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Maharashtra's Mega Sugar Mill Cogen Project  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The Mega Sugar Mill Cogeneration Power Project involving sugar mills in the Indian state of Maharashtra's is led by the Maharashtra State Federation of Co-operative Sugar Mills Ltd (Sakhar Sangh) and MITCON. The Project, which aims to implement cogeneration projects at 55-60 sugar mills by October 2005, has the backing of national agencies and financial institutions. The criteria for mill selection, the three options for participating mills, the potential power generation and the support provided by Sakhar Sangh and MITCON are explained. Some of the mills that have started work are named. The difficulties in establishing cogeneration projects in India are summarised in a side box.

Matu, Sunil [MITCON, New Delhi (India)

2001-04-01

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Bioremediation of Sugar Mill Effluent Using a Bacteria Staphylococcus aureus  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Industrial pollution has been and continues to be a major factor causing the degradation of the environment around us, affecting the water we use, the air we breathe and the soil we live on. Among the various industries, sugar mill is one of the largest and most important agro based industries in India. The sugar industry is playing an important role in the economic development of the Indian sub continent, but the effluents released produce a high degree of organic pollution in both aquatic and terrestrial ecosystems. They also alter the physico-chemical characteristics of the receiving aquatic bodies and affect aquatic flora and fauna. Bioremediation of sugar-mill industrial effluents by microorganisms serves as an effective method to substitute the conventional recovery and removal process. In the present study, attempt has been made to isolate the native bacteria present in the sugar mill effluent collected from the Cheyyiar Co-operative Sugar Mills Ltd., Thiruvannamalai District and were tested for their individual bioremedial efficiency. The Staphylococcus aureus were capable of bringing about the bioremediation of Sugarmill effluent in the different concentration (Effluent different dilution+bacteria), (Effluent+different density of bacteria), (different pH of effluent+bacteria). It has been identified in terms of measuring their percentage of reduction potentials of parameters such as pH, EC, TDS, OD, BOD and COD. Maximum biodegrading potentials have been observed in the case of bacteria Staphylococcus aureus in all the different studies. i.e., pH(-52.77%), EC(24.47%), TDS(24.44%), BOD(70.32%) and COD(64.28%) amongst all. This result suggests that this can be recommended for treating various effluents.

Buvaneswari.S; Damodarkumar.S; Murugesan.S

2013-01-01

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Indian sugar industry: A key driver of rural development of Maharashtra  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The Indian sugar industry is a key driver of rural development. The industry is supporting over 50 millionfarmers and their families, along with workers and entrepreneurs almost 550 sugar mills. Sugar is a sector ofsignificant importance to the national economy. Maharashtra produces about 36 percent of the total sugar producedin the country and rank second next to Uttar Pradesh. The development of sugar co-operatives in Maharashtra is dueto the favourable policy of government regarding the prices of sugar and sugarcane. The Co-operative sugarindustry has been playing an important role in the development of rural Maharashtra. In recent years, sugarcaneproduction has decelerated to a great extent due to water and power shortage. Special attention is needed to be givenon water resource management. Adequate and regular power supply to sugarcane growers and sugar factorieswould increase production and productivity. To enhance share of Indian sugar industry in global trade, quality andquantity of sugar needs to be enhanced.

Vrushali Balbhimrao Kute And R. P. Patil

2013-01-01

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Indian Americans at Mille Lacs.  

Science.gov (United States)

|The Training Center for Community Programs prepared a report on the Mille Lacs (Chippewa) Reservation in Minnesota. Data for the report were from 2 separate sources: a survey conducted by the Training Center with the assistance of the Mille Lacs community action program (1967) and an attitudinal survey conducted by Victoria Holbert during 1969.…

Holbert, Victoria L.; And Others

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Sugar cane mill facilities for the extraction of sugar from sugar cane  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

A sugar cane mill facility for the extraction with imbibition of sugar from sugar cane. This mill is characterized by the fact that it includes a fourth roller placed in front of the upper roller, against which it presses and, above the inlet roller and mounted on a mobile support, means acting upon the said support in order to flexibly push the fourth roller towards the upper roller, adjustable stops hindering these two rollers from coming together, and a trash plate placed between the fourth roller and the inlet roller integral with the said mobile support. The juices extracted by pressure between the upper roller and the fourth roller can be recycled to the bagasse layer feeding the mill, either with the juices which have passed through this layer, or with the juices extracted by pressure between the upper roller and the inlet and outlet rollers.

GEORGET JEAN-PIERRE

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Valuation of a Mexican Sugar Mill and Driving Value Factors  

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Full Text Available This paper includes the methodology used to construct a financial cash flow and perform a valuation using the discounted cash flow analysis for a hypothetical Mexican sugar mill. The objective is to incorporate to the valuation model the most significant variables that are relevant to the sugar production process as well as the operational and financial factors of a common sugar mill which are driven by the current legislation in terms of sugarcane pricing and labor costs. It also includes some macroeconomic variables that determine price for sugar, long term costs and the discount rates. With the financial model determined, we use Monte Carlo simulation in order to obtain a probabilistic distribution for the value of the sugar mill and finally we perform a sensitivity analysis to obtain the main variables that affect the resulting enterprise value. The model is constructed on data available for three sugar mills, but the cost structure will not change among other sugar mills, due to regulation and local market conditions; however, the model could be used for any mill by substituting the variables for each case.

Carlos Acosta Calzado

2011-01-01

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Thermoeconomic analysis of a Cuban sugar cane mill  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Cogeneration is usual practice in sugar-cane mills. In this work, thermoeconomic analysis is applied to the cogeneration system of a typical Cuban sugar-cane mill. Two different cost attribution methods, the extraction method and the equality method are used to evaluate the exergetic and monetary (operational) costs of each flux within the system, especially the steam and generated power. The methodology indicates the equipment responsible for the greatest irreversibility and for the increase in the costs of the products of the system. (author)

Del Campo, E.R.B. [Universidad de Oriente, Santiago de Cuba (Cuba). Centro de Estudio de Eficiencia Energetica]|[FEM, UNICAMP, Campinas (Brazil). Departamento de Energia; Da Gama Cerqueira, S.A.A. [FUNREI, Sao Joao del Rei (Brazil). Departamento de Mecanica]|[FEM, UNICAMP, Campinas (Brazil). Departamento de Energia; Nebra, S.A. [FEM, UNICAMP, Campinas (Brazil). Departamento de Energia

1998-12-31

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Microalgae continuous culture on pretreated cane sugar mill wastes  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The cultivation of algae can be considered as a suitable tertiary treatment process for sugar cane waste, giving a usable product, algae biomass. The laboratory models of these biological treatments were fed by settled waste waters from the mill. The effluents were inoculated with Chlorella vulgaris SP/2, 1977 and treated in plastic models of algae ponds.

Traviesa Cordoba, L.; Benitez Echegoyen, F.

1987-01-01

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Power Factor Improvement in a Sugar Mill: An Analysis  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available To reduce losses in the distribution system, and toreduce the electricity bill, power factor correction, usually in theform of capacitors, is added to neutralize as much of themagnetizing current as possible..To improve the power factor insugar mill, it is required to install the capacitors of requiredcapacitor ratings as near to the load as possible. This paperreports a case of sugar mill where the induction motors having apower factor of 0.8 has a potential to improve the power factor to0.95, by installing suitable power factor improvement capacitors.

Neena Malhotra; Shivani Sehgal

2012-01-01

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Ergonomic design applied in a sugar mill interface  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Abstract in english In tasks requiring human supervision in an industrial control room there are applied generic disciplines like automatic control and engineering systems. From the point of view of the human computer interaction applied to these disciplines it is necessary to add usability engineering and cognitive ergonomics. This integrated framework is an example of human-centred design on automation systems. The main goal of this work is the application of a cognitive ergonomic guideline for supervisory control in order to improve the efficiency of a sugar mill interface design.

Ponsa, P.; Amante, B.; Díaz, M.

2010-03-01

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Ergonomic design applied in a sugar mill interface  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In tasks requiring human supervision in an industrial control room there are applied generic disciplines like automatic control and engineering systems. From the point of view of the human computer interaction applied to these disciplines it is necessary to add usability engineering and cognitive ergonomics. This integrated framework is an example of human-centred design on automation systems. The main goal of this work is the application of a cognitive ergonomic guideline for supervisory control in order to improve the efficiency of a sugar mill interface design.

P. Ponsa; B. Amante; M. Díaz

2010-01-01

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Optimal distribution of recycle juice in an integrated sugar mill-ethanol plant  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Ethanol plants in Cuba are integrated with sugar mills to make use of excess steam and to convert sugar juice into ethanol. This paper presents the result of a techno-economic evaluation which examined many alternative strategies for the integration of sugar mills and ethanol plants. The alternative methods focused on the percentage of recycled sugar juice sent to the ethanol plant, because the volume of juice directly affects the steam demand in the sugar mill and the availability of steam for the ethanol plant. The total ethanol production is fixed, therefore, the total steam demand for the ethanol plan is constant. Steam is generated in the sugar mill by burning bagasse in a cogeneration plant. Additional electricity is bought from the power grid. The steam generated in the ethanol plant is produced by burning fuel oil in a boiler. The economic analysis was based on heat and material balance of the sugar mills. It was shown that the unit cost of production of crude sugar was reduced by 4.9 per cent when all the recycled juice was sent to the ethanol plant.

Soriano, R.C. [Centre of Energy and Industrial Process, Sancti Spritus (Cuba); Douglas, P.L. [Waterloo Univ., ON (Canada); Suarez, E.G. [Univ. of Cuba at Las Villas, Las Villas (Cuba). Dept. of Chemical Engineering

2003-07-01

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PROCESS FOR THE RECOVERY OF WATER AND ENERGY FROM THE PROCESSING OF SUGAR CANE IN SUGAR AND ETHANOL PRODUCTION MILLS  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

A process is proposed for recovery of water in the sugar cane processing in production mills of sugar and alcohol or only alcohol (ethanol). In the process, the thermal energy available in the exhausted steam from the electric energy generation turbines is transferred to the different mixed juice processing phases, with the reuse of the exhausted steam condensates in the boilers and of the other condensates, after using thermal energy, for imbibition, in the juice extraction phase, for cooling in the process, after passing through cooling towers, for other industrial uses and for possible treatment or use in the irrigation out of the productive system in the mill

MANTELATTO PAULO EDUARDO; YAMAKAWA CELINA KIYOMI; CESAR ANTONIO ROGERIO PEREIRA; OLIVERIO JOSE LUIZ; BOSCARIOL FERNANDO CESAR; GURGEL MARCILIO NOGUERIA DO AMARAL

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Method and apparatus for feeding a sugar cane mill  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The feed blanket is conditioned prior to entering the mill to provide more uniformity of thickness and to control maximum thickness. Overfeeding is prevented by self-regulated by-passing of excess feed. Plural mills of a milling tandem can be made to operate in a parallel fashion while the remaining ones continue to operate in their usual series fashion.

MAYO ARYAN R

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SUGAR INDUSTRY IN MAHARASHTRA  

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Full Text Available The Indian sugar industry is a key driver of rural development, supporting India's economic growth. The industry is inherently inclusive supporting over 50 million farmers and their families, along with workers and enter-preneurs almost 550 sugar mills. Indian sugar industry is a cyclical industry, as on one hand if serves the domestic market, the largest in the world. Sugar is a sector of significant importance to the national economy while consumption has been growing historically the production has been cyclical. In an era where there is a need for inclusive growth the sugar industry is amongst the few industries that have successfully contributed to the rural economy

PRATAP BAPUSO LAD

2013-01-01

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Analysis and Physico-Chemical Parameters of Sarvar Devla Sugar Mill Studies of Effluents  

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Full Text Available The physico-chemical characteristics contents in the effluents discharged from Neoly sugar mill have been explored. The physico-chemical parameters such as colour, odour, temperature, pH, electrical conductivity, COD, BOD, alkalinity, total hardness,Ca+2, Mg+2, chloride, of the effluent collected from the various sites between the exit point at the mill and discharge point In, have been determined.

Janeshwar Yadav; R. K. Pathak

2012-01-01

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Potential assessment of BIG-GT technology in Cuban sugar cane mills  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Biomass integrated gasification-gas turbine (BIG-GT) technology has been seriously considered for large scale electricity production in the sugar-cane industries owing to its large volume of biomass residues (sugar-cane bagasse and trash). This paper assesses the possible use of this technology in Cuban sugar-cane mills. Two cogeneration cycles were analyzed, the very first BIG-GT units (that use the conventional back-pressure steam power cycle) and a high potential scenario (with high-efficiency combined cycles). A gas turbine simulation code (including steam cycle modules) is used to evaluate realistic system performance figures. Actual Cuban sugar-cane mill data ar used within the integration analysis of power cycle to industry. (author)

Ponce, F. [University of las Villas, Santa Clara (Cuba); Walter, A. [State University of Campinas (Brazil)

1999-07-01

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Analyzing Regional Variations in Capacity Utilization of Indian Sugar Industry using Non-parametric Frontier Technique  

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Full Text Available Using time series data spanning over the period 1974/75 to 2004/05, this paper provides the trends of capacity utilization (CU) levels in Indian sugar industry from regional perspectives. The results reveal that: i) on an average, the sugar industry in India is operating with the excess capacity in tune to 13 percent in each sampled year; ii) substantial variations in CU levels appear in the sugar industry of 12 major sugar producing states under consideration; iii) a precipitous decline in CU levels is noted in the post-reforms years relative to what has been observed in the prereforms period; iv) except the state of Rajasthan, the sugar industry in the remaining 11 states observed a significant decline in CU levels during the postreforms period relative to the pre-reforms period; and v) availability of raw material is most significant variable explaining the CU in Indian sugar industr

Sunil KUMAR; Nitin ARORA

2009-01-01

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Hamakua Coast sugar mill ocean discharges, before and after EPA (Environmental Protection Agency) compliance. Technical report  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

In 1971, ecological studies of coral communities along the Hamakua Coast of the island of Hawaii resulted in the instigation of a number of Environmental Protection Agency restrictions regarding ocean disposal by sugar mills. These included, among other things, the elimination of bagasse discharge into the ocean and significant reductions in total suspended solid (TSS). Compliance with EPA standards was achieved in 1979. In 1983, another survey of sugar mill sites including natural streams was conducted to determine the efficacy of EPA standards. The results reported here indicate the differences between 1971 and 1983 are insignificant, suggesting that existing standards are ineffective in reducing zones of impact (0.5 to 1.5 miles). Impacts caused by natural streams are as great as those associated with sugar mills. Were the existing standards for TSS completely relaxed, the increase in coastline impacted would probably be small (approximately 7 percent). Conversely, the cost of completely eliminating mill discharges are prohibitive and not justified by environmental benefits.

Grigg, R.W.

1985-05-01

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BIG - GT and CEST technologies for sugar cane mill. Thermodynamic and economic assessments  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Electricity from biomass has been developed nowadays. Sugar cane mills have high potential biomass residues for this purpose when are operated with high index of energy conversion technologies. Condensing Extracting Steam Turbine (CEST) have been used successfully for several years in some countries at commercial scale, and Biomass Integrated Gasifier Gas Turbine (BIG GT) has been developed in some projects around the world. Thermodynamic and economic calculations, are done for an integrated power plant with these technologies at 150 tonnes of cane per hours sugar cane mill. Best operating results are obtained using pressurized BIG GT power plant, with more electricity sent to the grid. Better financial results under the present economic conditions are obtained for CEST technology.

Arrieta, F.R.P. [Central Univ. Marta Abreu of Las Villas (UCLV), Santa Clara (CUBA); Sanchez, C.G. [State Univ. of Campinas, SP (Brazil). Mechanical Engineering College

1999-07-01

 
 
 
 
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Culture of the microalga chlorella vulgaris on different proportions of sugar mill effluents  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Chlarella vulgaris was cultured in four different dilutions of sugar mill effluent media (SMEM). Bold's basal medium (BBM) was used as the control under laboratory conditions. Maximum cell growth and chlorophyll-a content were obtained on 10th day of the culture in 50% diluted SMEM, followed by those grown in BBM, and 75, 25 and 100% SMEM at stationary phase. The specific growth rate (mu g/day) of cells and chlorophyll-a of C. vulgaris grown in 50% SMEM varied significantly (p

2006-01-01

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Treatment of cane sugar mill wastewater in an upflow anaerobic sludge bed reactor.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The performance of a mesophilic UASB reactor was studied for the treatment of sugar cane mill wastewater previously pre-treated for solid separation. The experimental work was carried out in a reactor with 80 L total volume. Four organic loads were applied and the process performance was evaluated during two months for each experimental stage. Removal efficiencies higher than 90% were obtained with organic loads up to 16 kg COD m(-3) d(-1). Stable process performance and high biogas production were obtained. The COD removal rate increased substantially with the load increase to 24 kg COD m(-3) d(-1). However, the obtained removal was of only 78-82%, which can be attributed to the accumulation of volatile organic acids. The kinetic coefficients were obtained using first order model for the substrate removal rate and Monod's equation for bacteria specific growth rate. The UASB reactor is a good option for the biological treatment of pre-treated sugar cane mill wastewaters. The discharge requirements for COD concentration can be accomplished if the reactor is operated at a low organic load of 4 kg COD m(-3) d(-1). At higher loads, an additional biological treatment stage is needed.

Nacheva PM; Chávez GM; Chacón JM; Chuil AC

2009-01-01

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A methodological approach to sugar mill diversification and conversion/ Enfoque metodológico de diversificación y reconversión de ingenios azucareros  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Abstract in spanish La diversificación de la industria azucarera es compleja y se ve limitada por condiciones biofísicas y socioeconómicas. Muchos trabajos han demostrado su potencial como biorrefinería y la utilización sostenible de los subproductos como materia prima. Sin embargo, pocos estudios se ha focalizado a través de la integración de indicadores productivos de un ingenio azucarero y cómo este potencial podría lograr transformar un ingenio azucarero convencional en una efic (more) iente planta diversificada que contribuya a reducir el consumo de energía fósil y alcanzar la competitividad. Este trabajo presenta un marco de análisis o metodología basada en el conocimiento existente sobre la industria azucarera o el estado del arte, con la finalidad de evaluar la diversificación mediante el proceso de jerarquías analíticas (AHP) como una herramienta adecuada para el análisis de sistemas complejos, la identificación de alternativas y su discusión de manera que facilite la toma de decisiones colectivas. El análisis AHP obtenido en este estudio ofrece una discusión acerca de las variables que explican la capacidad para diversificar los procesos en un ingenio azucarero (rendimiento de fábrica: 0.332, productos derivados del ingenio azucarero: 0.327 y calidad de materia prima o caña de azúcar: 0.121). Los resultados obtenidos sirven de guía en la formulación de estrategias para la utilización óptima de los recursos derivados de un ingenio azucarero, mientras que la maximización de sus beneficios, para diversificar o reconvertir ingenios azucareros en biorrefinerías. Abstract in english Sugar industry diversification is complex, being constrained by biophysical and socioeconomic conditions. Ongoing work has shown the sugarcane industry's potential as biorefinery or its sustainable use by offering products as raw material. However, few studies have studied how such potential could be achieved by promoting a conventional sugar mill through integrating its indicators for developing an efficient diversified processing plant which would contribute towards fos (more) sil energy saving and competitiveness. This paper presents a conceptual framework for analysis based on existing knowledge regarding sugar industry state-of-the-art for evaluating diversification, using analytical hierarchy process (AHP) as a tool for analysing complex systems, identifying alternatives to the current situation and discussing them to facilitate collective decision-making. Sugar mill AHP scores enabled discussion about the variables most affecting sugar mill diversification (0.332 factory yield, 0.327 sugar mill products and 0.121 sugarcane quality). The results serve as a useful guidance for formulating strategies for the optimum use of by-products in a sugar mill while maximising bene-fits to modify/convert a traditional sugar mill to a so-called bio-refinery.

Aguilar, N; Galindo, G; Contreras, C; Fortanelli, J

2012-08-01

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Enfoque metodológico de diversificación y reconversión de ingenios azucareros A methodological approach to sugar mill diversification and conversion  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available La diversificación de la industria azucarera es compleja y se ve limitada por condiciones biofísicas y socioeconómicas. Muchos trabajos han demostrado su potencial como biorrefinería y la utilización sostenible de los subproductos como materia prima. Sin embargo, pocos estudios se ha focalizado a través de la integración de indicadores productivos de un ingenio azucarero y cómo este potencial podría lograr transformar un ingenio azucarero convencional en una eficiente planta diversificada que contribuya a reducir el consumo de energía fósil y alcanzar la competitividad. Este trabajo presenta un marco de análisis o metodología basada en el conocimiento existente sobre la industria azucarera o el estado del arte, con la finalidad de evaluar la diversificación mediante el proceso de jerarquías analíticas (AHP) como una herramienta adecuada para el análisis de sistemas complejos, la identificación de alternativas y su discusión de manera que facilite la toma de decisiones colectivas. El análisis AHP obtenido en este estudio ofrece una discusión acerca de las variables que explican la capacidad para diversificar los procesos en un ingenio azucarero (rendimiento de fábrica: 0.332, productos derivados del ingenio azucarero: 0.327 y calidad de materia prima o caña de azúcar: 0.121). Los resultados obtenidos sirven de guía en la formulación de estrategias para la utilización óptima de los recursos derivados de un ingenio azucarero, mientras que la maximización de sus beneficios, para diversificar o reconvertir ingenios azucareros en biorrefinerías.Sugar industry diversification is complex, being constrained by biophysical and socioeconomic conditions. Ongoing work has shown the sugarcane industry’s potential as biorefinery or its sustainable use by offering products as raw material. However, few studies have studied how such potential could be achieved by promoting a conventional sugar mill through integrating its indicators for developing an efficient diversified processing plant which would contribute towards fossil energy saving and competitiveness. This paper presents a conceptual framework for analysis based on existing knowledge regarding sugar industry state-of-the-art for evaluating diversification, using analytical hierarchy process (AHP) as a tool for analysing complex systems, identifying alternatives to the current situation and discussing them to facilitate collective decision-making. Sugar mill AHP scores enabled discussion about the variables most affecting sugar mill diversification (0.332 factory yield, 0.327 sugar mill products and 0.121 sugarcane quality). The results serve as a useful guidance for formulating strategies for the optimum use of by-products in a sugar mill while maximising benefits to modify/convert a traditional sugar mill to a so-called bio-refinery.

Aguilar Rivera Noé; Galindo Mendoza María Guadalupe; Contreras Servín Carlos; Fortanelli Martínez Javier

2012-01-01

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Design of two bearings with sealing system for the top roll shaft of sugar cane mill  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Las chumaceras de bronce utilizadas actualmente en los molinos de caña de azúcar presentan elevado desgaste debido, entre otros factores, a la materia extraña que ingresa en ella cuando el eje superior se eleva (flota) por efecto del colchón de caña que pasa entre las mazas y al sobrecalentamiento causado por fallas en los sistemas de lubricación y refrigeración. Con el objetivo de solucionar estos problemas dos diseños de chumaceras fueron realizados: uno con refrigeración en la caja y otro con refrigeración en la teja, ambos usando un sistema de sellado. Análisis por Elementos Finitos del comportamiento mecánico y térmico de los diseños garantiza un buen desempeño en operación.The bronze bearings currently used in sugar cane mills undergo an excessive wear due to both, the extraneous matter entering in the bearing gap when the shaft lift by effect of cane passing through the mill and heating caused by failures in both the lubrication and the refrigeration systems. In order to solve this problems two bearing were designed: one cooled in the box and other cooled in the roofing tile, both using a sealing system. Finite Elements Analysis of the designs showed that they will have a good mechanical and thermal performance.

Walter Mora Perdomo; John Sandro Rivas Murillo; John Jairo Coronado Marín

2005-01-01

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Anhydrous ethanol production in sugar mills; Produccion de etanol anhidro en ingenios azucareros  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The anhydrous ethanol production is recent and limited, because the disadvantage of the renewable energies is the economic impossibility of the projects. Nevertheless, there are aspects to consider to achieve the anhydrous ethanol production, among which are: the cost of the raw material, the self-sufficiency of energy from the sugar cane bagasse without the need of oil burning, the larger size of the distilleries, incorporation of the Cogeneration with delivery of electricity to the public network in the sugar mill facilities, the introduction of the biotechnology to improve the processes of fermentation and subsidies to agriculture. [Spanish] La produccion de etanol anhidro es reciente y limitada, debido a que la desventaja de las energias renovables es la inviabilidad economica de los proyectos. Sin embargo hay aspectos a considerar para lograr la produccion de etanol anhidro, entre los cuales estan: el costo de la materia prima, la autosuficiencia energetica a partir del bagazo de la cana sin necesidad de petroleo, mayor tamano de las destilerias, incorporacion de la Cogeneracion con entrega de electricidad a la red publica en el ingenio, la introduccion de la biotecnologia para mejorar los procesos de fermentacion y subsidios a la agricultura.

Enriquez Poy, Manuel. E-mail:poymanuel@prodigy.net.mx

2007-04-15

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Detection of Phytoplasma on Indian Fig (Opuntia ficus-indica Mill) in Mexico Central Region  

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Full Text Available Problem statement: The Indian fig (a species of prickly pear cactus), has been known as Nopal, comprises an approximate area of 100,000 ha, in plantations used for human consumption. ?Pyramids? Indian fig area located in the northeastern State of Mexico has been an important Indian-fig area in the country, with 15810 ha, where a phytoplasma has been consistently present in symptomatic plant. Approach: An unknown symptomatology in the Indian fig (prickly pear cactus) (Opuntia ficus-indica Mill) was analyzed through grafting and a nested-PCR reaction and graft on healthy plants grown in a greenhouse. Results: The symptoms found, deforming, buds proliferation, thickening and heart-shaping in cladodes, with arrested plant growth and deep yellowing of cladodes, were all attributed to the presence of a phytoplasma given the amplification of a 1200 pb fragment of the 16S rRNA gene using primers R16 F2/R2 and R16F2n/R2 and 80% of phytoplasma transmission efficiency of successful grafts. Conclusion: Although the symptoms observed did not completely match those described for this organism in the region, a 1200 pb fragment was amplified and PCR products restriction analysis leading us to assume that the phytoplasma corresponds to subgroup 16Srll, previously reported for other crops in others world regions.

Ricardo Hernández-Pérez; Juan C. Noa-Carrazana; Ricardo Gaspar; Pedro Mata; Norma Flores-Estévez

2009-01-01

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EFFECTS OF INDUSTRIAL ENVIRONMENT ON HEALTH STATUS OF WORKERS. A CASE OF NOON SUGAR MILL BHALWAL  

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Full Text Available Industrialization is considered to be one of the most important tires of economic development in Pakistan. However, rapid unplanned industrialization without social and environment impact assessment is creating serious problems for human environment. Worse and directly affected in this process are the industrial workers,who are directly exposed to physical and social environment of the industry. This study “Effects of Industrial Environment on Health Status of Workers” was designed to examine the effects of industrial environment on health status of workers. Major objective of research project was to explore the impact of social and physical environment of the industry on the health status of the workers. This study was conducted at Noon Sugar Mill Bhalwal. Two hundred and fifty respondents were selected from various departments by using multistage simple random sampling. A well-structured questionnaire was used as a tool for data collection. The chi- square test was applied to test the relationship between variables of hypothesis. Results of this study clearly indicated that health status of the workers was affected by the industrial social and physical environment. Workers were found suffering from psychological problems like anxiety and depression and also reported problems dueto night shift work, little salary and noisy environment. Majority of workers reports having a difficult relation with the boss. They also hold the opinion that the supervisor does not take care for the workers. The research recommends that facilities related to health, education etc. should be provided to all workers and physical work load should be decreased.

Rubina Asad; Shariqa Jubeen; Shahid Iqbal

2013-01-01

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Designing plant scale process integration for water management in an Indian paper mill.  

Science.gov (United States)

In the present study, plant-scale process integration was applied to an Indian paper mill using the water cascade analysis (WCA) technique. Three limiting constraints, chemical oxygen demand (COD), total dissolved solids (TDS), and adsorbable organic halides (AOX), were considered for the study. A nearest neighbor algorithm was used to distribute the freshwater and recycled water among the plant operations. It was found that the limiting critical constraint depends upon the types of processes and streams involved in the integration. The limiting critical constraint can differ for different sections of the same industry, and can differ in different schemes of integration. After process integration, a 55.6% reduction in effluent flow, a 36% reduction in COD, and a 73% reduction in AOX were observed. After process integration, a 35.21% reduction in pollution costs can be achieved and, assuming the average production of the mill to be 225 tons per day, a savings of Indian rupees (INR) 1.73 per kg of paper produced can be achieved by employing process integration. The water cess was calculated as INR 3024.77 per day without integration for the sections that were considered for integration, while after integration, a 41.53% savings in the form of water cess was calculated. PMID:23845953

Shukla, Sudheer Kumar; Kumar, Vivek; Chakradhar, B; Kim, Taesung; Bansal, M C

2013-07-08

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METHOD FOR THE PREPARATION OF SUGARS-FREE MILLE FEUILLE BY USE OF SWEETENERS OF LOW-GLYCEMIC VALUE, VEGETABLE FIBRES AND WATER  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Subject: method for mille feuille preparation consisting in replacing sugars and milk with sweeteners and water. Advantages: no increase of glycol in blood since said preparation is free of sugars and other hydrocarbons which are responsible for the increase of glycol levels in blood (glycemic index <55).

LADIKOS DIMITRIOS

31

Enzymatic hydrolysis of woods. V. Evaluation of papers and pulp-mill fiber residues as sources for sugar production  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Susceptibility was tested of various grades of commercial papers and fiber residues of pulp mills to saccharification with cellulase (I) of Trichoderma viride. The hydrolysis extents of these cellulosic materials ranged from 6-85%, and papers from chemical pulps showed excellent susceptibility due to low lignin content of these pulps. The rejects from chemical pulp also showed high susceptibility, but became resistant to I hydrolysis on drying. The main sugars produced by I hydrolysis were glucose and xylose, but appreciable amounts of mannose were also present in some hydrolyzates. Vibratory milling was effective to increase the susceptibility of papers used. The saccharification of various papers by I also increased with increasing incubation time and I concentration.

Shimizu, K.

1980-01-01

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Engenho sim, de açúcar não o engenho de farinha de Frans Post Mills for manioc, not for sugar cane Frans Post's manioc mill  

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Full Text Available O capítulo toma um recém-lançado catálogo das obras completas de Frans Post para pensar o processamento da cana-de-açúcar e da mandioca no Brasil colonial. O pintor holandês do século XVII viveu no Brasil de 1637 a 1644, durante a ocupação holandesa e deixou uma rica coleção de óleos e desenhos, a maior parte deles representando paisagens do Nordeste, em particular engenhos de açúcar e grandes propriedades rurais. O texto se apóia em fontes escritas de época para demonstrar como as telas de Post podem nos levar a uma interessante análise sobre a produção e o consumo da farinha de mandioca e do açúcar na primeira metade do século XVII.The chapter takes a recently launched catalogue with the complete works by Frans Post to argue about the technology for processing sugar and manioc in colonial Brazil. The seventeenth century Dutch painter lived in Brazil from 1637 to 1644, during the Dutch occupation of Pernambuco, and left a rich collection of paintings and sketches most of them representing the Northeastern landscape, in particular sugar mills and non-identified plantations. The paper relies also on contemporary written sources to demonstrate how Post canvas can leads us tointeresting analysis about the production and uses of manioc meal and sugar during the first half of seventeenth century.

Mariza de Carvalho Soares

2009-01-01

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Feasibility Study for the Construction of Fertilizer and Soil Reconditioner Facilities at Kenya Sugar Mill Sites.  

Science.gov (United States)

The report recommends the planning and construction of a twenty five thousand ton per year Biofertilizer Production Facility to be sited in Kenya at, or adjacent to the Mumias Sugar Factory. It is further proposed that the percentage of production used fo...

1992-01-01

34

Study of the inhibitory phenomena during the anaerobic digestion of sugar cane mill mud waste; Estudio del fenomeno de inhibicion durante la digestion anaerobia de cachaza  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Sugar cane mill mud waste is one of the effluents obtained during the process of sugar production, specifically, in the stage of clarification and filtration of the cane's juice. This effluent can be treated anaerobically in order to reduce its contamination and use the biogas like a resource. This work shows the study of the inhibition originated along the anaerobic digestion of sugar mill mud waste and evaluates the influence of waste pre-treatment on this process. Th inhibitory effect was verified and quantified. The quantification was carried out applying the Levenspiel model, using the evolution of the constant kinetic of the apparent rate (K{sub {omicron}}). Author 5 refs.

Lopez, M.; Sanchez, E.; Montalvo, S.; Escobedo, R. [Centro Nacional de Investigaciones Cientificas . Ciudad de la Habana. Cuba (Cuba); Garcia-Morales, J. L. [Universidad de Cadiz (Spain)

2001-07-01

35

Esquistossomosse em trabalhadores da Usina Catende, Pernambuco, Brasil Schistosomiasis mansoni in the Catende sugar mill plantation workers in Pernambuco, Brazil  

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Full Text Available Foi realizado estudo transversal sobre a esquistossomose mansônica em nove engenhos da usina Catende localizada na Zona da Mata sul do Estado de Pernambuco (Brasil). A prevalência foi 43,8% para a população geral dos engenhos e 64,6% para os trabalhadores de campo. A prevalência das formas hepato-esplênicas foi 4,1% sendo que em dois engenhos chegou a 8,7% e 9,1%. Biomphalaria straminea foi o único molusco transmissor encontrado na área; sua taxa de infecção natural por S. Mansoni foi 0,07%. Á esquistossomose pode ser considerada como doença grave na região estudada.A sectional study on schistosomiasis mansoni was carried out at nine sugar plantations belonging to the Catende sugar mill. The plantations are located in typical sugar cane country in the southern part of the humid coastal forest region of the State of Pernambuco. Results show that schistosomiasis is a very severe disease in the area. The overall infection rate was 43.8%, distributed according to sex and age groups as shown in table 1; whereas, 64.6% of the field workers were infected. The hepatosplenic forms had a 4.1% prevalence rate (see tables 1 and 2), and on two of the plantations this rate rose to 8.7% and 9.1%. Biomphalaria straminea was the only intermediate host found in the area and was found to have the very low infection rate of 0.07% as is common in these natural conditions.

Dirceu P. Pereira da Costa; Frederico Simões Barbosa

1980-01-01

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Detection of Phytoplasma on Indian Fig (Opuntia ficus-indica Mill) in Mexico Central Region  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Problem statement: The Indian fig (a species of prickly pear cactus), has been known as Nopal, comprises an approximate area of 100,000 ha, in plantations used for human consumption. ?Pyramids? Indian fig area located in the northeastern State of Mexico has been an important Indian-fig area i...

Ricardo Hernández-Pérez; Juan C. Noa-Carrazana; Ricardo Gaspar; Pedro Mata; Norma Flores-Estévez

37

O mundo dos fundos, ou quem eram os vizinhos dos engenhos de açúcar no Rio de Janeiro colonial?: (freguesia de Campo Grande, Rio de Janeiro, 1777-1813) = The sugar mill’s yard: who were the sugar mill’s neighbors in colonial Rio de Janeiro?: (Campo Grande civil parish, Brazil, 1777-1813)  

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Full Text Available O objetivo deste artigo é discernir o peso sócio-econômico de famílias de homens livres e pobres no seio de uma economia colonial, agroexportadora e escravista. Tentaremos demonstrar a importância do trabalho de sitiantes para a sobrevivência dos engenhos de açúcar cariocas, defendendo que havia uma grande diferenciação social ao redor de um engenho, mas que essa desigualdade não se desdobrava em segregação espacial. The objective of this article is to discern the economic weight of free-men families in a colonial, exporter and slave economy. We will try to demonstrate the free families’ importance for Carioca’s sugar mills’ survival, which defended strong social and economic differences. However, this inequality did not include spatial segregation.

Pedroza, Manoela

2009-01-01

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Anaerobic sustainability for integrated biomethanation of sugar mill waste and municipal sewage.  

Science.gov (United States)

The study investigates the viability of biogas generation by integrating the biodegradable waste product of sugar industry viz., pressmud with municipal sewage using biomethanation process. The total solid content of pressmud and sewage mixture was optimized with respect to maximization of biogas yield with continuous monitoring over several operating parameters. Optimum total solid content of 5% found to yield 80 m3 of biogas per ton of pressmud compared to 65m3 per ton of conventional digestion of pressmud alone. It is estimated that 3.4 x 10(8) m3 of biogas can be generated through integrated biomethanation from the potential of4.2 million tons ofpressmud available annually in India. PMID:16649602

Saravanane, R; Sivasankaran, M A; Sundararaman, S; Sivacoumar, R

2004-04-01

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Anaerobic sustainability for integrated biomethanation of sugar mill waste and municipal sewage.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The study investigates the viability of biogas generation by integrating the biodegradable waste product of sugar industry viz., pressmud with municipal sewage using biomethanation process. The total solid content of pressmud and sewage mixture was optimized with respect to maximization of biogas yield with continuous monitoring over several operating parameters. Optimum total solid content of 5% found to yield 80 m3 of biogas per ton of pressmud compared to 65m3 per ton of conventional digestion of pressmud alone. It is estimated that 3.4 x 10(8) m3 of biogas can be generated through integrated biomethanation from the potential of4.2 million tons ofpressmud available annually in India.

Saravanane R; Sivasankaran MA; Sundararaman S; Sivacoumar R

2004-04-01

40

Evaluation of Environmental Education in schools linked to a cane sugar mill in the South Forest of Pernambuco  

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Full Text Available Environmental Education (EE) in Brazil has recently undergone an accelerated growth driven by the advancement of environmental awareness. Formal education has incorporated this theme in order to train citizens actively concerned with environmental issues in a conscious and sustainable way. A school influences the community where it operates and EE is one of the routes to try overcoming environmental problems. The schools under study are located in an Atlantic forest area, and part of these remnants is within properties of cane sugar mills. Therefore, this paper aims to analyze the inclusion of EE in schools linked to Usina Trapiche, investigating, through questionnaires, the perception of teachers on the theme at workplaces and their difficulties for addressing contents. The questionnaires were answered by 22 teachers serving about 1,300 students at the schools under study. All these schools perform EE activities, with a predominance of the solid waste issue. The difficulties reported were common to Education in general. One observed that EE is included within the studied context, but the challenge seems to be definitely including it in the syllabus and the school’s everyday life. In addition to the research, playful activities, workshops, and lectures were conducted, experiencing along with the school community the most relevant EE themes in the region.

Igor Vinícius Pereira Cunha; Eveline de Cássia Batista de Almeida Alves; Katharine Raquel Pereira dos Santos; Maria Juliana Gomes Arandas; Ilka Dayane Duarte de Sousa; Janaina Kelli Gomes Arandas; Suellen Maria Silva Dias

2013-01-01

 
 
 
 
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Modelación matemática de la flotación de la maza superior de los molinos de caña de azúcar/ Mathematical model for instant flotation of top shaft in sugar cane mills  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Abstract in spanish En el presente trabajo se desarrolla un modelo matemático de la flotación de la maza superior de los molinos de caña de azúcar durante su funcionamiento, determinado a partir de mediciones experimentales de dicha magnitud en el tiempo. Se realiza un ajuste adecuado a los valores medidos experimentalmente y se obtiene una función analítica que permitirá considerar los efectos de la flotación en el estudio del funcionamiento y en los métodos de cálculo de los moli (more) nos y sus elementos. Se aplica a un molino en el Complejo Agroindustrial 14 de Julio en Cienfuegos. Se modelan cien segundos de funcionamiento obteniéndose una función que expresa la flotación la que al ser derivada permite obtener la velocidad y aceleración con que varía la flotación instantánea. Los coeficientes y sus bondades son dados matricialmente para todos los ajustes efectuados al construir la función que define la flotación instantánea obtenida en este caso. Abstract in english A mathematical model for the instant flotation of the top shaft of sugar cane mill is developed and analytical function for introduce in the study of other sugar cane mills parts is obtained. The model is applied to July 14th sugar factory in Cienfuegos. One hundred seconds of work is modeled and a functions for floating, velocity and acceleration of floating are obtained. The coefficients and their goodness are given in matrix for all the fits made for to build the function that defines the instant flotation obtained in this case.

Cabello-Ulloa, Mario Javier; Cabello-Eras, Juan José; Moya-Rodríguez, Jorge; Goytisolo-Espinosa, Rafael; Velásquez-Pérez, José Alberto; Mestizo-Cerón, Juan Rafael

2012-04-01

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Do engenho à biorrefinaria: a usina de açúcar como empreendimento industrial para a geração de produtos bioquímicos e biocombustíveis From the mill to a biorefinery: the sugar factory as an industrial enterprise for the generation of biochemicals and biofuels  

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Full Text Available A sugar cane mill is at the present moment a modest biorefinery producing few products such as sugar, ethanol and polyhydroxybutyrate (PHB). In the near future, this mill can expand its production using several renewable feedstock's to produce biofuels and high value biobased chemicals. However, the choice of appropriate products for addition to the portfolio is challenged by a lack of broad-based conversion technology coupled with a plethora of potential targets. The intent of this revision was to catalyze research efforts to expand the list of products and to present an updated evaluation of potential target structures for chemical production.

José Augusto R Rodrigues

2011-01-01

43

Do engenho à biorrefinaria: a usina de açúcar como empreendimento industrial para a geração de produtos bioquímicos e biocombustíveis/ From the mill to a biorefinery: the sugar factory as an industrial enterprise for the generation of biochemicals and biofuels  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Abstract in english A sugar cane mill is at the present moment a modest biorefinery producing few products such as sugar, ethanol and polyhydroxybutyrate (PHB). In the near future, this mill can expand its production using several renewable feedstock's to produce biofuels and high value biobased chemicals. However, the choice of appropriate products for addition to the portfolio is challenged by a lack of broad-based conversion technology coupled with a plethora of potential targets. The int (more) ent of this revision was to catalyze research efforts to expand the list of products and to present an updated evaluation of potential target structures for chemical production.

Rodrigues, José Augusto R

2011-01-01

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Electricity generation from rice husk in Indian rice mills: potential and financial viability  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Rice husk generated as a by-product of rice processing is an important energy resource. The availability of this resource in India has been assessed and the technologies for exploitation of its energy potential in the rice processing industry discussed. Nomographs have been developed for estimation of the husk required to meet the energy of parboiling, drying and milling operations. The unit cost of electricity using rice husk gasifier-based power generation systems has been calculated and its financial feasibility assessed in comparison with utility-supplied and diesel-generated electricity. With the cost and efficiency data assumed here, the unit cost of electricity produced by rice husk gasifier-dual fuel engine-generator system varies between Rs 2/kWh and Rs 7/kWh. (35 Rs approximates to SUS 1.). (author)

1998-01-01

45

Electricity generation from rice husk in Indian rice mills: potential and financial viability  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Rice husk generated as a by-product of rice processing is an important energy resource. The availability of this resource in India has been assessed and the technologies for exploitation of its energy potential in the rice processing industry discussed. Nomographs have been developed for estimation of the husk required to meet the energy of parboiling, drying and milling operations. The unit cost of electricity using rice husk gasifier-based power generation systems has been calculated and its financial feasibility assessed in comparison with utility-supplied and diesel-generated electricity. With the cost and efficiency data assumed here, the unit cost of electricity produced by rice husk gasifier-dual fuel engine-generator system varies between Rs 2/kWh and Rs 7/kWh. (35 Rs approximates to SUS 1.). (author)

Kapur, T.; Kandpal, T.C.; Garg, H.P. [Indian Inst. of Technology, Centre for Energy Studies, New Delhi (India)

1998-12-31

46

La frescura de la caña de azúcar: Un caso de estudio en tres ingenios de México/ Sugar cane cut-to-crush delay: a case study in three sugar mills of México  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Abstract in spanish La frescura de la caña de azúcar es el tiempo transcurrido desde la quema o el corte del cultivo hasta que se recibe en los ingenios y es importante reducir este tiempo para evitar la pérdida de sacarosa. Por tanto, se realizó un estudio durante la zafra 2007-2008 en tres ingenios mexicanos: en Zacatepec, Morelos; en Casimiro Castillo, Jalisco; y en Ciudad Valles, San Luis Potosí. Se recopiló la información de la fecha y hora de entrada y salida de camiones, parcel (more) a de origen, identificación del camión, etc., lo cual se complementó con entrevistas a transportistas y conteos de camiones. Se elaboró un modelo matemático para analizar la influencia de varios factores que afectan la frescura. Se estableció que: 1) el tiempo de quema-corte-alzado de la caña es el componente más importante del tiempo de frescura (de 14.7 a 22.23 h, o 67 a 84 %); 2) el segundo componente más importante fue el tiempo de espera en batey (de 2.94 a 10.02 h, o 12 a 30 %); 3) el traslado tuvo la menor influencia (de 0.76 a 1.25 h, o 2.3 a 5.84 %); 4) en las parcelas con corte mecanizado y sin quema de la caña, el tiempo de frescura es aproximadamente la mitad que en las parcelas con corte manual; 5) el parque vehicular es excesivo, lo que se refleja en un muy reducido número de viajes que realiza cada unidad (0.8 a 1.63 viajes d-1), lo cual se traduce en un raquítico ingreso para los transportistas. Abstract in english Sugarcane cut-to-crush delay is the time lapse between cutting and reception in the sugar mills. It is important to reduce this time to avoid loss of sucrose. Therefore, this study was conducted during the 2007-2008 harvest in three Mexican sugar mills: Zacatepec, Morelos; Casimiro Castillo, Jalisco; and Ciudad Valles, San Luis Potosí. Information on the date and hour of truck entry and exit, origin of the sugar cane, truck identity, etc., was collected; this was complem (more) ented with interviews to truckers and truck counting. A mathematical model was developed to analyze the influence of several factors that affect cut-to-crush delay. It was established that: 1) the time between burning, cutting and pickup was the most important time component in cut-to-crush delay (14.7 to 22.23 h, or 67 to 84 %); 2) the second most important component was the waiting time at the mill (2.94 to 10.02 h, or 12 to 30 %); 3) transport to the mill had the least influence (0.76 to 1.25 h, or 2.3 to 5.84 %); 4) in the fields where cutting is mechanized and the cane leaves were not burned off, delay time was approximately half that in the fields where cutting was done manually; 5) the number of vehicles is excessive, that is, the number of trips made by each truck is very small (0.8 to 1.63 trips d-1), which translates into paltry incomes for the truckers.

Palacios-Vélez, Oscar L.; Mejía-Sáenz, Enrique; Piñón-Sosa, Luis; Sánchez-Hernández, Hugo

2011-11-01

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Predicción de vida remanente en ejes de masa superior de molino de caña/ Predicting remaining life in upper sugar-mill shafts  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Abstract in spanish En este artículo se presenta un método basado en la mecánica de fractura para el cálculo del tamaño crítico de fisuras y la vida remanente de un eje de masa superior de molino de caña de azúcar, con fisuras semielípticas y circunferenciales. Debido a la presencia de un campo de esfuerzos multiaxiales es necesario usar en la ley de París un factor de intensidad de esfuerzos equivalente. Se obtuvieron los intervalos entre inspección requeridos para evitar una fal (more) la por fatiga de estos elementos. Para el cálculo de vida residual y tamaño de fisura máxima se considera la zona localizada en el cambio de diámetro del guijo más próximo al acoplamiento cuadrado, donde se encontró el 25% de las fallas. Abstract in english A fracture mechanics-based method is presented for determining critical crack size and residual life of upper sugar-mill shafts having semi-elliptical and circumferential cracks. Due to the multiaxial stress field, an equivalent strain energy release rate stress intensity solution is used in Paris? law to predict crack growth. Ultrasonic inspection intervals for the shaft were established. The crack zone evaluated was located in the shoulder of the bearing nearest to the square box coupling where about 25% of service failures in these types of shaft are observed.

Rodríguez Pulecio, Sara; Coronado Marín, John Jairo; Arzola de la Peña, Nelson

2006-04-01

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Predicción de vida remanente en ejes de masa superior de molino de caña Predicting remaining life in upper sugar-mill shafts  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available En este artículo se presenta un método basado en la mecánica de fractura para el cálculo del tamaño critico de fisuras y la vida remanente de un ele de masa superior de molino de caña de azúcar, con fisuras semielípticas y circunferenciales. Debido a la presencia de un campo de esfuerzos multiaxiales es necesario usar en la ley de París un factor de intensidad de esfuerzos equivalente. Se obtuvieron los intervalos entre inspección requeridos para evitar una falla por fatiga de estos elementos. Para el cálculo de vida residual y tamaño de fisura máxima se considera la zona localizada en el cambio de diámetro del guilo más próximo al acoplamiento cuadrado, donde se encontró el 25% de las fallas.A fracture mechanics-based method is presented for determining critical crack size and residual life of upper sugar-mill shafts having semi-elliptical and circumferential cracks. Due to the multiaxial stress field, an equivalent strain energy release rate stress intensity solution is used in Paris’ law to predict crack growth. Ultrasonic inspection intervals for the shaft were established. The crack zone evaluated was located in the shoulder of the bearing nearest to the square box coupling where about 25% of service failures in these types of shaft are observed.

