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1

Preliminary assessment of off-season fuels for electricity generation at Indian sugar mills  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This report on off-season fuels is part of a preliminary feasibility assessment to retrofit Indian sugar mills to cogenerate heat and power with sales of excess electricity to the local grid. To justify the high capital costs of retrofitting existing facilities, sugar mill operators must attempt to maximize the amount of power they sell to the local grid. This fact means that sugar mills must operate and sell power well-beyond the milling season, which typically lasts about 200 days. The purpose of this report is to assess and determine whether low cost and reliable sources of off-season fuels can be secured for two sugar mills (Simbhaoli and Daurala) within their respective sugar growing districts, located in western Uttar Pradesh. Off-season fuels under consideration include excess bagasse that is stored for off-season use, agricultural field residues (e.g., wheat straw), forest residues (e.g., bark and small limbs), and dedicated energy crops (short-rotation woody crops and herbaceous energy crops). Results of the pre-feasibility indicate that bagasse and some agricultural residues are available in sufficient quantity and may be available at reasonable cost.

Perlack, R.D. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States); Ranney, J.W. [Joint Inst. for Energy and Environment, Knoxville, TN (United States)

1995-11-07

2

77 FR 54607 - Proclaiming Certain Lands, Sugar Parcel Lands, as an Addition to the Bay Mills Indian Reservation...  

Science.gov (United States)

...an addition to the Bay Mills Indian Reservation and part of the Bay Mills Indian Community of Michigan for the exclusive use of Indians on that Reservation who are entitled...tribal membership. Bay Mills Indian Community Reservation...

2012-09-05

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Bioremediation of Sugar Mill Effluent Using a Bacteria Staphylococcus aureus  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Industrial pollution has been and continues to be a major factor causing the degradation of the environment around us, affecting the water we use, the air we breathe and the soil we live on. Among the various industries, sugar mill is one of the largest and most important agro based industries in India. The sugar industry is playing an important role in the economic development of the Indian sub continent, but the effluents released produce a high degree of organic pollution in both aquatic and terrestrial ecosystems. They also alter the physico-chemical characteristics of the receiving aquatic bodies and affect aquatic flora and fauna. Bioremediation of sugar-mill industrial effluents by microorganisms serves as an effective method to substitute the conventional recovery and removal process. In the present study, attempt has been made to isolate the native bacteria present in the sugar mill effluent collected from the Cheyyiar Co-operative Sugar Mills Ltd., Thiruvannamalai District and were tested for their individual bioremedial efficiency. The Staphylococcus aureus were capable of bringing about the bioremediation of Sugarmill effluent in the different concentration (Effluent different dilution+bacteria, (Effluent+different density of bacteria, (different pH of effluent+bacteria. It has been identified in terms of measuring their percentage of reduction potentials of parameters such as pH, EC, TDS, OD, BOD and COD. Maximum biodegrading potentials have been observed in the case of bacteria Staphylococcus aureus in all the different studies. i.e., pH(-52.77%, EC(24.47%, TDS(24.44%, BOD(70.32% and COD(64.28% amongst all. This result suggests that this can be recommended for treating various effluents.

Buvaneswari.S

2013-02-01

4

21 CFR 173.320 - Chemicals for controlling microorganisms in cane-sugar and beet-sugar mills.  

Science.gov (United States)

...microorganisms in cane-sugar and beet-sugar mills. 173.320 Section 173...microorganisms in cane-sugar and beet-sugar mills. Agents for controlling microorganisms in cane-sugar and beet-sugar mills may be safely used in...

2010-04-01

5

21 CFR 173.320 - Chemicals for controlling microorganisms in cane-sugar and beet-sugar mills.  

Science.gov (United States)

... Chemicals for controlling microorganisms in cane-sugar and beet-sugar... Chemicals for controlling microorganisms in cane-sugar and beet-sugar...mills. Agents for controlling microorganisms in cane-sugar and...

2010-04-01

6

A methodological approach to sugar mill diversification and conversion  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Sugar industry diversification is complex, being constrained by biophysical and socioeconomic conditions. Ongoing work has shown the sugarcane industry’s potential as biorefinery or its sustainable use by offering products as raw material. However, few studies have studied how such potential could be achieved by promoting a conventional sugar mill through integrating its indicators for developing an efficient diversified processing plant which would contribute towards fossil energy saving and competitiveness. This paper presents a conceptual framework for analysis based on existing knowledge regarding sugar industry state-of-the-art for evaluating diversification, using analytical hierarchy process (AHP as a tool for analysing complex systems, identifying alternatives to the current situation and discussing them to facilitate collective decision-making. Sugar mill AHP scores enabled discussion about the variables most affecting sugar mill diversification (0.332 factory yield, 0.327 sugar mill products and 0.121 sugarcane quality. The results serve as a useful guidance for formulating strategies for the optimum use of by-products in a sugar mill while maximising benefits to modify/convert a traditional sugar mill to a so-called bio-refinery.

Noé Aguilar Rivera

2012-03-01

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Valuation of a Mexican Sugar Mill and Driving Value Factors  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This paper includes the methodology used to construct a financial cash flow and perform a valuation using the discounted cash flow analysis for a hypothetical Mexican sugar mill. The objective is to incorporate to the valuation model the most significant variables that are relevant to the sugar production process as well as the operational and financial factors of a common sugar mill which are driven by the current legislation in terms of sugarcane pricing and labor costs. It also includes some macroeconomic variables that determine price for sugar, long term costs and the discount rates. With the financial model determined, we use Monte Carlo simulation in order to obtain a probabilistic distribution for the value of the sugar mill and finally we perform a sensitivity analysis to obtain the main variables that affect the resulting enterprise value. The model is constructed on data available for three sugar mills, but the cost structure will not change among other sugar mills, due to regulation and local market conditions; however, the model could be used for any mill by substituting the variables for each case.

Carlos Acosta Calzado

2011-01-01

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76 FR 9593 - Proclaiming Certain Lands, Reykers Acquisition, as an Addition to the Bay Mills Indian...  

Science.gov (United States)

...an addition to the Bay Mills Indian Reservation and part of the Bay Mills Indian Community of Michigan for the exclusive use of Indians on that Reservation who are entitled...Tribal membership. Bay Mills Indian Community Reservation,...

2011-02-18

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Power Factor Improvement in a Sugar Mill: An Analysis  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available To reduce losses in the distribution system, and toreduce the electricity bill, power factor correction, usually in theform of capacitors, is added to neutralize as much of themagnetizing current as possible..To improve the power factor insugar mill, it is required to install the capacitors of requiredcapacitor ratings as near to the load as possible. This paperreports a case of sugar mill where the induction motors having apower factor of 0.8 has a potential to improve the power factor to0.95, by installing suitable power factor improvement capacitors.

Neena Malhotra

2012-09-01

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76 FR 2409 - Proclaiming Certain Lands, Lots 15 and 16 Acquisition, as an Addition to the Bay Mills Indian...  

Science.gov (United States)

...an addition to the Bay Mills Indian Reservation and part of the Bay Mills Indian Community of Michigan for the exclusive use of Indians on that Reservation who are entitled...tribal membership. Bay Mills Indian Community Reservation,...

2011-01-13

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76 FR 2409 - Proclaiming Certain Lands, Golf Course Acquisition, as an Addition to the Bay Mills Indian...  

Science.gov (United States)

...an addition to the Bay Mills Indian Reservation and part of the Bay Mills Indian Community of Michigan for the exclusive use of Indians on that Reservation who are entitled...tribal membership. Bay Mills Indian Community Reservation,...

2011-01-13

12

76 FR 2409 - Proclaiming Certain Lands, Lot 32 Acquisition, as an Addition to the Bay Mills Indian Reservation...  

Science.gov (United States)

...an addition to the Bay Mills Indian Reservation and part of the Bay Mills Indian Community of Michigan for the exclusive use of Indians on that Reservation who are entitled...tribal membership. Bay Mills Indian Community Reservation, Lot...

2011-01-13

13

76 FR 52011 - Proclaiming Certain Lands, Forest Service Lands, as an Addition to the Bay Mills Indian...  

Science.gov (United States)

...an addition to the Bay Mills Indian Reservation and part of the Bay Mills Indian Community of Michigan for the exclusive use of Indians on that Reservation who are entitled...tribal membership. Bay Mills Indian Community Reservation...

2011-08-19

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77 FR 54607 - Proclaiming Certain Lands, Dafter Parcel, as an Addition to the Bay Mills Indian Reservation for...  

Science.gov (United States)

...an addition to the Bay Mills Indian Reservation and part of the Bay Mills Indian Community of Michigan for the exclusive use of Indians on that Reservation who are entitled...tribal membership. Bay Mills Indian Community Reservation...

2012-09-05

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Ergonomic design applied in a sugar mill interface  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Argentina | Language: English Abstract in english In tasks requiring human supervision in an industrial control room there are applied generic disciplines like automatic control and engineering systems. From the point of view of the human computer interaction applied to these disciplines it is necessary to add usability engineering and cognitive er [...] gonomics. This integrated framework is an example of human-centred design on automation systems. The main goal of this work is the application of a cognitive ergonomic guideline for supervisory control in order to improve the efficiency of a sugar mill interface design.

P., Ponsa; B., Amante; M., Díaz.

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Ergonomic design applied in a sugar mill interface  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Argentina | Language: English Abstract in english In tasks requiring human supervision in an industrial control room there are applied generic disciplines like automatic control and engineering systems. From the point of view of the human computer interaction applied to these disciplines it is necessary to add usability engineering and cognitive er [...] gonomics. This integrated framework is an example of human-centred design on automation systems. The main goal of this work is the application of a cognitive ergonomic guideline for supervisory control in order to improve the efficiency of a sugar mill interface design.

P., Ponsa; B., Amante; M., Díaz.

2010-03-01

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Predicting remaining life in upper sugar-mill shafts  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available A fracture mechanics-based method is presented for determining critical crack size and residual life of upper sugar-mill shafts having semi-elliptical and circumferential cracks. Due to the multiaxial stress field, an equivalent strain energy release rate stress intensity solution is used in Paris’ law to predict crack growth. Ultrasonic inspection intervals for the shaft were established. The crack zone evaluated was located in the shoulder of the bearing nearest to the square box coupling where about 25% of service failures in these types of shaft are observed.

Sara Rodríguez Pulecio

2010-04-01

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Composition of sugar cane, energy cane, and sweet sorghum suitable for ethanol production at Louisiana sugar mills.  

Science.gov (United States)

A challenge facing the biofuel industry is to develop an economically viable and sustainable biorefinery. The existing potential biorefineries in Louisiana, raw sugar mills, operate only 3 months of the year. For year-round operation, they must adopt other feedstocks, besides sugar cane, as supplemental feedstocks. Energy cane and sweet sorghum have different harvest times, but can be processed for bio-ethanol using the same equipment. Juice of energy cane contains 9.8% fermentable sugars and that of sweet sorghum, 11.8%. Chemical composition of sugar cane bagasse was determined to be 42% cellulose, 25% hemicellulose, and 20% lignin, and that of energy cane was 43% cellulose, 24% hemicellulose, and 22% lignin. Sweet sorghum was 45% cellulose, 27% hemicellulose, and 21% lignin. Theoretical ethanol yields would be 3,609 kg per ha from sugar cane, 12,938 kg per ha from energy cane, and 5,804 kg per ha from sweet sorghum. PMID:20803247

Kim, Misook; Day, Donal F

2011-07-01

19

21 CFR 173.320 - Chemicals for controlling microorganisms in cane-sugar and beet-sugar mills.  

Science.gov (United States)

...They are applied to the sugar mill grinding, crusher, and/or diffuser...2-dibromo-3-nitrilopropionamide are not authorized for use in animal feed Not more than 10.0 and not less...salts are not authorized for use in animal feed. (6) Single additive for...

2010-04-01

20

21 CFR 173.320 - Chemicals for controlling microorganisms in cane-sugar and beet-sugar mills.  

Science.gov (United States)

...b) They are applied to the sugar mill grinding, crusher, and/or diffuser systems...2-dibromo-3-nitrilopropionamide are not authorized for use in animal feed Not more than 10.0 and not less than...salts are not authorized for use in animal feed. (6) Single additive for...

2010-04-01

 
 
 
 
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Pyrolysis and thermal oxidation kinetics of sugar mill press mud  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Press mud, a solid waste obtained from the sugar mills, has the potential of energy generation through pyrolysis and gasification. The paper reports its proximate and ultimate analyses, deformation and fusion ash temperatures, lower and higher heating values, physico-chemical and thermal degradation in nitrogen and air atmospheres. The thermal degradation was conducted in a thermogravimetric analyzer from room temperature to 900 deg C at heating rates of 20 and 40 K min-1. The thermogravimetric, derivative thermogravimetric and differential thermal analyses were carried out to determine the rate of volatiles evolution, the effect of heating rates on the thermal degradation characteristics and to determine the global mass loss kinetics of thermal degradation. The thermal degradation was found to occur in several distinct phases: each phase giving volatile evolution in an independent parallel lump. Each decomposition phase was modeled by a single irreversible reaction with respect to the solid mass. Global mass loss kinetics was also determined for the entire decomposition process, as if occurring in one single step. The integral and differential techniques were used for the determination of kinetic parameters. Using the method of Agrawal and Sivasubramanian [R.K. Agrawal, M.S. Sivasubramanian, AIChE J. 33 (1987) 7] for the total degradation zone, the orders of reaction were found in the range of 1.00-2.50 in both the atmospheres (i.e. nitrogen and air) and the activation energy in the range of 27.84-33.44 and 57.41-88.92 kJ mol-1 in nitrogen and air, respectively. The pre-exponential factor was found in the range of 32.1-95.1 and 5.10 x 104 to 5.46 x 109 min-1 in nitrogen and air atmospheres, respectively

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SUGAR INDUSTRY IN MAHARASHTRA  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The Indian sugar industry is a key driver of rural development, supporting India's economic growth. The industry is inherently inclusive supporting over 50 million farmers and their families, along with workers and enter-preneurs almost 550 sugar mills. Indian sugar industry is a cyclical industry, as on one hand if serves the domestic market, the largest in the world. Sugar is a sector of significant importance to the national economy while consumption has been growing historically the production has been cyclical. In an era where there is a need for inclusive growth the sugar industry is amongst the few industries that have successfully contributed to the rural economy

PRATAP BAPUSO LAD

2013-04-01

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Analysis and Physico-Chemical Parameters of Sarvar Devla Sugar Mill Studies of Effluents  

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Full Text Available The physico-chemical characteristics contents in the effluents discharged from Neoly sugar mill have been explored. The physico-chemical parameters such as colour, odour, temperature, pH, electrical conductivity, COD, BOD, alkalinity, total hardness,Ca+2, Mg+2, chloride, of the effluent collected from the various sites between the exit point at the mill and discharge point In, have been determined.

