WorldWideScience
 
 
1

Economics of alternative sugar cane milling options  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Cane processing energy consumption (per unit mass processed) varies between sugar mills. Although lower energy consumptions appear to indicate better performance, closer examination of the sugar extraction process reveals that more efficient extraction may increase sugar revenue sufficiently to offset higher investment and specific energy consumptions. The present analysis relates to proposed modifications in the milling process in Agroval, an old sugarcane factory. Cane processing energy consumption and sugar extraction efficiency for the current process that extracts 92.1% of the sugar, are compared to a hypothetical process similar to that in Japungu, a modern fuel alcohol distillery. Since the fermentation broth must be dilute, distilleries can use more soak water to increase juice extraction during crushing so bagasse humidity and sugar dilution in the cane juice are higher. Though more energy is expended to process cane the proposed process extracts 95.7% of the sugar content. An analysis of the substitution of the process in Agroval, based on measured and estimated data, suggests that if the evaporator steam consumption does not rise appreciably, the net revenue increases significantly. Further measurement and analysis could determine the expected improvement more accurately. (author)

Lobo, P.C.; Jaguaribe, E.F.; da Rocha, F.A.A. [DTM/CT, UFPB, Campus I UFPB, Joao Pessoa, PB 58059-900 (Brazil); Rodrigues, J. [Japungu Agroindustrial S.A., Fazenda Japungu, Santa Rita, PB, 58300-000 (Brazil)

2007-06-15

2

Valuation of a Mexican Sugar Mill and Driving Value Factors  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This paper includes the methodology used to construct a financial cash flow and perform a valuation using the discounted cash flow analysis for a hypothetical Mexican sugar mill. The objective is to incorporate to the valuation model the most significant variables that are relevant to the sugar production process as well as the operational and financial factors of a common sugar mill which are driven by the current legislation in terms of sugarcane pricing and labor costs. It also includes some macroeconomic variables that determine price for sugar, long term costs and the discount rates. With the financial model determined, we use Monte Carlo simulation in order to obtain a probabilistic distribution for the value of the sugar mill and finally we perform a sensitivity analysis to obtain the main variables that affect the resulting enterprise value. The model is constructed on data available for three sugar mills, but the cost structure will not change among other sugar mills, due to regulation and local market conditions; however, the model could be used for any mill by substituting the variables for each case.

Carlos Acosta Calzado

2011-01-01

3

A methodological approach to sugar mill diversification and conversion  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Sugar industry diversification is complex, being constrained by biophysical and socioeconomic conditions. Ongoing work has shown the sugarcane industry’s potential as biorefinery or its sustainable use by offering products as raw material. However, few studies have studied how such potential could be achieved by promoting a conventional sugar mill through integrating its indicators for developing an efficient diversified processing plant which would contribute towards fossil energy saving a...

Noé Aguilar Rivera; María Guadalupe Galindo Mendoza; Carlos Contreras Servín; Javier Fortanelli Martínez

2012-01-01

4

Biodiesel production from microalgae: co-location with sugar mills.  

Science.gov (United States)

Co-location of algae production facilities with cane sugar mills can be a technically advantageous path towards production of biodiesel. Algal biodiesel production was integrated with cane sugar production in the material and energy balance simulation program Sugars™. A model was developed that allowed comparison of production scenarios involving dewatering the algae to 20% ds (dry solids) or 30% ds prior to thermal drying. The net energy ratio, E(R) (energy produced/energy consumed) of the proposed process was found to be 1.5. A sensitivity analysis showed that this number ranged from 0.9 to 1.7 when the range of values for oil content, CO(2) utilization, oil conversion, and harvest density reported in the literature were evaluated. By utilizing available waste-resources from a 10,000 ton/d cane sugar mill, a 530 ha algae farm can produce 5.8 million L of biodiesel/yr and reduce CO(2) emissions of the mill by 15% without the need for fossil fuels. PMID:22265980

Lohrey, Christian; Kochergin, Vadim

2012-03-01

5

Predicting remaining life in upper sugar-mill shafts  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available A fracture mechanics-based method is presented for determining critical crack size and residual life of upper sugar-mill shafts having semi-elliptical and circumferential cracks. Due to the multiaxial stress field, an equivalent strain energy release rate stress intensity solution is used in Paris’ law to predict crack growth. Ultrasonic inspection intervals for the shaft were established. The crack zone evaluated was located in the shoulder of the bearing nearest to the square box coupling where about 25% of service failures in these types of shaft are observed.

Sara Rodríguez Pulecio

2010-04-01

6

Ergonomic design applied in a sugar mill interface  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Argentina | Language: English Abstract in english In tasks requiring human supervision in an industrial control room there are applied generic disciplines like automatic control and engineering systems. From the point of view of the human computer interaction applied to these disciplines it is necessary to add usability engineering and cognitive er [...] gonomics. This integrated framework is an example of human-centred design on automation systems. The main goal of this work is the application of a cognitive ergonomic guideline for supervisory control in order to improve the efficiency of a sugar mill interface design.

P., Ponsa; B., Amante; M., Díaz.

2010-03-01

7

SUGAR INDUSTRY IN MAHARASHTRA  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The Indian sugar industry is a key driver of rural development, supporting India's economic growth. The industry is inherently inclusive supporting over 50 million farmers and their families, along with workers and enter-preneurs almost 550 sugar mills. Indian sugar industry is a cyclical industry, as on one hand if serves the domestic market, the largest in the world. Sugar is a sector of significant importance to the national economy while consumption has been growing historically the production has been cyclical. In an era where there is a need for inclusive growth the sugar industry is amongst the few industries that have successfully contributed to the rural economy

PRATAP BAPUSO LAD

2013-04-01

8

Composition of sugar cane, energy cane, and sweet sorghum suitable for ethanol production at Louisiana sugar mills.  

Science.gov (United States)

A challenge facing the biofuel industry is to develop an economically viable and sustainable biorefinery. The existing potential biorefineries in Louisiana, raw sugar mills, operate only 3 months of the year. For year-round operation, they must adopt other feedstocks, besides sugar cane, as supplemental feedstocks. Energy cane and sweet sorghum have different harvest times, but can be processed for bio-ethanol using the same equipment. Juice of energy cane contains 9.8% fermentable sugars and that of sweet sorghum, 11.8%. Chemical composition of sugar cane bagasse was determined to be 42% cellulose, 25% hemicellulose, and 20% lignin, and that of energy cane was 43% cellulose, 24% hemicellulose, and 22% lignin. Sweet sorghum was 45% cellulose, 27% hemicellulose, and 21% lignin. Theoretical ethanol yields would be 3,609 kg per ha from sugar cane, 12,938 kg per ha from energy cane, and 5,804 kg per ha from sweet sorghum. PMID:20803247

Kim, Misook; Day, Donal F

2011-07-01

9

Wind Resource Assessment Report: Mille Lacs Indian Reservation, Minnesota  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) launched the RE-Powering America's Land initiative to encourage development of renewable energy on potentially contaminated land and mine sites. EPA collaborated with the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE's) National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) and the Mille Lacs Band of Chippewa Indians to evaluate the wind resource and examine the feasibility of a wind project at a contaminated site located on the Mille Lacs Indian Reservation in Minnesota. The wind monitoring effort involved the installation of a 60-m met tower and the collection of 18 months of wind data at multiple heights above the ground. This report focuses on the wind resource assessment, the estimated energy production of wind turbines, and an assessment of the economic feasibility of a potential wind project sited this site.

Jimenez, A. C.

2013-12-01

10

Comparative Analysis of Milled Wood Lignins (MWLs Isolated from Sugar Maple (SM and Hot-Water Extracted Sugar Maple (ESM  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available To further elucidate the advantageous effects of hot-water extraction (HWE on delignification, milled wood lignin (MWL was isolated from sugar maple (SM and from hot-water extracted sugar maple (ESM. Ball-milled wood was analyzed for particle size distribution (PSD before and after dioxane:water (DW extraction. The MWL samples were analyzed by analytical and spectral methods. The results indicated that the MWL isolated from SM and ESM was mainly released from the middle lamella (ML and the secondary wall (SW, respectively. The cleavage of dibenzodioxocin (DB and spirodienone (SD lignin substructures during HWE is suggested. The removal of lignin during acetone:water (AW extraction of hot-water extracted wood indicates that including an additional operation in a hardwood HWE-based biorefinery would be beneficial for processing of wood.

Mangesh J. Goundalkar

2014-03-01

11

Operations improvement of the recycling water-cooling systems of sugar mills  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Water management in sugar factories doesn’t have analogues in its complexity among food industry enterprises. Water intensity of sugar production is very high. Circulation water, condensed water, pulp press water and others are used in technological processes. Water plays the main role in physical, chemical, thermotechnical processes of beet processing and sugar production. As a consequence of accession of Russia to the WTO the technical requirements for production processes are changing. The enforcements of ecological services to balance scheme of water consumption and water disposal increased. The reduction of fresh water expenditure is one of the main tasks in economy of sugar industry. The substantial role in fresh water expenditure is played by efficiency of cooling and aeration processes of conditionally clean waters of the 1st category. The article contains an observation of the technologies of the available solutions and recommendations for improving and upgrading the existing recycling water-cooling systems of sugar mills. The authors present the block diagram of the water sector of a sugar mill and a method of calculating the optimal constructive and technological parameters of cooling devices. Water cooling towers enhanced design and upgrades are offered.

Shcherbakov Vladimir Ivanovich

12

Generation of Electricity Using Sugar mill Waste Water by Microbial Fuel Cell  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The application of microbial fuel cell (MFC for electricity generation has been developing recently. This research explores the application of single chamber MFC in generating electricity using sugar wastewater.The different concentration of wastewater has been performed. The maximum current, voltage, BOD, COD ,pH and TDS obtained with respect to time. MFC of sugar mill wastewater showed removal efficiency 69.3% COD, 68.1% BOD and 56.35% TDS with different feed concentration. The current, voltage and power generation in the reactor is 1.28 mA, 0.9 V and 0.304 watts/m2 respectively.

Kavyashree.R.Doddamani

2014-10-01

13

Optimizing the bagasse based co-generation: a case study of dewan sugar mill, thatta, pakistan  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

To meet Pakistan's projected power demand; about 143 GW of new generating capacity will need to be installed up to 2030. Many studies around the world have identified bagasse based cogeneration as an attractive low-cost option to place additional generating capacity on the grid. The focus of this study is the sugar industry which has long been co generating power for its own purposes is favored as the potential entry market for co-generation. This industry presents a strategic opportunity to develop a validate commercial business to overcome the barriers restricting development. Dewan Sugar Mill situated in district Thatta in Sindh province was selected as case study because of its higher crushing capacity. Power generation study for this sugar mill has been carried out. The study concludes that the mill can generate surplus power to export to the extent of about four times the current generation during the season using bagasse as fuel. These export can go to about five times the current generation subject to the condition, if alternative fuel is supplied. (author)

14

Environmental impact assessment: a case study of M/S Mirpurkhas sugar mills  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Sugar Mills effluent and their effects on the surface and groundwater quality in the vicinity of Mirpurkhas Sugar Mills have been studied during the period from November 04 to February 05. The results obtained from the analysis of samples collected from factory and effluent channel indicates that all values of effluent parameters BOD/sub 5/, COD, TSS, and Oil and Grease are higher than the value recommended in NEQS. The values of physico-chemical parameters of groundwater samples (Ca, Mg, Na, HCO/sub 3/, Cl, SO/sub 4/) also shows variation in results with comparison to mill distance, but still found within the limit of WHO standards. During the environmental survey of adjacent villages, it was also observed that the local environment and quality of water is adversely being affected by mill effluent. This is obvious from samples of effluent and the comparison of results of samples of groundwater supplies taken from various locations. Therefore, it is strongly recommended that the material thrown as effluent must be treated before disposed off into channels and people must be informed about the adverse effects of effluent upon the groundwater quality. (author)

15

Culture of the microalga chlorella vulgaris on different proportions of sugar mill effluents  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Chlarella vulgaris was cultured in four different dilutions of sugar mill effluent media (SMEM). Bold's basal medium (BBM) was used as the control under laboratory conditions. Maximum cell growth and chlorophyll-a content were obtained on 10th day of the culture in 50% diluted SMEM, followed by those grown in BBM, and 75, 25 and 100% SMEM at stationary phase. The specific growth rate (mu g/day) of cells and chlorophyll-a of C. vulgaris grown in 50% SMEM varied significantly (p < 0.0 I) from those of C. vulgaris cultured in BBM, followed by other SMEM concentrations. Total biomass of C. vulgaris. cultured in 50% SMEM, was found to be significantly higher (p < 0.0 I) than that of C. vulgaris cultured in BBM, and 25, 75 and 100% SMEM concentrations. Similar trend was also observed in the case of optical density. Cell number and chlorophyll-a of C. vulgaris were highly (p < 0.01) and directly correlated with chlorophyll-a (r2 = 0.991) of C. vulgaris and optical density (r2 = 0.989) for the culture media containing C. vulgaris, respectively. Crude proteins and crude lipids of C. vulgaris. grown in 50% SMEM, were significantly (p < 0.01) higher than those of C. vulgaris cultured in other SMEM concentrations. Due to good growth performance exhibited in the 50% SMEM dilution, the sugar mill effluent may be used for efficient cultivation of C. vulgaris and possibly other micro algae. (author)

16

Does Factor Accumulation or Productivity Change Drive Output Growth in the Indian Sugar Industry? An Inter-state Analysis  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The study endeavors to break down output growth in the Indian sugar industry into the ‘perspiration’ component that corresponds to factor accumulation and the ‘inspiration’ component that corresponds to the total factor productivity (TFP growth. The bootstrapped Malmquist productivity index has been used as a technique to obtain the TFP growth from the period 1974/75 to 2004/05. Empirical analysis reveals that output growth in the Indian sugar industry is equally driven by the inspiration component (i.e., TFP growth and the perspiration component (i.e., factor accumulation, but in opposite directions. The inspiration component is observed to contribute to output growth positively, whereas the perspiration component contributes negatively. Given substantial TFP growth, the potential output growth in the Indian sugar industry has been restricted primarily by the negative growth of inputs during the entire study period and particularly in the post-reform period.

Nitin Arora

2013-06-01

17

A methodological approach to sugar mill diversification and conversion / Enfoque metodológico de diversificación y reconversión de ingenios azucareros  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Colombia | Language: English Abstract in spanish La diversificación de la industria azucarera es compleja y se ve limitada por condiciones biofísicas y socioeconómicas. Muchos trabajos han demostrado su potencial como biorrefinería y la utilización sostenible de los subproductos como materia prima. Sin embargo, pocos estudios se ha focalizado a tr [...] avés de la integración de indicadores productivos de un ingenio azucarero y cómo este potencial podría lograr transformar un ingenio azucarero convencional en una eficiente planta diversificada que contribuya a reducir el consumo de energía fósil y alcanzar la competitividad. Este trabajo presenta un marco de análisis o metodología basada en el conocimiento existente sobre la industria azucarera o el estado del arte, con la finalidad de evaluar la diversificación mediante el proceso de jerarquías analíticas (AHP) como una herramienta adecuada para el análisis de sistemas complejos, la identificación de alternativas y su discusión de manera que facilite la toma de decisiones colectivas. El análisis AHP obtenido en este estudio ofrece una discusión acerca de las variables que explican la capacidad para diversificar los procesos en un ingenio azucarero (rendimiento de fábrica: 0.332, productos derivados del ingenio azucarero: 0.327 y calidad de materia prima o caña de azúcar: 0.121). Los resultados obtenidos sirven de guía en la formulación de estrategias para la utilización óptima de los recursos derivados de un ingenio azucarero, mientras que la maximización de sus beneficios, para diversificar o reconvertir ingenios azucareros en biorrefinerías. Abstract in english Sugar industry diversification is complex, being constrained by biophysical and socioeconomic conditions. Ongoing work has shown the sugarcane industry's potential as biorefinery or its sustainable use by offering products as raw material. However, few studies have studied how such potential could b [...] e achieved by promoting a conventional sugar mill through integrating its indicators for developing an efficient diversified processing plant which would contribute towards fossil energy saving and competitiveness. This paper presents a conceptual framework for analysis based on existing knowledge regarding sugar industry state-of-the-art for evaluating diversification, using analytical hierarchy process (AHP) as a tool for analysing complex systems, identifying alternatives to the current situation and discussing them to facilitate collective decision-making. Sugar mill AHP scores enabled discussion about the variables most affecting sugar mill diversification (0.332 factory yield, 0.327 sugar mill products and 0.121 sugarcane quality). The results serve as a useful guidance for formulating strategies for the optimum use of by-products in a sugar mill while maximising bene-fits to modify/convert a traditional sugar mill to a so-called bio-refinery.

N, Aguilar; G, Galindo; C, Contreras; J, Fortanelli.

2012-08-01

18

Energy Efficiency Feasibility Study and Resulting Plan for the Bay Mills Indian Community  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

In 2011 the Inter-Tribal Council of Michigan, Inc. was awarded an Energy Efficiency Development and Deployment in Indian Country grant from the U.S. Department of Energy’s Tribal Energy Program. This grant aimed to study select Bay Mills Indian Community community/government buildings to determine what is required to reduce each building’s energy consumption by 30%. The Bay Mills Indian Community (BMIC) buildings with the largest expected energy use were selected for this study and included the Bay Mills Ellen Marshall Health Center building, Bay Mills Indian Community Administration Building, Bay Mills Community College main campus, Bay Mills Charter School and the Waishkey Community Center buildings. These five sites are the largest energy consuming Community buildings and comprised the study area of this project titled “Energy Efficiency Feasibility Study and Resulting Plan for the Bay Mills Indian Community”. The end objective of this study, plan and the Tribe is to reduce the energy consumption at the Community’s most energy intensive buildings that will, in turn, reduce emissions at the source of energy production, reduce energy expenditures, create long lasting energy conscious practices and positively affect the quality of the natural environment. This project’s feasibility study and resulting plan is intended to act as a guide to the Community’s first step towards planned energy management within its buildings/facilities. It aims to reduce energy consumption by 30% or greater within the subject facilities with an emphasis on energy conservation and efficiency. The energy audits and related power consumption analyses conducted for this study revealed numerous significant energy conservation and efficiency opportunities for all of the subject sites/buildings. In addition, many of the energy conservation measures require no cost and serve to help balance other measures requiring capital investment. Reoccurring deficiencies relating to heating, cooling, thermostat setting inefficiencies, powering computers, lighting, items linked to weatherization and numerous other items were encountered that can be mitigated with the energy conservation measures developed and specified during the course of this project.

Kushman, Chris

2014-02-03

19

Detection of Phytoplasma on Indian Fig (Opuntia ficus-indica Mill in Mexico Central Region  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Problem statement: The Indian fig (a species of prickly pear cactus, has been known as Nopal, comprises an approximate area of 100,000 ha, in plantations used for human consumption. ?Pyramids? Indian fig area located in the northeastern State of Mexico has been an important Indian-fig area in the country, with 15810 ha, where a phytoplasma has been consistently present in symptomatic plant. Approach: An unknown symptomatology in the Indian fig (prickly pear cactus (Opuntia ficus-indica Mill was analyzed through grafting and a nested-PCR reaction and graft on healthy plants grown in a greenhouse. Results: The symptoms found, deforming, buds proliferation, thickening and heart-shaping in cladodes, with arrested plant growth and deep yellowing of cladodes, were all attributed to the presence of a phytoplasma given the amplification of a 1200 pb fragment of the 16S rRNA gene using primers R16 F2/R2 and R16F2n/R2 and 80% of phytoplasma transmission efficiency of successful grafts. Conclusion: Although the symptoms observed did not completely match those described for this organism in the region, a 1200 pb fragment was amplified and PCR products restriction analysis leading us to assume that the phytoplasma corresponds to subgroup 16Srll, previously reported for other crops in others world regions.

Ricardo Gaspar

2009-01-01

20

Performance Enhancement of Sugar Mill by Alternate Cooling System for Condenser  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Agro industry plays a crucial role in the industrialization process of developing countries. Sugar industry is second largest agro industry in the world. In sugar manufacturing plants there are various processes for production of sugar i.e. extraction of juice, clarification, evaporation, concentration of juice, forming and separating crystals etc. These processes consumed energies in the form of mechanical energy, electrical energy and heat energy. So there are various source...

Paras Chouhan

2014-01-01

 
 
 
 
21

Engenho sim, de açúcar não o engenho de farinha de Frans Post / Mills for manioc, not for sugar cane Frans Post's manioc mill  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese O capítulo toma um recém-lançado catálogo das obras completas de Frans Post para pensar o processamento da cana-de-açúcar e da mandioca no Brasil colonial. O pintor holandês do século XVII viveu no Brasil de 1637 a 1644, durante a ocupação holandesa e deixou uma rica coleção de óleos e desenhos, a m [...] aior parte deles representando paisagens do Nordeste, em particular engenhos de açúcar e grandes propriedades rurais. O texto se apóia em fontes escritas de época para demonstrar como as telas de Post podem nos levar a uma interessante análise sobre a produção e o consumo da farinha de mandioca e do açúcar na primeira metade do século XVII. Abstract in english The chapter takes a recently launched catalogue with the complete works by Frans Post to argue about the technology for processing sugar and manioc in colonial Brazil. The seventeenth century Dutch painter lived in Brazil from 1637 to 1644, during the Dutch occupation of Pernambuco, and left a rich [...] collection of paintings and sketches most of them representing the Northeastern landscape, in particular sugar mills and non-identified plantations. The paper relies also on contemporary written sources to demonstrate how Post canvas can leads us tointeresting analysis about the production and uses of manioc meal and sugar during the first half of seventeenth century.

Mariza de Carvalho, Soares.

2009-06-01

22

Utilization of agricultural sugar cane wastes as fuel in modern cogeneration systems applied in sugar cane mills; Aprovechamiento de los residuos agricolas caneras como combustible en sistemas de cogeneracion modernos aplicados a ingenios  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Considering the new legal frame on cogeneration in Mexico, the possibility of heat and electricity supply required by the sugar mills to be made by an independent cogenerator of the sugar mill, operating with the sugar cane bagasse and agricultural sugar cane wastes, has been evaluated. Such modern cogenerator would be characterized, besides operating in an independent way of the sugar mill, by the use of high efficiency equipment in its process of heat and electricity generation. In this sense the Comision Nacional para el Ahorro de Energia (CONAE) through its Coordination Program and the Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas (IIE) carried out a joint project to determine the technical and economical viability that the sugar industry maintains the present sugar production without the need of burning fuel oil, installing adjacent to every sugar mill, a modern cogeneration system, operated by independent producers, that using sugar cane bagasse and agricultural sugar cane wastes, allows the supply of all the steam and electricity required by the sugar mill, and additionally can add firm capacity and the supply of electric power to the national grid, during the grinding season as well as out of grinding season. [Espanol] En consideracion al nuevo marco juridico de la cogeneracion en Mexico se ha evaluado la posibilidad de que el suministro de calor y electricidad requerido por los ingenios azucareros sea proporcionado por un cogenerador independiente de la planta de azucar, el cual opere utilizando el bagazo y residuos agricolas caneras (biomasa canera). Dicho cogenerador moderno se caracterizaria, ademas de operar de manera independiente a la planta de azucar, por el uso de equipos de alta eficiencia en su proceso de produccion de calor y electricidad. En este sentido la Comision Nacional para el Ahorro de Energia (CONAE) a traves de la Coordinacion de Programacion y el Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas (IIE) realizaron un trabajo en conjunto para determinar la viabilidad tecnica y economica de que la industria azucarera pueda mantener la produccion actual de azucar, sin tener necesidad de consumir combustoleo, instalando aledano a cada ingenio, un sistema de cogeneracion moderno, operado por productores independientes, que utilizando el bagazo y los residuos agricolas canera, permita suministrar todo el vapor y la electricidad requerida por la fabrica de azucar y, ademas, pueda suministrar capacidad firme y energia electrica a la red nacional, tanto en periodo de zafra como fuera de zafra.

Buendia Dominguez, Eduardo H. [Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas, Cuernavaca (Mexico); De Buen Rodriguez, Odon [Comision Nacional para el Ahorro de la Energia, Mexico, D. F. (Mexico)

1998-12-31

23

Performance Enhancement of Sugar Mill by Alternate Cooling System for Condenser  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Agro industry plays a crucial role in the industrialization process of developing countries. Sugar industry is second largest agro industry in the world. In sugar manufacturing plants there are various processes for production of sugar i.e. extraction of juice, clarification, evaporation, concentration of juice, forming and separating crystals etc. These processes consumed energies in the form of mechanical energy, electrical energy and heat energy. So there are various sources of waste heat in sugar factory i.e. waste heat from hot flue gasses, hot water from evaporative body and boiler blow down. The large amount of waste heat passes from various devices of sugar factory causes decrease in the efficiency of sugar plants, and also increase the “Global Warming” which is very dangerous for our environment. The present cooling system for condenser is inappropriate & hence decrease vacuum in evaporators and pans. This will increase the boiling point temperature of juice. The proposed cooling system gives solution of both problems. The most important source of waste heat i.e. hot flue gases are use to run absorption chiller. The absorption chiller gives better cooling system for condenser. There will be improvement in condensation of vapour in condenser which will cause increase vacuum in evaporators and pans thereby reducing boiling point temperature of juice. This reduced boiling point temperature of juice requires less amount of steam for boiling, ultimately saving of bagasse and fuel economy can be attained. Thus this arrangement can be treated as the efficient method of utilization of waste heat for cooling condenser water in sugar factory thus saving further depletion of natural resources like coal, petroleum or else increasing its availability to other important processes and one can hope that the “waste heat recovery” may play an even greater role in the industrial development in this new millennium.

Paras Chouhan

2014-09-01

24

Energy-efficient two-roller mill; Energieeffiziente Zweiwalzenmuehle  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

To meet market demand for energy-efficient equipment, ThyssenKrupp Industries India has developed a highly energy-efficient, trash plate-less two-roller mill to overcome the limitations (frictional losses, complexity and wear) of the conventional three-roller mill. The new mill reflects the pioneering role played by ThyssenKrupp Industries India in the Indian sugar industry. As mills are major power consumers in the sugar industry, there was an urgent need for an energy-efficient alternative. With its large market presence in the sugar industry, ThyssenKrupp Industries India is constantly looking to develop more energy-efficient equipment and processes for all areas of sugar production. (orig.)

Sakhardande, Yashwant [ThyssenKrupp Industries India Pvt Ltd., Pimpri, Pune (India). Design and Engineering; Karmarkar, Arvind [ThyssenKrupp Industries India Pvt Ltd., Pimpri, Pune (India). Research and Development

2012-07-01

25

Evaluation of Anaerobic Fluidized Bed Reactor for treating Sugar mill effluent - a Case Study  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Anaerobic treatment processes are credible options for providing sustainable treatment to biodegradable waste streams. The Anaerobic Fluidized Bed Reactor (AFBR is an evolving process that requires waste specific design methodologies based on kinetics of the specific process. The research was precisely an experimental study on AFBR having23.56 litres of effective volume to evaluate its treatment performance and gas recovery in terms of Chemical Oxygen Demand (COD, Hydraulic Retention Time(HRTand Organic Loading Rate (OLR. The synthetic sugar influent COD was variedfrom 1500 to 4000 mg/lit. The OLR for the operating flow rates were ranged from 1.36 to 28.8 Kg COD/m3 .day for HRT varied from 3.2 to 24 hrs. The maximum COD removal efficiency is 90.06 at an operating OLR of 3.42 Kg COD/m3 .day. The maximum biogas yield was observed at 0.28 m 3 /kg COD removed.

R. Mathiyazhagan

2014-07-01

26

Sugar Sugar  

Science.gov (United States)

This interactive Java applet is a game that challenges a student to solve problems by using logic and rudimentary engineering skills. The goal in each case is to create a conveyance that gets the required amount of sugar to pour into a mug or mugs. The game has 30 stages of increasing complexity.

Bart Bonte

2012-01-01

27

Medieval legacies: the industrial archaeology of an early sixteenth century sugar mill at Sevilla la Nueva, Jamaica  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

To date, historical and archaeological research has focused only on the late seventeenth- to nineteenth-century French, British, Dutch and Portuguese sugar plantations and their associated slave villages in the Caribbean and Brazil. Attempts by the Spanish to establish sugar estates in the sixteenth century have been largely ignored by archaeologists. Despite its early introduction to the Caribbean in 1494, the sugar industry was not firmly established until 1517 on Hispaniola and Jamaica, an...

Woodward, Robyn Patricia

2006-01-01

28

Modelación matemática de la flotación de la maza superior de los molinos de caña de azúcar / Mathematical model for instant flotation of top shaft in sugar cane mills  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Cuba | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish En el presente trabajo se desarrolla un modelo matemático de la flotación de la maza superior de los molinos de caña de azúcar durante su funcionamiento, determinado a partir de mediciones experimentales de dicha magnitud en el tiempo. Se realiza un ajuste adecuado a los valores medidos experimental [...] mente y se obtiene una función analítica que permitirá considerar los efectos de la flotación en el estudio del funcionamiento y en los métodos de cálculo de los molinos y sus elementos. Se aplica a un molino en el Complejo Agroindustrial 14 de Julio en Cienfuegos. Se modelan cien segundos de funcionamiento obteniéndose una función que expresa la flotación la que al ser derivada permite obtener la velocidad y aceleración con que varía la flotación instantánea. Los coeficientes y sus bondades son dados matricialmente para todos los ajustes efectuados al construir la función que define la flotación instantánea obtenida en este caso. Abstract in english A mathematical model for the instant flotation of the top shaft of sugar cane mill is developed and analytical function for introduce in the study of other sugar cane mills parts is obtained. The model is applied to July 14th sugar factory in Cienfuegos. One hundred seconds of work is modeled and a [...] functions for floating, velocity and acceleration of floating are obtained. The coefficients and their goodness are given in matrix for all the fits made for to build the function that defines the instant flotation obtained in this case.

Mario Javier, Cabello-Ulloa; Juan José, Cabello-Eras; Jorge, Moya-Rodríguez; Rafael, Goytisolo-Espinosa; José Alberto, Velásquez-Pérez; Juan Rafael, Mestizo-Cerón.

2012-04-01

29

Electricity generation from rice husk in Indian rice mills: potential and financial viability  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Rice husk generated as a by-product of rice processing is an important energy resource. The availability of this resource in India has been assessed and the technologies for exploitation of its energy potential in the rice processing industry discussed. Nomographs have been developed for estimation of the husk required to meet the energy of parboiling, drying and milling operations. The unit cost of electricity using rice husk gasifier-based power generation systems has been calculated and its financial feasibility assessed in comparison with utility-supplied and diesel-generated electricity. With the cost and efficiency data assumed here, the unit cost of electricity produced by rice husk gasifier-dual fuel engine-generator system varies between Rs 2/kWh and Rs 7/kWh. (35 Rs approximates to SUS 1.). (author)

30

Energy and water saving measures at the Arloev sugar mill. Final report; Energi- och vattenbesparande aatgaerder vid Arloevs Sockerbruk. Slutrapport  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The project comprised several, mutually dependent, sub-projects; mapping, investigation of ways to reduce water consumption, membrane tests aiming to find ways to recover sugar, and pinch analysis to evaluate the possibilities for improved process integration. This final report deals with the overall project results. Identified savings opportunities and savings potentials are presented. The presented measures represent an overall optimisation based on the results of all the project parts. Already during the project, measures have been implemented that are calculated to save 65 000 m{sup 3} water annually, corresponding to 10 % of the total water consumption. This saving is in level with the goals for the project. In the table below, these and additional measures are presented with a total savings potential at approximately 200 000 m{sup 3} /year water. The project will then achieve a saving of just below 35 % of present water consumption. Also in the membrane study the results surpassed the expectations. It was found that with nano filtering a sugar concentration of more than 10 %(W) could be reached in the retentate at a flux 50al/m{sup 2}h. The total sugar losses were less than 5 %, i.e. 95 % should be possible to recover. In total, a savings potential of more than 300 tonnes sugar per year is indicated. The Energy savings in the project are calculated to 7,4 GWh/year, of which 0,2 GWh/year by reduced water consumption, 0,6 GWh/year by water recovery, 1,4 GWh/year by membrane technology and 5,2aGWh/year as a result of process integration. This should be compared to the target 2,5 GWh/year. Hence, the results are almost three times the expected. The savings in monetary terms are estimated at just under SEK 5 million per year. The investment is roughly estimated at between SEK 5 and 6 million, of which SEK 4 million for the membrane equipment and SEK 0,5 million for a process water buffer tank. The remaining investment costs cover heat exchangers, control equipment and piping. This means that the total package will have a payback time of approximately one year. The environmental benefits of this project are mainly a result of the reduced energy consumption. This leads to a 1 600 tonne reduction of carbon dioxide emissions annually from reduced natural gas firing. Furthermore, the results indicate possibilities for a profitable reduction of oxygen depleting substances by over 300 tonnes sugar annually. In addition, the reduction of water consumption by 200 000 cubic meters per year results in reduced electricity and chemicals consumption in both water and sewage treatment plants.

Wamsler, M. [AAF-Processdesign AB, Malmoe (Sweden)

2001-10-01

31

Do engenho à biorrefinaria: a usina de açúcar como empreendimento industrial para a geração de produtos bioquímicos e biocombustíveis / From the mill to a biorefinery: the sugar factory as an industrial enterprise for the generation of biochemicals and biofuels  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese [...] Abstract in english A sugar cane mill is at the present moment a modest biorefinery producing few products such as sugar, ethanol and polyhydroxybutyrate (PHB). In the near future, this mill can expand its production using several renewable feedstock's to produce biofuels and high value biobased chemicals. However, the [...] choice of appropriate products for addition to the portfolio is challenged by a lack of broad-based conversion technology coupled with a plethora of potential targets. The intent of this revision was to catalyze research efforts to expand the list of products and to present an updated evaluation of potential target structures for chemical production.

José Augusto R, Rodrigues.

1242-12-01

32

The Value of the Freshwater Snail Dip Scoop Sampling Method in Macroinvertebrates Bioassessment of Sugar Mill Wastewater Pollution in Mbandjock, Cameroon  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Macroinvertebrates identification and enumeration may be used as a simple and affordable alternative to chemical analysis in water pollution monitoring. However, the ecological responses of various taxa to pollution are poorly known in resources-limited tropical countries. While freshwater macroinvertebrates have been used in the assessment of water quality in Europe and the Americas, investigations in Africa have mainly focused on snail hosts of human parasites. There is a need for sampling methods that can be used to assess both snails and other macroinvertebrates. The present study was designed to evaluate the usefulness of the freshwater snail dip scoop method in the study of macroinvertebrates for the assessment of the SOSUCAM sugar mill effluents pollution. Standard snail dip scoop samples were collected upstream and downstream of the factory effluent inputs, on the Mokona and Mengoala rivers. The analysis of the macroinvertebrate communities revealed the absence of Ephemeroptera and Trichoptera, and the thriving of Syrphidae in the sections of the rivers under high effluent load. The Shannon and Weaver diversity index was lower in these areas. The dip scoop sampling protocol was found to be a useful method for macroinvertebrates collection. Hence, this method is recommended as a simple, cost-effective and efficient tool for the bio-assessment of freshwater pollution in developing countries with limited research resources.

Emmanuel Noumi

2008-03-01

33

Predicción de vida remanente en ejes de masa superior de molino de caña / Predicting remaining life in upper sugar-mill shafts  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Colombia | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish En este artículo se presenta un método basado en la mecánica de fractura para el cálculo del tamaño crítico de fisuras y la vida remanente de un eje de masa superior de molino de caña de azúcar, con fisuras semielípticas y circunferenciales. Debido a la presencia de un campo de esfuerzos multiaxiale [...] s es necesario usar en la ley de París un factor de intensidad de esfuerzos equivalente. Se obtuvieron los intervalos entre inspección requeridos para evitar una falla por fatiga de estos elementos. Para el cálculo de vida residual y tamaño de fisura máxima se considera la zona localizada en el cambio de diámetro del guijo más próximo al acoplamiento cuadrado, donde se encontró el 25% de las fallas. Abstract in english A fracture mechanics-based method is presented for determining critical crack size and residual life of upper sugar-mill shafts having semi-elliptical and circumferential cracks. Due to the multiaxial stress field, an equivalent strain energy release rate stress intensity solution is used in Paris’ [...] law to predict crack growth. Ultrasonic inspection intervals for the shaft were established. The crack zone evaluated was located in the shoulder of the bearing nearest to the square box coupling where about 25% of service failures in these types of shaft are observed.

Sara, Rodríguez Pulecio; John Jairo, Coronado Marín; Nelson, Arzola de la Peña.

2006-04-01

34

Winds of change: the Central Sugar mill of Aracaty Company and the sugar production in Minas Gerais at the down of XIXth century / Um sopro de mudanças: a Companhia Engenho Central de Aracaty e a produção açucareira mineira no final do Império  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in portuguese Este artigo tem como objetivo analisar as conseqüências da política imperial voltada para o desenvolvimento dos engenhos centrais na Província de Minas Gerais. Pretendemos demonstrar através dos dados sobre o Engenho Central de Aracaty, que mesmo pertencendo a uma área secundaria da produção açucare [...] ira, essa produção teve um certo dinamismo, principalmente por estar voltada para o consumo regional. A Companhia Engenho Central de Aracaty estabeleceu-se no município de Leopoldina e funcionou como um engenho central até 1888. Abstract in english This article analyzes the consequences of imperial policies focused on the development of central sugar mills in the province of Minas Gerais. By examining documents related to the Engenho Central de Aracaty Company, we hope to show that despite its location in a secondary area of sugar production, [...] the mill was characterized by a certain dynamism, largely because it catered to regional consumption. The Engenho Central de Aracaty Company was established in the city of Leopoldina and worked as a central sugar mill until 1888.

Roberta Barros, Meira.

2009-12-01

35

Winds of change: the Central Sugar mill of Aracaty Company and the sugar production in Minas Gerais at the down of XIXth century Um sopro de mudanças: a Companhia Engenho Central de Aracaty e a produção açucareira mineira no final do Império  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This article analyzes the consequences of imperial policies focused on the development of central sugar mills in the province of Minas Gerais. By examining documents related to the Engenho Central de Aracaty Company, we hope to show that despite its location in a secondary area of sugar production, the mill was characterized by a certain dynamism, largely because it catered to regional consumption. The Engenho Central de Aracaty Company was established in the city of Leopoldina and worked as a central sugar mill until 1888.Este artigo tem como objetivo analisar as conseqüências da política imperial voltada para o desenvolvimento dos engenhos centrais na Província de Minas Gerais. Pretendemos demonstrar através dos dados sobre o Engenho Central de Aracaty, que mesmo pertencendo a uma área secundaria da produção açucareira, essa produção teve um certo dinamismo, principalmente por estar voltada para o consumo regional. A Companhia Engenho Central de Aracaty estabeleceu-se no município de Leopoldina e funcionou como um engenho central até 1888.

Roberta Barros Meira

2009-12-01

36

Estrutura de um fragmento florestal no Engenho Humaitá, Catende, Pernambuco, Brasil Structure of a forest fragment at Humaitá sugar mill, Catende, PE, Brazil  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Avaliou-se, neste trabalho, a estrutura de um fragmento florestal antropizado denominado Mata das Galinhas, Engenho Humaitá, Catende, Pernambuco, e se utilizaram, para avaliar a composição florística e a estrutura fitossociológica, 14 parcelas de 10 x 25 m a fim de amostrar os indivíduos arbóreos com circunferência a 1,30 m do solo (CAP ? 10 cm. Foram estimados, então, densidade, frequência e dominância e valor de importância (VI e o índice de Shannon, além de registrados 438 indivíduos pertencentes a 63 espécies, 45 gêneros e 29 famílias. As famílias de maior importância foram Mimosaceae, Moraceae, Anacardiaceae e Lecythidaceae e as espécies com maiores valores de VI, foram Brosimum discolor, Parkia pendula, Eschweilera ovata, Thyrsodium spruceanum, Tapirira guianensis, Protium heptaphyllum, Casearia arborea, Helicostylis tomentosa, Dialium guianense, Schefflera morototoni, Himatanthus phagedaenicus e Cupania racemosa. Quando observado isoladamente, conclui-se que o fragmento estudado possui pouca relevância; entretanto, se considerado conjuntamente com outros fragmentos da área, sua diversidade é significativa o que justificaria esforços para sua conservação e manejo.The structure of a forest fragment, known as "Mata das Galinhas" at Humaitá sugar mill, Catende, Pernambuco, Brazil was evaluated. To evaluate the floristic composition and the phytosociological structure under anthropic action 14 plots of 10 x 25 m were used to sample the arboreal individuals with circumference at breast height (CBH ? 10 cm. The density, frequency, and dominance, the importance value (IV and the Shannon's index were calculated. A total of 438 individuals distributed into 63 species, 45 genera and 29 families were recorded. The families of larger importance in the study were Mimosaceae, Moraceae, Anacardiaceae and Lecythidaceae. The species with larger values of IV were Brosimum discolor, Parkia pendula, Eschweilera ovata, Thyrsodium spruceanum, Tapirira guianensis, Protium heptaphyllum, Casearia arborea, Helicostylis tomentosa, Dialium guianense, Schefflera morototoni, Himatanthus phagedaenicus and Cupania racemosa. When observed separately, the studied fragment possesses low relevance; however, when considered jointly with other fragments of the area, its diversity is significant, justifying efforts for conservation and management.

Francisco J. P. Guimarães

2009-12-01

37

Sweeteners - sugars  

Science.gov (United States)

... Galactose Sucrose (common table sugar) Lactose (milk sugar) Maltose (product of starch digestion) Sugars are found naturally ... It is made up of glucose and galactose. Maltose (malt sugar) is produced during fermentation. It is ...

38

Modelación matemática del funcionamiento de las coronas de molinos considerando la flotación de la maza superior / An equivalent mechanism for the kinetic and dynamic analysis of the sugar cane mill gears  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Cuba | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish En este trabajo se propone un mecanismo equivalente para modelar el funcionamiento de las coronas de los molinos de caña de azúcar, que permite tomar en cuenta la forma real del perfil de los dientes trazados por arcos de círculos y la variación de la distancia entre centros durante su funcionamient [...] o. Aplicando el método grafo-analítico al modelo propuesto se obtiene una función cinemática que define la posición angular instantánea de la corona conducida con dependencia de la distancia entre ejes de las ruedas y la posición angular de la corona conductora. Aplicando métodos paramétricos se obtienen ecuaciones para la velocidad y aceleración que son generales para cualquier tipo de perfil de dientes en engranajes que trabajan con variación de distancia entre centros. Finalmente se grafican estos parámetros para el funcionamiento de las coronas de un molino real concluyéndose que estas tienen relación de transmisión instantánea variable y que por el solo hecho de la forma del perfil se producen aceleraciones. Abstract in english Equivalent mechanism is proposed for modeling sugar cane mills gears, which allows to take into account the shape of the tooth profile formed by circular arcs and the variation of the distance between centers for operation. Applying the graph-analytical method to the proposed model is obtained a fun [...] ction to define the instantaneous angular position of the sugar cane mill gear in relation with the instantaneous angular position of driver gear and the center distance of gears. General equations for the velocity and acceleration for any type of gear tooth profile with variable distance between centers are proposed through parametric method. Plotted these parameters for real sugar cane mill gear and it is concluded that the instantaneous speed ratio is variable and the profile shape produced accelerations.

Mario Javier, Cabello-Ulloa; Juan José, Cabello-Eras; Jorge, Moya-Rodríguez; Rafael, Goytisolo-Espinosa; José Alberto, Velásquez-Pérez; Juan Rafael, Mestizo-Cerón.

2011-12-01

39

Assessment of In vitro Multiple Shoot Bud Induction from Leaf Explants among Eleven Indian Cultivars of Pigeon Pea (Cajanus cajan L. Mill sp.  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In vitro multiple shoot bud induction from leaf explants of eleven Indian cultivars of pigeon pea (Cajanus cajan L. Mill sp. under the influence of variable concentration of three different cytokinins namely BAP, KIN and TDZ on MS media has been studied. Callus of variable morphology and nature was observed for most of the cultivars except four cultivars IPA-2013, Pusa-9, T-7 and IPA-98-3 showing multiple shoot bud induction. Among cytokinins used BAP was found to be most effective. Further elongation of multiple shoot buds was achieved in the same media while rooting of regenerated multiple shoots were attempted in MS media supplemented with variable concentration of three different auxins namely NAA, IAA and IBA. Efficient rooting was achieved in the presence of NAA. Regenerated plants were successfully established in soil with acclimatization frequency varying from 25-50% with cultivar IPA-2013 showing the best response.

Manoj Kumar Yadav

2011-01-01

40

Estrutura de um fragmento florestal no Engenho Humaitá, Catende, Pernambuco, Brasil / Structure of a forest fragment at Humaitá sugar mill, Catende, PE, Brazil  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese Avaliou-se, neste trabalho, a estrutura de um fragmento florestal antropizado denominado Mata das Galinhas, Engenho Humaitá, Catende, Pernambuco, e se utilizaram, para avaliar a composição florística e a estrutura fitossociológica, 14 parcelas de 10 x 25 m a fim de amostrar os indivíduos arbóreos co [...] m circunferência a 1,30 m do solo (CAP) ? 10 cm. Foram estimados, então, densidade, frequência e dominância e valor de importância (VI) e o índice de Shannon, além de registrados 438 indivíduos pertencentes a 63 espécies, 45 gêneros e 29 famílias. As famílias de maior importância foram Mimosaceae, Moraceae, Anacardiaceae e Lecythidaceae e as espécies com maiores valores de VI, foram Brosimum discolor, Parkia pendula, Eschweilera ovata, Thyrsodium spruceanum, Tapirira guianensis, Protium heptaphyllum, Casearia arborea, Helicostylis tomentosa, Dialium guianense, Schefflera morototoni, Himatanthus phagedaenicus e Cupania racemosa. Quando observado isoladamente, conclui-se que o fragmento estudado possui pouca relevância; entretanto, se considerado conjuntamente com outros fragmentos da área, sua diversidade é significativa o que justificaria esforços para sua conservação e manejo. Abstract in english The structure of a forest fragment, known as "Mata das Galinhas" at Humaitá sugar mill, Catende, Pernambuco, Brazil was evaluated. To evaluate the floristic composition and the phytosociological structure under anthropic action 14 plots of 10 x 25 m were used to sample the arboreal individuals with [...] circumference at breast height (CBH) ? 10 cm. The density, frequency, and dominance, the importance value (IV) and the Shannon's index were calculated. A total of 438 individuals distributed into 63 species, 45 genera and 29 families were recorded. The families of larger importance in the study were Mimosaceae, Moraceae, Anacardiaceae and Lecythidaceae. The species with larger values of IV were Brosimum discolor, Parkia pendula, Eschweilera ovata, Thyrsodium spruceanum, Tapirira guianensis, Protium heptaphyllum, Casearia arborea, Helicostylis tomentosa, Dialium guianense, Schefflera morototoni, Himatanthus phagedaenicus and Cupania racemosa. When observed separately, the studied fragment possesses low relevance; however, when considered jointly with other fragments of the area, its diversity is significant, justifying efforts for conservation and management.