Rodríguez Pulecio Sara; Coronado Marín John Jairo; Arzola de la Peña Nelson

2006-01-01

49

Combined treatment of distillery slops and sugar mill wastewaters in UASB reactors; Tratamiento combinado de las vianzas de destileria y residuales azucareros en reactores UASB  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Wastewaters from the installations of molasses-making enterprise Heriberto Duquesne are very variables according their composition but can be treated in combination in a biogas plant annexed to the industrial complex. The auto regulation capacity of UASB reactors with high-quality anaerobic sludge make them capable to assimilate variable organic loads, as well as the introduction to the system of sugar mill wastewaters and their elimination at the end of the campaign, with no effect on its efficiency, at one-day retention time. To reduce sludge wash-out it becomes unavoidable a previous treatment of wastewater concerning to solid separation up to the established concentrations. Research carried out turned to be of paramount importance taking into account that two issues are solved at the same time, an environmental problem by the same time: an environmental problem by the treatment of all polluting waters in the complex. In addition, a significant water saving is achieved in correspondence with the new concepts in cleaner productions. (Author) 23 refs.

Obaya Abreu, M. C.; Valdes Jimenez, E.; Valencia Rodriguez, R.; Leon Perez, O. L.; Morales Carmouse, M.; Perez Bonachea, O.; Diaz Llanes, S.; Valdivia Rojas, O.

2004-07-01

50

The Value of the Freshwater Snail Dip Scoop Sampling Method in Macroinvertebrates Bioassessment of Sugar Mill Wastewater Pollution in Mbandjock, Cameroon  

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Full Text Available Macroinvertebrates identification and enumeration may be used as a simple and affordable alternative to chemical analysis in water pollution monitoring. However, the ecological responses of various taxa to pollution are poorly known in resources-limited tropical countries. While freshwater macroinvertebrates have been used in the assessment of water quality in Europe and the Americas, investigations in Africa have mainly focused on snail hosts of human parasites. There is a need for sampling methods that can be used to assess both snails and other macroinvertebrates. The present study was designed to evaluate the usefulness of the freshwater snail dip scoop method in the study of macroinvertebrates for the assessment of the SOSUCAM sugar mill effluents pollution. Standard snail dip scoop samples were collected upstream and downstream of the factory effluent inputs, on the Mokona and Mengoala rivers. The analysis of the macroinvertebrate communities revealed the absence of Ephemeroptera and Trichoptera, and the thriving of Syrphidae in the sections of the rivers under high effluent load. The Shannon and Weaver diversity index was lower in these areas. The dip scoop sampling protocol was found to be a useful method for macroinvertebrates collection. Hence, this method is recommended as a simple, cost-effective and efficient tool for the bio-assessment of freshwater pollution in developing countries with limited research resources.

Innocent Takougang; Phillipe Barbazan; Paul B. Tchounwou; Emmanuel Noumi

2008-01-01

51

Estrutura de um fragmento florestal no Engenho Humaitá, Catende, Pernambuco, Brasil Structure of a forest fragment at Humaitá sugar mill, Catende, PE, Brazil  

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Full Text Available Avaliou-se, neste trabalho, a estrutura de um fragmento florestal antropizado denominado Mata das Galinhas, Engenho Humaitá, Catende, Pernambuco, e se utilizaram, para avaliar a composição florística e a estrutura fitossociológica, 14 parcelas de 10 x 25 m a fim de amostrar os indivíduos arbóreos com circunferência a 1,30 m do solo (CAP) ? 10 cm. Foram estimados, então, densidade, frequência e dominância e valor de importância (VI) e o índice de Shannon, além de registrados 438 indivíduos pertencentes a 63 espécies, 45 gêneros e 29 famílias. As famílias de maior importância foram Mimosaceae, Moraceae, Anacardiaceae e Lecythidaceae e as espécies com maiores valores de VI, foram Brosimum discolor, Parkia pendula, Eschweilera ovata, Thyrsodium spruceanum, Tapirira guianensis, Protium heptaphyllum, Casearia arborea, Helicostylis tomentosa, Dialium guianense, Schefflera morototoni, Himatanthus phagedaenicus e Cupania racemosa. Quando observado isoladamente, conclui-se que o fragmento estudado possui pouca relevância; entretanto, se considerado conjuntamente com outros fragmentos da área, sua diversidade é significativa o que justificaria esforços para sua conservação e manejo.The structure of a forest fragment, known as "Mata das Galinhas" at Humaitá sugar mill, Catende, Pernambuco, Brazil was evaluated. To evaluate the floristic composition and the phytosociological structure under anthropic action 14 plots of 10 x 25 m were used to sample the arboreal individuals with circumference at breast height (CBH) ? 10 cm. The density, frequency, and dominance, the importance value (IV) and the Shannon's index were calculated. A total of 438 individuals distributed into 63 species, 45 genera and 29 families were recorded. The families of larger importance in the study were Mimosaceae, Moraceae, Anacardiaceae and Lecythidaceae. The species with larger values of IV were Brosimum discolor, Parkia pendula, Eschweilera ovata, Thyrsodium spruceanum, Tapirira guianensis, Protium heptaphyllum, Casearia arborea, Helicostylis tomentosa, Dialium guianense, Schefflera morototoni, Himatanthus phagedaenicus and Cupania racemosa. When observed separately, the studied fragment possesses low relevance; however, when considered jointly with other fragments of the area, its diversity is significant, justifying efforts for conservation and management.

Francisco J. P. Guimarães; Rinaldo L. C. Ferreira; Luiz C. Marangon; José A. A. da Silva; Perseu da S. Aparício; Francisco T. Alves Júnior

2009-01-01

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Winds of change: the Central Sugar mill of Aracaty Company and the sugar production in Minas Gerais at the down of XIXth century Um sopro de mudanças: a Companhia Engenho Central de Aracaty e a produção açucareira mineira no final do Império  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This article analyzes the consequences of imperial policies focused on the development of central sugar mills in the province of Minas Gerais. By examining documents related to the Engenho Central de Aracaty Company, we hope to show that despite its location in a secondary area of sugar production, the mill was characterized by a certain dynamism, largely because it catered to regional consumption. The Engenho Central de Aracaty Company was established in the city of Leopoldina and worked as a central sugar mill until 1888.Este artigo tem como objetivo analisar as conseqüências da política imperial voltada para o desenvolvimento dos engenhos centrais na Província de Minas Gerais. Pretendemos demonstrar através dos dados sobre o Engenho Central de Aracaty, que mesmo pertencendo a uma área secundaria da produção açucareira, essa produção teve um certo dinamismo, principalmente por estar voltada para o consumo regional. A Companhia Engenho Central de Aracaty estabeleceu-se no município de Leopoldina e funcionou como um engenho central até 1888.

Roberta Barros Meira

2009-01-01

53

78 FR 55737 - Notice of Service Delivery Area Designation for the Tejon Indian Tribe  

Science.gov (United States)

...Indians of Florida. Broward, FL, Collier, FL, Miami- Dade, FL, Hendry, FL. Mille Lacs Band of Chippewa Indians of Aitkin, MN, Kanebec, MN, Mille Minnesota. Lacs, MN, Pine, MN. Mississippi Band of Choctaw Indians, Attala,...

2013-09-11

54

Modelación matemática del funcionamiento de las coronas de molinos considerando la flotación de la maza superior/ An equivalent mechanism for the kinetic and dynamic analysis of the sugar cane mill gears  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Abstract in spanish En este trabajo se propone un mecanismo equivalente para modelar el funcionamiento de las coronas de los molinos de caña de azúcar, que permite tomar en cuenta la forma real del perfil de los dientes trazados por arcos de círculos y la variación de la distancia entre centros durante su funcionamiento. Aplicando el método grafo-analítico al modelo propuesto se obtiene una función cinemática que define la posición angular instantánea de la corona conducida con dep (more) endencia de la distancia entre ejes de las ruedas y la posición angular de la corona conductora. Aplicando métodos paramétricos se obtienen ecuaciones para la velocidad y aceleración que son generales para cualquier tipo de perfil de dientes en engranajes que trabajan con variación de distancia entre centros. Finalmente se grafican estos parámetros para el funcionamiento de las coronas de un molino real concluyéndose que estas tienen relación de transmisión instantánea variable y que por el solo hecho de la forma del perfil se producen aceleraciones. Abstract in english Equivalent mechanism is proposed for modeling sugar cane mills gears, which allows to take into account the shape of the tooth profile formed by circular arcs and the variation of the distance between centers for operation. Applying the graph-analytical method to the proposed model is obtained a function to define the instantaneous angular position of the sugar cane mill gear in relation with the instantaneous angular position of driver gear and the center distance of gea (more) rs. General equations for the velocity and acceleration for any type of gear tooth profile with variable distance between centers are proposed through parametric method. Plotted these parameters for real sugar cane mill gear and it is concluded that the instantaneous speed ratio is variable and the profile shape produced accelerations.

Cabello-Ulloa, Mario Javier; Cabello-Eras, Juan José; Moya-Rodríguez, Jorge; Goytisolo-Espinosa, Rafael; Velásquez-Pérez, José Alberto; Mestizo-Cerón, Juan Rafael

2011-12-01

55

Estrutura de um fragmento florestal no Engenho Humaitá, Catende, Pernambuco, Brasil/ Structure of a forest fragment at Humaitá sugar mill, Catende, PE, Brazil  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Abstract in portuguese Avaliou-se, neste trabalho, a estrutura de um fragmento florestal antropizado denominado Mata das Galinhas, Engenho Humaitá, Catende, Pernambuco, e se utilizaram, para avaliar a composição florística e a estrutura fitossociológica, 14 parcelas de 10 x 25 m a fim de amostrar os indivíduos arbóreos com circunferência a 1,30 m do solo (CAP) ? 10 cm. Foram estimados, então, densidade, frequência e dominância e valor de importância (VI) e o índice de Shannon (more) , além de registrados 438 indivíduos pertencentes a 63 espécies, 45 gêneros e 29 famílias. As famílias de maior importância foram Mimosaceae, Moraceae, Anacardiaceae e Lecythidaceae e as espécies com maiores valores de VI, foram Brosimum discolor, Parkia pendula, Eschweilera ovata, Thyrsodium spruceanum, Tapirira guianensis, Protium heptaphyllum, Casearia arborea, Helicostylis tomentosa, Dialium guianense, Schefflera morototoni, Himatanthus phagedaenicus e Cupania racemosa. Quando observado isoladamente, conclui-se que o fragmento estudado possui pouca relevância; entretanto, se considerado conjuntamente com outros fragmentos da área, sua diversidade é significativa o que justificaria esforços para sua conservação e manejo. Abstract in english The structure of a forest fragment, known as "Mata das Galinhas" at Humaitá sugar mill, Catende, Pernambuco, Brazil was evaluated. To evaluate the floristic composition and the phytosociological structure under anthropic action 14 plots of 10 x 25 m were used to sample the arboreal individuals with circumference at breast height (CBH) ? 10 cm. The density, frequency, and dominance, the importance value (IV) and the Shannon's index were calculated. A total of 438 in (more) dividuals distributed into 63 species, 45 genera and 29 families were recorded. The families of larger importance in the study were Mimosaceae, Moraceae, Anacardiaceae and Lecythidaceae. The species with larger values of IV were Brosimum discolor, Parkia pendula, Eschweilera ovata, Thyrsodium spruceanum, Tapirira guianensis, Protium heptaphyllum, Casearia arborea, Helicostylis tomentosa, Dialium guianense, Schefflera morototoni, Himatanthus phagedaenicus and Cupania racemosa. When observed separately, the studied fragment possesses low relevance; however, when considered jointly with other fragments of the area, its diversity is significant, justifying efforts for conservation and management.

Guimarães, Francisco J. P.; Ferreira, Rinaldo L. C.; Marangon, Luiz C.; Silva, José A. A. da; Aparício, Perseu da S.; Alves Júnior, Francisco T.

2009-12-01

56

Differences between Easy- and Difficult-To-Mill Chickpea (Cicer arietinum L.) Genotypes. Part III: Free Sugar and Non-starch Polysaccharide Composition.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

CONCLUSION: This series has shown that the chemical composition of chickpea does vary in ways that are consistent with physical explanations of how seed structure and properties relate to milling behaviour. Seed coat strength and flexibility, pectic polysaccharide binding, lectins and arabinogalactan-proteins have been implicated. Increased understanding in these mechanisms will allow breeding programs to optimise milling performance in new cultivars.

Wood JA; Knights EJ; Campbell GM; Choct M

2013-10-01

57

Counter-current extraction of sweet sorghum sugar for fermentation  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A small counter-current extractor in the form of a heated inclined screw was tested to remove residual sugar from the bagasse after sweet sorghum was passed through one roller mill. Roller milling alone recovered only 45% of total sugar. Combined efficiency of milling and extraction was 95%. Combined pressed juice (17% sugar) and extract (10% sugar) produces a 12.5% solids juice for fermentation.

Toledo, R.T.

1985-01-01

58

75 FR 26774 - Notice of Re-Designation of the Service Delivery Area for the Cowlitz Indian Tribe  

Science.gov (United States)

...Indians of Florida. Broward, FL, Collier, FL, Miami- Dade, FL, Hendry, FL. Mille Lacs Band of Chippewa Indians of Aitkin, MN, Kanebec, MN, Mille Minnesota. Lacs, MN, Pine, MN. Mississippi Band of Choctaw Indians, Attala,...

2010-05-12

59

75 FR 20608 - Notice of Re-Designation of the Service Delivery Area for the Cowlitz Indian Tribe  

Science.gov (United States)

...Indians of Florida. Broward, FL, Collier, FL, Miami- Dade, FL, Hendry, FL. Mille Lacs Band of Chippewa Indians of Aitkin, MN, Kanebec, MN, Mille Minnesota. Lacs, MN, Pine, MN. Mississippi Band of Choctaw Indians, Attala,...

2010-04-20

60

Programação estocástica robusta aplicada ao planejamento agregado de safra em usinas cooperadas do setor sucroenergético/ Stochastic robust optimization model applied to the aggregate production planning in mill cooperative socities in the sugar-energy sector  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Abstract in portuguese Neste trabalho, apresenta-se um modelo de programação estocástica robusta aplicado ao planejamento agregado da produção em usinas cooperadas do setor sucroenergético. Esta modelagem considera a relação hierárquica existente entre o planejamento anual da cooperativa e o planejamento tático de safra das usinas cooperadas, além de contemplar importantes incertezas existentes nos parâmetros de entrada do modelo. Para resolver os problemas de programação linear e (more) programação inteira mista envolvidos, utiliza-se uma linguagem de modelagem algébrica e um software de última geração de programação matemática. Os resultados computacionais obtidos são comparados aos resultados da modelagem determinística PASUC, discutida em Paiva e Morabito (in press), utilizando os mesmos dados do estudo de caso da Usina Santa Clotilde e da Cooperativa Regional dos Produtores de Açúcar e Álcool de Alagoas. Abstract in english This work presents a stochastic robust optimization model applied to the aggregate production planning in mill cooperative societies in the sugar-energy sector This mathematical model is based on a hierarchical relationship between the annual planning of the cooperative and the tactical planning horizon of the sugarcane mills taking into account important uncertainties in several parameters of this model. In order to solve the linear and mixed integer programming problems (more) involved, an optimization modeling language solver was used. Computational results are presented and compared with the deterministic approach PASUC, dicussed by Paiva e Morabito (in press) using the same data from the case studies conducted in the Santa Clotilde milling company and in the regional cooperative society of sugar and ethanol producers of Alagoas.

Paiva, Rafael Piatti Oiticica de; Morabito, Reinaldo

2011-01-01

 
 
 
 
61

Programação estocástica robusta aplicada ao planejamento agregado de safra em usinas cooperadas do setor sucroenergético Stochastic robust optimization model applied to the aggregate production planning in mill cooperative socities in the sugar-energy sector  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Neste trabalho, apresenta-se um modelo de programação estocástica robusta aplicado ao planejamento agregado da produção em usinas cooperadas do setor sucroenergético. Esta modelagem considera a relação hierárquica existente entre o planejamento anual da cooperativa e o planejamento tático de safra das usinas cooperadas, além de contemplar importantes incertezas existentes nos parâmetros de entrada do modelo. Para resolver os problemas de programação linear e programação inteira mista envolvidos, utiliza-se uma linguagem de modelagem algébrica e um software de última geração de programação matemática. Os resultados computacionais obtidos são comparados aos resultados da modelagem determinística PASUC, discutida em Paiva e Morabito (in press), utilizando os mesmos dados do estudo de caso da Usina Santa Clotilde e da Cooperativa Regional dos Produtores de Açúcar e Álcool de Alagoas.This work presents a stochastic robust optimization model applied to the aggregate production planning in mill cooperative societies in the sugar-energy sector This mathematical model is based on a hierarchical relationship between the annual planning of the cooperative and the tactical planning horizon of the sugarcane mills taking into account important uncertainties in several parameters of this model. In order to solve the linear and mixed integer programming problems involved, an optimization modeling language solver was used. Computational results are presented and compared with the deterministic approach PASUC, dicussed by Paiva e Morabito (in press) using the same data from the case studies conducted in the Santa Clotilde milling company and in the regional cooperative society of sugar and ethanol producers of Alagoas.

Rafael Piatti Oiticica de Paiva; Reinaldo Morabito

2011-01-01

62

Produção de açúcar e álcool vs. responsabilidade social corporativa: as ações desenvolvidas pelas usinas de cana-de-açúcar frente às externalidades negativas/ Sugar and ethanol production vs. corporative social responsibility: the actions taken by the sugar cane mills confronted with negative externalizations  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Abstract in portuguese A responsabilidade social corporativa (RSC) é analisada neste estudo no ambiente organizacional das usinas de cana-de-açúcar paulistas que integram o agronegócio brasileiro de açúcar e álcool. Trata-se de uma pesquisa qualitativa que utiliza dados quantitativos para fins descritivos. Apoiada em dados secundários e primários, aborda-se um estudo exploratório no contexto das usinas de cana-de-açúcar do Estado de São Paulo. O objetivo geral foi estabelecer uma a (more) nálise comparativa entre as externalidades negativas e as ações sociais e verificar se estas últimas tinham um papel compensatório. Foi possível identificar a relação entre imagem e RSC no cenário organizacional das usinas, ressaltando as principais ações sociais desenvolvidas pelas empresas, as quais vêm contribuindo para a melhoria da imagem do setor sucroalcooleiro como agente participante do desenvolvimento sustentável. Constatou-se que o foco das ações sociais está concentrado nas áreas educacional e ambiental, ocupando um plano secundário as ações relacionadas à cultura, ao esporte e à saúde. Os resultados demonstraram que o número de projetos sociais não está necessariamente relacionado ao porte das empresas pesquisadas. Abstract in english Corporative Social Responsibility (CSR) is analyzed in this study in the organizational environment of sugar cane mills in the state of São Paulo and which form the Brazilian agribusiness of sugar and ethanol. Following a qualitative research, the quantitative data was used to define objectives using the primary and secondary data approach; an exploratory study in the context of the sugar-ethanol mills. The goal was to establish a comparative analysis between the negativ (more) e external aspects and the social actions to investigate whether the latter had a significant role. It was possible to identify the relation between image and CSR in the organizational scenario of sugar-ethanol mills highlighting the main social actions developed by the enterprises which have contributed to improving the image of the sugar-ethanol sector as an active agent in the sustainable development. It was verified that the focus of social actions are concentrated in areas related to environment and education. Those related to culture, sport, and health seemed to be not as important. The results show that the number of social actions is not, necessarily, related to the size of the companies researched.

Bragato, Ivelise Rasera; Siqueira, Elisabete Stradiotto; Graziano, Graziela Oste; Spers, Eduardo Eugênio

2008-04-01

63

Volatile constituents of essential oil and rose water of damask rose (Rosa damascena Mill.) cultivars from North Indian hills.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Rosa damascena Mill. is an important aromatic plant for commercial production of rose oil, water, concrete and absolute. The rose water and rose oil produced under the mountainous conditions of Uttarakhand were investigated for their chemical composition. The major components of rose water volatiles obtained from the bud, half bloom and full bloom stages of cultivar 'Ranisahiba' were phenyl ethyl alcohol (66.2-79.0%), geraniol (3.3-6.6%) and citronellol (1.8-5.5%). The rose water volatiles of cultivar 'Noorjahan' and 'Kannouj' also possessed phenyl ethyl alcohol (80.7% and 76.7%, respectively) as a major component at full bloom stage. The essential oil of cultivar 'Noorjahan' obtained from two different growing sites was also compared. The major components of these oils were citronellol (15.9-35.3%), geraniol (8.3-30.2%), nerol (4.0-9.6%), nonadecane (4.5-16.0%), heneicosane (2.6-7.9%) and linalool (0.7-2.8%). This study clearly showed that the flower ontogeny and growing site affect the composition of rose volatiles. The rose oil produced in this region was comparable with ISO standards. Thus, it was concluded that the climatic conditions of Uttarakhand are suitable for the production of rose oil of international standards.

Verma RS; Padalia RC; Chauhan A; Singh A; Yadav AK

2011-10-01

64

Epidemiologia da Esquistossomose Mansônica no Engenho Bela Rosa, município de São Lourenço da Mata, Pernambuco, Brasil Epidemiology of Mansonic Schistosomiasis in Bela Rosa Sugar Mill, municipality of São Lourenço da Mata, Pernambuco, Brazil  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Bela Rosa, um pequeno engenho localizado no município de São Lourenço da Mata, estado de Pernambuco, representa uma típica unidade produtora de açúcar situada na grande região da mata úmida do nordeste do Brasil. Os 370 habitantes do engenho vivem em níveis social e econômico muito baixos. A região é conhecida pelos seus elevados níveis de prevalência da esquistossomose e foi submetida nestes últimos anos a diferentes tipos de programas de controle da infecção. Utilizando dados de 1967 a 1986 e mais aqueles obtidos por um estudo epidemiológico transversal feito em 1989, os autores descrevem a tendência evolutiva da endemicidade da esquistossomose na área.Bela Rosa, a small sugar mill located in the county of São Lourenço da Mata, state of Pernambuco, is a typical sugar production unit of the large sugar cane belt along the humid and hot coast of northeast Brazil. The Bela Rosa's 370 inhabitants are living under very low social and economic levels. Known by its high prevalence rates for the disease, the region has been subjected to different types of control programs recently. Using data from 1967 to 1986 plus those from an epidemiological cross-section survey carried out in 1989, the authors describe the evolutional tendency of schistosomiasis endemicity in the area.

Constança S. Barbosa; Carlos B. da Silva

1992-01-01

65

Thermal and economical analysis of the cogeneration system of a Brazilian alcohol and sugar cane mill; Analise termoeconomica do sistema de cogeracao de uma usina de acucar e alcool brasileira  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Brazilian alcohol and sugar cane mills have employed cogeneration for decades to produce electricity for internal consumption. Only an insignificant amount of electricity is sold to the grid, which is fed mainly by hydroelectricity. Recently, though, several factors have combined to make this alternative not only attractive but necessary. 'Usina Vale do Rosario', whose cogeneration system is subject to study in this work, is one of the few sugarcane mills currently selling electricity to grid, 4 MW for the mills of 1996 and 1997. The mill is committed to a steady growth in the amount of electricity sold. Modifications. introduced in the plant in 1998, such as the acquisition of an additional turbine, have already allowed an increase from 20 to 32 MW in total generated electricity and from 4 to 15 MW in sold. Among the aims of the work were to determine the real costs of power and heat supplied by the cogeneration system and to supply information from which operational decisions could be taken. Real data were available and were used throughout the analysis. Due to insufficient instrumentation, it was necessary to simulate the plant in order to infer some operational parameters of equipment, with the help of information supplied by the manufacturers. The simulation software IPSE was employed. Thermoeconomic analysis were performed for the 1996 and 1997 crops. The efficiencies and the destruction of exergy in each unit was calculated, as well as the exergetic costs, as defined by the Theory of the Exergetic Cost, a commendable thermoeconomic methodology. The importance of high efficiencies of the steam generators is overwhelming. The low efficiencies of mechanical drivers increase the cost of mechanical power, compared to the cost of the generated electric power. The cost of the steam supplied to the distillery suggests the adoption of measures to reduce its consumption. (author)

Barreda del Campo, Eduardo R. [Universidad de Oriente, Santiago de Cuba (Cuba); Perez, Silvia A. Nebra de [Universidade Estadual de Campinas, SP (Brazil). Dept. de Energia]. E-mail: sanebra@fem.unicamp.br

1999-07-01

66

Um modelo de otimização para o planejamento agregado da produção em usinas de açúcar e álcool An optimization model for the aggregate production planning in alcohol and sugar mills  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Neste trabalho apresentamos um modelo de otimização para o planejamento agregado da produção de usinas de açúcar e álcool. Este modelo se baseia nos modelos clássicos de seleção de processos e dimensionamento de lotes para representar o sistema de produção de açúcar, álcool e melaço, incluindo decisões da etapa agrícola, das fases de corte, carregamento e transporte de cana e, principalmente, decisões de moagem, escolha do processo produtivo e estoque dos produtos finais. As decisões são tomadas em períodos semanais e o horizonte de planejamento são as semanas de safra. Para resolver o modelo de programação linear inteira mista resultante, utilizamos a linguagem de modelagem GAMS e o solver CPLEX. Um estudo de caso foi realizado em uma usina de açúcar e álcool do estado de Alagoas. Neste estudo foi possível verificar a adequação do modelo proposto quando aplicado para auxiliar nas decisões envolvidas no planejamento agregado da produção de empresas deste tipo. Resultados computacionais são apresentados resolvendo um exemplo com dados de uma safra típica.The main concern of this work is related to the presentation of an aggregate production planning model of a sugar and alcohol milling company. The mathematical model is based on the process selection model and the production lot-sizing model, and aims to help the decision makers in the production planning and control process of determining the quantity of sugarcane crushed, the selection of sugarcane suppliers, the selection of sugarcane transport system suppliers, the selection of industrial process used in the sugar, alcohol and molasses production and the storage decisions related to these final products. The decisions are taken on a weekly basis and the planning horizon is the whole sugarcane harvesting season. To solve the mixed integer mathematical problem found in this model, we applied the GAMS modeling language and the CPLEX solver. A case study was developed in a sugar and alcohol milling company located in Rio Largo, state of Alagoas, Brazil. The results of this case study helped us to verify the applicability of the proposed model in the aggregate production planning of a milling company. Computational results are presented in real data application.

Rafael Piatti Oititica de Paiva; Reinaldo Morabito

2007-01-01

67

Um modelo de otimização para o planejamento agregado da produção em usinas de açúcar e álcool/ An optimization model for the aggregate production planning in alcohol and sugar mills  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Abstract in portuguese Neste trabalho apresentamos um modelo de otimização para o planejamento agregado da produção de usinas de açúcar e álcool. Este modelo se baseia nos modelos clássicos de seleção de processos e dimensionamento de lotes para representar o sistema de produção de açúcar, álcool e melaço, incluindo decisões da etapa agrícola, das fases de corte, carregamento e transporte de cana e, principalmente, decisões de moagem, escolha do processo produtivo e estoque d (more) os produtos finais. As decisões são tomadas em períodos semanais e o horizonte de planejamento são as semanas de safra. Para resolver o modelo de programação linear inteira mista resultante, utilizamos a linguagem de modelagem GAMS e o solver CPLEX. Um estudo de caso foi realizado em uma usina de açúcar e álcool do estado de Alagoas. Neste estudo foi possível verificar a adequação do modelo proposto quando aplicado para auxiliar nas decisões envolvidas no planejamento agregado da produção de empresas deste tipo. Resultados computacionais são apresentados resolvendo um exemplo com dados de uma safra típica. Abstract in english The main concern of this work is related to the presentation of an aggregate production planning model of a sugar and alcohol milling company. The mathematical model is based on the process selection model and the production lot-sizing model, and aims to help the decision makers in the production planning and control process of determining the quantity of sugarcane crushed, the selection of sugarcane suppliers, the selection of sugarcane transport system suppliers, the se (more) lection of industrial process used in the sugar, alcohol and molasses production and the storage decisions related to these final products. The decisions are taken on a weekly basis and the planning horizon is the whole sugarcane harvesting season. To solve the mixed integer mathematical problem found in this model, we applied the GAMS modeling language and the CPLEX solver. A case study was developed in a sugar and alcohol milling company located in Rio Largo, state of Alagoas, Brazil. The results of this case study helped us to verify the applicability of the proposed model in the aggregate production planning of a milling company. Computational results are presented in real data application.

Paiva, Rafael Piatti Oititica de; Morabito, Reinaldo

2007-04-01

68

“REVIEW OF SUGAR INDUSTRIES IN MAHARASHTRA STATE”  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Sugar industry is the largest co-operative industry in India. About 45 million sugarcane farmers, their dependents and agricultural laborer are involved in Indian sugar industry. Maharashtra state is the one of the biggest sugarcane production state in India. Sugar industry play the main role to development in Maharashtra. The sugar industry in Maharashtra is most popular in co-operative sector. The Maharashtra sugar industry has been contributing 40% of India's total sugar production. Maharashtra known as sugar hub of the country. sugar industry plays important role in the national as well as state economy. The co-operative sugar industry came with setting up the first cooperative sugar factory at LONI-PRAVARANAGAR in AHEMADNAGAR.The sugar industry can be divided into two sectors including organized and unorganized sector. The sugar factories in Pune district are mainly established in co-operative sector.

THORAT PURUSHOTTAM DHANRAJ; DHARNE S.R.

2013-01-01

69

Health Hazard Evaluation Report HETA 85-045-1762, American Crystal Sugar Co., Crookston, Minnesota.  

Science.gov (United States)

Employee exposures to airborne contaminants during sugar beet processing and to welding fumes during facility maintenance were evaluated at a sugar beet mill (SIC-2063) owned by the American Crystal Sugar Company (ACSCO), in response to a request from ACS...

D. Almaguer J. M. Boiano

1986-01-01

70

Performance Of Sugar Industries In India  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available :India is on the first rank in sugar production with 20.2 Million tones followed by EU, Brazil, USA, China, Thailand, Mexico, Australia, Cuba and South Africa. Out of the 453 sugar mills in the country, 269 are in the cooperative sector, 184 in the private sector and 67 in the public sector. Besides, 136 units in the private sector are in various stages of implementation. In India sugar production follows a 5-7 year cycle. Sugar production increases over a 3-4 year period, reaches a high, which in turn, results in lower sugar prices. As a result of lower sugar price, realizations of sugar mills, the sugarcane arrears increase. The increase in sugarcane arrears results in lower sugarcane production, resulting in lower production for the next 2-3 years. Because of lower sugar production, the prices shoot up resulting in increased area under sugarcane cultivation during the next season.

Vrushali Balbhimrao Kute; R. P. Patil

2013-01-01

71

Mill’s Perfectionism  

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Full Text Available J. S. Mill lays great emphasis on the importance of the notion of theindividual as a progressive being. The idea that we need to conceive the self as an object of cultivation and perfection runs through Mill’s writings on various topics, and has played a certain role in recent interpretations. In this paper I propose a specific interpretation of Mill’s understanding of the self, along the lines of what Stanley Cavell identifies as a “perfectionist” concern for the self. Various texts by Mill, ranging from the Logic to On Liberty, show an understanding of the self in which both the theoretical and the practical domain are presented as being internally connected to the transformation of the self. Mill elaborates a criticism of a notion of truth articulated by doctrines having a life independent of the self, as well as a notion of choice which is not the expression of one’s inner self. This internal relation of truth and choice to the self generates a special dialectic within the self, which Mill explores in On Liberty’s second and third chapters by means of several contrasts, such as passive vs. active knowledge, living vs. dead beliefs, or being oneself vs. liking and choosing in crowds.

PIERGIORGIO DONATELLI

2006-01-01

72

Efeito da esquistossomose na produtividade do cortador de cana ao longo da safra de açúcar da usina catende, Pernambuco Effect of schistosomiasis on the productivity of sugar cane cutters during the sugar harvest of the Catende mill, Pernambuco  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Estudo prospectivo de pareamento entre dois grupos de trabalhadores do corte de cana infectados com esquistossomose na zona da mata do Estado de Pernambuco, foi realizado durante a safra de 1977-1978. O grupo de "casos" (forma hepatosplénica) foi comparado com o grupo "controle" (forma intestinal). Os resultados mostraram não apenas que os portadores da forma hepatosplénica cortavam significativamente menos cana que seus controles, como também que a produção daqueles mantinha-se baixa ao longo da safra. Dois trabalhadores, dentre os "casos", tiveram que abandonar o trabalho de campo em vista da visível deterioração de seu estado geral de saúde.A prospective study of the effect of schistosomiasis on the productivity of canecutters was carried out in northeastern Brazil during the harvest season 1977-1978. This study revealed that field workers bearing the hepatosplenic form of the disease produce significantly less in terms of cane tons cut than their pairs (intestinal form, used as controls). Futhermore, the productivity is gradually reduced the period of the sugar-cane cut season. Two workers (cases) with the hepatosplenic form had to leave field work during the experiment due to visible deterioration of their general health.

Dirceu P. Pereira da Costa; Frederico Simões Barbosa

1982-01-01

73

Diseño de los acoplamientos cuadrados de hierro fundido para molinos de caña mediante el método de los elementos finitos/ Design of cast iron square box couplings for sugar cane mills by the method of finite elements  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Abstract in spanish Se realiza el estudio de las tensiones internas que se generan en los acoplamientos cuadrados de hierro fundido para molinos de caña. Además, se obtienen las expresiones matemáticas para calcular las tensiones equivalentes, teniendo en cuenta la influencia de parámetros como: diámetro exterior del acoplamiento, dimensiones del agujero cuadrado, velocidad de rotación y potencia. Para la obtención de estas expresiones se empleó el método de elementos finitos (MEF). (more) El análisis MEF se hizo a partir del cálculo estático lineal, utilizando para el programa de computación COSMOS/M, versión 2.6. Finalmente, se realizó una estandarización de los acoplamientos con el fin de reducir la variedad de éstos. Abstract in english The internal stresses generated in the square box couplings of cast iron for sugar cane mills are studied. Also, mathematical expressions are obtained to calculate the equivalent stresses, and the influence of parameters such as: external diameter of the square box coupling, dimensions of the square hole, speed of rotation and power. For obtaining these expressions the Finite Elements Method was used (MEF), with the software COSMOS/M version 2.6. Finally, a standardization of the square box couplings was done with the purpose of reducing their variety.

Campos Pérez, Yamill; Franco Rodríguez, Rosendo

2007-09-01

74

ANALYSIS OF MARKETING PRACTICES OF SUGAR INDUSTRY IN SINDH  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available An agro-based sugar industry of Sindh provides economy, employment, sugar and byproducts to the farmers, landlords and public. And the state earns by charging taxes on the factory made items. The aim of this research study is to evaluate the marketing practices, and farmers’ grievances made by the landlords, mill management andtraders respectively. While sugar marketing is the decision making result of the sugar industry in Sind. At the time of creation of the Pakistan, two sugar mills were already functional in Punjab and NWFP (now Khyber Pakhtunkhawa) provinces. Where as in Sindh, raw sugar, mithai and gur (extract from sugarcane juice) were manufacturedby local simple machines called”Chechro and Pan”. Resulting in, sugar was marketed from Punjab and KPK provinces till the first installation and operation of two sugar mills in Sindh in 1952. Due to unscheduled development of population, the marketing of sugar became serious notice of government till now. The population of the study is 34 sugar mills, while a sample of 14 sugar mills located in the mostlydistricts of Sindh is taken for testing hypothesis.

M. Hameed-Ur-Rehman; Ghulam Sarwar Panhwar

2013-01-01

75

Application of Thiocarbamate Based Chemical for Minimization of Invertase Enzyme Activity in Sugar Cane Juice  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The commercially grown Indian cane variety has su cros e content around 12-14% at peak maturitystage. Due to pre and pos t milling los s es av erage s ugar reco very remain in the range of 9.5-10.0%. This is aserious s ituation, which affect the overall performance and profitability of sugar industry. Therefore, regularus e of an effe ctive broad-s pectrum chemical is important in improving sugar recovery at mill level. In the viewof abov e facts , the inves tigation has been do ne wit h ap p lication of thiocarbamate based chemicals. Thecomparative activity of thiocarbamate-bas ed chemicals was tested ag ains t invertase enzyme and s ucrose containin sug ar cane juice. Two different commercial chemicals (1) SUGARBAG PLUSTM and (2) KILLBACT TM wereapplied @ 5 ppm, @10 ppm and @ 15 ppm with control. SUGARBA G PLUSTM@ 10 ppm and KILLBACTTM @ 15 ppm. Dextran, sucro s e and reducing sugar were analyzed periodically with thiocarbamate chemicalstreatments , and data were analyzed with analys is of variance. SUGARBAG PLUSTM @ 15 ppm was found bes ttreatment b ecause lowes t d extran co ntent was observed in this stu dy.

Dr. Sapna Smith

2009-01-01

76

Sintomas vocais e sensações laríngeas em trabalhadores de uma usina de álcool e açúcar expostos a riscos ocupacionais/ Vocal symptoms and laryngeal sensations in workers of an ethanol and sugar mill exposed to occupational risks  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Abstract in portuguese OBJETIVO: Investigar os sintomas vocais e sensações laríngeas dos trabalhadores de uma usina de álcool e açúcar expostos a ruído e/ou substâncias químicas. MÉTODOS: Participaram 289 trabalhadores de uma usina de álcool e açúcar distribuídos em cinco grupos expostos (I- ruído; II- ruído, óleo, graxa, derivação de petróleo; III- ruído, ácidos, sulfatos, cloretos, nitratos; IV- ruído, poeiras respiráveis e sílica livre cristalizada; V- óleo, graxa, (more) derivação de petróleo) e um grupo controle que responderam o questionário Condições de Produção Vocal - Professor adaptado à categoria profissional. Os grupos foram comparados em relação aos sintomas vocais, sensações laríngeas, tabagismo e riscos físicos e químicos. Esta comparação foi realizada por meio de análise estatística. RESULTADOS: O sintoma vocal e a sensação laríngea mais relatados pelos trabalhadores foram voz grave e tosse com catarro, respectivamente. Considerando o risco físico no ambiente de trabalho, os grupos I e IV foram os que mais citaram presença de ruído. Devido à sua exposição, os mesmos aumentavam a intensidade da voz (Efeito de Lombard-Tarneaud) e, assim, mencionaram sintomas vocais. Em relação aos riscos químicos no ambiente ocupacional, o grupo IV foi o que mais referiu presença de poeira e fumaça, e estas eram compostas por poeiras respiráveis e sílica. Tais exposições ocasionam sintomas vocais e sensações laríngeas e, consequentemente, alterações vocais. CONCLUSÃO: Sintomas vocais e sensações laríngeas podem estar relacionados a atividade profissional em que haja exposição a riscos físicos e/ou químicos. Abstract in english PURPOSE: To investigate vocal symptoms and laryngeal sensations among workers of an ethanol and sugar mill exposed to noise and/or chemical substances. METHODS: Participants were 289 workers of an ethanol and sugar mill distributed into five exposure groups (I - noise; II - noise, oil, grease, petroleum derivatives; III - noise, acids, sulfates, chlorides, nitrates; IV - noise, breathable dust and free crystalline silica; V - oil, grease, petroleum derivatives) and a cont (more) rol group, who answered the questionnaire Conditions of Vocal Production - Teacher adapted to the professional category. The groups were compared regarding vocal symptoms, laryngeal sensations, smoking habits, and exposure to physical and chemical risks. This comparison was conducted using statistical analyses. RESULTS: The most reported vocal symptom and laryngeal sensation were low-pitched voice and cough with phlegm, respectively. Considering the physical risk in the work environment, groups I and IV were the ones that most reported exposure to noise. Because of this exposure, they increase voice intensity (Effect of Lombard-Tarneaud) and, thus, also reported vocal symptoms. Regarding chemical risks in the occupational environment, group IV was the one that most referred presence of dust and smoke, which were composed by breathable dust and silica. Such exposures lead to vocal symptoms and laryngeal sensations and, consequently, to vocal alterations. CONCLUSION: Vocal symptoms and laryngeal sensations can be related to professional activities where workers are exposed to physical and/or chemical risks.

Coutinho, Sylvia Boechat; Fiorini, Ana Claudia; Oliveira, Iára Bittante de; Latorre, Maria do Rosário Dias de Oliveira; Ferreira, Léslie Piccolotto

2011-09-01

77

Influencia de la preparación de caña de azúcar a moler en la producción de azúcar en el Complejo Agroindustrial Azucarero ?Manuel Fajardo?/ Influence of the sugar cane preparation to milling in the sugar production on the Sugar Agroindustrial Complex ?Manuel Fajardo?  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Abstract in spanish La presente investigación se realizó en el Complejo Agroindustrial (CAI) Azucarero ?Manuel Fajardo?, Provincia Mayabeque. En este se investigó el proceso tecnológico de preparación de la caña de azúcar a moler con el objetivo de evaluar su eficiencia y detectar los principales problemas en dicho proceso. Como resultado se obtuvo que el valor del Índice de Preparación (IP) no fue superior al 72,8%, estando por debajo de los normados en Cuba y el mundo, el valor (more) del Rendimiento Potencial Cañero promedio (RPC) fue de 13,22, considerándose un valor positivo lo que demuestra que la producción de azúcar no solo depende de la variedad y calidad de la caña, sino del uso, mantenimiento y reparaciones que se le brinde a la tecnología empleada para la preparación de la caña a moler y se determinó que por concepto de materia extraña el total de azúcar pérdida fue 743,61 t, lo cual representa una pérdida económica de $446 166.00 USD. Abstract in english The present research was carried out on the Sugar Agroindustrial Complex ?Manuel Fajardo?, Mayabeque Province. In this work was researched the technological process of sugar cane preparation having as objective to evaluate his efficiency and find the principals problems in this process. As results was obtained that the Preparation Index value (IP) was not superior to 72,8%, is below to the national and international standards, the Cane Potencial Yield mean (RPC) was 13, (more) 22, it is a positive value showing that the sugar production don?t depend of the variety and quality of sugar cane, also is important consider the use, maintenance and reparation in the technology use to the sugar cane preparation and was determined that for strange material the total sugar losses was 743,61 t, showing an economical losses of $446 166.00 USD.

Morejón Mesa, Yanoy; Revé Moracén, Jorge

2013-03-01

78

Valoración económica de las pérdidas de exergía de las operaciones térmicas en la industria azucarera de caña Economic value of exergy losses in heating operations in cane sugar mills  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Tomando como base los resultados del análisis exergético de las operaciones térmicas: Calentamiento- Evaporación-Cristalización (CEC) de un ingenio de Tucumán, realizado por Paz y Cárdenas en 2005, se procedió a determinar el valor económico de las pérdidas de exergía. Dichas pérdidas de exergía representan potencias eléctricas equivalentes que dejaron de producirse, por lo que el daño causado por las mismas puede ser calculado directamente a partir del precio de la energía eléctrica. Esta original metodología propuesta para determinar ahorros monetarios, basada en la reducción de exergía perdida, se comparó con los resultados obtenidos con la metodología tradicional (basada en el ahorro de vapor vivo). Los ahorros monetarios logrados con las propuestas A y B fueron de $1,05 x 10(6) (0,35 x 10(6) USD) y $1,92 x 10(6) (0,64 x 10(6) USD) por zafra, determinándose Tasas Internas de Retorno (TIR) de 191% y 20,8%, respectivamente.This paper is based on the results of previous work done by Paz and Cárdenas in 2005, in which exergy losses in thermal operations: Heating-Evaporation-Crystallization (H-E-C) of a cane sugar mill located in Tucumán, were evaluated. Exergy losses represent equivalent non-produced electric power; therefore, the resulting damage can be calculated directly from the price of the electric energy. Results obtained with this novel methodology (exergy loss reduction) were compared with those obtained with the traditional method (live steam saving) when evaluating monetary savings. In fact, monetary savings in A and B proposals were $1,05 x 10(6) (0,35 x 10(6) USD) and $1,92 x 10(6) (0,64 x 10(6) USD) per season, respectively. Internal Rates of Return (IRR) were 191% and 20,8%, respectively.

Dora Paz; Gerónimo J. Cárdenas

2005-01-01

79

Valoración económica de las pérdidas de exergía de las operaciones térmicas en la industria azucarera de caña/ Economic value of exergy losses in heating operations in cane sugar mills  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Abstract in spanish Tomando como base los resultados del análisis exergético de las operaciones térmicas: Calentamiento- Evaporación-Cristalización (CEC) de un ingenio de Tucumán, realizado por Paz y Cárdenas en 2005, se procedió a determinar el valor económico de las pérdidas de exergía. Dichas pérdidas de exergía representan potencias eléctricas equivalentes que dejaron de producirse, por lo que el daño causado por las mismas puede ser calculado directamente a partir del pre (more) cio de la energía eléctrica. Esta original metodología propuesta para determinar ahorros monetarios, basada en la reducción de exergía perdida, se comparó con los resultados obtenidos con la metodología tradicional (basada en el ahorro de vapor vivo). Los ahorros monetarios logrados con las propuestas A y B fueron de $1,05 x 10(6) (0,35 x 10(6) USD) y $1,92 x 10(6) (0,64 x 10(6) USD) por zafra, determinándose Tasas Internas de Retorno (TIR) de 191% y 20,8%, respectivamente. Abstract in english This paper is based on the results of previous work done by Paz and Cárdenas in 2005, in which exergy losses in thermal operations: Heating-Evaporation-Crystallization (H-E-C) of a cane sugar mill located in Tucumán, were evaluated. Exergy losses represent equivalent non-produced electric power; therefore, the resulting damage can be calculated directly from the price of the electric energy. Results obtained with this novel methodology (exergy loss reduction) were compa (more) red with those obtained with the traditional method (live steam saving) when evaluating monetary savings. In fact, monetary savings in A and B proposals were $1,05 x 10(6) (0,35 x 10(6) USD) and $1,92 x 10(6) (0,64 x 10(6) USD) per season, respectively. Internal Rates of Return (IRR) were 191% and 20,8%, respectively.

Paz, Dora; Cárdenas, Gerónimo J.

2005-12-01

80

Steam turbines for the cane sugar industry  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

There can be few applications for a steam turbine which are as arduous as driving the shredder or the mills in a cane sugar factory. By comparison, driving alternators to produce electrical power for the mills is considerably less of a task. When selecting a turbine for a sugar cane mill, therefore, the factory manager must consider many points. Single-stage turbines are generally less expensive than multi-stage machines but they are less efficient at converting the energy in the steam into mechanical power. In the majority of cases the ideal turbine for driving shredders, Unigrators, cane knives and mills is the single stage turbine. Where very large mills are used (for example in Australia) the shredder may be driven by a multi-stage turbine or by two single-stage turbines, one on each end of the shredder.

Bowell, R.; Bloom, D.

1987-11-01

 
 
 
 
81

Cogeneration from sugar cane bagasse; Cogeracao a partir do bagaco de cana  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

By improving the efficiency of the whole energy cycle in sugar cane mills and alcohol distilleries, and by utilizing the own process refuse, the sugar cane bagasse, electric energy surpluses can be generated by cogenerated systems. 17 figs.

Sayeg Junior, D. [Zanini S.A. Equipamentos Pesados (Brazil); Jose Neto, A. [AKZ Turbinas S.A. (Brazil)

1987-12-31

82

Byssinosis among jute mill workers.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Although byssinosis in jute mill workers remains controversial, studies in a few jute mills in West-Bengal, India, revealed typical byssinotic syndrome associated with acute changes in FEV1 on the first working day after rest. The present study on 148 jute mill workers is reported to confirm the occurrence of byssinosis in jute mill workers. Work related respiratory symptoms; acute and chronic pulmonary function changes among exposed workers were studied on the basis of standard questionnaire and spirometric method along with dust level, particle mass size distributions and gram-negative bacterial endotoxins. The pulmonary function test (PFT) changes were defined as per the recommendation of World Health Organization and of Bouhys et al. Total dust in jute mill air were monitored by high volume sampling, technique (Staplex, USA), Andersen cascade impactor was used for particle size distribution and personal exposure level was determined by personal sampler (Casella, London). Endotoxin in airborne jute dust was analysed by Lymulus Amebocyte Lysate (LAL) "Gel Clot" technique. Batching is the dustiest process in the mill. Size distribution showed that about 70-80% dust in diameter of < 10 microm, 40-50%, < 5 microm and 10-20%, < 2 microm. Mean endotoxin levels found in hatching, spinning and weaving, and beaming were 2.319 microg/m3, 0.956 microg/ m3, 0.041 microg/m3 respectively and are comparable to the values obtained up to date in Indian cotton mills. Respiratory morbidity study reported typical byssinotic symptoms along with acute post shift FEV1 changes (31.8%) and chronic changes in FEV1 (43.2%) among exposed workers. The group with higher exposure showed significantly lower FVC, FEV1, PEFR and FEF25-75% values. The study confirmed the findings of the earlier studies and clearly indicated that the Indian jute mill workers are also suffering from byssinosis as observed in cotton, flask and hemp workers.