R. K. Pathak

2012-12-01

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Analyzing Regional Variations in Capacity Utilization of Indian Sugar Industry using Non-parametric Frontier Technique  

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Full Text Available Using time series data spanning over the period 1974/75 to 2004/05, this paper provides the trends of capacity utilization (CU levels in Indian sugar industry from regional perspectives. The results reveal that: i on an average, the sugar industry in India is operating with the excess capacity in tune to 13 percent in each sampled year; ii substantial variations in CU levels appear in the sugar industry of 12 major sugar producing states under consideration; iii a precipitous decline in CU levels is noted in the post-reforms years relative to what has been observed in the prereforms period; iv except the state of Rajasthan, the sugar industry in the remaining 11 states observed a significant decline in CU levels during the postreforms period relative to the pre-reforms period; and v availability of raw material is most significant variable explaining the CU in Indian sugar industr

Sunil KUMAR

2009-11-01

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Microwave modification of sugar cane to enhance juice extraction during milling.  

Science.gov (United States)

Sugar extraction from cane requires shredding and crushing, both of which are energy intensive activities. Cane shredders account for almost 30% of the total power requirements for the juice extraction train in a sugar mill with four mills. Shredder hammers also wear quickly during the crushing season and need to be regularly maintained or replaced. Microwave pre-treatment of other plant based materials has resulted in significant reductions in total processing energy. This paper briefly reviews the underlying structure of sugar cane and how microwave pre-treatment may interact with sugar cane. Microwave treatment reduced the strength of sugar cane samples to 20% of its untreated value. This strength reduction makes it easier to crush the cane and leads to a 320% increase in juice yield compared with untreated cane when cane samples were crushed in a press. There was also a 68% increase in Brix %, a 58% increase in total dissolved solids, a 58% reduction in diffusion time, a 39% increase in Pol%, and a 7% increase in juice purity compared with the control samples after 60 minutes of diffusion in distilled water. PMID:24428107

Brodie, Graham; Harris, Gerard; Jacob, Mohan V; Sheehan, Madoc; Yin, Ling

2011-01-01

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Generation of Electricity Using Sugar mill Waste Water by Microbial Fuel Cell  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The application of microbial fuel cell (MFC for electricity generation has been developing recently. This research explores the application of single chamber MFC in generating electricity using sugar wastewater.The different concentration of wastewater has been performed. The maximum current, voltage, BOD, COD ,pH and TDS obtained with respect to time. MFC of sugar mill wastewater showed removal efficiency 69.3% COD, 68.1% BOD and 56.35% TDS with different feed concentration. The current, voltage and power generation in the reactor is 1.28 mA, 0.9 V and 0.304 watts/m2 respectively.

Kavyashree.R.Doddamani

2014-10-01

27

BIG - GT and CEST technologies for sugar cane mill. Thermodynamic and economic assessments  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Electricity from biomass has been developed nowadays. Sugar cane mills have high potential biomass residues for this purpose when are operated with high index of energy conversion technologies. Condensing Extracting Steam Turbine (CEST) have been used successfully for several years in some countries at commercial scale, and Biomass Integrated Gasifier Gas Turbine (BIG GT) has been developed in some projects around the world. Thermodynamic and economic calculations, are done for an integrated power plant with these technologies at 150 tonnes of cane per hours sugar cane mill. Best operating results are obtained using pressurized BIG GT power plant, with more electricity sent to the grid. Better financial results under the present economic conditions are obtained for CEST technology.

Arrieta, F.R.P. [Central Univ. Marta Abreu of Las Villas (UCLV), Santa Clara (CUBA); Sanchez, C.G. [State Univ. of Campinas, SP (Brazil). Mechanical Engineering College

1999-07-01

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Environmental impact assessment: a case study of M/S Mirpurkhas sugar mills  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Sugar Mills effluent and their effects on the surface and groundwater quality in the vicinity of Mirpurkhas Sugar Mills have been studied during the period from November 04 to February 05. The results obtained from the analysis of samples collected from factory and effluent channel indicates that all values of effluent parameters BOD/sub 5/, COD, TSS, and Oil and Grease are higher than the value recommended in NEQS. The values of physico-chemical parameters of groundwater samples (Ca, Mg, Na, HCO/sub 3/, Cl, SO/sub 4/) also shows variation in results with comparison to mill distance, but still found within the limit of WHO standards. During the environmental survey of adjacent villages, it was also observed that the local environment and quality of water is adversely being affected by mill effluent. This is obvious from samples of effluent and the comparison of results of samples of groundwater supplies taken from various locations. Therefore, it is strongly recommended that the material thrown as effluent must be treated before disposed off into channels and people must be informed about the adverse effects of effluent upon the groundwater quality. (author)

29

Culture of the microalga chlorella vulgaris on different proportions of sugar mill effluents  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Chlarella vulgaris was cultured in four different dilutions of sugar mill effluent media (SMEM). Bold's basal medium (BBM) was used as the control under laboratory conditions. Maximum cell growth and chlorophyll-a content were obtained on 10th day of the culture in 50% diluted SMEM, followed by those grown in BBM, and 75, 25 and 100% SMEM at stationary phase. The specific growth rate (mu g/day) of cells and chlorophyll-a of C. vulgaris grown in 50% SMEM varied significantly (p < 0.0 I) from those of C. vulgaris cultured in BBM, followed by other SMEM concentrations. Total biomass of C. vulgaris. cultured in 50% SMEM, was found to be significantly higher (p < 0.0 I) than that of C. vulgaris cultured in BBM, and 25, 75 and 100% SMEM concentrations. Similar trend was also observed in the case of optical density. Cell number and chlorophyll-a of C. vulgaris were highly (p < 0.01) and directly correlated with chlorophyll-a (r2 = 0.991) of C. vulgaris and optical density (r2 = 0.989) for the culture media containing C. vulgaris, respectively. Crude proteins and crude lipids of C. vulgaris. grown in 50% SMEM, were significantly (p < 0.01) higher than those of C. vulgaris cultured in other SMEM concentrations. Due to good growth performance exhibited in the 50% SMEM dilution, the sugar mill effluent may be used for efficient cultivation of C. vulgaris and possibly other micro algae. (author)

30

A methodological approach to sugar mill diversification and conversion / Enfoque metodológico de diversificación y reconversión de ingenios azucareros  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Colombia | Language: English Abstract in spanish La diversificación de la industria azucarera es compleja y se ve limitada por condiciones biofísicas y socioeconómicas. Muchos trabajos han demostrado su potencial como biorrefinería y la utilización sostenible de los subproductos como materia prima. Sin embargo, pocos estudios se ha focalizado a tr [...] avés de la integración de indicadores productivos de un ingenio azucarero y cómo este potencial podría lograr transformar un ingenio azucarero convencional en una eficiente planta diversificada que contribuya a reducir el consumo de energía fósil y alcanzar la competitividad. Este trabajo presenta un marco de análisis o metodología basada en el conocimiento existente sobre la industria azucarera o el estado del arte, con la finalidad de evaluar la diversificación mediante el proceso de jerarquías analíticas (AHP) como una herramienta adecuada para el análisis de sistemas complejos, la identificación de alternativas y su discusión de manera que facilite la toma de decisiones colectivas. El análisis AHP obtenido en este estudio ofrece una discusión acerca de las variables que explican la capacidad para diversificar los procesos en un ingenio azucarero (rendimiento de fábrica: 0.332, productos derivados del ingenio azucarero: 0.327 y calidad de materia prima o caña de azúcar: 0.121). Los resultados obtenidos sirven de guía en la formulación de estrategias para la utilización óptima de los recursos derivados de un ingenio azucarero, mientras que la maximización de sus beneficios, para diversificar o reconvertir ingenios azucareros en biorrefinerías. Abstract in english Sugar industry diversification is complex, being constrained by biophysical and socioeconomic conditions. Ongoing work has shown the sugarcane industry's potential as biorefinery or its sustainable use by offering products as raw material. However, few studies have studied how such potential could b [...] e achieved by promoting a conventional sugar mill through integrating its indicators for developing an efficient diversified processing plant which would contribute towards fossil energy saving and competitiveness. This paper presents a conceptual framework for analysis based on existing knowledge regarding sugar industry state-of-the-art for evaluating diversification, using analytical hierarchy process (AHP) as a tool for analysing complex systems, identifying alternatives to the current situation and discussing them to facilitate collective decision-making. Sugar mill AHP scores enabled discussion about the variables most affecting sugar mill diversification (0.332 factory yield, 0.327 sugar mill products and 0.121 sugarcane quality). The results serve as a useful guidance for formulating strategies for the optimum use of by-products in a sugar mill while maximising bene-fits to modify/convert a traditional sugar mill to a so-called bio-refinery.

N, Aguilar; G, Galindo; C, Contreras; J, Fortanelli.

31

A methodological approach to sugar mill diversification and conversion / Enfoque metodológico de diversificación y reconversión de ingenios azucareros  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Colombia | Language: English Abstract in spanish La diversificación de la industria azucarera es compleja y se ve limitada por condiciones biofísicas y socioeconómicas. Muchos trabajos han demostrado su potencial como biorrefinería y la utilización sostenible de los subproductos como materia prima. Sin embargo, pocos estudios se ha focalizado a tr [...] avés de la integración de indicadores productivos de un ingenio azucarero y cómo este potencial podría lograr transformar un ingenio azucarero convencional en una eficiente planta diversificada que contribuya a reducir el consumo de energía fósil y alcanzar la competitividad. Este trabajo presenta un marco de análisis o metodología basada en el conocimiento existente sobre la industria azucarera o el estado del arte, con la finalidad de evaluar la diversificación mediante el proceso de jerarquías analíticas (AHP) como una herramienta adecuada para el análisis de sistemas complejos, la identificación de alternativas y su discusión de manera que facilite la toma de decisiones colectivas. El análisis AHP obtenido en este estudio ofrece una discusión acerca de las variables que explican la capacidad para diversificar los procesos en un ingenio azucarero (rendimiento de fábrica: 0.332, productos derivados del ingenio azucarero: 0.327 y calidad de materia prima o caña de azúcar: 0.121). Los resultados obtenidos sirven de guía en la formulación de estrategias para la utilización óptima de los recursos derivados de un ingenio azucarero, mientras que la maximización de sus beneficios, para diversificar o reconvertir ingenios azucareros en biorrefinerías. Abstract in english Sugar industry diversification is complex, being constrained by biophysical and socioeconomic conditions. Ongoing work has shown the sugarcane industry's potential as biorefinery or its sustainable use by offering products as raw material. However, few studies have studied how such potential could b [...] e achieved by promoting a conventional sugar mill through integrating its indicators for developing an efficient diversified processing plant which would contribute towards fossil energy saving and competitiveness. This paper presents a conceptual framework for analysis based on existing knowledge regarding sugar industry state-of-the-art for evaluating diversification, using analytical hierarchy process (AHP) as a tool for analysing complex systems, identifying alternatives to the current situation and discussing them to facilitate collective decision-making. Sugar mill AHP scores enabled discussion about the variables most affecting sugar mill diversification (0.332 factory yield, 0.327 sugar mill products and 0.121 sugarcane quality). The results serve as a useful guidance for formulating strategies for the optimum use of by-products in a sugar mill while maximising bene-fits to modify/convert a traditional sugar mill to a so-called bio-refinery.

N, Aguilar; G, Galindo; C, Contreras; J, Fortanelli.

2012-08-01

32

Energy Efficiency Feasibility Study and Resulting Plan for the Bay Mills Indian Community  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

In 2011 the Inter-Tribal Council of Michigan, Inc. was awarded an Energy Efficiency Development and Deployment in Indian Country grant from the U.S. Department of Energy’s Tribal Energy Program. This grant aimed to study select Bay Mills Indian Community community/government buildings to determine what is required to reduce each building’s energy consumption by 30%. The Bay Mills Indian Community (BMIC) buildings with the largest expected energy use were selected for this study and included the Bay Mills Ellen Marshall Health Center building, Bay Mills Indian Community Administration Building, Bay Mills Community College main campus, Bay Mills Charter School and the Waishkey Community Center buildings. These five sites are the largest energy consuming Community buildings and comprised the study area of this project titled “Energy Efficiency Feasibility Study and Resulting Plan for the Bay Mills Indian Community”. The end objective of this study, plan and the Tribe is to reduce the energy consumption at the Community’s most energy intensive buildings that will, in turn, reduce emissions at the source of energy production, reduce energy expenditures, create long lasting energy conscious practices and positively affect the quality of the natural environment. This project’s feasibility study and resulting plan is intended to act as a guide to the Community’s first step towards planned energy management within its buildings/facilities. It aims to reduce energy consumption by 30% or greater within the subject facilities with an emphasis on energy conservation and efficiency. The energy audits and related power consumption analyses conducted for this study revealed numerous significant energy conservation and efficiency opportunities for all of the subject sites/buildings. In addition, many of the energy conservation measures require no cost and serve to help balance other measures requiring capital investment. Reoccurring deficiencies relating to heating, cooling, thermostat setting inefficiencies, powering computers, lighting, items linked to weatherization and numerous other items were encountered that can be mitigated with the energy conservation measures developed and specified during the course of this project.

