

Jacobsen Barry J.

2006-01-01

246

Pullulan production from sugar beat molasses  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Sugar beet molasses was used as the substrate for the production of pullulan with Aureobasidum pullulans ATCC 42023. In addition biomass, residual sugar and final pH of the culture medium were investigated. In comparing sugar beet molasses and glucose media, it was found that production of pullulan from glucose medium highly exceeded that produced from molasses medium. Treatment of molasses with sodium sulphate slightly enhanced pullulan production. Highest pullulan production from molasses o...

Kassim, Mohammad Bashir Ismail

1997-01-01

247

What Price Sugar? Land, Labor, and Revolution  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

[First paragraph] Sugar, Slavery, and Society: Perspectives on the Caribbean, India, the Mascarenes, and the United States. Bernard Moitt (ed.). Gainesville: University Press of Florida, 2004. vii + 203 pp. (Cloth US $ 65.00) Tropical Babylons: Sugar and the Making of the Atlantic World, 1450-1680. Stuart B. Schwartz (ed.). Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press, 2004. xiii + 347 pp. (Paper US $ 22.50) These two books illustrate the fascination that sugar, slaver...

Littlefield, Daniel C.

2008-01-01

248

Production of Biopolymers from Sugar Beet Pulp  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Sugar beet pulp is an important by-product of the sugar industry. In order to make the most of this waste, pectin extraction can constitute an economical solution. Pectin is commonly used in food industry as a gelling agent. However, in the present study another use of pectin is considered: its potential embedding into biodegradable polymer films which can further be used in plastic industry. At first, different pectin extraction methods have been developed on sugar beet pulp in order t...

Meyer, Laurence; Paquot, Michel; Dubois, Philippe

2009-01-01

249

Kraft Pulp Mill Inspection Guide.  

Science.gov (United States)

This manual presents technical data on kraft pulp mill processes and control equipment design and application. The manual also includes inspection checklists for use by agency personnel in evaluating process parameters and control equipment operating cond...

R. Hawks G. Saunders

1983-01-01

250

One-touch cage mill  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Explanations and accompanying diagrams are given of the functions and construction of a 'one-touch' cage mill. Maintenance of the mill is very easy; the cage and liner can be easily replaced and inspection of the inside of the grinding compartment is simple. Detailed descriptions are given of the various features of the mill, including the power mechanism for opening the grinding compartment, the excellent wear resistance and grinding power of the cage, the grinding of high moisture content materials, the wide range of product particle sizes obtainable, and the compact construction and anti-dust design. The use of the mill is explained. High moisture content materials can be simultaneously mixed and pulverized.

Tazaki, M.

1983-01-01

251

Dietary Sugar and Ischaemic Heart Disease  

Science.gov (United States)

Comparison of the sugar intake of 1,158 men believed to be free of ischaemic heart disease failed to establish any real difference in intake when compared with 170 men with confirmed or possible ischaemic heart disease. In neither group was mere any significant correlation between sugar intake and serum cholesterol, white blood cell count, haemoglobin, E.S.R., ?-lipoprotein, or uric add; nor was there any correlation between total sugar intake and weight gain after the age of 25 years. These results suggest that considerably more confirmation is required before acceptance of Yudkm's hypothesis that high sugar intake is the chief dietary factor causing ischaemic heart disease.

Howell, R. W.; Wilson, D. G.

1969-01-01

252

Nuclear analytical techniques in Cuban Sugar Industry  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This paper is a review concerning the applications of Nuclear Analytical Techniques in the Cuban sugar industry. The most complete elemental composition of final molasses (34 elements ) and natural zeolites (38) this last one employed as an auxiliary agent in sugar technological processes has been performed by means of Instrumental Neutron Activation Analysis (INAA) and X-Ray Fluorescence Analysis (XRFA). The trace elements sugar cane soil plant relationship and elemental composition of different types of Cuban sugar (rawr, blanco directo and refine) were also studied. As a result, valuable information referred to the possibilities of using these products in animal and human foodstuff so as in other applications are given

1996-01-01

253

POT for Mill of Tore  

POT for Mill of Tore Back to station POT Data for: Enrick at Mill of Tore (6008) Note: Place the mouse cursor over a column heading to view a description of the data in that column Rank Date Time Stage Flow Rating Source Ref Comments 11 27/07/1980 00:00 2.100 58.68 In Range Dundee Univ. 1a 16 04/10…

254

River Wharfe at Flint Mill  

River Wharfe at Flint Mill Last updated 18:00 on 07/04/2014 Summary The river level at Flint Mill is 0.87 metres. This measurement was recorded at 18:00 on 07/04/2014. The typical river level range for this location is between 0.40 metres and 1.80 metres. The highest river level recorded at this location…

255

Bain at Horncastle Victoria Mill  

Bain at Horncastle Victoria Mill Last updated 05:15 on 07/04/2014 Summary The river level at Horncastle Victoria Mill is 0.18 metres. This measurement was recorded at 05:15 on 07/04/2014. The typical river level range for this location is between 0.05 metres and 0.63 metres. The highest river level recorded… Related Searches: river bain

256

River Yeo at Pen Mill  

…Yeo at Pen Mill Last updated 19:45 on 07/04/2014 Summary The river level at Pen Mill is 1.76 metres. This measurement was recorded at 19:45 on 07/04/2014. The typical river level range for this location is between 0.12 metres and 0.87 metres. The highest river level recorded at this location is 4.57 metres…

257

River Maun at Field Mill  

River Maun at Field Mill Last updated 18:00 on 07/04/2014 Summary The river level at Field Mill is 0.71 metres. This measurement was recorded at 18:00 on 07/04/2014. The typical river level range for this location is between 0.60 metres and 1.40 metres. The highest river level recorded at this location…

258

River Holme at Queen's Mill  

River Holme at Queen's Mill Last updated 18:00 on 07/04/2014 Summary The river level at Queen's Mill is 0.54 metres. This measurement was recorded at 18:00 on 07/04/2014. The typical river level range for this location is between 0.25 metres and 1.20 metres. The highest river level recorded at this location…

259

River Tyne at Riding Mill  

River Tyne at Riding Mill Last updated 18:30 on 07/04/2014 Summary The river level at Riding Mill is 1.14 metres. This measurement was recorded at 18:30 on 07/04/2014. The typical river level range for this location is between 0.33 metres and 2.10 metres. The highest river level recorded at this location…

260

Sprint at Sprint Mill, Kendal  

Sprint at Sprint Mill, Kendal Last updated 15:00 on 07/04/2014 Summary The river level at Sprint Mill, Kendal is 0.51 metres. This measurement was recorded at 15:00 on 07/04/2014. The typical river level range for this location is between 0.13 metres and 1.20 metres. The highest river level recorded…

 
 
 
 
261

VOC Control in Kraft Mills  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The formation of volatile organic compounds (VOCs), such as methanol, in kraft mills has been an environmental concern. Methanol is soluble in water and can increase the biochemical oxygen demand. Furthermore, it can also be released into atmosphere at the process temperatures of kraft mill-streams. The Cluster Rule of the EPA now requires the control of the release of methanol in pulp and paper mills. This research program was conducted to develop a computer simulation tool for mills to predict VOC air emissions. To achieve the objective of the research program, much effort was made in the development of analytical techniques for the analysis of VOC and determination of vapor liquid partitioning coefficient of VOCs in kraft mill-streams using headspace gas chromatography. With the developed analytical tool, methanol formation in alkaline pulping was studied in laboratory to provide benchmark data of the amount of methanol formation in pulping in kraft mills and for the validation of VOC formation and vapor-liquid equilibrium submodels. Several millwide air and liquid samplings were conducted using the analytical tools developed to validate the simulation tool. The VOC predictive simulation model was developed based on the basic chemical engineering concepts, i.e., reaction kinetics, vapor liquid equilibrium, combined with computerized mass and energy balances. Four kraft mill case studies (a continuous digester, two brownstock washing lines, and a pre-evaporator system) are presented and compared with mill measurements. These case studies provide valuable, technical information for issues related to MACT I and MACT II compliance, such as condensate collection and Clean-Condensate-Alternatives (CCA).

Zhu, J.Y.; Chai, X.-S.; Edwards, L.L.; Gu, Y.; Teja, A.S.; Kirkman, A.G.; Pfromm, P.H.; Rezac, M.E.

2001-09-26

262

Ambient aerosol concentrations of sugars and sugar-alcohols at four different sites in Norway  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Sugars and sugar-alcohols are demonstrated to be important constituents of the ambient aerosol water-soluble organic carbon fraction, and to be tracers for primary biological aerosol particles (PBAP). In the present study, levels of four sugars (fructose, glucose, sucrose, trehalose) and three sugar-alcohols (arabitol, inositol, mannitol) in ambient aerosols have been quantified using a novel HPLC/HRMS-TOF (High Performance Liquid Chromatography in combination with High Resolution Mass Spectr...

2007-01-01

263

Economics and energy balances of ethanol from sugar cane and sugar beet  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Apart from political influences, energy balances and economic calculations seem to be determining factors in the decision to produce ethanol from sugar cane and beet. The energy balances for cane and beet sugar to ethanol are positive. The price of ethanol from sugar cane and beet give satisfactory results in comparison with that from crude oil. When unmarketable sugar is available at a low price in developing countries, it seems attractive to produce ethanol in order to reduce oil imports.

Mouris, B.

1984-11-01

264

The sugar industry in Peru  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Since the early Colonial times sugar production has been a key sector in the Peruvian export economy. This article analyzes its evolution as from the beginning of its modern phase by mid 19th Century, its consolidation in the Northern coastal region, and its concentration in scale-economy plants. The prosperity of this type of production contributed to the formation of both an oligarchy which governed the country until 1968, and the populist party (APRA and its electoral basis (the so-called «Aprista North». In the sixties Velasco Alvarado’s military revolution nationalized the sugar industry, which underwent structural changes leading to a serious crisis in the eighties that has not been overcome up-todate.

La producción de azúcar ha constituido un importante sector en la economía exportadora del Perú desde el período colonial temprano. Este artículo analiza su evolución, sobre todo tras el inicio de su fase moderna, fechada a partir de mediados del siglo XIX, cuando se modernizó, se consolidó en la región costera septentrional y se concentró en fábricas que operaban con economías de escala. Su prosperidad, contribuyó, además, a la formación de una oligarquía que gobernó el país hasta 1968 y del partido populista, APRA, y su base electoral (el llamado «sólido Norte aprista». La revolución militar de Velasco Alvarado nacionalizó la industria en la década de 1960 y los cambios estructurales que sufrió posteriormente le condujeron a una grave crisis en los años ochenta que aún no ha superado.

Klaren, Peter F.

2005-04-01

265

Radiocarbon and Indian archaeology  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The increasing use of radiocarbon (C14) dating techniques in Indian archaeology has been described in detail. Work done in Microlithic cultures, Neolithic period, Indus civilization and Iron age cultures have been reported. C14 dates of various archaeological sites are listed. (K.B.)

1975-12-01

266

Indians of the Northwest.  

Science.gov (United States)

Brief descriptions of the historical and cultural background of the Bannock, Cayuse, Coeur d'Alene, Kutenia, Kalispel, Palouse, Umatilla, Walla Walla, Yakima, Spokane, Klamath, Sanpoil, Nespelem, Colville, Quinault, Quileute, Makahs, Klallam, Lummi, Cowlit, Puyallup, Nisqually, and Nez Perce Indian tribes of the Northwestern United States are…

Bureau of Indian Affairs (Dept. of Interior), Washington, DC.

267

Problems of Indian Children.  

Science.gov (United States)

Previous approaches to the learning problems of American Indian children are viewed as inadequate. An alternative is suggested which emphasizes the problem solution strategies which these children bring to the school situation. Solutions were analyzed in terms of: (1) their probability; (2) their efficiency at permitting a present problem to be…

Linton, Marigold

268

Indians of New Mexico.  

Science.gov (United States)

The booklet gives a general introduction to American Indians in New Mexico. Covering historical background and present status, reports are given for these tribes: the 19 Pueblos (i.e., Acoma, Cochiti, Isleta, Jemez, Laguna, and Zuni), the Jicarilla and Mescalero Apaches, and the Navajos. Also included are 26 places of interest such as Acoma…

Bureau of Indian Affairs (Dept. of Interior), Washington, DC.

269

Caregiving in Indian Country  

Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

This podcast discusses the role of caregivers in Indian County and the importance of protecting their health. It is primarily targeted to public health and aging services professionals.  Created: 12/23/2009 by National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion (NCCDPHP).   Date Released: 12/23/2009.

2009-12-23

270

Yang-Mills algebra  

CERN Document Server

Some unexpected properties of the cubic algebra generated by the covariant derivatives of a generic Yang-Mills connection over the +ACQ-(s+ACs-1)+ACQ--dimensional pseudo euclidean space are pointed out. This algebra is Gorenstein and Koszul of global dimension 3 but except for +ACQ-s=1+ACQ- (i.e. in the 2-dimensional case) where it is the universal enveloping algebra of the Heisenberg Lie algebra and is a cubic Artin-Schelter regular algebra, it fails to be regular in that it has exponential growth. We give an explicit formula for the Poincar+AFw-'e series of this algebra +ACQAXA-cala+ACQ- and for the dimension in degree +ACQ-n+ACQ- of the graded Lie algebra of which +ACQAXA-cala+ACQ- is the universal enveloping algebra. In the 4-dimensional (i.e. +ACQ-s=3+ACQ-) euclidean case, a quotient of this algebra is the quadratic algebra generated by the covariant derivatives of a generic (anti) self-dual connection. This latter algebra is Koszul of global dimension 2 but is not Gorenstein and has exponential growth. ...

Connes, Alain; Connnes, Alain; Dubois-Violette, Michel

2002-01-01

271

Uranium mill tailings stabilization  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Uranium mill tailings pose a potential radiation health hazard to the public. Therefore, stabilization or disposal of these tailings in a safe and environmentally sound way is needed to minimize radon exhalation and other environmental hazards. One of the most promising concepts for stabilizing U tailings is the use of asphalt emulsion to contain radon and other hazardous materials within uranium tailings. This approach is being investigated at the Pacific Northwest Laboratory. Results of these studies indicate that a radon flux reduction of greater than 99% can be obtained using either a poured-on/sprayed-on seal (3.0 to 7.0 mm thick) or an admixture seal (2.5 to 12.7 cm thick) containing about 18 wt % residual asphalt. A field test was carried out in June 1979 at the Grand Junction tailings pile in order to demonstrate the sealing process. A reduction in radon flux ranging from 4.5 to greater than 99% (76% average) was achieved using a 15.2-cm (6-in.) admix seal with a sprayed-on top coat. A hydrostatic stabilizer was used to apply the admix. Following compaction, a spray coat seal was applied over the admix as the final step in construction of a radon seal. Overburden was applied to provide a protective soil layer over the seal. Included in part of the overburden was a herbicide to prevent root penetration

1980-03-10

272

Indian Academy of Sciences - New associates, 2011  

Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

indian academy of sciences - new associates, 2011   6. thirupathi gudi, indian institute of science, bangalore  9. supriyo mitra, indian institute of science education and research, nadia10. debdeep mukhopadhyay, indian institute of technology, kharagpur11. g. v. pavan kumar, indian institute of science education and research, pune13. thomas j. pucadyil, indian institute of science education and reesarch, pune14. dipankar saha, indian institute of technology, mumba ...

273

Health-hazard evaluation report HETA 85-018-1759, American Crystal Sugar Company, Moorhead, Minnesota  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A sugar-beet mill owned by the American Crystal Sugar Company (ACSCO) was evaluated for worker exposure to airborne contaminants during beet processing and welding fumes during facility maintenance, following a request from ACSCO management and the American Federation of Grain Millers International Union. Total and respirable dusts were measured in personal and general air samples, and personal welding filter samples were analyzed. Analytical methods included spectroscopy, x-ray diffraction, gravimetry, and chromatography. Quartz was detected in settled dust and high volume air samples; beet pulp was considered to be a potential health risk. Exposures in excess of the most stringent environmental criteria were found for calcium-oxide in lime kiln workers, formaldehyde in diffuser area workers, and total welding fumes, nickel, and iron-oxide during welding operations. Exposures to nickel and formaldehyde presented potential cancer risks. The authors recommend formaldehyde replacement, particulate containment, ventilation improvement, and use of appropriate respiratory protection.

Almaguer, D.; Boiano, J.M.

1986-12-01

274

Health-hazard evaluation report HETA 85-045-1762, American Crystal Sugar Co. , Crookston, Minnesota  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Employee exposures to airborne contaminants during sugar-beet processing and to welding fumes during facility maintenance were evaluated at a sugar beet mill owned by the American Crystal Sugar Company (ACSCO), in response to a request from ACSCO's management and the American Federation of Grain Millers International Union. During beet processing, personal breathing-zone and general air samples were collected and analyzed for several chemicals and total and respirable particulates of various dusts. Welding fumes were analyzed by inductively coupled plasma/atomic emission spectroscopy of personal filter samples. The following exposures were considered excessive by the most-stringent criteria: lime-kiln helper to total particulates; Weibul storage-bin housekeeper to sugar dust; diffuser operator and charger to formaldehyde; welders and cutters to total welding fumes and specific metals, particularly hexavalent chromium and nickel. High-volume air and settled-dust samples contained crystalline silica representing a potential hazard. Recommendations include improved particulate containment and ventilation, use of respirators where appropriate, and formaldehyde replacement.

Almaguer, D.; Boiano, J.M.

1986-12-01

275

Sugar sensing by enterocytes combines polarity, membrane bound detectors and sugar metabolism.  

