WorldWideScience

Sample records for indian sugar mills

  1. Bioremediation of Sugar Mill Effluent Using a Bacteria Staphylococcus aureus

    OpenAIRE

    Buvaneswari.S; Damodarkumar.S; Murugesan S

    2013-01-01

    Industrial pollution has been and continues to be a major factor causing the degradation of the environment around us, affecting the water we use, the air we breathe and the soil we live on. Among the various industries, sugar mill is one of the largest and most important agro based industries in India. The sugar industry is playing an important role in the economic development of the Indian sub continent, but the effluents released produce a high degree of organic pollution in both aquatic a...

  2. 21 CFR 173.320 - Chemicals for controlling microorganisms in cane-sugar and beet-sugar mills.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ...4) Single additive for cane-sugar mills and beet-sugar...Limitations: Byproduct molasses, bagasse, and pulp containing... (5) Combination for cane-sugar mills: Parts...Limitations. Byproduct molasses, bagasse, and pulp...

  3. Valuation of a Mexican Sugar Mill and Driving Value Factors

    OpenAIRE

    Carlos Acosta-Calzado

    2011-01-01

    This paper includes the methodology used to construct a financial cash flow and perform a valuation using the discounted cash flow analysis for a hypothetical Mexican sugar mill. The objective is to incorporate to the valuation model the most significant variables that are relevant to the sugar production process as well as the operational and financial factors of a common sugar mill which are driven by the current legislation in terms of sugarcane pricing and labor costs. It also includes so...

  4. A methodological approach to sugar mill diversification and conversion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Noé Aguilar Rivera

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Sugar industry diversification is complex, being constrained by biophysical and socioeconomic conditions. Ongoing work has shown the sugarcane industry’s potential as biorefinery or its sustainable use by offering products as raw material. However, few studies have studied how such potential could be achieved by promoting a conventional sugar mill through integrating its indicators for developing an efficient diversified processing plant which would contribute towards fossil energy saving and competitiveness. This paper presents a conceptual framework for analysis based on existing knowledge regarding sugar industry state-of-the-art for evaluating diversification, using analytical hierarchy process (AHP as a tool for analysing complex systems, identifying alternatives to the current situation and discussing them to facilitate collective decision-making. Sugar mill AHP scores enabled discussion about the variables most affecting sugar mill diversification (0.332 factory yield, 0.327 sugar mill products and 0.121 sugarcane quality. The results serve as a useful guidance for formulating strategies for the optimum use of by-products in a sugar mill while maximising benefits to modify/convert a traditional sugar mill to a so-called bio-refinery.

  5. Valuation of a Mexican Sugar Mill and Driving Value Factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Acosta Calzado

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper includes the methodology used to construct a financial cash flow and perform a valuation using the discounted cash flow analysis for a hypothetical Mexican sugar mill. The objective is to incorporate to the valuation model the most significant variables that are relevant to the sugar production process as well as the operational and financial factors of a common sugar mill which are driven by the current legislation in terms of sugarcane pricing and labor costs. It also includes some macroeconomic variables that determine price for sugar, long term costs and the discount rates. With the financial model determined, we use Monte Carlo simulation in order to obtain a probabilistic distribution for the value of the sugar mill and finally we perform a sensitivity analysis to obtain the main variables that affect the resulting enterprise value. The model is constructed on data available for three sugar mills, but the cost structure will not change among other sugar mills, due to regulation and local market conditions; however, the model could be used for any mill by substituting the variables for each case.

  6. Biodiesel production from microalgae: co-location with sugar mills.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lohrey, Christian; Kochergin, Vadim

    2012-03-01

    Co-location of algae production facilities with cane sugar mills can be a technically advantageous path towards production of biodiesel. Algal biodiesel production was integrated with cane sugar production in the material and energy balance simulation program Sugars™. A model was developed that allowed comparison of production scenarios involving dewatering the algae to 20% ds (dry solids) or 30% ds prior to thermal drying. The net energy ratio, E(R) (energy produced/energy consumed) of the proposed process was found to be 1.5. A sensitivity analysis showed that this number ranged from 0.9 to 1.7 when the range of values for oil content, CO(2) utilization, oil conversion, and harvest density reported in the literature were evaluated. By utilizing available waste-resources from a 10,000 ton/d cane sugar mill, a 530 ha algae farm can produce 5.8 million L of biodiesel/yr and reduce CO(2) emissions of the mill by 15% without the need for fossil fuels. PMID:22265980

  7. Power Factor Improvement in a Sugar Mill: An Analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Neena Malhotra; Shivani Sehgal

    2012-01-01

    To reduce losses in the distribution system, and toreduce the electricity bill, power factor correction, usually in theform of capacitors, is added to neutralize as much of themagnetizing current as possible..To improve the power factor insugar mill, it is required to install the capacitors of requiredcapacitor ratings as near to the load as possible. This paperreports a case of sugar mill where the induction motors having apower factor of 0.8 has a potential to improve the power factor to0.9...

  8. Corporate Governance of Sugar Mills in East Java: A Transaction Cost Economics Perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmad Erani Yustika

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Despite Indonesia?s overall achievements during the past two decades%2C the economy is encountering a series of problems. One of the biggest challenges is the unsatisfactory performance of the state-owned enterprises (SOEs. Subsidisies and uncovered loans to the SOEs have drained the government?s fiscal resources%2C and the signing off of employees creates many social problems. Compared with the SOEs in other sectors%2C state-owned sugar mills face more serious crises which not only jeopardise the social fabric%2C but also endanger the production. Research results strengthen the statement that the basic problem in sugar mills is management inefficiency resulting in high transaction costs. This research compares the transaction costs between state-owned (Ngadiredjo and privately-owned (Kebon Agung sugar mills. The study shows that in Kebon Agung Sugar Mill transaction costs are higher than production costs%2C while in Ngadiredjo Sugar Mill the reverse is true. However%2C the high transaction costs in Kebon Agung Sugar Mill cannot be attributed directly to inefficient institutions%2C because Ngadiredjo Sugar Mill incurred high costs for plants%2C land preparation%2C and fertilizer%2C which decreased the proportion of transaction costs. If analyzed in detail%2C the following facts are revealed: (i market transaction costs in Kebon Agung Sugar Mill are higher than in Ngadiredjo Sugar Mill. This is because Kebon Agung Sugar Mill has established cooperation with sugarcane farmers in the form of extensions and transport subsidies; and (ii the political transaction costs proportion in Ngadiredjo Sugar Mill is higher than in Kebon Agung Sugar Mill because of the imposition of many ?illegal? fees. Abstract in Bahasa Indonesia : transaction cost economics%2C corporate governance%2C sugar mill%2C East Java.

  9. Ergonomic design applied in a sugar mill interface

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    P., Ponsa; B., Amante; M., Díaz.

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available In tasks requiring human supervision in an industrial control room there are applied generic disciplines like automatic control and engineering systems. From the point of view of the human computer interaction applied to these disciplines it is necessary to add usability engineering and cognitive er [...] gonomics. This integrated framework is an example of human-centred design on automation systems. The main goal of this work is the application of a cognitive ergonomic guideline for supervisory control in order to improve the efficiency of a sugar mill interface design.

  10. Predicting remaining life in upper sugar-mill shafts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sara Rodríguez Pulecio

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available A fracture mechanics-based method is presented for determining critical crack size and residual life of upper sugar-mill shafts having semi-elliptical and circumferential cracks. Due to the multiaxial stress field, an equivalent strain energy release rate stress intensity solution is used in Paris’ law to predict crack growth. Ultrasonic inspection intervals for the shaft were established. The crack zone evaluated was located in the shoulder of the bearing nearest to the square box coupling where about 25% of service failures in these types of shaft are observed.

  11. 76 FR 2409 - Proclaiming Certain Lands, Golf Course Acquisition, as an Addition to the Bay Mills Indian...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-13

    ...INTERIOR Bureau of Indian Affairs Proclaiming Certain Lands, Golf Course Acquisition, as an Addition to the Bay Mills Indian Reservation...tribal membership. Bay Mills Indian Community Reservation, Golf Course Acquisition, Michigan Meridan, Superior Township,...

  12. Wind Resource Assessment Report: Mille Lacs Indian Reservation, Minnesota

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jimenez, A. C.

    2013-12-01

    The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) launched the RE-Powering America's Land initiative to encourage development of renewable energy on potentially contaminated land and mine sites. EPA collaborated with the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE's) National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) and the Mille Lacs Band of Chippewa Indians to evaluate the wind resource and examine the feasibility of a wind project at a contaminated site located on the Mille Lacs Indian Reservation in Minnesota. The wind monitoring effort involved the installation of a 60-m met tower and the collection of 18 months of wind data at multiple heights above the ground. This report focuses on the wind resource assessment, the estimated energy production of wind turbines, and an assessment of the economic feasibility of a potential wind project sited this site.

  13. Comparative Analysis of Milled Wood Lignins (MWLs Isolated from Sugar Maple (SM and Hot-Water Extracted Sugar Maple (ESM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mangesh J. Goundalkar

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available To further elucidate the advantageous effects of hot-water extraction (HWE on delignification, milled wood lignin (MWL was isolated from sugar maple (SM and from hot-water extracted sugar maple (ESM. Ball-milled wood was analyzed for particle size distribution (PSD before and after dioxane:water (DW extraction. The MWL samples were analyzed by analytical and spectral methods. The results indicated that the MWL isolated from SM and ESM was mainly released from the middle lamella (ML and the secondary wall (SW, respectively. The cleavage of dibenzodioxocin (DB and spirodienone (SD lignin substructures during HWE is suggested. The removal of lignin during acetone:water (AW extraction of hot-water extracted wood indicates that including an additional operation in a hardwood HWE-based biorefinery would be beneficial for processing of wood.

  14. Generation of Electricity Using Sugar mill Waste Water by Microbial Fuel Cell

    OpenAIRE

    Doddamani, Kavyashree R.

    2014-01-01

    The application of microbial fuel cell (MFC) for electricity generation has been developing recently. This research explores the application of single chamber MFC in generating electricity using sugar wastewater.The different concentration of wastewater has been performed. The maximum current, voltage, BOD, COD ,pH and TDS obtained with respect to time. MFC of sugar mill wastewater showed removal efficiency 69.3% COD, 68.1% BOD and 56.35% TDS with different feed concentration....

  15. Use of gamma radiation in the sugar mills crystallization process control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The technical feasibility of applying the gamma-ray transmission method to the control of the saccharose crystallization process at sugar mills was investigated. Attenuation measurements using a Cs-137 gamma beam showed that the transmission factor depends on the solid phase concentration of saccharose solutions in a very definite manner. Furthermore, temperature and purity of the solutions showed no significant influence on this attenuation behaviour. Therefore, measurements of the transmission factor can be used to implement a continuous control of the saccharose crystallization process on a industrial scale in sugar mills. (author). 7 refs, 3 figs, 4 tabs

  16. Analysis and Physico-Chemical Parameters of Sarvar Devla Sugar Mill Studies of Effluents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. K. Pathak

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The physico-chemical characteristics contents in the effluents discharged from Neoly sugar mill have been explored. The physico-chemical parameters such as colour, odour, temperature, pH, electrical conductivity, COD, BOD, alkalinity, total hardness,Ca+2, Mg+2, chloride, of the effluent collected from the various sites between the exit point at the mill and discharge point In, have been determined.

  17. Generation of Electricity Using Sugar mill Waste Water by Microbial Fuel Cell

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kavyashree.R.Doddamani

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The application of microbial fuel cell (MFC for electricity generation has been developing recently. This research explores the application of single chamber MFC in generating electricity using sugar wastewater.The different concentration of wastewater has been performed. The maximum current, voltage, BOD, COD ,pH and TDS obtained with respect to time. MFC of sugar mill wastewater showed removal efficiency 69.3% COD, 68.1% BOD and 56.35% TDS with different feed concentration. The current, voltage and power generation in the reactor is 1.28 mA, 0.9 V and 0.304 watts/m2 respectively.

  18. Optimizing the bagasse based co-generation: a case study of dewan sugar mill, thatta, pakistan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To meet Pakistan's projected power demand; about 143 GW of new generating capacity will need to be installed up to 2030. Many studies around the world have identified bagasse based cogeneration as an attractive low-cost option to place additional generating capacity on the grid. The focus of this study is the sugar industry which has long been co generating power for its own purposes is favored as the potential entry market for co-generation. This industry presents a strategic opportunity to develop a validate commercial business to overcome the barriers restricting development. Dewan Sugar Mill situated in district Thatta in Sindh province was selected as case study because of its higher crushing capacity. Power generation study for this sugar mill has been carried out. The study concludes that the mill can generate surplus power to export to the extent of about four times the current generation during the season using bagasse as fuel. These export can go to about five times the current generation subject to the condition, if alternative fuel is supplied. (author)

  19. Environmental impact assessment: a case study of M/S Mirpurkhas sugar mills

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sugar Mills effluent and their effects on the surface and groundwater quality in the vicinity of Mirpurkhas Sugar Mills have been studied during the period from November 04 to February 05. The results obtained from the analysis of samples collected from factory and effluent channel indicates that all values of effluent parameters BOD/sub 5/, COD, TSS, and Oil and Grease are higher than the value recommended in NEQS. The values of physico-chemical parameters of groundwater samples (Ca, Mg, Na, HCO/sub 3/, Cl, SO/sub 4/) also shows variation in results with comparison to mill distance, but still found within the limit of WHO standards. During the environmental survey of adjacent villages, it was also observed that the local environment and quality of water is adversely being affected by mill effluent. This is obvious from samples of effluent and the comparison of results of samples of groundwater supplies taken from various locations. Therefore, it is strongly recommended that the material thrown as effluent must be treated before disposed off into channels and people must be informed about the adverse effects of effluent upon the groundwater quality. (author)

  20. Culture of the microalga chlorella vulgaris on different proportions of sugar mill effluents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chlarella vulgaris was cultured in four different dilutions of sugar mill effluent media (SMEM). Bold's basal medium (BBM) was used as the control under laboratory conditions. Maximum cell growth and chlorophyll-a content were obtained on 10th day of the culture in 50% diluted SMEM, followed by those grown in BBM, and 75, 25 and 100% SMEM at stationary phase. The specific growth rate (mu g/day) of cells and chlorophyll-a of C. vulgaris grown in 50% SMEM varied significantly (p < 0.0 I) from those of C. vulgaris cultured in BBM, followed by other SMEM concentrations. Total biomass of C. vulgaris. cultured in 50% SMEM, was found to be significantly higher (p < 0.0 I) than that of C. vulgaris cultured in BBM, and 25, 75 and 100% SMEM concentrations. Similar trend was also observed in the case of optical density. Cell number and chlorophyll-a of C. vulgaris were highly (p < 0.01) and directly correlated with chlorophyll-a (r2 = 0.991) of C. vulgaris and optical density (r2 = 0.989) for the culture media containing C. vulgaris, respectively. Crude proteins and crude lipids of C. vulgaris. grown in 50% SMEM, were significantly (p < 0.01) higher than those of C. vulgaris cultured in other SMEM concentrations. Due to good growth performance exhibited in the 50% SMEM dilution, the sugar mill effluent may be used for efficient cultivation of C. vulgaris and possibly other micro algae. (author)

  1. Does Factor Accumulation or Productivity Change Drive Output Growth in the Indian Sugar Industry? An Inter-state Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nitin Arora

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The study endeavors to break down output growth in the Indian sugar industry into the ‘perspiration’ component that corresponds to factor accumulation and the ‘inspiration’ component that corresponds to the total factor productivity (TFP growth. The bootstrapped Malmquist productivity index has been used as a technique to obtain the TFP growth from the period 1974/75 to 2004/05. Empirical analysis reveals that output growth in the Indian sugar industry is equally driven by the inspiration component (i.e., TFP growth and the perspiration component (i.e., factor accumulation, but in opposite directions. The inspiration component is observed to contribute to output growth positively, whereas the perspiration component contributes negatively. Given substantial TFP growth, the potential output growth in the Indian sugar industry has been restricted primarily by the negative growth of inputs during the entire study period and particularly in the post-reform period.

  2. Sugar composition and FT-IR analysis of exopolysaccharides produced by microbial isolates from paper mill slime deposits

    OpenAIRE

    Verhoef, R. P.; Schols, H. A.; Blanco Garcia, A.; Siika-aho, M.; Ratto, M.; Buchert, J.; Lenon, G.; Voragen, A. G. J.

    2005-01-01

    Thirty exopolysaccharides (EPS) produced by bacteria isolated from biofilms or slimelayers from different paper and board mills in Finland, France and Spain were subjected to size exclusion chromatography and sugar compositional analysis. High performance size exclusion chromatography (HPSEC) analysis revealed that some samples were composed of several molecular weight populations. These samples were fractionated by size exclusion chromatography and pooled accordingly. Principal components an...

  3. A methodological approach to sugar mill diversification and conversion / Enfoque metodológico de diversificación y reconversión de ingenios azucareros

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    N, Aguilar; G, Galindo; C, Contreras; J, Fortanelli.

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available La diversificación de la industria azucarera es compleja y se ve limitada por condiciones biofísicas y socioeconómicas. Muchos trabajos han demostrado su potencial como biorrefinería y la utilización sostenible de los subproductos como materia prima. Sin embargo, pocos estudios se ha focalizado a tr [...] avés de la integración de indicadores productivos de un ingenio azucarero y cómo este potencial podría lograr transformar un ingenio azucarero convencional en una eficiente planta diversificada que contribuya a reducir el consumo de energía fósil y alcanzar la competitividad. Este trabajo presenta un marco de análisis o metodología basada en el conocimiento existente sobre la industria azucarera o el estado del arte, con la finalidad de evaluar la diversificación mediante el proceso de jerarquías analíticas (AHP) como una herramienta adecuada para el análisis de sistemas complejos, la identificación de alternativas y su discusión de manera que facilite la toma de decisiones colectivas. El análisis AHP obtenido en este estudio ofrece una discusión acerca de las variables que explican la capacidad para diversificar los procesos en un ingenio azucarero (rendimiento de fábrica: 0.332, productos derivados del ingenio azucarero: 0.327 y calidad de materia prima o caña de azúcar: 0.121). Los resultados obtenidos sirven de guía en la formulación de estrategias para la utilización óptima de los recursos derivados de un ingenio azucarero, mientras que la maximización de sus beneficios, para diversificar o reconvertir ingenios azucareros en biorrefinerías. Abstract in english Sugar industry diversification is complex, being constrained by biophysical and socioeconomic conditions. Ongoing work has shown the sugarcane industry's potential as biorefinery or its sustainable use by offering products as raw material. However, few studies have studied how such potential could b [...] e achieved by promoting a conventional sugar mill through integrating its indicators for developing an efficient diversified processing plant which would contribute towards fossil energy saving and competitiveness. This paper presents a conceptual framework for analysis based on existing knowledge regarding sugar industry state-of-the-art for evaluating diversification, using analytical hierarchy process (AHP) as a tool for analysing complex systems, identifying alternatives to the current situation and discussing them to facilitate collective decision-making. Sugar mill AHP scores enabled discussion about the variables most affecting sugar mill diversification (0.332 factory yield, 0.327 sugar mill products and 0.121 sugarcane quality). The results serve as a useful guidance for formulating strategies for the optimum use of by-products in a sugar mill while maximising bene-fits to modify/convert a traditional sugar mill to a so-called bio-refinery.

  4. A STUDY ON FRINGE BENEFITS PROVIDED BY SALEM CO-OPERATIVE SUGAR MILL LIMITED, NAMAKKAL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Senthil Velmurugan

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The topic of the paper is “Fringe Benefits” and it’s Impact on ‘Employee behavior’, It brings out the behavioral aspect of the employees working in “Salem Co-operative Sugar Mill Ltd, Namakkal”. The main objective of the study is to find the overall performance of the Employees.The research design I used this study is descriptive research design . Data from 80 people collected as population study, Data was collected by survey method through structured questionnaire and secondary data from the company records and through questionnaire and secondary data from the company records and through internet. The purpose of the survey process is to provide a more accurate assessment of the existing culture from the employee’s point of view and also to assess their behaviors with respect to that of the exiting culture.

  5. Anhydrous ethanol production in sugar mills; Produccion de etanol anhidro en ingenios azucareros

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Enriquez Poy, Manuel. E-mail:poymanuel@prodigy.net.mx

    2007-04-15

    The anhydrous ethanol production is recent and limited, because the disadvantage of the renewable energies is the economic impossibility of the projects. Nevertheless, there are aspects to consider to achieve the anhydrous ethanol production, among which are: the cost of the raw material, the self-sufficiency of energy from the sugar cane bagasse without the need of oil burning, the larger size of the distilleries, incorporation of the Cogeneration with delivery of electricity to the public network in the sugar mill facilities, the introduction of the biotechnology to improve the processes of fermentation and subsidies to agriculture. [Spanish] La produccion de etanol anhidro es reciente y limitada, debido a que la desventaja de las energias renovables es la inviabilidad economica de los proyectos. Sin embargo hay aspectos a considerar para lograr la produccion de etanol anhidro, entre los cuales estan: el costo de la materia prima, la autosuficiencia energetica a partir del bagazo de la cana sin necesidad de petroleo, mayor tamano de las destilerias, incorporacion de la Cogeneracion con entrega de electricidad a la red publica en el ingenio, la introduccion de la biotecnologia para mejorar los procesos de fermentacion y subsidios a la agricultura.

  6. Energy Efficiency Feasibility Study and Resulting Plan for the Bay Mills Indian Community

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kushman, Chris

    2014-02-03

    In 2011 the Inter-Tribal Council of Michigan, Inc. was awarded an Energy Efficiency Development and Deployment in Indian Country grant from the U.S. Department of Energy’s Tribal Energy Program. This grant aimed to study select Bay Mills Indian Community community/government buildings to determine what is required to reduce each building’s energy consumption by 30%. The Bay Mills Indian Community (BMIC) buildings with the largest expected energy use were selected for this study and included the Bay Mills Ellen Marshall Health Center building, Bay Mills Indian Community Administration Building, Bay Mills Community College main campus, Bay Mills Charter School and the Waishkey Community Center buildings. These five sites are the largest energy consuming Community buildings and comprised the study area of this project titled “Energy Efficiency Feasibility Study and Resulting Plan for the Bay Mills Indian Community”. The end objective of this study, plan and the Tribe is to reduce the energy consumption at the Community’s most energy intensive buildings that will, in turn, reduce emissions at the source of energy production, reduce energy expenditures, create long lasting energy conscious practices and positively affect the quality of the natural environment. This project’s feasibility study and resulting plan is intended to act as a guide to the Community’s first step towards planned energy management within its buildings/facilities. It aims to reduce energy consumption by 30% or greater within the subject facilities with an emphasis on energy conservation and efficiency. The energy audits and related power consumption analyses conducted for this study revealed numerous significant energy conservation and efficiency opportunities for all of the subject sites/buildings. In addition, many of the energy conservation measures require no cost and serve to help balance other measures requiring capital investment. Reoccurring deficiencies relating to heating, cooling, thermostat setting inefficiencies, powering computers, lighting, items linked to weatherization and numerous other items were encountered that can be mitigated with the energy conservation measures developed and specified during the course of this project.

  7. Design of two bearings with sealing system for the top roll shaft of sugar cane mill

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Walter, Mora Perdomo; John Sandro, Rivas Murillo; John Jairo, Coronado Marín.

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available Las chumaceras de bronce utilizadas actualmente en los molinos de caña de azúcar presentan elevado desgaste debido, entre otros factores, a la materia extraña que ingresa en ella cuando el eje superior se eleva (flota) por efecto del colchón de caña que pasa entre las mazas y al sobrecalentamiento c [...] ausado por fallas en los sistemas de lubricación y refrigeración. Con el objetivo de solucionar estos problemas dos diseños de chumaceras fueron realizados: uno con refrigeración en la caja y otro con refrigeración en la teja, ambos usando un sistema de sellado. Análisis por Elementos Finitos del comportamiento mecánico y térmico de los diseños garantiza un buen desempeño en operación. Abstract in english The bronze bearings currently used in sugar cane mills undergo an excessive wear due to both, the extraneous matter entering in the bearing gap when the shaft lift by effect of cane passing through the mill and heating caused by failures in both the lubrication and the refrigeration systems. In orde [...] r to solve this problems two bearing were designed: one cooled in the box and other cooled in the roofing tile, both using a sealing system. Finite Elements Analysis of the designs showed that they will have a good mechanical and thermal performance.

  8. Efficient water use in industries: cases from the Indian agro-based pulp and paper mills.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tewari, P K; Batra, V S; Balakrishnan, M

    2009-01-01

    Agro-based pulp and paper mills in India are one of the most polluting industries; in addition, they are high consumers of raw water. Growing scarcity of high quality freshwater as well as stringent regulatory standards is compelling these units to explore appropriate water management options. Based on data obtained through a questionnaire survey and plant visits, this work provides an overview of the water use and effluent treatment status in Indian agro-residue and recycled pulp and paper mills. The challenges faced by this sector are reviewed and practices adopted by progressive units to minimize freshwater use are illustrated through case studies. PMID:18077079

  9. Techno-economic assessment of integrating methanol or Fischer-Tropsch synthesis in a South African sugar mill.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petersen, Abdul M; Farzad, Somayeh; Görgens, Johann F

    2015-05-01

    This study considered an average-sized sugar mill in South Africa that crushes 300 wet tonnes per hour of cane, as a host for integrating methanol and Fischer-Tropsch synthesis, through gasification of a combined flow of sugarcane trash and bagasse. Initially, it was shown that the conversion of biomass to syngas is preferably done by catalytic allothermal gasification instead of catalytic autothermal gasification. Thereafter, conventional and advanced synthesis routes for both Methanol and Fischer-Tropsch products were simulated with Aspen Plus® software and compared by technical and economic feasibility. Advanced FT synthesis satisfied the overall energy demands, but was not economically viable for a private investment. Advanced methanol synthesis is also not viable for private investment since the internal rate of return was 21.1%, because it could not provide the steam that the sugar mill required. The conventional synthesis routes had less viability than the corresponding advanced synthesis routes. PMID:25727762

  10. Detection of Phytoplasma on Indian Fig (Opuntia ficus-indica Mill in Mexico Central Region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ricardo Gaspar

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: The Indian fig (a species of prickly pear cactus, has been known as Nopal, comprises an approximate area of 100,000 ha, in plantations used for human consumption. ?Pyramids? Indian fig area located in the northeastern State of Mexico has been an important Indian-fig area in the country, with 15810 ha, where a phytoplasma has been consistently present in symptomatic plant. Approach: An unknown symptomatology in the Indian fig (prickly pear cactus (Opuntia ficus-indica Mill was analyzed through grafting and a nested-PCR reaction and graft on healthy plants grown in a greenhouse. Results: The symptoms found, deforming, buds proliferation, thickening and heart-shaping in cladodes, with arrested plant growth and deep yellowing of cladodes, were all attributed to the presence of a phytoplasma given the amplification of a 1200 pb fragment of the 16S rRNA gene using primers R16 F2/R2 and R16F2n/R2 and 80% of phytoplasma transmission efficiency of successful grafts. Conclusion: Although the symptoms observed did not completely match those described for this organism in the region, a 1200 pb fragment was amplified and PCR products restriction analysis leading us to assume that the phytoplasma corresponds to subgroup 16Srll, previously reported for other crops in others world regions.

  11. Performance Enhancement of Sugar Mill by Alternate Cooling System for Condenser

    OpenAIRE

    Paras Chouhan

    2014-01-01

    Agro industry plays a crucial role in the industrialization process of developing countries. Sugar industry is second largest agro industry in the world. In sugar manufacturing plants there are various processes for production of sugar i.e. extraction of juice, clarification, evaporation, concentration of juice, forming and separating crystals etc. These processes consumed energies in the form of mechanical energy, electrical energy and heat energy. So there are various source...

  12. Effect of amendments on chemical immobilization of heavy metals in sugar mill contaminated soils

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Jamal Khan, Muhammad Tahir Azeem and Sajida Perveen1

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available A bulk soil sample collected from the vicinity of PSM (Premier Sugar Mill Mardan was amended with diammonium phosphate (DAP, triple super phosphate (TSP, Farm Yard Manure (FYM and poultry manure (PM in 1.5 kg soil in a 2 L plastic pot. Both DAP and TSP were added at 230 mg kg 1 (460 kg ha 1 soil whereas the organic amendments (FYM and PM were added at the rate of 10% by weight of soil. The air dried samples in pots were brought to field moisture content (0.33 bar water content by the addition of either HIE (Hayatabad Industrial Estate or PSM in two separate sets of experiments. The experimental pots were arranged in randomized complete design with three replicates under laboratory conditions during March to May (Temperature varying between 25 to 30 °C. Treated and control pots were incubated for 90 days al 0.33 bar ca 25% moisture and the moisture deficit during the incubation time was adjusted by adding PSM and HIE effluents in their respective set of experimental pots. Soil samples were collected after 15, 30, 45 and 90 d to determine the effect of amendments on AB-DTPA extractable metals. The results showed that AB-DTPA extractable Cd, Or, Cu, Ni and Cd increased significantly with lime and the maximum values were noted after 90 days incubation whereas the Fe, Mn and Zn content in soil increased with time but the increase was not significant. It was further noted that the increase over time in metal was not pronounced when supplied with amendments indicating their ability to chemically stabilize it compared to unamended soils. Higher values of all the heavy metals were noted in unamended soil. By comparing the different amendments, it was observed that FYM was effective in reducing the extractability/phytoavailability of all the metals under study except Pb whereby DAP was most effective as a stabilizing agent in the soil. It was concluded that in calcareous soil, FYM and DAP can be used to reduce the risk of phytotoxicity of heavy metals in contaminated soil or using wastewater for irrigation.

  13. Utilization of agricultural sugar cane wastes as fuel in modern cogeneration systems applied in sugar cane mills; Aprovechamiento de los residuos agricolas caneras como combustible en sistemas de cogeneracion modernos aplicados a ingenios

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Buendia Dominguez, Eduardo H. [Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas, Cuernavaca (Mexico); De Buen Rodriguez, Odon [Comision Nacional para el Ahorro de la Energia, Mexico, D. F. (Mexico)

    1998-12-31

    Considering the new legal frame on cogeneration in Mexico, the possibility of heat and electricity supply required by the sugar mills to be made by an independent cogenerator of the sugar mill, operating with the sugar cane bagasse and agricultural sugar cane wastes, has been evaluated. Such modern cogenerator would be characterized, besides operating in an independent way of the sugar mill, by the use of high efficiency equipment in its process of heat and electricity generation. In this sense the Comision Nacional para el Ahorro de Energia (CONAE) through its Coordination Program and the Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas (IIE) carried out a joint project to determine the technical and economical viability that the sugar industry maintains the present sugar production without the need of burning fuel oil, installing adjacent to every sugar mill, a modern cogeneration system, operated by independent producers, that using sugar cane bagasse and agricultural sugar cane wastes, allows the supply of all the steam and electricity required by the sugar mill, and additionally can add firm capacity and the supply of electric power to the national grid, during the grinding season as well as out of grinding season. [Espanol] En consideracion al nuevo marco juridico de la cogeneracion en Mexico se ha evaluado la posibilidad de que el suministro de calor y electricidad requerido por los ingenios azucareros sea proporcionado por un cogenerador independiente de la planta de azucar, el cual opere utilizando el bagazo y residuos agricolas caneras (biomasa canera). Dicho cogenerador moderno se caracterizaria, ademas de operar de manera independiente a la planta de azucar, por el uso de equipos de alta eficiencia en su proceso de produccion de calor y electricidad. En este sentido la Comision Nacional para el Ahorro de Energia (CONAE) a traves de la Coordinacion de Programacion y el Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas (IIE) realizaron un trabajo en conjunto para determinar la viabilidad tecnica y economica de que la industria azucarera pueda mantener la produccion actual de azucar, sin tener necesidad de consumir combustoleo, instalando aledano a cada ingenio, un sistema de cogeneracion moderno, operado por productores independientes, que utilizando el bagazo y los residuos agricolas canera, permita suministrar todo el vapor y la electricidad requerida por la fabrica de azucar y, ademas, pueda suministrar capacidad firme y energia electrica a la red nacional, tanto en periodo de zafra como fuera de zafra.

  14. Performance Enhancement of Sugar Mill by Alternate Cooling System for Condenser

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paras Chouhan

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Agro industry plays a crucial role in the industrialization process of developing countries. Sugar industry is second largest agro industry in the world. In sugar manufacturing plants there are various processes for production of sugar i.e. extraction of juice, clarification, evaporation, concentration of juice, forming and separating crystals etc. These processes consumed energies in the form of mechanical energy, electrical energy and heat energy. So there are various sources of waste heat in sugar factory i.e. waste heat from hot flue gasses, hot water from evaporative body and boiler blow down. The large amount of waste heat passes from various devices of sugar factory causes decrease in the efficiency of sugar plants, and also increase the “Global Warming” which is very dangerous for our environment. The present cooling system for condenser is inappropriate & hence decrease vacuum in evaporators and pans. This will increase the boiling point temperature of juice. The proposed cooling system gives solution of both problems. The most important source of waste heat i.e. hot flue gases are use to run absorption chiller. The absorption chiller gives better cooling system for condenser. There will be improvement in condensation of vapour in condenser which will cause increase vacuum in evaporators and pans thereby reducing boiling point temperature of juice. This reduced boiling point temperature of juice requires less amount of steam for boiling, ultimately saving of bagasse and fuel economy can be attained. Thus this arrangement can be treated as the efficient method of utilization of waste heat for cooling condenser water in sugar factory thus saving further depletion of natural resources like coal, petroleum or else increasing its availability to other important processes and one can hope that the “waste heat recovery” may play an even greater role in the industrial development in this new millennium.

  15. A STUDY ON HUMAN RESOURCE MANAGEMENT PRACTICES WITH REFERENCE TO THE SALEM CO-OPERATIVE SUGAR MILLS LTD., IN MOHANUR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Senthil Velmurugan

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The importance of personal management is being increasingly realized in industrial and non-industrial organization both in India. The realization has come about because of increasing complexity of the task of managers and administrators. In most organizations the problems of getting the competent and relevant people, retaining them, keeping up their motivation and morale, and helping them to both continuously grow and contribute their best to the organizations, are now viewed as the most critical problems. So with this reference the study titled on HR practices has been followed, based on the primary research in the Salem Co-Operative Sugar Mill has been prepared to get a better insight into the management practices adopted by SCSM with reference to HR Policies prepared by the HR department in organization. It emphasizes on the importance of a clear cut organization structure and culture to avoid any confusion in order to achieve maximum result with minimum resources

  16. Levels of selected trace elements, phytohormones, and sugars in Pseudomonas-infected Lycopersicum esculantum mill plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berber, Ismet; Ekin, Suat; Battal, Peyami; Onlü, Harun; Emre Erez, M

    2010-01-01

    The present study investigated the levels of trace elements (Zn, Cu, Fe, Pb, and Cd), major elements (Ca and K), phytohormones (trans-Zeatin [t-Z] and gibberellic acid [GA]), and sugars (sucrose and glucose) following inoculation with Pseudomonas syringae pv. tomato strain. The results of the trace elements analysis showed that Fe (in the first, fourth, eighth, and tenth study days), Cd (in the fourth, eighth, and tenth study days), Cu (in the fourth and eighth study days), and Zn (in the eighth and tenth study days) increased in bacterium-infected tomato plants, compared to healthy plants. The levels of Pb, Ca, and K did not meaningfully determine a change after inoculation with pathogen. In this vein, the increase accumulation rates of Cu, Zn, and Fe in the injured plants can be an important indicator for the plant defense processes towards pathogen attack. Furthermore, in the first, fourth, eighth, and tenth study days, the glucose and sucrose contents crucially decreased in bacterium-infected plants compared to the control groups. The lowest level of sucrose in bacterium-infected plants was observed on the first day. The findings displayed that, when endogenous t-Z levels did not change after inoculation with virulent bacterium strain, there was a reduction in the first, fourth, eighth, and tenth days in the level of GA when compared with the control group levels. Therefore, there may be a link between lower GA level and enhancement in the expression of defense-related genes. The results of this study showed that there are complex relationships among levels of sugar, trace element, and endogenous phytohormone in the regulation of defense mechanisms against bacterial pathogen attacks. PMID:19488684

  17. Ferti-irrigational impact of sugar mill effluent on agronomical characteristics of Phaseolus vulgaris (L.) in two seasons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Vinod; Chopra, A K

    2014-11-01

    Ferti-irrigation response of 5, 10, 25, 50, 75, and 100 % concentrations of the sugar mill effluent (SME) on French bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L., cv. Annapurna) in the rainy and summer seasons was investigated. The fertigant concentrations produced significant (P?ferrous (Fe(2+)), cadmium (Cd), chromium (Cr), copper (Cu), manganese (Mn), and zinc (Zn), in both seasons. The contents of Cr, Cu, Mn, and Zn except Cd were found to be below the maximum levels permitted for soils in India. The agronomic performance of P. vulgaris was gradually increased at lower concentrations, i.e., from 5 to 25 %, and decreased at higher concentrations, i.e., from 50 to 100 %, of the SME in both seasons when compared to controls. The accumulations of heavy metals were increased in the soil and P. vulgaris from 5 to 100 % concentrations of the SME in both seasons. The contents of Cu, Mn, and Zn except Cd and Cr were noted under the permissible limit of Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO)/World Health Organization (WHO) standards. Most contents of biochemical components like crude proteins, crude fiber, and total carbohydrates were found with 25 % concentration of the SME in both seasons. The contamination factor (Cf) of various metals was in the order of Cd > Cr > Zn > Mn > Cu for soil and Mn > Zn > Cu > Cr > Cd for P. vulgaris in both seasons after fertigation with SME. Therefore, the SME can be used to improve the soil fertility and yield of P. vulgaris after appropriate dilution. PMID:25103211

  18. Evaluation of Anaerobic Fluidized Bed Reactor for treating Sugar mill effluent - a Case Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Mathiyazhagan

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Anaerobic treatment processes are credible options for providing sustainable treatment to biodegradable waste streams. The Anaerobic Fluidized Bed Reactor (AFBR is an evolving process that requires waste specific design methodologies based on kinetics of the specific process. The research was precisely an experimental study on AFBR having23.56 litres of effective volume to evaluate its treatment performance and gas recovery in terms of Chemical Oxygen Demand (COD, Hydraulic Retention Time(HRTand Organic Loading Rate (OLR. The synthetic sugar influent COD was variedfrom 1500 to 4000 mg/lit. The OLR for the operating flow rates were ranged from 1.36 to 28.8 Kg COD/m3 .day for HRT varied from 3.2 to 24 hrs. The maximum COD removal efficiency is 90.06 at an operating OLR of 3.42 Kg COD/m3 .day. The maximum biogas yield was observed at 0.28 m 3 /kg COD removed.

  19. Survey of Indian issues in the state of New Mexico relating to uranium mining and milling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Estimates of Indian uranium resources range from 11 to 50% of the US total resources. About 17% of New Mexico's reserves are known to be on Indian lands. New Mexico has produced almost half of the nation's uranium supply; over half of the known reserves are located within the state. However, the state has virtually no jurisdiction over development of Indian uranium. As a result, economic and environmental impacts on the state are beyond its control. The lack of state and federal control over these impacts is influencing how the Indians allow development to proceed. The impacts of Indian uranium development also influence state control of non-Indian. To the extent that these controls affect the availability of uranium concentrate, DOE needs to understand the issues involved. This issue paper identifies some of the related problems for both the Indians and the state and explores the reasons behind them

  20. Sugar Sugar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bart Bonte

    2012-01-01

    This interactive Java applet is a game that challenges a student to solve problems by using logic and rudimentary engineering skills. The goal in each case is to create a conveyance that gets the required amount of sugar to pour into a mug or mugs. The game has 30 stages of increasing complexity.

  1. Modelación matemática de la flotación de la maza superior de los molinos de caña de azúcar / Mathematical model for instant flotation of top shaft in sugar cane mills

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Mario Javier, Cabello-Ulloa; Juan José, Cabello-Eras; Jorge, Moya-Rodríguez; Rafael, Goytisolo-Espinosa; José Alberto, Velásquez-Pérez; Juan Rafael, Mestizo-Cerón.

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available En el presente trabajo se desarrolla un modelo matemático de la flotación de la maza superior de los molinos de caña de azúcar durante su funcionamiento, determinado a partir de mediciones experimentales de dicha magnitud en el tiempo. Se realiza un ajuste adecuado a los valores medidos experimental [...] mente y se obtiene una función analítica que permitirá considerar los efectos de la flotación en el estudio del funcionamiento y en los métodos de cálculo de los molinos y sus elementos. Se aplica a un molino en el Complejo Agroindustrial 14 de Julio en Cienfuegos. Se modelan cien segundos de funcionamiento obteniéndose una función que expresa la flotación la que al ser derivada permite obtener la velocidad y aceleración con que varía la flotación instantánea. Los coeficientes y sus bondades son dados matricialmente para todos los ajustes efectuados al construir la función que define la flotación instantánea obtenida en este caso. Abstract in english A mathematical model for the instant flotation of the top shaft of sugar cane mill is developed and analytical function for introduce in the study of other sugar cane mills parts is obtained. The model is applied to July 14th sugar factory in Cienfuegos. One hundred seconds of work is modeled and a [...] functions for floating, velocity and acceleration of floating are obtained. The coefficients and their goodness are given in matrix for all the fits made for to build the function that defines the instant flotation obtained in this case.

  2. Prevención, minimización y control de la contaminación ambiental en un ingenio azucarero de México / Prevention, Minimization and Control of Environmental Pollution at Mexico Sugar Mill

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Candi Ashanti, Domínguez-Manjarrez; Humberto, Bravo-Álvarez; Rodolfo, Sosa-Echeverría.

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available La meta de esta investigación es recomendar medidas de prevención, minimización y control de la contaminación ambiental, que permitan mejorar la gestión ambiental de la Industria Azucarera de México, que permanece suspendida por la necesidad de resolver problemas económicos, sociales y tecnológicos [...] por los que ha atravesado. Para conocer el proceso productivo, la problemática real a la que se enfrenta actualmente la industria y con el objeto de hacer propuestas viables de mejora se eligió un ingenio como caso de estudio. El trabajo realizado en este ingenio caso de estudio fue la evaluación integral del proceso productivo, considerando las actividades tanto en el campo cañero como el ingenio para la implementación de medidas de prevención, minimización y control de la contaminación ambiental. Este trabajo permitió el ahorro en el consumo de agua de extracción de 3,620 metros cúbicos promedio por día en el periodo de estudio, una disminución en la generación de residuos sólidos de 325 kilogramos promedio diario por la implementación de un programa de separación de residuos y la disminución de emisiones a la atmósfera de partículas por la instalación de una caldera 100% bagacera. Las medidas de prevención, minimización y control de la contaminación ambiental resultantes de este estudio pueden aplicarse a otros ingenios del país con sus respectivas adaptaciones. Abstract in english This research paper aims to recommend control measures directed towards preventing and minimizing pollution, looking forward to the improvement of the environmental management on the sugar industry in Mexico. This issue has been put on hold due to the necessity to address the economic, social and te [...] chnological issues affecting it over time. In order to better understand the productive process and the actual problem that the industry is facing, while proposing effective and possible actions for improvement, a sugar mill type was selected as a case of study. A comprehensive assessment of the production process for the standard sugar was made, considering the activities in the field and at the mill. The proposed measures in the sugar mill allowed savings in consumption of ground water average 3,620 cubic meters per day, during the period of study, reduction in solid waste generated average 325 kilograms per day by implementing a waste separation program, and reducing atmospheric emissions of particles acting as fuel for a boiler operated with bagasse. The prevention, minimization and pollution control measures proposed can be applied to other mills in the country with the appropriate adaptations.

  3. Uranium exploration, mining and milling proposal, Navajo Indian Reservation, New Mexico

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Secretary of the Interior has been requested to approve an exploration permit and mining lease which are part of a uranium exploration, mining, and milling Agreement, negotiated between the Navajo Tribe and the Exxon Corporation. The exploration area is a 400,000 acre tract located on the Navajo Reservation in San Juan County, New Mexico. If uranium ore in sufficient quantities to warrant development is discovered, Exxon is authorized to take a total of 51,200 acres to lease for mining, of which only 5,120 surface acres may be used for mining and milling purposes. While all exploration and predevelopment costs prior to mining must be borne by Exxon, the Navajo Tribe has reserved the right to participate in the venture on either a royalty basis or as a partner holding up to a 40 percent working interest. Impacts resulting from exploration will include disturbance of soils and vegetation and air quality degradation resulting from the vehicular movement and the operation of drilling equipment. If mining and milling takes place significant environmental impacts include: sub-surface water depletion, soils and vegetation disturbance, air quality degradation, interruption of the wildlife habitat, population increases, increased demands on community services and facilities, and disruption of established lifestyles and social patterns. Low levels of radioactive emissions will be found at mine and mill sites. Income and employment opportunities from the project to the Navajpportunities from the project to the Navajo Tribe, Navajo people, and the entire San Juan County community will be significant

  4. La frescura de la caña de azúcar: Un caso de estudio en tres ingenios de México / Sugar cane cut-to-crush delay: a case study in three sugar mills of México

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Oscar L., Palacios-Vélez; Enrique, Mejía-Sáenz; Luis, Piñón-Sosa; Hugo, Sánchez-Hernández.

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available La frescura de la caña de azúcar es el tiempo transcurrido desde la quema o el corte del cultivo hasta que se recibe en los ingenios y es importante reducir este tiempo para evitar la pérdida de sacarosa. Por tanto, se realizó un estudio durante la zafra 2007-2008 en tres ingenios mexicanos: en Zaca [...] tepec, Morelos; en Casimiro Castillo, Jalisco; y en Ciudad Valles, San Luis Potosí. Se recopiló la información de la fecha y hora de entrada y salida de camiones, parcela de origen, identificación del camión, etc., lo cual se complementó con entrevistas a transportistas y conteos de camiones. Se elaboró un modelo matemático para analizar la influencia de varios factores que afectan la frescura. Se estableció que: 1) el tiempo de quema-corte-alzado de la caña es el componente más importante del tiempo de frescura (de 14.7 a 22.23 h, o 67 a 84 %); 2) el segundo componente más importante fue el tiempo de espera en batey (de 2.94 a 10.02 h, o 12 a 30 %); 3) el traslado tuvo la menor influencia (de 0.76 a 1.25 h, o 2.3 a 5.84 %); 4) en las parcelas con corte mecanizado y sin quema de la caña, el tiempo de frescura es aproximadamente la mitad que en las parcelas con corte manual; 5) el parque vehicular es excesivo, lo que se refleja en un muy reducido número de viajes que realiza cada unidad (0.8 a 1.63 viajes d-1), lo cual se traduce en un raquítico ingreso para los transportistas. Abstract in english Sugarcane cut-to-crush delay is the time lapse between cutting and reception in the sugar mills. It is important to reduce this time to avoid loss of sucrose. Therefore, this study was conducted during the 2007-2008 harvest in three Mexican sugar mills: Zacatepec, Morelos; Casimiro Castillo, Jalisco [...] ; and Ciudad Valles, San Luis Potosí. Information on the date and hour of truck entry and exit, origin of the sugar cane, truck identity, etc., was collected; this was complemented with interviews to truckers and truck counting. A mathematical model was developed to analyze the influence of several factors that affect cut-to-crush delay. It was established that: 1) the time between burning, cutting and pickup was the most important time component in cut-to-crush delay (14.7 to 22.23 h, or 67 to 84 %); 2) the second most important component was the waiting time at the mill (2.94 to 10.02 h, or 12 to 30 %); 3) transport to the mill had the least influence (0.76 to 1.25 h, or 2.3 to 5.84 %); 4) in the fields where cutting is mechanized and the cane leaves were not burned off, delay time was approximately half that in the fields where cutting was done manually; 5) the number of vehicles is excessive, that is, the number of trips made by each truck is very small (0.8 to 1.63 trips d-1), which translates into paltry incomes for the truckers.

  5. Sugar 101

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Fit-Friendly Worksites Program Requirements Fit-Friendly Resources Sugar 101 Updated:Nov 19,2014 Naturally occurring sugars ... sugars Discretionary calories and added sugars Naturally occurring sugars and added sugars There are two types of ...

  6. Energy and water saving measures at the Arloev sugar mill. Final report; Energi- och vattenbesparande aatgaerder vid Arloevs Sockerbruk. Slutrapport

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wamsler, M. [AAF-Processdesign AB, Malmoe (Sweden)

    2001-10-01

    The project comprised several, mutually dependent, sub-projects; mapping, investigation of ways to reduce water consumption, membrane tests aiming to find ways to recover sugar, and pinch analysis to evaluate the possibilities for improved process integration. This final report deals with the overall project results. Identified savings opportunities and savings potentials are presented. The presented measures represent an overall optimisation based on the results of all the project parts. Already during the project, measures have been implemented that are calculated to save 65 000 m{sup 3} water annually, corresponding to 10 % of the total water consumption. This saving is in level with the goals for the project. In the table below, these and additional measures are presented with a total savings potential at approximately 200 000 m{sup 3} /year water. The project will then achieve a saving of just below 35 % of present water consumption. Also in the membrane study the results surpassed the expectations. It was found that with nano filtering a sugar concentration of more than 10 %(W) could be reached in the retentate at a flux 50al/m{sup 2}h. The total sugar losses were less than 5 %, i.e. 95 % should be possible to recover. In total, a savings potential of more than 300 tonnes sugar per year is indicated. The Energy savings in the project are calculated to 7,4 GWh/year, of which 0,2 GWh/year by reduced water consumption, 0,6 GWh/year by water recovery, 1,4 GWh/year by membrane technology and 5,2aGWh/year as a result of process integration. This should be compared to the target 2,5 GWh/year. Hence, the results are almost three times the expected. The savings in monetary terms are estimated at just under SEK 5 million per year. The investment is roughly estimated at between SEK 5 and 6 million, of which SEK 4 million for the membrane equipment and SEK 0,5 million for a process water buffer tank. The remaining investment costs cover heat exchangers, control equipment and piping. This means that the total package will have a payback time of approximately one year. The environmental benefits of this project are mainly a result of the reduced energy consumption. This leads to a 1 600 tonne reduction of carbon dioxide emissions annually from reduced natural gas firing. Furthermore, the results indicate possibilities for a profitable reduction of oxygen depleting substances by over 300 tonnes sugar annually. In addition, the reduction of water consumption by 200 000 cubic meters per year results in reduced electricity and chemicals consumption in both water and sewage treatment plants.

  7. “REVIEW OF SUGAR INDUSTRIES IN MAHARASHTRA STATE”

    OpenAIRE

    THORAT PURUSHOTTAM DHANRAJ; DHARNE S.R.

    2013-01-01

    Sugar industry is the largest co-operative industry in India. About 45 million sugarcane farmers, their dependents and agricultural laborer are involved in Indian sugar industry. Maharashtra state is the one of the biggest sugarcane production state in India. Sugar industry play the main role to development in Maharashtra. The sugar industry in Maharashtra is most popular in co-operative sector. The Maharashtra sugar industry has been contributing 40% of India's total sugar production. Mahara...

  8. Sugar Intake, Obesity, and Diabetes in India

    OpenAIRE

    Gulati, Seema; Misra, Anoop

    2014-01-01

    Sugar and sweet consumption have been popular and intrinsic to Indian culture, traditions, and religion from ancient times. In this article, we review the data showing increasing sugar consumption in India, including traditional sources (jaggery and khandsari) and from sugar-sweetened beverages (SSBs). Along with decreasing physical activity, this increasing trend of per capita sugar consumption assumes significance in view of the high tendency for Indians to develop insulin resistance, abdom...

  9. Predicción de vida remanente en ejes de masa superior de molino de caña / Predicting remaining life in upper sugar-mill shafts

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Sara, Rodríguez Pulecio; John Jairo, Coronado Marín; Nelson, Arzola de la Peña.

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available En este artículo se presenta un método basado en la mecánica de fractura para el cálculo del tamaño crítico de fisuras y la vida remanente de un eje de masa superior de molino de caña de azúcar, con fisuras semielípticas y circunferenciales. Debido a la presencia de un campo de esfuerzos multiaxiale [...] s es necesario usar en la ley de París un factor de intensidad de esfuerzos equivalente. Se obtuvieron los intervalos entre inspección requeridos para evitar una falla por fatiga de estos elementos. Para el cálculo de vida residual y tamaño de fisura máxima se considera la zona localizada en el cambio de diámetro del guijo más próximo al acoplamiento cuadrado, donde se encontró el 25% de las fallas. Abstract in english A fracture mechanics-based method is presented for determining critical crack size and residual life of upper sugar-mill shafts having semi-elliptical and circumferential cracks. Due to the multiaxial stress field, an equivalent strain energy release rate stress intensity solution is used in Paris’ [...] law to predict crack growth. Ultrasonic inspection intervals for the shaft were established. The crack zone evaluated was located in the shoulder of the bearing nearest to the square box coupling where about 25% of service failures in these types of shaft are observed.