Francisco J. P., Guimarães; Rinaldo L. C., Ferreira; Luiz C., Marangon; José A. A. da, Silva; Perseu da S., Aparício; Francisco T., Alves Júnior.

2009-12-01

 
 
 
 
41

Produção de açúcar e álcool vs. responsabilidade social corporativa: as ações desenvolvidas pelas usinas de cana-de-açúcar frente às externalidades negativas Sugar and ethanol production vs. corporative social responsibility: the actions taken by the sugar cane mills confronted with negative externalizations  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available A responsabilidade social corporativa (RSC é analisada neste estudo no ambiente organizacional das usinas de cana-de-açúcar paulistas que integram o agronegócio brasileiro de açúcar e álcool. Trata-se de uma pesquisa qualitativa que utiliza dados quantitativos para fins descritivos. Apoiada em dados secundários e primários, aborda-se um estudo exploratório no contexto das usinas de cana-de-açúcar do Estado de São Paulo. O objetivo geral foi estabelecer uma análise comparativa entre as externalidades negativas e as ações sociais e verificar se estas últimas tinham um papel compensatório. Foi possível identificar a relação entre imagem e RSC no cenário organizacional das usinas, ressaltando as principais ações sociais desenvolvidas pelas empresas, as quais vêm contribuindo para a melhoria da imagem do setor sucroalcooleiro como agente participante do desenvolvimento sustentável. Constatou-se que o foco das ações sociais está concentrado nas áreas educacional e ambiental, ocupando um plano secundário as ações relacionadas à cultura, ao esporte e à saúde. Os resultados demonstraram que o número de projetos sociais não está necessariamente relacionado ao porte das empresas pesquisadas.Corporative Social Responsibility (CSR is analyzed in this study in the organizational environment of sugar cane mills in the state of São Paulo and which form the Brazilian agribusiness of sugar and ethanol. Following a qualitative research, the quantitative data was used to define objectives using the primary and secondary data approach; an exploratory study in the context of the sugar-ethanol mills. The goal was to establish a comparative analysis between the negative external aspects and the social actions to investigate whether the latter had a significant role. It was possible to identify the relation between image and CSR in the organizational scenario of sugar-ethanol mills highlighting the main social actions developed by the enterprises which have contributed to improving the image of the sugar-ethanol sector as an active agent in the sustainable development. It was verified that the focus of social actions are concentrated in areas related to environment and education. Those related to culture, sport, and health seemed to be not as important. The results show that the number of social actions is not, necessarily, related to the size of the companies researched.

Ivelise Rasera Bragato

2008-04-01

42

Ahorro energético en tándem de molinos de caña de azúcar mediante regulación de presiones hidráulicas / Energy saving in tandem of sugar cane mills by means regulation of hydraulic pressures  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Cuba | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish Entre las áreas de mayor consumo de energía en un central azucarero se encuentra el tándem de molinos. Una de las variables que influye sobre este consumo es la presión hidráulica aplicada a la maza superior. La investigación tuvo como objetivo determinar las posibilidades de reducir este consumo re [...] gulando apropiadamente las presiones hidráulicas sin disminuir la eficiencia del proceso de extracción, se llevó a cabo en un tándem de seis molinos donde solo se varió las presiones en los molinos intermedios según un diseño estadístico factorial completo 24. Las variables independientes fueron: las presiones hidráulicas en los molinos intermedios; las dependientes: la demanda de potencia, el % pol y % humedad. Se concluyó que en las condiciones del experimento, el empleo de presiones hidráulicas de trabajo menores en 3,45 MPa en los molinos intermedios, no afectó el proceso de extracción de la sacarosa, pero disminuyó en un 8,12 % la demanda de potencia. Abstract in english Among the areas of more energy consumption in a sugar power station is the tandem of mills. One of the variables that influences on this consumption is the hydraulic pressure applied to the superior mass. The investigation had as objective to determine the possibilities to reduce this consumption re [...] gulating the hydraulic pressures appropriately without diminishing the efficiency of the extraction process, it was carried out in a tandem of six mills where alone it was varied the pressures in the intermediate mills according to a complete factorial statistical design 24. The independent variables were: the hydraulic pressures in the intermediate mills; the dependents: the demand of power, the %pol and %humidity. You concluded that under the conditions of the experiment, the employment of hydraulic pressures of smaller work in 3,45 MPa in the intermediate mills, didn't affect the process of extraction of the sucrose, but it diminished in 8,12 % the demand of power.

Jorge Michel, Corrales-Suárez; José Marcos, Gil-Ortiz; Pedro Dionisio, Remédios-Castañeiras; Yurisleydis, Masjuan-Leyva; José Alexander, Gil-Ceballo.

2013-12-01

43

Programação estocástica robusta aplicada ao planejamento agregado de safra em usinas cooperadas do setor sucroenergético / Stochastic robust optimization model applied to the aggregate production planning in mill cooperative socities in the sugar-energy sector  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese Neste trabalho, apresenta-se um modelo de programação estocástica robusta aplicado ao planejamento agregado da produção em usinas cooperadas do setor sucroenergético. Esta modelagem considera a relação hierárquica existente entre o planejamento anual da cooperativa e o planejamento tático de safra d [...] as usinas cooperadas, além de contemplar importantes incertezas existentes nos parâmetros de entrada do modelo. Para resolver os problemas de programação linear e programação inteira mista envolvidos, utiliza-se uma linguagem de modelagem algébrica e um software de última geração de programação matemática. Os resultados computacionais obtidos são comparados aos resultados da modelagem determinística PASUC, discutida em Paiva e Morabito (in press), utilizando os mesmos dados do estudo de caso da Usina Santa Clotilde e da Cooperativa Regional dos Produtores de Açúcar e Álcool de Alagoas. Abstract in english This work presents a stochastic robust optimization model applied to the aggregate production planning in mill cooperative societies in the sugar-energy sector This mathematical model is based on a hierarchical relationship between the annual planning of the cooperative and the tactical planning hor [...] izon of the sugarcane mills taking into account important uncertainties in several parameters of this model. In order to solve the linear and mixed integer programming problems involved, an optimization modeling language solver was used. Computational results are presented and compared with the deterministic approach PASUC, dicussed by Paiva e Morabito (in press) using the same data from the case studies conducted in the Santa Clotilde milling company and in the regional cooperative society of sugar and ethanol producers of Alagoas.

Rafael Piatti Oiticica de, Paiva; Reinaldo, Morabito.

44

Programação estocástica robusta aplicada ao planejamento agregado de safra em usinas cooperadas do setor sucroenergético Stochastic robust optimization model applied to the aggregate production planning in mill cooperative socities in the sugar-energy sector  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Neste trabalho, apresenta-se um modelo de programação estocástica robusta aplicado ao planejamento agregado da produção em usinas cooperadas do setor sucroenergético. Esta modelagem considera a relação hierárquica existente entre o planejamento anual da cooperativa e o planejamento tático de safra das usinas cooperadas, além de contemplar importantes incertezas existentes nos parâmetros de entrada do modelo. Para resolver os problemas de programação linear e programação inteira mista envolvidos, utiliza-se uma linguagem de modelagem algébrica e um software de última geração de programação matemática. Os resultados computacionais obtidos são comparados aos resultados da modelagem determinística PASUC, discutida em Paiva e Morabito (in press, utilizando os mesmos dados do estudo de caso da Usina Santa Clotilde e da Cooperativa Regional dos Produtores de Açúcar e Álcool de Alagoas.This work presents a stochastic robust optimization model applied to the aggregate production planning in mill cooperative societies in the sugar-energy sector This mathematical model is based on a hierarchical relationship between the annual planning of the cooperative and the tactical planning horizon of the sugarcane mills taking into account important uncertainties in several parameters of this model. In order to solve the linear and mixed integer programming problems involved, an optimization modeling language solver was used. Computational results are presented and compared with the deterministic approach PASUC, dicussed by Paiva e Morabito (in press using the same data from the case studies conducted in the Santa Clotilde milling company and in the regional cooperative society of sugar and ethanol producers of Alagoas.

Rafael Piatti Oiticica de Paiva

2011-01-01

45

Performance Of Sugar Industries In India  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available :India is on the first rank in sugar production with 20.2 Million tones followed by EU, Brazil, USA, China, Thailand, Mexico, Australia, Cuba and South Africa. Out of the 453 sugar mills in the country, 269 are in the cooperative sector, 184 in the private sector and 67 in the public sector. Besides, 136 units in the private sector are in various stages of implementation. In India sugar production follows a 5-7 year cycle. Sugar production increases over a 3-4 year period, reaches a high, which in turn, results in lower sugar prices. As a result of lower sugar price, realizations of sugar mills, the sugarcane arrears increase. The increase in sugarcane arrears results in lower sugarcane production, resulting in lower production for the next 2-3 years. Because of lower sugar production, the prices shoot up resulting in increased area under sugarcane cultivation during the next season.

Vrushali Balbhimrao Kute

2013-08-01

46

Um modelo de otimização para o planejamento agregado da produção em usinas de açúcar e álcool / An optimization model for the aggregate production planning in alcohol and sugar mills  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese Neste trabalho apresentamos um modelo de otimização para o planejamento agregado da produção de usinas de açúcar e álcool. Este modelo se baseia nos modelos clássicos de seleção de processos e dimensionamento de lotes para representar o sistema de produção de açúcar, álcool e melaço, incluindo decis [...] ões da etapa agrícola, das fases de corte, carregamento e transporte de cana e, principalmente, decisões de moagem, escolha do processo produtivo e estoque dos produtos finais. As decisões são tomadas em períodos semanais e o horizonte de planejamento são as semanas de safra. Para resolver o modelo de programação linear inteira mista resultante, utilizamos a linguagem de modelagem GAMS e o solver CPLEX. Um estudo de caso foi realizado em uma usina de açúcar e álcool do estado de Alagoas. Neste estudo foi possível verificar a adequação do modelo proposto quando aplicado para auxiliar nas decisões envolvidas no planejamento agregado da produção de empresas deste tipo. Resultados computacionais são apresentados resolvendo um exemplo com dados de uma safra típica. Abstract in english The main concern of this work is related to the presentation of an aggregate production planning model of a sugar and alcohol milling company. The mathematical model is based on the process selection model and the production lot-sizing model, and aims to help the decision makers in the production pl [...] anning and control process of determining the quantity of sugarcane crushed, the selection of sugarcane suppliers, the selection of sugarcane transport system suppliers, the selection of industrial process used in the sugar, alcohol and molasses production and the storage decisions related to these final products. The decisions are taken on a weekly basis and the planning horizon is the whole sugarcane harvesting season. To solve the mixed integer mathematical problem found in this model, we applied the GAMS modeling language and the CPLEX solver. A case study was developed in a sugar and alcohol milling company located in Rio Largo, state of Alagoas, Brazil. The results of this case study helped us to verify the applicability of the proposed model in the aggregate production planning of a milling company. Computational results are presented in real data application.

Rafael Piatti Oititica de, Paiva; Reinaldo, Morabito.

2007-04-01

47

Um modelo de otimização para o planejamento agregado da produção em usinas de açúcar e álcool An optimization model for the aggregate production planning in alcohol and sugar mills  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Neste trabalho apresentamos um modelo de otimização para o planejamento agregado da produção de usinas de açúcar e álcool. Este modelo se baseia nos modelos clássicos de seleção de processos e dimensionamento de lotes para representar o sistema de produção de açúcar, álcool e melaço, incluindo decisões da etapa agrícola, das fases de corte, carregamento e transporte de cana e, principalmente, decisões de moagem, escolha do processo produtivo e estoque dos produtos finais. As decisões são tomadas em períodos semanais e o horizonte de planejamento são as semanas de safra. Para resolver o modelo de programação linear inteira mista resultante, utilizamos a linguagem de modelagem GAMS e o solver CPLEX. Um estudo de caso foi realizado em uma usina de açúcar e álcool do estado de Alagoas. Neste estudo foi possível verificar a adequação do modelo proposto quando aplicado para auxiliar nas decisões envolvidas no planejamento agregado da produção de empresas deste tipo. Resultados computacionais são apresentados resolvendo um exemplo com dados de uma safra típica.The main concern of this work is related to the presentation of an aggregate production planning model of a sugar and alcohol milling company. The mathematical model is based on the process selection model and the production lot-sizing model, and aims to help the decision makers in the production planning and control process of determining the quantity of sugarcane crushed, the selection of sugarcane suppliers, the selection of sugarcane transport system suppliers, the selection of industrial process used in the sugar, alcohol and molasses production and the storage decisions related to these final products. The decisions are taken on a weekly basis and the planning horizon is the whole sugarcane harvesting season. To solve the mixed integer mathematical problem found in this model, we applied the GAMS modeling language and the CPLEX solver. A case study was developed in a sugar and alcohol milling company located in Rio Largo, state of Alagoas, Brazil. The results of this case study helped us to verify the applicability of the proposed model in the aggregate production planning of a milling company. Computational results are presented in real data application.

Rafael Piatti Oititica de Paiva

2007-04-01

48

Thermal and economical analysis of the cogeneration system of a Brazilian alcohol and sugar cane mill; Analise termoeconomica do sistema de cogeracao de uma usina de acucar e alcool brasileira  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Brazilian alcohol and sugar cane mills have employed cogeneration for decades to produce electricity for internal consumption. Only an insignificant amount of electricity is sold to the grid, which is fed mainly by hydroelectricity. Recently, though, several factors have combined to make this alternative not only attractive but necessary. 'Usina Vale do Rosario', whose cogeneration system is subject to study in this work, is one of the few sugarcane mills currently selling electricity to grid, 4 MW for the mills of 1996 and 1997. The mill is committed to a steady growth in the amount of electricity sold. Modifications. introduced in the plant in 1998, such as the acquisition of an additional turbine, have already allowed an increase from 20 to 32 MW in total generated electricity and from 4 to 15 MW in sold. Among the aims of the work were to determine the real costs of power and heat supplied by the cogeneration system and to supply information from which operational decisions could be taken. Real data were available and were used throughout the analysis. Due to insufficient instrumentation, it was necessary to simulate the plant in order to infer some operational parameters of equipment, with the help of information supplied by the manufacturers. The simulation software IPSE was employed. Thermoeconomic analysis were performed for the 1996 and 1997 crops. The efficiencies and the destruction of exergy in each unit was calculated, as well as the exergetic costs, as defined by the Theory of the Exergetic Cost, a commendable thermoeconomic methodology. The importance of high efficiencies of the steam generators is overwhelming. The low efficiencies of mechanical drivers increase the cost of mechanical power, compared to the cost of the generated electric power. The cost of the steam supplied to the distillery suggests the adoption of measures to reduce its consumption. (author)

Barreda del Campo, Eduardo R. [Universidad de Oriente, Santiago de Cuba (Cuba); Perez, Silvia A. Nebra de [Universidade Estadual de Campinas, SP (Brazil). Dept. de Energia]. E-mail: sanebra@fem.unicamp.br

1999-07-01

49

Phenol Metabolism by White Rot Fungus Phanerochaete chrysosporium Isolated from Indian Paper Mill Effluent Enriched Soil Samples  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The white rot fungus Phanerochaete chrysosporium isolated from paper mill effluent enriched soil samples degrading various phenol (Mono, di hydroxy and methoxy compounds. During five days of incubation period, 74% of para-hydroxy benzoic acid was utilized by the isolated Phanerochaete chrysosporium when glucose used as a co-substrate. There was 57% degradation of protocatechuic acid using fructose. The fungus degraded vanillin in the presence of co-substrates and the response was more in glucose and fructose than starch. The presence of laccase (EC.1.10.3.2 and polyphenol oxidase (EC.1.10.3.0 extracellular activity suggested that the microorganism secrete these enzymes into the extracellular medium.

P.C. Prabu

2005-01-01

50

Volatile constituents of essential oil and rose water of damask rose (Rosa damascena Mill.) cultivars from North Indian hills.  

Science.gov (United States)

Rosa damascena Mill. is an important aromatic plant for commercial production of rose oil, water, concrete and absolute. The rose water and rose oil produced under the mountainous conditions of Uttarakhand were investigated for their chemical composition. The major components of rose water volatiles obtained from the bud, half bloom and full bloom stages of cultivar 'Ranisahiba' were phenyl ethyl alcohol (66.2-79.0%), geraniol (3.3-6.6%) and citronellol (1.8-5.5%). The rose water volatiles of cultivar 'Noorjahan' and 'Kannouj' also possessed phenyl ethyl alcohol (80.7% and 76.7%, respectively) as a major component at full bloom stage. The essential oil of cultivar 'Noorjahan' obtained from two different growing sites was also compared. The major components of these oils were citronellol (15.9-35.3%), geraniol (8.3-30.2%), nerol (4.0-9.6%), nonadecane (4.5-16.0%), heneicosane (2.6-7.9%) and linalool (0.7-2.8%). This study clearly showed that the flower ontogeny and growing site affect the composition of rose volatiles. The rose oil produced in this region was comparable with ISO standards. Thus, it was concluded that the climatic conditions of Uttarakhand are suitable for the production of rose oil of international standards. PMID:21711177

Verma, Ram Swaroop; Padalia, Rajendra Chandra; Chauhan, Amit; Singh, Anand; Yadav, Ajai Kumar

2011-10-01

51

Aplicação da análise envoltória de dados (AED) na avaliação da eficiência operacional relativa entre usinas de cana-de-açúcar no território brasileiro / Data envelopment analysis (DEA) application for the relative evaluation on the operational efficiency of sugar cane mills in Brazil  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese Este estudo tem por objetivo analisar o impacto das variáveis tamanho e localização na eficiência operacional de usinas de cana-de-açúcar no Brasil na safra 2008/2009. Para tanto, realizou-se um estudo de eficiência operacional, por meio da aplicação da Análise Envoltória de Dados (AED), na qual foi [...] possível identificar as usinas mais eficientes dentre um universo de 355 e classificá-las por tamanho e localização. A análise quantitativa sugere que existe maior concentração de usinas classificadas como eficientes e de tamanho grande, localizadas no estado de São Paulo. Objetivando uma análise em profundidade, foi realizado um estudo de múltiplos casos em um grupo de usinas. Conclui-se que a eficiência operacional de usinas de cana-de-açúcar depende da variável tamanho, na medida em que as usinas de maior porte tendem a investir mais em tecnologias que proporcionam maior ganho de eficiência operacional. A eficiência também depende da variável localização, na medida em que o estado de São Paulo apresenta condições edafoclimáticas mais favoráveis à extração de uma cana-de-açúcar com maior teor de sacarose, que, consequentemente, pode influenciar na eficiência operacional de usinas de cana-de-açúcar. Abstract in english The study aims to analyze the impact of the variables size and location over the operational efficiency of sugarcane mills producing sugar and ethanol in Brazil year 2008/2009. Data concerning total milling and total production of sugar and ethanol was collected regarding Brazilian sugar cane mills. [...] An operational efficiency ranking was developed, applying Data Envelopment Analysis (DEA) technique, through which was possible to verify which were the most efficient among 355 sugarcane mills and, therefore, compare the variables size, location and operational efficiency among the Brazilian mills. The quantitative analysis suggests that among the efficient groups, there is a major concentration of larger mills, located in the state of São Paulo. Aiming an in-depth analysis, a multiple-case study was conducted in a group of sugarcane mills, and interviews with experts in the sugarcane industry were developed. Therefore, the conclusion is that operational efficiency of sugarcane mills depends on the variable location, as larger mills tend to invest more in technologies that provide major gain in operational efficiency. The operational efficiency depends also on the location of the sugarcane mill, as the state of São Paulo provides favorable edaphoclimatic conditions for the juice extraction of sugarcane with a higher level of sucrose content, hence possibly having influence over the operational efficiency.

Alexandre P., Salgado Junior; Fabio V., Carlucci; Juliana C., Novi.

2014-10-01

52

Assessment of In vitro Multiple Shoot Bud Induction from Leaf Explants among Eleven Indian Cultivars of Pigeon Pea (Cajanus cajan L. Mill sp.)  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

In vitro multiple shoot bud induction from leaf explants of eleven Indian cultivars of pigeon pea (Cajanus cajan L. Mill sp.) under the influence of variable concentration of three different cytokinins namely BAP, KIN and TDZ on MS media has been studied. Callus of variable morphology and nature was observed for most of the cultivars except four cultivars IPA-2013, Pusa-9, T-7 and IPA-98-3 showing multiple shoot bud induction. Among cytokinins used BAP was found to be most effec...

Manoj Kumar Yadav; Bijaya Ketan Sarangi; Vandana Kashyap; Dinesh Yadav

2011-01-01

53

Diseño de los acoplamientos cuadrados de hierro fundido para molinos de caña mediante el método de los elementos finitos / Design of cast iron square box couplings for sugar cane mills by the method of finite elements  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Colombia | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish Se realiza el estudio de las tensiones internas que se generan en los acoplamientos cuadrados de hierro fundido para molinos de caña. Además, se obtienen las expresiones matemáticas para calcular las tensiones equivalentes, teniendo en cuenta la influencia de parámetros como: diámetro exterior del a [...] coplamiento, dimensiones del agujero cuadrado, velocidad de rotación y potencia. Para la obtención de estas expresiones se empleó el método de elementos finitos (MEF). El análisis MEF se hizo a partir del cálculo estático lineal, utilizando para el programa de computación COSMOS/M, versión 2.6. Finalmente, se realizó una estandarización de los acoplamientos con el fin de reducir la variedad de éstos. Abstract in english The internal stresses generated in the square box couplings of cast iron for sugar cane mills are studied. Also, mathematical expressions are obtained to calculate the equivalent stresses, and the influence of parameters such as: external diameter of the square box coupling, dimensions of the square [...] hole, speed of rotation and power. For obtaining these expressions the Finite Elements Method was used (MEF), with the software COSMOS/M version 2.6. Finally, a standardization of the square box couplings was done with the purpose of reducing their variety.

Yamill, Campos Pérez; Rosendo, Franco Rodríguez.

2007-09-01

54

EVALUACIÓN DE LA EFICIENCIA DE REACTORES DE LECHO FIJO UTILIZANDO AGUAS MIELES RESIDUALES DE TRAPICHES ARTESANALES / EVALUATION OF THE EFFECTIVENESS OF FIXED BED REACTORS USING WASTE WATER OF SUGAR CRAFT MILLS  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Colombia | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish El problema de tratamiento y disposición final de las aguas mieles residuales provenientes de los trapiches artesanales en el departamento de Nariño, en particular los asentados en el municipio de Sandoná, radica en su imposibilidad económica y tecnológica, dadas las características de subsistencia [...] en que se basa su funcionamiento. El sistema de filtros anaerobios de flujo ascendente (FAFA) como unidad principal de tratamiento biológico en la degradación de azúcares, ofrece una buena alternativa por ser considerado eficiente, de relativos bajos costos de construcción, operación y mantenimiento, con el reto central de mantener las condiciones de hábitat adecuadas para el crecimiento de la biomasa al interior del reactor. Se evaluaron cuatro medios de contacto (concha marina, material sintético, material vitrificado y grava de río), a escala de laboratorio, para encontrar el lecho de soporte de FAFA más conveniente en condiciones controladas de temperatura, régimen de flujo y acondicionamiento previo del medio bacteriano. La concha marina y el material sintético, ofrecen características de resistencia, durabilidad y facilidad de consecución y alcanzan remociones de materia orgánica mayores del 80%. Sin embargo, la concha marina alcanza las mayores remociones (89,7% para DQO y 87,8 % para DBO) gracias a su estructura física que ofrece un microambiente adecuado y por su composición química, fuente natural de alcalinidad y micronutrientes al sistema, lo que hace que se lo considere como el medio de contacto más adecuado para diseñar e implementar filtros anaerobios de lecho fijo en la industria artesanal panelera. Abstract in english The problem of treatment and final disposal of waste water coming from artisan sugar mills in the Department of Nariño, particularly those established in the Municipality of Sandoná. It lies in its economical and technological impossibility, according to its nature. The system of Up Flow Anaerobic F [...] ilter (UFAF) as the principal unit of biological treatment on the degradation of sugars, it offers a good alternative because they are considered to be efficient treatments associated with low costs of construction, operation and maintenance, with the challenge of maintaining a suitable habitat conditions for the growth of the biomass inside the reactor. The study evaluated four contact means marine shell, synthetic material, vitrified material and river gravel, through laboratory-scale testing, to find the FAFA's most suitable material under controlled conditions of temperature, flow regime and previous conditioning of the bacterial environment. The marine shell and synthetic material provide characteristics of toughness, durability and easiness of obtaining and allowing an efficient removal of organic material above 80%. However, the marine shell reaches the highest removal (89.7% for COD and 87.8% for BOD) thanks its physical structure that provides an adequate microenvironment and its chemical composition, natural source of alkalinity and micronutrients to the system, which is considered the most suitable contact mean to design and to implement the UFAF in the artisan sugar mills.

Gloria Lucía, Cárdenas Calvachi; Robert Mauricio, Ramos Ramos.

2009-01-01

55

Influencia de la preparación de caña de azúcar a moler en la producción de azúcar en el Complejo Agroindustrial Azucarero “Manuel Fajardo” / Influence of the sugar cane preparation to milling in the sugar production on the Sugar Agroindustrial Complex “Manuel Fajardo”  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Cuba | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish La presente investigación se realizó en el Complejo Agroindustrial (CAI) Azucarero “Manuel Fajardo”, Provincia Mayabeque. En este se investigó el proceso tecnológico de preparación de la caña de azúcar a moler con el objetivo de evaluar su eficiencia y detectar los principales problemas en dicho pro [...] ceso. Como resultado se obtuvo que el valor del Índice de Preparación (IP) no fue superior al 72,8%, estando por debajo de los normados en Cuba y el mundo, el valor del Rendimiento Potencial Cañero promedio (RPC) fue de 13,22, considerándose un valor positivo lo que demuestra que la producción de azúcar no solo depende de la variedad y calidad de la caña, sino del uso, mantenimiento y reparaciones que se le brinde a la tecnología empleada para la preparación de la caña a moler y se determinó que por concepto de materia extraña el total de azúcar pérdida fue 743,61 t, lo cual representa una pérdida económica de $446 166.00 USD. Abstract in english The present research was carried out on the Sugar Agroindustrial Complex “Manuel Fajardo”, Mayabeque Province. In this work was researched the technological process of sugar cane preparation having as objective to evaluate his efficiency and find the principals problems in this process. As results w [...] as obtained that the Preparation Index value (IP) was not superior to 72,8%, is below to the national and international standards, the Cane Potencial Yield mean (RPC) was 13,22, it is a positive value showing that the sugar production don’t depend of the variety and quality of sugar cane, also is important consider the use, maintenance and reparation in the technology use to the sugar cane preparation and was determined that for strange material the total sugar losses was 743,61 t, showing an economical losses of $446 166.00 USD.

Yanoy, Morejón Mesa; Jorge, Revé Moracén.

2013-03-01

56

Performance Of Sugar Industries In India  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

:India is on the first rank in sugar production with 20.2 Million tones followed by EU, Brazil, USA, China, Thailand, Mexico, Australia, Cuba and South Africa. Out of the 453 sugar mills in the country, 269 are in the cooperative sector, 184 in the private sector and 67 in the public sector. Besides, 136 units in the private sector are in various stages of implementation. In India sugar production follows a 5-7 year cycle. Sugar production increases over a 3-4 year period, reaches a high, whi...

Vrushali Balbhimrao Kute; Patil, R. P.

2013-01-01

57

Sugar intake, obesity, and diabetes in India.  

Science.gov (United States)

Sugar and sweet consumption have been popular and intrinsic to Indian culture, traditions, and religion from ancient times. In this article, we review the data showing increasing sugar consumption in India, including traditional sources (jaggery and khandsari) and from sugar-sweetened beverages (SSBs). Along with decreasing physical activity, this increasing trend of per capita sugar consumption assumes significance in view of the high tendency for Indians to develop insulin resistance, abdominal adiposity, and hepatic steatosis, and the increasing "epidemic" of type 2 diabetes (T2DM) and cardiovascular diseases. Importantly, there are preliminary data to show that incidence of obesity and T2DM could be decreased by increasing taxation on SSBs. Other prevention strategies, encompassing multiple stakeholders (government, industry, and consumers), should target on decreasing sugar consumption in the Indian population. In this context, dietary guidelines for Indians show that sugar consumption should be less than 10% of total daily energy intake, but it is suggested that this limit be decreased. PMID:25533007

Gulati, Seema; Misra, Anoop

2014-12-01

58

Sugar Intake, Obesity, and Diabetes in India  

Science.gov (United States)

Sugar and sweet consumption have been popular and intrinsic to Indian culture, traditions, and religion from ancient times. In this article, we review the data showing increasing sugar consumption in India, including traditional sources (jaggery and khandsari) and from sugar-sweetened beverages (SSBs). Along with decreasing physical activity, this increasing trend of per capita sugar consumption assumes significance in view of the high tendency for Indians to develop insulin resistance, abdominal adiposity, and hepatic steatosis, and the increasing “epidemic” of type 2 diabetes (T2DM) and cardiovascular diseases. Importantly, there are preliminary data to show that incidence of obesity and T2DM could be decreased by increasing taxation on SSBs. Other prevention strategies, encompassing multiple stakeholders (government, industry, and consumers), should target on decreasing sugar consumption in the Indian population. In this context, dietary guidelines for Indians show that sugar consumption should be less than 10% of total daily energy intake, but it is suggested that this limit be decreased. PMID:25533007

Gulati, Seema; Misra, Anoop

2014-01-01

59

Sintomas vocais e sensações laríngeas em trabalhadores de uma usina de álcool e açúcar expostos a riscos ocupacionais / Vocal symptoms and laryngeal sensations in workers of an ethanol and sugar mill exposed to occupational risks  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese OBJETIVO: Investigar os sintomas vocais e sensações laríngeas dos trabalhadores de uma usina de álcool e açúcar expostos a ruído e/ou substâncias químicas. MÉTODOS: Participaram 289 trabalhadores de uma usina de álcool e açúcar distribuídos em cinco grupos expostos (I- ruído; II- ruído, óleo, graxa, [...] derivação de petróleo; III- ruído, ácidos, sulfatos, cloretos, nitratos; IV- ruído, poeiras respiráveis e sílica livre cristalizada; V- óleo, graxa, derivação de petróleo) e um grupo controle que responderam o questionário Condições de Produção Vocal - Professor adaptado à categoria profissional. Os grupos foram comparados em relação aos sintomas vocais, sensações laríngeas, tabagismo e riscos físicos e químicos. Esta comparação foi realizada por meio de análise estatística. RESULTADOS: O sintoma vocal e a sensação laríngea mais relatados pelos trabalhadores foram voz grave e tosse com catarro, respectivamente. Considerando o risco físico no ambiente de trabalho, os grupos I e IV foram os que mais citaram presença de ruído. Devido à sua exposição, os mesmos aumentavam a intensidade da voz (Efeito de Lombard-Tarneaud) e, assim, mencionaram sintomas vocais. Em relação aos riscos químicos no ambiente ocupacional, o grupo IV foi o que mais referiu presença de poeira e fumaça, e estas eram compostas por poeiras respiráveis e sílica. Tais exposições ocasionam sintomas vocais e sensações laríngeas e, consequentemente, alterações vocais. CONCLUSÃO: Sintomas vocais e sensações laríngeas podem estar relacionados a atividade profissional em que haja exposição a riscos físicos e/ou químicos. Abstract in english PURPOSE: To investigate vocal symptoms and laryngeal sensations among workers of an ethanol and sugar mill exposed to noise and/or chemical substances. METHODS: Participants were 289 workers of an ethanol and sugar mill distributed into five exposure groups (I - noise; II - noise, oil, grease, petro [...] leum derivatives; III - noise, acids, sulfates, chlorides, nitrates; IV - noise, breathable dust and free crystalline silica; V - oil, grease, petroleum derivatives) and a control group, who answered the questionnaire Conditions of Vocal Production - Teacher adapted to the professional category. The groups were compared regarding vocal symptoms, laryngeal sensations, smoking habits, and exposure to physical and chemical risks. This comparison was conducted using statistical analyses. RESULTS: The most reported vocal symptom and laryngeal sensation were low-pitched voice and cough with phlegm, respectively. Considering the physical risk in the work environment, groups I and IV were the ones that most reported exposure to noise. Because of this exposure, they increase voice intensity (Effect of Lombard-Tarneaud) and, thus, also reported vocal symptoms. Regarding chemical risks in the occupational environment, group IV was the one that most referred presence of dust and smoke, which were composed by breathable dust and silica. Such exposures lead to vocal symptoms and laryngeal sensations and, consequently, to vocal alterations. CONCLUSION: Vocal symptoms and laryngeal sensations can be related to professional activities where workers are exposed to physical and/or chemical risks.

Sylvia Boechat, Coutinho; Ana Claudia, Fiorini; Iára Bittante de, Oliveira; Maria do Rosário Dias de Oliveira, Latorre; Léslie Piccolotto, Ferreira.

2011-09-01

60

Sintomas vocais e sensações laríngeas em trabalhadores de uma usina de álcool e açúcar expostos a riscos ocupacionais Vocal symptoms and laryngeal sensations in workers of an ethanol and sugar mill exposed to occupational risks  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Investigar os sintomas vocais e sensações laríngeas dos trabalhadores de uma usina de álcool e açúcar expostos a ruído e/ou substâncias químicas. MÉTODOS: Participaram 289 trabalhadores de uma usina de álcool e açúcar distribuídos em cinco grupos expostos (I- ruído; II- ruído, óleo, graxa, derivação de petróleo; III- ruído, ácidos, sulfatos, cloretos, nitratos; IV- ruído, poeiras respiráveis e sílica livre cristalizada; V- óleo, graxa, derivação de petróleo e um grupo controle que responderam o questionário Condições de Produção Vocal - Professor adaptado à categoria profissional. Os grupos foram comparados em relação aos sintomas vocais, sensações laríngeas, tabagismo e riscos físicos e químicos. Esta comparação foi realizada por meio de análise estatística. RESULTADOS: O sintoma vocal e a sensação laríngea mais relatados pelos trabalhadores foram voz grave e tosse com catarro, respectivamente. Considerando o risco físico no ambiente de trabalho, os grupos I e IV foram os que mais citaram presença de ruído. Devido à sua exposição, os mesmos aumentavam a intensidade da voz (Efeito de Lombard-Tarneaud e, assim, mencionaram sintomas vocais. Em relação aos riscos químicos no ambiente ocupacional, o grupo IV foi o que mais referiu presença de poeira e fumaça, e estas eram compostas por poeiras respiráveis e sílica. Tais exposições ocasionam sintomas vocais e sensações laríngeas e, consequentemente, alterações vocais. CONCLUSÃO: Sintomas vocais e sensações laríngeas podem estar relacionados a atividade profissional em que haja exposição a riscos físicos e/ou químicos.PURPOSE: To investigate vocal symptoms and laryngeal sensations among workers of an ethanol and sugar mill exposed to noise and/or chemical substances. METHODS: Participants were 289 workers of an ethanol and sugar mill distributed into five exposure groups (I - noise; II - noise, oil, grease, petroleum derivatives; III - noise, acids, sulfates, chlorides, nitrates; IV - noise, breathable dust and free crystalline silica; V - oil, grease, petroleum derivatives and a control group, who answered the questionnaire Conditions of Vocal Production - Teacher adapted to the professional category. The groups were compared regarding vocal symptoms, laryngeal sensations, smoking habits, and exposure to physical and chemical risks. This comparison was conducted using statistical analyses. RESULTS: The most reported vocal symptom and laryngeal sensation were low-pitched voice and cough with phlegm, respectively. Considering the physical risk in the work environment, groups I and IV were the ones that most reported exposure to noise. Because of this exposure, they increase voice intensity (Effect of Lombard-Tarneaud and, thus, also reported vocal symptoms. Regarding chemical risks in the occupational environment, group IV was the one that most referred presence of dust and smoke, which were composed by breathable dust and silica. Such exposures lead to vocal symptoms and laryngeal sensations and, consequently, to vocal alterations. CONCLUSION: Vocal symptoms and laryngeal sensations can be related to professional activities where workers are exposed to physical and/or chemical risks.

Sylvia Boechat Coutinho

2011-09-01

 
 
 
 
61

Ethanol and sugar production process from sugar cane: renewability evaluation  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Tropical countries, such as Brazil and Colombia, have the possibility of using their lands for growing biomass to produce biofuels like biodiesel and ethanol. Many studies are available which deal with the use of different sources of biomass for this purpose. From sugarcane, sucrose and other sugars (glucose and fructose) are converted into ethanol through a chain of processes. Considering the combined production of sugar and ethanol, the later is produced using part of sugarcane juice from the milling process and molasses from the sugar factory. These flows are mixed and sent to fermentation and distillation to obtain ethanol. In this work, exergy analysis is applied to the production process of sugar and anhydrous ethanol from sugar cane, using real data of one production plant located in Colombia, with capacity to process 10,000 ton a day of sugarcane. Different stages such as: growing, feedstock transport, processes plant, cogeneration plant and residues treatment are considered. Some environmental indicators based on the exergy concept are proposed for analyzing the sugar and ethanol production. According to these indicators, the Exergetic Density, Rational Exergetic Efficiency and the Renewability Performance Indicator, the ethanol production process can not be considered renewable due mainly to the irreversibilities of the energy conversion processes. (author)

Arredondo, Hector Ivan Velasquez [Universidad Nacional de Colombia, Medellin (Colombia). Grupo de Investigacion en Bioprocesos]. E-mail: hivelasq@unal.edu.co; Pellegrini, Luiz Felipe; Oliveira Junior, Silvio de [Universidade de Sao Paulo (USP), SP (Brazil). Escola Politecnica. Dept. de Engenharia Mecanica]. E-mails: luiz.pellegrini@poli.usp.br; silvio.oliveira@poli.usp.br

2008-07-01

62

Impact of sugar industry fly ash emissions on environment  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This work was conducted in 1992 to find out the effects and causes of environmental problems due to sugar mills of Sindh. Most of the complaints were received from Nawabshah, Tando Mohammed Khan residential areas where following mills are located, emitting large amounts of fly ash from their chimneys into the atmosphere: (i) Habib Sugar Mills, Nawabshah, (II) Fauji Sugar Mills, Tando Mohammed Khan. Environmental survey of above localities was carried out which reveals that eye-allergy and asthma are the major health effects of fly ash besides the aesthetic problems. Sieve analysis of two fly ash samples viz Fauji Sugar Mills (Old Plant) and Sanghar Sugar Mills (New Plant) showed that the particle size of over 50% of fly ash was above 300 mu m. These large size black particles were unburned carbon particles, which on burning in air gave a weight loss of over 87% at 1000 centi grade. The fly ash analytical results showed that combustion of bagasse in sugar mills was not complete at all and this was not only polluting the atmosphere but also causing energy losses. (author)

63

Passa-se uma engenhoca: ou como se faziam transações com terras, engenhos e crédito em mercados locais e imperfeitos (freguesia de Campo Grande, Rio de Janeiro, séculos XVIII e XIX) / 'Engenhocas' to sell!: or lands, sugar mills and credit’s trade in local and imperfect markets (Campo Grande civil parish, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, XVIII-XIX centuries )  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese A questão central deste artigo é perceber como as hierarquias sociais e as políticas específicas do Antigo Regime nos Trópicos se refletiram em estratégias concretas, e compreender as engrenagens locais de um mercado imperfeito. Analisaremos as escolhas e trajetórias de agentes envolvidos em transaç [...] ões com terras, engenhos e concessão de crédito na freguesia de Campo Grande, no correr do século XVIII até o início do XIX, cuja especificidade foi conseguirem reproduzir sua condição senhorial. Metodologicamente, partimos da microanálise e compusemos redes sociais locais que sustentaram as estratégias dos agentes em questão. Propomos que as rendas criadas a partir das vendas a prazo, os vínculos pessoais entre compradores-credores-vendedores-devedores nas vendas dos engenhos e a sobreposição de vínculos de dependência locais foram fatores que possibilitaram a acumulação econômica e a reprodução ampliada da condição senhorial. Abstract in english Using the concept of ‘Ancien Régime on the Tropics’, this article aims to investigate how social hierarchies and politics in Brazil, during the 18th century, reflected into concrete local strategies. Our objective is to understand the gadgets of an imperfect market, based on agents’ choices who were [...] all involved in lands, sugar mills and credit commercial transactions in the Campo Grande civil parish, in the Rio de Janeiro. All agents had gotten to reproduce its extended senhorial condition. Our methodology is based on microanalysis, so we composed local social nets we guest had supported the agents’ strategies in question. We consider strategies to achieve long term incomes; bonds between purchaser, creditor, salesman and debtors (both involving sugar mills commercial transactions); the overlapping of dependence bonds by strategic exchanges created by sugar mill masters among consanguineous, matrimonial and fictitious relatives had been factors that made possible the economic accumulation and the extended reproduction of the master condition.

Manoela, Pedroza.

2010-06-01

64

Passa-se uma engenhoca: ou como se faziam transações com terras, engenhos e crédito em mercados locais e imperfeitos (freguesia de Campo Grande, Rio de Janeiro, séculos XVIII e XIX 'Engenhocas' to sell!: or lands, sugar mills and credit’s trade in local and imperfect markets (Campo Grande civil parish, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, XVIII-XIX centuries  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available A questão central deste artigo é perceber como as hierarquias sociais e as políticas específicas do Antigo Regime nos Trópicos se refletiram em estratégias concretas, e compreender as engrenagens locais de um mercado imperfeito. Analisaremos as escolhas e trajetórias de agentes envolvidos em transações com terras, engenhos e concessão de crédito na freguesia de Campo Grande, no correr do século XVIII até o início do XIX, cuja especificidade foi conseguirem reproduzir sua condição senhorial. Metodologicamente, partimos da microanálise e compusemos redes sociais locais que sustentaram as estratégias dos agentes em questão. Propomos que as rendas criadas a partir das vendas a prazo, os vínculos pessoais entre compradores-credores-vendedores-devedores nas vendas dos engenhos e a sobreposição de vínculos de dependência locais foram fatores que possibilitaram a acumulação econômica e a reprodução ampliada da condição senhorial.Using the concept of ‘Ancien Régime on the Tropics’, this article aims to investigate how social hierarchies and politics in Brazil, during the 18th century, reflected into concrete local strategies. Our objective is to understand the gadgets of an imperfect market, based on agents’ choices who were all involved in lands, sugar mills and credit commercial transactions in the Campo Grande civil parish, in the Rio de Janeiro. All agents had gotten to reproduce its extended senhorial condition. Our methodology is based on microanalysis, so we composed local social nets we guest had supported the agents’ strategies in question. We consider strategies to achieve long term incomes; bonds between purchaser, creditor, salesman and debtors (both involving sugar mills commercial transactions; the overlapping of dependence bonds by strategic exchanges created by sugar mill masters among consanguineous, matrimonial and fictitious relatives had been factors that made possible the economic accumulation and the extended reproduction of the master condition.

Manoela Pedroza

2010-06-01

65

Phenol Metabolism by White Rot Fungus Phanerochaete chrysosporium Isolated from Indian Paper Mill Effluent Enriched Soil Samples  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The white rot fungus Phanerochaete chrysosporium isolated from paper mill effluent enriched soil samples degrading various phenol (Mono, di hydroxy and methoxy) compounds. During five days of incubation period, 74% of para-hydroxy benzoic acid was utilized by the isolated Phanerochaete chrysosporium when glucose used as a co-substrate. There was 57% degradation of protocatechuic acid using fructose. The fungus degraded vanillin in the presence of co-substrates and the response ...

Prabu, P. C.; Udayasoorian, C.

2005-01-01

66

Monitoreo de un sistema de secado de bagazo acoplado a una caldera en un ingenio de México Monitoring of a bagasse drying system attached to a boiler in a sugar mill in Mexico  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Se evaluó el desempeño de un secador de bagazo diseñado por la Estación Experimental Agroindustrial Obispo Colombres, acoplado a una caldera bagacera convencional en un ingenio de México (caldera Nº 5. Para ello, se realizaron ensayos de mediciones y balances de materia y energía, para la caldera operando con el secador y sin él en funcionamiento. La caldera Nº 5, de una producción nominal de 60 t/h de vapor y una presión máxima de trabajo de 29 bar, cuando fue alimentada únicamente con bagazo húmedo pudo generar como máximo 33 t/h de vapor a 19 bar y 269ºC, con un rendimiento energético de 60,4% y un índice de generación de 1,6 kg de vapor/ kg de bagazo. Con la adición del secador, se logró secar 28,6 toneladas de bagazo de 50,2% a 30,4% de humedad. Aproximadamente un 72% de este bagazo presecado se mezcló con bagazo húmedo y se utilizó para alimentar la caldera, produciéndose así 58,4 t/h de vapor; es decir, 77% más de vapor que sin secador. El rendimiento energético del sistema caldera-secador fue de 73,6%, un 21,8% superior al de la caldera sin secador, mientras que el índice de generación fue de 2,0 kg de vapor/ kg de bagazo, 25% mayor que el de la caldera original. Este aumento en la producción de vapor permitió sacar de servicio a la caldera Nº 6, que producía aproximadamente 20 t/h de vapor, con un rendimiento similar al de la caldera Nº 5 sin secador. Estas mejoras dieron como resultado, un ahorro de energía de 45,4 MJ/h, aproximadamente un 18% respecto a la energía consumida por ambas calderas (Nº 5 y Nº 6 cuando no funcionaba el secador. Este ahorro equivale a 1103 l/h de "fuel oil", es decir, alrededor de 1,5 millones de dólares por zafra.A bagasse dryer designed by Estación Experimental Agroindustrial Obispo Colombres was attached to a conventional bagasse boiler (Boiler No. 5 in a sugar mill in Mexico for evaluation. Measurement tests and material and energy balances for the boiler operating with and without the dryer were made. When supplied only with wet bagasse, boiler No. 5, with a nominal production of 60 t/h of steam and a maximum working pressure of 29 bar, could generate no more than 33 t/h of steam at 19 bar and 269 ºC, with an energy yield of 60.4% and an index of 1.6 kg steam/ kg of bagasse . When the dryer was attached, 28.6 tons of bagasse was dried from 50.2% moisture to 30.4%. Approximately 72% of that pre-dried bagasse, mixed with wet bagasse, was fed into the boiler, which then produced 58.4 t/h of steam, i.e. 77% more than without the dryer. The energy efficiency of the boiler-dryer system was 73.6% and the index was 2.0 kg steam/ kg of bagasse, i.e. 21.8%, 25% higher values than those for the original boiler. This increase in steam production allowed putting boiler No. 6 out of service. Boiler No. 6 produced about 20 t/h of steam with similar efficiency to that of boiler No. 5 without the dryer. These improvements resulted in energy savings of about 18%, as compared with the energy consumed by the two boilers (No. 5 and No. 6 when the dryer was not working. Energy saved amounted to 45.4 MJ/h, which is equivalent to 1103 l/h of fuel oil. This represents savings of USD 1.5 million per season.