Science.gov (United States)

Sugar consumption and subsequent sugar metabolism are known to regulate the expression of genes involved in intestinal sugar absorption and delivery. Here we investigate the hypothesis that sugar-sensing detectors in membranes facing the intestinal lumen or the bloodstream can also modulate intestinal sugar absorption. We used wild-type and GLUT2-null mice, to show that dietary sugars stimulate the expression of sucrase-isomaltase (SI) and L-pyruvate kinase (L-PK) by GLUT2-dependent mechanisms, whereas the expression of GLUT5 and SGLT1, did not rely on the presence of GLUT2. By providing sugar metabolites, sugar transporters, including GLUT2, fuelled a sensing pathway. In Caco2/TC7 enterocytes, we could disconnect the sensing triggered by detector from that produced by metabolism, and found that GLUT2 generated a metabolism-independent pathway to stimulate the expression of SI and L-PK. In cultured enterocytes, both apical and basolateral fructose could increase the expression of GLUT5, conversely, basolateral sugar administration could stimulate the expression of GLUT2. Finally, we located the sweet-taste receptors T1R3 and T1R2 in plasma membranes, and we measured their cognate G alpha Gustducin mRNA levels. Furthermore, we showed that a T1R3 inhibitor altered the fructose-induced expression of SGLT1, GLUT5, and L-PK. Intestinal gene expression is thus controlled by a combination of at least three sugar-signaling pathways triggered by sugar metabolites and membrane sugar receptors that, according to membrane location, determine sugar-sensing polarity. This provides a rationale for how intestine adapts sugar delivery to blood and dietary sugar provision. PMID:17786952

Le Gall, Maude; Tobin, Vanessa; Stolarczyk, Emilie; Dalet, Véronique; Leturque, Armelle; Brot-Laroche, Edith

2007-12-01

276

Sugar cane/sweet sorghum as an ethanol feedstock in Louisiana and Piedmont  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Cost to provide readily fermentable feedstock for a year round sweet sorghum-to-ethanol production facility, up to the point at which fermentation begins, was determined. It was assumed that sweet sorghum is produced on marginal crop lands in the Southeastern Piedmont, and is purchased, standing in the field by a central ethanol production facility. Feedstock cost varied from $1.96 to $2.98/gal of ethanol potential depending on harvest system and use of by-products. Major contributors to feedstock cost were field production, harvest/field processing, and cost to evaporate juice to a storable syrup. Cost to transport feedstock to a central production facility, and cost of storage were relatively minor components of total cost, contributing only $0.05 and $0.06/gal ethanol potential, respectively. For a point of comparison, cost of producing ethanol feedstock from sugar cane, based on current processing practices in Louisiana sugar mills, was determined to be $2.50/gal ethanol potential. This cost is higher than determined for most options in the Piedmont for two reasons: (1) sugar cane demands a higher price in Louisiana than was assumed for sweet sorghum in the Piedmont, and (2) little market exists in Louisiana for by-products of sugar milling, consequently, no by-product credit was assigned. Current market value of ethanol must approximately double before a sweet sorghum-to-ethanol industry in the Piedmont could be economically viable, as no opportunity was identified for a significant reduction in feedstock cost

1991-03-25

277

In vitro-in vivo correlation for wet-milled tablet of poorly water-soluble cilostazol.  

Science.gov (United States)

The purpose of the present study was to investigate oral bioavailability of an immediate release tablet containing wet-milled crystals of a poorly water-soluble drug, cilostazol, and to establish in vitro-in vivo correlation. Sub-micron sized cilostazol (median diameter: 0.26 microm) was successfully prepared using a beads-mill in water in the presence of a hydrophilic polymer and an anionic surfactant. The milled suspension was solidified with a sugar alcohol as a water-soluble carrier by spray-drying method. The co-precipitate was compressed into an immediate release tablet with common excipients. Oral bioavailability of the wet-milled cilostazol tablet in male beagle dogs was 13-fold higher than the hammer-milled commercial tablet in fasted condition. Food did not increase the oral bioavailability of the wet-milled tablet, while 4-fold increase was found for the commercial tablet. Irrespective to the bioavailability enhancement, in vitro dissolution rate of the wet-milled tablet was even slower than the commercial tablet by the compendial method (USP Apparatus 2). On the other hand, a good correlation was found between the dissolution profiles obtained by a flow-through cell method (USP Apparatus 4, closed-loop system without outlet filter) using a large volume of water and sodium lauryl sulfate (SLS) solution at the concentration lower than the critical micellar concentration (cmc) as dissolution media corresponding to the fasted and fed conditions, respectively. PMID:18582979

Jinno, Jun-ichi; Kamada, Naoki; Miyake, Masateru; Yamada, Keigo; Mukai, Tadashi; Odomi, Masaaki; Toguchi, Hajime; Liversidge, Gary G; Higaki, Kazutaka; Kimura, Toshikiro

2008-08-25

278

Maple Sugar Harvesting/Wild Rice Harvesting.  

Science.gov (United States)

Comprised of two separate booklets, this resource unit assists elementary teachers in explaining how the Ojibwe people harvest maple sugar and wild rice. The first booklet explains the procedure of tapping the maple trees for sap, preparation for boiling the sap, and the three forms the sugar is made into (granulated, "molded," and "taffy"). The…

Minneapolis Public Schools, MN.

279

Microbiological Spoilage of High-Sugar Products  

Science.gov (United States)

The high-sugar products discussed in this chapter are referred to as chocolate, sugar confectionery (non-chocolate), liquid sugars, sugar syrups, and honey. Products grouped in the sugar confectionery category include hard candy, soft/gummy candy, caramel, toffee, licorice, marzipan, creams, jellies, and nougats. A common intrinsic parameter associated with high-sugar products is their low water activity (a w), which is known to inhibit the growth of most spoilage and pathogenic bacteria. However, spoilage can occur as a result of the growth of osmophilic yeasts and xerophilic molds (Von Richter, 1912; Anand & Brown, 1968; Brown, 1976). The a w range for high-sugar products is between 0.20 and 0.80 (Banwart, 1979; Richardson, 1987; Lenovich & Konkel, 1992; ICMSF, 1998; Jay, Loessner, & Golden, 2005). Spoilage of products, such as chocolate-covered cherries, results from the presence of yeasts in the liquid sugar brine or the cherry. Generally, the spoiled product will develop leakers. The chocolate covering the cherry would not likely be a source of yeast contamination.

Thompson, Sterling

280

Cell wall sugars | UK Energy Research Centre  

Most mass in the plant cell wall is in the form of polysaccharides- cellulose and ... \\for fermentation to fuel and can be converted to mixed sugar solutions by the use \\of ... assault on its structural sugars from the microbial and animal kingdoms.

 
 
 
 
281

Holograms recorded in dichromated with simple sugars  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Sugars as glucose and fructose can be used to holographic record. These materials have the advantage to mix very well with K2Cr2O7.Holographic gratings recorded in sugars, were made by a lineal setup to producing interference pattern using a wavelength at 473 nm. These materials have the ability to register information in real time.

2011-01-01

282

Indian Academy of Sciences - New associates, 2014  

Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

  1. k. v. adarsh, indian institute of science education and research, bhopal   8. u. kodandaramaiah, indian institute of science education and research, thiruvananthapuram   9. r. mahalakshmi, indian institute of science education and research, bhopal 10. angshuman nag, indian institute of science education and research, pune 11. r. s. swathi, indian institute of science education and research, thiruvananthapuram ...

283

Oxidation of NADH (Nicotinamide Adenine Dinucleotide) by Vanadate Plus Sugars,  

Science.gov (United States)

Sugars and sugar phosphates enable vanadate to catalyze the oxidation of NADH. Superoxide dismutase inhibits this oxidation. Incubation of sugars with vanadate, prior to addition of NADH, accelerates this oxidation of subsequently added NADH and eliminate...

S. Liochev I. Fridovich

1987-01-01

284

7 CFR 457.109 - Sugar Beet Crop Insurance Provisions.  

Science.gov (United States)

... 2009-01-01 2009-01-01 false Sugar Beet Crop Insurance Provisions. 457.109 ...COMMON CROP INSURANCE REGULATIONS § 457.109 Sugar Beet Crop Insurance Provisions. The Sugar Beet Crop Insurance Provisions for the...

2009-01-01

285

Transition Metal Catalyzed Selective Oxidation of Sugars and Polyols  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Oxidation reactions of sugars to their corresponding lactones and the selective oxidation of a secondary alcohol of sugar substrates to keto-sugars using transition metal catalysis were investigated.

2005-01-01

286

7 CFR 457.109 - Sugar Beet Crop Insurance Provisions.  

Science.gov (United States)

...2009-01-01 2009-01-01 false Sugar Beet Crop Insurance Provisions. 457.109 Section...CROP INSURANCE REGULATIONS § 457.109 Sugar Beet Crop Insurance Provisions. The Sugar Beet Crop Insurance Provisions for the 1998...

2009-01-01

287

Indian Ocean News”: Indian Challenges To Australian Racialised Media  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Two events involving Indians in Australia have grabbed news headlines at different times. One was the 1945 campaign supporting Indonesian Independence in which Indian seamen – known then in Australia as “lascars” – played a high profile role for which they have seldom been acknowledged. The more recent has been the 2009 series of violent attacks on Indian students in Australia, which have aroused major news coverage and public debate in Australia and India. How might “news” media ...

Heather Goodall

2009-01-01

288

Colorado's prospectus on uranium milling  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The first part of this paper will discuss Colorado's control of uranium mill tailings under Titles I and II of the Uranium Mill Tailings Radiation Control Act of 1978. Colorado has a legacy of nine inactive mill sites requiring reclamation under Title I, and two presently active plus a number of new mill proposals which must be regulated in accordance with Title II. Past failures in siting and control on the part of federal jurisdictions have left the state with a heavy legacy requiring extensive effort to address impacts to the state's environment and population. The second part of this paper will discuss the remedial action programme authorized under Public Law 92-314 for Mesa Country, where lack of federal control led to the dispersal of several hundred thousand tons of uranium mill tailings on thousands of properties, including hundreds of homes, schools and other structures. Successful completion of the State efforts under both programmes will depend on a high level of funding and on the maintenance of adequate regulatory standards. (author)

1982-05-10

289

Computational simulation for analysis of the freight in the sugar cane transportation – a case study in the Rio de Janeiro state  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This work presents an analysis of the freight distribution in the sugar cane supply system in a mill made by computational simulation. The mill supply system is compound basically by the cut, loading and transportation operations (known as CLT. The costs of these operations represent 27% on an average of the direct costs of the production per hectare. Only transportation represents, approximately 55% of the CLT total costs per hectare. In Campos dos Goytacazes, north of Rio de Janeiro state, the sugar cane activity is traditional and of great value, demanding continuous improvement of these operations. The aim of this work was to develop a simulation model to evaluate the relation of the CLT freight cost with the distance of the sugar cane supplier to the mill. Simulations of various ypothetical sceneries built to allow connecting the various suppliers concerning the paid freight were done. Results were validated with data from literature and with information furnish by local mills, allowing, and this way, to determine the impact of the freight over the direct operations costs of the CLT.

João José de Assis Rangel

2008-12-01

290

76 FR 50285 - Fiscal Year 2012 Tariff-Rate Quota Allocations for Raw Cane Sugar, Refined and Specialty Sugar...  

Science.gov (United States)

...THE UNITED STATES TRADE REPRESENTATIVE Fiscal Year 2012 Tariff-Rate Quota Allocations for Raw Cane Sugar, Refined and Specialty Sugar and Sugar-Containing Products AGENCY: Office of the United States Trade Representative. ACTION:...

2011-08-12

291

75 FR 53013 - Fiscal Year 2011 Tariff-rate Quota Allocations for Raw Cane Sugar, Refined and Specialty Sugar...  

Science.gov (United States)

...THE UNITED STATES TRADE REPRESENTATIVE Fiscal Year 2011 Tariff-rate Quota Allocations for Raw Cane Sugar, Refined and Specialty Sugar, and Sugar-containing Products; Revision AGENCY: Office of the United States Trade Representative....

2010-08-30

292

75 FR 50796 - Fiscal Year 2011 Tariff-Rate Quota Allocations for Raw Cane Sugar, Refined and Specialty Sugar...  

Science.gov (United States)

...THE UNITED STATES TRADE REPRESENTATIVE Fiscal Year 2011 Tariff-Rate Quota Allocations for Raw Cane Sugar, Refined and Specialty Sugar, and Sugar-Containing Products AGENCY: Office of the United States Trade Representative. ACTION:...

2010-08-17

293

Indian scales and inventories  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This conceptual, perspective and review paper on Indian scales and inventories begins with clarification on the historical and contemporary meanings of psychometry before linking itself to the burgeoning field of clinimetrics in their applications to the practice of clinical psychology and psychiatry. Clinimetrics is explained as a changing paradigm in the design, administration, and interpretation of quantitative tests, techniques or procedures applied to measurement of clinical variables, t...

Venkatesan, S.

2010-01-01

294

West Indian amblyopia.  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

A series of 21 patients admitted to St Thomas' Hospital, Medical Ophthalmology Unit, with a diagnosis of West Indian or West African amblyopia is reported. Patients were investigated for haematological, biochemical, serological, and radiological abnormalities and particular attention was paid to dietary history. Patients admitted in recent years also underwent neurophysiological investigations. No definite correlation between visual loss and dietary or family history was found, and there was ...

Fasler, J. J.; Rose, F. C.

1980-01-01

295

INDIAN WORDS IN ENGLISH : PERSPECTIVES  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Indian English has come to be recognized as a variety of English in its own right. The process of Indianization of English had started long before Independence. Alarge number of Indian words have been assimilated into the English language. More striking forms of assimilation are those that borrow the abstract concepts of Indian Socio-Cultural phenomena and the Indian way of conceptualizing reality through the Indian language items and use them to interpret the native English speakers own predicament.Attempts have been made by number of scholars to identify the lexical borrowing and specify the circumstances in which this has happened. In this paper an attempt has been made to focus the most influential works in the field of lexical borrowing in English. It also focuses limitations of this work.

SNEHAL RATNAKAR HEGISHTE

2013-06-01

296

DETERMINATION OF PRIMARY METABOLITES IN CEREAL MILLING FRACTIONS  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The aim of this study was to determine of primary metabolites (content of starch, total dietary fibre, reducing sugars, proteins and amino acids in four milling fractions of selected cereals (barley, wheat, oat, spelt, rye, triticale grew in the year 2009. It was found that flour fractions (break flour and reduction flour showed the lower content of primary metabolites than bran fractions (fine bran and coarse bran. The aim of this study was also to mention the potential use of bran parts of grain - substances from these parts can be isolated and after treatment, which causes their efficiently usable for human body, they can be used for fortification of wide range of food products.

Eva Ivanišová

2013-10-01

297

ONLINE SAG MILL PULSE MEASUREMENT AND OPTIMIZATION  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The grinding efficiency of semi autogenous milling or ball milling depends on the tumbling motion of the total charge within the mill. Utilization of this tumbling motion for efficient breakage of particles depends on the conditions inside the mill. However, any kind of monitoring device to measure the conditions inside the mill shell during operation is virtually impossible due to the severe environment presented by the tumbling charge. An instrumented grinding ball, which is capable of surviving a few hours and transmitting the impacts it experiences, is proposed here. The spectrum of impacts collected over 100 revolutions of the mills presents the signature of the grinding environment inside mill. This signature could be effectively used to optimize the milling performance by investigating this signature's relation to mill product size, mill throughput, make-up ball size, mill speed, liner profile and ball addition rates. At the same time, it can also be used to design balls and liner systems that can survive longer in the mill. The technological advances made in electronics and communication makes this leap in instrumentation certainly viable. Hence, the instrumented grinding ball offers the ability to qualitatively observe and optimize the milling environment.

Raj Rajamani; Jose Delgadillo; Vishal Duriseti

2006-06-24

298

Bold strategies for Indian science  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

When an Indian prime minister publicly admits that India has fallen behind China, it is news. Manmohan Singh's statement last January at the Indian Science Congress in Bhubaneswar that this is so with respect to scientific research, and that “India's relative position in the world of science has been declining”, has rung alarm bells. Singh was not springing anything new on Indian scientists; many of us will admit that things are not well1. Recognizing the problem is the first step towards...

2012-01-01

299

American Indian and Alaska Natives Suicide  

Science.gov (United States)

... in the two reservations studied. 9 Opportunities for Suicide Prevention Protective Factors The 1990 National American Indian ... Indian Health Service, American Indian and Alaska Native Suicide Prevention Website http://www.ihs.gov/nonmedicalprograms/nspn/ ...

300

76 FR 63325 - National Indian Gaming Commission  

Science.gov (United States)

...DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR National Indian Gaming Commission AGENCY: National Indian Gaming Commission. ACTION: Notice of no action...On November 18, 2010, the National Indian Gaming Commission (NIGC) issued a Notice of...

2011-10-12

 
 
 
 
301

78 FR 14017 - Courts of Indian Offenses  

Science.gov (United States)

...Band of Goshutes Indians (Utah) to...b)(1) Apache Tribe of Oklahoma...7) Winnemucca Indian Tribe. (b...Oklahoma): (1) Apache Tribe of Oklahoma...5) Fort Sill Apache Tribe of Oklahoma; (6) Kiowa Indian Tribe of...

2013-03-04

302

Uranium mill tailings and radon  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The major health hazard from uranium mill tailings is presumed to be respiratory cancer resulting from the inhalation of radon daughter products. A review of studies on inhalation of radon and its daughters indicates that the hazard from the tailings is extremely small. If the assumptions used in the studies are correct, one or two people per year in the United States may develop cancer as a result of radon exhaled from all the Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action program sites. The remedial action should reduce the hazard from the tailings by a factor of about 100

1981-01-01

303

Uranium mill tailings and radon  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The major health hazard from uranium mill tailings is presumed to be respiratory cancer resulting from the inhalation of radon daughter products. A review of studies on inhalation of radon and its daughters indicates that the hazard from the tailings is extremely small. If the assumptions used in the studies are correct, one or two people per year in the US may develop cancer as a result of radon exhaled from all the Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action Program sites. The remedial action should reduce the hazard from the tailings by a factor of about 100.

Hanchey, L A

1981-01-01

304

Uranium mill tailings and radon  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The major health hazard from uranium mill tailings is presumed to be respiratory cancer resulting from the inhalation of radon daughter products. A review of studies on inhalation of radon and its daughters indicates that the hazard from the tailings is extremely small. If the assumptions used in the studies are correct, one or two people per year in the United States may develop cancer as a result of radon exhaled from all the Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action program sites. The remedial action should reduce the hazard from the tailings by a factor of about 100.

Hanchey, L A

1981-04-01

305

Algebroid Yang-Mills theories  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A framework for constructing new kinds of gauge theories is suggested. Essentially it consists in replacing Lie algebras by Lie or Courant algebroids. Besides presenting novel topological theories defined in arbitrary spacetime dimensions, we show that equipping Lie algebroids E with a fiber metric having sufficiently many E-Killing vectors leads to an astonishingly mild deformation of ordinary Yang-Mills theories: Additional fields turn out to carry no propagating modes. Instead, they serve as moduli parameters gluing together in part different Yang-Mills theories. This leads to a symmetry enhancement at critical points of these fields, as is also typical for String effective field theories

2004-11-19

306

Uranium mill tailings and radon  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The major health hazard from uranium mill tailings is presumed to be respiratory cancer resulting from the inhalation of radon daughter products. A review of studies on inhalation of radon and its daughters indicates that the hazard from the tailings is extremely small. If the assumptions used in the studies are correct, one or two people per year in the US may develop cancer as a result of radon exhaled from all the Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action Program sites. The remedial action should reduce the hazard from the tailings by a factor of about 100

1981-01-01

307

Herbal medicine of Wisconsin Indians.  