  10. Estrutura de um fragmento florestal no Engenho Humaitá, Catende, Pernambuco, Brasil Structure of a forest fragment at Humaitá sugar mill, Catende, PE, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco J. P. Guimarães

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Avaliou-se, neste trabalho, a estrutura de um fragmento florestal antropizado denominado Mata das Galinhas, Engenho Humaitá, Catende, Pernambuco, e se utilizaram, para avaliar a composição florística e a estrutura fitossociológica, 14 parcelas de 10 x 25 m a fim de amostrar os indivíduos arbóreos com circunferência a 1,30 m do solo (CAP ? 10 cm. Foram estimados, então, densidade, frequência e dominância e valor de importância (VI e o índice de Shannon, além de registrados 438 indivíduos pertencentes a 63 espécies, 45 gêneros e 29 famílias. As famílias de maior importância foram Mimosaceae, Moraceae, Anacardiaceae e Lecythidaceae e as espécies com maiores valores de VI, foram Brosimum discolor, Parkia pendula, Eschweilera ovata, Thyrsodium spruceanum, Tapirira guianensis, Protium heptaphyllum, Casearia arborea, Helicostylis tomentosa, Dialium guianense, Schefflera morototoni, Himatanthus phagedaenicus e Cupania racemosa. Quando observado isoladamente, conclui-se que o fragmento estudado possui pouca relevância; entretanto, se considerado conjuntamente com outros fragmentos da área, sua diversidade é significativa o que justificaria esforços para sua conservação e manejo.The structure of a forest fragment, known as "Mata das Galinhas" at Humaitá sugar mill, Catende, Pernambuco, Brazil was evaluated. To evaluate the floristic composition and the phytosociological structure under anthropic action 14 plots of 10 x 25 m were used to sample the arboreal individuals with circumference at breast height (CBH ? 10 cm. The density, frequency, and dominance, the importance value (IV and the Shannon's index were calculated. A total of 438 individuals distributed into 63 species, 45 genera and 29 families were recorded. The families of larger importance in the study were Mimosaceae, Moraceae, Anacardiaceae and Lecythidaceae. The species with larger values of IV were Brosimum discolor, Parkia pendula, Eschweilera ovata, Thyrsodium spruceanum, Tapirira guianensis, Protium heptaphyllum, Casearia arborea, Helicostylis tomentosa, Dialium guianense, Schefflera morototoni, Himatanthus phagedaenicus and Cupania racemosa. When observed separately, the studied fragment possesses low relevance; however, when considered jointly with other fragments of the area, its diversity is significant, justifying efforts for conservation and management.

  11. Sweeteners - sugars

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... is made from sugar crystals that come from molasses syrup. Confectioner's sugar (also known as powdered sugar) ... is made up of sucrose, fructose, and glucose. Molasses is taken from the residue of sugar cane ...

  12. Assessment of In vitro Multiple Shoot Bud Induction from Leaf Explants among Eleven Indian Cultivars of Pigeon Pea (Cajanus cajan L. Mill sp.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manoj Kumar Yadav

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available In vitro multiple shoot bud induction from leaf explants of eleven Indian cultivars of pigeon pea (Cajanus cajan L. Mill sp. under the influence of variable concentration of three different cytokinins namely BAP, KIN and TDZ on MS media has been studied. Callus of variable morphology and nature was observed for most of the cultivars except four cultivars IPA-2013, Pusa-9, T-7 and IPA-98-3 showing multiple shoot bud induction. Among cytokinins used BAP was found to be most effective. Further elongation of multiple shoot buds was achieved in the same media while rooting of regenerated multiple shoots were attempted in MS media supplemented with variable concentration of three different auxins namely NAA, IAA and IBA. Efficient rooting was achieved in the presence of NAA. Regenerated plants were successfully established in soil with acclimatization frequency varying from 25-50% with cultivar IPA-2013 showing the best response.

  13. Modelación matemática del funcionamiento de las coronas de molinos considerando la flotación de la maza superior / An equivalent mechanism for the kinetic and dynamic analysis of the sugar cane mill gears

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Mario Javier, Cabello-Ulloa; Juan José, Cabello-Eras; Jorge, Moya-Rodríguez; Rafael, Goytisolo-Espinosa; José Alberto, Velásquez-Pérez; Juan Rafael, Mestizo-Cerón.

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available En este trabajo se propone un mecanismo equivalente para modelar el funcionamiento de las coronas de los molinos de caña de azúcar, que permite tomar en cuenta la forma real del perfil de los dientes trazados por arcos de círculos y la variación de la distancia entre centros durante su funcionamient [...] o. Aplicando el método grafo-analítico al modelo propuesto se obtiene una función cinemática que define la posición angular instantánea de la corona conducida con dependencia de la distancia entre ejes de las ruedas y la posición angular de la corona conductora. Aplicando métodos paramétricos se obtienen ecuaciones para la velocidad y aceleración que son generales para cualquier tipo de perfil de dientes en engranajes que trabajan con variación de distancia entre centros. Finalmente se grafican estos parámetros para el funcionamiento de las coronas de un molino real concluyéndose que estas tienen relación de transmisión instantánea variable y que por el solo hecho de la forma del perfil se producen aceleraciones. Abstract in english Equivalent mechanism is proposed for modeling sugar cane mills gears, which allows to take into account the shape of the tooth profile formed by circular arcs and the variation of the distance between centers for operation. Applying the graph-analytical method to the proposed model is obtained a fun [...] ction to define the instantaneous angular position of the sugar cane mill gear in relation with the instantaneous angular position of driver gear and the center distance of gears. General equations for the velocity and acceleration for any type of gear tooth profile with variable distance between centers are proposed through parametric method. Plotted these parameters for real sugar cane mill gear and it is concluded that the instantaneous speed ratio is variable and the profile shape produced accelerations.

  14. Assessment of Body Mass Index, Sugar Sweetened Beverage Intake and Time Spent in Physical Activity of American Indian Children in Oklahoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dennison, Michelle E; Sisson, Susan B; Lora, Karina; Stephens, Lancer D; Copeland, Kenneth C; Caudillo, Cynthia

    2015-08-01

    American Indian (AI) children have a combined overweight and obesity prevalence of 53 %. Behaviors that contribute to obesity, such as sugar sweetened beverage (SSB) intake and time spent in physical activity (PA), have been poorly explored in this population. The purpose of this study is to report body mass index (BMI), SSB intake, and time spent in PA of 7-to-13-year-old AI children who reside in rural and urban areas in Oklahoma. Cross-sectional survey study. Self-reported SSB intake in the last month, and time spent in PA were collected via questionnaires. Height and weight were professionally measured. The sample included 124 7-to-13-year-old AI children who attended a diabetes prevention summer camp in 2013. BMI percentile, overweight and obesity prevalence, SSB intake, time spent in PA, and number of participants meeting the Physical Activity Guidelines for Americans. Descriptive characteristics for BMI percentile, overweight and obesity, SSB intake, time spent in PA, and meeting PA recommendations were calculated using means, standard deviations, and frequencies. Independent t test and Chi square analyses were used to test for gender differences. Participants were 10.2 ± 1.5 years old and 57 % female. Sixty-three percent were overweight or obese. Children consumed 309 ± 309 kcal/day of SSB and spent 4.4 ± 3.8 h per week in moderate-to-vigorous PA. Approximately 32 % met the 2008 Physical Activity Guidelines for Americans. No gender differences were observed. The prevalence of overweight and obesity was higher than previously reported in a similar population, and higher than that of US children in the general population. SSB intake and physical activity levels were also found to be higher in this group than in the general population. PMID:25750107

  15. Estrutura de um fragmento florestal no Engenho Humaitá, Catende, Pernambuco, Brasil / Structure of a forest fragment at Humaitá sugar mill, Catende, PE, Brazil

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Francisco J. P., Guimarães; Rinaldo L. C., Ferreira; Luiz C., Marangon; José A. A. da, Silva; Perseu da S., Aparício; Francisco T., Alves Júnior.

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Avaliou-se, neste trabalho, a estrutura de um fragmento florestal antropizado denominado Mata das Galinhas, Engenho Humaitá, Catende, Pernambuco, e se utilizaram, para avaliar a composição florística e a estrutura fitossociológica, 14 parcelas de 10 x 25 m a fim de amostrar os indivíduos arbóreos co [...] m circunferência a 1,30 m do solo (CAP) ? 10 cm. Foram estimados, então, densidade, frequência e dominância e valor de importância (VI) e o índice de Shannon, além de registrados 438 indivíduos pertencentes a 63 espécies, 45 gêneros e 29 famílias. As famílias de maior importância foram Mimosaceae, Moraceae, Anacardiaceae e Lecythidaceae e as espécies com maiores valores de VI, foram Brosimum discolor, Parkia pendula, Eschweilera ovata, Thyrsodium spruceanum, Tapirira guianensis, Protium heptaphyllum, Casearia arborea, Helicostylis tomentosa, Dialium guianense, Schefflera morototoni, Himatanthus phagedaenicus e Cupania racemosa. Quando observado isoladamente, conclui-se que o fragmento estudado possui pouca relevância; entretanto, se considerado conjuntamente com outros fragmentos da área, sua diversidade é significativa o que justificaria esforços para sua conservação e manejo. Abstract in english The structure of a forest fragment, known as "Mata das Galinhas" at Humaitá sugar mill, Catende, Pernambuco, Brazil was evaluated. To evaluate the floristic composition and the phytosociological structure under anthropic action 14 plots of 10 x 25 m were used to sample the arboreal individuals with [...] circumference at breast height (CBH) ? 10 cm. The density, frequency, and dominance, the importance value (IV) and the Shannon's index were calculated. A total of 438 individuals distributed into 63 species, 45 genera and 29 families were recorded. The families of larger importance in the study were Mimosaceae, Moraceae, Anacardiaceae and Lecythidaceae. The species with larger values of IV were Brosimum discolor, Parkia pendula, Eschweilera ovata, Thyrsodium spruceanum, Tapirira guianensis, Protium heptaphyllum, Casearia arborea, Helicostylis tomentosa, Dialium guianense, Schefflera morototoni, Himatanthus phagedaenicus and Cupania racemosa. When observed separately, the studied fragment possesses low relevance; however, when considered jointly with other fragments of the area, its diversity is significant, justifying efforts for conservation and management.

  16. Produção de açúcar e álcool vs. responsabilidade social corporativa: as ações desenvolvidas pelas usinas de cana-de-açúcar frente às externalidades negativas / Sugar and ethanol production vs. corporative social responsibility: the actions taken by the sugar cane mills confronted with negative externalizations

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Ivelise Rasera, Bragato; Elisabete Stradiotto, Siqueira; Graziela Oste, Graziano; Eduardo Eugênio, Spers.

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available A responsabilidade social corporativa (RSC) é analisada neste estudo no ambiente organizacional das usinas de cana-de-açúcar paulistas que integram o agronegócio brasileiro de açúcar e álcool. Trata-se de uma pesquisa qualitativa que utiliza dados quantitativos para fins descritivos. Apoiada em dado [...] s secundários e primários, aborda-se um estudo exploratório no contexto das usinas de cana-de-açúcar do Estado de São Paulo. O objetivo geral foi estabelecer uma análise comparativa entre as externalidades negativas e as ações sociais e verificar se estas últimas tinham um papel compensatório. Foi possível identificar a relação entre imagem e RSC no cenário organizacional das usinas, ressaltando as principais ações sociais desenvolvidas pelas empresas, as quais vêm contribuindo para a melhoria da imagem do setor sucroalcooleiro como agente participante do desenvolvimento sustentável. Constatou-se que o foco das ações sociais está concentrado nas áreas educacional e ambiental, ocupando um plano secundário as ações relacionadas à cultura, ao esporte e à saúde. Os resultados demonstraram que o número de projetos sociais não está necessariamente relacionado ao porte das empresas pesquisadas. Abstract in english Corporative Social Responsibility (CSR) is analyzed in this study in the organizational environment of sugar cane mills in the state of São Paulo and which form the Brazilian agribusiness of sugar and ethanol. Following a qualitative research, the quantitative data was used to define objectives usin [...] g the primary and secondary data approach; an exploratory study in the context of the sugar-ethanol mills. The goal was to establish a comparative analysis between the negative external aspects and the social actions to investigate whether the latter had a significant role. It was possible to identify the relation between image and CSR in the organizational scenario of sugar-ethanol mills highlighting the main social actions developed by the enterprises which have contributed to improving the image of the sugar-ethanol sector as an active agent in the sustainable development. It was verified that the focus of social actions are concentrated in areas related to environment and education. Those related to culture, sport, and health seemed to be not as important. The results show that the number of social actions is not, necessarily, related to the size of the companies researched.

  17. Ahorro energético en tándem de molinos de caña de azúcar mediante regulación de presiones hidráulicas / Energy saving in tandem of sugar cane mills by means regulation of hydraulic pressures

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Jorge Michel, Corrales-Suárez; José Marcos, Gil-Ortiz; Pedro Dionisio, Remédios-Castañeiras; Yurisleydis, Masjuan-Leyva; José Alexander, Gil-Ceballo.

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Entre las áreas de mayor consumo de energía en un central azucarero se encuentra el tándem de molinos. Una de las variables que influye sobre este consumo es la presión hidráulica aplicada a la maza superior. La investigación tuvo como objetivo determinar las posibilidades de reducir este consumo re [...] gulando apropiadamente las presiones hidráulicas sin disminuir la eficiencia del proceso de extracción, se llevó a cabo en un tándem de seis molinos donde solo se varió las presiones en los molinos intermedios según un diseño estadístico factorial completo 24. Las variables independientes fueron: las presiones hidráulicas en los molinos intermedios; las dependientes: la demanda de potencia, el % pol y % humedad. Se concluyó que en las condiciones del experimento, el empleo de presiones hidráulicas de trabajo menores en 3,45 MPa en los molinos intermedios, no afectó el proceso de extracción de la sacarosa, pero disminuyó en un 8,12 % la demanda de potencia. Abstract in english Among the areas of more energy consumption in a sugar power station is the tandem of mills. One of the variables that influences on this consumption is the hydraulic pressure applied to the superior mass. The investigation had as objective to determine the possibilities to reduce this consumption re [...] gulating the hydraulic pressures appropriately without diminishing the efficiency of the extraction process, it was carried out in a tandem of six mills where alone it was varied the pressures in the intermediate mills according to a complete factorial statistical design 24. The independent variables were: the hydraulic pressures in the intermediate mills; the dependents: the demand of power, the %pol and %humidity. You concluded that under the conditions of the experiment, the employment of hydraulic pressures of smaller work in 3,45 MPa in the intermediate mills, didn't affect the process of extraction of the sucrose, but it diminished in 8,12 % the demand of power.

  18. Added Sugars

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... preparation or processing, or added at the table. Foods Containing Added Sugars The major sources of added sugars are regular ... Different Names To figure out if a packaged food contains added sugars, and how much, you have to be a ...

  19. Programação estocástica robusta aplicada ao planejamento agregado de safra em usinas cooperadas do setor sucroenergético Stochastic robust optimization model applied to the aggregate production planning in mill cooperative socities in the sugar-energy sector

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafael Piatti Oiticica de Paiva

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Neste trabalho, apresenta-se um modelo de programação estocástica robusta aplicado ao planejamento agregado da produção em usinas cooperadas do setor sucroenergético. Esta modelagem considera a relação hierárquica existente entre o planejamento anual da cooperativa e o planejamento tático de safra das usinas cooperadas, além de contemplar importantes incertezas existentes nos parâmetros de entrada do modelo. Para resolver os problemas de programação linear e programação inteira mista envolvidos, utiliza-se uma linguagem de modelagem algébrica e um software de última geração de programação matemática. Os resultados computacionais obtidos são comparados aos resultados da modelagem determinística PASUC, discutida em Paiva e Morabito (in press, utilizando os mesmos dados do estudo de caso da Usina Santa Clotilde e da Cooperativa Regional dos Produtores de Açúcar e Álcool de Alagoas.This work presents a stochastic robust optimization model applied to the aggregate production planning in mill cooperative societies in the sugar-energy sector This mathematical model is based on a hierarchical relationship between the annual planning of the cooperative and the tactical planning horizon of the sugarcane mills taking into account important uncertainties in several parameters of this model. In order to solve the linear and mixed integer programming problems involved, an optimization modeling language solver was used. Computational results are presented and compared with the deterministic approach PASUC, dicussed by Paiva e Morabito (in press using the same data from the case studies conducted in the Santa Clotilde milling company and in the regional cooperative society of sugar and ethanol producers of Alagoas.

  20. Programação estocástica robusta aplicada ao planejamento agregado de safra em usinas cooperadas do setor sucroenergético / Stochastic robust optimization model applied to the aggregate production planning in mill cooperative socities in the sugar-energy sector

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Rafael Piatti Oiticica de, Paiva; Reinaldo, Morabito.

    Full Text Available Neste trabalho, apresenta-se um modelo de programação estocástica robusta aplicado ao planejamento agregado da produção em usinas cooperadas do setor sucroenergético. Esta modelagem considera a relação hierárquica existente entre o planejamento anual da cooperativa e o planejamento tático de safra d [...] as usinas cooperadas, além de contemplar importantes incertezas existentes nos parâmetros de entrada do modelo. Para resolver os problemas de programação linear e programação inteira mista envolvidos, utiliza-se uma linguagem de modelagem algébrica e um software de última geração de programação matemática. Os resultados computacionais obtidos são comparados aos resultados da modelagem determinística PASUC, discutida em Paiva e Morabito (in press), utilizando os mesmos dados do estudo de caso da Usina Santa Clotilde e da Cooperativa Regional dos Produtores de Açúcar e Álcool de Alagoas. Abstract in english This work presents a stochastic robust optimization model applied to the aggregate production planning in mill cooperative societies in the sugar-energy sector This mathematical model is based on a hierarchical relationship between the annual planning of the cooperative and the tactical planning hor [...] izon of the sugarcane mills taking into account important uncertainties in several parameters of this model. In order to solve the linear and mixed integer programming problems involved, an optimization modeling language solver was used. Computational results are presented and compared with the deterministic approach PASUC, dicussed by Paiva e Morabito (in press) using the same data from the case studies conducted in the Santa Clotilde milling company and in the regional cooperative society of sugar and ethanol producers of Alagoas.

  1. Um modelo de otimização para o planejamento agregado da produção em usinas de açúcar e álcool An optimization model for the aggregate production planning in alcohol and sugar mills

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafael Piatti Oititica de Paiva

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available Neste trabalho apresentamos um modelo de otimização para o planejamento agregado da produção de usinas de açúcar e álcool. Este modelo se baseia nos modelos clássicos de seleção de processos e dimensionamento de lotes para representar o sistema de produção de açúcar, álcool e melaço, incluindo decisões da etapa agrícola, das fases de corte, carregamento e transporte de cana e, principalmente, decisões de moagem, escolha do processo produtivo e estoque dos produtos finais. As decisões são tomadas em períodos semanais e o horizonte de planejamento são as semanas de safra. Para resolver o modelo de programação linear inteira mista resultante, utilizamos a linguagem de modelagem GAMS e o solver CPLEX. Um estudo de caso foi realizado em uma usina de açúcar e álcool do estado de Alagoas. Neste estudo foi possível verificar a adequação do modelo proposto quando aplicado para auxiliar nas decisões envolvidas no planejamento agregado da produção de empresas deste tipo. Resultados computacionais são apresentados resolvendo um exemplo com dados de uma safra típica.The main concern of this work is related to the presentation of an aggregate production planning model of a sugar and alcohol milling company. The mathematical model is based on the process selection model and the production lot-sizing model, and aims to help the decision makers in the production planning and control process of determining the quantity of sugarcane crushed, the selection of sugarcane suppliers, the selection of sugarcane transport system suppliers, the selection of industrial process used in the sugar, alcohol and molasses production and the storage decisions related to these final products. The decisions are taken on a weekly basis and the planning horizon is the whole sugarcane harvesting season. To solve the mixed integer mathematical problem found in this model, we applied the GAMS modeling language and the CPLEX solver. A case study was developed in a sugar and alcohol milling company located in Rio Largo, state of Alagoas, Brazil. The results of this case study helped us to verify the applicability of the proposed model in the aggregate production planning of a milling company. Computational results are presented in real data application.

  2. Um modelo de otimização para o planejamento agregado da produção em usinas de açúcar e álcool / An optimization model for the aggregate production planning in alcohol and sugar mills

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Rafael Piatti Oititica de, Paiva; Reinaldo, Morabito.

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available Neste trabalho apresentamos um modelo de otimização para o planejamento agregado da produção de usinas de açúcar e álcool. Este modelo se baseia nos modelos clássicos de seleção de processos e dimensionamento de lotes para representar o sistema de produção de açúcar, álcool e melaço, incluindo decis [...] ões da etapa agrícola, das fases de corte, carregamento e transporte de cana e, principalmente, decisões de moagem, escolha do processo produtivo e estoque dos produtos finais. As decisões são tomadas em períodos semanais e o horizonte de planejamento são as semanas de safra. Para resolver o modelo de programação linear inteira mista resultante, utilizamos a linguagem de modelagem GAMS e o solver CPLEX. Um estudo de caso foi realizado em uma usina de açúcar e álcool do estado de Alagoas. Neste estudo foi possível verificar a adequação do modelo proposto quando aplicado para auxiliar nas decisões envolvidas no planejamento agregado da produção de empresas deste tipo. Resultados computacionais são apresentados resolvendo um exemplo com dados de uma safra típica. Abstract in english The main concern of this work is related to the presentation of an aggregate production planning model of a sugar and alcohol milling company. The mathematical model is based on the process selection model and the production lot-sizing model, and aims to help the decision makers in the production pl [...] anning and control process of determining the quantity of sugarcane crushed, the selection of sugarcane suppliers, the selection of sugarcane transport system suppliers, the selection of industrial process used in the sugar, alcohol and molasses production and the storage decisions related to these final products. The decisions are taken on a weekly basis and the planning horizon is the whole sugarcane harvesting season. To solve the mixed integer mathematical problem found in this model, we applied the GAMS modeling language and the CPLEX solver. A case study was developed in a sugar and alcohol milling company located in Rio Largo, state of Alagoas, Brazil. The results of this case study helped us to verify the applicability of the proposed model in the aggregate production planning of a milling company. Computational results are presented in real data application.

  3. Propuestas de mejoras energéticas en el área del tándem de un ingenio azucarero de la provincia Las Tunas, Cuba / Proposals for energy improvements in the area of a Sugar Mill tandem of Las Tunas province, Cuba

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Anislei, Santiesteban Velázquez; Julio Osvaldo, Nápoles González; Julio Manuel, Silva Becheran.

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available El presente trabajo se efectuó en ingenio azucarero Antonio Guiteras Holmes, municipio Puerto Padre, provincia Las Tunas en la zafra 2012, con el objetivo de determinar las potencialidades de ahorro de energía eléctrica en el área del tándem, se evalúa el comportamiento de los motores de inducción t [...] rifásicos de los molinos en las condiciones actuales de operación con el conocimiento de las mediciones de las magnitudes eléctricas de tensión, corrientes y factor de potencia, con estos elementos mínimos y aplicando el método de los Datos de Placas se obtuvieron sus indicadores energéticos, estos resultados permitieron conocer el factor de carga, la eficiencia, la potencia real de salida de los motores estándares para lograr un uso más racional y eficiente de la energía en la empresa. Se realiza una propuesta para el redimensionado de estos motores. Abstract in english The study was performed in Sugar Mill Antonio Guiteras Holmes, municipality Puerto Padre, Las Tunas province in the 2012 harvest, the behaviour of induction motors Mills on current operating conditions with the knowledge of the measurements of the electrical parameters is evaluated voltage, current [...] and power factor with these minimum elements and applying the method of their energy data badges indicators were obtained, these results allowed us to know the load factor, efficiency, the actual power output of the engine to achieve standards a more rational and efficient energy use in the company. A proposal for resizing these engines is performed.

  4. The cogeneration potential of the sugar industry in Vietnam

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vietnam produces about 15 million tons of sugarcane per year and about five mt of bagasse. There is the potential for cogeneration using bagasse, which can also help overcome power shortages in the country. This paper analyses the potential for cogeneration from the sugar industry in Vietnam under three different scenarios and finds that between 100 and 300 megawatts of power-generating capacity could be supported by the bagasse generated from sugar mills, depending on the technology considered for sugar mills and cogeneration and the possibility of renovation of the existing mills. The paper also assesses the expense of cogeneration and finds it to be a cost-effective option for all types of sugar mill. It is found that the cost savings from cogeneration would more than offset the cost of introducing cogeneration in sugar mills with inefficient cane processing technologies. Sugar mills with modern technologies would have a significant amount of excess power and most of these plants would break-even if they sold excess power at around 4.5 cents per kilowatt hour. The break-even cost and the average production cost are sensitive to the investment cost assumptions. The paper thus suggests that cogeneration from the sugar industry is an attractive option for investors in existing mills or new sugar mills alike. (Author)

  5. Aplicação da análise envoltória de dados (AED) na avaliação da eficiência operacional relativa entre usinas de cana-de-açúcar no território brasileiro / Data envelopment analysis (DEA) application for the relative evaluation on the operational efficiency of sugar cane mills in Brazil

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Alexandre P., Salgado Junior; Fabio V., Carlucci; Juliana C., Novi.

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Este estudo tem por objetivo analisar o impacto das variáveis tamanho e localização na eficiência operacional de usinas de cana-de-açúcar no Brasil na safra 2008/2009. Para tanto, realizou-se um estudo de eficiência operacional, por meio da aplicação da Análise Envoltória de Dados (AED), na qual foi [...] possível identificar as usinas mais eficientes dentre um universo de 355 e classificá-las por tamanho e localização. A análise quantitativa sugere que existe maior concentração de usinas classificadas como eficientes e de tamanho grande, localizadas no estado de São Paulo. Objetivando uma análise em profundidade, foi realizado um estudo de múltiplos casos em um grupo de usinas. Conclui-se que a eficiência operacional de usinas de cana-de-açúcar depende da variável tamanho, na medida em que as usinas de maior porte tendem a investir mais em tecnologias que proporcionam maior ganho de eficiência operacional. A eficiência também depende da variável localização, na medida em que o estado de São Paulo apresenta condições edafoclimáticas mais favoráveis à extração de uma cana-de-açúcar com maior teor de sacarose, que, consequentemente, pode influenciar na eficiência operacional de usinas de cana-de-açúcar. Abstract in english The study aims to analyze the impact of the variables size and location over the operational efficiency of sugarcane mills producing sugar and ethanol in Brazil year 2008/2009. Data concerning total milling and total production of sugar and ethanol was collected regarding Brazilian sugar cane mills. [...] An operational efficiency ranking was developed, applying Data Envelopment Analysis (DEA) technique, through which was possible to verify which were the most efficient among 355 sugarcane mills and, therefore, compare the variables size, location and operational efficiency among the Brazilian mills. The quantitative analysis suggests that among the efficient groups, there is a major concentration of larger mills, located in the state of São Paulo. Aiming an in-depth analysis, a multiple-case study was conducted in a group of sugarcane mills, and interviews with experts in the sugarcane industry were developed. Therefore, the conclusion is that operational efficiency of sugarcane mills depends on the variable location, as larger mills tend to invest more in technologies that provide major gain in operational efficiency. The operational efficiency depends also on the location of the sugarcane mill, as the state of São Paulo provides favorable edaphoclimatic conditions for the juice extraction of sugarcane with a higher level of sucrose content, hence possibly having influence over the operational efficiency.

  6. Application of Thiocarbamate Based Chemical for Minimization of Invertase Enzyme Activity in Sugar Cane Juice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dr. Sapna Smith

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available The commercially grown Indian cane variety has su cros e content around 12-14% at peak maturitystage. Due to pre and pos t milling los s es av erage s ugar reco very remain in the range of 9.5-10.0%. This is aserious s ituation, which affect the overall performance and profitability of sugar industry. Therefore, regularus e of an effe ctive broad-s pectrum chemical is important in improving sugar recovery at mill level. In the viewof abov e facts , the inves tigation has been do ne wit h ap p lication of thiocarbamate based chemicals. Thecomparative activity of thiocarbamate-bas ed chemicals was tested ag ains t invertase enzyme and s ucrose containin sug ar cane juice. Two different commercial chemicals (1 SUGARBAG PLUSTM and (2 KILLBACT TM wereapplied @ 5 ppm, @10 ppm and @ 15 ppm with control. SUGARBA G PLUSTM@ 10 ppm and KILLBACTTM @ 15 ppm. Dextran, sucro s e and reducing sugar were analyzed periodically with thiocarbamate chemicalstreatments , and data were analyzed with analys is of variance. SUGARBAG PLUSTM @ 15 ppm was found bes ttreatment b ecause lowes t d extran co ntent was observed in this stu dy.

  7. Modelación del contacto entre dos pares de dientes en las coronas de molinos de caña / Modeling of contact between two pairs of teeth in the sugar cane mills gears

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Abdel, Mendoza-Fernández; Mario Javier, Cabello-Ulloa; Juan José, Cabello-Eras; Rafael, Goytisolo-Espinosa; Jorge, Moya-Rodríguez.

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available En el trabajo se propone un mecanismo equivalente para la modelación del funcionamiento de las coronas de molino de caña de azúcar cuando teóricamente hay dos pares de dientes en contacto. A través del análisis de movilidad del mecanismo se demuestra que no es posible el contacto simultaneo entre do [...] s pares de dientes y que el coeficiente de recubrimiento en estos engranes es igual o menor que la unidad. A partir de los resultados del análisis cinemático del contacto entre un par de dientes, y combinándolo con la modelación del contacto entre dos pares de dientes se demuestra que el coeficiente de recubrimiento real en estos engranajes es menor que la unidad y se producen impactos entre los dientes al inicio del contacto. Abstract in english The paper proposes an equivalent mechanism for modeling the functioning of the crowns of sugar cane mill when theoretically there are two pairs of teeth in contact. Through mobility analysis of the mechanism is demonstrated that is not possible the simultaneous contact between two pairs of teeth and [...] that the coating coefficient of these gears is equal or less than unity. Combining kinematic analysis results for the contact between a pair of teeth with the modeling the contact between two pairs of teeth, it is demonstrated that gear ratio of these gears is less than unity and impacts occur between the teeth at the start of contact

  8. EVALUACIÓN DE LA EFICIENCIA DE REACTORES DE LECHO FIJO UTILIZANDO AGUAS MIELES RESIDUALES DE TRAPICHES ARTESANALES / EVALUATION OF THE EFFECTIVENESS OF FIXED BED REACTORS USING WASTE WATER OF SUGAR CRAFT MILLS

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Gloria Lucía, Cárdenas Calvachi; Robert Mauricio, Ramos Ramos.

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available El problema de tratamiento y disposición final de las aguas mieles residuales provenientes de los trapiches artesanales en el departamento de Nariño, en particular los asentados en el municipio de Sandoná, radica en su imposibilidad económica y tecnológica, dadas las características de subsistencia [...] en que se basa su funcionamiento. El sistema de filtros anaerobios de flujo ascendente (FAFA) como unidad principal de tratamiento biológico en la degradación de azúcares, ofrece una buena alternativa por ser considerado eficiente, de relativos bajos costos de construcción, operación y mantenimiento, con el reto central de mantener las condiciones de hábitat adecuadas para el crecimiento de la biomasa al interior del reactor. Se evaluaron cuatro medios de contacto (concha marina, material sintético, material vitrificado y grava de río), a escala de laboratorio, para encontrar el lecho de soporte de FAFA más conveniente en condiciones controladas de temperatura, régimen de flujo y acondicionamiento previo del medio bacteriano. La concha marina y el material sintético, ofrecen características de resistencia, durabilidad y facilidad de consecución y alcanzan remociones de materia orgánica mayores del 80%. Sin embargo, la concha marina alcanza las mayores remociones (89,7% para DQO y 87,8 % para DBO) gracias a su estructura física que ofrece un microambiente adecuado y por su composición química, fuente natural de alcalinidad y micronutrientes al sistema, lo que hace que se lo considere como el medio de contacto más adecuado para diseñar e implementar filtros anaerobios de lecho fijo en la industria artesanal panelera. Abstract in english The problem of treatment and final disposal of waste water coming from artisan sugar mills in the Department of Nariño, particularly those established in the Municipality of Sandoná. It lies in its economical and technological impossibility, according to its nature. The system of Up Flow Anaerobic F [...] ilter (UFAF) as the principal unit of biological treatment on the degradation of sugars, it offers a good alternative because they are considered to be efficient treatments associated with low costs of construction, operation and maintenance, with the challenge of maintaining a suitable habitat conditions for the growth of the biomass inside the reactor. The study evaluated four contact means marine shell, synthetic material, vitrified material and river gravel, through laboratory-scale testing, to find the FAFA's most suitable material under controlled conditions of temperature, flow regime and previous conditioning of the bacterial environment. The marine shell and synthetic material provide characteristics of toughness, durability and easiness of obtaining and allowing an efficient removal of organic material above 80%. However, the marine shell reaches the highest removal (89.7% for COD and 87.8% for BOD) thanks its physical structure that provides an adequate microenvironment and its chemical composition, natural source of alkalinity and micronutrients to the system, which is considered the most suitable contact mean to design and to implement the UFAF in the artisan sugar mills.

  9. Sugar Intake, Obesity, and Diabetes in India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seema Gulati

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Sugar and sweet consumption have been popular and intrinsic to Indian culture, traditions, and religion from ancient times. In this article, we review the data showing increasing sugar consumption in India, including traditional sources (jaggery and khandsari and from sugar-sweetened beverages (SSBs. Along with decreasing physical activity, this increasing trend of per capita sugar consumption assumes significance in view of the high tendency for Indians to develop insulin resistance, abdominal adiposity, and hepatic steatosis, and the increasing “epidemic” of type 2 diabetes (T2DM and cardiovascular diseases. Importantly, there are preliminary data to show that incidence of obesity and T2DM could be decreased by increasing taxation on SSBs. Other prevention strategies, encompassing multiple stakeholders (government, industry, and consumers, should target on decreasing sugar consumption in the Indian population. In this context, dietary guidelines for Indians show that sugar consumption should be less than 10% of total daily energy intake, but it is suggested that this limit be decreased.

  10. Influencia de la preparación de caña de azúcar a moler en la producción de azúcar en el Complejo Agroindustrial Azucarero “Manuel Fajardo” / Influence of the sugar cane preparation to milling in the sugar production on the Sugar Agroindustrial Complex “Manuel Fajardo”

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Yanoy, Morejón Mesa; Jorge, Revé Moracén.

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available La presente investigación se realizó en el Complejo Agroindustrial (CAI) Azucarero “Manuel Fajardo”, Provincia Mayabeque. En este se investigó el proceso tecnológico de preparación de la caña de azúcar a moler con el objetivo de evaluar su eficiencia y detectar los principales problemas en dicho pro [...] ceso. Como resultado se obtuvo que el valor del Índice de Preparación (IP) no fue superior al 72,8%, estando por debajo de los normados en Cuba y el mundo, el valor del Rendimiento Potencial Cañero promedio (RPC) fue de 13,22, considerándose un valor positivo lo que demuestra que la producción de azúcar no solo depende de la variedad y calidad de la caña, sino del uso, mantenimiento y reparaciones que se le brinde a la tecnología empleada para la preparación de la caña a moler y se determinó que por concepto de materia extraña el total de azúcar pérdida fue 743,61 t, lo cual representa una pérdida económica de $446 166.00 USD. Abstract in english The present research was carried out on the Sugar Agroindustrial Complex “Manuel Fajardo”, Mayabeque Province. In this work was researched the technological process of sugar cane preparation having as objective to evaluate his efficiency and find the principals problems in this process. As results w [...] as obtained that the Preparation Index value (IP) was not superior to 72,8%, is below to the national and international standards, the Cane Potencial Yield mean (RPC) was 13,22, it is a positive value showing that the sugar production don’t depend of the variety and quality of sugar cane, also is important consider the use, maintenance and reparation in the technology use to the sugar cane preparation and was determined that for strange material the total sugar losses was 743,61 t, showing an economical losses of $446 166.00 USD.

  11. Sugar test

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olivia Worland (Purdue University; Biological Sciences)

    2008-06-06

    Metabolism is the conversion or breakdown of a substance from one form to another by a living organism for energy. Yeast is an indicator of how much sugar is in food. Yeast releases carbon dioxide and is a direct indicator of the rate of metabolism. An indicator is an object, material, or organism that tells you if a specific substance is present. Cereals contain sugars, which are carbohydrates. Carbohydrates are chemicals that provide energy.

  12. Sintomas vocais e sensações laríngeas em trabalhadores de uma usina de álcool e açúcar expostos a riscos ocupacionais / Vocal symptoms and laryngeal sensations in workers of an ethanol and sugar mill exposed to occupational risks

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Sylvia Boechat, Coutinho; Ana Claudia, Fiorini; Iára Bittante de, Oliveira; Maria do Rosário Dias de Oliveira, Latorre; Léslie Piccolotto, Ferreira.

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Investigar os sintomas vocais e sensações laríngeas dos trabalhadores de uma usina de álcool e açúcar expostos a ruído e/ou substâncias químicas. MÉTODOS: Participaram 289 trabalhadores de uma usina de álcool e açúcar distribuídos em cinco grupos expostos (I- ruído; II- ruído, óleo, graxa, [...] derivação de petróleo; III- ruído, ácidos, sulfatos, cloretos, nitratos; IV- ruído, poeiras respiráveis e sílica livre cristalizada; V- óleo, graxa, derivação de petróleo) e um grupo controle que responderam o questionário Condições de Produção Vocal - Professor adaptado à categoria profissional. Os grupos foram comparados em relação aos sintomas vocais, sensações laríngeas, tabagismo e riscos físicos e químicos. Esta comparação foi realizada por meio de análise estatística. RESULTADOS: O sintoma vocal e a sensação laríngea mais relatados pelos trabalhadores foram voz grave e tosse com catarro, respectivamente. Considerando o risco físico no ambiente de trabalho, os grupos I e IV foram os que mais citaram presença de ruído. Devido à sua exposição, os mesmos aumentavam a intensidade da voz (Efeito de Lombard-Tarneaud) e, assim, mencionaram sintomas vocais. Em relação aos riscos químicos no ambiente ocupacional, o grupo IV foi o que mais referiu presença de poeira e fumaça, e estas eram compostas por poeiras respiráveis e sílica. Tais exposições ocasionam sintomas vocais e sensações laríngeas e, consequentemente, alterações vocais. CONCLUSÃO: Sintomas vocais e sensações laríngeas podem estar relacionados a atividade profissional em que haja exposição a riscos físicos e/ou químicos. Abstract in english PURPOSE: To investigate vocal symptoms and laryngeal sensations among workers of an ethanol and sugar mill exposed to noise and/or chemical substances. METHODS: Participants were 289 workers of an ethanol and sugar mill distributed into five exposure groups (I - noise; II - noise, oil, grease, petro [...] leum derivatives; III - noise, acids, sulfates, chlorides, nitrates; IV - noise, breathable dust and free crystalline silica; V - oil, grease, petroleum derivatives) and a control group, who answered the questionnaire Conditions of Vocal Production - Teacher adapted to the professional category. The groups were compared regarding vocal symptoms, laryngeal sensations, smoking habits, and exposure to physical and chemical risks. This comparison was conducted using statistical analyses. RESULTS: The most reported vocal symptom and laryngeal sensation were low-pitched voice and cough with phlegm, respectively. Considering the physical risk in the work environment, groups I and IV were the ones that most reported exposure to noise. Because of this exposure, they increase voice intensity (Effect of Lombard-Tarneaud) and, thus, also reported vocal symptoms. Regarding chemical risks in the occupational environment, group IV was the one that most referred presence of dust and smoke, which were composed by breathable dust and silica. Such exposures lead to vocal symptoms and laryngeal sensations and, consequently, to vocal alterations. CONCLUSION: Vocal symptoms and laryngeal sensations can be related to professional activities where workers are exposed to physical and/or chemical risks.

  13. Sintomas vocais e sensações laríngeas em trabalhadores de uma usina de álcool e açúcar expostos a riscos ocupacionais Vocal symptoms and laryngeal sensations in workers of an ethanol and sugar mill exposed to occupational risks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sylvia Boechat Coutinho

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Investigar os sintomas vocais e sensações laríngeas dos trabalhadores de uma usina de álcool e açúcar expostos a ruído e/ou substâncias químicas. MÉTODOS: Participaram 289 trabalhadores de uma usina de álcool e açúcar distribuídos em cinco grupos expostos (I- ruído; II- ruído, óleo, graxa, derivação de petróleo; III- ruído, ácidos, sulfatos, cloretos, nitratos; IV- ruído, poeiras respiráveis e sílica livre cristalizada; V- óleo, graxa, derivação de petróleo e um grupo controle que responderam o questionário Condições de Produção Vocal - Professor adaptado à categoria profissional. Os grupos foram comparados em relação aos sintomas vocais, sensações laríngeas, tabagismo e riscos físicos e químicos. Esta comparação foi realizada por meio de análise estatística. RESULTADOS: O sintoma vocal e a sensação laríngea mais relatados pelos trabalhadores foram voz grave e tosse com catarro, respectivamente. Considerando o risco físico no ambiente de trabalho, os grupos I e IV foram os que mais citaram presença de ruído. Devido à sua exposição, os mesmos aumentavam a intensidade da voz (Efeito de Lombard-Tarneaud e, assim, mencionaram sintomas vocais. Em relação aos riscos químicos no ambiente ocupacional, o grupo IV foi o que mais referiu presença de poeira e fumaça, e estas eram compostas por poeiras respiráveis e sílica. Tais exposições ocasionam sintomas vocais e sensações laríngeas e, consequentemente, alterações vocais. CONCLUSÃO: Sintomas vocais e sensações laríngeas podem estar relacionados a atividade profissional em que haja exposição a riscos físicos e/ou químicos.PURPOSE: To investigate vocal symptoms and laryngeal sensations among workers of an ethanol and sugar mill exposed to noise and/or chemical substances. METHODS: Participants were 289 workers of an ethanol and sugar mill distributed into five exposure groups (I - noise; II - noise, oil, grease, petroleum derivatives; III - noise, acids, sulfates, chlorides, nitrates; IV - noise, breathable dust and free crystalline silica; V - oil, grease, petroleum derivatives and a control group, who answered the questionnaire Conditions of Vocal Production - Teacher adapted to the professional category. The groups were compared regarding vocal symptoms, laryngeal sensations, smoking habits, and exposure to physical and chemical risks. This comparison was conducted using statistical analyses. RESULTS: The most reported vocal symptom and laryngeal sensation were low-pitched voice and cough with phlegm, respectively. Considering the physical risk in the work environment, groups I and IV were the ones that most reported exposure to noise. Because of this exposure, they increase voice intensity (Effect of Lombard-Tarneaud and, thus, also reported vocal symptoms. Regarding chemical risks in the occupational environment, group IV was the one that most referred presence of dust and smoke, which were composed by breathable dust and silica. Such exposures lead to vocal symptoms and laryngeal sensations and, consequently, to vocal alterations. CONCLUSION: Vocal symptoms and laryngeal sensations can be related to professional activities where workers are exposed to physical and/or chemical risks.

  14. Ethanol and sugar production process from sugar cane: renewability evaluation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arredondo, Hector Ivan Velasquez [Universidad Nacional de Colombia, Medellin (Colombia). Grupo de Investigacion en Bioprocesos]. E-mail: hivelasq@unal.edu.co; Pellegrini, Luiz Felipe; Oliveira Junior, Silvio de [Universidade de Sao Paulo (USP), SP (Brazil). Escola Politecnica. Dept. de Engenharia Mecanica]. E-mails: luiz.pellegrini@poli.usp.br; silvio.oliveira@poli.usp.br

    2008-07-01

    Tropical countries, such as Brazil and Colombia, have the possibility of using their lands for growing biomass to produce biofuels like biodiesel and ethanol. Many studies are available which deal with the use of different sources of biomass for this purpose. From sugarcane, sucrose and other sugars (glucose and fructose) are converted into ethanol through a chain of processes. Considering the combined production of sugar and ethanol, the later is produced using part of sugarcane juice from the milling process and molasses from the sugar factory. These flows are mixed and sent to fermentation and distillation to obtain ethanol. In this work, exergy analysis is applied to the production process of sugar and anhydrous ethanol from sugar cane, using real data of one production plant located in Colombia, with capacity to process 10,000 ton a day of sugarcane. Different stages such as: growing, feedstock transport, processes plant, cogeneration plant and residues treatment are considered. Some environmental indicators based on the exergy concept are proposed for analyzing the sugar and ethanol production. According to these indicators, the Exergetic Density, Rational Exergetic Efficiency and the Renewability Performance Indicator, the ethanol production process can not be considered renewable due mainly to the irreversibilities of the energy conversion processes. (author)

  15. La irrupción del poder obrero en los ingenios azucareros: avances, límites y cuestionamientos. Tucumán, 1944-1949 / The emergence of workers’ power in sugar mills: advances, limitations and questions. Tucumán, 1944-1949

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Florencia, Gutiérrez.

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Durante la primera década peronista los trabajadores interpelaron la casi omnipresente autoridad de la patronal en las fábricas e impulsaron una transferencia de poder que cuestionó la facultad de los industriales sobre decisiones hasta ese momento consideradas como excluyentes: la administración y [...] organización de la fuerza laboral y el control de los procesos productivos. En el caso de los ingenios azucareros tucumanos, las huelgas declaradas para exigir el despido de ciertos referentes de la jerarquía fabril y la institucionalización del escalafón se convirtieron en dos aspectos clave de esta redistribución del poder. Estas instancias vinculadas con la contratación, la promoción y el despido del personal interpelaron a los empresarios, quienes intentaron resistir el avance de los trabajadores, pero también confrontaron al gobierno peronista con el límite de lo aceptable, impulsándolo a controlar la magnitud del poder obrero. Abstract in english During the first decade of Peronism workers interpellated the almost omnipresent authority of the employers in factories and boosted a transfer of power that challenged the power of industrialists on decisions so far considered exclusive: the administration and organization of the workforce and the [...] control of production processes. In the case of sugar mills from Tucuman, strikes to demand the dismissal of certain referents of the factory hierarchy and institutionalization of seniority became two key aspects of this redistribution of power. These instances -related to recruitment, promotion and dismissal of staff- interpellated businessmen who tried to resist the advance of workers, but they also confronted the Peronist government with its limit of acceptability, prompting it to control the amount of workers’ power.

  16. Valoración económica de las pérdidas de exergía de las operaciones térmicas en la industria azucarera de caña / Economic value of exergy losses in heating operations in cane sugar mills

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Dora, Paz; Gerónimo J., Cárdenas.

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available Tomando como base los resultados del análisis exergético de las operaciones térmicas: Calentamiento- Evaporación-Cristalización (CEC) de un ingenio de Tucumán, realizado por Paz y Cárdenas en 2005, se procedió a determinar el valor económico de las pérdidas de exergía. Dichas pérdidas de exergía rep [...] resentan potencias eléctricas equivalentes que dejaron de producirse, por lo que el daño causado por las mismas puede ser calculado directamente a partir del precio de la energía eléctrica. Esta original metodología propuesta para determinar ahorros monetarios, basada en la reducción de exergía perdida, se comparó con los resultados obtenidos con la metodología tradicional (basada en el ahorro de vapor vivo). Los ahorros monetarios logrados con las propuestas A y B fueron de $1,05 x 10(6) (0,35 x 10(6) USD) y $1,92 x 10(6) (0,64 x 10(6) USD) por zafra, determinándose Tasas Internas de Retorno (TIR) de 191% y 20,8%, respectivamente. Abstract in english This paper is based on the results of previous work done by Paz and Cárdenas in 2005, in which exergy losses in thermal operations: Heating-Evaporation-Crystallization (H-E-C) of a cane sugar mill located in Tucumán, were evaluated. Exergy losses represent equivalent non-produced electric power; the [...] refore, the resulting damage can be calculated directly from the price of the electric energy. Results obtained with this novel methodology (exergy loss reduction) were compared with those obtained with the traditional method (live steam saving) when evaluating monetary savings. In fact, monetary savings in A and B proposals were $1,05 x 10(6) (0,35 x 10(6) USD) and $1,92 x 10(6) (0,64 x 10(6) USD) per season, respectively. Internal Rates of Return (IRR) were 191% and 20,8%, respectively.

  17. Impact of sugar industry fly ash emissions on environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This work was conducted in 1992 to find out the effects and causes of environmental problems due to sugar mills of Sindh. Most of the complaints were received from Nawabshah, Tando Mohammed Khan residential areas where following mills are located, emitting large amounts of fly ash from their chimneys into the atmosphere: (i) Habib Sugar Mills, Nawabshah, (II) Fauji Sugar Mills, Tando Mohammed Khan. Environmental survey of above localities was carried out which reveals that eye-allergy and asthma are the major health effects of fly ash besides the aesthetic problems. Sieve analysis of two fly ash samples viz Fauji Sugar Mills (Old Plant) and Sanghar Sugar Mills (New Plant) showed that the particle size of over 50% of fly ash was above 300 mu m. These large size black particles were unburned carbon particles, which on burning in air gave a weight loss of over 87% at 1000 centi grade. The fly ash analytical results showed that combustion of bagasse in sugar mills was not complete at all and this was not only polluting the atmosphere but also causing energy losses. (author)

  18. Mill’s Perfectionism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    PIERGIORGIO DONATELLI

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available J. S. Mill lays great emphasis on the importance of the notion of theindividual as a progressive being. The idea that we need to conceive the self as an object of cultivation and perfection runs through Mill’s writings on various topics, and has played a certain role in recent interpretations. In this paper I propose a specific interpretation of Mill’s understanding of the self, along the lines of what Stanley Cavell identifies as a “perfectionist” concern for the self. Various texts by Mill, ranging from the Logic to On Liberty, show an understanding of the self in which both the theoretical and the practical domain are presented as being internally connected to the transformation of the self. Mill elaborates a criticism of a notion of truth articulated by doctrines having a life independent of the self, as well as a notion of choice which is not the expression of one’s inner self. This internal relation of truth and choice to the self generates a special dialectic within the self, which Mill explores in On Liberty’s second and third chapters by means of several contrasts, such as passive vs. active knowledge, living vs. dead beliefs, or being oneself vs. liking and choosing in crowds.

  19. Managing your blood sugar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hyperglycemia - control; Hypoglycemia - control; Diabetes - blood sugar control ... Know how to: Recognize and treat low blood sugar (hypoglycemia) Recognize and treat high blood sugar (hyperglycemia) ...

  20. Passa-se uma engenhoca: ou como se faziam transações com terras, engenhos e crédito em mercados locais e imperfeitos (freguesia de Campo Grande, Rio de Janeiro, séculos XVIII e XIX) / 'Engenhocas' to sell!: or lands, sugar mills and credit’s trade in local and imperfect markets (Campo Grande civil parish, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, XVIII-XIX centuries )

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Manoela, Pedroza.

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available A questão central deste artigo é perceber como as hierarquias sociais e as políticas específicas do Antigo Regime nos Trópicos se refletiram em estratégias concretas, e compreender as engrenagens locais de um mercado imperfeito. Analisaremos as escolhas e trajetórias de agentes envolvidos em transaç [...] ões com terras, engenhos e concessão de crédito na freguesia de Campo Grande, no correr do século XVIII até o início do XIX, cuja especificidade foi conseguirem reproduzir sua condição senhorial. Metodologicamente, partimos da microanálise e compusemos redes sociais locais que sustentaram as estratégias dos agentes em questão. Propomos que as rendas criadas a partir das vendas a prazo, os vínculos pessoais entre compradores-credores-vendedores-devedores nas vendas dos engenhos e a sobreposição de vínculos de dependência locais foram fatores que possibilitaram a acumulação econômica e a reprodução ampliada da condição senhorial. Abstract in english Using the concept of ‘Ancien Régime on the Tropics’, this article aims to investigate how social hierarchies and politics in Brazil, during the 18th century, reflected into concrete local strategies. Our objective is to understand the gadgets of an imperfect market, based on agents’ choices who were [...] all involved in lands, sugar mills and credit commercial transactions in the Campo Grande civil parish, in the Rio de Janeiro. All agents had gotten to reproduce its extended senhorial condition. Our methodology is based on microanalysis, so we composed local social nets we guest had supported the agents’ strategies in question. We consider strategies to achieve long term incomes; bonds between purchaser, creditor, salesman and debtors (both involving sugar mills commercial transactions); the overlapping of dependence bonds by strategic exchanges created by sugar mill masters among consanguineous, matrimonial and fictitious relatives had been factors that made possible the economic accumulation and the extended reproduction of the master condition.