Kushman, Chris

2014-02-03

33

Design of two bearings with sealing system for the top roll shaft of sugar cane mill  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Venezuela | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish Las chumaceras de bronce utilizadas actualmente en los molinos de caña de azúcar presentan elevado desgaste debido, entre otros factores, a la materia extraña que ingresa en ella cuando el eje superior se eleva (flota) por efecto del colchón de caña que pasa entre las mazas y al sobrecalentamiento c [...] ausado por fallas en los sistemas de lubricación y refrigeración. Con el objetivo de solucionar estos problemas dos diseños de chumaceras fueron realizados: uno con refrigeración en la caja y otro con refrigeración en la teja, ambos usando un sistema de sellado. Análisis por Elementos Finitos del comportamiento mecánico y térmico de los diseños garantiza un buen desempeño en operación. Abstract in english The bronze bearings currently used in sugar cane mills undergo an excessive wear due to both, the extraneous matter entering in the bearing gap when the shaft lift by effect of cane passing through the mill and heating caused by failures in both the lubrication and the refrigeration systems. In orde [...] r to solve this problems two bearing were designed: one cooled in the box and other cooled in the roofing tile, both using a sealing system. Finite Elements Analysis of the designs showed that they will have a good mechanical and thermal performance.

Walter, Mora Perdomo; John Sandro, Rivas Murillo; John Jairo, Coronado Marín.

34

Does Factor Accumulation or Productivity Change Drive Output Growth in the Indian Sugar Industry? An Inter-state Analysis  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The study endeavors to break down output growth in the Indian sugar industry into the ‘perspiration’ component that corresponds to factor accumulation and the ‘inspiration’ component that corresponds to the total factor productivity (TFP growth. The bootstrapped Malmquist productivity index has been used as a technique to obtain the TFP growth from the period 1974/75 to 2004/05. Empirical analysis reveals that output growth in the Indian sugar industry is equally driven by the inspiration component (i.e., TFP growth and the perspiration component (i.e., factor accumulation, but in opposite directions. The inspiration component is observed to contribute to output growth positively, whereas the perspiration component contributes negatively. Given substantial TFP growth, the potential output growth in the Indian sugar industry has been restricted primarily by the negative growth of inputs during the entire study period and particularly in the post-reform period.

Nitin Arora

2013-06-01

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Detection of Phytoplasma on Indian Fig (Opuntia ficus-indica Mill in Mexico Central Region  

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Full Text Available Problem statement: The Indian fig (a species of prickly pear cactus, has been known as Nopal, comprises an approximate area of 100,000 ha, in plantations used for human consumption. ?Pyramids? Indian fig area located in the northeastern State of Mexico has been an important Indian-fig area in the country, with 15810 ha, where a phytoplasma has been consistently present in symptomatic plant. Approach: An unknown symptomatology in the Indian fig (prickly pear cactus (Opuntia ficus-indica Mill was analyzed through grafting and a nested-PCR reaction and graft on healthy plants grown in a greenhouse. Results: The symptoms found, deforming, buds proliferation, thickening and heart-shaping in cladodes, with arrested plant growth and deep yellowing of cladodes, were all attributed to the presence of a phytoplasma given the amplification of a 1200 pb fragment of the 16S rRNA gene using primers R16 F2/R2 and R16F2n/R2 and 80% of phytoplasma transmission efficiency of successful grafts. Conclusion: Although the symptoms observed did not completely match those described for this organism in the region, a 1200 pb fragment was amplified and PCR products restriction analysis leading us to assume that the phytoplasma corresponds to subgroup 16Srll, previously reported for other crops in others world regions.

Ricardo Gaspar

2009-01-01

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Designing plant scale process integration for water management in an Indian paper mill.  

Science.gov (United States)

In the present study, plant-scale process integration was applied to an Indian paper mill using the water cascade analysis (WCA) technique. Three limiting constraints, chemical oxygen demand (COD), total dissolved solids (TDS), and adsorbable organic halides (AOX), were considered for the study. A nearest neighbor algorithm was used to distribute the freshwater and recycled water among the plant operations. It was found that the limiting critical constraint depends upon the types of processes and streams involved in the integration. The limiting critical constraint can differ for different sections of the same industry, and can differ in different schemes of integration. After process integration, a 55.6% reduction in effluent flow, a 36% reduction in COD, and a 73% reduction in AOX were observed. After process integration, a 35.21% reduction in pollution costs can be achieved and, assuming the average production of the mill to be 225 tons per day, a savings of Indian rupees (INR) 1.73 per kg of paper produced can be achieved by employing process integration. The water cess was calculated as INR 3024.77 per day without integration for the sections that were considered for integration, while after integration, a 41.53% savings in the form of water cess was calculated. PMID:23845953

Shukla, Sudheer Kumar; Kumar, Vivek; Chakradhar, B; Kim, Taesung; Bansal, M C

2013-10-15

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Effect of amendments on chemical immobilization of heavy metals in sugar mill contaminated soils  

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Full Text Available A bulk soil sample collected from the vicinity of PSM (Premier Sugar Mill Mardan was amended with diammonium phosphate (DAP, triple super phosphate (TSP, Farm Yard Manure (FYM and poultry manure (PM in 1.5 kg soil in a 2 L plastic pot. Both DAP and TSP were added at 230 mg kg 1 (460 kg ha 1 soil whereas the organic amendments (FYM and PM were added at the rate of 10% by weight of soil. The air dried samples in pots were brought to field moisture content (0.33 bar water content by the addition of either HIE (Hayatabad Industrial Estate or PSM in two separate sets of experiments. The experimental pots were arranged in randomized complete design with three replicates under laboratory conditions during March to May (Temperature varying between 25 to 30 °C. Treated and control pots were incubated for 90 days al 0.33 bar ca 25% moisture and the moisture deficit during the incubation time was adjusted by adding PSM and HIE effluents in their respective set of experimental pots. Soil samples were collected after 15, 30, 45 and 90 d to determine the effect of amendments on AB-DTPA extractable metals. The results showed that AB-DTPA extractable Cd, Or, Cu, Ni and Cd increased significantly with lime and the maximum values were noted after 90 days incubation whereas the Fe, Mn and Zn content in soil increased with time but the increase was not significant. It was further noted that the increase over time in metal was not pronounced when supplied with amendments indicating their ability to chemically stabilize it compared to unamended soils. Higher values of all the heavy metals were noted in unamended soil. By comparing the different amendments, it was observed that FYM was effective in reducing the extractability/phytoavailability of all the metals under study except Pb whereby DAP was most effective as a stabilizing agent in the soil. It was concluded that in calcareous soil, FYM and DAP can be used to reduce the risk of phytotoxicity of heavy metals in contaminated soil or using wastewater for irrigation.

Mohammad Jamal Khan, Muhammad Tahir Azeem and Sajida Perveen1

2012-05-01

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Utilization of agricultural sugar cane wastes as fuel in modern cogeneration systems applied in sugar cane mills; Aprovechamiento de los residuos agricolas caneras como combustible en sistemas de cogeneracion modernos aplicados a ingenios  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Considering the new legal frame on cogeneration in Mexico, the possibility of heat and electricity supply required by the sugar mills to be made by an independent cogenerator of the sugar mill, operating with the sugar cane bagasse and agricultural sugar cane wastes, has been evaluated. Such modern cogenerator would be characterized, besides operating in an independent way of the sugar mill, by the use of high efficiency equipment in its process of heat and electricity generation. In this sense the Comision Nacional para el Ahorro de Energia (CONAE) through its Coordination Program and the Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas (IIE) carried out a joint project to determine the technical and economical viability that the sugar industry maintains the present sugar production without the need of burning fuel oil, installing adjacent to every sugar mill, a modern cogeneration system, operated by independent producers, that using sugar cane bagasse and agricultural sugar cane wastes, allows the supply of all the steam and electricity required by the sugar mill, and additionally can add firm capacity and the supply of electric power to the national grid, during the grinding season as well as out of grinding season. [Espanol] En consideracion al nuevo marco juridico de la cogeneracion en Mexico se ha evaluado la posibilidad de que el suministro de calor y electricidad requerido por los ingenios azucareros sea proporcionado por un cogenerador independiente de la planta de azucar, el cual opere utilizando el bagazo y residuos agricolas caneras (biomasa canera). Dicho cogenerador moderno se caracterizaria, ademas de operar de manera independiente a la planta de azucar, por el uso de equipos de alta eficiencia en su proceso de produccion de calor y electricidad. En este sentido la Comision Nacional para el Ahorro de Energia (CONAE) a traves de la Coordinacion de Programacion y el Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas (IIE) realizaron un trabajo en conjunto para determinar la viabilidad tecnica y economica de que la industria azucarera pueda mantener la produccion actual de azucar, sin tener necesidad de consumir combustoleo, instalando aledano a cada ingenio, un sistema de cogeneracion moderno, operado por productores independientes, que utilizando el bagazo y los residuos agricolas canera, permita suministrar todo el vapor y la electricidad requerida por la fabrica de azucar y, ademas, pueda suministrar capacidad firme y energia electrica a la red nacional, tanto en periodo de zafra como fuera de zafra.

Buendia Dominguez, Eduardo H. [Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas, Cuernavaca (Mexico); De Buen Rodriguez, Odon [Comision Nacional para el Ahorro de la Energia, Mexico, D. F. (Mexico)

1998-12-31

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Performance Enhancement of Sugar Mill by Alternate Cooling System for Condenser  

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Full Text Available Agro industry plays a crucial role in the industrialization process of developing countries. Sugar industry is second largest agro industry in the world. In sugar manufacturing plants there are various processes for production of sugar i.e. extraction of juice, clarification, evaporation, concentration of juice, forming and separating crystals etc. These processes consumed energies in the form of mechanical energy, electrical energy and heat energy. So there are various sources of waste heat in sugar factory i.e. waste heat from hot flue gasses, hot water from evaporative body and boiler blow down. The large amount of waste heat passes from various devices of sugar factory causes decrease in the efficiency of sugar plants, and also increase the “Global Warming” which is very dangerous for our environment. The present cooling system for condenser is inappropriate & hence decrease vacuum in evaporators and pans. This will increase the boiling point temperature of juice. The proposed cooling system gives solution of both problems. The most important source of waste heat i.e. hot flue gases are use to run absorption chiller. The absorption chiller gives better cooling system for condenser. There will be improvement in condensation of vapour in condenser which will cause increase vacuum in evaporators and pans thereby reducing boiling point temperature of juice. This reduced boiling point temperature of juice requires less amount of steam for boiling, ultimately saving of bagasse and fuel economy can be attained. Thus this arrangement can be treated as the efficient method of utilization of waste heat for cooling condenser water in sugar factory thus saving further depletion of natural resources like coal, petroleum or else increasing its availability to other important processes and one can hope that the “waste heat recovery” may play an even greater role in the industrial development in this new millennium.

Paras Chouhan

2014-09-01

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Economic feasibility study regarding the applicability of ultrasonic inspection of the Cuban sugar industry’s sugarcane mill shafts  

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Full Text Available This article evaluates the economic feasibility of carrying out ultrasonic inspection of sugar-mill shafts. Four alternatives are considered, including the most frequently encountered scenarios. How and when inspections are carried out is analysed, periods between inspections being established by a fatigue-crack growth propagation approach. The lifecycle cost approach was applied for economic evaluation. Operation, maintenance and energy consumption costs were thus taken into consideration. The conclusion was drawn that it is highly advisable to use high performance ultrasonic inspection. Introducing ultrasonic inspection (according to the period of time obtained by fracture mechanics model could lead to a saving of half a million dollars per year for the Cuban sugarcane industry in the current conditions.

Nelson Arzola de la Peña

2010-05-01

 
 
 
 
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Esquistossomosse em trabalhadores da Usina Catende, Pernambuco, Brasil Schistosomiasis mansoni in the Catende sugar mill plantation workers in Pernambuco, Brazil  

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Full Text Available Foi realizado estudo transversal sobre a esquistossomose mansônica em nove engenhos da usina Catende localizada na Zona da Mata sul do Estado de Pernambuco (Brasil. A prevalência foi 43,8% para a população geral dos engenhos e 64,6% para os trabalhadores de campo. A prevalência das formas hepato-esplênicas foi 4,1% sendo que em dois engenhos chegou a 8,7% e 9,1%. Biomphalaria straminea foi o único molusco transmissor encontrado na área; sua taxa de infecção natural por S. Mansoni foi 0,07%. Á esquistossomose pode ser considerada como doença grave na região estudada.A sectional study on schistosomiasis mansoni was carried out at nine sugar plantations belonging to the Catende sugar mill. The plantations are located in typical sugar cane country in the southern part of the humid coastal forest region of the State of Pernambuco. Results show that schistosomiasis is a very severe disease in the area. The overall infection rate was 43.8%, distributed according to sex and age groups as shown in table 1; whereas, 64.6% of the field workers were infected. The hepatosplenic forms had a 4.1% prevalence rate (see tables 1 and 2, and on two of the plantations this rate rose to 8.7% and 9.1%. Biomphalaria straminea was the only intermediate host found in the area and was found to have the very low infection rate of 0.07% as is common in these natural conditions.

Dirceu P. Pereira da Costa

1980-12-01

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Detection of Phytoplasma on Indian Fig (Opuntia ficus-indica Mill) in Mexico Central Region  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Problem statement: The Indian fig (a species of prickly pear cactus), has been known as Nopal, comprises an approximate area of 100,000 ha, in plantations used for human consumption. ?Pyramids? Indian fig area located in the northeastern State of Mexico has been an important Indian-fig area in the country, with 15810 ha, where a phytoplasma has been consistently present in symptomatic plant. Approach: An unknown symptomatology in the Indian fig (prickly pear cactus) (Opunti...