Federico J. Franck Colombres

67

An update report on the uranium mill  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In 1978, Congress enacted Public Law 95-604, the ''Uranium Mill Tailings Radiation Control Act of 1978''. The Act authorized the Department of Energy (DOE) to perform remedial actions at designated inactive uranium mill tailings sites. DOE established the Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Actions Project Office to implement, in cooperation with the affected States, Indian tribes and owners of the sites, remedial actions at the sites. The UMTRA Project Office has completed an intensive research and development program and begun remedial actions at one mill site and numerous vicinity properties in accordance with EPA cleanup standards. Remedial actions at additional locations are planned

68

Monitoreo de un sistema de secado de bagazo acoplado a una caldera en un ingenio de México / Monitoring of a bagasse drying system attached to a boiler in a sugar mill in Mexico  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Argentina | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish Se evaluó el desempeño de un secador de bagazo diseñado por la Estación Experimental Agroindustrial Obispo Colombres, acoplado a una caldera bagacera convencional en un ingenio de México (caldera Nº 5). Para ello, se realizaron ensayos de mediciones y balances de materia y energía, para la caldera o [...] perando con el secador y sin él en funcionamiento. La caldera Nº 5, de una producción nominal de 60 t/h de vapor y una presión máxima de trabajo de 29 bar, cuando fue alimentada únicamente con bagazo húmedo pudo generar como máximo 33 t/h de vapor a 19 bar y 269ºC, con un rendimiento energético de 60,4% y un índice de generación de 1,6 kg de vapor/ kg de bagazo. Con la adición del secador, se logró secar 28,6 toneladas de bagazo de 50,2% a 30,4% de humedad. Aproximadamente un 72% de este bagazo presecado se mezcló con bagazo húmedo y se utilizó para alimentar la caldera, produciéndose así 58,4 t/h de vapor; es decir, 77% más de vapor que sin secador. El rendimiento energético del sistema caldera-secador fue de 73,6%, un 21,8% superior al de la caldera sin secador, mientras que el índice de generación fue de 2,0 kg de vapor/ kg de bagazo, 25% mayor que el de la caldera original. Este aumento en la producción de vapor permitió sacar de servicio a la caldera Nº 6, que producía aproximadamente 20 t/h de vapor, con un rendimiento similar al de la caldera Nº 5 sin secador. Estas mejoras dieron como resultado, un ahorro de energía de 45,4 MJ/h, aproximadamente un 18% respecto a la energía consumida por ambas calderas (Nº 5 y Nº 6) cuando no funcionaba el secador. Este ahorro equivale a 1103 l/h de "fuel oil", es decir, alrededor de 1,5 millones de dólares por zafra. Abstract in english A bagasse dryer designed by Estación Experimental Agroindustrial Obispo Colombres was attached to a conventional bagasse boiler (Boiler No. 5) in a sugar mill in Mexico for evaluation. Measurement tests and material and energy balances for the boiler operating with and without the dryer were made. W [...] hen supplied only with wet bagasse, boiler No. 5, with a nominal production of 60 t/h of steam and a maximum working pressure of 29 bar, could generate no more than 33 t/h of steam at 19 bar and 269 ºC, with an energy yield of 60.4% and an index of 1.6 kg steam/ kg of bagasse . When the dryer was attached, 28.6 tons of bagasse was dried from 50.2% moisture to 30.4%. Approximately 72% of that pre-dried bagasse, mixed with wet bagasse, was fed into the boiler, which then produced 58.4 t/h of steam, i.e. 77% more than without the dryer. The energy efficiency of the boiler-dryer system was 73.6% and the index was 2.0 kg steam/ kg of bagasse, i.e. 21.8%, 25% higher values than those for the original boiler. This increase in steam production allowed putting boiler No. 6 out of service. Boiler No. 6 produced about 20 t/h of steam with similar efficiency to that of boiler No. 5 without the dryer. These improvements resulted in energy savings of about 18%, as compared with the energy consumed by the two boilers (No. 5 and No. 6) when the dryer was not working. Energy saved amounted to 45.4 MJ/h, which is equivalent to 1103 l/h of fuel oil. This represents savings of USD 1.5 million per season.

Federico J., Franck Colombres; Marcos A., Golato; Walter D., Morales; Gustavo, Aso; Dora, Paz.

2010-12-30

69

Supply optimization for the production of raw sugar  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Based on a case study from Venezuela, the production of raw sugar is investigated. Ideally, sugar mills operate at a constant production rate. However, safety stocks of the raw material cannot be maintained as sugar cane quality deteriorates very rapidly. Sugar cane is therefore continuously sourced in diverse quantities and qualities from hundreds of geographically dispersed haciendas and supplied to the milling process. Furthermore, due to weather conditions changing throughout the year, tight time windows must be observed for harvesting. The approach presented in this paper aims at preserving a constant supply while minimizing the associated costs. The entire planning problem is structured in a hierarchical fashion: (1) cultivation of the haciendas, (2) harvesting, and (3) dispatching of the harvesting crews and equipment. The corresponding optimization models and solution procedures are introduced and applied to the case study problem.

Grunow, Martin; Günther, H.O.

2007-01-01

70

Indian Delegates  

Ph. D. in Computer Science & Engineering from Indian ... Presently at ABV-Indian \\Institute of Information Technology & Management (IIITM), ..... Netherlands, New \\Zealand, Poland, Russia, Serbia & Montenegro, Slovak, Slovenia, Sri Lanka,.

71

Sugar exported: sugar packed in containers  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This paper presents a study in the port sector specialized in handling of bagged sugar. Sugar has always been exported in bags of 50 kg, placed directly in the holds of ships for general cargo. It appears that this form of transport has become obsolete now, the market for the direct form of transport of sugar packed in containers. Companies involved in this type of port handling need understand the reasons that are influencing this new mode of transportation as a way to fit and remain active and competitive in the industry.

José Alberto Yemal

2010-04-01

72

Raising cane: linkages, organizations and negotiations in Malang's sugar industry, East Java.  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The linkages between the Javanese sugar industry and the village communities have drawn the attention of both historians and social scientists. The formal organization of these linkages has changed drastically since Indonesia's independence; from plantation into outgrowers production contract systems. The Indonesian government nowadays regulates the sugar markets and the tripartite institutional structure, coordinating activities between the outgrowers' organizations and the mills, under dire...

Hartveld, A. J.

1996-01-01

73

Sugar Crystal Challenge  

Science.gov (United States)

This lesson focuses on surface area and how the shape of sugar crystals may differ as they are grown from sugars of different coarseness. Learners explore surface area, nanostructures, and work in teams and participate in hands-on activities. Safety: need an adult to handle the very hot water.

IEEE

2013-02-25

74

Indian Academy of Sciences - General  

Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

indian academy of sciences - general indian council of medical research dr n. c. jain, editorial support, indian indian council of medical research mr r. muniasamy, programmer, indian medical journal of india indian indian of anatomical society o ...

75

Valoración económica sobre la aplicabilidad de inspección ultrasónica a los árboles de los molinos de caña de azúcar para la industria azucarera cubana / Economic feasibility study regarding the applicability of ultrasonic inspection of the Cuban sugar industry’s sugarcane mill shafts  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Colombia | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish Se presenta un análisis económico que evalúa la factibilidad de emplear inspección ultrasónica para los árboles de los molinos de caña de azúcar. Se emplean cuatro variantes de sustitución de los árboles de los molinos que recrean los escenarios más frecuentes. Se incluye la alternativa de utilizar [...] inspección ultrasónica, con periodos de tiempo entre inspecciones fijados según un modelo de propagación de grietas de fatiga. En la valoración económica se utiliza el criterio del costo del ciclo de vida; teniendo en cuenta los costos de operación, mantenimiento y energía que influyen sobre los árboles de los molinos de caña de azúcar. Se llega a la conclusión de que es bastante recomendable emplear inspección ultrasónica con un nivel alto en las especificaciones del procedimiento. Con la introducción de la inspección ultrasónica, según los tiempos obtenidos por el modelo de mecánica de la fractura, es posible lograr un ahorro de medio millón de dólares por año para las condiciones existentes en la industria azucarera cubana. Abstract in english This article evaluates the economic feasibility of carrying out ultrasonic inspection of sugar-mill shafts. Four alternatives are considered, including the most frequently encountered scenarios. How and when inspections are carried out is analysed, periods between inspections being established by a [...] fatigue-crack growth propagation approach. The lifecycle cost approach was applied for economic evaluation. Operation, maintenance and energy consumption costs were thus taken into consideration. The conclusion was drawn that it is highly advisable to use high performance ultrasonic inspection. Introducing ultrasonic inspection (according to the period of time obtained by fracture mechanics model) could lead to a saving of half a million dollars per year for the Cuban sugarcane industry in the current conditions.

Nelson, Arzola de la Peña.

2006-08-01

76

Low blood sugar - newborns  

Science.gov (United States)

... is also called neonatal hypoglycemia. It refers to low blood sugar (glucose) in the first few days after birth. ... should continue taking blood tests until the baby's glucose level ... tests: Newborn screening for metabolic disorders Urine tests

77

What is sugar?  

Science.gov (United States)

This reading, part of a site about the science of cooking, provides general scientific information about sucrose (white table sugar) together with explanations of the science behind some candy-making procedures. The general information includes the chemical formula of sucrose and a ball-and-stick model that illustrates that sucrose is made of fructose and glucose. Regarding candy, the reading describes how heating a sugar solution produces a supersaturated solution. A discussion about common techniques used to prevent sucrose from crystallizing follows. Copyright 2005 Eisenhower National Clearinghouse

Exploratorium

2004-01-01

78

Genetic improvement of sugar cane for bioenergy: the Brazilian experience in network research with RIDESA  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

In this paper, it is presented RIDESA’s model for sugar cane breeding to ethanol, and its scientific, technological and human resources training contributions. RIDESA is an inter-university network for the development of sugar cane industry in Brazil, and was formed by a technical cooperation agreement between ten public universities. The model of network management is presented in this study, which involves, among other things, the public-private partnership (Universities-Mills) for the de...

Luiz Alexandre Peternelli; Ricardo Augusto de Oliveira; Geraldo Veríssimo de Souza Barbosa; Luiz Antônio dos Santos Dias; Marcos Deon Vilela Resende; Márcio Henrique Pereira Barbosa; Edelclaiton Daros

2012-01-01

79

76 FR 62339 - Domestic Sugar Program-2011-Crop Cane Sugar and Beet Sugar Marketing Allotments and Company...  

Science.gov (United States)

...2011-Crop Cane Sugar and Beet Sugar Marketing Allotments and Company Allocations AGENCY...the fiscal year (FY) 2012 State sugar marketing allotments and company allocations to...establishing, adjusting, or suspending sugar marketing allotments in the Federal...

2011-10-07

80

Remedial actions at inactive uranium mill tailings sites  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In 1978, Congress enacted Public Law 95-604, the Uranium Mill Tailings Radiation Control Act of 1978. The Act authorizes the Department of Energy to stabilize and control the tailings from designated inactive uranium mill tailings sites in a safe and environmentally acceptable manner. DOE has established the Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Actions (UMTRA) Project Office to implement, in cooperation with the affected States, Indian tribes and owners of the sites, remedial actions at the sites. The UMTRA Project Office has initiated efforts to perform remedial actions in accordance with EPA cleanup standards

 
 
 
 
81

Home blood sugar testing  

Science.gov (United States)

... of blood on a special strip. This strip measures how much glucose is in your blood. Some monitors use blood from areas of the body other than the fingers, reducing discomfort. The meter shows your blood sugar results as a number on a digital display. ...

82

"Sugar" jõuab lavale / Ülle Hallik  

Index Scriptorium Estoniae

Vanemuises esietendub 5. juunil "Sugar", lavastaja Mare Tommingas. Muusikal põhineb Jule Styne muusikalil "Sugar ehk Dzhässis ainult tüdrukud". Muusikali libreto kirjutas Peter Stone Robert Thoereni jutustuse ning Billy Wilderi ja I. A. L. Dimanondi filmi "Some Like It Hot" põhjal

Hallik, Ülle, 1963-

2008-01-01

83

Thermoeconomic analysis of a cogeneration system in a cuban sugar cane plant; Analise termoeconomica de um sistema de cogeracao de uma usina acucareira cubana  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Cogeneration is usual practice in sugar-cane mills. In this work, thermo economic analysis is applied to a typical cuban sugar-cane mill. Two different cost distribution methods, the extraction method and the quality method are used to evaluate the exergy and monetary (operational) costs of each flux within the system, especially the steam and generated power. The methodology indicates the equipment responsible for the greatest irreversibilities in the system. (author)

Campo, Eduardo Rafael Barreda del [Universidad de Oriente, Santiago (Cuba). Centro de Estudio de Eficiencia Energetica; Cerqueira, Sergio Augusto Araujo da Gama [Fundacao de Ensino Superior de Sao Joao Del Rei (FUNREI), MG (Brazil). Dept. de Mecanica; Nebra, Silvia Azucena [Universidade Estadual de Campinas, SP (Brazil). Faculdade de Engenharia Mecanica. Dept. de Energia

1996-07-01

84

Evaluation of soil contents in sugar cane loading using activation analysis  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

When sugar cane is cut and taken to the sugar and alcohol mills, a significant quantity of soil is loaded with the stalks. This content has been reduced to 1% due to improvement in harvesting methods. Elements present in soil but not in sugar cane have been studied to act as tracers in the determination of unwanted minerals. Samples of different soils were irradiated with thermal neutrons in a nuclear reactor and the induced radioactivity measured by high resolution gamma ray spectrometry. (author). 52 refs., 7 figs., 11 tabs

85

Economic analyse of industrial production and electric energy consumption on a sugar-alcohol plant; Analise economica da producao industrial e do consumo de energia eletrica em uma usina sucro-alcooleira  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Economic aspects of industrial production of sugar cane and automotive alcohol fuel, the relation between its production and electric energy consumption, electric energy costs to self generated electric power and concessionary supply, involved in plant production on Ribeirao Preto, SP, Brazil, are presented. Studies to verify the relationships between sugar and alcohol production with milling ours as well as sugar cane processed with sugar and alcohol produced are also discussed 27 refs., 12 figs., 38 tabs.

Bini, Aderson

1993-10-01

86

Sugar Price Analysis in Indonesia  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This study examines the dynamic relationship between sugar price, exchange rate, oil price, rice price, and consumer price index (CPI; and to detect is there any difference between exchange rate, oil price, rice price, and CPI in effecting sugar price. We employ Vector Auto-regressions methods for a time series of monthly data from January 1998 to December 2011. Generally, the Impulse Response Function results provide the positive response of Indonesian sugar price from shock of the change of world sugar price, oil price, rice price and CPI; but there is negative response of Indonesian sugar price from shock of the change of exchange rate. The empirical results in variance decomposition test provide evidence that variability of the change of Indonesian sugar price are vary between each variable. Overall variance decomposition results are below than ten percent. These results indicate there is low transmission of international prices into Indonesian sugar prices.

Kumara Jati

2013-07-01

87

A STUDY OF PERCEPTION OF WOMEN EMPLOYEES IN WEAVING MILLS  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Indian Textile Industry holds key position in Indian economy. It contributes about 4 percent to the GDP and 12 per cent to the country's total export earnings. It provides direct employment to over 35 million people, the second largest provider of employment after agriculture. Besides, another 54.85 million people are engaged in its allied activities. High perception assists the management to overcome several women employees' problems in weaving mills. In this paper, the researcher has made an attempt to highlight the perception of women employees in weaving mills in Ichalkaranji. The present study is an earnest attempt to assess present condition of the perception of the women employees in weaving mills at Ichalkaranji in Kolhapur district.

T. K. Jadhav

2014-06-01

88

Considerations about waste water irrigation characteristics at the Ciro Redondo Agroindustrial sugar complex; Consideraciones sobre las caracteristicas de las aguas residuales del CAI Ciro Redondo para el fertirriego  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The irrigation of wastewater from sugar industry and byproducts is today, in Cuba, the most useful way for the treatment of these waters. With the characterization of the waters from AIC Ciro Redondo it has been proved that these waters must be used as organic matter in the established way for sugar mill wastewaters mix with Torula yeast plants ones. (Author) 10 refs.

Obaya Abreu, M. C.; Valdes Jimenez, E.; Leon Perez, O. L.; Diez Perez, K.; Valencia Rodriguez, R.

2002-07-01

89

Indian Academy of Sciences - General  

Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

indian academy of sciences - general indian indian india geological society of india society of india geological society of india of the geological society of india indian indian journal of animal sciences ...

90

Concept on Sugar- A Review  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Sugars have a long history of safe use in foods. They are common food ingredients that add taste appeal and perform important functions in foods. Besides its pleasant sweetness, sugar performs a host of less obvious and important functions in cooking, baking, candy making and the like. As carbohydrates, sugars are a contributor of calories for the body. The ability to produce solutions of varying degrees of sweetness is important in many food applications, particularly in beverages and...

Zakaria Ahmed; Hasina Banu; Firaza Akhter; Faruquzzaman, M.; Shamsul Haque

2001-01-01

91

SUGAR IS SWEET BUT DANGEROUS  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Sugar is viewed from various aspects regarding its composition, metabolismand consumption. A special importance is given to the role of sugar in preventingcardiovascular diseases. It is stressed that the widely-accepted theore about fats ascauses of coronary diseases should be changed since the consumption of greatquantities of ordinary sugar is of greater importance for causing coronary diseases. Inthe conclusion it is claimed that proper nutrition is one ofthe key factors in preventingthe formation of many diseases in human organism.

Sreten Pavlovic

2001-11-01

92

SUGAR IS SWEET BUT DANGEROUS  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Sugar is viewed from various aspects regarding its composition, metabolismand consumption. A special importance is given to the role of sugar in preventingcardiovascular diseases. It is stressed that the widely-accepted theore about fats ascauses of coronary diseases should be changed since the consumption of greatquantities of ordinary sugar is of greater importance for causing coronary diseases. Inthe conclusion it is claimed that proper nutrition is one ofthe key factors in preventingthe f...

Sreten Pavlovic; Voja Pavlovic

2001-01-01

93

On India de John Stuart Mill: barbárie versus civilização e a política de não intervenção  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

A defender of free-trade and an opponent of monopoly, John Stuart Mill advocated direct rule by the British in India and intended, like his father, to promote good and useful government. In his belief, the Indian native states needed someone who could guide them towards civilization. However, by the mid 1840s, Mill changed to a more moderate position. He thus defended non-intervention and indirect rule by the British in India. This paper’s main aim is therefore to assess Mill’s views ...

Silva, Elisabete

2010-01-01

94

Milling of agglomerates in an impact mill.  

Science.gov (United States)

Milling of agglomerates is one of the common unit operations during preparation of oral dosage forms like capsules and tablets. In literature the breakage of granules is mostly determined after single impact at an ideally formed granule or of single particles. In this paper the breakage behavior of agglomerates after milling with multiple impacts has been studied. It investigates the effects of the formulation and the influences of the mill settings. With respect to the formulation it has been found that both the size of the particles before granulation and the amount of binder used determine the breakage behavior. Both parameters have an influence on the strength of the granule to be milled, where initial particle size has the largest effect. A relation has been found between the strength of granules and the degree of size reduction. Regarding the mill settings, there are no mill parameters which influence the formation of fines independently. Formation of fines is always the result of the total degree of size reduction. It is not possible to achieve a large degree of size reduction without intensive fines formation. The results indicate that it is possible to achieve every desired average particle size. However, when formation of dust has to be reduced, multiple milling steps with separation of in-size particles is necessary. PMID:15158958

Verheezen, Joost J A M; van der Voort Maarschalk, Kees; Faassen, Fried; Vromans, Herman

2004-06-18

95

25 CFR 31.3 - Non-Indian pupils in Indian schools.  

Science.gov (United States)

... Non-Indian pupils in Indian schools. 31.3 Section 31.3 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR EDUCATION FEDERAL SCHOOLS FOR INDIANS § 31.3 Non-Indian pupils in Indian schools. Indian and...

2010-04-01

96

Energy saving in the sugar cane agroindustry; Ahorro de energia en la agroindustria azucarera canera  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The traditional sugar mill is inefficient from the energy point of view. Most of the sugar mills were designed to use all the available bagasse, due to the risk of spontaneous ignition and environmental pollution. Consequently, the steam generators, the turbines and other components were designed to work with low efficiencies. Each ton of sugar produced generates a power potential equivalent to four to six oil barrels (bagasse and residues). That is to say, a sugar mill is capable of producing 500 ton/day of sugar, equivalent to an oil well of 2000 to 3000 barrels/day and one thermoelectric power plant of 15,000 kW. Under this context an analysis is made of the sugar mills in Latin America and the Caribbean as one of the ways of increasing their efficiency and obtain great energy savings. As far as steam generation the appropriate use of energy is dictated by the boilers' efficiency. [Spanish] El ingenio azucarero tradicional es ineficiente desde el punto de vista energetico. La mayoria de los ingenios azucareros se disenaron para usar todo el bagazo disponible, debido al riesgo de ignicion espontanea y contaminacion. En consecuencia, los generadores de vapor, las turbinas y demas componentes fueron disenados para trabajar con bajas eficiencias. Cada tonelada de azucar producida genera una potencialidad energetica equivalente de cuatro a seis barriles de petroleo (bagazo y residuos). Es decir, un ingenio capaz de producir 500 ton/dia de azucar equivalente a un pozo de petroleo de 2000 a 3000 barriles/dia y una termoelectrica de 15000 kW. Bajo este contexto se hace un analisis del ingenio azucarero en Latinoamerica y el Caribe como una de las vias para incrementar su eficiencia y lograr grandes ahorros en la energia. En cuanto a generacion de vapor se refiere, el buen uso de la energia viene expresado por la eficiencia de las calderas.

Zedillo Ponce de Leon, Luis [Grupo de paises Latinoamericanos y del Caribe exportadores de azucar (Mexico)

1996-07-01

97

PROGRESS AND PROBLEMS OF AGRO-BASED INDUSTRIES IN INDIA: A STUDY OF SUGAR INDUSTRY  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Agro-based industries play a vital role in the development of Indian rural economy. India's 70 per cent of total population directly depends on agriculture and agro-based industries. Sugar industry is one of the most important agro-based industries in the development process of rural India. Therefore, the study has selected this agrobased industry and analysed sugarcane and sugar production, trends of sugarcane and sugar product, recovery of cane during the period 1950-51 to 2010-11. Maharashtra and Uttar Pradesh are two largest sugar producer states in India. So, the study has also discussed the comparative growth of sugarcane production and sugar industries in Maharashtra and Uttar Pradesh states of India. The study has revealed that India is the second largest producer of sugar in the world. India has produced 24394 thousand tones sugar from 527 factories in the year 2010-11. The study has also found that near about 61 per cent of total sugar production in India has produced in Maharashtra and Uttar Pradesh states only.

DINKAR P. TAKALE

2013-02-01

98

Remedial actions at inactive uranium mill tailings sites  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In 1978 Congress enacted Public Law 95-604, the Uranium Mill Tailings Radiation Control Act of 1978. The Act authorizes DOE, in cooperation with the affected States, Indian tribes and the owners of the sites, to implement remedial action at inactive uranium mill tailings sites. Since there are significant uncertainties in the present technology for controlling the radiological hazards associated with mill tailings, a concentrated research and development program based on an integrated Remedial Action Technology Plan will be implemented with significant laboratory, university and contractor participation. Discussed are the major questions and issues concerning the measurement of radon and radon daughters, requirements for remedial action, and the main categories of research and development for the mill tailings project

99

Sugar beet (Beta vulgaris L.).  

Science.gov (United States)

Creating transgenic plants is invaluable for the genetic analysis of sugar beet and will be increasingly important as sugar beet genomic technologies progress. A protocol for Agrobacterium-mediated transformation of sugar beet is described in this chapter. Our protocol is optimized for a sugar beet genotype that performs exceptionally well in tissue culture, including the steps of dedifferentiation, callus proliferation, and regeneration. Because of the infrequent occurrence of such a genotype in sugar beet populations, our protocol includes an in vitro propagation method for germplasm preservation. The starting materials for transgenic experiments are aseptic shoots grown from surface-sterilized seed balls. Callus is induced from leaf explants and subsequently infected with Agrobacterium. Plantlets are regenerated from transgenic callus and vernalized for flowering, if necessary. The efficiency of transformation was quite high; in our laboratory, the culture of only ten leaf explants, on average, generated one transgenic plant. PMID:25300853

Kagami, Hiroyo; Kurata, Masayuki; Matsuhira, Hiroaki; Taguchi, Kazunori; Mikami, Tetsuo; Tamagake, Hideto; Kubo, Tomohiko

2015-01-01

100

Bioconversion of cellulose wastes to protein and sugar  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A schematic representation of the variety of products which can be obtained by microbial conversion of cellulose is presented. Alkaline pretreatment was used after milling. Solka-floc or sugarcane bagasse was used as sources of cellulose. A cellulolytic strain of Aspergillus terreus (ATCC 30514) was cultivated in batch, fed batch, and continuous culture in a 7-L stirred tank fermentor. The general growth characteristics were determined by growing on glucose. Results of experiments on the growth of Aspergillus terreus for production of biomass on Solka-floc or sugarcane bagasse are given and the ability of crude cellulases to produce sugar syrups by enzymic hydrolysis of cellulose was evaluated.

Srinivasan, V.R.; Miller, T.F.

1981-01-01

 
 
 
 
101

FM Interviews: Stephanie Mills  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Stephanie Mills is an author, editor, lecturer and ecological activist who has concerned herself with the fate of the earth and humanity since 1969, when her commencement address at Mills College in Oakland, Calif., drew the attention of a nation. Her speech, which the New York Times called "perhaps the most anguished statement" of the year's crop of valedictory speeches, predicted a bleak future. According to Mills, humanity was destined for suicide, the result of overpopulation and overuse ...

Valauskas, Edward

2002-01-01

102

77 FR 5566 - Indian Gaming  

Science.gov (United States)

...INTERIOR Bureau of Indian Affairs Indian Gaming AGENCY: Bureau of Indian Affairs, Interior...Notice of Tribal--State Class III Gaming Compact Taking Effect...L. Hart, Director, Office of Indian Gaming, Office of the Deputy Assistant...

2012-02-03

103

76 FR 165 - Indian Gaming  

Science.gov (United States)

...INTERIOR Bureau of Indian Affairs Indian Gaming AGENCY: Bureau of Indian Affairs, Interior...Tribe'') and the State of Wisconsin Gaming Compact of 1992, as Amended in 1999...L. Hart, Director, Office of Indian Gaming, Office of the Deputy Assistant...

2011-01-03

104

76 FR 49505 - Indian Gaming  

Science.gov (United States)

...INTERIOR Bureau of Indian Affairs Indian Gaming AGENCY: Bureau of Indian Affairs, Interior...ACTION: Notice of Tribal-State Class III Gaming Compact taking effect...L. Hart, Director, Office of Indian Gaming, Office of the Deputy Assistant...

2011-08-10

105

77 FR 76514 - Indian Gaming  

Science.gov (United States)

...INTERIOR Bureau of Indian Affairs Indian Gaming AGENCY: Bureau of Indian Affairs, Interior...Approved Amended Tribal-State Class III Gaming Compact taking effect...L. Hart, Director, Office of Indian Gaming, Office of the Deputy Assistant...

2012-12-28

106

75 FR 38833 - Indian Gaming  

Science.gov (United States)

...INTERIOR Bureau of Indian Affairs Indian Gaming AGENCY: Bureau of Indian Affairs, Interior...Notice of Approved Tribal-State Class III Gaming Compact...Paula Hart, Director, Office of Indian Gaming, Office of the Deputy Assistant...

2010-07-06

107

DETERMINATION OF PRIMARY METABOLITES IN CEREAL MILLING FRACTIONS  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The aim of this study was to determine of primary metabolites (content of starch, total dietary fibre, reducing sugars, proteins and amino acids) in four milling fractions of selected cereals (barley, wheat, oat, spelt, rye, triticale) grew in the year 2009. It was found that flour fractions (break flour and reduction flour) showed the lower content of primary metabolites than bran fractions (fine bran and coarse bran). The aim of this study was also to mention the potential use of bran parts...

Eva Ivanišová; Miroslav Ondrejovi?; Barbara Mickowska; Stanislav Šilhár; Tatiana Boj?anská

2013-01-01

108

Know Your Blood Sugar Numbers  

Science.gov (United States)

... Together they decide that John will: ? Increase his walking time to 30 minutes every day after dinner. ? Self-test at bedtime to see if being more active lowers his blood sugar. Call his doctor in 1 month for a ...

109

Corn Wet Milling Lab  

Science.gov (United States)

Description: Wet Corn Milling is an industrial process that that converts corn to a wide variety of by-products. The wet milling industry is the largest non-feed user of corn, using approximately 1 billion bushels annually. This lab looks at the separation steps in the industrial processing of corn.

Olson, Eric

110

Life Cycle Assessment of Sugar Production (VB)  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

The environmental organisation NOAH has proposed carrying out an environmental assessment of two different sugar productions (using sugar beet or sugar cane) in order to illustrate which of the systems has a higher environmental impact for sugar consumption in Denmark. Therefore a comparison will be made between sugar from sugar beet produced in Denmark versus sugar produces from sugar cane in a tropical country, Brazil, and transported afterwards to Denmark. To evaluate the environmental aspects of these two product systems a Life Cycle Assessement (LCA) will be carried out.From the results obtained in the present LCA of sugar produces from sugar canes or sugar beet it is difficult to make an immediate choice between the two possibilities. Indeed, Quantitative results from the EDIP (Environmental Design of Industrial Products) software are globally similar for both ways of producing sugar although big differences between sugar cane and sugar beet exist at a few points. The qualitative approach of other fields like workning environment or specific environmental aspects is necessary to get a broader view of the problem. Nevertheless, it does not allow for a definite decision either. Therefore, privileging sugar cane or sugar beet may only be decided after a precise weighting of the environmental impacts or resource conumption. However, weighting is a political decision especially because two contries with different local conditions are dealt with. Hence, diciding which sugar to buy becomes a personal choice. What the danish consumer should be aware of is that no big difference has been found between sugar from sugar cane and sugar from sugar beet with regard to environmental impacts and resource consumption.

Teljigovic, Mehmed; Mengiardi, Jon

1999-01-01

111

National Indian Education Study  

Science.gov (United States)

This report includes information from the National Indian Education Study of American Indian/Alaska Native students in grades 4 and 8 on the 2005 National Assessment of Education Progress (NAEP) in reading and mathematics. The national sample includes both public and private schools (i.e. Bureau of Indian Affairs, Department of Defense Education…

Harvey, Karen Kay

2006-01-01

112

Process for whole cell saccharification of lignocelluloses to sugars using a dual bioreactor system  

Science.gov (United States)

The present invention describes a process for saccharification of lignocelluloses to sugars using whole microbial cells, which are enriched from cultures inoculated with paper mill waste water, wood processing waste and soil. A three-member bacterial consortium is selected as a potent microbial inocula and immobilized on inedible plant fibers for biomass saccharification. The present invention further relates the design of a dual bioreactor system, with various biocarriers for enzyme immobilization and repeated use. Sugars are continuously removed eliminating end-product inhibition and consumption by cell.

Lu, Jue (Okemos, MI); Okeke, Benedict (Montgomery, AL)

2012-03-27

113

Comparison of combustion and pyrolysis for energy generation in a sugarcane mill  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Highlights: • Biomass to energy processes for sugarmills via combustion and pyrolysis are modelled. • Models compared based on technical and economic performance for two mill efficiencies. • Combustion more suited for sugar mill energy supply. • Pyrolysis based models have higher overall process efficiencies. • Pyrolysis contributes more towards environmental mitigation but is less profitable. - Abstract: The study focusses on the comparison of biomass to energy conversion process (BMECP) models to convert sugar mill biomass (bagasse) into energy products via combustion and pyrolysis as thermochemical pathways. Bagasse was converted to steam and electricity via combustion using 40 bar, 63 bar and 82 bar Condensing Extraction Steam Turbines (CEST) systems and a 30 bar back pressure steam turbine (BPST) system. Two BMECPs, namely partial fast pyrolysis and pure fast pyrolysis systems, were modeled for the pyrolysis pathway. In the Pure Fast Pyrolysis BMECP all the input bagasse stream was converted to pyrolysis products, with subsequent combustion of some of these products to generate steam and electricity for sugar mill operations. In the partial fast pyrolysis BMECP, a fraction of the bagasse is combusted directly to supply steam and electricity to the sugar mill, while the remaining fraction is pyrolyzed to generate pyrolysis products. All process models were simulated in AspenPlus® and were assessed on their ability to supply the energy requirement of to two sugar mill scenarios: More efficient mill and less efficient mill. The economic viability of BMECPs was determined using Aspen Process Economic Analyzer. Both combustion based and pyrolysis based BMECPs were capable of meeting the energy requirement of the sugar mill, although the pyrolysis based BMECP had limited steam and electricity production rates due to the accumulation of energy in pyrolysis products. High energy valued pyrolysis products resulted in higher overall process efficiencies of 85.09% and 87.65% for partial fast pyrolysis and Pure Fast Pyrolysis BMECPs respectively compared to 77.48% for the most efficient combustion BMECP (82 bar CEST). CO2 savings were higher for the pyrolysis based BMECPs due to the sequestration of carbon in pyrolysis products. The 63 bar CEST combustion system was the most economic viable option, while the Pure Fast Pyrolysis BMECP was the least viable. The increased energy efficiency and environmental benefits of pyrolysis-based processes are therefore off-set by increases in production costs

114

76 FR 36512 - USDA Increases the Domestic Sugar Overall Allotment Quantity, Reassigns Domestic Cane Sugar...  

Science.gov (United States)

...announced an increase in the domestic sugar Overall Allotment...surplus sugar under domestic cane sugar allotments...increase in estimated sugar demand since the FY 2011 OAQ...Upon review of the domestic sugarcane processors...2011 expected raw sugar supplies, CCC determined...

2011-06-22

115

SWOT ANALYSIS OF INDIAN JUTE INDUSTRY  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Jute Industrial sector is an important segment of Indian economy. Jute has been the most versatile natural fibre. The jute sector produces products ranging from low value geo-textile to high end garments, decorative, upholstery etc. Many of the jute plants or mills are now engaged in producing jute blended yarns. The jute industry scenario in India has been changed from making traditional hessian to high end fashion garments. The jute export counts to about 1000 crore, the import of raw jute has been dropped by 66 per cent in 2008-09. The Indian jute industry is having plenty of opportunity by its side; it is not only one of the oldest industries of India but also among the major employer of the nation. There are a lot of strengths and also much chance to seize them but it could only be done if it overcomes its weaknesses and threats.

G. KARTHIK AND N. RAMYA

2012-11-01

116

The uranium mill tailings remedial actions project  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The ''Uranium Mill Tailings Radiation Control Act of 1978,'' Public Law 95-604, directs the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) to undertake remedial actions at designated inactive uranium mill sites and associated vicinity properties. The purpose of the remedial actions is to stabilize and control the uranium mill tailings currently stored at the sites in a safe and environmentally sound manner in order to minimize radiation health hazards to the public. These remedial actions are to be undertaken by the DOE in cooperation with the affected states and Indian tribes and performed in accordance with standards promulgated by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). The disposal sites, which could be the processing sites, will be acquired by the states with title passing to the DOE and will be licensed by the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC). The DOE's authorization to conduct the program terminates seven (7) years following the promulgation of the EPA standards (January 1983). The current cost estimate for the project in 1982 dollars is $540 million, however, it is expected that this estimate will be somewhat reduced following completion of a review now in progress

117

On an Interpretation of Mill’s Qualitative Utilitarianism  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This paper is a reply to Jonathan Riley’s criticism of my reading of Mill(both published in the Philosophical Quarterly 2003. I show that Riley’s interpretation has no textual support in Mill’s writing by putting the supposedly supporting quotations in their proper context. Secondly it is demonstrated how my reading is not incompatible with hedonism. Mill’s use of the concepts of ‘quality’, ‘quantity’, and ‘pleasure’ are explained and illustrated. I conclude by considering whether the possible redundancy of Mill’s quality/quantity discussion would be problematic.

CHRISTOPH SCHMIDT-PETRI

2006-12-01

118

Ball milling pretreatment of oil palm biomass for enhancing enzymatic hydrolysis.  

Science.gov (United States)

Oil palm biomass, namely empty fruit bunch and frond fiber, were pretreated using a planetary ball mill. Particle sizes and crystallinity index values of the oil palm biomass were significantly reduced with extended ball mill processing time. The treatment efficiency was evaluated by the generation of glucose, xylose, and total sugar conversion yields from the pretreatment process compared to the amount of sugars from raw materials. Glucose and xylose contents were determined using high-performance liquid chromatography. An increasing trend in glucose and xylose yield as well as total sugar conversion yield was observed with decreasing particle size and crystallinity index. Oil palm frond fiber exhibited the best material yields using ball milling pretreatment with generated glucose, xylose, and total sugar conversion yields of 87.0, 81.6, and 85.4%, respectively. In contrast, oil palm empty fruit bunch afforded glucose and xylose of 70.0 and 82.3%, respectively. The results obtained in this study showed that ball mill-treated oil palm biomass is a suitable pretreatment method for high conversion of glucose and xylose. PMID:24908052

Zakaria, Mohd Rafein; Fujimoto, Shinji; Hirata, Satoshi; Hassan, Mohd Ali

2014-08-01

119

Traditional And Medicinal Uses Of Indian Black Berry  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Jamun or Indian Black berry is considered as a traditional medicine that helps in controlling diabetes. Specifically, jamun has an action on the pancreas, the main organ responsible for causing diabetes. The fruit, the seeds and even the juice of the jamun all play an important role in the treatment of diabetes. The jamun seeds contain a type of glucose called Jamboline, which checks the conversion of starch into sugar in cases of increased production of glucose, the main reason behind your h...

Sampath Kumar, K. P.; Aravind. G; Pragati Kumar, B.; Harish Gopinath; Durai vel; Debjit Bhowmik

2013-01-01

120

Endocrine disorders in beta thalassemia major in Indian children  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The association of endocrine disorders with Thalassemia was evaluated in a large cohort of Indian children with Beta Thalassemia Major and compared to available data on children from developed countries, employing measurements of standing and sitting height, onset of puberty and of development of Diabetes Mellitus and, or hypoparathyroidism. Age at onset of blood transfusions, average pretransfusion Hemoglobin levels, serum Ferritin, ALT, Random blood sugar, serum calcium, phospho...

Sachdeva, Anupam; Khanna, Virendra Kumar; Subhash, Chander Arya; Dayal, Archana Araya; Yaddanapudi, Ravindranath

2002-01-01

 
 
 
 
121

Leadership Preferences of Indian and Non-Indian Athletes.  

Science.gov (United States)

Among 86 Indian and non-Indian volleyball competitors, non-Indian players indicated significantly greater preferences for leadership that involved democratic behavior, autocratic behavior, or social support. Indians may adapt their behavior by participating in non-Indian games, without changing their traditional value orientations. Contains 22…

Malloy, D. C.; Nilson, R. N.

1991-01-01

122

Inorganic elements in sugar samples  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Sugar is considered a safe food ingredient; however, it can be contaminated by organic elements since its planting until its production process. Thus, this study aims at checking the presence of inorganic elements in samples of crystal, refined and brown sugar available for consumption in Brazil. The applied technique was neutron activation analysis, the k0 method, using the TRIGA MARK - IPR-R1 reactor located at CDTN/CNEN, in Belo Horizonte. It was identified the presence of elements such as, Au, Br, Co, Cr, Hf, K, Na, Sb, Sc and Zn in the samples of crystal/refined sugar and the presence of As, Au, Br, Ca, Co, Cr, Cs, Fe, Hf, K, Na, Sb, Sc, Sm, Sr, Th and Zn in the brown sugar samples. The applied technique was appropriate to this study because it was not necessary to put the samples in solution, essential condition in order to apply other techniques, avoiding contaminations and sample losses, besides allowing a multi elementary detection in different sugar samples. (author)

123

The status of the uranium mill tailings remedial actions project (UMTRAP)  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In 1978, Congress enacted Public Law 95-604, the ''Uranium Mill Tailings Radiation Control Act of 1978.'' The Act authorizes the Department of Energy to stabilize and control the tailings at designated inactive uranium mill tailings sites in a safe and environmentally acceptable manner. DOE has established the Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Actions (UMTRA) Project Office to implement, in cooperation with the affected States, Indian tribes and owners of the sites, remedial actions at the sites. The UMTRA Project Office has initiated efforts to perform remedial actions in accordance with EPA cleanup standards

124

Sugar sensing by enterocytes combines polarity, membrane bound detectors and sugar metabolism.  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Sugar consumption and subsequent sugar metabolism are known to regulate the expression of genes involved in intestinal sugar absorption and delivery. Here we investigate the hypothesis that sugar-sensing detectors in membranes facing the intestinal lumen or the bloodstream can also modulate intestinal sugar absorption. We used wild-type and GLUT2-null mice, to show that dietary sugars stimulate the expression of sucrase-isomaltase (SI) and L-pyruvate kinase (L-PK) by GLUT2-dependent mechanism...

Le Gall, Maude; Tobin, Vanessa; Stolarczyk, Emilie; Dalet, Ve?ronique; Leturque, Armelle; Brot-laroche, Edith

2007-01-01

125

FACTORS DETERMINING CAPITAL STRUCTURE OF CO-OPERATIVE SUGAR INDUSTRY IN TAMIL NADU – AN EMPIRICAL STUDY  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Finance is an important input for any type of business and is needed for working capital and for permanent investment. The financial success of a firm depends mainly on its capital structure. The choice of debt and equity in the capital structure of corporate firms is an important financial decision because it influences both the return and risk of shareholders. In the present day challenges facing the Indian sugar industry are about 50 % of production of north India and Tamil Nadu are govern...

Sekar, M.; Palvannan, A.

2013-01-01

126

Synthesis of the Sugar Moieties  

Science.gov (United States)

Biological activity of the anthracycline antibiotics, which have found wide application in clinical oncology, is strongly related to their glycosidic structure. Modification or switch of the saccharide moiety became an important line of new drug discovery and study of their mechanism of action. Natural glycons (sugar moieties) of the anthracycline antibiotics belong to the 2,6-dideoxypyranose family and their principal representative, daunosamine, is 3-amino-2,3,6-trideoxy- l-lyxo-pyranose. Some newer chemical syntheses of this sugar, from a chiral pool as well as from achiral starting materials, are presented and their capability for scale-up and process development are commented upon. Rational sugar structural modifications, which are either useful for synthetic purposes or offer advantages in experimental therapy of cancer, are discussed from the chemical point of view.

Grynkiewicz, Grzegorz; Szeja, Wieslaw

127

Elliptic Yang–Mills equation  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

We discuss some recent progress on the regularity theory of the elliptic Yang–Mills equation. We start with some basic properties of the elliptic Yang–Mills equation, such as Coulomb gauges, monotonicity, and curvature estimates. Next we discuss singularity of stationary Yang–Mills connections and compactness theorems on Yang–Mills connections with bounded L2 norm of curvature. We also discuss in some detail self-dual solutions of the Yang–Mills equation and describe a compactificat...

Tian, Gang

2002-01-01

128

Serpentine Waste Milling  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Serpentine heaps in the surroundings of Dobšina are a long-life ecological problem of the city and at the same time a suitable raw material for production of MgCl2 and SiO2. In the technological scheme of chemical processing the milling operation it has an important role. In this context the milling rate is an important parameter for creation of the technological scheme and suggestion of industrial equipment.

Leško, M.

2006-01-01

129

The Efficiency Analyses of Croatian Sugar Industry by Using the Concept of Intellectual Capital  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available During the last fi ve years the sugar industry has become one of the most important branches of Croatian food industry. It is connected with a signifi cant number of various industries in a complex way and employs a signifi cant number of people. A development of the sugar industry stimulates development of commerce, logistics, and a number of correlated industries whose products are necessary in sugar production. Croatian sugar factories have been present at the neighbouring markets and the European Union market for several years. Th e share of sugar in the total export of agricultural products increases every year and in the year 2004, it was 26.8% with the tendency of increasing in the year 2005. Th e foundation of the Intellectual capital (IC concept, as a method of increasing the entire business effi ciency, can be found in the papers of economic theoreticians in the middle of the last century but it reached its real break through in the past 15 years when the concept got more applied and the theory of intellectual capital was developed. In order to prepare Croatian economy for the competition that is expecting Croatia by joining the European Union with full membership, especially the agricultural sector, the application of the IC concept is expected to result with an increase of business effi ciency. Th e intellectual capital concept represents a recommended base, which will help Croatian sugar mills in achieving a better position at the highly competitive market of the European Union.

Dražen Holmik

2006-03-01

130

Pyrolytic sugars from cellulosic biomass  

Science.gov (United States)

Sugars are the feedstocks for many promising advanced cellulosic biofuels. Traditional sugars derived from starch and sugar crops are limited in their availability. In principle, more plentiful supply of sugars can be obtained from depolymerization of cellulose, the most abundant form of biomass in the world. Breaking the glycosidic bonds between the pyranose rings in the cellulose chain to liberate glucose has usually been pursued by enzymatic hydrolysis although a purely thermal depolymerization route to sugars is also possible. Fast pyrolysis of pure cellulose yields primarily levoglucosan, an anhydrosugar that can be hydrolyzed to glucose. However, naturally occurring alkali and alkaline earth metals (AAEM) in biomass are strongly catalytic toward ring-breaking reactions that favor formation of light oxygenates over anhydrosugars. Removing the AAEM by washing was shown to be effective in increasing the yield of anhydrosugars; but this process involves removal of large amount of water from biomass that renders it energy intensive and thereby impractical. In this work passivation of the AAEM (making them less active or inactive) using mineral acid infusion was explored that will increase the yield of anhydrosugars from fast pyrolysis of biomass. Mineral acid infusion was tried by previous researchers, but the possibility of chemical reactions between infused acid and AAEM in the biomass appears to have been overlooked, possibly because metal cations might be expected to already be substantially complexed to chlorine or other strong anions that are found in biomass. Likewise, it appears that previous researchers assumed that as long as AAEM cations were in the biomass, they would be catalytically active regardless of the nature of their complexion with anions. On the contrary, we hypothesized that AAEM can be converted to inactive or less active salts using mineral acids. Various biomass feedstocks were infused with mineral (hydrochloric, nitric, sulfuric and phosphoric acids) and organic acids (formic and acetic acids) followed by analytical pyrolysis on a micropyrolyzer/GC/MS/FID system. It was found that sulfuric and phosphoric acids are very effective in passivating the AAEM thereby increasing the yield of anhydrosugars. An excellent correlation was discovered between the amount of acid required to obtain the maximum yield of anhydrosugars and the amount of AAEM contained in the biomass feedstock. In the micro-scale studies, up to 56% of the cellulose contained in the biomass was converted into anhydrosugars which is close to the 57% conversion obtained from pure cellulose pyrolysis. It is known that LG polymerization and subsequent charring occur at temperatures above 275°C depending on the vapor pressure of LG in the gas stream. A study of pyrolysis of acid-infused biomass feedstocks at various temperatures revealed that LG recovery is best at lower temperatures than the conventional pyrolysis temperature range of 450-500°C. Pyrolysis of acid-infused biomass failed in a continuous fluidized bed reactor due to clogging of the bed. The feedstock formed vitreous material along with the fluidizing sand that was formed from poor pyrolysis of lignin. However, more investigation of this phenomenon is a subject for future work. Pyrolysis experiments on an auger type reactor were successful in producing bio-oils with unprecedented amounts of sugars. Though there was increase in charring when compared to the control feedstock, pyrolysis of red oak infused with 0.4 wt% of sulfuric acid produced bio-oil with 18wt% of sugars. One of the four fractions of bio-oil collected contained most of the sugars, which shows significant potential for separating the sugars from bio-oil using simple means. This work points towards a new pathway for making advanced biofuels viz. upgrading pyrolytic sugars from biomass that could compete with enzymatic sugars from biomass.