Science.gov (United States)

In this chapter we will familiarize the reader with selected aspects of the herbal medicine of Wisconsin Indians. We will concentrate on the Menominee, Potawatomi, Ojibwe and Meskwaki tribes. We will address the following topics: (1) selected methods for research in the existing literature to reveal both the identity and the chemical composition of plants which Indians used for medicinal purposes; (2) some aspects of Indian medicine, such as the mode of delivery of herbal drugs, extensive use of plant mixtures, and other practices; (3) selected literature resources on comparison of uses of medicinal plants among different North American Indian tribes and contemporary white men. PMID:12079202

Kolb, Vera M

2002-01-01

308

Flour Milling Costs and Capital Requirements.  

Science.gov (United States)

This report estimates construction and operation costs of new flour mills for Hard Red Winter and Spring wheats. The mill models, on which the costs are based, incorporate current building and equipment design and product flow technology. Each model confo...

F. F. Niernberger A. B. Ward W. D. Eustace

1977-01-01

309

77 FR 14837 - Bioassay at Uranium Mills  

Science.gov (United States)

...REGULATORY COMMISSION [NRC-2012-0057] Bioassay at Uranium Mills AGENCY: Nuclear Regulatory...regulatory guide (DG), DG-8051, ``Bioassay at Uranium Mills.'' This guide describes a bioassay program acceptable to the NRC staff...

2012-03-13

310

EPA's role in uranium mining and milling  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

EPA's role and actions in regulating uranium mining and milling are reviewed and updated. Special emphasis is given to EPA's current activities under the Uranium Mill Tailings Radiation Control Act of 1978

1980-03-12

311

ECONOMIC ANALYSIS OF SUGAR BEAT PRODUCTION  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Croatian quota of 180.000 tones of sugar beet per year is approved for export to EU countries. For that amount of sugar it is necessary to produce about 30.000 ha of sugar beet. Sugar beet production requires deep and fertile soils, and crop rotation requirement is at least five year. Therefore, Slavonia and Baranya do t have enough areas under sugar beet. An additional problem is so called “sugar reform” applied by EUaiming to decrease price of sugar produced from sugar beet root and its equalization to sugar cane price. Consequences of this movement will be decreasing of sugar beet domestic redemption price. In that way, sugar beet production will be increased only within producers with relative good soils, suitable mechanization and knowledge. The research shows the results of production sugar beet on family farm of Vukovar – SrijemCounty on 21 ha. Technical and technological process includes 35 working operations spending 26.9 hours/ha of mechanization and 65.8 hours/ha of labor. Total costs amount to 15.947,05 kn/ha. Producers paid for seed 1.405,44 kn/ha or 9.4% and for 1.100 kg of fertilizers 2.217,50 kn/ha or 14.8% of total costs. Significant values are also costs for plant protection (9 l/ha being 15.2% of total cost. Mechanization fee is 5.070,96 kn/ha with share of 33.9% what indicates that this is the most important element in total costs, partly as a consequence of increased distance between arable land and farm. Total value of production is 20.759,59 kn/ha, with yields of the root (70.30 t/ha and government subsidies. Amount of 1.068,82 kg root is producedper hour of human labour; while 0.94 hour of human labour is necessary per tone of products. Economic coefficient is 1.36. Profit of 36.67 kn is achieved on 100 invested kunas in production process.

Jozo Kanisek

2008-06-01

312

Sugar industry - number 1 with biogasohol  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

In our latitudes and under our average climatic conditions, sugar beet, by far, is the plant with the highest annually recurrent assimilation output per area unit for energy production purposes. According to the biogasohol project of the sugar industry, freshly produced sugar-beet juice will constitute the base material for processing during beet harvesting periods, whereas, at other times, a storable juice produced during harvesting periods and molasses will be processed to alcohol. This would guarantee whole-year full operation of the alcohol factory.

Vogler, K.

1982-01-01

313

CHEMICAL CHARACTERISATION AND DILUTE-ACID HYDROLYSIS OF RICE HULLS FROM AN ARTISAN MILL  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The chemical composition of rice hulls produced in an artisan mill and its conversion to fermentable sugars was investigated. The carbohydrate fraction represented 59.2% (w/w of the dry hulls. Cellulose, with 36.6%, was the main component, followed by xylan with 13.9%. An important contribution of starch (8.7% was also detected. The content of ash (19.6% and lignin (15.5% was comparable with that of rice hulls obtained in industrial mills. Dilute-sulphuric acid hydrolysis at different temperatures, from 160 to 210°C, was evaluated for production of fermentable sugars. Due to starch hydrolysis, the concentration of glucose in the hydrolysates produced at 160°C was higher than the values that have previously been reported for industrial sorts of rice hulls under comparable conditions. The xylan-to-xylose conversion increased steadily with increase of the temperature and reached a maximum (67.7% at 190°C. Further increases of the hydrolysis temperature decreased the yield of sugars due to their dehydration to furfural and HMF.

Yoney López

2010-09-01

314

Effect of soya milk on nutritive, antioxidative, reological and textural properties of chocolate produced in a ball mill  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Chocolate is a complex rheological system in which non-fat cocoa particles and sugar particles are enveloped by crystal matrix of cocoa butter. Physical properties of chocolate depend on ingredient composition, method of production and properly performed pre-crystallization phase. In this work, chocolate was produced in an unconventional way, i.e. in a ball mill applying variable refining time (30, 60 and 90 min) and pre-crystallization temperature in chocolate masses (26, 28 and 30?C...

2011-01-01

315

Babcock Mills chosen for Rihand STPP  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The Babcock Compac Mills installed at the Rihand Super Thermal Power Plant in India are modern range of large capacity mills with a ring and ball configuration and pneumatic loading system. These mills are reliable and generate little rejects, and have up to 76.2 t/hr proven capacity. 1 fig.

1987-12-01

316

Rver Mimram at Welwyn (fulling Mill) (38011)  

Rver Mimram at Welwyn (fulling Mill) (38011) Back to search results Rver Mimram at Welwyn (fulling Mill) in North East Area * Station name Welwyn (fulling Mill) * NRFA reference 38011 * Gauging authority Thames * Gauging authority reference 4770 * Watercourse Rver Mimram * Area North East * Hydrometric…

317

Infield routing network and reducing transportation costs on a sugar mill in Colombia  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Globalization and free trade agreements are factors that affect the world¿s economy. For some industries they can be beneficial and for others not so much. Additionally customers are ever more and more demanding, they want better products, with better quality and at a lower price. To stay competitive in the market it is necessary to give the customers everything they want and to supply all the client¿s needs. Being competitive is hard work to maintain and also expensive if the costs are ...

Ca?rdenas Reina, Jorge Mario; Krigsfeld Kuzman, Adrian

2012-01-01

318

Extracting lignins from mill wastes  

Science.gov (United States)

Addition of quaternary ammonium compound and activated charcoal to pulp and mill wastes precipitates lignins in sludge mixture. Methanol dissolves lignins for separation from resulting slurry. Mineral acid reprecipitates lignins in filtered solution. Quaternary ammonium compound, activated charcoal, as well as water may be recovered and recycled from this process.

Humphrey, M. F.

1977-01-01

319

Fulton Bag and Cotton Mills  

Science.gov (United States)

The origins of the Fulton Bag and Cotton Mill can be traced back to 1868 when a German Jewish immigrant named Jacob Elsas began to work in Atlanta's rag, paper, and hide trade. Elsas joined forces with another German Jewish immigrant several years later and then created a firm that would grow to include a print shop, bag mill, and a bleachery. When the plant closed in 1978, the archival records of the Fulton Bag company found their way to the Georgia Institute of Technology archives department. Many of these records have been digitized and they are now available on this site. Visitors can learn about the project in the "Project Info" area, and then browse several historical essays on the company in the "History" section. Interested parties should move over to the "Search" area to look over the company documents by keyword or name. The subject headings are most helpful, and they include thematic collections related to child labor in the mills, detective agencies that spied on activities within the mills, and labor organizing. As a piece of labor history, this archive is a real gem, and it's one that is most worthy of several visits.

320

Can at Beaches Mill (37006)  

…compound flume (built within mill race) with levels recorded in each. Trapezoidal centre section for low flows. Limit of station - 35 cumecs. Flow spills out of bank and bypasses the station from around 2m - very significant part of flow, allowance for this not made in record. Naturalised flows from1962…

 
 
 
 
321

Wharfe at Flint Mill (27002)  

…to the level of weir by-passing (1.6 m), and level thereafter. In summer, chart zero was often set 0.3 m below the weir crest to allow for leakage. All river stages now recorded as levels for discharge calculation. Mill race was opened in early 1990s and is not rated, so flows are unreliable. Does not…

322

Wensum at Costessey Mill (34004)  

…Catchment area and source of info 570.9 km 2 NRFA * Station type MIS * FEH site Yes * POT threshold 13.00 m 3/s * Status Permanent * Station description Complex structure comprising 30 m Crump weir in main channel with tilting gate, and 1.5 m wide Crump weir in parallel mill channel. Main weir has crescent…

323

J. S. Mill on Education  

Science.gov (United States)

Mill may be said either to have written rather little on education or to have written a very great deal. He himself distinguished between a "narrow" and a "wider" sense of education, the former limited to what happens in formal educational settings, the latter embracing all the influences that make us who and what we are. He wrote rather little on…

Ryan, Alan

2011-01-01

324

Wensum at Costessey Mill (34004)  

…description Complex structure comprising 30 m Crump weir in main channel with tilting gate, and 1.5 m wide Crump weir in parallel mill channel. Main weir has crescent shape in plan view, but standard Crump profile slopes. The tilting gate is moved between three positions to maintain stable water level upstream…

325

Nuclear analytical techniques in Cuban sugar industry  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This paper is a review concerning the application of Nuclear Analytical Techniques in the Cuban sugar industry. The most complete elemental composition of final molasses (34 elements) and natural zeolites (38) this last one employed as an auxiliary agent in sugar technological processe4s has been performed by means of instrumental Neutron Activation Analysis (INAA) and X-Ray Fluorescence Analysis (XRFA). The trace elemental sugar cane soill-plant relationship and elemental composition of different types of Cuban sugar (raw, blanco-directo and refine) were also studied. As a result, valuable information referred to the possibilities of using these products in animal and human foodstuff so as in the other applications are given. (author). 34 refs., 6 figs., 1 tab

1997-08-18

326

Treatment of biomass to obtain fermentable sugars  

Science.gov (United States)

Biomass is pretreated using a low concentration of aqueous ammonia at high biomass concentration. Pretreated biomass is further hydrolyzed with a saccharification enzyme consortium. Fermentable sugars released by saccharification may be utilized for the production of target chemicals by fermentation.

Dunson, Jr., James B. (Newark, DE); Tucker, Melvin (Lakewood, CO); Elander, Richard (Evergreen, CO); Hennessey, Susan M. (Avondale, PA)

2011-04-26

327

Application of radiotracers in the sugar industry  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The purpose of this work was to determine the residence time distribution in the pre-heaters and in the clarifier to meet the dynamic of the sugar manufacturing process and to diagnose the equipment operation

2002-01-01

328

Nuclear analytical techniques in Cuban sugar industry  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This paper is a review concerning the application of Nuclear Analytical Techniques in the Cuban sugar industry. The most complete elemental composition of final molasses (34 elements) and natural zeolites (38) this last one employed as an auxiliary agent in sugar technological processe4s has been performed by means of instrumental Neutron Activation Analysis (INAA) and X-Ray Fluorescence Analysis (XRFA). The trace elemental sugar cane soill-plant relationship and elemental composition of different types of Cuban sugar (raw, blanco-directo and refine) were also studied. As a result, valuable information referred to the possibilities of using these products in animal and human foodstuff so as in the other applications are given. (author). 34 refs., 6 figs., 1 tab.

Diaz R, O. [Instituto Superior de Ciencia y Tecnologia Nuclear (ISCTN), La Habana (Cuba); Griffith M, J. [Cuban Sugar Research Inst., Havana (Cuba)

1997-12-01

329

Root rot diseases of sugar beet  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Root rot diseases of sugar beet caused by Rhizoctonia solani (AG 2-2 IIIB and AG 2-2 IV, R. crocorum, Aphanomyces cochlioides, Phoma betae, Macrophomina phaeseolina, Fusarium oxysporum f.sp. radicis-betae, Pythium aphanidermatum Phytophthora drechsleri, Rhizopus stolonifer, R. arrhizus and Sclerotium rolfsii cause significant losses wherever sugar beets are grown. However, not all these soil-borne pathogens have been reported in all sugar beet production areas. Losses include reduced harvestable tonnage and reduced white sugar recovery. Many of these pathogens also cause post harvest losses in storage piles. Control for diseases caused by these pathogens include disease resistant cultivars, avoidance of stresses, cultural practices such as water management and the use of fungicides.

Jacobsen Barry J.

2006-01-01

330

Evidence for sugar addiction: Behavioral and neurochemical effects of intermittent, excessive sugar intake  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The experimental question is whether or not sugar can be a substance of abuse and lead to a natural form of addiction. “Food addiction” seems plausible because brain pathways that evolved to respond to natural rewards are also activated by addictive drugs. Sugar is noteworthy as a substance that releases opioids and dopamine and thus might be expected to have addictive potential. This review summarizes evidence of sugar dependence in an animal model. Four components of addiction are analy...

Avena, Nicole M.; Rada, Pedro; Hoebel, Bartley G.

2008-01-01

331

Association of ?13C in Fingerstick Blood with Added Sugars and Sugar-sweetened Beverage Intake  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

A reliance on self-reported dietary intake measures is a common research limitation, thus the need for dietary biomarkers. Added sugar intake may play a role in the development and progression of obesity and related co-morbidities; common sweeteners include corn and sugar cane derivatives. These plants contain a high amount of 13C, a naturally-occurring stable carbon isotope. Consumption of these sweeteners, of which sugar-sweetened beverages (SSB) are the primary dietary source, may be refle...

Davy, Brenda M.; Jahren, A. Hope; Hedrick, Valisa E.; Comber, Dana L.

2011-01-01

332

SUGAR-SWEETENED BEVERAGE, SUGAR INTAKE OF INDIVIDUALS AND THEIR BLOOD PRESSURE: INTERMAP STUDY  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The obesity epidemic has focused attention on relationships of sugars and sugar-sweetened beverages (SSB) to cardiovascular risk factors. Here we report cross-sectional associations of SSB, diet beverages, sugars with blood pressure (BP) for UK and USA participants of the International Study of Macro/Micro-nutrients and Blood Pressure (INTERMAP). Data collected includes four 24-h dietary recalls, two 24-h urine collections, eight BP readings, questionnaire data for 2,696 people ages 40-59 fro...

Brown, Ian J.; Stamler, Jeremiah; Horn, Linda; Robertson, Claire E.; Chan, Queenie; Dyer, Alan R.; Huang, Chiang-ching; Rodriguez, Beatriz L.; Zhao, Liancheng; Daviglus, Martha L.; Ueshima, Hirotsugu; Elliott, Paul

2011-01-01

333

Engineering of sugar metabolism in Lactococcus lactis  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Short English Summary Lactococcus lactis is a lactic acid bacterium used in the dairy industry. This thesis decribes the genetic engineering performed on the sugar metabolism of L. lactis. Besides our fundamental interest for sugar metabolism and its regulation in L. lactis, this project had the interest of the dairy industry. L. lactis strains were made with improved lactose and galactose consumption rates, to produce dairy products with lower (ga)lactose concentrations. This is benefici...

Pool, Weia Arianne

2008-01-01

334

Epidemiology of rhizomania disease of sugar beet.  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Rhizomania disease of sugar beet is caused by beet necrotic yellow vein virus (BNYVV). The virus is transmitted by the soil-borne fungus Polymyxa betae. The disease can cause severe losses in sugar yield, depending on the level of infestation in the soil, the environmental conditions during the growing season and the susceptibility of the beet cultivar. Several aspects of the epidemiology of the disease were studied. A quantitative bioassay was developed to assess inoculum potentials of virus...

Tuitert, G.

1994-01-01

335

Holograms recorded in dichromated with simple sugars  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Sugars as glucose and fructose can be used to holographic record. These materials have the advantage to mix very well with K{sub 2}Cr{sub 2}O{sub 7}.Holographic gratings recorded in sugars, were made by a lineal setup to producing interference pattern using a wavelength at 473 nm. These materials have the ability to register information in real time.

Mejias-Brizuela, N Y; Olivares-Perez, A [Instituto Tecnologico Superior de Atlixco, Coordinacion de Bioquimica, Prolongacion Heliotropo N0 1201, Vista Hermosa Atlixco, Puebla (Mexico); Grande-Grande, A, E-mail: nilyame@inaoep.mx, E-mail: olivares@inaoep.mx

2011-01-01

336

The phytochemical and pharmacological profile of Persea americana Mill.  

Science.gov (United States)

Over the past decades, herbal medicine has become a thing of global significance with medicinal and economic implications. Wide spread use of herbs throughout the globe has raised serious concerns over its quality, safety, and efficacy. Thus, exact scientific assessment has become a precondition for acceptance of herbal health claims. Persea americana Mill. (avocado) is a tree, native to central America, cultivated in tropical and subtropical climates around the world, belonging to the family Lauraceae, is widely used in Ayurveda and evidence-based phototherapy. There are 3 principal races or groups of avocado: Mexican, Guatemalan, and West Indian named for the areas where they were originally cultivated. The plant is used in traditional medicine for the treatment of various ailments, such as monorrhagia, hypertension, stomach ache, bronchitis, diarrhea, and diabetes. Peptone, b-galactoside, glycosylated abscisic acid, alkaloids, cellulose, polygalacto urease, polyuronoids, cytochrome P-450, and volatile oils are reported to be present in this plant. Biotechnologic approaches show that modified MS medium supplemented with 1.0 mg benzyladenine/L, 0-1mg Indole Butyric Acid/L, 0.1 mg Gibberalic Acid 3/L was optimum for adventitious shoot development. In the present review, an effort has been made to study the different aspects of P. americana Mill. PMID:22228945

Yasir, Mohammad; Das, Sattwik; Kharya, M D

2010-01-01

337

78 FR 54908 - Indian Gaming  

Science.gov (United States)

...Affairs [DR.5B711.IA000813] Indian Gaming AGENCY: Bureau of Indian Affairs, Interior...Notice of approved Tribal-State Class III Gaming Compact...approval of the Class III Tribal- State Gaming Compact between the Wiyot Tribe and...