Chattopadhyay BP; Saiyed HN; Mukherjee AK

2003-07-01

83

High efficiency active carbon for sugar and its preparing method  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The present invention is high efficiency active carbon for sugar and its preparation process, and features that high efficiency active carbon for sugar is prepared with bagasse as material and through technological steps of acid solution soaking, press drying, carbonizing, recovering phosphoric acid, rinsing, stoving, milling, etc. The high efficiency active carbon for sugar is used in lowering the color value and SO2 content in sugar product. The present invention can raise the quality of sugar product while eliminating partial pollutant in sugar refinery.

LI SHIPING LI

84

Impact of sugar industry fly ash emissions on environment  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This work was conducted in 1992 to find out the effects and causes of environmental problems due to sugar mills of Sindh. Most of the complaints were received from Nawabshah, Tando Mohammed Khan residential areas where following mills are located, emitting large amounts of fly ash from their chimneys into the atmosphere: (i) Habib Sugar Mills, Nawabshah, (II) Fauji Sugar Mills, Tando Mohammed Khan. Environmental survey of above localities was carried out which reveals that eye-allergy and asthma are the major health effects of fly ash besides the aesthetic problems. Sieve analysis of two fly ash samples viz Fauji Sugar Mills (Old Plant) and Sanghar Sugar Mills (New Plant) showed that the particle size of over 50% of fly ash was above 300 mu m. These large size black particles were unburned carbon particles, which on burning in air gave a weight loss of over 87% at 1000 centi grade. The fly ash analytical results showed that combustion of bagasse in sugar mills was not complete at all and this was not only polluting the atmosphere but also causing energy losses. (author)

2001-01-01

85

Sugar test  

Science.gov (United States)

Metabolism is the conversion or breakdown of a substance from one form to another by a living organism for energy. Yeast is an indicator of how much sugar is in food. Yeast releases carbon dioxide and is a direct indicator of the rate of metabolism. An indicator is an object, material, or organism that tells you if a specific substance is present. Cereals contain sugars, which are carbohydrates. Carbohydrates are chemicals that provide energy.

Olivia Worland (Purdue University;Biological Sciences)

2008-06-06

86

Mill's proof  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

In this paper I examine how Mill's argument in 'Utilitarianism' may be interpreted as a deductively valid proof of the Principle of Utility. , Citation: Mawson, T. J. (2002). 'Mill's proof', Philosophy, 77(3), 375-405. [Available at http://journals.cambridge.org/action/displayJournal?jid=PHI]...

Mawson, Tim

87

Monitoreo de un sistema de secado de bagazo acoplado a una caldera en un ingenio de México Monitoring of a bagasse drying system attached to a boiler in a sugar mill in Mexico  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Se evaluó el desempeño de un secador de bagazo diseñado por la Estación Experimental Agroindustrial Obispo Colombres, acoplado a una caldera bagacera convencional en un ingenio de México (caldera Nº 5). Para ello, se realizaron ensayos de mediciones y balances de materia y energía, para la caldera operando con el secador y sin él en funcionamiento. La caldera Nº 5, de una producción nominal de 60 t/h de vapor y una presión máxima de trabajo de 29 bar, cuando fue alimentada únicamente con bagazo húmedo pudo generar como máximo 33 t/h de vapor a 19 bar y 269ºC, con un rendimiento energético de 60,4% y un índice de generación de 1,6 kg de vapor/ kg de bagazo. Con la adición del secador, se logró secar 28,6 toneladas de bagazo de 50,2% a 30,4% de humedad. Aproximadamente un 72% de este bagazo presecado se mezcló con bagazo húmedo y se utilizó para alimentar la caldera, produciéndose así 58,4 t/h de vapor; es decir, 77% más de vapor que sin secador. El rendimiento energético del sistema caldera-secador fue de 73,6%, un 21,8% superior al de la caldera sin secador, mientras que el índice de generación fue de 2,0 kg de vapor/ kg de bagazo, 25% mayor que el de la caldera original. Este aumento en la producción de vapor permitió sacar de servicio a la caldera Nº 6, que producía aproximadamente 20 t/h de vapor, con un rendimiento similar al de la caldera Nº 5 sin secador. Estas mejoras dieron como resultado, un ahorro de energía de 45,4 MJ/h, aproximadamente un 18% respecto a la energía consumida por ambas calderas (Nº 5 y Nº 6) cuando no funcionaba el secador. Este ahorro equivale a 1103 l/h de "fuel oil", es decir, alrededor de 1,5 millones de dólares por zafra.A bagasse dryer designed by Estación Experimental Agroindustrial Obispo Colombres was attached to a conventional bagasse boiler (Boiler No. 5) in a sugar mill in Mexico for evaluation. Measurement tests and material and energy balances for the boiler operating with and without the dryer were made. When supplied only with wet bagasse, boiler No. 5, with a nominal production of 60 t/h of steam and a maximum working pressure of 29 bar, could generate no more than 33 t/h of steam at 19 bar and 269 ºC, with an energy yield of 60.4% and an index of 1.6 kg steam/ kg of bagasse . When the dryer was attached, 28.6 tons of bagasse was dried from 50.2% moisture to 30.4%. Approximately 72% of that pre-dried bagasse, mixed with wet bagasse, was fed into the boiler, which then produced 58.4 t/h of steam, i.e. 77% more than without the dryer. The energy efficiency of the boiler-dryer system was 73.6% and the index was 2.0 kg steam/ kg of bagasse, i.e. 21.8%, 25% higher values than those for the original boiler. This increase in steam production allowed putting boiler No. 6 out of service. Boiler No. 6 produced about 20 t/h of steam with similar efficiency to that of boiler No. 5 without the dryer. These improvements resulted in energy savings of about 18%, as compared with the energy consumed by the two boilers (No. 5 and No. 6) when the dryer was not working. Energy saved amounted to 45.4 MJ/h, which is equivalent to 1103 l/h of fuel oil. This represents savings of USD 1.5 million per season.

Federico J. Franck Colombres; Marcos A. Golato; Walter D. Morales; Gustavo Aso; Dora Paz

2010-01-01

88

Process and plant for extracting juice from sugar cane  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Process for extracting juice from sugar cane by impregnation, characterised in that the bagasse is impregnated at the time when it is found in at least one point of its journey between two pressures attributable to the action of the same sugar cane mill, using a solvent injected through passages P.

89

75 FR 60810 - Indian Entities Recognized and Eligible To Receive Services From the United States Bureau of...  

Science.gov (United States)

...Minnesota (Six component reservations: Bois Forte Band (Nett Lake); Fond du Lac Band; Grand Portage Band; Leech Lake Band; Mille Lacs Band; White Earth Band) Mississippi Band of Choctaw Indians, Mississippi Moapa Band of Paiute Indians of the Moapa...

2010-10-01

90

Process for refining a raw sugar, particulary raw sugar from the sugar cane sugar industry  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

A process for refining a raw sugar, particularly raw sugar from the sugar cane sugar industry, characterized in that it comprises the steps of: (a) remelting of the raw sugar for obtaining a raw sugar syrup, (b) carbonatation or phosphatation of said raw sugar syrup, and (c) tangential microfiltration and/or tangential ultrafiltration of the raw sugar syrup, which has been subjected to carbonatation or phosphatation. The process is completed by the steps of: (d) decolorization of the sugar syrup resulting from step (c), and (e) crystallization and/or demineralization of the sugar syrup resulting from step (d).

THEOLEYRE MARC-ANDRE; BAUDOIN STANISLAS

91

75 FR 47681 - Migratory Bird Hunting; Proposed Migratory Bird Hunting Regulations on Certain Federal Indian...  

Science.gov (United States)

...treaty reserved rights in Minnesota v. Mille Lacs Band, 526 U.S. 172 (1999...Mole Lake Band), all in Wisconsin; the Mille Lacs Band of Chippewa Indians in Minnesota...Oreilles v. State of Wisconsin (Voigt) and Mille Lacs Band v. State of Minnesota...

2010-08-06

92

78 FR 47135 - Migratory Bird Hunting; Proposed Migratory Bird Hunting Regulations on Certain Federal Indian...  

Science.gov (United States)

...treaty reserved rights in Minnesota v. Mille Lacs Band, 199 S.Ct. 1187 (1999...areas in Wisconsin and Michigan), the Mille Lacs Band of Ojibwe and the six Wisconsin...Mole Lake Band), all in Wisconsin; the Mille Lacs Band of Chippewa Indians and the...

2013-08-02

93

Supply optimization for the production of raw sugar  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Based on a case study from Venezuela, the production of raw sugar is investigated. Ideally, sugar mills operate at a constant production rate. However, safety stocks of the raw material cannot be maintained as sugar cane quality deteriorates very rapidly. Sugar cane is therefore continuously sourced in diverse quantities and qualities from hundreds of geographically dispersed haciendas and supplied to the milling process. Furthermore, due to weather conditions changing throughout the year, tight time windows must be observed for harvesting. The approach presented in this paper aims at preserving a constant supply while minimizing the associated costs. The entire planning problem is structured in a hierarchical fashion: (1) cultivation of the haciendas, (2) harvesting, and (3) dispatching of the harvesting crews and equipment. The corresponding optimization models and solution procedures are introduced and applied to the case study problem.

Grunow, Martin; Günther, H.O.

2007-01-01

94

Design factors for milling sweet sorghum  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A conveyor/shredder/3-roll mill system was modified to process 30-cm billets of sweet sorghum and to develop basic design information. Percent juice extracted increased with throughput until the system plugged. Maximum operable rates for whole plants and stalks were respectively 19 and 25 kg/min, and about 48 percent of total crop sugar was recovered from either plants or stalks.

Monroe, G.E.; Bryan, W.L.

1983-06-01

95

Electric power from green harvesting residues of sugar cane in Columbia. A pre-feasibility study on its technical and economic viability  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This paper presents the results of a pre-feasibility study on the technical and economic viability of producing electric power from green harvest residues of sugar cane in Colombia. The study was sponsored by Global Environmental Facility and was carried out by Cenicana during 1998. In the evaluation process, two systems of collection and transport of residues were considered: chopping and baling. In the assessment of the conversion of energy in the residues to electrical energy the following systems were considered: anaerobic fermentation in landfills, integrated gasification combined cycle (IGCC) and direct combustion in bagasse boilers. The analysis of landfill systems indicated that they are not economically viable for Colombian conditions. The application of biomass integrated gasification/gas turbine system could eventually become the best solution for the use of the residues in power generation. However, there are no commercially viable systems using gasified biomass with relatively low calorific value to generate power through gas turbines. For this reason, the Colombian industry will continue to observe the progress in Brazilian, Indian and Australian projects and will base future decisions on the results. The use of residues as fuel in traditional and modified boilers to produce power is the most attractive option for the Colombian sugar industry. The analysis demonstrates that power generation is technically feasible in many mills with very little investment. Increased investment and adjustments could significantly improve the performance of the boilers originally designed primarily to attend sugar operations. (author)

Briceno, C.O.; Cock, J.H.; Torres, J.S. [Colombian Sugar Cane Research Centre, Cali (Colombia)

2001-03-01

96

Development and Installation of High Pressure Boilers for Co-Generation Plant in Sugar Industries  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The sugar cane containing minimum 30% fiber was referred as bagasse and used the generation of power required for the operation of sugar mill. The bagasse is fired in the boiler for producing steam at high pressure, which is extracted through various single high capacity turbines and used in the pro...

Kolar Seenappa Venkatesh; Aashis S. Roy

97

Anomeric Anhydro Sugars  

Science.gov (United States)

Anomeric anhydro sugars are sugar derivatives where the anomeric carbon participates in an acetal linkage with two of the hydroxyl groups of the sugar. They are essentially intramolecular glycosides, and their bicyclic nature provides a powerful conformational constraint that greatly influences their reactivity. This chapter reviews the occurrence, properties, formation, and reactions of anomeric anhydro sugars. Particular emphasis is placed on 1,2- and 1,6-anhydropyranoses, including conformational aspects and ring-opening reactions. Epoxide-containing 1,6-anhydro sugars (?erný epoxides) are briefly reviewed, and the formation and some reactions of the 1,6-anhydro sugar enone, levoglucosenone, is covered. An overview is given of the use of 1,2-anhydro sugar as glycosyl donors. Also discussed are the formation and reactions of anomeric anhydro sugars containing nitrogen, sulfur, or selenium.

McGill, Nathan W.; Williams, Spencer J.

98

Valoración económica sobre la aplicabilidad de inspección ultrasónica a los árboles de los molinos de caña de azúcar para la industria azucarera cubana/ Economic feasibility study regarding the applicability of ultrasonic inspection of the Cuban sugar industry?s sugarcane mill shafts  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Abstract in spanish Se presenta un análisis económico que evalúa la factibilidad de emplear inspección ultrasónica para los árboles de los molinos de caña de azúcar. Se emplean cuatro variantes de sustitución de los árboles de los molinos que recrean los escenarios más frecuentes. Se incluye la alternativa de utilizar inspección ultrasónica, con periodos de tiempo entre inspecciones fijados según un modelo de propagación de grietas de fatiga. En la valoración económica se ut (more) iliza el criterio del costo del ciclo de vida; teniendo en cuenta los costos de operación, mantenimiento y energía que influyen sobre los árboles de los molinos de caña de azúcar. Se llega a la conclusión de que es bastante recomendable emplear inspección ultrasónica con un nivel alto en las especificaciones del procedimiento. Con la introducción de la inspección ultrasónica, según los tiempos obtenidos por el modelo de mecánica de la fractura, es posible lograr un ahorro de medio millón de dólares por año para las condiciones existentes en la industria azucarera cubana. Abstract in english This article evaluates the economic feasibility of carrying out ultrasonic inspection of sugar-mill shafts. Four alternatives are considered, including the most frequently encountered scenarios. How and when inspections are carried out is analysed, periods between inspections being established by a fatigue-crack growth propagation approach. The lifecycle cost approach was applied for economic evaluation. Operation, maintenance and energy consumption costs were thus taken (more) into consideration. The conclusion was drawn that it is highly advisable to use high performance ultrasonic inspection. Introducing ultrasonic inspection (according to the period of time obtained by fracture mechanics model) could lead to a saving of half a million dollars per year for the Cuban sugarcane industry in the current conditions.

Arzola de la Peña, Nelson

2006-08-01

99

Generation and export of electric energy by sugar and alcohol plants; Geracao e exportacao de energia eletrica por usinas sucroalcooleiras  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This paper presents technical aspects necessary to allow a sugar-cane mill, which promotes cogeneration, to operate as an electrical energy producer. Changes and optimization in the process to produce alcohol and sugar-cane, which results in the increase of electrical energy to export are discussed. A case of a sugarcane mill, working as a thermoelectric power plant is presented. The necessary components to generate energy and to connect the thermoelectric plant to the main transmission system are described. (author)

Queiroz, Gil Mesquita de Oliveira Rabello; Paschoareli Junior, Dionizio; Faria Junior, Max Jose de Araujo [Universidade Estadual Paulista (DEE/UNESP), Ilha Solteira, SP (Brazil). Dept. de Engenharia Eletrica. Grupo de Pesquisa em Fontes Alternativas e Aproveitamento de Energia Eletrica

2008-07-01

100

Indian Summer  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This paper focuses on preserving and strengthening two resources culturally and socially important to the Shoshone-Bannock Indian Tribe on the Fort Hall Reservation in Idaho; their young people and the Pacific-Northwest Salmon. After learning that salmon were not returning in significant numbers to ancestral fishing waters at headwater spawning sites, tribal youth wanted to know why. As a result, the Indian Summer project was conceived to give Shoshone-Bannock High School students the opportunity to develop hands-on, workable solutions to improve future Indian fishing and help make the river healthy again. The project goals were to increase the number of fry introduced into the streams, teach the Shoshone-Bannock students how to use scientific methodologies, and get students, parents, community members, and Indian and non-Indian mentors excited about learning. The students chose an egg incubation experiment to help increase self-sustaining, natural production of steelhead trout, and formulated and carried out a three step plan to increase the hatch-rate of steelhead trout in Idaho waters. With the help of local companies, governmental agencies, scientists, and mentors students have been able to meet their project goals, and at the same time, have learned how to use scientific methods to solve real life problems, how to return what they have used to the water and land, and how to have fun and enjoy life while learning.

Galindo, E. [Sho-Ban High School, Fort Hall, ID (United States)

1997-08-01

 
 
 
 
101

76 FR 48693 - Migratory Bird Hunting; Proposed Migratory Bird Hunting Regulations on Certain Federal Indian...  

Science.gov (United States)

...existence of the tribes' treaty reserved rights in Minnesota v. Mille Lacs Band, 199 S.Ct. 1187 (1999). We acknowledge all...Chippewa Community (Mole Lake Band), all in Wisconsin; the Mille Lacs Band of Chippewa Indians in Minnesota; the Lac...

2011-08-08

102

Clinical epidemiological profile of American tegumentary leishmaniasis at the Pinto Sugar Mill in Moreno Municipality, Greater Metropolitan Recife, Pernambuco State, Brazil Perfil clínico-epidemiológico da leishmaniose tegumentar americana no Engenho Pinto, Município de Moreno, Região Metropolitana do Recife, Pernambuco, Brasil  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available American tegumentary leishmaniasis (ATL) is present in all regions of Pernambuco State, Brazil, where it is spreading, with the emergence of foci in new areas like the Municipality (County) of Moreno in Greater Metropolitan Recife. The objective of the current study was to assess the prevalence of infection and identify autochthonous cases of ATL. In April 2006 a population survey was performed using a questionnaire and the Montenegro skin test (MST) in 481 individuals from the Pinto Sugar Mill, of whom 47% were males and 74% were younger than 30 years. One hundred forty-four individuals (30%) showed a positive MST. Of these, five presented active lesions, 41 were cured after meglumine antimoniate treatment, and one showed a spontaneous cure. Indirect immunofluorescence (IIF) was performed on sera from 89 individuals and showed a 36% positive rate. The high ATL prevalence demonstrates the epidemiological spread of the disease in Greater Metropolitan Recife, a worrisome development since there are no effective measures for ATL control except ecological awareness raising to minimize the risk of infection.A leishmaniose tegumentar americana incide em todas as regiões do Estado de Pernambuco, Brasil, onde se apresenta em expansão, com o surgimento de focos em novas áreas, como o Município de Moreno, na região metropolitana do Recife. O objetivo deste estudo foi avaliar a prevalência da infecção e identificar os casos autóctones de leishmaniose tegumentar americana. Em abril de 2006, realizou-se um inquérito populacional por meio da aplicação de um questionário e do teste de intradermoreação de Montenegro a 481 indivíduos do Engenho Pinto, dos quais 47% eram do sexo masculino e 74% menores de 30 anos. Cento e quarenta e quatro (30%) indivíduos apresentaram reação positiva ao teste. Dentre estes, cinco apresentaram lesões ativas, 41 foram curados após quimioterapia e um curado espontaneamente. A RIFI realizada nos soros de 89 indivíduos apresentou 36% de positividade. A alta prevalência aponta para a expansão epidemiológica da doença nessa área da região metropolitana, fato preocupante, pois não há medidas eficazes para o controle da leishmaniose tegumentar americana, a não ser uma conscientização ecológica para minimizar o risco de infecção.

Maria Edileuza Felinto de Brito; Cláudio Júlio Silva; Cristiane Máximo Silva; Pedro Raposo Salazar; Juliana Santos Coutinho; Luiza de Campos Reis; Valéria Rego Alves Pereira; Sinval Pinto Brandão-Filho; Ângela Cristina Rapela Medeiros

2008-01-01

103

Process for refining raw sugar, especially brown sugar from the cane sugar industry  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Process for refining a raw sugar, especially brown sugar originating from the cane sugar industry, which is characterised in that it comprises the operations: (a) of remelting the raw sugar in order to obtain a raw sugar syrup, (b) of carbonation or of phosphatation of the said raw sugar syrup, and (c) of tangential microfiltration and/or of tangential ultrafiltration of the raw sugar syrup which has undergone carbonation or phosphatation. This process is completed by the operations: (d) of decolorisation of the sugar syrup resulting from the operation (c), and (e) of crystallisation and/or demineralisation of the sugar syrup resulting from the operation (d).

Theoleyre Marc-André; Baudoin Stanislas

104

Anaerobic digestion of olive mill wastewaters  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Anaerobic treatment of olive oil mill wastewaters (COD up to 220 kg/cubic m) is feasible, and the most promising results were obtained on UASB reactors, both at laboratory and pilot scale (tank capacity 15 litres and 5 cubic m), fed on diluted waste (COD = 13-18 kg/cubic m). Volumetric loading rates ranging from 16-21.5 kg COD/cubic m/day and 70% removal efficiencies were obtained with these digesters. Start-up of UASB reactors fed on olive oil mill waste is a delicate step which still has to be fully controlled and optimized. The best results were obtained by starting with very diluted waste (COD = 5 kg/cubic m). Granulation of the sludge, as achieved in Dutch UASB digesters fed on sugar beet wastewaters, was not obtained, but, even so, the settleability of the sludge was very good. 22 references.

Boari, G.; Brunetti, A.; Passino, R.; Rozzi, A.

1984-01-01

105

Carbohydrates, Sugar, and Your Child  

Science.gov (United States)

... added sugar, you need to look at the ingredient list for sugar, corn syrup or sweetener, dextrose, fructose, ... have sugar or other sweeteners high on the ingredient list. Although carbohydrates have just 4 calories per gram, ...

106

John Stuart Mill Links  

Science.gov (United States)

Considered one of the most important philosophers of the 19th century, John Stuart Mill was born in 1806 to one James Mill, part-time philosopher and economist, and full-time official in the East India Company. Educated by both his father and the philosopher Jeremy Bentham, Mill learned Greek by age three, Latin shortly thereafter, and was a competent logician by age 12. After suffering a mental breakdown at the age of 20, Mill decided he would commit himself to persuading the general public of the need for a scientific and rational approach to understanding social, political, and economic change. Mill penned some of the most powerful statements on the behalf of utilitarianism during his life, including one of his most enduring works, Utilitarianism. This Web site (offered in numerous different languages) is a compilation of links to works by and about Mill, including full-text versions of such works as On Liberty, Principles of Political Economy, and his Autobiography. Equally compelling are the works about Mill also to be found here, most notably Isaiah Berlin's 1959 article, John Stuart Mill and the Ends of Life.

107

Discussion about the Sugarcane Sugar Industry Development in Guangxi after China's entrance to WTO  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

In this paper, the fundamental conditions to keep the advantage of the sugarcane sugar industry in Guangxi were discussed. The key points suggested by the author are to give more support to the advantageous areas especially to pay more attention to the water conservancy construction; to establish a healthy sugarcane seed cane production system; organize and help to establish the social service for sugarcane production; to increase the financial support of the scientific research and technology extension in order to increase the contribution of science and technology to sugarcane and sugar industry; to establish two systems for raw sugar and refinery sugar production respectively; to form rational arrangement for harvest, transportation and milling of millable canes; and to treat well the relationship between milling factories and farmers.

Li Yangrui

2003-01-01

108

Sugar and Sugar Beet Policy Reforms in Turkey  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The translog cost function is applied to analyze input demand in Turkey sugar beet production from 1975 to 2003. Sugar and sugar beet production became an important issue after the sugar act changed in 2001. Although the political aspects of sugar beet production have been studied extensively, few studies are available on the quantitative aspects of sugar beet production in Turkey. The main goal of the study was to estimate input substitution and the elasticity of demand for the factors of sugar beet production. The computed factor demand elasticities show that the demand for the four factor inputs (labor, land, energy and fertilizer) considered in the analysis is inelastic with respect to changes in factor prices. Sugar beet production has a feature of traditional labor-intensive farming in Turkey. Current sugar and sugar beet policy may induce the farmers to adopt more efficient production and management techniques, enabling them to remain viable in a liberalized market setting.

Yasar Akcay; Meral Uzunoz

2006-01-01

109

Thermoeconomic analysis of a cogeneration system in a cuban sugar cane plant; Analise termoeconomica de um sistema de cogeracao de uma usina acucareira cubana  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Cogeneration is usual practice in sugar-cane mills. In this work, thermo economic analysis is applied to a typical cuban sugar-cane mill. Two different cost distribution methods, the extraction method and the quality method are used to evaluate the exergy and monetary (operational) costs of each flux within the system, especially the steam and generated power. The methodology indicates the equipment responsible for the greatest irreversibilities in the system. (author)

Campo, Eduardo Rafael Barreda del [Universidad de Oriente, Santiago (Cuba). Centro de Estudio de Eficiencia Energetica; Cerqueira, Sergio Augusto Araujo da Gama [Fundacao de Ensino Superior de Sao Joao Del Rei (FUNREI), MG (Brazil). Dept. de Mecanica; Nebra, Silvia Azucena [Universidade Estadual de Campinas, SP (Brazil). Faculdade de Engenharia Mecanica. Dept. de Energia

1996-07-01

110

Characterisation of a phenolic resin and sugar cane pulp composite  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Abstract in english Polymeric materials are increasingly replacing metallic materials as a result of their properties. In this work a composite of phenolic resin and sugar cane pulp was developed. The sugar cane pulp has been previously alkalinised, dried, and milled and the particles had been classified in a range of grain sizes. Experimental assays were performed, varying the proportion of the resin and the reinforcement and the size of the cane pulp fibre, keeping the pressure and mouldin (more) g temperature constant. These composites were characterised according to physical and chemical properties, through test bodies produced in moulds according to ASTM standards. The experiments performed showed that the use of sugar cane pulp as reinforcement in polymeric composites represents an option for reducing costs in industrial applications, thus suggesting a significant industrial applicability of the product.

Leite, J. L.; Pires, A. T. N.; Souza, S. M. A. G. Ulson de; Souza, A. A. Ulson de

2004-06-01

111

Characterisation of a phenolic resin and sugar cane pulp composite  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Polymeric materials are increasingly replacing metallic materials as a result of their properties. In this work a composite of phenolic resin and sugar cane pulp was developed. The sugar cane pulp has been previously alkalinised, dried, and milled and the particles had been classified in a range of grain sizes. Experimental assays were performed, varying the proportion of the resin and the reinforcement and the size of the cane pulp fibre, keeping the pressure and moulding temperature constant. These composites were characterised according to physical and chemical properties, through test bodies produced in moulds according to ASTM standards. The experiments performed showed that the use of sugar cane pulp as reinforcement in polymeric composites represents an option for reducing costs in industrial applications, thus suggesting a significant industrial applicability of the product.

J. L. Leite; A. T. N. Pires; S. M. A. G. Ulson de Souza; A. A. Ulson de Souza

2004-01-01

112

A methodology to support decision-making on sugar distribution for export channel: A case study of Thai sugar industry  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Supply chain research can lead to an increase in efficiency, business integration, responsiveness and ultimately market competitiveness. In the sugar industry, such research has expanded rapidly over the past two decades, and has been motivated by low world sugar prices and rising costs of production. However, in the present competitive business environment, a more customer-driven and holistic approach to supply chain management is required. This study focuses on warehouse and distribution management for the export channel of Thai sugar industry. The aim is to suggest the best inventory position and transportation route in the distribution system based on Genetic Algorithm (GA). It provides a systematic and flexible framework to solve the problem of cost minimization of sugar transport from the mills to seaports. The results demonstrate that the tool is not only useful for minimizing the cost, but also for managing sugar warehousing, distribution route and seaport exporting. While the focus of this paper is on sugar supply chain, much of the information is relevant to distribution management of other agricultural commodities as well.

Chiadamrong N; Kawtummachai R

2008-12-01

113

Compound Taper Milling Machine.  

Science.gov (United States)

The report discusses some methods for the milling of tapered metal and plastic sections for use as honeycomb cores. These cores are intended for use in applications where loud bearing capacity and reduced weight are prime considerations.

1969-01-01

114

SOLIDIFIED SUGAR ALCOHOL MIXTURE  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The present invention relates to solidified sugar alcohol mixture containing maltitol characterized in that the mixture is comprising more than 70% w/w maltitol and less than 95% w/w maltitol based on dry matter of mixture and it is comprising from 2-10% w/w mannitol based on dry matter of the mixture and upon tabletting said mixture, a hardness of from 70 N to 220 N is obtained at a compression force of 5 kN to 25 kN,. It further describes the process for preparing solidified sugar alcohol mixtures and the chewing gum and tablets containing the solidified sugar alcohol mixture of the present invention.

FUCHS ROLAND; GONZE MICHEL HENRI ANDRE; LUESSEM BERNHARD JOHANNES; KUESTERS CHRISTOF; POTTHOFF VOLKER; UKLEI AMO; ULRICH HEINZ JOSEF

115

Intestinal sugar transport.  

Science.gov (United States)

Carbohydrates are an important component of the diet. The carbohydrates that we ingest range from simple monosaccharides (glucose, fructose and galactose) to disaccharides (lactose, sucrose) to complex polysaccharides. Most carbohydrates are digested by salivary and pancreatic amylases, and are further broken down into monosaccharides by enzymes in the brush border membrane (BBM) of enterocytes. For example, lactase-phloridzin hydrolase and sucrase-isomaltase are two disaccharidases involved in the hydrolysis of nutritionally important disaccharides. Once monosaccharides are presented to the BBM, mature enterocytes expressing nutrient transporters transport the sugars into the enterocytes. This paper reviews the early studies that contributed to the development of a working model of intestinal sugar transport, and details the recent advances made in understanding the process by which sugars are absorbed in the intestine. PMID:16586532

Drozdowski, Laurie A; Thomson, Alan B R

2006-03-21

116

Metabolic engineering of sugars and simple sugar derivatives in plants.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Carbon captured through photosynthesis is transported, and sometimes stored in plants, as sugar. All organic compounds in plants trace to carbon from sugars, so sugar metabolism is highly regulated and integrated with development. Sugars stored by plants are important to humans as foods and as renewable feedstocks for industrial conversion to biofuels and biomaterials. For some purposes, sugars have advantages over polymers including starches, cellulose or storage lipids. This review considers progress and prospects in plant metabolic engineering for increased yield of endogenous sugars and for direct production of higher-value sugars and simple sugar derivatives. Opportunities are examined for enhancing export of sugars from leaves. Focus then turns to manipulation of sugar metabolism in sugar-storing sink organs such as fruits, sugarcane culms and sugarbeet tubers. Results from manipulation of suspected 'limiting' enzymes indicate a need for clearer understanding of flux control mechanisms, to achieve enhanced levels of endogenous sugars in crops that are highly selected for this trait. Outcomes from in planta conversion to novel sugars and derivatives range from severe interference with plant development to field demonstration of crops accumulating higher-value sugars at high yields. The differences depend on underlying biological factors including the effects of the novel products on endogenous metabolism, and on biotechnological fine-tuning including developmental expression and compartmentation patterns. Ultimately, osmotic activity may limit the accumulation of sugars to yields below those achievable using polymers; but results indicate the potential for increases above current commercial sugar yields, through metabolic engineering underpinned by improved understanding of plant sugar metabolism.

Patrick JW; Botha FC; Birch RG

2013-02-01

117

Economic analyse of industrial production and electric energy consumption on a sugar-alcohol plant; Analise economica da producao industrial e do consumo de energia eletrica em uma usina sucro-alcooleira  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Economic aspects of industrial production of sugar cane and automotive alcohol fuel, the relation between its production and electric energy consumption, electric energy costs to self generated electric power and concessionary supply, involved in plant production on Ribeirao Preto, SP, Brazil, are presented. Studies to verify the relationships between sugar and alcohol production with milling ours as well as sugar cane processed with sugar and alcohol produced are also discussed 27 refs., 12 figs., 38 tabs.

Bini, Aderson

1993-10-01

118

Potential of rice mill`s cogeneration in Thailand  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

In 1994 in Thailand, there were 312 rice mills of which 52 were par-boiled rice mills and 260 were white rice mills, each with a production capacity over 100 tons/day. These rice mills were taken into consideration for the potential of electricity generation within the mill using husk fuel. As rice mills used both electrical and thermal energy, there was the potential of cogeneration systems for rice mills. The objectives of this paper were to analyze the electrical and thermal energy consumption in white rice mills and par-boiled rice mills, and to present the application of cogeneration system for rice mills as well as the appropriate electricity price to be bought back by electricity producers. The operation of rice mills are described and the comparative cost of cogeneration systems is outlined. From the analysis of energy consumption of the equipment in white rice mills and par-boiled rice mills, it could be concluded that electricity consumption in white rice mills were 190 MJ/ton paddy and 242 Mj/ton paddy respectively. From the study it was found that average cost in reducing CO{sub 2} by forestation was 0.38 baht/kWh or 593 baht/ton CO{sub 2}. (author). 4 tabs., 3 figs., 3 refs.

Ekasilp, W.; Soponronnarit, S.; Therdyothin, A. [King Mongkut`s Inst. of Tech., Bangkok (Thailand)

1996-12-31

119

Considerations about waste water irrigation characteristics at the Ciro Redondo Agroindustrial sugar complex; Consideraciones sobre las caracteristicas de las aguas residuales del CAI Ciro Redondo para el fertirriego  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The irrigation of wastewater from sugar industry and byproducts is today, in Cuba, the most useful way for the treatment of these waters. With the characterization of the waters from AIC Ciro Redondo it has been proved that these waters must be used as organic matter in the established way for sugar mill wastewaters mix with Torula yeast plants ones. (Author) 10 refs.

Obaya Abreu, M. C.; Valdes Jimenez, E.; Leon Perez, O. L.; Diez Perez, K.; Valencia Rodriguez, R.

2002-07-01

120

Ceramics cage mill; Ceramics cage mill  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A cage mill is a kind of impact crusher. This paper describes a structure and motion of the ceramics cage mill applying ceramics material, which is excellent in abrasion resistance, to impact pins. It also explains the improvement of abrasion resistance of ceramics. The cage mill uses two shafts standing opposite each other to rotate each rotor with impact pins arranged on a concentric circle in the opposite direction. The impact pins are arranged on concentric multi-rows, and it is designed that odd-numbered rows of pins and even-numbered rows of pins rotate in the opposite directions. Raw materials are supplied from the inner part of the inside row, and crushed matters are discharged from the outside row. When the ceramics sintered compact is impacted, particles are broken, or bonding between particles is broken, dropped off, and worn away. Therefore, abrasion resistance can be improved if ceramics are made to have fine structure by fining particles. The abrasion resistance of the ceramics is much better than that of high Cr cast iron and other metals unless impact energy exceeds its limit. 4 figs., 2 tabs.

Naito, S.

1994-12-27

 
 
 
 
121

Monitoring Blood Sugar: The Importance of Checking Blood Sugar Levels  

Science.gov (United States)

... when your child is having consistently high blood sugar test results or is ill with vomiting or other ... can help keep track of your child's blood sugar tests, writing down the results will make it easier ...

122

Chemistry based on renewable raw materials: perspectives for a sugar cane-based biorefinery.  

Science.gov (United States)

Carbohydrates are nowadays a very competitive feedstock for the chemical industry because their availability is compatible with world-scale chemical production and their price, based on the carbon content, is comparable to that of petrochemicals. At the same time, demand is rising for biobased products. Brazilian sugar cane is a competitive feedstock source that is opening the door to a wide range of bio-based products. This essay begins with the importance of the feedstock for the chemical industry and discusses developments in sugar cane processing that lead to low cost feedstocks. Thus, sugar cane enables a new chemical industry, as it delivers a competitive raw material and a source of energy. As a result, sugar mills are being transformed into sustainable biorefineries that fully exploit the potential of sugar cane. PMID:21637329

Villela Filho, Murillo; Araujo, Carlos; Bonfá, Alfredo; Porto, Weber

2011-05-12

123

Chemistry based on renewable raw materials: perspectives for a sugar cane-based biorefinery.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Carbohydrates are nowadays a very competitive feedstock for the chemical industry because their availability is compatible with world-scale chemical production and their price, based on the carbon content, is comparable to that of petrochemicals. At the same time, demand is rising for biobased products. Brazilian sugar cane is a competitive feedstock source that is opening the door to a wide range of bio-based products. This essay begins with the importance of the feedstock for the chemical industry and discusses developments in sugar cane processing that lead to low cost feedstocks. Thus, sugar cane enables a new chemical industry, as it delivers a competitive raw material and a source of energy. As a result, sugar mills are being transformed into sustainable biorefineries that fully exploit the potential of sugar cane.

Villela Filho M; Araujo C; Bonfá A; Porto W

2011-01-01

124

A FLAVORING SUGAR  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

A functional flavoring sugar liquid containing fructooligosaccharide, including the following ingredients on basis of weight percents: fructooligosaccharide 34.8%-79.6%; glucose = 0.01%, sucrose = 0.01%, fructose = 0.01%, and glucose + sucrose + fructose = 34.8%; acesulfame-K 0.1-0.3%; sucralose 0-0.1%; water 20-30%.

FENG ZHIQIANG

125

Hemicellulose from sugar cane  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Hemicellulose (I) is prepared by continuous alkaline cooking of sugar cane cuttings in a cooking liquor comprising clarified green liquor produced simultaneously with the regeneration of kraft black liquor from the cooking of wood and cane I, the cooking of the cuttings being carried out at 166-170/sup 0/ for 23-25 minutes.

Andreev, V.V.; Krasnikova, V.V.; Krasnikova, L.G.

1981-08-23

126

"Sugar" jõuab lavale / Ülle Hallik  

Index Scriptorium Estoniae

Vanemuises esietendub 5. juunil "Sugar", lavastaja Mare Tommingas. Muusikal põhineb Jule Styne muusikalil "Sugar ehk Dzhässis ainult tüdrukud". Muusikali libreto kirjutas Peter Stone Robert Thoereni jutustuse ning Billy Wilderi ja I. A. L. Dimanondi filmi "Some Like It Hot" põhjal

Hallik, Ülle, 1963-

2008-01-01

127

76 FR 62339 - Domestic Sugar Program-2011-Crop Cane Sugar and Beet Sugar Marketing Allotments and Company...  

Science.gov (United States)

...2011-Crop Cane Sugar and Beet Sugar Marketing Allotments and Company Allocations AGENCY...the fiscal year (FY) 2012 State sugar marketing allotments and company allocations to...establishing, adjusting, or suspending sugar marketing allotments in the Federal...

2011-10-07

128

Effect of the milling conditions on the degree of amorphization of selenium by milling in a planetary ball mill  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The effect of the milling parameters (rotation speed of the milling device and duration of milling) on the phase composition of the products of milling of fully crystalline selenium has been investigated. The milling was conducted using a planetary micromill and the phase composition of the milling products was determined by differential thermal analysis. It has been found that ball milling leads to the partial amorphization of the starting crystalline material. The content of amorphous phase in the milling products depends, in a rather complicated way, on the milling parameters. At the milling parameters adopted in the present study, the milling product was never fully amorphous. The complicated way the milling parameters affect the content of amorphous phase in the milling products is a result of competition of two processes: amorphization due to deformation and refinement of grains of milled material and crystallization of the already produced amorphous material at the cost of heat evolved in the milling vial during the milling process.

2007-01-01

129

Electric grinding scab mill  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The utility model discloses an electric scab milling machine, which comprises a hollow handle, a motor, a gear cutter blade and a notch cover. The motor comprises a motor shaft and a motor casing, the front end of the motor casing is in screwed connection with the rear end of the notch cover, the motor shaft passes through the side wall of the notch cover, the gear cutter blade is installed on the motor shaft, the front end of the handle is fixed wit the top end of the notch cover, and the rear end of the handle is fixed with the motor casing. By using the electric scab milling machine, an operator can well control the milling depth and monitor the milling surface in time, and the active tissues are protected maximally from being damaged on the premise of ensuring removal of all scabs formed of necrotic tissues, which is in favor of wound surface repair. In addition, the electric scab milling machine is provided with a speed controller, so that the rotation speed of the motor can be regulated in accordance with the scabbing degree of a patient, resulting in convenient and flexible use.

XIANGDONG WANG

130

Dual string packer mill  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A packer mill is described comprising: an annular sleeve; means on the lower end of the sleeve for milling the periphery of a packer; an axial mandrel inside the sleeve; means on the lower end of the mandrel for milling an axial hole into the upper end of a packer at an elevation above the milling of the periphery of the packer; an axial slidable gripper sleeve on the mandrel including longitudinally extending fingers. Each of the fingers comprises outwardly facing serrations for gripping the walls of the hole in the packer; a camming sleeve on the mandrel inside the gripper sleeve for camming the fingers radially outwardly for engaging the walls of the axial hole milled in the packer for supporting the packer; a release ring around the mandrel engaging an end of the camming sleeve; and means for bursting the ring in hoop tension upon application of sufficient axial force between the mandrel and camming sleeve for releasing the camming sleeve for axially sliding away from the gripper sleeve for permitting the fingers to collapse radially inwardly.

Desai, P.C.

1987-09-29

131

Molecular Characterization and Genetic Structure in Avocado (Persea americana Mill.) Using Simple Sequence Repeat (SSR) Markers  

Science.gov (United States)

Avocado (Persea americana Mill.) is an economically important tropical fruit native to Mesoamerica. It belongs to the Lauraceae family and is subdivided in three horticultural races (Guatemalan, Mexican, and West Indian) based primarily on ecological adaptation, botanical and physiological traits. T...

132

When Blood Sugar Is Too Low  

Science.gov (United States)

... if they get too low. The Causes of Low Blood Sugar Low blood sugar levels can happen to kids ... treatment so you start feeling better. How Are Low Blood Sugar Levels Treated? When blood sugar levels are low, ...

133

Hydrolysis of perennial forages into fermentable sugars  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The feasibility of producing biofuel ethanol from perennial forages was studied. The conversion of the cellulose from lignocellulosic plant material into simple sugars is required to convert the plant material to ethanol. Enzyme activity was the method chosen for the study of this hydrolysis step because it was believed to be more environmentally-friendly than conventional acid hydrolysis. A pretreatment of the plant was needed to physically allow the enzymes to reach their substrates. Three types of hay and two grain residues were milled, humidified, pretreated by ammonia and by steam explosion to open up the structure of the plants. The ratio of enzymes to forages for the hydrolysis of the pretreated plant material was determined. The maximum amount of sugars released was 80 per cent after 36 hours of treatment with five GCU (Genencor Cellulase Units) of Cellulase 300 and Spezyme CP. The extent of saccharification seems to be inversely proportional to the amount of lignin. 14 refs., 3 tabs., 1 fig.

Turcotte, G.; Belkacemi, K.; de Halleux, D. [Laval Univ., Quebec City, PQ (Canada). Faculte de Sciences de l`Agriculture et de l`Alimentation; Savoie, P. [Agriculture and Agri-Food Canada, Ste. Foy, PQ (Canada)

1997-07-01

134

Indian Journal Server Initiative  

Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

click here to start indian journal server initiative problems with indian journals why common platform role of the initiative logistics logistics (contd.) technology ppt slide why journals may be reluctant to join questions to be answered why it may succeed ...

135

SWOT ANALYSIS OF INDIAN JUTE INDUSTRY  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Jute Industrial sector is an important segment of Indian economy. Jute has been the most versatile natural fibre. The jute sector produces products ranging from low value geo-textile to high end garments, decorative, upholstery etc. Many of the jute plants or mills are now engaged in producing jute blended yarns. The jute industry scenario in India has been changed from making traditional hessian to high end fashion garments. The jute export counts to about 1000 crore, the import of raw jute has been dropped by 66 per cent in 2008-09. The Indian jute industry is having plenty of opportunity by its side; it is not only one of the oldest industries of India but also among the major employer of the nation. There are a lot of strengths and also much chance to seize them but it could only be done if it overcomes its weaknesses and threats.

G. KARTHIK AND N. RAMYA

2012-01-01

136

SUGAR COOKIE PRODUCTION METHOD  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

FIELD: food industry. ^ SUBSTANCE: invention is related to preserved food industry and can be used in production of bakery confectionary products. Method is implemented by following. Emulsion is prepared by beating of sugar, margarine, invert syrup and melange. Soya flour is added to it in quantity 5-10% to wheat flour weight which is previously kept in milk whey in quantity 150% to soya flour weight. It is mixed. Mixture of soya flour and soda, ammonium carbonate and vanilla sugar is added. ^ EFFECT: method described allows to decrease wheat flour expenditure, increase taste qualities, increase nutrient value of end products due to increase of protein substances, irreplaceable amino acids content, balance of amino acid content. ^ 6 tbl

GAT KO NATALIJA NIKOLAEVNA; KIRIEVA TAT JANA VITAL EVNA; VARLAMOVA ANNA GENNADIEVNA

137

Energy saving in the sugar cane agroindustry; Ahorro de energia en la agroindustria azucarera canera  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The traditional sugar mill is inefficient from the energy point of view. Most of the sugar mills were designed to use all the available bagasse, due to the risk of spontaneous ignition and environmental pollution. Consequently, the steam generators, the turbines and other components were designed to work with low efficiencies. Each ton of sugar produced generates a power potential equivalent to four to six oil barrels (bagasse and residues). That is to say, a sugar mill is capable of producing 500 ton/day of sugar, equivalent to an oil well of 2000 to 3000 barrels/day and one thermoelectric power plant of 15,000 kW. Under this context an analysis is made of the sugar mills in Latin America and the Caribbean as one of the ways of increasing their efficiency and obtain great energy savings. As far as steam generation the appropriate use of energy is dictated by the boilers' efficiency. [Spanish] El ingenio azucarero tradicional es ineficiente desde el punto de vista energetico. La mayoria de los ingenios azucareros se disenaron para usar todo el bagazo disponible, debido al riesgo de ignicion espontanea y contaminacion. En consecuencia, los generadores de vapor, las turbinas y demas componentes fueron disenados para trabajar con bajas eficiencias. Cada tonelada de azucar producida genera una potencialidad energetica equivalente de cuatro a seis barriles de petroleo (bagazo y residuos). Es decir, un ingenio capaz de producir 500 ton/dia de azucar equivalente a un pozo de petroleo de 2000 a 3000 barriles/dia y una termoelectrica de 15000 kW. Bajo este contexto se hace un analisis del ingenio azucarero en Latinoamerica y el Caribe como una de las vias para incrementar su eficiencia y lograr grandes ahorros en la energia. En cuanto a generacion de vapor se refiere, el buen uso de la energia viene expresado por la eficiencia de las calderas.

Zedillo Ponce de Leon, Luis [Grupo de paises Latinoamericanos y del Caribe exportadores de azucar (Mexico)

1996-07-01

138

Concept on Sugar- A Review  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Sugars have a long history of safe use in foods. They are common food ingredients that add taste appeal and perform important functions in foods. Besides its pleasant sweetness, sugar performs a host of less obvious and important functions in cooking, baking, candy making and the like. As carbohydrates, sugars are a contributor of calories for the body. The ability to produce solutions of varying degrees of sweetness is important in many food applications, particularly in beverages and confectionery. Low-calorie sweeteners add a taste that is similar to that of sucrose. Intense sweeteners are generally several times sweeter than sucrose. On the other hand, sugar replacers are the bulk and volume providing sweeteners usually less sweet than and different tasting from sugar, commonly used on a one-for-one replacement basis for sugar in recipes. Sugars have been studied extensively for their impact on a variety of issues.

Zakaria Ahmed; Hasina Banu; Firaza Akhter; . M. Faruquzzaman; Shamsul Haque

2001-01-01

139

METHOD FOR MANUFACTURING ORGANIC SUGAR  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

A method of manufacturing organic sugar without using lime during filtering and activated carbon, ion exchange resin and diatomaceous earth during purifying is provided which retains useful components as it were and prevents destruction of vitamins by drying at low temperature. Organic sugar is prepared by the following steps of extracting raw liquid sugar from a sugar cane by pressing removing foreign material and impurities contained in the raw liquid sugar increasing the saturation degree by cooling the raw liquid sugar at 5 to 10deg.C and adding crystal sugar in a weight ratio of 100:5 to 100:10 centrifuging molasses with the increased saturation degree at 5 to 10deg.C and 600 to 1,000rpm and drying the solids at less than 40deg.C using a vacuum concentration method(10 to 3 mbar).

KIM JAE GOO; KIM CHANG IL; LEE SOO YONG; RYU IN JA

140

Sugar Price Analysis in Indonesia  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This study examines the dynamic relationship between sugar price, exchange rate, oil price, rice price, and consumer price index (CPI); and to detect is there any difference between exchange rate, oil price, rice price, and CPI in effecting sugar price. We employ Vector Auto-regressions methods for a time series of monthly data from January 1998 to December 2011. Generally, the Impulse Response Function results provide the positive response of Indonesian sugar price from shock of the change of world sugar price, oil price, rice price and CPI; but there is negative response of Indonesian sugar price from shock of the change of exchange rate. The empirical results in variance decomposition test provide evidence that variability of the change of Indonesian sugar price are vary between each variable. Overall variance decomposition results are below than ten percent. These results indicate there is low transmission of international prices into Indonesian sugar prices.