Ricardo Gaspar; Noa-carrazana, Juan C.; Ricardo Hernández-Pérez; Pedro Mata; Norma Flores-Estévez

2009-01-01

43

Evaluation of Anaerobic Fluidized Bed Reactor for treating Sugar mill effluent - a Case Study  

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Full Text Available Anaerobic treatment processes are credible options for providing sustainable treatment to biodegradable waste streams. The Anaerobic Fluidized Bed Reactor (AFBR is an evolving process that requires waste specific design methodologies based on kinetics of the specific process. The research was precisely an experimental study on AFBR having23.56 litres of effective volume to evaluate its treatment performance and gas recovery in terms of Chemical Oxygen Demand (COD, Hydraulic Retention Time(HRTand Organic Loading Rate (OLR. The synthetic sugar influent COD was variedfrom 1500 to 4000 mg/lit. The OLR for the operating flow rates were ranged from 1.36 to 28.8 Kg COD/m3 .day for HRT varied from 3.2 to 24 hrs. The maximum COD removal efficiency is 90.06 at an operating OLR of 3.42 Kg COD/m3 .day. The maximum biogas yield was observed at 0.28 m 3 /kg COD removed.

R. Mathiyazhagan

2014-07-01

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Survey of Indian issues in the state of New Mexico relating to uranium mining and milling  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Estimates of Indian uranium resources range from 11 to 50% of the US total resources. About 17% of New Mexico's reserves are known to be on Indian lands. New Mexico has produced almost half of the nation's uranium supply; over half of the known reserves are located within the state. However, the state has virtually no jurisdiction over development of Indian uranium. As a result, economic and environmental impacts on the state are beyond its control. The lack of state and federal control over these impacts is influencing how the Indians allow development to proceed. The impacts of Indian uranium development also influence state control of non-Indian. To the extent that these controls affect the availability of uranium concentrate, DOE needs to understand the issues involved. This issue paper identifies some of the related problems for both the Indians and the state and explores the reasons behind them

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Survey of Indian issues in the state of New Mexico relating to uranium mining and milling  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

(Estimates of Indian uranium resources range from 11 to 50% of the US total resources. About 17% of New Mexico's reserves are known to be on Indian lands. New Mexico has produced almost half of the nation's uranium supply; over half of the known reserves are located within the state. However, the state has virtually no jurisdiction over development of Indian uranium. As a result, economic and environmental impacts on the state are beyond its control. The lack of state and federal control over these impacts is influencing how the Indians federal control over these impacts is influencing how the Indians allow development to proceed. The impacts of Indian uranium development also influence state control of non-Indian uranium development also influence state control of non-Indian reserves. To the extent that these controls affect the availability of uranium concentrate, DOE needs to understand the issues involved. This issue paper identifies some of the related problems for both the Indians and the state and explores the reasons behind them.

Vandevender, S.G.; Barsumian, L.; Gurbaxani, S.H.

1979-11-01

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Ferti-irrigational impact of sugar mill effluent on agronomical characteristics of Phaseolus vulgaris (L.) in two seasons.  

Science.gov (United States)

Ferti-irrigation response of 5, 10, 25, 50, 75, and 100 % concentrations of the sugar mill effluent (SME) on French bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L., cv. Annapurna) in the rainy and summer seasons was investigated. The fertigant concentrations produced significant (P?soil parameters, viz., electrical conductivity (EC), pH, organic carbon (OC), sodium (Na(+)), potassium (K(+)), calcium (Ca(2+)), magnesium (Mg(2+)), total Kjeldahl nitrogen (TKN), phosphate (PO4 (3-)), sulfate (SO4 (2-)), ferrous (Fe(2+)), cadmium (Cd), chromium (Cr), copper (Cu), manganese (Mn), and zinc (Zn), in both seasons. The contents of Cr, Cu, Mn, and Zn except Cd were found to be below the maximum levels permitted for soils in India. The agronomic performance of P. vulgaris was gradually increased at lower concentrations, i.e., from 5 to 25 %, and decreased at higher concentrations, i.e., from 50 to 100 %, of the SME in both seasons when compared to controls. The accumulations of heavy metals were increased in the soil and P. vulgaris from 5 to 100 % concentrations of the SME in both seasons. The contents of Cu, Mn, and Zn except Cd and Cr were noted under the permissible limit of Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO)/World Health Organization (WHO) standards. Most contents of biochemical components like crude proteins, crude fiber, and total carbohydrates were found with 25 % concentration of the SME in both seasons. The contamination factor (Cf) of various metals was in the order of Cd > Cr > Zn > Mn > Cu for soil and Mn > Zn > Cu > Cr > Cd for P. vulgaris in both seasons after fertigation with SME. Therefore, the SME can be used to improve the soil fertility and yield of P. vulgaris after appropriate dilution. PMID:25103211

Kumar, Vinod; Chopra, A K

2014-11-01

47

Uranium exploration, mining and milling proposal, Navajo Indian Reservation, New Mexico  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The Secretary of the Interior has been requested to approve an exploration permit and mining lease which are part of a uranium exploration, mining, and milling Agreement, negotiated between the Navajo Tribe and the Exxon Corporation. The exploration area is a 400,000 acre tract located on the Navajo Reservation in San Juan County, New Mexico. If uranium ore in sufficient quantities to warrant development is discovered, Exxon is authorized to take a total of 51,200 acres to lease for mining, of which only 5,120 surface acres may be used for mining and milling purposes. While all exploration and predevelopment costs prior to mining must be borne by Exxon, the Navajo Tribe has reserved the right to participate in the venture on either a royalty basis or as a partner holding up to a 40 percent working interest. Impacts resulting from exploration will include disturbance of soils and vegetation and air quality degradation resulting from the vehicular movement and the operation of drilling equipment. If mining and milling takes place significant environmental impacts include: sub-surface water depletion, soils and vegetation disturbance, air quality degradation, interruption of the wildlife habitat, population increases, increased demands on community services and facilities, and disruption of established lifestyles and social patterns. Low levels of radioactive emissions will be found at mine and mill sites. Income and employment opportunities from the project to the Navajo Tribe, Navajo people, and the entire San Juan County community will be significant

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Modelación matemática de la flotación de la maza superior de los molinos de caña de azúcar / Mathematical model for instant flotation of top shaft in sugar cane mills  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Cuba | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish En el presente trabajo se desarrolla un modelo matemático de la flotación de la maza superior de los molinos de caña de azúcar durante su funcionamiento, determinado a partir de mediciones experimentales de dicha magnitud en el tiempo. Se realiza un ajuste adecuado a los valores medidos experimental [...] mente y se obtiene una función analítica que permitirá considerar los efectos de la flotación en el estudio del funcionamiento y en los métodos de cálculo de los molinos y sus elementos. Se aplica a un molino en el Complejo Agroindustrial 14 de Julio en Cienfuegos. Se modelan cien segundos de funcionamiento obteniéndose una función que expresa la flotación la que al ser derivada permite obtener la velocidad y aceleración con que varía la flotación instantánea. Los coeficientes y sus bondades son dados matricialmente para todos los ajustes efectuados al construir la función que define la flotación instantánea obtenida en este caso. Abstract in english A mathematical model for the instant flotation of the top shaft of sugar cane mill is developed and analytical function for introduce in the study of other sugar cane mills parts is obtained. The model is applied to July 14th sugar factory in Cienfuegos. One hundred seconds of work is modeled and a [...] functions for floating, velocity and acceleration of floating are obtained. The coefficients and their goodness are given in matrix for all the fits made for to build the function that defines the instant flotation obtained in this case.

Mario Javier, Cabello-Ulloa; Juan José, Cabello-Eras; Jorge, Moya-Rodríguez; Rafael, Goytisolo-Espinosa; José Alberto, Velásquez-Pérez; Juan Rafael, Mestizo-Cerón.

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Sugars profiles of different chestnut (Castanea sativa Mill.) and almond (Prunus dulcis) cultivars by HPLC-RI.  

Science.gov (United States)

Sugar profiles of different almond and chestnut cultivars were obtained by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC), by means of a refractive index (RI) detector. A solid-liquid extraction procedure was used in defatted and dried samples. The chromatographic separation was achieved using a Eurospher 100-5 NH(2) column using an isocratic elution with acetonitrile/water (70:30, v/v) at a flow rate of 1.0 ml/min. All the compounds were separated in 16 min. The method was optimized and proved to be reproducible and accurate. Generally, more than 95% of sugars were identified for both matrixes. Sugars profiles were quite homogeneous for almond cultivars; sucrose was the main sugar (11.46 +/- 0.14 in Marcona to 22.23 +/- 0.59 in Ferragnes g/100 g of dried weight), followed by raffinose (0.71 +/- 0.05 in Ferraduel to 2.11 +/- 0.29 in Duro Italiano), glucose (0.42 +/- 0.12 in Pegarinhos two seeded to 1.47 +/- 0.19 in Ferragnes) and fructose (0.11 +/- 0.02 in Pegarinhos two seeded to 0.59 +/- 0.05 in Gloriette). Commercial cultivars proved to have higher sucrose contents, except in the case of Marcona. Nevertheless, chestnut cultivars revealed a high heterogeneity. Sucrose was the main sugar in Aveleira (22.05 +/- 1.48), Judia (23.30 +/- 0.83) and Longal (9.56 +/- 0.91), while glucose was slightly prevalent in Boa Ventura (6.63 +/- 0.49). The observed variance could serve for inter-cultivar discrimination. PMID:20033298

Barreira, João C M; Pereira, José Alberto; Oliveira, M Beatriz P P; Ferreira, Isabel C F R

2010-03-01

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La frescura de la caña de azúcar: Un caso de estudio en tres ingenios de México / Sugar cane cut-to-crush delay: a case study in three sugar mills of México  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Mexico | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish La frescura de la caña de azúcar es el tiempo transcurrido desde la quema o el corte del cultivo hasta que se recibe en los ingenios y es importante reducir este tiempo para evitar la pérdida de sacarosa. Por tanto, se realizó un estudio durante la zafra 2007-2008 en tres ingenios mexicanos: en Zaca [...] tepec, Morelos; en Casimiro Castillo, Jalisco; y en Ciudad Valles, San Luis Potosí. Se recopiló la información de la fecha y hora de entrada y salida de camiones, parcela de origen, identificación del camión, etc., lo cual se complementó con entrevistas a transportistas y conteos de camiones. Se elaboró un modelo matemático para analizar la influencia de varios factores que afectan la frescura. Se estableció que: 1) el tiempo de quema-corte-alzado de la caña es el componente más importante del tiempo de frescura (de 14.7 a 22.23 h, o 67 a 84 %); 2) el segundo componente más importante fue el tiempo de espera en batey (de 2.94 a 10.02 h, o 12 a 30 %); 3) el traslado tuvo la menor influencia (de 0.76 a 1.25 h, o 2.3 a 5.84 %); 4) en las parcelas con corte mecanizado y sin quema de la caña, el tiempo de frescura es aproximadamente la mitad que en las parcelas con corte manual; 5) el parque vehicular es excesivo, lo que se refleja en un muy reducido número de viajes que realiza cada unidad (0.8 a 1.63 viajes d-1), lo cual se traduce en un raquítico ingreso para los transportistas. Abstract in english Sugarcane cut-to-crush delay is the time lapse between cutting and reception in the sugar mills. It is important to reduce this time to avoid loss of sucrose. Therefore, this study was conducted during the 2007-2008 harvest in three Mexican sugar mills: Zacatepec, Morelos; Casimiro Castillo, Jalisco [...] ; and Ciudad Valles, San Luis Potosí. Information on the date and hour of truck entry and exit, origin of the sugar cane, truck identity, etc., was collected; this was complemented with interviews to truckers and truck counting. A mathematical model was developed to analyze the influence of several factors that affect cut-to-crush delay. It was established that: 1) the time between burning, cutting and pickup was the most important time component in cut-to-crush delay (14.7 to 22.23 h, or 67 to 84 %); 2) the second most important component was the waiting time at the mill (2.94 to 10.02 h, or 12 to 30 %); 3) transport to the mill had the least influence (0.76 to 1.25 h, or 2.3 to 5.84 %); 4) in the fields where cutting is mechanized and the cane leaves were not burned off, delay time was approximately half that in the fields where cutting was done manually; 5) the number of vehicles is excessive, that is, the number of trips made by each truck is very small (0.8 to 1.63 trips d-1), which translates into paltry incomes for the truckers.

Oscar L., Palacios-Vélez; Enrique, Mejía-Sáenz; Luis, Piñón-Sosa; Hugo, Sánchez-Hernández.

51

Electricity generation from rice husk in Indian rice mills: potential and financial viability  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Rice husk generated as a by-product of rice processing is an important energy resource. The availability of this resource in India has been assessed and the technologies for exploitation of its energy potential in the rice processing industry discussed. Nomographs have been developed for estimation of the husk required to meet the energy of parboiling, drying and milling operations. The unit cost of electricity using rice husk gasifier-based power generation systems has been calculated and its financial feasibility assessed in comparison with utility-supplied and diesel-generated electricity. With the cost and efficiency data assumed here, the unit cost of electricity produced by rice husk gasifier-dual fuel engine-generator system varies between Rs 2/kWh and Rs 7/kWh. (35 Rs approximates to SUS 1.). (author)

52

Sugars profiles of different chestnut (Castanea sativa Mill.) and almond (Prunus dulcis) cultivars by HPLC-RI  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Sugar profiles of different almond and chestnut cultivars were obtained by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC), by means of a refractive index (RI) detector. A solid-liquid extraction procedure was used in defatted and dried samples. The chromatographic separation was achieved using a Eurospher 100-5 NH2 column using an isocratic elution with acetonitrile/water (70:30, v/v) at a flow rate of 1.0 ml/min. All the compounds were separated in 16 min. The method w...