  1. Passa-se uma engenhoca: ou como se faziam transações com terras, engenhos e crédito em mercados locais e imperfeitos (freguesia de Campo Grande, Rio de Janeiro, séculos XVIII e XIX 'Engenhocas' to sell!: or lands, sugar mills and credit’s trade in local and imperfect markets (Campo Grande civil parish, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, XVIII-XIX centuries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manoela Pedroza

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available A questão central deste artigo é perceber como as hierarquias sociais e as políticas específicas do Antigo Regime nos Trópicos se refletiram em estratégias concretas, e compreender as engrenagens locais de um mercado imperfeito. Analisaremos as escolhas e trajetórias de agentes envolvidos em transações com terras, engenhos e concessão de crédito na freguesia de Campo Grande, no correr do século XVIII até o início do XIX, cuja especificidade foi conseguirem reproduzir sua condição senhorial. Metodologicamente, partimos da microanálise e compusemos redes sociais locais que sustentaram as estratégias dos agentes em questão. Propomos que as rendas criadas a partir das vendas a prazo, os vínculos pessoais entre compradores-credores-vendedores-devedores nas vendas dos engenhos e a sobreposição de vínculos de dependência locais foram fatores que possibilitaram a acumulação econômica e a reprodução ampliada da condição senhorial.Using the concept of ‘Ancien Régime on the Tropics’, this article aims to investigate how social hierarchies and politics in Brazil, during the 18th century, reflected into concrete local strategies. Our objective is to understand the gadgets of an imperfect market, based on agents’ choices who were all involved in lands, sugar mills and credit commercial transactions in the Campo Grande civil parish, in the Rio de Janeiro. All agents had gotten to reproduce its extended senhorial condition. Our methodology is based on microanalysis, so we composed local social nets we guest had supported the agents’ strategies in question. We consider strategies to achieve long term incomes; bonds between purchaser, creditor, salesman and debtors (both involving sugar mills commercial transactions; the overlapping of dependence bonds by strategic exchanges created by sugar mill masters among consanguineous, matrimonial and fictitious relatives had been factors that made possible the economic accumulation and the extended reproduction of the master condition.

  2. Sugar industry dilemma in NWFP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sugarcane is an important cash-crop in Pakistan, ranking fourth in average cultivation after wheat, rice and cotton. It contributed 6.3 percent to the national agricultural value addition and 1.3 percent of the GDP during 2002-2003. It provides direct employment to more than 10,000 persons in NWFP. Sugarcane is grown over an area of more or less one million hectares in Pakistan, the Punjab shares 66.8%, Sindh 23.5% and NWFP shares 9.5% of the total area and 63.7, 26.5 and 9.7% of the production, respectively (Agriculture statistics of Pakistan FRS 2003). The national average cane-yield (47 tonnes per hectare) is far below the existing potential, Sindh with 53 tonnes per hectare is the leading province, followed by NWFP (48 tonnes) and Punjab (45 tonnes per hectare), respectively. In Pakistan, 73 mills are in operation. On the average, these Sugar Mills produce 3.52 million tons Sugar and employed labour force of 1.06 million persons, involving about nine million people of rural population in the production of sugarcane in 2002. In the year 2002-03, cane production was over 52 million tonnes; the Mills utilized (80.28%) of the total cane production with a yield of 3.66 million tonnes of sugar. Part 1 of this paper discusses the importance of sugarcane crop and sugarcane industry towards national economy. In part 2, problems of varied horizon have been covered, in detail, with sound viable recommendations. Finally, conclusions have been drawn in part 3 for considerationave been drawn in part 3 for consideration by all relevant stakeholders of the sector. To avert problems like low cane-yield, minimum return to farmers, negative attitude and delaying tactics in payments, policy makers and decision-support unit of the province should ensure the following: no further expansion of sugar-mills on political grounds and without viable feasibility; immediate improvement in water-courses, improvement of irrigation efficiency, develop cane-varieties with high sucrose-recovery percentage, reduce cost of production of inputs; provide subsidy to cane growers who should also be paid for their produce well on time by the mills. It is recommended that support-price fixation system and timely payment to farmers should be designed and implemented properly. (author)

  3. Monitoreo de un sistema de secado de bagazo acoplado a una caldera en un ingenio de México Monitoring of a bagasse drying system attached to a boiler in a sugar mill in Mexico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Federico J. Franck Colombres

    Full Text Available Se evaluó el desempeño de un secador de bagazo diseñado por la Estación Experimental Agroindustrial Obispo Colombres, acoplado a una caldera bagacera convencional en un ingenio de México (caldera Nº 5. Para ello, se realizaron ensayos de mediciones y balances de materia y energía, para la caldera operando con el secador y sin él en funcionamiento. La caldera Nº 5, de una producción nominal de 60 t/h de vapor y una presión máxima de trabajo de 29 bar, cuando fue alimentada únicamente con bagazo húmedo pudo generar como máximo 33 t/h de vapor a 19 bar y 269ºC, con un rendimiento energético de 60,4% y un índice de generación de 1,6 kg de vapor/ kg de bagazo. Con la adición del secador, se logró secar 28,6 toneladas de bagazo de 50,2% a 30,4% de humedad. Aproximadamente un 72% de este bagazo presecado se mezcló con bagazo húmedo y se utilizó para alimentar la caldera, produciéndose así 58,4 t/h de vapor; es decir, 77% más de vapor que sin secador. El rendimiento energético del sistema caldera-secador fue de 73,6%, un 21,8% superior al de la caldera sin secador, mientras que el índice de generación fue de 2,0 kg de vapor/ kg de bagazo, 25% mayor que el de la caldera original. Este aumento en la producción de vapor permitió sacar de servicio a la caldera Nº 6, que producía aproximadamente 20 t/h de vapor, con un rendimiento similar al de la caldera Nº 5 sin secador. Estas mejoras dieron como resultado, un ahorro de energía de 45,4 MJ/h, aproximadamente un 18% respecto a la energía consumida por ambas calderas (Nº 5 y Nº 6 cuando no funcionaba el secador. Este ahorro equivale a 1103 l/h de "fuel oil", es decir, alrededor de 1,5 millones de dólares por zafra.A bagasse dryer designed by Estación Experimental Agroindustrial Obispo Colombres was attached to a conventional bagasse boiler (Boiler No. 5 in a sugar mill in Mexico for evaluation. Measurement tests and material and energy balances for the boiler operating with and without the dryer were made. When supplied only with wet bagasse, boiler No. 5, with a nominal production of 60 t/h of steam and a maximum working pressure of 29 bar, could generate no more than 33 t/h of steam at 19 bar and 269 ºC, with an energy yield of 60.4% and an index of 1.6 kg steam/ kg of bagasse . When the dryer was attached, 28.6 tons of bagasse was dried from 50.2% moisture to 30.4%. Approximately 72% of that pre-dried bagasse, mixed with wet bagasse, was fed into the boiler, which then produced 58.4 t/h of steam, i.e. 77% more than without the dryer. The energy efficiency of the boiler-dryer system was 73.6% and the index was 2.0 kg steam/ kg of bagasse, i.e. 21.8%, 25% higher values than those for the original boiler. This increase in steam production allowed putting boiler No. 6 out of service. Boiler No. 6 produced about 20 t/h of steam with similar efficiency to that of boiler No. 5 without the dryer. These improvements resulted in energy savings of about 18%, as compared with the energy consumed by the two boilers (No. 5 and No. 6 when the dryer was not working. Energy saved amounted to 45.4 MJ/h, which is equivalent to 1103 l/h of fuel oil. This represents savings of USD 1.5 million per season.

  4. Monitoreo de un sistema de secado de bagazo acoplado a una caldera en un ingenio de México / Monitoring of a bagasse drying system attached to a boiler in a sugar mill in Mexico

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Federico J., Franck Colombres; Marcos A., Golato; Walter D., Morales; Gustavo, Aso; Dora, Paz.

    2010-12-30

    Full Text Available Se evaluó el desempeño de un secador de bagazo diseñado por la Estación Experimental Agroindustrial Obispo Colombres, acoplado a una caldera bagacera convencional en un ingenio de México (caldera Nº 5). Para ello, se realizaron ensayos de mediciones y balances de materia y energía, para la caldera o [...] perando con el secador y sin él en funcionamiento. La caldera Nº 5, de una producción nominal de 60 t/h de vapor y una presión máxima de trabajo de 29 bar, cuando fue alimentada únicamente con bagazo húmedo pudo generar como máximo 33 t/h de vapor a 19 bar y 269ºC, con un rendimiento energético de 60,4% y un índice de generación de 1,6 kg de vapor/ kg de bagazo. Con la adición del secador, se logró secar 28,6 toneladas de bagazo de 50,2% a 30,4% de humedad. Aproximadamente un 72% de este bagazo presecado se mezcló con bagazo húmedo y se utilizó para alimentar la caldera, produciéndose así 58,4 t/h de vapor; es decir, 77% más de vapor que sin secador. El rendimiento energético del sistema caldera-secador fue de 73,6%, un 21,8% superior al de la caldera sin secador, mientras que el índice de generación fue de 2,0 kg de vapor/ kg de bagazo, 25% mayor que el de la caldera original. Este aumento en la producción de vapor permitió sacar de servicio a la caldera Nº 6, que producía aproximadamente 20 t/h de vapor, con un rendimiento similar al de la caldera Nº 5 sin secador. Estas mejoras dieron como resultado, un ahorro de energía de 45,4 MJ/h, aproximadamente un 18% respecto a la energía consumida por ambas calderas (Nº 5 y Nº 6) cuando no funcionaba el secador. Este ahorro equivale a 1103 l/h de "fuel oil", es decir, alrededor de 1,5 millones de dólares por zafra. Abstract in english A bagasse dryer designed by Estación Experimental Agroindustrial Obispo Colombres was attached to a conventional bagasse boiler (Boiler No. 5) in a sugar mill in Mexico for evaluation. Measurement tests and material and energy balances for the boiler operating with and without the dryer were made. W [...] hen supplied only with wet bagasse, boiler No. 5, with a nominal production of 60 t/h of steam and a maximum working pressure of 29 bar, could generate no more than 33 t/h of steam at 19 bar and 269 ºC, with an energy yield of 60.4% and an index of 1.6 kg steam/ kg of bagasse . When the dryer was attached, 28.6 tons of bagasse was dried from 50.2% moisture to 30.4%. Approximately 72% of that pre-dried bagasse, mixed with wet bagasse, was fed into the boiler, which then produced 58.4 t/h of steam, i.e. 77% more than without the dryer. The energy efficiency of the boiler-dryer system was 73.6% and the index was 2.0 kg steam/ kg of bagasse, i.e. 21.8%, 25% higher values than those for the original boiler. This increase in steam production allowed putting boiler No. 6 out of service. Boiler No. 6 produced about 20 t/h of steam with similar efficiency to that of boiler No. 5 without the dryer. These improvements resulted in energy savings of about 18%, as compared with the energy consumed by the two boilers (No. 5 and No. 6) when the dryer was not working. Energy saved amounted to 45.4 MJ/h, which is equivalent to 1103 l/h of fuel oil. This represents savings of USD 1.5 million per season.

  5. Sweeteners - sugar substitutes

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... or sugar alcohols . They may also be called sugar substitutes, nonnutritive sweeteners (NNS), and noncaloric sweeteners. ... Sugar substitutes can help people trying to lose weight. They provide sweetness to foods and drinks without adding ...

  6. Ethanol from Sugar Crops

    Science.gov (United States)

    The world-wide impetus to produce alternatives to petroleum-based fuels and relatively low profit for sugar are putting pressure on the sugar industry to diversify for sustainability. Sugar crops, mainly sugarcane, sugar beet, and sweet sorghum, fit well into the emerging concept of a renewable car...

  7. Supply optimization for the production of raw sugar

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grunow, Martin; Günther, H.O.

    2007-01-01

    Based on a case study from Venezuela, the production of raw sugar is investigated. Ideally, sugar mills operate at a constant production rate. However, safety stocks of the raw material cannot be maintained as sugar cane quality deteriorates very rapidly. Sugar cane is therefore continuously sourced in diverse quantities and qualities from hundreds of geographically dispersed haciendas and supplied to the milling process. Furthermore, due to weather conditions changing throughout the year, tight time windows must be observed for harvesting. The approach presented in this paper aims at preserving a constant supply while minimizing the associated costs. The entire planning problem is structured in a hierarchical fashion: (1) cultivation of the haciendas, (2) harvesting, and (3) dispatching of the harvesting crews and equipment. The corresponding optimization models and solution procedures are introduced and applied to the case study problem.

  8. Uranium milling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The historical development of the U milling industry is described. Flowsheets showing the material flow in U mills are included. The general drop in ore grade with time and the need for preconcentration are pointed out. Recent developments include thickeners, continuous ion exchange, U recovery from copper leaching operations and gold ore, resin in pulp recovery, etc

  9. Controlling Blood Sugar

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Videos & Tools You Are Here: Home ? Latest Health News ? Controlling Blood Sugar URL of this page: http://www.nlm.nih.gov/medlineplus/videos/news/Controlling_Blood_060415.html Controlling Blood Sugar HealthDay ...

  10. Low blood sugar

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... blood sugar may be caused by: Drinking alcohol Insulinoma - a rare tumor in the pancreas that produces ... If low blood sugar is caused by an insulinoma (insulin-releasing tumor), surgery to remove the tumor ...

  11. Blood Sugar and Fats

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Sheets Permission to Use Fact Sheets Sponsors and Advertising Privacy Policy Project Staff Contact Us ... Sheet 123 Blood Sugar and Fats SIDE EFFECTS OF ANTIRETROVIRAL MEDICATIONS (ARVs)? BLOOD SUGAR BLOOD FATS ...

  12. Controlling Blood Sugar

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... videos/news/Controlling_Blood_060415.html Controlling Blood Sugar HealthDay News Video - June 5, 2015 To use ... page, please enable JavaScript. Play video: Controlling Blood Sugar For closed captioning, click the CC button on ...

  13. High blood sugar

    Science.gov (United States)

    High blood sugar occurs when your body makes too little insulin or when your body is not able to use insulin ... a hormone that helps the body use glucose (sugar) for energy. Insulin is made by the pancreas. ...

  14. Home blood sugar testing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Check your blood sugar level as often as instructed by your health care provider. Write down the results. This will tell you how ... everyone with diabetes needs to check their blood sugar every day. And some people need to check ...

  15. Effect of processing variables on quality of milk burfi prepared with and without sugar

    OpenAIRE

    Chetana, R.; Ravi, R.; Yella Reddy, S.

    2010-01-01

    Milk burfi is an Indian traditional confectionery prepared using concentrated milk and sugar. The texture and quality of burfi vary depending on processing conditions and storage period. The effect of processing variable namely total soluble solids (TSS) at the end of cooking and duration of storage on the texture and sensory quality of burfi prepared with and without sugar was studied by applying response surface methodology. Sorbitol with and without added aspartame was used as sugar altern...

  16. Raising cane: linkages, organizations and negotiations in Malang's sugar industry, East Java.

    OpenAIRE

    Hartveld, A.J.

    1996-01-01

    The linkages between the Javanese sugar industry and the village communities have drawn the attention of both historians and social scientists. The formal organization of these linkages has changed drastically since Indonesia's independence; from plantation into outgrowers production contract systems. The Indonesian government nowadays regulates the sugar markets and the tripartite institutional structure, coordinating activities between the outgrowers' organizations and the mills, under dire...

  17. Sugar - a harmless indulgence?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Lone Banke; Andersen, Niels Lyhne

    1998-01-01

    The consumption of sugar is relatively high in Denmark - and other industrial countries - and many persons have a consumption which exceeds the recommended level of maximally 10% of energy intake. A high sugar consumption may reduce the nutrient density of the diet and increase the risk of vitamin and mineral deficiency, especially in low energy consumers. The sugar intake and the fat intake, expressed as percentage of energy, usually show an inverse association. This has lead to the statement that a diet with both a low sugar content and a low fat content is incompatible, but we will argue that this is not the fact. The significance of sugar for the development of obesity is not clarified. A high fat content in the diet seems to promote the development of obesity, while a high carbohydrate content tends to reduce obesity. It is not known if sugar in this connection is comparable to the other carbohydrates in the diet, primarily because of the high energy density of sugar. Diabetes mellitus and heart diseasesdo not seem to have any direct connection with a high sugar consumption. Sugar continues to be a risk factor for the development of caries. Further, it cannot be excluded that high sugar consumption is a risk factor for cancer in the gastrointestinal tract or for Crohn's disease. It seems reasonable to keep the current recommendations about sugar intake.

  18. Foods The Indians Gave Us. Coloring Book.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hail, Raven

    This children's coloring book devotes a page to each of twenty of the most familiar American Indian plant foods: avocado, green beans, black walnuts, cocoa, corn, peanuts, pecans, chile peppers, pineapples, popcorn, potatoes, pumpkins, squash, strawberries, sugar maple, sunflowers, sweet potatoes, tapioca, tomatoes, and vanilla. Illustrating each…

  19. Experimental study on compressive strength of concrete by partially replacement of cement with sugar cane bagasse ash

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jayminkumar A. Patel

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Use of waste material in concrete is important for environmental aspect. Sugar cane bagasse ash is a waste by product of sugar mill. Present study is to investigate impact of sugar cane bagasse ash in concrete. In this experimental work sugar cane bagasse ash which is taken from Maroli sugar mill, Navsari, Gujarat, INDIA is partially replace with cement at 0%, 5%, 10%, 15% and 20% by weight in concrete. The grade of concrete is M25 and w/c ratio is 0.49 taken as a reference. 150*150*150 mm cubes are casted and tested for 7, 14, 28 and 56 days. Compressive strength result shows that up to 10% replacement of sugar cane bagasse ash in concrete gives comparable result with normal concrete without any admixture, but 5% replacement give maximum compressive strength. Also the amount of sugar cane bagasse ash increase, workability of concrete increases.

  20. James Mill's treatment of religion and the History of British India

    OpenAIRE

    Plassart, A.

    2008-01-01

    James Mill's History of British India' (1817) played a major role in re-shaping the English policy and attitudes in India throughout the nineteenth century. This article questions the widely held view that the 'HBI' heralded the utilitarian justification of colonisation found for instance in John Stuart Mill's writings. It suggests that James Mill's role as a proponent of 'utilitarian imperialism' has been overstated, and argues that much of Mill's criticism of Indian society arose from the c...

  1. Sugar and Sugar Beet Policy Reforms in Turkey

    OpenAIRE

    Yasar Akcay; Meral Uzunoz

    2006-01-01

    The translog cost function is applied to analyze input demand in Turkey sugar beet production from 1975 to 2003. Sugar and sugar beet production became an important issue after the sugar act changed in 2001. Although the political aspects of sugar beet production have been studied extensively, few studies are available on the quantitative aspects of sugar beet production in Turkey. The main goal of the study was to estimate input substitution and the elasticity of demand for the factors of su...

  2. Controlling Blood Sugar

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... blood sugar levels help reduce the risk of heart attack and stroke among people with type 2 ... MedlinePlus Health Topics Blood Sugar Diabetes Type 2 Heart Diseases--Prevention About MedlinePlus Site Map FAQs Contact ...

  3. Controlling Blood Sugar

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... medlineplus/videos/news/Controlling_Blood_060415.html Controlling Blood Sugar HealthDay News Video - June 5, 2015 To ... this page, please enable JavaScript. Play video: Controlling Blood Sugar For closed captioning, click the CC button ...

  4. Hawaii's Sugar Islands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hawaiian Sugar Planters' Association, Aiea, HI.

    A warm and sunny subtropical climate helps make Hawaii an important sugar producer. History records that sugarcane was already present when Captain James Cook discovered the islands in 1778, and that the first successful sugarcane plantation was started in 1835 by Ladd and Company at Koloa. The first recorded export of Hawaiian sugar was in 1837,…

  5. Controlling Blood Sugar

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... videos/news/Controlling_Blood_060415.html Controlling Blood Sugar HealthDay News Video - June 5, 2015 To use ... page, please enable JavaScript. Play video: Controlling Blood Sugar For closed captioning, click the CC button on ...

  6. Controlling Blood Sugar

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... medlineplus/videos/news/Controlling_Blood_060415.html Controlling Blood Sugar HealthDay News Video - June 5, 2015 To use ... this page, please enable JavaScript. Play video: Controlling Blood Sugar For closed captioning, click the CC button on ...

  7. Hyperactivity and sugar

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... minerals. These foods may replace foods with more nutrition. High-sugar foods also have extra calories that can lead to obesity. Some people have allergies to dyes and flavors. If a ... to your child's diet to keep blood sugar levels more even. For ...

  8. Sugar Crystal Challenge

    Science.gov (United States)

    IEEE

    2013-02-25

    This lesson focuses on surface area and how the shape of sugar crystals may differ as they are grown from sugars of different coarseness. Learners explore surface area, nanostructures, and work in teams and participate in hands-on activities. Safety: need an adult to handle the very hot water.

  9. Any Added Sugar Is Bad Sugar, Some Experts Contend

    Science.gov (United States)

    Any Added Sugar Is Bad Sugar, Some Experts Contend They see table sugar, honey as unhealthy as high-fructose corn syrup To use the sharing features on ... school of thought contends that plain old table sugar or even all-natural honey can be just ...

  10. Uranium milling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    After a brief description of the broad categories and specific examples of uranium deposits around the world, the authors discuss the processes currently used in uranium ore milling. These include the preconcentration and comminution of ores, ore leaching at atmospheric and elevated pressures, the use of oxidants in leaching, alkaline leaching, solid-liquid separation using thickeners or filters, solution clarification, uranium recovery and purification processes, precipitation, product drying and packaging, and tailings disposal

  11. Quantitation of trans-aconitic acid in different stages of the sugar-manufacturing process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montoya, Guillermo; Londono, July; Cortes, Paola; Izquierdo, Olga

    2014-08-20

    The sugar cane industry has seen how biomass production in sugar mills would be converted to a readily available source of molecules besides sugar. Properly managed, byproducts would be transformed into a sustainable source of renewable and environmentally friendly chemical products. As a principal and more abundant organic acid in sugar cane juice, trans-aconitic acid (TAA) has been studied for use as a plasticizer in the polymer industry. However, up to now no industrial-scale application has been reported. As a reasonable approach to recover TAA from a sugar mill, first, an analytical method to determine its presence in all stages of the sugar-manufacturing process is needed. A new modern method was developed to measure TAA in seven stages in a sugar mill located in Valle del Cauca, Colombia. The stages with higher content of TAA were syrup, with 3363.6 ± 589.3 mg/L, and honey (molasses), with 6110.05 ± 139.5 mg/L. PMID:25098840

  12. Sugar Sensing and Signaling

    OpenAIRE

    Ramon, Matthew; Rolland, Filip; Sheen, Jen

    2008-01-01

    Plants, restricted by their environment, need to integrate a wide variety of stimuli with their metabolic activity, growth and development. Sugars, generated by photosynthetic carbon fixation, are central in coordinating metabolic fluxes in response to the changing environment and in providing cells and tissues with the necessary energy for continued growth and survival. A complex network of metabolic and hormone signaling pathways are intimately linked to diverse sugar responses. A combinati...

  13. A STUDY OF PERCEPTION OF WOMEN EMPLOYEES IN WEAVING MILLS

    OpenAIRE

    Jadhav, T. K.

    2014-01-01

    Indian Textile Industry holds key position in Indian economy. It contributes about 4 percent to the GDP and 12 per cent to the country's total export earnings. It provides direct employment to over 35 million people, the second largest provider of employment after agriculture. Besides, another 54.85 million people are engaged in its allied activities. High perception assists the management to overcome several women employees' problems in weaving mills. In this paper, the r...

  14. Indian Summer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Galindo, E. [Sho-Ban High School, Fort Hall, ID (United States)

    1997-08-01

    This paper focuses on preserving and strengthening two resources culturally and socially important to the Shoshone-Bannock Indian Tribe on the Fort Hall Reservation in Idaho; their young people and the Pacific-Northwest Salmon. After learning that salmon were not returning in significant numbers to ancestral fishing waters at headwater spawning sites, tribal youth wanted to know why. As a result, the Indian Summer project was conceived to give Shoshone-Bannock High School students the opportunity to develop hands-on, workable solutions to improve future Indian fishing and help make the river healthy again. The project goals were to increase the number of fry introduced into the streams, teach the Shoshone-Bannock students how to use scientific methodologies, and get students, parents, community members, and Indian and non-Indian mentors excited about learning. The students chose an egg incubation experiment to help increase self-sustaining, natural production of steelhead trout, and formulated and carried out a three step plan to increase the hatch-rate of steelhead trout in Idaho waters. With the help of local companies, governmental agencies, scientists, and mentors students have been able to meet their project goals, and at the same time, have learned how to use scientific methods to solve real life problems, how to return what they have used to the water and land, and how to have fun and enjoy life while learning.

  15. Indian Jute in Australian Collections: Forgetting and Recollecting Transnational Networks

    OpenAIRE

    Andrew Hassam

    2011-01-01

    Indian jute sacking played an essential role in Australian life for over 150 years, yet its contribution to Australian development and its Indian origins have been barely recognised in Australian public collections. What has Australian history gained by this erasing of jute from public memory? Wool, sugar and hop sacks are displayed in public collections as evidence of an Australian national story, but their national dimension depends on the cultural invisibility of jute and jute’s connection...

  16. Uranium milling costs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Basic process flowsheets are reviewed for conventional milling of US ores. Capital costs are presented for various mill capacities for one of the basic processes. Operating costs are shown for various mill capacities for all of the basic process flowsheets. The number of mills using, or planning to use, a particular process is reviewed. A summary of the estimated average milling costs for all operating US mills is shown

  17. Process Evaluation of a Store-Based Environmental Obesity Intervention on Two American Indian Reservations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curran, Sarah; Gittelsohn, Joel; Anliker, Jean; Ethelbah, Becky; Blake, Kelly; Sharma, Sangita; Caballero, Benjamin

    2005-01-01

    Obesity and other diet-related chronic diseases are widespread in American Indian communities. Inadequate access to healthy food on many reservations has led to a high-fat, high-sugar diet. The purpose of this paper is to report on the results of the process evaluation of a food store-based program to improve diet on two American Indian

  18. 76 FR 62339 - Domestic Sugar Program-2011-Crop Cane Sugar and Beet Sugar Marketing Allotments and Company...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-07

    ...DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE Commodity Credit Corporation Domestic Sugar Program--2011-Crop Cane Sugar and Beet Sugar Marketing Allotments and Company Allocations AGENCY: Commodity Credit Corporation, USDA....

  19. Greenhouse gas emission associated with sugar production in southern Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    La Scala Newton; Romão Rangel; Panosso Alan; de Figueiredo Eduardo

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Background Since sugarcane areas have increased rapidly in Brazil, the contribution of the sugarcane production, and, especially, of the sugarcane harvest system to the greenhouse gas emissions of the country is an issue of national concern. Here we analyze some data characterizing various activities of two sugarcane mills during the harvest period of 2006-2007 and quantify the carbon footprint of sugar production. Results According to our calculations, 241 kg of carbon dioxide equiv...

  20. Genetic improvement of sugar cane for bioenergy: the Brazilian experience in network research with RIDESA

    OpenAIRE

    Luiz Alexandre Peternelli; Ricardo Augusto Oliveira; Geraldo Veríssimo Souza Barbosa; Luiz Antônio dos Santos Dias; Marcos Deon Vilela de Resende; Márcio Henrique Pereira Barbosa; Edelclaiton Daros

    2012-01-01

    In this paper, it is presented RIDESA’s model for sugar cane breeding to ethanol, and its scientific, technological and human resources training contributions. RIDESA is an inter-university network for the development of sugar cane industry in Brazil, and was formed by a technical cooperation agreement between ten public universities. The model of network management is presented in this study, which involves, among other things, the public-private partnership (Universities-Mills) for the de...

  1. CHALLENGES BEFORE SUGAR INDUSTRY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. S. Salunkhe

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Today, Sugar Industries and sugarcane cultivators face critical mode of economy. It is very difficult to find out exact reasons behind it. This critical situation has been since last three years. During three years rain has been quite sufficient, irrigation and water supply facilities increased, sufficient power supply has been in rural area, water level in well has been sufficient, apart from this, farmers have got better price or rate of sugarcane. Government increased FRP by treating increase in price of sugar i.e. between 32 to 34 rupees per Kg. due to better prices of sugarcane; cultivators have been increasing the area of sugarcane cultivation. Impact of that there is excess production of sugarcane and sugar.

  2. Future sustainability of the sugar and sugar-ethanol industries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Like many other food and chemical industries, the sugar and sugar-ethanol industries are facing important sustainability issues. The relatively low and fluctuating profit for sugar, the world-wide impetus to produce alternatives to petroleum-based fuels and reduce green house gases, and water- and ...

  3. Clinical epidemiological profile of American tegumentary leishmaniasis at the Pinto Sugar Mill in Moreno Municipality, Greater Metropolitan Recife, Pernambuco State, Brazil Perfil clínico-epidemiológico da leishmaniose tegumentar americana no Engenho Pinto, Município de Moreno, Região Metropolitana do Recife, Pernambuco, Brasil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Edileuza Felinto de Brito

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available American tegumentary leishmaniasis (ATL is present in all regions of Pernambuco State, Brazil, where it is spreading, with the emergence of foci in new areas like the Municipality (County of Moreno in Greater Metropolitan Recife. The objective of the current study was to assess the prevalence of infection and identify autochthonous cases of ATL. In April 2006 a population survey was performed using a questionnaire and the Montenegro skin test (MST in 481 individuals from the Pinto Sugar Mill, of whom 47% were males and 74% were younger than 30 years. One hundred forty-four individuals (30% showed a positive MST. Of these, five presented active lesions, 41 were cured after meglumine antimoniate treatment, and one showed a spontaneous cure. Indirect immunofluorescence (IIF was performed on sera from 89 individuals and showed a 36% positive rate. The high ATL prevalence demonstrates the epidemiological spread of the disease in Greater Metropolitan Recife, a worrisome development since there are no effective measures for ATL control except ecological awareness raising to minimize the risk of infection.A leishmaniose tegumentar americana incide em todas as regiões do Estado de Pernambuco, Brasil, onde se apresenta em expansão, com o surgimento de focos em novas áreas, como o Município de Moreno, na região metropolitana do Recife. O objetivo deste estudo foi avaliar a prevalência da infecção e identificar os casos autóctones de leishmaniose tegumentar americana. Em abril de 2006, realizou-se um inquérito populacional por meio da aplicação de um questionário e do teste de intradermoreação de Montenegro a 481 indivíduos do Engenho Pinto, dos quais 47% eram do sexo masculino e 74% menores de 30 anos. Cento e quarenta e quatro (30% indivíduos apresentaram reação positiva ao teste. Dentre estes, cinco apresentaram lesões ativas, 41 foram curados após quimioterapia e um curado espontaneamente. A RIFI realizada nos soros de 89 indivíduos apresentou 36% de positividade. A alta prevalência aponta para a expansão epidemiológica da doença nessa área da região metropolitana, fato preocupante, pois não há medidas eficazes para o controle da leishmaniose tegumentar americana, a não ser uma conscientização ecológica para minimizar o risco de infecção.

  4. Clinical epidemiological profile of American tegumentary leishmaniasis at the Pinto Sugar Mill in Moreno Municipality, Greater Metropolitan Recife, Pernambuco State, Brazil / Perfil clínico-epidemiológico da leishmaniose tegumentar americana no Engenho Pinto, Município de Moreno, Região Metropolitana do Recife, Pernambuco, Brasil

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Maria Edileuza Felinto de, Brito; Cláudio Júlio, Silva; Cristiane Máximo, Silva; Pedro Raposo, Salazar; Juliana Santos, Coutinho; Luiza de Campos, Reis; Valéria Rego Alves, Pereira; Sinval Pinto, Brandão-Filho; Ângela Cristina Rapela, Medeiros.

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available A leishmaniose tegumentar americana incide em todas as regiões do Estado de Pernambuco, Brasil, onde se apresenta em expansão, com o surgimento de focos em novas áreas, como o Município de Moreno, na região metropolitana do Recife. O objetivo deste estudo foi avaliar a prevalência da infecção e iden [...] tificar os casos autóctones de leishmaniose tegumentar americana. Em abril de 2006, realizou-se um inquérito populacional por meio da aplicação de um questionário e do teste de intradermoreação de Montenegro a 481 indivíduos do Engenho Pinto, dos quais 47% eram do sexo masculino e 74% menores de 30 anos. Cento e quarenta e quatro (30%) indivíduos apresentaram reação positiva ao teste. Dentre estes, cinco apresentaram lesões ativas, 41 foram curados após quimioterapia e um curado espontaneamente. A RIFI realizada nos soros de 89 indivíduos apresentou 36% de positividade. A alta prevalência aponta para a expansão epidemiológica da doença nessa área da região metropolitana, fato preocupante, pois não há medidas eficazes para o controle da leishmaniose tegumentar americana, a não ser uma conscientização ecológica para minimizar o risco de infecção. Abstract in english American tegumentary leishmaniasis (ATL) is present in all regions of Pernambuco State, Brazil, where it is spreading, with the emergence of foci in new areas like the Municipality (County) of Moreno in Greater Metropolitan Recife. The objective of the current study was to assess the prevalence of i [...] nfection and identify autochthonous cases of ATL. In April 2006 a population survey was performed using a questionnaire and the Montenegro skin test (MST) in 481 individuals from the Pinto Sugar Mill, of whom 47% were males and 74% were younger than 30 years. One hundred forty-four individuals (30%) showed a positive MST. Of these, five presented active lesions, 41 were cured after meglumine antimoniate treatment, and one showed a spontaneous cure. Indirect immunofluorescence (IIF) was performed on sera from 89 individuals and showed a 36% positive rate. The high ATL prevalence demonstrates the epidemiological spread of the disease in Greater Metropolitan Recife, a worrisome development since there are no effective measures for ATL control except ecological awareness raising to minimize the risk of infection.

  5. Clinical epidemiological profile of American tegumentary leishmaniasis at the Pinto Sugar Mill in Moreno Municipality, Greater Metropolitan Recife, Pernambuco State, Brazil / Perfil clínico-epidemiológico da leishmaniose tegumentar americana no Engenho Pinto, Município de Moreno, Região Metropolitana do Recife, Pernambuco, Brasil

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Maria Edileuza Felinto de, Brito; Cláudio Júlio, Silva; Cristiane Máximo, Silva; Pedro Raposo, Salazar; Juliana Santos, Coutinho; Luiza de Campos, Reis; Valéria Rego Alves, Pereira; Sinval Pinto, Brandão-Filho; Ângela Cristina Rapela, Medeiros.

    2445-24-01

    Full Text Available A leishmaniose tegumentar americana incide em todas as regiões do Estado de Pernambuco, Brasil, onde se apresenta em expansão, com o surgimento de focos em novas áreas, como o Município de Moreno, na região metropolitana do Recife. O objetivo deste estudo foi avaliar a prevalência da infecção e iden [...] tificar os casos autóctones de leishmaniose tegumentar americana. Em abril de 2006, realizou-se um inquérito populacional por meio da aplicação de um questionário e do teste de intradermoreação de Montenegro a 481 indivíduos do Engenho Pinto, dos quais 47% eram do sexo masculino e 74% menores de 30 anos. Cento e quarenta e quatro (30%) indivíduos apresentaram reação positiva ao teste. Dentre estes, cinco apresentaram lesões ativas, 41 foram curados após quimioterapia e um curado espontaneamente. A RIFI realizada nos soros de 89 indivíduos apresentou 36% de positividade. A alta prevalência aponta para a expansão epidemiológica da doença nessa área da região metropolitana, fato preocupante, pois não há medidas eficazes para o controle da leishmaniose tegumentar americana, a não ser uma conscientização ecológica para minimizar o risco de infecção. Abstract in english American tegumentary leishmaniasis (ATL) is present in all regions of Pernambuco State, Brazil, where it is spreading, with the emergence of foci in new areas like the Municipality (County) of Moreno in Greater Metropolitan Recife. The objective of the current study was to assess the prevalence of i [...] nfection and identify autochthonous cases of ATL. In April 2006 a population survey was performed using a questionnaire and the Montenegro skin test (MST) in 481 individuals from the Pinto Sugar Mill, of whom 47% were males and 74% were younger than 30 years. One hundred forty-four individuals (30%) showed a positive MST. Of these, five presented active lesions, 41 were cured after meglumine antimoniate treatment, and one showed a spontaneous cure. Indirect immunofluorescence (IIF) was performed on sera from 89 individuals and showed a 36% positive rate. The high ATL prevalence demonstrates the epidemiological spread of the disease in Greater Metropolitan Recife, a worrisome development since there are no effective measures for ATL control except ecological awareness raising to minimize the risk of infection.

  6. Frequently Asked Questions about Sugar

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... studies show that eating large amounts of added sugars is associated with diets low in calcium, vitamin A, iron and zinc. Also, diets that are high in added sugars are typically low in fiber. This is important because increasing dietary ...

  7. "Sugar" jõuab lavale / Ülle Hallik

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Hallik, Ülle, 1963-

    2008-01-01

    Vanemuises esietendub 5. juunil "Sugar", lavastaja Mare Tommingas. Muusikal põhineb Jule Styne muusikalil "Sugar ehk Dzhässis ainult tüdrukud". Muusikali libreto kirjutas Peter Stone Robert Thoereni jutustuse ning Billy Wilderi ja I. A. L. Dimanondi filmi "Some Like It Hot" põhjal

  8. 29 CFR 780.815 - Basic conditions of exemption; second part, processing of sugar beets, sugar-beet molasses...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ...processing of sugar beets, sugar-beet molasses, sugarcane, or maple sap. 780...Processing of Sugar Beets, Sugar-Beet Molasses, Sugarcane, or Maple Sap into Sugar...processing of sugar beets, sugar-beet molasses, sugarcane, or maple sap....

  9. Controlling Blood Sugar

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... About MedlinePlus Site Map FAQs Contact Us Health Topics Drugs & Supplements Videos & Tools You Are Here: Home ? Latest Health News ? Controlling Blood Sugar URL of this page: http://www.nlm.nih.gov/medlineplus/videos/news/ ...

  10. Controlling Blood Sugar

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... that can lead to healthy tomorrows. Related MedlinePlus Health Topics Blood Sugar Diabetes Type 2 Heart Diseases-- ... Rockville Pike, Bethesda, MD 20894 U.S. Department of Health and Human Services National Institutes of Health Page ...

  11. Controlling Blood Sugar

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... MedlinePlus Health Topics Blood Sugar Diabetes Type 2 Heart Diseases--Prevention About MedlinePlus Site Map FAQs Contact Us Get email updates Subscribe to RSS Follow us on Twitter ... Institutes of Health Page last updated on 27 June 2015

  12. Sugar substitutes during pregnancy

    OpenAIRE

    Pope, Eliza; Koren, Gideon; Bozzo, Pina

    2014-01-01

    Question I have a pregnant patient who regularly consumes sugar substitutes and she asked me if continuing their use would affect her pregnancy or child. What should I tell her, and are there certain options that are better for use during pregnancy?

  13. Free sugar profile in cycads

    OpenAIRE

    Marler, Thomas E.; Lindstro?m, Anders J.

    2014-01-01

    The sugars fructose, glucose, maltose, and sucrose were quantified in seven tissues of Zamia muricata Willd. to determine their distribution throughout various organs of a model cycad species, and in lateral structural roots of 18 cycad species to determine the variation in sugar concentration and composition among species representing every cycad genus. Taproot and lateral structural roots contained more sugars than leaf, stem, female strobilus, or coralloid roots. For example, taproot sugar...

  14. 19 CFR 151.30 - Sugar closets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ...SAMPLING, AND TESTING OF MERCHANDISE Sugars, Sirups, and Molasses § 151.30 Sugar closets. Sugar closets for samples...are located and shall be so situated that sugar, sirup, and molasses stored therein shall not be subjected to extremes of...

  15. High Blood Sugar (in Type 1 Diabetes)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Control and Management / High Blood Sugar High Blood Sugar Definition and Symptoms High blood sugar, or hyperglycemia, ... PDF version > What to Do About High Blood Sugar Levels The following recommendations are general treatments for ...

  16. Alternative utilization of excess water in Cuban sugar mills

    OpenAIRE

    Larsson, Anna; Bednarcik, Emma

    2014-01-01

    Sockerrörsindustrin är en av de mest vattenkrävande industrierna i världen. Trots att sockerröret innehåller tillräckligt med vatten för att förse hela sockerproduktionsprocessen tillsätts mer vatten från andra källor, vilket är anledningen till att sockerrörsindustrin både konsumerar och genererar ett stort överskott av vatten. Det genererade spillvattnet innehåller höga koncentrationer av organiska sammansättningar, vilket skulle orsaka föroreningar om det direkt släppt...

  17. Affect of Working Capital Management on Firms Profitability in Sugar Industry of Pakistan

    OpenAIRE

    Malik, Zafar Ullah; iqbal, athar

    2012-01-01

    Management of working capital performs a very vital part in the performance of firms in sugar industry. This thesis tests the impact of working capital management on firm’s profitability in sugar industry of Pakistan for years 1999 to 2009. To analyze this, data of 19 sugar mills which are listed at Karachi Stock Exchange is used. The result shows that the Sales Growth, Current Ratio, No of Days Inventory and No of Days Accounts Payables are significantly affecting the profitability of the fi...

  18. SWOT ANALYSIS OF INDIAN JUTE INDUSTRY

    OpenAIRE

    Ramya, G. Karthik And N.

    2012-01-01

    Jute Industrial sector is an important segment of Indian economy. Jute has been the most versatile natural fibre. The jute sector produces products ranging from low value geo-textile to high end garments, decorative, upholstery etc. Many of the jute plants or mills are now engaged in producing jute blended yarns. The jute industry scenario in India has been changed from making traditional hessian to high end fashion garments. The jute export counts to about 1000 crore, the import of raw jute ...

  19. A STUDY OF PERCEPTION OF WOMEN EMPLOYEES IN WEAVING MILLS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. K. Jadhav

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Indian Textile Industry holds key position in Indian economy. It contributes about 4 percent to the GDP and 12 per cent to the country's total export earnings. It provides direct employment to over 35 million people, the second largest provider of employment after agriculture. Besides, another 54.85 million people are engaged in its allied activities. High perception assists the management to overcome several women employees' problems in weaving mills. In this paper, the researcher has made an attempt to highlight the perception of women employees in weaving mills in Ichalkaranji. The present study is an earnest attempt to assess present condition of the perception of the women employees in weaving mills at Ichalkaranji in Kolhapur district.

  20. Concept on Sugar- A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zakaria Ahmed

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available Sugars have a long history of safe use in foods. They are common food ingredients that add taste appeal and perform important functions in foods. Besides its pleasant sweetness, sugar performs a host of less obvious and important functions in cooking, baking, candy making and the like. As carbohydrates, sugars are a contributor of calories for the body. The ability to produce solutions of varying degrees of sweetness is important in many food applications, particularly in beverages and confectionery. Low-calorie sweeteners add a taste that is similar to that of sucrose. Intense sweeteners are generally several times sweeter than sucrose. On the other hand, sugar replacers are the bulk and volume providing sweeteners usually less sweet than and different tasting from sugar, commonly used on a one-for-one replacement basis for sugar in recipes. Sugars have been studied extensively for their impact on a variety of issues.

  1. Starches, Sugars and Obesity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erik E. J. G. Aller

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available The rising prevalence of obesity, not only in adults but also in children and adolescents, is one of the most important public health problems in developed and developing countries. As one possible way to tackle obesity, a great interest has been stimulated in understanding the relationship between different types of dietary carbohydrate and appetite regulation, body weight and body composition. The present article reviews the conclusions from recent reviews and meta-analyses on the effects of different starches and sugars on body weight management and metabolic disturbances, and provides an update of the most recent studies on this topic. From the literature reviewed in this paper, potential beneficial effects of intake of starchy foods, especially those containing slowly-digestible and resistant starches, and potential detrimental effects of high intakes of fructose become apparent. This supports the intake of whole grains, legumes and vegetables, which contain more appropriate sources of carbohydrates associated with reduced risk of cardiovascular and other chronic diseases, rather than foods rich in sugars, especially in the form of sugar-sweetened beverages.

  2. BIOPROCESS DEVELOPMENT FOR CONVERSION OF CORN FIBER TO FERMENTABLE SUGARS: CURRENT STATUS AND FUTURE PROSPECTS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corn fiber, a corn wet milling byproduct, contains about 70% carbohydrate (20% starch, 15% cellulose, and 35% hemicellulose) that can be utilized to produce a variety of value-added fermentation products, if a cost-effective process for its saccharification to fermentable sugars can be developed. I...

  3. The ultrasound-assisted sugar extraction from sugar beet cossettes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The aim of this work was to study the ultrasound-assisted water extraction of sugar from sugar beet cossettes. The ultrasound bath device (25 kHz, 200 W) was used. The sonication accelerated sugar diffusion at both temperatures 18 deg C and 77.6 deg C and gave the higher level of dry matter content SS (4-6 percent) and sugar content CK (7-22 percent) in juice. The SS and CK depended on time of exposition, time and temperature of extraction. In particular, the effects of 5 min ultrasound-assisted extraction were equal to 20 min extraction in traditional conditions. The shorter time, lower temperature, higher efficiency and purity of juice could be the effects of sugar extraction with ultrasound. The change of thickness of diffusion membrane, microflows in tissue as well as it's environment caused by ultrasound was the reason of acceleration of sugar extraction

  4. Concept on Sugar- A Review

    OpenAIRE

    Zakaria Ahmed; Hasina Banu; Firaza Akhter; . M. Faruquzzaman; Shamsul Haque

    2001-01-01

    Sugars have a long history of safe use in foods. They are common food ingredients that add taste appeal and perform important functions in foods. Besides its pleasant sweetness, sugar performs a host of less obvious and important functions in cooking, baking, candy making and the like. As carbohydrates, sugars are a contributor of calories for the body. The ability to produce solutions of varying degrees of sweetness is important in many food applications, particularly in beverages and...

  5. Energy saving in the sugar cane agroindustry; Ahorro de energia en la agroindustria azucarera canera

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zedillo Ponce de Leon, Luis [Grupo de paises Latinoamericanos y del Caribe exportadores de azucar (Mexico)

    1996-07-01

    The traditional sugar mill is inefficient from the energy point of view. Most of the sugar mills were designed to use all the available bagasse, due to the risk of spontaneous ignition and environmental pollution. Consequently, the steam generators, the turbines and other components were designed to work with low efficiencies. Each ton of sugar produced generates a power potential equivalent to four to six oil barrels (bagasse and residues). That is to say, a sugar mill is capable of producing 500 ton/day of sugar, equivalent to an oil well of 2000 to 3000 barrels/day and one thermoelectric power plant of 15,000 kW. Under this context an analysis is made of the sugar mills in Latin America and the Caribbean as one of the ways of increasing their efficiency and obtain great energy savings. As far as steam generation the appropriate use of energy is dictated by the boilers' efficiency. [Spanish] El ingenio azucarero tradicional es ineficiente desde el punto de vista energetico. La mayoria de los ingenios azucareros se disenaron para usar todo el bagazo disponible, debido al riesgo de ignicion espontanea y contaminacion. En consecuencia, los generadores de vapor, las turbinas y demas componentes fueron disenados para trabajar con bajas eficiencias. Cada tonelada de azucar producida genera una potencialidad energetica equivalente de cuatro a seis barriles de petroleo (bagazo y residuos). Es decir, un ingenio capaz de producir 500 ton/dia de azucar equivalente a un pozo de petroleo de 2000 a 3000 barriles/dia y una termoelectrica de 15000 kW. Bajo este contexto se hace un analisis del ingenio azucarero en Latinoamerica y el Caribe como una de las vias para incrementar su eficiencia y lograr grandes ahorros en la energia. En cuanto a generacion de vapor se refiere, el buen uso de la energia viene expresado por la eficiencia de las calderas.

  6. Molecular Mobility in Sugar Glasses

    OpenAIRE

    Dries, I.J., van den

    2000-01-01

    Glasses are liquids that exhibit solid state behavior as a result of their extremely high viscosity. Regarding their application to foods, glasses play a role in the preservation of foods, due to their high viscosity and the concomitant low molecular mobility. This thesis focuses on sugar glasses. Sugar glasses are relevant as model systems for foods that contain sugars and have a low water content and/or that are frozen, since in both types the sugars can exist in the glassy state. Often, th...

  7. Remedial actions at inactive uranium mill tailings sites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In 1978 Congress enacted Public Law 95-604, the Uranium Mill Tailings Radiation Control Act of 1978. The Act authorizes DOE, in cooperation with the affected States, Indian tribes and the owners of the sites, to implement remedial action at inactive uranium mill tailings sites. Since there are significant uncertainties in the present technology for controlling the radiological hazards associated with mill tailings, a concentrated research and development program based on an integrated Remedial Action Technology Plan will be implemented with significant laboratory, university and contractor participation. Discussed are the major questions and issues concerning the measurement of radon and radon daughters, requirements for remedial action, and the main categories of research and development for the mill tailings project

  8. 75 FR 60715 - Domestic Sugar Program-FY 2010 and FY 2011 Cane Sugar and Beet Sugar Marketing Allotments and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ...DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE Commodity Credit Corporation Domestic Sugar Program--FY 2010 and FY 2011 Cane Sugar and Beet Sugar Marketing Allotments and Company Allocations AGENCY: Commodity Credit Corporation,...

  9. Indian Parliament

    Science.gov (United States)

    With one of the largest parliamentary bodies in the world, it is not surprising that the Web site for the Indian Parliament contains a staggering amount of information about its operations, its members, bills, budget proposals, and other important governmental proceedings. Visitors will want to begin by browsing through the section on the president of India (currently this is Dr. A.P.J. Abdul Kalam) to learn about his recent statements and speeches, along with information about the beautiful presidential palace and the exquisite Mughal Garden. The other sections of the site are also compelling, and include areas devoted to the Rajya Sabha (Council of States) and the Lok Sabha (House of the People), where guests can read recent debates (some of which are only available in Hindi), and learn about the members of each body. Additionally, there is a frequently asked questions area that answers some basic queries about the organization and history of the Parliament.

  10. When Blood Sugar Is Too High

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... often can be unhealthy. What Is High Blood Sugar? The blood glucose level is the amount of ... sugar levels are. Continue Causes of High Blood Sugar Levels Managing diabetes is like a three-way ...

  11. The "coolie curse": The evolution of white colonial attitudes towards the Indian question, 1860-1900

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Duncan, Du Bois.

    Full Text Available Neither by accident nor design, Natal became home to over 50 000 Indian immigrants during the latter half of the nineteenth century. At the request of fewer than 50 sugar planters, colonial Natal embarked on a labour dispensation which was initially envisaged as "an experiment," on a small scale, as [...] Governor John Scott saw it. Appreciated for their contribution as labourers to the success of sugar production, Indians nonetheless, were resented by white colonists as settlers after they had completed their indenture contracts. That resentment was heightened by the influx of traders and non-indentured Indians into Natal after 1875 and found expression in published opinion and in discriminatory legislation. By the 1890s Natal's anti-Indian legislation became an imperial controversy which also proved life-changing for M.K. Gandhi. This article attempts to track the evolution of white settler attitudes to what was termed the "coolie curse."

  12. FM Interviews: Stephanie Mills

    OpenAIRE

    Valauskas, Edward

    2002-01-01

    Stephanie Mills is an author, editor, lecturer and ecological activist who has concerned herself with the fate of the earth and humanity since 1969, when her commencement address at Mills College in Oakland, Calif., drew the attention of a nation. Her speech, which the New York Times called "perhaps the most anguished statement" of the year's crop of valedictory speeches, predicted a bleak future. According to Mills, humanity was destined for suicide, the result of overpopulation and overuse ...

  13. Indian Journal Server Initiative

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    click here to start indian journal server initiative problems with indian journals why common platform role of the initiative logistics logistics (contd.) technology ppt slide why journals may be reluctant to join questions to be answered why it may succeed ...

  14. Monitoring Blood Sugar: The Importance of Checking Blood Sugar Levels

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... the diabetes management team to see patterns and trends. This will help you and your child better understand the link between food, exercise, and blood sugar levels, and also help you and the health ...