2013-09-06

338

78 FR 62649 - Indian Gaming  

Science.gov (United States)

...Affairs [DR.5B711.IA000813] Indian Gaming AGENCY: Bureau of Indian Affairs, Interior...ACTION: Notice of Tribal-State Class III Gaming Compact taking effect...This notice publishes the Class III Gaming Compact between the North Fork...

2013-10-22

339

American Indian Youth Suicide Prevention  

Science.gov (United States)

This article reviews the prevalence of suicide and suicidal ideation among American Indian adolescents. Unique risk and protective factors, and historical trauma and associated symptoms, are explored in the context of American Indian adolescent suicide. The need for culturally-sensitive interventions are necessary, and an example of a…

LaFromboise, Teresa

2006-01-01

340

Special Diabetes Program for Indians.  

Science.gov (United States)

In the Balanced Budget Act of 1997, Congress established the Special Diabetes Program for Indians to provide prevention and treatment services to address the growing problem of diabetes in American Indians and Alaska Natives (AI/ANs). Since the Special Di...

2005-01-01

 
 
 
 
341

DEVELOPING CURRICULUM FOR INDIAN CHILDREN.  

Science.gov (United States)

THIS WORKSHOP REPORT WAS PREPARED AS A GUIDE FOR TEACHERS OF INDIAN CHILDREN IN THE FOUR CORNERS AREA OF ARIZONA, COLORADO, NEW MEXICO, AND UTAH. A BRIEF DESCRIPTION IS GIVEN OF THE HISTORY AND DEVELOPMENT, UP TO THEIR PRESENT STATUS, OF UTE MOUNTAIN UTES, SOUTHERN UTES, JICARILLA APACHES, PUEBLO INDIANS OF NEW MEXICO, AND NAVAJOS. THE STATED…

POTTS, ALFRED M., 2D; SIZEMORE, MAMIE

342

Sugar continues to vex Estonia, Latvia  

Index Scriptorium Estoniae

Põllumajandusminister Ester Tuiksoo saatis Euroopa Komisjoni volinikule põllumajanduse alal kirja, milles palus kodumajapidamistes tarvitatava suhkru mahaarvamist koguvarudest. Läti meedia teatas, et Euroopa Komisjon võib anda rohkem aega suhkruvarudest vabanemiseks

2005-01-01

343

Alcohol and Indian porphyrics.  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The role of alcohol as the precipitating factor in the induction of acute attacks of acute intermittent porphyria was studied in an Indian population. Thirty-four teetotal patients with acute intermittent porphyria, in remission, were given 60 ml of 30% ethanol. Except for two patients, all had negative Watson-Schwartz tests prior to the alcohol. Within 24 hours, the Watson-Schwartz test became positive in 16 of these 32 patients (50%). In 8 out of the 34 patients (23.5%) a clinical attack wa...

Saksena, H. C.; Panwar, R. B.; Rajvanshi, P.; Sabir, M.; Suri, M.

1991-01-01

344

Dietary sugar utilisation by putative oral probiotics.  

Science.gov (United States)

Probiotic consumption and repeated probiotic intake have shown promising results as adjunct therapies in prevention and alleviation of some chronic disease conditions in the gastrointestinal tract. Recent evidence suggests that probiotics may also be beneficial in preventing oral diseases. An efficient probiotic candidate in the mouth, however, should not impose any risk to oral tissues, such as acid demineralisation of tooth enamel because of sugar fermentation. The aim of the present in vitro study was to evaluate the utilisation of some sugars and sugar alcohols by yogurt starter Lactobacillus delbrueckii subsp. bulgaricus strains and to assess the influence of these carbohydrate sources on cell surface properties. For comparsion, a commercially available probiotic, Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG, was used. The results showed that lactose, glucose and fructose were readily metabolised by all strains tested. However, strain-specific metabolic patterns were observed when other sugars and sugar alcohols were used as sole carbohydrate source in the growth medium. Surface properties of the bacteria such as hydrophobicity and surface-associated proteins appeared to vary with the carbohydrate content of the growth medium. Based on these results it can be concluded that among the L. delbrueckii subsp. bulgaricus strains probiotic candidate strains are available that warrant further studies due to their inability to ferment sugars with pronounced cariogenic properties. PMID:22968411

Stamatova, I; Kari, K; Hervonen, L; Meurman, J H

2012-09-01

345

Agroclimatic Zoning of Sugar Beets in Western Siberia.  

Science.gov (United States)

One of the primary tasks in sugar-beet production is to study the natural resources for the purpose of introducing sugar-beet growing in new areas and to increase the yield and sugar content of the beets. This especially concerns Siberia where sugar beet ...

L. S. Kelchevskaya

1965-01-01

346

Electron beam processing of sugar cane bagasse to cellulose hydrolysis  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Sugarcane bagasse has been considered as a substrate for single cell protein, animal feed, and renewable energy production. Sugarcane bagasse generally contain up to 45% glucose polymer cellulose, 40% hemicelluloses, and 20% lignin. Pure cellulose is readily depolymerised by radiation, but in biomass, the cellulose is intimately bonded with lignin, that protect it from radiation effects. The objective of this study is the evaluation of the electron beam irradiation as a pre-treatment to enzymatic hydrolysis of cellulose in order to facilitate its fermentation and improves the production of ethanol biofuel. Samples of sugarcane bagasse were obtained in sugar/ethanol Iracema Mill sited in Piracicaba, Brazil, and were irradiated using Radiation Dynamics Electron Beam Accelerator with 1.5 MeV energy and 37kW, in batch systems. The applied absorbed doses of the fist sampling, Bagasse A, were 20 kGy, 50 kGy, 100 kGy and 200 kGy. After the evaluation the preliminary obtained results, it was applied lower absorbed doses in the second assay: 5 kGy, 10 kGy, 20 kGy, 30 kGy, 50 kGy, 70 kGy, 100 kGy and 150 kGy. The electron beam processing took to changes in the sugarcane bagasse structure and composition, lignin and cellulose cleavage. The yield of enzymatic hydrolyzes of cellulose increase about 40 % with 30 kGy of absorbed dose. (author)

2009-10-02

347

Indian transplant registry.  

Science.gov (United States)

An 'Indian transplant registry' has been established over the past two years due to the efforts of the Indian Society of Organ Transplantation. This society is about 20 years old with over 450 members who are doctors and basic scientist. The registry is currently in the first phase of its development and can be partly viewed at www.transplantindia.com. The endeavor has been undertaken with the objective of having a centralized repository of information of the various transplants that are being undertaken in India. In its first phase of the registry 'Fast Fact' retrospective short datasets are being captured that include the essential details of the transplant programme. The fast fact data includes the number of transplant done yearly, the sex ratio and type of transplant. So far thirteen major institutional data has been entered in the registry. In the second phase of the registry, over twenty fields are likely to be captured and all member institutions would be encouraged to enter the data prospectively. In the third phase data would be derived with ongoing audit features.. The society and its members have supported the formation of the registry and are enthusiastic about its potential. PMID:19718330

Shroff, Sunil

2007-07-01

348

Indian spices for healthy heart - an overview.  

Science.gov (United States)

Spices were some of the most valuable items of trade in the ancient and medieval world. Herbalist and folk practitioners have used plant remedies for centuries, but only recently have scientist begun to study the powers of common herbs and spices. In the current set-up, the anti-proliferative, anti-hypercholesterolemic, anti-diabetic, anti-inflammatory effects of spices have overriding importance, as the key health concern of mankind nowadays is diabetes, cardio-vascular diseases, arthritis and cancer. Spices or their active compounds could be used as possible ameliorative or preventive agents for these health disorders. Spices are rich in antioxidants, and scientific studies suggest that they are also potent inhibitors of tissue damage and inflammation caused by high levels of blood sugar and circulating lipids. Because spices have very low calorie content and are relatively inexpensive, they are reliable sources of antioxidants and other potential bioactive compounds in diet. This review outlines the role of some spices used in the Indian kitchen for its flavour and taste which are potential to maintain a healthy heart. PMID:22043203

Vasanthi, Hannah R; Parameswari, R P

2010-11-01

349

An econometrics method to estimate demand of sugar  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Sugar is one of the strategic goods in the basket of households in each country and it plays an important role in supplying the required energy. On the other hand, it is one of the goods, which Iranian government is about to change its subsidy strategies. To design useful sugar subsidy strategies, it is necessary to know sugar position in the basket of households and be familiar with households' sugar demand or consumption behavior. This research estimates sugar demand for Iranian households ...

2012-01-01

350

By-products of the cane sugar industry  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This book discussed the inroads made in the sugar trade by the increasing consumption of high fructose corn syrup and the rapidly decreasing U.S. sugar imports that have forced many cane sugar-producing countries to reconsider their development policy and give more attention to improved efficiency and a more productive utilization of cane sugar by-products. Changes in sugar technology are addressed and the general improvement of biotechnology is described.

Paturav, J.M.

1989-01-01

351

Mapping of combined heat and power systems in cane sugar industry  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Cogenerating systems based on steam turbines (1-20 MWt) are indispensable when the source of energy is a solid fuel such as bagasse as in a sugar industry. These systems provide a wide range of heat to power ratios from 0 to as high as 100. The energy productivity of sugar plants differ vastly because of variations in equipment efficiency, system configuration and operating steam conditions. In this paper a mapping of the entire operating range of steam based combined heat and power plants spanning pure back pressure to pure condensing environments, based on standard steam conditions in installations and efficiencies which are currently being achieved experimentally, is presented. This will enable the rational choice of combinations, which will yield the best economic advantage. As the operating steam pressure is increased (and consequently the matching superheated temperatures) the in-house steam requirement reduces drastically and simultaneously the exportable power increases. Improvements in the systems by the use of advanced designs of steam turbines and introduction of information technologies and associated supervision control and data acquisition, energy management system, multi-media interaction, etc., is also briefly highlighted. The maximum exportable electrical power from a sugar mill after meeting the internal requirement is around 146 kW h/t of cane. The maximum exportable of steam (no power export) is around 0.65 t/t of cane. (author)

Bhatt, M.S.; Rajkumar, N. [Central Power Research Institute, Sreekariyam (India). Energy Research Centre

2001-12-01

352

PROSPECTS OF SUGAR PRODUCTION AND IMPORTS: MEETING THE SUGAR DEMAND OF NIGERIA BY YEAR 2020  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The trend of sugar cane production and refined sugar imports for the period 1960-2010 were analysed and forecasted to year 2020. Results show that sugar cane output will rise to 2.8m tonnes from about 88 thousand hectares of land by year 2020. The total refined sugar that will be available from production and import is about 720 thousand tonnes but with Nigerian population growing at the rate of 2.27%, potential demand for refined sugar will rise to 1.6B tonnes by the year 2020 creating a deficit of over 1.5B tonnes. This require a drastic action which if not taken will lead to sugar crisis. Three major options are advocated in this paper i.e. hectarage expansion, massive funding of research to improve sugar cane production technology such that yield will rise to 150 tonnes per hectare and import expansion. Of the three options, only increase funding of research will encourage local technology and save Nigeria foreign exchange of more than $100B annually and will make Nigeria self-reliant in sugar production by the year 2020 and facilitate the emergence of Nigeria as a developed nation.

J.N. Nmadu

2013-02-01

353

The Competitiveness of Sugar Cane Production: A Study of Kenana Sugar Company, Sudan  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The study aimed to measure the competitiveness of sugar cane in Kenana Sugar Company as the major objective covering the seasons 2004/05, 2005/06, and 2006/07. Specific objectives are to measure the hard currency revenue gained, the quantity of local resources used to gain hard currency, efficiency of local resources used and to see whether Kenana Sugar Company is taxed or subsidized. The study depended mainly on secondary data which was collected from different sources. The data was analyzed using Policy Analysis Matrix (PAM. Also, sensitivity analysis was used. The study revealed that, sugar production appeared highly competitive in the national and international level under study period and government policies are taxing sugar cane production. The sensitivity analysis results summarized that: increasing in yield and world price result in improving sugar DRC and vice versa while increasing in exchange rate results in worsening DRC and vice versa. The study recommended that, the government should exempt sugar cane production from taxes, induce incentives to encourage sugar industry production and secure sustainable and steadiness foreign exchange.

Abda Abdalla Emam

2011-09-01

354

Effect of zero energy cool chamber and post-harvest treatments on shelf-life of fruits under semi-arid environment of Western India. Part 2. Indian gooseberry fruits  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Effect of zero energy cool chamber (ZECC) along with post-harvest treatments including CaCl2, mustard oil and K2SO4 separately on shelf-life and fruit quality attributes of Indian gooseberry or aonla (Emblica officinalis Gaertn) during storage under semi-arid ecosystem of Gujarat was studied. Increase in physiological loss in weight (PLW), spoilage loss, total soluble solids, total sugar and reducing sugars, reduction in titratable acidity and ascorbic acid were observed during storage period...

Singh, Sanjay; Singh, A. K.; Joshi, H. K.; Bagle, B. G.; More, T. A.

2010-01-01

355

“Impact of Irrigation Scheme on Agricultural Development - A study of Krishna Sugar Factory Irrigation Scheme Rethare Bk. Satara District , Maharashtra State”  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

India is the most extensively irrigated country in the world. The problem of Indian agriculture is mainly the water supply. Water is indispensable to agricultural production. In areas where rainfall is well distributed throught the year, there is no problem. But in uncertain rainfall areas irrigation is quite essention for cultivation. For the sugarcane cultivation there is requirement of regular supply of water. Because of this Krishna Sugar Factory established a Krishna Irrigati...

2012-01-01

356

Industrial application of HCX-MILL to hot strip mills; Netsukan`yo HCX-MILL no jikki tokusei  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Hot-rolled steel is increasingly becoming harder and thinner. As a result, the first stand of a finishing mill is required to have expanded control capacity for fabrication of plate crowns, because control functions of the last stand are preferentially allocated to shaping. Hitachi Ltd. has been pursuing 4-stage high crown mill functions to meet the above requirement, and developed a new mill named HCX-MILL of high controlling capacity for plate crowns, in which only working rolls are crossed. Described herein are outline of the development of the mill and its functions. Crossing of working rolls alone is difficult for the conventional crown mill, because of an excessive thrust resulting from relative motion between the working and auxiliary rolls. A new inter-roll lubrication techniques have been developed to solve the above problem and realize crossing of the working rolls alone. The first commercial system has been exhibiting good plate crown controllability. 2 refs., 13 figs., 2 tabs.

Ono, H.; Watanabe, T. [Nisshin Steel Co. Ltd., Tokyo (Japan); Yoshimoto, K.; Kaga, S. [Hitachi, Ltd., Tokyo (Japan)

1996-06-01

357

Indian foreign policy and media framing  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available A content analysis of Indian newspapers coverage of the Tibetan issue on autonomyThis study analyzed how the Tibetan issues on autonomy were framed by the Indian newspapers. By usingcontent analysis the study concluded Indian foreign policy was an external factor influencing the Indian newspaperscoverage of the autonomy of Tibet. In short, Indian newspapers chose a fact or set a news frame reflecting Indianforeign policy toward Tibetan autonomy.

Deepa viswam

2013-07-01

358

PRODUCTION VALUES OF INVESTIGATED SUGAR BEET HYBRIDS  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Production values of 43 experimental and recognized sugar beet hybrids were conducted on the Zagreb location in the period 2003-2005. The trials included hybrids from six breeding institutions that sell sugar beet seed in the Republic of Croatia. Research results have revealed significant differences in yields and root quality among investigated sugar beet hybrids. However, the results of a large number of hybrids were equal in value; namely, the difference between them was within the statistically allowable deviation. The hybrids KW 0148 HR and Buda in 2003, Sofarizo and Takt were distinguished by high sugar yields in 2004, whereasMerak, Impact and Europa in 2005. The highest root yields were recorded for hybrids Dioneta, Buda and KW 0148 HR in 2003, Sofarizo, Takt, HI 0191 and Dorotea in 2004, Impact and SES 2371 in 2005. The highest root sugar contents were determined in hybrids Zita and Evelina in 2003, Cyntia, Diamant and Belinda in2004, and Merak, Belinda and Cyntia in 2005.

Milan Pospišil

2006-06-01

359

Online SAG Mill Pluse Measurement and Optimization  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The grinding efficiency of semi autogenous milling or ball milling depends on the tumbling motion of the total charge within the mill. Utilization of this tumbling motion for efficient breakage of particles depends on the conditions inside the mill. However, any kind of monitoring device to measure the conditions inside the mill shell during operation is virtually impossible due to the severe environment presented by the tumbling charge. An instrumented grinding ball, which is capable of surviving a few hours and transmitting the impacts it experiences, is proposed here. The spectrum of impacts collected over 100 revolutions of the mills presents the signature of the grinding environment inside mill. This signature could be effectively used to optimize the milling performance by investigating this signature's relation to mill product size, mill throughput, make-up ball size, mill speed, liner profile and ball addition rates. At the same time, it can also be used to design balls and liner systems that can survive longer in the mill. The technological advances made in electronics and communication makes this leap in instrumentation certainly viable. Hence, the instrumented grinding ball offers the ability to qualitatively observe and optimize the milling environment. An instrumented load cell package that can measure the force of impacts inside the grinding chamber of a mill is developed here. The signal from the instrumented load cell package is interpreted in terms of a histogram termed as an impact spectrum which is a plot of the number of impacts at a specific energy level against the energy. It reflects on the average force regime of the mill. The instrumented load cell package was calibrated against the ultra fast load cell which has been unanimously accepted as a standard to measure single breakage events. The load cell package was successfully used to produce impact spectra in an 8.5 inch lab scale mill. The mill speed and the ball size were varied to study their effect on the impact spectra. A good correlation was found between the process variables and the impact spectra. The load cell package was then used in a 16 inch pilot scale mill. The mill speed, ball size, and mill filling were varied here and a consistent trend between these variables and impact spectra was observed. With a better understanding developed from the initial tests, the design of the load cell package was significantly changed to eliminate noise. With the new design, the impact spectra were re-determined in the 16 inch pilot mill varying the process variables - ball size, mill speed, and mill filling. Finally, it is successfully shown that a change in the operating variables of a mill can be seen in the impact spectra and that this concept can be successfully developed to monitor the grinding operation of industrial mills. To adapt it to industrial level it is mandatory to make the load cell package wireless. A design of a wireless circuit that is capable of transferring data at the required speed of 1000 kbps was also developed and tested at Cortez Gold Mines (CGM), Nevada.