Barreira, Joa?o C. M.; Pereira, J. A.; Oliveira, M. B. P. P.; Ferreira, Isabel C. F. R.

2010-01-01

53

Energy and water saving measures at the Arloev sugar mill. Final report; Energi- och vattenbesparande aatgaerder vid Arloevs Sockerbruk. Slutrapport  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The project comprised several, mutually dependent, sub-projects; mapping, investigation of ways to reduce water consumption, membrane tests aiming to find ways to recover sugar, and pinch analysis to evaluate the possibilities for improved process integration. This final report deals with the overall project results. Identified savings opportunities and savings potentials are presented. The presented measures represent an overall optimisation based on the results of all the project parts. Already during the project, measures have been implemented that are calculated to save 65 000 m{sup 3} water annually, corresponding to 10 % of the total water consumption. This saving is in level with the goals for the project. In the table below, these and additional measures are presented with a total savings potential at approximately 200 000 m{sup 3} /year water. The project will then achieve a saving of just below 35 % of present water consumption. Also in the membrane study the results surpassed the expectations. It was found that with nano filtering a sugar concentration of more than 10 %(W) could be reached in the retentate at a flux 50al/m{sup 2}h. The total sugar losses were less than 5 %, i.e. 95 % should be possible to recover. In total, a savings potential of more than 300 tonnes sugar per year is indicated. The Energy savings in the project are calculated to 7,4 GWh/year, of which 0,2 GWh/year by reduced water consumption, 0,6 GWh/year by water recovery, 1,4 GWh/year by membrane technology and 5,2aGWh/year as a result of process integration. This should be compared to the target 2,5 GWh/year. Hence, the results are almost three times the expected. The savings in monetary terms are estimated at just under SEK 5 million per year. The investment is roughly estimated at between SEK 5 and 6 million, of which SEK 4 million for the membrane equipment and SEK 0,5 million for a process water buffer tank. The remaining investment costs cover heat exchangers, control equipment and piping. This means that the total package will have a payback time of approximately one year. The environmental benefits of this project are mainly a result of the reduced energy consumption. This leads to a 1 600 tonne reduction of carbon dioxide emissions annually from reduced natural gas firing. Furthermore, the results indicate possibilities for a profitable reduction of oxygen depleting substances by over 300 tonnes sugar annually. In addition, the reduction of water consumption by 200 000 cubic meters per year results in reduced electricity and chemicals consumption in both water and sewage treatment plants.

Wamsler, M. [AAF-Processdesign AB, Malmoe (Sweden)

2001-10-01

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Do engenho à biorrefinaria: a usina de açúcar como empreendimento industrial para a geração de produtos bioquímicos e biocombustíveis / From the mill to a biorefinery: the sugar factory as an industrial enterprise for the generation of biochemicals and biofuels  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese [...] Abstract in english A sugar cane mill is at the present moment a modest biorefinery producing few products such as sugar, ethanol and polyhydroxybutyrate (PHB). In the near future, this mill can expand its production using several renewable feedstock's to produce biofuels and high value biobased chemicals. However, the [...] choice of appropriate products for addition to the portfolio is challenged by a lack of broad-based conversion technology coupled with a plethora of potential targets. The intent of this revision was to catalyze research efforts to expand the list of products and to present an updated evaluation of potential target structures for chemical production.

José Augusto R, Rodrigues.

1242-12-01

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The Value of the Freshwater Snail Dip Scoop Sampling Method in Macroinvertebrates Bioassessment of Sugar Mill Wastewater Pollution in Mbandjock, Cameroon  

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Full Text Available Macroinvertebrates identification and enumeration may be used as a simple and affordable alternative to chemical analysis in water pollution monitoring. However, the ecological responses of various taxa to pollution are poorly known in resources-limited tropical countries. While freshwater macroinvertebrates have been used in the assessment of water quality in Europe and the Americas, investigations in Africa have mainly focused on snail hosts of human parasites. There is a need for sampling methods that can be used to assess both snails and other macroinvertebrates. The present study was designed to evaluate the usefulness of the freshwater snail dip scoop method in the study of macroinvertebrates for the assessment of the SOSUCAM sugar mill effluents pollution. Standard snail dip scoop samples were collected upstream and downstream of the factory effluent inputs, on the Mokona and Mengoala rivers. The analysis of the macroinvertebrate communities revealed the absence of Ephemeroptera and Trichoptera, and the thriving of Syrphidae in the sections of the rivers under high effluent load. The Shannon and Weaver diversity index was lower in these areas. The dip scoop sampling protocol was found to be a useful method for macroinvertebrates collection. Hence, this method is recommended as a simple, cost-effective and efficient tool for the bio-assessment of freshwater pollution in developing countries with limited research resources.

Emmanuel Noumi

2008-03-01

56

Predicción de vida remanente en ejes de masa superior de molino de caña / Predicting remaining life in upper sugar-mill shafts  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Colombia | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish En este artículo se presenta un método basado en la mecánica de fractura para el cálculo del tamaño crítico de fisuras y la vida remanente de un eje de masa superior de molino de caña de azúcar, con fisuras semielípticas y circunferenciales. Debido a la presencia de un campo de esfuerzos multiaxiale [...] s es necesario usar en la ley de París un factor de intensidad de esfuerzos equivalente. Se obtuvieron los intervalos entre inspección requeridos para evitar una falla por fatiga de estos elementos. Para el cálculo de vida residual y tamaño de fisura máxima se considera la zona localizada en el cambio de diámetro del guijo más próximo al acoplamiento cuadrado, donde se encontró el 25% de las fallas. Abstract in english A fracture mechanics-based method is presented for determining critical crack size and residual life of upper sugar-mill shafts having semi-elliptical and circumferential cracks. Due to the multiaxial stress field, an equivalent strain energy release rate stress intensity solution is used in Paris’ [...] law to predict crack growth. Ultrasonic inspection intervals for the shaft were established. The crack zone evaluated was located in the shoulder of the bearing nearest to the square box coupling where about 25% of service failures in these types of shaft are observed.

Sara, Rodríguez Pulecio; John Jairo, Coronado Marín; Nelson, Arzola de la Peña.

2006-04-01

57

Predicción de vida remanente en ejes de masa superior de molino de caña / Predicting remaining life in upper sugar-mill shafts  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Colombia | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish En este artículo se presenta un método basado en la mecánica de fractura para el cálculo del tamaño crítico de fisuras y la vida remanente de un eje de masa superior de molino de caña de azúcar, con fisuras semielípticas y circunferenciales. Debido a la presencia de un campo de esfuerzos multiaxiale [...] s es necesario usar en la ley de París un factor de intensidad de esfuerzos equivalente. Se obtuvieron los intervalos entre inspección requeridos para evitar una falla por fatiga de estos elementos. Para el cálculo de vida residual y tamaño de fisura máxima se considera la zona localizada en el cambio de diámetro del guijo más próximo al acoplamiento cuadrado, donde se encontró el 25% de las fallas. Abstract in english A fracture mechanics-based method is presented for determining critical crack size and residual life of upper sugar-mill shafts having semi-elliptical and circumferential cracks. Due to the multiaxial stress field, an equivalent strain energy release rate stress intensity solution is used in Paris’ [...] law to predict crack growth. Ultrasonic inspection intervals for the shaft were established. The crack zone evaluated was located in the shoulder of the bearing nearest to the square box coupling where about 25% of service failures in these types of shaft are observed.

Sara, Rodríguez Pulecio; John Jairo, Coronado Marín; Nelson, Arzola de la Peña.

58

“REVIEW OF SUGAR INDUSTRIES IN MAHARASHTRA STATE”  

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Sugar industry is the largest co-operative industry in India. About 45 million sugarcane farmers, their dependents and agricultural laborer are involved in Indian sugar industry. Maharashtra state is the one of the biggest sugarcane production state in India. Sugar industry play the main role to development in Maharashtra. The sugar industry in Maharashtra is most popular in co-operative sector. The Maharashtra sugar industry has been contributing 40% of India's total sugar production. Mahara...

THORAT PURUSHOTTAM DHANRAJ; Dharne, S. R.

2013-01-01

59

Assessment of In vitro Multiple Shoot Bud Induction from Leaf Explants among Eleven Indian Cultivars of Pigeon Pea (Cajanus cajan L. Mill sp.  

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Full Text Available In vitro multiple shoot bud induction from leaf explants of eleven Indian cultivars of pigeon pea (Cajanus cajan L. Mill sp. under the influence of variable concentration of three different cytokinins namely BAP, KIN and TDZ on MS media has been studied. Callus of variable morphology and nature was observed for most of the cultivars except four cultivars IPA-2013, Pusa-9, T-7 and IPA-98-3 showing multiple shoot bud induction. Among cytokinins used BAP was found to be most effective. Further elongation of multiple shoot buds was achieved in the same media while rooting of regenerated multiple shoots were attempted in MS media supplemented with variable concentration of three different auxins namely NAA, IAA and IBA. Efficient rooting was achieved in the presence of NAA. Regenerated plants were successfully established in soil with acclimatization frequency varying from 25-50% with cultivar IPA-2013 showing the best response.

Manoj Kumar Yadav

2011-01-01

60

Modelación matemática del funcionamiento de las coronas de molinos considerando la flotación de la maza superior / An equivalent mechanism for the kinetic and dynamic analysis of the sugar cane mill gears  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Cuba | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish En este trabajo se propone un mecanismo equivalente para modelar el funcionamiento de las coronas de los molinos de caña de azúcar, que permite tomar en cuenta la forma real del perfil de los dientes trazados por arcos de círculos y la variación de la distancia entre centros durante su funcionamient [...] o. Aplicando el método grafo-analítico al modelo propuesto se obtiene una función cinemática que define la posición angular instantánea de la corona conducida con dependencia de la distancia entre ejes de las ruedas y la posición angular de la corona conductora. Aplicando métodos paramétricos se obtienen ecuaciones para la velocidad y aceleración que son generales para cualquier tipo de perfil de dientes en engranajes que trabajan con variación de distancia entre centros. Finalmente se grafican estos parámetros para el funcionamiento de las coronas de un molino real concluyéndose que estas tienen relación de transmisión instantánea variable y que por el solo hecho de la forma del perfil se producen aceleraciones. Abstract in english Equivalent mechanism is proposed for modeling sugar cane mills gears, which allows to take into account the shape of the tooth profile formed by circular arcs and the variation of the distance between centers for operation. Applying the graph-analytical method to the proposed model is obtained a fun [...] ction to define the instantaneous angular position of the sugar cane mill gear in relation with the instantaneous angular position of driver gear and the center distance of gears. General equations for the velocity and acceleration for any type of gear tooth profile with variable distance between centers are proposed through parametric method. Plotted these parameters for real sugar cane mill gear and it is concluded that the instantaneous speed ratio is variable and the profile shape produced accelerations.

Mario Javier, Cabello-Ulloa; Juan José, Cabello-Eras; Jorge, Moya-Rodríguez; Rafael, Goytisolo-Espinosa; José Alberto, Velásquez-Pérez; Juan Rafael, Mestizo-Cerón.

 
 
 
 
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Estrutura de um fragmento florestal no Engenho Humaitá, Catende, Pernambuco, Brasil / Structure of a forest fragment at Humaitá sugar mill, Catende, PE, Brazil  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese Avaliou-se, neste trabalho, a estrutura de um fragmento florestal antropizado denominado Mata das Galinhas, Engenho Humaitá, Catende, Pernambuco, e se utilizaram, para avaliar a composição florística e a estrutura fitossociológica, 14 parcelas de 10 x 25 m a fim de amostrar os indivíduos arbóreos co [...] m circunferência a 1,30 m do solo (CAP) ? 10 cm. Foram estimados, então, densidade, frequência e dominância e valor de importância (VI) e o índice de Shannon, além de registrados 438 indivíduos pertencentes a 63 espécies, 45 gêneros e 29 famílias. As famílias de maior importância foram Mimosaceae, Moraceae, Anacardiaceae e Lecythidaceae e as espécies com maiores valores de VI, foram Brosimum discolor, Parkia pendula, Eschweilera ovata, Thyrsodium spruceanum, Tapirira guianensis, Protium heptaphyllum, Casearia arborea, Helicostylis tomentosa, Dialium guianense, Schefflera morototoni, Himatanthus phagedaenicus e Cupania racemosa. Quando observado isoladamente, conclui-se que o fragmento estudado possui pouca relevância; entretanto, se considerado conjuntamente com outros fragmentos da área, sua diversidade é significativa o que justificaria esforços para sua conservação e manejo. Abstract in english The structure of a forest fragment, known as "Mata das Galinhas" at Humaitá sugar mill, Catende, Pernambuco, Brazil was evaluated. To evaluate the floristic composition and the phytosociological structure under anthropic action 14 plots of 10 x 25 m were used to sample the arboreal individuals with [...] circumference at breast height (CBH) ? 10 cm. The density, frequency, and dominance, the importance value (IV) and the Shannon's index were calculated. A total of 438 individuals distributed into 63 species, 45 genera and 29 families were recorded. The families of larger importance in the study were Mimosaceae, Moraceae, Anacardiaceae and Lecythidaceae. The species with larger values of IV were Brosimum discolor, Parkia pendula, Eschweilera ovata, Thyrsodium spruceanum, Tapirira guianensis, Protium heptaphyllum, Casearia arborea, Helicostylis tomentosa, Dialium guianense, Schefflera morototoni, Himatanthus phagedaenicus and Cupania racemosa. When observed separately, the studied fragment possesses low relevance; however, when considered jointly with other fragments of the area, its diversity is significant, justifying efforts for conservation and management.