Kumara Jati

2013-01-01

 
 
 
 
141

Starches, Sugars and Obesity  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The rising prevalence of obesity, not only in adults but also in children and adolescents, is one of the most important public health problems in developed and developing countries. As one possible way to tackle obesity, a great interest has been stimulated in understanding the relationship between different types of dietary carbohydrate and appetite regulation, body weight and body composition. The present article reviews the conclusions from recent reviews and meta-analyses on the effects of different starches and sugars on body weight management and metabolic disturbances, and provides an update of the most recent studies on this topic. From the literature reviewed in this paper, potential beneficial effects of intake of starchy foods, especially those containing slowly-digestible and resistant starches, and potential detrimental effects of high intakes of fructose become apparent. This supports the intake of whole grains, legumes and vegetables, which contain more appropriate sources of carbohydrates associated with reduced risk of cardiovascular and other chronic diseases, rather than foods rich in sugars, especially in the form of sugar-sweetened beverages.

Erik E. J. G. Aller; Itziar Abete; Arne Astrup; J. Alfredo Martinez; Marleen A. van Baak

2011-01-01

142

Force prediction in thread milling  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available A mechanistic approach for modeling the thread milling process is presented. The mechanics of cutting for thread milling is analyzed as an end milling process with modified cutting edge. The geometry of threads is added to the geometry of the end milling tool to calculate the chip load area. The linear path is simulated and values of the specific energy from end milling are used to compute the cutting forces involved. A comparison between the simulation of the cutting forces for a specific tool in two different situations is made to present the force behavior acquired from the model.

A. C. Araujo; J. L. Silveira; S. Kapoor

2004-01-01

143

Incorporated residues to sugar cone during the industrial processing evaluated by neutron activation analysis  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In the Brazilian sugar and alcohol industry a modern agronomic and industrial technology has been developed during the last years, due to the high demand for sugarcane. The intensive harvest mechanization has increased the soil levels in the cane delivered to the mills despite of the introduced washing systems. Electric welding has been used to recuperate the rollers of the mill and other metallic components thus increasing the contents of metals in the processed material. Samples of cane, juice and bagasse were colected at several points of the milling tandem and submitted to neutron activation analysis. The concentrations of Fe, Cr, Co, Zn, Br and Cs showed an increment through the mill, indicating the contribution of the rollers wear. Sc and the rare earth elements La, Ce, Sm and Eu had about the same levels in all samples, therefore they must have come with the soil adhered to the cane. (author)

1990-01-01

144

Bioconversion of cellulose wastes to protein and sugar  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A schematic representation of the variety of products which can be obtained by microbial conversion of cellulose is presented. Alkaline pretreatment was used after milling. Solka-floc or sugarcane bagasse was used as sources of cellulose. A cellulolytic strain of Aspergillus terreus (ATCC 30514) was cultivated in batch, fed batch, and continuous culture in a 7-L stirred tank fermentor. The general growth characteristics were determined by growing on glucose. Results of experiments on the growth of Aspergillus terreus for production of biomass on Solka-floc or sugarcane bagasse are given and the ability of crude cellulases to produce sugar syrups by enzymic hydrolysis of cellulose was evaluated.

Srinivasan, V.R.; Miller, T.F.

1981-01-01

145

Mill’s Liberal Feminism: Its Legacy and Current Criticism  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This paper highlights John Stuart Mill’s views on the problem of gender equality as expressed in The Subjection of Women, which is commonly regarded as one of the core texts of Enlightenment liberal feminism of the 19th century. In this paper, the author outlines the historical context of both Mill’s views and his personal biography, which influenced his argumentation for the emancipation of women, and considers Mill’s utilitarianism and liberalism, as the main philosophical background for his criticism of social conditions that subordinated women. She reflects on some of the philosopher’s ideas and arguments for equality and friendship between women and men which may still be considered noteworthy and relevant. Attention is also given to the main lines of contemporary reception of Mill’s liberal feminism from the perspective of current feminist philosophy, within which certain critical views predominate. Despite some problematic points in Mill’s considerations, his essay on women’s subjection may be regarded as one of the philosophically most interesting conceptions of liberal feminist thinking.

MARIANA SZAPUOVÁ

2006-01-01

146

SUGAR IS SWEET BUT DANGEROUS  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Sugar is viewed from various aspects regarding its composition, metabolismand consumption. A special importance is given to the role of sugar in preventingcardiovascular diseases. It is stressed that the widely-accepted theore about fats ascauses of coronary diseases should be changed since the consumption of greatquantities of ordinary sugar is of greater importance for causing coronary diseases. Inthe conclusion it is claimed that proper nutrition is one ofthe key factors in preventingthe formation of many diseases in human organism.

Voja Pavlovic; Sreten Pavlovic

2001-01-01

147

Preserved fruit sugar soaking device  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The invention relates to a preserved fruit sugar soaking device, which is characterized by comprising a support and a sugar soaking tank, wherein a heating jacket is arranged at the lower part outside the sugar soaking tank, the sugar soaking tank and the heating jacket are hinged with the support through a rotating shaft, the rotating shaft at one end is connected with a first driving device for driving the sugar soaking tank to rotate, the rotating shaft at the other end is a hollow shaft, and the rotating shaft is communicated with the heating jacket and a steam source a seal cover for sealing the sugar soaking tank is arranged on a feed inlet of the sugar soaking tank, an emptying valve is arranged on the seal cover, the seal cover is respectively connected with the sugar soaking source and a vacuum source through a pipeline, and the seal cover is connected with an opening and closing mechanism of the seal cover and a stirring paddle is arranged in the sugar soaking tank, and a shaft of the stirring paddle penetrates the rotating shaft and is connected with a second driving device for driving the stirring paddle to rotate. The preserved fruit sugar soaking device can replace the manual way for carrying out the sugar soaking process step of honey pomelo fruit dices, realize the automatic production of the sugar soaking process step, reduce the labor intensity of workers, improve the production efficiency, reduce the production cost and simultaneously reduce the occupation of a container and place.

ZHENHAN CHEN; JINGLIN GU; WENXING HU; SHUNFA LIN; YAZHOU LU; QINGQUAN YANG

148

PROGRESS AND PROBLEMS OF AGRO-BASED INDUSTRIES IN INDIA: A STUDY OF SUGAR INDUSTRY  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Agro-based industries play a vital role in the development of Indian rural economy. India's 70 per cent of total population directly depends on agriculture and agro-based industries. Sugar industry is one of the most important agro-based industries in the development process of rural India. Therefore, the study has selected this agrobased industry and analysed sugarcane and sugar production, trends of sugarcane and sugar product, recovery of cane during the period 1950-51 to 2010-11. Maharashtra and Uttar Pradesh are two largest sugar producer states in India. So, the study has also discussed the comparative growth of sugarcane production and sugar industries in Maharashtra and Uttar Pradesh states of India. The study has revealed that India is the second largest producer of sugar in the world. India has produced 24394 thousand tones sugar from 527 factories in the year 2010-11. The study has also found that near about 61 per cent of total sugar production in India has produced in Maharashtra and Uttar Pradesh states only.

DINKAR P. TAKALE

2013-01-01

149

Uranium mining and milling  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] In this report uranium mining and milling are reviewed. The fuel cycle, different types of uranium geological deposits, blending of ores, open cast and underground mining, the mining cost and radiation protection in mines are treated in the first part of this report. In the second part, the milling of uranium ores is treated, including process technology, acid and alkaline leaching, process design for physical and chemical treatment of the ores, and the cost. Each chapter is clarified by added figures, diagrams, tables, and flowsheets. (HK)[de] Der Bericht behandelt den Abbau und die Verarbeitung von Uran. Der erste Teil des Berichts befasst sich mit dem Brennstoffkreislauf, verschiedenen Arten von Uranlagerstaetten, Tagebau und Untertageabbau, den Gewinnungskosten und dem Strahlenschutz im Bergwerk. Der zweite Teil behandelt die Uranverarbeitung, einschliesslich Verfahrenstechnik, Saeure- und Laugenbehandlung, dem Verfahrensablauf fuer die chemische und physikalische Behandlung der Erze, und der Kosten. Jedes Kapitel wird durch Zeichnungen, graphische Abbildungen, Tabllen und Flussschemata ergaenzt. (HK)

1976-11-30

150

Indianization of psychiatry utilizing Indian mental concepts.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Most of the psychiatry practice in India is guided by the western concepts of mental health and illness, which have largely ignored the role of religion, family, eastern philosophy, and medicine in understanding and managing the psychiatric disorders. India comprises of diverse cultures, languages, ethnicities, and religious affiliations. However, besides these diversities, there are certain commonalities, which include Hinduism as a religion which is spread across the country, the traditional family system, ancient Indian system of medicine and emphasis on use of traditional methods like Yoga and Meditation for controlling mind. This article discusses as to how mind and mental health are understood from the point of view of Hinduism, Indian traditions and Indian systems of medicine. Further, the article focuses on as to how these Indian concepts can be incorporated in the practice of contemporary psychiatry.

Avasthi A; Kate N; Grover S

2013-01-01

151

Indian and non-Indian water development. [Western US  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This dissertation contrasts the development of Indian and non-Indian water development. Indian water rights, although based upon long-standing legal principles, have had a minimal impact on the actual development of Indian water resources. As a result, Indian water resources remain largely undeveloped. In contrast, non-Indian water resources remain largely undeveloped. In contrast, non-Indian water development has proceeded at a rapid pace. A tripartite alliance of congressional subcommittees, federal agencies, and water user interest groups have provided the political support for continued high-level funding for non-Indian water projects. In the American west, where water must be diverted to be used, Indians and non-Indians are competitors for both water and water projects. Until recently Indians could not compete effectively in the political milieu of water policy. However, changes in approach, methods, and political conditions have made Indian tribes more competitive in the struggle for water rights and water projects.

McCool, D.C.

1983-01-01

152

Interaction of methylparaben preservative with selected sugars and sugar alcohols.  

Science.gov (United States)

The interaction of methylparaben preservative with selected sugars (glucose, fructose, sucrose, lactose, maltose, cellobiose) and sugar alcohols (lactitol, maltitol) were demonstrated in this study. It was observed that the formation of transesterification reaction products between methylparaben and the selected sugars occurred only under mild reaction conditions (e.g., pH 7.4 at 50 degrees C ), which were confirmed by HPLC-UV studies and mass spectrometry. On the other hand, under alkaline conditions and high temperature, degradation of the sugars predominated. Because sugars could easily undergo many possible degradation reactions and isomerization including on-column anomerization, the chromatograms of the reaction products were more complicated than those obtained from sugar alcohols. Sucrose, a nonreducing sugar, was much more stable than other selected sugars. The chromatogram of the transesterification reaction products of methylparaben with sucrose clearly showed eight peaks, which were likely to correspond to the same number of hydroxyl groups of sucrose. To compare the rate of the transesterification reaction of methylparaben with sucrose to that with sorbitol, kinetic studies were carried out. Similar rate constants were observed: 5.4 x 10(-7) L mol(-1) s(-1) and 4.9 x 10(-7) L mol(-1) s(-1) for sucrose and sorbitol, respectively. PMID:12115834

Ma, Minhui; Lee, Tony; Kwong, Elizabeth

2002-07-01

153

Ball milled magnetic powders  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] Exchange-spring magnets consisting of (i) Alnico and Fe, and (ii) Nd2Fe14B and Gd, using the technique of ball milling were synthetized. The composition and microstructure of the ball milled powders was investigated using XRD, SEM and TEM. The bulk magnetic properties of each sample were measured with a SQUID magnetometer, while 155Gd and 57Fe Moessbauer spectroscopy were used to measure the magnetisation of the phases which contained these elements. Exchange-spring magnetic properties were not realised in either of the two systems studied. TEM analysis was inconclusive as to the dimensions of the phases within each sample. However, the SQUID and Moessbauer effect measurements both indicated that the two phases were acting as a coherent magnetic system. It is probable that the required microstructure was not formed in the case of the Nd2Fe14B and Gd powder, where the particle size indicated by SEM was very large (?200?m). For the Alnico/Fe system, it is possible that ball milling undermined the microstructure of Alnico, destroying its hard magnetic properties

1996-02-02

154

Ball milled magnetic powders  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Exchange-spring magnets consisting of (i) Alnico and Fe, and (ii) Nd{sub 2}Fe{sub 14}B and Gd, using the technique of ball milling were synthetized. The composition and microstructure of the ball milled powders was investigated using XRD, SEM and TEM. The bulk magnetic properties of each sample were measured with a SQUID magnetometer, while {sup 155}Gd and {sup 57}Fe Moessbauer spectroscopy were used to measure the magnetisation of the phases which contained these elements. Exchange-spring magnetic properties were not realised in either of the two systems studied. TEM analysis was inconclusive as to the dimensions of the phases within each sample. However, the SQUID and Moessbauer effect measurements both indicated that the two phases were acting as a coherent magnetic system. It is probable that the required microstructure was not formed in the case of the Nd{sub 2}Fe{sub 14}B and Gd powder, where the particle size indicated by SEM was very large ({approx}200{mu}m). For the Alnico/Fe system, it is possible that ball milling undermined the microstructure of Alnico, destroying its hard magnetic properties

Whitehead, S.G.; Cashion, J.D.; Brown, L.J. [Monash Univ., Clayton, VIC (Australia). Dept. of Physics

1996-12-31

155

Loads on ball mills and vibrating ball mills  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Measures to optimize ball mills and vibrating ball mills must be based on detailed knowledge of load mechanisms. A direct method of measurement has been developed to determine the energy distributions of loads transmitted by the grinding balls. The grinding balls are equipped with sensors which measure the frequencies of impact loads and frictional loads transmitted by the ball surfaces in dependence of load intensities. This way, quantitative statements can be made for the first time on load processes in ball mills and vibrating ball mills independent of grinding efficiencies which are also a function of the material to be ground.

Rolf, L.; Vongluekiet, T.; Uygun, M.

1982-06-01

156

Sugar crops for fuel alcohol  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The use of alcohol rather than petroleum as a fuel source would require a large amount of land and suitable crops. Acerage now in use for food crops and animal production in the USA is given. The author presents alternatives to present land use in order to free acreage for energy crops such as sorghum, sugar beets, and sugar cane. (DC)

Irvine, J.E.

1980-01-01

157

Biomass deconstruction to sugars.  

Science.gov (United States)

The production of biofuels from lignocellulosic biomass relies on the depolymerization of its polysaccharide content into fermentable sugars. Accomplishing this requires pretreatment of the biomass to reduce its size, and chemical or physical alteration of the biomass polymers to enhance the susceptibility of their glycosidic linkages to enzymatic or acid catalyzed cleavage. Well-studied approaches include dilute and concentrated acid pretreatment and catalysis, and the dissolution of biomass in organic solvents. These and recently developed approaches, such as solubilization in ionic liquids, are reviewed in terms of the chemical and physical changes occurring in biomass pretreatment. As pretreatment represents one of the major costs in converting biomass to fuels, the factors that contribute to pretreatments costs, and their impact on overall process economics, are described. PMID:21834132

Blanch, Harvey W; Simmons, Blake A; Klein-Marcuschamer, Daniel

2011-08-10

158

Biomass deconstruction to sugars.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The production of biofuels from lignocellulosic biomass relies on the depolymerization of its polysaccharide content into fermentable sugars. Accomplishing this requires pretreatment of the biomass to reduce its size, and chemical or physical alteration of the biomass polymers to enhance the susceptibility of their glycosidic linkages to enzymatic or acid catalyzed cleavage. Well-studied approaches include dilute and concentrated acid pretreatment and catalysis, and the dissolution of biomass in organic solvents. These and recently developed approaches, such as solubilization in ionic liquids, are reviewed in terms of the chemical and physical changes occurring in biomass pretreatment. As pretreatment represents one of the major costs in converting biomass to fuels, the factors that contribute to pretreatments costs, and their impact on overall process economics, are described.

Blanch HW; Simmons BA; Klein-Marcuschamer D

2011-09-01

159

METHOD OF SUGAR PRODUCTION  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

FIELD: chemistry. ^ SUBSTANCE: invention relates to sugar-producing industry. Method includes obtaining beetroot chips, scalding it before supplying into diffusion apparatus or its heating in it. Extraction of sucrose from chips with nourishing water, discharge from apparatus of diffusion juice and marc unloading are carried out. Water solution containing non-anionic flocculant and acid reagent are introduced into zone of nourishing water supply into diffusion apparatus body. Solution of inorganic coagulant and solution of calcium hydroxide are introduced into zone of beetroot chips supply or into medium zone of body of apparatus for beetroot juice purification from highly molecular compounds and substances of colloidal dispersibility simultaneously with extraction. Solution of inorganic coagulant and solution of acidic reagent are introduced into diffusion juice until pH of highly molecular and colloidal-dispersion admixtures in acidic medium is 4.5-5.5 Then solution of non-anionic flocculant and lime milk until pH is 6.5-8.5 are added to juice and are heated to 60-65C. Reagent, accelerating process of non-sugar particles flocculation, is introduced and formed sediment is separated, after which juice defecation to pH 10.8-11.4 is carried out. Solution of inorganic coagulant and decolourizing reagent are added to defecated juice, pH is brought to 9.1-9.3 with acidic reagent, heated to 70-75C, pH is reduced to 7.8-8.2, filtered. Purified juice is directed to thickening and in boiling of fillmass. ^ EFFECT: increase of effect of beetroot juice purification at stage of extraction and lime purification, reduction of lime consumption and sucrose loss in filtration sediment. ^ 8 cl, 3 ex

KIM AFANASIJ MOISEEVICH; KARABUTA SERGEJ SERGEEVICH

160

Sugar Substitutes: What You Need To Know  

Science.gov (United States)

... Sweetener Sugar alcohols, which include sorbitol, xylitol and maltitol I’ve heard that sugar substitutes can cause ... and 30% to 40% as sweet at sugar Maltitol – 2.1 calories per gram and 90% as ...

 
 
 
 
161

Process for whole cell saccharification of lignocelluloses to sugars using a dual bioreactor system  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The present invention describes a process for saccharification of lignocelluloses to sugars using whole microbial cells, which are enriched from cultures inoculated with paper mill waste water, wood processing waste and soil. A three-member bacterial consortium is selected as a potent microbial inocula and immobilized on inedible plant fibers for biomass saccharification. The present invention further relates the design of a dual bioreactor system, with various biocarriers for enzyme immobilization and repeated use. Sugars are continuously removed eliminating end-product inhibition and consumption by cell.

Lu, Jue (Okemos, MI); Okeke, Benedict (Montgomery, AL)

2012-03-27

162

Environmentally friendly pretreatment of plant biomass by planetary and attrition milling.  

Science.gov (United States)

This study evaluated the use of planetary and attrition milling as pretreatment processes for lignocellulosic biomass using rice straw. Planetary milling reduced the rice straw crystallinity from 0.48 to 0.11. Since the samples could be milled and enzymatically treated using the same media, loss of the biomass due to washing was effectively eliminated. In contrast, conventional sodium hydroxide and soaking in aqueous ammonia (SAA) processes showed a loss of 34.2% and 14.8%, respectively. Furthermore, milling produced significantly lower concentrations of soluble phenolics than the alkali treatments. Using a bioluminescent bioreporter strain that is sensitive to these phenolics, neither of the milled samples elicited a response while the sodium hydroxide and SAA samples led to a 25.8 and 4.7 -fold induction, respectively. Although planetary milling produced more reducing sugars than attrition milling before saccharification, both had similar monosaccharide yields, i.e., 0.38 and 0.34g/g-biomass, respectively, when 40g/l rice straw was treated. PMID:23867527

Kim, Hyeon Jeong; Lee, Siseon; Kim, Jungbae; Mitchell, Robert J; Lee, Jin Hyung

2013-06-28

163

Indian Ocean Geopolitics.  

Science.gov (United States)

A strong deterrent and stability in the Indian Ocean is the obscure island of Diego Garcia in the middle of the Indian Ocean. It sits astride all of the oil lanes to and from the Persian Gulf, the major source of oil. Diego Gracia is now a small naval com...

J. H. Hayes

1975-01-01

164

Production of bottler's liquid sugar  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Bottler's liquid sugar is produced essentially from brown sugar, which is derived from cane sugar and crystallized in one or more intermediate strikes, by remelting the crystallized product of one or more intermediate strikes, filtering the remelted product, and passing the filtered product in contact with chloride form of Type-1 strong-base anion-exchange resin. An array of plural columns, which contain similar resin, is operated in a merry-go-round sequence allowing continuous operation. Countercurrent regeneration is preferred. Regeneration by an aqueous solution of hydrochloric acid followed by an aqueous solution of sodium chloride and sodium hydroxide allows service at 30 DEG C.

BURKE DENNIS J; DILLMAN TERRY R

165

LIME FERTILIZER FOR SUGAR BEET  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

FIELD: agriculture, fertilizers. SUBSTANCE: invention can be used for growing manufacturing sugar beet on acid soils. Lime fertilizer for sugar beet comprises 10-30 wt.-% of quick lime, 50-70 wt.-% of defecate and calcium carbonate from chemical synthesis, the balance. The combination of three lime components in taken ratio provides the enhancement of effectiveness of chemical amelioration due to stable and uniform reducing the soil acidity and enhancement of productivity of sugar beet plantings. EFFECT: enhanced effectiveness of fertilizer. 1 tbl, 1 dwg

SHISHKIN A F; OVCHARENKO V N; PAVLOV D V; LUKIN L JU; TELEVINOV A A

166

SUGAR COOKIE CONTENT  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

FIELD: food industry. ^ SUBSTANCE: invention is related to food industry, mainly to diabetic flour confectionary goods production. The product contains wheat flour of top quality, corn flour, extruded rice, stevioside, fructose, margarine, mellange, pasteurised cow milk, full cream milk powder, drinking soda, carbon and ammonium salt and flavouring agent at the following component content, wt %: wheat flour of top quality - 51.6-54.8, corn flour - 3.6-4.9, extruded rice - 3.1-3.8, stevioside - 0.06-0.07, fructose - 5.49-6.18, margarine - 18.5-18.8, mellange - 3.9-4.4, pasteurised cow milk - 3.0-3.8, full cream milk powder - 4.4-5.7, salt - 0.33, drinking soda - 0.47, carbon and ammonium salt - 0.35, flavouring agent - 0.8, water - as per calculations. ^ EFFECT: exclusion of sugar from the recipe is provided, nutritious value is increased, energy value is decreased, diabetic flour confectionary goods range is increased. ^ 1 tbl, 4 ex

MAGOMEDOV GAZIBEG OMAROVICH; OLEJNIKOVA AL BINA JAKOVLEVNA; PLOTNIKOVA INESSA VIKTOROVNA; SHEVJAKOVA TAT JANA ANATOL EVNA; CHERNYSHEVA SVETLANA JUR EVNA

167

Fermentation of sugars and sugar alcohols by plaque Lactobacillus strains.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

OBJECTIVE: The objective was to analyse the ability of Lactobacillus strains isolated from supragingival plaque of subjects with hyposalivation and from healthy controls to ferment sugars and sugar alcohols. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Fifty strains isolated from interproximal plaque from subjects with radiation-induced hyposalivation (25 strains), subjects with primary Sjögren's syndrome (16 strains) and from subjects with normal salivary secretion rate (9 strains) were tested. Growth and pH were determined after 24 and 48 h of anaerobic incubation in vials containing basal media with 1 % of glucose, fructose, sucrose, mannitol, sorbitol or xylitol. RESULTS: No differences between strains isolated from hyposalivated subjects and controls were detected. All strains lowered the pH to <5.0 from fructose and the majority of the strains from glucose and sucrose. A pH of <5.5 was seen for 52 % of the strains using mannitol, 50 % using sorbitol and 36 % using xylitol. The ability to produce acids from sugars and sugar alcohols was highest among strains of Lactobacillus rhamnosus, Lactobacillus casei and Lactobacillus paracasei and lowest among Lactobacillus fermentum strains. CONCLUSION: A large number of Lactobacillus strains are able to ferment not only sugars but also the sugar substitutes mannitol, sorbitol and xylitol to pH levels critical for enamel demineralisation. CLINICAL RELEVANCE: Our findings suggest that products containing mannitol, sorbitol and/or xylitol may contribute to the acidogenic potential of the dental plaque and especially in hyposalivated subjects with high numbers of lactobacilli.

Almståhl A; Lingström P; Eliasson L; Carlén A

2013-07-01

168

Indian research on sleep disorders  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Literature on sleep disorders from our country, India, can mainly be found in the Indian journal of Sleep medicine, Indian Journal of psychiatry, The Annals of Indian Academy of Neurology and certain other journals and books. The article highlights the contribution of various Indian doctors in the f...

Shah, Nilesh; Bang, Abha; Bhagat, Aparna

169

An Indian Education Resources Center.  

Science.gov (United States)

An Indian Education Resources Center has been established in Albuquerque, New Mexico, to improve educational opportunities for American Indian students. Part of the Bureau of Indian Affairs' Central Office of Indian Education Program, the center was established after a thorough review of the Bureau's Central Office education operations revealed a…

Benham, William J.

170

Combined pretreatment using ozonolysis and wet-disk milling to improve enzymatic saccharification of Japanese cedar.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Ozonolysis and subsequent wet-disk milling (DM) were carried out on Japanese cedar (Cryptomeria japonica) to improve sugar production by enzymatic saccharification. When the moisture content reached more than 40%, ozone consumption decreased, resulting in less delignification. Ozone treatment removed mainly lignin, but also small amounts of polysaccharides. The application of DM following the ozone treatment further increased glucose and xylose yields, but had no significant effect on mannose yield, due to the loss of mannan in the ozone-treated product and the lack of mannose-releasing activity in the hemicellulase used. Sugar concentration increased with substrate concentration, when a constant ratio of enzyme to substrate was used.

Miura T; Lee SH; Inoue S; Endo T

2012-12-01

171

Sugar Cane Nutrient Distribution Analysis  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Neutron Activation Analysis (NAA), Molecular Absorption Spectrometry (UV-Vis), and Flame Photometry techniques were applied to measure plant nutrient concentrations of Br, Ca, Cl, K, Mn, N, Na and P in sugar-cane root, stalk and leaves. These data will be used to explore the behavior of element concentration in different parts of the sugar-cane to better understand the plant nutrient distribution during its development.

2011-08-10

172

Indian concepts on sexuality.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

India is a vast country depicting wide social, cultural and sexual variations. Indian concept of sexuality has evolved over time and has been immensely influenced by various rulers and religions. Indian sexuality is manifested in our attire, behavior, recreation, literature, sculptures, scriptures, religion and sports. It has influenced the way we perceive our health, disease and device remedies for the same. In modern era, with rapid globalization the unique Indian sexuality is getting diffused. The time has come to rediscover ourselves in terms of sexuality to attain individual freedom and to reinvest our energy to social issues related to sexuality.

Chakraborty K; Thakurata RG

2013-01-01

173

BLOOD SUGAR TESTER AND DATA UPLOADING METHOD  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The present invention relates to a blood sugar test device and a method for transmitting a measured blood sugar level to a blood sugar level administration server on the Internet. In one embodiment, blood sugar test function is integrated in a mobile terminal. In another embodiment, a blood sugar test adaptor is connected to a connection terminal of a mobile terminal, the adaptor being equipped with minimal functions to perform blood sugar tests. In addition, both the mobile terminal with integrated blood sugar test function and the mobile terminal connected to the above blood sugar test adaptor can transmit measured blood sugar level to the blood sugar level administration server. A strip case is provided for at an outer surface of the mobile terminal itself in the former, while a strip case is located at an outer surface of the adaptor in the latter.

LEE Min-Hwa; KIM Moon-Soo

174

Blood sugar tester and data uploading method  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The present invention relates to a blood sugar test device and a method for transmitting a measured blood sugar level to a blood sugar level administration server on the Internet. In one embodiment, blood sugar test function is integrated in a mobile terminal. In another embodiment, a blood sugar test adaptor is connected to a connection terminal of a mobile terminal, the adaptor being equipped with minimal functions to perform blood sugar tests. In addition, both the mobile terminal with integrated blood sugar test function and the mobile terminal connected to the above blood sugar test adaptor can transmit measured blood sugar level to the blood sugar level administration server. A strip case is provided for at an outer surface of the mobile terminal itself in the former, while a strip case is located at an outer surface of the adaptor in the latter.

LEE MIN-HWA; KIM MOON-SOO

175

The Efficiency Analyses of Croatian Sugar Industry by Using the Concept of Intellectual Capital  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available During the last fi ve years the sugar industry has become one of the most important branches of Croatian food industry. It is connected with a signifi cant number of various industries in a complex way and employs a signifi cant number of people. A development of the sugar industry stimulates development of commerce, logistics, and a number of correlated industries whose products are necessary in sugar production. Croatian sugar factories have been present at the neighbouring markets and the European Union market for several years. Th e share of sugar in the total export of agricultural products increases every year and in the year 2004, it was 26.8% with the tendency of increasing in the year 2005. Th e foundation of the Intellectual capital (IC) concept, as a method of increasing the entire business effi ciency, can be found in the papers of economic theoreticians in the middle of the last century but it reached its real break through in the past 15 years when the concept got more applied and the theory of intellectual capital was developed. In order to prepare Croatian economy for the competition that is expecting Croatia by joining the European Union with full membership, especially the agricultural sector, the application of the IC concept is expected to result with an increase of business effi ciency. Th e intellectual capital concept represents a recommended base, which will help Croatian sugar mills in achieving a better position at the highly competitive market of the European Union.

Marko Kolakovi?; Dražen Holmik

2006-01-01

176

Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action Project (UMTRAP) Public Participation Plan  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The purpose of this Public Participation Plan is to explain the Department of Energy`s plan for involving the public in the decision-making process related to the Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) Project. This project was authorized by Congress in the Uranium Mill Tailings Radiation Control Act of 1978. The Act provides for a cooperative effort with affected states and Indian tribes for the eventual cleanup of abandoned or inactive uranium mill tailings sites, which are located in nine western states and in Pennsylvania. Section 111 of the Act states, ``in carrying out the provisions of this title, including the designation of processing sites, establishing priorities for such sites, the selection of remedial actions and the execution of cooperative agreements, the Secretary (of Energy), the Administrator (of the Environmental Protection Agency), and the (Nuclear Regulatory) Commission shall encourage public participation and, where appropriate, the Secretary shall hold public hearings relative to such matters in the States where processing sites and disposal sites are located.`` The objective of this document is to show when, where, and how the public will be involved in this project.

NONE

1981-05-01

177

Development and Installation of High Pressure Boilers for Co-Generation Plant in Sugar Industries  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The sugar cane containing minimum 30% fiber was referred as bagasse and used the generation of power required for the operation of sugar mill. The bagasse is fired in the boiler for producing steam at high pressure, which is extracted through various single high capacity turbines and used in the process. The installation of high pressure boilers and high pressure turbo-generators has provision for the operation of co-generation plant during the off-season also that enhances the power generation from 9MW to 23MW. The annual monetary benefits achieved are Rs. 204.13 million and this was based on cost of power sold to the grid @ Rs 2.548 per unit, sugar season of 219 days and off season of 52 days. This required an investment of Rs 820.6 million. The investment had an attractive simple payback period of 48 months.

Kolar Seenappa Venkatesh; Aashis S. Roy

2010-01-01

178

Indian Cosmological Ideas  

CERN Multimedia

This paper, third in the series on Indian tradition of physics, describes conceptions of the cosmos with ideas that are clearly spelt out in texts such as Yoga Vasishtha.In particular, the conception of multiple universes that occurs often in this text will be examined in the framework of the Indian physics. The other surprising concepts that are discussed include flow of time and its variability with respect to different observers, and the possibility of passage across universes.

Narayan, R

2007-01-01

179

METHOD FOR OBTAINING WHITE SUGAR OF A SUGAR BEET  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

A method for obtaining white sugar of a sugar beet involves its delivery by a transport vehicle, weighing, warehousing, withdrawal of beet from the place of warehousing, its transportation to washing with the separation of light and heavy admixtures and beet wastes, washing of beet with the separation of beet wastes, its weighing, cutting of chips,diffusion of sugar from the beet chips with the treated water with obtaining of diffuse juice and bagasse, pressing of bagasse with separation of pulp-press water, filtration of diffuse juice, its preliminary and basic defecations, first saturation with the separation of first saturation juice and sediment, leaching of sediment, heating of first saturation juice, its second saturation, filtration with the separation of second saturation's juice and sediment, sulfitation of second saturation's juice and sediment, its re-filtration, heating and boiling obtaining of syrup, sulfitation of syrup, its filtration, heating, control filtration and boiling with the obtaining of the first crystallization fillmass, its centrifugation with the separation of white sugar and outflows, boiling from the finished outflows of the second crystallization fillmass, its additional crystallization by cooling with further centrifugation with the separation of yellow sugar and molasses, drying white sugar, its dispersion, packing and serve of the prepared product on saving. The beet wastes are crushed and press with the obtaining of beet waste's juice and residual mass. The beet waste juice is mixed up with pulp-press water, then a mixture is heated and placed at least in one gravitation precipitation tank, where defending of mixture is carried out with the obtaining of decantate. For performing of diffusion process the finished decantate is added in the prepared water. The pre-defecation of diffuse juice is carried out by progressive alkalization byunfiltered first saturation's juice and limewater. The finished pre-defecated juice is aged in pre-defecation tank and additional crystallization by cooling is carried out in two pans connected by the pipelines system.

BONDARENKO SERHII VIKTOROVYCH

180

Abstract Milling with Turn Costs  

CERN Multimedia

The Abstract Milling problem is a natural and quite general graph-theoretic model for geometric milling problems. Given a graph, one asks for a walk that covers all its vertices with a minimum number of turns, as specified in the graph model by a 0/1 turncost function fx at each vertex x giving, for each ordered pair of edges (e,f) incident at x, the turn cost at x of a walk that enters the vertex on edge e and departs on edge f. We describe an initial study of the parameterized complexity of the problem. Our main positive result shows that Abstract Milling, parameterized by: number of turns, treewidth and maximum degree, is fixed-parameter tractable, We also show that Abstract Milling parameterized by (only) the number of turns and the pathwidth, is hard for W[1] -- one of the few parameterized intractability results for bounded pathwidth.

Fellows, M; Knauer, C; Paul, C; Rosamond, F; Whitesides, S; Yu, N

2009-01-01

 
 
 
 
181

Decommissioning of uranium mill facilities  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] The milling of radioactive ores results in contaminated buildings and facilities which must be decommissioned, and large quantities of tailings which must be managed safely so that residual environmental and health risks do not exceed acceptable levels. In the south of Spain on the outskirts of the town of Andujar an inactive uranium mill facility is under decommissioning. Mill equipment, buildings and process facilities have been dismantled and demolished and the resulting metal wastes and debris have been placed in the pile. The tailing mass is being reshaped by flattening the sideslopes and a cover system will be placed over the pile. This paper describes the safety aspects and technical approaches which are being used for the remediation and closure of the Andujar mill site. (author). 7 figs

1995-01-01

182

VOC Control in Kraft Mills  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The formation of volatile organic compounds (VOCs), such as methanol, in kraft mills has been an environmental concern. Methanol is soluble in water and can increase the biochemical oxygen demand. Furthermore, it can also be released into atmosphere at the process temperatures of kraft mill-streams. The Cluster Rule of the EPA now requires the control of the release of methanol in pulp and paper mills. This research program was conducted to develop a computer simulation tool for mills to predict VOC air emissions. To achieve the objective of the research program, much effort was made in the development of analytical techniques for the analysis of VOC and determination of vapor liquid partitioning coefficient of VOCs in kraft mill-streams using headspace gas chromatography. With the developed analytical tool, methanol formation in alkaline pulping was studied in laboratory to provide benchmark data of the amount of methanol formation in pulping in kraft mills and for the validation of VOC formation and vapor-liquid equilibrium submodels. Several millwide air and liquid samplings were conducted using the analytical tools developed to validate the simulation tool. The VOC predictive simulation model was developed based on the basic chemical engineering concepts, i.e., reaction kinetics, vapor liquid equilibrium, combined with computerized mass and energy balances. Four kraft mill case studies (a continuous digester, two brownstock washing lines, and a pre-evaporator system) are presented and compared with mill measurements. These case studies provide valuable, technical information for issues related to MACT I and MACT II compliance, such as condensate collection and Clean-Condensate-Alternatives (CCA).

Zhu, J.Y.; Chai, X.-S.; Edwards, L.L.; Gu, Y.; Teja, A.S.; Kirkman, A.G.; Pfromm, P.H.; Rezac, M.E.

2001-09-26

183

Yang-Mills quantum mechanics  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] Quantum mechanical properties of the Yang-Mills spacehomogeneous model are considered in the Schroedinger representation. By means of compact variables the dependence of the wave function on ''rotational'' degrees of freedom is separated and effective Hamiltonians are obtained for ''vibrational'' degrees of freedom at various values of the moment. The effective Hamiltonian for S=0 formally corresponds to the fundamental subsystem of the Yang-Mills classical mechanics and essen tially differs from it by an additional singular potential

1984-01-01

184

Health-hazard evaluation report HETA 85-044-1761, American Crystal Sugar Company, Drayton, North Dakota  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Employee exposures to airborne contaminants during sugar-beet processing and to welding fumes during facility maintenance were evaluated at a sugar beet mill 2063) owned by the American Crystal Sugar Company (ACSCO), in response to a request from the American Federation of Grain Millers International Union and ACSCO's management. Personal and general air samples were collected and analyzed for several chemicals, total and respirable dusts, and metals and welding fumes. Methods included gravimetric analysis, chromatography, spectroscopy, and x-ray diffraction. Exposures in excess of the most-stringent criteria were found for calcium-oxide, coal dust, crystalline silica, sugar dust, and formaldehyde. Areas of greatest exposure included lime-kiln operation, coal handling, and storage-bin housekeeping. Recommendations include use of respiratory protection, dust and fume containment, and formaldehyde replacement.

Boiano, J.M.; Almaguer, D.

1986-12-01

185

Modeling analysis of sugar fermentation  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The metabolism of glucose and xylose by a naturally occurring anaerobic bacteria, Klebsiella planticola, was studied by using in-vivo NMR techniques and substrates selectively enriched with {sup 13}C to follow the step-by-step transformation process to ethanol. A modelling approach based on compartmental analysis of energy flows was used to study the metabolic constants. The transformation processes for the two sugars followed different mechanisms. Glucose was linked to the basic metabolic activities of the bacteria. Its conversion to ethanol depended only upon the concentration of active cells and therefore was independent of the sugar concentration. The transformation of xylose was linked to an autocatalytic process that demonstrated the secondary nature of the xylose consumption. This process depends on both the concentration of active cells and the concentration of sugar. (author)

Rossi, C.; Loiselle, S.; Bastianoni, S.; Picchi, M.P.; Bonechi, C.; Porcelli, M. [University of Siena (Italy)

1997-07-01

186

Uranium mill tailings management  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] The tailings produced as a result of uranium mining and milling operations contain large quantities of radioactive material albeit at concentrations only slightly above that occurring naturally. Due to the fact that the material has been brought to the surface and has been physically and chemically changed, radioactive and other constituents are now more mobile and available for uptake in food chains etc. The large volumes of material and the long half-lives of the radionuclides present make it impossible to completely isolate the material from the environment. Releases to the environment must however be controlled to limit exposures of the public to acceptable levels. This lecture discusses the sources of radioactivity in tailings material and the most important release mechanisms i.e. seepage, erosion, gaseous emanation and particulate suspension by which the radioactivity can escape to the environment. The possible critical pathways by which man can be exposed and its dependence on climatic factors are described and management options for controlling these releases are mentioned. Finally, the existing legislation in South Africa for the control of these releases are discussed and the release rate limits applied in various countries are given

1980-04-15

187

South African Sugar Technologists' Association. Proceedings of the fifty-ninth annual congress held at Durban and Mount Edgecombe, 17 to 21 June 1985  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] This publication presents the proceedings of the fifty-ninth annual congress of the South African Sugar Technologists' Association, held in Durban and Mount Edgecombe, from 17 to 21 June 1985. Almost every facet of the sugar industry is covered including topics such as milling, irrigation, growth, crystal elongation and crystal size distribution, pans, stirrers and boilers used in the industry, evaporation, sucrose losses, radiometric and other gauges, the use of x-ray techniques and chemical methods of analysis, diseases, cooling waters, refining, maintenance, efficiency, operation, production and performance of a sugar station

1985-06-21

188

Indian Ocean Triple Junction  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The boundaries of three major plates (Africa, India, and Antarctica) meet in a triple junction in the Indian Ocean near 25 /sup 0/S, 70 /sup 0/E. Using observed bathymetry and magnetic anomalies, we locate the junction to within 5 km and show that it is a ridge-ridge-ridge type. Relative plate motion is N60 /sup 0/E at 50 mm/yr (full rate) across the Central Indian Ridge, N47 /sup 0/E at 60 mm/yr across the Southeast Indian Ridge, and N3 /sup 0/W at 15 mm/yr across te Southwest Indian Ridge; the observed velocity triangle is closed. Poles of instantaneous relative plate motion are determined for all plate pairs. The data in the South Atlantic and Indian oceans are consistent with a rigid African plate without significant internal deformation. Two of the ridges at the triple junction are normal midocean spreading centers with well-defined median valleys. The Southwest Indian Ridge, however, has a peculiar morphology near the triple junction, that of an elongate triangular deep, with the triple junction at its apex. The floor of the deep represents crust formed at the Southwest Indian Ridge, and the morphology is a consequence of the evolution of the triple junction and is similar to that at the Galapagos Triple Junction. Though one cannot determine with precision the stability conditions at the triple junction, the development of the junction over the last 10 m.y. can be mapped, and the topographic expressions of the triple junction traces may be detected on the three plates.

Tapscott, C.R.; Patriat, P.; Fisher, R.L.; Sclater, J.G.; Hoskins, H.; Parsons, B.

1980-09-10

189

SUBAQUEOUS DISPOSAL OF MILL TAILINGS  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A study of mill tailings and sulfide minerals was carried out in order to understand their behavior under subaqueous conditions. A series of electrochemical experiments, namely, cyclic voltammetry, electrochemical impedance spectroscopy and galvanic coupling tests were carried out in artificial seawater and in pH 6.8 buffer solutions with chloride and ferric salts. Two mill tailings samples, one from the Kensington Mine, Alaska, and the other from the Holden Mine, Washington, were studied along with pyrite, galena, chalcopyrite and copper-activated sphalerite. SEM analysis of mill tailings revealed absence of sulfide minerals from the Kensington Mine mill tailings, whereas the Holden Mine mill tailings contained approximately 8% pyrite and 1% sphalerite. In order to conduct electrochemical tests, carbon matrix composite (CMC) electrodes of mill tailings, pyrite and galena were prepared and their feasibility was established by conducting a series of cyclic voltammetry tests. The cyclic voltammetry experiments carried out in artificial seawater and pH 6.8 buffer with chloride salts showed that chloride ions play an important role in the redox processes of sulfide minerals. For pyrite and galena, peaks were observed for the formation of chloride complexes, whereas pitting behavior was observed for the CMC electrodes of the Kensington Mine mill tailings. The electrochemical impedance spectroscopy conducted in artificial seawater provided with the Nyquist plots of pyrite and galena. The Nyquist plots of pyrite and galena exhibited an inert range of potential indicating a slower rate of leaching of sulfide minerals in marine environments. The galvanic coupling experiments were carried out to study the oxidation of sulfide minerals in the absence of oxygen. It was shown that in the absence of oxygen, ferric (Fe3+) ions might oxidize the sulfide minerals, thereby releasing undesirable oxidation products in the marine environment. The source of Fe{sup 3{minus}} ions may be attributed to iron-bearing sulfide (and oxide) minerals present in the mill tailings. However, the concentration of available Fe{sup 3{minus}} ions can be reduced by the precipitation of insoluble ferric hydroxides (Fe(OH ){sub 3}) by seawater due to its near neutral pH. In such case, the oxidation of a sulfide mineral is inhibited due to the absence of an oxidizing agent (viz. oxygen and/or Fe{sup 3+} ions). The experiments carried out in this study provided a better understanding of behavior of sulfide minerals and mill tailings in subaqueous conditions and may be useful for further investigation of sulfide minerals and mill tailings in other environments.

Neeraj K. Mendiratta; Roe-Hoan Yoon; Paul Richardson

1999-09-03

190

Indian Academy of Sciences - New associates, 2012  

Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

indian academy of sciences - new associates, 2012   1. shivani agarwal, indian institute of science, bangalore  3. sujit kumar ghosh, indian institute of science education and research, pune  4. m. jeganmohan, indian institute of science education and research, pune  5. santanu mukherjee, indian institute of science, bangalore  7. supratim ray, indian institute of science, bangalore ...

191

La science politique de John Stuart Mill  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This essay explores aspects of John Stuart Mill’s approach to social and political science in the Considerations on Representative Government (1861) with an emphasis on the significance of character or ‘ethology’ in this science. The starting point is a discussion of psychology and ethology in Book VI of the Logic (1843). This conception is examined in terms of Mill’s framework of inductive and deductive science and the distinction between art and science where the views of Mill and Jeremy Bentham are contrasted. Given Mill’s view of the relationship between art and science, the science of ethology (including political ethology) assumes a more prominent position in Mill’s thought than any political art or any distinctly political science. Contrary to many commentators, it is argued that Mill never abandoned his commitment to ethology, as is clear from the discussion of ‘the ideally best form of government’ in the Considerations. Mill’s conception of ‘active character’ here underpins and directs what might otherwise be seen as a traditional account of forms of government. The cultivation of active character becomes an essential condition for the success of representative government. The essay concludes with remarks on Mill’s emphasis on society for his account of liberty in On Liberty (1859) and suggests that he considered new ways of understanding the traditional processes of government.

Frederick Rosen

2008-01-01

192

Microwave system for Indian oil  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This article briefly describes the pioneering work undertaken by I.T.I. in the turnkey installation of a Microwave System for the hazardous Indian Oil Viramgaum-Mathura Pipeline. The author is Additional General Manager (Commercial) Indian Telephone Industries.

Gopalakrishnan, B.

1982-12-01

193

Cogeneration alternatives in sugar and alcohol industries. Case of study; Alternativas de cogeracao na industria sucro-alcooleira. Estudo de caso  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

In the present work, a cogeneration system of sugar-alcohol cane mill is evaluated. Using the Exergetic Cost Theory, a thermo economic analysis is made for the crop corresponding to the year 2000. Previously a detailed energetic analysis was made in order to determine of the first law efficiency for steam boilers and the fuel consumption involved. The first and second law equipment's efficiencies were calculated as well as some performance criteria of the overall system. The fundamental aim of the evaluation was to obtain the cost of the principal fluxes of the system, considering a discount rate of 15 % and a capital recovery period of fifteen years for the energetic equipment in the sugar mill for the monetary cost calculations. In the analysis, was included the sugar mill juice extraction system as a control volume in order to determine the variation in the bagasse cost and its influence in the cost of other fluxes. A Thermodynamic analysis is also made, in which the increase of thermodynamic parameters is studied as a way of improving the fuel economy in Sugar Mill Factories focusing the electric energy obtained in the different alternatives. Diverse strategies are discussed, and as a result, the thermodynamic evaluations of two Proposals of Steam Cogeneration Systems are accomplished as well as the calculations of the exergetic cost. (author)

Sanchez Prieto, Mario Gabriel

2003-07-01

194

Gas fluidized-bed stirred media mill  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A gas fluidized-bed stirred media mill is provided for comminuting solid ticles. The mill includes a housing enclosing a porous fluidizing gas diffuser plate, a baffled rotor and stator, a hollow drive shaft with lateral vents, and baffled gas exhaust exit ports. In operation, fluidizing gas is forced through the mill, fluidizing the raw material and milling media. The rotating rotor, stator and milling media comminute the raw material to be ground. Small entrained particles may be carried from the mill by the gas through the exit ports when the particles reach a very fine size.

Sadler, III, Leon Y. (Tuscaloosa, AL)

1997-01-01

195

Gas fluidized-bed stirred media mill  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A gas fluidized-bed stirred media mill is provided for comminuting solid particles. The mill includes a housing enclosing a porous fluidizing gas diffuser plate, a baffled rotor and stator, a hollow drive shaft with lateral vents, and baffled gas exhaust exit ports. In operation, fluidizing gas is forced through the mill, fluidizing the raw material and milling media. The rotating rotor, stator and milling media comminute the raw material to be ground. Small entrained particles may be carried from the mill by the gas through the exit ports when the particles reach a very fine size. 2 figs.