Kuzhiyil, Najeeb

131

Mining and milling of uranium ore: Indian scenario  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The occurrence of uranium minerals in Singhbhum Thrust belt of Eastern India has been known since 1937. In 1950, a team of geologists of the Atomic Minerals Division was assigned to closely examine this 160 km long belt. Since then, several occurrences of uranium have been found and a few of them have sufficient grade and tonnage for commercial exploitation. In 1967, the Government of India formed Uranium Corporation of India Ltd., under the administrative control of the Department of Atomic Energy, with the specific objective of mining and processing of uranium ore and produce uranium concentrates. At present the Corporation operates three underground uranium mines, one ore processing plant with expanded capacity, and two uranium recovery plants. Continuing investigations by the Atomic Mineral Division has discovered several new deposits and favourable areas. The most notable is the large Domiasiat deposit of the sandstone type found in the State of Meghalaya. This deposit is now being considered for commercial exploitation using the in-situ leaching technology. (author)

132

National Indian Gaming Commission  

Science.gov (United States)

The National Indian Gaming Commission is an independent federal regulatory agency, and along with regulating gaming activities on Indian lands, they are also responsible for "shielding Indian tribes from organized crime and other corrupting influences." The Commission's website is designed to inform interested parties about their ongoing activities, and visitors will find that the information here ranges from calendars of upcoming conferences to official decisions and actions taken by the Commission. First-time visitors may wish to start by looking over the FAQ section within the "About Us" area. Once there, they can find the answers to questions like "Do Indian tribes pay taxes?" and "What happens to the profits from Indian gaming operations?" Moving on, the "Laws & Regulations" area contains the text of such important documents as the Indian Gaming Regulatory Act and the Johnson Act. The site is rounded out by the "Reading Room", which contains recent and past bulletins, gaming ordinances, and a list of tribal gaming operations.

133

Development and Installation of High Pressure Boilers for Co-Generation Plant in Sugar Industries  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The sugar cane containing minimum 30% fiber was referred as bagasse and used the generation of power required for the operation of sugar mill. The bagasse is fired in the boiler for producing steam at high pressure, which is extracted through various single high capacity turbines and used in the process. The installation of high pressure boilers and high pressure turbo-generators has provision for the operation of co-generation plant during the off-season also that enhances the power generation from 9MW to 23MW. The annual monetary benefits achieved are Rs. 204.13 million and this was based on cost of power sold to the grid @ Rs 2.548 per unit, sugar season of 219 days and off season of 52 days. This required an investment of Rs 820.6 million. The investment had an attractive simple payback period of 48 months.

Kolar Seenappa Venkatesh

2010-05-01

134

Indian Ocean Traffic: Introduction  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Like the Mediterranean, the Indian Ocean has been a privileged site of cross-cultural contact since ancient times. In this special issue, our contributors track disparate movements of people and ideas around the Indian Ocean region and explore the cultural implications of these contacts and their role in processes that we would come to call transnationalization and globalisation. The nation is a relatively recent phenomenon anywhere on the globe, and in many countries around the Indian Ocean ...

Lola Sharon Davidson; Stephen Muecke

2012-01-01

135

Indian Science - Response  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

I fail to understand the correlation between general euphoria among Indians over recent nuclear tests and a feeling of Western alienation and bias among Indian scientists. The general public in India has little or no idea how the Western press depicts India. Hence, one cannot attribute the euphoria over nuclear explosions to Western alienation. Various points and personal experiences mentioned by Padmanaban are not specific to India or to any Indian scientist. They are common for anyone from ...

Padmanaban, G.

1998-01-01

136

Reconstructing Indian Population History  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

India has been underrepresented in genome-wide surveys of human variation. We analyze 25 diverse groups to provide strong evidence for two ancient populations, genetically divergent, that are ancestral to most Indians today. One, the “Ancestral North Indians” (ANI), is genetically close to Middle Easterners, Central Asians, and Europeans, while the other, the “Ancestral South Indians” (ASI), is as distinct from ANI and East Asians as they are from each other. By introducing methods th...

Reich, David; Thangaraj, Kumarasamy; Patterson, Nick; Price, Alkes L.; Singh, Lalji

2009-01-01

137

Indian concepts on sexuality  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

India is a vast country depicting wide social, cultural and sexual variations. Indian concept of sexuality has evolved over time and has been immensely influenced by various rulers and religions. Indian sexuality is manifested in our attire, behavior, recreation, literature, sculptures, scriptures, religion and sports. It has influenced the way we perceive our health, disease and device remedies for the same. In modern era, with rapid globalization the unique Indian sexuality is getting diffu...

Chakraborty, Kaustav; Thakurata, Rajarshi Guha

2013-01-01

138

78 FR 11221 - Indian Gaming  

Science.gov (United States)

...INTERIOR Bureau of Indian Affairs Indian Gaming AGENCY: Bureau of Indian Affairs, Interior...Notice of Approved Tribal-State Class III Gaming Compact...This notice publishes an extension of the gaming compact between the Oglala Sioux...

2013-02-15

139

77 FR 43110 - Indian Gaming  

Science.gov (United States)

...INTERIOR Bureau of Indian Affairs Indian Gaming AGENCY: Bureau of Indian Affairs, Interior...of Approved Tribal--State Class III Gaming Compact...This notice publishes an extension of Gaming between the Rosebud Sioux Tribe and...

2012-07-23

140

78 FR 33435 - Indian Gaming  

Science.gov (United States)

...INTERIOR Bureau of Indian Affairs Indian Gaming AGENCY: Bureau of Indian Affairs, Interior...Notice of Approved Tribal-State Class III Gaming Amendments...to Amend the Class III Tribal-State Gaming Compact between the Salt River...

2013-06-04

 
 
 
 
141

76 FR 33341 - Indian Gaming  

Science.gov (United States)

...INTERIOR Bureau of Indian Affairs Indian Gaming AGENCY: Bureau of Indian Affairs, Interior...of Approved Tribal--State Class III Gaming Compact...This notice publishes an extension of Gaming between the Rosebud Sioux Tribe and...

2011-06-08

142

77 FR 30550 - Indian Gaming  

Science.gov (United States)

...INTERIOR Bureau of Indian Affairs Indian Gaming AGENCY: Bureau of Indian Affairs, Interior...of Approved Tribal--State Class III Gaming Compact...Department of an extension to the Class III Gaming Compact between the Pyramid Lake...

2012-05-23

143

75 FR 55823 - Indian Gaming  

Science.gov (United States)

...INTERIOR Bureau of Indian Affairs Indian Gaming AGENCY: Bureau of Indian Affairs, Interior...Notice of approved Tribal-State Class III Gaming Compact...This notice publishes an extension of Gaming between the Oglala Sioux Tribe and...

2010-09-14

144

78 FR 10203 - Indian Gaming  

Science.gov (United States)

...INTERIOR Bureau of Indian Affairs Indian Gaming AGENCY: Bureau of Indian Affairs, Interior...Notice of Approved Tribal State Class III Gaming Compact...Approval of the Class III Tribal- State Gaming Compact between the Chippewa-Cree...

2013-02-13

145

78 FR 15738 - Indian Gaming  

Science.gov (United States)

...INTERIOR Bureau of Indian Affairs Indian Gaming AGENCY: Bureau of Indian Affairs, Interior...of Approved Tribal--State Class III Gaming Compact...This notice publishes an extension of the gaming compact between the Rosebud Sioux...

2013-03-12

146

78 FR 17428 - Indian Gaming  

Science.gov (United States)

...INTERIOR Bureau of Indian Affairs Indian Gaming AGENCY: Bureau of Indian Affairs, Interior...Notice of Approved Tribal-State Class III Gaming Compact...approval of the Class III Tribal- State Gaming Compact between the Pyramid Lake...

2013-03-21

147

76 FR 52968 - Indian Gaming  

Science.gov (United States)

...INTERIOR Bureau of Indian Affairs Indian Gaming AGENCY: Bureau of Indian Affairs, Interior...of Approved Tribal--State Class III Gaming Compact...This notice publishes an extension of Gaming between the Rosebud Sioux Tribe and...

2011-08-24

148

76 FR 11258 - Indian Gaming  

Science.gov (United States)

...INTERIOR Bureau of Indian Affairs Indian Gaming AGENCY: Bureau of Indian Affairs, Interior...Notice of Tribal--State Class III Gaming Compact taking effect...Tribal-State Compact for Regulation of Class III Gaming between the Confederated Tribes of...

2011-03-01

149

76 FR 56466 - Indian Gaming  

Science.gov (United States)

...INTERIOR Bureau of Indian Affairs Indian Gaming AGENCY: Bureau of Indian Affairs, Interior...of Approved Tribal--State Class III Gaming Compact...This notice publishes an approval of the gaming compact between the Flandreau Santee...

2011-09-13

150

78 FR 44146 - Indian Gaming  

Science.gov (United States)

...INTERIOR Bureau of Indian Affairs Indian Gaming AGENCY: Bureau of Indian Affairs, Interior...ACTION: Notice of Tribal-State Class III Gaming Compact taking effect...III Amended and Restated Tribal-State Gaming Compact between the Shingle Springs...

2013-07-23

151

77 FR 59641 - Indian Gaming  

Science.gov (United States)

...INTERIOR Bureau of Indian Affairs Indian Gaming AGENCY: Bureau of Indian Affairs, Interior...Notice of Approved Tribal-State Class III Gaming Compact...This notice publishes an extension of Gaming between the Rosebud Sioux Tribe and...

2012-09-28

152

75 FR 61511 - Indian Gaming  

Science.gov (United States)

...INTERIOR Bureau of Indian Affairs Indian Gaming AGENCY: Bureau of Indian Affairs, Interior...Notice of Approved Tribal-State Class III Gaming Compact...This notice publishes an extension of Gaming Compact between the Rosebud Sioux...

2010-10-05

153

77 FR 41200 - Indian Gaming  

Science.gov (United States)

...INTERIOR Bureau of Indian Affairs Indian Gaming AGENCY: Bureau of Indian Affairs, Interior...of Approved Tribal--State Class III Gaming Compact...Department of an extension to the Class III Gaming Compact between the State of...

2012-07-12

154

75 FR 68823 - Indian Gaming  

Science.gov (United States)

...INTERIOR Bureau of Indian Affairs Indian Gaming AGENCY: Bureau of Indian Affairs, Interior...Notice of Approved Tribal-State Class III Gaming Amendment...approval of the Amendments to the Class III Gaming Compact (Amendment) between the...

2010-11-09

155

76 FR 8375 - Indian Gaming  

Science.gov (United States)

...INTERIOR Bureau of Indian Affairs Indian Gaming AGENCY: Bureau of Indian Affairs, Interior...Notice of Approved Tribal-State Class III Gaming Compact...This notice publishes an extension of the Gaming Compact between the Oglala Sioux...

2011-02-14

156

78 FR 17427 - Indian Gaming  

Science.gov (United States)

...INTERIOR Bureau of Indian Affairs Indian Gaming AGENCY: Bureau of Indian Affairs, Interior...ACTION: Notice of Approved Amended Gaming Compact...publishes the approval of the Amended Gaming Compact between the...

2013-03-21

157

77 FR 45371 - Indian Gaming  

Science.gov (United States)

...INTERIOR Bureau of Indian Affairs Indian Gaming AGENCY: Bureau of Indian Affairs, Interior...of Approved Tribal--State Class III Gaming Compact...This notice publishes an extension of Gaming between the Oglala Sioux Tribe and...

2012-07-31

158

Keeping Track of Your Blood Sugar  

Science.gov (United States)

... let you input information in addition to your blood sugar test results, like your food intake and daily exercise. If ... blood glucose meters can help you track your blood sugar test results, it's still a good idea to write down ...

159

Effect of steam pretreatment on oil palm empty fruit bunch for the production of sugars  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Lignocellulose into fuel ethanol is the most feasible conversion route strategy in terms of sustainability. Oil palm empty fruit bunch (EFB) generated from palm oil production is a huge source of cellulosic material and represents a cheap renewable feedstock which awaits further commercial exploitation. The purpose of this study was to investigate the feasibility of using steam at 0.28 MPa and 140 °C generated from the palm oil mill boiler as a pretreatment to enhance the digestibility of EFB for sugars production. The effects of steam pretreatment or autohydrolysis on chemical composition changes, polysaccharide conversion, sugar production and morphology alterations of four different types of EFB namely fresh EFB (EFB1), sterilized EFB (EFB2), shredded EFB (EFB3) and ground EFB (EFB4) were evaluated. In this study, the effects of steam pretreatment showed major alterations in the morphology of EFB as observed under the scanning electron microscope. Steam pretreated EFB2 was found to have the highest total conversion of 30% to sugars with 209 g kg?1 EFB. This production was 10.5 fold higher than for EFB1 and 1.6 fold and 1.7 fold higher than EFB3 and EFB4, respectively. The results suggested that pretreatment of EFB by autohydrolysis using steam from the mill boiler could be considered as being a suitable pretreatment process for the production of sugars. These sugars can be utilized as potential substrates for the production of various products such as fuel ethanol. -- Highlights: ? We investigate the feasibility of steam pretreatment to enhance digestibility of EFB. ? Steam pretreatment increased sugars to 3.4 fold and caused major alteration in EFB morphology under SEM. ? Autohydrolysis which does not require the addition of chemicals is an attractive pretreatment approach to EFB.

160

THE COOPERATIVE SUGAR INDUSTRY IN MAHARASHTRA  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The history of cooperatives in India is more than a hundred years old. Maharashtra sugar industry is one of the most large-scale sugar manufacturing sectors in the country. The pace of the growth of sugar manufacturing has been massive over the past few years. The latest statistics of sugar production in Maharashtra indicates that this state this state this doing better than the other states in the country

THORAT PURUSHOTTAM DHANRAJ

2013-05-01

 
 
 
 
161

Estudio descriptivo de las prácticas de manufactura en la industria panelera de los trapiches San Francisco y La Esmeralda en Boyacá y Caldas / Descriptive study of manufacturing practices of panela (Brown sugar) industry from the San Francisco and La Esmeralda mills (Boyacá and Caldas, Colombia)  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Colombia | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish El objetivo de este proyecto fue evaluar la aplicación de las prácticas de manufactura en los trapiches San Francisco y La Esmeralda mediante la aplicación de encuestas etnográficas, documentación fotográfica e identificación de contaminantes microbiológicos presentes en la panela, manos de empleado [...] s e implementos de trabajo. En los resultados obtenidos se encontró que una proporción importante de las muestras presentaron contaminación por bacterias como Staphylococcus epidermidis, Streptococcus uberis, Leuconostoc mesenteroides, Bacillus spp, Corynebacterium spp, Actynomices spp, Lactococcus lactis y Gardnerella vaginalis, y hongos como Fusarium spp, Aspergillus spp, Paecilomyces spp, Penicillium spp y Mucor spp, demostrando falencias en el proceso de producción por la falta de implementación de las Buenas Prácticas de Manufactura. A partir del estudio, se recomendó capacitar a los empleados periódicamente acerca de la manipulación de alimentos y prácticas básicas de higiene y realizar una vigilancia más estricta a los trapiches. Abstract in english In this study was evaluated the implementation of manufacturing practices in the San Francisco and La Esmeralda mills through ethnographic surveys, photographic evidence and recovery of microbiological contaminants from panela, employees hands and working tools. A significant proportion of samples f [...] rom hands, work tools and panela were found contaminate with bacteria such as Staphylococcus epidermidis, Streptococcus uberis, Leuconostoc mesenteroides, Bacillus, Corynebacterium, Actinomyces spp, Lactococcus lactis and Gardnerella vaginalis, and fungi including Fusarium spp, Aspergillus spp, Paecilomyces spp, Penicillium spp and Mucor spp. These results revealed failures in the production process due to the lack of implementation of Good Manufacturing Practices. Based in this study it was recommended to give regular trainings to the employees about food handling and basic hygiene practices. Also carry out a strict monitoring of the mills in order to be able in the future to rank Colombia as greater panela producer and exporter.

Lucía Constanza, Corrales Ramírez; Maira María, Muñoz Ariza; Lina María, González Pérez.

2012-07-01

162

Indians of Oklahoma.  

Science.gov (United States)

Oklahoma's present-day Indian culture and civilization, it is noted, are very much pronounced, with more than 68 tribes still proudly embracing their identities. Oklahoma is shown to be the melting pot of Indian America on a map indicating the original homelands of some of the many tribes that settled in the State. The historical development and…

Bureau of Indian Affairs (Dept. of Interior), Washington, DC.

163

The Indian Psyche  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The recent nuclear test explosions have created a tremendous euphoria in India and expected condemnation, led by the United States. An average Indian does not associate the test with security concerns or power politics. Right-thinking Indians know that our priorities are such things as health, education, and containment of population.

Padmanaban, G.

1998-01-01

164

Uranium mining and milling  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In this report uranium mining and milling are reviewed. The fuel cycle, different types of uranium geological deposits, blending of ores, open cast and underground mining, the mining cost and radiation protection in mines are treated in the first part of this report. In the second part, the milling of uranium ores is treated, including process technology, acid and alkaline leaching, process design for physical and chemical treatment of the ores, and the cost. Each chapter is clarified by added figures, diagrams, tables, and flowsheets. (HK)

165

Bioconversion of cellulose wastes to protein and sugar  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A schematic representation of the variety of products which can be obtained by microbial conversion of cellulose is presented. Alkaline pre-treatment has been used after milling in all the experiments. Solka-floc or sugarcane bagasse was used as sources of cellulose. A cellulolytic strain of Aspergillus terrens (ATCC 30514) was cultivated in batch-, fed batch and continuous culture up to 7 liter stirred tank fermenter. The general growth characteristics were determined by growing on glucose. Results of experiments on the growth of A. terrens for production of biomass on Solka-floc or Sugarcane bagasse are given, also the ability of crude celluloses to produce sugar syrups by enzymatic hydrolysis of cellulose has been evaluated.

Srinivasan, V.R.; Miller, T.F.

1981-01-01

166

Concentrate This! Sugar or Salt...  

Science.gov (United States)

Students investigate the property dependence between concentrations and boiling point. First, they investigate the boiling point of various liquid solutions. Then they analyze data collected from the entire class to generate two boiling point curves, one for salt solutions and one for sugar solutions. Finally, students use the data they have analyzed to design cost-effective solutions with particular boiling points---similar to the everyday work of chemical engineers.

Culturally Relevant Engineering Application in Mathematics GK-12 Program,

167

Irradiation of cane sugar spirit  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The present study deals with the effect of irradiation on the gas-chromatographic profile of irradiated cane sugar spirit irradiated in glass containers in the presence of oak chops with doses of 0-10 kGy. Volatile constituents were analyzed in a CG gas chromatographer with a flame ionization detector using a Megabore CG-745 column. The results are discussed considering the contribution of irradiation to the quality of the spirit and the contribution of the irradiated oak wood. (author)

168

Pyrolytic sugars from cellulosic biomass.  

Science.gov (United States)

Depolymerization of cellulose offers the prospect of inexpensive sugars from biomass. Breaking the glycosidic bonds of cellulose to liberate glucose has usually been pursued by acid or enzymatic hydrolysis although a purely thermal depolymerization route to sugars is also possible. Fast pyrolysis of pure cellulose yields primarily the anhydrosugar levoglucosan (LG) whereas the presence of naturally occurring alkali and alkaline earth metals (AAEMs) in biomass strongly catalyzes ring-breaking reactions that favor formation of light oxygenates. Here, we show a method of significantly increasing the yield of sugars from biomass by purely thermal means through infusion of certain mineral acids (phosphoric and sulfuric acid) into the biomass to convert the AAEMs into thermally stable salts (particularly potassium sulfates and phosphates). These salts not only passivate AAEMs that normally catalyze fragmentation of pyranose rings, but also buffer the system at pH levels that favor glycosidic bond breakage. It appears that AAEM passivation contributes to 80?% of the enhancement in LG yield while the buffering effect of the acid salts contributes to the balance of the enhancement. PMID:22976992

Kuzhiyil, Najeeb; Dalluge, Dustin; Bai, Xianglan; Kim, Kwang Ho; Brown, Robert C

2012-11-01

169

Affinity chemiresistor sensor for sugars.  

Science.gov (United States)

In this work, a non-enzymatic chemiresistive sugar sensor has been developed by combining a synthetic receptor with aligned single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWNTs) device. Briefly, boronic acid as a multivalent sugar receptor was immobilized on carbon nanotubes through amide bond formation. The interaction between three common sugars (d-glucose, d-fructose and sucrose) and boronic acid modified SWNTs device was studied. The effect of pH on the receptor-ligand binding was examined and highest response was observed at pH 9. The chemiresistive sensor exhibited specific and reproducible detection with sensitivity over the concentration range of 1-20mM, 1-25 mM, and 1-30 mM for fructose, glucose, and sucrose, respectively. The sensor showed no interference from common electroactive compounds such as citric acid, uric acid, and ascorbic acid. Furthermore, the sensor retained 97.4% of the initial value after five regeneration cycles with an acidic buffer at pH 5, thus ensuring good reusability. PMID:25059188

Tlili, Chaker; Badhulika, Sushmee; Tran, Thien-Toan; Lee, Ilkeun; Mulchandani, Ashok

2014-10-01

170

Fossil energy savings potential of sugar cane bio-energy systems  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

One important rationale for bio-energy systems is their potential to save fossil energy. Converting a conventional sugar mill into a bio-energy process plant would contribute to fossil energy savings via the extraction of renewable electricity and ethanol substituting for fossil electricity and gasoline, respectively. This paper takes a closer look at the Thai sugar industry and examines two practical approaches that will enhance fossil energy savings. The first one addresses an efficient extraction of energy in the form of electricity from the excess bagasse and cane trash. The second while proposing to convert molasses or sugar cane to ethanol stresses the use of bagasse as well as distillery spent wash to replace coal in meeting ethanol plants' energy needs. The savings potential achieved with extracting ethanol from surplus sugar versus current practice in sugar industry in Thailand amounts to 15 million barrels of oil a year. Whether the saving benefits could be fully realized, however, depends on how well the potential land use change resulting from an expansion of ethanol production is managed. The results presented serve as a useful guidance to formulate strategies that enable optimum utilization of biomass as an energy source

Nguyen, Thu Lan T; Hermansen, John Erik

2009-01-01

171

75 FR 68618 - Indian Gaming  

Science.gov (United States)

...INTERIOR Bureau of Indian Affairs Indian Gaming AGENCY: Bureau of Indian Affairs, Interior...Tribe'') and the State of Wisconsin Gaming Compact of 1991, as Amended in 1999 and...L. Hart, Director, Office of Indian Gaming, Office of the Deputy Assistant...

2010-11-08

172

Indian Academy of Sciences - New associates, 2012  

Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

  1. shivani agarwal, indian institute of science, bangalore  3. sujit kumar ghosh, indian institute of science education and research, pune  4. m. jeganmohan, indian institute of science education and research, pune  5. santanu mukherjee, indian institute of science, bangalore  6. nisanth nair, indian institute of technology, kanpur  7. supratim ray, indian institute of science, bangalore  9. parthanil roy, indian statistical ...

173

Force prediction in thread milling  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in english A mechanistic approach for modeling the thread milling process is presented. The mechanics of cutting for thread milling is analyzed as an end milling process with modified cutting edge. The geometry of threads is added to the geometry of the end milling tool to calculate the chip load area. The lin [...] ear path is simulated and values of the specific energy from end milling are used to compute the cutting forces involved. A comparison between the simulation of the cutting forces for a specific tool in two different situations is made to present the force behavior acquired from the model.

A. C., Araujo; J. L., Silveira; S., Kapoor.

2004-03-01

174

Force prediction in thread milling  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available A mechanistic approach for modeling the thread milling process is presented. The mechanics of cutting for thread milling is analyzed as an end milling process with modified cutting edge. The geometry of threads is added to the geometry of the end milling tool to calculate the chip load area. The linear path is simulated and values of the specific energy from end milling are used to compute the cutting forces involved. A comparison between the simulation of the cutting forces for a specific tool in two different situations is made to present the force behavior acquired from the model.

Araujo A. C.

2004-01-01

175

Indian Sapota Tree Rubber  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The sapota or sapodilla tree (botanical name: Achras zapota of sapotaceae family) grows in regions of the tropical and subtropical climates in south, west, and east 1ndia.l The Indian sapota tree is about half the size of the original South or Central American species which may grow to an average height of about 15 m.2 The American plant exudes milky latex when the bark of the trunk is cut while the Indian plant is mostly dry. However, when the fruit of the Indian plant is plucked from its ca...

Kishore, Kaushal; Pandey, Hrishi K.

1986-01-01

176

Rasam Indian Restaurant: Menu  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Rasam Indian Restaurant is located in the Glasthule, a suburb of Dublin and opened in 2003. The objective is to serve high quality, authentic Indian cuisine. "We blend, roast and grind our own spices daily to provide a flavour that is unique to Rasam. Cooking Indian food is founded upon long held family traditions. The secret is in the varying elements of heat and spices, the tandoor clay oven is a hugely important fixture in our kitchen. Marinated meats are lowered into the oven on long m...

Rasam Indian Restaurant

2013-01-01

177

Indian concepts on sexuality  

Science.gov (United States)

India is a vast country depicting wide social, cultural and sexual variations. Indian concept of sexuality has evolved over time and has been immensely influenced by various rulers and religions. Indian sexuality is manifested in our attire, behavior, recreation, literature, sculptures, scriptures, religion and sports. It has influenced the way we perceive our health, disease and device remedies for the same. In modern era, with rapid globalization the unique Indian sexuality is getting diffused. The time has come to rediscover ourselves in terms of sexuality to attain individual freedom and to reinvest our energy to social issues related to sexuality. PMID:23858263

Chakraborty, Kaustav; Thakurata, Rajarshi Guha

2013-01-01

178

The water footprint of sweeteners and bio-ethanol from sugar cane, sugar beet and maize  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Sugar cane and sugar beet are used for sugar for human consumption. In the US, maize is used, amongst others, for the sweetener High Fructose Maize Syrup (HFMS). Sugar cane, sugar beet and maize are also important for bio-ethanol production. The growth of crops requires water, a scarce resource. The aim of this study is to assess the green, blue and grey water footprint (WF) of sugar, HFMS and ethanol in the main producing countries. In addition, an impact assessment is carried ou...

Gerbens-leenes, P. W.; Hoekstra, A. Y.

2009-01-01

179

Cogeneration alternatives in sugar and alcohol industries. Case of study; Alternativas de cogeracao na industria sucro-alcooleira. Estudo de caso  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

In the present work, a cogeneration system of sugar-alcohol cane mill is evaluated. Using the Exergetic Cost Theory, a thermo economic analysis is made for the crop corresponding to the year 2000. Previously a detailed energetic analysis was made in order to determine of the first law efficiency for steam boilers and the fuel consumption involved. The first and second law equipment's efficiencies were calculated as well as some performance criteria of the overall system. The fundamental aim of the evaluation was to obtain the cost of the principal fluxes of the system, considering a discount rate of 15 % and a capital recovery period of fifteen years for the energetic equipment in the sugar mill for the monetary cost calculations. In the analysis, was included the sugar mill juice extraction system as a control volume in order to determine the variation in the bagasse cost and its influence in the cost of other fluxes. A Thermodynamic analysis is also made, in which the increase of thermodynamic parameters is studied as a way of improving the fuel economy in Sugar Mill Factories focusing the electric energy obtained in the different alternatives. Diverse strategies are discussed, and as a result, the thermodynamic evaluations of two Proposals of Steam Cogeneration Systems are accomplished as well as the calculations of the exergetic cost. (author)

Sanchez Prieto, Mario Gabriel

2003-07-01

180

Indian Language Information Retrieval  

Science.gov (United States)

With the proliferation of the Internet in south Asia over the last decade, the availability of digital documents in Indian languages has increased considerably. The need for effective information access methods for these languages is being increasingly felt. Although Indian language information retrieval (ILIR) research is in a relatively nascent stage (especially with regard to large-scale quantitative evaluation), several research efforts in this area have been reported in the recent past. This chapter reviews the current state of the art in mono-lingual and cross-lingual information access in Indian languages and outlines a recent project that aims to create a comprehensive, end-to-end IR system for Indian languages, along with a standardized evaluation framework (in the spirit of TREC, CLEF, or NTCIR) that will provide a sound empirical basis for further work.

Majumder, Prasenjit; Mitra, Mandar

 
 
 
 
181

Depression in Indian history.  

Science.gov (United States)

This write up on some aspects of Indian history of depression touches briefly on references to some aspects of depression in Ayurveda, in philosophical texts and in the epics Ramayana and Mahabharata. PMID:11002619

Rao, A V

2000-05-01

182

Indian refining industry  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The author discusses the history of the Indian refining industry and ongoing developments under the headings: the present state; refinery configuration; Indian capabilities for refinery projects; and reforms in the refining industry. Tables lists India's petroleum refineries giving location and capacity; new refinery projects together with location and capacity; and expansion projects of Indian petroleum refineries. The Indian refinery industry has undergone substantial expansion as well as technological changes over the past years. There has been progressive technology upgrading, energy efficiency, better environmental control and improved capacity utilisation. Major reform processes have been set in motion by the government of India: converting the refining industry from a centrally controlled public sector dominated industry to a delicensed regime in a competitive market economy with the introduction of a liberal exploration policy; dismantling the administered price mechanism; and a 25 year hydrocarbon vision. (UK)

183

Plastid transformation in sugar beet: Beta vulgaris.  

Science.gov (United States)

Chloroplast biotechnology has assumed great importance in the past 20 years and, thanks to the numerous advantages as compared to conventional transgenic technologies, has been applied in an increasing number of plant species but still very much limited. Hence, it is of utmost importance to extend the range of species in which plastid transformation can be applied. Sugar beet (Beta vulgaris L.) is an important industrial crop of the temperate zone in which chloroplast DNA is not transmitted trough pollen. Transformation of the sugar beet genome is performed in several research laboratories; conversely sugar beet plastome genetic transformation is far away from being considered a routine technique. We describe here a method to obtain transplastomic sugar beet plants trough biolistic transformation. The availability of sugar beet transplastomic plants should avoid the risk of gene flow between these cultivated genetic modified sugar beet plants and the wild-type plants or relative wild species. PMID:24599867

De Marchis, Francesca; Bellucci, Michele

2014-01-01

184

Indian River Lagoon  

Science.gov (United States)

Located on the eastern coast of Florida, the Indian River Lagoon is a barrier island and lagoonal system which has been impacted by human development. This site, created by the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), details how the system works, its history, human impacts on the system, and the area's future. In addition, visitors can learn about the habitats, plants, and animals found in the Indian River Lagoon.

United States. Environmental Protection Agency. Office of Water.

185

Sugar recognition by human galactokinase  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background Galactokinase catalyses the first committed step of galactose catabolism in which the sugar is phosphorylated at the expense of MgATP. Recent structural studies suggest that the enzyme makes several contacts with galactose – five side chain and two main chain hydrogen bonds. Furthermore, it has been suggested that inhibition of galactokinase may help sufferers of the genetic disease classical galactosemia which is caused by defects in another enzyme of the pathway galactose-1-phosphate uridyl transferase. Galactokinases from different sources have a range of substrate specificities and a diversity of kinetic mechanisms. Therefore only studies on the human enzyme are likely to be of value in the design of therapeutically useful inhibitors. Results Using recombinant human galactokinase expressed in and purified from E. coli we have investigated the sugar specificity of the enzyme and the kinetic consequences of mutating residues in the sugar-binding site in order to improve our understanding of substrate recognition by this enzyme. D-galactose and 2-deoxy-D-galactose are substrates for the enzyme, but N-acetyl-D-galactosamine, L-arabinose, D-fucose and D-glucose are all not phosphorylated. Mutation of glutamate-43 (which forms a hydrogen bond to the hydroxyl group attached to carbon 6 of galactose to alanine results in only minor changes in the kinetic parameters of the enzyme. Mutation of this residue to glycine causes a ten-fold drop in the turnover number. In contrast, mutation of histidine 44 to either alanine or isoleucine results in insoluble protein following expression in E. coli. Alteration of the residue that makes hydrogen bonds to the hydroxyl attached to carbons 3 and 4 (aspartate 46 results in an enzyme that although soluble is essentially inactive. Conclusions The enzyme is tolerant to small changes at position 2 of the sugar ring, but not at positions 4 and 6. The results from site directed mutagenesis could not have been predicted from the crystal structure alone and needed to be determined experimentally.

Timson David J

2003-11-01

186

Root rot diseases of sugar beet  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Root rot diseases of sugar beet caused by Rhizoctonia solani (AG 2-2 IIIB and AG 2-2 IV), R. crocorum, Aphanomyces cochlioides, Phoma betae, Macrophomina phaeseolina, Fusarium oxysporum f.sp. radicis-betae, Pythium aphanidermatum Phytophthora drechsleri, Rhizopus stolonifer, R. arrhizus and Sclerotium rolfsii cause significant losses wherever sugar beets are grown. However, not all these soil-borne pathogens have been reported in all sugar beet production areas. Losses include reduced harvest...

Jacobsen Barry J.

2006-01-01

187

PRODUCTION VALUES OF INVESTIGATED SUGAR BEET HYBRIDS  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Production values of 43 experimental and recognized sugar beet hybrids were conducted on the Zagreb location in the period 2003-2005. The trials included hybrids from six breeding institutions that sell sugar beet seed in the Republic of Croatia. Research results have revealed significant differences in yields and root quality among investigated sugar beet hybrids. However, the results of a large number of hybrids were equal in value; namely, the difference between them was within the statist...

Milan Pospišil; Ana Pospišil; Zvonko Mustapi?; Jasminka Butorac; Ivan Tot; Andreja Žeravica

2006-01-01

188

Stable isotope studies of Indian rivers  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

To understand the surface water characteristics in India, the nine most important rivers have been sampled around the sub-continent. Both Oxygen 18 and Deuterium have been measured to determine the origin of the water and the possible evaporation process. Also the main ions have been analyzed to obtain complementary information. Where some basins have been previously studies, mainly in the North, this is a first attempt at a wider investigation of Indian rivers. If we compare our results with the mean isotopic variation of rainfall over Indian as seen from the GNIP data set, a general NW/ SE isotopic gradient is revealed. The west coast and the south part of Dekkan are the least depleted in heavy isotopes, with a ?18O values of between 0 and -2 per mille, and this relate to the Kaveri, Nethvrati and Krishna rivers. The area below the Thar desert displays a ?18O value of around -3 per mille, as in the Narmada and Tapti rivers. The central part of the Dekkan and the east coast are characterised by ?18O values of around -5 per mille, like for the Godavari and Mahanadi rivers. The North India big plains present ?18O value of between -6 and -12 per mille, like for the Ganga and Brahmaputra rivers. For the Ganga and the Brahmaputra rivers, the seasonal effect is stronger due to significant variations in different water sources i.e.: i) perennial tributaries coming from the inland hills, or the ground water discharge, which con the ground water discharge, which contributes water moderately depleted in 18O (winter and spring), ii) Himalayan tributaries fed by snow and glacier melt which are very depleted in heavy isotopes (sommer and fall), and iii) the heavy monsoon rainfall (early summer) which can travel deep inland more lighter water. As seen from the slope of the ?18O and ?2H regression and the calculation of the deuterium excess, the water of these rivers evaporates only slightly during the wet monsoon season (June-September). Evaporation could be more intense before in the hot and dry season (April-May), as seen from sampling on the Yamuna River, the main tributary of the Ganga. Better understanding the characteristics and water origin of these rivers will help to improve the management of the substantial water needs (potable water, irrigation, industry) of this expanding country. But also it can contribute to our understanding of means of flood control, drought prevention, hydroelectric power generation, and improvements in environmental quality

189

BIO-SUPERPHOSPHATE (BIO-SP APPLICATION ON SUGAR CANE (Saccharum officinarum L.  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The highest expense on sugarcane management is fertilization in which one of them is phosphate fertilizer produced by imported raw materials. An innovation was made by using the local phosphate deposits with low reactivity processed further to improve their effectiveness for sugarcane. The objective of this study was to investigate the growth, yield and quality of sugarcane as affected by bio-superphosphate (Bio-SP application on a highly weathered tropical soil. A nine-month field experiment was conducted at Jatitujuh Sugar Mill area, West Java, Indonesia, comparing between sugarcane fertilized with Bio-SP to replace conventional single superphosphate (SP-36 and that fertilized with SP-36. Urea and MOP (Muriate of Potash were applied at similar dosages as recommended by division of Jatitujuh Sugar Mill Agronomy Research. Bio-SP was formulated by reacting a Central Java Rock Phosphate with liquid culture supernatant (LCS and phosphoric acid characterized by 33% total soluble P2O5, 23.1, and 10.7 % citric acid and water-soluble P2O5, respectively. The results indicated that Bio-SP at 50% dosage of SP-36 was as effective as the SP-36 in supporting sugarcane growth and improved yield up to 8% as crystal sugar. Further consequence of this finding is that the application of Bio-SP reduced 9.2% of fertilizer cost for sugarcane.

Didiek Hadjar Goenadi

2014-02-01

190

Mills, Bernard Yarnton (1920-)  

Science.gov (United States)

Australian engineer and astronomer, born near Sydney, and worked with the Australian CSIR Division of Radiophysics. He measured the position of Cygnus A and identified a faint nebulosity as its origin, confirmed by a more accurate position by F. G. Smith and 200 in photographs by W BAADE and R MINKOWSKI showing Cygnus A as a peculiar galaxy. Mills built a cross-type radio interferometer at the...

Murdin, P.

2000-11-01

191

Sugar holograms with artificial organic colorants  

Science.gov (United States)

The sugar cane crystals (sucrose) are used as matrix to obtain computer holograms. We made a sugar solution (sugar in water) and it is irradiated with ultraviolet light, since the maximum absorption spectra is localized at UV region, to wavelength 200 nm. This step also corresponds to sugar photopolymer process. It is recorded applying conventional lithography technique and measures the parameter of diffraction efficiency. With the purpose to reduce the exposition time at UV radiation of this emulsion, we made studies with artificial organic colorant with azo components.

Mejias-Brizuela, N. Y.; Olivares-Pérez, A.; Páez-Trujillo, G.; Fuentes-Tapia, I.

2007-09-01

192

Ball milled magnetic powders  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Exchange-spring magnets consisting of (i) Alnico and Fe, and (ii) Nd2Fe14B and Gd, using the technique of ball milling were synthetized. The composition and microstructure of the ball milled powders was investigated using XRD, SEM and TEM. The bulk magnetic properties of each sample were measured with a SQUID magnetometer, while 155Gd and 57Fe Moessbauer spectroscopy were used to measure the magnetisation of the phases which contained these elements. Exchange-spring magnetic properties were not realised in either of the two systems studied. TEM analysis was inconclusive as to the dimensions of the phases within each sample. However, the SQUID and Moessbauer effect measurements both indicated that the two phases were acting as a coherent magnetic system. It is probable that the required microstructure was not formed in the case of the Nd2Fe14B and Gd powder, where the particle size indicated by SEM was very large (?200?m). For the Alnico/Fe system, it is possible that ball milling undermined the microstructure of Alnico, destroying its hard magnetic properties

193

25 CFR 273.45 - Indian preference.  

Science.gov (United States)

...2010-04-01 false Indian preference. 273.45 Section 273.45 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR INDIAN SELF-DETERMINATION AND EDUCATION ASSISTANCE ACT PROGRAM EDUCATION CONTRACTS UNDER...

2010-04-01

194

75 FR 60715 - Domestic Sugar Program-FY 2010 and FY 2011 Cane Sugar and Beet Sugar Marketing Allotments and...  

Science.gov (United States)

...at this level will supply over 85 percent of expected FY 2011 domestic sugar needs and permit domestic sugarcane and sugar...expected to be firm--domestic demand is projected to be...relative to available supplies and prices are...

2010-10-01

195

Yang-Mills Matrix Theory  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

We discuss bosonic and supersymmetric Yang-Mills matrix models with compact semi-simple gauge group. We begin by finding convergence conditions for the partition and correlation functions. Moving on, we specialise to the SU(N) models with large N. In both the Yang-Mills and cohomological formulations, we find all quantities which are invariant under the supercharges. Finally, we apply the deformation method of Moore, Nekrasov and Shatashvili directly to the Yang-Mills model....

Austing, Peter

2001-01-01

196

Indian Academy of sciences - New fellows  

Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

indian academy of sciences - new fellows indian association for the cultivation of science, kolkata national centre for cell science, pune indian association for the cultivation of science, kolkata indian institute of science, bangaloreindian institute of science, bangaloreindian institute of science, bangalore indian institute of science, bangalore indian institute of science, bangalore ...

197

Yang-Mills and Beyond  

CERN Document Server

In their 1954 paper, Yang and Mills invented the non-Abelian field strength to satisfy certain criteria but didn't explain how it could be derived. In the penultimate section we show how the Yang-Mills field strength derives from Yang's gauge transformation. The preceding sections place Yang-Mills theory in historical perspective and cover material relating to the field strength. The final section shows how Yang-Mills theory was combined with spontaneous symmetry breaking, the Goldstone theorem and subsequent work to contribute to the Standard Model of particle physics.

Marateck, Samuel

2011-01-01

198

Supersymmetric Yang-Mills theories  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The author reviews the classical and quantum mechanical features of super Yang-Mills theories, with particular attention paid to the cancellations of ultraviolet infinities and to the realization of the full set of internal symmetries of the theory in superspace. First summarized is the space formulation of N=1 super Yang-Mills theory; then, the ultraviolet cancellation in extended super Yang-Mills theories is discussed in detail; finally, the formalism of harmonic superspace and its application to super Yang-Mills theories is reviewed

199

Uranium-mill appraisal program  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The results of special team appraisals at NRC-licensed uranium mills in the period May to November 1981 are reported. Since the Three Mile Island accident, NRC management has instituted a program of special team appraisals of radiation protection programs at certain NRC-licensed facilities. These appraisals were designed to identify weaknesses and strengths in NRC-licensed programs, including those areas not covered by explicit regulatory requirements. The regulatory requirements related to occupational radiation protection and environmental monitoring at uranium mills have been extensively upgraded in the past few years. In addition, there was some NRC staff concern with respect to the effectiveness of NRC licensing and inspection programs. In response to this concern and to changes in mill requirements, the NRC staff recommended that team appraisals be conducted at mills to determine the adequacy of mill programs, the effectiveness of the new requirements, and mill management implementation of programs and requirements. This report describes the appraisal scope and methodology as well as summary findings and conclusions. Significant weaknesses identified during the mill appraisals are discussed as well as recommendations for improvements in uranium mill programs and mill licensing and inspection

200

Pengendalian Biologi Nematoda Puru Akar (Meloidogyne spp) Pada Tanaman Tomat(Lycopersicum esculentum Mill)  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Joy W Hasudungan P, Biological control of root knot nematodes (Meloidogyne spp) on Plants Tomato (Lycopersicum esculentum Mill). By the adviser of Dr. Lisnawita SP, MSi and Ir. Arifin Kasmal MSi. The research was conducted at the home screen and Tobacco Research Institute for Sugar Cane Deli (BPTD) Sampali, Medan. By using a randomized block design (RAK) factorial. The first factor is Nematicide, composed of P0 (100 ml water / polybag), P1 (100 ml chitin / polybag), P2 (100 ml neem extract / ...

Joy W Hasudungan P

2011-01-01

 
 
 
 
201

Microbiological Spoilage of High-Sugar Products  

Science.gov (United States)

The high-sugar products discussed in this chapter are referred to as chocolate, sugar confectionery (non-chocolate), liquid sugars, sugar syrups, and honey. Products grouped in the sugar confectionery category include hard candy, soft/gummy candy, caramel, toffee, licorice, marzipan, creams, jellies, and nougats. A common intrinsic parameter associated with high-sugar products is their low water activity (a w), which is known to inhibit the growth of most spoilage and pathogenic bacteria. However, spoilage can occur as a result of the growth of osmophilic yeasts and xerophilic molds (Von Richter, 1912; Anand & Brown, 1968; Brown, 1976). The a w range for high-sugar products is between 0.20 and 0.80 (Banwart, 1979; Richardson, 1987; Lenovich & Konkel, 1992; ICMSF, 1998; Jay, Loessner, & Golden, 2005). Spoilage of products, such as chocolate-covered cherries, results from the presence of yeasts in the liquid sugar brine or the cherry. Generally, the spoiled product will develop leakers. The chocolate covering the cherry would not likely be a source of yeast contamination.

Thompson, Sterling

202

21 CFR 184.1857 - Corn sugar.  

Science.gov (United States)

...Specific Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1857 Corn sugar. (a) Corn sugar (C6 H12 O6 , CAS Reg. No. 50-99-7...form and is produced by the complete hydrolysis of corn starch with safe and suitable acids or enzymes,...

2010-04-01

203

Salt and Sugar in Kids' Meals  

Medline Plus

Full Text Available ... the lower right-hand corner of the player. Salt and Sugar in Kids' Meals HealthDay February 2, ... many pre-packaged kids’ meals contain too much salt or sugar. The researchers looked at the nutrition ...

204

Diabetes: Monitoring Your Blood Sugar Level  

Science.gov (United States)

... to Web version Diabetes | Monitoring Your Blood Sugar Level What tests can I use to check my blood sugar level? There are 2 blood tests that can help ... the past 2-3 months. Testing your A1C level every 3 months is the best way for ...

205

Simple Potentiometric Determination of Reducing Sugars  

Science.gov (United States)

In this article a potentiometric method for reducing sugar quantification is described. Copper(II) ion reacts with the reducing sugar (glucose, fructose, and others), and the excess is quantified using a copper wire indicator electrode. In order to accelerate the kinetics of the reaction, working conditions such as pH and temperature must be…

Moresco, Henry; Sanson, Pedro; Seoane, Gustavo

2008-01-01

206

78 FR 62650 - Indian Gaming  

Science.gov (United States)

...Affairs [DR.5B711.IA000813] Indian Gaming AGENCY: Bureau of Indian Affairs, Interior...extension of Tribal-State Class III Gaming Compact...notice of the extension of the Class III gaming compact between the Rosebud Sioux...

2013-10-22

207

78 FR 78377 - Indian Gaming  

Science.gov (United States)

...Affairs [DR.5B711.IA000814] Indian Gaming AGENCY: Bureau of Indian Affairs, Interior...extension of Tribal-State Class III Gaming Compact...notice of the extension of the Class III gaming compact between the Yankton Sioux...