Francisco J. P., Guimarães; Rinaldo L. C., Ferreira; Luiz C., Marangon; José A. A. da, Silva; Perseu da S., Aparício; Francisco T., Alves Júnior.

2009-12-01

62

Ahorro energético en tándem de molinos de caña de azúcar mediante regulación de presiones hidráulicas / Energy saving in tandem of sugar cane mills by means regulation of hydraulic pressures  

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Full Text Available SciELO Cuba | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish Entre las áreas de mayor consumo de energía en un central azucarero se encuentra el tándem de molinos. Una de las variables que influye sobre este consumo es la presión hidráulica aplicada a la maza superior. La investigación tuvo como objetivo determinar las posibilidades de reducir este consumo re [...] gulando apropiadamente las presiones hidráulicas sin disminuir la eficiencia del proceso de extracción, se llevó a cabo en un tándem de seis molinos donde solo se varió las presiones en los molinos intermedios según un diseño estadístico factorial completo 24. Las variables independientes fueron: las presiones hidráulicas en los molinos intermedios; las dependientes: la demanda de potencia, el % pol y % humedad. Se concluyó que en las condiciones del experimento, el empleo de presiones hidráulicas de trabajo menores en 3,45 MPa en los molinos intermedios, no afectó el proceso de extracción de la sacarosa, pero disminuyó en un 8,12 % la demanda de potencia. Abstract in english Among the areas of more energy consumption in a sugar power station is the tandem of mills. One of the variables that influences on this consumption is the hydraulic pressure applied to the superior mass. The investigation had as objective to determine the possibilities to reduce this consumption re [...] gulating the hydraulic pressures appropriately without diminishing the efficiency of the extraction process, it was carried out in a tandem of six mills where alone it was varied the pressures in the intermediate mills according to a complete factorial statistical design 24. The independent variables were: the hydraulic pressures in the intermediate mills; the dependents: the demand of power, the %pol and %humidity. You concluded that under the conditions of the experiment, the employment of hydraulic pressures of smaller work in 3,45 MPa in the intermediate mills, didn't affect the process of extraction of the sucrose, but it diminished in 8,12 % the demand of power.

Jorge Michel, Corrales-Suárez; José Marcos, Gil-Ortiz; Pedro Dionisio, Remédios-Castañeiras; Yurisleydis, Masjuan-Leyva; José Alexander, Gil-Ceballo.

2013-12-01

63

Ahorro energético en tándem de molinos de caña de azúcar mediante regulación de presiones hidráulicas / Energy saving in tandem of sugar cane mills by means regulation of hydraulic pressures  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Cuba | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish Entre las áreas de mayor consumo de energía en un central azucarero se encuentra el tándem de molinos. Una de las variables que influye sobre este consumo es la presión hidráulica aplicada a la maza superior. La investigación tuvo como objetivo determinar las posibilidades de reducir este consumo re [...] gulando apropiadamente las presiones hidráulicas sin disminuir la eficiencia del proceso de extracción, se llevó a cabo en un tándem de seis molinos donde solo se varió las presiones en los molinos intermedios según un diseño estadístico factorial completo 24. Las variables independientes fueron: las presiones hidráulicas en los molinos intermedios; las dependientes: la demanda de potencia, el % pol y % humedad. Se concluyó que en las condiciones del experimento, el empleo de presiones hidráulicas de trabajo menores en 3,45 MPa en los molinos intermedios, no afectó el proceso de extracción de la sacarosa, pero disminuyó en un 8,12 % la demanda de potencia. Abstract in english Among the areas of more energy consumption in a sugar power station is the tandem of mills. One of the variables that influences on this consumption is the hydraulic pressure applied to the superior mass. The investigation had as objective to determine the possibilities to reduce this consumption re [...] gulating the hydraulic pressures appropriately without diminishing the efficiency of the extraction process, it was carried out in a tandem of six mills where alone it was varied the pressures in the intermediate mills according to a complete factorial statistical design 24. The independent variables were: the hydraulic pressures in the intermediate mills; the dependents: the demand of power, the %pol and %humidity. You concluded that under the conditions of the experiment, the employment of hydraulic pressures of smaller work in 3,45 MPa in the intermediate mills, didn't affect the process of extraction of the sucrose, but it diminished in 8,12 % the demand of power.

Jorge Michel, Corrales-Suárez; José Marcos, Gil-Ortiz; Pedro Dionisio, Remédios-Castañeiras; Yurisleydis, Masjuan-Leyva; José Alexander, Gil-Ceballo.

64

Produção de açúcar e álcool vs. responsabilidade social corporativa: as ações desenvolvidas pelas usinas de cana-de-açúcar frente às externalidades negativas Sugar and ethanol production vs. corporative social responsibility: the actions taken by the sugar cane mills confronted with negative externalizations  

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Full Text Available A responsabilidade social corporativa (RSC é analisada neste estudo no ambiente organizacional das usinas de cana-de-açúcar paulistas que integram o agronegócio brasileiro de açúcar e álcool. Trata-se de uma pesquisa qualitativa que utiliza dados quantitativos para fins descritivos. Apoiada em dados secundários e primários, aborda-se um estudo exploratório no contexto das usinas de cana-de-açúcar do Estado de São Paulo. O objetivo geral foi estabelecer uma análise comparativa entre as externalidades negativas e as ações sociais e verificar se estas últimas tinham um papel compensatório. Foi possível identificar a relação entre imagem e RSC no cenário organizacional das usinas, ressaltando as principais ações sociais desenvolvidas pelas empresas, as quais vêm contribuindo para a melhoria da imagem do setor sucroalcooleiro como agente participante do desenvolvimento sustentável. Constatou-se que o foco das ações sociais está concentrado nas áreas educacional e ambiental, ocupando um plano secundário as ações relacionadas à cultura, ao esporte e à saúde. Os resultados demonstraram que o número de projetos sociais não está necessariamente relacionado ao porte das empresas pesquisadas.Corporative Social Responsibility (CSR is analyzed in this study in the organizational environment of sugar cane mills in the state of São Paulo and which form the Brazilian agribusiness of sugar and ethanol. Following a qualitative research, the quantitative data was used to define objectives using the primary and secondary data approach; an exploratory study in the context of the sugar-ethanol mills. The goal was to establish a comparative analysis between the negative external aspects and the social actions to investigate whether the latter had a significant role. It was possible to identify the relation between image and CSR in the organizational scenario of sugar-ethanol mills highlighting the main social actions developed by the enterprises which have contributed to improving the image of the sugar-ethanol sector as an active agent in the sustainable development. It was verified that the focus of social actions are concentrated in areas related to environment and education. Those related to culture, sport, and health seemed to be not as important. The results show that the number of social actions is not, necessarily, related to the size of the companies researched.

Ivelise Rasera Bragato

2008-04-01

65

Produção de açúcar e álcool vs. responsabilidade social corporativa: as ações desenvolvidas pelas usinas de cana-de-açúcar frente às externalidades negativas / Sugar and ethanol production vs. corporative social responsibility: the actions taken by the sugar cane mills confronted with negative externalizations  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese A responsabilidade social corporativa (RSC) é analisada neste estudo no ambiente organizacional das usinas de cana-de-açúcar paulistas que integram o agronegócio brasileiro de açúcar e álcool. Trata-se de uma pesquisa qualitativa que utiliza dados quantitativos para fins descritivos. Apoiada em dado [...] s secundários e primários, aborda-se um estudo exploratório no contexto das usinas de cana-de-açúcar do Estado de São Paulo. O objetivo geral foi estabelecer uma análise comparativa entre as externalidades negativas e as ações sociais e verificar se estas últimas tinham um papel compensatório. Foi possível identificar a relação entre imagem e RSC no cenário organizacional das usinas, ressaltando as principais ações sociais desenvolvidas pelas empresas, as quais vêm contribuindo para a melhoria da imagem do setor sucroalcooleiro como agente participante do desenvolvimento sustentável. Constatou-se que o foco das ações sociais está concentrado nas áreas educacional e ambiental, ocupando um plano secundário as ações relacionadas à cultura, ao esporte e à saúde. Os resultados demonstraram que o número de projetos sociais não está necessariamente relacionado ao porte das empresas pesquisadas. Abstract in english Corporative Social Responsibility (CSR) is analyzed in this study in the organizational environment of sugar cane mills in the state of São Paulo and which form the Brazilian agribusiness of sugar and ethanol. Following a qualitative research, the quantitative data was used to define objectives usin [...] g the primary and secondary data approach; an exploratory study in the context of the sugar-ethanol mills. The goal was to establish a comparative analysis between the negative external aspects and the social actions to investigate whether the latter had a significant role. It was possible to identify the relation between image and CSR in the organizational scenario of sugar-ethanol mills highlighting the main social actions developed by the enterprises which have contributed to improving the image of the sugar-ethanol sector as an active agent in the sustainable development. It was verified that the focus of social actions are concentrated in areas related to environment and education. Those related to culture, sport, and health seemed to be not as important. The results show that the number of social actions is not, necessarily, related to the size of the companies researched.

Ivelise Rasera, Bragato; Elisabete Stradiotto, Siqueira; Graziela Oste, Graziano; Eduardo Eugênio, Spers.

66

“REVIEW OF SUGAR INDUSTRIES IN MAHARASHTRA STATE”  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Sugar industry is the largest co-operative industry in India. About 45 million sugarcane farmers, their dependents and agricultural laborer are involved in Indian sugar industry. Maharashtra state is the one of the biggest sugarcane production state in India. Sugar industry play the main role to development in Maharashtra. The sugar industry in Maharashtra is most popular in co-operative sector. The Maharashtra sugar industry has been contributing 40% of India's total sugar production. Maharashtra known as sugar hub of the country. sugar industry plays important role in the national as well as state economy. The co-operative sugar industry came with setting up the first cooperative sugar factory at LONI-PRAVARANAGAR in AHEMADNAGAR.The sugar industry can be divided into two sectors including organized and unorganized sector. The sugar factories in Pune district are mainly established in co-operative sector.

THORAT PURUSHOTTAM DHANRAJ

2013-05-01

67

Programação estocástica robusta aplicada ao planejamento agregado de safra em usinas cooperadas do setor sucroenergético / Stochastic robust optimization model applied to the aggregate production planning in mill cooperative socities in the sugar-energy sector  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese Neste trabalho, apresenta-se um modelo de programação estocástica robusta aplicado ao planejamento agregado da produção em usinas cooperadas do setor sucroenergético. Esta modelagem considera a relação hierárquica existente entre o planejamento anual da cooperativa e o planejamento tático de safra d [...] as usinas cooperadas, além de contemplar importantes incertezas existentes nos parâmetros de entrada do modelo. Para resolver os problemas de programação linear e programação inteira mista envolvidos, utiliza-se uma linguagem de modelagem algébrica e um software de última geração de programação matemática. Os resultados computacionais obtidos são comparados aos resultados da modelagem determinística PASUC, discutida em Paiva e Morabito (in press), utilizando os mesmos dados do estudo de caso da Usina Santa Clotilde e da Cooperativa Regional dos Produtores de Açúcar e Álcool de Alagoas. Abstract in english This work presents a stochastic robust optimization model applied to the aggregate production planning in mill cooperative societies in the sugar-energy sector This mathematical model is based on a hierarchical relationship between the annual planning of the cooperative and the tactical planning hor [...] izon of the sugarcane mills taking into account important uncertainties in several parameters of this model. In order to solve the linear and mixed integer programming problems involved, an optimization modeling language solver was used. Computational results are presented and compared with the deterministic approach PASUC, dicussed by Paiva e Morabito (in press) using the same data from the case studies conducted in the Santa Clotilde milling company and in the regional cooperative society of sugar and ethanol producers of Alagoas.

Rafael Piatti Oiticica de, Paiva; Reinaldo, Morabito.

68

Programação estocástica robusta aplicada ao planejamento agregado de safra em usinas cooperadas do setor sucroenergético Stochastic robust optimization model applied to the aggregate production planning in mill cooperative socities in the sugar-energy sector  

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Full Text Available Neste trabalho, apresenta-se um modelo de programação estocástica robusta aplicado ao planejamento agregado da produção em usinas cooperadas do setor sucroenergético. Esta modelagem considera a relação hierárquica existente entre o planejamento anual da cooperativa e o planejamento tático de safra das usinas cooperadas, além de contemplar importantes incertezas existentes nos parâmetros de entrada do modelo. Para resolver os problemas de programação linear e programação inteira mista envolvidos, utiliza-se uma linguagem de modelagem algébrica e um software de última geração de programação matemática. Os resultados computacionais obtidos são comparados aos resultados da modelagem determinística PASUC, discutida em Paiva e Morabito (in press, utilizando os mesmos dados do estudo de caso da Usina Santa Clotilde e da Cooperativa Regional dos Produtores de Açúcar e Álcool de Alagoas.This work presents a stochastic robust optimization model applied to the aggregate production planning in mill cooperative societies in the sugar-energy sector This mathematical model is based on a hierarchical relationship between the annual planning of the cooperative and the tactical planning horizon of the sugarcane mills taking into account important uncertainties in several parameters of this model. In order to solve the linear and mixed integer programming problems involved, an optimization modeling language solver was used. Computational results are presented and compared with the deterministic approach PASUC, dicussed by Paiva e Morabito (in press using the same data from the case studies conducted in the Santa Clotilde milling company and in the regional cooperative society of sugar and ethanol producers of Alagoas.