  15. SWOT ANALYSIS OF INDIAN JUTE INDUSTRY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. KARTHIK AND N. RAMYA

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Jute Industrial sector is an important segment of Indian economy. Jute has been the most versatile natural fibre. The jute sector produces products ranging from low value geo-textile to high end garments, decorative, upholstery etc. Many of the jute plants or mills are now engaged in producing jute blended yarns. The jute industry scenario in India has been changed from making traditional hessian to high end fashion garments. The jute export counts to about 1000 crore, the import of raw jute has been dropped by 66 per cent in 2008-09. The Indian jute industry is having plenty of opportunity by its side; it is not only one of the oldest industries of India but also among the major employer of the nation. There are a lot of strengths and also much chance to seize them but it could only be done if it overcomes its weaknesses and threats.

  16. Life Cycle Assessment of Sugar Production (VB)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Teljigovic, Mehmed; Mengiardi, Jon

    1999-01-01

    The environmental organisation NOAH has proposed carrying out an environmental assessment of two different sugar productions (using sugar beet or sugar cane) in order to illustrate which of the systems has a higher environmental impact for sugar consumption in Denmark. Therefore a comparison will be made between sugar from sugar beet produced in Denmark versus sugar produces from sugar cane in a tropical country, Brazil, and transported afterwards to Denmark. To evaluate the environmental aspects of these two product systems a Life Cycle Assessement (LCA) will be carried out.From the results obtained in the present LCA of sugar produces from sugar canes or sugar beet it is difficult to make an immediate choice between the two possibilities. Indeed, Quantitative results from the EDIP (Environmental Design of Industrial Products) software are globally similar for both ways of producing sugar although big differences between sugar cane and sugar beet exist at a few points. The qualitative approach of other fields like workning environment or specific environmental aspects is necessary to get a broader view of the problem. Nevertheless, it does not allow for a definite decision either. Therefore, privileging sugar cane or sugar beet may only be decided after a precise weighting of the environmental impacts or resource conumption. However, weighting is a political decision especially because two contries with different local conditions are dealt with. Hence, diciding which sugar to buy becomes a personal choice. What the danish consumer should be aware of is that no big difference has been found between sugar from sugar cane and sugar from sugar beet with regard to environmental impacts and resource consumption.

  17. Comparison of combustion and pyrolysis for energy generation in a sugarcane mill

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • Biomass to energy processes for sugarmills via combustion and pyrolysis are modelled. • Models compared based on technical and economic performance for two mill efficiencies. • Combustion more suited for sugar mill energy supply. • Pyrolysis based models have higher overall process efficiencies. • Pyrolysis contributes more towards environmental mitigation but is less profitable. - Abstract: The study focusses on the comparison of biomass to energy conversion process (BMECP) models to convert sugar mill biomass (bagasse) into energy products via combustion and pyrolysis as thermochemical pathways. Bagasse was converted to steam and electricity via combustion using 40 bar, 63 bar and 82 bar Condensing Extraction Steam Turbines (CEST) systems and a 30 bar back pressure steam turbine (BPST) system. Two BMECPs, namely partial fast pyrolysis and pure fast pyrolysis systems, were modeled for the pyrolysis pathway. In the Pure Fast Pyrolysis BMECP all the input bagasse stream was converted to pyrolysis products, with subsequent combustion of some of these products to generate steam and electricity for sugar mill operations. In the partial fast pyrolysis BMECP, a fraction of the bagasse is combusted directly to supply steam and electricity to the sugar mill, while the remaining fraction is pyrolyzed to generate pyrolysis products. All process models were simulated in AspenPlus® and were assessed on their ability to supply the energy requirement of to two sugar mill scenarios: More efficient mill and less efficient mill. The economic viability of BMECPs was determined using Aspen Process Economic Analyzer. Both combustion based and pyrolysis based BMECPs were capable of meeting the energy requirement of the sugar mill, although the pyrolysis based BMECP had limited steam and electricity production rates due to the accumulation of energy in pyrolysis products. High energy valued pyrolysis products resulted in higher overall process efficiencies of 85.09% and 87.65% for partial fast pyrolysis and Pure Fast Pyrolysis BMECPs respectively compared to 77.48% for the most efficient combustion BMECP (82 bar CEST). CO2 savings were higher for the pyrolysis based BMECPs due to the sequestration of carbon in pyrolysis products. The 63 bar CEST combustion system was the most economic viable option, while the Pure Fast Pyrolysis BMECP was the least viable. The increased energy efficiency and environmental benefits of pyrolysis-based processes are therefore off-set by increases in production costs

  18. Building with sugar and corn

    OpenAIRE

    Pinto, J.; Paiva, A.; Costa, A.; Tavares, P.; Fernandes, L.; Murta, A.; Varum, H.

    2010-01-01

    Two alternative and highly sustainable building techniques are presented and described. The techniques are sugar reinforcement of earth based material and corncob based thermal isolation material. Some experimental results highlight the advantages and disadvantages of these two proposed techniques whose study is still beginning. The water resistance of earth based materials may be increased by adding a certain amount of sugar. On the other hand, corn cob material may have a similar thermal be...

  19. Sugar Cane Nutrient Distribution Analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Neutron Activation Analysis (NAA), Molecular Absorption Spectrometry (UV-Vis), and Flame Photometry techniques were applied to measure plant nutrient concentrations of Br, Ca, Cl, K, Mn, N, Na and P in sugar-cane root, stalk and leaves. These data will be used to explore the behavior of element concentration in different parts of the sugar-cane to better understand the plant nutrient distribution during its development.

  20. John Stuart Mill Links

    Science.gov (United States)

    Considered one of the most important philosophers of the 19th century, John Stuart Mill was born in 1806 to one James Mill, part-time philosopher and economist, and full-time official in the East India Company. Educated by both his father and the philosopher Jeremy Bentham, Mill learned Greek by age three, Latin shortly thereafter, and was a competent logician by age 12. After suffering a mental breakdown at the age of 20, Mill decided he would commit himself to persuading the general public of the need for a scientific and rational approach to understanding social, political, and economic change. Mill penned some of the most powerful statements on the behalf of utilitarianism during his life, including one of his most enduring works, Utilitarianism. This Web site (offered in numerous different languages) is a compilation of links to works by and about Mill, including full-text versions of such works as On Liberty, Principles of Political Economy, and his Autobiography. Equally compelling are the works about Mill also to be found here, most notably Isaiah Berlin's 1959 article, John Stuart Mill and the Ends of Life.

  1. Clinical epidemiological profile of American tegumentary leishmaniasis at the Pinto Sugar Mill in Moreno Municipality, Greater Metropolitan Recife, Pernambuco State, Brazil Perfil clínico-epidemiológico da leishmaniose tegumentar americana no Engenho Pinto, Município de Moreno, Região Metropolitana do Recife, Pernambuco, Brasil

    OpenAIRE

    Maria Edileuza Felinto Brito; Cláudio Júlio Silva; Cristiane Máximo Silva; Pedro Raposo Salazar; Juliana Santos Coutinho; Luiza de Campos Reis; Valéria Rego Alves Pereira; Sinval Pinto Brandão-Filho; Ângela Cristina Rapela Medeiros

    2008-01-01

    American tegumentary leishmaniasis (ATL) is present in all regions of Pernambuco State, Brazil, where it is spreading, with the emergence of foci in new areas like the Municipality (County) of Moreno in Greater Metropolitan Recife. The objective of the current study was to assess the prevalence of infection and identify autochthonous cases of ATL. In April 2006 a population survey was performed using a questionnaire and the Montenegro skin test (MST) in 481 individuals from the Pinto Sugar Mi...

  2. Sugar substitutes: Health controversy over perceived benefits

    OpenAIRE

    Tandel, Kirtida R.

    2011-01-01

    Sugar is an inseparable part of the food we consume. But too much sugar is not ideal for our teeth and waistline. There have been some controversial suggestions that excessive sugar may play an important role in certain degenerative diseases. So artificial sweeteners or artificially sweetened products continue to attract consumers. A sugar substitute (artificial sweetener) is a food additive that duplicates the effect of sugar in taste, but usually has less food energy. Besides its benefits, ...

  3. FACTORS DETERMINING CAPITAL STRUCTURE OF CO-OPERATIVE SUGAR INDUSTRY IN TAMIL NADU – AN EMPIRICAL STUDY

    OpenAIRE

    M Sekar; A. PALVANNAN

    2013-01-01

    Finance is an important input for any type of business and is needed for working capital and for permanent investment. The financial success of a firm depends mainly on its capital structure. The choice of debt and equity in the capital structure of corporate firms is an important financial decision because it influences both the return and risk of shareholders. In the present day challenges facing the Indian sugar industry are about 50 % of production of north India and Tamil Nadu are govern...

  4. The Indian Child Welfare Act.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steward, Katy Jo

    The Indian Child Welfare Act of 1978 (I.C.W.A.) is federal legislation which preempts state law whenever Indian children may be removed from their families. The I.C.W.A. permits Indian tribal courts to decide the future of Indian children, establishes minimum federal standards for removal of Indian children from their families, requires that…

  5. On an Interpretation of Mill’s Qualitative Utilitarianism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CHRISTOPH SCHMIDT-PETRI

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper is a reply to Jonathan Riley’s criticism of my reading of Mill(both published in the Philosophical Quarterly 2003. I show that Riley’s interpretation has no textual support in Mill’s writing by putting the supposedly supporting quotations in their proper context. Secondly it is demonstrated how my reading is not incompatible with hedonism. Mill’s use of the concepts of ‘quality’, ‘quantity’, and ‘pleasure’ are explained and illustrated. I conclude by considering whether the possible redundancy of Mill’s quality/quantity discussion would be problematic.

  6. 76 FR 36512 - USDA Increases the Domestic Sugar Overall Allotment Quantity, Reassigns Domestic Cane Sugar...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-22

    ...AGRICULTURE Office of the Secretary USDA Increases the Domestic Sugar Overall Allotment Quantity, Reassigns Domestic Cane Sugar Allotments, and Increases the Fiscal Year 2011 Raw Sugar Tariff-Rate Quota AGENCY: Office of the Secretary,...

  7. Inorganic elements in sugar samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sugar is considered a safe food ingredient; however, it can be contaminated by organic elements since its planting until its production process. Thus, this study aims at checking the presence of inorganic elements in samples of crystal, refined and brown sugar available for consumption in Brazil. The applied technique was neutron activation analysis, the k0 method, using the TRIGA MARK - IPR-R1 reactor located at CDTN/CNEN, in Belo Horizonte. It was identified the presence of elements such as, Au, Br, Co, Cr, Hf, K, Na, Sb, Sc and Zn in the samples of crystal/refined sugar and the presence of As, Au, Br, Ca, Co, Cr, Cs, Fe, Hf, K, Na, Sb, Sc, Sm, Sr, Th and Zn in the brown sugar samples. The applied technique was appropriate to this study because it was not necessary to put the samples in solution, essential condition in order to apply other techniques, avoiding contaminations and sample losses, besides allowing a multi elementary detection in different sugar samples. (author)

  8. The Efficiency Analyses of Croatian Sugar Industry by Using the Concept of Intellectual Capital

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dražen Holmik

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available During the last fi ve years the sugar industry has become one of the most important branches of Croatian food industry. It is connected with a signifi cant number of various industries in a complex way and employs a signifi cant number of people. A development of the sugar industry stimulates development of commerce, logistics, and a number of correlated industries whose products are necessary in sugar production. Croatian sugar factories have been present at the neighbouring markets and the European Union market for several years. Th e share of sugar in the total export of agricultural products increases every year and in the year 2004, it was 26.8% with the tendency of increasing in the year 2005. Th e foundation of the Intellectual capital (IC concept, as a method of increasing the entire business effi ciency, can be found in the papers of economic theoreticians in the middle of the last century but it reached its real break through in the past 15 years when the concept got more applied and the theory of intellectual capital was developed. In order to prepare Croatian economy for the competition that is expecting Croatia by joining the European Union with full membership, especially the agricultural sector, the application of the IC concept is expected to result with an increase of business effi ciency. Th e intellectual capital concept represents a recommended base, which will help Croatian sugar mills in achieving a better position at the highly competitive market of the European Union.

  9. National Indian Gaming Commission

    Science.gov (United States)

    The National Indian Gaming Commission is an independent federal regulatory agency, and along with regulating gaming activities on Indian lands, they are also responsible for "shielding Indian tribes from organized crime and other corrupting influences." The Commission's website is designed to inform interested parties about their ongoing activities, and visitors will find that the information here ranges from calendars of upcoming conferences to official decisions and actions taken by the Commission. First-time visitors may wish to start by looking over the FAQ section within the "About Us" area. Once there, they can find the answers to questions like "Do Indian tribes pay taxes?" and "What happens to the profits from Indian gaming operations?" Moving on, the "Laws & Regulations" area contains the text of such important documents as the Indian Gaming Regulatory Act and the Johnson Act. The site is rounded out by the "Reading Room", which contains recent and past bulletins, gaming ordinances, and a list of tribal gaming operations.

  10. Indian Ocean Traffic: Introduction

    OpenAIRE

    Lola Sharon Davidson; Stephen Muecke

    2012-01-01

    Like the Mediterranean, the Indian Ocean has been a privileged site of cross-cultural contact since ancient times. In this special issue, our contributors track disparate movements of people and ideas around the Indian Ocean region and explore the cultural implications of these contacts and their role in processes that we would come to call transnationalization and globalisation. The nation is a relatively recent phenomenon anywhere on the globe, and in many countries around the Indian Ocean ...

  11. Ion Milling of Sapphire

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gregory, Don A.; Herren, Kenneth A.

    2004-01-01

    The ion milling of sapphire is a complicated operation due to several characteristics of the material itself. It is a relatively hard transparent nonconductive crystalline material that does not transfer heat nearly as well as metals that have been successfully ion milled in the past. This investigation involved designing an experimental arrangement, using existing ion milling equipment, as the precursor to figuring the surface of sapphire and other insulating optical materials. The experimental arrangement employs a laser probe beam to constantly monitor the stresses being induced in the material, as it is being ion milled. The goal is to determine if the technique proposed would indeed indicate the stress being induced in the material so that these stresses can be managed to prevent failure of the optic.

  12. Development and Installation of High Pressure Boilers for Co-Generation Plant in Sugar Industries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kolar Seenappa Venkatesh

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available The sugar cane containing minimum 30% fiber was referred as bagasse and used the generation of power required for the operation of sugar mill. The bagasse is fired in the boiler for producing steam at high pressure, which is extracted through various single high capacity turbines and used in the process. The installation of high pressure boilers and high pressure turbo-generators has provision for the operation of co-generation plant during the off-season also that enhances the power generation from 9MW to 23MW. The annual monetary benefits achieved are Rs. 204.13 million and this was based on cost of power sold to the grid @ Rs 2.548 per unit, sugar season of 219 days and off season of 52 days. This required an investment of Rs 820.6 million. The investment had an attractive simple payback period of 48 months.

  13. Mining and milling of uranium ore: Indian scenario

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The occurrence of uranium minerals in Singhbhum Thrust belt of Eastern India has been known since 1937. In 1950, a team of geologists of the Atomic Minerals Division was assigned to closely examine this 160 km long belt. Since then, several occurrences of uranium have been found and a few of them have sufficient grade and tonnage for commercial exploitation. In 1967, the Government of India formed Uranium Corporation of India Ltd., under the administrative control of the Department of Atomic Energy, with the specific objective of mining and processing of uranium ore and produce uranium concentrates. At present the Corporation operates three underground uranium mines, one ore processing plant with expanded capacity, and two uranium recovery plants. Continuing investigations by the Atomic Mineral Division has discovered several new deposits and favourable areas. The most notable is the large Domiasiat deposit of the sandstone type found in the State of Meghalaya. This deposit is now being considered for commercial exploitation using the in-situ leaching technology. (author)

  14. Pyrolytic sugars from cellulosic biomass

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuzhiyil, Najeeb

    Sugars are the feedstocks for many promising advanced cellulosic biofuels. Traditional sugars derived from starch and sugar crops are limited in their availability. In principle, more plentiful supply of sugars can be obtained from depolymerization of cellulose, the most abundant form of biomass in the world. Breaking the glycosidic bonds between the pyranose rings in the cellulose chain to liberate glucose has usually been pursued by enzymatic hydrolysis although a purely thermal depolymerization route to sugars is also possible. Fast pyrolysis of pure cellulose yields primarily levoglucosan, an anhydrosugar that can be hydrolyzed to glucose. However, naturally occurring alkali and alkaline earth metals (AAEM) in biomass are strongly catalytic toward ring-breaking reactions that favor formation of light oxygenates over anhydrosugars. Removing the AAEM by washing was shown to be effective in increasing the yield of anhydrosugars; but this process involves removal of large amount of water from biomass that renders it energy intensive and thereby impractical. In this work passivation of the AAEM (making them less active or inactive) using mineral acid infusion was explored that will increase the yield of anhydrosugars from fast pyrolysis of biomass. Mineral acid infusion was tried by previous researchers, but the possibility of chemical reactions between infused acid and AAEM in the biomass appears to have been overlooked, possibly because metal cations might be expected to already be substantially complexed to chlorine or other strong anions that are found in biomass. Likewise, it appears that previous researchers assumed that as long as AAEM cations were in the biomass, they would be catalytically active regardless of the nature of their complexion with anions. On the contrary, we hypothesized that AAEM can be converted to inactive or less active salts using mineral acids. Various biomass feedstocks were infused with mineral (hydrochloric, nitric, sulfuric and phosphoric acids) and organic acids (formic and acetic acids) followed by analytical pyrolysis on a micropyrolyzer/GC/MS/FID system. It was found that sulfuric and phosphoric acids are very effective in passivating the AAEM thereby increasing the yield of anhydrosugars. An excellent correlation was discovered between the amount of acid required to obtain the maximum yield of anhydrosugars and the amount of AAEM contained in the biomass feedstock. In the micro-scale studies, up to 56% of the cellulose contained in the biomass was converted into anhydrosugars which is close to the 57% conversion obtained from pure cellulose pyrolysis. It is known that LG polymerization and subsequent charring occur at temperatures above 275°C depending on the vapor pressure of LG in the gas stream. A study of pyrolysis of acid-infused biomass feedstocks at various temperatures revealed that LG recovery is best at lower temperatures than the conventional pyrolysis temperature range of 450-500°C. Pyrolysis of acid-infused biomass failed in a continuous fluidized bed reactor due to clogging of the bed. The feedstock formed vitreous material along with the fluidizing sand that was formed from poor pyrolysis of lignin. However, more investigation of this phenomenon is a subject for future work. Pyrolysis experiments on an auger type reactor were successful in producing bio-oils with unprecedented amounts of sugars. Though there was increase in charring when compared to the control feedstock, pyrolysis of red oak infused with 0.4 wt% of sulfuric acid produced bio-oil with 18wt% of sugars. One of the four fractions of bio-oil collected contained most of the sugars, which shows significant potential for separating the sugars from bio-oil using simple means. This work points towards a new pathway for making advanced biofuels viz. upgrading pyrolytic sugars from biomass that could compete with enzymatic sugars from biomass.

  15. Explanatory Variables Associated with the Yield Performance Gap among Small- Medium-and Large-Scale Sugarcane (Saccharum officinarum) Growers at Ubombo Sugar, Big bend, Swaziland

    OpenAIRE

    Mbuyazwe M. Dlamini; Barnabas M. Dlamini

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of the ex post facto study was to determine explanatory variables for sugarcane (Saccharum officinarum) yield among small, medium and large scale-growers at Ubombo Sugar, Swaziland. The target population of the census study was all small-medium-and large-scale-growers, milling their cane at the Big Bend Mill. Data were collected using valid and reliable questionnaires. The findings indicated that large-scale farmers obtained significantly higher yields than small and medium scale-...

  16. Effect of steam pretreatment on oil palm empty fruit bunch for the production of sugars

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lignocellulose into fuel ethanol is the most feasible conversion route strategy in terms of sustainability. Oil palm empty fruit bunch (EFB) generated from palm oil production is a huge source of cellulosic material and represents a cheap renewable feedstock which awaits further commercial exploitation. The purpose of this study was to investigate the feasibility of using steam at 0.28 MPa and 140 °C generated from the palm oil mill boiler as a pretreatment to enhance the digestibility of EFB for sugars production. The effects of steam pretreatment or autohydrolysis on chemical composition changes, polysaccharide conversion, sugar production and morphology alterations of four different types of EFB namely fresh EFB (EFB1), sterilized EFB (EFB2), shredded EFB (EFB3) and ground EFB (EFB4) were evaluated. In this study, the effects of steam pretreatment showed major alterations in the morphology of EFB as observed under the scanning electron microscope. Steam pretreated EFB2 was found to have the highest total conversion of 30% to sugars with 209 g kg?1 EFB. This production was 10.5 fold higher than for EFB1 and 1.6 fold and 1.7 fold higher than EFB3 and EFB4, respectively. The results suggested that pretreatment of EFB by autohydrolysis using steam from the mill boiler could be considered as being a suitable pretreatment process for the production of sugars. These sugars can be utilized as potential substrates for the production of various products such as fuel ethanol. -- Highlights: ? We investigate the feasibility of steam pretreatment to enhance digestibility of EFB. ? Steam pretreatment increased sugars to 3.4 fold and caused major alteration in EFB morphology under SEM. ? Autohydrolysis which does not require the addition of chemicals is an attractive pretreatment approach to EFB.

  17. Sugar cane and sugar beet molasses, antioxidant-rich alternatives to refined sugar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valli, Veronica; Gómez-Caravaca, Ana María; Di Nunzio, Mattia; Danesi, Francesca; Caboni, Maria Fiorenza; Bordoni, Alessandra

    2012-12-26

    Molasses, the main byproduct of sugar production, is a well-known source of antioxidants. In this study sugar cane molasses (SCM) and sugar beet molasses (SBM) were investigated for their phenolic profile and in vitro antioxidant capacity and for their protective effect in human HepG2 cells submitted to oxidative stress. According to its higher phenolic concentration and antioxidant capacity in vitro, SCM exhibited an effective protection in cells, comparable to or even greater than that of ?-tocopherol. Data herein reported emphasize the potential health effects of molasses and the possibility of using byproducts for their antioxidant activity. This is particularly important for consumers in developing countries, as it highlights the importance of consuming a low-price, yet very nutritious, commodity. PMID:23190112

  18. ConcepTest: Sugar-Rock Analogy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Water containing dissolved sugar evaporates to leave a deposit of sugar in the bottom of a glass. This could be seen as an analog for the formation of a type of a. igneous rock b. metamorphic rock c. sedimentary ...

  19. Carbohydrates, Sugar, and Your Child

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... tend to also be high in calories and low in other valuable nutrients. As a result, a high-sugar diet is often linked with obesity. Eating too many ... Making sure that kids get a balanced, nutritious diet isn't as hard as it may ... fruits, veggies, and low-fat milk and dairy products), stock your home ...

  20. 19 CFR 151.25 - Mixing classes of sugar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ...SAMPLING, AND TESTING OF MERCHANDISE Sugars, Sirups, and Molasses § 151.25 Mixing classes of sugar. No regulations...together sugar of different classes, such as centrifugal, beet, molasses, or any sugar different in character from those...

  1. Indian Summer Arts Festival?

    OpenAIRE

    Martel, Yann; Tabu; Tejpal, Tarun; Kunzru, Hari

    2011-01-01

    The SFU Woodward's Cultural Unit partnered with the Indian Summer Festival Society to kick off the inaugural Indian Summer Festival. Held at the Goldcorp Centre for the Arts, it included an interactive Literature Series with notable authors from both India and Canada, including special guests Yann Martel, Bollywood superstar Tabu, journalist Tarun Tejpal, writer Hari Kunzru, and many others.

  2. Writing American Indian History

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noley, Grayson B.

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to critique the manner in which history about American Indians has been written and propose a rationale for the rethinking of what we know about this subject. In particular, histories of education as regards the participation of American Indians is a subject that has been given scant attention over the years and when…

  3. Reducing Sugar in Children's Diets: Why? How?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rogers, Cosby S.; Morris, Sandra S.

    1986-01-01

    Maintains that sugar intake should be reduced in young children's diets because of its link to dental cavities, poor nutrition, and obesity. Reducing the focus on sweetness, limiting sugar consumption, and using natural sources of sweetness and other treats are ways to help reduce sugar intake. (BB)

  4. 76 FR 20305 - USDA Reassigns Domestic Cane Sugar Allotments and Increases the Fiscal Year 2011 Raw Sugar Tariff...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-12

    ...the Secretary USDA Reassigns Domestic Cane Sugar Allotments and Increases the Fiscal Year 2011 Raw Sugar Tariff-Rate Quota AGENCY: Office of the...today announced a reassignment of surplus sugar under domestic cane sugar allotments of...

  5. 75 FR 38764 - USDA Reassigns Domestic Cane Sugar Allotments and Increases the Fiscal Year 2010 Raw Sugar Tariff...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-06

    ...the Secretary USDA Reassigns Domestic Cane Sugar Allotments and Increases the Fiscal Year 2010 Raw Sugar Tariff-Rate Quota AGENCY: Office of the...today announced a reassignment of surplus sugar under domestic cane sugar allotments of...

  6. 75 FR 22095 - USDA Reassigns Domestic Cane Sugar Allotments and Increases the Fiscal Year 2010 Raw Sugar Tariff...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-27

    ...the Secretary USDA Reassigns Domestic Cane Sugar Allotments and Increases the Fiscal Year 2010 Raw Sugar Tariff-Rate Quota AGENCY: Office of the...today announced a reassignment of surplus sugar under domestic cane sugar allotments of...

  7. INDIAn Academy of Sciences - New associates, 2012

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    INDIAn academy of sciences - new associates, 2012   1. shivani agarwal, INDIAn institute of science, bangalore  3. sujit kumar ghosh, INDIAn institute of science education and research, pune  4. m. jeganmohan, INDIAn institute of science education and research, pune  5. santanu mukherjee, INDIAn institute of science, bangalore  6. nisanth nair, INDIAn institute of technology, kanpur  7. supratim ray, INDIAn institute of scien ...

  8. INDIAn Academy of Sciences - New associates, 2012

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    INDIAn academy of sciences - new associates, 2012   2. melinda k. bera, INDIAn institute of science education and research, kolkata   3. neena gupta, INDIAn statistical institute, kolkata  4. vishwesha gutta, INDIAn institute of science, bangalore   5. rajan jha, INDIAn institute of technology, bhubaneswar   7. debabrata maiti, INDIAn institute of technology, mumbai   8. abha misra, INDIAn institute of science, bangalore&nb ...

  9. Estudio descriptivo de las prácticas de manufactura en la industria panelera de los trapiches San Francisco y La Esmeralda en Boyacá y Caldas / Descriptive study of manufacturing practices of panela (Brown sugar) industry from the San Francisco and La Esmeralda mills (Boyacá and Caldas, Colombia)

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Lucía Constanza, Corrales Ramírez; Maira María, Muñoz Ariza; Lina María, González Pérez.

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available El objetivo de este proyecto fue evaluar la aplicación de las prácticas de manufactura en los trapiches San Francisco y La Esmeralda mediante la aplicación de encuestas etnográficas, documentación fotográfica e identificación de contaminantes microbiológicos presentes en la panela, manos de empleado [...] s e implementos de trabajo. En los resultados obtenidos se encontró que una proporción importante de las muestras presentaron contaminación por bacterias como Staphylococcus epidermidis, Streptococcus uberis, Leuconostoc mesenteroides, Bacillus spp, Corynebacterium spp, Actynomices spp, Lactococcus lactis y Gardnerella vaginalis, y hongos como Fusarium spp, Aspergillus spp, Paecilomyces spp, Penicillium spp y Mucor spp, demostrando falencias en el proceso de producción por la falta de implementación de las Buenas Prácticas de Manufactura. A partir del estudio, se recomendó capacitar a los empleados periódicamente acerca de la manipulación de alimentos y prácticas básicas de higiene y realizar una vigilancia más estricta a los trapiches. Abstract in english In this study was evaluated the implementation of manufacturing practices in the San Francisco and La Esmeralda mills through ethnographic surveys, photographic evidence and recovery of microbiological contaminants from panela, employees hands and working tools. A significant proportion of samples f [...] rom hands, work tools and panela were found contaminate with bacteria such as Staphylococcus epidermidis, Streptococcus uberis, Leuconostoc mesenteroides, Bacillus, Corynebacterium, Actinomyces spp, Lactococcus lactis and Gardnerella vaginalis, and fungi including Fusarium spp, Aspergillus spp, Paecilomyces spp, Penicillium spp and Mucor spp. These results revealed failures in the production process due to the lack of implementation of Good Manufacturing Practices. Based in this study it was recommended to give regular trainings to the employees about food handling and basic hygiene practices. Also carry out a strict monitoring of the mills in order to be able in the future to rank Colombia as greater panela producer and exporter.

  10. Fossil energy savings potential of sugar cane bio-energy systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nguyen, Thu Lan T; Hermansen, John Erik

    2009-01-01

    One important rationale for bio-energy systems is their potential to save fossil energy. Converting a conventional sugar mill into a bio-energy process plant would contribute to fossil energy savings via the extraction of renewable electricity and ethanol substituting for fossil electricity and gasoline, respectively. This paper takes a closer look at the Thai sugar industry and examines two practical approaches that will enhance fossil energy savings. The first one addresses an efficient extraction of energy in the form of electricity from the excess bagasse and cane trash. The second while proposing to convert molasses or sugar cane to ethanol stresses the use of bagasse as well as distillery spent wash to replace coal in meeting ethanol plants' energy needs. The savings potential achieved with extracting ethanol from surplus sugar versus current practice in sugar industry in Thailand amounts to 15 million barrels of oil a year. Whether the saving benefits could be fully realized, however, depends on how well the potential land use change resulting from an expansion of ethanol production is managed. The results presented serve as a useful guidance to formulate strategies that enable optimum utilization of biomass as an energy source

  11. Fossil energy savings potential of sugar cane bio-energy systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nguyen, Thu Lan T. [Department of Agroecology, Aarhus University, Tjele (Denmark); The Joint Graduate School of Energy and Environment, King Mongkut' s University of Technology Thonburi, Bangkok (Thailand); Hermansen, John E. [Department of Agroecology, Aarhus University, Tjele (Denmark); Sagisaka, Masayuki [Institute of Science for Safety and Sustainability, National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology, Tsukuba (Japan)

    2009-11-15

    One important rationale for bio-energy systems is their potential to save fossil energy. Converting a conventional sugar mill into a bio-energy process plant would contribute to fossil energy savings via the extraction of renewable electricity and ethanol substituting for fossil electricity and gasoline, respectively. This paper takes a closer look at the Thai sugar industry and examines two practical approaches that will enhance fossil energy savings. The first one addresses an efficient extraction of energy in the form of electricity from the excess bagasse and cane trash. The second while proposing to convert molasses or sugar cane to ethanol stresses the use of bagasse as well as distillery spent wash to replace coal in meeting ethanol plants' energy needs. The savings potential achieved with extracting ethanol from surplus sugar versus current practice in sugar industry in Thailand amounts to 15 million barrels of oil a year. Whether the saving benefits could be fully realized, however, depends on how well the potential land use change resulting from an expansion of ethanol production is managed. The results presented serve as a useful guidance to formulate strategies that enable optimum utilization of biomass as an energy source. (author)

  12. 77 FR 75420 - Applications for New Awards; Indian Education-Demonstration Grants for Indian Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-20

    ...Interior/Bureau of Indian Education-funded schools); Indian...Indian institutions of higher education); or a consortium of any...demonstrate that they meet the definition of ``Indian organization...Indian institution of higher education'' means an accredited...

  13. Sugar recognition by human galactokinase

    OpenAIRE

    Timson David J; Reece Richard J

    2003-01-01

    Abstract Background Galactokinase catalyses the first committed step of galactose catabolism in which the sugar is phosphorylated at the expense of MgATP. Recent structural studies suggest that the enzyme makes several contacts with galactose – five side chain and two main chain hydrogen bonds. Furthermore, it has been suggested that inhibition of galactokinase may help sufferers of the genetic disease classical galactosemia which is caused by defects in another enzyme of the pathway galact...

  14. Concentrate This! Sugar or Salt...

    Science.gov (United States)

    Culturally Relevant Engineering Application in Mathematics GK-12 Program,

    Students investigate the property dependence between concentrations and boiling point. First, they investigate the boiling point of various liquid solutions. Then they analyze data collected from the entire class to generate two boiling point curves, one for salt solutions and one for sugar solutions. Finally, students use the data they have analyzed to design cost-effective solutions with particular boiling points---similar to the everyday work of chemical engineers.

  15. Sugar, opioids and binge eating.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fullerton, D T; Getto, C J; Swift, W J; Carlson, I H

    1985-06-01

    There is evidence that endogenous opiates are involved in the control of feeding in experimental animals. Several types of experimental obesity are associated with increased opiate production and/or increased numbers and sensitivity of opiate receptors. Research with experimental animals suggests that nutrients, particularly sugar, have an effect on feeding behavior that is mediated by opiates. For instance, the obesity-producing effect of a palatable diet in rodents is blocked by opiate antagonists. Stress induced feeding in rodents leads to preferential sucrose ingestion and is blocked by opiate antagonists and beta-endorphin. The effect of nutrients on the endogenous opiate system of humans is less clear. Clinical experience suggest that carbohydrates (sugar in particular) play a role in binge eating and obesity. Many binge eaters preferentially eat sweets during a binge. Many obese individuals consume more than half of their total daily calories as carbohydrates. Sweet snacking is a frequent behavior at times of stress. Recent evidence suggests that sugar can lead to increased beta-endorphin production in obese subjects. PMID:3161588

  16. Affinity chemiresistor sensor for sugars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tlili, Chaker; Badhulika, Sushmee; Tran, Thien-Toan; Lee, Ilkeun; Mulchandani, Ashok

    2014-10-01

    In this work, a non-enzymatic chemiresistive sugar sensor has been developed by combining a synthetic receptor with aligned single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWNTs) device. Briefly, boronic acid as a multivalent sugar receptor was immobilized on carbon nanotubes through amide bond formation. The interaction between three common sugars (d-glucose, d-fructose and sucrose) and boronic acid modified SWNTs device was studied. The effect of pH on the receptor-ligand binding was examined and highest response was observed at pH 9. The chemiresistive sensor exhibited specific and reproducible detection with sensitivity over the concentration range of 1-20mM, 1-25 mM, and 1-30 mM for fructose, glucose, and sucrose, respectively. The sensor showed no interference from common electroactive compounds such as citric acid, uric acid, and ascorbic acid. Furthermore, the sensor retained 97.4% of the initial value after five regeneration cycles with an acidic buffer at pH 5, thus ensuring good reusability. PMID:25059188

  17. Yang-Mills thermodynamics

    OpenAIRE

    Hofmann, Ralf

    2007-01-01

    We present a quantitative analysis of Yang-Mills thermodynamics in 4D flat spacetime. The focus is on the gauge group SU(2). Results for SU(3) are mentioned in passing. Although all essential arguments and results were reported elsewhere we summarize them here in a concise way and offer a number of refinements and some additions.

  18. Cogeneration alternatives in sugar and alcohol industries. Case of study; Alternativas de cogeracao na industria sucro-alcooleira. Estudo de caso

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sanchez Prieto, Mario Gabriel

    2003-07-01

    In the present work, a cogeneration system of sugar-alcohol cane mill is evaluated. Using the Exergetic Cost Theory, a thermo economic analysis is made for the crop corresponding to the year 2000. Previously a detailed energetic analysis was made in order to determine of the first law efficiency for steam boilers and the fuel consumption involved. The first and second law equipment's efficiencies were calculated as well as some performance criteria of the overall system. The fundamental aim of the evaluation was to obtain the cost of the principal fluxes of the system, considering a discount rate of 15 % and a capital recovery period of fifteen years for the energetic equipment in the sugar mill for the monetary cost calculations. In the analysis, was included the sugar mill juice extraction system as a control volume in order to determine the variation in the bagasse cost and its influence in the cost of other fluxes. A Thermodynamic analysis is also made, in which the increase of thermodynamic parameters is studied as a way of improving the fuel economy in Sugar Mill Factories focusing the electric energy obtained in the different alternatives. Diverse strategies are discussed, and as a result, the thermodynamic evaluations of two Proposals of Steam Cogeneration Systems are accomplished as well as the calculations of the exergetic cost. (author)

  19. Force prediction in thread milling

    OpenAIRE

    Araujo A. C.; Silveira J. L.; Kapoor S

    2004-01-01

    A mechanistic approach for modeling the thread milling process is presented. The mechanics of cutting for thread milling is analyzed as an end milling process with modified cutting edge. The geometry of threads is added to the geometry of the end milling tool to calculate the chip load area. The linear path is simulated and values of the specific energy from end milling are used to compute the cutting forces involved. A comparison between the simulation of the cutting forces for a specific to...

  20. Indian Cosmological Ideas

    CERN Document Server

    Narayan, R

    2007-01-01

    This paper, third in the series on Indian tradition of physics, describes conceptions of the cosmos with ideas that are clearly spelt out in texts such as Yoga Vasishtha.In particular, the conception of multiple universes that occurs often in this text will be examined in the framework of the Indian physics. The other surprising concepts that are discussed include flow of time and its variability with respect to different observers, and the possibility of passage across universes.

  1. Stable isotope studies of Indian rivers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To understand the surface water characteristics in India, the nine most important rivers have been sampled around the sub-continent. Both Oxygen 18 and Deuterium have been measured to determine the origin of the water and the possible evaporation process. Also the main ions have been analyzed to obtain complementary information. Where some basins have been previously studies, mainly in the North, this is a first attempt at a wider investigation of Indian rivers. If we compare our results with the mean isotopic variation of rainfall over Indian as seen from the GNIP data set, a general NW/ SE isotopic gradient is revealed. The west coast and the south part of Dekkan are the least depleted in heavy isotopes, with a ?18O values of between 0 and -2 per mille, and this relate to the Kaveri, Nethvrati and Krishna rivers. The area below the Thar desert displays a ?18O value of around -3 per mille, as in the Narmada and Tapti rivers. The central part of the Dekkan and the east coast are characterised by ?18O values of around -5 per mille, like for the Godavari and Mahanadi rivers. The North India big plains present ?18O value of between -6 and -12 per mille, like for the Ganga and Brahmaputra rivers. For the Ganga and the Brahmaputra rivers, the seasonal effect is stronger due to significant variations in different water sources i.e.: i) perennial tributaries coming from the inland hills, or the ground water discharge, which con the ground water discharge, which contributes water moderately depleted in 18O (winter and spring), ii) Himalayan tributaries fed by snow and glacier melt which are very depleted in heavy isotopes (sommer and fall), and iii) the heavy monsoon rainfall (early summer) which can travel deep inland more lighter water. As seen from the slope of the ?18O and ?2H regression and the calculation of the deuterium excess, the water of these rivers evaporates only slightly during the wet monsoon season (June-September). Evaporation could be more intense before in the hot and dry season (April-May), as seen from sampling on the Yamuna River, the main tributary of the Ganga. Better understanding the characteristics and water origin of these rivers will help to improve the management of the substantial water needs (potable water, irrigation, industry) of this expanding country. But also it can contribute to our understanding of means of flood control, drought prevention, hydroelectric power generation, and improvements in environmental quality

  2. Evaluation of End Mill Coatings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    L. J. Lazarus; R. L. Hester,

    2005-08-01

    Milling tests were run on families of High Speed Steel (HSS) end mills to determine their lives while machining 304 Stainless Steel. The end mills tested were made from M7, M42 and T15-CPM High Speed Steels. The end mills were also evaluated with no coatings as well as with Titanium Nitride (TiN) and Titanium Carbo-Nitride (TiCN) coatings to determine which combination of HSS and coating provided the highest increase in end mill life while increasing the cost of the tool the least. We found end mill made from M42 gave us the largest increase in tool life with the least increase in cost. The results of this study will be used by Cutting Tool Engineering in determining which end mill descriptions will be dropped from our tool catalog.

  3. Mill’s Liberal Feminism: Its Legacy and Current Criticism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MARIANA SZAPUOVÁ

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper highlights John Stuart Mill’s views on the problem of gender equality as expressed in The Subjection of Women, which is commonly regarded as one of the core texts of Enlightenment liberal feminism of the 19th century. In this paper, the author outlines the historical context of both Mill’s views and his personal biography, which influenced his argumentation for the emancipation of women, and considers Mill’s utilitarianism and liberalism, as the main philosophical background for his criticism of social conditions that subordinated women. She reflects on some of the philosopher’s ideas and arguments for equality and friendship between women and men which may still be considered noteworthy and relevant. Attention is also given to the main lines of contemporary reception of Mill’s liberal feminism from the perspective of current feminist philosophy, within which certain critical views predominate. Despite some problematic points in Mill’s considerations, his essay on women’s subjection may be regarded as one of the philosophically most interesting conceptions of liberal feminist thinking.

  4. BIO-SUPERPHOSPHATE (BIO-SP APPLICATION ON SUGAR CANE (Saccharum officinarum L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Didiek Hadjar Goenadi

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available The highest expense on sugarcane management is fertilization in which one of them is phosphate fertilizer produced by imported raw materials. An innovation was made by using the local phosphate deposits with low reactivity processed further to improve their effectiveness for sugarcane. The objective of this study was to investigate the growth, yield and quality of sugarcane as affected by bio-superphosphate (Bio-SP application on a highly weathered tropical soil. A nine-month field experiment was conducted at Jatitujuh Sugar Mill area, West Java, Indonesia, comparing between sugarcane fertilized with Bio-SP to replace conventional single superphosphate (SP-36 and that fertilized with SP-36. Urea and MOP (Muriate of Potash were applied at similar dosages as recommended by division of Jatitujuh Sugar Mill Agronomy Research. Bio-SP was formulated by reacting a Central Java Rock Phosphate with liquid culture supernatant (LCS and phosphoric acid characterized by 33% total soluble P2O5, 23.1, and 10.7 % citric acid and water-soluble P2O5, respectively. The results indicated that Bio-SP at 50% dosage of SP-36 was as effective as the SP-36 in supporting sugarcane growth and improved yield up to 8% as crystal sugar. Further consequence of this finding is that the application of Bio-SP reduced 9.2% of fertilizer cost for sugarcane.

  5. Sugar Modulation of ??Amylase Genes under Anoxia

    OpenAIRE

    Loreti, Elena; Yamaguchi, Junji; Alpi, Amedeo; Perata, Pierdomenico

    2003-01-01

    Tolerance to low oxygen availability is likely to be due to the interaction of several factors. Sugar availability is one of the elements required to support anaerobic metabolism. In cereal grains the availability of soluble sugars is limited, while starch is stored in large amounts. Degradation of starch under anoxia is therefore needed to avoid sugar starvation leading to rapid cell death. The striking difference in the ability to produce ??amylase when comparing the anoxia?tolerant ri...

  6. Nuclear analytical techniques in Cuban Sugar Industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper is a review concerning the applications of Nuclear Analytical Techniques in the Cuban sugar industry. The most complete elemental composition of final molasses (34 elements ) and natural zeolites (38) this last one employed as an auxiliary agent in sugar technological processes has been performed by means of Instrumental Neutron Activation Analysis (INAA) and X-Ray Fluorescence Analysis (XRFA). The trace elements sugar cane soil plant relationship and elemental composition of different types of Cuban sugar (rawr, blanco directo and refine) were also studied. As a result, valuable information referred to the possibilities of using these products in animal and human foodstuff so as in other applications are given

  7. Sugar palm (Argena pinnata). Potential of sugar palm for bio-ethanol production

    OpenAIRE

    Elbersen, H. W.; Oyen, L.P.A.

    2010-01-01

    The energetic and economic feasibility of bioethanol production from sugar palm is virtually unknown. A positive factor are the potentially very high yields while the long non-productive juvenile phase and the high labor needs can be seen as problematic. Expansion to large scale sugar palm cultivation comes with risks. Small-scale cultivation of sugar palm perfectly fits into local farming systems. In order to make a proper assessment of the value palm sugar as bio-ethanol crop more informati...

  8. Yang-Mills integrals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Two results are presented for reduced Yang-Mills (YM) integrals with different symmetry groups and dimensions: the first is a compact integral representation in terms of the relevant variables of the integral; the second is a method to analytically evaluate the integrals in cases of low order. This is exhibited by evaluating a YM integral over real symmetric matrices of order 3. (author). Letter-to-the-editor

  9. Ball milled magnetic powders

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Exchange-spring magnets consisting of (i) Alnico and Fe, and (ii) Nd2Fe14B and Gd, using the technique of ball milling were synthetized. The composition and microstructure of the ball milled powders was investigated using XRD, SEM and TEM. The bulk magnetic properties of each sample were measured with a SQUID magnetometer, while 155Gd and 57Fe Moessbauer spectroscopy were used to measure the magnetisation of the phases which contained these elements. Exchange-spring magnetic properties were not realised in either of the two systems studied. TEM analysis was inconclusive as to the dimensions of the phases within each sample. However, the SQUID and Moessbauer effect measurements both indicated that the two phases were acting as a coherent magnetic system. It is probable that the required microstructure was not formed in the case of the Nd2Fe14B and Gd powder, where the particle size indicated by SEM was very large (?200?m). For the Alnico/Fe system, it is possible that ball milling undermined the microstructure of Alnico, destroying its hard magnetic properties

  10. The sugar industry in Peru

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Klaren, Peter F.

    2005-04-01

    Full Text Available Since the early Colonial times sugar production has been a key sector in the Peruvian export economy. This article analyzes its evolution as from the beginning of its modern phase by mid 19th Century, its consolidation in the Northern coastal region, and its concentration in scale-economy plants. The prosperity of this type of production contributed to the formation of both an oligarchy which governed the country until 1968, and the populist party (APRA and its electoral basis (the so-called «Aprista North». In the sixties Velasco Alvarado’s military revolution nationalized the sugar industry, which underwent structural changes leading to a serious crisis in the eighties that has not been overcome up-todate.

    La producción de azúcar ha constituido un importante sector en la economía exportadora del Perú desde el período colonial temprano. Este artículo analiza su evolución, sobre todo tras el inicio de su fase moderna, fechada a partir de mediados del siglo XIX, cuando se modernizó, se consolidó en la región costera septentrional y se concentró en fábricas que operaban con economías de escala. Su prosperidad, contribuyó, además, a la formación de una oligarquía que gobernó el país hasta 1968 y del partido populista, APRA, y su base electoral (el llamado «sólido Norte aprista». La revolución militar de Velasco Alvarado nacionalizó la industria en la década de 1960 y los cambios estructurales que sufrió posteriormente le condujeron a una grave crisis en los años ochenta que aún no ha superado.

  11. Indian research on sleep disorders

    OpenAIRE

    Shah, Nilesh; Bang, Abha; Bhagat, Aparna

    2010-01-01

    Literature on sleep disorders from our country, India, can mainly be found in the Indian journal of Sleep medicine, Indian Journal of psychiatry, The Annals of Indian Academy of Neurology and certain other journals and books. The article highlights the contribution of various Indian doctors in the field of sleep disorders, which includes review articles, prevalence studies, studies on etiology and treatment options, case reports and a couple of case control studies. Also included are studies ...

  12. ANGLO - INDIAN EDUCATION IN TRICHINOPOLY

    OpenAIRE

    Selvamary, A.

    2013-01-01

    Anglo – Indian education and 1Anglo – Indian schools have had a chequered career. Indeed, Anglo – Indian schools have traversed many vicissitudes, political and financial. The East India Company seldom, if ever, undertook any responsibility towards Anglo – Indian children. Between 1640 and 1660, when the children2 grew up literally within the sound of shot and shell, it was not necessary for them to have more than a smattering of the 3 Rs. All manner of people were employed as tutors ...

  13. Indian Womanhood: Some Psychological Concepts*

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Sousa, Dhanalakshmi; De Sousa, Avinash

    2015-01-01

    Indian womanhood today is at crossroads. The present paper discusses the status of Indian womanhood and its psychological underpinnings. It discusses how Indian women have suffered at the hands of their families and society leaving no path but to succumb to psychiatric illness. The role of mental health professionals and family members in supporting and promoting growth and development of the Indian woman is outlined. PMID:25838719

  14. 78 FR 146 - Determination of Trade Surplus in Certain Sugar and Syrup Goods and Sugar-Containing Products of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-02

    ...REPRESENTATIVE Determination of Trade Surplus in Certain Sugar and Syrup Goods and Sugar-Containing...concerning the determination of the trade surplus in certain sugar and syrup goods and sugar...containing products of Determination of Trade Surplus in Certain Sugar and Syrup Goods and...

  15. Wild strains of fermenting yeast isolated of sugar cane juice from an alcohol distillery from Mato Grosso, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosimeire Oenning da Silva

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Ethanol production for fuel is important for the Brazilian economy as a renewable solution to oil derivatives. Theindustrial process uses commercially available yeast, most of them isolated from sugar mills from the Brazilian stateof São Paulo. The research information on the availability of yeast appropriate to the climatic conditions occurringin the Midwest region of Brazil is scarce. The article presents the isolation and morphological characterization offermentative wild yeast prospected on the sugar cane juice of a sugar and alcohol mill of Mato Grosso State. Thejuice samples were collected in both the hot and rainy (HR season and in the cold and dry (CD one. The dilutedsugar cane juice samples were plated on agar LWYN and evaluated for fermentation in test tubes containinginverted Durham tubes. From 26 morphotypes isolated, 50% were able to ferment sugar cane juice. Greater numberand diversity of yeasts was found in both December (HR and July (CD. In the remaining months of each seasonthere were a low number of colonies with a poor diversity.

  16. STUDY OF PEAK EXPIRATORY FLOW RATE IN WORKERS WORKING IN SUGAR INDUSTRY DURING WORKING SEASON

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. A. Nayakawadi.

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available -Sugar industry is one of the important agro based industry plays an important role in national economy. It is one of the largest employers of labour providing work to peoples in rural areas and their being thousands of workers throughout the nation. The workers working in sugar industry exposed to variety of occupational hazards such as excessive heat, inadequate light ,high level of noise ,excessive workload ,unsatisfactory working conditions ,higher concentration of dust particle are mainly found in various processing unit of sugar industry viz. cane yard ,mill, boiler, bagasse baling and sugar house .In present investigation randomly selected ten workers from each processing unit (section were selected for the study of peak expiratory flow rates ,It was found that there is respiratory stress due to high concentration dust particles in the environment which affects the health status of these workers. It is necessary that genuine measures must be taken for health, protection of those workers. The suitable recommendations for the management of respiratory stress due to dust are suggested.

  17. Yang-Mills and Beyond

    CERN Document Server

    Marateck, Samuel

    2011-01-01

    In their 1954 paper, Yang and Mills invented the non-Abelian field strength to satisfy certain criteria but didn't explain how it could be derived. In the penultimate section we show how the Yang-Mills field strength derives from Yang's gauge transformation. The preceding sections place Yang-Mills theory in historical perspective and cover material relating to the field strength. The final section shows how Yang-Mills theory was combined with spontaneous symmetry breaking, the Goldstone theorem and subsequent work to contribute to the Standard Model of particle physics.

  18. Uranium-mill appraisal program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The results of special team appraisals at NRC-licensed uranium mills in the period May to November 1981 are reported. Since the Three Mile Island accident, NRC management has instituted a program of special team appraisals of radiation protection programs at certain NRC-licensed facilities. These appraisals were designed to identify weaknesses and strengths in NRC-licensed programs, including those areas not covered by explicit regulatory requirements. The regulatory requirements related to occupational radiation protection and environmental monitoring at uranium mills have been extensively upgraded in the past few years. In addition, there was some NRC staff concern with respect to the effectiveness of NRC licensing and inspection programs. In response to this concern and to changes in mill requirements, the NRC staff recommended that team appraisals be conducted at mills to determine the adequacy of mill programs, the effectiveness of the new requirements, and mill management implementation of programs and requirements. This report describes the appraisal scope and methodology as well as summary findings and conclusions. Significant weaknesses identified during the mill appraisals are discussed as well as recommendations for improvements in uranium mill programs and mill licensing and inspection

  19. Microbiological Spoilage of High-Sugar Products

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Sterling

    The high-sugar products discussed in this chapter are referred to as chocolate, sugar confectionery (non-chocolate), liquid sugars, sugar syrups, and honey. Products grouped in the sugar confectionery category include hard candy, soft/gummy candy, caramel, toffee, licorice, marzipan, creams, jellies, and nougats. A common intrinsic parameter associated with high-sugar products is their low water activity (a w), which is known to inhibit the growth of most spoilage and pathogenic bacteria. However, spoilage can occur as a result of the growth of osmophilic yeasts and xerophilic molds (Von Richter, 1912; Anand & Brown, 1968; Brown, 1976). The a w range for high-sugar products is between 0.20 and 0.80 (Banwart, 1979; Richardson, 1987; Lenovich & Konkel, 1992; ICMSF, 1998; Jay, Loessner, & Golden, 2005). Spoilage of products, such as chocolate-covered cherries, results from the presence of yeasts in the liquid sugar brine or the cherry. Generally, the spoiled product will develop leakers. The chocolate covering the cherry would not likely be a source of yeast contamination.