2013-12-26

208

78 FR 54670 - Indian Gaming  

Science.gov (United States)

...Affairs [DR.5B711.IA000813] Indian Gaming AGENCY: Bureau of Indian Affairs, Interior...extension of Tribal--State Class III Gaming Compact...notice of the Extension of the Class III gaming compact between the Yankton Sioux...

2013-09-05

209

Association of American Indian Physicians  

Science.gov (United States)

Association of American Indian Physicians Apply Log In Facebook Twitter YouTube About Mission Board of Directors Staff ... of AAIP student programs. Join Renew Programs The Association of American Indian Physicians provides educational programs, health ...

210

Wild strains of fermenting yeast isolated of sugar cane juice from an alcohol distillery from Mato Grosso, Brazil  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Ethanol production for fuel is important for the Brazilian economy as a renewable solution to oil derivatives. Theindustrial process uses commercially available yeast, most of them isolated from sugar mills from the Brazilian stateof São Paulo. The research information on the availability of yeast appropriate to the climatic conditions occurringin the Midwest region of Brazil is scarce. The article presents the isolation and morphological characterization offermentative wild yeast prospected on the sugar cane juice of a sugar and alcohol mill of Mato Grosso State. Thejuice samples were collected in both the hot and rainy (HR season and in the cold and dry (CD one. The dilutedsugar cane juice samples were plated on agar LWYN and evaluated for fermentation in test tubes containinginverted Durham tubes. From 26 morphotypes isolated, 50% were able to ferment sugar cane juice. Greater numberand diversity of yeasts was found in both December (HR and July (CD. In the remaining months of each seasonthere were a low number of colonies with a poor diversity.

Rosimeire Oenning da Silva

2011-01-01

211

STUDY OF PEAK EXPIRATORY FLOW RATE IN WORKERS WORKING IN SUGAR INDUSTRY DURING WORKING SEASON  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available -Sugar industry is one of the important agro based industry plays an important role in national economy. It is one of the largest employers of labour providing work to peoples in rural areas and their being thousands of workers throughout the nation. The workers working in sugar industry exposed to variety of occupational hazards such as excessive heat, inadequate light ,high level of noise ,excessive workload ,unsatisfactory working conditions ,higher concentration of dust particle are mainly found in various processing unit of sugar industry viz. cane yard ,mill, boiler, bagasse baling and sugar house .In present investigation randomly selected ten workers from each processing unit (section were selected for the study of peak expiratory flow rates ,It was found that there is respiratory stress due to high concentration dust particles in the environment which affects the health status of these workers. It is necessary that genuine measures must be taken for health, protection of those workers. The suitable recommendations for the management of respiratory stress due to dust are suggested.

S. A. Nayakawadi.

2014-06-01

212

Approximating Mills ratio  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Consider the Mills ratio $f(x)=\\big(1-\\Phi(x)\\big)/\\phi(x), \\, x\\ge 0$, where $\\phi$ is the density function of the standard Gaussian law and $\\Phi$ its cumulative distribution.We introduce a general procedure to approximate $f$ on the whole $[0,\\infty)$ which allows to prove interesting properties where $f$ is involved. As applications we present a new proof that $1/f$ is strictly convex, and we give new sharp bounds of $f$ involving rational functions, functions with squar...

Gasull, Armengol; Utzet, Frederic

2013-01-01

213

Indian research on sleep disorders  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Literature on sleep disorders from our country, India, can mainly be found in the Indian journal of Sleep medicine, Indian Journal of psychiatry, The Annals of Indian Academy of Neurology and certain other journals and books. The article highlights the contribution of various Indian doctors in the field of sleep disorders, which includes review articles, prevalence studies, studies on etiology and treatment options, case reports and a couple of case control studies. Also included are studies ...

Shah, Nilesh; Bang, Abha; Bhagat, Aparna

2010-01-01

214

ANGLO - INDIAN EDUCATION IN TRICHINOPOLY  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Anglo – Indian education and 1Anglo – Indian schools have had a chequered career. Indeed, Anglo – Indian schools have traversed many vicissitudes, political and financial. The East India Company seldom, if ever, undertook any responsibility towards Anglo – Indian children. Between 1640 and 1660, when the children2 grew up literally within the sound of shot and shell, it was not necessary for them to have more than a smattering of the 3 Rs. All manner of people were employed as tutors ...

Selvamary, A.

2013-01-01

215

77 FR 14837 - Bioassay at Uranium Mills  

Science.gov (United States)

...COMMISSION [NRC-2012-0057] Bioassay at Uranium Mills AGENCY: Nuclear Regulatory Commission...guide (DG), DG-8051, ``Bioassay at Uranium Mills.'' This guide describes a bioassay program acceptable to the NRC staff for uranium mills and applicable portions of...

2012-03-13

216

Indian Jute in Australian Collections: Forgetting and Recollecting Transnational Networks  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Indian jute sacking played an essential role in Australian life for over 150 years, yet its contribution to Australian development and its Indian origins have been barely recognised in Australian public collections. What has Australian history gained by this erasing of jute from public memory? Wool, sugar and hop sacks are displayed in public collections as evidence of an Australian national story, but their national dimension depends on the cultural invisibility of jute and jute’s connections to the stories of other communities in other places. Developing an awareness of the contribution of Indian jute to the development of Australia requires an awareness not simply that jute comes from India but that the construction of national identity by collecting institutions relies on forgetting those transnational connections evident in their own collections. Where jute sacks have been preserved, it is because they are invested with memories of a collective way of life, yet in attempting to speak on behalf of the nation, the public museum denies more multidimensional models of cultural identity that are less linear and less place-based. If Indian jute is to be acknowledged as part of ‘the Australian story’, the concept of an Australian story must change and exhibitions need to explore, rather than ignore, transnational networks.

Andrew Hassam

2011-12-01

217

Comet Halley - Indian observations  

Science.gov (United States)

Indian observations of Comet Halley that were part of the International Halley Watch and the Indian Halley Observation Program are reviewed. The facilities used in Indian observations of Comet Halley are discussed. Consideration is given to an interferogram recorded on March 22, 1986 in (0-0) C2 emission, observations of the transient ionic event of March 13, 1986, piezoelectric Fabry-Perot observations of NH2 and forbidden O I, photopolarimetric observations, observation of a condensation region in the tail direction on January 8, 1986, observations of the occultation of scintillating radio sources by the ion tail of Comet Halley, and studies of the nongravitational effects on the actual orbit of the comet.

Chandrasekhar, T.

1988-12-01

218

Indian Ocean Traffic: Introduction  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Like the Mediterranean, the Indian Ocean has been a privileged site of cross-cultural contact since ancient times. In this special issue, our contributors track disparate movements of people and ideas around the Indian Ocean region and explore the cultural implications of these contacts and their role in processes that we would come to call transnationalization and globalisation. The nation is a relatively recent phenomenon anywhere on the globe, and in many countries around the Indian Ocean it was a product of colonisation and independence. So the processes of exchange, migration and cultural influence going on there for many centuries were mostly based on the economics of goods and trade routes, rather than on national identity and state policy.

Lola Sharon Davidson

2012-06-01

219

American Indian Policy Institute  

Science.gov (United States)

Based at Arizona State University, the American Indian Policy Institute collaborates with tribal governments and American Indian communities on issues that affect them and also works to nurture innovation for American Indian sustainability. The site offers a wealth of reports, news articles, publications, conference programs, and other items that will be of interest to scholars. The Reports & Publications area contains thoughtful missives such as "Tribes and Energy within Arizona" and "Land Use Challenges and Choices for the 21st Century." The Award-Winning First Innovations area offers up a host of best practices designed to introduce sustainability entrepreneurship in Native American communities. Additionally, the Projects & Initiatives area offers detailed program information about tribal planning summits and financial management seminars.

220

Indian Poverty in South Dakota.  

Science.gov (United States)

An analysis of economic problems of the American Indian population in South Dakota is given in the document. The purpose of the study was (1) to characterize and describe Indian poverty and (2) to measure the impact of this poverty, in economic terms, on the economy of the state and to analyze some of the programs in operation to ease the Indians'…

Kent, Calvin A.; Johnson, Jerry W.

 
 
 
 
221

[Presidential Message on Indian Affairs.  

Science.gov (United States)

President Nixon's message pointed out the deprivation and the injustices which the American Indians have suffered for centuries. It was noted that now is the time to break with the past and create conditions for a new era in which the Indian future is determined by Indian acts and decisions. The relationship between the Federal Government and the…

Nixon, Richard

222

78 FR 26801 - Indian Gaming  

Science.gov (United States)

...Affairs [DR.5B711.IA000813] Indian Gaming AGENCY: Bureau of Indian Affairs, Interior...Notice of Approved Tribal-State Class III Gaming Compact...amendment to the Class III Tribal-State Gaming Compact between the Menominee Indian...

2013-05-08

223

White Control of Indian "Education."  

Science.gov (United States)

The paper is about White control of Indian education; how Euro-Canadian missionaries and government agents worked hand-in-hand in their relentless attempts to transform Indian people into their own image. The shrill and persistent theme of Euro-Canadians was how best to civilize and Christianize the Indians. Controlled situations in school and in…

LaRocque, Emma D.

224

The Indian in American History.  

Science.gov (United States)

The treatment of American Indians is discussed historically with reference to the 4 principal methods used to create or perpetuate false impressions: obliteration, defamation, disembodiment, and disparagement. Indian contributions to American civilization are cited in contrast with historical references to Indians in textbooks. The author suggests…

Vogel, Virgil J.

225

Facts about American Indian Education  

Science.gov (United States)

As a result of living in remote rural areas, American Indians living on reservations have limited access to higher education. One-third of American Indians live on reservations, according to the U.S. Census Bureau. According to the most recent U.S. government statistics, the overall poverty rate for American Indians/Alaska Natives, including…

American Indian College Fund, 2010

2010-01-01

226

Sugar cane/sweet sorghum as an ethanol feedstock in Louisiana and Piedmont  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Cost to provide readily fermentable feedstock for a year round sweet sorghum-to-ethanol production facility, up to the point at which fermentation begins, was determined. It was assumed that sweet sorghum is produced on marginal crop lands in the Southeastern Piedmont, and is purchased, standing in the field by a central ethanol production facility. Feedstock cost varied from $1.96 to $2.98/gal of ethanol potential depending on harvest system and use of by-products. Major contributors to feedstock cost were field production, harvest/field processing, and cost to evaporate juice to a storable syrup. Cost to transport feedstock to a central production facility, and cost of storage were relatively minor components of total cost, contributing only $0.05 and $0.06/gal ethanol potential, respectively. For a point of comparison, cost of producing ethanol feedstock from sugar cane, based on current processing practices in Louisiana sugar mills, was determined to be $2.50/gal ethanol potential. This cost is higher than determined for most options in the Piedmont for two reasons: (1) sugar cane demands a higher price in Louisiana than was assumed for sweet sorghum in the Piedmont, and (2) little market exists in Louisiana for by-products of sugar milling, consequently, no by-product credit was assigned. Current market value of ethanol must approximately double before a sweet sorghum-to-ethanol industry in the Piedmont could be economically viable, as no opportunity was identifilly viable, as no opportunity was identified for a significant reduction in feedstock cost

227

Working Women: Indian Perspective  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

In India, due to unprecedented rise in the cost of living, ris-ing prices of commodities, growing expenses on children ed-ucation, huge rate of unemployment, and increasing cost of housing properties compel every Indian family to explore all the possible ways and means to increase the household income. It is also witnessed that after globalization Indian women are able to get more jobs but the work they get is more casual in nature or is the one that men do not prefer to do or is left by them...

Mehta, Dharmendra; Mehta, Naveen K.; Mehta, Rajesh Kumar

2014-01-01

228

Effects of compost application on fruits yields, sugar and mineral contents and ?15N values of tomato fruits  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

We examined the effects of chemical fertilizer and compost application on the yields and sugar and mineral content of tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill. Saturn) in an isolated bed. Five treatments were conducted within a two-year period of 4 continuous croppings. CDU and LSR (Low-sulfate slow-release fertilizer) were used for the chemical fertilizer plots. A mixture of cattle manure and CDU (CM + CDU), a mixture of poultry manure and CDU (PM + CDU), and mixture of cattle and poultry manure (PM + CM) plots were arranged as compost-using plots. We also measured the ?15N values of tomatoes and the soils of each treatment, and estimated the correlation of the ?15N values between fruits and soil to certify compost applied products. We did not find any reproductive differences in the yield or sugar content among the treatments. As to inorganic content of tomatoes, there were no significant differences except for Mg content among the plots. These results showed that it is difficult to assay regular benefit of organic fertilizer application to tomato yields and quality. On the other hand, ?15N values of tomato fruits showed significant differences among fertilizer applications. ?15N values of the chemical fertilizer were +1.6 per mille and -1.1% for CDU and LSR, respectively. Those of mixture of chemical and compost were +12.2 per mille and +11.2 per mille for CM + CDU and PM + CDU, respectively. The mixture of PM and CM showctively. The mixture of PM and CM showed the highest ?15N values (17.9 per mille) among the treatments. ?15N values of the soils and fruits reflected those of the fertilizers and were positively correlated (R2 = 0.89). It may be possible to use ?15N values as an indicator of organic products by setting the threshold point, e.g. +5.0 per mille, to distinguish them from the products cultivated with chemical fertilizer. (author)

229

Rapid screening for anthocyanins in cane sugars using ESR spectroscopy.  

Science.gov (United States)

Anthocyanin, which is soluble in water and released into sugar steam during extraction, was investigated in this study. The anthocyanin content in refined sugar, plantation white sugar, soft brown sugar and raw sugar was determined using electron spin resonance (ESR) spectroscopy, which was operated at room temperature, and compared with spectra from standard anthocyanin. The ESR spectra of red and violet anthocyanins was predominantly g ? 2.0055, which corresponded to an unpaired electron located in the pyrylium ring. Signals for Fe(III) and Mn(II), which naturally occur in plants, were found in raw sugar, soft brown sugar and standard anthocyanin but were absent from refined sugar and plantation white sugar due to the refining process. In addition, the ESR results were correlated with the apparent colour of the sugar, which was determined using the method of the International Commission for Uniform Methods of Sugar Analysis and inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectroscopy. PMID:25308651

Thamaphat, Kheamrutai; Goodman, Bernard A; Limsuwan, Pichet; Smith, Siwaporn Meejoo

2015-03-15

230

ECONOMIC ANALYSIS OF SUGAR BEAT PRODUCTION  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Croatian quota of 180.000 tones of sugar beet per year is approved for export to EU countries. For that amount of sugar it is necessary to produce about 30.000 ha of sugar beet. Sugar beet production requires deep and fertile soils, and crop rotation requirement is at least five year. Therefore, Slavonia and Baranya do t have enough areas under sugar beet. An additional problem is so called “sugar reform” applied by EUaiming to decrease price of sugar produced from sugar beet root and its equalization to sugar cane price. Consequences of this movement will be decreasing of sugar beet domestic redemption price. In that way, sugar beet production will be increased only within producers with relative good soils, suitable mechanization and knowledge. The research shows the results of production sugar beet on family farm of Vukovar – SrijemCounty on 21 ha. Technical and technological process includes 35 working operations spending 26.9 hours/ha of mechanization and 65.8 hours/ha of labor. Total costs amount to 15.947,05 kn/ha. Producers paid for seed 1.405,44 kn/ha or 9.4% and for 1.100 kg of fertilizers 2.217,50 kn/ha or 14.8% of total costs. Significant values are also costs for plant protection (9 l/ha being 15.2% of total cost. Mechanization fee is 5.070,96 kn/ha with share of 33.9% what indicates that this is the most important element in total costs, partly as a consequence of increased distance between arable land and farm. Total value of production is 20.759,59 kn/ha, with yields of the root (70.30 t/ha and government subsidies. Amount of 1.068,82 kg root is producedper hour of human labour; while 0.94 hour of human labour is necessary per tone of products. Economic coefficient is 1.36. Profit of 36.67 kn is achieved on 100 invested kunas in production process.

Jozo Kanisek

2008-06-01

231

Caregiving in Indian Country  

Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

This podcast discusses the role of caregivers in Indian County and the importance of protecting their health. It is primarily targeted to public health and aging services professionals.  Created: 12/23/2009 by National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion (NCCDPHP).   Date Released: 12/23/2009.

2009-12-23

232

Prison Reform and Indians  

Science.gov (United States)

Briefly describing the history of prison reform and the American Indian, this article argues that the "professed" humanitarian philosophy of the reformers would not have been extended to "peoples languishing in prison or sequestered on reservations had it not been expedient for the business interests of the larger society". (JC)

Keller, Charles

1976-01-01

233

Indian Astronomy: History of  

Science.gov (United States)

From the time of A macronryabhat under dota (ca AD 500) there appeared in India a series of Sanskrit treatises on astronomy. Written always in verse, and normally accompanied by prose commentaries, these served to create an Indian tradition of mathematical astronomy which continued into the 18th century. There are as well texts from earlier centuries, grouped under the name Jyotishaveda macronn d...

Mercier, R.; Murdin, P.

2002-01-01

234

Reconstructing Indian population history.  

Science.gov (United States)

India has been underrepresented in genome-wide surveys of human variation. We analyse 25 diverse groups in India to provide strong evidence for two ancient populations, genetically divergent, that are ancestral to most Indians today. One, the 'Ancestral North Indians' (ANI), is genetically close to Middle Easterners, Central Asians, and Europeans, whereas the other, the 'Ancestral South Indians' (ASI), is as distinct from ANI and East Asians as they are from each other. By introducing methods that can estimate ancestry without accurate ancestral populations, we show that ANI ancestry ranges from 39-71% in most Indian groups, and is higher in traditionally upper caste and Indo-European speakers. Groups with only ASI ancestry may no longer exist in mainland India. However, the indigenous Andaman Islanders are unique in being ASI-related groups without ANI ancestry. Allele frequency differences between groups in India are larger than in Europe, reflecting strong founder effects whose signatures have been maintained for thousands of years owing to endogamy. We therefore predict that there will be an excess of recessive diseases in India, which should be possible to screen and map genetically. PMID:19779445

Reich, David; Thangaraj, Kumarasamy; Patterson, Nick; Price, Alkes L; Singh, Lalji

2009-09-24

235

American Indian Recipes.  

Science.gov (United States)

Presenting some 60 to 70 Native American recipes, this document includes a brief introduction and a suggested reading list (15 citations related to American Indian foods). The introduction identifies five regional Native American cuisines as follows: in the Southwest, peppers and beans were made into chili, soups, guacamole, and barbecue sauces by…

Gurnoe, Katherine J.; Skjervold, Christian, Ed.

236

Radiocarbon and Indian archaeology  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The increasing use of radiocarbon (C14) dating techniques in Indian archaeology has been described in detail. Work done in Microlithic cultures, Neolithic period, Indus civilization and Iron age cultures have been reported. C14 dates of various archaeological sites are listed. (K.B.)

237

Critical management issues for the Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) Project  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The Uranium Mill Tailings Radiation Control Act of 1978 (PL95-604) authorized the Secretary of Energy to enter into cooperative agreements with certain states and Indian Tribes to clean up 24 inactive uranium mill tailing sites and associated vicinity properties. The Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) Project includes the three Federal agencies (EPA, DOE, and NRC), eleven state, Indian Tribes, and at least four major contractors. The UMTRA Project extends over a period of ten years. The standards for the Project require a design life of 1000 years with a minimum performance period of 200 years. This paper discusses the critical management issues in dealing with the UMTRA Project and identifies the development of solutions for many of those issues. The highlights to date are promulgation of EPA standards, continued support from Congress and participating states and Indian Tribes, significant leadership shown at all levels, establishment of credibility with the public, and continued motivation of the team. The challenge for tomorrow is making certain NRC will license the sites and maintaining the high level of coordination exhibited to date to assure Project completion on schedule

238

Respiration-Dependent Utilization of Sugars in Yeasts: a Determinant Role for Sugar Transporters  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

In many yeast species, including Kluyveromyces lactis, growth on certain sugars (such as galactose, raffinose, and maltose) occurs only under respiratory conditions. If respiration is blocked by inhibitors, mutation, or anaerobiosis, growth does not take place. This apparent dependence on respiration for the utilization of certain sugars has often been suspected to be associated with the mechanism of the sugar uptake step. We hypothesized that in many yeast species, the permease activities fo...

Goffrini, Paola; Ferrero, Iliana; Donnini, Claudia

2002-01-01

239

UDP-sugar pyrophosphorylase controls the activity of proceeding sugar-1-kinases enzymes  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Plant cell wall synthesis requires a number of different nucleotide sugars which provide the building blocks of the different polymers. These nucleotide sugars are mainly provided by de novo synthesis but recycling pathways also contribute to the pools. The last enzyme of the recycling pathway is UDP-sugar pyrophosphorylase (USP), a single copy gene in Arabidopsis, of which a knockout is lethal for pollen development. Here we analyze the dependency between USP enzyme activity and the upstream...

Geserick, Claudia; Tenhaken, Raimund

2013-01-01

240

Nuclear analytical techniques in Cuban sugar industry  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This paper is a review concerning the application of Nuclear Analytical Techniques in the Cuban sugar industry. The most complete elemental composition of final molasses (34 elements) and natural zeolites (38) this last one employed as an auxiliary agent in sugar technological processe4s has been performed by means of instrumental Neutron Activation Analysis (INAA) and X-Ray Fluorescence Analysis (XRFA). The trace elemental sugar cane soill-plant relationship and elemental composition of different types of Cuban sugar (raw, blanco-directo and refine) were also studied. As a result, valuable information referred to the possibilities of using these products in animal and human foodstuff so as in the other applications are given. (author). 34 refs., 6 figs., 1 tab

 
 
 
 
241

Root rot diseases of sugar beet  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Root rot diseases of sugar beet caused by Rhizoctonia solani (AG 2-2 IIIB and AG 2-2 IV, R. crocorum, Aphanomyces cochlioides, Phoma betae, Macrophomina phaeseolina, Fusarium oxysporum f.sp. radicis-betae, Pythium aphanidermatum Phytophthora drechsleri, Rhizopus stolonifer, R. arrhizus and Sclerotium rolfsii cause significant losses wherever sugar beets are grown. However, not all these soil-borne pathogens have been reported in all sugar beet production areas. Losses include reduced harvestable tonnage and reduced white sugar recovery. Many of these pathogens also cause post harvest losses in storage piles. Control for diseases caused by these pathogens include disease resistant cultivars, avoidance of stresses, cultural practices such as water management and the use of fungicides.

Jacobsen Barry J.

2006-01-01

242

Painkiller Tramadol Linked to Low Blood Sugar  

Science.gov (United States)

... features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Painkiller Tramadol Linked to Low Blood Sugar Study finds the ... Dec. 8, 2014 (HealthDay News) -- The narcotic painkiller tramadol (Ultram) seems to be associated with an increased ...

243

Reform of the EU Sugar Regime  

Whether such exports are subsidised (quota) or not (C sugar), the root cause ...... \\This option would extend Option 3 by the complete elimination of all border \\protection including the ...... shaded cells indicate the more plausible outcomes.\\86.

244

When Blood Sugar Is Too Low  

Science.gov (United States)

... weak feel dizzy be unsteady or stagger when walking have blurred or double vision feel confused have seizures pass out If you think your blood sugar level could be low, tell a parent, teacher, ...

245

Dangers of High and Low Blood Sugar  

Science.gov (United States)

... Diuretics Beta agonists Statin drugs Niacin Phenytoin (Dilantin) Thyroid hormone Pentamidine Alpha interferon If your sugar is over 240 milligrams per deciliter (mg/dl), check your urine for ketones. If the urine shows a "moderate" or "large" ...

246

Salt and Sugar in Kids' Meals  

Medline Plus

Full Text Available ... of the infant vegetables, dinners, fruits and dry cereals were low in sodium and the majority contained ... added sugar. The exception: ready-to-eat mixed grains and fruit, many of which exceeded the study ...

247

Fermentable sugars by chemical hydrolysis of biomass  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Abundant plant biomass has the potential to become a sustainable source of fuels and chemicals. Realizing this potential requires the economical conversion of recalcitrant lignocellulose into useful intermediates, such as sugars. We report a high-yielding chemical process for the hydrolysis of biomass into monosaccharides. Adding water gradually to a chloride ionic liquid-containing catalytic acid leads to a nearly 90% yield of glucose from cellulose and 70–80% yield of sugars from untreate...

Binder, Joseph B.; Raines, Ronald T.

2010-01-01

248

Engineering of sugar metabolism in Lactococcus lactis  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Short English Summary Lactococcus lactis is a lactic acid bacterium used in the dairy industry. This thesis decribes the genetic engineering performed on the sugar metabolism of L. lactis. Besides our fundamental interest for sugar metabolism and its regulation in L. lactis, this project had the interest of the dairy industry. L. lactis strains were made with improved lactose and galactose consumption rates, to produce dairy products with lower (ga)lactose concentrations. This is benefici...

Pool, Weia Arianne

2008-01-01

249

Modelling sugar beet water use in Spain  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Crop production has a great contribution to water use and abstraction. Sugar beet is an important crop in irrigated land in Spain and covers 70.000 Ha. Crop and resources management are key factors for a sustainable agriculture. The aim of this work is to mode the sugar beet crop growth and water consumption in order to quantify crop water use and virtual water content in different growing conditions.

Soler Rovira, Jose?; Go?mez La Calle, P.; Arroyo Sanz, Juan Manuel

2012-01-01

250

Evolution of the sugar receptors in insects  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Abstract Background Perception of sugars is an invaluable ability for insects which often derive quickly accessible energy from these molecules. A distinctive subfamily of eight proteins within the gustatory receptor (Gr) family has been identified as sugar receptors (SRs) in Drosophila melanogaster (Gr5a, Gr61a, and Gr64a-f). We examined the evolution of these SRs within the 12 available Drosophila genome sequences, as well as three mosquito, two moth, and beetle, b...

Robertson Hugh M; Kent Lauren B

2009-01-01

251

High risk pesticides in sugar beet protection  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

According to traits of pesticides permitted to use in sugar beet (oral percutaneus and inhalation toxicity, toxicity to wildlife, bees and aquatic organisms, re-entry interval, maximum number of treatments, effects on reproduction) do not present health risk in sugar production/technology. However, the danger exists for workers by chronic exposure during the application, especially from pesticide being potential endocrine disruptors (EDS) (fentin acetate, benomyl, endosulfan, methomyl, methid...

Šovljanski Radmila A.; Kloko?ar-Šmit Zlata D.; In?i? Dušanka V.

2006-01-01

252

Controller-optimizer of ball mill performance  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This work is dedicated to regulator-optimizer ball drum mills to increase energy and economic efficiency of grinding material (coal, clinker, etc.). Developed regulatory optimizer provides continuous monitoring of key parameters of milling process (ventilation, drainage and grinding performance, load, mill, etc.), and optimization of mill grinding for maximum performance.

Pistun, Ye; Zahray, V.; Fedoryshyn, R.

2011-01-01

253

Will the "Real" Indians Please Stand Up?  

Science.gov (United States)

Explores what it means to be an American Indian in an era in which nearly half of the identifiable Indians live off the reservations and in urban areas. As the principal definition of "Indian-ness" today, the issue of blood quantum leads to misunderstandings. Being an Indian, to the author, is being a person connected to a tribe. (SLD)

Pewewardy, Cornel

1998-01-01

254

Indian Academy of Sciences - New associates, 2012  

Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

  1. sanjib k. agarwalla, institute of physics, bhubaneswar   2. melinda k. bera, indian institute of science education and research, kolkata   3. neena gupta, indian statistical institute, kolkata  4. vishwesha gutta, indian institute of science, bangalore   5. rajan jha, indian institute of technology, bhubaneswar   6. u. mabalirajan, institute of genomics and integrative biology, delhi   7. debabrata maiti, indian institut ...

255

Airflow obstruction in chalkpowder and sugar workers.  

Science.gov (United States)

Our aim was to investigate the relationship between suspected occupational hazards and airflow obstruction in industrial workers. The study was a cross-sectional survey of 314 male workers from a chalkpowder plant (n = 158) and from a sugar refinery (n = 156). Occupational exposure to chalkpowder and sugar dust was assessed by individual job classification. Outcome variables included respiratory symptoms and routine spirometric parameters. Statistical analysis was done for each industry separately. Overall, mean pulmonary function parameters fell either within or above the normal range in both industries. However, analysis by job classification showed that in the chalkpowder plant, all indices of airway obstruction declined significantly with increasing dustiness. Additionally, workers in the dustiest workplace (chalk sacking) had significantly lower airflow parameters than workers from other workstations. In the sugar refinery, workers exposed to sugar dust in the sugar cube manufacture workstation had significantly lower forced expiratory volume in 1 s (FEV1) (p = 0.02) than the non-exposed ones. For both industries, the proportion of subjects complaining of cough and/or phlegm was greater among the most exposed subgroups than among the remaining workers but the differences were not statistically significant. In conclusion, coupling spirometry to job classification proved useful in disclosing a relationship between airflow obstruction and exposure to either chalkpowder or sugar dust in industrial workers. PMID:8738354

Bohadana, A B; Massin, N; Wild, P; Berthiot, G

1996-01-01

256

World Sugar Market – Basic Development Trends and Tendencies  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This article is devoted to the issues of the world‘s sugar production and cultivation of sugar crops (sugar beet and sugar cane). It also analyzes the development of the global sugar trade. The main aim of this paper is to define the basic developmental trends and tendencies that affect the current situation on the market for sugar and sugar crops and then outline a process of gradual profiling of the world markets for these commodities. The article identifies the most important players ope...

Svatos?, M.; Maitah, M.; Belova, A.

2013-01-01

257

Indian President visits CERN  

CERN Multimedia

On 1 October, her Excellency Mrs Pratibha Devisingh Patil, President of India, picked CERN as the first stop on her official state visit to Switzerland. Accompanied by a host of Indian journalists, a security team, and a group of presidential delegates, the president left quite an impression when she visited CERN’s Point 2!   Upon arrival, Pratibha Patil was greeted by CERN Director General Rolf Heuer, as well as senior Indian scientists working at CERN, and various department directors. After a quick overview of the Organization, Rolf Heuer and the President addressed India’s future collaboration with CERN. India is currently an Observer State of the Organization, and is considering becoming an Associate Member State. A short stop in LHC operations gave Steve Myers and the Accelerator team the opportunity to take the President on a tour through the LHC tunnel. From there, ALICE’s Tapan Nayak and Spokesperson Paolo Giubellino took Pratibha Patil to the experiment&am...

Katarina Anthony

2011-01-01

258

Indian fusion test reactor  

Science.gov (United States)

The fusion reactor as a volumetric neutron source can serve many applications needed for realizing fusion power reactor. For the Indian energy scenario, such a device can also produce fissile fuel for accelerating the nuclear power production. The Indian Fusion Test Reactor (FTR) is a low fusion gain (Q = 3-5) device to be used as component test facility for qualifying future reactor materials as well as for demonstrating the production of fissile fuel. FTR will be a medium sized tokamak device with a neutron wall load of 0.2 MW/m2. The presently available structural materials can be used for this device and such a device can be realized in ten years time from now. This device should produce about 25-50 kg of fissile fuel in one full-power-year and also produce the tritium needed for its operation. This device will greatly help the nuclear fission power program by producing fissile fuel.

Srinivasan, R.; FTR Team

2012-06-01

259

La science politique de John Stuart Mill  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This essay explores aspects of John Stuart Mill’s approach to social and political science in the Considerations on Representative Government (1861) with an emphasis on the significance of character or ‘ethology’ in this science. The starting point is a discussion of psychology and ethology in Book VI of the Logic (1843). This conception is examined in terms of Mill’s framework of inductive and deductive science and the distinction between art and science where the views of Mill and J...

Frederick Rosen

2008-01-01

260

An econometrics method to estimate demand of sugar  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Sugar is one of the strategic goods in the basket of households in each country and it plays an important role in supplying the required energy. On the other hand, it is one of the goods, which Iranian government is about to change its subsidy strategies. To design useful sugar subsidy strategies, it is necessary to know sugar position in the basket of households and be familiar with households' sugar demand or consumption behavior. This research estimates sugar demand for Iranian households ...

Negar Seyed Soleimany; Masoud Babakhani

2012-01-01

 
 
 
 
261

Yang-Mills quantum mechanics  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Quantum mechanical properties of the Yang-Mills spacehomogeneous model are considered in the Schroedinger representation. By means of compact variables the dependence of the wave function on ''rotational'' degrees of freedom is separated and effective Hamiltonians are obtained for ''vibrational'' degrees of freedom at various values of the moment. The effective Hamiltonian for S=0 formally corresponds to the fundamental subsystem of the Yang-Mills classical mechanics and essen tially differs from it by an additional singular potential

262

American Indian Environmental Relations  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

It's an iconic image. A lone Indian paddles a birch bark canoe downstream. The churning river passes through lush forestland and then empties into open water. Pounding drums give way to strings, woodwinds, and horns as the canoe bumps against floating trash and the landscape morphs into a steaming industrial landscape of smokestacks and rusting steel beneath a blood-red sky. The music reaches a hammering orchestral crescendo then fades as the canoe lands on a litter-strewn beach. The cam...

Lewis, David Rich

2010-01-01

263

Indian Epic Novels  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

In this paper I am going to question the notions of authenticity in the works of foremost Indian diaspora writers, such as Rushdie's Midnight's Children, Arundhati Roy's The God of Small Things, Amitav Ghosh's The Shadow Lines and others. with reference to Mikhail Bakhtin’s famous essay Epic and Novel, he discusses the novelists’ affiliation to the East or the West, in terms of their use of techniques revealing a more emotional stress, thereby conferring on the work a somewhat ep...

Piciucco, Pier Paolo

2004-01-01

264

West Indian Orchidaceae Database  

Science.gov (United States)

The New York Botanical Garden has recently placed online this searchable database of West Indian Orchids. Containing approximately 5,200 specimen records for the family Orchidacese (from the New York Botanical Garden's collection), the database may be searched by Family, Collector, Country, Taxon, State/Province, and other select fields. Typical returns provide information on Specimen name (scientific name), Location, Collector, Description, and Habitat.

265

Thunderstorms, Indian Ocean  

Science.gov (United States)

This large tropical cumulonimbus thunderstorm was photographed in the Indian Ocean south of the Maldive Islands (12.0S, 73.0E). Cumulonimbus clouds are the familiar towering thunderheads that can rise up to as much as 75,000 ft. producing thunderstorms and sometimes tornadoes as well. This particular storm system displays a variety of meteorological phenommena such as towers, overshooting tops, squall lines and areas of high speed downdrafts.

1990-01-01

266

Indian scales and inventories  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This conceptual, perspective and review paper on Indian scales and inventories begins with clarification on the historical and contemporary meanings of psychometry before linking itself to the burgeoning field of clinimetrics in their applications to the practice of clinical psychology and psychiatry. Clinimetrics is explained as a changing paradigm in the design, administration, and interpretation of quantitative tests, techniques or procedures applied to measurement of clinical variables, t...

Venkatesan, S.

2010-01-01

267

The "coolie curse": The evolution of white colonial attitudes towards the Indian question, 1860-1900  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO South Africa | Language: English Abstract in english Neither by accident nor design, Natal became home to over 50 000 Indian immigrants during the latter half of the nineteenth century. At the request of fewer than 50 sugar planters, colonial Natal embarked on a labour dispensation which was initially envisaged as "an experiment," on a small scale, as [...] Governor John Scott saw it. Appreciated for their contribution as labourers to the success of sugar production, Indians nonetheless, were resented by white colonists as settlers after they had completed their indenture contracts. That resentment was heightened by the influx of traders and non-indentured Indians into Natal after 1875 and found expression in published opinion and in discriminatory legislation. By the 1890s Natal's anti-Indian legislation became an imperial controversy which also proved life-changing for M.K. Gandhi. This article attempts to track the evolution of white settler attitudes to what was termed the "coolie curse."

Duncan, Du Bois.

268

Working Women: Indian Perspective  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In India, due to unprecedented rise in the cost of living, ris-ing prices of commodities, growing expenses on children ed-ucation, huge rate of unemployment, and increasing cost of housing properties compel every Indian family to explore all the possible ways and means to increase the household income. It is also witnessed that after globalization Indian women are able to get more jobs but the work they get is more casual in nature or is the one that men do not prefer to do or is left by them to move to higher or better jobs. Working women refers to those in paid employment. They work as lawyers, nurses, doctors, teachers and secretaries etc. There is no profession today where women are not employed. University of Oxford’s Professor Linda Scott recently coined the term the Double X Economy to describe the global economy of women. The present paper makes an attempt to discuss issues and challenges that are being faced by Indian working women at their respective workstations.

Dharmendra MEHTA

2014-06-01

269

Indian cosmogonies and cosmologies  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Various ideas on how the universe appeared and develops, were in Indian tradition related to mythic, religious, or philosophical ideas and contexts, and developed during some 3.000 years - from the time of Vedas, to Puranas. Conserning its appeareance, two main ideas were presented. In one concept it appeared out of itself (auto-generated, and gods were among the first to appear in the cosmic sequences. In the other, it was a kind of divine creation, with hard work (like the dismembering of the primal Purusha, or as emanation of divine dance. Indian tradition had also various critiques of mythic and religious concepts (from the 8th c. BC, to the 6c., who favoured naturalistic and materialistic explanations, and concepts, in their cosmogony and cosmology. One the peculiarities was that indian cosmogony and cosmology includes great time spans, since they used a digit system which was later (in the 13th c. introduced to Europe by Fibonacci (Leonardo of Pisa, 1170-1240.

Pajin Dušan

2011-01-01

270

Sugar continues to vex Estonia, Latvia  

Index Scriptorium Estoniae

Põllumajandusminister Ester Tuiksoo saatis Euroopa Komisjoni volinikule põllumajanduse alal kirja, milles palus kodumajapidamistes tarvitatava suhkru mahaarvamist koguvarudest. Läti meedia teatas, et Euroopa Komisjon võib anda rohkem aega suhkruvarudest vabanemiseks

2005-01-01

271

Estonian sugar mountain turns sour / Alec Charles  

Index Scriptorium Estoniae

Eesti valitsus jätkab võitlust Euroopa Komisjoniga, et mitte maksta 55 miljonit eurot trahvi suhkru ladustamise eest. Peaminister Juhan Parts saatis Euroopa Komisjoni presidendile Jose Manuel Barrosole kirja, milles palus trahvi nõudmise suhtes järele mõelda.

Charles, Alec

2005-01-01

272

Body surface area of Indians  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available A simple method for measuring body surface area of man is described. Surface areas of twenty Indian subjects were measured by this method and compared with the values calculated by using the height-weight formula of DuBois. It has been shown that the DuBois formula can be used for calculating body surface areas of Indians with the same degree of accuracy as obtained by DuBois with non-Indian subjects.

N. C. Mehra

2014-05-01

273

American Indian Higher Education Consortium  

Science.gov (United States)

The American Indian Higher Education Consortium (AIHEC), since 1972, has been the collective spirit and voice of our nation's Tribal Colleges and Universities, advocating on behalf of individual institutions of higher education that are defined and controlled by their respective tribal nations. AIHEC's mission is to nurture, advocate, and protect American Indian history, culture, art and language, and the legal and human rights of American Indian people to their own sense of identity and heritage.

274

Electron beam processing of sugar cane bagasse to cellulose hydrolysis  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Sugarcane bagasse has been considered as a substrate for single cell protein, animal feed, and renewable energy production. Sugarcane bagasse generally contain up to 45% glucose polymer cellulose, 40% hemicelluloses, and 20% lignin. Pure cellulose is readily depolymerised by radiation, but in biomass, the cellulose is intimately bonded with lignin, that protect it from radiation effects. The objective of this study is the evaluation of the electron beam irradiation as a pre-treatment to enzymatic hydrolysis of cellulose in order to facilitate its fermentation and improves the production of ethanol biofuel. Samples of sugarcane bagasse were obtained in sugar/ethanol Iracema Mill sited in Piracicaba, Brazil, and were irradiated using Radiation Dynamics Electron Beam Accelerator with 1.5 MeV energy and 37kW, in batch systems. The applied absorbed doses of the fist sampling, Bagasse A, were 20 kGy, 50 kGy, 100 kGy and 200 kGy. After the evaluation the preliminary obtained results, it was applied lower absorbed doses in the second assay: 5 kGy, 10 kGy, 20 kGy, 30 kGy, 50 kGy, 70 kGy, 100 kGy and 150 kGy. The electron beam processing took to changes in the sugarcane bagasse structure and composition, lignin and cellulose cleavage. The yield of enzymatic hydrolyzes of cellulose increase about 40 % with 30 kGy of absorbed dose. (author)

275

77 FR 43111 - Indian Gaming; Correction  

Science.gov (United States)

...INTERIOR Bureau of Indian Affairs Indian Gaming; Correction AGENCY: Bureau of Indian...of Approved Tribal--State Class III Gaming Compact; Correction...notice that the Tribal-- State Class III Gaming Compact between the State of...

2012-07-23

276

76 FR 63325 - National Indian Gaming Commission  

Science.gov (United States)

...DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR National Indian Gaming Commission AGENCY: National Indian Gaming Commission. ACTION: Notice of no action...On November 18, 2010, the National Indian Gaming Commission (NIGC) issued a Notice of...

2011-10-12

277

Uranium mill tailings stabilization  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Uranium mill tailings pose a potential radiation health hazard to the public. Therefore, stabilization or disposal of these tailings in a safe and environmentally sound way is needed to minimize radon exhalation and other environmental hazards. One of the most promising concepts for stabilizing U tailings is the use of asphalt emulsion to contain radon and other hazardous materials within uranium tailings. This approach is being investigated at the Pacific Northwest Laboratory. Results of these studies indicate that a radon flux reduction of greater than 99% can be obtained using either a poured-on/sprayed-on seal (3.0 to 7.0 mm thick) or an admixture seal (2.5 to 12.7 cm thick) containing about 18 wt % residual asphalt. A field test was carried out in June 1979 at the Grand Junction tailings pile in order to demonstrate the sealing process. A reduction in radon flux ranging from 4.5 to greater than 99% (76% average) was achieved using a 15.2-cm (6-in.) admix seal with a sprayed-on top coat. A hydrostatic stabilizer was used to apply the admix. Following compaction, a spray coat seal was applied over the admix as the final step in construction of a radon seal. Overburden was applied to provide a protective soil layer over the seal. Included in part of the overburden was a herbicide to prevent root penetration

278

SUBAQUEOUS DISPOSAL OF MILL TAILINGS  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A study of mill tailings and sulfide minerals was carried out in order to understand their behavior under subaqueous conditions. A series of electrochemical experiments, namely, cyclic voltammetry, electrochemical impedance spectroscopy and galvanic coupling tests were carried out in artificial seawater and in pH 6.8 buffer solutions with chloride and ferric salts. Two mill tailings samples, one from the Kensington Mine, Alaska, and the other from the Holden Mine, Washington, were studied along with pyrite, galena, chalcopyrite and copper-activated sphalerite. SEM analysis of mill tailings revealed absence of sulfide minerals from the Kensington Mine mill tailings, whereas the Holden Mine mill tailings contained approximately 8% pyrite and 1% sphalerite. In order to conduct electrochemical tests, carbon matrix composite (CMC) electrodes of mill tailings, pyrite and galena were prepared and their feasibility was established by conducting a series of cyclic voltammetry tests. The cyclic voltammetry experiments carried out in artificial seawater and pH 6.8 buffer with chloride salts showed that chloride ions play an important role in the redox processes of sulfide minerals. For pyrite and galena, peaks were observed for the formation of chloride complexes, whereas pitting behavior was observed for the CMC electrodes of the Kensington Mine mill tailings. The electrochemical impedance spectroscopy conducted in artificial seawater provided with the Nyquist plots of pyrite and galena. The Nyquist plots of pyrite and galena exhibited an inert range of potential indicating a slower rate of leaching of sulfide minerals in marine environments. The galvanic coupling experiments were carried out to study the oxidation of sulfide minerals in the absence of oxygen. It was shown that in the absence of oxygen, ferric (Fe3+) ions might oxidize the sulfide minerals, thereby releasing undesirable oxidation products in the marine environment. The source of Fe{sup 3{minus}} ions may be attributed to iron-bearing sulfide (and oxide) minerals present in the mill tailings. However, the concentration of available Fe{sup 3{minus}} ions can be reduced by the precipitation of insoluble ferric hydroxides (Fe(OH ){sub 3}) by seawater due to its near neutral pH. In such case, the oxidation of a sulfide mineral is inhibited due to the absence of an oxidizing agent (viz. oxygen and/or Fe{sup 3+} ions). The experiments carried out in this study provided a better understanding of behavior of sulfide minerals and mill tailings in subaqueous conditions and may be useful for further investigation of sulfide minerals and mill tailings in other environments.

Neeraj K. Mendiratta; Roe-Hoan Yoon; Paul Richardson

1999-09-03

279

State of weed infestation and features of sugar beet protection in Belarus  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The changes of phytosanitary situation recently taking place in sugar beet crops in the Republic of Belarus are shown. It is noticed that in the crop agrocoenosises there is a high infestation level caused by Japanese barnyard millet (Echinochloa crus-galli (L Pal. Beauv, field sowthistle (Sonchus arvensis L, chickweed (Stellaria media (L Vill, quick grass (Agropyron repens (L Pal Beauv, matricary (Matricaria perforate Merat, creeping thistle (Circium arvense (L scop, marsh woundwort (Stachus palustris L wild buckwheat (Polygonum convolvulus L, bristle stem hemp nettle (Galeopsis tetrahit L, common horsetail (Equisetum arvense L, field forget-me-not (Myosotis arvensis (L Hill, shepherd's purse (Capsella bursa-pastoris (L Med etc. Due to non-observance of preventive and separate agrotechnical techniques especially in spring-summer period, such weeds as bedstraw (Galium aparine L, white campion (Melandrium album (Mill Garcke, green amaranthus (Amaranthus retroflexus L started to appear in the crops. To protect sugar beet effectively, two variants of herbicides application are proposed. The first one - a combined, one stipulating soil action herbicides application before planting or before sugar beet seedlings emergence and on seedlings - to carry out two treatment by post-emergence preparations. The second variant, a split post- -emergence herbicide application (two-three times spraying on growing weeds at small application rates. In the next 5-6 years, a combined method will be of a primary importance in the conditions of the Republic.

Soroka Sergey Vladimirovich

2006-01-01

280

Genetic improvement of sugar cane for bioenergy: the Brazilian experience in network research with RIDESA  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In this paper, it is presented RIDESA’s model for sugar cane breeding to ethanol, and its scientific, technological and human resources training contributions. RIDESA is an inter-university network for the development of sugar cane industry in Brazil, and was formed by a technical cooperation agreement between ten public universities. The model of network management is presented in this study, which involves, among other things, the public-private partnership (Universities-Mills for the development of cultivars. RIDESA has produced 59 cultivars since 1990 and is now responsible for 59% of the total area cultivated with this plant in Brazil. In the last five years, 286 agronomists were trained in breeding programs at universities that comprise RIDESA. In this same period, the network formed 35 professors, 24 doctors and 7 post-docs in researches with this crop. It is also presented a conceptual approach on methods of sugar cane breeding involving families and genome-wide selection.