Rafael Piatti Oiticica de Paiva

2011-01-01

69

Um modelo de otimização para o planejamento agregado da produção em usinas de açúcar e álcool An optimization model for the aggregate production planning in alcohol and sugar mills  

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Full Text Available Neste trabalho apresentamos um modelo de otimização para o planejamento agregado da produção de usinas de açúcar e álcool. Este modelo se baseia nos modelos clássicos de seleção de processos e dimensionamento de lotes para representar o sistema de produção de açúcar, álcool e melaço, incluindo decisões da etapa agrícola, das fases de corte, carregamento e transporte de cana e, principalmente, decisões de moagem, escolha do processo produtivo e estoque dos produtos finais. As decisões são tomadas em períodos semanais e o horizonte de planejamento são as semanas de safra. Para resolver o modelo de programação linear inteira mista resultante, utilizamos a linguagem de modelagem GAMS e o solver CPLEX. Um estudo de caso foi realizado em uma usina de açúcar e álcool do estado de Alagoas. Neste estudo foi possível verificar a adequação do modelo proposto quando aplicado para auxiliar nas decisões envolvidas no planejamento agregado da produção de empresas deste tipo. Resultados computacionais são apresentados resolvendo um exemplo com dados de uma safra típica.The main concern of this work is related to the presentation of an aggregate production planning model of a sugar and alcohol milling company. The mathematical model is based on the process selection model and the production lot-sizing model, and aims to help the decision makers in the production planning and control process of determining the quantity of sugarcane crushed, the selection of sugarcane suppliers, the selection of sugarcane transport system suppliers, the selection of industrial process used in the sugar, alcohol and molasses production and the storage decisions related to these final products. The decisions are taken on a weekly basis and the planning horizon is the whole sugarcane harvesting season. To solve the mixed integer mathematical problem found in this model, we applied the GAMS modeling language and the CPLEX solver. A case study was developed in a sugar and alcohol milling company located in Rio Largo, state of Alagoas, Brazil. The results of this case study helped us to verify the applicability of the proposed model in the aggregate production planning of a milling company. Computational results are presented in real data application.

Rafael Piatti Oititica de Paiva

2007-04-01

70

Phenol Metabolism by White Rot Fungus Phanerochaete chrysosporium Isolated from Indian Paper Mill Effluent Enriched Soil Samples  

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Full Text Available The white rot fungus Phanerochaete chrysosporium isolated from paper mill effluent enriched soil samples degrading various phenol (Mono, di hydroxy and methoxy compounds. During five days of incubation period, 74% of para-hydroxy benzoic acid was utilized by the isolated Phanerochaete chrysosporium when glucose used as a co-substrate. There was 57% degradation of protocatechuic acid using fructose. The fungus degraded vanillin in the presence of co-substrates and the response was more in glucose and fructose than starch. The presence of laccase (EC.1.10.3.2 and polyphenol oxidase (EC.1.10.3.0 extracellular activity suggested that the microorganism secrete these enzymes into the extracellular medium.

P.C. Prabu

2005-01-01

71

Volatile constituents of essential oil and rose water of damask rose (Rosa damascena Mill.) cultivars from North Indian hills.  

Science.gov (United States)

Rosa damascena Mill. is an important aromatic plant for commercial production of rose oil, water, concrete and absolute. The rose water and rose oil produced under the mountainous conditions of Uttarakhand were investigated for their chemical composition. The major components of rose water volatiles obtained from the bud, half bloom and full bloom stages of cultivar 'Ranisahiba' were phenyl ethyl alcohol (66.2-79.0%), geraniol (3.3-6.6%) and citronellol (1.8-5.5%). The rose water volatiles of cultivar 'Noorjahan' and 'Kannouj' also possessed phenyl ethyl alcohol (80.7% and 76.7%, respectively) as a major component at full bloom stage. The essential oil of cultivar 'Noorjahan' obtained from two different growing sites was also compared. The major components of these oils were citronellol (15.9-35.3%), geraniol (8.3-30.2%), nerol (4.0-9.6%), nonadecane (4.5-16.0%), heneicosane (2.6-7.9%) and linalool (0.7-2.8%). This study clearly showed that the flower ontogeny and growing site affect the composition of rose volatiles. The rose oil produced in this region was comparable with ISO standards. Thus, it was concluded that the climatic conditions of Uttarakhand are suitable for the production of rose oil of international standards. PMID:21711177

Verma, Ram Swaroop; Padalia, Rajendra Chandra; Chauhan, Amit; Singh, Anand; Yadav, Ajai Kumar

2011-10-01

72

Aplicação da análise envoltória de dados (AED) na avaliação da eficiência operacional relativa entre usinas de cana-de-açúcar no território brasileiro / Data envelopment analysis (DEA) application for the relative evaluation on the operational efficiency of sugar cane mills in Brazil  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese Este estudo tem por objetivo analisar o impacto das variáveis tamanho e localização na eficiência operacional de usinas de cana-de-açúcar no Brasil na safra 2008/2009. Para tanto, realizou-se um estudo de eficiência operacional, por meio da aplicação da Análise Envoltória de Dados (AED), na qual foi [...] possível identificar as usinas mais eficientes dentre um universo de 355 e classificá-las por tamanho e localização. A análise quantitativa sugere que existe maior concentração de usinas classificadas como eficientes e de tamanho grande, localizadas no estado de São Paulo. Objetivando uma análise em profundidade, foi realizado um estudo de múltiplos casos em um grupo de usinas. Conclui-se que a eficiência operacional de usinas de cana-de-açúcar depende da variável tamanho, na medida em que as usinas de maior porte tendem a investir mais em tecnologias que proporcionam maior ganho de eficiência operacional. A eficiência também depende da variável localização, na medida em que o estado de São Paulo apresenta condições edafoclimáticas mais favoráveis à extração de uma cana-de-açúcar com maior teor de sacarose, que, consequentemente, pode influenciar na eficiência operacional de usinas de cana-de-açúcar. Abstract in english The study aims to analyze the impact of the variables size and location over the operational efficiency of sugarcane mills producing sugar and ethanol in Brazil year 2008/2009. Data concerning total milling and total production of sugar and ethanol was collected regarding Brazilian sugar cane mills. [...] An operational efficiency ranking was developed, applying Data Envelopment Analysis (DEA) technique, through which was possible to verify which were the most efficient among 355 sugarcane mills and, therefore, compare the variables size, location and operational efficiency among the Brazilian mills. The quantitative analysis suggests that among the efficient groups, there is a major concentration of larger mills, located in the state of São Paulo. Aiming an in-depth analysis, a multiple-case study was conducted in a group of sugarcane mills, and interviews with experts in the sugarcane industry were developed. Therefore, the conclusion is that operational efficiency of sugarcane mills depends on the variable location, as larger mills tend to invest more in technologies that provide major gain in operational efficiency. The operational efficiency depends also on the location of the sugarcane mill, as the state of São Paulo provides favorable edaphoclimatic conditions for the juice extraction of sugarcane with a higher level of sucrose content, hence possibly having influence over the operational efficiency.

Alexandre P., Salgado Junior; Fabio V., Carlucci; Juliana C., Novi.

2014-10-01

73

Efeito da esquistossomose na produtividade do cortador de cana ao longo da safra de açúcar da usina catende, Pernambuco / Effect of schistosomiasis on the productivity of sugar cane cutters during the sugar harvest of the Catende mill, Pernambuco  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese Estudo prospectivo de pareamento entre dois grupos de trabalhadores do corte de cana infectados com esquistossomose na zona da mata do Estado de Pernambuco, foi realizado durante a safra de 1977-1978. O grupo de "casos" (forma hepatosplénica) foi comparado com o grupo "controle" (forma intestinal). [...] Os resultados mostraram não apenas que os portadores da forma hepatosplénica cortavam significativamente menos cana que seus controles, como também que a produção daqueles mantinha-se baixa ao longo da safra. Dois trabalhadores, dentre os "casos", tiveram que abandonar o trabalho de campo em vista da visível deterioração de seu estado geral de saúde. Abstract in english A prospective study of the effect of schistosomiasis on the productivity of canecutters was carried out in northeastern Brazil during the harvest season 1977-1978. This study revealed that field workers bearing the hepatosplenic form of the disease produce significantly less in terms of cane tons cu [...] t than their pairs (intestinal form, used as controls). Futhermore, the productivity is gradually reduced the period of the sugar-cane cut season. Two workers (cases) with the hepatosplenic form had to leave field work during the experiment due to visible deterioration of their general health.

Dirceu P. Pereira da, Costa; Frederico Simões, Barbosa.

1982-12-01

74

Efeito da esquistossomose na produtividade do cortador de cana ao longo da safra de açúcar da usina catende, Pernambuco Effect of schistosomiasis on the productivity of sugar cane cutters during the sugar harvest of the Catende mill, Pernambuco  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Estudo prospectivo de pareamento entre dois grupos de trabalhadores do corte de cana infectados com esquistossomose na zona da mata do Estado de Pernambuco, foi realizado durante a safra de 1977-1978. O grupo de "casos" (forma hepatosplénica foi comparado com o grupo "controle" (forma intestinal. Os resultados mostraram não apenas que os portadores da forma hepatosplénica cortavam significativamente menos cana que seus controles, como também que a produção daqueles mantinha-se baixa ao longo da safra. Dois trabalhadores, dentre os "casos", tiveram que abandonar o trabalho de campo em vista da visível deterioração de seu estado geral de saúde.A prospective study of the effect of schistosomiasis on the productivity of canecutters was carried out in northeastern Brazil during the harvest season 1977-1978. This study revealed that field workers bearing the hepatosplenic form of the disease produce significantly less in terms of cane tons cut than their pairs (intestinal form, used as controls. Futhermore, the productivity is gradually reduced the period of the sugar-cane cut season. Two workers (cases with the hepatosplenic form had to leave field work during the experiment due to visible deterioration of their general health.

Dirceu P. Pereira da Costa

1982-12-01

75

Added Sugars  

Science.gov (United States)

... Tips for Reducing Sugar in Your Diet Simple Cooking with Heart Added Sugar is not so Sweet Infographic By Any Other Name It's Still Sweetener Nutrition Center • Home • Healthy ... Simple Cooking with Heart • Heart-Healthy Recipes • Dining Out • Cookbooks ...

76

Mill’s Perfectionism  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available J. S. Mill lays great emphasis on the importance of the notion of theindividual as a progressive being. The idea that we need to conceive the self as an object of cultivation and perfection runs through Mill’s writings on various topics, and has played a certain role in recent interpretations. In this paper I propose a specific interpretation of Mill’s understanding of the self, along the lines of what Stanley Cavell identifies as a “perfectionist” concern for the self. Various texts by Mill, ranging from the Logic to On Liberty, show an understanding of the self in which both the theoretical and the practical domain are presented as being internally connected to the transformation of the self. Mill elaborates a criticism of a notion of truth articulated by doctrines having a life independent of the self, as well as a notion of choice which is not the expression of one’s inner self. This internal relation of truth and choice to the self generates a special dialectic within the self, which Mill explores in On Liberty’s second and third chapters by means of several contrasts, such as passive vs. active knowledge, living vs. dead beliefs, or being oneself vs. liking and choosing in crowds.

PIERGIORGIO DONATELLI

2006-12-01

77

Diseño de los acoplamientos cuadrados de hierro fundido para molinos de caña mediante el método de los elementos finitos / Design of cast iron square box couplings for sugar cane mills by the method of finite elements  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Colombia | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish Se realiza el estudio de las tensiones internas que se generan en los acoplamientos cuadrados de hierro fundido para molinos de caña. Además, se obtienen las expresiones matemáticas para calcular las tensiones equivalentes, teniendo en cuenta la influencia de parámetros como: diámetro exterior del a [...] coplamiento, dimensiones del agujero cuadrado, velocidad de rotación y potencia. Para la obtención de estas expresiones se empleó el método de elementos finitos (MEF). El análisis MEF se hizo a partir del cálculo estático lineal, utilizando para el programa de computación COSMOS/M, versión 2.6. Finalmente, se realizó una estandarización de los acoplamientos con el fin de reducir la variedad de éstos. Abstract in english The internal stresses generated in the square box couplings of cast iron for sugar cane mills are studied. Also, mathematical expressions are obtained to calculate the equivalent stresses, and the influence of parameters such as: external diameter of the square box coupling, dimensions of the square [...] hole, speed of rotation and power. For obtaining these expressions the Finite Elements Method was used (MEF), with the software COSMOS/M version 2.6. Finally, a standardization of the square box couplings was done with the purpose of reducing their variety.

Yamill, Campos Pérez; Rosendo, Franco Rodríguez.

78

Modelación del contacto entre dos pares de dientes en las coronas de molinos de caña / Modeling of contact between two pairs of teeth in the sugar cane mills gears  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Cuba | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish En el trabajo se propone un mecanismo equivalente para la modelación del funcionamiento de las coronas de molino de caña de azúcar cuando teóricamente hay dos pares de dientes en contacto. A través del análisis de movilidad del mecanismo se demuestra que no es posible el contacto simultaneo entre do [...] s pares de dientes y que el coeficiente de recubrimiento en estos engranes es igual o menor que la unidad. A partir de los resultados del análisis cinemático del contacto entre un par de dientes, y combinándolo con la modelación del contacto entre dos pares de dientes se demuestra que el coeficiente de recubrimiento real en estos engranajes es menor que la unidad y se producen impactos entre los dientes al inicio del contacto. Abstract in english The paper proposes an equivalent mechanism for modeling the functioning of the crowns of sugar cane mill when theoretically there are two pairs of teeth in contact. Through mobility analysis of the mechanism is demonstrated that is not possible the simultaneous contact between two pairs of teeth and [...] that the coating coefficient of these gears is equal or less than unity. Combining kinematic analysis results for the contact between a pair of teeth with the modeling the contact between two pairs of teeth, it is demonstrated that gear ratio of these gears is less than unity and impacts occur between the teeth at the start of contact

Abdel, Mendoza-Fernández; Mario Javier, Cabello-Ulloa; Juan José, Cabello-Eras; Rafael, Goytisolo-Espinosa; Jorge, Moya-Rodríguez.