Raj Rajamani; Jose Delgadillo; Vishal Duriseti

2007-06-30

360

Project Charter (MSA-143). [Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) Project  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Public Law 95-604, The Uranium Mill Tailings Radiation Control Act of 1978'' as amended assigns to DOE, other Federal agencies, and involved States and Indian tribes, responsibilities for remedial actions at 22 inactive uranium mill tailings sites listed in the Act, and for any other sites designated by the Secretary prior to November 8, 1979. The objective of the UMTRA Project is to provide remedial action at the mill tailings sites and associated vicinity properties in order to stabilize and control the tailings in a safe and environmentally sound manner and to eliminate potential health hazards caused by residual levels of uranium decay products that exceed EPA standards. A total of 24 uranium mill tailings sites. This Project Charter delineates the respective responsibilities and authorities of (The Office of Nuclear Energy) (NE) and (Albuquerque Operations Office) (AL), and defines the terms and conditions for management of the UMTRA Project. Supplementary Project management documents which have been and are being developed pursuant to this Charter include a Project Plan (PP), a Project Management Plan (PMP) and other plans governing the accomplishment of the Project mission Evolution of the program will require updates of the Project Plan and Project Management Plan.

1986-07-01

 
 
 
 
361

Facial melanoses: Indian perspective.  

Science.gov (United States)

Facial melanoses (FM) are a common presentation in Indian patients, causing cosmetic disfigurement with considerable psychological impact. Some of the well defined causes of FM include melasma, Riehl's melanosis, Lichen planus pigmentosus, erythema dyschromicum perstans (EDP), erythrosis, and poikiloderma of Civatte. But there is considerable overlap in features amongst the clinical entities. Etiology in most of the causes is unknown, but some factors such as UV radiation in melasma, exposure to chemicals in EDP, exposure to allergens in Riehl's melanosis are implicated. Diagnosis is generally based on clinical features. The treatment of FM includes removal of aggravating factors, vigorous photoprotection, and some form of active pigment reduction either with topical agents or physical modes of treatment. Topical agents include hydroquinone (HQ), which is the most commonly used agent, often in combination with retinoic acid, corticosteroids, azelaic acid, kojic acid, and glycolic acid. Chemical peels are important modalities of physical therapy, other forms include lasers and dermabrasion. PMID:21860153

Khanna, Neena; Rasool, Seemab

2011-01-01

362

Radioisotope control of ball mills filling  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Results of performance testing of radioisotope meter for determining ball mills filling RIZMSh21 at Lebedinsky mining and concentrating works. The testing was carried out to study the possibility of radioisotope control of mills filling with concentrate pulp and to use the above instrument signal for regulating mills filling process. Data presented testify the possibility of RIZMSh21 device as an indicator for mills filling with concentrate pulp. Instrument for measuring power uptake by drive engine is recommended to use for control mill ball filling. Automatic system for control mill operation is developed at mining and concentrating works. It permits to control according to RIZMSh21 meter signal the revolution frequency of a pump feeding concentrate pulp from a mixer

1985-01-01

363

Taxation and the American Indian  

Science.gov (United States)

The article explores American Indian tribal rights to tax exemptions and self-imposed taxation; general recommendations on possible tribal tax alternatives; and evaluation of the probable economic effect of taxation. (FF)

Brunt, David

1973-01-01

364

Directory of Indian Energy contacts  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A data base of Indian Energy Personnel is being maintained by the Documentation Centre. This data base is intended to help identify and facilitate communication with and between active workers in the Indian energy sector. A directory type publication - evised and updated annually - is the natural outcome of this data base. The present Directory of Indian Energy Contacts is the revised edition of the Directory of Indian Specialists in Energy brought out first in October 1979. The change in title was necessitated by the expanded scope and coverage of the publication. This edition includes information on more than 660 personnel from over 260 oganizations in India. While the main text of the directory is an alphabetical listing of the contacts with complete details, corporate affiliations and an index to the expertise of the contacts are provided immediately after the main text.

1980-08-01

365

Indian Academy of Sciences - Fellowship  

Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

indian academy of sciences - fellowship.navbar { color: #ffffe8; font-family: arial, helvetica, sans-serif; font-size: 12px; font-weight: normal; text-decoration: none} honorary fellows | past fellows | --> past honorary fellows   fellowship   feedback                     ...

366

Indian Academy of Sciences - Fellowship  

Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

indian academy of sciences - fellowship.navbar { color: #ffffe8; font-family: arial, helvetica, sans-serif; font-size: 12px; font-weight: normal; text-decoration: none} honorary fellows | past fellows     fellowship   feedback                     the ...

367

The Microbiology of Olive Mill Wastes  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Olive mill wastes (OMWs) are high-strength organic effluents, which upon disposal can degrade soil and water quality, negatively affecting aquatic and terrestrial ecosystems. The main purpose of this review paper is to provide an up-to-date knowledge concerning the microbial communities identified over the past 20 years in olive mill wastes using both culture-dependent and independent approaches. A database survey of 16S rRNA gene sequences (585 records in total) obtained from olive mill wast...

2013-01-01

368

Yang-Mills theory a la string  

CERN Document Server

A surface of codimension higher than one embedded in an ambient space possesses a connection associated with the rotational freedom of its normal vector fields. We examine the Yang-Mills functional associated with this connection. The theory it defines differs from Yang-Mills theory in that it is a theory of surfaces. We focus, in particular, on the Euler-Lagrange equations describing this surface, introducing a framework which throws light on their relationship to the Yang-Mills equations.

Capovilla, R; Capovilla, Riccardo; Guven, Jemal

2006-01-01

369

Hayek, Mill and the liberal tradition  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This book considers the relationship between Hayek and Mill, taking issues with Hayek s criticism of Mill and providing a broader perspective of the liberal tradition. Featuring contributions from the likes of Ross Emmett, Leon Montes and Robert Garnett, these chapters ask whether Hayek had an accurate reading of the ideas of Mill and Smith, as well as considering themes such as sympathy and analytical egalitarianism that play a large part in the liberal tradition, but less in work of Hayek T...

2010-01-01

370

Recycling of mill scale in sintering process  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This investigation deals with the effect of replacing some amount of Baharia high barite iron ore concentrate by mill scale waste which was characterized by high iron oxide content on the parameters of the sintering process., and investigation the effect of different amount of coke breeze added on sintering process parameters when using 5% mill scale waste with 95% iron ore concentrate. The results of this work show that, replacement of iron ore concentrate with mill scale increases the...

El-Hussiny N.A.; Mohamed F.M.; Shalabi M.E.H.

2011-01-01

371

Effect of gamma radiation dose on sugar  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Measurements of free radical densities in sugar by electron spin resonance (ESR) constitute a useful method for determining the dose received in the case of accidental irradiation because this material retains its radiation history. The aim of this work is to establish methods for practical dose assessment of sugar. In this regard, practical considerations of sample preparation, grain size, ESR spectrum and spurious mechanical-induced ESR signal are discussed. Also presented are results for radiation response and signal stability. Studies on irradiated samples were carried out to explain the complex spectra derived from different paramagnetic species

2007-06-01

372

Indian research: Focus on clozapine  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Clozapine has been used in the treatment of schizophrenia for about two decades and extensive data have been accumulated with regard to its use in various parts of the world. However, in contrast to Western countries, there are few studies which have evaluated the usefulness of clozapine in Indian patients. This article attempts to review the available data on clozapine originating from India. This review reflects the fact that there are few studies from the Indian subcontinent and most of th...

2010-01-01

373

West Indian intellectuals in Britain:  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Caribbean migration to Britain brought many new things - new musics, new foods, new styles. It brought new ways of thinking too. This lively, innovative book explores the intellectual ideas which the West Indians brought with them to Britain. It shows that for more than a century West Indians living in Britain developed a dazzling intellectual critique of the codes of Imperial Britain. This is the first comprehensive discussion of the major Caribbean thinkers who came to live in twentieth-cen...

Schwarz, Bill

2003-01-01

374

Effect of open air drying, LPG based drier and pretreatments on the quality of Indian gooseberry (aonla)  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The aonla fruits (whole fruit, pricking, splits, segments) were subjected to pretreatments like blanching, osmotic dehydration with salt (2%) and sugar (40%) in different experiments before drying to obtain a product with better keeping quality. An LPG based drier (CRIDA drier) with capacity to dry 50 kg of fresh Indian gooseberry (aonla) was used. Nutritional quality and rehydration characteristics of CRIDA drier dried products were higher and free from contamination. Drying time was shorte...

Gudapaty, Pratibha; Indavarapu, Srinivas; Korwar, Girish R.; Shankar, Arun Kumar; Adake, Ravi Kant V.; Bandi, Venkateshwarlu; Kanchu, Srinivas Rao

2010-01-01

375

Production of Wine from Ginger and Indian Gooseberry and A Comparative Study of Them over Commercial Wine  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Wine is one of the functional fermented foods that have many health benefits. Commercially, wine is produced by the fermentation of yeast which involves the conversion of sugar to alcohol. Wine can act as a nutrient supplement for seasonal fruits and vegetables throughout the year. Using fruits and vegetables having medicinal and nutritional value as a substrate for wine production, the health benefits of them can be improved widely. Ginger and Indian gooseberry, which are known for its high ...

2013-01-01

376

Uranium mill monitoring for natural fission reactors  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Isotopic monitoring of the product stream from operating uranium mills is proposed for discovering other possible natural fission reactors; aspects of their occurrence and discovery are considered. Uranium mill operating characteristics are formulated in terms of the total uranium capacity, the uranium throughput, and the dilution half-time of the mill. The requirements for detection of milled reactor-zone uranium are expressed in terms of the dilution half-time and the sampling frequency. Detection of different amounts of reactor ore with varying degrees of "2"3"5U depletion is considered

1977-01-01

377

Uranium mill monitoring for natural fission reactors  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Isotopic monitoring of the product stream from operating uranium mills is proposed for discovering other possible natural fission reactors; aspects of their occurrence and discovery are considered. Uranium mill operating characteristics are formulated in terms of the total uranium capacity, the uranium throughput, and the dilution half-time of the mill. The requirements for detection of milled reactor-zone uranium are expressed in terms of the dilution half-time and the sampling frequency. Detection of different amounts of reactor ore with varying degrees of /sup 235/U depletion is considered.

Apt, K.E.

1977-12-01

378

Metal ions in sugar binding, sugar specificity and structural stability of Spatholobus parviflorus seed lectin.  

Science.gov (United States)

Spatholobus parviflorus seed lectin (SPL) is a heterotetrameric lectin, with two ? and two ? monomers. In the crystal structure of SPL ? monomer, two residues at positions 240 and 241 are missing. This region was modeled based on the positional and sequence similarities. The role of metal ions in SPL structure was analyzed by 10 ns molecular dynamics simulation. MD simulations were performed in the presence and absence of metal ions to explain the loss of haemagglutinating property of the lectin due to demetallization. Demetallized structure was found to deviate drastically at the metal binding loop region. Affinity of different sugars like N-acetyl galactosamine (GalNAc), D-galactose and lactose towards the native and demetallized protein was calculated by molecular docking studies. It was found that the sugar binding site got severely distorted in demetallized lectin. Consequently, sugar binding ability of lectin might be decreasing in the demetallized condition. Isothermal titration calorimetric (ITC) analysis of the sugars in the presence of native and demetallized protein confirmed the in silico results. It was observed after molecular dynamics simulations, that significant structural deviations were not caused in the quaternary structure of demetallized lectin. It was confirmed that the structural changes modified the sugar binding ability, as well as sugar specificity of the present lectin. The role of metal ions in sugar binding is described based on the in silico studies and ITC analysis. A comprehensive analysis of the ITC data suggests that the sugar specificity of the metal bound lectin and the loss of sugar specificity due to metal chelation are not linear. PMID:23652482

Abhilash, Joseph; Dileep, Kalarickal Vijayan; Palanimuthu, Muthusamy; Geethanandan, Krishnan; Sadasivan, Chittalakkotu; Haridas, Madhathilkovilakath

2013-08-01

379

The Competitiveness of Sugar Cane Production: A Study of Kenana Sugar Company, Sudan  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The study aimed to measure the competitiveness of sugar cane in Kenana Sugar Company as the major objective covering the seasons 2004/05, 2005/06, and 2006/07. Specific objectives are to measure the hard currency revenue gained, the quantity of local resources used to gain hard currency, efficiency of local resources used and to see whether Kenana Sugar Company is taxed or subsidized. The study depended mainly on secondary data which was collected from different sources. The data was...

Abda Abdalla Emam; Osman Mohamed Musa

2011-01-01

380

Control for Cold Rolling Mills  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This report contains the details in a final research thesis work done rolling mill technology. The work is carried out at Heat Transfer located at Finspång. The main objective of this work is to evaluate thickness and flatness data from the profile to give an optimal start value for the pressure and force applied on the machine and the speed as well, so that the profiles produced, have the right thickness and best possible flatness. Thickness, start value for power, the degree of bending the...

Morad, Antoni; Travancic, Faruk

2005-01-01

 
 
 
 
381

1964 Sugar Beet Research Trials and Demonstrations.  

Science.gov (United States)

Sugar beet research plots were planted at 16 different locations in 1964. These plots were located in an 8-county area in Central New York. Planting was started on April 16th and completed by May 21st. All research plots were harvested during the month of...

T. W. Scott R. L. Plaisted T. W. Bateman

1965-01-01

382

Bioethanol production from fermentable sugar juice.  

Science.gov (United States)

Bioethanol production from renewable sources to be used in transportation is now an increasing demand worldwide due to continuous depletion of fossil fuels, economic and political crises, and growing concern on environmental safety. Mainly, three types of raw materials, that is, sugar juice, starchy crops, and lignocellulosic materials, are being used for this purpose. This paper will investigate ethanol production from free sugar containing juices obtained from some energy crops such as sugarcane, sugar beet, and sweet sorghum that are the most attractive choice because of their cost-effectiveness and feasibility to use. Three types of fermentation process (batch, fed-batch, and continuous) are employed in ethanol production from these sugar juices. The most common microorganism used in fermentation from its history is the yeast, especially, Saccharomyces cerevisiae, though the bacterial species Zymomonas mobilis is also potentially used nowadays for this purpose. A number of factors related to the fermentation greatly influences the process and their optimization is the key point for efficient ethanol production from these feedstocks. PMID:24715820

Zabed, Hossain; Faruq, Golam; Sahu, Jaya Narayan; Azirun, Mohd Sofian; Hashim, Rosli; Boyce, Amru Nasrulhaq

2014-01-01

383

Sugar, Molasses and Honey, May 1986.  

Science.gov (United States)

World centrifugal sugar production in 1986/87 is forecast at 100.5 million metric tons (raw basis), 4 percent above the revised 1985/86 estimate of 96.5 million tons. The largest regional increases are expected to occur in the Caribbean and Asia, each up ...

1986-01-01

384

Production of ethyl alcohol from sugar beets  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Various methods of processing sugar beets prior to fermentation of EtOH were compared. Water slurries of whole beets, expressed juice, and industrially produced diffusion juice were fermented readily by Saccharomyces cerevisiae without the addition of nutrient supplements. Yields of alcohol in both the slurries and juices were 43-47%. Heating the slurries or juices to boiling for 1 min often increased the yield of alcohol and the vigor of the fermentation; however, some yields of greater than 46% were obtained in unheated expressed juice. Difficulty in processing slurries of homogenized or ground whole beets, together with the restriction on the concentration of sugar in the slurry imposed by dilution with water, would probably favor some method of separating the beet tissues from the juice prior to fermentation in an industrial process. Alcohol yields of 4 cultivars varying in sugar content ranged from 38.4 to 46.0% of sugar and 18.0 to 26.1 gallon of alcohol per ton of fresh beets.

Larsen, D.H.; Doney, D.L.; Orien, H.A.

1981-01-01

385

Diabetes: Monitoring Your Blood Sugar Level  

Science.gov (United States)

... test strip. Follow the instructions for inserting the test strip into your glucose meter. The meter will give you a number ... above: _____________ Additional instructions from your doctor: -------------------------------------------------------------------------------- -------------------------------------------------------------------------------- -------------------------------------------------------------------------------- -------------------------------------------------------------------------------- -------------------------------------------------------------------------------- Tips on blood sugar testing Pay attention to expiration dates for test strips. Use a big enough drop of blood. Be ...

386

Keeping Track of Your Blood Sugar  

Science.gov (United States)

... Although most insurance plans cover the cost of glucose meters and test strips, they may only cover certain brands, and they ... number of test strips they pay for (and test strips are the most expensive part of monitoring blood sugar levels). Size. Chances are you'll be using ...

387

Hypoglycemia (Low Blood Sugar) in Diabetes Mellitus  

Science.gov (United States)

... tablets are recommended since they have a pleasant taste, but you are not likely to eat them ... mmol/L), eat 20 to 30 grams of fast-acting carbohydrates. This amount of food is usually enough to raise the blood sugar ...

388

Sweet solution: sugars to the rescue  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Sugar pills are usually placebos, but Smith et al. (2002, this issue) use one to rescue designer mice unable to make GDP-Fucose. Dietary fucose enters a salvage pathway and spares the mice. Sound simple? Not so. Unknown genetic factors determine life or death.

Freeze, Hudson H.

2002-01-01

389

[Dehydrative glycosidation and partially benzylated sugar derivatives].  

Science.gov (United States)

Dehydrative glycosidation reactions reported by the authors' group are reviewed. The authors' efforts were concentrated on developing reagent systems usable for one-stage-one-pot glycosidation. Such systems could simplify the glycosidation step using 1-OH sugar derivatives, since any preactivation stage for the hemiacetal OH group could be omitted. The systems, utilizing the dehydration potential of sulfonyl chloride, such as the p-nitrobenzenesulfonyl chloride-silver trifluoromethanesulfonate-triethylamine system as well as the p-nitrobenzenesulfonyl chloride-silver trifluoromethanesulfonate-N,N-dimethylacetamide-triethylamine system, were useful for the syntheses of many kinds of oligosaccharides. As a system free from any metals, the authors developed the trimethylsilyl trifluoromethanesulfonate-pyridine (TP) system. During the study of the system containing cobalt (II) bromide, the authors found that the bromide converts 1-OH sugar into the corresponding 1-Br derivative, which is then activated with the cobalt salt to undergo glycosidation with alcohol. To prepare partially benzylated sugar derivatives used as acceptors in the authors' studies, controlled benzylation and forced tritylation were carried out. Short syntheses of a variety of useful sugar derivatives using such convenient procedures are described. As a novel protecting group for the hemiacetal OH group, the authors used the 2-methoxyethyl group. Many kinds of trehalose-type disaccarides we prepared. PMID:15467272

Koto, Shinkiti; Hirooka, Motoko

2004-10-01

390

Storage Requirements for Sugar Maple Seeds.  