  20. Analysis of sucrose from sugar beet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sucrose is a disaccharide composed of the monosaccharides glucose and fructose. Sucrose is a product of photosynthesis and is a key carbohydrate resource for growth and metabolism in many organisms. Economic sources of sucrose include sugar cane and sugar beet, where fresh weight sucrose concentrati...

  1. 19 CFR 151.22 - Estimated duties on raw sugar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ...SECURITY; DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) EXAMINATION, SAMPLING, AND TESTING OF MERCHANDISE Sugars, Sirups, and Molasses § 151.22 Estimated duties on raw sugar. Estimated duties shall be taken on raw sugar, as defined in...

  2. 19 CFR 151.24 - Unlading facilities for bulk sugar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ...SECURITY; DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) EXAMINATION, SAMPLING, AND TESTING OF MERCHANDISE Sugars, Sirups, and Molasses § 151.24 Unlading facilities for bulk sugar. When dutiable sugar is to be imported in bulk, a full description...

  3. Moisture sorption curves of fruit and nut cereal bar prepared with sugar and sugar substitutes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pallavi, Byrappa Vasu; Chetana, Ramakrishna; Ravi, Ramaswamy; Reddy, Sunkireddy Yella

    2015-03-01

    Low sugar, low fat, dry fruit and nut cereal bars without sugar were prepared using cereals, nuts, and sugar substitutes. The sorption characteristics of the bars prepared with sugar substitutes in comparison with that of sugar were studied by keeping the bars at water activity (aw) from 0.1 to 0.9. The sorption isotherms of low sugar bars were practically identical below aw of 0.5 but above aw of 0.5, a clear differentiation in the isotherms could be observed compared to that of sugar counterpart. A sharp increase in moisture content was observed in the bars prepared with alternative sweeteners, above aw 0.6, whereas a gradual increase in aw was observed in the case of bar prepared with sugar. The ERH (Equilibrium relative humidity) value for bar with sugar was 50 %, and for bars prepared with alternative sweeteners, it was about 60 %. Low sugar cereal bar prepared with sorbitol + maltitol (SM) syrup scored higher sensory quality compared to other product prepared with sorbitol + nutriose (SN) as the former retained softness and chewiness on storage. Thus, it was observed that bars with alternative sweeteners will be more stable as their ERH is closer to normal ambient conditions compared to that prepared with sugar. PMID:25745238

  4. Alkaline degradation of invert sugar from molasses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Byung Y; Montgomery, Rex

    2007-11-01

    Sugar beet and sugar cane molasses have been shown to be suitable starting materials for producing de-icer preparations. The sucrose in the molasses is hydrolyzed to glucose and fructose by invertase. The reducing sugars are then degraded by NaOH, the alkali being neutralized by the sugar acids produced, resulting in an increase of the ionic strength and consequently depression of the freezing point of the resulting solution. For the preparation of de-icers, the desired freezing point depression to a temperature of less than about -20 degrees C can be achieved by adjusting the amount and concentration of the alkali metal hydroxide used. The resulting products are biodegradable and eliminate the corrosive effects associated with the use of conventional chloride salts. Degradation of invert sugar by NaOH has been achieved without an external heat source. The reaction products showed the same freezing point depression as seen in the degradation products from pure glucose. PMID:17222551

  5. Sugar cane/sweet sorghum as an ethanol feedstock in Louisiana and Piedmont

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cost to provide readily fermentable feedstock for a year round sweet sorghum-to-ethanol production facility, up to the point at which fermentation begins, was determined. It was assumed that sweet sorghum is produced on marginal crop lands in the Southeastern Piedmont, and is purchased, standing in the field by a central ethanol production facility. Feedstock cost varied from $1.96 to $2.98/gal of ethanol potential depending on harvest system and use of by-products. Major contributors to feedstock cost were field production, harvest/field processing, and cost to evaporate juice to a storable syrup. Cost to transport feedstock to a central production facility, and cost of storage were relatively minor components of total cost, contributing only $0.05 and $0.06/gal ethanol potential, respectively. For a point of comparison, cost of producing ethanol feedstock from sugar cane, based on current processing practices in Louisiana sugar mills, was determined to be $2.50/gal ethanol potential. This cost is higher than determined for most options in the Piedmont for two reasons: (1) sugar cane demands a higher price in Louisiana than was assumed for sweet sorghum in the Piedmont, and (2) little market exists in Louisiana for by-products of sugar milling, consequently, no by-product credit was assigned. Current market value of ethanol must approximately double before a sweet sorghum-to-ethanol industry in the Piedmont could be economically viable, as no opportunity was identifilly viable, as no opportunity was identified for a significant reduction in feedstock cost

  6. INDIAN BANKING SCENARIO – CHALLENGES & OPPORTUNITIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elia Thagaram

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The economic reforms introduced by the Govt. of India about two decades ago have changed the landscape of several sectors of Indian economy. The Indian banking sector is of no exemption. This segment is going through major changes as a result of economic reforms. The role of banking industry is very vital as one of the leading and mostly essential service sector. Today in India the service sector is contributing nearly half of the Indian GDP and the banking is most popular service sector in India. The biggest opportunity for the Indian banking system today is the Indian consumer.

  7. Sugar feeding in adult stable flies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, David B; Berkebile, Dennis R

    2008-06-01

    Adult stable flies (Stomoxys calcitrans L.) are known to feed readily on sugars in the laboratory. However, little is known concerning the extent of stable fly sugar feeding in wild populations. We examined the frequency of sugar feeding in stable flies collected on Alsynite sticky traps in rural and urban environments. In addition, stable flies were visually examined to determine whether blood was present in the gut. In laboratory studies, sugars were detectable with the anthrone technique in stable flies for approximately 3 d after being imbibed, and blood could be visually detected in the gut for 24-48 h after feeding. Twelve percent of the field-collected flies had detectable sugar with a higher percentage of the urban flies having sugar fed than the rural flies, 21 and 8%, respectively. Female flies sugar fed at a slightly higher rate than males, 13 versus 11%, respectively. Less than 1% of the field-collected flies had blood in their guts. The frequency of observable blood was slightly higher in flies collected in an urban environment compared with those collected in a rural environment and did not differ between male and female flies. The number of flies with both blood and sugar was slightly higher than would be expected based on the frequencies of each alone. Seasonal patterns of both sugar feeding and blood feeding were similar in the rural and urban environments; both peaked in the early summer, May to mid-June, and dropped through the summer and fall. Sugar feeding in the urban environment increased again in October. PMID:18559167

  8. Yang-Mills algebra

    OpenAIRE

    Connes, Alain; Dubois-Violette, Michel

    2002-01-01

    Some unexpected properties of the cubic algebra generated by the covariant derivatives of a generic Yang-Mills connection over the (s+1)-dimensional pseudo Euclidean space are pointed out. This algebra is Gorenstein and Koszul of global dimension 3 but except for s=1 (i.e. in the 2-dimensional case) where it is the universal enveloping algebra of the Heisenberg Lie algebra and is a cubic Artin-Schelter regular algebra, it fails to be regular in that it has exponential growth...

  9. 75 FR 50796 - Fiscal Year 2011 Tariff-Rate Quota Allocations for Raw Cane Sugar, Refined and Specialty Sugar...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-17

    ...THE UNITED STATES TRADE REPRESENTATIVE Fiscal Year 2011 Tariff-Rate Quota Allocations for Raw Cane Sugar, Refined and Specialty Sugar, and Sugar-Containing Products AGENCY: Office of the United States Trade Representative. ACTION:...

  10. 76 FR 50285 - Fiscal Year 2012 Tariff-Rate Quota Allocations for Raw Cane Sugar, Refined and Specialty Sugar...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-12

    ...THE UNITED STATES TRADE REPRESENTATIVE Fiscal Year 2012 Tariff-Rate Quota Allocations for Raw Cane Sugar, Refined and Specialty Sugar and Sugar-Containing Products AGENCY: Office of the United States Trade Representative. ACTION:...

  11. 75 FR 53013 - Fiscal Year 2011 Tariff-rate Quota Allocations for Raw Cane Sugar, Refined and Specialty Sugar...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-30

    ...THE UNITED STATES TRADE REPRESENTATIVE Fiscal Year 2011 Tariff-rate Quota Allocations for Raw Cane Sugar, Refined and Specialty Sugar, and Sugar-containing Products; Revision AGENCY: Office of the United States Trade Representative....

  12. 77 FR 57180 - Fiscal Year 2013 Tariff-rate Quota Allocations for Raw Cane Sugar, Refined and Specialty Sugar...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-17

    ...OFFICE OF THE TRADE REPRESENTATIVE Fiscal Year 2013 Tariff-rate Quota Allocations for Raw Cane Sugar, Refined and Specialty Sugar, and Sugar-Containing Products AGENCY: Office of the United States Trade Representative. ACTION:...

  13. Spatial distribution studies of milling particles, milling charge and grist

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Applications of the narrow-beam?-ray method for dry grinding power technology are discussed. In a model of a vertically agitated ball-mill, the spatial distribution of model milling charge with and without model grist and the spatial distribution of the grist were investigated. The model volume was 10 litres. Polystyrene balls (diameter 4.5 mm) were used as a model of the milling charge and limestone -CaC03 of diameter 0.04-0.1 mm as a model of the grist. A system of mixing discs (10 rev s-1) on a coaxial shaft kept the mill-charge in vibrational motion. The results are presented in the form of graphs of the bulk density of the mill balls or the bulk density of the grist plotted against the height or distance from the stirred axis. The radionuclides 241Am and 137Cs were used as radiation sources. (author)

  14. Critical management issues for the Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) Project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Uranium Mill Tailings Radiation Control Act of 1978 (PL95-604) authorized the Secretary of Energy to enter into cooperative agreements with certain states and Indian Tribes to clean up 24 inactive uranium mill tailing sites and associated vicinity properties. The Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) Project includes the three Federal agencies (EPA, DOE, and NRC), eleven state, Indian Tribes, and at least four major contractors. The UMTRA Project extends over a period of ten years. The standards for the Project require a design life of 1000 years with a minimum performance period of 200 years. This paper discusses the critical management issues in dealing with the UMTRA Project and identifies the development of solutions for many of those issues. The highlights to date are promulgation of EPA standards, continued support from Congress and participating states and Indian Tribes, significant leadership shown at all levels, establishment of credibility with the public, and continued motivation of the team. The challenge for tomorrow is making certain NRC will license the sites and maintaining the high level of coordination exhibited to date to assure Project completion on schedule

  15. What Price Sugar? Land, Labor, and Revolution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel C. Littlefield

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available [First paragraph] Sugar, Slavery, and Society: Perspectives on the Caribbean, India, the Mascarenes, and the United States. Bernard Moitt (ed.. Gainesville: University Press of Florida, 2004. vii + 203 pp. (Cloth US $ 65.00 Tropical Babylons: Sugar and the Making of the Atlantic World, 1450-1680. Stuart B. Schwartz (ed.. Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press, 2004. xiii + 347 pp. (Paper US $ 22.50 These two books illustrate the fascination that sugar, slavery, and the plantation still exercise over the minds of scholars. One of them also reflects an interest in the influence these have had on the modern world. For students of the history of these things the Schwartz collection is in many ways the more useful. It seeks to fill a lacuna left by the concentration of monographs on the eighteenth and nineteenth centuries, suggesting that we know less about the history of sugar than we thought we did. Perhaps in no other single place is such a range of information on so wide an area presented in such detail for so early a period. Ranging from Iberia to the Caribbean and including consumption as well as production of sugar, with a nod to the slave trade and a very useful note on weights and currencies, this volume is a gold mine of information. It considers (briefly the theoretical meaning as well as the growing of this important crop, contrasting its production in Iberia with that on the Atlantic islands of Madeira and the Canaries, colonized by Iberian powers, and continuing the contrast with São Tomé, off the coast of Africa, and on to Brazil and the Spanish American empire before ending with the British in Barbados. In the transit, it of necessity considers and complicates the meaning of “sugar revolution” and shows how scholars using that term do not always mean the same thing. John McCusker and Russell Menard, for example, tackling a cornerstone of the traditional interpretation of the development of sugar, argue that there was no “sugar revolution” in Barbados; economic change had already begun before sugar’s advent, though sugar may have accelerated it, and yet sugar production was transformed on the island. They also undercut, without quite denying, the significance of the Dutch role in the process. Schwartz, while questioning, lings to the traditional expression if not the traditional outlook, seeing in Barbados “the beginning of the sugar revolution” (p. 10.

  16. The Urban Indian.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanson, Winona DuBray

    The document presents six articles that provide a glimpse of the uniqueness of American Indian cultural conflict, focusing on aspects of the culture which warrant special attention. Since there are over 100 tribes, an effort was made to enumerate commonalities amongst the tribal cultures in looking at issues raised in the urban areas throughout…

  17. Radiocarbon and Indian archaeology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The increasing use of radiocarbon (C14) dating techniques in Indian archaeology has been described in detail. Work done in Microlithic cultures, Neolithic period, Indus civilization and Iron age cultures have been reported. C14 dates of various archaeological sites are listed. (K.B.)

  18. Caregiving in Indian Country

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2009-12-23

    This podcast discusses the role of caregivers in Indian County and the importance of protecting their health. It is primarily targeted to public health and aging services professionals.  Created: 12/23/2009 by National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion (NCCDPHP).   Date Released: 12/23/2009.

  19. Effects of compost application on fruits yields, sugar and mineral contents and ?15N values of tomato fruits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We examined the effects of chemical fertilizer and compost application on the yields and sugar and mineral content of tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill. Saturn) in an isolated bed. Five treatments were conducted within a two-year period of 4 continuous croppings. CDU and LSR (Low-sulfate slow-release fertilizer) were used for the chemical fertilizer plots. A mixture of cattle manure and CDU (CM + CDU), a mixture of poultry manure and CDU (PM + CDU), and mixture of cattle and poultry manure (PM + CM) plots were arranged as compost-using plots. We also measured the ?15N values of tomatoes and the soils of each treatment, and estimated the correlation of the ?15N values between fruits and soil to certify compost applied products. We did not find any reproductive differences in the yield or sugar content among the treatments. As to inorganic content of tomatoes, there were no significant differences except for Mg content among the plots. These results showed that it is difficult to assay regular benefit of organic fertilizer application to tomato yields and quality. On the other hand, ?15N values of tomato fruits showed significant differences among fertilizer applications. ?15N values of the chemical fertilizer were +1.6 per mille and -1.1% for CDU and LSR, respectively. Those of mixture of chemical and compost were +12.2 per mille and +11.2 per mille for CM + CDU and PM + CDU, respectively. The mixture of PM and CM showctively. The mixture of PM and CM showed the highest ?15N values (17.9 per mille) among the treatments. ?15N values of the soils and fruits reflected those of the fertilizers and were positively correlated (R2 = 0.89). It may be possible to use ?15N values as an indicator of organic products by setting the threshold point, e.g. +5.0 per mille, to distinguish them from the products cultivated with chemical fertilizer. (author)

  20. MODELING THE WET MILLING PROCESS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Process engineering and cost models for a conventional corn wet milling process have been developed to aid research being conducted by the USDA, Agricultural Research Service, Eastern Regional Research Center. Information on the corn wet milling process was obtained from various technical sources i...

  1. Japan steel mill perspective

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Murase, K. [Kobe Steel Ltd., Tokyo (Japan)

    2004-07-01

    The international and Japan's steel industry, the coking coal market, and Japan's expectations from Canada's coal industry are discussed. Japan's steel mills are operating at full capacity. Crude steel production for the first half of 2004 was 55.8 million tons. The steel mills are profitable, but costs are high, and there are difficulties with procuring raw materials. Japan is trying to enhance the quality of coke, in order to achieve higher productivity in the production of pig iron. Economic growth is rising disproportionately in the BRICs (Brazil, Russia, India, and China), with a large increase in coking coal demand from China. On the supply side, there are several projects underway in Australia and Canada to increase production. These include new developments by Elk Valley Coal Corporation, Grande Cache Coal, Western Canadian Coal, and Northern Energy and Mining in Canada. The Elga Mine in the far eastern part of Russia is under development. But the market is expected to remain tight for some time. Japan envisions Canadian coal producers will provide a stable coal supply, expansion of production and infrastructure capabilities, and stabilization of price. 16 slides/overheads are included.

  2. Rapid screening for anthocyanins in cane sugars using ESR spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thamaphat, Kheamrutai; Goodman, Bernard A; Limsuwan, Pichet; Smith, Siwaporn Meejoo

    2015-03-15

    Anthocyanin, which is soluble in water and released into sugar steam during extraction, was investigated in this study. The anthocyanin content in refined sugar, plantation white sugar, soft brown sugar and raw sugar was determined using electron spin resonance (ESR) spectroscopy, which was operated at room temperature, and compared with spectra from standard anthocyanin. The ESR spectra of red and violet anthocyanins was predominantly g ? 2.0055, which corresponded to an unpaired electron located in the pyrylium ring. Signals for Fe(III) and Mn(II), which naturally occur in plants, were found in raw sugar, soft brown sugar and standard anthocyanin but were absent from refined sugar and plantation white sugar due to the refining process. In addition, the ESR results were correlated with the apparent colour of the sugar, which was determined using the method of the International Commission for Uniform Methods of Sugar Analysis and inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectroscopy. PMID:25308651

  3. Indian Academy of Sciences - New associates, 2014

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

      1. k. v. adarsh, indian institute of science education and research, bhopal   8. u. kodandaramaiah, indian institute of science education and research, thiruvananthapuram   9. r. mahalakshmi, indian institute of science education and research, bhopal 10. angshuman nag, indian institute of science education and research, pune 11. r. s. swathi, indian institute of science education and research, thiruvananthapuram ...

  4. How Much Sugar Is in Bubble Gum?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engineering K-PhD Program,

    Some of the flavoring in bubble gum is due to the sugar or other sweetener it contains. As gum is chewed, the sugar dissolves and is swallowed. After a piece of gum loses its sweetness, it can be left to dry at room temperature and then the difference between its initial (unchewed) mass and its chewed mass can be used to calculate the percentage of sugar in the gum. This demonstration experiment is used to generate new questions about gums and their ingredients, and students can then design and execute new experiments based on their own questions.

  5. Ethanol production from sugar cane: assess of possibilities of decrease of thermal energy consumption through exergetic cost analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Modesto, Marcelo [State University of Campinas (UNICAMP), SP (Brazil). Mechanical Engineering Faculty. Energy Dept.; Zemp, Roger J. [State University of Campinas (UNICAMP), SP (Brazil). Chemical Engineering Faculty. Chemical Eng. Systems Dept.; Nebra, Silvia A. [State University of Campinas (UNICAMP), SP (Brazil). Interdisciplinary Centre of Energy Planning

    2006-07-01

    The sugar and ethanol production is one of the most important economical activities in Brazil, mainly due its high efficiency and competitiveness. The ethanol production is done by several steps: juice extraction, treatment, fermentation and distillation. The juice extraction and treatment is a common operation of both industries sugar and alcohol. The process begins with the sugar cane juice extraction, usually done by devices namely mills, where the cane is compressed between big cylinders for the separation of the juice from the bagasse. Recently, another juice extraction system named diffuser was introduced in some sugar and alcohol factories. On diffusers, after sugar cane preparation stage, done with knives and shredders, it passes through a bed, where the juice is separated from bagasse by the addition of imbibition water and steam, in a lixiviation process. This study evaluates two possibilities of decrease the thermal energy consumption through exergetic cost analysis. The first case, a traditional ethanol production plant is assessed, determining the unitary exergetic cost of ethanol and electrical energy, in the following case, second and third, two proposals were assessed: use of the diffuser as a extraction system and use of pinch technology to perform a energetic integration between distillation and extraction (diffuser) systems. The results of exergetic efficiency, irreversibility generation and unitary exergetic cost of products of the three cases are analyzed and compared. The results shows the validate of the use of diffuser and pinch technology on the decrease of the thermal energy consumption in the ethanol production plant. (author)

  6. Sugar regulation of SUGAR TRANSPORTER PROTEIN 1 (STP1) expression in Arabidopsis thaliana

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cordoba, Elizabeth; Aceves-Zamudio, Denise Lizeth; Hernández-Bernal, Alma Fabiola; Ramos-Vega, Maricela; León, Patricia

    2015-01-01

    Sugars regulate the expression of many genes at the transcriptional level. In Arabidopsis thaliana, sugars induce or repress the expression of >1800 genes, including the STP1 (SUGAR TRANSPORTER PROTEIN 1) gene, which encodes an H+/monosaccharide cotransporter. STP1 transcript levels decrease more rapidly after the addition of low concentrations of sugars than the levels of other repressed genes, such as DIN6 (DARK-INDUCED 6). We found that this regulation is exerted at the transcriptional level and is initiated by phosphorylatable sugars. Interestingly, the sugar signal that modulates STP1 expression is transmitted through a HEXOKINASE 1-independent signalling pathway. Finally, analysis of the STP1 5? regulatory region allowed us to delimit a region of 309bp that contains the cis elements implicated in the glucose regulation of STP1 expression. Putative cis-acting elements involved in this response were identified. PMID:25281700

  7. BIA Indian Lands Dataset (Indian Lands of the United States)

    Federal Geographic Data Committee — The American Indian Reservations / Federally Recognized Tribal Entities dataset depicts feature location, selected demographics and other associated data for the...

  8. Evidence for sugar addiction: Behavioral and neurochemical effects of intermittent, excessive sugar intake

    OpenAIRE

    Avena, Nicole M.; Rada, Pedro; Hoebel, Bartley G.

    2007-01-01

    The experimental question is whether or not sugar can be a substance of abuse and lead to a natural form of addiction. “Food addiction” seems plausible because brain pathways that evolved to respond to natural rewards are also activated by addictive drugs. Sugar is noteworthy as a substance that releases opioids and dopamine and thus might be expected to have addictive potential. This review summarizes evidence of sugar dependence in an animal model. Four components of addiction are analy...

  9. Association of ?13C in Fingerstick Blood with Added Sugars and Sugar-sweetened Beverage Intake

    OpenAIRE

    Davy, Brenda M.; Jahren, A. Hope; Hedrick, Valisa E.; Comber, Dana L.

    2011-01-01

    A reliance on self-reported dietary intake measures is a common research limitation, thus the need for dietary biomarkers. Added sugar intake may play a role in the development and progression of obesity and related co-morbidities; common sweeteners include corn and sugar cane derivatives. These plants contain a high amount of 13C, a naturally-occurring stable carbon isotope. Consumption of these sweeteners, of which sugar-sweetened beverages (SSB) are the primary dietary source, may be refle...

  10. SUGAR-SWEETENED BEVERAGE, SUGAR INTAKE OF INDIVIDUALS AND THEIR BLOOD PRESSURE: INTERMAP STUDY

    OpenAIRE

    Brown, Ian J.; Stamler, Jeremiah; Horn, Linda; Robertson, Claire E.; Chan, Queenie; Dyer, Alan R.; Huang, Chiang-ching; Rodriguez, Beatriz L.; Zhao, Liancheng; Daviglus, Martha L.; Ueshima, Hirotsugu; Elliott, Paul

    2011-01-01

    The obesity epidemic has focused attention on relationships of sugars and sugar-sweetened beverages (SSB) to cardiovascular risk factors. Here we report cross-sectional associations of SSB, diet beverages, sugars with blood pressure (BP) for UK and USA participants of the International Study of Macro/Micro-nutrients and Blood Pressure (INTERMAP). Data collected includes four 24-h dietary recalls, two 24-h urine collections, eight BP readings, questionnaire data for 2,696 people ages 40-59 fro...

  11. Energy consumption in Canadian mills

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The continuing increase in costs for power and fuel are affecting significantly the cost of milling Canadian ores. In order to ascertain the scope and source of energy consumption in Canadian mills for further energy conservation opportunities, CANMET, in cooperation with the Canadian Mineral Processors, carried out a detailed survey on the metallic mineral processing plants. Sixty-seven mills representing almost 300 million tons of annual capacity participated in the survey. The results indicated that, in general, copper and iron ore mills, representing the bulk of the tonnage, consumed relatively low levels of energy per ton. Nickel-copper, zinc-copper and lead-zinc ore mills were moderate in energy consumption, and uranium and some copper-lead-zinc mills reported much higher consumptions due primarily to the increased heat requirements of the ore pulp. Although plant heating costs varied somewhat with location, it was apparent that the lowest heating costs were achieved by those plants built with proper insulation and energy conservation design. If the cost per million British thermal units is taken as $2.00, the mill energy costs generally ranged from 40 cents to $1.20 per ton. (auth)

  12. Sugars, Alcohols, and Cometary Astrobiochemistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hudson, R. L.; Moore, M. H.; Gerakines, P. A.

    2004-12-01

    Radio and IR observations have revealed that a rich organic chemistry exists in comets and in a variety of interstellar regions. Among the organic molecules detected are acids, alcohols, aldehydes, ketones, and nitriles. The simplest sugar, glycolaldehyde, has been reported (Hollis et al., ApJ, 2000, 540, L107), as has an amino acid, glycine (Kuan et al., ApJ, 2003, 593, 848; but see Hollis et al., ApJ, 2003, 588, 353). Gas-phase reactions to produce many of these molecules are not well understood, and solid-phase chemistry is thought to make an important contribution. To better understand organic chemistry in cold cosmic environments, we have performed photo- and radiation chemical experiments on icy materials at 10 - 100 K. Gas-phase molecules are frozen in a vacuum chamber, and then exposed to either MeV protons or vacuum-UV photons to mimic cosmic-ray bombardment or cosmic-UV exposure, respectively. Changes in ice composition are followed in situ with IR spectroscopy. In this AGU presentation we will describe our latest results for glycolaldehyde, as well as a few prebiological organics. Solid-state IR spectra and reaction pathways will be presented, and predictions will be made for the chemical composition of selected Solar System objects. -- This research is funded through NASA's Planetary Atmospheres and SARA programs, and through the NASA Astrobiology Program under RTOP 344-53-51-01 to M. J. Mumma (NASA GSFC).

  13. Nuclear analytical techniques in Cuban sugar industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper is a review concerning the application of Nuclear Analytical Techniques in the Cuban sugar industry. The most complete elemental composition of final molasses (34 elements) and natural zeolites (38) this last one employed as an auxiliary agent in sugar technological processe4s has been performed by means of instrumental Neutron Activation Analysis (INAA) and X-Ray Fluorescence Analysis (XRFA). The trace elemental sugar cane soill-plant relationship and elemental composition of different types of Cuban sugar (raw, blanco-directo and refine) were also studied. As a result, valuable information referred to the possibilities of using these products in animal and human foodstuff so as in the other applications are given. (author). 34 refs., 6 figs., 1 tab

  14. Root rot diseases of sugar beet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacobsen Barry J.

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Root rot diseases of sugar beet caused by Rhizoctonia solani (AG 2-2 IIIB and AG 2-2 IV, R. crocorum, Aphanomyces cochlioides, Phoma betae, Macrophomina phaeseolina, Fusarium oxysporum f.sp. radicis-betae, Pythium aphanidermatum Phytophthora drechsleri, Rhizopus stolonifer, R. arrhizus and Sclerotium rolfsii cause significant losses wherever sugar beets are grown. However, not all these soil-borne pathogens have been reported in all sugar beet production areas. Losses include reduced harvestable tonnage and reduced white sugar recovery. Many of these pathogens also cause post harvest losses in storage piles. Control for diseases caused by these pathogens include disease resistant cultivars, avoidance of stresses, cultural practices such as water management and the use of fungicides.

  15. Diabetes: Monitoring Your Blood Sugar Level

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... monitoring may be a viable option. With these systems, blood sugar is measured constantly through a sensor placed beneath the skin that transmits information. Some insurance programs are beginning to cover these monitors. The ...

  16. Forecasting Sales in a Sugar Factory

    OpenAIRE

    Assimakopoulos, Vassilios; Michos, Dimitrios; Koutsoliakos, Polychronis; Petropoulos, Fotios; Ktena, Sofia-ira

    2011-01-01

    Beets’ cultivation and sugar production represent one of the most important parts of Greek agricultural economy. A careful and well-organized planning of the production as well as the determination of an accurate safety stock is important for sugar industry, as for many other companies and organizations, in order to define the production quantity which leads to maximum revenues and profits. Forecasting, and especially widely used statistical forecasting techniques, is the best way for polic...

  17. High risk pesticides in sugar beet protection

    OpenAIRE

    Šovljanski Radmila A.; Kloko?ar-Šmit Zlata D.; In?i? Dušanka V.

    2006-01-01

    According to traits of pesticides permitted to use in sugar beet (oral percutaneus and inhalation toxicity, toxicity to wildlife, bees and aquatic organisms, re-entry interval, maximum number of treatments, effects on reproduction) do not present health risk in sugar production/technology. However, the danger exists for workers by chronic exposure during the application, especially from pesticide being potential endocrine disruptors (EDS) (fentin acetate, benomyl, endosulfan, methomyl, methid...

  18. Mechanical milling of aluminum powder using planetary ball milling process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Ramezani

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Mechanical alloying has recently attracted considerable attention as researchers strive to enhance nanocomposite properties and extend their utility. The process can be performed at room temperature and homogeneous nanocomposite powders can be produced. In this paper, we investigated the effect of different ball milling parameters and operating conditions (milling time, ball size, processing control agent (PCA and speed in mechanical alloying of aluminum powder to achieve particle size reduction with less contamination. Two types of PCA, i.e. stearic acid and methanol have been used and microstructure evolutions at different operating conditions were studied. It was shown that the optimized milling parameters for aluminium composite are 100 stainless steel ball (10 mm, 200 rpm rotation speed with direction reversal and 1 min pause time after every 15 min running time, under argon gas for 30 hr of milling.

  19. Indian President visits CERN

    CERN Multimedia

    Katarina Anthony

    2011-01-01

    On 1 October, her Excellency Mrs Pratibha Devisingh Patil, President of India, picked CERN as the first stop on her official state visit to Switzerland. Accompanied by a host of Indian journalists, a security team, and a group of presidential delegates, the president left quite an impression when she visited CERN’s Point 2!   Upon arrival, Pratibha Patil was greeted by CERN Director General Rolf Heuer, as well as senior Indian scientists working at CERN, and various department directors. After a quick overview of the Organization, Rolf Heuer and the President addressed India’s future collaboration with CERN. India is currently an Observer State of the Organization, and is considering becoming an Associate Member State. A short stop in LHC operations gave Steve Myers and the Accelerator team the opportunity to take the President on a tour through the LHC tunnel. From there, ALICE’s Tapan Nayak and Spokesperson Paolo Giubellino took Pratibha Patil to the experiment&am...

  20. American Indian Higher Education Consortium

    Science.gov (United States)

    The American Indian Higher Education Consortium (AIHEC), since 1972, has been the collective spirit and voice of our nation's Tribal Colleges and Universities, advocating on behalf of individual institutions of higher education that are defined and controlled by their respective tribal nations. AIHEC's mission is to nurture, advocate, and protect American Indian history, culture, art and language, and the legal and human rights of American Indian people to their own sense of identity and heritage.

  1. The future of Indian gaming.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rose, I N

    1992-12-01

    The legal right for Native Americans to administer gambling on their land provides them with probably the most profitable opportunity currently available to generate tribal income. The federal Indian Gaming Regulatory Act which guarantees this right is frequently invoked in instances where Indian gaming is competitive with state or private commercial gambling interests. This article examines multiple aspects of the competitive conflicts which arise and provides some speculation about the future of Indian gaming. PMID:24242021

  2. West Indian amblyopia.

    OpenAIRE

    Fasler, J. J.; Rose, F C

    1980-01-01

    A series of 21 patients admitted to St Thomas' Hospital, Medical Ophthalmology Unit, with a diagnosis of West Indian or West African amblyopia is reported. Patients were investigated for haematological, biochemical, serological, and radiological abnormalities and particular attention was paid to dietary history. Patients admitted in recent years also underwent neurophysiological investigations. No definite correlation between visual loss and dietary or family history was found, and there was ...

  3. Historicizing Indian psychiatry

    OpenAIRE

    Basu, Amit Ranjan

    2005-01-01

    Our historical endeavour to map Indian psychiatry has largely remained linear, positivistic and evolutionary. Whether it starts from the ancient times or modern, it shows our past as a tale of victory for the western science, without questioning the borrowed paradigm. The use of historical methods for serious enquiry of psychiatry has been ignored. Emergence of a new genre of historicism that is critical of both colonialism and psychiatry as a universal science, has raised hopes to critically...

  4. Indian Epic Novels

    OpenAIRE

    PICIUCCO, Pier Paolo

    2004-01-01

    In this paper I am going to question the notions of authenticity in the works of foremost Indian diaspora writers, such as Rushdie's Midnight's Children, Arundhati Roy's The God of Small Things, Amitav Ghosh's The Shadow Lines and others. with reference to Mikhail Bakhtin’s famous essay Epic and Novel, he discusses the novelists’ affiliation to the East or the West, in terms of their use of techniques revealing a more emotional stress, thereby conferring on the work a somewhat epic r...

  5. Tenofovir in Indian children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kathwate, Jagdish; Shah, Ira

    2015-04-01

    We describe our experience with tenofovir-based antiretroviral therapy in seven HIV-infected children after failure of first line antiretroviral drugs, or due to adverse effects to other antiretrovirals. For follow-up period of average 3.4 years, none had adverse effects or failure of treatment, indicating that tenofovir has good renal and gastrointestinal safety profile in HIV-infected Indian children and adolescents. PMID:25929637

  6. Aerosol Chemistry of Furfural and Sugars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srithawirat, T.; Brimblecombe, P.

    2008-12-01

    Furfural and sugars (as levoglucosan equivalent) are derived from biomass burning and contribute to aerosol composition. This study examined the potential of furfural and levoglucosan to be tracers of biomass burning. Furfural is likely to be oxidized quickly so comparison with levoglucosan may give a sense of the age of the aerosols in forest fire smoke. However, few furfural emissions are available for biomass combustion. Furfural and sugars were determined in coarse aerosols (>2.4?m aerodynamic diameter) and fine aerosols (Malaysia including haze episodes. Also total suspended particulate matter (TSP) samples were collected from Taiwan. Furfural and sugars dominated in fine fractions, especially in the UK autumn. Sugars were found at 5.96-18.37 nmol m-3 in fine mode and 1.36-5.75 nmol m-3 in coarse mode aerosols in the UK. Furfural was found at 0.18-0.91 nmol m-3 and 0.05-0.51 nmol m-3 respectively in the same aerosols. Sugars were a dominant contributor to aerosol derived from biomass burning. Sugars and furfural were about 10 and 20 times higher during haze episodes in Malaysia. Laboratory experimental simulation suggested furfural is more rapid destroyed by UV and sunlight than levoglucosan.

  7. Airflow obstruction in chalkpowder and sugar workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bohadana, A B; Massin, N; Wild, P; Berthiot, G

    1996-01-01

    Our aim was to investigate the relationship between suspected occupational hazards and airflow obstruction in industrial workers. The study was a cross-sectional survey of 314 male workers from a chalkpowder plant (n = 158) and from a sugar refinery (n = 156). Occupational exposure to chalkpowder and sugar dust was assessed by individual job classification. Outcome variables included respiratory symptoms and routine spirometric parameters. Statistical analysis was done for each industry separately. Overall, mean pulmonary function parameters fell either within or above the normal range in both industries. However, analysis by job classification showed that in the chalkpowder plant, all indices of airway obstruction declined significantly with increasing dustiness. Additionally, workers in the dustiest workplace (chalk sacking) had significantly lower airflow parameters than workers from other workstations. In the sugar refinery, workers exposed to sugar dust in the sugar cube manufacture workstation had significantly lower forced expiratory volume in 1 s (FEV1) (p = 0.02) than the non-exposed ones. For both industries, the proportion of subjects complaining of cough and/or phlegm was greater among the most exposed subgroups than among the remaining workers but the differences were not statistically significant. In conclusion, coupling spirometry to job classification proved useful in disclosing a relationship between airflow obstruction and exposure to either chalkpowder or sugar dust in industrial workers. PMID:8738354

  8. Mechanical milling of aluminum powder using planetary ball milling process

    OpenAIRE

    Ramezani, M.; T. Neitzert

    2012-01-01

    Mechanical alloying has recently attracted considerable attention as researchers strive to enhance nanocomposite properties and extend their utility. The process can be performed at room temperature and homogeneous nanocomposite powders can be produced. In this paper, we investigated the effect of different ball milling parameters and operating conditions (milling time, ball size, processing control agent (PCA) and speed) in mechanical alloying of aluminum powder to achieve particle size redu...

  9. Indian cosmogonies and cosmologies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pajin Dušan

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Various ideas on how the universe appeared and develops, were in Indian tradition related to mythic, religious, or philosophical ideas and contexts, and developed during some 3.000 years - from the time of Vedas, to Puranas. Conserning its appeareance, two main ideas were presented. In one concept it appeared out of itself (auto-generated, and gods were among the first to appear in the cosmic sequences. In the other, it was a kind of divine creation, with hard work (like the dismembering of the primal Purusha, or as emanation of divine dance. Indian tradition had also various critiques of mythic and religious concepts (from the 8th c. BC, to the 6c., who favoured naturalistic and materialistic explanations, and concepts, in their cosmogony and cosmology. One the peculiarities was that indian cosmogony and cosmology includes great time spans, since they used a digit system which was later (in the 13th c. introduced to Europe by Fibonacci (Leonardo of Pisa, 1170-1240.

  10. Working Women: Indian Perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dharmendra MEHTA

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available In India, due to unprecedented rise in the cost of living, ris-ing prices of commodities, growing expenses on children ed-ucation, huge rate of unemployment, and increasing cost of housing properties compel every Indian family to explore all the possible ways and means to increase the household income. It is also witnessed that after globalization Indian women are able to get more jobs but the work they get is more casual in nature or is the one that men do not prefer to do or is left by them to move to higher or better jobs. Working women refers to those in paid employment. They work as lawyers, nurses, doctors, teachers and secretaries etc. There is no profession today where women are not employed. University of Oxford’s Professor Linda Scott recently coined the term the Double X Economy to describe the global economy of women. The present paper makes an attempt to discuss issues and challenges that are being faced by Indian working women at their respective workstations.

  11. 76 FR 81005 - Determination of Trade Surplus in Certain Sugar and Syrup Goods and Sugar-Containing Products of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-27

    ...REPRESENTATIVE Determination of Trade Surplus in Certain Sugar and Syrup Goods and Sugar-Containing...notice of its determination of the trade surplus in certain sugar and syrup goods and sugar-containing...below, the level of a country's trade surplus in these goods relates to the...

  12. 75 FR 77042 - Determination of Trade Surplus in Certain Sugar and Syrup Goods and Sugar Containing Products of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-10

    ...REPRESENTATIVE Determination of Trade Surplus in Certain Sugar and Syrup Goods and Sugar...notice of its determination of the trade surplus in certain sugar and syrup goods and sugar-containing...below, the level of a country's trade surplus in these goods relates to the...

  13. 77 FR 74726 - Determination of Trade Surplus in Certain Sugar and Syrup Goods and Sugar-Containing Products of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-17

    ...REPRESENTATIVE Determination of Trade Surplus in Certain Sugar and Syrup Goods and Sugar-Containing...notice of its determination of the trade surplus in certain sugar and syrup goods and sugar-containing...below, the level of a country's trade surplus in these goods relates to the...

  14. Structural confirmation of oligosaccharides newly isolated from sugar beet molasses

    OpenAIRE

    Abe Tatsuya; Horiuchi Kenichi; Kikuchi Hiroto; Aritsuka Tsutomu; Takata Yusuke; Fukushi Eri; Fukushi Yukiharu; Kawabata Jun; Ueno Keiji; Onodera Shuichi; Shiomi Norio

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Background Sugar beet molasses is a viscous by-product of the processing of sugar beets into sugar. The molasses is known to contain sucrose and raffinose, a typical trisaccharide, with a well-established structure. Although sugar beet molasses contains various other oligosaccharides as well, the structures of those oligosaccharides have not been examined in detail. The purpose of this study was isolation and structural confirmation of these other oligosaccharides found in sugar beet...

  15. The Russian Federation – Specifics of the Sugar Market

    OpenAIRE

    Smutka, L.; Maitah, M.; Zhuravleva, E. A.

    2014-01-01

    The Russian Federation represents a significant force in the global production and consumption of beet sugar. Its population which is in excess of more than 140 million people consumes over 5.6 million net tons of sugar annually, and the amount is steadily growing. The Russian sugar industry was unable to meet the domestic demand, especially during the economic transformation period (sugar beet and sugar production are very sensitive in relation to changes in economic, political, production a...

  16. An econometrics method to estimate demand of sugar

    OpenAIRE

    Negar Seyed Soleimany; Masoud Babakhani

    2012-01-01

    Sugar is one of the strategic goods in the basket of households in each country and it plays an important role in supplying the required energy. On the other hand, it is one of the goods, which Iranian government is about to change its subsidy strategies. To design useful sugar subsidy strategies, it is necessary to know sugar position in the basket of households and be familiar with households' sugar demand or consumption behavior. This research estimates sugar demand for Iranian households ...

  17. Practical problems in use of sugar substitutes in preventive dentistry

    OpenAIRE

    Roshan, N. M.; Sakeenabi, B.

    2011-01-01

    Sugar (sucrose) being most acceptable sweetening agent in use by mankind is considered as the “Arch Criminal” in dental caries initiation. Search for suitable sweetening agent which will satisfy all the characteristics of sugar along with being non-cariogenic is going on since decades. At this given point of time, there is no such substitute which will replace sugar in all aspects, but, cariogenic potential can certainly be reduced by using sugar substitutes. Recently, few sugar substitut...

  18. Standardization of rate of sugar addition for the manufacture of Thabdi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirpara, Krupa B; Patel, H G; Prajapati, J P

    2015-02-01

    Traditional Indian Dairy Products are manufactured in India using an age old practice which varies from place to place. For manufacture of these products industrially, a standard formulation is required. Thabdi, a region specific, very popular heat desiccated milk product is one of such products which has not been studied scientifically. Sugar plays an important role in physico-chemical, sensory, textural characteristics and also the shelf life of any milk sweet. Hence for process standardization of Thabdi manufacture, different levels of sugar i.e. 4, 6, 8 and 10 (percent of milk) were studied so that an optimum level yielding best organoleptic characteristics in final product can be selected. The product was made from milk standardized to 0.66 Fat:SNF level and added with ghee @ 1.2 % of milk at the time of colour and texture development stage as selected from the earlier phase of study. Based on the results obtained, a level of 8 % sugar addition on the milk basis at the time of manufacture has been selected to have full taste and sensory attributes. PMID:25694732

  19. 78 FR 57445 - Fiscal Year 2014 WTO Tariff-Rate Quota Allocations for Raw Cane Sugar, Refined and Specialty...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-18

    ...quotas (TRQs) for imported raw cane sugar, refined sugar (syrups and molasses), specialty sugar, and sugar-containing...maintains TRQs for imports of raw cane sugar and refined sugar (syrups and molasses). Pursuant to Additional...

  20. Electron beam processing of sugar cane bagasse to cellulose hydrolysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sugarcane bagasse has been considered as a substrate for single cell protein, animal feed, and renewable energy production. Sugarcane bagasse generally contain up to 45% glucose polymer cellulose, 40% hemicelluloses, and 20% lignin. Pure cellulose is readily depolymerised by radiation, but in biomass, the cellulose is intimately bonded with lignin, that protect it from radiation effects. The objective of this study is the evaluation of the electron beam irradiation as a pre-treatment to enzymatic hydrolysis of cellulose in order to facilitate its fermentation and improves the production of ethanol biofuel. Samples of sugarcane bagasse were obtained in sugar/ethanol Iracema Mill sited in Piracicaba, Brazil, and were irradiated using Radiation Dynamics Electron Beam Accelerator with 1.5 MeV energy and 37kW, in batch systems. The applied absorbed doses of the fist sampling, Bagasse A, were 20 kGy, 50 kGy, 100 kGy and 200 kGy. After the evaluation the preliminary obtained results, it was applied lower absorbed doses in the second assay: 5 kGy, 10 kGy, 20 kGy, 30 kGy, 50 kGy, 70 kGy, 100 kGy and 150 kGy. The electron beam processing took to changes in the sugarcane bagasse structure and composition, lignin and cellulose cleavage. The yield of enzymatic hydrolyzes of cellulose increase about 40 % with 30 kGy of absorbed dose. (author)

  1. Estonian sugar mountain turns sour / Alec Charles

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Charles, Alec

    2005-01-01

    Eesti valitsus jätkab võitlust Euroopa Komisjoniga, et mitte maksta 55 miljonit eurot trahvi suhkru ladustamise eest. Peaminister Juhan Parts saatis Euroopa Komisjoni presidendile Jose Manuel Barrosole kirja, milles palus trahvi nõudmise suhtes järele mõelda.

  2. Sugar continues to vex Estonia, Latvia

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2005-01-01

    Põllumajandusminister Ester Tuiksoo saatis Euroopa Komisjoni volinikule põllumajanduse alal kirja, milles palus kodumajapidamistes tarvitatava suhkru mahaarvamist koguvarudest. Läti meedia teatas, et Euroopa Komisjon võib anda rohkem aega suhkruvarudest vabanemiseks

  3. PROSPECTS OF SUGAR PRODUCTION AND IMPORTS: MEETING THE SUGAR DEMAND OF NIGERIA BY YEAR 2020

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J.N. Nmadu

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available The trend of sugar cane production and refined sugar imports for the period 1960-2010 were analysed and forecasted to year 2020. Results show that sugar cane output will rise to 2.8m tonnes from about 88 thousand hectares of land by year 2020. The total refined sugar that will be available from production and import is about 720 thousand tonnes but with Nigerian population growing at the rate of 2.27%, potential demand for refined sugar will rise to 1.6B tonnes by the year 2020 creating a deficit of over 1.5B tonnes. This require a drastic action which if not taken will lead to sugar crisis. Three major options are advocated in this paper i.e. hectarage expansion, massive funding of research to improve sugar cane production technology such that yield will rise to 150 tonnes per hectare and import expansion. Of the three options, only increase funding of research will encourage local technology and save Nigeria foreign exchange of more than $100B annually and will make Nigeria self-reliant in sugar production by the year 2020 and facilitate the emergence of Nigeria as a developed nation.

  4. Genetic improvement of sugar cane for bioenergy: the Brazilian experience in network research with RIDESA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luiz Alexandre Peternelli

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, it is presented RIDESA’s model for sugar cane breeding to ethanol, and its scientific, technological and human resources training contributions. RIDESA is an inter-university network for the development of sugar cane industry in Brazil, and was formed by a technical cooperation agreement between ten public universities. The model of network management is presented in this study, which involves, among other things, the public-private partnership (Universities-Mills for the development of cultivars. RIDESA has produced 59 cultivars since 1990 and is now responsible for 59% of the total area cultivated with this plant in Brazil. In the last five years, 286 agronomists were trained in breeding programs at universities that comprise RIDESA. In this same period, the network formed 35 professors, 24 doctors and 7 post-docs in researches with this crop. It is also presented a conceptual approach on methods of sugar cane breeding involving families and genome-wide selection.

  5. State of weed infestation and features of sugar beet protection in Belarus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soroka Sergey Vladimirovich

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available The changes of phytosanitary situation recently taking place in sugar beet crops in the Republic of Belarus are shown. It is noticed that in the crop agrocoenosises there is a high infestation level caused by Japanese barnyard millet (Echinochloa crus-galli (L Pal. Beauv, field sowthistle (Sonchus arvensis L, chickweed (Stellaria media (L Vill, quick grass (Agropyron repens (L Pal Beauv, matricary (Matricaria perforate Merat, creeping thistle (Circium arvense (L scop, marsh woundwort (Stachus palustris L wild buckwheat (Polygonum convolvulus L, bristle stem hemp nettle (Galeopsis tetrahit L, common horsetail (Equisetum arvense L, field forget-me-not (Myosotis arvensis (L Hill, shepherd's purse (Capsella bursa-pastoris (L Med etc. Due to non-observance of preventive and separate agrotechnical techniques especially in spring-summer period, such weeds as bedstraw (Galium aparine L, white campion (Melandrium album (Mill Garcke, green amaranthus (Amaranthus retroflexus L started to appear in the crops. To protect sugar beet effectively, two variants of herbicides application are proposed. The first one - a combined, one stipulating soil action herbicides application before planting or before sugar beet seedlings emergence and on seedlings - to carry out two treatment by post-emergence preparations. The second variant, a split post- -emergence herbicide application (two-three times spraying on growing weeds at small application rates. In the next 5-6 years, a combined method will be of a primary importance in the conditions of the Republic.

  6. Technologies for processing low-grade uranium ores and their relevance to the Indian situation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The technology for uranium ore processing is well established. Various estimates have shown that on a global basis uranium resources are adequate to meet the forseeable demand. The Indian resources are estimated to be about 60,000 t U. The grade of the ores is low and the individual deposits are small. The nature of the deposits, precarious resources position and relatively small capacity of the mines do not permit the country to take advantage of large throughputs in the mill to achieve substantial cost reduction. However by resorting to as high a scale of milling as the mines would permit, by reducing the loss of solubilised uranium after leaching and by undertaking production of nuclear grade final product at the mill site, significant though not a major, economic benefit can be derived. (author). 2 figs., 3 tabs

  7. Yang-Mills algebra

    CERN Document Server

    Connes, Alain; Connnes, Alain; Dubois-Violette, Michel

    2002-01-01

    Some unexpected properties of the cubic algebra generated by the covariant derivatives of a generic Yang-Mills connection over the +ACQ-(s+ACs-1)+ACQ--dimensional pseudo euclidean space are pointed out. This algebra is Gorenstein and Koszul of global dimension 3 but except for +ACQ-s=1+ACQ- (i.e. in the 2-dimensional case) where it is the universal enveloping algebra of the Heisenberg Lie algebra and is a cubic Artin-Schelter regular algebra, it fails to be regular in that it has exponential growth. We give an explicit formula for the Poincar+AFw-'e series of this algebra +ACQAXA-cala+ACQ- and for the dimension in degree +ACQ-n+ACQ- of the graded Lie algebra of which +ACQAXA-cala+ACQ- is the universal enveloping algebra. In the 4-dimensional (i.e. +ACQ-s=3+ACQ-) euclidean case, a quotient of this algebra is the quadratic algebra generated by the covariant derivatives of a generic (anti) self-dual connection. This latter algebra is Koszul of global dimension 2 but is not Gorenstein and has exponential growth. ...

  8. THE EFFECT OF NITROGEN INPUT ON POLARISED SUGAR PRODUCTION AND QUALITATIVE PARAMETERS OF SUGAR BEET

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MILAN MACÁK

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available During 1998-2002, the application of different forms and doses of nitrogen on quantitative (polarised sugar productionand qualitative parameters (digestion, molasses forming components - potassium, sodium and ?-amino nitrogen content of sugar beet in vulnerable zones (Nitrate directive was studied. Calculated input of nitrogen ranged from 12 kg up to 240 kg N.ha-1. By increasing input of N from FYM application into the soil causes an increases of ?- amino nitrogen content in root, which in consequence causes a decreases the sugar content (negative correlation r= -0.8659+. The application of straw instead FYM of analogues treatments caused significant decrease (straw versus FYM and highly significant decrease (straw plus N fertilizers versus FYM plus N fertilizers of ?-amino nitrogen content in sugar beet root living the productive parameters unchanged. The content of ?-amino nitrogen in root of sugar beet indicate an environmentally friendly management practices with causal relation to water protection from nitrate.

  9. DETERMINATION OF PRIMARY METABOLITES IN CEREAL MILLING FRACTIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eva Ivanišová

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to determine of primary metabolites (content of starch, total dietary fibre, reducing sugars, proteins and amino acids in four milling fractions of selected cereals (barley, wheat, oat, spelt, rye, triticale grew in the year 2009. It was found that flour fractions (break flour and reduction flour showed the lower content of primary metabolites than bran fractions (fine bran and coarse bran. The aim of this study was also to mention the potential use of bran parts of grain - substances from these parts can be isolated and after treatment, which causes their efficiently usable for human body, they can be used for fortification of wide range of food products.

  10. Indian Academy of Sciences - Events

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    photonic band gap materials: engineering light–matter interactions by professor sajeev john (university of toronto, toronto, canada), 3 january 2008, indian institute of science, bangalore a dialogue on science and mathematics in india by professor k. r. sreenivasan (the abdus salam international centre for theoretical physics, trieste, italy), 28 december 2007, indian institute of science, bangalore to the fifth dimension and back ...