Sadler, L.Y. III

1997-10-28

196

Sugar manufacture [Produktie van suiker.  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Abstract niet beschikbaar , This document on sugar manufacture has been published within the SPIN-project. In this project information has been collected on industrial plants or industrial processes to afford support to governmental policy on emission reduction. This document contains information on...

Hulskotte JHJ; Matthijsen AJCM

197

Control of milled peat production  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Development work on a control system for peat production has been carried on at the Domestic Fuel Laboratory of the Technical Research Centre of Finland since 1981. The control system has been primarily designed for use with the Haku method. In the system the milling thickness has been taken a constant. It is assumed that turns in the milling layer take place once a day on average and the interval between the different work phases is calculated as a constant of the harvesting cycle's evaporation total. The control system was drawn up during the summer of 1984 using a microcomputer (figure 3). The set-up also included a line printer for outputting the production programme and an evaporation meter, which was linked up to the microcomputer. It was demonstrated that output can be improved through control of milled peat production. This is based on the correct timing of the work phases as well as taking into account the demands placed on production by weather conditions. However, a significant increase in output is not achieved until it is possible to alter the thickness of the milling layer in line with weather conditions. The length of the period of fine weather as well as the capacity of the site equipment can then be taken into consideration when planning production and the best possible milling thickness can be selected for each type of weather. This will be the aim of research in the future.

Leinonen, A.

1985-01-01

198

Keeping Track of Your Blood Sugar  

Science.gov (United States)

... you input information in addition to your blood sugar test results, like your food intake and daily exercise. ... glucose meters can help you track your blood sugar test results, it's still a good idea to write ...

199

ConcepTest: Sugar-Rock Analogy  

Science.gov (United States)

Water containing dissolved sugar evaporates to leave a deposit of sugar in the bottom of a glass. This could be seen as an analog for the formation of a type of a. igneous rock b. metamorphic rock c. sedimentary ...

200

Nanozeolite Produced by Wet Milling at Different Milling Time  

Science.gov (United States)

Recently, there has been a considerable growing interest in utilizing nanozeolites due to their advantages over conventional micron sized materials. Zeolite particle may be reduced by mechanical treatment such as ball milling or grinding in order to get smaller particles. In this paper, effect of milling time on particle size and surface morphology of Zeolite were investigated by a few designed of experiments in aqueous environment. Zeta-sizer Nano series of particle sizer and Field Emission Scanning Electron Microscopy (FESEM) have been used to characterize this nanozeolite. Results shown that, there were changes of particle size and also the surface morphology of Zeolite.

Mukhtar, N. Z. F.; Borhan, M. Z.; Abdullah, S.; Rusop, M.

2013-06-01

 
 
 
 
201

THE COOPERATIVE SUGAR INDUSTRY IN MAHARASHTRA  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The history of cooperatives in India is more than a hundred years old. Maharashtra sugar industry is one of the most large-scale sugar manufacturing sectors in the country. The pace of the growth of sugar manufacturing has been massive over the past few years. The latest statistics of sugar production in Maharashtra indicates that this state this state this doing better than the other states in the country

THORAT PURUSHOTTAM DHANRAJ; DHARANE S. R

2013-01-01

202

ONLINE SAG MILL PULSE MEASUREMENT AND OPTIMIZATION  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The grinding efficiency of semi autogenous milling or ball milling depends on the tumbling motion of the total charge within the mill. Utilization of this tumbling motion for efficient breakage of particles depends on the conditions inside the mill. However, any kind of monitoring device to measure the conditions inside the mill shell during operation is virtually impossible due to the severe environment presented by the tumbling charge. An instrumented grinding ball, which is capable of surviving a few hours and transmitting the impacts it experiences, is proposed here. The spectrum of impacts collected over 100 revolutions of the mills presents the signature of the grinding environment inside mill. This signature could be effectively used to optimize the milling performance by investigating this signature's relation to mill product size, mill throughput, make-up ball size, mill speed, liner profile and ball addition rates. At the same time, it can also be used to design balls and liner systems that can survive longer in the mill. The technological advances made in electronics and communication makes this leap in instrumentation certainly viable. Hence, the instrumented grinding ball offers the ability to qualitatively observe and optimize the milling environment.

Raj Rajamani; Jose Delgadillo; Vishal Duriseti

2006-06-24

203

Fossil energy savings potential of sugar cane bio-energy systems  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

One important rationale for bio-energy systems is their potential to save fossil energy. Converting a conventional sugar mill into a bio-energy process plant would contribute to fossil energy savings via the extraction of renewable electricity and ethanol substituting for fossil electricity and gasoline, respectively. This paper takes a closer look at the Thai sugar industry and examines two practical approaches that will enhance fossil energy savings. The first one addresses an efficient extraction of energy in the form of electricity from the excess bagasse and cane trash. The second while proposing to convert molasses or sugar cane to ethanol stresses the use of bagasse as well as distillery spent wash to replace coal in meeting ethanol plants' energy needs. The savings potential achieved with extracting ethanol from surplus sugar versus current practice in sugar industry in Thailand amounts to 15 million barrels of oil a year. Whether the saving benefits could be fully realized, however, depends on how well the potential land use change resulting from an expansion of ethanol production is managed. The results presented serve as a useful guidance to formulate strategies that enable optimum utilization of biomass as an energy source

Nguyen, Thu Lan T; Hermansen, John Erik

2009-01-01

204

Haitians’ Labor and Leisure on Cuban Sugar Plantations: The Limits of Company Control  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This article challenges the common notion that Cuban sugar companies controlled the labor and social relations of Haitian immigrant laborers fully and without challenge during the first half of the 20th century. It begins by showing the way that Cuban newspapers and sugar company administrators projected an image of Haitians as a homogenous group of powerless, culturally isolated cane cutters who were separated from other groups through an idealized labor hierarchy. Then it details Haitians’ laboring lives on Cuban sugar plantations to demonstrate three things. First, that Haitians participated in other aspects of sugar production, including skilled positions within centrales. Second, that cane cutters themselves were divided by their skill levels and (in)formal hierarchies. Third, that Haitians worked alongside individuals of other nationalities in both sugar fields and the mills where cane was processed. The essay ends by analyzing Haitians’ attempts to carve out autonomy in their work and leisure hours by exerting control over their labor and creating various types of commercial and social networks with individuals of other nationalities on plantations.

Matthew Casey

2011-01-01

205

Saccharification of recalcitrant biomass and integration options for lignocellulosic sugars from Catchlight Energy’s sugar process (CLE Sugar)  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background Woody biomass is one of the most abundant biomass feedstocks, besides agriculture residuals in the United States. The sustainable harvest residuals and thinnings alone are estimated at about 75 million tons/year. These forest residuals and thinnings could produce the equivalent of 5 billion gallons of lignocellulosic ethanol annually. Softwood biomass is the most recalcitrant biomass in pretreatment before an enzymatic hydrolysis. To utilize the most recalcitrant lignocellulosic materials, an efficient, industrially scalable and cost effective pretreatment method is needed. Results Obtaining a high yield of sugar from recalcitrant biomass generally requires a high severity of pretreatment with aggressive chemistry, followed by extensive conditioning, and large doses of enzymes. Catchlight Energy’s Sugar process, CLE Sugar, uses a low intensity, high throughput variation of bisulfite pulping to pretreat recalcitrant biomass, such as softwood forest residuals. By leveraging well-proven bisulfite technology and the rapid progress of enzyme suppliers, CLE Sugar can achieve a high yield of total biomass carbohydrate conversion to monomeric lignocellulosic sugars. For example, 85.8% of biomass carbohydrates are saccharified for un-debarked Loblolly pine chips (softwood), and 94.0% for debarked maple chips (hardwood). Furan compound formation was 1.29% of biomass feedstock for Loblolly pine and 1.10% for maple. At 17% solids hydrolysis of pretreated softwood, an enzyme dose of 0.075 g Sigma enzyme mixture/g dry pretreated (unwashed) biomass was needed to achieve 8.1% total sugar titer in the hydrolysate and an overall prehydrolysate liquor plus enzymatic hydrolysis conversion yield of 76.6%. At a much lower enzyme dosage of 0.044 g CTec2 enzyme product/g dry (unwashed) pretreated softwood, hydrolysis at 17% solids achieved 9.2% total sugar titer in the hydrolysate with an overall sugar yield of 85.0% in the combined prehydrolysate liquor and enzymatic hydrolysate. CLE Sugar has been demonstrated to be effective on hardwood and herbaceous biomass, making it truly feedstock flexible. Conclusions Different options exist for integrating lignocellulosic sugar into sugar-using operations. A sugar conversion plant may be adjacent to a CLE Sugar plant, and the CLE Sugar can be concentrated from the initial 10% sugar as needed. Concentrated sugars, however, can be shipped to remote sites such as ethanol plants or other sugar users. In such cases, options for shipping a dense form of sugars include (1) pretreated biomass with enzyme addition, (2) lignocellulosic sugar syrup, and (3) lignocellulosic sugar solid. These could provide the advantage of maximizing the use of existing assets.

Gao Johnway; Anderson Dwight; Levie Benjamin

2013-01-01

206

Saccharification of recalcitrant biomass and integration options for lignocellulosic sugars from Catchlight Energy's sugar process (CLE Sugar).  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

UNLABELLED: BACKGROUND: Woody biomass is one of the most abundant biomass feedstocks, besides agriculture residuals in the United States. The sustainable harvest residuals and thinnings alone are estimated at about 75 million tons/year. These forest residuals and thinnings could produce the equivalent of 5 billion gallons of lignocellulosic ethanol annually. Softwood biomass is the most recalcitrant biomass in pretreatment before an enzymatic hydrolysis. To utilize the most recalcitrant lignocellulosic materials, an efficient, industrially scalable and cost effective pretreatment method is needed. RESULTS: Obtaining a high yield of sugar from recalcitrant biomass generally requires a high severity of pretreatment with aggressive chemistry, followed by extensive conditioning, and large doses of enzymes. Catchlight Energy's Sugar process, CLE Sugar, uses a low intensity, high throughput variation of bisulfite pulping to pretreat recalcitrant biomass, such as softwood forest residuals. By leveraging well-proven bisulfite technology and the rapid progress of enzyme suppliers, CLE Sugar can achieve a high yield of total biomass carbohydrate conversion to monomeric lignocellulosic sugars. For example, 85.8% of biomass carbohydrates are saccharified for un-debarked Loblolly pine chips (softwood), and 94.0% for debarked maple chips (hardwood). Furan compound formation was 1.29% of biomass feedstock for Loblolly pine and 1.10% for maple. At 17% solids hydrolysis of pretreated softwood, an enzyme dose of 0.075 g Sigma enzyme mixture/g dry pretreated (unwashed) biomass was needed to achieve 8.1% total sugar titer in the hydrolysate and an overall prehydrolysate liquor plus enzymatic hydrolysis conversion yield of 76.6%. At a much lower enzyme dosage of 0.044 g CTec2 enzyme product/g dry (unwashed) pretreated softwood, hydrolysis at 17% solids achieved 9.2% total sugar titer in the hydrolysate with an overall sugar yield of 85.0% in the combined prehydrolysate liquor and enzymatic hydrolysate. CLE Sugar has been demonstrated to be effective on hardwood and herbaceous biomass, making it truly feedstock flexible. CONCLUSIONS: Different options exist for integrating lignocellulosic sugar into sugar-using operations. A sugar conversion plant may be adjacent to a CLE Sugar plant, and the CLE Sugar can be concentrated from the initial 10% sugar as needed. Concentrated sugars, however, can be shipped to remote sites such as ethanol plants or other sugar users. In such cases, options for shipping a dense form of sugars include (1) pretreated biomass with enzyme addition, (2) lignocellulosic sugar syrup, and (3) lignocellulosic sugar solid. These could provide the advantage of maximizing the use of existing assets.

Gao J; Anderson D; Levie B

2013-01-01

207

Radiological Health Aspects of Uranium Milling.  

Science.gov (United States)

This report describes the operation of conventional and unconventional uranium milling processes, the potential for occupational exposure to ionizing radiation at the mill, methods for radiological safety, methods of evaluating occupational radiation expo...

D. R. Fisher G. A. Stoetzel

1983-01-01

208

Indian Jute in Australian Collections: Forgetting and Recollecting Transnational Networks  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Indian jute sacking played an essential role in Australian life for over 150 years, yet its contribution to Australian development and its Indian origins have been barely recognised in Australian public collections. What has Australian history gained by this erasing of jute from public memory? Wool, sugar and hop sacks are displayed in public collections as evidence of an Australian national story, but their national dimension depends on the cultural invisibility of jute and jute’s connections to the stories of other communities in other places. Developing an awareness of the contribution of Indian jute to the development of Australia requires an awareness not simply that jute comes from India but that the construction of national identity by collecting institutions relies on forgetting those transnational connections evident in their own collections. Where jute sacks have been preserved, it is because they are invested with memories of a collective way of life, yet in attempting to speak on behalf of the nation, the public museum denies more multidimensional models of cultural identity that are less linear and less place-based. If Indian jute is to be acknowledged as part of ‘the Australian story’, the concept of an Australian story must change and exhibitions need to explore, rather than ignore, transnational networks.

Andrew Hassam

2011-01-01

209

Uranium mill tailings and radon  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] The major health hazard from uranium mill tailings is presumed to be respiratory cancer resulting from the inhalation of radon daughter products. A review of studies on inhalation of radon and its daughters indicates that the hazard from the tailings is extremely small. If the assumptions used in the studies are correct, one or two people per year in the US may develop cancer as a result of radon exhaled from all the Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action Program sites. The remedial action should reduce the hazard from the tailings by a factor of about 100

1981-01-01

210

Uranium mill tailings and radon  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] The major health hazard from uranium mill tailings is presumed to be respiratory cancer resulting from the inhalation of radon daughter products. A review of studies on inhalation of radon and its daughters indicates that the hazard from the tailings is extremely small. If the assumptions used in the studies are correct, one or two people per year in the United States may develop cancer as a result of radon exhaled from all the Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action program sites. The remedial action should reduce the hazard from the tailings by a factor of about 100

1981-01-01

211

Algebroid Yang-Mills theories  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A framework for constructing new kinds of gauge theories is suggested. Essentially it consists in replacing Lie algebras by Lie or Courant algebroids. Besides presenting novel topological theories defined in arbitrary spacetime dimensions, we show that equipping Lie algebroids E with a fiber metric having sufficiently many E-Killing vectors leads to an astonishingly mild deformation of ordinary Yang-Mills theories: Additional fields turn out to carry no propagating modes. Instead, they serve as moduli parameters gluing together in part different Yang-Mills theories. This leads to a symmetry enhancement at critical points of these fields, as is also typical for String effective field theories.

2004-11-19

212

Greenhouse gas emission associated with sugar production in southern Brazil  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background Since sugarcane areas have increased rapidly in Brazil, the contribution of the sugarcane production, and, especially, of the sugarcane harvest system to the greenhouse gas emissions of the country is an issue of national concern. Here we analyze some data characterizing various activities of two sugarcane mills during the harvest period of 2006-2007 and quantify the carbon footprint of sugar production. Results According to our calculations, 241 kg of carbon dioxide equivalent were released to the atmosphere per a ton of sugar produced (2406 kg of carbon dioxide equivalent per a hectare of the cropped area, and 26.5 kg of carbon dioxide equivalent per a ton of sugarcane processed). The major part of the total emission (44%) resulted from residues burning; about 20% resulted from the use of synthetic fertilizers, and about 18% from fossil fuel combustion. Conclusions The results of this study suggest that the most important reduction in greenhouse gas emissions from sugarcane areas could be achieved by switching to a green harvest system, that is, to harvesting without burning.

de Figueiredo Eduardo; Panosso Alan; Romão Rangel; La Scala Newton

2010-01-01

213

Greenhouse gas emission associated with sugar production in southern Brazil.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

BACKGROUND: Since sugarcane areas have increased rapidly in Brazil, the contribution of the sugarcane production, and, especially, of the sugarcane harvest system to the greenhouse gas emissions of the country is an issue of national concern. Here we analyze some data characterizing various activities of two sugarcane mills during the harvest period of 2006-2007 and quantify the carbon footprint of sugar production. RESULTS: According to our calculations, 241 kg of carbon dioxide equivalent were released to the atmosphere per a ton of sugar produced (2406 kg of carbon dioxide equivalent per a hectare of the cropped area, and 26.5 kg of carbon dioxide equivalent per a ton of sugarcane processed). The major part of the total emission (44%) resulted from residues burning; about 20% resulted from the use of synthetic fertilizers, and about 18% from fossil fuel combustion. CONCLUSIONS: The results of this study suggest that the most important reduction in greenhouse gas emissions from sugarcane areas could be achieved by switching to a green harvest system, that is, to harvesting without burning.

de Figueiredo EB; Panosso AR; Romão R; La Scala N Jr

2010-01-01

214

Early Indian People.  

Science.gov (United States)

Using bits and pieces of the past such as charred bits of wood from campfires, broken pieces of clay pots, stone spearpoints and arrowheads, and shell or copper ornaments, the archaeologist tries to put together the story of early Indian people in the Minnesota region. A short story, one of eight articles, re-creates the kill of an Itasca bison…

Doermann, Elisabeth

1979-01-01

215

[Onchocerciasis among Yanomami Indians].  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The main features of the Brazilian focus of onchocerciasis are reported. This focus encompasses large areas of the states of Amazonas and Roraima, in the densely forested highlands of Northern Brazil. It is not clear how the local inhabitants, Indians of the group Yanomámi, an isolated group that has lived in the region for centuries, acquired the infection. However, in some of their villages the prevalence rate among adults is as high as 80%. Aspects of the focus, as its origins, manifestations of the illness among the Indians, and the distribution and importance of the recognized vectors of O. volvulus in the region, are reviewed. The author also makes some considerations on the behavior and probable future of the focus, including the possible dissemination of onchocerciasis to some other sites of Brazil. Gold miners that in recent years have invaded the Yanomámi territory and became infected in contact with the Indians will be the cause of this dissemination. Methods for controlling onchocerciasis are discussed and, besides the treatment of the infected Indians with Ivermectin, it is proposed the use of larvicides to eliminate the vectors. This method would be employed in some limited areas where the population is already stable and shows a very high prevalence rate.

Moraes MA

1991-10-01

216

Historicizing Indian psychiatry  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Our historical endeavour to map Indian psychiatry has largely remained linear, positivistic and evolutionary. Whether it starts from the ancient times or modern, it shows our past as a tale of victory for the western science, without questioning the borrowed paradigm. The use of historical methods f...

Basu, Amit Ranjan

217

Radiocarbon and Indian archaeology  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The increasing use of radiocarbon (C14) dating techniques in Indian archaeology has been described in detail. Work done in Microlithic cultures, Neolithic period, Indus civilization and Iron age cultures have been reported. C14 dates of various archaeological sites are listed. (K.B.)

1975-01-01

218

Modern coal mill design and performance  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

In this paper, a brief description of some of the recent developments in the design and operation of large vertical spindle, ball and ring coal mills within Mitsui Babcock Energy Limited are described. These developments include: the employment of the Mini-mill test Facility at Mitsui Babcock Technology Centre in Renfrew, Scotland for mill development and coal characterisation work; a summary of some recent testwork on the milling characteristics of coal blends; the developments in the design of mill grinding elements and mill operation for the milling of highly abrasive coals; the developments in mill throat and classifier design; the development and implementation of mill upgrades; and a description of the 8E mill series. The material presented in the paper represents a report of work in progress. The development of large coal mills within MBEL is a process of continuous improvement, directed at ensuring that the mill product range offered by the company is commercially competitive in world markets, and can respond to changes in coal types and customer requirements. 13 figs., 3 tabs., 1 plate.

Livingston, W.R.; Dugdale, K.L. [Mitsui Babcock Energy Limited, Renfrew (United Kingdom)

1998-12-01

219

Philippines sugar cane ethanol plant  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The Philippines' National Alcohol Commission has called for international tenders for the construction of ethanol from sugar cane plants. Interested companies have been asked to quote for capacities of 60,000, 120,000 and 180,000 litre per day. The initial tender calls for three plants but the figure could rise to ten which would then be worth about $20 million.

1981-03-06

220

Smut resistance in sugar cane  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] Full text: From a mutation breeding programme with the popular early maturing sugar cane variety CoC 671 fourteen clones could be selected which were found to be free of smut infection after three successive years of artificial testing. Smut resistance was also found after in-vitro culture propagation of susceptible cultivars G80-454 and CoC 671. (author)

1989-01-01

 
 
 
 
221

Indian aerosols: present status.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

This article presents the status of aerosols in India based on the research activities undertaken during last few decades in this region. Programs, like International Geophysical Year (IGY), Monsoon Experiment (MONEX), Indian Middle Atmospheric Program (IMAP) and recently conducted Indian Ocean Experiment (INDOEX), have thrown new lights on the role of aerosols in global change. INDOEX has proved that the effects of aerosols are no longer confined to the local levels but extend at regional as well as global scales due to occurrence of long range transportation of aerosols from source regions along with wind trajectories. The loading of aerosols in the atmosphere is on rising due to energy intensive activities for developmental processes and other anthropogenic activities. One of the significant observation of INDOEX is the presence of high concentrations of carbonaceous aerosols in the near persistent winter time haze layer over tropical Indian Ocean which have probably been emitted from the burning of fossil-fuels and biofuels in the source region. These have significant bearing on the radiative forcing in the region and, therefore, have potential to alter monsoon and hydrological cycles. In general, the SPM concentrations have been found to be on higher sides in ambient atmosphere in many Indian cities but the NOx concentrations have been found to be on lower side. Even in the haze layer over Indian Ocean and surrounding areas, the NOx concentrations have been reported to be low which is not conducive of O3 formation in the haze/smog layer. The acid rain problem does not seem to exist at the moment in India because of the presence of neutralizing soil dust in the atmosphere. But the high particulate concentrations in most of the cities' atmosphere in India are of concern as it can cause deteriorated health conditions.

Mitra AP; Sharma C

2002-12-01

222

Sugar cane ethanol production in industrial scale through continuous process using flocculation yeast; Producao de etanol a partir de cana-de-acucar, em escala industrial, atraves de processo continuo empregando levedura floculante  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

ALCOMAT (Sugar Cane Alcohol Producers Association of Mato Grosso State, Central Brazil) continuous fermentation process for ethanol production from sugar cane is presented. ALCOMAT process uses flocculation yeast and was tested in the 1988/89 and 1989/90 milling seasons in ALCOMAT distillery (150,000 liters/day). Minimal industrial fermentation yield of 90.5% (stoichiometric) and minimal ethanol productivity of 7.7 g/l.h can be assured. Adaptation of ALCOMAT process to Melle-Boinot unities increases production capacity almost 3 times and investment is recovered in less than one milling season. (author). 2 figs., 4 tabs

Carvalho Neto, C.C. de; Barros Faria, R. de; Martins, S.; Kling, S.H. [NATRON-Consultoria e Projetos S/A, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Rousselet, G.R. [Associacao Alcooleira de Mato Grosso (ALCOMAT), Cuiaba, MT (Brazil)

1990-12-31

223

78 FR 40458 - American Indian Vocational Rehabilitation Services Program; Notice of Tribal Consultation and...  

Science.gov (United States)

...includes Indian reservations, public domain Indian allotments, former Indian...or State Indian reservation, public domain Indian allotment, former Indian...definition--Indian reservations, public domain Indian allotments, former...

2013-07-05

224

Trends in development of impact mills  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This paper investigates parameters of the grinding process in impact mills by experiments conducted on a laboratory mill with rotor diameter of 150 mm and a maximum throughput of 12 kg/h, and on a semi-industrial mill with impact rotor diameter of 500 mm and throughput of 1.65 ton/h. The mill type is employed for materials with a hardness below 3 or 4 on the MOHS scale; the material being ground may also be moist, and high throughput can be achieved with a relatively small mill size. Experiments study the grinding effect by determining the specific surface according to Blaine, ranging between 2,000 and 4,000 cm/sup 2//g, and the required size reduction energy for selected rotor rotation rates. The size reduction energy is calculated taking energy losses in the grinding process into account. It was found that a high throughput is required for reducing the energy requirement of the mill. Two exponents were further derived for determining power requirement relations of the mill. The formula for the mill's power requirement is explained. It enables the optimum mill design and mill operation parameters to be selected and can be used for issuing operation standards by mill producers.

Goldacker, H.; Hoeffl, K.; Husemann, K.

1981-01-01

225

Comparison of wind mill cluster performance: A multicriteria approach  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Energy is a crucial input for the economic and social development of any nation. Both renewable and non-renewable energy contribute in meeting the total requirement of the economy. As an affordable and clean energy source, wind energy is amongst the world's fastest growing renewable energy forms. Though there are several wind-mill clusters producing energy in different geographical locations, evaluating their performance is a complex task and not much of literature is available in this area. In this backdrop, an attempt is made in the current paper to estimate the performance of a wind-mill cluster through an index called Cluster Performance Index (CPI) adopting a multi-criteria approach. The proposed CPI comprises four criteria viz., Technical Performance Indicators (TePI), Economic Performance Indicators (EcPI), Environmental Performance Indicators (EnPI), and Sociological Performance Indicators (SoPI). Under each performance criterion a total of ten parameters are considered with five subjective and five objective oriented responses. The methodology is implemented by collecting empirical data from three wind-mill clusters located at Chitradurga, Davangere, and Gadag in the southern Indian State of Karnataka. Totally fifteen different stake holders are consulted through a set of structured researcher administered questionnaire to collect the relevant data in each wind farm. Stake holders involved engineers working in wind farms, wind farm developers, Government officials from energy department and a few selected residential people near the wind farms. The results of the study revealed that Chitradurga wind farm performed much better with a CPI of 45.267 as compared to Gadag (CPI of 28.362) and Davangere (CPI of 19.040) wind farms. (Author)

Rajakumar, D.G.; Nagesha, N. [Visvesvaraya Technological Univ., Karnataka (India)

2012-07-01

226

Acceptance of sugar reduction in flavored yogurt.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

To investigate what level of sugar reduction is accepted in flavored yogurt, we conducted a hedonic test focusing on the degree of liking of the products and on optimal sweetness and aroma levels. For both flavorings (strawberry and coffee), consumers preferred yogurt containing 10% added sugar. However, yogurt containing 7% added sugar was also acceptable. On the just-about-right scale, yogurt containing 10% sugar was more often described as too sweet compared with yogurt containing 7% sugar. On the other hand, the sweetness and aroma intensity for yogurt containing 5% sugar was judged as too low. A second test was conducted to determine the effect of flavoring concentration on the acceptance of yogurt containing 7% sugar. Yogurts containing the highest concentrations of flavoring (11% strawberry, 0.75% coffee) were less appreciated. Additionally, the largest percentage of consumers perceived these yogurts as "not sweet enough." These results indicate that consumers would accept flavored yogurts with 7% added sugar instead of 10%, but 5% sugar would be too low. Additionally, an increase in flavor concentration is undesirable for yogurt containing 7% added sugar.

Chollet M; Gille D; Schmid A; Walther B; Piccinali P

2013-09-01

227

Effects of compost application on fruits yields, sugar and mineral contents and ?15N values of tomato fruits  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

We examined the effects of chemical fertilizer and compost application on the yields and sugar and mineral content of tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill. Saturn) in an isolated bed. Five treatments were conducted within a two-year period of 4 continuous croppings. CDU and LSR (Low-sulfate slow-release fertilizer) were used for the chemical fertilizer plots. A mixture of cattle manure and CDU (CM + CDU), a mixture of poultry manure and CDU (PM + CDU), and mixture of cattle and poultry manure (PM + CM) plots were arranged as compost-using plots. We also measured the ?15N values of tomatoes and the soils of each treatment, and estimated the correlation of the ?15N values between fruits and soil to certify compost applied products. We did not find any reproductive differences in the yield or sugar content among the treatments. As to inorganic content of tomatoes, there were no significant differences except for Mg content among the plots. These results showed that it is difficult to assay regular benefit of organic fertilizer application to tomato yields and quality. On the other hand, ?15N values of tomato fruits showed significant differences among fertilizer applications. ?15N values of the chemical fertilizer were +1.6 per mille and -1.1% for CDU and LSR, respectively. Those of mixture of chemical and compost were +12.2 per mille and +11.2 per mille for CM + CDU and PM + CDU, respectively. The mixture of PM and CM showed the highest ?15N values (17.9 per mille) among the treatments. ?15N values of the soils and fruits reflected those of the fertilizers and were positively correlated (R2 = 0.89). It may be possible to use ?15N values as an indicator of organic products by setting the threshold point, e.g. +5.0 per mille, to distinguish them from the products cultivated with chemical fertilizer. (author)

2003-01-01

228

Indian President visits CERN  

CERN Multimedia

On 1 October, her Excellency Mrs Pratibha Devisingh Patil, President of India, picked CERN as the first stop on her official state visit to Switzerland. Accompanied by a host of Indian journalists, a security team, and a group of presidential delegates, the president left quite an impression when she visited CERN’s Point 2!   Upon arrival, Pratibha Patil was greeted by CERN Director General Rolf Heuer, as well as senior Indian scientists working at CERN, and various department directors. After a quick overview of the Organization, Rolf Heuer and the President addressed India’s future collaboration with CERN. India is currently an Observer State of the Organization, and is considering becoming an Associate Member State. A short stop in LHC operations gave Steve Myers and the Accelerator team the opportunity to take the President on a tour through the LHC tunnel. From there, ALICE’s Tapan Nayak and Spokesperson Paolo Giubellino took Pratibha Patil to the experiment&am...

Katarina Anthony

2011-01-01

229

Alcohol and Indian porphyrics.  

Science.gov (United States)

The role of alcohol as the precipitating factor in the induction of acute attacks of acute intermittent porphyria was studied in an Indian population. Thirty-four teetotal patients with acute intermittent porphyria, in remission, were given 60 ml of 30% ethanol. Except for two patients, all had negative Watson-Schwartz tests prior to the alcohol. Within 24 hours, the Watson-Schwartz test became positive in 16 of these 32 patients (50%). In 8 out of the 34 patients (23.5%) a clinical attack was precipitated, including both patients who had a positive Watson-Schwartz test prior to the alcohol. It was concluded that alcohol does precipitate an acute attack in a significant percentage of patients of Indian origin with acute intermittent porphyria. Patients already excreting porphobilinogen are at a greater risk of developing an acute attack on alcohol ingestion. This study is the first from India and probably first of its kind to be reported from any country.

Saksena, H. C.; Panwar, R. B.; Rajvanshi, P.; Sabir, M.; Suri, M.

1991-01-01

230

Indian fusion test reactor  

Science.gov (United States)

The fusion reactor as a volumetric neutron source can serve many applications needed for realizing fusion power reactor. For the Indian energy scenario, such a device can also produce fissile fuel for accelerating the nuclear power production. The Indian Fusion Test Reactor (FTR) is a low fusion gain (Q = 3-5) device to be used as component test facility for qualifying future reactor materials as well as for demonstrating the production of fissile fuel. FTR will be a medium sized tokamak device with a neutron wall load of 0.2 MW/m2. The presently available structural materials can be used for this device and such a device can be realized in ten years time from now. This device should produce about 25-50 kg of fissile fuel in one full-power-year and also produce the tritium needed for its operation. This device will greatly help the nuclear fission power program by producing fissile fuel.

Srinivasan, R.; FTR Team

2012-06-01

231

CHEMICAL CHARACTERISATION AND DILUTE-ACID HYDROLYSIS OF RICE HULLS FROM AN ARTISAN MILL  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The chemical composition of rice hulls produced in an artisan mill and its conversion to fermentable sugars was investigated. The carbohydrate fraction represented 59.2% (w/w) of the dry hulls. Cellulose, with 36.6%, was the main component, followed by xylan with 13.9%. An important contribution of starch (8.7%) was also detected. The content of ash (19.6%) and lignin (15.5%) was comparable with that of rice hulls obtained in industrial mills. Dilute-sulphuric acid hydrolysis at different temperatures, from 160 to 210°C, was evaluated for production of fermentable sugars. Due to starch hydrolysis, the concentration of glucose in the hydrolysates produced at 160°C was higher than the values that have previously been reported for industrial sorts of rice hulls under comparable conditions. The xylan-to-xylose conversion increased steadily with increase of the temperature and reached a maximum (67.7%) at 190°C. Further increases of the hydrolysis temperature decreased the yield of sugars due to their dehydration to furfural and HMF.

Yoney López; Ariel Garcia; Keikhosro Karimi; Mohammad J. Taherzadeh; Carlos Martin

2010-01-01

232

Wild strains of fermenting yeast isolated of sugar cane juice from an alcohol distillery from Mato Grosso, Brazil  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Ethanol production for fuel is important for the Brazilian economy as a renewable solution to oil derivatives. Theindustrial process uses commercially available yeast, most of them isolated from sugar mills from the Brazilian stateof São Paulo. The research information on the availability of yeast appropriate to the climatic conditions occurringin the Midwest region of Brazil is scarce. The article presents the isolation and morphological characterization offermentative wild yeast prospected on the sugar cane juice of a sugar and alcohol mill of Mato Grosso State. Thejuice samples were collected in both the hot and rainy (HR) season and in the cold and dry (CD) one. The dilutedsugar cane juice samples were plated on agar LWYN and evaluated for fermentation in test tubes containinginverted Durham tubes. From 26 morphotypes isolated, 50% were able to ferment sugar cane juice. Greater numberand diversity of yeasts was found in both December (HR) and July (CD). In the remaining months of each seasonthere were a low number of colonies with a poor diversity.

Rosimeire Oenning da Silva; Margareth Batistote; Marney Pascoli Cereda

2011-01-01

233

The energy and water cost of sugar production in a semi-arid context: a comparative analysis of sugar beet and sugar cane production and processing in Morocco  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A comparative analysis of the production and processing of sugar beet and sugar cane in Morocco was carried out with regards to energy and water use. Total agricultural energy inputs for sugar beet were 33.79 GJ/ha and in the case of sugar cane were 59.33 GJ/ha for plant cane and 35.65 GJ/ha for ratoons. The major energy inputs for both were diesel fuel, electricity and fertilisers. In sugar beet production fertiliser application accounted for move than 50% of total agricultural energy inputs. The most energy intensive operations in sugar cane production were irrigation (37%) and fertiliser application (29%). The input:output energy ratios were 1:3.2 for sugar beet and 1:3.7 for sugar cane. Total energy used in processing was 26.19 GJ/tonne white sugar (tws) from sugar beet and 3.02 GJ/tws from sugar cane. Direct energy in processing was 22.51 GJ/tws for sugar beet and 1.27 GJ/tws for sugar cane. Overall (production + processing) input:output energy ratio was 1:1.5 for sugar beet and 1:4.2 for sugar cane. Overall analysis demonstrated that the production of sugar from sugar beet is more energy intensive than from sugar cane while the sugar cane requires larger inputs of water. (author)

Mohamed Mrini [Centre Technique des Cultures Sucrieres, Kenitra (Morocco); Faouzi Senhaji [Institut Agronomique Hassan II., Rabat (Morocco). Dept. GIA; Pimentel, D. [Cornell University, Ithaca, NY (United States). College of Agriculture and Life Science

2001-05-01

234

American Indian and Alaska Natives Suicide  

Science.gov (United States)

... in the two reservations studied. 9 Opportunities for Suicide Prevention Protective Factors The 1990 National American Indian ... Indian Health Service, American Indian and Alaska Native Suicide Prevention Website http://www.ihs.gov/nonmedicalprograms/nspn/ ...

235

Overview of uranium mill tailings remedial action project of the United States of America 1995-1996  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

From the early 1940's through the 1960's the United States federal government contracted for processed uranium ore for national defense research, weapons development and commercial nuclear energy. When these contracts were terminated, the mills ceased operation leaving large uranium tailings on the former mill sites. The purpose of the Uranium Remedial Action Project (UMTRA) is to minimize or eliminate potential health hazards resulting from exposure of the public to the tailings at these abandons sites. There are 24 inactive uranium mill tailings sites, in 10 states and an Indian reservation lands, included for clean up under the auspices of UMTRA. Presently the last 2 sites are under remediation. This paper addresses the progress of the project over the last two years. (author)

1995-01-00

236

Modification of the potassium ferricyanide reducing sugar test for sugars from extracts of cotton fiber  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

For many years the potassium ferricyanide (K3Fe[CN]6) standard sugar test-also known as the Perkins test-has been used by the textile industry to quantify the content of sticky sugars on cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.) lint. This test, however, is a reducing sugar test and does not detect non-reducing sugars, which are known to contribute to the stickiness potential of the lint. Hence, poor correlations are often found between potassium ferricyanide sugar-test results and physical stickiness ratings, such as sticky-cotton thermodetector and minicard measurements. This lack of detection is particularly true of cotton lint contaminated with aphid (Aphis spp.) honeydew. This study was designed to determine whether some of the non-reducing sugars extracted from cotton lint could be converted to reducing sugars prior to the potassium ferricyanide sugar test. Treatment with a mild (0.2 M) sulfuric acid solution converted sucrose (a physiological sugar) and melezitose (an insect-honeydew sugar) to reducing sugars that are detectable by the standard potassium ferricyanide test. Complete conversion of these sugars was verified by use of high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). The modified potassium ferricyanide sugar test provided a more realistic quantification of sugars present, and the difference between standard and modified sugars was directly proportional to the amount of sucrose and melezitose present. Our modified potassium ferricyanide test did not substantially enhance the correlation between measured sugar content and predicted sticky-cotton-thermodetector stickiness potential for non-honeydew and whitefly-honeydew (Bemesia spp.) contaminated cotton. But, correlations between sugar content and sticky-cotton-thermodetector stickiness for cotton lint contaminated by aphid-honeydew were improved by at least 20%.

Brushwood DE

2000-01-01

237

Sugar gustatory thresholds and sugar selection in two species of Neotropical nectar-eating bats.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Nectar-feeding bats play an important role in natural communities acting as pollinators; however, the characteristics that affect their food selection are unclear. Here we explore the role that sugar gustatory thresholds and sugar concentration play on sugar selection of Glossophaga soricina and Leptonycteris yerbabuenae. We offered bats paired feeders containing sugar solutions of sucrose (S), glucose (G) or fructose (F) vs. pure water, and sucrose vs. 1:1 equicaloric solutions of glucose-fructose at 5, 15 and 35% (wt./vol.). To see the effect of sweetness on sugar selection, we habituated the bats with a diet containing either sucrose or hexoses and subsequently evaluated sugar preferences. Sugar thresholds were Ssugar preferences when the bats fed on dilute nectars. L. yerbabuenae changed its sugar preferences with concentration while G. soricina did not. Finally, the bats consistently preferred the sugar they were habituated to. Our results suggest that bats become accustomed to the sugar found in the most abundant plants they use, and thus prefer the most common sugars included in their diet. This could confer an advantage by allowing them shifting sugar preferences on the most common food present in their environment.

Ayala-Berdon J; Rodríguez-Peña N; García Leal C; Stoner KE; Schondube JE

2013-02-01

238

Sugar recognition by human galactokinase  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background Galactokinase catalyses the first committed step of galactose catabolism in which the sugar is phosphorylated at the expense of MgATP. Recent structural studies suggest that the enzyme makes several contacts with galactose – five side chain and two main chain hydrogen bonds. Furthermore, it has been suggested that inhibition of galactokinase may help sufferers of the genetic disease classical galactosemia which is caused by defects in another enzyme of the pathway galactose-1-phosphate uridyl transferase. Galactokinases from different sources have a range of substrate specificities and a diversity of kinetic mechanisms. Therefore only studies on the human enzyme are likely to be of value in the design of therapeutically useful inhibitors. Results Using recombinant human galactokinase expressed in and purified from E. coli we have investigated the sugar specificity of the enzyme and the kinetic consequences of mutating residues in the sugar-binding site in order to improve our understanding of substrate recognition by this enzyme. D-galactose and 2-deoxy-D-galactose are substrates for the enzyme, but N-acetyl-D-galactosamine, L-arabinose, D-fucose and D-glucose are all not phosphorylated. Mutation of glutamate-43 (which forms a hydrogen bond to the hydroxyl group attached to carbon 6 of galactose) to alanine results in only minor changes in the kinetic parameters of the enzyme. Mutation of this residue to glycine causes a ten-fold drop in the turnover number. In contrast, mutation of histidine 44 to either alanine or isoleucine results in insoluble protein following expression in E. coli. Alteration of the residue that makes hydrogen bonds to the hydroxyl attached to carbons 3 and 4 (aspartate 46) results in an enzyme that although soluble is essentially inactive. Conclusions The enzyme is tolerant to small changes at position 2 of the sugar ring, but not at positions 4 and 6. The results from site directed mutagenesis could not have been predicted from the crystal structure alone and needed to be determined experimentally.

Timson David J; Reece Richard J

2003-01-01

239

METHOD OF SUGAR BEET COMPLEX PROCESSING  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The invention relates to the food industry, particularly to sugar beet processing and especially to sugar beet complex processing, including manufacture of alcohol. The invention aims to simplify the technological scheme of sugar obtaining, providing at the same time high quality of the obtained sugar and increasing the output of alcohol and related products thereto, simultaneously reducing the production costs. The method of sugar beet complex processing includes two stages of sugar beet juice crystallisation. The green syrup of second-stage crystallisation is directed to the equipment by means of which it is processed into raw spirit. The obtained raw spirit may be employed as a stokehold fuel or may be absolutized increasing its alcohol content to 98-99 % whereafter it is mixed up with benzine or benzol and other additives and used as a motor fuel.

UPENIEKS Aivars; LAZE Janis; BUKELE Emerita

240

Computational simulation for analysis of the freight in the sugar cane transportation – a case study in the Rio de Janeiro state  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This work presents an analysis of the freight distribution in the sugar cane supply system in a mill made by computational simulation. The mill supply system is compound basically by the cut, loading and transportation operations (known as CLT). The costs of these operations represent 27% on an average of the direct costs of the production per hectare. Only transportation represents, approximately 55% of the CLT total costs per hectare. In Campos dos Goytacazes, north of Rio de Janeiro state, the sugar cane activity is traditional and of great value, demanding continuous improvement of these operations. The aim of this work was to develop a simulation model to evaluate the relation of the CLT freight cost with the distance of the sugar cane supplier to the mill. Simulations of various ypothetical sceneries built to allow connecting the various suppliers concerning the paid freight were done. Results were validated with data from literature and with information furnish by local mills, allowing, and this way, to determine the impact of the freight over the direct operations costs of the CLT.

João José de Assis Rangel; André Prado Cunha; Alex Paranhos Pacheco; Ivan Ferreira Morgado; Fermín Alfredo Tang Montané

2008-01-01

 
 
 
 
241

Mills’ syndrome: a case report  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The syndrome of progressive, ascending or descending hemiplegia, with no significant sensory impairment was first describes by Mills in 1900, which several cases were reported later. However after diagnostic tests and image improvements, the number of reports has shortened. A possible explanation for this shortage is the identification of other diseases that could mimic the clinical picture. Currently, the syndrome has an uncertain nosological status, since it was described based on clinical examination only. We can find this clinical presentation (Mills syndrome) in cases of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS), predominant upper motor neuron amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (UMN-ALS) and primary lateral sclerosis (PLS), besides its symptomatic (secondary) forms. We describe a case (initial presentation and one year follow-up) of progressive ascending hemiplegia with clinical isolated upper neuron signs and normal sensory examination, discussing its nosological status, electromyographic findings, differential diagnosis and prognosis.

Fábio Henrique de Gobbi Porto; Marco Orsini; Marco Antônio Araújo Leite; José Moreira dos Santos; Soraia Pulier; Mariana Mello; Osvaldo J.M. Nascimento

2009-01-01

242

Sugar cane/sweet sorghum as an ethanol feedstock in Louisiana and Piedmont  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] Cost to provide readily fermentable feedstock for a year round sweet sorghum-to-ethanol production facility, up to the point at which fermentation begins, was determined. It was assumed that sweet sorghum is produced on marginal crop lands in the Southeastern Piedmont, and is purchased, standing in the field by a central ethanol production facility. Feedstock cost varied from $1.96 to $2.98/gal of ethanol potential depending on harvest system and use of by-products. Major contributors to feedstock cost were field production, harvest/field processing, and cost to evaporate juice to a storable syrup. Cost to transport feedstock to a central production facility, and cost of storage were relatively minor components of total cost, contributing only $0.05 and $0.06/gal ethanol potential, respectively. For a point of comparison, cost of producing ethanol feedstock from sugar cane, based on current processing practices in Louisiana sugar mills, was determined to be $2.50/gal ethanol potential. This cost is higher than determined for most options in the Piedmont for two reasons: (1) sugar cane demands a higher price in Louisiana than was assumed for sweet sorghum in the Piedmont, and (2) little market exists in Louisiana for by-products of sugar milling, consequently, no by-product credit was assigned. Current market value of ethanol must approximately double before a sweet sorghum-to-ethanol industry in the Piedmont could be economically viable, as no opportunity was identified for a significant reduction in feedstock cost

1991-01-01

243

A pre-feasibility assessment of the potential of cane residues for cogeneration in the sugar industry  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This study has shown that a significant increase is possible in power generation from residual fuels in sugar mills. Not only can the operation be self-sufficient with electricity - it is also possible to generate a large surplus for sale to the national grid. The increased generation of electric power can be achieved partly by replacing old inefficient systems with more advanced, modern technology and partly by utilisation of the large amounts of fuel energy in cane trash. Studies indicate that 50% of the cane trash can be removed from the fields without adverse effects. This means that the residual fuels available to sugar mills can be doubled, from about 2.5 GJ/ton of cane to about 5.2 GJ/ton of cane. Using the TPC sugar mill in Moshi, Tanzania as a case study it is shown that if a more advanced steam process is used, the electricity output from the cogeneration plant can be increased during milling season from the present 2.5 MW to 16 MW. This process is well proven and commercially available. Introduction of a combined gas turbine/steam turbine process will make it possible to increase the electricity output to at least 20 MW during milling season. This process is still under development with regards to use of biomass fuels to run the gas turbine. If the power plant is also operated when the sugar mill is closed, using cane trash as fuel, the electric output can be further increased. Annual electricity generation for the grid can then reach 163 GWh with a more advanced steam plant and 235 GWh with a combined gas turbine/steam turbine plant. The financial evaluation indicated that the more advanced processes for cogeneration would be highly profitable with an assumed sale price for electricity of 0.06 USD/kWh(e). The annual profit would range from 3.5 million USD for the advanced steam process to 4.7 million USD for the combined gas turbine/steam turbine process. 45 refs, 17 figs, 14 tabs

Gabra, M.; Kjellstroem, B.

1995-12-31

244

Health-hazard evaluation report HETA 85-045-1762, American Crystal Sugar Co. , Crookston, Minnesota  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Employee exposures to airborne contaminants during sugar-beet processing and to welding fumes during facility maintenance were evaluated at a sugar beet mill owned by the American Crystal Sugar Company (ACSCO), in response to a request from ACSCO's management and the American Federation of Grain Millers International Union. During beet processing, personal breathing-zone and general air samples were collected and analyzed for several chemicals and total and respirable particulates of various dusts. Welding fumes were analyzed by inductively coupled plasma/atomic emission spectroscopy of personal filter samples. The following exposures were considered excessive by the most-stringent criteria: lime-kiln helper to total particulates; Weibul storage-bin housekeeper to sugar dust; diffuser operator and charger to formaldehyde; welders and cutters to total welding fumes and specific metals, particularly hexavalent chromium and nickel. High-volume air and settled-dust samples contained crystalline silica representing a potential hazard. Recommendations include improved particulate containment and ventilation, use of respirators where appropriate, and formaldehyde replacement.

Almaguer, D.; Boiano, J.M.

1986-12-01

245

Acclimation of two tomato species to high atmospheric CO sub 2 : I. Sugar and starch concentrations  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Lycopersicon esculentum Mill. cv Vedettos and Lycopersicon chmielewskii Rick, LA1028, were exposed to two CO{sub 2} concentrations for 10 weeks. Tomato plants grown at 900 microliters per liter contained more starch and more sugars than the control. However, we found no significant accumulation of starch and sugars in the young leaves of L. esculentum exposed to high CO{sub 2}. Carbon exchange rates were significantly higher in CO{sub 2}-enriched plants for the first few weeks of treatment but thereafter decreased as tomato plants acclimated to high atmospheric CO{sub 2}. This indicates that the long-term decline of photosynthetic efficiency of leaf 5 cannot be attributed to an accumulation of sugar and/or starch. The average concentration of starch in leaves 5 and 9 was always higher in L. esculentum than in L. chmielewskii (151.7% higher). A higher proportion of photosynthates was directed into starch for L. esculentum than for L. chmielewskii. However, these characteristics did not improve the long-term photosynthetic efficiency of L. chmielewskii grown at high CO{sub 2} when compared with L. esculentum. The chloroplasts of tomato plants exposed to the higher CO{sub 2} concentration exhibited a marked accumulation of starch. The results reported here suggest that starch and/or sugar accumulation under high CO{sub 2} cannot entirely explain the loss of photosynthetic efficiency of high CO{sub 2}-grown plants.