Science.gov (United States)

Sugar maple seeds, collected from three trees in northern Vermont, were stored at four temperatures (18, 7, 2 and -10C) in combination with four seed moisture contents (35, 25, 17, and 10 percent). Seed moisture content and storage temperature significant...

C. M. Carl H. W. Yawney

1974-01-01

391

Idiomatic Control used in Sugar Plants  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

A description of a control system for a large scale industrial plant - the evaporator section of a sugar plant. The control system is based on the idiomatic control concept, causing decomposition into loop control units - idioms. Dynamic decoupling, feedforward- and feedback loops eg. have been used as idioms.

Nielsen, Kirsten Mølgaard; Nielsen, Jens Frederik Dalsgaard

1993-01-01

392

Bioethanol Production from Fermentable Sugar Juice  

Science.gov (United States)

Bioethanol production from renewable sources to be used in transportation is now an increasing demand worldwide due to continuous depletion of fossil fuels, economic and political crises, and growing concern on environmental safety. Mainly, three types of raw materials, that is, sugar juice, starchy crops, and lignocellulosic materials, are being used for this purpose. This paper will investigate ethanol production from free sugar containing juices obtained from some energy crops such as sugarcane, sugar beet, and sweet sorghum that are the most attractive choice because of their cost-effectiveness and feasibility to use. Three types of fermentation process (batch, fed-batch, and continuous) are employed in ethanol production from these sugar juices. The most common microorganism used in fermentation from its history is the yeast, especially, Saccharomyces cerevisiae, though the bacterial species Zymomonas mobilis is also potentially used nowadays for this purpose. A number of factors related to the fermentation greatly influences the process and their optimization is the key point for efficient ethanol production from these feedstocks.

Zabed, Hossain; Faruq, Golam; Sahu, Jaya Narayan; Azirun, Mohd Sofian; Hashim, Rosli; Nasrulhaq Boyce, Amru

2014-01-01

393

Green chemistry: Biodiesel made with sugar catalyst  

Science.gov (United States)

The production of diesel from vegetable oil calls for an efficient solid catalyst to make the process fully ecologically friendly. Here we describe the preparation of such a catalyst from common, inexpensive sugars. This high-performance catalyst, which consists of stable sulphonated amorphous carbon, is recyclable and its activity markedly exceeds that of other solid acid catalysts tested for `biodiesel' production.

Toda, Masakazu; Takagaki, Atsushi; Okamura, Mai; Kondo, Junko N.; Hayashi, Shigenobu; Domen, Kazunari; Hara, Michikazu

2005-11-01

394

Glycosylation reaction of unprotected sugars with hydroxyalkylthymine.  

Science.gov (United States)

Under mild conditions (Lewis acid/solvent/room temperature), the reaction of unprotected glucose, deoxyribose or xylose with hydroxylalkylthymine gives selectively nucleoside analogs with a spacer arm between sugar and base moiety. Experimental conditions (Lewis acid, solvent) for this new strategy leading to nucleoside analogs synthesis are discussed. PMID:15281363

Zerrouki, Rachida; Billard, Luc; Granet, Robert; Krausz, Pierre

2004-05-01

395

Palm Oil Milling Wastes and Sustainable Development  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Problem statement: Palm oil milling generates solid wastes, effluent and gaseous emissions. The aim of this study is to assess the progress made in waste management by the Malaysian palm oil milling sector towards the path of sustainable development. Sustainable development is defined as the utilization of renewable resources in harmony with ecological systems. Inclusive in this definition is the transition from low value-added to higher value-added transformation of wastes into resources. Approach: A longitudinal study was carried out from 2003-2010 via, initially a field survey and subsequently a key informant approach with observation as a complementation for both. Results: Solid wastes, inclusive of solid wastes derived from air emissions and palm oil mil effluent, have a utility function with zero wastage. The principal source of effluent is palm oil mill effluent. Treated palm oil mill effluent is utilized for cropland application by plantation-based palm oil mills. However, independent mills discharge treated palm oil mill effluent in accordance to environmental parameters into receiving waterways. Methane is also released by palm oil mill effluent. Biogas from palm oil mill effluent and biomass energy from solid wastes are potential sources of renewable energy in Malaysia. Conclusion: In general, the wastes from palm oil milling are returned to the field for cropland application, utilized in-house or in the plantation, or sold to third parties. Thus, there is progress made towards sustainable development. The addition of new technologies and replacement of old mills will help to reduce the carbon footprint. However, at this juncture, the feed-in tariff for renewable energy is not financially attractive. If the biogas and biomass renewable energy sector were to take-off, enhancement in the value chain would occur and in tandem further progress towards sustainable development can be attained.

A. C. Er

2011-01-01

396

Concentration Processes for the Beet-Sugar Industry.  

Science.gov (United States)

One part of the beet sugar processing plant operation, namely the juice concentration process, is presented. The concentration processes discussed could have applications in beet sugar processing plants other than juice concentration, but these are not co...

H. M. Curran

1978-01-01

397

World Sugar and Molasses Situation, 1982/1983.  

Science.gov (United States)

World sugar supply/demand situation recovered rapidly from the deficit situation of 1980. World sugar production rebounded in 1981/82 reacing record levels. This growth in production has outpassed world consumption creating a surplus situation. Prospects ...

1982-01-01

398

Enantiomer Ratios of Meteoritic Sugar Derivatives  

Science.gov (United States)

Carbonaceous meteorites contain a diverse suite of soluble organic compounds. Studies of these compounds reveal the Solar System's earliest organic chemistry. Among the classes of organic compounds found in meteorites are keto acids (pyruvic acid, etc.), hydroxy tricarboxylic acids (1), amino acids, amides, purines and pyrimidines. The Murchison and Murray meteorites are the most studied for soluble and insoluble organic compounds and organic carbon phases. The majority of (indigenous) meteoritic compounds are racemic, (i.e., their D/L enantiomer ratios are 50:50). However, some of the more unusual (non-protein) amino acids contain slightly more of one enantiomer (usually the L) than the other. This presentation focuses on the enantiomer analyses of three to six-carbon (3C to 6C) meteoritic sugar acids. The molecular and enantiomer analysis of corresponding sugar alcohols will also be discussed. Detailed analytical procedures for sugar-acid enantiomers have been described. Results of several meteorite analyses show that glyceric acid is consistently racemic (or nearly so) as expected of non-biological mechanisms of synthesis. Also racemic are 4-C deoxy sugar acids: 2-methyl glyceric acid; 2,4-dihydroxybutyric acid; 2,3-dihydroxybutyric acid (two diastereomers); and 3,4-dihydroxybutyric acid. However, a 4C acid, threonic acid, has never been observed as racemic, i.e., it possesses a large D excess. In several samples of Murchison and one of GRA 95229 (possibly the most pristine carbonaceous meteorite yet analyzed) threonic acid has nearly the same D enrichment. In Murchison, preliminary isotopic measurements of individual threonic acid enantiomers point towards extraterrestrial sources of the D enrichment. Enantiomer analyses of the 5C mono-sugar acids, ribonic, arabinonic, xylonic, and lyxonic also show large D excesses. It is worth noting that all four of these acids (all of the possible straight-chained 5C sugar acids) are present in meteorites, including the rare lyxonic acid, and their relative abundances are in equilibrium proportions. In addition (in contrast to the above D-only excesses), some of the above acids are found in biology as the L enantiomer. Whether rare are common, all of the 6C sugar acids that are present in sufficient amounts to allow enantiomer analysis (Mannonic, gluconic, altronic, talonic, idonic, gulonic, and galactonic) also, apparently, possess significant D excesses.

Cooper, George

2012-01-01

399

Detection of Sugar-Lectin Interactions by Multivalent Dendritic Sugar Functionalized Single-Walled Carbon Nanotubes  

CERN Document Server

We show that single walled carbon nanotubes (SWNT) decorated with sugar functionalized poly (propyl ether imine) (PETIM) dendrimer is a very sensitive platform to quantitatively detect carbohydrate recognizing proteins, namely, lectins. The changes in electrical conductivity of SWNT in field effect transistor device due to carbohydrate - protein interactions form the basis of present study. The mannose sugar attached PETIM dendrimers undergo charge - transfer interactions with the SWNT. The changes in the conductance of the dendritic sugar functionalized SWNT after addition of lectins in varying concentrations were found to follow the Langmuir type isotherm, giving the concanavalin A (Con A) - mannose affinity constant to be 8.5 x 106 M-1. The increase in the device conductance observed after adding 10 nM of Con A is same as after adding 20 \\muM of a non - specific lectin peanut agglutinin, showing the high specificity of the Con A - mannose interactions. The specificity of sugar-lectin interactions was chara...

Vasu, K S; Bagul, R S; Jayaraman, N; Sood, A K; 10.1063/1.4739793

2012-01-01

400

Opening the Indian market  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Despite several remaining questions, India's government is paving the way for foreign investments to help meet the country's capacity shortfall. A high-level delegation from India recently conducted meetings in the United Kingdom and the United States to promote foreign investment in the Indian power generation market. The delegation, led by Cabinet Secretary Naresh Chandra, met in late May and early June in London, Washington, Houston, New York and San Francisco to discuss October 1991 amendments to India's electricity law and policy changes designed to remove obstacles to foreign investment. The delegation said foreign investments are needed to meet additional capital requirements and to supply advanced technology. The move to the private sector was precipitated by projections of substantial shortfalls in generating capacity during the next five years. The government can supply only 28,000 MW of the estimated 39,369 MW required, and officials hope foreign investors will supply a significant portion of the shortfall. India's existing capacity totals 69,000 MW. This article discusses the opening market for independent power generation in India

1992-01-01

 
 
 
 
401

Optimal Condition of Fenton's Reagent to Enhance the Alcohol Production from Palm Oil Mill Effluent (POME  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Application of Fenton's reaction for a proper hydrolysis step is an essential and important step in obtaining a higher level of readily biodegradable sugars from palm oil mill effluent (POME for improving the alcohol production by using immobilized Clostridium acetobutylicum. The objective of this research was, therefore, to investigate the optimum condition of Fenton's reaction in terms of COD: H2O2 ratios (w/w and H2O2: Fe2+ ratios (molar ratio used to oxidize carbohydrate and high molecular organic compounds into simple sugars, which are further fermented into alcohol. The experiments were carried out at H2O2: Fe2+ ratios (molar ratios of 5, 10, 20, 30 and 40 and the COD: H2O2 ratios (w/w of 50, 70, 100 and 130 (initial COD about 50,000 mg/L. The total sugar concentrations and organic compounds biodegradability (BOD5/COD ratios were also used for investigating suitable conditions for Fenton's reaction. The concentration of Fenton's reagent at H2O2:Fe2+ and COD:H2O2 ratio of 20 and 130 was identified as the optimum operating condition for the highest simple sugars of about 0.865% and BOD5/COD ratios of 0.539. The alcohol productions were carried out in the continuous stirred tank reactors (CSTR under an anaerobic continuous immobilization system. At a hydraulic retention time of 12 hours and POME pH of 4.8, the maximum total ABE concentration of 495 mg/L and the ABE yield of 0.236 grams of ABE produced/gram of reducing sugars were achieved at the mixed polyvinyl alcohol (PVA and palm oil ash (POA ratio of 10 : 3.

Supawadee Sinnaraprasat

2011-07-01

402

Structural confirmation of oligosaccharides newly isolated from sugar beet molasses  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Abstract Background Sugar beet molasses is a viscous by-product of the processing of sugar beets into sugar. The molasses is known to contain sucrose and raffinose, a typical trisaccharide, with a well-established structure. Although sugar beet molasses contains various other oligosaccharides as well, the structures of those oligosaccharides have not been examined in detail. The purpose of this study was isolation and structural confirmation of these other oligosaccharides fo...

Abe Tatsuya; Horiuchi Kenichi; Kikuchi Hiroto; Aritsuka Tsutomu; Takata Yusuke; Fukushi Eri; Fukushi Yukiharu; Kawabata Jun; Ueno Keiji; Onodera Shuichi; Shiomi Norio

2012-01-01

403

Review of engineering and management tools in beet sugar industry  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Due to the initiative of European Commission to reduce sugar price and admit sugar imports from least developed countries, European sugar industry seeks for new ideas on production technology, engineering and management. In order to approach competitiveness, safety and environmental impact of beet sugar processing, advanced engineering and management tools for optimising the efficiency of raw material use, utilisation of by-products and energy and water use need to be incorporated into practi...

Krajnc, Damjan; Glavic?, Peter

2012-01-01

404

PROCESS OF OBTAINING OF SUGAR FROM SUGAR BEET AND INFLUENCE ON ITS QUALITY  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Cooking of massecuites has been study in the connection with different particle size distribution of white sugar. During the crystallization is possible to operate with parameters which have influence on particle size of white sugar. Dry matter of juice in crystallizer, volume of the standard syrup in crystallizer and heating curve of crystalliz...

2011-01-01

405

Enzymatic determination of the total fermentable sugars in sugar factory products  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

An enzymatic method for determination of the total fermentable sugars in the absence of melibiase is described. The results of the method are relevant to utilization of sugar factory products by Saccharomyces cerevisiae. In principle, the sum of glucose and fructose, after hydrolysis of the oligosaccharides, is determined by means of ..beta..-fructosidase. The aim of the work is to obtain, by modifying the well-known hexokinase method, a reproducibility that is adequate for the determination of major sample components.

Pollach, G.

1982-07-20

406

Hydrogenolysis Of 5-Carbon Sugars, Sugar Alcohols And Compositions For Reactions Involving Hydrogen  

Science.gov (United States)

Methods and compositions for reactions of hydrogen over a Re-containing catalyst with compositions containing a 5-carbon sugar, sugar alcohol, or lactic acid are described. It has been surprisingly discovered that reaction with hydrogen over a Re-containing multimetallic catalyst resulted in superior conversion and selectivity to desired products such as propylene glycol. A process for the synthesis of PG from lactate or lactic acid is also described.

Werpy, Todd A. (West Richland, WA); Frye, Jr., John G. (Richland, WA); Zacher, Alan H. (Kennewick, WA); Miller, Dennis J. (Okemos, MI)

2004-01-13

407

Hydrogenolysis of 5-carbon sugars, sugar alcohols, and other methods and compositions for reactions involving hydrogen  

Science.gov (United States)

Methods and compositions for reactions of hydrogen over a Re-containing catalyst with compositions containing a 5-carbon sugar, sugar alcohol, or lactic acid are described. It has been surprisingly discovered that reaction with hydrogen over a Re-containing multimetallic catalyst resulted in superior conversion and selectivity to desired products such as propylene glycol. A process for the synthesis of PG from lactate or lactic acid is also described.

Werpy, Todd A [West Richland, WA; Zacher, Alan H [Kennewick, WA

2002-11-12

408

Hydrogenolysis of 5-carbon sugars, sugar alcohols, and methods of making propylene glycol  

Science.gov (United States)

Methods and compositions for reactions of hydrogen over a Re-containing catalyst with compositions containing a 5-carbon sugar, sugar alcohol, or lactic acid are described. It has been surprisingly discovered that reaction with hydrogen over a Re-containing multimetallic catalyst resulted in superior conversion and selectivity to desired products such as propylene glycol. A process for the synthesis of PG from lactate or lactic acid is also described.

Werpy, Todd A [West Richland, WA; Zacher, Alan H [Kennewick, WA

2006-05-02

409

Uranium mill ore dust characterization  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Cascade impactor and general air ore dust measurements were taken in a uranium processing mill in order to characterize the airborne activity, the degree of equilibrium, the particle size distribution and the respirable fraction for the /sup 238/U chain nuclides. The sampling locations were selected to limit the possibility of cross contamination by airborne dusts originating in different process areas of the mill. The reliability of the modified impactor and measurement techniques was ascertained by duplicate sampling. The results reveal no significant deviation from secular equilibrium in both airborne and bulk ore samples for the /sup 234/U and /sup 230/Th nuclides. In total airborne dust measurements, the /sup 226/Ra and /sup 210/Pb nuclides were found to be depleted by 20 and 25%, respectively. Bulk ore samples showed depletions of 10% for the /sup 226/Ra and /sup 210/Pb nuclides. Impactor samples show disequilibrium of /sup 226/Ra as high as +-50% for different size fractions. In these samples the /sup 226/Ra ratio was generally found to increase as particle size decreased. Activity median aerodynamic diameters of the airborne dusts ranged from 5 to 30 ..mu..m with a median diameter of 11 ..mu..m. The maximum respirable fraction for the ore dusts, based on the proposed International Commission on Radiological Protection's (ICRP) definition of pulmonary deposition, was < 15% of the total airborne concentration. Ore dust parameters calculated for impactor duplicate samples were found to be in excellent agreement.

Knuth, R.H.; George, A.C.

1980-11-01

410

Nutritional profile of Indian vegetarian diets - the Indian Migration Study (IMS)  

Science.gov (United States)

Background The cardiovascular and other health benefits and potential harms of protein and micronutrient deficiency of vegetarian diets continue to be debated. Methods Study participants included urban migrants, their rural siblings and urban residents (n = 6555, mean age - 40.9 yrs) of the Indian Migration Study from Lucknow, Nagpur, Hyderabad and Bangalore. Information on diet (validated interviewer-administered semi-quantitative food frequency questionnaire), tobacco, alcohol, physical activity, medical histories, as well as blood pressure, fasting blood and anthropometric measurements were collected. Nutrient databases were used to calculate nutrient content of regional recipes. Vegetarians ate no eggs, fish, poultry and meat. Using multivariate linear regression with robust standard error model, we compared the macro- and micro-nutrient profile of vegetarian and non-vegetarian diets. Results Vegetarians, (32.8% of the population), consumed greater amounts of legumes, vegetables, roots and tubers, dairy and sugar, while non-vegetarians had a greater intake of cereals, fruits, spices, salt (p?vitamin C (??=?8.7 mg/day (95% CI: 4.3 to13.0), p?vitamin B12 (??=??1.4 mcg/day (95% CI: ?1.2 to ?1.5), p?vitamin B12 bio-availability remains a concern and requires exploration of acceptable dietary sources for vegetarians.