  11. Human Behavior and American Indians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanson, Wynne DuBray; Eisenbise, Margaret DeOcampo

    Divided into five sections, the monograph is intended to make students aware that the practices customary to social work agencies are not relevant to the needs of most American Indian clientele. The first section provides an overview of the following historical, geographical, and cultural areas of American Indian tribes: California, Plateau, Great…

  12. 78 FR 62649 - Indian Gaming

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-10-22

    ...publishes the Class III Gaming Compact between the North Fork Rancheria of Mono Indians and the State of California taking effect...Compact between the State of California and the North Fork Rancheria of Mono Indians allows for one gaming facility and...

  13. A Better Day for Indians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deloria, Vine, Jr.

    Vesting Congress with implied powers over American Indians produces attitudes and assumptions which are extremely influential. There are seven such controlling assumptions: Congress is presumed to act in good faith toward Indians; the belief that past policies were based upon some intelligent criteria that incorporated an understanding of…

  14. American Indian Literacy and Reading

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roy, Loriene

    2004-01-01

    Literacy, which has only positive connotations in most cultures, has long been associated in Native communities with colonial education, "the reculturing and reeducation of American Indians by the secular and religious institutions of colonizing nations." Early educators imposed literacy on Indian children attending government-organized boarding…

  15. Effect of soya milk on nutritive, antioxidative, reological and textural properties of chocolate produced in a ball mill

    OpenAIRE

    Zari? Danica B.; Pajin Biljana S.; Rakin Marica B.; Šereš Zita I.; Doki? Ljubica P.; Tomi? Jelena M.

    2011-01-01

    Chocolate is a complex rheological system in which non-fat cocoa particles and sugar particles are enveloped by crystal matrix of cocoa butter. Physical properties of chocolate depend on ingredient composition, method of production and properly performed pre-crystallization phase. In this work, chocolate was produced in an unconventional way, i.e. in a ball mill applying variable refining time (30, 60 and 90 min) and pre-crystallization temperature in chocolate masses (26, 28 and 30?C)....

  16. Indian spices for healthy heart - an overview.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vasanthi, Hannah R; Parameswari, R P

    2010-11-01

    Spices were some of the most valuable items of trade in the ancient and medieval world. Herbalist and folk practitioners have used plant remedies for centuries, but only recently have scientist begun to study the powers of common herbs and spices. In the current set-up, the anti-proliferative, anti-hypercholesterolemic, anti-diabetic, anti-inflammatory effects of spices have overriding importance, as the key health concern of mankind nowadays is diabetes, cardio-vascular diseases, arthritis and cancer. Spices or their active compounds could be used as possible ameliorative or preventive agents for these health disorders. Spices are rich in antioxidants, and scientific studies suggest that they are also potent inhibitors of tissue damage and inflammation caused by high levels of blood sugar and circulating lipids. Because spices have very low calorie content and are relatively inexpensive, they are reliable sources of antioxidants and other potential bioactive compounds in diet. This review outlines the role of some spices used in the Indian kitchen for its flavour and taste which are potential to maintain a healthy heart. PMID:22043203

  17. Locality of cryoprotective sugars in membranes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The goal of this project is to understand the major factors that determine the ability of various recalcitrant plant species to survive cryogenic storage, with particular relevance to post mining restoration of bauxite mining activities in South Western Australia. Research has focused on the biophysical properties of the cell membranes of 'model' systems, in order to determine how natural cryoprotective agents (eg sugars) protect cell membranes from freezing and dehydration damage. A number of organisms have evolved mechanisms to avoid such damage. One such mechanism is the accumulation of small solutes (sugars such as sucrose, trehalose and glucose), which have been shown to preserve membranes by inhibiting deleterious phase changes at low hydration. The effects of sugars on bilayer phase transitions have been studied for a number of years, and have led to a good understanding of the factors at work. The RMIT group has used SANS and SAXS to enhance this understanding by demonstrating that there is sugar partitioning between the lamellar lipid phase, and sugar water microphases. To further this understanding, neutron membrane diffraction experiments (ANDR/A, NIST, Gaithersburg, U.S.A.) where performed using deuterated trehalose in a DOPC membrane. Chemically deuterated trehalose, was synthesized at the Australian National Deuteration Facility (NDF). By deuterating the trehalose, and varying the amount of deuteration in order to phase and reconstruct the unit cell, we are hoping to accurately describe the concentration profile of trehalose within the model membrane system.

  18. Methodology for understanding Indian culture

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sinha, Jai; Kumar, Rajesh

    2004-01-01

    Methods of understanding cultures, including Indian culture, are embedded in a broad spectrum of sociocultural approaches to human behavior in general. The approaches examined in this paper reflect evolving perspectives on Indian culture, ranging from the starkly ethnocentric to the largely eclectic and integrative. Most of the methods herin discussed were developed in the West and were subsequently taken up with or without adaptations to fit the Indian context. The paper begins by briefly reviewing the intrinsic concept of culture. It then adopts a historical view of the different ways and means by which scholars have construed the particular facets of Indian culture, highlighting the advantages and disadvantages of each. The final section concludes with some proposals about the best ways of understnding the complexity that constitutes the Indian cultural reality.

  19. La science politique de John Stuart Mill

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frederick Rosen

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available This essay explores aspects of John Stuart Mill’s approach to social and political science in the Considerations on Representative Government (1861 with an emphasis on the significance of character or ‘ethology’ in this science. The starting point is a discussion of psychology and ethology in Book VI of the Logic (1843. This conception is examined in terms of Mill’s framework of inductive and deductive science and the distinction between art and science where the views of Mill and Jeremy Bentham are contrasted. Given Mill’s view of the relationship between art and science, the science of ethology (including political ethology assumes a more prominent position in Mill’s thought than any political art or any distinctly political science. Contrary to many commentators, it is argued that Mill never abandoned his commitment to ethology, as is clear from the discussion of ‘the ideally best form of government’ in the Considerations. Mill’s conception of ‘active character’ here underpins and directs what might otherwise be seen as a traditional account of forms of government. The cultivation of active character becomes an essential condition for the success of representative government. The essay concludes with remarks on Mill’s emphasis on society for his account of liberty in On Liberty (1859 and suggests that he considered new ways of understanding the traditional processes of government.

  20. Aromatic plants as a source of important phytochemicals: vitamins, sugars and fatty acids in Cistus ladanifer, Cupressus lusitanica and Eucalyptus gunnii leaves

    OpenAIRE

    Guimarães, Rafaela; Barros, Lillian; Carvalho, Ana Maria; Sousa, Maria João; Ferreira, Isabel C. F. R.

    2009-01-01

    The phytochemical composition of three aromatic plants (Cistus ladanifer L., Cupressus lusitanica Mill. and Eucalyptus gunnii Hook. f) was evaluated, in order to valorize them as sources of nutraceuticals. Samples were analysed for ascorbic acid by spectrophotometric assay, tocopherols by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) coupled to a fluorescence detector, sugars by HPLC coupled to a refraction index detector (RID), and fatty acids by gas-chromatography (GC) coupled t...

  1. Like an Indian God

    OpenAIRE

    Sebastia, Brigitte

    2010-01-01

    In Indian culture, like in many others over the world, witchcraft and /or evil spirits are considered as responsible of psychiatric and mental disturbances resulting of transgression of a social or divine order. In the way to identify the cause of the disorder and to rectify the situation, people invoke Hindu deities or sufi saints which have the reputation to defeat the evil spirits or to overpower the effect of sorcery. Some Catholic icons have also this quality so that they were promoted b...

  2. The Indian PHWR programme

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Indian Nuclear Power Programme is based on the pressurised heavy water reactors of the horizontal channel concept. Indigenous capability in all aspects such as uranium production, fuel fabrication, heavy water production, manufacture of the equipment for the reactor and auxiliaries, construction, commissioning, operation and maintenance of NPPs have been developed over the years. These capabilities are fully proven in the range of 220-235 MWe PHWRs. However in order to implement a nuclear power programme with installation of several 500 MWe PHWRs, indigenous design and development works were also initiated. In this report a brief attempt is made to present a summary of the above

  3. Greenhouse gasses emissions and energy balances of a non-vertically integrated sugar and ethanol supply chain: A case study in Argentina

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In order to address society's concerns regarding the sustainability of sugar and ethanol production and use, this paper calculates the energy and greenhouse gasses (GHG) emissions' balances of a non-vertically integrated sugarcane industry in Tucumán-Argentina. The essential operations involved in the sugar/ethanol production cycle were taken into account. Results show that this industry generated an energy balance of 3.4:1. GHG emissions during sugarcane production were 1824 and 2231 kg CO2eq. ha?1 year?1 for low and middle to high farms' technological levels, respectively. The mill process emitted 1187 kg CO2eq. ha?1 year?1. The main factors influencing these balances were gas-oil and nitrogen fertilizers used in the agricultural stage, natural gas consumed by the sugar mill, and sugarcane burning (only for GHG balance). The impact of ethanol use in reducing GHG emissions under the current production scheme (6.8 Mg ha?1 of sugar + 380.9 kg ha?1 of ethanol), in final blends of 95% gasoline and 5% ethanol in vehicles, is negligible. A sensitivity analysis indicates that switching to 100% bagasse used as fuel in mill's boilers, ethanol being produced directly from sugarcane juice, and a final blend of 90% gasoline and 10% ethanol, an amount of 1746 kg CO2eq. ha?1 year?1 of GHG emissions could be avoided. - Highlights: ? Energy and GHG emissions' balances for the non-integrated sugar/ethanol industry in Tucumán-Argentina. ? The energy balance was positive, while there were important GHG emissions. ? Factors influencing both balances were gas-oil, N fertilizers, burning and natural gas. ? Ethanol use for reducing GHG emissions in the current production scheme is negligible. ? Results are promising, as the main factors influencing both balances are identified

  4. Infield routing network and reducing transportation costs on a sugar mill in Colombia

    OpenAIRE

    Ca?rdenas Reina, Jorge Mario; Krigsfeld Kuzman, Adrian

    2012-01-01

    Globalization and free trade agreements are factors that affect the world¿s economy. For some industries they can be beneficial and for others not so much. Additionally customers are ever more and more demanding, they want better products, with better quality and at a lower price. To stay competitive in the market it is necessary to give the customers everything they want and to supply all the client¿s needs. Being competitive is hard work to maintain and also expensive if the costs are no...

  5. Noise exposure in oil mills

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prasanna Kumar G

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Context: Noise of machines in various agro-based industries was found to be the major occupational hazard for the workers of industries. The predominant noise sources need to be identified and the causes of high noise need to be studied to undertake the appropriate measures to reduce the noise level in one of the major agro-based industries, oil mills. Aims: To identify the predominant noise sources in the workrooms of oil mills. To study the causes of noise in oil mills. To measure the extent of noise exposure of oil mill workers. To examine the response of workers towards noise, so that appropriate measures can be undertaken to minimize the noise exposure. Settings and Design: A noise survey was conducted in the three renowned oil mills of north-eastern region of India. Materials and Methods: Information like output capacity, size of power source, maintenance condition of the machines and workroom configurations of the oil mills was collected by personal observations and enquiry with the owner of the mill. Using a Sound Level Meter (SLM (Model-824, Larson and Davis, USA, equivalent SPL was measured at operator?s ear level in the working zone of the workers near each machine of the mills. In order to study the variation of SPL in the workrooms of the oil mill throughout its operation, equivalent SPL was measured at two appropriate locations of working zone of the workers in each mill. For conducting the noise survey, the guidelines of Canadian Centre for Occupational Health and Safety (CCOHS were followed. Grid points were marked on the floor of the workroom of the oil mill at a spacing of 1 m x 1 m. SPL at grid points were measured at about 1.5 m above the floor. The direction of the SLM was towards the nearby noisy source. To increase accuracy, two replications were taken at each grid point. All the data were recorded for 30 sec. At the end of the experiment, data were downloaded to a personal computer. With the help of utility software of Larson and Davis, USA, equivalent SPL and noise spectrum at each reading was obtained. Noise survey map of equivalent SPL was drawn for each oil mill by drawing contour lines on the sketch of the oil mill between the points of equal SPL. The floor area in the oil mill where SPL exceeded 85 dBA was identified from the noise survey map of each oil mill to determine the causes of high level of noise. Subjective assessment was done during the rest period of workers and it was assessed with personal interview with each worker separately. Demographic information, nature of work, working hours, rest period, experience of working in the mill, degree of noise annoyance, activity interference, and psychological and physiological effects of machine noise on the worker were asked during the interview. These details were noted in a structured form. Statistical Analysis Used: Nil. Results: The noise survey conducted in three renowned oil mills of north-eastern region of India revealed that about 26% of the total workers were exposed to noise level of more than 85 dBA. Further, 10% to 30% floor areas of workrooms, where oil expellers are provided have the SPL of more than 85 dBA. The noise in the oil mills was dominated by low frequency noise. The predominant noise sources in the oil mills were seed cleaner and power transmission system to oil expellers. Poor maintenance of machines and use of bamboo stick to prevent the fall of belt from misaligned pulleys were the main reason of high noise. Noise emitted by the electric motor, table ghani and oil expellers in all the oil mills was well within 85 dBA. Subjective response indicated that about 63% of the total workers felt that noise interfered with their conversation. About 16% each were of the opinion that noise interfered in their work and harmed their hearing. About 5% of workers stated that the workroom noise gave them headaches. Conclusions: The workers engaged in the workrooms of the oil mills are exposed to high noise, which will have detrimental effect on their health. Th

  6. Gas fluidized-bed stirred media mill

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sadler, L.Y. III

    1997-10-28

    A gas fluidized-bed stirred media mill is provided for comminuting solid particles. The mill includes a housing enclosing a porous fluidizing gas diffuser plate, a baffled rotor and stator, a hollow drive shaft with lateral vents, and baffled gas exhaust exit ports. In operation, fluidizing gas is forced through the mill, fluidizing the raw material and milling media. The rotating rotor, stator and milling media comminute the raw material to be ground. Small entrained particles may be carried from the mill by the gas through the exit ports when the particles reach a very fine size. 2 figs.

  7. Gas fluidized-bed stirred media mill

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sadler, III, Leon Y. (Tuscaloosa, AL)

    1997-01-01

    A gas fluidized-bed stirred media mill is provided for comminuting solid ticles. The mill includes a housing enclosing a porous fluidizing gas diffuser plate, a baffled rotor and stator, a hollow drive shaft with lateral vents, and baffled gas exhaust exit ports. In operation, fluidizing gas is forced through the mill, fluidizing the raw material and milling media. The rotating rotor, stator and milling media comminute the raw material to be ground. Small entrained particles may be carried from the mill by the gas through the exit ports when the particles reach a very fine size.

  8. Indian Academy of Sciences - New associates, 2011

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

      9. supriyo mitra, indian institute of science education and research, nadia11. g. v. pavan kumar, indian institute of science education and research, pune13. thomas j. pucadyil, indian institute of science education and reesarch, pune15. ritesh k. singh, indian institute of science education and research, nadia ...

  9. Indian Academy of Sciences - New associates, 2015

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

      1. b. anand , indian institute of technology, guwahati   6. chandan mukherjee ,indian institute of technology, guwahati   8. aseem paranjape , inter-university centre for astronomy and astrophysics, pune11. r. prabhu , harish-chandra research institute, allahabad 12. mahak sharma , indian institute of science education and research, mohali 13. g.r. tripathy , indian institute of science education and research, pune ...

  10. Production of Wine from Ginger and Indian Gooseberry and A Comparative Study of Them over Commercial Wine

    OpenAIRE

    Giri Nandagopal.M.S

    2013-01-01

    Wine is one of the functional fermented foods that have many health benefits. Commercially, wine is produced by the fermentation of yeast which involves the conversion of sugar to alcohol. Wine can act as a nutrient supplement for seasonal fruits and vegetables throughout the year. Using fruits and vegetables having medicinal and nutritional value as a substrate for wine production, the health benefits of them can be improved widely. Ginger and Indian gooseberry, which are known for its high ...

  11. Whole-of-society monitoring framework for sugar, salt, and fat consumption and noncommunicable diseases in India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arora, Narendra K; Pillai, Rakesh; Dasgupta, Rajib; Garg, Priyanka Rani

    2014-12-01

    India has experienced a rising prevalence of cardiometabolic risk factors in the past 15 years: the prevalence of diabetes has increased from 5.9% to 9.1%, hypertension from 17.2% to 29.2%, and obesity from 4% to 15%. The increase is among all socioeconomic groups and in urban and rural populations, though the quantum of change varies. A concomitant increase in per capita consumption of sugar from 22 to 55.3 g/day and total fat from 21.2 to 54 g/day was observed, with significant differences between states of high and low human development index (HDI). Per capita consumption of sugar, salt, and fat is consistently and significantly associated with overweight and obesity but variably associated with the occurrence of hypertension and diabetes. Market research shows that approximately 50-60% of total salt, sugar, and fat in Indian markets is procured by bulk purchasers, generally for manufacturing processed food items. This sector of the Indian economy is among the fastest growing, with several policy incentives. It is not clear from most of the data sets whether available information on per capita sugar, salt, and fat consumption has considered the contribution of processed and ready-to-eat food items. The unprecedented changes of rapid urbanization, mechanization, and globalization demand close monitoring of social, developmental, and economic determinants. This paper provides pieces of evidence to justify a whole-of-society (WoS) framework for monitoring the inputs, processes, and behavioral components of the National Programme for Prevention and Control of Cancer, Diabetes, Cardiovascular Disease and Stroke (NPCDCS) in India. PMID:25335459

  12. ONLINE SAG MILL PULSE MEASUREMENT AND OPTIMIZATION

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Raj Rajamani; Jose Delgadillo; Vishal Duriseti

    2006-06-24

    The grinding efficiency of semi autogenous milling or ball milling depends on the tumbling motion of the total charge within the mill. Utilization of this tumbling motion for efficient breakage of particles depends on the conditions inside the mill. However, any kind of monitoring device to measure the conditions inside the mill shell during operation is virtually impossible due to the severe environment presented by the tumbling charge. An instrumented grinding ball, which is capable of surviving a few hours and transmitting the impacts it experiences, is proposed here. The spectrum of impacts collected over 100 revolutions of the mills presents the signature of the grinding environment inside mill. This signature could be effectively used to optimize the milling performance by investigating this signature's relation to mill product size, mill throughput, make-up ball size, mill speed, liner profile and ball addition rates. At the same time, it can also be used to design balls and liner systems that can survive longer in the mill. The technological advances made in electronics and communication makes this leap in instrumentation certainly viable. Hence, the instrumented grinding ball offers the ability to qualitatively observe and optimize the milling environment.

  13. EVOLUTION OF SUGAR BEET AND SUGAR PRODUCTION IN ROMANIA AFTER ITS ACCESSION INTO THE E.U.

    OpenAIRE

    Aurel-Florentin BADIU; Florentina BADIU

    2014-01-01

    The paper presents an analysis of the evolution for sugar beet production and sugar beet extraction after Romania accesion in European Union. The analysis is based on the evolutions of areas, total and average yields per unit of area. The last period (2007- 2013) is compared to the previous period (2001-2006), utilised at reference. Also, it is performed in the four sugar factories respectively (SC AGRANA Romania SA, Sugar Factory Bod, SC sugar Oradea SA, sugar Ludus SA) and it was made for t...

  14. Ambient aerosol concentrations of sugars and sugar-alcohols at four different sites in Norway

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. E. Yttri

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available Sugars and sugar-alcohols are demonstrated to be important constituents of the ambient aerosol water-soluble organic carbon fraction, and to be tracers for primary biological aerosol particles (PBAP. In the present study, levels of four sugars (fructose, glucose, sucrose, trehalose and three sugar-alcohols (arabitol, inositol, mannitol in ambient aerosols have been quantified using a novel HPLC/HRMS-TOF (High Performance Liquid Chromatography in combination with High Resolution Mass Spectrometry – Time of Flight method to assess the contribution of PBAP to PM>sub>10 and PM2.5. Samples were collected at four sites in Norway at different times of the year in order to reflect the various contributing sources and the spatial and seasonal variation of the selected compounds.

    Sugars and sugar-alcohols were present at all sites investigated, underlining the ubiquity of these highly polar organic compounds. The highest concentrations were reported for sucrose, reaching a maximum concentration of 320 ng m?3 in PM10 and 55 ng m?3 in PM2.5. The mean concentration of sucrose was up to 10 times higher than fructose, glucose and the dimeric sugar trehalose. The mean concentrations of the sugar-alcohols were typically lower, or equal, to that of the monomeric sugars and trehalose. Peak concentrations of arabitol and mannitol did not exceed 30 ng m?3 in PM10, and for PM2.5 all concentrations were below 6 ng m?3.

    Sugars and sugar-alcohols were associated primarily with coarse aerosols except during wintertime at the suburban site in Elverum, where a shift towards sub micron aerosols was observed. It is proposed that this shift was due to the intensive use of wood burning for residential heating at this site during winter, confirmed by high concurrent concentrations of levoglucosan. Elevated concentrations of sugars in PM2.5 were observed during spring and early summer at the rural background site Birkenes. It is hypothesized that this was due to ruptured pollen.

  15. The Competitiveness of Sugar Cane Production: A Study of Kenana Sugar Company, Sudan

    OpenAIRE

    Abda Abdalla Emam; Osman Mohamed Musa

    2011-01-01

    The study aimed to measure the competitiveness of sugar cane in Kenana Sugar Company as the major objective covering the seasons 2004/05, 2005/06, and 2006/07. Specific objectives are to measure the hard currency revenue gained, the quantity of local resources used to gain hard currency, efficiency of local resources used and to see whether Kenana Sugar Company is taxed or subsidized. The study depended mainly on secondary data which was collected from different sources. The data was analyzed...

  16. Wear of micro end mills

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bissacco, Giuliano; Hansen, Hans NØrgaard

    2005-01-01

    This paper addresses the important issue of wear on micro end mills considering relevant metrological tools for its characterization and quantification. Investigation of wear on micro end mills is particularly difficult and no data are available in the literature. Small worn volumes cause large deviations from the ideal micro tool shape, dramatically changing the cutting edge profile as well as rake and clearance angles. This critically affects the performance of the micro tool leading to increased cutting forces and micro tool deflections with detrimental effects on the accuracy of the machined part. For this investigation 200 microns end mills are considered. Visual inspection of the micro tools requires high magnification and depth of focus. 3D reconstruction based on scanning electron microscope (SEM) images and stereo-pair technique is foreseen as a possible method for quantification of wear volume.

  17. 75 FR 36414 - American Indians Into Psychology; Notice of Competitive Grant Applications for American Indians...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-25

    ...Health Service American Indians Into Psychology; Notice of Competitive Grant Applications for American Indians Into Psychology Program Announcement Type: New...applications for the American Indians into Psychology Program. This program is...

  18. Optimization of chip size and moisture content to obtain high, combined sugar recovery after sulfur dioxide-catalyzed steam pretreatment of softwood and enzymatic hydrolysis of the cellulosic component.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olsen, Colin; Arantes, Valdeir; Saddler, Jack

    2015-07-01

    The influence of chip size and moisture content on the combined sugar recovery after steam pretreatment of lodgepole pine and subsequent enzymatic hydrolysis of the cellulosic component were investigated using response surface methodology. Chip size had little influence on sugar recovery after both steam pretreatment and enzymatic hydrolysis. In contrast, the moisture of the chips greatly influenced the relative severity of steam pretreatment and, as a result, the combined sugar recovery from the hemicellulosic and cellulosic fractions. Irrespective of chip size and the pretreatment temperature, time, and SO2 loading that were used, the relative severity of pretreatment was highest at a moisture of 30-40w/w%. However, the predictive model indicated that an elevated moisture content of roughly 50w/w% (about the moisture content of a standard softwood mill chip) would result in the highest, combined sugar recovery (80%) over the widest range of steam pretreatment conditions. PMID:25863206

  19. 7 CFR 868.256 - Milling requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ...United States Standards for Brown Rice for Processing Principles Governing Application...868.252(g)) in brown rice for processing, the degree of milling shall be...sample for “well-milled” rice. [42 FR 40869, Aug....

  20. EPA's role in uranium mining and milling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    EPA's role and actions in regulating uranium mining and milling are reviewed and updated. Special emphasis is given to EPA's current activities under the Uranium Mill Tailings Radiation Control Act of 1978

  1. 25 CFR 63.31 - Can both the Bureau of Indian Affairs and tribes operate Indian child protection and family...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ...operate Indian child protection and family violence prevention programs? 63... INDIAN CHILD PROTECTION AND FAMILY VIOLENCE PREVENTION Indian Child Protection and Family Violence Prevention Program §...

  2. Sugars as the Source of Energized Carbon for Abiogenesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weber, A. L.

    2010-04-01

    Reaction of sugars with nitrite under mild conditions yielded ammonia needed for the synthesis of nitrogenous organics for abiogenesis, thereby eliminating the need for a planet-wide source of unstable ammonia for origins processes based on sugars.

  3. Uranium mill tailings and radon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The major health hazard from uranium mill tailings is presumed to be respiratory cancer resulting from the inhalation of radon daughter products. A review of studies on inhalation of radon and its daughters indicates that the hazard from the tailings is extremely small. If the assumptions used in the studies are correct, one or two people per year in the United States may develop cancer as a result of radon exhaled from all the Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action program sites. The remedial action should reduce the hazard from the tailings by a factor of about 100

  4. QUANTITATIVE 13C NMR CHARACTERIZATION OF MILLED WOOD LIGNINS ISOLATED BY DIFFERENT MILLING TECHNIQUES

    Science.gov (United States)

    MWL preparations prepared from finely milled wood flour produced by different milling techniques were compared by quantitative 13C NMR. Wiley wood meal was milled for either six weeks in a porcelain rotary mill with porcelain balls, or by two variations of our standard technique. Specifically the Wi...

  5. Correlation between process parameters and milling efficiency

    OpenAIRE

    Johansson, Anna

    2012-01-01

    An experimental ball-milling study was performed to compare the deagglomeration behavior and the evolution of the particle size distribution with increasing milling time of two relatively coarse WC powders used for the production of cemented carbide cutting tools. The WC-powders were found to have distinctly different particle size distributions and particle morphologies prior to milling. Lab-scale WC samples were made using a range of different process parameters and milling times. These wer...

  6. Modeling of interferences during thread milling operation

    OpenAIRE

    Fromentin, Guillaume; Poulachon, Gérard

    2010-01-01

    Thread milling is becoming more and more employed as a technique for producing thread, due to its advantages for industrial manufacturing sectors, such as the aeronautics, aerospace, and energy industries. The thread milling operation is atypical and several aspects have to be taken into account to perform it in good conditions. As for milling or grinding worms, grooves, thread or others sculptured surfaces, in thread milling, there exists a geometrical interference between the tool and the n...

  7. Idiomatic Control used in Sugar Plants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Kirsten MØlgaard; Nielsen, Jens Frederik Dalsgaard

    1993-01-01

    A description of a control system for a large scale industrial plant - the evaporator section of a sugar plant. The control system is based on the idiomatic control concept, causing decomposition into loop control units - idioms. Dynamic decoupling, feedforward- and feedback loops eg. have been used as idioms.

  8. Regulations of sugar transporters: insights from yeast.

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Horák, Jaroslav

    2013-01-01

    Ro?. 59, 1-2 (2013), s. 1-31. ISSN 0172-8083 R&D Projects: GA ?R(CZ) GAP503/10/0307 Institutional support: RVO:67985823 Keywords : sugar transporter * yeast * glucose signaling * sensing Subject RIV: EE - Microbiology, Virology Impact factor: 1.712, year: 2013

  9. Keeping Track of Your Blood Sugar

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... strips are the most expensive part of monitoring blood sugar levels). Size. Chances are you'll be using the glucose meter on the go, so you might want one that's light, portable, and easy to fit into your backpack or bag (and that still leaves room for your cell ...

  10. Forecasting Sales in a Sugar Factory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vassilios ASSIMAKOPOULOS

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Beets’ cultivation and sugar production represent one of the most important parts of Greek agricultural economy. A careful and well-organized planning of the production as well as the determination of an accurate safety stock is important for sugar industry, as for many other companies and organizations, in order to define the production quantity which leads to maximum revenues and profits. Forecasting, and especially widely used statistical forecasting techniques, is the best way for policymakers to organize their activities and company’s production and make the appropriate adjustments. Apparently, management information systems and forecasting support packages play a leading role in this area, since the amount of data under process is usually quite large and demands an automated procedure to effectively produce and evaluate forecasts. In this case study, “Pythia”, an expert forecasting platform developed by the Forecasting and Strategy Unit of the National Technical University of Athens, was implemented on a monthly data series regarding sugar sales of a Greek sugar factory for the years 2000-2005, bringing theory and practice together. Additionally, the methods or combinations of methods which are well suited for this time series are highlighted based on three error indices. Finally, the results of the study and conclusions are considered and perspectives of progress and development in the field of forecasting are contemplated.

  11. Transition Metal Catalyzed Selective Oxidation of Sugars and Polyols

    OpenAIRE

    Bierenstiel, Matthias

    2005-01-01

    Oxidation reactions of sugars to their corresponding lactones and the selective oxidation of a secondary alcohol of sugar substrates to keto-sugars using transition metal catalysis were investigated. Research results demonstrate that Shvo’s hydrogen-transfer catalyst, [(?4-C4Ph4CO)(CO)2Ru]2, selectively oxidized unprotected sugars to ?-lactones under very mild conditions. This is the first method to synthesize ?-D-galactonolactone, the first oxidation product of the 3rd most abundan...

  12. Sugar, Uric Acid, and the Etiology of Diabetes and Obesity

    OpenAIRE

    Johnson, Richard J.; Nakagawa, Takahiko; Sanchez-lozada, L. Gabriela; Shafiu, Mohamed; Sundaram, Shikha; Le, Myphuong; Ishimoto, Takuji; Sautin, Yuri Y.; Lanaspa, Miguel A.

    2013-01-01

    The intake of added sugars, such as from table sugar (sucrose) and high-fructose corn syrup has increased dramatically in the last hundred years and correlates closely with the rise in obesity, metabolic syndrome, and diabetes. Fructose is a major component of added sugars and is distinct from other sugars in its ability to cause intracellular ATP depletion, nucleotide turnover, and the generation of uric acid. In this article, we revisit the hypothesis that it is this unique aspect of fructo...

  13. Review of engineering and management tools in beet sugar industry

    OpenAIRE

    Krajnc, Damjan; Glavi?, Peter

    2012-01-01

    Due to the initiative of European Commission to reduce sugar price and admit sugar imports from least developed countries, European sugar industry seeks for new ideas on production technology, engineering and management. In order to approach competitiveness, safety and environmental impact of beet sugar processing, advanced engineering and management tools for optimising the efficiency of raw material use, utilisation of by-products and energy and water use need to be incorporated into practi...

  14. Enantiomer Ratios of Meteoritic Sugar Derivatives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooper, George

    2012-01-01

    Carbonaceous meteorites contain a diverse suite of soluble organic compounds. Studies of these compounds reveal the Solar System's earliest organic chemistry. Among the classes of organic compounds found in meteorites are keto acids (pyruvic acid, etc.), hydroxy tricarboxylic acids (1), amino acids, amides, purines and pyrimidines. The Murchison and Murray meteorites are the most studied for soluble and insoluble organic compounds and organic carbon phases. The majority of (indigenous) meteoritic compounds are racemic, (i.e., their D/L enantiomer ratios are 50:50). However, some of the more unusual (non-protein) amino acids contain slightly more of one enantiomer (usually the L) than the other. This presentation focuses on the enantiomer analyses of three to six-carbon (3C to 6C) meteoritic sugar acids. The molecular and enantiomer analysis of corresponding sugar alcohols will also be discussed. Detailed analytical procedures for sugar-acid enantiomers have been described. Results of several meteorite analyses show that glyceric acid is consistently racemic (or nearly so) as expected of non-biological mechanisms of synthesis. Also racemic are 4-C deoxy sugar acids: 2-methyl glyceric acid; 2,4-dihydroxybutyric acid; 2,3-dihydroxybutyric acid (two diastereomers); and 3,4-dihydroxybutyric acid. However, a 4C acid, threonic acid, has never been observed as racemic, i.e., it possesses a large D excess. In several samples of Murchison and one of GRA 95229 (possibly the most pristine carbonaceous meteorite yet analyzed) threonic acid has nearly the same D enrichment. In Murchison, preliminary isotopic measurements of individual threonic acid enantiomers point towards extraterrestrial sources of the D enrichment. Enantiomer analyses of the 5C mono-sugar acids, ribonic, arabinonic, xylonic, and lyxonic also show large D excesses. It is worth noting that all four of these acids (all of the possible straight-chained 5C sugar acids) are present in meteorites, including the rare lyxonic acid, and their relative abundances are in equilibrium proportions. In addition (in contrast to the above D-only excesses), some of the above acids are found in biology as the L enantiomer. Whether rare are common, all of the 6C sugar acids that are present in sufficient amounts to allow enantiomer analysis (Mannonic, gluconic, altronic, talonic, idonic, gulonic, and galactonic) also, apparently, possess significant D excesses.

  15. Determination of Sugar Content in Sugar Solutions using Interdigital Capacitor Sensor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Angkawisittpan, N.; Manasri, T.

    2012-01-01

    A novel low-cost electronic tongue system for sugar content determination in sugar solutions is proposed. The system consists of a sine wave generator, a resistor, and an interdigital capacitor sensor forming a first-order electronic high-pass filter circuit. The interdigital capacitor sensor has the planar interdigital structure and the consecutive fingers are connected to positive and negative electrodes. The system has been assembled and the experiments were conducted. The experimental results show that the proposed system has a great potential to determine the sugar content in sugar solutions. It also provides an opportunity for the development of a microcontroller-based low-cost sensing system as an electronic tongue system.

  16. Detection of Sugar-Lectin Interactions by Multivalent Dendritic Sugar Functionalized Single-Walled Carbon Nanotubes

    CERN Document Server

    Vasu, K S; Bagul, R S; Jayaraman, N; Sood, A K; 10.1063/1.4739793

    2012-01-01

    We show that single walled carbon nanotubes (SWNT) decorated with sugar functionalized poly (propyl ether imine) (PETIM) dendrimer is a very sensitive platform to quantitatively detect carbohydrate recognizing proteins, namely, lectins. The changes in electrical conductivity of SWNT in field effect transistor device due to carbohydrate - protein interactions form the basis of present study. The mannose sugar attached PETIM dendrimers undergo charge - transfer interactions with the SWNT. The changes in the conductance of the dendritic sugar functionalized SWNT after addition of lectins in varying concentrations were found to follow the Langmuir type isotherm, giving the concanavalin A (Con A) - mannose affinity constant to be 8.5 x 106 M-1. The increase in the device conductance observed after adding 10 nM of Con A is same as after adding 20 \\muM of a non - specific lectin peanut agglutinin, showing the high specificity of the Con A - mannose interactions. The specificity of sugar-lectin interactions was chara...

  17. Sugar in Moderation: Variable Sugar Diets Affect Short-Term Parasitoid Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    The biological control potential of parasitic wasps in the field is expected to increase with provisioning of sugar sources, which increase longevity and replenish carbohydrate reserves. Apanteles aristoteliae Viereck is an important parasitoid of Argyrotaenia franciscana (Walsingham), the orange to...

  18. Indian Country Today

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Indian Country Today website is a one-stop shop for people with an interest in the world of Native American culture. The site includes special sections dedicated to news updates in the areas of genealogy, sports, environment, politics, and so on. First-time visitors will want to look at the Editor's Picks to get started, as this contains the most salient news items as of late. The Around the Web area features stories related to Native Americans from a range of online media sources. People with a visual bent will appreciate the Our World In Pictures area, as it contains key links to images culled from across the country, including blogs, Flickr, and a range of other sources. Finally, the Things About area provides thoughtful opinion pieces on a range of topics that affect Native Americans, including higher education, federal policy changes, and environmental degradation.

  19. Facial melanoses: Indian perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khanna, Neena; Rasool, Seemab

    2011-01-01

    Facial melanoses (FM) are a common presentation in Indian patients, causing cosmetic disfigurement with considerable psychological impact. Some of the well defined causes of FM include melasma, Riehl's melanosis, Lichen planus pigmentosus, erythema dyschromicum perstans (EDP), erythrosis, and poikiloderma of Civatte. But there is considerable overlap in features amongst the clinical entities. Etiology in most of the causes is unknown, but some factors such as UV radiation in melasma, exposure to chemicals in EDP, exposure to allergens in Riehl's melanosis are implicated. Diagnosis is generally based on clinical features. The treatment of FM includes removal of aggravating factors, vigorous photoprotection, and some form of active pigment reduction either with topical agents or physical modes of treatment. Topical agents include hydroquinone (HQ), which is the most commonly used agent, often in combination with retinoic acid, corticosteroids, azelaic acid, kojic acid, and glycolic acid. Chemical peels are important modalities of physical therapy, other forms include lasers and dermabrasion. PMID:21860153

  20. Solubility of sugars and sugar alcohols in ionic liquids: measurement and PC-SAFT modeling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carneiro, Aristides P; Held, Christoph; Rodríguez, Oscar; Sadowski, Gabriele; Macedo, Eugénia A

    2013-08-29

    Biorefining processes using ionic liquids (ILs) require proper solubility data of biomass-based compounds in ILs, as well as an appropriate thermodynamic approach for the modeling of such data. Carbohydrates and their derivatives such as sugar alcohols represent a class of compounds that could play an important role in biorefining. Thus, in this work, the pure IL density and solubility of xylitol and sorbitol in five different ILs were measured between 288 and 339 K. The ILs under consideration were 1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium dicyanamide, 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium dicyanamide ([bmim][DCA]), Aliquat dicyanamide, trihexyltetradecylphosphonium dicyanamide, and 1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium trifluoroacetate. Comparison with the literature data was performed, showing good agreement. With the exception of [bmim][DCA], the solubility of these sugar alcohols in the other ILs is presented for the first time. The measured data as well as previously published solubility data of glucose and fructose in these ILs were modeled by means of PC-SAFT using a molecular-based associative approach for ILs. PC-SAFT was used in this work as it has shown to be applicable to model the solubility of xylitol and sorbitol in ILs (Paduszy?ski; et al. J. Phys. Chem. B 2013, 117, 7034-7046). For this purpose, three pure IL parameters were fitted to pure IL densities, activity coefficients of 1-propanol at infinite dilution in ILs, and/or xylitol solubility in ILs. This approach allows accurate modeling of the pure IL data and the mixture data with only one binary interaction parameter k(ij) between sugar and the IL or sugar alcohol and the IL. In cases where only the pure IL density and activity coefficients of 1-propanol at infinite dilution in ILs were used for the IL parameter estimation, the solubility of the sugars and sugar alcohols in the ILs could be predicted (k(ij) = 0 between sugar and the IL or sugar alcohol and the IL) with reasonable accuracy. PMID:23952078

  1. Hydrogenolysis of 5-carbon sugars, sugar alcohols, and methods of making propylene glycol

    Science.gov (United States)

    Werpy, Todd A [West Richland, WA; Zacher, Alan H [Kennewick, WA

    2006-05-02

    Methods and compositions for reactions of hydrogen over a Re-containing catalyst with compositions containing a 5-carbon sugar, sugar alcohol, or lactic acid are described. It has been surprisingly discovered that reaction with hydrogen over a Re-containing multimetallic catalyst resulted in superior conversion and selectivity to desired products such as propylene glycol. A process for the synthesis of PG from lactate or lactic acid is also described.

  2. “CO-OPERATIVE SUGAR INDUSTRY IN MAHARASHTRA AND MARATHWADA”

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    “CO-OPERATIVE SUGAR INDUSTRY IN MAHARASHTRA AND MARATHWADA”

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Sugar industry has acquired a great significance in India, Maharashtra and Marathwada. Sugar industry accounts for a huge investment of over Rs. 2,500 crores and provides employment to about five lakh rural peoples. About 5.5 million farmers are engaged in cane cultivation. The rapid growth of sugar industry in Maharashtra has helped to a very great extent in stabilizing the sugar production in the country and reducing the chronic shortage of sugar. Maharashtra produces about 40 percent of the total sugar produced in the country and rank second to Uttar Pradesh. Sugarcane is being cultivated on an area of around 35 lakh hectares with the production being around 110 lakh tones. Marathwada region has good potentials for sugarcane cultivation and development of sugar industry because the land of Marathwada is very fertile and the climate is suitable for growth sugarcane crop. Sugar industry adds to the income of the farmers, provides casual and permanent employment, helps to earn foreign exchange and also helps to develop various kinds of ancillary and by product industries. There are 173 cooperative and 18 private sugar factories in Maharashtra with a total number of 191. There were 50 cooperative sugar factories whereas 8 private sugar factories in Marathwada. One of the most hopeful developments of the last decade in the field of co-operative processing has been the rapid establishment of co-operative sugar factories in the Maharashtra State and Marathwada region.

  3. Effect of fungicides on sugar beet yield and quality

    Science.gov (United States)

    More than half of the US sugar beet, Beta vulgaris, crop is produced in North Dakota and Minnesota . The objective of this research was to determine the effect of fungicides on sugar beet yield and quality in the absence of disease. Sugar beet was planted at Prosper, North Dakota in 2005, 2006 and...

  4. Fusarium stalk blight and rot in sugar beet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fusarium stalk blight of sugar beet can cause reductions or complete loss of seed production. The causal agent is Fusarium oxysporum. In addition, Fusarium solani has been demonstrated to cause a rot of sugar beet seed stalk, and other species have been reported associated with sugar beet fruit, but...

  5. Possibility as monosaccharide laxative of rare sugar alcohols.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oosaka, Kazumasa

    2009-05-01

    Allitol, D-talitol and L-iditol are sugar alcohols that are rare in nature. Due to their previous rarity, little is known about the laxative effects of these rare sugar alcohols. Therefore, reliable data on the laxative effect that these sugar alcohols cause in experimental animals could help to evaluate the effectiveness of new monosaccharide laxative drugs. To investigate the laxative effect of rare sugar alcohols, the study was designed to observe the diarrhea that occurred after oral administration of these sugar alcohols in mice. Moreover, to investigate the influence on intestinal function of rare sugar alcohols, the study was designed to examine small intestine transit and the luminal water content. Results indicated that rare sugar alcohols have a laxative effect in mice. Diarrhea started at a dose of 4.95 g/kg of rare sugar alcohols. There was a statistically significant laxative effect for D-talitol and L-iditol at a dose of 9.9 g/kg as compared to vehicle. Moreover, rare sugar alcohols significantly increased the small intestinal transit and the luminal water content of the small intestine and cecum in mice as compared to each vehicle. Overall, L-iditol greatly changes the function of intestine. In conclusion, rare sugar alcohols increase water content in small intestine and accelerate small intestine transit. These results support laxative effect of rare sugar alcohols. Therefore, rare sugar alcohols may be useful as monosaccharide laxatives and may be used to treat constipation. PMID:19420888

  6. USDA DATABASE FOR THE ADDED SUGARS CONTENT OF SELECTED FOODS

    Science.gov (United States)

    The database contains carbohydrate, total sugar, and added sugar values for 2,038 foods. Values for total carbohydrate by difference and total sugar were taken from the USDA National Nutrient Database for Standard Reference, Release 18 (SR18). Values contain the same number of decimal places as tho...

  7. Ethanol production in fermentation of mixed sugars containing xylose

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Viitanen, Paul V. (West Chester, PA); Mc Cutchen, Carol M. (Wilmington, DE); Li; Xu (Newark, DE); Emptage, Mark (Wilmington, DE); Caimi, Perry G. (Kennett Square, PA); Zhang, Min (Lakewood, CO); Chou, Yat-Chen (Lakewood, CO); Franden, Mary Ann (Centennial, CO)

    2009-12-08

    Xylose-utilizing Z. mobilis strains were found to have improved ethanol production when grown in medium containing mixed sugars including xylose if sorbitol or mannitol was included in the medium. The effect was seen in concentrations of mixed sugars where no growth lag period occurs, as well as in higher sugars concentrations.

  8. Indian ACAdemy of Sciences - Archive

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    indian aCAdemy of sciences - archive lecture workshops | refresher courses | discussion meetings | public lectures | symposia   -->( file1    file2    file3) & text ( file) ( file1    file2    file4    file5    | about the aCAdemy ...

  9. American Indian & Alaska Native Populations

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Disparities American Indians & Alaska Natives Division of HIV/AIDS Prevention (DHAP) National Native HIV/AIDS Awareness Day Division ... Indan Council on Aging (NICOA) National Native American AIDS Prevention Center (NNAAPC) National SUID/SIDS Resource Center (NSSRC) ...

  10. Indian Academy of Sciences - Archive

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    indian academy of sciences - archive ( file1    file2    file3) & text ( file) ( file1    file2    file4    file5    file6)    file7)    (file 9      file10    file12      file13      file15    | abou ...

  11. 76 FR 11258 - Indian Gaming

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-01

    ...Class III gaming activities on Indian lands. The compact authorizes up to 2,000 video lottery terminals, up to 70 table games, and establishes the Oregon Benefit Fund to receive payments from the Confederated Tribes of the Warm Springs...

  12. ANGLO - INDIAN EDUCATION IN TRICHINOPOLY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.SELVAMARY

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Anglo – Indian education and 1Anglo – Indian schools have had a chequered career. Indeed, Anglo – Indian schools have traversed many vicissitudes, political and financial. The East India Company seldom, if ever, undertook any responsibility towards Anglo – Indian children. Between 1640 and 1660, when the children2 grew up literally within the sound of shot and shell, it was not necessary for them to have more than a smattering of the 3 Rs. All manner of people were employed as tutors – disabled soldiers, old pensioners, bankrupt merchants or dismissed factors. The first school to be opened was at St. George (Madras, between 1645 and 1650 that was the result of missionary effort.

  13. WOMAN IN INDIAN ENGLISH POETRY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    More Rajendra Dagadu

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Woman is a multifaceted personality with the power of benevolence, adjustability and tolerance. She is companion of man gifted with equal mental faculty. She is an embodiment love and affection. Woman, such a blooming flower, which scants the world. She is as tall as Himalaya, having a flow of river. But woman can not be sufficiently defined in these phrases. With the passage of time she reflects dimensional faces. She is such a magnificent creature of god that she has motivated many world renowned writers of the world. Indian English Poets have also depicted Indian woman with every facets of her character. The present paper tries to focus on the representation of Indian woman by Indian poets of English.

  14. Taxation and the American Indian

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brunt, David

    1973-01-01

    The article explores American Indian tribal rights to tax exemptions and self-imposed taxation; general recommendations on possible tribal tax alternatives; and evaluation of the probable economic effect of taxation. (FF)

  15. Bioconversion of paper mill sludge to bioethanol in the presence of accelerants or hydrogen peroxide pretreatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gurram, Raghu Nandan; Al-Shannag, Mohammad; Lecher, Nicholas Joshua; Duncan, Shona M; Singsaas, Eric Lawrence; Alkasrawi, Malek

    2015-09-01

    In this study we investigated the technical feasibility of convert paper mill sludge into fuel ethanol. This involved the removal of mineral fillers by using either chemical pretreatment or mechanical fractionation to determine their effects on cellulose hydrolysis and fermentation to ethanol. In addition, we studied the effect of cationic polyelectrolyte (as accelerant) addition and hydrogen peroxide pretreatment on enzymatic hydrolysis and fermentation. We present results showing that removing the fillers content (ash and calcium carbonate) from the paper mill sludge increases the enzymatic hydrolysis performance dramatically with higher cellulose conversion at faster rates. The addition of accelerant and hydrogen peroxide pretreatment further improved the hydrolysis yields by 16% and 25% (g glucose / g cellulose), respectively with the de-ashed sludge. The fermentation process of produced sugars achieved up to 95% of the maximum theoretical ethanol yield and higher ethanol productivities within 9h of fermentation. PMID:26086086

  16. Characterization of milled solid residue from cypress liquefaction in sub- and super ethanol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Hua-Min; Liu, Yu-Lan

    2014-01-01

    Cypress liquefaction in sub- and super ethanol was carried out in an autoclave at various temperatures. Milled solid residue (MSR) was isolated from solid residue remaining from the liquefaction process, and its chemical characteristics was comparatively investigated with milled wood lignin (MWL) of cypress by sugar analysis, elemental analysis, FT-IR analysis, gel permeation chromatography, and NMR analysis. Results showed that there were two reactions (de-polymerization and re-polymerization) during the cypress liquefaction in sub- and super ethanol and the re-polymerization reactions were the main reaction at 220-260°C. Considering the stability of side-chain, the stability of lignin side-chain in cypress during liquefaction process in ethanol could be sequenced as follows: ?-5>?-?'>?-O-4'. The MSR were mainly from the decomposition and re-polymerization of lignin. This study suggests that characterization of MSR provides a promising method to investigate the mechanisms of cypress liquefaction in ethanol. PMID:24210649

  17. Overview of uranium mill tailings remedial action project of the United States of America 1995-1996

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    From the early 1940's through the 1960's the United States federal government contracted for processed uranium ore for national defense research, weapons development and commercial nuclear energy. When these contracts were terminated, the mills ceased operation leaving large uranium tailings on the former mill sites. The purpose of the Uranium Remedial Action Project (UMTRA) is to minimize or eliminate potential health hazards resulting from exposure of the public to the tailings at these abandons sites. There are 24 inactive uranium mill tailings sites, in 10 states and an Indian reservation lands, included for clean up under the auspices of UMTRA. Presently the last 2 sites are under remediation. This paper addresses the progress of the project over the last two years. (author)

  18. PROCESS OF OBTAINING OF SUGAR FROM SUGAR BEET AND INFLUENCE ON ITS QUALITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marián Tokár

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Cooking of massecuites has been study in the connection with different particle size distribution of white sugar. During the crystallization is possible to operate with parameters which have influence on particle size of white sugar. Dry matter of juice in crystallizer, volume of the standard syrup in crystallizer and heating curve of crystallization process are constant parameters in this process. Quantity of slurry (seed magma crystallizate and volume of slurry massecuite are parameters which can be changed for control the particle size distribution of white sugar. Five variants of viable parameters have been trying for obtain ideal particle size distribution of white sugar. As a best has been evaluated variant with 1100 cm3 of slurry and 20 % of volume of slurry massecuite in crystallizer. This variant has had the crystals proportions captured by the sieves between 1.00 and 0.40 mm with minimal differences in weight. More results have been related to reduction of losses of sugar in molasses with the right setting for the line of cooling crystallization process. The looses of sugar can be reduced by adding two coolers in the end of cooling crystalization process what will decrease a temperature to 40 ° C. This temperature will lead to more efficient crystallization in the cooling crystallization process.doi:10.5219/122

  19. Indian Academy of Sciences - Events

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    professor michael l. klein (frs)(raman professor, indian academy of sciences)laura h. carnell professor of sciencetemple university, philadelphia, usaspark of life: understanding nature's voltage-gated ion channels using computation28 february 2014, 4 p.m.faculty hall, indian institute of science, bangaloredetails 25th midyear meeting, 4 and 5 july 2013, bangaloretentative programme 8 to 10 november 2013chandigarh tentative programme  &nbs ...

  20. West Indian intellectuals in Britain:

    OpenAIRE

    2003-01-01

    Caribbean migration to Britain brought many new things - new musics, new foods, new styles. It brought new ways of thinking too. This lively, innovative book explores the intellectual ideas which the West Indians brought with them to Britain. It shows that for more than a century West Indians living in Britain developed a dazzling intellectual critique of the codes of Imperial Britain. This is the first comprehensive discussion of the major Caribbean thinkers who came to live in twentieth-cen...

  1. Differential Anoxic Expression of Sugar-Regulated Genes Reveals Diverse Interactions between Sugar and Anaerobic Signaling Systems in Rice

    OpenAIRE

    Lim, Mi-na; Lee, Sung-eun; Yim, Hui-kyeong; Kim, Jeong Hoe; Yoon, In Sun; Hwang, Yong-sic

    2013-01-01

    The interaction between the dual roles of sugar as a metabolic fuel and a regulatory molecule was unveiled by examining the changes in sugar signaling upon oxygen deprivation, which causes the drastic alteration in the cellular energy status. In our study, the expression of anaerobically induced genes is commonly responsive to sugar, either under the control of hexokinase or non-hexokinase mediated signaling cascades. Only sugar regulation via the hexokinase pathway was susceptible for O2 def...

  2. Mechanization and automation gear milling

    OpenAIRE

    Grebchenko, A.