Yelle, S.; Beeson, R.C. Jr.; Trudel, M.J.; Gosselin, A. (Universite Laval, Quebec (Canada))

1989-08-01

246

Extraction of sugars from lignocellulose of corncobs  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The extraction rate of sugars from the surface of corncobs changed depending on the liquid ratio (r) of the system; increasing r by 2 units decreased the equilibrium concentration of sugar in the extraction by 1.20-1.25 times. An increase in temperature from 20 degrees to 80 degrees intensified the extraction process of sugar from lignocellulose of corncobs and reduced considerably the time of equilibrium sugar concentration in the extraction. The coefficient of mass transfer in the process increased with increasing temperature and r as determined by the method developed by E.L. Glazkova and A.I. Kunina (1973).

Abramyants, S.V.; Smolyakov, V.P.

1981-01-01

247

Nuclear analytical techniques in Cuban Sugar Industry  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] This paper is a review concerning the applications of Nuclear Analytical Techniques in the Cuban sugar industry. The most complete elemental composition of final molasses (34 elements ) and natural zeolites (38) this last one employed as an auxiliary agent in sugar technological processes has been performed by means of Instrumental Neutron Activation Analysis (INAA) and X-Ray Fluorescence Analysis (XRFA). The trace elements sugar cane soil plant relationship and elemental composition of different types of Cuban sugar (rawr, blanco directo and refine) were also studied. As a result, valuable information referred to the possibilities of using these products in animal and human foodstuff so as in other applications are given

1996-01-01

248

Online SAG Mill Pluse Measurement and Optimization  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The grinding efficiency of semi autogenous milling or ball milling depends on the tumbling motion of the total charge within the mill. Utilization of this tumbling motion for efficient breakage of particles depends on the conditions inside the mill. However, any kind of monitoring device to measure the conditions inside the mill shell during operation is virtually impossible due to the severe environment presented by the tumbling charge. An instrumented grinding ball, which is capable of surviving a few hours and transmitting the impacts it experiences, is proposed here. The spectrum of impacts collected over 100 revolutions of the mills presents the signature of the grinding environment inside mill. This signature could be effectively used to optimize the milling performance by investigating this signature's relation to mill product size, mill throughput, make-up ball size, mill speed, liner profile and ball addition rates. At the same time, it can also be used to design balls and liner systems that can survive longer in the mill. The technological advances made in electronics and communication makes this leap in instrumentation certainly viable. Hence, the instrumented grinding ball offers the ability to qualitatively observe and optimize the milling environment. An instrumented load cell package that can measure the force of impacts inside the grinding chamber of a mill is developed here. The signal from the instrumented load cell package is interpreted in terms of a histogram termed as an impact spectrum which is a plot of the number of impacts at a specific energy level against the energy. It reflects on the average force regime of the mill. The instrumented load cell package was calibrated against the ultra fast load cell which has been unanimously accepted as a standard to measure single breakage events. The load cell package was successfully used to produce impact spectra in an 8.5 inch lab scale mill. The mill speed and the ball size were varied to study their effect on the impact spectra. A good correlation was found between the process variables and the impact spectra. The load cell package was then used in a 16 inch pilot scale mill. The mill speed, ball size, and mill filling were varied here and a consistent trend between these variables and impact spectra was observed. With a better understanding developed from the initial tests, the design of the load cell package was significantly changed to eliminate noise. With the new design, the impact spectra were re-determined in the 16 inch pilot mill varying the process variables - ball size, mill speed, and mill filling. Finally, it is successfully shown that a change in the operating variables of a mill can be seen in the impact spectra and that this concept can be successfully developed to monitor the grinding operation of industrial mills. To adapt it to industrial level it is mandatory to make the load cell package wireless. A design of a wireless circuit that is capable of transferring data at the required speed of 1000 kbps was also developed and tested at Cortez Gold Mines (CGM), Nevada.

Raj Rajamani; Jose Delgadillo; Vishal Duriseti

2007-06-30

249

The sugar industry in Peru  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Since the early Colonial times sugar production has been a key sector in the Peruvian export economy. This article analyzes its evolution as from the beginning of its modern phase by mid 19th Century, its consolidation in the Northern coastal region, and its concentration in scale-economy plants. The prosperity of this type of production contributed to the formation of both an oligarchy which governed the country until 1968, and the populist party (APRA) and its electoral basis (the so-called «Aprista North»). In the sixties Velasco Alvarado’s military revolution nationalized the sugar industry, which underwent structural changes leading to a serious crisis in the eighties that has not been overcome up-todate.La producción de azúcar ha constituido un importante sector en la economía exportadora del Perú desde el período colonial temprano. Este artículo analiza su evolución, sobre todo tras el inicio de su fase moderna, fechada a partir de mediados del siglo XIX, cuando se modernizó, se consolidó en la región costera septentrional y se concentró en fábricas que operaban con economías de escala. Su prosperidad, contribuyó, además, a la formación de una oligarquía que gobernó el país hasta 1968 y del partido populista, APRA, y su base electoral (el llamado «sólido Norte aprista»). La revolución militar de Velasco Alvarado nacionalizó la industria en la década de 1960 y los cambios estructurales que sufrió posteriormente le condujeron a una grave crisis en los años ochenta que aún no ha superado.

Klaren, Peter F.

2005-01-01

250

Psychosocial and health impacts of uranium mining and milling on Navajo lands.  

Science.gov (United States)

The uranium industry in the American Southwest has had profoundly negative impacts on American Indian communities. Navajo workers experienced significant health problems, including lung cancer and nonmalignant respiratory diseases, and psychosocial problems, such as depression and anxiety. There were four uranium processing mills and approximately 1,200 uranium mines on the Navajo Nation's over 27,000 square miles. In this paper, a chronology is presented of how uranium mining and milling impacted the lives of Navajo workers and their families. Local community leaders organized meetings across the reservation to inform workers and their families about the relationship between worker exposures and possible health problems. A reservation-wide effort resulted in activists working with political leaders and attorneys to write radiation compensation legislation, which was passed in 1990 as the Radiation Exposure Compensation Act (RECA) and included underground uranium miners, atomic downwinders, and nuclear test-site workers. Later efforts resulted in the inclusion of surface miners, ore truck haulers, and millworkers in the RECA Amendments of 2000. On the Navajo Nation, the Office of Navajo Uranium Workers was created to assist workers and their families to apply for RECA funds. Present issues concerning the Navajo and other uranium-impacted groups include those who worked in mining and milling after 1971 and are excluded from RECA. Perceptions about uranium health impacts have contributed recently to the Navajo people rejecting a resumption of uranium mining and milling on Navajo lands. PMID:21979550

Dawson, Susan E; Madsen, Gary E

2011-11-01

251

Psychosocial and health impacts of uranium mining and milling on Navajo lands.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The uranium industry in the American Southwest has had profoundly negative impacts on American Indian communities. Navajo workers experienced significant health problems, including lung cancer and nonmalignant respiratory diseases, and psychosocial problems, such as depression and anxiety. There were four uranium processing mills and approximately 1,200 uranium mines on the Navajo Nation's over 27,000 square miles. In this paper, a chronology is presented of how uranium mining and milling impacted the lives of Navajo workers and their families. Local community leaders organized meetings across the reservation to inform workers and their families about the relationship between worker exposures and possible health problems. A reservation-wide effort resulted in activists working with political leaders and attorneys to write radiation compensation legislation, which was passed in 1990 as the Radiation Exposure Compensation Act (RECA) and included underground uranium miners, atomic downwinders, and nuclear test-site workers. Later efforts resulted in the inclusion of surface miners, ore truck haulers, and millworkers in the RECA Amendments of 2000. On the Navajo Nation, the Office of Navajo Uranium Workers was created to assist workers and their families to apply for RECA funds. Present issues concerning the Navajo and other uranium-impacted groups include those who worked in mining and milling after 1971 and are excluded from RECA. Perceptions about uranium health impacts have contributed recently to the Navajo people rejecting a resumption of uranium mining and milling on Navajo lands.

Dawson SE; Madsen GE

2011-11-01

252

MODIFICATION OF THE POTASSIUM FERRICYANIDE REDUCING SUGAR TEST TO DETERMINE TOTAL SUGARS FROM EXTRACTS OF COTTON  

Science.gov (United States)

The Perkins or potassium ferricyanide reducing sugar test that determines sugars on cotton lint has been a widely used and reliable procedure for over 25 years. It is simple and can be set up in any small space with minimal initial investment costs. Sucrose, a sugar found in non-insect and insect ...

253

Survey on some contaminants in white sugar from Serbian sugar beet refineries.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Refined white sugar is a very pure food product, even though it contains very small amounts of soluble and insoluble impurities. The content of these impurities has nutritional significance and determines the usefulness of sugar for various industrial applications. The main quality criteria used to indicate the content of these impurities are ash and colour. The aim of this paper was to evaluate the quality according to the EU sugar market regime and the content of iron, copper and zinc in white sugar samples from Serbian sugar beet refineries during the 2003 campaign. A total of 166 samples representative of the production of four Serbian sugar refineries were investigated. After wet digestion the concentrations of iron, copper and zinc were determined by flame atomic absorption spectrometry. The mean content of iron, copper and zinc in sugar samples was 0.37 mg/kg, 0.06 mg/kg and 0.02 mg/kg and was significantly different from the average content 0.28 mg/kg, 0.09 mg/kg and 0.07 mg/kg respectively in the analysed European sugar factories. The data were also compared with literature values for commercial white sugar samples from European sugar beet refineries and European legislation set for copper and zinc. Furthermore, the quality of produced sugar was evaluated according to the standards of the European Union indicating that 76% of all investigated Serbian samples belonged to the second sugar quality category.

Skrbi? B; Gyura J

2006-01-01

254

Infield routing network and reducing transportation costs on a sugar mill in Colombia  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Globalization and free trade agreements are factors that affect the world¿s economy. For some industries they can be beneficial and for others not so much. Additionally customers are ever more and more demanding, they want better products, with better quality and at a lower price. To stay competitiv...

Cárdenas Reina, Jorge Mario; Krigsfeld Kuzman, Adrian

255

78 FR 10203 - Indian Gaming  

Science.gov (United States)

...Gaming Compact between the Chippewa-Cree Tribe of the Rocky Boy's Indian Reservation and the State of Montana. DATES: Effective...December 27, 2012, the Chippewa-Cree Indians of the Rocky Boy's Reservation and the State of Montana submitted a Class...

2013-02-13

256

Semen cryopreservation in the Indian rhinoceros (Rhinoceros unicornis).  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The objective was to identify an extender and cryoprotectant combination for Indian rhinoceros (Rhinoceros unicornis) sperm that yielded high post-thaw sperm quality. Male Indian rhinoceroses (n=6; 7.5-34 yr old) were anesthetized and subjected to a regimented electroejaculation procedure (75-100 mAmps; 4-10 volts; 7-150 stimuli; total of 10 electroejaculation procedures). High quality semen fractions from each ejaculate were divided into four aliquots and a 2 x 2 factorial design used to compare the effect of two sperm extenders (standard equine [EQ] and skim milk-egg-yolk-sugar [SMEY]), and two cryoprotectants (glycerol and dimethylsulfoxide [DMSO]). Cyropreserved samples were thawed and assessed for motility, viability and acrosome integrity over time. Electroejaculate fractions processed for cryopreservation had high sperm concentration (516 x 10(6)/mL) and motility (79%). Post-thaw sperm characteristics were higher (P<0.05) when semen was cryopreserved in EQ versus SMEY. Post-thaw motility of sperm cyropreserved in EQ averaged 50-55% compared to 22-37% in SMEY, with no significant differences in sperm characteristics of samples cyropreserved in glycerol and DMSO. In conclusion, sperm collected from Indian rhinoceroses via electroejaculation were cryopreserved using EQ extender with either glycerol or DMSO; post-thaw quality was adequate for use in assisted reproductive procedures.

Stoops MA; Atkinson MW; Blumer ES; Campbell MK; Roth TL

2010-05-01

257

Black holes with Yang-Mills hair  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In Einstein-Maxwell theory black holes are uniquely determined by their mass, their charge and their angular momentum. This is no longer true in Einstein-Yang-Mills theory. We discuss sequences of neutral and charged SU(N) Einstein-Yang-Mills black holes, which are static spherically symmetric and asymptotically flat, and which carry Yang-Mills hair. Furthermore, in Einstein-Maxwell theory static black holes are spherically symmetric. We demonstrate that, in contrast, SU(2) Einstein-Yang-Mills theory possesses a sequence of black holes, which are static and only axially symmetric.

1998-12-15

258

Indian coke industry  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A set of 29 slides/overheads outline the presentation about India's coke industry and the role played by Gujarat NRE Coke which set up the country's first stand-alone merchant coke plant in 1994. Figures are given of consumption and demand for coke in India. India is now emerging as a coke exporter. There is now a 'fast track' expansion of coke projects in India following the Chinese demand surge. Many Indian companies are acquiring stakes in coking coal mines abroad to supplement domestic coke production which has also increased over recent years.

Jagatramka, A.K. [Gujarat NRE Coke Ltd., Calcutta (India)

2004-07-01

259

RHIZOCTONIA SEEDLING DAMPING OFF IN SUGAR BEETS  

Science.gov (United States)

Diseases caused by Rhizoctonia solani n sugar beets include post-emergence damping off of seedlings, and crown and root rot of mature plants. Sugar beet varieties show varying degree of susceptibility to R. solani. Project goals include development of a reliable method to screen for Rhizoctonia se...

260

Simple Potentiometric Determination of Reducing Sugars  

Science.gov (United States)

In this article a potentiometric method for reducing sugar quantification is described. Copper(II) ion reacts with the reducing sugar (glucose, fructose, and others), and the excess is quantified using a copper wire indicator electrode. In order to accelerate the kinetics of the reaction, working conditions such as pH and temperature must be…

Moresco, Henry; Sanson, Pedro; Seoane, Gustavo

2008-01-01

 
 
 
 
261

Microbiological Spoilage of High-Sugar Products  

Science.gov (United States)

The high-sugar products discussed in this chapter are referred to as chocolate, sugar confectionery (non-chocolate), liquid sugars, sugar syrups, and honey. Products grouped in the sugar confectionery category include hard candy, soft/gummy candy, caramel, toffee, licorice, marzipan, creams, jellies, and nougats. A common intrinsic parameter associated with high-sugar products is their low water activity (a w), which is known to inhibit the growth of most spoilage and pathogenic bacteria. However, spoilage can occur as a result of the growth of osmophilic yeasts and xerophilic molds (Von Richter, 1912; Anand & Brown, 1968; Brown, 1976). The a w range for high-sugar products is between 0.20 and 0.80 (Banwart, 1979; Richardson, 1987; Lenovich & Konkel, 1992; ICMSF, 1998; Jay, Loessner, & Golden, 2005). Spoilage of products, such as chocolate-covered cherries, results from the presence of yeasts in the liquid sugar brine or the cherry. Generally, the spoiled product will develop leakers. The chocolate covering the cherry would not likely be a source of yeast contamination.

Thompson, Sterling

262

Considerations Concerning the Dynamics of Vibratory Mills Used in Powders’ Mechanical Milling Process  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Dynamic mechanical milling process in a powder mill was studied by analyzing the vibratory effects of vibration and shock phenomena on the material microstructure ground. During the milling process, there were noticed both distinct modes of ball motion: the one generated by the periodic vibration and the one produced by chaotic vibration.

Radu Panaitescu-Liess; Amelitta Legendi; Cristian Pavel

2010-01-01

263

Comparison of sugar content for ionic liquid pretreated Douglas-fir woodchips and forestry residues  

Science.gov (United States)

Background The development of affordable woody biomass feedstocks represents a significant opportunity in the development of cellulosic biofuels. Primary woodchips produced by forest mills are considered an ideal feedstock, but the prices they command on the market are currently too expensive for biorefineries. In comparison, forestry residues represent a potential low-cost input but are considered a more challenging feedstock for sugar production due to complexities in composition and potential contamination arising from soil that may be present. We compare the sugar yields, changes in composition in Douglas-fir woodchips and forestry residues after pretreatment using ionic liquids and enzymatic saccharification in order to determine if this approach can efficiently liberate fermentable sugars. Results These samples were either mechanically milled through a 2 mm mesh or pretreated as received with the ionic liquid (IL) 1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium acetate [C2mim][OAc] at 120°C and 160°C. IL pretreatment of Douglas-fir woodchips and forestry residues resulted in approximately 71-92% glucose yields after enzymatic saccharification. X-ray diffraction (XRD) showed that the pretreated cellulose was less crystalline after IL pretreatment as compared to untreated control samples. Two-dimensional nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy (2D-NMR) revealed changes in lignin and hemicellulose structure and composition as a function of pretreatment. Mass balances of sugar and lignin streams for both the Douglas-fir woodchips and forestry residues throughout the pretreatment and enzymatic saccharification processes are presented. Conclusions While the highest sugar yields were observed with the Douglas-fir woodchips, reasonably high sugar yields were obtained from forestry residues after ionic liquid pretreatment. Structural changes to lignin, cellulose and hemicellulose in the woodchips and forestry residues of Douglas-fir after [C2mim][OAc] pretreatment are analyzed by XRD and 2D-NMR, and indicate that significant changes occurred. Irrespective of the particle sizes used in this study, ionic liquid pretreatment successfully allowed high glucose yields after enzymatic saccharification. These results indicate that forestry residues may be a more viable feedstock than previously thought for the production of biofuels.

2013-01-01

264

Comparison of sugar content for ionic liquid pretreated Douglas-fir woodchips and forestry residues.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

BACKGROUND: The development of affordable woody biomass feedstocks represents a significant opportunity in the development of cellulosic biofuels. Primary woodchips produced by forest mills are considered an ideal feedstock, but the prices they command on the market are currently too expensive for biorefineries. In comparison, forestry residues represent a potential low-cost input but are considered a more challenging feedstock for sugar production due to complexities in composition and potential contamination arising from soil that may be present. We compare the sugar yields, changes in composition in Douglas-fir woodchips and forestry residues after pretreatment using ionic liquids and enzymatic saccharification in order to determine if this approach can efficiently liberate fermentable sugars. RESULTS: These samples were either mechanically milled through a 2 mm mesh or pretreated as received with the ionic liquid (IL) 1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium acetate [C2mim][OAc] at 120°C and 160°C. IL pretreatment of Douglas-fir woodchips and forestry residues resulted in approximately 71-92% glucose yields after enzymatic saccharification. X-ray diffraction (XRD) showed that the pretreated cellulose was less crystalline after IL pretreatment as compared to untreated control samples. Two-dimensional nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy (2D-NMR) revealed changes in lignin and hemicellulose structure and composition as a function of pretreatment. Mass balances of sugar and lignin streams for both the Douglas-fir woodchips and forestry residues throughout the pretreatment and enzymatic saccharification processes are presented. CONCLUSIONS: While the highest sugar yields were observed with the Douglas-fir woodchips, reasonably high sugar yields were obtained from forestry residues after ionic liquid pretreatment. Structural changes to lignin, cellulose and hemicellulose in the woodchips and forestry residues of Douglas-fir after [C2mim][OAc] pretreatment are analyzed by XRD and 2D-NMR, and indicate that significant changes occurred. Irrespective of the particle sizes used in this study, ionic liquid pretreatment successfully allowed high glucose yields after enzymatic saccharification. These results indicate that forestry residues may be a more viable feedstock than previously thought for the production of biofuels.

Socha AM; Plummer SP; Stavila V; Simmons BA; Singh S

2013-01-01

265

Green tea health-care crystal sugar  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The invention relates to a green tea health rock sugar which is prepared by aqueous solution crystallization which takes green tea-colored crystal and white granulated sugar as main components each component has the following parts by weight: 1-2 parts of the green tea-colored crystal and 800-1200 parts of white granulated sugar. The tea-colored crystal is prepared by soaking and extracting commercial tea with water or extracting the commercial tea with colloid grinding pulp The green tea health rock sugar is prepared after green tea, white granulated sugar and water are mixed and crystallized under certain conditions, has simple raw materials and low cost and is suitable for large-scale industrial production the prepared finished products have glittering and translucent appearance and vivid and beautiful color, besides, the finished products not only have pleasurable feeling but also have good taste and high nutritional value.

XIUMIN YANG; BAOLU DONG

266

NEMATICIDAL MIXTURES FOR USE IN SUGAR CANE  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

A method for the synergistic plant nematode control in sugar cane with a mixture of fipronil and abamectin comprising fipronil and abamectin in a ratio by weight of from 1:10 to 10:1, wherein the mixure is applied to sugar cane in furrow, a method for the synergistic plant nematode control in sugar cane with a mixture of fipronil and abamectin comprising fipronil and abamectin in a ratio by weight of from 1:10 to 10:1, wherein the mixture is applied to plant propagation materials of sugar cane, and a method which combines synergistic plant nematode control with (preferably synergistic) improvement of the plant health of sugar cane plants.

PRADE ALEXANDER GUTTENKUNST; AZENHA ANTONIO CESAR

267

DRUG COMPOSITION FOR BLOOD SUGAR CONTROL  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

A drug composition capable of attaining a good state of blood sugar control so as to enable correcting postprandial high blood sugar levels or high blood sugar levels at early fasting time. In particular, a drug composition for blood sugar control to be taken before meals, comprising 5 to 45 mg, in term s of one-time dose, of mitiglinide or its pharmacologically acceptable salt or a hydrate thereof (e.g., mitiglinide calcium salt hydrate). The drug compositi on is highly useful for the prevention and treatment of, for example, type 2 diabetes because the ratio of occurrence of side effects, such as low blood sugar level symptom and gastrointestinal tract disorder, is low.

KIYONO YUJI; SUZUKI HISAO; MIKOSHIBA IMAO

268

DRUG COMPOSITION FOR BLOOD SUGAR CONTROL  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

A drug composition capable of attaining a good state of blood sugar control so as to enable correcting postprandial high blood sugar levels or high blood sugar levels at early fasting time. In particular, a drug composition for blood sugar control to be taken before meals, comprising 5 to 45 mg, in terms of one-time dose, of mitiglinide or its pharmacologically acceptable salt or a hydrate thereof (e.g., mitiglinide calcium salt hydrate). The drug composition is highly useful for the prevention and treatment of, for example, type 2 diabetes because the ratio of occurrence of side effects, such as low blood sugar level symptom and gastrointestinal tract disorder, is low.

MIKOSHIBA Imao; SUZUKI Hisao; KIYONO Yuji

269

Sugar-free health-care tea sugar and preparation process thereof  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The invention discloses sugar-free health-care tea sugar and a preparation process thereof and belongs to the technical field of foods. The health-care sugar tea is prepared from water, carrageenin, oolong, sorbierite, maltitol, tea polyphenol, isomaltooligosaccharide, pectin, sodium citrate and lemon juice serving as raw materials and is prepared by adding oolong extract and lemon extract at the same time, wherein sorbitol, the maltitol and the isomaltooligosaccharide are used as sweeteners. The preparation process comprises the following steps of: leaching tea extract preparing pectose syrup processing and mixing the raw materials adding functional sugar, pectose and the lemon juice and cooling, slicing, drying, packing and inspecting to obtain a finished product of the health-care tea sugar. The sugar-free health-care tea sugar has both the health-care effects of normal tea sugar and the health-care effects of ensuring low heat, lowering blood fat and blood pressure, bidirectionally adjusting constipation and diarrhea, protecting liver, promoting the absorption of mineral matters such as calcium, magnesium and the like and preventing fatness, rise of blood sugar and decayed tooth and the like, so the tea sugar is suitable for various groups of people including diabetic patients. The tea sugar has the effects of refreshing and clearing mind, clearing away heart-fire, improving eyesight, ensuring low energy and resisting decayed tooth and improving the functions of the stomach and intestine and the like.

YUHUA CAO; YI LI; LU SUN; JUAN ZHOU

270

Sugar feeding in adult stable flies.  

Science.gov (United States)

Adult stable flies (Stomoxys calcitrans L.) are known to feed readily on sugars in the laboratory. However, little is known concerning the extent of stable fly sugar feeding in wild populations. We examined the frequency of sugar feeding in stable flies collected on Alsynite sticky traps in rural and urban environments. In addition, stable flies were visually examined to determine whether blood was present in the gut. In laboratory studies, sugars were detectable with the anthrone technique in stable flies for approximately 3 d after being imbibed, and blood could be visually detected in the gut for 24-48 h after feeding. Twelve percent of the field-collected flies had detectable sugar with a higher percentage of the urban flies having sugar fed than the rural flies, 21 and 8%, respectively. Female flies sugar fed at a slightly higher rate than males, 13 versus 11%, respectively. Less than 1% of the field-collected flies had blood in their guts. The frequency of observable blood was slightly higher in flies collected in an urban environment compared with those collected in a rural environment and did not differ between male and female flies. The number of flies with both blood and sugar was slightly higher than would be expected based on the frequencies of each alone. Seasonal patterns of both sugar feeding and blood feeding were similar in the rural and urban environments; both peaked in the early summer, May to mid-June, and dropped through the summer and fall. Sugar feeding in the urban environment increased again in October. PMID:18559167

Taylor, David B; Berkebile, Dennis R

2008-06-01

271

The Role of Congress in Indian Affairs.  

Science.gov (United States)

An examiniation of past and recent federal legislation affecting American Indians reveals the important role of Congress in developing policy for Indian affairs. The role of Congress inititally seemed directed toward providing a legal means of taking Indian land and other resources for the benefit of non-Indians. Subsequent policy has varied…

Benham, William J.

272

Indian Academy of Sciences - New fellows  

Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

indian academy of sciences - new fellows editor, indian journal of history of science, indian national science academy, new delhicentre for cellular and molecular biology, hyderabad10. debajyoti choudhury,university of delhi, delhiuniversity of hyderabad, hyderabaduniversity of delhi south campus, new delhiuniversity of hyderabad, hyderabad16. sanjeev galande,indian institute of technology, new delhiinstitute of genomics and integrative biology, delh ...

273

Utilization of Virgin Coconut Meal (VCM) in the Production of Ready-to-Eat Indian Traditional Sweet Meat Using Response Surface Methodology  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Virgin coconut meal (VCM) was used for the development of ready-to-eat Indian traditional sweet meat commonly known as “ladoo” both with and without sorbic acid (0.3%). The different ingredients were optimized following re-sponse surface methodology with three independent variables i.e. sugar, water...

Yashi Srivastava; Anil Dutt Semwal; Gopal Kumar Sharma; Amarinder Singh Bawa

274

Palm Oil Milling Wastes and Sustainable Development  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Problem statement: Palm oil milling generates solid wastes, effluent and gaseous emissions. The aim of this study is to assess the progress made in waste management by the Malaysian palm oil milling sector towards the path of sustainable development. Sustainable development is defined as the utilization of renewable resources in harmony with ecological systems. Inclusive in this definition is the transition from low value-added to higher value-added transformation of wastes into resources. Approach: A longitudinal study was carried out from 2003-2010 via, initially a field survey and subsequently a key informant approach with observation as a complementation for both. Results: Solid wastes, inclusive of solid wastes derived from air emissions and palm oil mil effluent, have a utility function with zero wastage. The principal source of effluent is palm oil mill effluent. Treated palm oil mill effluent is utilized for cropland application by plantation-based palm oil mills. However, independent mills discharge treated palm oil mill effluent in accordance to environmental parameters into receiving waterways. Methane is also released by palm oil mill effluent. Biogas from palm oil mill effluent and biomass energy from solid wastes are potential sources of renewable energy in Malaysia. Conclusion: In general, the wastes from palm oil milling are returned to the field for cropland application, utilized in-house or in the plantation, or sold to third parties. Thus, there is progress made towards sustainable development. The addition of new technologies and replacement of old mills will help to reduce the carbon footprint. However, at this juncture, the feed-in tariff for renewable energy is not financially attractive. If the biogas and biomass renewable energy sector were to take-off, enhancement in the value chain would occur and in tandem further progress towards sustainable development can be attained.

A. C. Er; Abd. R.M. Nor; Katiman Rostam

2011-01-01

275

Blood sugar measuring device has housing with lancet device and measuring unit, which fed blood sugar test strips for determining blood sugar level  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The blood sugar measuring device (1) has a housing (2) with a lancet device and a measuring unit, which fed blood sugar test strips for determining a the blood sugar level. The housing has a magazine for retaining multiple blood sugar test strips, which are evaluated by the measuring unit. An electronic circuit has Universal serial businterface for data communication.

KHOURY MAHER

276

What Price Sugar? Land, Labor, and Revolution  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available [First paragraph] Sugar, Slavery, and Society: Perspectives on the Caribbean, India, the Mascarenes, and the United States. Bernard Moitt (ed.). Gainesville: University Press of Florida, 2004. vii + 203 pp. (Cloth US $ 65.00) Tropical Babylons: Sugar and the Making of the Atlantic World, 1450-1680. Stuart B. Schwartz (ed.). Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press, 2004. xiii + 347 pp. (Paper US $ 22.50) These two books illustrate the fascination that sugar, slavery, and the plantation still exercise over the minds of scholars. One of them also reflects an interest in the influence these have had on the modern world. For students of the history of these things the Schwartz collection is in many ways the more useful. It seeks to fill a lacuna left by the concentration of monographs on the eighteenth and nineteenth centuries, suggesting that we know less about the history of sugar than we thought we did. Perhaps in no other single place is such a range of information on so wide an area presented in such detail for so early a period. Ranging from Iberia to the Caribbean and including consumption as well as production of sugar, with a nod to the slave trade and a very useful note on weights and currencies, this volume is a gold mine of information. It considers (briefly) the theoretical meaning as well as the growing of this important crop, contrasting its production in Iberia with that on the Atlantic islands of Madeira and the Canaries, colonized by Iberian powers, and continuing the contrast with São Tomé, off the coast of Africa, and on to Brazil and the Spanish American empire before ending with the British in Barbados. In the transit, it of necessity considers and complicates the meaning of “sugar revolution” and shows how scholars using that term do not always mean the same thing. John McCusker and Russell Menard, for example, tackling a cornerstone of the traditional interpretation of the development of sugar, argue that there was no “sugar revolution” in Barbados; economic change had already begun before sugar’s advent, though sugar may have accelerated it, and yet sugar production was transformed on the island. They also undercut, without quite denying, the significance of the Dutch role in the process. Schwartz, while questioning, lings to the traditional expression if not the traditional outlook, seeing in Barbados “the beginning of the sugar revolution” (p. 10).

Daniel C. Littlefield

2008-01-01

277

Ethanol production from sugar cane: assess of possibilities of decrease of thermal energy consumption through exergetic cost analysis  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The sugar and ethanol production is one of the most important economical activities in Brazil, mainly due its high efficiency and competitiveness. The ethanol production is done by several steps: juice extraction, treatment, fermentation and distillation. The juice extraction and treatment is a common operation of both industries sugar and alcohol. The process begins with the sugar cane juice extraction, usually done by devices namely mills, where the cane is compressed between big cylinders for the separation of the juice from the bagasse. Recently, another juice extraction system named diffuser was introduced in some sugar and alcohol factories. On diffusers, after sugar cane preparation stage, done with knives and shredders, it passes through a bed, where the juice is separated from bagasse by the addition of imbibition water and steam, in a lixiviation process. This study evaluates two possibilities of decrease the thermal energy consumption through exergetic cost analysis. The first case, a traditional ethanol production plant is assessed, determining the unitary exergetic cost of ethanol and electrical energy, in the following case, second and third, two proposals were assessed: use of the diffuser as a extraction system and use of pinch technology to perform a energetic integration between distillation and extraction (diffuser) systems. The results of exergetic efficiency, irreversibility generation and unitary exergetic cost of products of the three cases are analyzed and compared. The results shows the validate of the use of diffuser and pinch technology on the decrease of the thermal energy consumption in the ethanol production plant. (author)

Modesto, Marcelo [State University of Campinas (UNICAMP), SP (Brazil). Mechanical Engineering Faculty. Energy Dept.; Zemp, Roger J. [State University of Campinas (UNICAMP), SP (Brazil). Chemical Engineering Faculty. Chemical Eng. Systems Dept.; Nebra, Silvia A. [State University of Campinas (UNICAMP), SP (Brazil). Interdisciplinary Centre of Energy Planning

2006-07-01

278

Estonian sugar mountain turns sour / Alec Charles  

Index Scriptorium Estoniae

Eesti valitsus jätkab võitlust Euroopa Komisjoniga, et mitte maksta 55 miljonit eurot trahvi suhkru ladustamise eest. Peaminister Juhan Parts saatis Euroopa Komisjoni presidendile Jose Manuel Barrosole kirja, milles palus trahvi nõudmise suhtes järele mõelda.

Charles, Alec

2005-01-01

279

Radiological health aspects of uranium milling  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This report describes the operation of conventional and unconventional uranium milling processes, the potential for occupational exposure to ionizing radiation at the mill, methods for radiological safety, methods of evaluating occupational radiation exposures, and current government regulations for protecting workers and ensuring that standards for radiation protection are adhered to. In addition, a survey of current radiological health practices is summarized.

Fisher, D.R.; Stoetzel, G.A.

1983-05-01

280

Cost optimization of stirred ball mill grinding  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

On going research at the University of Alabama has shown that stirred ball mill grinding is the highest cost unit operation in the beneficiation of Eastern Oil Shales. Minimization of that cost is critical if oils derived by beneficiation and hydroretorting of Eastern shales are to become an economic alternative to conventional crude oils. Cost optimization of stirred ball milling is a substantially different problem than optimizing a conventional (tumbling) mill operation. For conventional mills minimum cost is virtually synonymous with minimum energy consumption. Because the technology is mature and well understood, the operator can predictably optimize within a very narrow range of operating conditions. In contrast, stirred ball milling offers the operator several more ``degrees of freedom`` in selecting operating conditions. An example is the selection of rotor speed. In general, lower speeds result in lower energy consumption per ton of material ground but at the cost of reduced mill capacity per unit volume. Because stirred ball mills have a high capital cost per unit volume the trade off between energy consumption and capacity becomes critical. This paper presents a generalized total cost mode for stirred ball milling and examines data generated in the grinding of oil shales in terms of the model. The paper also discuss the role of the cost model in guiding future research in grinding circuit optimization.

Schultz, C.W.; Mehta, R.K. [Alabama Univ., University, AL (United States). Mineral Resources Inst.

1991-12-31

 
 
 
 
281

Cost optimization of stirred ball mill grinding  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

On going research at the University of Alabama has shown that stirred ball mill grinding is the highest cost unit operation in the beneficiation of Eastern Oil Shales. Minimization of that cost is critical if oils derived by beneficiation and hydroretorting of Eastern shales are to become an economic alternative to conventional crude oils. Cost optimization of stirred ball milling is a substantially different problem than optimizing a conventional (tumbling) mill operation. For conventional mills minimum cost is virtually synonymous with minimum energy consumption. Because the technology is mature and well understood, the operator can predictably optimize within a very narrow range of operating conditions. In contrast, stirred ball milling offers the operator several more degrees of freedom'' in selecting operating conditions. An example is the selection of rotor speed. In general, lower speeds result in lower energy consumption per ton of material ground but at the cost of reduced mill capacity per unit volume. Because stirred ball mills have a high capital cost per unit volume the trade off between energy consumption and capacity becomes critical. This paper presents a generalized total cost mode for stirred ball milling and examines data generated in the grinding of oil shales in terms of the model. The paper also discuss the role of the cost model in guiding future research in grinding circuit optimization.

Schultz, C.W.; Mehta, R.K. (Alabama Univ., University, AL (United States). Mineral Resources Inst.)

1991-01-01

282

Airborne effluent control at uranium mills  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] The Oak Ridge National Laboratory has made an engineering cost--environmental benefit study of radioactive waste treatment systems for decreasing the amount of radioactive materials released from uranium ore processing mills. This paper summarizes the results of the study which pertain to the control and/or abatement of airborne radioactive materials from the mill processes. The tailings area is not included. Present practices in the uranium milling industry, with particular emphasis on effluent control and waste management, have been surveyed. A questionnaire was distributed to each active mill in the United States. Replies were received from about 75 percent of the mill operators. Visits were made to six operating uranium mills that were selected because they represented the different processes in use today and the newest, most modern in mill designs. Discussions were held with members of the Region IV Office of NRC and the Grand Junction Office of ERDA. Nuclear Science Abstracts, as well as other sources, were searched for literature pertinent to uranium mill processes, effluent control, and waste management

1976-08-05

283

Morbidity profile of cotton mill workers  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Objective: To study the morbidity pattern among cotton mill workers. Material and Methods: This cross-sectional study was conducted in cotton mills in Guntur District (AP) in January 2009 to May 2009. Total 474 workers were included in the study. Results: All study subjects were...

Yerpude Pravin; Jogdand Keerti

284

Palm Oil Milling Wastes and Sustainable Development  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Problem statement: Palm oil milling generates solid wastes, effluent and gaseous emissions. The aim of this study is to assess the progress made in waste management by the Malaysian palm oil milling sector towards the path of sustainable development. Sustainable development is ...

A. C. Er; Abd. R.M. Nor; Katiman Rostam

285

Holder for Milling Countersink Filler Plugs.  

Science.gov (United States)

A holder for milling a countersink filler plug, the holder having a bolt-like configured support on which the filler plug is mounted prior to the milling procedure. A sleeve slidably circumscribes the bolt-like support and is of a height less than the hei...

J. L. Shurtliff

1986-01-01

286

Indian foreign policy and media framing  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available A content analysis of Indian newspapers coverage of the Tibetan issue on autonomyThis study analyzed how the Tibetan issues on autonomy were framed by the Indian newspapers. By usingcontent analysis the study concluded Indian foreign policy was an external factor influencing the Indian newspaperscoverage of the autonomy of Tibet. In short, Indian newspapers chose a fact or set a news frame reflecting Indianforeign policy toward Tibetan autonomy.

Deepa viswam

2013-01-01

287

Uranium mill ore dust characterization  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] Cascade impactor and general air ore dust measurements were taken in a uranium processing mill in order to characterize the airborne activity, the degree of equilibrium, the particle size distribution and the respirable fraction for the 238U chain nuclides. The sampling locations were selected to limit the possibility of cross contamination by airborne dusts originating in different process areas of the mill. The reliability of the modified impactor and measurement techniques was ascertained by duplicate sampling. The results reveal no significant deviation from secular equilibrium in both airborne and bulk ore samples for the 234U and 230Th nuclides. In total airborne dust measurements, the 226Ra and 210Pb nuclides were found to be depleted by 20 and 25%, respectively. Bulk ore samples showed depletions of 10% for the 226Ra and 210Pb nuclides. Impactor samples show disequilibrium of 226Ra as high as +-50% for different size fractions. In these samples the 226Ra ratio was generally found to increase as particle size decreased. Activity median aerodynamic diameters of the airborne dusts ranged from 5 to 30 ?m with a median diameter of 11 ?m. The maximum respirable fraction for the ore dusts, based on the proposed International Commission on Radiological Protection's (ICRP) definition of pulmonary deposition, was

1980-01-01

288

Higher Yang-Mills Theory  

CERN Multimedia

Electromagnetism can be generalized to Yang-Mills theory by replacing the group U(1)$ by a nonabelian Lie group. This raises the question of whether one can similarly generalize 2-form electromagnetism to a kind of "higher-dimensional Yang-Mills theory". It turns out that to do this, one should replace the Lie group by a "Lie 2-group", which is a category C where the set of objects and the set of morphisms are Lie groups, and the source, target, identity and composition maps are homomorphisms. We show that this is the same as a "Lie crossed module": a pair of Lie groups G,H with a homomorphism t: H -> G and an action of G on H satisfying two compatibility conditions. Following Breen and Messing's ideas on the geometry of nonabelian gerbes, one can define "principal 2-bundles" for any Lie 2-group C and do gauge theory in this new context. Here we only consider trivial 2-bundles, where a connection consists of a Lie(G)-valued 1-form together with an Lie(H)-valued 2-form, and its curvature consists of a Lie(G)-v...

Baez, J C

2002-01-01

289

Energy issues in the sugar industry  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

An increasingly difficult market situation stimulates the beet sugar industry to reduce the manufacturing cost. Small sugar factories are closed down, and the production is concentrated to larger factories that are retrofitted for increased capacity and reduced energy consumption. Grass-root investments are very rare. A typical energy system in a sugar factory includes a power plant for combined heat and power generation, a set of heat receivers and power receivers in the sugar manufacturing plant, and a beet pulp drier that is not thermally integrated with the plant. Steam from the power plant is supplied to a thermal system based on a multiple-effect evaporator. Vapours and hot condensates from evaporation are used as heat carriers in the heat recovery subsystem. A frequent retrofit situation with a favourable economic potential is that of reconstructing the thermal system and so reducing the energy consumption that the processing capacity of the factory can be increased without power plant extension. Retrofit cases involving power plant extension are less common. Process integration methods are vary well suited for studying engineering problems of sugar factory retrofit, in particular at the pre-design stage. Typically, a set of energy-efficient retrofit options is generated and the most promising ones are chosen for a more detailed design study. Process integration methods can also be applied in the evaluation of advantages of new technologies to be implemented in sugar factories. Research is carried out on simultaneous minimisation of energy and water use in sugar production. (au) 17 refs.

Urbaniec, K. [Plock Branch of Warsaw Univ. of Technology, Plock (Poland)

1999-02-01

290

76 FR 35221 - Epidemiology Program for American Indian/Alaska Native Tribes and Urban Indian Communities...  

Science.gov (United States)

...DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Indian Health Service Epidemiology Program for American Indian/Alaska Native Tribes and Urban...competitive cooperative agreement applications to establish Tribal Epidemiology Centers serving American Indian/Alaska Native Tribes...

2011-06-16

291

78 FR 42788 - American Indians Into Nursing; Notice of Competitive Grant Applications for American Indians Into...  

Science.gov (United States)

...Health Service American Indians Into Nursing; Notice of Competitive Grant Applications for American Indians Into Nursing Program Announcement Type: Competing...applications for the American Indians into Nursing Program (Section 112). This...

2013-07-17

292

The Yang-Mills field strength revisited  

CERN Document Server

The Yang-Mills field strength incorporating a non-abelian feature is one of the corner-stones of the standard model. It is based on Yang's formulation of the gauge transformation of what is now known as the Yang-Mills field. We show that, given this gauge transformation and the similarity transformation of the field strength, the derivation of the field strength is fairly straight-forward. To wit, Section 5 describes how to derive the Yang-Mills field strength using this approach. The preceding sections cover material relating to the derivation. Section 3 shows where Pauli in the article cited by Yang and Mills gives an expression for the electro-magnetic field strength in terms of a commutator. For some reason, Yang and Mills did not use this approach.}

Marateck, Samuel L

2007-01-01

293

ECONOMIC ANALYSIS OF SUGAR BEAT PRODUCTION  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Croatian quota of 180.000 tones of sugar beet per year is approved for export to EU countries. For that amount of sugar it is necessary to produce about 30.000 ha of sugar beet. Sugar beet production requires deep and fertile soils, and crop rotation requirement is at least five year. Therefore, Slavonia and Baranya do t have enough areas under sugar beet. An additional problem is so called “sugar reform” applied by EUaiming to decrease price of sugar produced from sugar beet root and its equalization to sugar cane price. Consequences of this movement will be decreasing of sugar beet domestic redemption price. In that way, sugar beet production will be increased only within producers with relative good soils, suitable mechanization and knowledge. The research shows the results of production sugar beet on family farm of Vukovar – SrijemCounty on 21 ha. Technical and technological process includes 35 working operations spending 26.9 hours/ha of mechanization and 65.8 hours/ha of labor. Total costs amount to 15.947,05 kn/ha. Producers paid for seed 1.405,44 kn/ha or 9.4% and for 1.100 kg of fertilizers 2.217,50 kn/ha or 14.8% of total costs. Significant values are also costs for plant protection (9 l/ha) being 15.2% of total cost. Mechanization fee is 5.070,96 kn/ha with share of 33.9% what indicates that this is the most important element in total costs, partly as a consequence of increased distance between arable land and farm. Total value of production is 20.759,59 kn/ha, with yields of the root (70.30 t/ha) and government subsidies. Amount of 1.068,82 kg root is producedper hour of human labour; while 0.94 hour of human labour is necessary per tone of products. Economic coefficient is 1.36. Profit of 36.67 kn is achieved on 100 invested kunas in production process.

Jozo Kanisek; Jadranka Deže; Ljubica Ranogajec; Mirjana Miljevi?

2008-01-01

294

Sugar industry - number 1 with biogasohol  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

In our latitudes and under our average climatic conditions, sugar beet, by far, is the plant with the highest annually recurrent assimilation output per area unit for energy production purposes. According to the biogasohol project of the sugar industry, freshly produced sugar-beet juice will constitute the base material for processing during beet harvesting periods, whereas, at other times, a storable juice produced during harvesting periods and molasses will be processed to alcohol. This would guarantee whole-year full operation of the alcohol factory.

Vogler, K.

1982-01-01

295

Sugar reducing substance extracted from soybean slag  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The present invention relates to the extraction of blood sugar reducing substance from soybean residue, and aims at providing diabetics with blood sugar reducing substance. The technological scheme includes stoving the soybean residue after soybean protein extraction, twice reflux extraction with 60-70 % alcohol solution, merging extracted liquid, concentration to obtain concentrate while recovering alcohol, repeated ethyl ether extraction to degrease, eliminating ethyl ether to obtain water layer, repeated extraction with saturated water solution of n-butyl alcohol, decompression evaporation to obtain the required blood sugar reducing substance.

MIAO MINGSAN

296

Safety regulation in uranium mining and milling in India  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The exploration for uranium in India started as early as 1950. At present there are three underground mines at Jaduguda, Bhatin and Narwapahar located within 12 km of one another and one more is at the development stage at Turamdih located 20 km away from Jaduguda mine in the Jharkhand State. One more open cast mine at Banduhurang located near Turamdih in the Singhbum thrust belt, is also being explored. There are proposals for three more mines in Andhra Pradesh, Karnataka and Meghalaya. Jaduguda is the first uranium mine opened in mid 1960s in India is semi mechanised. Bhatin mine is relatively small mine. Narwapahar mine is one of the most modern mines in the country, is highly mechanised with trackless vehicle used for movement of man and material with wide drives and large exposed surface area of the rocks. The ore excavated from all the mines, i.e. Jaduguda, Bhatin, and Narwapahar is transported by road to the ore processing plant at Jaduguda. The ore is crushed, wet ground to fine and made in pulp and is treated (leached) with sulphuric acid. The intermediate product is filtered, purified and concentrated using ion exchange process. The filterate containing uranium is allowed to react with Magnesium oxide slurry to the final product Magnesium- di-uranate, which is a yellow coloured cake collected in drums and sent to Nuclear Fuel Complex at Hyderabad. Operational hazards, the Indian regulatory framework and the environmental monitoring and control are reported. AERB continuously monitors the radiation and industrial safety aspects in uranum mines and mill and stipulates actions, which are compulsorily implemented in the mines and mill. These actions contribute to reduction in individual dose both external and internal and prevent occupation health hazards associated with the mining

2005-01-01

297

The Indian scene.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Breast cancer is the second most common cancer among women in India, after cancer of the cervix uteri. Presently, 75,000 new cases occur in Indian women every year. This figure must be viewed against the backdrop that the national cancer registry and the hospital-based tumor registries hardly sample 3% of the total population. Locally advanced breast cancer constitutes more than 50% to 70% of patients presenting for treatment. The management of the patients varies according to the hospital the patient seeks treatment from. In this vast country, hospitals vary from peripheral hospitals with basic facilities to the specialized institutions in the metropolitan centers with all specialists, medical oncologists, radiation oncologists, surgical oncologists, and supporting facilities. In the peripheral hospitals, the treatment is invariably a radical mastectomy with or without radiotherapy. In the metropolitan areas and in specialized cancer institutions, management mirrors international recommendations with brachiocephalic trunk or modified radical mastectomy, radiation therapy, and chemotherapy.

Chopra R

2001-09-01

298

Facial melanoses: Indian perspective.  