2014-01-01

411

POT for S.Wimbledon (Connolly's Mill)  

POT for S.Wimbledon (Connolly's Mill) Back to station POT Data for: Wandle at S.Wimbledon (Connolly's Mill) (39003) Note: Place the mouse cursor over a column heading to view a description of the data in that column Rank Date Time Stage Flow Rating Source Ref Comments 287 14/10/1939 00:00 -8888.880…

412

AMAX for S.Wimbledon (Connolly's Mill)  

AMAX for S.Wimbledon (Connolly's Mill) Back to station AMAX Data for: Wandle at S.Wimbledon (Connolly's Mill) (39003) QMED = 12.6m 3/s Note: Place the mouse cursor over a column heading to view a description of the data in that column Rank Water Year Date Time Stage Flow Rating Source Ref Available…

413

Radiological health aspects of uranium milling  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This report describes the operation of conventional and unconventional uranium milling processes, the potential for occupational exposure to ionizing radiation at the mill, methods for radiological safety, methods of evaluating occupational radiation exposures, and current government regulations for protecting workers and ensuring that standards for radiation protection are adhered to. In addition, a survey of current radiological health practices is summarized

1983-01-01

414

Radiological health aspects of uranium milling  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This report describes the operation of conventional and unconventional uranium milling processes, the potential for occupational exposure to ionizing radiation at the mill, methods for radiological safety, methods of evaluating occupational radiation exposures, and current government regulations for protecting workers and ensuring that standards for radiation protection are adhered to. In addition, a survey of current radiological health practices is summarized.

Fisher, D.R.; Stoetzel, G.A.

1983-05-01

415

Airborne effluent control at uranium mills  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The Oak Ridge National Laboratory has made an engineering cost--environmental benefit study of radioactive waste treatment systems for decreasing the amount of radioactive materials released from uranium ore processing mills. This paper summarizes the results of the study which pertain to the control and/or abatement of airborne radioactive materials from the mill processes. The tailings area is not included. Present practices in the uranium milling industry, with particular emphasis on effluent control and waste management, have been surveyed. A questionnaire was distributed to each active mill in the United States. Replies were received from about 75 percent of the mill operators. Visits were made to six operating uranium mills that were selected because they represented the different processes in use today and the newest, most modern in mill designs. Discussions were held with members of the Region IV Office of NRC and the Grand Junction Office of ERDA. Nuclear Science Abstracts, as well as other sources, were searched for literature pertinent to uranium mill processes, effluent control, and waste management.

Sears, M.B.

1976-01-01

416

Numerical robust stability estimation in milling process  

Science.gov (United States)

The conventional prediction of milling stability has been extensively studied based on the assumptions that the milling process dynamics is time invariant. However, nominal cutting parameters cannot guarantee the stability of milling process at the shop floor level since there exists many uncertain factors in a practical manufacturing environment. This paper proposes a novel numerical method to estimate the upper and lower bounds of Lobe diagram, which is used to predict the milling stability in a robust way by taking into account the uncertain parameters of milling system. Time finite element method, a milling stability theory is adopted as the conventional deterministic model. The uncertain dynamics parameters are dealt with by the non-probabilistic model in which the parameters with uncertainties are assumed to be bounded and there is no need for probabilistic distribution densities functions. By doing so, interval instead of deterministic stability Lobe is obtained, which guarantees the stability of milling process in an uncertain milling environment. In the simulations, the upper and lower bounds of Lobe diagram obtained by the changes of modal parameters of spindle-tool system and cutting coefficients are given, respectively. The simulation results show that the proposed method is effective and can obtain satisfying bounds of Lobe diagrams. The proposed method is helpful for researchers at shop floor to making decision on machining parameters selection.

Zhang, Xiaoming; Zhu, Limin; Ding, Han; Xiong, Youlun

2012-09-01

417

Electrical energy demand for uranium mining, milling  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The amount of electrical energy consumed in mining, transporting, and hoisting uranium ore to the surface was empirically calculated as a function of ore depth and production rate. Four mathematical algorithms have been developed as a function of tonnage milled and mill types

1981-01-01

418

Bernard Mills and Australian radio astronomy  

Science.gov (United States)

Bernard Mills, in conversation with Ragbir Bhathal, recalls how he became an astronomer by accident after the second world war, devised the Mills Cross radio telescope as a way to get a good instrument on the cheap, and what happened when he questioned the methods of Cambridge radio astronomers at the time of Martin Ryle's 2C catalogue.

Bhathal, Ragbir

2012-04-01

419

Child Labor in the Cotton Mills  

Science.gov (United States)

In this lesson, students read two primary source documents on the subject of child labor in Southern cotton mills during the early twentieth century and listen to excerpts of oral histories from mill workers. In a critical analysis, students will identify the audiences for both documents and the motivations and intent of its authors, as well as examine the historical importance of each document.

South, Documenting T.

2012-04-03

420

Combined Systems SOD Peat - Milled Peat.  

Science.gov (United States)

One of the purposes of this study, is to study how much milled peat a producer can get between and right after the sod peat harvests. The purpose of the study is also to identify the effect on the drying of the sod peat if the producer harvests the milled...

J. Sauli E. Jonsson A. Teljing

1987-01-01

 
 
 
 
421

77 FR 43369 - Alumax Mill Products, Inc. Doing Business as Alcoa Mill Products Texarkana a Subsidiary of Alcoa...  

Science.gov (United States)

...Alumax Mill Products, Inc. Doing Business as Alcoa Mill Products Texarkana a Subsidiary of Alcoa, Inc. Nash, TX; Amended Certification Regarding...applicable to workers and former workers of Alcoa Mill Products Texarkarna, a subsidiary of...

2012-07-24

422

John Stuart Mill and gender violence: weaknesses and strengths of Mill’s thought  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Today as yesterday, gender violence continues to be a cancer in society and is one of the principal cuases of death and injury to women in the world, according to the latest report from the World Health Organization. In fact, concern about mistreatment of women is present in Mills' work, showing that when we speak of domestic violence we speak not of a new social phenomenon, of the 21st century, but of an evil silent in private, and silenced in public throughout history. This article tackles ...

Gil Ruiz, Juana Mari?a

2005-01-01

423

PROCESS OF OBTAINING OF SUGAR FROM SUGAR BEET AND INFLUENCE ON ITS QUALITY  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Cooking of massecuites has been study in the connection with different particle size distribution of white sugar. During the crystallization is possible to operate with parameters which have influence on particle size of white sugar. Dry matter of juice in crystallizer, volume of the standard syrup in crystallizer and heating curve of crystallization process are constant parameters in this process. Quantity of slurry (seed magma crystallizate and volume of slurry massecuite are parameters which can be changed for control the particle size distribution of white sugar. Five variants of viable parameters have been trying for obtain ideal particle size distribution of white sugar. As a best has been evaluated variant with 1100 cm3 of slurry and 20 % of volume of slurry massecuite in crystallizer. This variant has had the crystals proportions captured by the sieves between 1.00 and 0.40 mm with minimal differences in weight. More results have been related to reduction of losses of sugar in molasses with the right setting for the line of cooling crystallization process. The looses of sugar can be reduced by adding two coolers in the end of cooling crystalization process what will decrease a temperature to 40 ° C. This temperature will lead to more efficient crystallization in the cooling crystallization process.doi:10.5219/122

Marián Tokár

2011-02-01

424

21 CFR 172.585 - Sugar beet extract flavor base.  

Science.gov (United States)

...3 2009-04-01 2009-04-01 false Sugar beet extract flavor base. 172.585 Section 172...Agents and Related Substances § 172.585 Sugar beet extract flavor base. Sugar beet extract flavor base may be safely used in...

2009-04-01

425

Ethanol production in fermentation of mixed sugars containing xylose  

Science.gov (United States)

Xylose-utilizing Z. mobilis strains were found to have improved ethanol production when grown in medium containing mixed sugars including xylose if sorbitol or mannitol was included in the medium. The effect was seen in concentrations of mixed sugars where no growth lag period occurs, as well as in higher sugars concentrations.

Viitanen, Paul V. (West Chester, PA); Mc Cutchen, Carol M. (Wilmington, DE); Li; Xu (Newark, DE); Emptage, Mark (Wilmington, DE); Caimi, Perry G. (Kennett Square, PA); Zhang, Min (Lakewood, CO); Chou, Yat-Chen (Lakewood, CO); Franden, Mary Ann (Centennial, CO)

2009-12-08

426

World Sugar and Molasses Situation, 1981/82.  

Science.gov (United States)

USDA predicts that world production of centrifugal sugar (raw value) for 1981/82 will hit a record 10 percent greater than the revised 1980/81 estimate. World beet sugar production for 1981/82 will likely be 35.0 million tons (36% of estimated world sugar...

1982-01-01

427

Preliminary Test of Upgraded Conventional Milling Machine into PC Based CNC Milling Machine  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

CNC (Computerized Numerical Control) milling machine yields a challenge to make an innovation in the field of machining. With an action job is machining quality equivalent to CNC milling machine, the conventional milling machine ability was improved to be based on PC CNC milling machine. Mechanically and instrumentally change. As a control replacing was conducted by servo drive and proximity were used. Computer programme was constructed to give instruction into milling machine. The program structure of consists GUI model and ladder diagram. Program was put on programming systems called RTX software. The result of up-grade is computer programming and CNC instruction job. The result was beginning step and it will be continued in next time. With upgrading ability milling machine becomes user can be done safe and optimal from accident risk. By improving performance of milling machine, the user will be more working optimal and safely against accident risk. (author)

2008-02-01

428

Postpartum Nutrient Intakes and Beverage Patterns of American Indian Women  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Objectives: American Indian (AI children are at risk for chronic diseases associated with marginal early nutrition environments. We describe nutrient intakes and beverage patterns of AI women during the early postnatal period to identify nutritional adequacy and beverage habits. Methods: 24 hour recalls and beverage frequency questionnaires were administered to AI mothers (n = 239 from a Northern Plains Tribal community 1 month postpartum. 24 hour recalls were analyzed using Nutritionist PRO(R software, and intakes were compared to Estimated Average Requirements (EAR. Results: The percentage of AI women reporting nutrient intakes below the EAR was 97% for vitamin D, 96% for vitamin E, 69% for vitamin A, 55% for vitamin C, 73% for calcium and 79% for magnesium. Median (25th, 75th percentile beverage intakes reported by beverage consumers were 8.0(4.0, 16.0 oz milk, 8.0(3.4, 16.0 oz 100% juice, 8.0(4.0, 16.0 oz juice drinks, 18.6(7.4, 28.0 oz regular pop, 9.1(4.6, 18.3oz sports drinks, 12.0(5.1, 22.0oz sugared flavored water and 48.0(24.0, 96.0 oz water. Conclusions: The low nutrient and high sugared beverage intakes increased risk of chronic malnutrition. The nutritional environment predisposes AI children to chronic diseases including obesity and dental caries through early metabolic programming and later modeling behaviors.

Teresa A. Marshall

2014-06-01

429

78 FR 73234 - Determination of Trade Surplus in Certain Sugar and Syrup Goods and Sugar-Containing Products of...  

Science.gov (United States)

...OFFICE OF THE UNITED STATES TRADE REPRESENTATIVE Determination of Trade Surplus in Certain Sugar and Syrup Goods and Sugar-Containing...and Panama AGENCY: Office of the United States Trade Representative. ACTION:...

2013-12-05

430

Consumption of Added Sugar among U.S. Children and Adolescents, 2005-2008  

Science.gov (United States)

... of added sugars include white sugar, brown sugar, raw sugar, corn syrup, corn syrup solids, high fructose corn syrup, malt syrup, maple syrup, pancake syrup, fructose sweetener, liquid fructose, honey, molasses, anhydrous dextrose, crystal dextrose, and dextrin. Type ...

431

40 CFR 409.10 - Applicability; description of the beet sugar processing subcategory.  

Science.gov (United States)

...true Applicability; description of the beet sugar processing subcategory. 409...SUGAR PROCESSING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Beet Sugar Processing Subcategory § 409.10 Applicability; description of the beet sugar processing subcategory....

2010-07-01

432

Forage uptake of uranium series radionuclides in the vicinity of the anaconda uranium mill  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Radiochemical analysis was performed on samples of soil and eight species of common vegetation growing on the Anaconda uranium mill site, located in New Mexico. The concentrations of the long-lived radionuclides U-238, U-234, Th-230, Ra-226, and Pb-210 in these forage plants were determined. The sampling procedures and analytical laboratory methods used are described. The highest radionuclide concentration found in a forage species was 130 pCi of Ra-226 per gram dry weight for grass growing on the main tailings pile at Anaconda, where the surface soil activity of Ra-226 was 236 pCi/g. A comparison of shoots activity with that of roots and soil was used to determine a distribution index and uptake coefficient for each species. The distribution index, the ratio of root activity to shoot activity, ranged from 0.30 (Th-230) in galleta grass (Hilaria jamesii) to 38.0 (Ra-226) in Indian ricegrass (Oryzopsis hymenoides). In nearly all instances, the roots contained higher radionuclide concentrations. The uptake coefficient, the ratio of vegetation activity to soil activity, ranged from 0.69 (U-238) in Indian ricegrass roots to 0.01 (U-238) in four-wing saltbush (Atriplex canescans) shoots. The range of radionuclide concentrations in plants growing on the Anaconda mill site is compared to that in vegetation from a control site 20 km away.

Rayno, D.R.; Momeni, M.H.; Sabau, C.

1980-01-01

433

Traditional And Medicinal Uses Of Indian Black Berry  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Jamun or Indian Black berry is considered as a traditional medicine that helps in controlling diabetes. Specifically, jamun has an action on the pancreas, the main organ responsible for causing diabetes. The fruit, the seeds and even the juice of the jamun all play an important role in the treatment of diabetes. The jamun seeds contain a type of glucose called Jamboline, which checks the conversion of starch into sugar in cases of increased production of glucose, the main reason behind your high sugar levels.It has anti cancer and anti viral properties. Jamun juice has carminative and mild astringent properties. The extracts of the bark, seeds and leaves are used for the treatment of diabetes. The leaves have antibacterial properties and used for strenghthening teeths and gums.Oral administration of dried alcohalic extracts of the seeds to diabetic patients was found to reduce the level of blood sugar and glycosuria in trials conducted at CDRI, Lucknow.The bark of black berry tree is astringent, digestive, diuretic, anthelmintic and is considered useful for throat problems.A decoction of the bark and powdered seeds is believed to be very useful in the treatment of diarrhea, dysentery and dyspepsia.The antibiotic activity of black berry extract has been widely studied and found useful against a number of microbial agents. The fruit is also considered to be stomachic, carminative, antiscorbutic and diuretic.Vinegar made from black berry fruit is administered in cases of enlargement of spleen, chronic diarrhoea and urine retention for ringworm treatment, water diluted juice is used as lotion.

K.P.Sampath Kumar

2013-01-01

434

Indian Health Service: Find Health Care  

Science.gov (United States)

... and Human Services Indian Health Service The Federal Health Program for American Indians and Alaska Natives Feedback ... Patients Find Health Care Share This Page: Find Health Care IMPORTANT If you are having a health ...

435

Indian Academy of Sciences - New associates, 2008  

Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

8. dr r. parthasarathicentral leather research institute,chennaidepartment of mathematics,indian institute of technology, bombay,mumbaidepartment of mathematics and statistics,indian institute of technology, kanpur,kanpur--> ...

436

Indian Academy of Sciences - New associates, 2010  

Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

  2. suvendra nath bhattacharyya, indian institute of chemical biology, kolkata  3. ayan datta, indian institute of science education and research, thiruvananthapuram  8. vijayakumar s. nair, vikram sarabhai space centre, thiruvananthapuramesearch, thiruvananthapuram ...

437

Radioactive Contamination in Steel Products - Indian Experience  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Radioactive sources in both sealed and unsealed forms are used in a wide variety of applications in medicine, industry and research for societal benefits. These applications of radioactive sources are controlled in each country by the respective national regulatory bodies. In spite of regulatory control there are incidents of theft, loss or abandoned radioactive sources worldwide. These lost or stolen sources get into metal scrap used in steel recycling industry. Recently, there have been cases of radioactive contamination in steel products exported by many countries. A few such cases of contamination of material exported from India to foreign countries have been reported to Atomic Energy Regulatory Board (AERB) in India. On investigation it was found that the steel products were made out of steel produced in foundries where radioactively contaminated imported metal scrap has been used. Though the radiological impact of such incident is too low to cause any significant hazard, such incidents are undesirable and need to be prevented. A number of measures were taken by AERB to prevent recurrence of such incidents. These include holding meetings with the concerned associations of exporters and the organization of seminars to improve radiation safety awareness among the manufacturers and exporters. The concept of defence in depth is used for detection of radioactivity in metal scrap by the installation of portal monitors at borders, radiation monitoring at metal scrap dealers, foundries, steel mills, manufacturing units of steel products and finally the radiation monitoring of the final product prior to supply in domestic market or export. In this paper, Indian experience in handling the incidents of contaminated steel products and the general and specific preventive measures adopted in India to control such incidents are described. A suggested action plan at the international level is discussed. (author)

2011-07-01

438

75 FR 23631 - Sugar Re-Export Program, the Sugar-Containing Products Re-Export Program, and the Polyhydric...  

Science.gov (United States)

...AGRICULTURE Foreign Agricultural Service 7 CFR Part 1530 Sugar Re-Export Program, the Sugar-Containing Products Re-Export Program, and...S. Note 6, which authorizes entry of raw cane sugar under subheading 1701.11.20 of the HTS for...

2010-05-04

439

‘Shining Indians’: Diaspora and Exemplarity in Bollywood  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Commercial Hindi cinema plays a central role in the negotiation of national identity. For decades, the expatriate Indian served as a counter-example for acceptable behaviour, a living testimony of inappropriateness. In the mid-1990s, following the liberalization of the Indian economy, the rise of Hindu nationalism and the advent of a multiplex-going urban middle-class, the stereotype was turned around. The Non Resident Indian (NRI) became the epitome of Indianness and embodied at once capital...

Ingrid Therwath

2010-01-01

440

A MISCELLANY ON INDIAN TRADITIONAL MUSIC  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Indian music has a very long, unbroken tradition and is an accumulated heritage of centuries. Music in India was popular among all the sections of society and intertwined in life and culture from birth to death. Indian music was formed with the evolution of ancient religious and secular music. The Indian culture absorbed all the best that was brought by other nations in the process of historical development. The Indian music is quite diverse: there are classical instrumental and vocal works a...

2013-01-01

 
 
 
 
441

Indian Academy of Sciences - New associates, 2007  

Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

department of physics,indian institute of science,bangaloredepartment of theoretical physics,tata institute of fundamental research,mumbaidepartment of plant molecular biology,university of delhi south campus,new delhicomputer science and automation department,indian institute of science,bangalore7. dr partha sarathi mukherjeedepartment of inorganic and physical chemistry,indian institute of science,bangaloredepartment of mathematics,indian institute of technology, bombay,mumbaidepartment of mat ...