Luiz Alexandre Peternelli

2012-01-01

 
 
 
 
281

Post-oral appetite stimulation by sugars and nonmetabolizable sugar analogs.  

Science.gov (United States)

Post-oral sugar actions enhance the intake of and preference for sugar-rich foods, a process referred to as appetition. Here, we investigated the role of intestinal sodium glucose cotransporters (SGLTs) in sugar appetition in C57BL/6J mice using sugars and nonmetabolizable sugar analogs that differ in their affinity for SGLT1 and SGLT3. In experiments 1 and 2, food-restricted mice were trained (1 h/day) to consume a flavored saccharin solution [conditioned stimulus (CS-)] paired with intragastric (IG) self-infusions of water and a different flavored solution (CS+) paired with infusions of 8 or 12% sugars (glucose, fructose, and galactose) or sugar analogs (?-methyl-D-glucopyranoside, MDG; 3-O-methyl-D-glucopyranoside, OMG). Subsequent two-bottle CS+ vs. CS- choice tests were conducted without coinfusions. Infusions of the SGLT1 ligands glucose, galactose, MDG, and OMG stimulated CS+ licking above CS- levels. However, only glucose, MDG, and galactose conditioned significant CS+ preferences, with the SGLT3 ligands (glucose, MDG) producing the strongest preferences. Fructose, which is not a ligand for SGLTs, failed to stimulate CS+ intake or preference. Experiment 3 revealed that IG infusion of MDG+phloridzin (an SGLT1/3 antagonist) blocked MDG appetition, whereas phloridzin had minimal effects on glucose-induced appetition. However, adding phloretin (a GLUT2 antagonist) to the glucose+phloridzin infusion blocked glucose appetition. Taken together, these findings suggest that humoral signals generated by intestinal SGLT1 and SGLT3, and to a lesser degree, GLUT2, mediate post-oral sugar appetition in mice. The MDG results indicate that sugar metabolism is not essential for the post-oral intake-stimulating and preference-conditioning actions of sugars in mice. PMID:23926132

Zukerman, Steven; Ackroff, Karen; Sclafani, Anthony

2013-10-01

282

PRODUCTION VALUES OF INVESTIGATED SUGAR BEET HYBRIDS  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Production values of 43 experimental and recognized sugar beet hybrids were conducted on the Zagreb location in the period 2003-2005. The trials included hybrids from six breeding institutions that sell sugar beet seed in the Republic of Croatia. Research results have revealed significant differences in yields and root quality among investigated sugar beet hybrids. However, the results of a large number of hybrids were equal in value; namely, the difference between them was within the statistically allowable deviation. The hybrids KW 0148 HR and Buda in 2003, Sofarizo and Takt were distinguished by high sugar yields in 2004, whereasMerak, Impact and Europa in 2005. The highest root yields were recorded for hybrids Dioneta, Buda and KW 0148 HR in 2003, Sofarizo, Takt, HI 0191 and Dorotea in 2004, Impact and SES 2371 in 2005. The highest root sugar contents were determined in hybrids Zita and Evelina in 2003, Cyntia, Diamant and Belinda in2004, and Merak, Belinda and Cyntia in 2005.

Milan Pospišil

2006-06-01

283

Genetic transformation of the sugar beet plastome.  

Science.gov (United States)

It is very important for the application of chloroplast engineering to extend the range of species in which this technology can be achieved. Here, we describe the development of a chloroplast transformation system for the sugar beet (Beta vulgaris L. ssp. vulgaris, Sugar Beet Group) by biolistic bombardment of leaf petioles. Homoplasmic plastid-transformed plants of breeding line Z025 were obtained. Transformation was achieved using a vector that targets genes to the rrn16/rps12 intergenic region of the sugar beet plastome, employing the aadA gene as a selectable marker against spectinomycin and the gfp gene for visual screening of plastid transformants. gfp gene transcription and protein expression were shown in transplastomic plants. Detection of GFP in Comassie blue-stained gels suggested high GFP levels. Microscopy revealed GFP fluorescence within the chloroplasts. Our results demonstrate the feasibility of engineering the sugar beet chloroplast genome; this technology provides new opportunities for the genetic improvement of this crop and for social acceptance of genetically modified sugar beet plants. PMID:18551377

De Marchis, Francesca; Wang, Yongxin; Stevanato, Piergiorgio; Arcioni, Sergio; Bellucci, Michele

2009-02-01

284

Decontamination of sugar syrup by pulsed light.  

Science.gov (United States)

The pulsed light produced by xenon flash lamps was applied to 65 to 67 °Brix sugar syrups artificially contaminated with suspensions of Saccharomyces cerevisiae and with spores of Bacillus subtilis, Geobacillus stearothermophilus, Alicyclobacillus acidoterrestris, and Aspergillus niger. The emitted pulsed light contained 18.5 % UV radiation. At least 3-log reductions of S. cerevisiae, B. subtilis, G. stearothermophilus, and A. acidoterrestris suspended in 3-mm-deep volumes of sugar syrup were obtained with a fluence of the incident pulsed light equal to or less than 1.8 J/cm(2), and the same results were obtained for B. subtilis and A. acidoterrestris suspended in 10-mm-deep volumes of sugar syrup. A. niger spores would require a more intense treatment; for instance, the maximal log reduction was close to 1 with a fluence of the incident pulsed light of 1.2 J/cm(2). A flowthrough reactor with a flow rate of 320 ml/min and a flow gap of 2.15 mm was designed for pulsed light treatment of sugar syrup. Using this device, a 3-log reduction of A. acidoterrestris spores was obtained with 3 to 4 pulses of incident pulsed light at 0.91 J/cm(2) per sugar syrup volume. PMID:22564941

Chaine, Aline; Levy, Caroline; Lacour, Bernard; Riedel, Christophe; Carlin, Frédéric

2012-05-01

285

Locality of cryoprotective sugars in membranes  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The goal of this project is to understand the major factors that determine the ability of various recalcitrant plant species to survive cryogenic storage, with particular relevance to post mining restoration of bauxite mining activities in South Western Australia. Research has focused on the biophysical properties of the cell membranes of 'model' systems, in order to determine how natural cryoprotective agents (eg sugars) protect cell membranes from freezing and dehydration damage. A number of organisms have evolved mechanisms to avoid such damage. One such mechanism is the accumulation of small solutes (sugars such as sucrose, trehalose and glucose), which have been shown to preserve membranes by inhibiting deleterious phase changes at low hydration. The effects of sugars on bilayer phase transitions have been studied for a number of years, and have led to a good understanding of the factors at work. The RMIT group has used SANS and SAXS to enhance this understanding by demonstrating that there is sugar partitioning between the lamellar lipid phase, and sugar water microphases. To further this understanding, neutron membrane diffraction experiments (ANDR/A, NIST, Gaithersburg, U.S.A.) where performed using deuterated trehalose in a DOPC membrane. Chemically deuterated trehalose, was synthesized at the Australian National Deuteration Facility (NDF). By deuterating the trehalose, and varying the amount of deuteration in order to phase and reconstruct the unit cell, we are hoping to accurately describe the concentration profile of trehalose within the model membrane system.

286

DETERMINATION OF PRIMARY METABOLITES IN CEREAL MILLING FRACTIONS  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The aim of this study was to determine of primary metabolites (content of starch, total dietary fibre, reducing sugars, proteins and amino acids in four milling fractions of selected cereals (barley, wheat, oat, spelt, rye, triticale grew in the year 2009. It was found that flour fractions (break flour and reduction flour showed the lower content of primary metabolites than bran fractions (fine bran and coarse bran. The aim of this study was also to mention the potential use of bran parts of grain - substances from these parts can be isolated and after treatment, which causes their efficiently usable for human body, they can be used for fortification of wide range of food products.

Eva Ivanišová

2013-10-01

287

Thoughts on the Indian Dilemma: Backgrounding the "Indian Problem"  

Science.gov (United States)

Argues that the core of the Indians' problem is the inability of their community to achieve a sense of control over its own destiny, and explores ways in which the Indians can organize to gain the necessary internal cohesion, resources, and capabilities in order to create a satisfactory position within American society. (JM)

Muskrat, Joseph

1973-01-01

288

La science politique de John Stuart Mill  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This essay explores aspects of John Stuart Mill’s approach to social and political science in the Considerations on Representative Government (1861 with an emphasis on the significance of character or ‘ethology’ in this science. The starting point is a discussion of psychology and ethology in Book VI of the Logic (1843. This conception is examined in terms of Mill’s framework of inductive and deductive science and the distinction between art and science where the views of Mill and Jeremy Bentham are contrasted. Given Mill’s view of the relationship between art and science, the science of ethology (including political ethology assumes a more prominent position in Mill’s thought than any political art or any distinctly political science. Contrary to many commentators, it is argued that Mill never abandoned his commitment to ethology, as is clear from the discussion of ‘the ideally best form of government’ in the Considerations. Mill’s conception of ‘active character’ here underpins and directs what might otherwise be seen as a traditional account of forms of government. The cultivation of active character becomes an essential condition for the success of representative government. The essay concludes with remarks on Mill’s emphasis on society for his account of liberty in On Liberty (1859 and suggests that he considered new ways of understanding the traditional processes of government.

Frederick Rosen

2008-02-01

289

Reconciliation of opposing views on membrane-sugar interactions  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

It is well established that small sugars exert different types of stabilization of biomembranes both in vivo and in vitro. However, the essential question of whether sugars are bound to or expelled from membrane surfaces, i.e., the sign and size of the free energy of the interaction, remains unresolved, and this prevents a molecular understanding of the stabilizing mechanism. We have used small-angle neutron scattering and thermodynamic measurements to show that sugars may be either bound or expelled depending on the concentration of sugar. At low concentration, small sugars bind quite strongly to a lipid bilayer, and the accumulation of sugar at the interface makes the membrane thinner and laterally expanded. Above ?0.2 M the sugars gradually become expelled from the membrane surface, and this repulsive mode of interaction counteracts membrane thinning. The dual nature of sugar–membrane interactions offers a reconciliation of conflicting views in earlier reports on sugar-induced modulations of membrane properties.

Delcomyn Andersen, Heidi; Wang, Chunhua

2011-01-01

290

77 FR 47868 - Indian Entities Recognized and Eligible To Receive Services From the Bureau of Indian Affairs  

Science.gov (United States)

...Services From the United States Bureau of Indian Affairs Absentee-Shawnee Tribe of Indians of Oklahoma Agua Caliente Band of Cahuilla Indians of the Agua Caliente Indian Reservation, California Ak Chin Indian Community of the Maricopa (Ak Chin)...

2012-08-10

291

Noise exposure in oil mills  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Context: Noise of machines in various agro-based industries was found to be the major occupational hazard for the workers of industries. The predominant noise sources need to be identified and the causes of high noise need to be studied to undertake the appropriate measures to reduce the noise level in one of the major agro-based industries, oil mills. Aims: To identify the predominant noise sources in the workrooms of oil mills. To study the causes of noise in oil mills. To measure the extent of noise exposure of oil mill workers. To examine the response of workers towards noise, so that appropriate measures can be undertaken to minimize the noise exposure. Settings and Design: A noise survey was conducted in the three renowned oil mills of north-eastern region of India. Materials and Methods: Information like output capacity, size of power source, maintenance condition of the machines and workroom configurations of the oil mills was collected by personal observations and enquiry with the owner of the mill. Using a Sound Level Meter (SLM (Model-824, Larson and Davis, USA, equivalent SPL was measured at operator?s ear level in the working zone of the workers near each machine of the mills. In order to study the variation of SPL in the workrooms of the oil mill throughout its operation, equivalent SPL was measured at two appropriate locations of working zone of the workers in each mill. For conducting the noise survey, the guidelines of Canadian Centre for Occupational Health and Safety (CCOHS were followed. Grid points were marked on the floor of the workroom of the oil mill at a spacing of 1 m x 1 m. SPL at grid points were measured at about 1.5 m above the floor. The direction of the SLM was towards the nearby noisy source. To increase accuracy, two replications were taken at each grid point. All the data were recorded for 30 sec. At the end of the experiment, data were downloaded to a personal computer. With the help of utility software of Larson and Davis, USA, equivalent SPL and noise spectrum at each reading was obtained. Noise survey map of equivalent SPL was drawn for each oil mill by drawing contour lines on the sketch of the oil mill between the points of equal SPL. The floor area in the oil mill where SPL exceeded 85 dBA was identified from the noise survey map of each oil mill to determine the causes of high level of noise. Subjective assessment was done during the rest period of workers and it was assessed with personal interview with each worker separately. Demographic information, nature of work, working hours, rest period, experience of working in the mill, degree of noise annoyance, activity interference, and psychological and physiological effects of machine noise on the worker were asked during the interview. These details were noted in a structured form. Statistical Analysis Used: Nil. Results: The noise survey conducted in three renowned oil mills of north-eastern region of India revealed that about 26% of the total workers were exposed to noise level of more than 85 dBA. Further, 10% to 30% floor areas of workrooms, where oil expellers are provided have the SPL of more than 85 dBA. The noise in the oil mills was dominated by low frequency noise. The predominant noise sources in the oil mills were seed cleaner and power transmission system to oil expellers. Poor maintenance of machines and use of bamboo stick to prevent the fall of belt from misaligned pulleys were the main reason of high noise. Noise emitted by the electric motor, table ghani and oil expellers in all the oil mills was well within 85 dBA. Subjective response indicated that about 63% of the total workers felt that noise interfered with their conversation. About 16% each were of the opinion that noise interfered in their work and harmed their hearing. About 5% of workers stated that the workroom noise gave them headaches. Conclusions: The workers engaged in the workrooms of the oil mills are exposed to high noise, which will have detrimental effect on their health. Th

Prasanna Kumar G

2008-01-01

292

CHEMICAL CHARACTERISATION AND DILUTE-ACID HYDROLYSIS OF RICE HULLS FROM AN ARTISAN MILL  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The chemical composition of rice hulls produced in an artisan mill and its conversion to fermentable sugars was investigated. The carbohydrate fraction represented 59.2% (w/w of the dry hulls. Cellulose, with 36.6%, was the main component, followed by xylan with 13.9%. An important contribution of starch (8.7% was also detected. The content of ash (19.6% and lignin (15.5% was comparable with that of rice hulls obtained in industrial mills. Dilute-sulphuric acid hydrolysis at different temperatures, from 160 to 210°C, was evaluated for production of fermentable sugars. Due to starch hydrolysis, the concentration of glucose in the hydrolysates produced at 160°C was higher than the values that have previously been reported for industrial sorts of rice hulls under comparable conditions. The xylan-to-xylose conversion increased steadily with increase of the temperature and reached a maximum (67.7% at 190°C. Further increases of the hydrolysis temperature decreased the yield of sugars due to their dehydration to furfural and HMF.

Yoney López

2010-09-01

293

Effect of soya milk on nutritive, antioxidative, reological and textural properties of chocolate produced in a ball mill  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Chocolate is a complex rheological system in which non-fat cocoa particles and sugar particles are enveloped by crystal matrix of cocoa butter. Physical properties of chocolate depend on ingredient composition, method of production and properly performed pre-crystallization phase. In this work, chocolate was produced in an unconventional way, i.e. in a ball mill applying variable refining time (30, 60 and 90 min) and pre-crystallization temperature in chocolate masses (26, 28 and 30?C...

Zari? Danica B.; Pajin Biljana S.; Rakin Marica B.; Šereš Zita I.; Doki? Ljubica P.; Tomi? Jelena M.

2011-01-01

294

Fermentable sugars by chemical hydrolysis of biomass.  

Science.gov (United States)

Abundant plant biomass has the potential to become a sustainable source of fuels and chemicals. Realizing this potential requires the economical conversion of recalcitrant lignocellulose into useful intermediates, such as sugars. We report a high-yielding chemical process for the hydrolysis of biomass into monosaccharides. Adding water gradually to a chloride ionic liquid-containing catalytic acid leads to a nearly 90% yield of glucose from cellulose and 70-80% yield of sugars from untreated corn stover. Ion-exclusion chromatography allows recovery of the ionic liquid and delivers sugar feedstocks that support the vigorous growth of ethanologenic microbes. This simple chemical process, which requires neither an edible plant nor a cellulase, could enable crude biomass to be the sole source of carbon for a scalable biorefinery. PMID:20194793

Binder, Joseph B; Raines, Ronald T

2010-03-01

295

Sugar Transport and Metabolism in Thermotoga  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The work conducted under this grant demonstrated that the hyperthermophilic bacterium Thermotoga neapolitana carries out glucose and lactose transport in a sodium-dependent manner and that energization of anaerobic cells is required to observe transport. We also demonstrated that Thermotoga maritima carries out maltose and glucose transport using periplasmic sugar binding proteins. We began defining patterns of expression of genes encoding sugar transport and catabolic functions in both T. maritima and T. neapolitana. We began a collaborative effort to identify all the genes regulated at the transcriptional level in response to sugars substrates. These funds also allowed us to begin an examination of the functions of several periplasmic substrate binding proteins encoded in the genome of T. maritima.

Noll, Kenneth M.; Romano, Antonio H.

2003-02-11

296

Aromatic plants as a source of important phytochemicals: vitamins, sugars and fatty acids in Cistus ladanifer, Cupressus lusitanica and Eucalyptus gunnii leaves  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The phytochemical composition of three aromatic plants (Cistus ladanifer L., Cupressus lusitanica Mill. and Eucalyptus gunnii Hook. f) was evaluated, in order to valorize them as sources of nutraceuticals. Samples were analysed for ascorbic acid by spectrophotometric assay, tocopherols by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) coupled to a fluorescence detector, sugars by HPLC coupled to a refraction index detector (RID), and fatty acids by gas-chromatography (GC) coupled t...

Guimara?es, Rafaela; Barros, Lillian; Carvalho, Ana Maria; Sousa, Maria Joa?o; Ferreira, Isabel C. F. R.

2009-01-01

297

78 FR 54908 - Indian Gaming  

Science.gov (United States)

...Affairs [DR.5B711.IA000813] Indian Gaming AGENCY: Bureau of Indian Affairs, Interior...Notice of approved Tribal-State Class III Gaming Compact...approval of the Class III Tribal- State Gaming Compact between the Wiyot Tribe and...

2013-09-06

298

78 FR 62649 - Indian Gaming  

Science.gov (United States)

...Affairs [DR.5B711.IA000813] Indian Gaming AGENCY: Bureau of Indian Affairs, Interior...ACTION: Notice of Tribal-State Class III Gaming Compact taking effect...This notice publishes the Class III Gaming Compact between the North Fork...

2013-10-22

299

Indian Academy of Sciences - Events  

Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

photonic band gap materials: engineering light–matter interactions by professor sajeev john (university of toronto, toronto, canada), 3 january 2008, indian institute of science, bangalore a dialogue on science and mathematics in india by professor k. r. sreenivasan (the abdus salam international centre for theoretical physics, trieste, italy), 28 december 2007, indian institute of science, bangalore to the fifth dimension and back ...

300

Software Development Of Sugar Cane Plantation And Harvesting Management  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This software is a management system based on database-driven computer software application. It is intended to improve the quality of sugar cane through increased efficiency in managing, harvesting and transporting of sugar cane, as part of a sugar factory operation. The software was developed using the Borland Delphi development platform, with database manipulation using Microsoft Access. The software is intended for Personal Computer with Windows 95 (or later) installed. The application has been tested with acceptable result and can be used in Sragi Sugar Factory's related activities; namely sugar cane plantation management, harvesting and transporting of sugar cane, payment process and other related administrative processes

 
 
 
 
301

Effect of zero energy cool chamber and post-harvest treatments on shelf-life of fruits under semi-arid environment of Western India. Part 2. Indian gooseberry fruits  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Effect of zero energy cool chamber (ZECC) along with post-harvest treatments including CaCl2, mustard oil and K2SO4 separately on shelf-life and fruit quality attributes of Indian gooseberry or aonla (Emblica officinalis Gaertn) during storage under semi-arid ecosystem of Gujarat was studied. Increase in physiological loss in weight (PLW), spoilage loss, total soluble solids, total sugar and reducing sugars, reduction in titratable acidity and ascorbic acid were observed during storage period...

Singh, Sanjay; Singh, A. K.; Joshi, H. K.; Bagle, B. G.; More, T. A.

2010-01-01

302

The Indian PHWR programme  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The Indian Nuclear Power Programme is based on the pressurised heavy water reactors of the horizontal channel concept. Indigenous capability in all aspects such as uranium production, fuel fabrication, heavy water production, manufacture of the equipment for the reactor and auxiliaries, construction, commissioning, operation and maintenance of NPPs have been developed over the years. These capabilities are fully proven in the range of 220-235 MWe PHWRs. However in order to implement a nuclear power programme with installation of several 500 MWe PHWRs, indigenous design and development works were also initiated. In this report a brief attempt is made to present a summary of the above

303

Overshooting Thundercloud, Indian Ocean  

Science.gov (United States)

This very large thunderstorm was photographed in the Indian Ocean, east of Madagascar (25.0N, 56.0E). The storm is about 65 nautical miles on a side and has an overshooting cloud top. Overshooting clouds result from strong updrafts rising from the troposphere, the portion of the atmosphere near the surface, where most of the Earth's weather occurs. The top reaches into the stratosphere at 45,000 to 50,000 ft. and casts long shadows in the low sun.

1991-01-01

304

Greenhouse gasses emissions and energy balances of a non-vertically integrated sugar and ethanol supply chain: A case study in Argentina  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In order to address society's concerns regarding the sustainability of sugar and ethanol production and use, this paper calculates the energy and greenhouse gasses (GHG) emissions' balances of a non-vertically integrated sugarcane industry in Tucumán-Argentina. The essential operations involved in the sugar/ethanol production cycle were taken into account. Results show that this industry generated an energy balance of 3.4:1. GHG emissions during sugarcane production were 1824 and 2231 kg CO2eq. ha?1 year?1 for low and middle to high farms' technological levels, respectively. The mill process emitted 1187 kg CO2eq. ha?1 year?1. The main factors influencing these balances were gas-oil and nitrogen fertilizers used in the agricultural stage, natural gas consumed by the sugar mill, and sugarcane burning (only for GHG balance). The impact of ethanol use in reducing GHG emissions under the current production scheme (6.8 Mg ha?1 of sugar + 380.9 kg ha?1 of ethanol), in final blends of 95% gasoline and 5% ethanol in vehicles, is negligible. A sensitivity analysis indicates that switching to 100% bagasse used as fuel in mill's boilers, ethanol being produced directly from sugarcane juice, and a final blend of 90% gasoline and 10% ethanol, an amount of 1746 kg CO2eq. ha?1 year?1 of GHG emissions could be avoided. - Highlights: ? Energy and GHG emissions' balances for the non-integrated sugar/ethanol industry in Tucumán-Argentina. ? The energy balance was positive, while there were important GHG emissions. ? Factors influencing both balances were gas-oil, N fertilizers, burning and natural gas. ? Ethanol use for reducing GHG emissions in the current production scheme is negligible. ? Results are promising, as the main factors influencing both balances are identified

305

Respiration-Dependent Utilization of Sugars in Yeasts: a Determinant Role for Sugar Transporters  

Science.gov (United States)

In many yeast species, including Kluyveromyces lactis, growth on certain sugars (such as galactose, raffinose, and maltose) occurs only under respiratory conditions. If respiration is blocked by inhibitors, mutation, or anaerobiosis, growth does not take place. This apparent dependence on respiration for the utilization of certain sugars has often been suspected to be associated with the mechanism of the sugar uptake step. We hypothesized that in many yeast species, the permease activities for these sugars are not sufficient to ensure the high substrate flow that is necessary for fermentative growth. By introducing additional sugar permease genes, we have obtained K. lactis strains that were capable of growing on galactose and raffinose in the absence of respiration. High dosages of both the permease and maltase genes were indeed necessary for K. lactis cells to grow on maltose in the absence of respiration. These results strongly suggest that the sugar uptake step is the major bottleneck in the fermentative assimilation of certain sugars in K. lactis and probably in many other yeasts. PMID:11751819

Goffrini, Paola; Ferrero, Iliana; Donnini, Claudia

2002-01-01

306

Methodology for understanding Indian culture  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Methods of understanding cultures, including Indian culture, are embedded in a broad spectrum of sociocultural approaches to human behavior in general. The approaches examined in this paper reflect evolving perspectives on Indian culture, ranging from the starkly ethnocentric to the largely eclectic and integrative. Most of the methods herin discussed were developed in the West and were subsequently taken up with or without adaptations to fit the Indian context. The paper begins by briefly reviewing the intrinsic concept of culture. It then adopts a historical view of the different ways and means by which scholars have construed the particular facets of Indian culture, highlighting the advantages and disadvantages of each. The final section concludes with some proposals about the best ways of understnding the complexity that constitutes the Indian cultural reality.

Sinha, Jai; Kumar, Rajesh

2004-01-01

307

Ambient aerosol concentrations of sugars and sugar-alcohols at four different sites in Norway  

Science.gov (United States)

Sugars and sugar-alcohols are demonstrated to be important constituents of the ambient aerosol water-soluble organic carbon fraction, and to be tracers for primary biological aerosol particles (PBAP). In the present study, levels of four sugars (fructose, glucose, sucrose, trehalose) and three sugar-alcohols (arabitol, inositol, mannitol) in ambient aerosols have been quantified using a novel HPLC/HRMS-TOF (High Performance Liquid Chromatography in combination with High Resolution Mass Spectrometry - Time of Flight) method to assess the contribution of PBAP to PM>sub>10 and PM2.5. Samples were collected at four sites in Norway at different times of the year in order to reflect the various contributing sources and the spatial and seasonal variation of the selected compounds. Sugars and sugar-alcohols were present at all sites investigated, underlining the ubiquity of these highly polar organic compounds. The highest concentrations were reported for sucrose, reaching a maximum concentration of 320 ng m-3 in PM10 and 55 ng m-3 in PM2.5. The mean concentration of sucrose was up to 10 times higher than fructose, glucose and the dimeric sugar trehalose. The mean concentrations of the sugar-alcohols were typically lower, or equal, to that of the monomeric sugars and trehalose. Peak concentrations of arabitol and mannitol did not exceed 30 ng m-3 in PM10, and for PM2.5 all concentrations were below 6 ng m-3. Sugars and sugar-alcohols were associated primarily with coarse aerosols except during wintertime at the suburban site in Elverum, where a shift towards sub micron aerosols was observed. It is proposed that this shift was due to the intensive use of wood burning for residential heating at this site during winter, confirmed by high concurrent concentrations of levoglucosan. Elevated concentrations of sugars in PM2.5 were observed during spring and early summer at the rural background site Birkenes. It is hypothesized that this was due to ruptured pollen.

Yttri, K. E.; Dye, C.; Kiss, G.

2007-08-01

308

Economic impacts of implementing the new plants to sugar cane; Impactos economicos da implementacao das novas usinas de cana-de-acucar  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The sugar industry goes through an important moment: invest and develop to supply future demand, mainly by fuel alcohol (around 70% of new vehicles sales are from flex fuel models - and the majority of these vehicles are supplied by alcohol). Due to this foreseeable increase of alcohol demand, sugar industry has already announced 41 new projects, which will contribute with the milling of 70 million tons of sugar cane by the conclusion of these plants. In this phase of expansion, the alcohol market must be pressured for the demand, managing the supplying of the domestic and external markets. With this scenario and the possibility of sector growth which has an important role in Brazil development, this work evaluates the economic impacts of the new plants implementation investments. (author)

Terciote, Ricardo [Universidade Estadual de Campinas (DE/FEM/UNICAMP), SP (Brazil). Fac. de Engenharia Mecanica. Dept. de Energia

2006-07-01

309

Uranium mill tailings and radon  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The major health hazard from uranium mill tailings is presumed to be respiratory cancer resulting from the inhalation of radon daughter products. A review of studies on inhalation of radon and its daughters indicates that the hazard from the tailings is extremely small. If the assumptions used in the studies are correct, one or two people per year in the United States may develop cancer as a result of radon exhaled from all the Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action program sites. The remedial action should reduce the hazard from the tailings by a factor of about 100

310

Higher Yang-Mills Theory  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Electromagnetism can be generalized to Yang-Mills theory by replacing the group U(1)$ by a nonabelian Lie group. This raises the question of whether one can similarly generalize 2-form electromagnetism to a kind of "higher-dimensional Yang-Mills theory". It turns out that to do this, one should replace the Lie group by a "Lie 2-group", which is a category C where the set of objects and the set of morphisms are Lie groups, and the source, target, identity and composition maps...

Baez, John C.

2002-01-01

311

On The Planar Yang-Mills Theory  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The planar Yang-Mills theory in three spatial dimensions is examined in a particular representation which explicitly embodies factorization. The effective planar Yang-Mills theory Hamiltonian is constructed in this representation.

Minic, Djordje

1997-01-01

312

EPA's role in uranium mining and milling  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

EPA's role and actions in regulating uranium mining and milling are reviewed and updated. Special emphasis is given to EPA's current activities under the Uranium Mill Tailings Radiation Control Act of 1978

313

Forecasting Sales in a Sugar Factory  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Beets’ cultivation and sugar production represent one of the most important parts of Greek agricultural economy. A careful and well-organized planning of the production as well as the determination of an accurate safety stock is important for sugar industry, as for many other companies and organizations, in order to define the production quantity which leads to maximum revenues and profits. Forecasting, and especially widely used statistical forecasting techniques, is the best way for policymakers to organize their activities and company’s production and make the appropriate adjustments. Apparently, management information systems and forecasting support packages play a leading role in this area, since the amount of data under process is usually quite large and demands an automated procedure to effectively produce and evaluate forecasts. In this case study, “Pythia”, an expert forecasting platform developed by the Forecasting and Strategy Unit of the National Technical University of Athens, was implemented on a monthly data series regarding sugar sales of a Greek sugar factory for the years 2000-2005, bringing theory and practice together. Additionally, the methods or combinations of methods which are well suited for this time series are highlighted based on three error indices. Finally, the results of the study and conclusions are considered and perspectives of progress and development in the field of forecasting are contemplated.

Vassilios ASSIMAKOPOULOS

2011-12-01

314

Salt and Sugar in Kids' Meals  

Medline Plus

Full Text Available ... especially important for parents feeding young ones. A new study in the journal Pediatrics finds many pre-packaged kids’ meals contain too much salt or sugar. The researchers looked at the nutrition content of more than 1,000 infant and toddler foods and drinks. High sodium was defined as more ...

315

Idiomatic Control used in Sugar Plants  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

A description of a control system for a large scale industrial plant - the evaporator section of a sugar plant. The control system is based on the idiomatic control concept, causing decomposition into loop control units - idioms. Dynamic decoupling, feedforward- and feedback loops eg. have been used as idioms.

Nielsen, Kirsten MØlgaard; Nielsen, Jens Frederik Dalsgaard

1993-01-01

316

21 CFR 172.585 - Sugar beet extract flavor base.  

Science.gov (United States)

... FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION (CONTINUED) FOOD ADDITIVES PERMITTED FOR DIRECT ADDITION TO FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION Flavoring Agents and Related Substances § 172.585 Sugar beet extract flavor base. Sugar beet extract flavor base may be...

2010-04-01

317

Whole-of-society monitoring framework for sugar, salt, and fat consumption and noncommunicable diseases in India.  

Science.gov (United States)

India has experienced a rising prevalence of cardiometabolic risk factors in the past 15 years: the prevalence of diabetes has increased from 5.9% to 9.1%, hypertension from 17.2% to 29.2%, and obesity from 4% to 15%. The increase is among all socioeconomic groups and in urban and rural populations, though the quantum of change varies. A concomitant increase in per capita consumption of sugar from 22 to 55.3 g/day and total fat from 21.2 to 54 g/day was observed, with significant differences between states of high and low human development index (HDI). Per capita consumption of sugar, salt, and fat is consistently and significantly associated with overweight and obesity but variably associated with the occurrence of hypertension and diabetes. Market research shows that approximately 50-60% of total salt, sugar, and fat in Indian markets is procured by bulk purchasers, generally for manufacturing processed food items. This sector of the Indian economy is among the fastest growing, with several policy incentives. It is not clear from most of the data sets whether available information on per capita sugar, salt, and fat consumption has considered the contribution of processed and ready-to-eat food items. The unprecedented changes of rapid urbanization, mechanization, and globalization demand close monitoring of social, developmental, and economic determinants. This paper provides pieces of evidence to justify a whole-of-society (WoS) framework for monitoring the inputs, processes, and behavioral components of the National Programme for Prevention and Control of Cancer, Diabetes, Cardiovascular Disease and Stroke (NPCDCS) in India. PMID:25335459

Arora, Narendra K; Pillai, Rakesh; Dasgupta, Rajib; Garg, Priyanka Rani

2014-12-01

318

Amplitudes of 3d Yang Mills Theory  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This paper studies various properties of amplitudes in 3d super Yang Mills theory. First we explain how to obtain the amplitudes of 3d super Yang Mills theories from 4d super Yang Mills theories and obtain their helicity structure. Next, we use a 3d BFCW recursion relation to show that the tree amplitudes and loop integrands of maximal 3d super Yang Mills have dual conformal covariance (although not invariance, so that the amplitudes themselves are not dual conformal). Final...

Lipstein, Ae; Mason, L.

2012-01-01

319

Indian Academy of Sciences - 14th Mid Year Meeting  

Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

indian academy of sciences - 14th mid year meeting indian institute of science, bangalore g. padmanaban, indian institute of science, bangalore s. mahadevan, indian institute of science, pijush k. das, indian institute of chemical biology, kolkata 18 july 2003 (friday) venue: faculty hall, indian institute of science, bangalore anil kumar singh, indian insti ...

320

Determination of Sugar Content in Sugar Solutions using Interdigital Capacitor Sensor  

Science.gov (United States)

A novel low-cost electronic tongue system for sugar content determination in sugar solutions is proposed. The system consists of a sine wave generator, a resistor, and an interdigital capacitor sensor forming a first-order electronic high-pass filter circuit. The interdigital capacitor sensor has the planar interdigital structure and the consecutive fingers are connected to positive and negative electrodes. The system has been assembled and the experiments were conducted. The experimental results show that the proposed system has a great potential to determine the sugar content in sugar solutions. It also provides an opportunity for the development of a microcontroller-based low-cost sensing system as an electronic tongue system.

Angkawisittpan, N.; Manasri, T.

2012-01-01

 
 
 
 
321

Detection of Sugar-Lectin Interactions by Multivalent Dendritic Sugar Functionalized Single-Walled Carbon Nanotubes  

CERN Document Server

We show that single walled carbon nanotubes (SWNT) decorated with sugar functionalized poly (propyl ether imine) (PETIM) dendrimer is a very sensitive platform to quantitatively detect carbohydrate recognizing proteins, namely, lectins. The changes in electrical conductivity of SWNT in field effect transistor device due to carbohydrate - protein interactions form the basis of present study. The mannose sugar attached PETIM dendrimers undergo charge - transfer interactions with the SWNT. The changes in the conductance of the dendritic sugar functionalized SWNT after addition of lectins in varying concentrations were found to follow the Langmuir type isotherm, giving the concanavalin A (Con A) - mannose affinity constant to be 8.5 x 106 M-1. The increase in the device conductance observed after adding 10 nM of Con A is same as after adding 20 \\muM of a non - specific lectin peanut agglutinin, showing the high specificity of the Con A - mannose interactions. The specificity of sugar-lectin interactions was chara...

Vasu, K S; Bagul, R S; Jayaraman, N; Sood, A K; 10.1063/1.4739793

2012-01-01

322

Energy potential of sugar cane biomass in Brazil  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Brazil is a developing tropical country with abundant biomass resources. Sugar cane (Saccahrum spp.) is primarily produced to obtain sugar and alcohol. Presently sugar cane is burned before harvest. If the cane were not burned before harvest, the trash (tops and leaves) could be collected and burned to produce steam to generate electricity, or be converted into alcohol fuel and decrease the severe air pollution problems caused by sugar cane burning. Based upon logical assumptions and appropri...

Rípoli Tomaz Caetano Cannavam; Molina Jr. Walter Francisco; Rípoli Marco Lorenzzo Cunali

2000-01-01

323

Ambient aerosol concentrations of sugars and sugar-alcohols at four different sites in Norway  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Sugars and sugar-alcohols are demonstrated to be important constituents of the ambient aerosol water-soluble organic carbon fraction (WSOC, and to be tracers for primary biological aerosol particles (PBAP. In the present study, levels of four sugars (fructose, glucose, sucrose, trehalose and three sugar-alcohols (arabitol, inositol, mannitol in ambient aerosols have been quantified using a novel HPLC/HRMS-TOF (High Performance Liquid Chromatography in combination with High Resolution Mass Spectrometry – Time of Flight method to assess the contribution of PBAP to PM10 and PM2.5. Samples were collected at four sites in Norway at different times of the year in order to reflect the various contributing sources and the spatial and seasonal variation of the selected compounds.

Sugars and sugar-alcohols were present at all sites investigated, underlining the ubiquity of these highly polar organic compounds. The highest concentrations were reported for sucrose, reaching a maximum concentration of 320 ng m?3 in PM10 and 55 ng m?3 in PM2.5. The mean concentration of sucrose was up to 10 times higher than fructose, glucose and trehalose. The mean concentrations of the sugar-alcohols were typically lower, or equal, to that of the monomeric sugars and trehalose. Peak concentrations of arabitol and mannitol did not exceed 30 ng m?3 in PM10, and for PM2.5 all concentrations were below 6 ng m?3.

Sugars and sugar-alcohols were associated primarily with coarse aerosols except during wintertime at the suburban site in Elverum, where a shift towards sub micron aerosols was observed. It is proposed that this shift was due to the intensive use of wood burning for residential heating at this site during winter, confirmed by high concurrent concentrations of levoglucosan. Elevated concentrations of sugars in PM2.5 were observed during spring and early summer at the rural background site Birkenes. It is hypothesized that this was due to ruptured pollen.

K. E. Yttri

2007-04-01

324

THE EFFECT OF NITROGEN INPUT ON POLARISED SUGAR PRODUCTION AND QUALITATIVE PARAMETERS OF SUGAR BEET  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

During 1998-2002, the application of different forms and doses of nitrogen on quantitative (polarised sugar production)and qualitative parameters (digestion, molasses forming components - potassium, sodium and ?-amino nitrogen content) of sugar beet in vulnerable zones (Nitrate directive) was studied. Calculated input of nitrogen ranged from 12 kg up to 240 kg N.ha-1. By increasing input of N from FYM application into the soil causes an increases of ?- amino nitrogen content in root, which ...

MILAN MACÁK; KOVÁ? KAROL; ŽÁK ŠTEFAN

2007-01-01

325

Methyl transfer in chemotaxis toward sugars by Bacillus subtilis.  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Like amino acids, the sugars glucose and the nonmetabolizable 2-deoxyglucose caused a turnover of methyl groups on the methyl-accepting chemotaxis proteins. These sugars also caused methanol formation on addition. Thus, in contrast to chemotaxis in Escherichia coli, taxis to phosphotransferase sugars by Bacillus subtilis utilizes the methyl-accepting chemotaxis proteins.

Thoelke, M. S.; Casper, J. M.; Ordal, G. W.

1990-01-01

326

19 CFR 151.22 - Estimated duties on raw sugar.  

Science.gov (United States)

... 2010-04-01 false Estimated duties on raw sugar. 151.22 Section 151.22 Customs...and Molasses § 151.22 Estimated duties on raw sugar. Estimated duties shall be taken on raw sugar, as defined in Subheading Note 1...

2010-04-01

327

Super Yang-Mills Plasma  

CERN Document Server

The N = 4 super Yang-Mills plasma is studied in the regime of weak coupling. Collective excitations and collisional processes are discussed and compared to those of QCD plasma. The two systems are concluded to be very similar to each other with the differences mostly reflecting different numbers of degrees of freedom.

Czajka, Alina

2013-01-01

328

Performance test of dynamic mill  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In order to extend reactor cycle lengths and higher fuel discharge burn-ups, it is necessary that both the loading portion of MOX(Mixed OXide) and the addition of PuO2 increase. In general, ball-mill or attrition mill is used to improve the degree of mixing of powders and resulting homogeneous microstructure of pellet in the manufacturing process of MOX nuclear fuel. However, these milling devices showed not only difficulties of handling but also a limited range of amount(2 to be added in the powder mixture. A performance test for the Dynamic Mill(DM) device, which was designed and manufactured by KAERI, has been carried out to improve the above-described limits of the performance. The DM was tested by use of (U,Ce)O2[Ce ; 5?20wt%] powder. The results of the performance test show a superiority in performance. That is, the DM shows excellent degree of ease for handling and the pellet fabricated by this device also shows good homogeneity of microstructure with higher amount of CeO2 increased up to 20wt%

329

J. S. Mill on Education  

Science.gov (United States)

Mill may be said either to have written rather little on education or to have written a very great deal. He himself distinguished between a "narrow" and a "wider" sense of education, the former limited to what happens in formal educational settings, the latter embracing all the influences that make us who and what we are. He wrote rather little on…

Ryan, Alan

2011-01-01

330

Mechanization and automation gear milling  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Cutting teeth is the most time consuming process in the technology of gears. It spent 50 - 60% of the total labor input processing gear. Therefore, improving the efficiency of the process is an important task gear milling machine. When you are citing the document, use the following link http://essuir.sumdu.edu.ua/handle/123456789/33627

Grebchenko, A.

2013-01-01

331

75 FR 36414 - American Indians Into Psychology; Notice of Competitive Grant Applications for American Indians...  

Science.gov (United States)

...Health Service American Indians Into Psychology; Notice of Competitive Grant Applications for American Indians Into Psychology Program Announcement Type: New...applications for the American Indians into Psychology Program. This program is...

2010-06-25

332

77 FR 70847 - Entergy Nuclear Indian Point 2, LLC; Entergy Nuclear Operations, Inc., Indian Point Nuclear...  

Science.gov (United States)

...NRC-2012-0284] Entergy Nuclear Indian Point 2, LLC; Entergy Nuclear Operations, Inc., Indian Point Nuclear Generating Unit No. 2, Request...the NRC take action with regard to Indian Point Nuclear Generating Unit No. 2. The...

2012-11-27

333

75 FR 6192 - Office of Elementary and Secondary Education Indian Education-Demonstration Grants for Indian...  

Science.gov (United States)

...OF EDUCATION Office of Elementary and Secondary Education Indian Education-- Demonstration Grants for Indian Children Catalog...U.S. Department of Education, Office of Indian Education, 400 Maryland Avenue, SW., room 3E231,...

2010-02-08

334

Comparison of wind mill cluster performance: A multicriteria approach  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Energy is a crucial input for the economic and social development of any nation. Both renewable and non-renewable energy contribute in meeting the total requirement of the economy. As an affordable and clean energy source, wind energy is amongst the world's fastest growing renewable energy forms. Though there are several wind-mill clusters producing energy in different geographical locations, evaluating their performance is a complex task and not much of literature is available in this area. In this backdrop, an attempt is made in the current paper to estimate the performance of a wind-mill cluster through an index called Cluster Performance Index (CPI) adopting a multi-criteria approach. The proposed CPI comprises four criteria viz., Technical Performance Indicators (TePI), Economic Performance Indicators (EcPI), Environmental Performance Indicators (EnPI), and Sociological Performance Indicators (SoPI). Under each performance criterion a total of ten parameters are considered with five subjective and five objective oriented responses. The methodology is implemented by collecting empirical data from three wind-mill clusters located at Chitradurga, Davangere, and Gadag in the southern Indian State of Karnataka. Totally fifteen different stake holders are consulted through a set of structured researcher administered questionnaire to collect the relevant data in each wind farm. Stake holders involved engineers working in wind farms, wind farm developers, Government officials from energy department and a few selected residential people near the wind farms. The results of the study revealed that Chitradurga wind farm performed much better with a CPI of 45.267 as compared to Gadag (CPI of 28.362) and Davangere (CPI of 19.040) wind farms. (Author)

Rajakumar, D.G.; Nagesha, N. [Visvesvaraya Technological Univ., Karnataka (India)

2012-07-01

335

Biological treatment of olive mill wastewater by non-conventional yeasts.  

Science.gov (United States)

The ability of lipolytic yeasts to grow on olive mill wastewater (OMW)-based medium and to produce high-value compounds while degrading this waste, was tested. OMW collected from three-phase olive mills from the North region of Portugal were characterized and used. OMW with COD ranging from 100 g L(-1) to 200 g L(-1) were supplemented with yeast extract and ammonium chloride. Studies of OMW consumption were carried out in batch cultures of Candida rugosa, Candida cylindracea and Yarrowia lipolytica. All strains were able to grow in the OMW-based media, without dilution, to consume reducing sugars and to reduce COD. C. cylindracea was the best strain concerning the lipase production and the reduction of phenolic compounds and COD. For all strains, the phenols degradation was quite difficult, mostly when more easily degradable carbon source is still present in the medium. Among the phenolic compounds tested catechol is the most inhibitory to the cells. PMID:19231162

Gonçalves, Cristiana; Lopes, Marlene; Ferreira, João P; Belo, Isabel

2009-08-01

336

Metal powder reactions in ball milling  

Science.gov (United States)

On milling chromium powder in three metal chlorides and either chromium or nickel powders in ten organic liquids representative of nine different functional groups, the powders always reacted with the liquids and became contaminated with elements from them. The milled powders had specific surface areas ranging from 0.14 to 37 sq m/g, and the total contamination with elements from the milling liquid ranged from 0.01 to 56 wt%. In most milling runs, compounds resulting from substitution, addition, or elimination reactions formed in or from the milling liquid, and in most runs with organic liquids H2, CH4, and CO2 were generated.

Arias, A.

1976-01-01

337

Fuel bio ethanol production from experimental crops of sugar cane, sweet sorghum and sugar beet in Uruguay  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This article is about the fuel bio ethanol production. Its requires the use of raw materials, process, integration with food producing chains, and social inclusion. Agricultural and fermentability assays of three sugar crops were performed: sugar beet, sugar cane and sweet sorghum grown in fields of small producers .

338

75 FR 38764 - USDA Reassigns Domestic Cane Sugar Allotments and Increases the Fiscal Year 2010 Raw Sugar Tariff...  

Science.gov (United States)

...Allotments and Increases the Fiscal Year 2010 Raw Sugar Tariff-Rate Quota AGENCY: Office...sugar allotments of 300,000 short tons raw value (STRV) to imports, and increased the fiscal year (FY) 2010 raw sugar tariff-rate quota (TRQ) by...

2010-07-06

339

76 FR 20305 - USDA Reassigns Domestic Cane Sugar Allotments and Increases the Fiscal Year 2011 Raw Sugar Tariff...  

Science.gov (United States)

...Allotments and Increases the Fiscal Year 2011 Raw Sugar Tariff-Rate Quota AGENCY: Office...sugar allotments of 325,000 short tons raw value (STRV) to imports, and increased the fiscal year (FY) 2011 raw sugar tariff-rate quota (TRQ) by...