    2013-01-01

    Cutting teeth is the most time consuming process in the technology of gears. It spent 50 - 60% of the total labor input processing gear. Therefore, improving the efficiency of the process is an important task gear milling machine. When you are citing the document, use the following link http://essuir.sumdu.edu.ua/handle/123456789/33627

  3. Fulton Bag and Cotton Mills

    Science.gov (United States)

    The origins of the Fulton Bag and Cotton Mill can be traced back to 1868 when a German Jewish immigrant named Jacob Elsas began to work in Atlanta's rag, paper, and hide trade. Elsas joined forces with another German Jewish immigrant several years later and then created a firm that would grow to include a print shop, bag mill, and a bleachery. When the plant closed in 1978, the archival records of the Fulton Bag company found their way to the Georgia Institute of Technology archives department. Many of these records have been digitized and they are now available on this site. Visitors can learn about the project in the "Project Info" area, and then browse several historical essays on the company in the "History" section. Interested parties should move over to the "Search" area to look over the company documents by keyword or name. The subject headings are most helpful, and they include thematic collections related to child labor in the mills, detective agencies that spied on activities within the mills, and labor organizing. As a piece of labor history, this archive is a real gem, and it's one that is most worthy of several visits.

  4. Super Yang-Mills Plasma

    OpenAIRE

    Czajka, Alina; Mrowczynski, Stanislaw

    2013-01-01

    The N = 4 super Yang-Mills plasma is studied in the regime of weak coupling. Collective excitations and collisional processes are discussed and compared to those of QCD plasma. The two systems are concluded to be very similar to each other with the differences mostly reflecting different numbers of degrees of freedom.

  5. 25 CFR 163.35 - Indian forest land assistance account.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ...2010-04-01 false Indian forest land assistance account. 163.35 Section 163.35 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT...FORESTRY REGULATIONS Forest Management and Operations § 163.35 Indian forest land assistance account....

  6. 25 CFR 163.13 - Indian tribal forest enterprise operations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ...false Indian tribal forest enterprise operations. 163.13 Section 163.13 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT...FORESTRY REGULATIONS Forest Management and Operations § 163.13 Indian tribal forest enterprise...

  7. 25 CFR 163.10 - Management of Indian forest land.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ...2010-04-01 false Management of Indian forest land. 163.10 Section 163.10 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT...FORESTRY REGULATIONS Forest Management and Operations § 163.10 Management of Indian forest land....

  8. 75 FR 39697 - Indians Into Psychology Program; Correction

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-12

    ...HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Indian Health Service Indians Into Psychology Program; Correction AGENCY: Indian Health Service, HHS...Number: HHS-IHS-2010-INPSY-0001, for the Indians Into Psychology Program. The document contained an incorrect Funding...

  9. 42 CFR 136.31 - Authorization by urban Indian organization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ...HUMAN SERVICES INDIAN HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES INDIAN HEALTH Limitation on Charges...Medicare-Participating Hospitals to Indians § 136...Authorization by urban Indian organization. An urban...

  10. FACTORS DETERMINING CAPITAL STRUCTURE OF CO-OPERATIVE SUGAR INDUSTRY IN TAMIL NADU – AN EMPIRICAL STUDY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. SEKAR

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Finance is an important input for any type of business and is needed for working capital and for permanent investment. The financial success of a firm depends mainly on its capital structure. The choice of debt and equity in the capital structure of corporate firms is an important financial decision because it influences both the return and risk of shareholders. In the present day challenges facing the Indian sugar industry are about 50 % of production of north India and Tamil Nadu are governed by State Advised Prices, Government controls on domestic sales and exports make commercial planning very difficult. Erratic financial returns have made the business less bankable, only industry in the country to bear financial burden of a social welfare program of the government.

  11. Fuel bio ethanol production from experimental crops of sugar cane, sweet sorghum and sugar beet in Uruguay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This article is about the fuel bio ethanol production. Its requires the use of raw materials, process, integration with food producing chains, and social inclusion. Agricultural and fermentability assays of three sugar crops were performed: sugar beet, sugar cane and sweet sorghum grown in fields of small producers .

  12. 75 FR 23631 - Sugar Re-Export Program, the Sugar-Containing Products Re-Export Program, and the Polyhydric...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-04

    ...AGRICULTURE Foreign Agricultural Service 7 CFR Part 1530 Sugar Re-Export Program, the Sugar-Containing Products Re-Export Program, and...S. Note 6, which authorizes entry of raw cane sugar under subheading 1701.11.20 of the HTS for...

  13. Synthesis of bacterial cellulose using hot water extracted wood sugars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erbas Kiziltas, Esra; Kiziltas, Alper; Gardner, Douglas J

    2015-06-25

    Bacterial cellulose (BC), a type of nanopolymer produced by Acetobacter xylinum is a nanostructured material with unique properties and wide applicability. However, a standard medium used for the cultivation of BC, the Hestrin-Schramm medium, is expensive and prevents wide scale extension of BC applications. In this research, a relatively low-cost culture media was successfully developed from wood hot water extracts for the Acetobacter xylinus 23769 strain. Hot water extract (HWE) is a residual material originating from pulp mills and lignocellulosic biorefineries and consists of mainly monomeric sugars, organic acids and organics. The effects of different pH (5, 6, 7 and 8) and temperatures (26, 28 and 30°C) were also examined in this research. There were no significant differences in the crystallinity and the recorded I? fraction of cellulose produced between Hestrin-Schramm and the HWE medium. The maximum production of 0.15g/l of BC was obtained at a pH of 8 and temperature of 28°C. Glucose and xylose in the HWE were the main nutrient sources utilized in all BC cultivations based on high-pressure liquid chromatography (HPLC) results. HWE was shown to be a suitable carbon source for BC production, and a process was established for BC production from lignocellulosic feedstocks without using any modification of the HWE. HWE is an abundant and relatively inexpensive forest by-product. Using HWE for BC production could reduce burdens on the environment and also, achieve the goal of large scale BC production at low cost without using added culture nutrients. PMID:25839803

  14. The Definitive Guide to SugarCRM Better Business Applications

    CERN Document Server

    Mertic, John

    2009-01-01

    SugarCRM is a leading open source Customer Relations Management tool and development platform with nearly 5.5 million downloads, nearly 17,000 developers, and lots more users. The Definitive Guide to SugarCRM is the first official SugarCRM book available to developers and users. This definitive book begins by talking about the SugarCRM platform components, namely MVC, Studio, Module Builder, authentication, and themes. Next, you see how to customize the modules SugarCRM comes with out of the box in an upgrade-safe manner. The text then presents an example application that a typical business mi

  15. Postpartum Nutrient Intakes and Beverage Patterns of American Indian Women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Teresa A. Marshall

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: American Indian (AI children are at risk for chronic diseases associated with marginal early nutrition environments. We describe nutrient intakes and beverage patterns of AI women during the early postnatal period to identify nutritional adequacy and beverage habits. Methods: 24 hour recalls and beverage frequency questionnaires were administered to AI mothers (n = 239 from a Northern Plains Tribal community 1 month postpartum. 24 hour recalls were analyzed using Nutritionist PRO(R software, and intakes were compared to Estimated Average Requirements (EAR. Results: The percentage of AI women reporting nutrient intakes below the EAR was 97% for vitamin D, 96% for vitamin E, 69% for vitamin A, 55% for vitamin C, 73% for calcium and 79% for magnesium. Median (25th, 75th percentile beverage intakes reported by beverage consumers were 8.0(4.0, 16.0 oz milk, 8.0(3.4, 16.0 oz 100% juice, 8.0(4.0, 16.0 oz juice drinks, 18.6(7.4, 28.0 oz regular pop, 9.1(4.6, 18.3oz sports drinks, 12.0(5.1, 22.0oz sugared flavored water and 48.0(24.0, 96.0 oz water. Conclusions: The low nutrient and high sugared beverage intakes increased risk of chronic malnutrition. The nutritional environment predisposes AI children to chronic diseases including obesity and dental caries through early metabolic programming and later modeling behaviors.

  16. Hill Reaction, Photosynthesis and Chlorophyll Content in Non-Sugar-Producing (Turnip, Brassica rapa L.) and Sugar-Producing (Sugar beet, Beta vulgaris L.) Root Crop Plants

    OpenAIRE

    Siddiqui, Manzer H.; M. Masroor A. Khan; Khan, M. Nasir; Mohammad, Firoz; Naeem, M.

    2006-01-01

    A pot experiment was conducted at the Botany Department, A.M.U., Aligarh, on 2 root crop plants, viz. turnip (Brassica rapa L.), non-sugar-producing and sugar beet (Beta vulgaris L.), sugar-producing, to compare their physiological activity (Hill activity, photosynthesis and chlorophyll content). The seeds of each plant were sown in 20 pots (80% soil + 20% FYM) separately. Two samplings were done at 125 and 140 days (after sowing). Hill activity was measured spectrophotometrically using DCPI...

  17. An econometrics method to estimate demand of sugar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Negar Seyed Soleimany

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Sugar is one of the strategic goods in the basket of households in each country and it plays an important role in supplying the required energy. On the other hand, it is one of the goods, which Iranian government is about to change its subsidy strategies. To design useful sugar subsidy strategies, it is necessary to know sugar position in the basket of households and be familiar with households' sugar demand or consumption behavior. This research estimates sugar demand for Iranian households by using time series of 1984-2008, which is taken from central bank of Iran. In this paper, first independent and dependent variables of household sugar demand model are chosen based on the literature review and theory of demand. Then, sugar demand is estimated by OLS technique and linear regression. The preliminary statistical observations such as Durbin-Watson, F statistic and R2 indicate that the regression is admissible. The results seem plausible and consistent with theory and show that sugar demand in Iranian households is associated with household expenditure, relative sugar price, family size and indicate that demand of sugar is affected during the war time. The results also show the income elasticity is 0.8 and price elasticity is -0.2 which means sugar is essential good for Iranian households and is inelastic to price.

  18. The Indian Child Welfare Act of 1978: Implications for Practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Barbara Brooks

    1981-01-01

    Discusses the Indian Child Welfare Act of 1978 (ICWA), intended to stabilize Indian families by reducing the number of Indian children placed in non-Indian adoptive or foster homes. The act established minimum federal standards for removal of Indian children and outlined procedures that aid their placement in homes reflecting Indian culture.…

  19. Oxidative enzymatic gelation of sugar beet pectin for emulsion stabilization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Abang Zaidel, Dayang Norulfairuz; Meyer, Anne S.

    2013-01-01

    Pectin from sugar beet is derived from the sugar beet pulp residue which results when sugar beets are processed for sucrose extraction. The sugar beet pectin has poor gelationability by the classic divalentcation molecular mechanism because of a relatively high acetylation degree and short polygalacturonate backbone chain length. However, due to the feruloyl-substitutions on the side chains, the sugar beet pectic polysaccharides can be cross-linked via enzyme catalyzed oxidation. The enzyme kinetics and functionality of such oxidativelycross-linked sugar beet pectin, in relation to stabilizing emulsions has recently been investigated in model food emulsions. This paper reviews the pectin chemistry, enzymatic oxidative gelation mechanisms, interaction mechanisms of the sugar beet pectin with the emulsion droplets and explores how the gelation affects the rheology and stability of emulsion systems. The applied biotechnology concept of enzymatic gelation provides an array of opportunities for upgrading of low-value pectins for new food and non-food uses.

  20. Sugar-source preference, sugar intake and relative nutritional benefits in Anopheles arabiensis males.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gouagna, Louis Clément; Kerampran, Renaud; Lebon, Cyrille; Brengues, Cecile; Toty, Celine; Wilkinson, David A; Boyer, Sébastien; Fontenille, Didier

    2014-04-01

    Plant-derived sugar is the only source of dietary carbohydrate for males of most mosquito species. Male resource acquisition and utilization remain an under-researched area of behavior in vectors of human diseases. However, the renewed interest in the use of sterile males against disease vector mosquitoes reinforces the urgent need for studies on the behavioral and ecological processes that underpin male fitness and reproductive success. Here an attempt was made first to characterize the conditions and modes of resource acquisition (plant derived sugar meals) early in the life of An. arabiensis males, and second to test the hypothesis that the plants chosen for their sugar meals are those which maximize their fitness in terms of energy gains (i.e. amount of lipids, proteins, glycogen and glucose). Olfactometry assays demonstrated the ability of An. arabiensis males to discriminate among a sample of ten abundant flowering plants present in their natural habitats. In further experiments, we observed significant variations in the sugar intake rates that matched their olfactory preferences, with the most attractive plants eliciting significantly higher sugar intake rates. Consistent with our expectations, analyses of the whole-body free sugars, lipids and glycogen unequivocally showed that the energy reserve accumulated post-feeding is dependent on the diet of the adult males, with the preferred plants providing more energy reserves than the less preferred ones, despite mosquitoes actively feeding on both. Taken together, these results show that An. Arabiensis males are able to discern between food sources, preferentially feeding on those species of plant that provide the highest metabolic payoff. Ensuring or somehow heightening the ability to detect and obtain rewarding sugar meals by male mosquitoes reared for field release could enhance their competitive ability in the field. PMID:24184355

  1. 76 FR 58076 - Designation of The Indian Mujahideen, Also Known as Indian Mujahedeen, Also Known as Indian...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-19

    ...DEPARTMENT OF STATE [Public Notice: 7595] Designation...as Indian Mujahidin, Also Known as Islamic Security Force-Indian Mujahideen...policy, or economy of the United States. Consistent with the...

  2. Sugar-Based Ethanol Biorefinery: Ethanol, Succinic Acid and By-Product Production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Donal F. Day

    2009-03-31

    The work conducted in this project is an extension of the developments itemized in DE-FG-36-04GO14236. This program is designed to help the development of a biorefinery based around a raw sugar mill, which in Louisiana is an underutilized asset. Some technical questions were answered regarding the addition of a biomass to ethanol facility to existing sugar mills. The focus of this work is on developing technology to produce ethanol and valuable by-products from bagasse. Three major areas are addressed, feedstock storage, potential by-products and the technology for producing ethanol from dilute ammonia pre-treated bagasse. Sugar mills normally store bagasse in a simple pile. During the off season there is a natural degradation of the bagasse, due to the composting action of microorganisms in the pile. This has serious implications if bagasse must be stored to operate a bagasse/biorefinery for a 300+ day operating cycle. Deterioration of the fermentables in bagasse was found to be 6.5% per month, on pile storage. This indicates that long term storage of adequate amounts of bagasse for year-round operation is probably not feasible. Lignin from pretreatment seemed to offer a potential source of valuable by-products. Although a wide range of phenolic compounds were present in the effluent from dilute ammonia pretreatment, the concentrations of each (except for benzoic acid) were too low to consider for extraction. The cellulosic hydrolysis system was modified to produce commercially recoverable quantities of cellobiose, which has a small but growing market in the food process industries. A spin-off of this led to the production of a specific oligosaccharide which appears to have both medical and commercial implications as a fungal growth inhibitor. An alternate use of sugars produced from biomass hydrolysis would be to produce succinic acid as a chemical feedstock for other conversions. An organism was developed which can do this bioconversion, but the economics of succinic acid production were such that it could not compete with current commercial practice. To allow recovery of commercial amounts of ethanol from bagasse fermentation, research was conducted on high solids loading fermentations (using S. cerevisiae) with commercial cellulase on pretreated material. A combination of SHF/SSF treatment with fed-batch operation allowed fermentation at 30% solids loading. Supplementation of the fermentation with a small amount of black-strap molasses had results beyond expectation. There was an enhancement of conversion as well as production of ethanol levels above 6.0% w/w, which is required both for efficient distillation as well as contaminant repression. The focus of fermentation development was only on converting the cellulose to ethanol, as this yeast is not capable of fermenting both glucose and xylose (from hemicellulose). In anticipation of the future development of such an organism, we screened the commercially available xylanases to find the optimum mix for conversion of both cellulose and hemicellulose. A different mixture than the spezyme/novozyme mix used in our fermentation research was found to be more efficient at converting both cellulose and hemicellulose. Efforts were made to select a mutant of Pichia stipitis for ability to co-ferment glucose and xylose to ethanol. New mutation technology was developed, but an appropriate mutant has not yet been isolated. The ability to convert to stillage from biomass fermentations were determined to be suitable for anaerobic degradation and methane production. An economic model of a current sugar factory was developed in order to provide a baseline for the cost/benefit analysis of adding cellulosic ethanol production.

  3. Turgor-mediated transport of sugars

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Membrane associated processes have been suggested to be modulated by cellular turgor. The nature of this regulation is not, however, clearly understood. Evidence is presented that active but not passive transport of sugars is turgor regulated. Isolated phloem tissue, vascular bundles or storage parenchyma of celery were incubated in buffered solutions adjusted to 100, 200 or 400 m osmolal that contained various concentrations of 14C-sugars. Cellular turgor was manipulated by using the non-permeating PEG (3350). Saturating carrier-mediated sucrose transport which is present only in phloem-containing tissue was enhanced under low turgor conditions. Sucrose diffusion, the predominant mode of uptake in non-phloem parenchyma tissue was not affected by cellular turgor. Furthermore, GA and IAA seem to interact with cellular turgor to bring about modified rates of sucrose uptake. The data are consistent with observations that sucrose loading is enhanced under mild water deficit conditions

  4. High risk pesticides in sugar beet protection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Šovljanski Radmila A.

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available According to traits of pesticides permitted to use in sugar beet (oral percutaneus and inhalation toxicity, toxicity to wildlife, bees and aquatic organisms, re-entry interval, maximum number of treatments, effects on reproduction do not present health risk in sugar production/technology. However, the danger exists for workers by chronic exposure during the application, especially from pesticide being potential endocrine disruptors (EDS (fentin acetate, benomyl, endosulfan, methomyl, methidathion. EDS can cause sterility or decreased fertility, impaired development, birth defects of the reproductive tract and metabolic disorders. Authors recommend limited application of EDS pesticides (to limit the number of treatments to only one during the vegetation, replacement with pesticides with low risk to humans game and fishes, as well as mandatory submission of re-entry data for registration.

  5. Pioneering multilateralism: the sugar agreements 1864 – 1914

    OpenAIRE

    Moura Filho, Heitor

    2006-01-01

    This paper examines the negotiations which led to the Brussels Convention of 1902 for the abolition of subsidies on sugar exports, showing how the practice of multilateral commodity trade negotiations was an outcome of this experience. Encompassing diverse fiscal systems, these negotiations began a process of pluri-national harmonization of taxation criteria and regulations, which forced changes to national statutes. They also initiated new forms of economic negotiations and coexistence. When...

  6. Adaptive sugar sensors in hypothalamic feeding circuits.

    OpenAIRE

    Williams, Rh; Alexopoulos, H.; Jensen, Lt; Fugger, L.; Burdakov, D.

    2008-01-01

    Brain glucose sensing is critical for healthy energy balance, but how appropriate neurocircuits encode both small changes and large background values of glucose levels is unknown. Here, we report several features of hypothalamic orexin neurons, cells essential for normal wakefulness and feeding: (i) A distinct group of orexin neurons exhibits only transient inhibitory responses to sustained rises in sugar levels; (ii) this sensing strategy involves time-dependent recovery from inhibition via ...

  7. Promoting sugar-free medicines: parents' views.

    OpenAIRE

    Hastings, G.; Hughes, K.; Lowry, R.

    1997-01-01

    BACKGROUND: A long-standing concern among dental health professionals has been about the harmful effects of sugered medicines on teeth, especially in children who regularly take such medications. AIM: To investigate parental attitudes, perceptions, and motivations to sugar-free medicines so that an effective promotional campaign could be mounted. METHOD: A qualitative, focus group approach was used to gather data. RESULTS: These show the dominant influence of the doctor over the patient/paren...

  8. Indian Education Confronts the Seventies. Five Volumes; Volume I: History and Background of Indian Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deloria, Vine, Jr., Ed.

    Presenting three position papers, this publication is the first in a series of five volumes on American Indian education. Papers are titled and authored as follows: (1) "Reflections on Contemporary Indian Education" (an introduction to this series, calling for reform via "Indianization" of Indian education) by Vine Deloria, Jr.; (2) "An Historical…

  9. American Indian History and Writing from Home: Constructing an Indian Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fixico, Donald L.

    2009-01-01

    If the typical premise of American Indian history is actually the history of Indian-white relations, then the "other" side of the coin must be turned over for understanding an Indian point of view and what is called "writing from home." Conceptually, "writing from home" is the challenge of historians who are American Indian and who write history…

  10. In Vitro Sugar Transport in Zea mays L. Kernels : I. Characteristics of Sugar Absorption and Metabolism by Developing Maize Endosperm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griffith, S M; Jones, R J; Brenner, M L

    1987-06-01

    Short-term transport studies were conducted using excised whole Zea mays kernels incubated in buffered solutions containing radiolabeled sugars. Following incubation, endosperms were removed and rates of net (14)C-sugar uptake were determined. Endogenous sugar gradients of the kernel were estimated by measuring sugar concentrations in cell sap collected from the pedicel and endosperm. A sugar concentration gradient from the pedicel to the endosperm was found. Uptake rates of (14)C-labeled glucose, fructose, and sucrose were linear over the concentration range of 2 to 200 millimolar. At sugar concentrations greater than 50 millimolar, hexose uptake exceeded sucrose uptake. Metabolic inhibitor studies using carbonylcyanide-m-chlorophenylhydrazone, sodium cyanide, and dinitrophenol and estimates of Q(10) suggest that the transport of sugars into the developing maize endosperm is a passive process. Sucrose was hydrolyzed to glucose and fructose during uptake and in the endosperm was either reconverted to sucrose or incorporated into insoluble matter. These data suggest that the conversion of sucrose to glucose and fructose may play a role in sugar absorption by endosperm. Our data do not indicate that sugars are absorbed actively. Sugar uptake by the endosperm may be regulated by the capacity for sugar utilization (i.e. starch synthesis). PMID:16665463

  11. IMPROVED BIOREFINERY FOR THE PRODUCTION OF ETHANOL, CHEMICALS, ANIMAL FEED AND BIOMATERIALS FROM SUGAR CANE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dr. Donal F. Day

    2009-01-29

    The Audubon Sugar Institute (ASI) of Louisiana State University’s Agricultural Center (LSU AgCenter) and MBI International (MBI) sought to develop technologies that will lead to the development of a sugar-cane biorefinery, capable of supplying fuel ethanol from bagasse. Technology development focused on the conversion of bagasse, cane-leaf matter (CLM) and molasses into high value-added products that included ethanol, specialty chemicals, biomaterials and animal feed; i.e. a sugar cane-based biorefinery. The key to lignocellulosic biomass utilization is an economically feasible method (pretreatment) for separating the cellulose and the hemicellulose from the physical protection provided by lignin. An effective pretreatment disrupts physical barriers, cellulose crystallinity, and the association of lignin and hemicellulose with cellulose so that hydrolytic enzymes can access the biomass macrostructure (Teymouri et al. 2004, Laureano-Perez, 2005). We chose to focus on alkaline pretreatment methods for, and in particular, the Ammonia Fiber Expansion (AFEX) process owned by MBI. During the first two years of this program a laboratory process was established for the pretreatment of bagasse and CLM using the AFEX process. There was significant improvement of both rate and yield of glucose and xylose upon enzymatic hydrolysis of AFEX-treated bagasse and CLM compared with untreated material. Because of reactor size limitation, several other alkaline pretreatment methods were also co-investigated. They included, dilute ammonia, lime and hydroxy-hypochlorite treatments. Scale-up focused on using a dilute ammonia process as a substitute for AFEX, allowing development at a larger scale. The pretreatment of bagasse by an ammonia process, followed by saccharification and fermentation produced ethanol from bagasse. Simultaneous saccharification and fermentation (SSF) allowed two operations in the same vessel. The addition of sugarcane molasses to the hydrolysate/fermentation process yielded improvements beyond what was expected solely from the addition of sugar. In order to expand the economic potential for building a biorefinery, the conversion of enzyme hydrolysates of AFEX-treated bagasse to succinic acid was also investigated. This program established a solid basis for pre-treatment of bagasse in a manner that is feasible for producing ethanol at raw sugar mills.

  12. Opening the Indian market

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Despite several remaining questions, India's government is paving the way for foreign investments to help meet the country's capacity shortfall. A high-level delegation from India recently conducted meetings in the United Kingdom and the United States to promote foreign investment in the Indian power generation market. The delegation, led by Cabinet Secretary Naresh Chandra, met in late May and early June in London, Washington, Houston, New York and San Francisco to discuss October 1991 amendments to India's electricity law and policy changes designed to remove obstacles to foreign investment. The delegation said foreign investments are needed to meet additional capital requirements and to supply advanced technology. The move to the private sector was precipitated by projections of substantial shortfalls in generating capacity during the next five years. The government can supply only 28,000 MW of the estimated 39,369 MW required, and officials hope foreign investors will supply a significant portion of the shortfall. India's existing capacity totals 69,000 MW. This article discusses the opening market for independent power generation in India

  13. Indian draught animals power

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. L. Phaniraja

    Full Text Available With the modernization of agriculture, the use of mechanical power in agriculture has increased but draught animal power (DAP continues to be used on Indian farms due to small holdings and hill agriculture. More than 55% of the total cultivated area is still being managed by using draught animals as against about 20% by tractors. India possessed the finest breeds of draught animals. Bullocks, buffaloes and camels are the major draught animals for field operations. Horses, mules, donkeys, yak and mithun are the pack animals for transport. The quality of work from the draught animals depends upon the power developed by them. The design of traditional implements is based on long experience and these have served the purpose of the farmers. However there is plenty of scope to improve the design based on animal-machine-environment interaction so as to have more output and increased efficiency without jeopardizing animal health. [Vet World 2009; 2(10.000: 404-407

  14. Indian Academy of Sciences - Astrophysics and Astronomy

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    indian academy of sciences - astrophysics and astronomy structure and tectonics: the indian geomagnetic methods and lithospheric climate and global warming progressive and superposed deformations isotopic windows on earth and planetary ...

  15. 'Otherness' Expressed Indian Music in Mexico Today.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnston, Tom

    1980-01-01

    Discusses history of various Central American musical instruments, how the instruments were used then, and how they are used now. Much Indian music today serves to bolster Indian rights, express community pride, and serves as a badge of otherness. (AN)

  16. Indian Health Service: Find Health Care

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... and Human Services Indian Health Service The Federal Health Program for American Indians and Alaska Natives Feedback ... Home Find Health Care Share This Page: Find Health Care IMPORTANT If you are having a health ...

  17. Obesity and American Indians/Alaska Natives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Obesity and American Indians/Alaska Natives American Indian/Alaska Native women are 30% more likely than non- ... findings/nhqrdr/nhqrdr12/index.html HEALTH IMPACT OF OBESITY More than 80 percent of people with type ...

  18. Sugar cane yield response to deficit irrigation at two growth stages

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A field study on sugar cane (Saccharum officinarum L.) yield response to deficit irrigation during both tillering and stem elongation stages, in order to increase crop water use efficiency, was carried out at Institut des Savanes (IDESSA) experimental station of Ferkessedougou, in Northern Ivory Coast. This cane crop tested was Co 449, an early - maturing genotype of indian origin. This experiment has been conducted for three consecutive years as virgin crop ( from November, 1991 to December 1992 ), first ratoon crop ( from December 1992 to January 1994 ) and as second ratoon crop ( from January 1994 to January 1995 ). The experimental design was a randomized complete block with 10 irrigation treatments in 4 replicates of 54 m sup2 sized plots. Water was applied through an improved furrow irrigation system. Crop water consumption was estimated using the water balance approach based on neutron probe and tensiometer measurements. This field water balance method required the determination of soil hydraulic conductivity as a function of water content and the neutron calibration curve. Data presented are related to the two ratoon crops for which field water balance measurements were investigated. It has been shown in the study that sugar cane growth and yield decline due to water deficit is significantly high during stem elongation as compared to tillering. As a result, the sugar cane tested was much more sensitive to water stress at stem elongation than at tillering. Therefore, deficit irrigation practice as to increase crop water use efficiency might be recommended at tillering rather than stem elongation. The water management strategy to be suggested here may consist of omitting irrigation during tillering ( assuming that the crop is successfully established ), for the benefit of stem elongation. As far as stem elongation is concerned, a moderate water deficit of about 25% with respect to the full irrigation regime appears to increase crop water use efficiency.6 figs; 4 tabs; 15 refs (Author)

  19. Mills’ syndrome: a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Osvaldo J.M. Nascimento

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available The syndrome of progressive, ascending or descending hemiplegia, with no significant sensory impairment was first describes by Mills in 1900, which several cases were reported later. However after diagnostic tests and image improvements, the number of reports has shortened. A possible explanation for this shortage is the identification of other diseases that could mimic the clinical picture. Currently, the syndrome has an uncertain nosological status, since it was described based on clinical examination only. We can find this clinical presentation (Mills syndrome in cases of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS, predominant upper motor neuron amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (UMN-ALS and primary lateral sclerosis (PLS, besides its symptomatic (secondary forms. We describe a case (initial presentation and one year follow-up of progressive ascending hemiplegia with clinical isolated upper neuron signs and normal sensory examination, discussing its nosological status, electromyographic findings, differential diagnosis and prognosis.

  20. Optimal Condition of Fenton's Reagent to Enhance the Alcohol Production from Palm Oil Mill Effluent (POME

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Supawadee Sinnaraprasat

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Application of Fenton's reaction for a proper hydrolysis step is an essential and important step in obtaining a higher level of readily biodegradable sugars from palm oil mill effluent (POME for improving the alcohol production by using immobilized Clostridium acetobutylicum. The objective of this research was, therefore, to investigate the optimum condition of Fenton's reaction in terms of COD: H2O2 ratios (w/w and H2O2: Fe2+ ratios (molar ratio used to oxidize carbohydrate and high molecular organic compounds into simple sugars, which are further fermented into alcohol. The experiments were carried out at H2O2: Fe2+ ratios (molar ratios of 5, 10, 20, 30 and 40 and the COD: H2O2 ratios (w/w of 50, 70, 100 and 130 (initial COD about 50,000 mg/L. The total sugar concentrations and organic compounds biodegradability (BOD5/COD ratios were also used for investigating suitable conditions for Fenton's reaction. The concentration of Fenton's reagent at H2O2:Fe2+ and COD:H2O2 ratio of 20 and 130 was identified as the optimum operating condition for the highest simple sugars of about 0.865% and BOD5/COD ratios of 0.539. The alcohol productions were carried out in the continuous stirred tank reactors (CSTR under an anaerobic continuous immobilization system. At a hydraulic retention time of 12 hours and POME pH of 4.8, the maximum total ABE concentration of 495 mg/L and the ABE yield of 0.236 grams of ABE produced/gram of reducing sugars were achieved at the mixed polyvinyl alcohol (PVA and palm oil ash (POA ratio of 10 : 3.

  1. Indian Academy of Sciences - Videos of talks

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    the challenge of climate change: shyam saran,chairman, research and information system for developing countries fascinating flow of complex fluids . jamming, order and chaos: a.k. sood,chairman, indian institute of science, bangalore nanotube dynamo and graphene: a.k. sood, indian institute of science, bangalore india and the indian ocean: in search of a strategic role : c raja mohan,strategic affairs editor, the indian express, new delhi higher education and economic development: kaushik basu , ...

  2. ‘Shining Indians’: Diaspora and Exemplarity in Bollywood

    OpenAIRE

    Ingrid Therwath

    2010-01-01

    Commercial Hindi cinema plays a central role in the negotiation of national identity. For decades, the expatriate Indian served as a counter-example for acceptable behaviour, a living testimony of inappropriateness. In the mid-1990s, following the liberalization of the Indian economy, the rise of Hindu nationalism and the advent of a multiplex-going urban middle-class, the stereotype was turned around. The Non Resident Indian (NRI) became the epitome of Indianness and embodied at once capital...

  3. Indian Academy of Sciences - New associates, 2007

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    department of physics,indian institute of science,bangaloredepartment of theoretical physics,tata institute of fundamental research,mumbaidepartment of plant molecular biology,university of delhi south campus,new delhicomputer science and automation department,indian institute of science,bangalore7. dr partha sarathi mukherjeedepartment of inorganic and physical chemistry,indian institute of science,bangaloredepartment of mathematics,indian institute of technology, bombay,mumbaidepartment of mat ...

  4. Uranium milling at Bear Creek

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Bear Creek uranium project is located in the southern Powder River basin in Wyoming. The mine is an open pit; the ore occurs in poorly consolidated sandstone that is typically coarse- to fine-grained. The ore minerals are mainly uraninite and coffinite. The current mill sustains feed rates of 2400 tpd with plant availability of 98 percent and recovery rates of 97 percent. Processing includes grinding, leaching, washing (treating sands and slimes separately), clarification, solvent extraction, precipitation, and drying

  5. Bagasse-based co-generation at Hippo Valley Estates sugar factory in Zimbabwe

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Busiso, Mtunzi; Ntshengedzeni, Mampwheli; Edson, Meyer; Wilson, Mungwena.

    Full Text Available The paper reports on the assessment of the use of bagasse for cogeneration purposes at Hippo Valley Estates (HVE), a sugar manufacturing company in Zimbabwe. Much emphasis was on an assessment of the quantity of energy that was lost due to inefficient combustion of bagasse and the use of steam that [...] was generated. The study investigated the quantity of sugar cane processed and the possible corresponding steam produced; the sugarcane processed was found to be approximately 2.33 million tons per annum and the steam produced was 193.1 tons per hour. The steam was used in the process department as well as to drive mills. The excess steam generated was found to be 81.03 tons per hour. Economic analysis on the use of excess steam to produce extra power for sale to the utility company was also undertaken. It was established that the power plant for the company could generate an annual surplus of US2.8Million as revenue, and the payback period was found to be 3.3 years. The sensitivity analysis of the project indicated that the electricity prices as well as the energy produced were the most sensitive areas in the project. The other inputs such as operations and maintenance costs, interest, capital investment and number of years were not as sensitive as the price and the energy.

  6. Online SAG Mill Pluse Measurement and Optimization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Raj Rajamani; Jose Delgadillo; Vishal Duriseti

    2007-06-30

    The grinding efficiency of semi autogenous milling or ball milling depends on the tumbling motion of the total charge within the mill. Utilization of this tumbling motion for efficient breakage of particles depends on the conditions inside the mill. However, any kind of monitoring device to measure the conditions inside the mill shell during operation is virtually impossible due to the severe environment presented by the tumbling charge. An instrumented grinding ball, which is capable of surviving a few hours and transmitting the impacts it experiences, is proposed here. The spectrum of impacts collected over 100 revolutions of the mills presents the signature of the grinding environment inside mill. This signature could be effectively used to optimize the milling performance by investigating this signature's relation to mill product size, mill throughput, make-up ball size, mill speed, liner profile and ball addition rates. At the same time, it can also be used to design balls and liner systems that can survive longer in the mill. The technological advances made in electronics and communication makes this leap in instrumentation certainly viable. Hence, the instrumented grinding ball offers the ability to qualitatively observe and optimize the milling environment. An instrumented load cell package that can measure the force of impacts inside the grinding chamber of a mill is developed here. The signal from the instrumented load cell package is interpreted in terms of a histogram termed as an impact spectrum which is a plot of the number of impacts at a specific energy level against the energy. It reflects on the average force regime of the mill. The instrumented load cell package was calibrated against the ultra fast load cell which has been unanimously accepted as a standard to measure single breakage events. The load cell package was successfully used to produce impact spectra in an 8.5 inch lab scale mill. The mill speed and the ball size were varied to study their effect on the impact spectra. A good correlation was found between the process variables and the impact spectra. The load cell package was then used in a 16 inch pilot scale mill. The mill speed, ball size, and mill filling were varied here and a consistent trend between these variables and impact spectra was observed. With a better understanding developed from the initial tests, the design of the load cell package was significantly changed to eliminate noise. With the new design, the impact spectra were re-determined in the 16 inch pilot mill varying the process variables - ball size, mill speed, and mill filling. Finally, it is successfully shown that a change in the operating variables of a mill can be seen in the impact spectra and that this concept can be successfully developed to monitor the grinding operation of industrial mills. To adapt it to industrial level it is mandatory to make the load cell package wireless. A design of a wireless circuit that is capable of transferring data at the required speed of 1000 kbps was also developed and tested at Cortez Gold Mines (CGM), Nevada.

  7. State Responsibilities for American Indians -- Texas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diamond, Tom

    The Tiguas of El Paso, Texas; the Coushattas of Louisiana; and the Tortugas of Las Cruces, New Mexico share a common background in that they represent American Indian tribes who, having lost their land base, have been abandoned by the Bureau of Indian Affairs (BIA) and have experienced recent circumstances of poverty. Since Indian rights stem from…

  8. American Indian Law Student Associations Education Project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abinanti, Abby

    The American Indian Law Student Association (AILSA) at the University of New Mexico Law School developed and secured approval for a Indian clinical law program. Funded by the Donner Foundation, AILSA aided in the development of a student bill of rights and responsibilities for Bureau of Indian Affairs boarding schools. The law program is discussed…

  9. Indian Adolescent Mental Health. OTA Special Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Congress of the U.S., Washington, DC. Office of Technology Assessment.

    The Senate Select Committee on Indian Affairs is considering legislation to improve mental health services to American Indians and Alaska Natives. This report is in response to the Committee's request for information on the mental health needs of Indian adolescents and the services available to them. The section on mental health problems among…

  10. Indian Academy of Sciences - New associates, 2009

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

      1. sudarshan ananth, indian institute of science education and research, pune  5. hum chand, aryabhatta research institute of observational sciences, nainital  7. onkar dabeer, tata institute of fundamental research, mumbai14. sumantra mandal, indira gandhi centre for atomic research, kalpakkam16. samrat mukhopadhyay, indian institute of science education and research, chandigarh23. sanjay singh, indian institute of science education and research, chandigarh ...

  11. IMPACT OF GLOBALIZATION ON INDIAN CLASSICAL MUSIC

    OpenAIRE

    Dundayya Pujer

    2014-01-01

    This article is an attempt to present some recent developments of Indian classical music. The article is concentrated on globalization and its impacts on the Indian music. This includes musical migrations, adaptations, promotions, teaching system and usage of the technology in the Indian classical music.

  12. Indian Academy of Sciences - New fellows

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    indian academy of sciences - new fellows csir - institute of microbial, technology, chandigarh csir - national institute of oceanography, goa indian statistical institute, bangalore   6. nita bhandari ,jawaharlal nehru university, new delhi saha institute of nuclear physics, kolkataindian institute of technology, mumbai indian institute of science, bangalorenational institute of immunology, new delhiindian institute of technology, kharagpurbanaras hindu university, varanasicsir - cen ...

  13. Indian Studies--the Orphan of Academia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deloria, Vine, Jr.

    1986-01-01

    The field of Indian Studies has been forced to bear unusual burdens in its effort to establish itself at the university. Many of the first Indian Studies programs were so involved in student relations that academic content was shoved into the background preventing Indian academics from following tenure track positions at the university level.…

  14. Federal Treaty Responsibility for Indian Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deloria, Vine, Jr.

    In view of prior treaties and recent laws, American Indian affairs seem to fluctuate between two different problems--the extent of Federal control "over" Indians and the extent of Federal responsibility "to" Indians. Since treaty interpretations often come years after ratification, it is necessary that a treaty be liberally construed to the end…

  15. Perspectives in American Indian Culture Change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spicer, Edward H., Ed.

    The accounts of the 6 American Indian cultures in this book are designed to contribute to the comparative study of acculturation. An analysis of change under conditions of contact between Indian and Anglo-American cultures is presented. The Indian cultures described are the Yaqui, the Rio Grande Pueblos, the Mandan, the Navajo, the Wasco-Wishram,…

  16. Montana Indians. Their History and Location

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montana Office of Public Instruction, 2004

    2004-01-01

    This handbook presents a brief look at Montana's Indians. The material is organized by reservation areas, even though in some cases, more than one tribal group lives on one reservation. There are also many Indians who are not tribal members or members of the reservation on which they reside. A section on Montana's "Landless" Indians, now known as…

  17. World Sugar Market – Basic Development Trends and Tendencies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Svatos?

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available This article is devoted to the issues of the world‘s sugar production and cultivation of sugar crops (sugar beet and sugar cane. It also analyzes the development of the global sugar trade. The main aim of this paper is to define the basic developmental trends and tendencies that affect the current situation on the market for sugar and sugar crops and then outline a process of gradual profiling of the world markets for these commodities. The article identifies the most important players operating in the global market, both in terms of production and in terms of trade. It also identifies not only the most important subjects of the global market from the viewpoint of the realized volume of production and trade, but also in terms of available comparative advantages and growth dynamics of the realized volume of production and trade. Finally, the paper highlights the significant differences existing in unit prices of the realized export and import flows in individual countries and regions. The results of this study show clearly that the world sugar market is extremely concentrated. A narrow group of entities localized mainly in Latin America, Southeast Asia, Europe and North America controls most of the world production of sugar beet and sugar cane. Furthermore, the results of the analysis show that the production and export of sugar are logically closely linked with the regions cultivating sugar crops, which again suggests that a limited number of entities controls most of the global sugar market. Currently, this market is dominated mainly by Latin American countries and Southeast Asia together with Europe.

  18. Explanatory Variables Associated with the Yield Performance Gap among Small- Medium-and Large-Scale Sugarcane (Saccharum officinarum Growers at Ubombo Sugar, Big bend, Swaziland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mbuyazwe M. Dlamini

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the ex post facto study was to determine explanatory variables for sugarcane (Saccharum officinarum yield among small, medium and large scale-growers at Ubombo Sugar, Swaziland. The target population of the census study was all small-medium-and large-scale-growers, milling their cane at the Big Bend Mill. Data were collected using valid and reliable questionnaires. The findings indicated that large-scale farmers obtained significantly higher yields than small and medium scale-growers. However, sucrose percentage was higher with small-scale than medium and large scale-growers. Production inputs and farming services were available, accessible, and affordable to all groups of sugarcane growers. Sugarcane growers were within the recommended delays in implementing the crucial planting and post harvest operations for sugarcane; and the man-days used per activity per hectare were within recommended practice. Explanatory variables for sugarcane yield were found to be distance between the farm and the mill; hand application of fertilizer man-days per hectare; and labour strength. Distance between the farm and the mill had a significantly negative influence on sugarcane yield. The research failed to reject the research hypothesis that good management and adequate production inputs increases sugarcane yield. The main conclusion was that, those farmers who were furthest from the mill should consider replacing sugarcane with other viable business ventures.

  19. Radioactive Contamination in Steel Products - Indian Experience

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radioactive sources in both sealed and unsealed forms are used in a wide variety of applications in medicine, industry and research for societal benefits. These applications of radioactive sources are controlled in each country by the respective national regulatory bodies. In spite of regulatory control there are incidents of theft, loss or abandoned radioactive sources worldwide. These lost or stolen sources get into metal scrap used in steel recycling industry. Recently, there have been cases of radioactive contamination in steel products exported by many countries. A few such cases of contamination of material exported from India to foreign countries have been reported to Atomic Energy Regulatory Board (AERB) in India. On investigation it was found that the steel products were made out of steel produced in foundries where radioactively contaminated imported metal scrap has been used. Though the radiological impact of such incident is too low to cause any significant hazard, such incidents are undesirable and need to be prevented. A number of measures were taken by AERB to prevent recurrence of such incidents. These include holding meetings with the concerned associations of exporters and the organization of seminars to improve radiation safety awareness among the manufacturers and exporters. The concept of defence in depth is used for detection of radioactivity in metal scrap by the installation of portal monitors at borders, radiation monitoring at metal scrap dealers, foundries, steel mills, manufacturing units of steel products and finally the radiation monitoring of the final product prior to supply in domestic market or export. In this paper, Indian experience in handling the incidents of contaminated steel products and the general and specific preventive measures adopted in India to control such incidents are described. A suggested action plan at the international level is discussed. (author)

  20. KRAFT MILL BIOREFINERY TO PRODUCE ACETIC ACID AND ETHANOL: TECHNICAL ECONOMIC ANALYSIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haibo Mao

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available The “near neutral hemicellulose extraction process” involves extraction of hemicellulose using green liquor prior to kraft pulping. Ancillary unit operations include hydrolysis of the extracted carbohydrates using sulfuric acid, removal of extracted lignin, liquid-liquid extraction of acetic acid, liming followed by separation of gypsum, fermentation of C5 and C6 sugars, and upgrading the acetic acid and ethanol products by distillation. The process described here is a variant of the “near neutral hemicellulose extraction process” that uses the minimal amount of green liquor to maximize sugar production while still maintaining the strength quality of the final kraft pulp. Production rates vary between 2.4 to 6.6 million gallons per year of acetic acid and 1.0 and 5.6 million gallons per year of ethanol, depending upon the pulp production rate. The discounted cash flow rate of return for the process is a strong function of plant size, and the capital investment depends on the complexity of the process. For a 1,000 ton per day pulp mill, the production cost for ethanol was estimated to vary between $1.63 and $2.07/gallon, and for acetic acid between $1.98 and $2.75 per gallon depending upon the capital equipment requirements for the new process. To make the process economically attractive, for smaller mill sizes the processing must be simplified to facilitate reductions in capital cost.

  1. Modeling sugar content of farmer-managed sugar beets (Beta vulgaris L.).

    OpenAIRE

    Jaradat, Abdullah A.; Jana Rinke

    2012-01-01

    We measured or estimated leaf and root physical and chemical traits of spatio-temporally heterogeneousfield-grown sugar beet throughout its ontogeny during three growing seasons. The objective was toquantify the impact of temporal changes in these traits on root sugar content [S(R); g 100 g-1 root dryweight]. Artificial Neural Network (ANN), in conjunction with thermal time (ºCd), adequately delineatedthe boundaries (mean ± standard deviation, S.D.) between S(R) during early (41.6 ± 6.2), ...

  2. Mechanical alloying and reactive milling in a high energy planetary mill

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Powder refinement in a planetary mill (Retsch PM 400-MA) is investigated experimentally and analyzed using discrete element modeling (DEM). Refinement is defined as the average size of the individual components in a composite powder. The specific milling dose, defined as the product of charge ratio and milling time, is used as an experimental parameter tracking the progress of the material refinement. This parameter is determined experimentally for milling of boron and titanium powders, for which the time of initiation of a self-sustained reaction is measured under different milling conditions. It is assumed that the reaction becomes self-sustaining when the same powder refinement is achieved. The DEM calculations established that the milling balls primarily roll along the milling container's perimeter. The inverse of the rate of energy dissipation resulting from this rolling motion is used as the DEM analog of the specific milling dose. The results correlate well with experimental observations.

  3. The Russian Federation – Specifics of the Sugar Market

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Smutka

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The Russian Federation represents a significant force in the global production and consumption of beet sugar. Its population which is in excess of more than 140 million people consumes over 5.6 million net tons of sugar annually, and the amount is steadily growing. The Russian sugar industry was unable to meet the domestic demand, especially during the economic transformation period (sugar beet and sugar production are very sensitive in relation to changes in economic, political, production and consumption environment (S?pic?ka, Janotova?, 2013, and Russia has thus become heavily dependent on imports of both refined and raw sugar. After a long period of stagnation the Russian Federation has over the past decade focused on promoting plans for restoring the production capacities of both the sugar beet growing and sugar manufacture. The government programme promoted at both the federal and regional levels has very significantly boosted the production potential and reduced Russia’s dependence on imports of sugar. This article aims to identify major trends and directions affecting the development of the Russian sugar industry in the past two decades. From the analysis outlined below it follows that the period of 1992 - 2000 was a very critical time for the Russian sugar industry during which there was a downswing in its cultivation and processing capacities. There was a significant decline not only in the quantitative but also qualitative characteristics of the Russian sugar industry. As a consequence, there has been a fall in competitiveness and a significant increase in import dependency. In the period 2000 - 2012, then was contrary to resuscitate the Russian market and the economy. This was reflected in the growth of sugar beet production, as well as in the growth of its own sugar production. Russia‘s dependence on imports of sugar from abroad dropped significantly and changed the structure of traded goods containing sugar. Due to a series of reforms, and to strengthen the competitiveness of Russian sugar industry, especially in relation to countries with which Russia has signed an agreement on customs union or free trade area.

  4. East Indians in the Caribbean

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ellen M. Schnepel

    1999-07-01

    Full Text Available [First paragraph] Transients to Settlers: The Experience of Indians in Jamaica 1845-J950. VERENE SHEPHERD. Leeds, U.K.: Peepal Tree Books, 1993. 281 pp. (Paper £12.95 Survivors of Another Crossing: A History of East Indians in Trinidad, 1880-1946. MARIANNE D. SOARES RAMESAR. St. Augustine, Trinidad and Tobago: U.W.I. School of Continuing Education, 1994. xiii + 190 pp. (Paper n.p. Les Indes Antillaises: Presence et situation des communautes indiennes en milieu caribeen. ROGER TOUMSON (ed.. Paris: L'Harmattan, 1994. 264 pp. (Paper 140.00 FF Nation and Migration: The Politics of Space in the South Asian Diaspora. PETER VAN DER VEER (ed.. Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press, 1995. vi + 256 pp. (Cloth US$ 39.95, Paper US$ 17.95 In the decade since 1988, Caribbean nations with Indian communities have commemorated the 150th anniversary of the arrival of East Indians to the West Indies. These celebrations are part of local revitalization movements of Indian culture and identity stretching from the French departement of Guadeloupe in the Windward Islands to Trinidad and Guyana in the south. Political changes have mirrored the cultural revival in the region. While the debate so often in the past centered on the legitimacy of East Indian claims to local nationality in these societies where African or Creole cultures dominate, in the 1990s leaders of Indian descent were elected heads of government in the two Caribbean nations with the most populous East Indian communities: Cheddi Jagan as President of Guyana in October 1992 (after a 28-year hiatus and Basdeo Panday as Prime Minister of Trinidad in November 1995. Both men have long been associated with their respective countries' struggles for economic, political, and social equality. Outside the region during the summer of 1997, fiftieth-anniversary celebrations marking the independence of India and Pakistan from Britain confirmed that Indo chic — or "Indofrenzy" as anthropologist Arjun Appadurai calls it (Sengupta 1997:13 - has captured the American imagination with the new popularity of literature, art, and film emanating from India and its diaspora.

  5. INDIAN CULTURE THROUGTH BRITHISH EYES

    OpenAIRE

    ARPITA DAUD; ANJALI DAUD

    2013-01-01

    Representation of Indian Culture by the British Eye through literature, “APassage To India” by E.M. Forster is the best example of it.The title itself is symbolic- “Passage” is symbolic of “link” or “connection”,so by giving the title “A Passage to India”, E.M. Forster advocates for a link orconnection between Anglo-Indians and the natives of India. India in the novel stands notmerely for as country but also for a mystifying pattern of art and life for what the Englishcall...

  6. Aesthetics of Indian Feminist Theatre

    OpenAIRE

    Anita Singh

    2009-01-01

    This study addresses a number of Indian feminist plays (both by men and women) that were written and performed in the last century and early years in this century. The paper focus specifically on Indian theatre because of its long established theatre tradition that goes back to 1st century B.C. Ironically in such a country there were hardly any women dramatist to speak of before 19th century. At the core, the belief of a Feminist theatre is in the efficacy of theatre as a tool for conscientiz...

  7. Satellite Communications: The Indian Scenario

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dr. Ranjit Singh

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available India has launched as many as 73 Indian satellites as of today since its first attempt in 1975. Besides serving traditional markets of telephony and broadcasting, satellites are on the frontiers of advanced applications as telemedicine, distance learning, environment monitoring, remote sensing, and so on. Satellite systems are optimized for services such as Internet access, virtual private networks and personal access. Costs have been coming down in recent years to the point where satellite broadband is becoming competitive. This article is an attempt to view this important topic from Indian perspective. India’s Project GAGAN, GPS Aided Geo Augmented Navigation is discussed.

  8. Indian Space Research Organisation (ISRO)

    Science.gov (United States)

    1969-12-31

    Well known by remote sensing scientists around the world, the Indian Space Research Organisation (ISRO) maintains the Indian Remote Sensing Satellite (IRS), providing earth photos for environmental management and global research applications. ISRO has more than this to offer; its objectives include the development of launch vehicles, such as the Polar Satellite Launch Vehicle (PSLV) and the Geosynchronous Satellite Launch Vehicle (GSLV), as well as the development of sounding rockets and supporting ground systems. The homepage provides background information on ISRO's history, space programs and services, partnerships and international relationships. Visitors can find summaries in the Recent Events section; future missions and planned developments are highlighted in the Decade Plan section.

  9. STABILIZATION OF EXPANSIVE SOIL USING MILL SCALE

    OpenAIRE

    Murthy, Y. I.

    2012-01-01

    The present paper deals with the evaluation of the mechanical properties of black cotton soil mixed with mill scale in varying proportions and comparing the same with the results of pure black cotton soil. The mechanical properties of mill scale and black cotton soil are individually determined first and then the two are combined in varying proportions. The properties like plastic limit, CBR and Permeability of the same are evaluated. It is found that mixing mill scale in varying proportions ...