442

Sugar-Based Ethanol Biorefinery: Ethanol, Succinic Acid and By-Product Production  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The work conducted in this project is an extension of the developments itemized in DE-FG-36-04GO14236. This program is designed to help the development of a biorefinery based around a raw sugar mill, which in Louisiana is an underutilized asset. Some technical questions were answered regarding the addition of a biomass to ethanol facility to existing sugar mills. The focus of this work is on developing technology to produce ethanol and valuable by-products from bagasse. Three major areas are addressed, feedstock storage, potential by-products and the technology for producing ethanol from dilute ammonia pre-treated bagasse. Sugar mills normally store bagasse in a simple pile. During the off season there is a natural degradation of the bagasse, due to the composting action of microorganisms in the pile. This has serious implications if bagasse must be stored to operate a bagasse/biorefinery for a 300+ day operating cycle. Deterioration of the fermentables in bagasse was found to be 6.5% per month, on pile storage. This indicates that long term storage of adequate amounts of bagasse for year-round operation is probably not feasible. Lignin from pretreatment seemed to offer a potential source of valuable by-products. Although a wide range of phenolic compounds were present in the effluent from dilute ammonia pretreatment, the concentrations of each (except for benzoic acid) were too low to consider for extraction. The cellulosic hydrolysis system was modified to produce commercially recoverable quantities of cellobiose, which has a small but growing market in the food process industries. A spin-off of this led to the production of a specific oligosaccharide which appears to have both medical and commercial implications as a fungal growth inhibitor. An alternate use of sugars produced from biomass hydrolysis would be to produce succinic acid as a chemical feedstock for other conversions. An organism was developed which can do this bioconversion, but the economics of succinic acid production were such that it could not compete with current commercial practice. To allow recovery of commercial amounts of ethanol from bagasse fermentation, research was conducted on high solids loading fermentations (using S. cerevisiae) with commercial cellulase on pretreated material. A combination of SHF/SSF treatment with fed-batch operation allowed fermentation at 30% solids loading. Supplementation of the fermentation with a small amount of black-strap molasses had results beyond expectation. There was an enhancement of conversion as well as production of ethanol levels above 6.0% w/w, which is required both for efficient distillation as well as contaminant repression. The focus of fermentation development was only on converting the cellulose to ethanol, as this yeast is not capable of fermenting both glucose and xylose (from hemicellulose). In anticipation of the future development of such an organism, we screened the commercially available xylanases to find the optimum mix for conversion of both cellulose and hemicellulose. A different mixture than the spezyme/novozyme mix used in our fermentation research was found to be more efficient at converting both cellulose and hemicellulose. Efforts were made to select a mutant of Pichia stipitis for ability to co-ferment glucose and xylose to ethanol. New mutation technology was developed, but an appropriate mutant has not yet been isolated. The ability to convert to stillage from biomass fermentations were determined to be suitable for anaerobic degradation and methane production. An economic model of a current sugar factory was developed in order to provide a baseline for the cost/benefit analysis of adding cellulosic ethanol production.

Donal F. Day

2009-03-31

443

Energy and Society. Indian scenario  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The gap between the demand and supply of energy in the Indian situation will persist in the future. Particularly, the operational performances of the State Electricity Boards are the subject of allegation for inefficiency, wastage, corruption and heavy losses. In all probability, the importance of the non-commercial sector of the energy generation and supply in the Indian economy will continue to play an important role in the foreseeable future, associated with the higher demand for energy and relatively sluggish growth rate in power generation of the commercial sector. This can be followed and stressed well from the forecasts of energy requirements in 1999-2000 for the Indian economy. Some possible directions and thrusts are studied to help the energy policy of India to reach an appropriateness between supply and demand

Mukherji, D.R.

1995-12-31

444

Thorium oxide blanket fabrication for Indian fast breeder test reactor  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

For an effective utilization of Thorium in FBRs, use of fertile blanket of thorium oxide/thorium must be considered. Development of a reliable and economic fabrication technique of this fertile material, thus is an important step in the ultimate goal of utilization of thorium in FBRs. Fabrication and supply of blanket assemblies containing thorium oxide pellets to the requisite quality, for full core of Indian Fast Breeder Test Reactor, is one of the important tasks of Nuclear Fuel Complex at Hyderabad, a unit of the Department of Atomic Energy. Starting with ThO_2-powder obtained by oxalate precipitation and calcination, green pellets are produced through powder metallurgical route. In order to achieve sintered densities more than 94% T.D., addition of Mg in small quantities, during oxalate precipitation stage, have been found quite effective. The effect of compacting pressure, green density and sintering temperature on final sintered density of pellets and percentage of shrinkage have been studied to arrive at the optimum fabrication parameters, to yield high density in pellets requiring minimum amount of grinding. The compactability and sinterability characteristics seem to be affected by long storage of powder. Ball milling of powder before pre-compaction and granulation almost restore the original characteristics of the powder. The paper deals with the Indian experience on fabrication of thoria pellets for the Fast Breeder Test Reactor, with some emphasis on the work carried out for standardization of the parameters, quality characteristics of the pellets and on blanket assemblies made. Performance test of these assemblies under actual operating conditions of FBTR, followed by reprocessing studies, will be of great value for the Indian programme of utilization of thorium in the envisaged FBR's. (author)

1987-03-01

445

Cluster Growth in Aqueous Sugars Observed by Dynamic Light Scattering  

Science.gov (United States)

Dynamic light scattering of aqueous sugar solutions as a function of sugar concentration and temperature reveal the development of sugar clusters occurring in two stages. At low volume fractions of sugar, a so-called cluster phase consisting of nearly monodisperse clusters forms with a mean cluster mass that increases in proportion to the volume fraction. At a critical volume fraction, near where the clusters begin to overlap, a second stage ensues wherein cluster-cluster aggregation forces a more rapid, power law growth in advance of a percolation threshold observed near 83 wt% sugar.

Tran, Tri; Sidebottom, David

2012-02-01

446

Cane production for sugar and electric power in Jamaica  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The principal conclusion of the report is that the Jamaican sugar industry can be made profitable. Although sugar has been grown in Jamaica for centuries, a combination of circumstances, including declining world sugar prices and a severe shortage of foreign exchange, have undermined the economic viability of the government-owned sugar estates. As a result, they have become a burden to the economy. With proper management, cane can become a highly attractive source of fuel for the generation of electricity while at the same time producing sugar and molasses.

1984-10-01

447

Indian Education and the Classroom Teacher.  

Science.gov (United States)

The 12 participants of Arizona State University's annual graduate workshop in Indian Education were public school teachers, a superintendent, and a student in social work. Prepared by the participants, these 13 papers relate directly to the American Indian's education: "Education for What?", "San Carlos Apache Indians", "The Pima", "The History…

Roessel, Robert A., Jr., Ed.

448

Indian Students and Reminiscences of Alcatraz.  

Science.gov (United States)

A former graduate student at the University of California, Berkeley, at the time of the occupation of Alcatraz Island by American Indians reminisces about the development of a Native American Studies program at Berkeley, a course on Indian liberation given just before the occupation, the role of Indian students in the occupation, and attempts to…

Talbot, Steve

1994-01-01

449

Diabetic Nephropathy in American Indians, with a Special Emphasis on the Pima Indians  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Diabetes affects American Indians disproportionately compared with other racial/ethnic groups in the United States and is almost exclusively type 2 diabetes. Much of our knowledge about diabetes in American Indians comes from studies in a few tribes. The most extensively studied American Indians are the Pima Indians from the Gila River Indian Community in Arizona, who participated in a longitudinal study of diabetes and its complications between 1965 and 2007. They have one of the highest rep...

Pavkov, Meda E.; Knowler, William C.; Hanson, Robert L.; Nelson, Robert G.

2008-01-01

450

Sugar-source preference, sugar intake and relative nutritional benefits in Anopheles arabiensis males.  

Science.gov (United States)

Plant-derived sugar is the only source of dietary carbohydrate for males of most mosquito species. Male resource acquisition and utilization remain an under-researched area of behavior in vectors of human diseases. However, the renewed interest in the use of sterile males against disease vector mosquitoes reinforces the urgent need for studies on the behavioral and ecological processes that underpin male fitness and reproductive success. Here an attempt was made first to characterize the conditions and modes of resource acquisition (plant derived sugar meals) early in the life of An. arabiensis males, and second to test the hypothesis that the plants chosen for their sugar meals are those which maximize their fitness in terms of energy gains (i.e. amount of lipids, proteins, glycogen and glucose). Olfactometry assays demonstrated the ability of An. arabiensis males to discriminate among a sample of ten abundant flowering plants present in their natural habitats. In further experiments, we observed significant variations in the sugar intake rates that matched their olfactory preferences, with the most attractive plants eliciting significantly higher sugar intake rates. Consistent with our expectations, analyses of the whole-body free sugars, lipids and glycogen unequivocally showed that the energy reserve accumulated post-feeding is dependent on the diet of the adult males, with the preferred plants providing more energy reserves than the less preferred ones, despite mosquitoes actively feeding on both. Taken together, these results show that An. Arabiensis males are able to discern between food sources, preferentially feeding on those species of plant that provide the highest metabolic payoff. Ensuring or somehow heightening the ability to detect and obtain rewarding sugar meals by male mosquitoes reared for field release could enhance their competitive ability in the field. PMID:24184355

Gouagna, Louis Clément; Kerampran, Renaud; Lebon, Cyrille; Brengues, Cecile; Toty, Celine; Wilkinson, David A; Boyer, Sébastien; Fontenille, Didier

2014-04-01

451

Environmental planning in uranium milling  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Effluents from uranium milling in the Achala region in the province of Cordoba are studied. Liquids from lixiviation-recovery and from precipitation-washing of yellow-cake were analyzed. Separation of both liquids before treatment and disposal is recommended. Data of the hydric environment are presented specially for volumes of flow. The disposal criteria established by the provincial authorities are presented, and discussed. Calculations to define the effects on the environment of two types of effluents (the leaching effluent without treatment and the same after treating it) on two points of the rivers net, are given and the results discussed. A disposal policy for a treated effluent of mean composition is presented, based on two different amounts for the two phases of the river flux; the possible effects on two points of the net were also calculated. In the author's opinion, such policy will result in a disposal without a sensible damage in the receptor. (Author)

1987-01-01

452

East Indians in the Caribbean  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available [First paragraph] Transients to Settlers: The Experience of Indians in Jamaica 1845-J950. VERENE SHEPHERD. Leeds, U.K.: Peepal Tree Books, 1993. 281 pp. (Paper £12.95 Survivors of Another Crossing: A History of East Indians in Trinidad, 1880-1946. MARIANNE D. SOARES RAMESAR. St. Augustine, Trinidad and Tobago: U.W.I. School of Continuing Education, 1994. xiii + 190 pp. (Paper n.p. Les Indes Antillaises: Presence et situation des communautes indiennes en milieu caribeen. ROGER TOUMSON (ed.. Paris: L'Harmattan, 1994. 264 pp. (Paper 140.00 FF Nation and Migration: The Politics of Space in the South Asian Diaspora. PETER VAN DER VEER (ed.. Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press, 1995. vi + 256 pp. (Cloth US$ 39.95, Paper US$ 17.95 In the decade since 1988, Caribbean nations with Indian communities have commemorated the 150th anniversary of the arrival of East Indians to the West Indies. These celebrations are part of local revitalization movements of Indian culture and identity stretching from the French departement of Guadeloupe in the Windward Islands to Trinidad and Guyana in the south. Political changes have mirrored the cultural revival in the region. While the debate so often in the past centered on the legitimacy of East Indian claims to local nationality in these societies where African or Creole cultures dominate, in the 1990s leaders of Indian descent were elected heads of government in the two Caribbean nations with the most populous East Indian communities: Cheddi Jagan as President of Guyana in October 1992 (after a 28-year hiatus and Basdeo Panday as Prime Minister of Trinidad in November 1995. Both men have long been associated with their respective countries' struggles for economic, political, and social equality. Outside the region during the summer of 1997, fiftieth-anniversary celebrations marking the independence of India and Pakistan from Britain confirmed that Indo chic — or "Indofrenzy" as anthropologist Arjun Appadurai calls it (Sengupta 1997:13 - has captured the American imagination with the new popularity of literature, art, and film emanating from India and its diaspora.

Ellen M. Schnepel

1999-07-01

453

High risk pesticides in sugar beet protection  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available According to traits of pesticides permitted to use in sugar beet (oral percutaneus and inhalation toxicity, toxicity to wildlife, bees and aquatic organisms, re-entry interval, maximum number of treatments, effects on reproduction do not present health risk in sugar production/technology. However, the danger exists for workers by chronic exposure during the application, especially from pesticide being potential endocrine disruptors (EDS (fentin acetate, benomyl, endosulfan, methomyl, methidathion. EDS can cause sterility or decreased fertility, impaired development, birth defects of the reproductive tract and metabolic disorders. Authors recommend limited application of EDS pesticides (to limit the number of treatments to only one during the vegetation, replacement with pesticides with low risk to humans game and fishes, as well as mandatory submission of re-entry data for registration.

Šovljanski Radmila A.

2006-01-01

454

Separation of sugars by continuous annular chromatography  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Continuous chromatographic separations of aqueous fructose-glucose-sucrose solutions have been investigated in a laboratory-scale continuous annular chromatograph (CAC) using calcium-exchanged Dowex 50W-X8 resin. Comparative studies have also been conducted using a conventional fixed-bed column packed with the same resin. Complete resolution of fructose-glucose mixtures could be obtained both in a 60-cm-long CAC and in a conventional column of the same length with a sugar feed concentration of up to 200 g/L. Partial resolution of sucrose in three component mixtures was also obtained, and the three sugars were completely separated from added higher-molecular-weight saccharides. Results have been analyzed in terms of approximate linear chromatographic theories and orthogonal collocation of exact mass transfer model equations for fixed and rotating beds. A systematic, comparative evaluation of factors affecting process performance and design procedures is presented.

Howard, A.J.; Carta, G.; Byers, C.H.

1987-08-01

455

Uranium mill ore dust characterization  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Cascade impactor and general air ore dust measurements were taken in a uranium processing mill in order to characterize the airborne activity, the degree of equilibrium, the particle size distribution and the respirable fraction for the "2"3"8U chain nuclides. The sampling locations were selected to limit the possibility of cross contamination by airborne dusts originating in different process areas of the mill. The reliability of the modified impactor and measurement techniques was ascertained by duplicate sampling. The results reveal no significant deviation from secular equilibrium in both airborne and bulk ore samples for the "2"3"4U and "2"3"0Th nuclides. In total airborne dust measurements, the "2"2"6Ra and "2"1"0Pb nuclides were found to be depleted by 20 and 25%, respectively. Bulk ore samples showed depletions of 10% for the "2"2"6Ra and "2"1"0Pb nuclides. Impactor samples show disequilibrium of "2"2"6Ra as high as +-50% for different size fractions. In these samples the "2"2"6Ra ratio was generally found to increase as particle size decreased. Activity median aerodynamic diameters of the airborne dusts ranged from 5 to 30 ?m with a median diameter of 11 ?m. The maximum respirable fraction for the ore dusts, based on the proposed International Commission on Radiological Protection's (ICRP) definition of pulmonary deposition, was < 15% of the total airborne concentration. Ore dust parameters calculated for impactor duplicate samples were found to be in excellent agreement

1980-01-01

456

An econometrics method to estimate demand of sugar  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Sugar is one of the strategic goods in the basket of households in each country and it plays an important role in supplying the required energy. On the other hand, it is one of the goods, which Iranian government is about to change its subsidy strategies. To design useful sugar subsidy strategies, it is necessary to know sugar position in the basket of households and be familiar with households' sugar demand or consumption behavior. This research estimates sugar demand for Iranian households by using time series of 1984-2008, which is taken from central bank of Iran. In this paper, first independent and dependent variables of household sugar demand model are chosen based on the literature review and theory of demand. Then, sugar demand is estimated by OLS technique and linear regression. The preliminary statistical observations such as Durbin-Watson, F statistic and R2 indicate that the regression is admissible. The results seem plausible and consistent with theory and show that sugar demand in Iranian households is associated with household expenditure, relative sugar price, family size and indicate that demand of sugar is affected during the war time. The results also show the income elasticity is 0.8 and price elasticity is -0.2 which means sugar is essential good for Iranian households and is inelastic to price.

Negar Seyed Soleimany

2012-01-01

457

Habitat Quality and Anadromous Fish Production Potential on the Warm Springs Indian Reservation: Annual Report 1987.  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

In 1987, The Warm Springs Indian Reservation Anadromous Fish Production and Habitat Improvement Program was in the sixth year of a scheduled eleven year program. To date, 21 kilometers of reservation stream habitat have been enhanced for salmonid production benefits. Unusual climatic conditions created a severe drought throughout the Warm Springs River Basin and Shitike Creek in 1987. Temperature extremes and low annual discharges ensued throughout reservation waters. Study sites, located in the Warm Springs River Basin and Shitike Creek, continued to be monitored for physical biological parameters. Post treatment evaluation of bioengineering work in Mill Creek (Strawberry Falls Project) was conducted. Despite low discharges, physical habitat parameters were improved and notable gains were observed in both spring chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytascha) and summer steelhead trout (Salmo gairdneri) abundance and biomass at post treatment sites. Major bioengineering work was completed at the Mill Creek (Potter's Pond) Site. 19 refs., 24 figs., 16 tabs.

Heinith, Robert

1987-12-01

458

Prospects of sugarcane milling waste utilization for hydrogen production in India  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Cane-sugar producing countries also generate sufficient waste (bagasse) that is mostly utilized ''on-site'' as a replacement to coal in specialized boilers. In addition to sugar and molasses, about 25% by-product of the cane milling is bagasse that still retains 2.5% sugar on dry wt. basis.This paper deals with the prospects of bagasse fermentation for hydrogen production. It seems relevant, as India and Brazil are the major sugarcane producers in the world. The results obtained confirm bagasse, annually generated to a tune of 40 Mt (million tons) in India, can be diverted from the conventional burning or composting to fermentative hydrogen production in a cost-effective way. The processing cost of bagasse for hydrogen production (3Nm3) equivalent to 1L petrol is about half. The system optimization for accessibility of polysaccharides in bagasse and the use of genetically efficient bacterial strains for agrowaste-based hydrogen production seems the ideal option for clean energy generation

2007-08-01

459

CHANGES EFFECT OF SUGAR IMPORT TARIFF IN INDONESIA  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The purpose of this paper is to study the effect of sugar import tariffs changes since the tariff import is the only policy to increase the sugar domestic production. This analysis is performed using a CGE (computable general equilibri