2011-04-12

340

75 FR 22095 - USDA Reassigns Domestic Cane Sugar Allotments and Increases the Fiscal Year 2010 Raw Sugar Tariff...  

Science.gov (United States)

...Allotments and Increases the Fiscal Year 2010 Raw Sugar Tariff-Rate Quota AGENCY: Office...sugar allotments of 200,000 short tons raw value (STRV) to imports, and increased the fiscal year (FY) 2010 raw sugar tariff-rate quota (TRQ) by...

2010-04-27

 
 
 
 
341

25 CFR 63.31 - Can both the Bureau of Indian Affairs and tribes operate Indian child protection and family...  

Science.gov (United States)

...operate Indian child protection and family violence prevention programs? 63... INDIAN CHILD PROTECTION AND FAMILY VIOLENCE PREVENTION Indian Child Protection and Family Violence Prevention Program §...

2010-04-01

342

Indian Academy of Sciences - Contact  

Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

new                 telephone numbers at indian academy of sciences have changed.please take note of the new numbers. public information officer (part-time):(only for matters that come under the right to information act, 2005) new | feedback ...

343

WOMAN IN INDIAN ENGLISH POETRY  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Woman is a multifaceted personality with the power of benevolence, adjustability and tolerance. She is companion of man gifted with equal mental faculty. She is an embodiment love and affection. Woman, such a blooming flower, which scants the world. She is as tall as Himalaya, having a flow of river. But woman can not be sufficiently defined in these phrases. With the passage of time she reflects dimensional faces. She is such a magnificent creature of god that she has motivated many world renowned writers of the world. Indian English Poets have also depicted Indian woman with every facets of her character. The present paper tries to focus on the representation of Indian woman by Indian poets of English.

More Rajendra Dagadu

2015-01-01

344

Taxation and the American Indian  

Science.gov (United States)

The article explores American Indian tribal rights to tax exemptions and self-imposed taxation; general recommendations on possible tribal tax alternatives; and evaluation of the probable economic effect of taxation. (FF)

Brunt, David

1973-01-01

345

ANGLO - INDIAN EDUCATION IN TRICHINOPOLY  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Anglo – Indian education and 1Anglo – Indian schools have had a chequered career. Indeed, Anglo – Indian schools have traversed many vicissitudes, political and financial. The East India Company seldom, if ever, undertook any responsibility towards Anglo – Indian children. Between 1640 and 1660, when the children2 grew up literally within the sound of shot and shell, it was not necessary for them to have more than a smattering of the 3 Rs. All manner of people were employed as tutors – disabled soldiers, old pensioners, bankrupt merchants or dismissed factors. The first school to be opened was at St. George (Madras, between 1645 and 1650 that was the result of missionary effort.

A.SELVAMARY

2013-01-01

346

Overview of uranium mill tailings remedial action project of the United States of America 1995-1996  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

From the early 1940's through the 1960's the United States federal government contracted for processed uranium ore for national defense research, weapons development and commercial nuclear energy. When these contracts were terminated, the mills ceased operation leaving large uranium tailings on the former mill sites. The purpose of the Uranium Remedial Action Project (UMTRA) is to minimize or eliminate potential health hazards resulting from exposure of the public to the tailings at these abandons sites. There are 24 inactive uranium mill tailings sites, in 10 states and an Indian reservation lands, included for clean up under the auspices of UMTRA. Presently the last 2 sites are under remediation. This paper addresses the progress of the project over the last two years. (author)

347

Indian Academy of Sciences - Events  

Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

professor michael l. klein (frs)(raman professor, indian academy of sciences)laura h. carnell professor of sciencetemple university, philadelphia, usaspark of life: understanding nature's voltage-gated ion channels using computation28 february 2014, 4 p.m.faculty hall, indian institute of science, bangaloredetails 25th midyear meeting, 4 and 5 july 2013, bangaloretentative programme 8 to 10 november 2013chandigarh tentative programme  &nbs ...

348

FACTORS DETERMINING CAPITAL STRUCTURE OF CO-OPERATIVE SUGAR INDUSTRY IN TAMIL NADU – AN EMPIRICAL STUDY  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Finance is an important input for any type of business and is needed for working capital and for permanent investment. The financial success of a firm depends mainly on its capital structure. The choice of debt and equity in the capital structure of corporate firms is an important financial decision because it influences both the return and risk of shareholders. In the present day challenges facing the Indian sugar industry are about 50 % of production of north India and Tamil Nadu are governed by State Advised Prices, Government controls on domestic sales and exports make commercial planning very difficult. Erratic financial returns have made the business less bankable, only industry in the country to bear financial burden of a social welfare program of the government.

M. SEKAR

2013-04-01

349

Sugar-source preference, sugar intake and relative nutritional benefits in Anopheles arabiensis males.  

Science.gov (United States)

Plant-derived sugar is the only source of dietary carbohydrate for males of most mosquito species. Male resource acquisition and utilization remain an under-researched area of behavior in vectors of human diseases. However, the renewed interest in the use of sterile males against disease vector mosquitoes reinforces the urgent need for studies on the behavioral and ecological processes that underpin male fitness and reproductive success. Here an attempt was made first to characterize the conditions and modes of resource acquisition (plant derived sugar meals) early in the life of An. arabiensis males, and second to test the hypothesis that the plants chosen for their sugar meals are those which maximize their fitness in terms of energy gains (i.e. amount of lipids, proteins, glycogen and glucose). Olfactometry assays demonstrated the ability of An. arabiensis males to discriminate among a sample of ten abundant flowering plants present in their natural habitats. In further experiments, we observed significant variations in the sugar intake rates that matched their olfactory preferences, with the most attractive plants eliciting significantly higher sugar intake rates. Consistent with our expectations, analyses of the whole-body free sugars, lipids and glycogen unequivocally showed that the energy reserve accumulated post-feeding is dependent on the diet of the adult males, with the preferred plants providing more energy reserves than the less preferred ones, despite mosquitoes actively feeding on both. Taken together, these results show that An. Arabiensis males are able to discern between food sources, preferentially feeding on those species of plant that provide the highest metabolic payoff. Ensuring or somehow heightening the ability to detect and obtain rewarding sugar meals by male mosquitoes reared for field release could enhance their competitive ability in the field. PMID:24184355

Gouagna, Louis Clément; Kerampran, Renaud; Lebon, Cyrille; Brengues, Cecile; Toty, Celine; Wilkinson, David A; Boyer, Sébastien; Fontenille, Didier

2014-04-01

350

Sensory differences between beet and cane sugar sources.  

Science.gov (United States)

Research concerning the sensory properties of beet and cane sugars is lacking in the scientific literature. Therefore, the objectives of this research were to determine whether a sensory difference was perceivable between beet and cane sugar sources in regard to their (1) aroma-only, (2) aroma and taste without nose clips, and (3) taste-only with nose clips, and to characterize the difference between the sugar sources using descriptive analysis. One hundred panelists evaluated sugar samples using a tetrad test. A significant difference (P sensory attributes of beet and cane sugars using descriptive analysis. Analysis of variance indicated significant differences (P sensory profile of beet sugar was characterized by off-dairy, oxidized, earthy, and barnyard aromas and by a burnt sugar aroma-by-mouth and aftertaste, whereas cane sugar was characterized by a fruity aroma-by-mouth and sweet aftertaste. This study shows that beet and cane sugar sources can be differentiated by their aroma and provides a sensory profile characterizing the differences. As sugar is used extensively as a food ingredient, sensory differences between beet and cane sugar sources once incorporated into different product matrices should be studied as a next step. PMID:25124655

Urbanus, Brittany L; Cox, Ginnefer O; Eklund, Emily J; Ickes, Chelsea M; Schmidt, Shelly J; Lee, Soo-Yeun

2014-09-01

351

Blood sugar monitoring with laser diode  

Science.gov (United States)

In this paper, the non-invasive measurement of blood sugar level was studied by use of near infrared laser diode. The in-vivo experiments were carried out using laser diodes with wavelength 1625nm and 1650nm. Several volunteers were tested before and after drinking glucose solution. We took blood from a fingertip and measured its concentration with a glucose meter while taking signal voltage from laser diode system. The signal voltage was processed by using a computer and blood absorption was obtained. The results show that blood sugar level and blood absorption have similar trends before and after drinking glucose solution. We also compared the trends of drinking glucose solution and pure water and the results show that the difference of blood absorption is obvious. From the results we can see that laser diode is suitable for blood glucose monitoring.

Zhang, Xiqin; Chen, Jianhong; Yeo, Joon Hock

2006-09-01

352

Catalytic Hydrogenolysis of 5-Carbon Sugar Alcohols  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

PNNL, in cooperation with the USDOE and CRADA partners, National Corn Growers Association and Archer Daniels Midland, has developed a new class of catalysts based on Nickel and Rhenium with very effective performance for highly selective, high conversion hydrogenolysis of five–carbon sugar alcohols to useful glycols. The Ni-Re catalyst appears to exhibit preferential hydrogenolysis of the carbon-carbon bonds of secondary carbons over primary carbons of the 5-carbon sugar alcohols tested. In addition, the catalyst has demonstrated significant and unique primary C-O bond hydrogenolysis activity in its ability to convert glycerol into 1,2- propylene glycol, which is then stable in the presence of this class of catalysts. The rhenium containing catalysts are found to have higher activity and better selectivity to desired glycols than previously reported catalysts. A continuous flow reactor lifetime test of over 1500 hours also demonstrated the requisite high stability for an industrially attractive process.

Zacher, Alan H.; Frye, John G.; Werpy, Todd A.; Miller, Dennis J.

2005-01-01

353

Sugar-Based Ethanol Biorefinery: Ethanol, Succinic Acid and By-Product Production  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The work conducted in this project is an extension of the developments itemized in DE-FG-36-04GO14236. This program is designed to help the development of a biorefinery based around a raw sugar mill, which in Louisiana is an underutilized asset. Some technical questions were answered regarding the addition of a biomass to ethanol facility to existing sugar mills. The focus of this work is on developing technology to produce ethanol and valuable by-products from bagasse. Three major areas are addressed, feedstock storage, potential by-products and the technology for producing ethanol from dilute ammonia pre-treated bagasse. Sugar mills normally store bagasse in a simple pile. During the off season there is a natural degradation of the bagasse, due to the composting action of microorganisms in the pile. This has serious implications if bagasse must be stored to operate a bagasse/biorefinery for a 300+ day operating cycle. Deterioration of the fermentables in bagasse was found to be 6.5% per month, on pile storage. This indicates that long term storage of adequate amounts of bagasse for year-round operation is probably not feasible. Lignin from pretreatment seemed to offer a potential source of valuable by-products. Although a wide range of phenolic compounds were present in the effluent from dilute ammonia pretreatment, the concentrations of each (except for benzoic acid) were too low to consider for extraction. The cellulosic hydrolysis system was modified to produce commercially recoverable quantities of cellobiose, which has a small but growing market in the food process industries. A spin-off of this led to the production of a specific oligosaccharide which appears to have both medical and commercial implications as a fungal growth inhibitor. An alternate use of sugars produced from biomass hydrolysis would be to produce succinic acid as a chemical feedstock for other conversions. An organism was developed which can do this bioconversion, but the economics of succinic acid production were such that it could not compete with current commercial practice. To allow recovery of commercial amounts of ethanol from bagasse fermentation, research was conducted on high solids loading fermentations (using S. cerevisiae) with commercial cellulase on pretreated material. A combination of SHF/SSF treatment with fed-batch operation allowed fermentation at 30% solids loading. Supplementation of the fermentation with a small amount of black-strap molasses had results beyond expectation. There was an enhancement of conversion as well as production of ethanol levels above 6.0% w/w, which is required both for efficient distillation as well as contaminant repression. The focus of fermentation development was only on converting the cellulose to ethanol, as this yeast is not capable of fermenting both glucose and xylose (from hemicellulose). In anticipation of the future development of such an organism, we screened the commercially available xylanases to find the optimum mix for conversion of both cellulose and hemicellulose. A different mixture than the spezyme/novozyme mix used in our fermentation research was found to be more efficient at converting both cellulose and hemicellulose. Efforts were made to select a mutant of Pichia stipitis for ability to co-ferment glucose and xylose to ethanol. New mutation technology was developed, but an appropriate mutant has not yet been isolated. The ability to convert to stillage from biomass fermentations were determined to be suitable for anaerobic degradation and methane production. An economic model of a current sugar factory was developed in order to provide a baseline for the cost/benefit analysis of adding cellulosic ethanol production.

Donal F. Day

2009-03-31

354

75 FR 39697 - Indians Into Psychology Program; Correction  

Science.gov (United States)

...HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Indian Health Service Indians Into Psychology Program; Correction AGENCY: Indian Health Service, HHS...Number: HHS-IHS-2010-INPSY-0001, for the Indians Into Psychology Program. The document contained an incorrect Funding...

2010-07-12

355

25 CFR 273.4 - Policy of maximum Indian participation.  

Science.gov (United States)

... Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR INDIAN SELF-DETERMINATION AND EDUCATION ASSISTANCE ACT PROGRAM...and satisfaction which education can and should provide...this concept, maximum Indian participation in...

2010-04-01

356

New proposal for integrated production of sugar and biofuels from sugar beet  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The problems related to the traditional technology of sugar-beet processing have became so important that the beet sector in Europe, and particularly in Italy, has been shocked. If we want to produce sugar beet in the future it is necessary to decrease the production costs through a simplification of the technology, a decreasing of the problems related to the energy and water consumptions, the elimination of the solid, liquid and gaseous wastes. We tried in the past to give our contribution for solving these problems but we have found difficulties in convincing the beet sugar world to drastically modify the traditional technology. The problems are so important that an European Project (TOSSIE - TOward Sustainable Sugar Industry in Europe) has the main object of disseminating the results of the research obtained in the last decades. We proposed different solutions including the elimination of calco-carbonic purification process, the utilization of membrane technology and suggesting different processing schemes. Now we would like to propose another possible solution with the elimination of the diffusion process and a balanced production, beside the crystallized sugar, of biofuels. Preliminary results obtained in laboratory and in a pilot plant will be presented and discussed. (orig.)

Vaccari, Giuseppe; Tamburini, Elena [University of Ferrara, Ferrara (Italy); Marchetti, Gianluigi; Lenzini, Gustavo [S.M.I srl, Legnaro (Italy)

2009-02-15

357

Milling media from zirconia ceramics  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Zirconia ceramics has found applications in various important fields. Oxygen sensors, heating elements, solid electrolytes, cutting tools, high temperature insulation, metal casting dies and nozzles are some of the areas of applications. Milling of zirconia compositions should preferably be done with ZrO2 milling media. Moreover, higher density of ZrO2 (5.5-5.7 gm/cc.) compared to alumina (3.4-3.7 gm/cc) results in faster grinding by zirconia balls. Wear of the grinding jar is also less compared to alumina balls. In the present work grinding balls have been prepared from zirconia, Y2O3, CaO-TiO2 stabilizing agents. (author). 6 refs., 2 figs., 1 tab

358

Postpartum Nutrient Intakes and Beverage Patterns of American Indian Women  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Objectives: American Indian (AI children are at risk for chronic diseases associated with marginal early nutrition environments. We describe nutrient intakes and beverage patterns of AI women during the early postnatal period to identify nutritional adequacy and beverage habits. Methods: 24 hour recalls and beverage frequency questionnaires were administered to AI mothers (n = 239 from a Northern Plains Tribal community 1 month postpartum. 24 hour recalls were analyzed using Nutritionist PRO(R software, and intakes were compared to Estimated Average Requirements (EAR. Results: The percentage of AI women reporting nutrient intakes below the EAR was 97% for vitamin D, 96% for vitamin E, 69% for vitamin A, 55% for vitamin C, 73% for calcium and 79% for magnesium. Median (25th, 75th percentile beverage intakes reported by beverage consumers were 8.0(4.0, 16.0 oz milk, 8.0(3.4, 16.0 oz 100% juice, 8.0(4.0, 16.0 oz juice drinks, 18.6(7.4, 28.0 oz regular pop, 9.1(4.6, 18.3oz sports drinks, 12.0(5.1, 22.0oz sugared flavored water and 48.0(24.0, 96.0 oz water. Conclusions: The low nutrient and high sugared beverage intakes increased risk of chronic malnutrition. The nutritional environment predisposes AI children to chronic diseases including obesity and dental caries through early metabolic programming and later modeling behaviors.

Teresa A. Marshall

2014-06-01

359

Nutritional profile of Indian vegetarian diets – the Indian Migration Study (IMS)  

Science.gov (United States)

Background The cardiovascular and other health benefits and potential harms of protein and micronutrient deficiency of vegetarian diets continue to be debated. Methods Study participants included urban migrants, their rural siblings and urban residents (n = 6555, mean age - 40.9 yrs) of the Indian Migration Study from Lucknow, Nagpur, Hyderabad and Bangalore. Information on diet (validated interviewer-administered semi-quantitative food frequency questionnaire), tobacco, alcohol, physical activity, medical histories, as well as blood pressure, fasting blood and anthropometric measurements were collected. Nutrient databases were used to calculate nutrient content of regional recipes. Vegetarians ate no eggs, fish, poultry and meat. Using multivariate linear regression with robust standard error model, we compared the macro- and micro-nutrient profile of vegetarian and non-vegetarian diets. Results Vegetarians, (32.8% of the population), consumed greater amounts of legumes, vegetables, roots and tubers, dairy and sugar, while non-vegetarians had a greater intake of cereals, fruits, spices, salt (p?Vegetarians had a higher socioeconomic status, and were less likely to smoke, drink alcohol (p?vegetarians consumed more carbohydrates (??=?7.0 g/day (95% CI: 9.9 to 4.0), p?vegetarian diets were found to be adequate to sustain nutritional demands according to recommended dietary allowances with less fat. Lower vitamin B12 bio-availability remains a concern and requires exploration of acceptable dietary sources for vegetarians. PMID:24899080

2014-01-01

360

IMPROVED BIOREFINERY FOR THE PRODUCTION OF ETHANOL, CHEMICALS, ANIMAL FEED AND BIOMATERIALS FROM SUGAR CANE  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The Audubon Sugar Institute (ASI) of Louisiana State University’s Agricultural Center (LSU AgCenter) and MBI International (MBI) sought to develop technologies that will lead to the development of a sugar-cane biorefinery, capable of supplying fuel ethanol from bagasse. Technology development focused on the conversion of bagasse, cane-leaf matter (CLM) and molasses into high value-added products that included ethanol, specialty chemicals, biomaterials and animal feed; i.e. a sugar cane-based biorefinery. The key to lignocellulosic biomass utilization is an economically feasible method (pretreatment) for separating the cellulose and the hemicellulose from the physical protection provided by lignin. An effective pretreatment disrupts physical barriers, cellulose crystallinity, and the association of lignin and hemicellulose with cellulose so that hydrolytic enzymes can access the biomass macrostructure (Teymouri et al. 2004, Laureano-Perez, 2005). We chose to focus on alkaline pretreatment methods for, and in particular, the Ammonia Fiber Expansion (AFEX) process owned by MBI. During the first two years of this program a laboratory process was established for the pretreatment of bagasse and CLM using the AFEX process. There was significant improvement of both rate and yield of glucose and xylose upon enzymatic hydrolysis of AFEX-treated bagasse and CLM compared with untreated material. Because of reactor size limitation, several other alkaline pretreatment methods were also co-investigated. They included, dilute ammonia, lime and hydroxy-hypochlorite treatments. Scale-up focused on using a dilute ammonia process as a substitute for AFEX, allowing development at a larger scale. The pretreatment of bagasse by an ammonia process, followed by saccharification and fermentation produced ethanol from bagasse. Simultaneous saccharification and fermentation (SSF) allowed two operations in the same vessel. The addition of sugarcane molasses to the hydrolysate/fermentation process yielded improvements beyond what was expected solely from the addition of sugar. In order to expand the economic potential for building a biorefinery, the conversion of enzyme hydrolysates of AFEX-treated bagasse to succinic acid was also investigated. This program established a solid basis for pre-treatment of bagasse in a manner that is feasible for producing ethanol at raw sugar mills.

Dr. Donal F. Day

2009-01-29

 
 
 
 
361

Traditional And Medicinal Uses Of Indian Black Berry  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Jamun or Indian Black berry is considered as a traditional medicine that helps in controlling diabetes. Specifically, jamun has an action on the pancreas, the main organ responsible for causing diabetes. The fruit, the seeds and even the juice of the jamun all play an important role in the treatment of diabetes. The jamun seeds contain a type of glucose called Jamboline, which checks the conversion of starch into sugar in cases of increased production of glucose, the main reason behind your high sugar levels.It has anti cancer and anti viral properties. Jamun juice has carminative and mild astringent properties. The extracts of the bark, seeds and leaves are used for the treatment of diabetes. The leaves have antibacterial properties and used for strenghthening teeths and gums.Oral administration of dried alcohalic extracts of the seeds to diabetic patients was found to reduce the level of blood sugar and glycosuria in trials conducted at CDRI, Lucknow.The bark of black berry tree is astringent, digestive, diuretic, anthelmintic and is considered useful for throat problems.A decoction of the bark and powdered seeds is believed to be very useful in the treatment of diarrhea, dysentery and dyspepsia.The antibiotic activity of black berry extract has been widely studied and found useful against a number of microbial agents. The fruit is also considered to be stomachic, carminative, antiscorbutic and diuretic.Vinegar made from black berry fruit is administered in cases of enlargement of spleen, chronic diarrhoea and urine retention for ringworm treatment, water diluted juice is used as lotion.

K.P.Sampath Kumar

2013-01-01

362

The Indian Ocean Triple Junction  

Science.gov (United States)

The boundaries of three major plates (Africa, India, and Antarctica) meet in a triple junction in the Indian Ocean near 25°S, 70°E. Using observed bathymetry and magnetic anomalies, we locate the junction to within 5 km and show that it is a ridge-ridge-ridge type. Relative plate motion is N60°E at 50 mm/yr (full rate) across the Central Indian Ridge, N47°E at 60 mm/yr across the Southeast Indian Ridge, and N3°W at 15 mm/yr across the Southwest Indian Ridge; the observed velocity triangle is closed. Poles of instantaneous relative plate motion are determined for all plate pairs. The data in the South Atlantic and Indian oceans are consistent with a rigid African plate without significant internal deformation. Two of the ridges at the triple junction are normal midocean spreading centers with well-defined median valleys. The Southwest Indian Ridge, however, has a peculiar morphology near the triple junction, that of an elongate triangular deep, with the triple junction at its apex. The floor of the deep represents crust formed at the Southwest Indian Ridge, and the morphology is a consequence of the evolution of the triple junction and is similar to that at the Galapagos Triple Junction. Though one cannot determine with precision the stability conditions at the triple junction, the development of the junction over the last 10 m.y. can be mapped, and the topographic expressions of the triple junction traces may be detected on the three plates.

Tapscott, Christopher R.; Patriat, Philippe; Fisher, Robert L.; Sclater, John G.; Hoskins, Hartley; Parsons, Barry

1980-09-01

363

Euthanasia: An Indian perspective  

Science.gov (United States)

In our society, the palliative care and quality of life issues in patients with terminal illnesses like advanced cancer and AIDS have become an important concern for clinicians. Parallel to this concern has arisen another controversial issue-euthanasia or “mercy –killing” of terminally ill patients. Proponents of physician-assisted suicide (PAS) feel that an individual's right to autonomy automatically entitles him to choose a painless death. The opponents feel that a physician's role in the death of an individual violates the central tenet of the medical profession. Moreover, undiagnosed depression and possibility of social ‘coercion’ in people asking for euthanasia put a further question mark on the ethical principles underlying such an act. These concerns have led to strict guidelines for implementing PAS. Assessment of the mental state of the person consenting to PAS becomes mandatory and here, the role of the psychiatrist becomes pivotal. Although considered illegal in our country, PAS has several advocates in the form of voluntary organizations like “death with dignity” foundation. This has got a fillip in the recent Honourable Supreme Court Judgment in the Aruna Shaunbag case. What remains to be seen is how long it takes before this sensitive issue rattles the Indian legislature. PMID:22988327

Sinha, Vinod K.; Basu, S.; Sarkhel, S.

2012-01-01

364

76 FR 58076 - Designation of The Indian Mujahideen, Also Known as Indian Mujahedeen, Also Known as Indian...  

Science.gov (United States)

...DEPARTMENT OF STATE [Public Notice: 7595] Designation...as Indian Mujahidin, Also Known as Islamic Security Force-Indian Mujahideen...policy, or economy of the United States. Consistent with the...

2011-09-19

365

Effect of electron radiation on sugar content in inverted liquid sugar  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Inverted liquid sugar is a mixture of sucrose, glucose and fructose, which shows its relevant characteristic on high sweetness power. Ionizing radiation has been applied to different kind of food and ingredients for different reasons, such as pathogens reduction, disinfestations, quarantine purposes, ripening delay among others. Radiation from an electron beam can be utilized as a technique to treat this ingredient because it can process a great volume of material per unit of time. The main goal of this paper was to verify the effect of radiation on the properties of inverted liquid sugar. This ingredient was irradiated in an electron accelerator (Radiation Dynamics) at a dose ranging from 5 to 50 kGy. Sucrose content measurements were reduced by 23% at 30 kGy when compared to control and the reduced sugar content increased around 11%. Density and moisture values were not affected by radiation. The total soluble solids (Brix degrees) rose in function of the absorbed dose. (authors)

366

Location of sugars in multilamellar membranes at low hydration  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Severe dehydration is lethal for most biological species. However, there are a number of organisms which have evolved mechanisms to avoid damage during dehydration. One of these mechanisms is the accumulation of small solutes (e.g. sugars), which have been shown to preserve membranes by inhibiting deleterious phase changes at low hydration. Specifically, sugars reduce the gel to fluid phase transition temperatures of model lipid/water mixtures. However, there is a debate about the precise mechanism, the resolution of which hinges on the location of the sugars. In excess water, it has been observed using contrast variation SANS that the sugar concentration in the excess phase is higher than in the interlamellar region [Deme and Zemb, J. Appl. Crystallog. 33 (2000) 569]. This raises two questions regarding the location of the sugars at low hydrations: first, does the system phase separate to give a sugar/water phase in equilibrium with a lipid/water/sugar lamellar region (with different sugar concentrations); and second, is the sugar in the interlamellar region uniformly distributed, or does it concentrate preferentially either in close proximity to the lipids, or towards the center of the interbilayer region. In this paper we present the preliminary results of measurements using contrast variation SANS to determine the location of sugars in lipid/water mixtures.

Lenne, Thomas [Applied Physics, RMIT University, GPO Box 2476V, Melbourne 3001 (Australia)]. E-mail: thomas.lenne@rmit.edu.au; Bryant, Gary [Applied Physics, RMIT University, GPO Box 2476V, Melbourne 3001 (Australia); Garvey, Christopher J. [Institute for Nuclear Geophysiology, ANSTO, NSW 2234 (Australia); Keiderling, Uwe [Hahn-Meitner-Institut Berlin, Glienicker Str. 100, D-14109, Berlin (Germany); Koster, Karen L. [Department of Biology, University of South Dakota, Vermillion, SD 57069 (United States)

2006-11-15

367

World Sugar Market – Basic Development Trends and Tendencies  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This article is devoted to the issues of the world‘s sugar production and cultivation of sugar crops (sugar beet and sugar cane. It also analyzes the development of the global sugar trade. The main aim of this paper is to define the basic developmental trends and tendencies that affect the current situation on the market for sugar and sugar crops and then outline a process of gradual profiling of the world markets for these commodities. The article identifies the most important players operating in the global market, both in terms of production and in terms of trade. It also identifies not only the most important subjects of the global market from the viewpoint of the realized volume of production and trade, but also in terms of available comparative advantages and growth dynamics of the realized volume of production and trade. Finally, the paper highlights the significant differences existing in unit prices of the realized export and import flows in individual countries and regions. The results of this study show clearly that the world sugar market is extremely concentrated. A narrow group of entities localized mainly in Latin America, Southeast Asia, Europe and North America controls most of the world production of sugar beet and sugar cane. Furthermore, the results of the analysis show that the production and export of sugar are logically closely linked with the regions cultivating sugar crops, which again suggests that a limited number of entities controls most of the global sugar market. Currently, this market is dominated mainly by Latin American countries and Southeast Asia together with Europe.

M. Svatos?

2013-06-01

368

Indian Academy of Sciences - 15th Mid Year Meeting  

Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

indian academy of sciences - 15th mid year meeting indian institute of science, bangalore 17 july 2003 (thursday) venue: faculty hall, indian institute of science, bangalore g. padmanaban, indian institute of science, bangalore s. mahadevan, indian institute of science, pijush k. das, indian institute of chemical biology, kolkata 2 july 2004 (friday) venue: facult ...

369

Indian Academy of Sciences - 18th Mid Year Meeting  

Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

indian academy of sciences - 18th mid year meeting faculty hall, indian institute of science, bangalore yogesh m. joshi, indian institute of technology, kanpur raghavan b. sunoj, indian institute of technology, mumbai challenges in space exploration: global perspectives and indian initiatives e. d. jemmis, indian institute of science, bangalore rakesh ...

370

Sugar cane yield response to deficit irrigation at two growth stages  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A field study on sugar cane (Saccharum officinarum L.) yield response to deficit irrigation during both tillering and stem elongation stages, in order to increase crop water use efficiency, was carried out at Institut des Savanes (IDESSA) experimental station of Ferkessedougou, in Northern Ivory Coast. This cane crop tested was Co 449, an early - maturing genotype of indian origin. This experiment has been conducted for three consecutive years as virgin crop ( from November, 1991 to December 1992 ), first ratoon crop ( from December 1992 to January 1994 ) and as second ratoon crop ( from January 1994 to January 1995 ). The experimental design was a randomized complete block with 10 irrigation treatments in 4 replicates of 54 m sup2 sized plots. Water was applied through an improved furrow irrigation system. Crop water consumption was estimated using the water balance approach based on neutron probe and tensiometer measurements. This field water balance method required the determination of soil hydraulic conductivity as a function of water content and the neutron calibration curve. Data presented are related to the two ratoon crops for which field water balance measurements were investigated. It has been shown in the study that sugar cane growth and yield decline due to water deficit is significantly high during stem elongation as compared to tillering. As a result, the sugar cane tested was much more sensitive to water stress at stem elongation than at tillering. Therefore, deficit irrigation practice as to increase crop water use efficiency might be recommended at tillering rather than stem elongation. The water management strategy to be suggested here may consist of omitting irrigation during tillering ( assuming that the crop is successfully established ), for the benefit of stem elongation. As far as stem elongation is concerned, a moderate water deficit of about 25% with respect to the full irrigation regime appears to increase crop water use efficiency.6 figs; 4 tabs; 15 refs (Author)

371

STUDY OF TOTAL SOLUBLE SUGARS, REDUCING SUGARS AND STARCH COMPOSITION IN IMMATURE KERNELS OF CORN CULTIVARS  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

In this experiment, total soluble sugars (TSS), reducing sugars (RS), moisture and starch were determined at harvest in young kernels of the corn cultivars AL25, DOW270, BR106, CO32, AG4051, P3232, UFVM3, SHS4040, DOW170 and AG1051, for “fresh” consumption. The experiment was carried out in Viçosa, MG, Brazil. The experimental design was random blocks with three replicates, and the experimental units were composed by four 1-meter-spaced rows, with final stand of 50.000 plants.ha-1. Corn ...

FERNANDA FÁTIMA CANIATO; JOÃO CARLOS CARDOSO GALVÃO; FERNANDO LUIZ FINGER; ROSILENE ANTÔNIO RIBEIRO; GLAUCO VIEIRA MIRANDA; MARIO PUIATTI

2004-01-01

372

Radioisotope control of ball mills filling  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Results of performance testing of radioisotope meter for determining ball mills filling RIZMSh21 at Lebedinsky mining and concentrating works. The testing was carried out to study the possibility of radioisotope control of mills filling with concentrate pulp and to use the above instrument signal for regulating mills filling process. Data presented testify the possibility of RIZMSh21 device as an indicator for mills filling with concentrate pulp. Instrument for measuring power uptake by drive engine is recommended to use for control mill ball filling. Automatic system for control mill operation is developed at mining and concentrating works. It permits to control according to RIZMSh21 meter signal the revolution frequency of a pump feeding concentrate pulp from a mixer

373

Obesity and American Indians/Alaska Natives  

Science.gov (United States)

Obesity and American Indians/Alaska Natives American Indian/Alaska Native women are 30% more likely than non- ... findings/nhqrdr/nhqrdr12/index.html HEALTH IMPACT OF OBESITY More than 80 percent of people with type ...

374

CNP Project: Southwest American Indian Collaborative Network  

Science.gov (United States)

The Inter Tribal Council of Arizona1 established the Southwest American Indian Collaborative Network (SAICN) to eliminate cancer health disparities among American Indians. Core partners in the project represent both local and regional programs and activities.

375

Indian Academy of Sciences - Astrophysics and Astronomy  

Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

indian academy of sciences - astrophysics and astronomy structure and tectonics: the indian geomagnetic methods and lithospheric climate and global warming progressive and superposed deformations isotopic windows on earth and planetary ...

376

Explanatory Variables Associated with the Yield Performance Gap among Small- Medium-and Large-Scale Sugarcane (Saccharum officinarum Growers at Ubombo Sugar, Big bend, Swaziland  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The purpose of the ex post facto study was to determine explanatory variables for sugarcane (Saccharum officinarum yield among small, medium and large scale-growers at Ubombo Sugar, Swaziland. The target population of the census study was all small-medium-and large-scale-growers, milling their cane at the Big Bend Mill. Data were collected using valid and reliable questionnaires. The findings indicated that large-scale farmers obtained significantly higher yields than small and medium scale-growers. However, sucrose percentage was higher with small-scale than medium and large scale-growers. Production inputs and farming services were available, accessible, and affordable to all groups of sugarcane growers. Sugarcane growers were within the recommended delays in implementing the crucial planting and post harvest operations for sugarcane; and the man-days used per activity per hectare were within recommended practice. Explanatory variables for sugarcane yield were found to be distance between the farm and the mill; hand application of fertilizer man-days per hectare; and labour strength. Distance between the farm and the mill had a significantly negative influence on sugarcane yield. The research failed to reject the research hypothesis that good management and adequate production inputs increases sugarcane yield. The main conclusion was that, those farmers who were furthest from the mill should consider replacing sugarcane with other viable business ventures.

Mbuyazwe M. Dlamini

2012-01-01

377

AMORPHISATION OF SEMICONDUCTORS BY BALL-MILLING  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Recent results have demonstrated that ball - milling may produce a partial amorphisation of a pure crystalline semiconductor such as silicon, contrary to the general belief. In a series of preliminary experiments, we show that a partial amorphisation is also observed for the GaAs crystalline compound. X-ray diffraction, differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), SEM observations and EDX/SEM analyses have shown that the ball - milled powder (using a planetary ball - milling system) is a mixture ...

Gaffet, E.; Gaspard, J. -p

1990-01-01

378

High-speed milling of light metals  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Purpose: of this paper: Introduction applicability of high-speed cutting of light metals is presented in this paper.Design/methodology/approach: HSC is the result of numerous technical advances ensuring that milling has become faster than conventional milling and has gained importance as a cutting process. The advantages of the HSC milling are higher productivity owing to the reduction of machining times increase of the flow time of production, reduction of the number of technological operati...

Cus, F.; Zuperl, U.; Gecevska, V.

2007-01-01

379

The Microbiology of Olive Mill Wastes  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Olive mill wastes (OMWs) are high-strength organic effluents, which upon disposal can degrade soil and water quality, negatively affecting aquatic and terrestrial ecosystems. The main purpose of this review paper is to provide an up-to-date knowledge concerning the microbial communities identified over the past 20 years in olive mill wastes using both culture-dependent and independent approaches. A database survey of 16S rRNA gene sequences (585 records in total) obtained from olive mill wast...

Spyridon Ntougias; Kostas Bourtzis; George Tsiamis

2013-01-01

380

The Russian Federation – Specifics of the Sugar Market  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The Russian Federation represents a significant force in the global production and consumption of beet sugar. Its population which is in excess of more than 140 million people consumes over 5.6 million net tons of sugar annually, and the amount is steadily growing. The Russian sugar industry was unable to meet the domestic demand, especially during the economic transformation period (sugar beet and sugar production are very sensitive in relation to changes in economic, political, production and consumption environment (S?pic?ka, Janotova?, 2013, and Russia has thus become heavily dependent on imports of both refined and raw sugar. After a long period of stagnation the Russian Federation has over the past decade focused on promoting plans for restoring the production capacities of both the sugar beet growing and sugar manufacture. The government programme promoted at both the federal and regional levels has very significantly boosted the production potential and reduced Russia’s dependence on imports of sugar. This article aims to identify major trends and directions affecting the development of the Russian sugar industry in the past two decades. From the analysis outlined below it follows that the period of 1992 - 2000 was a very critical time for the Russian sugar industry during which there was a downswing in its cultivation and processing capacities. There was a significant decline not only in the quantitative but also qualitative characteristics of the Russian sugar industry. As a consequence, there has been a fall in competitiveness and a significant increase in import dependency. In the period 2000 - 2012, then was contrary to resuscitate the Russian market and the economy. This was reflected in the growth of sugar beet production, as well as in the growth of its own sugar production. Russia‘s dependence on imports of sugar from abroad dropped significantly and changed the structure of traded goods containing sugar. Due to a series of reforms, and to strengthen the competitiveness of Russian sugar industry, especially in relation to countries with which Russia has signed an agreement on customs union or free trade area.

L. Smutka

2014-03-01

 
 
 
 
381

Homogeneity evaluation of Chinese sugar carbon (CSC) standard for AMS {sup 14}C measurement  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The Chinese national radiocarbon standard Chinese Sugar Carbon (CSC), or often called the 'Chinese Sucrose Charcoal,' was investigated for its homogeneity and its suitability as a radiocarbon standard for Accelerator Mass Spectrometer (AMS). We randomly chose ten new CSC bottles and two opened bottles and measured their carbon isotope compositions. {delta}{sup 13}C results obtained by Isotope Ratio Mass Spectrometer (IRMS) showed relatively large variation: from -15.9 to -22.2 Per-Mille-Sign with an average of -19.0 {+-} 1.2 Per-Mille-Sign (n = 49), indicating CSC grains in the mg range are not isotopically homogeneous. However, {sup 14}C results of CSC, expressed as Fraction Modern (FM), are well constrained to 2.4 Per-Mille-Sign after fractionation correction to -25 Per-Mille-Sign . Measurements from all 12 bottles gave an average FM value of 1.3533 {+-} 0.0034 (n = 55). This value is about 7 Per-Mille-Sign higher that the FM value of 1.346 {+-} 0.002, converted from the originally reported R value of 1.362 {+-} 0.002 (n = 14, with {delta}{sup 13}C of -19.32, n = 9) [1,2]. The R value of 1.362 is the ratio of {sup 14}C activity of CSC to 95% of OXI, not an FM value. The online simultaneous AMS {sup 13}C/{sup 12}C measurement that allows for correction of all isotopic fractionation, including manufacture, graphitization and machine induced fractionation, is the key for obtaining consistent {sup 14}C measurements on this standard. Without further homogenization, CSC may not be a good choice of standard for an AMS that does not have the capability of measuring online AMS {delta}{sup 13}C. Further study is needed to see if mixing/grinding can reduce the inhomogeneity. Re-measurement is suggested with more laboratories involved in order to get a better defined consensus value.

Xu Xiaomei, E-mail: xxu@uci.edu [Keck Carbon Cycle AMS Facility, Department of Earth System Science, University of California, Irvine, CA 92697-3100 (United States); Shen Chengde [State Key Laboratory of Isotope Geochemistry, Guangzhou Institute of Geochemistry, Chinese Academy of Sciences, 510640 Guangzhou (China); Stills, Aubrey K.; Southon, John R. [Keck Carbon Cycle AMS Facility, Department of Earth System Science, University of California, Irvine, CA 92697-3100 (United States)

2013-01-15

382

The effect of sugar solution type, sugar concentration and viscosity on the imbibition and energy intake rate of bumblebees.  

Science.gov (United States)

Nectar is an essential resource for bumblebees and many other flower-visiting insects. The main constituents of nectar are sugars, which vary in both composition and concentration between plant species. We assessed the influence of sugar concentration, sugar solution viscosity and sugar solution composition on the imbibition and energy intake rate of bumblebees, Bombus impatiens Cresson (Hymenoptera: Apidae). To do this, we measured their rate of solution intake for 49 different sugar solution treatments, which varied in both sugar composition and concentration. In general, the imbibition rates of bumblebees were found to increase with increasing sugar concentration, probably due to their preference for high sugar concentrations, up to a concentration of 27% (w/w), at which point solutions reached a threshold viscosity of approximately 1.5-1.6 mPa.s. Above this threshold, the increasing viscosity of the solutions physically inhibited the imbibition rates of bees, and imbibition rate began to decrease as the concentration increased. Nevertheless, bumblebee energy intake rate increased with increasing concentration up to about 42-56%. Although we found that sugar solution composition had an impact on both imbibition and energy intake rate, its effect was not as straightforward as that of sugar concentration and viscosity. PMID:23831183

Nardone, Erika; Dey, Tania; Kevan, Peter G

2013-09-01

383

Quantitative determination of phenyl isothiocyanate-derivatized amino sugars and amino sugar alcohols by high-performance liquid chromatography.  

Science.gov (United States)

Simple and rapid methods for the preparation of phenylthiocarbamyl (PTC) derivatives of amino sugars and amino sugar alcohols and their quantitative determination with high sensitivity (less than 10 pmol) by C18 reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatography are described. Rapid sample preparation of the phenyl isothiocyanate (PITC)-derivatized amino sugars and amino sugar alcohols was achieved by a simple extraction of the reaction mixture with chloroform to remove the excess PITC and its adducts. Baseline separation of the PTC derivatives of amino sugars and amino sugar alcohols was obtained within 30 min, using a simple solvent system consisting of 0.2% each of n-butylamine, phosphoric acid, and tetrahydrofuran. The mobile phase containing n-butylamine, in conjunction with a C18 stationary phase, mimics the conditions for the separation of carbohydrates on an amino-bonded column. GlcNH2 and GalNH2 derived from the initial protein-sugar linkages were also separated from the amino acids for quantitative estimation of sugar chains in glycoproteins. Amino sugar alcohols gave single reaction products with PITC while the reaction with amino sugars was accompanied by the formation of secondary products. Apparently the secondary products were formed in an acid-catalyzed intramolecular cyclization of the PTC-hexosamines involving the aldehyde functional group. Conditions were developed to stop the transformations and maintain the stability of PTC derivatives for their convenient determination by HPLC. PMID:1952052

Anumula, K R; Taylor, P B

1991-08-15

384

Value Added Products from Hemicellulose Utilization in Dry Mill Ethanol Plants  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The Iowa Corn Promotion Board is the principal contracting entity for this grant funded by the US Department of Agriculture and managed by the US Department of Energy. The Iowa Corn Promotion Board subcontracted with New Jersey Institute of Technology, KiwiChem, Pacific Northwest National Lab and Idaho National Lab to conduct research for this project. KiwiChem conducted the economic engineering assessment of a dry-mill ethanol plant. New Jersey Institute of Technology conducted work on incorporating the organic acids into polymers. Pacific Northwest National Lab conducted work in hydrolysis of hemicellulose, fermentation and chemical catalysis of sugars to value-added chemicals. Idaho National Lab engineered an organism to ferment a specific organic acid. Dyadic, an enzme company, was a collaborator which provided in-kind support for the project. The Iowa Corn Promotion Board collaborated with the Ohio Corn Marketing Board and the Minnesota Corn Merchandising Council in providing cost share for the project. The purpose of this diverse collaboration was to integrate the hydrolysis, the conversion and the polymer applications into one project and increase the likelihood of success. This project had two primary goals: (1) to hydrolyze the hemicellulose fraction of the distillers grain (DG) coproduct coming from the dry-mill ethanol plants and (2) convert the sugars derived from the hemicellulose into value-added co-products via fermentation and chemical catalysis.

Rodney Williamson, ICPB; John Magnuson, PNNL; David Reed, INL; Marco Baez, Dyadic; Marion Bradford, ICPB

2007-03-30

385

KRAFT MILL BIOREFINERY TO PRODUCE ACETIC ACID AND ETHANOL: TECHNICAL ECONOMIC ANALYSIS  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The “near neutral hemicellulose extraction process” involves extraction of hemicellulose using green liquor prior to kraft pulping. Ancillary unit operations include hydrolysis of the extracted carbohydrates using sulfuric acid, removal of extracted lignin, liquid-liquid extraction of acetic acid, liming followed by separation of gypsum, fermentation of C5 and C6 sugars, and upgrading the acetic acid and ethanol products by distillation. The process described here is a variant of the “near neutral hemicellulose extraction process” that uses the minimal amount of green liquor to maximize sugar production while still maintaining the strength quality of the final kraft pulp. Production rates vary between 2.4 to 6.6 million gallons per year of acetic acid and 1.0 and 5.6 million gallons per year of ethanol, depending upon the pulp production rate. The discounted cash flow rate of return for the process is a strong function of plant size, and the capital investment depends on the complexity of the process. For a 1,000 ton per day pulp mill, the production cost for ethanol was estimated to vary between $1.63 and $2.07/gallon, and for acetic acid between $1.98 and $2.75 per gallon depending upon the capital equipment requirements for the new process. To make the process economically attractive, for smaller mill sizes the processing must be simplified to facilitate reductions in capital cost.

Haibo Mao

2010-05-01

386

EVALUASI GOOD HALAL MANUFACTURING PRACTICE (GHMP) DI MILL MNO PT.ISM BOGASARI FLOUR MILLS  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Inas Zahrah (D22107009) dan Nurfaidah Tahir (D22107028). Evaluasi Good Halal Manufacturing Practice (GHMP) di Mill MNO PT. ISM Bogasari Flour Mills (2011). Dibimbing oleh Amrin Rapi, ST. MT. dan Irwan Setiawan, ST. MT. PT. ISM Bogasari Flour Mills merupakan industri tepung terigu yang berdiri di Indonesia sejak tahun 1971 dimana PT. ISM Bogasari Flour Mills sendiri memiliki departemen penggilingan yang terdiri dari lima group penggilingan yaitu ABC, DEF, GHI, JKL, dan MNO...

Zahrah, Inas; Tahir, Nurfaidah

2011-01-01

387

A MISCELLANY ON INDIAN TRADITIONAL MUSIC  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Indian music has a very long, unbroken tradition and is an accumulated heritage of centuries. Music in India was popular among all the sections of society and intertwined in life and culture from birth to death. Indian music was formed with the evolution of ancient religious and secular music. The Indian culture absorbed all the best that was brought by other nations in the process of historical development. The Indian music is quite diverse: there are classical instrumental and vocal works a...

Rauf Kerimov

2013-01-01

388

Gender Anxiety and Contemporary Indian Popular Fiction  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

In her article "Gender Anxiety and Contemporary Indian Popular Fiction" Elen Turner discusses two examples of Indian "popular literature" which reflect contemporary Indian middle-class anxieties surrounding globalization and social change. The recent proliferation of foreign business process outsourcing companies in India has changed the financial and lifestyle opportunities available to young, urban Indians. While sociological and ethnographic studies have found that workers embrace what the...