Science.gov (United States)

Facial melanoses (FM) are a common presentation in Indian patients, causing cosmetic disfigurement with considerable psychological impact. Some of the well defined causes of FM include melasma, Riehl's melanosis, Lichen planus pigmentosus, erythema dyschromicum perstans (EDP), erythrosis, and poikiloderma of Civatte. But there is considerable overlap in features amongst the clinical entities. Etiology in most of the causes is unknown, but some factors such as UV radiation in melasma, exposure to chemicals in EDP, exposure to allergens in Riehl's melanosis are implicated. Diagnosis is generally based on clinical features. The treatment of FM includes removal of aggravating factors, vigorous photoprotection, and some form of active pigment reduction either with topical agents or physical modes of treatment. Topical agents include hydroquinone (HQ), which is the most commonly used agent, often in combination with retinoic acid, corticosteroids, azelaic acid, kojic acid, and glycolic acid. Chemical peels are important modalities of physical therapy, other forms include lasers and dermabrasion. PMID:21860153

Khanna, Neena; Rasool, Seemab

299

Facial melanoses: Indian perspective.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Facial melanoses (FM) are a common presentation in Indian patients, causing cosmetic disfigurement with considerable psychological impact. Some of the well defined causes of FM include melasma, Riehl's melanosis, Lichen planus pigmentosus, erythema dyschromicum perstans (EDP), erythrosis, and poikiloderma of Civatte. But there is considerable overlap in features amongst the clinical entities. Etiology in most of the causes is unknown, but some factors such as UV radiation in melasma, exposure to chemicals in EDP, exposure to allergens in Riehl's melanosis are implicated. Diagnosis is generally based on clinical features. The treatment of FM includes removal of aggravating factors, vigorous photoprotection, and some form of active pigment reduction either with topical agents or physical modes of treatment. Topical agents include hydroquinone (HQ), which is the most commonly used agent, often in combination with retinoic acid, corticosteroids, azelaic acid, kojic acid, and glycolic acid. Chemical peels are important modalities of physical therapy, other forms include lasers and dermabrasion.

Khanna N; Rasool S

2011-09-01

300

"PCHELKA" SUGAR COOKIE PREPARATION COMPOSITION  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

FIELD: food industry. ^ SUBSTANCE: invention relates to food industry, in particular, to preparation of flour confectionary goods and may be used for preparation of a cookie with functional properties and enhanced biological value. The composition contains, kg: prime grade wheat flour - 97.0-102.5, fine-grained corn flour - 7.0-7.4, sugar powder - 31.1-34.5, margarine with fat content equal to 82% - 23.3-24.1, sweetened condensed milk with fat content equal to 8.5% - 3.1-3.5, bee pollen pellet - 4.8-5.2, culinary edible salt - 0.7-0.9, baking soda - 0.7-0.9 and water till moisture content is 18%. ^ EFFECT: invention is aimed at improvement of the functional properties and enhancement of the product biological value due to its enrichment with vitamins complex, phospholipids as well as due to qualitative and quantitative enrichment of microelement content with simultaneous improvement of the organoleptic indices. ^ 1 tbl, 2 ex

KALENIK TAT JANA KUZ MINICHNA; GOROKHOVA IRINA SERGEEVNA; KORSHENKO LJUDMILA OLEGOVNA

 
 
 
 
301

Knoevenagel reaction of unprotected sugars.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The Knoevenagel reaction of unprotected sugars was investigated in the 1950s using zinc chloride as promoter. The so-called Garcia Gonzalez reaction had been almost forgotten for 50 years, until the emergence of new water tolerant catalysts having Lewis acid behavior. The reaction was thus reinvestigated and optimal conditions have been found to prepare trihydroxylated furan derivatives from pentose or beta-tetrahydrofuranylfuran from hexoses with non-cyclic beta-keto ester or beta-diketones. Other valuable compounds such as beta-linked tetrahydrobenzofuranyl glycosides or hydroxyalkyl-3,3,6,6,-tetramethyl-3,4,5,6,7,9-hexahydro-1H-xanthene-1,8(2H)-dione can be obtained using cyclic beta-dicarbonylic derivatives. Apart from one report in the 1950s, the Knoevenagel reaction of unprotected carbohydrate in basic condition has been studied only in the mid-1980s to prepare C-glycosyl barbiturates from barbituric acids and, later on, from non-cyclic beta-diketones, beta-C-glycosidic ketones. The efficient method exploited to prepare such compounds has found an industrial development in cosmetics.

Scherrmann MC

2010-01-01

302

77 FR 75420 - Applications for New Awards; Indian Education-Demonstration Grants for Indian Children  

Science.gov (United States)

...DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION Applications for New Awards; Indian Education--Demonstration Grants for Indian Children AGENCY: Office of Elementary and Secondary Education, Department of Education. ACTION:...

2012-12-20

303

Development of Indian passenger transport  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The Indian transport sector has been studied using logistic substitution. The share of rail transport is declining, while road and air transport are increasing. These developments are not desirable from an energy-efficiency perspective. (author)

Ramanathan, R. [Indira Ghandi Institute of Development Research, Mumbai (India)

1998-05-01

304

Taxation and the American Indian  

Science.gov (United States)

The article explores American Indian tribal rights to tax exemptions and self-imposed taxation; general recommendations on possible tribal tax alternatives; and evaluation of the probable economic effect of taxation. (FF)

Brunt, David

1973-01-01

305

Indian Academy of Sciences - Archive  

Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

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306

Indian Academy of Sciences - Publications  

Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

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307

Root rot diseases of sugar beet  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Root rot diseases of sugar beet caused by Rhizoctonia solani (AG 2-2 IIIB and AG 2-2 IV), R. crocorum, Aphanomyces cochlioides, Phoma betae, Macrophomina phaeseolina, Fusarium oxysporum f.sp. radicis-betae, Pythium aphanidermatum Phytophthora drechsleri, Rhizopus stolonifer, R. arrhizus and Sclerotium rolfsii cause significant losses wherever sugar beets are grown. However, not all these soil-borne pathogens have been reported in all sugar beet production areas. Losses include reduced harvestable tonnage and reduced white sugar recovery. Many of these pathogens also cause post harvest losses in storage piles. Control for diseases caused by these pathogens include disease resistant cultivars, avoidance of stresses, cultural practices such as water management and the use of fungicides.

Jacobsen Barry J.

2006-01-01

308

Treatment of biomass to obtain fermentable sugars  

Science.gov (United States)

Biomass is pretreated using a low concentration of aqueous ammonia at high biomass concentration. Pretreated biomass is further hydrolyzed with a saccharification enzyme consortium. Fermentable sugars released by saccharification may be utilized for the production of target chemicals by fermentation.

Dunson, Jr., James B. (Newark, DE); Tucker, Melvin (Lakewood, CO); Elander, Richard (Evergreen, CO); Hennessey, Susan M. (Avondale, PA)

2011-04-26

309

Diabetes: Monitoring Your Blood Sugar Level  

Science.gov (United States)

... home blood sugar meter, a glucometer, or a glucose meter) and know how to use it. Your doctor ... your finger. But these meters cannot replace regular glucose meters. They are used to get additional readings between ...

310

[Analytical evidences of sugar added to wine].  

Science.gov (United States)

In many countries addition of sugar to the grape must for increasing the alcohol concentration is autorized by regulation. This addition must be supervised by a priori and a posteriori controls. The saccharose from sugar beet contrains 100 mg/kg of betain, which can be determined in wine after purification by ion exchange and gas chromatography of a decomposition product of its butylester. Methyl betaine has been used as internal standard to improve the method. The natural wine contains low quantity of betaine. For this reason it is impossible to detect an addition of sugar lower than that corresponding to 2 degrees alcohol. The other methods (13C content of ethanol, polyosides contained as impurity in sugar) seem to present the same limitation. PMID:754584

Dupuy, P

1978-01-01

311

[Analytical evidences of sugar added to wine  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

In many countries addition of sugar to the grape must for increasing the alcohol concentration is autorized by regulation. This addition must be supervised by a priori and a posteriori controls. The saccharose from sugar beet contrains 100 mg/kg of betain, which can be determined in wine after purification by ion exchange and gas chromatography of a decomposition product of its butylester. Methyl betaine has been used as internal standard to improve the method. The natural wine contains low quantity of betaine. For this reason it is impossible to detect an addition of sugar lower than that corresponding to 2 degrees alcohol. The other methods (13C content of ethanol, polyosides contained as impurity in sugar) seem to present the same limitation.

Dupuy P

1978-01-01

312

The effect of crystal morphology and mill type on milling induced crystal disorder.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Milling is a key process in the preparation of many solid dosage forms. One possible milling induced change is the production of small levels of disorder or amorphous material found predominantly at the surface of a powder, which could lead to significant chemical and physical instability. The influence of crystal habit on this change was investigated using beta-succinic acid, in plate like and needle like morphologies. beta-Succinic acid crystals with these habits were processed in a ball mill and a jet mill. SEM images indicated jet milled material was finer than the ball milled product. Powder X-ray diffraction of the milled powders revealed an amorphous halo at lower angles and peak broadening suggesting disorder though this could not be quantified accurately. In addition, a partial conversion during milling to the alpha form was noted. Quantitation of the alpha form in the milled powders indicated it was present at <2% (w/w). Plate and needle shaped particles had similar heats of solution pre-milling, however, all milled powders had lower heats of solution compared to the unmilled powers. The contribution of the alpha polymorph to the lower heats of solution was calculated to be insignificant. Therefore, the reduced heat of solution is attributed to a loss in crystallinity. The largest decreases were seen in the plate like morphology. These findings suggest that beta-succinic acid crystals with plate like morphology are more prone to crystallinity loss on milling compared to the needle like morphology. The mill type has also been shown to influence the final crystallinity.

Chikhalia V; Forbes RT; Storey RA; Ticehurst M

2006-01-01

313

Exceptional Yang-Mills theory  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The applicability of exceptional Lie groups to a unified Yang-Mills theory of elementary particles and interactions is considered. In particular, the origin of fermion generations and quark color are examined from the related perspectives of exceptional geometry and representation theory. First, the groups pertinent to the octonions are studied and the consequences of an ambient (non-direct product) unification scheme (involving the G2-maximal subgroups SU(3) and SO(4) and their intersection U(2)) are pursued in the particle content of the fundamental representation. Subsequently, these ideas are extended to Spin(7) and Spin(8) gauge theories, which embody more subtly the octonion product structure through triality outer automorphisms. Then the exceptional Jordan algebra - the structure-tripling generalization of the octonions - and its automorphism group F4 with extension E6 and maximal subgroups Spin(9) and (Sp(1)xSp(3))/Z2 are explored as a final setting for unification.

1985-01-01

314

Environmental planning in uranium milling  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Effluents from uranium milling in the Achala region in the province of Cordoba are studied. Liquids from lixiviation-recovery and from precipitation-washing of yellow-cake were analyzed. Separation of both liquids before treatment and disposal is recommended. Data of the hydric environment are presented specially for volumes of flow. The disposal criteria established by the provincial authorities are presented, and discussed. Calculations to define the effects on the environment of two types of effluents (the leaching effluent without treatment and the same after treating it) on two points of the rivers net, are given and the results discussed. A disposal policy for a treated effluent of mean composition is presented, based on two different amounts for the two phases of the river flux; the possible effects on two points of the net were also calculated. In the author's opinion, such policy will result in a disposal without a sensible damage in the receptor. (Author).

1987-01-01

315

Value Added Products from Hemicellulose Utilization in Dry Mill Ethanol Plants  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The Iowa Corn Promotion Board is the principal contracting entity for this grant funded by the US Department of Agriculture and managed by the US Department of Energy. The Iowa Corn Promotion Board subcontracted with New Jersey Institute of Technology, KiwiChem, Pacific Northwest National Lab and Idaho National Lab to conduct research for this project. KiwiChem conducted the economic engineering assessment of a dry-mill ethanol plant. New Jersey Institute of Technology conducted work on incorporating the organic acids into polymers. Pacific Northwest National Lab conducted work in hydrolysis of hemicellulose, fermentation and chemical catalysis of sugars to value-added chemicals. Idaho National Lab engineered an organism to ferment a specific organic acid. Dyadic, an enzme company, was a collaborator which provided in-kind support for the project. The Iowa Corn Promotion Board collaborated with the Ohio Corn Marketing Board and the Minnesota Corn Merchandising Council in providing cost share for the project. The purpose of this diverse collaboration was to integrate the hydrolysis, the conversion and the polymer applications into one project and increase the likelihood of success. This project had two primary goals: (1) to hydrolyze the hemicellulose fraction of the distillers grain (DG) coproduct coming from the dry-mill ethanol plants and (2) convert the sugars derived from the hemicellulose into value-added co-products via fermentation and chemical catalysis.

Rodney Williamson, ICPB; John Magnuson, PNNL; David Reed, INL; Marco Baez, Dyadic; Marion Bradford, ICPB

2007-03-30

316

KRAFT MILL BIOREFINERY TO PRODUCE ACETIC ACID AND ETHANOL: TECHNICAL ECONOMIC ANALYSIS  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The “near neutral hemicellulose extraction process” involves extraction of hemicellulose using green liquor prior to kraft pulping. Ancillary unit operations include hydrolysis of the extracted carbohydrates using sulfuric acid, removal of extracted lignin, liquid-liquid extraction of acetic acid, liming followed by separation of gypsum, fermentation of C5 and C6 sugars, and upgrading the acetic acid and ethanol products by distillation. The process described here is a variant of the “near neutral hemicellulose extraction process” that uses the minimal amount of green liquor to maximize sugar production while still maintaining the strength quality of the final kraft pulp. Production rates vary between 2.4 to 6.6 million gallons per year of acetic acid and 1.0 and 5.6 million gallons per year of ethanol, depending upon the pulp production rate. The discounted cash flow rate of return for the process is a strong function of plant size, and the capital investment depends on the complexity of the process. For a 1,000 ton per day pulp mill, the production cost for ethanol was estimated to vary between $1.63 and $2.07/gallon, and for acetic acid between $1.98 and $2.75 per gallon depending upon the capital equipment requirements for the new process. To make the process economically attractive, for smaller mill sizes the processing must be simplified to facilitate reductions in capital cost.

Haibo Mao; Joseph M. Genco; Adriaan van Heiningen; Hemant Pendse

2010-01-01

317

State of weed infestation and features of sugar beet protection in Belarus  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The changes of phytosanitary situation recently taking place in sugar beet crops in the Republic of Belarus are shown. It is noticed that in the crop agrocoenosises there is a high infestation level caused by Japanese barnyard millet (Echinochloa crus-galli (L) Pal. Beauv), field sowthistle (Sonchus arvensis L), chickweed (Stellaria media (L) Vill), quick grass (Agropyron repens (L) Pal Beauv), matricary (Matricaria perforate Merat), creeping thistle (Circium arvense (L) scop), marsh woundwort (Stachus palustris L) wild buckwheat (Polygonum convolvulus L), bristle stem hemp nettle (Galeopsis tetrahit L), common horsetail (Equisetum arvense L), field forget-me-not (Myosotis arvensis (L) Hill), shepherd's purse (Capsella bursa-pastoris (L) Med) etc. Due to non-observance of preventive and separate agrotechnical techniques especially in spring-summer period, such weeds as bedstraw (Galium aparine L), white campion (Melandrium album (Mill) Garcke), green amaranthus (Amaranthus retroflexus L) started to appear in the crops. To protect sugar beet effectively, two variants of herbicides application are proposed. The first one - a combined, one stipulating soil action herbicides application before planting or before sugar beet seedlings emergence and on seedlings - to carry out two treatment by post-emergence preparations. The second variant, a split post- -emergence herbicide application (two-three times spraying) on growing weeds at small application rates. In the next 5-6 years, a combined method will be of a primary importance in the conditions of the Republic.

Soroka Sergey Vladimirovich; Gadzhieva Galina Josiphovna

2006-01-01

318

Pulp mill as an energy producer  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The recovery boilers of pulp mills are today the most significant producers of wood energy. The power-to-heat ratio of the power plant process, i.e., power yield, is poor in existing applications. In the study, an alternative of improving the power yield of conventional pulp mills significantly was studied by applying solutions used in power plants to a pulp mill. Extensive conversion of wood energy into electricity is possible only in the recovery boiler of the pulp mill and in a large combustion boiler of bark, wood waste and wood chips integrated to this boiler. Hence, the harvest and transports of wood raw materials, i.e. pulp wood and energy wood, are integrated, and the fraction going to cook and the energy wood fraction are separated at the pulp mill. The method guarantees competitive supply of energy wood. As a result a SELLUPOWER mill was designed, where the recovery boiler combusting black liquor and the large power plant boiler combusting energy wood are integrated to one unit and constructed to a power plant process with a high power-to-heat ratio. Necessary technical solutions, project costs and economical feasibility compared to a conventional pulp mill were determined, and the effect of different production-economical parameters was also studied. (orig.)

1998-01-01

319

COMPOSITIONS AND PROCESSES FOR SUGAR TREATMENT  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

A composition and process for treating sugar solutions that includes one or more sources of ammonium that obtain a pH in water solution above pH 7.0, such as ammonium bicarbonate (NH4HCO3), ammonium phosphate dibasic (NH4)2HPO4, and ammonium sulfite (NH4)2SO3. The composition can also include a particulate sulfur reagent, an amorphous silica, a particulate aluminum reagent, a particulate phosphorous reagent, a particulate filter aid selected from diatomaceous earth and perlite, a particulate activated carbon, a particulate bleaching earth, a polymer decolorant, or combinations thereof. The individual materials can be pre-mixed before addition to the sugar solution, added individually to the sugar solution, or added as a combination of one or more singular ingredients and one or more pre-mixed ingredients. The invention can stabilize the pH of the sugar solution, reduce the calcium, magnesium or related ash constituents of the sugar solution, achieve color reduction of the sugar solution, or some combination of these effects.

BUSHONG JAMES; SARIR EMMANUEL M

320

Aerosol Chemistry of Furfural and Sugars  

Science.gov (United States)

Furfural and sugars (as levoglucosan equivalent) are derived from biomass burning and contribute to aerosol composition. This study examined the potential of furfural and levoglucosan to be tracers of biomass burning. Furfural is likely to be oxidized quickly so comparison with levoglucosan may give a sense of the age of the aerosols in forest fire smoke. However, few furfural emissions are available for biomass combustion. Furfural and sugars were determined in coarse aerosols (>2.4?m aerodynamic diameter) and fine aerosols (Furfural and sugars dominated in fine fractions, especially in the UK autumn. Sugars were found at 5.96-18.37 nmol m-3 in fine mode and 1.36-5.75 nmol m-3 in coarse mode aerosols in the UK. Furfural was found at 0.18-0.91 nmol m-3 and 0.05-0.51 nmol m-3 respectively in the same aerosols. Sugars were a dominant contributor to aerosol derived from biomass burning. Sugars and furfural were about 10 and 20 times higher during haze episodes in Malaysia. Laboratory experimental simulation suggested furfural is more rapid destroyed by UV and sunlight than levoglucosan.

Srithawirat, T.; Brimblecombe, P.

2008-12-01

 
 
 
 
321

Dietary sugar utilisation by putative oral probiotics.  

Science.gov (United States)

Probiotic consumption and repeated probiotic intake have shown promising results as adjunct therapies in prevention and alleviation of some chronic disease conditions in the gastrointestinal tract. Recent evidence suggests that probiotics may also be beneficial in preventing oral diseases. An efficient probiotic candidate in the mouth, however, should not impose any risk to oral tissues, such as acid demineralisation of tooth enamel because of sugar fermentation. The aim of the present in vitro study was to evaluate the utilisation of some sugars and sugar alcohols by yogurt starter Lactobacillus delbrueckii subsp. bulgaricus strains and to assess the influence of these carbohydrate sources on cell surface properties. For comparsion, a commercially available probiotic, Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG, was used. The results showed that lactose, glucose and fructose were readily metabolised by all strains tested. However, strain-specific metabolic patterns were observed when other sugars and sugar alcohols were used as sole carbohydrate source in the growth medium. Surface properties of the bacteria such as hydrophobicity and surface-associated proteins appeared to vary with the carbohydrate content of the growth medium. Based on these results it can be concluded that among the L. delbrueckii subsp. bulgaricus strains probiotic candidate strains are available that warrant further studies due to their inability to ferment sugars with pronounced cariogenic properties. PMID:22968411

Stamatova, I; Kari, K; Hervonen, L; Meurman, J H

2012-09-01

322

Dietary sugar utilisation by putative oral probiotics.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Probiotic consumption and repeated probiotic intake have shown promising results as adjunct therapies in prevention and alleviation of some chronic disease conditions in the gastrointestinal tract. Recent evidence suggests that probiotics may also be beneficial in preventing oral diseases. An efficient probiotic candidate in the mouth, however, should not impose any risk to oral tissues, such as acid demineralisation of tooth enamel because of sugar fermentation. The aim of the present in vitro study was to evaluate the utilisation of some sugars and sugar alcohols by yogurt starter Lactobacillus delbrueckii subsp. bulgaricus strains and to assess the influence of these carbohydrate sources on cell surface properties. For comparsion, a commercially available probiotic, Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG, was used. The results showed that lactose, glucose and fructose were readily metabolised by all strains tested. However, strain-specific metabolic patterns were observed when other sugars and sugar alcohols were used as sole carbohydrate source in the growth medium. Surface properties of the bacteria such as hydrophobicity and surface-associated proteins appeared to vary with the carbohydrate content of the growth medium. Based on these results it can be concluded that among the L. delbrueckii subsp. bulgaricus strains probiotic candidate strains are available that warrant further studies due to their inability to ferment sugars with pronounced cariogenic properties.

Stamatova I; Kari K; Hervonen L; Meurman JH

2012-09-01

323

Airflow obstruction in chalkpowder and sugar workers.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Our aim was to investigate the relationship between suspected occupational hazards and airflow obstruction in industrial workers. The study was a cross-sectional survey of 314 male workers from a chalkpowder plant (n = 158) and from a sugar refinery (n = 156). Occupational exposure to chalkpowder and sugar dust was assessed by individual job classification. Outcome variables included respiratory symptoms and routine spirometric parameters. Statistical analysis was done for each industry separately. Overall, mean pulmonary function parameters fell either within or above the normal range in both industries. However, analysis by job classification showed that in the chalkpowder plant, all indices of airway obstruction declined significantly with increasing dustiness. Additionally, workers in the dustiest workplace (chalk sacking) had significantly lower airflow parameters than workers from other workstations. In the sugar refinery, workers exposed to sugar dust in the sugar cube manufacture workstation had significantly lower forced expiratory volume in 1 s (FEV1) (p = 0.02) than the non-exposed ones. For both industries, the proportion of subjects complaining of cough and/or phlegm was greater among the most exposed subgroups than among the remaining workers but the differences were not statistically significant. In conclusion, coupling spirometry to job classification proved useful in disclosing a relationship between airflow obstruction and exposure to either chalkpowder or sugar dust in industrial workers.

Bohadana AB; Massin N; Wild P; Berthiot G

1996-01-01

324

75 FR 1384 - Indian Health Professions Preparatory, Indian Health Professions Pregraduate and Indian Health...  

Science.gov (United States)

...Therapy (Jr. and Sr. undergraduate years). H. Pre-Social Work (Jr. and Sr. undergraduate years). Indian Health...D.P.M. R. Respiratory Therapy: BS Degree. S. Social Work: Masters Level only (Direct Practice and...

2010-01-11

325

Environmental design of a uranium mill  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In the frame work of the Cleaner Technology Project for Uranium Mining and Milling, Australian Nuclear and Technology Organization (ANSTO), Environment Division of ANSTO has carried out a programme of research which seeks to identify, investigate and develop cleaner technologies that have the potential to minimize the environmental impact of uranium mining and milling. This paper describes three design options of a new uranium mill that can meet environmental, technical and economical objectives. The feasibility of such an approach was examined in the laboratory and in a pilot plant study. (author)

2002-01-01

326

Waste water reduction at Canadian paperboard mill  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A feasibility study for the implementation of waste water and energy minimisation strategies for an existing paperboard mill in Canada was performed. The mill process, the methodology adopted for the analysis and the modifications proposed to the process water system are described. Process simulations were carried out to determine the potential effects on paper quality, corrosion and process operation. The results show a potential waste water reduction of 66%. These savings could be obtained by minor process changes and would allow the mill to close its water system and eliminate its biological treatment, since the remaining waste water could be treated by a small evaporation unit. Operating cost reductions would be substantial. (author)

Lambert, J. [CEDRLC-CANMET (Canada)]|[Ecole Polytechnique de Montreal (Canada)

1997-06-01

327

Coal Moisture Estimation in Power Plant Mills  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Knowledge of moisture content in raw coal feed to a power plant coal mill is of importance for efficient operation of the mill. The moisture is commonly measured approximately once a day using offline chemical analysis methods; however, it would be advantageous for the dynamic operation of the plant if an on-line estimate were available. In this paper we such propose an on-line estimator (an extended Kalman filter) that uses only existing measurements. The scheme is tested on actual coal mill data collected during a one-month operating period, and it is found that the daily measured moisture content agrees with the estimates.

Andersen, Palle; Bendtsen, Jan Dimon

2009-01-01

328

Active chatter control in a milling machine  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The use of active feedback compensation to mitigate cutting instabilities in an advanced milling machine is discussed in this paper. A linear structural model delineating dynamics significant to the onset of cutting instabilities was combined with a nonlinear cutting model to form a dynamic depiction of an existing milling machine. The model was validated with experimental data. Modifications made to an existing machine model were used to predict alterations in dynamics due to the integration of active feedback compensation. From simulations, subcomponent requirements were evaluated and cutting enhancements were predicted. Active compensation was shown to enable more than double the metal removal rate over conventional milling machines. 25 refs., 10 figs., 1 tab.

Dohner, J.L.; Hinnerichs, T.D.; Lauffer, J.P. [and others

1997-08-01

329

STABILIZATION OF EXPANSIVE SOIL USING MILL SCALE  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The present paper deals with the evaluation of the mechanical properties of black cotton soil mixed with mill scale in varying proportions and comparing the same with the results of pure black cotton soil. The mechanical properties of mill scale and black cotton soil are individually determined first and then the two are combined in varying proportions. The properties like plastic limit, CBR and Permeability of the same are evaluated. It is found that mixing mill scale in varying proportions increases the permeability of the soil, strength characteristics and decreases the plasticity.

Y.I.Murthy

2012-01-01

330

Milling by product Utilization Research at USDA-ARS  

Science.gov (United States)

In the State of California, waste material from olive milling (“alperujo” for 2-phase milling and “pomace” for 3-phase milling) is increasing as the domestic olive oil industry grows. Current best practices, including land application and conversion to animal feed, for disposing of olive milling wa...

331

High sweetness low heat health sugar and its producing method  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The present invention discloses a health sugar with high sweetness and low heat quantity and its production method. It is characterized by that it is made up by using (by weight portion) 80-100 portions of cane sugar or beet sugar as main raw material, adding 0.0125-10 portions of one or several kinds of other sweetening agents and making them undergo the processes or mixing, stirring or granulation. Said health sugar can be white granulated sugar, soft sugar, brown sugar, and can be made into rock candy.

CHEN ZHANG

332

Prospects rated as sweet for sugar-based 'BioOil'  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Dynamotive Technologies, a British Columbia company, reports good result from experiments to produce synthetic oil from sugar cane waste that could supply many third world countries with a cheap, environmentally friendly source of fuel for powering electric generators. The company is currently building a new pilot plant to produce {sup B}ioOil' (as the product is called). The plant will convert ten tonnes of agricultural waste to produce some 6,000 litres of BioOil. The fuel produced by the existing pilot plant has been tested in an industrial gas turbine power generation package developed by Orenda Aerospace ( a division of Magellan). The BioOil exhibited good combustion qualities and a very favourable emission profile, with significantly less nitrous oxide and sulphur oxide emissions than conventional oil. Full-scale engine testing to validate commercial operation on such fuels is planned. If successful, BioOil could be a significant source of fuel to generate electricity in places such as the tropical islands in the Carribean, the South Pacific and Indian Oceans where sugar cane is grown in large quantities. Currently, annual sugar cane waste (bagasse) is estimated at 375 million tonnes. A plant using less than one-thousandth of that would produce nearly 4.8 million gallons of BioOil annually. It would also generate 30,000 tonnes of greenhouse gas emission credits.

Stonehouse, D.

2000-07-24

333

[Occupational skin diseases in rolling-mill workers in aluminum mills  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Some data on frequency and nature of occupational dermatological diseases and stigmata, as well as the results of epicutaneous allergy tests done with occupational allergens with 234 rollers in the rolling mills of the aluminum mill in Razine, near Sibenik are presented. We have recorded occupational dermatose in 44 rollers (18.8%). In the hot rolling mill, sixty rollers have undergone the test and there was 16 recorded cases of occupational dermatose (26.6%). In the cold rolling mill, 174 rollers have undergone the test, and the occupational dematose was recorded in 28 rollers (16.1%). Positive epicutaneous allergic reaction on occupational allergens was found in 5 (2.1%) rollers. Occupational stigmata are somewhat more frequent in the hot rolling mill and their ratio is from 48-100%, whereas in the cold rolling mill they are somewhat less frequent ranging between 40.3 and 97.0% of rollers.

Bali? J; Klarica J

1989-04-01

334

Impact of paper mill effluent on growth and development of certain agricultural crops.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The physico-chemical characteristics of paper mill industry effluent were measured and some were found to be above the permissible limits prescribed by Indian irrigation water standard. A study was conducted in pots to investigate the effects of different concentrations (10, 20, 30, 40, 50, 60, 70, 80 and 100%) of paper mill effluent on growth and production of rice, mustard and peafor three years. The study reveals that the paper mill effluent has deleterious effect on the growth of crop at higher concentrations. However, at lower concentration (viz. 10 to 40% in rice, 10 to 50% in mustard and 10 to 60% in pea) of effluent, beneficial impact on general welfare of the crops was noticed. Growth and development was increased with increasing the concentration of the effluent up to 30% in rice, 40% in mustard and 50% in pea. Investigation showed that the growth and production of rice, mustard and pea was found maximum at a concentration of 30, 40 and 50% effluent respectively.

Medhi UJ; Talukdar AK; Deka S

2011-03-01

335

Renewable energy in Indian country  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

On June 25--27, 1995, at Mesa Verde National Park in southwestern Colorado, the Center for Resource Management (CRM), organized and sponsored a conference in conjunction with the Navajo Nation, EPA, and Bechtel Group, Inc., to deal with issues associated with developing renewable energy resources on Indian lands. Due to the remoteness of many reservation homes and the cost of traditional power line extensions, a large percentage of the Indian population is today without electricity or other energy services. In addition, while they continue to develop energy resources for export, seeing only minimal gain in their own economies, Indian people are also subject to the health and environmental consequences associated with proximity to traditional energy resource development. Renewable energy technologies, on the other hand, are often ideally suited to decentralized, low-density demand. These technologies--especially solar and wind power--have no adverse health impacts associated with generation, are relatively low cost, and can be used in applications as small as a single home, meeting power needs right at a site. Their minimal impact on the environment make them particularly compatible with American Indian philosophies and lifestyles. Unfortunately, the match between renewable energy and Indian tribes has been hampered by the lack of a comprehensive, coordinated effort to identify renewable energy resources located on Indian lands, to develop practical links between Indian people`s needs and energy producers, and to provide the necessary training for tribal leaders and members to plan, implement, and maintain renewable energy systems. Summaries of the presentations are presented.

NONE

1995-12-31

336

Radiation and environmental safety in uranium mines and mill  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] Radiation is a universal phenomenon. Naturally occurring radioactive elements such as uranium and thorium which are present in the soil in trace quantities contribute significantly to a natural background radiation level to which every one is exposed throughout ones life time. On an average the radiation background works out to about 2.5 mSv per year. In places of high uranium/thorium mineralisation, the environmental radiation levels can be higher than the average. Uranium mining has been carried out in many parts of the world, notably in central Europe for over two centuries. In India, uranium mining started about 40 years ago. The Indian uranium mines are operated by the Department of Atomic Energy, Government of India. It is the policy of the Government that the nuclear industry should be run in such a way as to keep the occupational hazards associated to as low a level as reasonably achievable. With this in view, the Health Physics Division of the Bhabha Atomic Research Centre has been providing the uranium mining operations in Bihar with the necessary skilled manpower and advice in all matters connected with radiological safety. The protection of public and environment is also an integral part of this objective. As a part of this service, the group permanently stationed at the mining/milling site is also actively engaged in research and development programmes aimed at developing and constantly improving the monitoring instrumentation and methodology. This article briefly reviews the efforts in this direction. (author)

1998-01-01

337

7 CFR 868.310 - Grades and grade requirements for the classes Long Grain Milled Rice, Medium Grain Milled Rice...  

Science.gov (United States)

...2009-01-01 2009-01-01 false Grades and grade requirements for the classes Long Grain Milled Rice, Medium Grain Milled Rice, Short Grain Milled Rice, and Mixed Milled Rice. (See also ç 868.315.) 868.310 Section 868.310...

2009-01-01

338

Pretreatment of wastepaper and pulp mill sludge by aqueous ammonia and hydrogen peroxide.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Pretreatment of two different softwood-based lignocellulosic wastes (newsprint and Kraft pulp mill sludge) was investigated. Pretreatment was done by aqueous ammonia and hydrogen peroxide (H2O2), two delignifying reagents that are environmentally benign. Three different treatment schemes were employed: aqueous ammonia alone (ammonia recycled percolation [ARP]), mixed stream of aqueous ammonia and H2O2, and successive treatment with H2O2 and aqueous ammonia. In all cases there was a substantial degree of delignification ranging from 30 to 50%. About half of the hemicellulose sugars were dissolved into the process effluent. Retention of cellulose after pretreatment varied from 85 to 100% for newspaper feedstock and from 77 to 85% for the pulp mill sludge. After treatment with aqueous ammonia alone (ARP), the digestibility of newspaper and the pulp mill sludge was improved only by 5% (from 40 to 45% for the former and from 68 to 73% for the latter), despite a substantial degree of delignification occurring after the ARP process. The lignin content thus did not correlate with the digestibility for these substrates. Simultaneous treatment with H2O2 and aqueous ammonia did not bring about any significant improvement in the digestibility over that of the ARP. A successive treatment by H2O2 and ARP showed the most promise because it improved the digestibility of the newspaper from 41 to 75%, a level comparable to that of alpha-cellulose.

Kim JS; Lee YY; Park SC

2000-01-01

339

Pretreatment of wastepaper and pulp mill sludge by aqueous ammonia and hydrogen peroxide.  

Science.gov (United States)

Pretreatment of two different softwood-based lignocellulosic wastes (newsprint and Kraft pulp mill sludge) was investigated. Pretreatment was done by aqueous ammonia and hydrogen peroxide (H2O2), two delignifying reagents that are environmentally benign. Three different treatment schemes were employed: aqueous ammonia alone (ammonia recycled percolation [ARP]), mixed stream of aqueous ammonia and H2O2, and successive treatment with H2O2 and aqueous ammonia. In all cases there was a substantial degree of delignification ranging from 30 to 50%. About half of the hemicellulose sugars were dissolved into the process effluent. Retention of cellulose after pretreatment varied from 85 to 100% for newspaper feedstock and from 77 to 85% for the pulp mill sludge. After treatment with aqueous ammonia alone (ARP), the digestibility of newspaper and the pulp mill sludge was improved only by 5% (from 40 to 45% for the former and from 68 to 73% for the latter), despite a substantial degree of delignification occurring after the ARP process. The lignin content thus did not correlate with the digestibility for these substrates. Simultaneous treatment with H2O2 and aqueous ammonia did not bring about any significant improvement in the digestibility over that of the ARP. A successive treatment by H2O2 and ARP showed the most promise because it improved the digestibility of the newspaper from 41 to 75%, a level comparable to that of alpha-cellulose. PMID:10849784

Kim, J S; Lee, Y Y; Park, S C

2000-01-01

340

Effect of cam wheel mill size of drying, milling and abrasion processes  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The paper describes and critically examines some existing and also recently developed mathematical models for coal drying, milling and abrasion processes in cam wheel mills. All the models are produced in a form which represents the factor of this process by the mill size. It is deduced that with unchanged cam wheel form and similar other conditions the coal throughput increases with the second power of cam wheel diameter. Likewise it is established that with layer types of mills the pulverized coal drying process improves and the life of the cam wheel is prolonged.

Gulic, M.

1983-04-01

 
 
 
 
341

Euthanasia: An Indian perspective  

Science.gov (United States)

In our society, the palliative care and quality of life issues in patients with terminal illnesses like advanced cancer and AIDS have become an important concern for clinicians. Parallel to this concern has arisen another controversial issue-euthanasia or “mercy –killing” of terminally ill patients. Proponents of physician-assisted suicide (PAS) feel that an individual's right to autonomy automatically entitles him to choose a painless death. The opponents feel that a physician's role in the death of an individual violates the central tenet of the medical profession. Moreover, undiagnosed depression and possibility of social ‘coercion’ in people asking for euthanasia put a further question mark on the ethical principles underlying such an act. These concerns have led to strict guidelines for implementing PAS. Assessment of the mental state of the person consenting to PAS becomes mandatory and here, the role of the psychiatrist becomes pivotal. Although considered illegal in our country, PAS has several advocates in the form of voluntary organizations like “death with dignity” foundation. This has got a fillip in the recent Honourable Supreme Court Judgment in the Aruna Shaunbag case. What remains to be seen is how long it takes before this sensitive issue rattles the Indian legislature.

Sinha, Vinod K.; Basu, S.; Sarkhel, S.

2012-01-01

342

Euthanasia: An Indian perspective.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

In our society, the palliative care and quality of life issues in patients with terminal illnesses like advanced cancer and AIDS have become an important concern for clinicians. Parallel to this concern has arisen another controversial issue-euthanasia or "mercy -killing" of terminally ill patients. Proponents of physician-assisted suicide (PAS) feel that an individual's right to autonomy automatically entitles him to choose a painless death. The opponents feel that a physician's role in the death of an individual violates the central tenet of the medical profession. Moreover, undiagnosed depression and possibility of social 'coercion' in people asking for euthanasia put a further question mark on the ethical principles underlying such an act. These concerns have led to strict guidelines for implementing PAS. Assessment of the mental state of the person consenting to PAS becomes mandatory and here, the role of the psychiatrist becomes pivotal. Although considered illegal in our country, PAS has several advocates in the form of voluntary organizations like "death with dignity" foundation. This has got a fillip in the recent Honourable Supreme Court Judgment in the Aruna Shaunbag case. What remains to be seen is how long it takes before this sensitive issue rattles the Indian legislature.

Sinha VK; Basu S; Sarkhel S

2012-04-01

343

Indian draught animals power  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available With the modernization of agriculture, the use of mechanical power in agriculture has increased but draught animal power (DAP) continues to be used on Indian farms due to small holdings and hill agriculture. More than 55% of the total cultivated area is still being managed by using draught animals as against about 20% by tractors. India possessed the finest breeds of draught animals. Bullocks, buffaloes and camels are the major draught animals for field operations. Horses, mules, donkeys, yak and mithun are the pack animals for transport. The quality of work from the draught animals depends upon the power developed by them. The design of traditional implements is based on long experience and these have served the purpose of the farmers. However there is plenty of scope to improve the design based on animal-machine-environment interaction so as to have more output and increased efficiency without jeopardizing animal health. [Vet World 2009; 2(10.000): 404-407

K. L. Phaniraja; H. H. Panchasara

2009-01-01

344

Calculating the grinding productivity of medium-speed roller mills  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The use of medium-speed roller mills for pulverizing coal is described. Some of the problems encountered in the operation of these mills are discussed. Formulas are proposed for determining the grinding output of these mills in actual operation and also for determining optimal and economical ventilation in order to attain such productivity. It was found that the operating period of medium-speed mills increases with size. Thus, large mills are more profitable than small ones.

Shalaev, N.B.; Shteinberg, A.M.

1982-12-01

345

Index symmetry of classical Yang Mills fields  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A method of constructing new solutions of the Yang Mills equations from the existing ones by interchanging the 3 and 4 components of the gauge potential is exhibited. In particular, time dependent solutions may be constructed from static ones

1978-01-01

346

ADVANCED FILTRATION OF PULP MILL WASTES  

Science.gov (United States)

Laboratory and pilot plants studies of reverse osmosis (hyperfiltration) and ultrafiltration of pulp mill wastes were performed by International Paper Company and Oak Ridge National Laboratory (subcontractor). Decker filtrates were treated with dynamically formed reverse osmosis ...

347

Review of Uranium Mining and Milling Industry.  

Science.gov (United States)

This report assesses the current status of the domestic mining and milling industry for the nuclear strategy study. Uranium reserves and exploration are also reviewed. Program options are discussed briefly. (ERA citation 02:006636)

J. E. Vath

1976-01-01

348

Habitat Quality and Anadromous Fish Production Potential on the Warm Springs Indian Reservation: Annual Report 1987.  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

In 1987, The Warm Springs Indian Reservation Anadromous Fish Production and Habitat Improvement Program was in the sixth year of a scheduled eleven year program. To date, 21 kilometers of reservation stream habitat have been enhanced for salmonid production benefits. Unusual climatic conditions created a severe drought throughout the Warm Springs River Basin and Shitike Creek in 1987. Temperature extremes and low annual discharges ensued throughout reservation waters. Study sites, located in the Warm Springs River Basin and Shitike Creek, continued to be monitored for physical biological parameters. Post treatment evaluation of bioengineering work in Mill Creek (Strawberry Falls Project) was conducted. Despite low discharges, physical habitat parameters were improved and notable gains were observed in both spring chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytascha) and summer steelhead trout (Salmo gairdneri) abundance and biomass at post treatment sites. Major bioengineering work was completed at the Mill Creek (Potter's Pond) Site. 19 refs., 24 figs., 16 tabs.

Heinith, Robert

1987-12-01

349

Aromatic plants as a source of important phytochemicals: Vitamins, sugars and fatty acids in Cistus ladanifer, Cupressus lusitanica and Eucalyptus gunnii leaves  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The phytochemical composition of three aromatic plants (Cistus ladanifer L., Cupressus lusitanica Mill. and Eucalyptus gunnii Hook. f) was evaluated, in order to valorize them as sources of nutraceuticals. Samples were analysed for ascorbic acid by spectrophotometric assay, tocopherols by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) coupled to a fluorescence detector, sugars by HPLC coupled to a refraction index detector (RID), and fatty acids by gas-chromatography (GC) coupled to a flame ionization detector (FID). The analysed plants contain very useful compounds such as vitamins (ascorbic acid and tocopherols), reducing sugars (glucose and fructose) and polyunsaturated fatty acids (linoleic, ?-linoleic and eicosadienoic acids). Their vitamins and sugars could be useful in diseases related to oxidative stress, in dermatological applications or in cosmetics. The polyunsaturated fatty acids, including omega-3 and omega-6 families, detected in the plants constitute another important class of phytochemicals due to their generalized beneficial health effects.

Guimarães Rafaela; Barros Lillian; Carvalho AnaMaria; Sousa MariaJoão; Morais JorgeSá; Ferreira IsabelCFR

2009-11-01

350

PROSPECTS OF SUGAR PRODUCTION AND IMPORTS: MEETING THE SUGAR DEMAND OF NIGERIA BY YEAR 2020  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The trend of sugar cane production and refined sugar imports for the period 1960-2010 were analysed and forecasted to year 2020. Results show that sugar cane output will rise to 2.8m tonnes from about 88 thousand hectares of land by year 2020. The total refined sugar that will be available from production and import is about 720 thousand tonnes but with Nigerian population growing at the rate of 2.27%, potential demand for refined sugar will rise to 1.6B tonnes by the year 2020 creating a deficit of over 1.5B tonnes. This require a drastic action which if not taken will lead to sugar crisis. Three major options are advocated in this paper i.e. hectarage expansion, massive funding of research to improve sugar cane production technology such that yield will rise to 150 tonnes per hectare and import expansion. Of the three options, only increase funding of research will encourage local technology and save Nigeria foreign exchange of more than $100B annually and will make Nigeria self-reliant in sugar production by the year 2020 and facilitate the emergence of Nigeria as a developed nation.

J.N. Nmadu; M.A. Ojo; F.D. Ibrahim

2013-01-01

351

Sugar addiction: pushing the drug-sugar analogy to the limit.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

PURPOSE OF REVIEW: To review research that tests the validity of the analogy between addictive drugs, like cocaine, and hyperpalatable foods, notably those high in added sugar (i.e., sucrose). RECENT FINDINGS: Available evidence in humans shows that sugar and sweetness can induce reward and craving that are comparable in magnitude to those induced by addictive drugs. Although this evidence is limited by the inherent difficulty of comparing different types of rewards and psychological experiences in humans, it is nevertheless supported by recent experimental research on sugar and sweet reward in laboratory rats. Overall, this research has revealed that sugar and sweet reward can not only substitute to addictive drugs, like cocaine, but can even be more rewarding and attractive. At the neurobiological level, the neural substrates of sugar and sweet reward appear to be more robust than those of cocaine (i.e., more resistant to functional failures), possibly reflecting past selective evolutionary pressures for seeking and taking foods high in sugar and calories. SUMMARY: The biological robustness in the neural substrates of sugar and sweet reward may be sufficient to explain why many people can have difficultly to control the consumption of foods high in sugar when continuously exposed to them.

Ahmed SH; Guillem K; Vandaele Y

2013-07-01

352

Relationship Between Sugar Structure and Competition for the Sugar Transport System in Bakers' Yeast  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Twenty-five sugars have been compared as inhibitors of l-sorbose or d-xylose transport by the constitutive, monosaccharide transport system in bakers' yeast. d-Glucose showed the highest activity (i.e., apparent Ki = 5 mm). Since all sugars except 2-deoxyglucose showed a decrease in activity relativ...

Cirillo, Vincent P.

353

The Competitiveness of Sugar Cane Production: A Study of Kenana Sugar Company, Sudan  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The study aimed to measure the competitiveness of sugar cane in Kenana Sugar Company as the major objective covering the seasons 2004/05, 2005/06, and 2006/07. Specific objectives are to measure the hard currency revenue gained, the quantity of local resources used to gain hard currency, efficiency of local resources used and to see whether Kenana Sugar Company is taxed or subsidized. The study depended mainly on secondary data which was collected from different sources. The data was analyzed using Policy Analysis Matrix (PAM). Also, sensitivity analysis was used. The study revealed that, sugar production appeared highly competitive in the national and international level under study period and government policies are taxing sugar cane production. The sensitivity analysis results summarized that: increasing in yield and world price result in improving sugar DRC and vice versa while increasing in exchange rate results in worsening DRC and vice versa. The study recommended that, the government should exempt sugar cane production from taxes, induce incentives to encourage sugar industry production and secure sustainable and steadiness foreign exchange.

Abda Abdalla Emam; Osman Mohamed Musa

2011-01-01

354

WIPER BLADE FOR A ROLLING MILL  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The invention relates to a wiper blade system for wiping a product from a roller in a rolling mill, particularly at the last roller in a five-roller mill, comprising a cutter bar, a cutter holder, and a wiper blade (1), which rests against the roller comprising the product to be wiped off. The cutter holder has a spring-loaded blade clamping system.

HOEHENER MANUEL

355

Hydrogen in mechanically milled amorphous boron  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

During mechanical milling under hydrogen atmosphere, hydrogen can be absorbed in amorphous boron, the amount reaching about 2.3 mass% (?BH0.25) after 80 h milling. The trapped hydrogen can be desorbed only as molecular hydrogen in a temperature range of 330-1000 K. Three types of B-H interaction, i.e. physisorbed H2, B-H terminal and B-H-B bridge bonds, were suggested to account for the desorption behaviors.

2003-02-17

356

Mills' ratio: Reciprocal concavity and functional inequalities  

CERN Document Server

This note contains suficient conditions for the probability density function of an arbitrary continuous univariate distribution such that the corresponding Mills ratio to be reciprocally convex (concave). To illustrate the applications of the main results, the Mills ratio of some common continuous univariate distributions, like gamma, log-normal and Student's t distributions, are discussed in details. The application to monopoly theory is also summarized.

Baricz, Árpád

2010-01-01

357

Bernard Yarnton Mills 1920-2011  

CERN Multimedia

Bernie Mills is remembered globally as an influential pioneer in the evolving field of radio astronomy. His contributions with the 'Mills Cross' at the CSIRO Division of Radiophysics and later at the University of Sydney's School of Physics and the development of the Molonglo Observatory Synthesis Telescope (MOST) were widely recognised as astronomy evolved in the years 1948-1985 and radio astronomy changed the viewpoint of the astronomer as a host of new objects were discovered.

Frater, R H; Wendt, H W

2013-01-01

358

Indian Academy of Sciences - Astrophysics and Astronomy  

Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

indian academy of sciences - astrophysics and astronomy structure and tectonics: the indian geomagnetic methods and lithospheric climate and global warming progressive and superposed deformations isotopic windows on earth and planetary ...

359

Indian Health Service: Find Health Care  

Science.gov (United States)

... and Human Services Indian Health Service The Federal Health Program for American Indians and Alaska Natives A ... Patients Find Health Care Share This Page: Find Health Care IMPORTANT If you are having a health ...