  10. Geometrical characterization of micro end milling tools

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Borsetto, Francesca; Bariani, Paolo

    2005-01-01

    Performance of the milling process is directly affected by the accuracy of tool geometry. Development of methods suitable for dimensional characterization of such tools, with low measurement uncertainties is therefore of relevance. The present article focuses on the geometrical characterization of a flat micro end milling tool with a nominal mill diameter of 200 microns. An experimental investigation was carried out involving two different non-contact systems

  11. High-speed milling of light metals

    OpenAIRE

    F. Cus; U. Zuperl; V. Gecevska

    2007-01-01

    Purpose: of this paper: Introduction applicability of high-speed cutting of light metals is presented in this paper.Design/methodology/approach: HSC is the result of numerous technical advances ensuring that milling has become faster than conventional milling and has gained importance as a cutting process. The advantages of the HSC milling are higher productivity owing to the reduction of machining times increase of the flow time of production, reduction of the number of technological operati...

  12. Recycling of mill scale in sintering process

    OpenAIRE

    El-Hussiny N.A.; Mohamed F.M.; Shalabi M.E.H.

    2011-01-01

    This investigation deals with the effect of replacing some amount of Baharia high barite iron ore concentrate by mill scale waste which was characterized by high iron oxide content on the parameters of the sintering process., and investigation the effect of different amount of coke breeze added on sintering process parameters when using 5% mill scale waste with 95% iron ore concentrate. The results of this work show that, replacement of iron ore concentrate with mill scale increases the...

  13. Fruit fly bioassay to distinguish "sweet" sugar structures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hodoniczky, Jason; Robinson, Gregory J; McGraw, Elizabeth A; Rae, Anne L

    2010-12-22

    Palatable response to dietary sugars plays a significant role in influencing metabolic health. New structures are being explored with beneficial health properties, although consumer acceptance relies heavily on desirable sensory properties. Despite the importance of behavioral responses, the ability to elucidate structure-preference relationships of sugars is lacking. A wild population of Drosophila melanogaster was used as a model to perform pairwise comparisons across structural groups to characterize a fruit fly bioassay for assessing sugar preference. Preference was successfully described in structurally relevant terms, particularly through the ability to directly test sugars of related structures in addition to standard sucrose comparisons. The fruit fly bioassay also provided the first report on the relative preference for the ?-linked sugar alcohol, gentiobiitol. In making reference to well-known human preferences, the bioassay also raises opportunities for greater understanding of behavioral response to sugar structures in general. PMID:21077679

  14. Black Holes with Yang-Mills Hair

    CERN Document Server

    Kleihaus, B; Sood, A K; Wirschins, M

    1998-01-01

    In Einstein-Maxwell theory black holes are uniquely determined by their mass, their charge and their angular momentum. This is no longer true in Einstein-Yang-Mills theory. We discuss sequences of neutral and charged SU(N) Einstein-Yang-Mills black holes, which are static spherically symmetric and asymptotically flat, and which carry Yang-Mills hair. Furthermore, in Einstein-Maxwell theory static black holes are spherically symmetric. We demonstrate that, in contrast, SU(2) Einstein-Yang-Mills theory possesses a sequence of black holes, which are static and only axially symmetric.

  15. Particle deformation during stirred media milling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamey, Rhye Garrett

    Production of high aspect ratio metal flakes is an important part of the paint and coating industry. The United States Army also uses high aspect ratio metal flakes of a specific dimension in obscurant clouds to attenuate infrared radiation. The most common method for their production is by milling a metal powder. Ductile metal particles are initially flattened in the process increasing the aspect ratio. As the process continues, coldwelding of metal flakes can take place increasing the particle size and decreasing the aspect ratio. Extended milling times may also result in fracture leading to a further decrease in the particle size and aspect ratio. Both the coldwelding of the particles and the breakage of the particles are ultimately detrimental to the materials performance. This study utilized characterization techniques, such as, light scattering and image analysis to determine the change in particle size as a function of milling time and parameters. This study proved that a fundamental relationship between the milling parameters and particle deformation could be established by using Hertz's theory to calculate the stress acting on the aluminum particles. The study also demonstrated a method by which milling efficiency could be calculated, based on the amount of energy required to cause particle deformation. The study found that the particle deformation process could be an energy efficient process at short milling times with milling efficiency as high as 80%. Finally, statistical design of experiment was used to obtain a model that related particle deformation to milling parameters, such as, rotation rate and milling media size.

  16. A COMPARATIVE STUDY ON PERFORMANCE OF INDIAN POWERLOOM SECTOR DURING PRE AND POST LPG SCENARIO

    OpenAIRE

    Senthilkumar, M.; Rajendran, R

    2013-01-01

    The Indian textile industry is one of the largest in the world with a massive raw material and textiles manufacturing base. About 27% of the foreign exchange earnings are on account of export of textiles and clothing alone. The textiles and clothing sector contributes about 14% to the industrial production and 3% to the Gross Domestic Product (GDP) of the country. Around 8% of the total Excise Revenue collection is contributed by the textile industry. The power looms and mills are able to go ...

  17. Considerations Concerning the Dynamics of Vibratory Mills Used in Powders’ Mechanical Milling Process

    OpenAIRE

    Radu Panaitescu-Liess; Amelitta Legendi; Cristian Pavel

    2010-01-01

    Dynamic mechanical milling process in a powder mill was studied by analyzing the vibratory effects of vibration and shock phenomena on the material microstructure ground. During the milling process, there were noticed both distinct modes of ball motion: the one generated by the periodic vibration and the one produced by chaotic vibration.

  18. Embedded Fuzzy Module for Sugar Industrial Boiler Parameter Control

    OpenAIRE

    Hanamane M. D.; Attar K. D.; Dr. Mudholkar R. R.

    2013-01-01

    In sugar industry, past the sugar was main product and bagasse was considered as west and its disposal was the problem. The present paper highlights the design and development of Embedded Fuzzy Module for energy efficiency improvement of bagasse boiler for a sugar factory intended for cogeneration system. The multipurpose boiler considered parameters are Water flow, Steam flow, Amount of fuel and Air flow. The Fuzzy Logic Inference is to find out the desirable amount of fuel (bagasse) and Air...

  19. Simple Sugar Intake and Hepatocellular Carcinoma: Epidemiological and Mechanistic Insight

    OpenAIRE

    Laguna, Juan Carlos; Alegret, Marta; Roglans, Nu?ria

    2014-01-01

    Sugar intake has dramatically increased during the last few decades. Specifically, there has been a clear trend towards higher consumption of fructose and high fructose corn syrup, which are the most common added sugars in processed food, soft drinks and other sweetened beverages. Although still controversial, this rising trend in simple sugar consumption has been positively associated with weight gain and obesity, insulin resistance and type 2 diabetes mellitus and non-alcoholic fatty liver ...

  20. Study of Maillard Reaction Inhibitors for the Sugar Cane Processing

    OpenAIRE

    Christian, J. I.; Mbedane Dongby Pacheco; Biao Feng

    2012-01-01

    Maillard Reaction (MR) is a complicated non-enzymatic browning which can happen in many kinds of food, processed products such as breweries, dairy products and sugar products. Studies have done in order to remove the Maillard reaction products, to decolorize colored compounds or to treat wastewater from sugar cane factory. For this reason, this research was performed to study and identify MR inhibitors during sugar cane processing using model systems with different concentrations of amino aci...

  1. Sugar cane wastes as pozzolanic materials: applications of mathematical model

    OpenAIRE

    Villar-cocin?a, E.; Fri?as, M.; Valencia-morales, E.

    2008-01-01

    This paper proposes a kinetic-diffusive model that allows for determination of pozzolanic activity as related to optimum calcining temperature on the activation of wastes from sugar cane industries and their use as pozzolanic material. Research based on the reaction kinetics between lime (calcium hydroxide [CH]), sugar cane straw ash (SCSA), and sugar cane bagasse ash (SCBA) calcined at 800 and 1000 °C (1472 and 1842 °F) is described. A pozzolanic activity method (accel...

  2. Consumer understanding of sugars claims on food and drink products

    OpenAIRE

    Patterson, N. J.; Sadler, M. J.; Cooper, J. M.

    2012-01-01

    Consumer understanding of nutrition and health claims is a key aspect of current regulations in the European Union (EU). In view of this, qualitative and quantitative research techniques were used to investigate consumer awareness and understanding of product claims in the UK, focusing particularly on nutrition claims relating to sugars. Both research methods identified a good awareness of product claims. No added sugars claims were generally preferred to reduced sugars claims, and there was ...

  3. Integrated molecular analysis of sugar metabolism of Sulfolobus solfataricus

    OpenAIRE

    Brouns, S. J. J.

    2007-01-01

    This thesis presents the results of an integrated molecular analysis of the sugar metabolism of the hyperthermophilic archaeon Sulfolobus solfataricus. The primary aim of this work has been to obtain functional insight into several aspects of sugar metabolism of S. solfataricus by employing a wide range of techniques, including DNA microarrays, proteomics, biochemistry and X-ray crystallography. These aspects include the discovery of new sugar degrading enzymes, such as an unusual alpha-galac...

  4. Two Gr genes underlie sugar reception in Drosophila

    OpenAIRE

    Dahanukar, Anupama; Lei, Ya-ting; Kwon, Jae Young; Carlson, John R.

    2007-01-01

    We have analyzed the molecular basis of sugar reception in Drosophila. We define the response spectrum, concentration dependence, and temporal dynamics of sugar-sensing neurons. Using in situ hybridization and reporter gene expression we identify members of the Gr5a-related taste receptor subfamily that are co-expressed in sugar neurons. Neurons expressing different Gr5a-related genes send overlapping but distinct projections to the brain and thoracic ganglia. Genetic analysis of receptor gen...

  5. Perceptions of sugar mommy practices in South Africa

    OpenAIRE

    Phaswana-mafuya, Nancy; Shisana, Olive; Davids, Adlai; Tabane, Cily; Mbelle, Margaret; Matseke, Gladys; Banyini, Mercy; Kekana, Queen

    2014-01-01

    The study sought to explore sugar mommy practices regarding their occurrence, acceptability as well as perceived reasons why older women and younger men enter into sugar mommy relationships. An exploratory qualitative study involving 135 participants from 11 diverse focus groups in terms of age, gender (females=27%) and geotype throughout the nine South African provinces was conducted. Data on the participants’ views, opinions and experiences of sugar mommy practices were collected using fo...

  6. Spectrophotometric determination of sugars labelled with 14C

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Comparative analysis of methods for determination of microgram amounts of 14C-labelled sugars has been carried out. The ferricyanide and Shomodyi-Nelson methods were approbated in experimental study. The relative error of the ferricyanide method was found to be smaller than that of the Shomodyi-Nelson method. Thus the ferricyanide method was used for obtaining calibration curves for 15 sugars. The accuracy for sugar amounts higher than 3 ?g/10 ml was better than +, - 5%

  7. Compressive Strength and Microstructure of Sugar Cane Bagasse Ash Concrete

    OpenAIRE

    Asma Abd Elhameed Hussein; Nasir Shafiq; Muhd Fadhil Nuruddin; Fareed Ahmed Memon

    2014-01-01

    This study presents the results of an experimental research study on the effectiveness of Sugar Cane Bagasse Ash (SCBA) as a cement replacement material in concrete production. The ordinary Portland cement was replaced with 0, 5, 10, 15, 20, 25 and 30%, respectively bagasse ash, the effect of Sugar cane Bagasse Ash on workability, compressive strength and microstructure of Interfacial Transition Zone (ITZ) of concrete was examined. The results showed that inclusion of Sugar cane Bagasse Ash i...

  8. Forage uptake of uranium series radionuclides in the vicinity of the anaconda uranium mill

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radiochemical analysis was performed on samples of soil and eight species of common vegetation growing on the Anaconda uranium mill site, located in New Mexico. The concentrations of the long-lived radionuclides U-238, U-234, Th-230, Ra-226, and Pb-210 in these forage plants were determined. The sampling procedures and analytical laboratory methods used are described. The highest radionuclide concentration found in a forage species was 130 pCi of Ra-226 per gram dry weight for grass growing on the main tailings pile at Anaconda, where the surface soil activity of Ra-226 was 236 pCi/g. A comparison of shoots activity with that of roots and soil was used to determine a distribution index and uptake coefficient for each species. The distribution index, the ratio of root activity to shoot activity, ranged from 0.30 (Th-230) in galleta grass (Hilaria jamesii) to 38.0 (Ra-226) in Indian ricegrass (Oryzopsis hymenoides). In nearly all instances, the roots contained higher radionuclide concentrations. The uptake coefficient, the ratio of vegetation activity to soil activity, ranged from 0.69 (U-238) in Indian ricegrass roots to 0.01 (U-238) in four-wing saltbush (Atriplex canescans) shoots. The range of radionuclide concentrations in plants growing on the Anaconda mill site is compared to that in vegetation from a control site 20 km away

  9. Sugar High - Type I Diabetes and Leptin

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-04-01

    Twenty-seventh monthly installment of our "What A Year!" website project, introducing life science breakthroughs to middle and high school students and their teachers. Glucose, the simplest form of sugar our bodies can use, is produced from or contained in the food we eat. If glucose circulating in our bloodstream is not "taken up" into cells and organs, it can cause severe problems. People with Type I diabetes do not produce sufficient insulin to manage this glucose uptake, so they may have to take insulin injections. But there may be another way - leptin regulation.

  10. Reconciliation of opposing views on membrane-sugar interactions.

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Heidi D.; Wang, Chunhua

    2011-01-01

    It is well established that small sugars exert different types of stabilization of biomembranes both in vivo and in vitro. However, the essential question of whether sugars are bound to or expelled from membrane surfaces, i.e., the sign and size of the free energy of the interaction, remains unresolved, and this prevents a molecular understanding of the stabilizing mechanism. We have used small-angle neutron scattering and thermodynamic measurements to show that sugars may be either bound or expelled depending on the concentration of sugar. At low concentration, small sugars bind quite strongly to a lipid bilayer, and the accumulation of sugar at the interface makes the membrane thinner and laterally expanded. Above â¼0.2 M the sugars gradually become expelled from the membrane surface, and this repulsive mode of interaction counteracts membrane thinning. The dual nature of sugar-membrane interactions offers a reconciliation of conflicting views in earlier reports on sugar-induced modulations of membrane properties.

  11. Reconciliation of opposing views on membrane-sugar interactions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, H. D.; Wang, C. H.

    2011-01-01

    It is well established that small sugars exert different types of stabilization of biomembranes both in vivo and in vitro. However, the essential question of whether sugars are bound to or expelled from membrane surfaces, i.e., the sign and size of the free energy of the interaction, remains unresolved, and this prevents a molecular understanding of the stabilizing mechanism. We have used small-angle neutron scattering and thermodynamic measurements to show that sugars may be either bound or expelled depending on the concentration of sugar. At low concentration, small sugars bind quite strongly to a lipid bilayer, and the accumulation of sugar at the interface makes the membrane thinner and laterally expanded. Above similar to 0.2 M the sugars gradually become expelled from the membrane surface, and this repulsive mode of interaction counteracts membrane thinning. The dual nature of sugar-membrane interactions offers a reconciliation of conflicting views in earlier reports on sugar-induced modulations of membrane properties.

  12. Characterization of Sugar Insensitive (sis) Mutants of Arabidopsis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gibson, Susan I.

    2009-06-08

    Despite the fact that soluble sugar levels have been postulated to play an important role in the control of a wide variety of plant metabolic and developmental pathways, the mechanisms by which plants respond to soluble sugar levels remain poorly understood. Plant responses to soluble sugar levels are also important in bioenergy production, as plant sugar responses are believed to help regulate both carbon fixation and carbon partitioning. For example, accumulation of soluble sugars, such as sucrose and glucose, in source tissues leads to feedback inhibition of photosynthesis, thereby decreasing rates of carbon fixation. Soluble sugar levels can also affect sink strengths, affecting the rates of accumulation of carbon-based compounds into both particular molecular forms (e.g. carbohydrates versus lipids versus proteins) and particular plant organs and tissues. Mutants of Arabidopsis that are defective in the ability to respond to soluble sugar levels were isolated and used as tools to identify some of the factors involved in plant sugar response. These sugar insensitive (sis) mutants were isolated by screening mutagenized seeds for those that were able to germinate and develop relatively normal shoot systems on media containing 0.3 M glucose or 0.3 M sucrose. At these sugar concentrations, wild-type Arabidopsis germinate and produce substantial root systems, but show little to no shoot development. Twenty-eight sis mutants were isolated during the course of four independent mutant screens. Based on a preliminary characterization of all of these mutants, sis3 and sis6 were chosen for further study. Both of these mutations appear to lie in previously uncharacterized loci. Unlike many other sugar-response mutants, sis3 mutants exhibit a wild-type or near wild-type response in all phytohormone-response assays conducted to date. The sis6-1 mutation is unusual in that it appears to be due to overexpression of a gene, rather than representing a loss of function mutation. Characterization of mutant and wild-type plants has revealed that sugars inhibit breakdown of seed storage lipids. In addition, high concentrations of exogenous sugars largely eliminate the development of mature chloroplasts by developing seedlings. Affymetrix GeneChip experiments have revealed that expression of many plant genes is partially regulated by sugar levels, with approximately two percent of genes exhibiting alterations in steady-state mRNA levels in response to changing sugar concentrations. Ultimately, a better understanding of plant sugar responses may allow improvements in rates of carbon fixation and manipulation of carbon partitioning. These improvements will be needed to help make production of energy from biomass more economically attractive.

  13. Embedded Fuzzy Module for Sugar Industrial Boiler Parameter Control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hanamane M. D.

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available In sugar industry, past the sugar was main product and bagasse was considered as west and its disposal was the problem. The present paper highlights the design and development of Embedded Fuzzy Module for energy efficiency improvement of bagasse boiler for a sugar factory intended for cogeneration system. The multipurpose boiler considered parameters are Water flow, Steam flow, Amount of fuel and Air flow. The Fuzzy Logic Inference is to find out the desirable amount of fuel (bagasse and Air flow for targeted steam flow. In this paper Embedded Fuzzy Logic Module for improving the steam generation performance as well as saving fuel of boiler in the sugar industry.

  14. GOOD GOVERNANCE: INDIAN CONTEXT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.P.CHAVAN

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Good governance is an indeterminate term used in international development literature to describe how public institutions conduct public affairs and manage public resources. Governances "the process of decision-making and the process by which decisions are implemented or not implemented. The concept of "good governance centers around the responsibility of governments and governing bodies to meet the needs of the masses as opposed to select groups in society. As per the United Nation's Commission on Human Rights, the key attributes of good governance include transparency, responsibility, accountability, participation and responsiveness to the needs of the people. Good governance is thus linked to an enabling environment conducive to the enjoyment of Human Rights and promoting growth and sustainable human development. The expectation of every civil society by its Government is that it would fulfill its commitments and provide an equitable atmosphere contributing to individual's growth. Good governance is epitomized by predictable, open and enlightened policy-making, a bureaucracy imbued with professional culture acting in furtherance of the public good, the rule of law, transparent processes, and a strong civil society participating in public affairs. In Indian constitutional system, every person is entitled to equality before law and equal protection under the law. No person can be deprived of his life or personal liberty except according to the procedure established by law. At present our administration is not like this. In order to have proper administration the lack of confidence has to be removed by building up an image of helpful responsive administration. The bureaucracy has to be reoriented. There are many challenges to Good governance in India but criminalization of Politics and corruption as major challenges to good governance. The media can play the important role in Promoting Good Governance. First of all, the media must be independent and pluralistic. It is time we concentrated on the solutions, rather than identifying faults. Good governance is an ideal which is difficult to achieve in its totality. Very few countries and societies have come close to achieving good governance in its totality. However, to ensure sustainable human development, actions must be taken to work towards this ideal with the aim of making it a reality

  15. Novel cyclic sugar imines: carbohydrate mimics and easily elaborated scaffolds for aza-sugars.

    OpenAIRE

    Davis, BG; Maughan, MA; Chapman, TM; Villard, R; Courtney, S.

    2002-01-01

    [reaction: see text] Representative simple or polyhydroxylated, pyrrolidine (e.g, DRAM) or piperidine (e.g., DNJ) imines not only are potential carbohydrate-processing enzyme inhibitors that may be formed as regioisomeric variants but also are scaffolds that may be rapidly elaborated to diversely functionalized aza-sugars through highly diastereoselective organometallic additions.

  16. Detection of sugar-lectin interactions by multivalent dendritic sugar functionalized single-walled carbon nanotubes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vasu, K. S.; Naresh, K.; Bagul, R. S.; Jayaraman, N.; Sood, A. K.

    2012-07-01

    We show that single walled carbon nanotubes (SWNTs) decorated with sugar functionalized poly (propyl ether imine) (PETIM) dendrimer is a very sensitive platform to quantitatively detect carbohydrate recognizing proteins, namely, lectins. The changes in electrical conductivity of SWNT in field effect transistor device due to carbohydrate-protein interactions form the basis of present study. The mannose sugar attached PETIM dendrimers undergo charge-transfer interactions with the SWNTs. The changes in the conductance of the dendritic sugar functionalized SWNT after addition of lectins in varying concentrations were found to follow the Langmuir type isotherm, giving the concanavalin A (Con A)-mannose affinity constant to be 8.5 × 106 M-1. The increase in the device conductance observed after adding 10 nM of Con A is same as after adding 20 ?M of a non-specific lectin peanut agglutinin, showing the high specificity of the Con A-mannose interactions. The specificity of sugar-lectin interactions was characterized further by observing significant shifts in Raman modes of the SWNTs.

  17. Impact of elevated carbon dioxide and temperature on fresh weight and sugar yield of sugar cane

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seed-piece shoots of four cultivars of sugar cane were transplanted on March 21, 1977 to containers 1.2 m long X 0.6 m wide X 0.6 m deep) in four temperature zones of two temperature-gradient greenhouses at Gainesville, Florida. Each temperature zone had 8 containers. Four containers of each zone ...

  18. Prospects of sugarcane milling waste utilization for hydrogen production in India

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cane-sugar producing countries also generate sufficient waste (bagasse) that is mostly utilized ''on-site'' as a replacement to coal in specialized boilers. In addition to sugar and molasses, about 25% by-product of the cane milling is bagasse that still retains 2.5% sugar on dry wt. basis.This paper deals with the prospects of bagasse fermentation for hydrogen production. It seems relevant, as India and Brazil are the major sugarcane producers in the world. The results obtained confirm bagasse, annually generated to a tune of 40 Mt (million tons) in India, can be diverted from the conventional burning or composting to fermentative hydrogen production in a cost-effective way. The processing cost of bagasse for hydrogen production (3Nm3) equivalent to 1L petrol is about half. The system optimization for accessibility of polysaccharides in bagasse and the use of genetically efficient bacterial strains for agrowaste-based hydrogen production seems the ideal option for clean energy generation

  19. Indian Academy of sciences - Journals

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    indian academy of sciences - journals proceedings - mathematical sciences journal of earth system science (formerly proc. - earth planet. sci.) journal of chemical sciences (formerly proc. - chem. sci.) bulletin of materials science sadhana (engineering sciences) journal of biosciences resonance - journal of science education ...

  20. FIIs in Indian Derivative Markets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mr. Manohar Giri

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available since 1990-91, Government of India startedliberalization and economic reforms with a view of bringingabout substantial economic growth and move towards Theglobalization. As a part of this liberalization process, theGovernment under its New Industrial Policy liberalized itsforeign investment policy recognizing the growingimportance of FDI as an instrument of foreign capital flowand technological development. Government, for the firsttime, permitted foreign institutional investors to invest inIndian capital market through portfolio investments. FromSeptember 14, 1992 with suitable restrictions, FIIs werepermitted to invest in all the securities traded on the primaryand secondary markets, including shares, debentures andwarrants issued by companies which were listed or were tobe listed on the Stock Exchanges in India.Since then FIIs are investing in the different sections ofIndian capital Market. FIIs invest huge amount in differentsections of Indian capital market and there trades make asignificant impact in the movement of stock market as wellas in the growth of the economy.The study of the impact of FIIs trades in Indian Capitalmarket is of vital importance for investors as well aseconomists

  1. Indian Academy of Sciences - Memorandum

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    indian academy of sciences - memorandum history | memorandum 1. to promote the progress and uphold the cause of science, both in pure and applied branches. having similar objects and with others when founded. 3. to encourage and publish important researches in the branches of science comprehended by the academy and to 4. to undertake, cont ...

  2. Indian Academy of Sciences - General

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    science and technology science and technology have been an integral part of indian civilization and culture. india?s traditions in science and technology stretch over several millenia and have been founded on the principle of universal harmony and independence, india and its people have been committed to the task of promoting the spread of science and have ...

  3. MARCELIN BERTHELOT AND INDIAN ALCHEMY

    OpenAIRE

    Rosu, Arion

    1986-01-01

    Based on unpublished manuscripts, the article reveals the keen interest shown by Marcelin Berthelot in Indian alchemy. The French Savant has actually inspired and encouraged the first historical research in this field, undertaken at the end of the last century, in Calcutta, by the Bengali scientist Prafulla Chandra Ray.

  4. Indian Academy of Sciences - General

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    ms sandra rajiva, editorial support sandra@iiap.ernet.in student and journal of the indian mathematical dr s. krishnan, head, scientific and management mr g. chandramohan, editorial support, pramana chandra@ias.ernet.in mrs vijaya shukre, computer and website support ...

  5. Social Policy and American Indians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanson, Wynne DuBray; Purcell, Patrick Frances

    The purpose of the monograph is to provide schools of social work and their teachers with a central core of information concerning the policy and provisions of law that affect American Indians. The core information is selective and is presented in seven chapters. The first chapter provides a brief historical overview of the unique relationship…

  6. Indian Academy of Sciences - Fellowship

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    indian academy of sciences - fellowship fellows | past fellows | --> past honorary fellows   fellowship the process of election of fellows is described in the statutes.to retrieve lists and profiles of fellows use the appropriate link or the search facility below. present fellowsfounding fellowswomen fellows (also see women in science pages) | fell ...

  7. Indian Academy of Sciences - Fellowship

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    indian academy of sciences - fellowship fellows | past fellows     fellowship the process of election of fellows is described in the statutes.to retrieve lists and profiles of fellows use the appropriate link or the search facility below. all fellowsfounding fellowswomen fellows (also see women in science pages) | fellowship | associates ...

  8. Indian Academy of Sciences - Fellowship

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    indian academy of sciences - fellowship fellows | past fellows | --> past honorary fellows   fellowship the process of election of fellows is described in the statutes.to retrieve lists and profiles of fellows use the appropriate link or the search facility below. all fellowsfounding fellowswomen fellows (also see women in science pages) | fellowsh ...

  9. 78 FR 54908 - Indian Gaming

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-06

    ...Wiyot Trust Fund established by the State under this Compact and the compact between the State of California-North Fork Rancheria of Mono Indians. In exchange for these payments, the Tribe agrees to forgo operation of Class III gaming on its...

  10. ATLAS Visit of Indian President

    CERN Document Server

    IT-UDS Audiovisual Services

    2005-01-01

    Welcomed by CERN's Director General, Robert Aymar, the President of India Dr. A.P.J. Abdul Kalam visited the LHC tunnel, the ATLAS experimental cavern and the test facility for the LHC magnets. There the President had the chance to meet Indian scientists working at CERN.

  11. Indian Academy of Sciences - Contact

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    indian academy of sciences - contact /*these are the link style definitions.*/ a.navbar:link { color: #ffffff; font-family: arial, helvetica, sans-serif; font-size: 12px; font-weight: normal; text-decoration: none} office staff    about   initiatives                   ...

  12. Time Cycles in Indian Cosmology

    CERN Document Server

    Narayan, R H

    2007-01-01

    In this article we review some key time cycles in ancient Indian astronomy, especially those that have emerged from researches in the past couple of decades expressing knowledge of the changing frame of earth's axis. The article also briefly reviews the philosophy related to the interconnection between the inner and the outer cosmos that was used in the analytical narrative related to this astronomy.

  13. INDIAN CULTURE THROUGTH BRITHISH EYES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ARPITA DAUD

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Representation of Indian Culture by the British Eye through literature, “APassage To India” by E.M. Forster is the best example of it.The title itself is symbolic- “Passage” is symbolic of “link” or “connection”,so by giving the title “A Passage to India”, E.M. Forster advocates for a link orconnection between Anglo-Indians and the natives of India. India in the novel stands notmerely for as country but also for a mystifying pattern of art and life for what the Englishcall a “muddle” which they cannot comprehend through their arid rationalism andintellectualism. In other words, India is symbolic of EMOTION.Forster visited India in1912-13 and 1921. He has recalled some of the impressions. “A Passage to India” wonthe Femina Vie Heuresue and Tait Black Memorial prizes. “A Passage to India” – tocome India, to understand India and the Indians. The novel is a study of the relationshipthat these women try to establish with Indians … and how they fail.

  14. 76 FR 64839 - Sugar Program; Feedstock Flexibility Program for Bioenergy Producers

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-19

    ...products such as beet thick juice or cane syrup are eligible. Since the program...sugar beets, in- process sugars, or molasses. As an alternative, CCC could allow...sugar beets, in-process sugars, or molasses; and (2) Sugar must have been...

  15. Palm Oil Milling Wastes and Sustainable Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. C. Er

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: Palm oil milling generates solid wastes, effluent and gaseous emissions. The aim of this study is to assess the progress made in waste management by the Malaysian palm oil milling sector towards the path of sustainable development. Sustainable development is defined as the utilization of renewable resources in harmony with ecological systems. Inclusive in this definition is the transition from low value-added to higher value-added transformation of wastes into resources. Approach: A longitudinal study was carried out from 2003-2010 via, initially a field survey and subsequently a key informant approach with observation as a complementation for both. Results: Solid wastes, inclusive of solid wastes derived from air emissions and palm oil mil effluent, have a utility function with zero wastage. The principal source of effluent is palm oil mill effluent. Treated palm oil mill effluent is utilized for cropland application by plantation-based palm oil mills. However, independent mills discharge treated palm oil mill effluent in accordance to environmental parameters into receiving waterways. Methane is also released by palm oil mill effluent. Biogas from palm oil mill effluent and biomass energy from solid wastes are potential sources of renewable energy in Malaysia. Conclusion: In general, the wastes from palm oil milling are returned to the field for cropland application, utilized in-house or in the plantation, or sold to third parties. Thus, there is progress made towards sustainable development. The addition of new technologies and replacement of old mills will help to reduce the carbon footprint. However, at this juncture, the feed-in tariff for renewable energy is not financially attractive. If the biogas and biomass renewable energy sector were to take-off, enhancement in the value chain would occur and in tandem further progress towards sustainable development can be attained.

  16. Sugar and Spice and all things nice? Assessing the Impact of the 2006 EU sugar regime reforms

    OpenAIRE

    Renwick, Alan; Revoredo Giha, Cesar; Philippidis, George; Bourne, Michael Geoffrey; Reader, Mark; Lang, Ben

    2012-01-01

    This paper investigates the economic impacts of the reforms both on the EU sugar sector but also more globally and examines the intended and unintended consequences of the reforms. This provides insights into the likely impacts of the further reforms proposed for 2015 – namely the removal of sugar beet quotas within the EU. We find, in line with other studies that whilst the reforms have improved the economic efficiency of the EU sugar sector the nature of the reform process has meant that ...

  17. Endoplasmic Reticulum/Golgi Nucleotide Sugar Transporters Contribute to the Cellular Release of UDP-sugar Signaling Molecules*S?

    OpenAIRE

    Sesma, Juliana I.; Esther, Charles R.; Kreda, Silvia M.; Jones, Lisa; O'Neal, Wanda; Nishihara, Shoko; Nicholas, Robert A.; Lazarowski, Eduardo R.

    2009-01-01

    Extracellular UDP-sugars promote cellular responses by interacting with widely distributed P2Y14 receptors, but the mechanisms by which these molecules are released from cells are poorly understood. Given the active role of UDP-sugars in glycosylation reactions within the secretory pathway, we hypothesized that UDP-sugar release includes an exocytotic component. This hypothesis was tested by assessing the contribution of endoplasmic reticulum (ER)/Golgi-resident UDP-Gl...

  18. On Yang-Mills fields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The author tries to give an expository account of the most significant recent development in global nonlinear partial differential equations arising in quantum field theory namely that of the classification of the self dual Yang-Mills equations of motion. The author addresses the questions: (1) what scientific problem led to the nonlinear equation; (2) what methods have provided the solution; (3) are these methods applicable to other fields; (4) how does nonlinearity show itself in the special properties of the solutions; and (5) do the solutions really shed light on the original scientific question. (Auth.)

  19. Concrete images of the sugar content in sugar-sweetened beverages reduces attraction to and selection of these beverages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, John Milton; Hart, William; Gilmer, Lauren; Lloyd-Richardson, Elizabeth E; Burton, K Alex

    2014-12-01

    In the present research, we offer a novel method for informing consumers about the sugar content in sugar-sweetened beverages (SSBs). With a series of experiments, we present evidence that this method curbs preference for SSBs and leads to more negative attitudes toward SSBs. We propose that people view SSBs more negatively and show less preference for SSBs when they are able to concretely visualize the quantity of sugar in SSBs. For example, we suggest that people might have more negative views toward the idea of consuming 28 sugar cubes (concrete information), compared to consuming "70g" of sugar (abstract information). Indeed, we found that, without any intervention, people struggle to convert sugar grams into a concrete, physical sugar representation (Experiment 1). But, when people are provided ways to convert abstract sugar-nutrition information into a concrete representation, they find SSBs less attractive (Experiment 2) and are less likely to select SSBs in favor of sugar-free beverage options (Experiments 3 and 4). These findings offer direct applications to the design of public-health messages and nutrition-education interventions. Such applications might benefit society in its battle with the obesity epidemic. PMID:25108238

  20. Effects of sugar feeding on lipid, glycogen, and total sugar levels of a female parasitoid, Bracon hebetor (Say) (Hymenoptera: Braconidae)

    OpenAIRE

    Gu?ndu?z, Eylem Akman; Gu?lel, Adem; Is?itan, O?zgu?r Varer; Boz, Ali; Cesur, O?zlem

    2010-01-01

    The goal of this study was to compare the lipid, glycogen, and total sugar levels in completely starved (no water or sugar provided), honey-fed, sucrose-fed, or sugar-starved (only water provided) females of the parasitoid Bracon hebetor (Say) (Hymenoptera: Braconidae). We also quantified the lipid, glycogen, and total sugar levels in newly emerged unfed (day 0) female (n = 30) wasps. The mean amounts of reserves obtained from these females were regarded as a standard for the initial amount o...

  1. Potassium nutrition and translocation in sugar beet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conti, T R; Geiger, D R

    1982-07-01

    The effect of increased net foliar K(+) accumulation on translocation of carbon was studied in sugar beet (Beta vulgaris, L. var. Klein E and US H20) plants. Net accumulation of recently absorbed K(+) was studied by observing arrival of (42)K(+) per unit area of leaf. Labeled K(+) was added to give an initial concentration at 2 or 10 millimolar K(+) in mineral nutrient solution. Because the newly arrived K(+) constitutes a small part of the total leaf K(+) in plants raised in 10 millimolar K(+), export of (42)K(+) by phloem was negligible over the 2- to 3-day period; consequently, accumulation is a measure of arrival in the xylem. In leaves from plants in 2 millimolar K(+), export by the phloem was estimated to be of the same order as import by the xylem; K(+) per area was observed to remain at a steady-state level. Increasing the supply of K(+) to 10 millimolar caused arrival in the xylem to increase 2- to 3-fold; K(+) per area increased gradually in the mature leaves. Neither net carbon exchange nor translocation of sugar increased in response to a faster rate of arrival of K(+) over a 6- to 8-hour period. In the absence of short-term effects, it is suggested that K(+)-promoted increase in synthetic metabolism may be the basis of the increased carbon assimilation and translocation in plants supplied with an above-minimal level of K(+). PMID:16662439

  2. Sugar cane bagasse prehydrolysis using hot water

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Abril

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Results are presented on the hot water prehydrolysis of sugar cane bagasse for obtaining ethanol by fermentation. The experimental study consisted of the determination of the effect of temperature and time of prehydrolysis on the extraction of hemicelluloses, with the objective of selecting the best operating conditions that lead to increased yield of extraction with a low formation of inhibitors. The study, carried out in a pilot plant scale rotational digester, using a 3² experimental design at temperatures of 150-190ºC and times of 60-90 min, showed that it is possible to perform the hot water prehydrolysis process between 180-190ºC in times of 60-82 min, yielding concentrations of xylose > 35 g/L, furfural < 2.5 g/L, phenols from soluble lignin < 1.5 g/L, and concentrations < 3.0 g/L of hemicelluloses in the cellolignin residue. These parameters of temperature and prehydrolysis time could be used for the study of the later hydrolysis and fermentation stages of ethanol production from sugar cane bagasse.

  3. Effect of Green Tea Consumption on Selected Metabolic Biomarkers in Asian Indian Women with Metabolic Syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kasturi Sen Ray

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Evidence for benefits of anti-oxidative power of polyphenols in cardiovascular diseases has been established. In the present study, effect of polyphenol rich green tea on selected metabolic biomarkers among Asian Indian women with metabolic syndrome in normal free living condition has been recorded. Thirty three Asian Indian women (>30 y confirmed as having metabolic syndrome, were enrolled for the present study based on written informed consent. Subjects were asked to consume three cups of green tea daily for a period of four months. Regular telephonic contact and periodic visit to supply the tea were made to ensure compliance with the intervention and maintenance of lifestyle and dietary pattern, as followed before the experimental period. Parameters analyzed at baseline have been used as control data to eliminate individual variation. Double-blind analysis of selected metabolic markers was done at baseline, 2 months and 4 months of the intervention period. At four months, a significant reduction from baseline was observed in weight (2%, waist circumference (4.5%, blood sugar (4%, glycosylated hemoglobin (4%, total cholesterol (11% and LDL cholesterol (13% (p < 0.01. The effect of green tea consumption on BMI, fasting insulin, HDL cholesterol, triglyceride, VLDL, C-reactive protein and homocysteine levels was either inconsistent or non significant. The present study showed that green tea consumption by free living subjects with metabolic syndrome resulted in significant improvements in some of the cardiovascular risk factors including visceral fat, blood sugar and cholesterol level.

  4. Sugar-Mineral Interactions and the Origins of Life

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kubista, L. M.; Cleaves, H. J.

    2007-12-01

    Sugars may have been necessary for the origin of life, specifically in the initial abiological synthesis of RNA. One possible mechanism sugars could have formed on the primitive Earth is the formose reaction, the base-catalyzed polymerization of HCHO. This reaction provides a plethora of sugar products, none of them in particularly high yield relative to the others. Ribose, and its derivative deoxyribose, are the only sugars used in biological nucleic acids, if the formose reaction or something similar was responsible for the initial synthesis of sugars for biology, there must have been some mechanism by which ribose was selectively concentrated in the environment. It is hypothesized that stereochemistry of sugar molecules and their interaction with surrounding minerals may have provided one such mechanism. A formose solution was synthesized through the polymerization of formaldehyde. A technique was developed for the fluorescent derivitization of these sugars using dansyl-hydrazine. The derivitized sugars were then analyzed using an HPLC with UV-vis and fluorescence detection. To see if mineral-sugar interactions could provide some selectivity during fluid migration, formose mixtures were run through mineral columns (CaCO3 or beach sand (mostly quartz)) and the eluant was analyzed. There did appear to be some mild differences in the migration patterns of the various components. Since formose reactions typically must occur in concentrated solution, whereas the bulk concentration of HCHO in the primitive oceans was likely rather low, the eutectic synthesis of sugars, both in the presence and absence of Al2O3 and CaCO3, was performed to determine whether HCHO can be concentrated and reacted via this mechanism. This research provides a procedure for further study of mineral and sugar interactions.

  5. Child Labor in the Cotton Mills

    Science.gov (United States)

    Documenting the American South

    2012-04-03

    In this lesson, students read two primary source documents on the subject of child labor in Southern cotton mills during the early twentieth century and listen to excerpts of oral histories from mill workers. In a critical analysis, students will identify the audiences for both documents and the motivations and intent of its authors, as well as examine the historical importance of each document.

  6. Radiological health aspects of uranium milling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report describes the operation of conventional and unconventional uranium milling processes, the potential for occupational exposure to ionizing radiation at the mill, methods for radiological safety, methods of evaluating occupational radiation exposures, and current government regulations for protecting workers and ensuring that standards for radiation protection are adhered to. In addition, a survey of current radiological health practices is summarized

  7. Airborne effluent control at uranium mills

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sears, M.B.

    1976-01-01

    The Oak Ridge National Laboratory has made an engineering cost--environmental benefit study of radioactive waste treatment systems for decreasing the amount of radioactive materials released from uranium ore processing mills. This paper summarizes the results of the study which pertain to the control and/or abatement of airborne radioactive materials from the mill processes. The tailings area is not included. Present practices in the uranium milling industry, with particular emphasis on effluent control and waste management, have been surveyed. A questionnaire was distributed to each active mill in the United States. Replies were received from about 75 percent of the mill operators. Visits were made to six operating uranium mills that were selected because they represented the different processes in use today and the newest, most modern in mill designs. Discussions were held with members of the Region IV Office of NRC and the Grand Junction Office of ERDA. Nuclear Science Abstracts, as well as other sources, were searched for literature pertinent to uranium mill processes, effluent control, and waste management.

  8. Airborne effluent control at uranium mills

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Oak Ridge National Laboratory has made an engineering cost--environmental benefit study of radioactive waste treatment systems for decreasing the amount of radioactive materials released from uranium ore processing mills. This paper summarizes the results of the study which pertain to the control and/or abatement of airborne radioactive materials from the mill processes. The tailings area is not included. Present practices in the uranium milling industry, with particular emphasis on effluent control and waste management, have been surveyed. A questionnaire was distributed to each active mill in the United States. Replies were received from about 75 percent of the mill operators. Visits were made to six operating uranium mills that were selected because they represented the different processes in use today and the newest, most modern in mill designs. Discussions were held with members of the Region IV Office of NRC and the Grand Junction Office of ERDA. Nuclear Science Abstracts, as well as other sources, were searched for literature pertinent to uranium mill processes, effluent control, and waste management

  9. Cost optimization of stirred ball mill grinding

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schultz, C.W.; Mehta, R.K. [Alabama Univ., University, AL (United States). Mineral Resources Inst.

    1991-12-31

    On going research at the University of Alabama has shown that stirred ball mill grinding is the highest cost unit operation in the beneficiation of Eastern Oil Shales. Minimization of that cost is critical if oils derived by beneficiation and hydroretorting of Eastern shales are to become an economic alternative to conventional crude oils. Cost optimization of stirred ball milling is a substantially different problem than optimizing a conventional (tumbling) mill operation. For conventional mills minimum cost is virtually synonymous with minimum energy consumption. Because the technology is mature and well understood, the operator can predictably optimize within a very narrow range of operating conditions. In contrast, stirred ball milling offers the operator several more ``degrees of freedom`` in selecting operating conditions. An example is the selection of rotor speed. In general, lower speeds result in lower energy consumption per ton of material ground but at the cost of reduced mill capacity per unit volume. Because stirred ball mills have a high capital cost per unit volume the trade off between energy consumption and capacity becomes critical. This paper presents a generalized total cost mode for stirred ball milling and examines data generated in the grinding of oil shales in terms of the model. The paper also discuss the role of the cost model in guiding future research in grinding circuit optimization.

  10. Cost optimization of stirred ball mill grinding

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schultz, C.W.; Mehta, R.K. (Alabama Univ., University, AL (United States). Mineral Resources Inst.)

    1991-01-01

    On going research at the University of Alabama has shown that stirred ball mill grinding is the highest cost unit operation in the beneficiation of Eastern Oil Shales. Minimization of that cost is critical if oils derived by beneficiation and hydroretorting of Eastern shales are to become an economic alternative to conventional crude oils. Cost optimization of stirred ball milling is a substantially different problem than optimizing a conventional (tumbling) mill operation. For conventional mills minimum cost is virtually synonymous with minimum energy consumption. Because the technology is mature and well understood, the operator can predictably optimize within a very narrow range of operating conditions. In contrast, stirred ball milling offers the operator several more degrees of freedom'' in selecting operating conditions. An example is the selection of rotor speed. In general, lower speeds result in lower energy consumption per ton of material ground but at the cost of reduced mill capacity per unit volume. Because stirred ball mills have a high capital cost per unit volume the trade off between energy consumption and capacity becomes critical. This paper presents a generalized total cost mode for stirred ball milling and examines data generated in the grinding of oil shales in terms of the model. The paper also discuss the role of the cost model in guiding future research in grinding circuit optimization.

  11. Preliminary Test of Upgraded Conventional Milling Machine into PC Based CNC Milling Machine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    CNC (Computerized Numerical Control) milling machine yields a challenge to make an innovation in the field of machining. With an action job is machining quality equivalent to CNC milling machine, the conventional milling machine ability was improved to be based on PC CNC milling machine. Mechanically and instrumentally change. As a control replacing was conducted by servo drive and proximity were used. Computer programme was constructed to give instruction into milling machine. The program structure of consists GUI model and ladder diagram. Program was put on programming systems called RTX software. The result of up-grade is computer programming and CNC instruction job. The result was beginning step and it will be continued in next time. With upgrading ability milling machine becomes user can be done safe and optimal from accident risk. By improving performance of milling machine, the user will be more working optimal and safely against accident risk. (author)

  12. Indian Sports Nicknames/Logos: Affective Difference between American Indian and Non-Indian College Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    LaRocque, Angela R.; McDonald, J. Douglas; Weatherly, Jeffrey N.; Ferraro, F. Richard

    2011-01-01

    The use of American Indian (AI) words and images in athletic teams' nicknames, logos, and mascots remains a controversial issue. This study investigated the emotional impact of the University of North Dakota's "Fighting Sioux" nickname/logo on 33 AI and 36 majority culture (MC) students enrolled at the university. Participants completed the…

  13. Analysis and estimative of the economic impacts of the investment on the sugar-cane plant implementation; Analise e estimativa dos impactos economicos do investimento na implementacao de usinas de cana-de-acucar

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Terciote, Ricardo [Universidade Estadual de Campinas (UNICAMP), SP (Brazil). Faculdade de Engenharia Mecanica]. E-mail: rterciote@yahoo.com

    2006-07-01

    The sugar industry goes through an important moment: invest and develop to supply future demand, mainly by fuel alcohol (around 70% of new vehicles sales are from flex fuel models - and the majority of these vehicles are supplied by alcohol). Due to this foreseeable increase of alcohol demand, sugar industry has already announced 41 new projects, which will contribute with the milling of 70 million tons of sugar cane by the conclusion of these plants. In this phase of expansion, the alcohol market must be pressured for the demand, managing the supplying of the domestic and external markets. With this scenario and the possibility of sector growth which has an important role in Brazil development, this work evaluates the economic impacts of the new plants implementation investments. (author)

  14. Uranium mill ore dust characterization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cascade impactor and general air ore dust measurements were taken in a uranium processing mill in order to characterize the airborne activity, the degree of equilibrium, the particle size distribution and the respirable fraction for the 238U chain nuclides. The sampling locations were selected to limit the possibility of cross contamination by airborne dusts originating in different process areas of the mill. The reliability of the modified impactor and measurement techniques was ascertained by duplicate sampling. The results reveal no significant deviation from secular equilibrium in both airborne and bulk ore samples for the 234U and 230Th nuclides. In total airborne dust measurements, the 226Ra and 210Pb nuclides were found to be depleted by 20 and 25%, respectively. Bulk ore samples showed depletions of 10% for the 226Ra and 210Pb nuclides. Impactor samples show disequilibrium of 226Ra as high as +-50% for different size fractions. In these samples the 226Ra ratio was generally found to increase as particle size decreased. Activity median aerodynamic diameters of the airborne dusts ranged from 5 to 30 ?m with a median diameter of 11 ?m. The maximum respirable fraction for the ore dusts, based on the proposed International Commission on Radiological Protection's (ICRP) definition of pulmonary deposition, was < 15% of the total airborne concentration. Ore dust parameters calculated for impactor duplicate samples were found to be in excellent agreement

  15. “Impact of Irrigation Scheme on Agricultural Development - A study of Krishna Sugar Factory Irrigation Scheme Rethare Bk. Satara District , Maharashtra State”

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajhans Snehal Makarand

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available India is the most extensively irrigated country in the world. The problem of Indian agriculture is mainly the water supply. Water is indispensable to agricultural production. In areas where rainfall is well distributed throught the year, there is no problem. But in uncertain rainfall areas irrigation is quite essention for cultivation. For the sugarcane cultivation there is requirement of regular supply of water. Because of this Krishna Sugar Factory established a Krishna Irrigation Scheme in 1967. The objective of this paper is to studythe role of Irrigation Scheme in agricultural development. Basically the entire study is based on secondary data. The Krishna Irrigation Scheme is developed in the Karad, Walwa,

  16. Concentraciones agroazucareras de Camagüey. Condicionantes de su consolidación territorial / Sugar cane Agro-industries Concentrations. Conditioning factors of territorial consolidation

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Gerson, Herrera Pupo.

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Determinadas condicionantes posibilitaron que la agroindustria azucarera cubana se desarrollara de forma singular y con carácter monumental en determinadas regiones. El Camagüey: la provincia más despoblada hacia inicios del siglo XX, presentaba características geográficas peculiares, que unidas a d [...] eterminadas condiciones históricas facilitaron la creación de un entramado agrícola e industrial dedicado a la caña de azúcar de dimensiones significativas. En el presente artículo se muestran los resultados de una investigación dedicada a la identificación de las condiciones históricas vinculadas a la construcción de los centrales azucareros y sus áreas de influencia, así como a la estructuración del territorio a partir de su ocupación. Con el uso de las técnicas tradicionales para la obtención de información y el análisis gráfico de los resultados, se elaboraron esquemas de las concentraciones agroazucareras en el territorio, los que permitieron identificar un sistema de ejes de crecimiento, los cuales fueron ordenando el área geográfica de la antigua provincia. Abstract in english A variety of singular factors have shaped the development of the Cuban sugar industry, and they have left distinct regional imprints across the island. Camaguey, one of the most under-populated provinces at the turn of the 20th century, had unique regional geographic conditions that contributed to t [...] he growth of sugar-cane production. This paper identifies those conditions as they shaped the construction of sugar mills and their surrounding hinterlands. Clusters of sugar-cane production are identified through traditional archival work and graphic analysis. Findings show a clear pattern of axes of growth which gave structure to the province.

  17. John Stuart Mill and gender violence: weaknesses and strengths of Mill’s thought

    OpenAIRE

    Gil Ruiz, Juana Mari?a

    2005-01-01

    Hoy, tanto como ayer, la violencia de género sigue erigiéndose en lacra social por antonomasia, constitutyendo una de las principales causas de muerte y agresión de mujeres en el mundo según el último informe de la Organización Mundial de la Salud. De hecho, la preocupación por los malos tratos aparece más que presente a lo largo de la obra de los Mill, lo que viene a demostrar que cuando hablamos de violencia de género no hablamos de un fenómeno social nuevo, propio del contexto de...

  18. The Yang-Mills field strength revisited

    CERN Document Server

    Marateck, Samuel L

    2007-01-01

    The Yang-Mills field strength incorporating a non-abelian feature is one of the corner-stones of the standard model. It is based on Yang's formulation of the gauge transformation of what is now known as the Yang-Mills field. We show that, given this gauge transformation and the similarity transformation of the field strength, the derivation of the field strength is fairly straight-forward. To wit, Section 5 describes how to derive the Yang-Mills field strength using this approach. The preceding sections cover material relating to the derivation. Section 3 shows where Pauli in the article cited by Yang and Mills gives an expression for the electro-magnetic field strength in terms of a commutator. For some reason, Yang and Mills did not use this approach.}

  19. Improvement of the supply chain for the sugar cane exportation process employing discrete events simulation techniques - doi: 10.4025/actascitechnol.v35i4.17468

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Alejandra Guerrero Hernandez

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Current paper proposes a reduction on all logistic costs involved in the sugar cane exportation process for an important medium-size cargo harbor in South America. The strategy consisted in studying and improving the efficiency of the logistics transportation flow of merchandise between the sugar cane mills and the cargo ports by employing discrete events simulation as a methodology and the ProModel software as a simulation platform. The simulated scenarios show 89% reductions in additional costs for inventory management; 50% of the resources used for loading the containers; and an 11.4% increment in the efficiency of operations. In addition, the new planning strategy was also evaluated with either a positive or negative variation of the demand. It should be underscored that the improved scenarios (out of those simulated do not involve investments in facilities or in machinery purchasing.  

  20. Optimization of alpha-amylase application in raw sugar manufacture

    Science.gov (United States)

    In recent years there have been warnings by some U.S. refineries that there may be a penalty for high starch concentration sin raw sugar if starch control is not improved. Most commercial alpha-amylases used by the U.S. sugar industry to control starch have intermediate temperature stability (up to...