Turner, Elen

2012-01-01

389

Indian Academy of Sciences - Videos of talks  

Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

the challenge of climate change: shyam saran,chairman, research and information system for developing countries fascinating flow of complex fluids . jamming, order and chaos: a.k. sood,chairman, indian institute of science, bangalore nanotube dynamo and graphene: a.k. sood, indian institute of science, bangalore india and the indian ocean: in search of a strategic role : c raja mohan,strategic affairs editor, the indian express, new delhi higher education and economic development: kaushik basu , ...

390

‘Shining Indians’: Diaspora and Exemplarity in Bollywood  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Commercial Hindi cinema plays a central role in the negotiation of national identity. For decades, the expatriate Indian served as a counter-example for acceptable behaviour, a living testimony of inappropriateness. In the mid-1990s, following the liberalization of the Indian economy, the rise of Hindu nationalism and the advent of a multiplex-going urban middle-class, the stereotype was turned around. The Non Resident Indian (NRI) became the epitome of Indianness and embodied at once capital...

Ingrid Therwath

2010-01-01

391

Process engineering with planetary ball mills.  

Science.gov (United States)

Planetary ball mills are well known and used for particle size reduction on laboratory and pilot scales for decades while during the last few years the application of planetary ball mills has extended to mechanochemical approaches. Processes inside planetary ball mills are complex and strongly depend on the processed material and synthesis and, thus, the optimum milling conditions have to be assessed for each individual system. The present review focuses on the insight into several parameters like properties of grinding balls, the filling ratio or revolution speed. It gives examples of the aspects of grinding and illustrates some general guidelines to follow for modelling processes in planetary ball mills in terms of refinement, synthesis' yield and contamination from wear. The amount of energy transferred from the milling tools to the powder is significant and hardly measurable for processes in planetary ball mills. Thus numerical simulations based on a discrete-element-method are used to describe the energy transfer to give an adequate description of the process by correlation with experiments. The simulations illustrate the effect of the geometry of planetary ball mills on the energy entry. In addition the imaging of motion patterns inside a planetary ball mill from simulations and video recordings is shown. PMID:23389051

Burmeister, Christine Friederike; Kwade, Arno

2013-09-21

392

USBF Performance in Treating Sugar Industries Wastewater  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available "n "nBackground and Objectives: Upflow Sludge Blanket Filtration (USBF system is a modification  of the conventional activated sludge process that incorporates an anoxic zone with an upflow sludge blanket filtration clarifier in one bioreactor. It has no inherent capacity limits and is used in a wide range of applications in municipal, industrial and agricultural wastewater treatment. The main objective of this study was to evaluate the performance of a continuous USBF reactor for the treatment of sugar industrial wastewater."nMaterials and Methods: Sixty liter laboratory pilot scale plant was made of plexiglass consists of   14 liter anoxic zone, 38 liter aerobic zone and 8 liter clarifier. Used molasses for raw wastewater was obtained from Varamin Sugar Company. During the study, the wastewater has been initially fed to anoxic zone of the bioreactor. It mixed with recycled activated sludge returned from the clarifier and the mixed liquor entered into aerobic zone of the bioreactor. From aeration zone, the mixed liquor passed through the sludge zone at the bottom of the clarifier which was then separated by upflow sludge blanket filtration and then the clear water discharged from the system. To complete the internal circulation loop, collected activated sludge at the bottom of the clarifier was recycled to the anoxic zone."nResults: Experimental studies indicated that average removal efficiency of COD with HRTs from 21  to 26 hours in the aerobic zone and from 8 to 10 hours in the anoxic zone were from 77 to 97 percent depended on input feed (1000 to 30000 mg/L."nConclusion: USBF as an advanced biological process had a proper COD removal efficiency for the biological treatment of sugar industries wastewater compared to other researchers methods.

B Ayati

2009-03-01

393

Considerations Concerning the Dynamics of Vibratory Mills Used in Powders’ Mechanical Milling Process  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Dynamic mechanical milling process in a powder mill was studied by analyzing the vibratory effects of vibration and shock phenomena on the material microstructure ground. During the milling process, there were noticed both distinct modes of ball motion: the one generated by the periodic vibration and the one produced by chaotic vibration.

Radu Panaitescu-Liess; Amelitta Legendi; Cristian Pavel

2010-01-01

394

Sugar High - Type I Diabetes and Leptin  

Science.gov (United States)

Twenty-seventh monthly installment of our "What A Year!" website project, introducing life science breakthroughs to middle and high school students and their teachers. Glucose, the simplest form of sugar our bodies can use, is produced from or contained in the food we eat. If glucose circulating in our bloodstream is not "taken up" into cells and organs, it can cause severe problems. People with Type I diabetes do not produce sufficient insulin to manage this glucose uptake, so they may have to take insulin injections. But there may be another way - leptin regulation.

2009-04-01

395

Regulations of sugar transporters: insights from yeast.  

Science.gov (United States)

Transport across the plasma membrane is the first step at which nutrient supply is tightly regulated in response to intracellular needs and often also rapidly changing external environment. In this review, I describe primarily our current understanding of multiple interconnected glucose-sensing systems and signal-transduction pathways that ensure fast and optimum expression of genes encoding hexose transporters in three yeast species, Saccharomyces cerevisiae, Kluyveromyces lactis and Candida albicans. In addition, an overview of GAL- and MAL-specific regulatory networks, controlling galactose and maltose utilization, is provided. Finally, pathways generating signals inducing posttranslational degradation of sugar transporters will be highlighted. PMID:23455612

Horák, J

2013-05-01

396

Information Concerning the Washoe County Indian Community.  

Science.gov (United States)

Information relative to Indian residents of Washoe County, Nevada, has been developed to provide an analysis of educational and employment needs. Population figures are presented by age and sex for 3 basic Indian residence groups in the county. Statistics are presented in tabular form for Indian student enrollment in area schools, income level of…

Nevada Univ., Reno. Coll. of Education.

397

Scientific drilling in the Indian Ocean  

Science.gov (United States)

Indian Ocean IODP Workshop; Goa, India, 17-18 October 2011 An Indian Ocean Integrated Ocean Drilling Program (IODP) Workshop was hosted by the National Centre for Antarctic and Ocean Research. With no scientific ocean drilling in the Indian Ocean for nearly a decade, this region remains a major gap in understanding global geoscientific processes, past and present, and their implications for the future.

Exon, Neville; Pandey, Dhananjai; Gallagher, Stephen

2012-02-01

398

Federal Treaty Responsibility for Indian Education.  

Science.gov (United States)

In view of prior treaties and recent laws, American Indian affairs seem to fluctuate between two different problems--the extent of Federal control "over" Indians and the extent of Federal responsibility "to" Indians. Since treaty interpretations often come years after ratification, it is necessary that a treaty be liberally construed to the end…

Deloria, Vine, Jr.

399

Indian Academy of Sciences - New associates, 2007  

Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

computer science and automation department,indian institute of science,bangaloredepartment of inorganic and physical chemistry,indian institute of science,bangalorecentre for leather apparels and accessories development,central leather research institute,chennai11. dr u.k. anandavardhanandepartment of mathematics and statistics,indian institute of technology, kanpur,kanpur ...

400

300 Years of Canadian Indian Education Policy.  

Science.gov (United States)

Accenting the education policies of the Canadian government, this article discusses the European educational policy of Christianization as a prerequisite to civilization and education. The provincial or local legislature assumed jurisdictional responsibility for Indians until the 1972 Indian Control of Indian Education Policy Statement moved…

Dooner, Terrence

1978-01-01

 
 
 
 
401

Circumstance Adverbials in Registers of Indian English  

Science.gov (United States)

This is a corpus-based investigation of "also" and "too" in 11 registers of Indian English. The corpus used for this study is a combination of a Corpus of Contemporary Indian English (CCIE), and certain sections of ICE-India. The study: (1) determines the proportions of "also" and "too" with respect to each other in the Indian corpus; (2) compares…

Balasubramanian, Chandrika

2009-01-01

402

Moral Leadership in Education: An Indian Perspective.  

Science.gov (United States)

Discusses reasons for emergence of management concepts in Indian education. Reviews Western literature on leadership and offers an Indian perspective on leadership. Provides overview of the lives of three famous Indian leaders who demonstrated the essence of moral leadership: Swami Vivekananda, Rabindranath Tagore, and Mahatma Gandhi. Draws…

Sapre, Padmakar M.; Ranade, Mridula D.

2001-01-01

403

The most important pathogens transmitted by sugar beet  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Pathogenic fungi and viruses transmitted by sugar beet seed represent a complex group of organisms. Detection of these pathogens is an important issue in sugar beet protection. Their identification is a difficult task because the most available methods rely on the growth characteristics morphological and biochemical criteria. Three domestic and eight foreign sugar beet varieties, from Germany, Italy and Greece were included in the investigation. Seed health testing was performed in laboratory...

Miloševi? Mirjana B.; Ignjatov Maja V.; Medi?-Pap Sla?ana S.

2006-01-01

404

Embedded Fuzzy Module for Sugar Industrial Boiler Parameter Control  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

In sugar industry, past the sugar was main product and bagasse was considered as west and its disposal was the problem. The present paper highlights the design and development of Embedded Fuzzy Module for energy efficiency improvement of bagasse boiler for a sugar factory intended for cogeneration system. The multipurpose boiler considered parameters are Water flow, Steam flow, Amount of fuel and Air flow. The Fuzzy Logic Inference is to find out the desirable amount of fuel (bagasse) and Air...

Hanamane M. D.; Attar K. D.; Dr. Mudholkar R. R.

2013-01-01

405

Perceptions of sugar mommy practices in South Africa  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The study sought to explore sugar mommy practices regarding their occurrence, acceptability as well as perceived reasons why older women and younger men enter into sugar mommy relationships. An exploratory qualitative study involving 135 participants from 11 diverse focus groups in terms of age, gender (females=27%) and geotype throughout the nine South African provinces was conducted. Data on the participants’ views, opinions and experiences of sugar mommy practices were collected using fo...

Phaswana-mafuya, Nancy; Shisana, Olive; Davids, Adlai; Tabane, Cily; Mbelle, Margaret; Matseke, Gladys; Banyini, Mercy; Kekana, Queen

2014-01-01

406

Spectrophotometric determination of sugars labelled with 14C  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Comparative analysis of methods for determination of microgram amounts of 14C-labelled sugars has been carried out. The ferricyanide and Shomodyi-Nelson methods were approbated in experimental study. The relative error of the ferricyanide method was found to be smaller than that of the Shomodyi-Nelson method. Thus the ferricyanide method was used for obtaining calibration curves for 15 sugars. The accuracy for sugar amounts higher than 3 ?g/10 ml was better than +, - 5%

407

Sugar transporters for intercellular exchange and nutrition of pathogens  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Sugar efflux transporters are essential for the maintenance of animal blood glucose levels, plant nectar production, and plant seed and pollen development. Despite broad biological importance, the identity of sugar efflux transporters has remained elusive. Using optical glucose sensors, we identified a new class of sugar transporters, named SWEETs, and show that at least six out of seventeen Arabidopsis, two out of over twenty rice and two out of seven homologues in Caenorhabditis elegans, an...

Chen, Li-qing; Hou, Bi-huei; Lalonde, Sylvie; Takanaga, Hitomi; Hartung, Mara L.; Qu, Xiao-qing; Guo, Woei-jiun; Kim, Jung-gun; Underwood, William; Chaudhuri, Bhavna; Chermak, Diane; Antony, Ginny; White, Frank F.; Somerville, Shauna C.; Mudgett, Mary Beth

2010-01-01

408

Consumer understanding of sugars claims on food and drink products  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Consumer understanding of nutrition and health claims is a key aspect of current regulations in the European Union (EU). In view of this, qualitative and quantitative research techniques were used to investigate consumer awareness and understanding of product claims in the UK, focusing particularly on nutrition claims relating to sugars. Both research methods identified a good awareness of product claims. No added sugars claims were generally preferred to reduced sugars claims, and there was ...

Patterson, N. J.; Sadler, M. J.; Cooper, J. M.

2012-01-01

409

Study of sugar cooking degree to sugar obtention using gamma attenuation  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The application of gamma radiation attenuation methodology in the determination of sugar cooking degree is studied. Several experiments with samples of vacuum equipment during the cooking were made, based on beam intensity variations of a radioactive source of Americium 241. One sensible difference between the sirup emergent radiation and the cooked mass was observed. (M.A.C.)

410

Detection of sugar-lectin interactions by multivalent dendritic sugar functionalized single-walled carbon nanotubes  

Science.gov (United States)

We show that single walled carbon nanotubes (SWNTs) decorated with sugar functionalized poly (propyl ether imine) (PETIM) dendrimer is a very sensitive platform to quantitatively detect carbohydrate recognizing proteins, namely, lectins. The changes in electrical conductivity of SWNT in field effect transistor device due to carbohydrate-protein interactions form the basis of present study. The mannose sugar attached PETIM dendrimers undergo charge-transfer interactions with the SWNTs. The changes in the conductance of the dendritic sugar functionalized SWNT after addition of lectins in varying concentrations were found to follow the Langmuir type isotherm, giving the concanavalin A (Con A)-mannose affinity constant to be 8.5 × 106 M-1. The increase in the device conductance observed after adding 10 nM of Con A is same as after adding 20 ?M of a non-specific lectin peanut agglutinin, showing the high specificity of the Con A-mannose interactions. The specificity of sugar-lectin interactions was characterized further by observing significant shifts in Raman modes of the SWNTs.

Vasu, K. S.; Naresh, K.; Bagul, R. S.; Jayaraman, N.; Sood, A. K.

2012-07-01

411

Satellite Communications: The Indian Scenario  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available India has launched as many as 73 Indian satellites as of today since its first attempt in 1975. Besides serving traditional markets of telephony and broadcasting, satellites are on the frontiers of advanced applications as telemedicine, distance learning, environment monitoring, remote sensing, and so on. Satellite systems are optimized for services such as Internet access, virtual private networks and personal access. Costs have been coming down in recent years to the point where satellite broadband is becoming competitive. This article is an attempt to view this important topic from Indian perspective. India’s Project GAGAN, GPS Aided Geo Augmented Navigation is discussed.

Dr. Ranjit Singh

2014-05-01

412

East Indians in the Caribbean  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available [First paragraph] Transients to Settlers: The Experience of Indians in Jamaica 1845-J950. VERENE SHEPHERD. Leeds, U.K.: Peepal Tree Books, 1993. 281 pp. (Paper £12.95 Survivors of Another Crossing: A History of East Indians in Trinidad, 1880-1946. MARIANNE D. SOARES RAMESAR. St. Augustine, Trinidad and Tobago: U.W.I. School of Continuing Education, 1994. xiii + 190 pp. (Paper n.p. Les Indes Antillaises: Presence et situation des communautes indiennes en milieu caribeen. ROGER TOUMSON (ed.. Paris: L'Harmattan, 1994. 264 pp. (Paper 140.00 FF Nation and Migration: The Politics of Space in the South Asian Diaspora. PETER VAN DER VEER (ed.. Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press, 1995. vi + 256 pp. (Cloth US$ 39.95, Paper US$ 17.95 In the decade since 1988, Caribbean nations with Indian communities have commemorated the 150th anniversary of the arrival of East Indians to the West Indies. These celebrations are part of local revitalization movements of Indian culture and identity stretching from the French departement of Guadeloupe in the Windward Islands to Trinidad and Guyana in the south. Political changes have mirrored the cultural revival in the region. While the debate so often in the past centered on the legitimacy of East Indian claims to local nationality in these societies where African or Creole cultures dominate, in the 1990s leaders of Indian descent were elected heads of government in the two Caribbean nations with the most populous East Indian communities: Cheddi Jagan as President of Guyana in October 1992 (after a 28-year hiatus and Basdeo Panday as Prime Minister of Trinidad in November 1995. Both men have long been associated with their respective countries' struggles for economic, political, and social equality. Outside the region during the summer of 1997, fiftieth-anniversary celebrations marking the independence of India and Pakistan from Britain confirmed that Indo chic — or "Indofrenzy" as anthropologist Arjun Appadurai calls it (Sengupta 1997:13 - has captured the American imagination with the new popularity of literature, art, and film emanating from India and its diaspora.

Ellen M. Schnepel

1999-07-01

413

Indian Space Research Organisation (ISRO)  

Science.gov (United States)

Well known by remote sensing scientists around the world, the Indian Space Research Organisation (ISRO) maintains the Indian Remote Sensing Satellite (IRS), providing earth photos for environmental management and global research applications. ISRO has more than this to offer; its objectives include the development of launch vehicles, such as the Polar Satellite Launch Vehicle (PSLV) and the Geosynchronous Satellite Launch Vehicle (GSLV), as well as the development of sounding rockets and supporting ground systems. The homepage provides background information on ISRO's history, space programs and services, partnerships and international relationships. Visitors can find summaries in the Recent Events section; future missions and planned developments are highlighted in the Decade Plan section.

1969-12-31

414

Reconciliation of opposing views on membrane-sugar interactions.  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

It is well established that small sugars exert different types of stabilization of biomembranes both in vivo and in vitro. However, the essential question of whether sugars are bound to or expelled from membrane surfaces, i.e., the sign and size of the free energy of the interaction, remains unresolved, and this prevents a molecular understanding of the stabilizing mechanism. We have used small-angle neutron scattering and thermodynamic measurements to show that sugars may be either bound or expelled depending on the concentration of sugar. At low concentration, small sugars bind quite strongly to a lipid bilayer, and the accumulation of sugar at the interface makes the membrane thinner and laterally expanded. Above â¼0.2 M the sugars gradually become expelled from the membrane surface, and this repulsive mode of interaction counteracts membrane thinning. The dual nature of sugar-membrane interactions offers a reconciliation of conflicting views in earlier reports on sugar-induced modulations of membrane properties.

Andersen, Heidi D.; Wang, Chunhua

2011-01-01

415

Sugar ester surfactants: enzymatic synthesis and applications in food industry.  

Science.gov (United States)

Sugar esters are non-ionic surfactants that can be synthesized in a single enzymatic reaction step using lipases. The stability and efficiency of lipases under unusual conditions and using non-conventional media can be significantly improved through immobilization and protein engineering. Also, the development of de novo enzymes has seen a significant increase lately under the scope of the new field of synthetic biology. Depending on the esterification degree and the nature of fatty acid and/or sugar, a range of sugar esters can be synthesized. Due to their surface activity and emulsifying capacity, sugar esters are promising for applications in food industry. PMID:24915370

Neta, Nair S; Teixeira, José A; Rodrigues, Lígia R

2015-01-01

416

Characterization of Sugar Insensitive (sis) Mutants of Arabidopsis  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Despite the fact that soluble sugar levels have been postulated to play an important role in the control of a wide variety of plant metabolic and developmental pathways, the mechanisms by which plants respond to soluble sugar levels remain poorly understood. Plant responses to soluble sugar levels are also important in bioenergy production, as plant sugar responses are believed to help regulate both carbon fixation and carbon partitioning. For example, accumulation of soluble sugars, such as sucrose and glucose, in source tissues leads to feedback inhibition of photosynthesis, thereby decreasing rates of carbon fixation. Soluble sugar levels can also affect sink strengths, affecting the rates of accumulation of carbon-based compounds into both particular molecular forms (e.g. carbohydrates versus lipids versus proteins) and particular plant organs and tissues. Mutants of Arabidopsis that are defective in the ability to respond to soluble sugar levels were isolated and used as tools to identify some of the factors involved in plant sugar response. These sugar insensitive (sis) mutants were isolated by screening mutagenized seeds for those that were able to germinate and develop relatively normal shoot systems on media containing 0.3 M glucose or 0.3 M sucrose. At these sugar concentrations, wild-type Arabidopsis germinate and produce substantial root systems, but show little to no shoot development. Twenty-eight sis mutants were isolated during the course of four independent mutant screens. Based on a preliminary characterization of all of these mutants, sis3 and sis6 were chosen for further study. Both of these mutations appear to lie in previously uncharacterized loci. Unlike many other sugar-response mutants, sis3 mutants exhibit a wild-type or near wild-type response in all phytohormone-response assays conducted to date. The sis6-1 mutation is unusual in that it appears to be due to overexpression of a gene, rather than representing a loss of function mutation. Characterization of mutant and wild-type plants has revealed that sugars inhibit breakdown of seed storage lipids. In addition, high concentrations of exogenous sugars largely eliminate the development of mature chloroplasts by developing seedlings. Affymetrix GeneChip experiments have revealed that expression of many plant genes is partially regulated by sugar levels, with approximately two percent of genes exhibiting alterations in steady-state mRNA levels in response to changing sugar concentrations. Ultimately, a better understanding of plant sugar responses may allow improvements in rates of carbon fixation and manipulation of carbon partitioning. These improvements will be needed to help make production of energy from biomass more economically attractive.

Gibson, Susan I.

2009-06-08

417

Sugar-fat seesaw: a systematic review of the evidence.  

Science.gov (United States)

Further to reports of a reciprocal relationship between sugar and fat intakes, this review aimed to provide an in-depth analysis and to determine the likely influence of this relationship on the achievement of population dietary guidelines. Using systematic methods, relevant literature was selected according to preset criteria. A strong and consistent inverse association was found between total sugars and total fat intakes expressed as percentage energy. Fewer studies considered absolute intakes and these reported a positive relationship, which may be influenced by confounding with energy intakes. Evidence for an inverse relationship between percentage energy from fat and extrinsic sugars was weaker and less consistent than for fat and total sugars. Reciprocal relationships were also observed for sugar-saturated fat, sugar-protein, sugar-alcohol, and sugar-starch expressed as percentage energy. Under-reporting of dietary intakes had no major influence on the findings. This review confirms the existence of the sugar-fat seesaw on a percentage energy basis and concludes that it is most likely explained by a combination of mathematical and food compositional effects. This finding is relevant because dietary guidelines are expressed as percentage energy and implies that at the population level multiple guidelines may be difficult to achieve in practice. PMID:24915391

Sadler, Michele Jeanne; McNulty, Helene; Gibson, Sigrid

2015-01-01

418

Embedded Fuzzy Module for Sugar Industrial Boiler Parameter Control  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In sugar industry, past the sugar was main product and bagasse was considered as west and its disposal was the problem. The present paper highlights the design and development of Embedded Fuzzy Module for energy efficiency improvement of bagasse boiler for a sugar factory intended for cogeneration system. The multipurpose boiler considered parameters are Water flow, Steam flow, Amount of fuel and Air flow. The Fuzzy Logic Inference is to find out the desirable amount of fuel (bagasse and Air flow for targeted steam flow. In this paper Embedded Fuzzy Logic Module for improving the steam generation performance as well as saving fuel of boiler in the sugar industry.

Hanamane M. D.

2013-05-01

419

Sugar cane bagasse prehydrolysis using hot water  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Results are presented on the hot water prehydrolysis of sugar cane bagasse for obtaining ethanol by fermentation. The experimental study consisted of the determination of the effect of temperature and time of prehydrolysis on the extraction of hemicelluloses, with the objective of selecting the best operating conditions that lead to increased yield of extraction with a low formation of inhibitors. The study, carried out in a pilot plant scale rotational digester, using a 3² experimental design at temperatures of 150-190ºC and times of 60-90 min, showed that it is possible to perform the hot water prehydrolysis process between 180-190ºC in times of 60-82 min, yielding concentrations of xylose > 35 g/L, furfural < 2.5 g/L, phenols from soluble lignin < 1.5 g/L, and concentrations < 3.0 g/L of hemicelluloses in the cellolignin residue. These parameters of temperature and prehydrolysis time could be used for the study of the later hydrolysis and fermentation stages of ethanol production from sugar cane bagasse.

D. Abril

2012-03-01

420

Biofuel production from plant biomass derived sugars  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This report details the results of a project that aimed to develop a recombinant thermophilic microorganism able to produce ethanol in a commercial yield from mixed C5 (xylose and arabinose) and C6 (mainly glucose) sugar substrates typically found in biomass hydrolysates. The main focus of the project was on producing a stable recombinant which formed ethanol as its major product and did not produce significant quantities of by-products. The costs of bioethanol could be substantially reduced if cheap plant-based feedstocks could be utilised. This study focussed on a strain of Geobacillus thermoglucosidasius known to be a thermophilic ethanol producer and developed the genetic manipulation techniques necessary to engineer its metabolism such that unwanted products (mainly organic acids) were no longer formed and ethanol became the overwhelming product. An appropriate genetic took kit to allow the required metabolic engineering was acquired and used to inactivate the genes of the metabolic pathways involved in the formation of the organic acids (e.g. lactic acid) and to up-regulate genes concerned with the formation of ethanol. This allowed the flow of metabolites derived from the sugar substrates to be redirected to the desired product. Stable mutants lacking the ability to form lactic acid were created and shown to give enhanced levels of ethanol, with yields from glucose approaching those achieved in yeast fermentations and low by-product formation.

Cripps, R.

2007-03-15

 
 
 
 
421

75 FR 3906 - Request for Public Comment: 30-Day Proposed Information Collection: Indian Health Service...  

Science.gov (United States)

...Collection: Indian Health Service Customer Satisfaction Survey AGENCY: Indian Health...Indian Health Service Customer Satisfaction Survey.'' Type of Information...Indian Health Service Customer Satisfaction Survey.''...

2010-01-25

422

Prospects of sugarcane milling waste utilization for hydrogen production in India  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Cane-sugar producing countries also generate sufficient waste (bagasse) that is mostly utilized ''on-site'' as a replacement to coal in specialized boilers. In addition to sugar and molasses, about 25% by-product of the cane milling is bagasse that still retains 2.5% sugar on dry wt. basis.This paper deals with the prospects of bagasse fermentation for hydrogen production. It seems relevant, as India and Brazil are the major sugarcane producers in the world. The results obtained confirm bagasse, annually generated to a tune of 40 Mt (million tons) in India, can be diverted from the conventional burning or composting to fermentative hydrogen production in a cost-effective way. The processing cost of bagasse for hydrogen production (3Nm3) equivalent to 1L petrol is about half. The system optimization for accessibility of polysaccharides in bagasse and the use of genetically efficient bacterial strains for agrowaste-based hydrogen production seems the ideal option for clean energy generation

423

Forage uptake of uranium series radionuclides in the vicinity of the anaconda uranium mill  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Radiochemical analysis was performed on samples of soil and eight species of common vegetation growing on the Anaconda uranium mill site, located in New Mexico. The concentrations of the long-lived radionuclides U-238, U-234, Th-230, Ra-226, and Pb-210 in these forage plants were determined. The sampling procedures and analytical laboratory methods used are described. The highest radionuclide concentration found in a forage species was 130 pCi of Ra-226 per gram dry weight for grass growing on the main tailings pile at Anaconda, where the surface soil activity of Ra-226 was 236 pCi/g. A comparison of shoots activity with that of roots and soil was used to determine a distribution index and uptake coefficient for each species. The distribution index, the ratio of root activity to shoot activity, ranged from 0.30 (Th-230) in galleta grass (Hilaria jamesii) to 38.0 (Ra-226) in Indian ricegrass (Oryzopsis hymenoides). In nearly all instances, the roots contained higher radionuclide concentrations. The uptake coefficient, the ratio of vegetation activity to soil activity, ranged from 0.69 (U-238) in Indian ricegrass roots to 0.01 (U-238) in four-wing saltbush (Atriplex canescans) shoots. The range of radionuclide concentrations in plants growing on the Anaconda mill site is compared to that in vegetation from a control site 20 km away

424

Airborne effluent control at uranium mills  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The Oak Ridge National Laboratory has made an engineering cost--environmental benefit study of radioactive waste treatment systems for decreasing the amount of radioactive materials released from uranium ore processing mills. This paper summarizes the results of the study which pertain to the control and/or abatement of airborne radioactive materials from the mill processes. The tailings area is not included. Present practices in the uranium milling industry, with particular emphasis on effluent control and waste management, have been surveyed. A questionnaire was distributed to each active mill in the United States. Replies were received from about 75 percent of the mill operators. Visits were made to six operating uranium mills that were selected because they represented the different processes in use today and the newest, most modern in mill designs. Discussions were held with members of the Region IV Office of NRC and the Grand Junction Office of ERDA. Nuclear Science Abstracts, as well as other sources, were searched for literature pertinent to uranium mill processes, effluent control, and waste management

425

Child Labor in the Cotton Mills  

Science.gov (United States)

In this lesson, students read two primary source documents on the subject of child labor in Southern cotton mills during the early twentieth century and listen to excerpts of oral histories from mill workers. In a critical analysis, students will identify the audiences for both documents and the motivations and intent of its authors, as well as examine the historical importance of each document.

South, Documenting T.

2012-04-03

426

Bernard Mills and Australian radio astronomy  

Science.gov (United States)

Bernard Mills, in conversation with Ragbir Bhathal, recalls how he became an astronomer by accident after the second world war, devised the Mills Cross radio telescope as a way to get a good instrument on the cheap, and what happened when he questioned the methods of Cambridge radio astronomers at the time of Martin Ryle's 2C catalogue.

Bhathal, Ragbir

2012-04-01

427

Airborne effluent control at uranium mills  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The Oak Ridge National Laboratory has made an engineering cost--environmental benefit study of radioactive waste treatment systems for decreasing the amount of radioactive materials released from uranium ore processing mills. This paper summarizes the results of the study which pertain to the control and/or abatement of airborne radioactive materials from the mill processes. The tailings area is not included. Present practices in the uranium milling industry, with particular emphasis on effluent control and waste management, have been surveyed. A questionnaire was distributed to each active mill in the United States. Replies were received from about 75 percent of the mill operators. Visits were made to six operating uranium mills that were selected because they represented the different processes in use today and the newest, most modern in mill designs. Discussions were held with members of the Region IV Office of NRC and the Grand Junction Office of ERDA. Nuclear Science Abstracts, as well as other sources, were searched for literature pertinent to uranium mill processes, effluent control, and waste management.

Sears, M.B.

1976-01-01

428

Mills' ratio: Reciprocal convexity and functional inequalities  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This note contains sufficient conditions for the probability density function of an arbitrary continuous univariate distribution, supported on $(0,\\infty),$ such that the corresponding Mills ratio to be reciprocally convex (concave). To illustrate the applications of the main results, the reciprocal convexity (concavity) of Mills ratio of the gamma distribution is discussed in details.

Baricz, A?rpa?d

2010-01-01

429

Radiological health aspects of uranium milling  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This report describes the operation of conventional and unconventional uranium milling processes, the potential for occupational exposure to ionizing radiation at the mill, methods for radiological safety, methods of evaluating occupational radiation exposures, and current government regulations for protecting workers and ensuring that standards for radiation protection are adhered to. In addition, a survey of current radiological health practices is summarized

430

Safety regulation in uranium mining and milling in India  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The exploration for uranium in India started as early as 1950. At present there are three underground mines at Jaduguda, Bhatin and Narwapahar located within 12 km of one another and one more is at the development stage at Turamdih located 20 km away from Jaduguda mine in the Jharkhand State. One more open cast mine at Banduhurang located near Turamdih in the Singhbum thrust belt, is also being explored. There are proposals for three more mines in Andhra Pradesh, Karnataka and Meghalaya. Jaduguda is the first uranium mine opened in mid 1960s in India is semi mechanised. Bhatin mine is relatively small mine. Narwapahar mine is one of the most modern mines in the country, is highly mechanised with trackless vehicle used for movement of man and material with wide drives and large exposed surface area of the rocks. The ore excavated from all the mines, i.e. Jaduguda, Bhatin, and Narwapahar is transported by road to the ore processing plant at Jaduguda. The ore is crushed, wet ground to fine and made in pulp and is treated (leached) with sulphuric acid. The intermediate product is filtered, purified and concentrated using ion exchange process. The filterate containing uranium is allowed to react with Magnesium oxide slurry to the final product Magnesium- di-uranate, which is a yellow coloured cake collected in drums and sent to Nuclear Fuel Complex at Hyderabad. Operational hazards, the Indian regulatory framework and the environmental monitoring and control are reported. ntal monitoring and control are reported. AERB continuously monitors the radiation and industrial safety aspects in uranum mines and mill and stipulates actions, which are compulsorily implemented in the mines and mill. These actions contribute to reduction in individual dose both external and internal and prevent occupation health hazards associated with the mining

431

John Stuart Mill and gender violence: weaknesses and strengths of Mill’s thought  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Hoy, tanto como ayer, la violencia de género sigue erigiéndose en lacra social por antonomasia, constitutyendo una de las principales causas de muerte y agresión de mujeres en el mundo según el último informe de la Organización Mundial de la Salud. De hecho, la preocupación por los malos tratos aparece más que presente a lo largo de la obra de los Mill, lo que viene a demostrar que cuando hablamos de violencia de género no hablamos de un fenómeno social nuevo, propio del contexto de...

Gil Ruiz, Juana Mari?a

2005-01-01

432

Preliminary Test of Upgraded Conventional Milling Machine into PC Based CNC Milling Machine  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

CNC (Computerized Numerical Control) milling machine yields a challenge to make an innovation in the field of machining. With an action job is machining quality equivalent to CNC milling machine, the conventional milling machine ability was improved to be based on PC CNC milling machine. Mechanically and instrumentally change. As a control replacing was conducted by servo drive and proximity were used. Computer programme was constructed to give instruction into milling machine. The program structure of consists GUI model and ladder diagram. Program was put on programming systems called RTX software. The result of up-grade is computer programming and CNC instruction job. The result was beginning step and it will be continued in next time. With upgrading ability milling machine becomes user can be done safe and optimal from accident risk. By improving performance of milling machine, the user will be more working optimal and safely against accident risk. (author)

433

CANCER IN ANCIENT INDIAN SURGERY  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This paper contains some valid interpretations of the surgical explanations of the disease Cancer in terms of such relative diseases in Ayurveda. This is a result of a critical observation of the Susruta Samhita, followed by the translation of this authentic text of ancient Indian Surgery done by the author and his colleagues.

Singhal, G. D.

1983-01-01

434

FIIs in Indian Derivative Markets  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available since 1990-91, Government of India startedliberalization and economic reforms with a view of bringingabout substantial economic growth and move towards Theglobalization. As a part of this liberalization process, theGovernment under its New Industrial Policy liberalized itsforeign investment policy recognizing the growingimportance of FDI as an instrument of foreign capital flowand technological development. Government, for the firsttime, permitted foreign institutional investors to invest inIndian capital market through portfolio investments. FromSeptember 14, 1992 with suitable restrictions, FIIs werepermitted to invest in all the securities traded on the primaryand secondary markets, including shares, debentures andwarrants issued by companies which were listed or were tobe listed on the Stock Exchanges in India.Since then FIIs are investing in the different sections ofIndian capital Market. FIIs invest huge amount in differentsections of Indian capital market and there trades make asignificant impact in the movement of stock market as wellas in the growth of the economy.The study of the impact of FIIs trades in Indian Capitalmarket is of vital importance for investors as well aseconomists

Mr. Manohar Giri

2013-02-01

435

Indian Academy of Sciences - Memorandum  

Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

indian academy of sciences - memorandum history | memorandum 1. to promote the progress and uphold the cause of science, both in pure and applied branches. having similar objects and with others when founded. 3. to encourage and publish important researches in the branches of science comprehended by the academy and to 4. to undertake, cont ...

436

Indian Academy of Sciences - General  

Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

science and technology science and technology have been an integral part of indian civilization and culture. india?s traditions in science and technology stretch over several millenia and have been founded on the principle of universal harmony and independence, india and its people have been committed to the task of promoting the spread of science and have ...

437

Indian Academy of Sciences - Journals  

Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

indian academy of sciences - journals proceedings - mathematical sciences journal of earth system science (formerly proc. - earth planet. sci.) journal of chemical sciences (formerly proc. - chem. sci.) bulletin of materials science sadhana (engineering sciences) journal of biosciences resonance - journal of science education ...

438

INDIAN CULTURE THROUGTH BRITHISH EYES  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Representation of Indian Culture by the British Eye through literature, “APassage To India” by E.M. Forster is the best example of it.The title itself is symbolic- “Passage” is symbolic of “link” or “connection”,so by giving the title “A Passage to India”, E.M. Forster advocates for a link orconnection between Anglo-Indians and the natives of India. India in the novel stands notmerely for as country but also for a mystifying pattern of art and life for what the Englishcall a “muddle” which they cannot comprehend through their arid rationalism andintellectualism. In other words, India is symbolic of EMOTION.Forster visited India in1912-13 and 1921. He has recalled some of the impressions. “A Passage to India” wonthe Femina Vie Heuresue and Tait Black Memorial prizes. “A Passage to India” – tocome India, to understand India and the Indians. The novel is a study of the relationshipthat these women try to establish with Indians … and how they fail.

ARPITA DAUD

2013-05-01

439

Indian Academy of Sciences - Fellowship  

Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

indian academy of sciences - fellowship fellows | past fellows | --> past honorary fellows   fellowship the process of election of fellows is described in the statutes.to retrieve lists and profiles of fellows use the appropriate link or the search facility below. all fellowsfounding fellowswomen fellows (also see women in science pages) | fellowsh ...

440

Indian Academy of Sciences - Fellowship  

Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

indian academy of sciences - fellowship fellows | past fellows     fellowship the process of election of fellows is described in the statutes.to retrieve lists and profiles of fellows use the appropriate link or the search facility below. all fellowsfounding fellowswomen fellows (also see women in science pages) | fellowship | associates ...

 
 
 
 
441

Time Cycles in Indian Cosmology  

CERN Document Server

In this article we review some key time cycles in ancient Indian astronomy, especially those that have emerged from researches in the past couple of decades expressing knowledge of the changing frame of earth's axis. The article also briefly reviews the philosophy related to the interconnection between the inner and the outer cosmos that was used in the analytical narrative related to this astronomy.

Narayan, R H

2007-01-01

442

Sify - Bawarchi, Indian Food Recipes  

Science.gov (United States)

Here's a handy and fun site for anyone who enjoys Indian cuisine and cooking. Among the site's many offerings are daily dishes (with a large archive of over 1,000 recipes), hints and tips, articles on health and nutrition, non-veggie recipes, reader contributions, a glossary, and a special section devoted to the various festivals of India.

2000-01-01

443

INDIAN CHILDHOOD AND OTHER CHILDHOODS  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This article aims to show how children of the Indian community Terena, from North Mato Grosso, live, how they are educated, and what are the conceptions of childhood among the members of this community. Taking childhood in various contexts, we seek to analyze how this education process has been carried out.

Alceu Zoia; Odimar João Peripolli

2010-01-01

444

The Yang-Mills field strength revisited  

CERN Document Server

The Yang-Mills field strength incorporating a non-abelian feature is one of the corner-stones of the standard model. It is based on Yang's formulation of the gauge transformation of what is now known as the Yang-Mills field. We show that, given this gauge transformation and the similarity transformation of the field strength, the derivation of the field strength is fairly straight-forward. To wit, Section 5 describes how to derive the Yang-Mills field strength using this approach. The preceding sections cover material relating to the derivation. Section 3 shows where Pauli in the article cited by Yang and Mills gives an expression for the electro-magnetic field strength in terms of a commutator. For some reason, Yang and Mills did not use this approach.}

Marateck, Samuel L

2007-01-01

445

Sugar feeding by the aphid parasitoid Binodoxys communis: how does honeydew compare with other sugar sources?  

Science.gov (United States)

Parasitoids commonly forage in agricultural settings where the predominant sugar source is homopteran honeydew. The aphidiine braconid, Binodoxys communis, is an Asian parasitoid currently being released against the soybean aphid, Aphis glycines, in North American soybean fields. We conducted a number of laboratory experiments evaluating the quality of A. glycines honeydew as a sugar source for this parasitoid. Wasps readily fed on droplets of A. glycines honeydew, honey and 50% sucrose solution, but the length of feeding bouts on honey was significantly longer than on the other foods. Parasitoids lived significantly longer when fed honey or sucrose than honeydew, while starved wasps had the shortest lifespan. At 21+/-1 degrees C and 25+/-5% R.H., male B. communis that were fed honey lived for a maximum of 14 days, while females lived up to 20 days. Honeydew-fed wasps of both sexes lived approximately 3 days on average, which was 2-3 times longer than when they were only allowed access to water. Anthrone tests of whole insects showed that total sugar and glycogen levels of honey or sucrose-fed individuals were consistently higher than those fed honeydew or water. The glycogen levels of honeydew-fed wasps increased significantly after one day of feeding. HPLC analyses revealed that B. communis readily assimilates A. glycines honeydew oligosaccharides such as erlose, while others (e.g., raffinose) did not degenerate. Raffinose was present in much higher amounts in honeydew-fed wasps than in wasps fed other diets, so this sugar could be used as a 'signature' sugar for this species. Honeydew-fed wasps also had significantly lower fructose/(fructose+glucose) ratios than those from other diet treatments. Although A. glycines honeydew might be the main carbohydrate source within a soybean field, other sugar sources such as floral nectar appear to be more optimal foods for B. communis from a physiological standpoint. We discuss the results from the perspective of classical biological control of the soybean aphid in North America. PMID:18190926

Wyckhuys, Kris A G; Strange-George, Jessica E; Kulhanek, Chris A; Wäckers, Felix L; Heimpel, George E

2008-02-01

446

Formation and emission of PCDD/Fs in Chinese non-wood pulp and paper mills.  

Science.gov (United States)

Chlorine bleaching is still practiced by non-wood pulp and paper mills in China, resulting in considerable formation and emission of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDD/Fs). We investigate the distribution of PCDD/Fs in different papermaking processes and dioxin emissions at six typical Chinese non-wood pulp and paper mills. Raw materials for papermaking included reed, wheat straw, bamboo, and sugar cane bagasse. The formation and emission of PCDD/Fs varied strikingly according to bleaching processes and raw materials. Elemental chlorine bleaching promoted the formation of tetra- to octa-CDDs and 2,3,7,8-TCDF, while hypochlorite bleaching only gave rise to a significant increase of 2,3,7,8-TCDF. Bleaching with elemental chlorine and hypochlorite increased 2,3,7,8-TCDF 0.9-42.5 and 0.3-4.1 times, respectively. Most of the 2,3,7,8-TCDF formed at hypochlorite bleaching stage was partitioned into the effluent, which indicated that hypochlorite bleaching was also an important emission source of dioxins. The removal of PCDD/Fs occurred visibly during alkaline digestion, alkaline extraction, and hydrogen peroxide bleaching. Furthermore, the annual emission of PCDD/Fs from Chinese non-wood pulp and paper mills was evaluated. PMID:23067332

Wang, Xueli; Ni, Yuwen; Zhang, Haijun; Zhang, Xueping; Chen, Jiping

2012-11-01

447

Supported metal catalysts for alcohol/sugar alcohol steam reforming  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Despite extensive studies on hydrogen production via steam reforming of alcohols and sugar alcohols, catalysts typically suffer a variety of issues from poor hydrogen selectivity to rapid deactivation. Here, we summarize recent advances in fundamental understanding of functionality and structure of catalysts for alcohol/sugar alcohol steam reforming, and provide perspectives on further development required to design highly efficient steam reforming catalysts.

Davidson, Stephen; Zhang, He; Sun, Junming; Wang, Yong

2014-08-21

448

[Molecular genetic investigation of sugar beet (Beta vulgaris L.)].  

Science.gov (United States)

Molecular genetic studies of sugar beet (Beta vulgaris L.) are reviewed as a basis for the development of genomics of this species. The methods used to study structural and functional genomics are considered. The results and their application to increase the efficiency of sugar beet breeding are discussed. PMID:22232916

Butorina, A K; Kornienko, A V

2011-10-01

449

Usual Intake of Energy from solid fats and added sugars  

Science.gov (United States)

Usual Intake of Energy from solid fats and added sugars Table A42. Energy from solid fats and added sugars: Means, percentiles and standard errors of usual intake, 2007-2010 Age (Years) N1 kilocalories Mean (SE)2 5% (SE) 10% (SE) 25% (SE) 50% (SE) 75%

450

Rhizoctonia seedling damping-off in sugar beet in Michigan  

Science.gov (United States)

Rhizoctonia solani is an important seedling pathogen of sugar beet, causing damping-off following seedling emergence. Anastomosis group (AG)-4 has been the primary seedling pathogen reported on sugar beet, however, recent screening has found high incidence of infection by AG-2-2. Isolations of R. so...

451

THE STEREOSELECTIVE SYNTHESIS OF THE WERNER COMPLEX WITH SUBSTOICHIOMETRIC SUGARS  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Chile | Language: English Abstract in english A tetranuclear complex of Co(III) with hydroxo bridges, so-called "Werner Complex", was synthesized in the presence of several sugars (1-8) with partial resolution of this complex. The sugars in 10 mol % with respect to Co(III) induce maximum resolution of the Werner complex [...

JOSÉ, PARADA; GUILLERMO, LARRAZÁBAL; PEDRO, AGUIRRE; SANTIAGO, ZOLEZZI; CARMEN, VEGA; CRISTIAN, GARRIDO.

1379-13-01

452

THE STEREOSELECTIVE SYNTHESIS OF THE WERNER COMPLEX WITH SUBSTOICHIOMETRIC SUGARS  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available A tetranuclear complex of Co(III with hydroxo bridges, so-called "Werner Complex", was synthesized in the presence of several sugars (1-8 with partial resolution of this complex. The sugars in 10 mol % with respect to Co(III induce maximum resolution of the Werner complex

JOSÉ PARADA

2008-03-01

453

Concentraciones agroazucareras de Camagüey. Condicionantes de su consolidación territorial / Sugar cane Agro-industries Concentrations. Conditioning factors of territorial consolidation  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Cuba | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish Determinadas condicionantes posibilitaron que la agroindustria azucarera cubana se desarrollara de forma singular y con carácter monumental en determinadas regiones. El Camagüey: la provincia más despoblada hacia inicios del siglo XX, presentaba características geográficas peculiares, que unidas a d [...] eterminadas condiciones históricas facilitaron la creación de un entramado agrícola e industrial dedicado a la caña de azúcar de dimensiones significativas. En el presente artículo se muestran los resultados de una investigación dedicada a la identificación de las condiciones históricas vinculadas a la construcción de los centrales azucareros y sus áreas de influencia, así como a la estructuración del territorio a partir de su ocupación. Con el uso de las técnicas tradicionales para la obtención de información y el análisis gráfico de los resultados, se elaboraron esquemas de las concentraciones agroazucareras en el territorio, los que permitieron identificar un sistema de ejes de crecimiento, los cuales fueron ordenando el área geográfica de la antigua provincia. Abstract in english A variety of singular factors have shaped the development of the Cuban sugar industry, and they have left distinct regional imprints across the island. Camaguey, one of the most under-populated provinces at the turn of the 20th century, had unique regional geographic conditions that contributed to t [...] he growth of sugar-cane production. This paper identifies those conditions as they shaped the construction of sugar mills and their surrounding hinterlands. Clusters of sugar-cane production are identified through traditional archival work and graphic analysis. Findings show a clear pattern of axes of growth which gave structure to the province.

Gerson, Herrera Pupo.

<