360

MagMill{trademark} prototype testing  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The authors report results of testing two raw coals, Lower Kittanning and Upper Freeport from north central Pennsylvania; the testing was done in a beta prototype 1 1/2 ton per hour (tph) MagMill{trademark} (patent pending) at the pilot plant facilities of Bradley Pulverizer Company in Allentown, PA. The prototype consists of a ParaMag{trademark} magnetic separator retrofitted to a 3,000 Lb/Hr Hercules air swept fing/roller pilot mill. For the runs reported here, the mill-product fineness varied between 70% and 80% finer than 200 mesh. The mill-product coal exhibited significant reductions in ash, sulfur, and LbSO{sub 2}/MBtu at Btu recoveries up to 94%. Recoveries of mercury, arsenic, and selenium for the two coals ranged from 33 to 71% of that in the feed on an equal Btu basis. The mill power draw was reduced up to 26% while the mill throughput was simultaneously increased by up to 12%.

Oder, R.R.; Brandner, E.D.; Jamison, R.E.

2000-07-01

 
 
 
 
361

High-speed milling of light metals  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Purpose: Purpose of this paper: Introduction applicability of high-speed cutting of light metals is presented inthis paper.Design/methodology/approach:HSC is the result of numerous technical advances ensuring that milling hasbecome faster than conventional milling and has gained importance as a cutting process. The advantages ofthe HSC milling are higher productivity owing to the reduction of machining times increase of the flow timeof production, reduction of the number of technological operations, increase of the surface quality and longerservice life of tools. The machining conditions for execution of the HSC (36000min-1 and feeding 20m/min)require modernly built machine tools to meet those machining conditions.Findings: Continuous development of new materials is more and more dynamical, particularly, in theautomobile, aircraft and electronic industry and in the manufacture of various mechanical parts. Also theachievements in the area of building of machines and tools, ensuring high cutting speeds (highly efficientmachining) have contributed to development of the process.Research limitations/implications: High quality of the surfaces, the quality of this so-called HSC milling canbe compared to grinding.Practical implications: High-speed milling of light metals from aluminium and magnesium is more and morefrequently used in practice. This result is high quality of the surface and shorter machining times. In some caseswhen machining by grinding is specified, the latter is omitted.Originality/value: The applicability of high-speed milling has proved to be successful, when aluminum andmagnesium alloying materials are machined.

F. Cus; U. Zuperl; V. Gecevska

2007-01-01

362

THE EFFECT OF NITROGEN INPUT ON POLARISED SUGAR PRODUCTION AND QUALITATIVE PARAMETERS OF SUGAR BEET  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available During 1998-2002, the application of different forms and doses of nitrogen on quantitative (polarised sugar production)and qualitative parameters (digestion, molasses forming components - potassium, sodium and ?-amino nitrogen content) of sugar beet in vulnerable zones (Nitrate directive) was studied. Calculated input of nitrogen ranged from 12 kg up to 240 kg N.ha-1. By increasing input of N from FYM application into the soil causes an increases of ?- amino nitrogen content in root, which in consequence causes a decreases the sugar content (negative correlation r= -0.8659+). The application of straw instead FYM of analogues treatments caused significant decrease (straw versus FYM) and highly significant decrease (straw plus N fertilizers versus FYM plus N fertilizers) of ?-amino nitrogen content in sugar beet root living the productive parameters unchanged. The content of ?-amino nitrogen in root of sugar beet indicate an environmentally friendly management practices with causal relation to water protection from nitrate.

MILAN MACÁK; KOVÁ? KAROL; ŽÁK ŠTEFAN

2007-01-01

363

Impact of an acid fungal protease in high gravity fermentation for ethanol production using Indian sorghum as a feedstock.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

This study evaluated the conventional jet cooking liquefaction process followed by simultaneous saccharification and fermentation (SSF) at 30% and 35% dry solids (DS) concentration of Indian sorghum feedstock for ethanol production, with addition of acid fungal protease or urea. To evaluate the efficacy of thermostable ?-amylase in liquefaction at 30% and 35% DS concentration of Indian sorghum, liquefact solubility, higher dextrins, and fermentable sugars were analyzed at the end of the process. The liquefact was further subjected to SSF using yeast. In comparison with urea, addition of an acid fungal protease during SSF process was observed to accelerate yeast growth (?), substrate consumption (Q(s)), ultimately ethanol yield based on substrate (Y(p/s)) and ethanol productivity based on fermentation time (Q(p)). The fermentation efficiency and ethanol recovery were determined for both concentrations of Indian sorghum and found to be increased with use of acid fungal protease in SSF process.

Gohel V; Duan G; Maisuria VB

2013-03-01

364

Indian Ocean News”: Indian Challenges To Australian Racialised Media  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Two events involving Indians in Australia have grabbed news headlines at different times. One was the 1945 campaign supporting Indonesian Independence in which Indian seamen – known then in Australia as “lascars” – played a high profile role for which they have seldom been acknowledged. The more recent has been the 2009 series of violent attacks on Indian students in Australia, which have aroused major news coverage and public debate in Australia and India. How might “news” media reflect better the potential of both these stories to tell transnational “Indian Ocean news” in which more than one narrative is heard? How, in fact, might they reflect the qualities of the Indian Ocean itself in fostering circulation and dialogue? To contribute to this wider question, this article explores two issues. Firstly, do cultural stereotypes persist over time and, if so, is it because news media re-create and re-circulate them in changing circumstances? Secondly, how does “access” to “making news” come about: whose voices are heard and how are “news” stories identified and told? In the light of what appears to be the simple perpetuation of old stereotypes into the 2009 stories, this paper examines both newspaper and documentary filmic representations of the 1945 campaign. It argues that the outcomes in each case involved selective, rather than wholesale, use of stereotypes. Moreover, each was the result of interaction and often contestation between the participants and the recorders of news – the “sources” and the “producers” – rather than complete dominance by Australian reporters or Western filmmakers over how the stories were told. The paper identifies the more effective of the 1945 strategies used by Indian actors and points to the ways such stories might be read as “Indian Ocean news” which makes visible not only each side of the story but the interactions themselves. This is no longer just a possible future scenario – digital media and internet communication mean that today’s stories are being read and watched almost simultaneously around the world by very different audiences. So working out what “Indian Ocean news” might be is now a matter of urgency.

Heather Goodall

2009-01-01

365

PRODUCTION VALUES OF INVESTIGATED SUGAR BEET HYBRIDS  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Production values of 43 experimental and recognized sugar beet hybrids were conducted on the Zagreb location in the period 2003-2005. The trials included hybrids from six breeding institutions that sell sugar beet seed in the Republic of Croatia. Research results have revealed significant differences in yields and root quality among investigated sugar beet hybrids. However, the results of a large number of hybrids were equal in value; namely, the difference between them was within the statistically allowable deviation. The hybrids KW 0148 HR and Buda in 2003, Sofarizo and Takt were distinguished by high sugar yields in 2004, whereasMerak, Impact and Europa in 2005. The highest root yields were recorded for hybrids Dioneta, Buda and KW 0148 HR in 2003, Sofarizo, Takt, HI 0191 and Dorotea in 2004, Impact and SES 2371 in 2005. The highest root sugar contents were determined in hybrids Zita and Evelina in 2003, Cyntia, Diamant and Belinda in2004, and Merak, Belinda and Cyntia in 2005.

Milan Pospišil; Ana Pospišil; Zvonko Mustapi?; Jasminka Butorac; Ivan Tot; Andreja Žeravica

2006-01-01

366

Decontamination of sugar syrup by pulsed light.  

Science.gov (United States)

The pulsed light produced by xenon flash lamps was applied to 65 to 67 °Brix sugar syrups artificially contaminated with suspensions of Saccharomyces cerevisiae and with spores of Bacillus subtilis, Geobacillus stearothermophilus, Alicyclobacillus acidoterrestris, and Aspergillus niger. The emitted pulsed light contained 18.5 % UV radiation. At least 3-log reductions of S. cerevisiae, B. subtilis, G. stearothermophilus, and A. acidoterrestris suspended in 3-mm-deep volumes of sugar syrup were obtained with a fluence of the incident pulsed light equal to or less than 1.8 J/cm(2), and the same results were obtained for B. subtilis and A. acidoterrestris suspended in 10-mm-deep volumes of sugar syrup. A. niger spores would require a more intense treatment; for instance, the maximal log reduction was close to 1 with a fluence of the incident pulsed light of 1.2 J/cm(2). A flowthrough reactor with a flow rate of 320 ml/min and a flow gap of 2.15 mm was designed for pulsed light treatment of sugar syrup. Using this device, a 3-log reduction of A. acidoterrestris spores was obtained with 3 to 4 pulses of incident pulsed light at 0.91 J/cm(2) per sugar syrup volume. PMID:22564941

Chaine, Aline; Levy, Caroline; Lacour, Bernard; Riedel, Christophe; Carlin, Frédéric

2012-05-01

367

Decontamination of sugar syrup by pulsed light.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The pulsed light produced by xenon flash lamps was applied to 65 to 67 °Brix sugar syrups artificially contaminated with suspensions of Saccharomyces cerevisiae and with spores of Bacillus subtilis, Geobacillus stearothermophilus, Alicyclobacillus acidoterrestris, and Aspergillus niger. The emitted pulsed light contained 18.5 % UV radiation. At least 3-log reductions of S. cerevisiae, B. subtilis, G. stearothermophilus, and A. acidoterrestris suspended in 3-mm-deep volumes of sugar syrup were obtained with a fluence of the incident pulsed light equal to or less than 1.8 J/cm(2), and the same results were obtained for B. subtilis and A. acidoterrestris suspended in 10-mm-deep volumes of sugar syrup. A. niger spores would require a more intense treatment; for instance, the maximal log reduction was close to 1 with a fluence of the incident pulsed light of 1.2 J/cm(2). A flowthrough reactor with a flow rate of 320 ml/min and a flow gap of 2.15 mm was designed for pulsed light treatment of sugar syrup. Using this device, a 3-log reduction of A. acidoterrestris spores was obtained with 3 to 4 pulses of incident pulsed light at 0.91 J/cm(2) per sugar syrup volume.

Chaine A; Levy C; Lacour B; Riedel C; Carlin F

2012-05-01

368

Indian Academy of Sciences - New associates, 2007  

Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

department of physics,indian institute of science,bangaloredepartment of theoretical physics,tata institute of fundamental research,mumbaicomputer science and automation department,indian institute of science,bangaloredepartment of inorganic and physical chemistry,indian institute of science,bangaloreengineering mechanics unit,jawaharlal nehru centre for advanced scientific research,bangaloredepartment of mathematics,indian institute of technology, bombay,mumbaidepartment of mathematics and stat ...

369

Prospects of sugarcane milling waste utilization for hydrogen production in India  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Cane-sugar producing countries also generate sufficient waste (bagasse) that is mostly utilized ''on-site'' as a replacement to coal in specialized boilers. In addition to sugar and molasses, about 25% by-product of the cane milling is bagasse that still retains 2.5% sugar on dry wt. basis.This paper deals with the prospects of bagasse fermentation for hydrogen production. It seems relevant, as India and Brazil are the major sugarcane producers in the world. The results obtained confirm bagasse, annually generated to a tune of 40 Mt (million tons) in India, can be diverted from the conventional burning or composting to fermentative hydrogen production in a cost-effective way. The processing cost of bagasse for hydrogen production (3Nm3) equivalent to 1L petrol is about half. The system optimization for accessibility of polysaccharides in bagasse and the use of genetically efficient bacterial strains for agrowaste-based hydrogen production seems the ideal option for clean energy generation.

2007-01-01

370

Post-oral appetite stimulation by sugars and nonmetabolizable sugar analogs.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Post-oral sugar actions enhance the intake of and preference for sugar-rich foods, a process referred to as appetition. Here, we investigated the role of intestinal sodium glucose cotransporters (SGLTs) in sugar appetition in C57BL/6J mice using sugars and nonmetabolizable sugar analogs that differ in their affinity for SGLT1 and SGLT3. In experiments 1 and 2, food-restricted mice were trained (1 h/day) to consume a flavored saccharin solution [conditioned stimulus (CS-)] paired with intragastric (IG) self-infusions of water and a different flavored solution (CS+) paired with infusions of 8 or 12% sugars (glucose, fructose, and galactose) or sugar analogs (?-methyl-d-glucopyranoside, MDG; 3-O-methyl-d-glucopyranoside, OMG). Subsequent two-bottle CS+ vs. CS- choice tests were conducted without coinfusions. Infusions of the SGLT1 ligands glucose, galactose, MDG, and OMG stimulated CS+ licking above CS- levels. However, only glucose, MDG, and galactose conditioned significant CS+ preferences, with the SGLT3 ligands (glucose, MDG) producing the strongest preferences. Fructose, which is not a ligand for SGLTs, failed to stimulate CS+ intake or preference. Experiment 3 revealed that IG infusion of MDG+phloridzin (an SGLT1/3 antagonist) blocked MDG appetition, whereas phloridzin had minimal effects on glucose-induced appetition. However, adding phloretin (a GLUT2 antagonist) to the glucose+phloridzin infusion blocked glucose appetition. Taken together, these findings suggest that humoral signals generated by intestinal SGLT1 and SGLT3, and to a lesser degree, GLUT2, mediate post-oral sugar appetition in mice. The MDG results indicate that sugar metabolism is not essential for the post-oral intake-stimulating and preference-conditioning actions of sugars in mice.

Zukerman S; Ackroff K; Sclafani A

2013-10-01

371

Continuous bio-catalytic conversion of sugar mixture to acetone-butanol-ethanol by immobilized Clostridium acetobutylicum DSM 792.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Continuous production of acetone, n-butanol, and ethanol (ABE) was carried out using immobilized cells of Clostridium acetobutylicum DSM 792 using glucose and sugar mixture as a substrate. Among various lignocellulosic materials screened as a support matrix, coconut fibers and wood pulp fibers were found to be promising in batch experiments. With a motive of promoting wood-based bio-refinery concept, wood pulp was used as a cell holding material. Glucose and sugar mixture (glucose, mannose, galactose, arabinose, and xylose) comparable to lignocellulose hydrolysate was used as a substrate for continuous production of ABE. We report the best solvent productivity among wild-type strains using column reactor. The maximum total solvent concentration of 14.32 g L(-1) was obtained at a dilution rate of 0.22 h(-1) with glucose as a substrate compared to 12.64 g L(-1) at 0.5 h(-1) dilution rate with sugar mixture. The maximum solvent productivity (13.66 g L(-1) h(-1)) was obtained at a dilution rate of 1.9 h(-1) with glucose as a substrate whereas solvent productivity (12.14 g L(-1) h(-1)) was obtained at a dilution rate of 1.5 h(-1) with sugar mixture. The immobilized column reactor with wood pulp can become an efficient technology to be integrated with existing pulp mills to convert them into wood-based bio-refineries.

Survase SA; van Heiningen A; Granström T

2012-03-01

372

Semen cryopreservation in the Indian rhinoceros (Rhinoceros unicornis).  

Science.gov (United States)

The objective was to identify an extender and cryoprotectant combination for Indian rhinoceros (Rhinoceros unicornis) sperm that yielded high post-thaw sperm quality. Male Indian rhinoceroses (n=6; 7.5-34 yr old) were anesthetized and subjected to a regimented electroejaculation procedure (75-100 mAmps; 4-10 volts; 7-150 stimuli; total of 10 electroejaculation procedures). High quality semen fractions from each ejaculate were divided into four aliquots and a 2 x 2 factorial design used to compare the effect of two sperm extenders (standard equine [EQ] and skim milk-egg-yolk-sugar [SMEY]), and two cryoprotectants (glycerol and dimethylsulfoxide [DMSO]). Cyropreserved samples were thawed and assessed for motility, viability and acrosome integrity over time. Electroejaculate fractions processed for cryopreservation had high sperm concentration (516 x 10(6)/mL) and motility (79%). Post-thaw sperm characteristics were higher (Pelectroejaculation were cryopreserved using EQ extender with either glycerol or DMSO; post-thaw quality was adequate for use in assisted reproductive procedures. PMID:20172598

Stoops, M A; Atkinson, M W; Blumer, E S; Campbell, M K; Roth, T L

2010-02-21

373

Indian Academy of Sciences - New associates, 2011  

Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

  3. subi j. george, jawaharlal nehru centre for advanced scientific research, bangalore  5. t. govindaraju, jawaharlal nehru centre for advanced scientific research, bangalore  6. thirupathi gudi, indian institute of science, bangalore  7. prahladh harsha, tata institute of fundamental research, mumbai  9. supriyo mitra, indian institute of science education and research, nadia11. g. v. pavan kumar, indian institute of science education and rese ...

374

Circumstance Adverbials in Registers of Indian English  

Science.gov (United States)

|This is a corpus-based investigation of "also" and "too" in 11 registers of Indian English. The corpus used for this study is a combination of a Corpus of Contemporary Indian English (CCIE), and certain sections of ICE-India. The study: (1) determines the proportions of "also" and "too" with respect to each other in the Indian corpus; (2)…

Balasubramanian, Chandrika

2009-01-01

375

Circumstance Adverbials in Registers of Indian English  

Science.gov (United States)

This is a corpus-based investigation of "also" and "too" in 11 registers of Indian English. The corpus used for this study is a combination of a Corpus of Contemporary Indian English (CCIE), and certain sections of ICE-India. The study: (1) determines the proportions of "also" and "too" with respect to each other in the Indian corpus; (2) compares…

Balasubramanian, Chandrika

2009-01-01

376

Indian Academy of Sciences - New associates, 2012  

Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

  5. rajan jha, indian institute of technology, bhubaneswar   6. u. mabalirajan, institute of genomics and integrative biology, delhi   7. debabrata maiti, indian institute of technology, mumbai   9. g. rajaraman, indian institute of technology, mumbai 10. a.s. seshasayee, national centre for biological sciences, bangalore ...

377

A Contemporary Approach to American Indian Education.  

Science.gov (United States)

The exigencies of contemporary native American education require a thorough review. Issues considered in establishing a viable conceptual framework are Indian control of education, role of the Bureau of Indian Affairs and Office of Indian Education, application of federal programs and appropriations, characteristics of the new generation of…

Benham, William J.

378

Reconciliation of opposing views on membrane-sugar interactions  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

It is well established that small sugars exert different types of stabilization of biomembranes both in vivo and in vitro. However, the essential question of whether sugars are bound to or expelled from membrane surfaces, i.e., the sign and size of the free energy of the interaction, remains unresolved, and this prevents a molecular understanding of the stabilizing mechanism. We have used small-angle neutron scattering and thermodynamic measurements to show that sugars may be either bound or expelled depending on the concentration of sugar. At low concentration, small sugars bind quite strongly to a lipid bilayer, and the accumulation of sugar at the interface makes the membrane thinner and laterally expanded. Above ?0.2 M the sugars gradually become expelled from the membrane surface, and this repulsive mode of interaction counteracts membrane thinning. The dual nature of sugar–membrane interactions offers a reconciliation of conflicting views in earlier reports on sugar-induced modulations of membrane properties.

Delcomyn Andersen, Heidi; Wang, Chunhua

2011-01-01

379

Sugar Transport and Metabolism in Thermotoga  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The work conducted under this grant demonstrated that the hyperthermophilic bacterium Thermotoga neapolitana carries out glucose and lactose transport in a sodium-dependent manner and that energization of anaerobic cells is required to observe transport. We also demonstrated that Thermotoga maritima carries out maltose and glucose transport using periplasmic sugar binding proteins. We began defining patterns of expression of genes encoding sugar transport and catabolic functions in both T. maritima and T. neapolitana. We began a collaborative effort to identify all the genes regulated at the transcriptional level in response to sugars substrates. These funds also allowed us to begin an examination of the functions of several periplasmic substrate binding proteins encoded in the genome of T. maritima.

Noll, Kenneth M.; Romano, Antonio H.

2003-02-11

380

[Prophylaxis of dental caries using sugar substitutes].  

Science.gov (United States)

Among the three measures, which are capable of producing a preventive effect against caries only when applied combined, i.e. adequate fluoride supply, proper mouth hygiene and healthy nutrition, the latter is dealt with in greater detail. The use of sugar substitutes is discussed under the aspects of caries prevention, substitute composition and production technology as well as from a medical point of view. Among the presently available sugar substitutes with nutritive value are mentioned Xylite, Lycasine, Mannite, Sorbite, Palatinite, the non-calorific substitutes such as the natural Aspartame as well as the synthetic sweetening agents Saccharine and Cyclamate. The possibilities and limitations of using these sugar substitutes in the prevention of caries in adults and children are presented. PMID:6532015

Eberle, G

1984-12-01

 
 
 
 
381

[Prophylaxis of dental caries using sugar substitutes  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Among the three measures, which are capable of producing a preventive effect against caries only when applied combined, i.e. adequate fluoride supply, proper mouth hygiene and healthy nutrition, the latter is dealt with in greater detail. The use of sugar substitutes is discussed under the aspects of caries prevention, substitute composition and production technology as well as from a medical point of view. Among the presently available sugar substitutes with nutritive value are mentioned Xylite, Lycasine, Mannite, Sorbite, Palatinite, the non-calorific substitutes such as the natural Aspartame as well as the synthetic sweetening agents Saccharine and Cyclamate. The possibilities and limitations of using these sugar substitutes in the prevention of caries in adults and children are presented.

Eberle G

1984-12-01

382

Primary rhinoplasty: An Indian perspective  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The spectrum of indications for rhinoplasty in Indian patients is very wide. An ill-defined nose with lack of projection and broad osteocartilagenous framework is the commonest problem. A large number of patients require narrowing of the framework by osteotomies, alar wedge resection,and augmentation by a suitable fill, preferably a cartilage graft. The technique of rhinoplasty in Indian patients with special emphasis on cartilage grafting has been discussed here. Cartilage grafts, when used as a fill, produce soft, natural results.

Bhat Uday; Patel Bharat

2008-01-01

383

Traditional And Medicinal Uses Of Indian Black Berry  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Jamun or Indian Black berry is considered as a traditional medicine that helps in controlling diabetes. Specifically, jamun has an action on the pancreas, the main organ responsible for causing diabetes. The fruit, the seeds and even the juice of the jamun all play an important role in the treatment of diabetes. The jamun seeds contain a type of glucose called Jamboline, which checks the conversion of starch into sugar in cases of increased production of glucose, the main reason behind your high sugar levels.It has anti cancer and anti viral properties. Jamun juice has carminative and mild astringent properties. The extracts of the bark, seeds and leaves are used for the treatment of diabetes. The leaves have antibacterial properties and used for strenghthening teeths and gums.Oral administration of dried alcohalic extracts of the seeds to diabetic patients was found to reduce the level of blood sugar and glycosuria in trials conducted at CDRI, Lucknow.The bark of black berry tree is astringent, digestive, diuretic, anthelmintic and is considered useful for throat problems.A decoction of the bark and powdered seeds is believed to be very useful in the treatment of diarrhea, dysentery and dyspepsia.The antibiotic activity of black berry extract has been widely studied and found useful against a number of microbial agents. The fruit is also considered to be stomachic, carminative, antiscorbutic and diuretic.Vinegar made from black berry fruit is administered in cases of enlargement of spleen, chronic diarrhoea and urine retention for ringworm treatment, water diluted juice is used as lotion.

Debjit Bhowmik; Durai vel; Harish Gopinath; B. Pragati Kumar; Aravind. G; K.P.Sampath Kumar

2013-01-01

384

Tower fermentation of sugar cane juice  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Sugar cane juice, of feed fermentables concentration of 100-180 g/L, was simply and rapidly fermented to ethanol in a tower fermentor, using a naturally flocculant yeast. Stable cell densities of 65-80 g dry weight/L were obtained. Conversion cell ethanol productivity data are given as a function of throughput and initial feed concentration. The limitation to fermentor performance with this yeast was imposed by carryover of nonfermented sugars, principally fructose, rather than washout of the yeast flocs under high hydraulic loadings (residence times of less than 1.5 hours). Further improvement of the fermentor preformance may be achieved by strain selection.

Prince, I.G.; Barford, J.P.

1982-01-01

385

Principle of the bicyclophosphorylation of mutarotating sugars  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

On the basis of the /sup 13/C NMR spectra it was shown that for reducing sugars equilibrium between ..cap alpha..- and ..beta..-pyranose forms is established in dioxane solution in the course of 0.5-1 h. The principle of the bicyclophosphorylation of mutarotating sugars, which takes into account the interconversions of the tautomeric forms of carbohydrates, is formulated. The /sup 31/P NMR spectra were determined in dioxane on a Varian CFT-80 spectrometer, external standard 85% H/sub 3/PO/sub 4/; /sup 13/C NMR spectra were determined on a Bruker 250 spectrometer, external standard TMS.

Nifant' ev, E.E.; Koroteev, M.P.; Zharkov, A.A.; Lutsenko, A.I.

1987-12-10

386

Traditional Plains Indian Art and the Contemporary Indian Student.  

Science.gov (United States)

Examines underlying concepts in traditional Plains Indian arts and encourages incorporation of traditional concepts into contemporary art education. Discusses spiritual foundations, holism, art for art's sake, portability, body art, conservation, tribal identity, aesthetic features, age/sex differentiation in art production, white society's…

Pakes, Fraser

1987-01-01

387

Mechanized control system for milled peat production  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Harvesting periods and evaporability vary during the production season. Efforts are made to reduce the dependency of the yield on weather conditions by making maximum use of them. In order to achieve these goals the Soviet peat production institute VNIITP is researching control methods for the milled production process. The necessary data is obtained from a meteorological station in the production area which possesses the following equipment: a remote-controlled evaporatior (DIP 200), a rain gauge, an anemometer, a psychrometer, sensors indicating the state of the peat stratum (drying) and similar equipment. The evaporation occurring between operations is calculated on the basis of readings from the various equipment and the average moisture of the peat stratum. Evaporation is forecast, but the predictions do not always prove accurate in practice. In a similar fashion an instruction is passed over the radio to perform the necessary technological operation. The calcutlated milling depth is set, which is at present done manually. For the maintenance of the mechanized control system the production plant possesses a mechanized monitoring system for the amount of peat obtained during the milling cycle and its quality, which registers the quantity of peat harvested during each operating phase of the miller. The milling depth for the next milling cycle can be set on the basis of the results obtained. When the weather conditions are stable the milling depth does not have to be altered often during the production season, but if the weather is unstable the milling depth has to be changed 2-3 times, particularly when using the pneumatic harvesting method.

Milto, N.

1985-01-01

388

Software Development Of Sugar Cane Plantation And Harvesting Management  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This software is a management system based on database-driven computer software application. It is intended to improve the quality of sugar cane through increased efficiency in managing, harvesting and transporting of sugar cane, as part of a sugar factory operation. The software was developed using the Borland Delphi development platform, with database manipulation using Microsoft Access. The software is intended for Personal Computer with Windows 95 (or later) installed. The application has been tested with acceptable result and can be used in Sragi Sugar Factory's related activities; namely sugar cane plantation management, harvesting and transporting of sugar cane, payment process and other related administrative processes

2001-01-01

389

Reduced protein adsorption at solid interfaces by sugar excipients.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Sugar excipients are shown to reduce the adsorption of ribonuclease A, bovine serum albumin, and hen egg white lysozyme at the liquid-solid interface. The amount of protein adsorbed decreased as the concentration of the sugar increased. At the same sugar concentration, the ability of sugars to reduce protein adsorption followed the trend: trisaccharides > disaccharides > 6-carbon polyols > monosaccharides. This trend in adsorbed protein amounts among sugars was explained by stabilization of the protein native state in solution by the sugar excipients. The heat of solution of the amorphous saccharide was found to correlate with the amount of protein adsorbed.

Wendorf JR; Radke CJ; Blanch HW

2004-09-01

390

Metal ions in sugar binding, sugar specificity and structural stability of Spatholobus parviflorus seed lectin.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Spatholobus parviflorus seed lectin (SPL) is a heterotetrameric lectin, with two ? and two ? monomers. In the crystal structure of SPL ? monomer, two residues at positions 240 and 241 are missing. This region was modeled based on the positional and sequence similarities. The role of metal ions in SPL structure was analyzed by 10 ns molecular dynamics simulation. MD simulations were performed in the presence and absence of metal ions to explain the loss of haemagglutinating property of the lectin due to demetallization. Demetallized structure was found to deviate drastically at the metal binding loop region. Affinity of different sugars like N-acetyl galactosamine (GalNAc), D-galactose and lactose towards the native and demetallized protein was calculated by molecular docking studies. It was found that the sugar binding site got severely distorted in demetallized lectin. Consequently, sugar binding ability of lectin might be decreasing in the demetallized condition. Isothermal titration calorimetric (ITC) analysis of the sugars in the presence of native and demetallized protein confirmed the in silico results. It was observed after molecular dynamics simulations, that significant structural deviations were not caused in the quaternary structure of demetallized lectin. It was confirmed that the structural changes modified the sugar binding ability, as well as sugar specificity of the present lectin. The role of metal ions in sugar binding is described based on the in silico studies and ITC analysis. A comprehensive analysis of the ITC data suggests that the sugar specificity of the metal bound lectin and the loss of sugar specificity due to metal chelation are not linear.

Abhilash J; Dileep KV; Palanimuthu M; Geethanandan K; Sadasivan C; Haridas M

2013-08-01

391

A preliminary characterization of some pectins from quince fruit (Cydonia oblonga Mill.) and prickly pear (Opuntia ficus indica) peel.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The preliminary characterization of a hot acid extracted pectin from quince (Cydonia oblonga Mill.) and from prickly pear (Opuntia ficus indica) peel was carried out. The yield of the extraction, the galacturonic acid content and the neutral sugar composition were determined and compared with published data on apple and lemon pectins. The pectin yield from quince was on average 0.53% on fresh weight, which is of a similar order to apple. The quince pectin had a high galacturonic content (about 78%), and a degree of methoxylation of about 59% corresponding to a medium-high methoxyl pectin. The prickly pear pectin yield was 012% on fresh weight. This pectin had a galacturonic acid content of 64%, a low degree of methoxylation (10%), a high acetyl (10%) and neutral sugar content (51% galacturonic). It might be related to similar polygalacturonides present in the mucilages of other Cactaceae.

Forni E; Penci M; Polesello A

1994-01-01

392

The postharvest of mill olives  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The greatest deterioration of olive oil is due to poor handling of the olives during the time between harvesting and processing. Storage of olive fruits is carried out by simple heaping in fruit piles, waiting their processing. These fruits develop all kinds of degenerative processes in a short period of time. Oils obtained from them show characteristics hydrolytic and oxidative deteriorations confirmed by their high acidity values, peroxide value or ultraviolet absorbance at 232 and 270 nm. To avoid this situation, the industry is currently reducing the interval between harvesting and processing, through an increase in milling capacity. However, the equipment necessary for preventing the accumulation of fruit in January would be unnecessary for the rest of the season. In this chapter, refrigeration of the olive fruits, or the use of physical treatments, to allow the processing of unripe fruits, are analysed as possible alternatives.El mayor deterioro del aceite de oliva es debido a la inadecuada manipulación de las aceitunas durante el tiempo que media entre su cosecha y su procesado. El almacenamiento de las aceitunas se lleva acabo mediante el simple amontonamiento del fruto, esperando su procesamiento. Estos frutos desarrollan toda clase de procesos degenerativos en un corto periodo de tiempo. Los aceites obtenidos a partir de estos frutos exhiben deterioros hidrolíticos y oxidativos característicos, confirmados por sus valores altos de acidez, de índice de peróxidos o de absorbancia en la región ultravioleta a 232 y 270 nm. Para evitar esta situación, la industria intenta reducir al máximo el intervalo entre la cosecha y el procesado del fruto, mediante un aumento de la capacidad de molturación. Sin embargo, el equipo necesario para prevenir la acumulación de fruto en Enero no se precisa para el resto de la campaña. En este capítulo, la refrigeración de las aceitunas o el uso de tratamientos físicos, que permiten el procesado de frutos poco maduros, son analizados como alternativas posibles.

García, José M.; Yousfi, Khaled

2006-01-01

393

GOOD GOVERNANCE: INDIAN CONTEXT  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Good governance is an indeterminate term used in international development literature to describe how public institutions conduct public affairs and manage public resources. Governances "the process of decision-making and the process by which decisions are implemented or not implemented. The concept of "good governance centers around the responsibility of governments and governing bodies to meet the needs of the masses as opposed to select groups in society. As per the United Nation's Commission on Human Rights, the key attributes of good governance include transparency, responsibility, accountability, participation and responsiveness to the needs of the people. Good governance is thus linked to an enabling environment conducive to the enjoyment of Human Rights and promoting growth and sustainable human development. The expectation of every civil society by its Government is that it would fulfill its commitments and provide an equitable atmosphere contributing to individual's growth. Good governance is epitomized by predictable, open and enlightened policy-making, a bureaucracy imbued with professional culture acting in furtherance of the public good, the rule of law, transparent processes, and a strong civil society participating in public affairs. In Indian constitutional system, every person is entitled to equality before law and equal protection under the law. No person can be deprived of his life or personal liberty except according to the procedure established by law. At present our administration is not like this. In order to have proper administration the lack of confidence has to be removed by building up an image of helpful responsive administration. The bureaucracy has to be reoriented. There are many challenges to Good governance in India but criminalization of Politics and corruption as major challenges to good governance. The media can play the important role in Promoting Good Governance. First of all, the media must be independent and pluralistic. It is time we concentrated on the solutions, rather than identifying faults. Good governance is an ideal which is difficult to achieve in its totality. Very few countries and societies have come close to achieving good governance in its totality. However, to ensure sustainable human development, actions must be taken to work towards this ideal with the aim of making it a reality

S.P.CHAVAN

2013-01-01

394

Ambient aerosol concentrations of sugars and sugar-alcohols at four different sites in Norway  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Sugars and sugar-alcohols are demonstrated to be important constituents of the ambient aerosol water-soluble organic carbon fraction, and to be tracers for primary biological aerosol particles (PBAP). In the present study, levels of four sugars (fructose, glucose, sucrose, trehalose) and three sugar-alcohols (arabitol, inositol, mannitol) in ambient aerosols have been quantified using a novel HPLC/HRMS-TOF (High Performance Liquid Chromatography in combination with High Resolution Mass Spectrometry – Time of Flight) method to assess the contribution of PBAP to PM>sub>10 and PM2.5. Samples were collected at four sites in Norway at different times of the year in order to reflect the various contributing sources and the spatial and seasonal variation of the selected compounds. Sugars and sugar-alcohols were present at all sites investigated, underlining the ubiquity of these highly polar organic compounds. The highest concentrations were reported for sucrose, reaching a maximum concentration of 320 ng m?3 in PM10 and 55 ng m?3 in PM2.5. The mean concentration of sucrose was up to 10 times higher than fructose, glucose and the dimeric sugar trehalose. The mean concentrations of the sugar-alcohols were typically lower, or equal, to that of the monomeric sugars and trehalose. Peak concentrations of arabitol and mannitol did not exceed 30 ng m?3 in PM10, and for PM2.5 all concentrations were below 6 ng m?3. Sugars and sugar-alcohols were associated primarily with coarse aerosols except during wintertime at the suburban site in Elverum, where a shift towards sub micron aerosols was observed. It is proposed that this shift was due to the intensive use of wood burning for residential heating at this site during winter, confirmed by high concurrent concentrations of levoglucosan. Elevated concentrations of sugars in PM2.5 were observed during spring and early summer at the rural background site Birkenes. It is hypothesized that this was due to ruptured pollen.

K. E. Yttri; C. Dye; G. Kiss

2007-01-01

395

Kakira Sugar Works (1985) Limited, Kakira biomass cogeneration: Volume 2 -- Final report, attachments. Export trade information  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This report, conducted by John H. Payne, Inc., was funded by the US Trade and Development Agency. The study concerns the technical and financial feasibility of the Kakira Sugar Works Limited to increase its capacity to 5,000 TCD and to sell its surplus power to the Uganda Electricity Board. This is Volume 2, the Attachments, and it includes the following: (1) Layout Drawings; (2) Factory Steam Balance; (3) Evaporator and Juice Heater Arrangements; (4) Historical Production Data and Assumptions for Study; (5) Model Production Schedule; (6) Weather Data; (7) Solids Balance and Steam/Vapor Requirements for Pan Floor Boiling; (8) Boiler Efficiency and Steam Production; (9) Turbo Machinery Water Rate Calculations; (10) List of US Equipment Suppliers; (11) Capital Cost Estimate-Cogeneration; and (12) Capital Cost Estimate -- Mill Expansion.

NONE

1998-06-01

396

Process of calibrating a blood sugar analyzing apparatus  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

A process of calibrating a blood sugar analyzing apparatus, in which the blood sugar concentration in a blood specimen is measured with a fixed enzyme membrane sensor and corrected by calibration means, said blood sugar analyzing apparatus providing a linear relationship between measured and actual blood sugar concentrations in a range of blood sugar concentrations which are lower than a predetermined blood sugar concentration, and producing a deviation from said linear relationship in a range of blood sugar concentrations higher than said predetermined blood sugar concentration, in that said process comprises the steps of effecting a plurality of measurements of standard solutions having known low blood sugar concentrations in said blood sugar analyzing apparatus, obtaining an average value of the results of the measurements with said calibration means, determining a first correction coefficient (k1) to correct a deviation of said average value from the reference blood sugar concentration, thereafter measuring a blood specimen, and multiplying the result of the measurement by said correction coefficient with said calibration means when said result of the measurement is less than said predetermined blood sugar concentration and by a second calibration coefficient (K2) when the result of the measurement exceeds said predetermined blood sugar concentration.

ENDOH KOICHI; TSUJI NOBUHIKO; NAKAMURA KEIJIROH; HAMADA TOSHIYOSHI; ISHIDA KEIICHI

397

On changing Indian eligibility for health care.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

We analyzed the ramifications and potential effects of a pending regulation that restricts Indian eligibility for health care. The most serious implication is a dwindling of support for Indian health care while the health of Indians continues to lag behind that of all other groups in the United States. Empirical analysis in one service area of the Indian Health Service (IHS) in Oklahoma reveals Indians of lower blood quantum to be younger, lower utilizers of expensive medical services, especially hospitals. The sudden loss of health care benefits from IHS will be detrimental not only to this population and to an ever increasing number of Indians in the future but also to the local service units in the Indian Health Service.

Bashshur R; Steeler W; Murphy T

1987-06-01

398

Supersymmetric Proca-Yang-Mills System  

CERN Multimedia

We determine the off-shell N=1 supersymmetry transformation rules for a tensor-Yang-Mills system in which the tensor field transforms in a nontrivial representation of the Yang-Mills group, and there is an additional vector multiplet in the same representation. We then show that this system describes a massive tensor multiplet coupled to Yang-Mills in which the additional vector multiplet is eaten by the tensor field. Next, we construct an action which consists of four separately off-shell supersymmetric pieces and find that integrating out the auxiliary fields gives rise to an infinite number of higher order couplings of the scalar field belonging to the tensor multiplet. We describe the dualization of the massive tensor to a massive vector, thereby ending up with an on-shell supersymmetric nonabelian massive vector multiplet coupled to an off-shell Yang-Mills multiplet which we refer to as the supersymmetric Proca-Yang-Mills system. This description of massive vectors is contrasted with the standard one obt...

Sezgin, Ergin

2012-01-01

399

Representations of Super Yang-Mills Algebras  

Science.gov (United States)

We study in this article the representation theory of a family of super algebras, called the super Yang-Mills algebras, by exploiting the Kirillov orbit method à la Dixmier for nilpotent super Lie algebras. These super algebras are an extension of the so-called Yang-Mills algebras, introduced by A. Connes and M. Dubois-Violette in (Lett Math Phys 61(2):149-158, 2002), and in fact they appear as a "background independent" formulation of supersymmetric gauge theory considered in physics, in a similar way as Yang-Mills algebras do the same for the usual gauge theory. Our main result states that, under certain hypotheses, all Clifford-Weyl super algebras {{Cliff}q(k) ? Ap(k)}, for p ? 3, or p = 2 and q ? 2, appear as a quotient of all super Yang-Mills algebras, for n ? 3 and s ? 1. This provides thus a family of representations of the super Yang-Mills algebras.

Herscovich, Estanislao

2013-06-01

400

Anaerobic Digestion of Paper Mill Wastewater  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In general, paper mill wastewater contains complex organic substances which could not be treated completely using conventional treatment processes, e.g. aerobic processes. As a result, anaerobic technology is a promising alternative for paper mill wastewater treatment due to its ability to degrade hard organic compounds. In the present study, treatment of paper mill wastewater using a stage anaerobic reactor was investigated. The more specific objectives of this study were to confirm whether paper mill wastewater can be tolerated by methanogenic sludge and to assess the stability of reactor for measured parameters (e.g. COD removal, and methane composition). Results showed up to 98% COD removal efficiency in the anaerobic reactor when the reactor was operated at an OLR of 1.560 kg COD/m3.d. Anaerobic digestion can provide high treatment efficiency for recalcitrant substrates, which generates robust microorganism (acidogenesis and methanogenesis), for the degradation of recalcitrant compounds such as in the paper mill wastewater.

Shreeshivadasan Chelliapan; Siti Baizura Mahat; Md. Fadjil Md. Din; A. Yuzir; N. Othman

2012-01-01

 
 
 
 
401

Practitioner Profile: An Interview With Amanda Mills  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available For more than 25 years, Amanda Mills has been working with arts organizations across Canada and with artists of all kinds to assist them in achieving financial sanity. She has taught business management at the University of Victoria and has prepared thousands of tax returns for writers, visual artists, choreographers, actors, filmmakers, broadcasters, and creative entrepreneurs. Ten years ago, bringing together her work on trauma, with twenty years of business management, Mills founded Loose Change Financial Therapy – the place where money and feelings meet. Mills has presented Loose Change workshops for social workers, teachers, psychotherapists, artists, anti-poverty activists, sex trade workers, women’s groups, and the general public.  She has been a guest on major Canadian radio and television broadcasts and profiled in many major Canadian newspapers and periodicals. Mills is also a crisis counselor and co-wrote a bestselling book on recovering from trauma. A tax professional and business manager, she is certified as a financial counselor under the Bankruptcy and Insolvency Act. Mills is also currently completing a certificate in mediation.

Amanda Mills

2012-01-01

402

Indian Academy of Sciences - Fellowship  

Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

indian academy of sciences - fellowship/*these are the link style definitions.*/a.navbar:link { color: #ffffff; font-family: arial, helvetica, sans-serif; font-size: 12px; font-weight: normal; text-decoration: none} honorary fellows | past fellows | --> past honorary fellows   initiatives           & ...

403

Indian Academy of Sciences - Fellowship  

Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

indian academy of sciences - fellowship/*these are the link style definitions.*/a.navbar:link { color: #ffffff; font-family: arial, helvetica, sans-serif; font-size: 12px; font-weight: normal; text-decoration: none} honorary fellows | past   initiatives                    &nbs ...

404

Indian Academy of Sciences - Journals  

Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

indian academy of sciences - journals proceedings - mathematical sciences journal of earth system science (formerly proc. - earth planet. sci.) journal of chemical sciences (formerly proc. - chem. sci.) bulletin of materials science sadhana (engineering sciences) journal of biosciences resonance - journal of science education ...

405

MARCELIN BERTHELOT AND INDIAN ALCHEMY  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Based on unpublished manuscripts, the article reveals the keen interest shown by Marcelin Berthelot in Indian alchemy. The French Savant has actually inspired and encouraged the first historical research in this field, undertaken at the end of the last century, in Calcutta, by the Bengali scientist ...

Rosu, Arion

406

Marcelin berthelot and Indian alchemy.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Based on unpublished manuscripts, the article reveals the keen interest shown by Marcelin Berthelot in Indian alchemy. The French Savant has actually inspired and encouraged the first historical research in this field, undertaken at the end of the last century, in Calcutta, by the Bengali scientist Prafulla Chandra Ray.

Rosu A

1986-04-01

407

FIIs in Indian Derivative Markets  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available since 1990-91, Government of India startedliberalization and economic reforms with a view of bringingabout substantial economic growth and move towards Theglobalization. As a part of this liberalization process, theGovernment under its New Industrial Policy liberalized itsforeign investment policy recognizing the growingimportance of FDI as an instrument of foreign capital flowand technological development. Government, for the firsttime, permitted foreign institutional investors to invest inIndian capital market through portfolio investments. FromSeptember 14, 1992 with suitable restrictions, FIIs werepermitted to invest in all the securities traded on the primaryand secondary markets, including shares, debentures andwarrants issued by companies which were listed or were tobe listed on the Stock Exchanges in India.Since then FIIs are investing in the different sections ofIndian capital Market. FIIs invest huge amount in differentsections of Indian capital market and there trades make asignificant impact in the movement of stock market as wellas in the growth of the economy.The study of the impact of FIIs trades in Indian Capitalmarket is of vital importance for investors as well aseconomists

Mr. Ashees Bisht; Mr. Manohar Giri

2013-01-01

408

Environmental Risk in Indian Country.  

Science.gov (United States)

The paper argues that EPA's current methods for assessing risk are inappropriate for Indian lands because (1) they represent a 'snapshot' of a particular point in time and do not capture cumulative or future risk; (2) they are population-based, and theref...

L. Wenzel

1992-01-01

409

INDIAN CULTURE THROUGTH BRITHISH EYES  

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Full Text Available Representation of Indian Culture by the British Eye through literature, “APassage To India” by E.M. Forster is the best example of it.The title itself is symbolic- “Passage” is symbolic of “link” or “connection”,so by giving the title “A Passage to India”, E.M. Forster advocates for a link orconnection between Anglo-Indians and the natives of India. India in the novel stands notmerely for as country but also for a mystifying pattern of art and life for what the Englishcall a “muddle” which they cannot comprehend through their arid rationalism andintellectualism. In other words, India is symbolic of EMOTION.Forster visited India in1912-13 and 1921. He has recalled some of the impressions. “A Passage to India” wonthe Femina Vie Heuresue and Tait Black Memorial prizes. “A Passage to India” – tocome India, to understand India and the Indians. The novel is a study of the relationshipthat these women try to establish with Indians … and how they fail.

ARPITA DAUD; ANJALI DAUD

2013-01-01

410

Indian Academy of Sciences - Contact  

Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

indian academy of sciences - contact /*these are the link style definitions.*/ a.navbar:link { color: #ffffff; font-family: arial, helvetica, sans-serif; font-size: 12px; font-weight: normal; text-decoration: none} office staff    about   initiatives                   ...

411

Blood Sugar Testing: Why, When and How  

Science.gov (United States)

... dL), or 4 and 7 millimoles per liter (mmol/L) One to two hours after meals — lower than 180 mg/dL (10 mmol/L) Fasting at least eight hours — between 90 and 130 mg/dL (5 and 7 mmol/L) How to test your blood sugar Blood ...

412

Green chemistry: biodiesel made with sugar catalyst.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The production of diesel from vegetable oil calls for an efficient solid catalyst to make the process fully ecologically friendly. Here we describe the preparation of such a catalyst from common, inexpensive sugars. This high-performance catalyst, which consists of stable sulphonated amorphous carbon, is recyclable and its activity markedly exceeds that of other solid acid catalysts tested for 'biodiesel' production.

Toda M; Takagaki A; Okamura M; Kondo JN; Hayashi S; Domen K; Hara M

2005-11-01

413

Green chemistry: Biodiesel made with sugar catalyst  

Science.gov (United States)

The production of diesel from vegetable oil calls for an efficient solid catalyst to make the process fully ecologically friendly. Here we describe the preparation of such a catalyst from common, inexpensive sugars. This high-performance catalyst, which consists of stable sulphonated amorphous carbon, is recyclable and its activity markedly exceeds that of other solid acid catalysts tested for `biodiesel' production.

Toda, Masakazu; Takagaki, Atsushi; Okamura, Mai; Kondo, Junko N.; Hayashi, Shigenobu; Domen, Kazunari; Hara, Michikazu

2005-11-01

414

Xylite and sugar-free chewing tablet  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The invention relates to sorbitol-based chewing tablets which are free of xylitol and sugar, are non-deleterious for the teeth and suitable for diabetics and which contain a loosening agent, preferably proteins and/or mineral salts and/or ballast substances.

Starz Carola; Stieber Herbert; Färber Dagmar

415

Production of ethyl alcohol from sugar beets  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Various methods of processing sugar beets prior to fermentation of EtOH were compared. Water slurries of whole beets, expressed juice, and industrially produced diffusion juice were fermented readily by Saccharomyces cerevisiae without the addition of nutrient supplements. Yields of alcohol in both the slurries and juices were 43-47%. Heating the slurries or juices to boiling for 1 min often increased the yield of alcohol and the vigor of the fermentation; however, some yields of greater than 46% were obtained in unheated expressed juice. Difficulty in processing slurries of homogenized or ground whole beets, together with the restriction on the concentration of sugar in the slurry imposed by dilution with water, would probably favor some method of separating the beet tissues from the juice prior to fermentation in an industrial process. Alcohol yields of 4 cultivars varying in sugar content ranged from 38.4 to 46.0% of sugar and 18.0 to 26.1 gallon of alcohol per ton of fresh beets.

Larsen, D.H.; Doney, D.L.; Orien, H.A.

1981-01-01