79

EVALUACIÓN DE LA EFICIENCIA DE REACTORES DE LECHO FIJO UTILIZANDO AGUAS MIELES RESIDUALES DE TRAPICHES ARTESANALES / EVALUATION OF THE EFFECTIVENESS OF FIXED BED REACTORS USING WASTE WATER OF SUGAR CRAFT MILLS  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Colombia | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish El problema de tratamiento y disposición final de las aguas mieles residuales provenientes de los trapiches artesanales en el departamento de Nariño, en particular los asentados en el municipio de Sandoná, radica en su imposibilidad económica y tecnológica, dadas las características de subsistencia [...] en que se basa su funcionamiento. El sistema de filtros anaerobios de flujo ascendente (FAFA) como unidad principal de tratamiento biológico en la degradación de azúcares, ofrece una buena alternativa por ser considerado eficiente, de relativos bajos costos de construcción, operación y mantenimiento, con el reto central de mantener las condiciones de hábitat adecuadas para el crecimiento de la biomasa al interior del reactor. Se evaluaron cuatro medios de contacto (concha marina, material sintético, material vitrificado y grava de río), a escala de laboratorio, para encontrar el lecho de soporte de FAFA más conveniente en condiciones controladas de temperatura, régimen de flujo y acondicionamiento previo del medio bacteriano. La concha marina y el material sintético, ofrecen características de resistencia, durabilidad y facilidad de consecución y alcanzan remociones de materia orgánica mayores del 80%. Sin embargo, la concha marina alcanza las mayores remociones (89,7% para DQO y 87,8 % para DBO) gracias a su estructura física que ofrece un microambiente adecuado y por su composición química, fuente natural de alcalinidad y micronutrientes al sistema, lo que hace que se lo considere como el medio de contacto más adecuado para diseñar e implementar filtros anaerobios de lecho fijo en la industria artesanal panelera. Abstract in english The problem of treatment and final disposal of waste water coming from artisan sugar mills in the Department of Nariño, particularly those established in the Municipality of Sandoná. It lies in its economical and technological impossibility, according to its nature. The system of Up Flow Anaerobic F [...] ilter (UFAF) as the principal unit of biological treatment on the degradation of sugars, it offers a good alternative because they are considered to be efficient treatments associated with low costs of construction, operation and maintenance, with the challenge of maintaining a suitable habitat conditions for the growth of the biomass inside the reactor. The study evaluated four contact means marine shell, synthetic material, vitrified material and river gravel, through laboratory-scale testing, to find the FAFA's most suitable material under controlled conditions of temperature, flow regime and previous conditioning of the bacterial environment. The marine shell and synthetic material provide characteristics of toughness, durability and easiness of obtaining and allowing an efficient removal of organic material above 80%. However, the marine shell reaches the highest removal (89.7% for COD and 87.8% for BOD) thanks its physical structure that provides an adequate microenvironment and its chemical composition, natural source of alkalinity and micronutrients to the system, which is considered the most suitable contact mean to design and to implement the UFAF in the artisan sugar mills.

Gloria Lucía, Cárdenas Calvachi; Robert Mauricio, Ramos Ramos.

2009-01-01

80

Sintomas vocais e sensações laríngeas em trabalhadores de uma usina de álcool e açúcar expostos a riscos ocupacionais / Vocal symptoms and laryngeal sensations in workers of an ethanol and sugar mill exposed to occupational risks  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese OBJETIVO: Investigar os sintomas vocais e sensações laríngeas dos trabalhadores de uma usina de álcool e açúcar expostos a ruído e/ou substâncias químicas. MÉTODOS: Participaram 289 trabalhadores de uma usina de álcool e açúcar distribuídos em cinco grupos expostos (I- ruído; II- ruído, óleo, graxa, [...] derivação de petróleo; III- ruído, ácidos, sulfatos, cloretos, nitratos; IV- ruído, poeiras respiráveis e sílica livre cristalizada; V- óleo, graxa, derivação de petróleo) e um grupo controle que responderam o questionário Condições de Produção Vocal - Professor adaptado à categoria profissional. Os grupos foram comparados em relação aos sintomas vocais, sensações laríngeas, tabagismo e riscos físicos e químicos. Esta comparação foi realizada por meio de análise estatística. RESULTADOS: O sintoma vocal e a sensação laríngea mais relatados pelos trabalhadores foram voz grave e tosse com catarro, respectivamente. Considerando o risco físico no ambiente de trabalho, os grupos I e IV foram os que mais citaram presença de ruído. Devido à sua exposição, os mesmos aumentavam a intensidade da voz (Efeito de Lombard-Tarneaud) e, assim, mencionaram sintomas vocais. Em relação aos riscos químicos no ambiente ocupacional, o grupo IV foi o que mais referiu presença de poeira e fumaça, e estas eram compostas por poeiras respiráveis e sílica. Tais exposições ocasionam sintomas vocais e sensações laríngeas e, consequentemente, alterações vocais. CONCLUSÃO: Sintomas vocais e sensações laríngeas podem estar relacionados a atividade profissional em que haja exposição a riscos físicos e/ou químicos. Abstract in english PURPOSE: To investigate vocal symptoms and laryngeal sensations among workers of an ethanol and sugar mill exposed to noise and/or chemical substances. METHODS: Participants were 289 workers of an ethanol and sugar mill distributed into five exposure groups (I - noise; II - noise, oil, grease, petro [...] leum derivatives; III - noise, acids, sulfates, chlorides, nitrates; IV - noise, breathable dust and free crystalline silica; V - oil, grease, petroleum derivatives) and a control group, who answered the questionnaire Conditions of Vocal Production - Teacher adapted to the professional category. The groups were compared regarding vocal symptoms, laryngeal sensations, smoking habits, and exposure to physical and chemical risks. This comparison was conducted using statistical analyses. RESULTS: The most reported vocal symptom and laryngeal sensation were low-pitched voice and cough with phlegm, respectively. Considering the physical risk in the work environment, groups I and IV were the ones that most reported exposure to noise. Because of this exposure, they increase voice intensity (Effect of Lombard-Tarneaud) and, thus, also reported vocal symptoms. Regarding chemical risks in the occupational environment, group IV was the one that most referred presence of dust and smoke, which were composed by breathable dust and silica. Such exposures lead to vocal symptoms and laryngeal sensations and, consequently, to vocal alterations. CONCLUSION: Vocal symptoms and laryngeal sensations can be related to professional activities where workers are exposed to physical and/or chemical risks.

Sylvia Boechat, Coutinho; Ana Claudia, Fiorini; Iára Bittante de, Oliveira; Maria do Rosário Dias de Oliveira, Latorre; Léslie Piccolotto, Ferreira.

2011-09-01

 
 
 
 
81

Sintomas vocais e sensações laríngeas em trabalhadores de uma usina de álcool e açúcar expostos a riscos ocupacionais / Vocal symptoms and laryngeal sensations in workers of an ethanol and sugar mill exposed to occupational risks  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese OBJETIVO: Investigar os sintomas vocais e sensações laríngeas dos trabalhadores de uma usina de álcool e açúcar expostos a ruído e/ou substâncias químicas. MÉTODOS: Participaram 289 trabalhadores de uma usina de álcool e açúcar distribuídos em cinco grupos expostos (I- ruído; II- ruído, óleo, graxa, [...] derivação de petróleo; III- ruído, ácidos, sulfatos, cloretos, nitratos; IV- ruído, poeiras respiráveis e sílica livre cristalizada; V- óleo, graxa, derivação de petróleo) e um grupo controle que responderam o questionário Condições de Produção Vocal - Professor adaptado à categoria profissional. Os grupos foram comparados em relação aos sintomas vocais, sensações laríngeas, tabagismo e riscos físicos e químicos. Esta comparação foi realizada por meio de análise estatística. RESULTADOS: O sintoma vocal e a sensação laríngea mais relatados pelos trabalhadores foram voz grave e tosse com catarro, respectivamente. Considerando o risco físico no ambiente de trabalho, os grupos I e IV foram os que mais citaram presença de ruído. Devido à sua exposição, os mesmos aumentavam a intensidade da voz (Efeito de Lombard-Tarneaud) e, assim, mencionaram sintomas vocais. Em relação aos riscos químicos no ambiente ocupacional, o grupo IV foi o que mais referiu presença de poeira e fumaça, e estas eram compostas por poeiras respiráveis e sílica. Tais exposições ocasionam sintomas vocais e sensações laríngeas e, consequentemente, alterações vocais. CONCLUSÃO: Sintomas vocais e sensações laríngeas podem estar relacionados a atividade profissional em que haja exposição a riscos físicos e/ou químicos. Abstract in english PURPOSE: To investigate vocal symptoms and laryngeal sensations among workers of an ethanol and sugar mill exposed to noise and/or chemical substances. METHODS: Participants were 289 workers of an ethanol and sugar mill distributed into five exposure groups (I - noise; II - noise, oil, grease, petro [...] leum derivatives; III - noise, acids, sulfates, chlorides, nitrates; IV - noise, breathable dust and free crystalline silica; V - oil, grease, petroleum derivatives) and a control group, who answered the questionnaire Conditions of Vocal Production - Teacher adapted to the professional category. The groups were compared regarding vocal symptoms, laryngeal sensations, smoking habits, and exposure to physical and chemical risks. This comparison was conducted using statistical analyses. RESULTS: The most reported vocal symptom and laryngeal sensation were low-pitched voice and cough with phlegm, respectively. Considering the physical risk in the work environment, groups I and IV were the ones that most reported exposure to noise. Because of this exposure, they increase voice intensity (Effect of Lombard-Tarneaud) and, thus, also reported vocal symptoms. Regarding chemical risks in the occupational environment, group IV was the one that most referred presence of dust and smoke, which were composed by breathable dust and silica. Such exposures lead to vocal symptoms and laryngeal sensations and, consequently, to vocal alterations. CONCLUSION: Vocal symptoms and laryngeal sensations can be related to professional activities where workers are exposed to physical and/or chemical risks.

Sylvia Boechat, Coutinho; Ana Claudia, Fiorini; Iára Bittante de, Oliveira; Maria do Rosário Dias de Oliveira, Latorre; Léslie Piccolotto, Ferreira.

82

Sweeteners - sugars  

Science.gov (United States)

... is produced during fermentation. It is found in beer and breads. Maple sugar comes from the sap ... Johnson RJ, Appel LJ, Brands M, Howard BV, Lefevre M, Lustig RH, et al. Dietary Sugars Intake and Cardiovascular Health: A Scientific Statement from the ...

83

Valoración económica de las pérdidas de exergía de las operaciones térmicas en la industria azucarera de caña / Economic value of exergy losses in heating operations in cane sugar mills  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Argentina | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish Tomando como base los resultados del análisis exergético de las operaciones térmicas: Calentamiento- Evaporación-Cristalización (CEC) de un ingenio de Tucumán, realizado por Paz y Cárdenas en 2005, se procedió a determinar el valor económico de las pérdidas de exergía. Dichas pérdidas de exergía rep [...] resentan potencias eléctricas equivalentes que dejaron de producirse, por lo que el daño causado por las mismas puede ser calculado directamente a partir del precio de la energía eléctrica. Esta original metodología propuesta para determinar ahorros monetarios, basada en la reducción de exergía perdida, se comparó con los resultados obtenidos con la metodología tradicional (basada en el ahorro de vapor vivo). Los ahorros monetarios logrados con las propuestas A y B fueron de $1,05 x 10(6) (0,35 x 10(6) USD) y $1,92 x 10(6) (0,64 x 10(6) USD) por zafra, determinándose Tasas Internas de Retorno (TIR) de 191% y 20,8%, respectivamente. Abstract in english This paper is based on the results of previous work done by Paz and Cárdenas in 2005, in which exergy losses in thermal operations: Heating-Evaporation-Crystallization (H-E-C) of a cane sugar mill located in Tucumán, were evaluated. Exergy losses represent equivalent non-produced electric power; the [...] refore, the resulting damage can be calculated directly from the price of the electric energy. Results obtained with this novel methodology (exergy loss reduction) were compared with those obtained with the traditional method (live steam saving) when evaluating monetary savings. In fact, monetary savings in A and B proposals were $1,05 x 10(6) (0,35 x 10(6) USD) and $1,92 x 10(6) (0,64 x 10(6) USD) per season, respectively. Internal Rates of Return (IRR) were 191% and 20,8%, respectively.

Dora, Paz; Gerónimo J., Cárdenas.

84

Valoración económica de las pérdidas de exergía de las operaciones térmicas en la industria azucarera de caña / Economic value of exergy losses in heating operations in cane sugar mills  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Argentina | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish Tomando como base los resultados del análisis exergético de las operaciones térmicas: Calentamiento- Evaporación-Cristalización (CEC) de un ingenio de Tucumán, realizado por Paz y Cárdenas en 2005, se procedió a determinar el valor económico de las pérdidas de exergía. Dichas pérdidas de exergía rep [...] resentan potencias eléctricas equivalentes que dejaron de producirse, por lo que el daño causado por las mismas puede ser calculado directamente a partir del precio de la energía eléctrica. Esta original metodología propuesta para determinar ahorros monetarios, basada en la reducción de exergía perdida, se comparó con los resultados obtenidos con la metodología tradicional (basada en el ahorro de vapor vivo). Los ahorros monetarios logrados con las propuestas A y B fueron de $1,05 x 10(6) (0,35 x 10(6) USD) y $1,92 x 10(6) (0,64 x 10(6) USD) por zafra, determinándose Tasas Internas de Retorno (TIR) de 191% y 20,8%, respectivamente. Abstract in english This paper is based on the results of previous work done by Paz and Cárdenas in 2005, in which exergy losses in thermal operations: Heating-Evaporation-Crystallization (H-E-C) of a cane sugar mill located in Tucumán, were evaluated. Exergy losses represent equivalent non-produced electric power; the [...] refore, the resulting damage can be calculated directly from the price of the electric energy. Results obtained with this novel methodology (exergy loss reduction) were compared with those obtained with the traditional method (live steam saving) when evaluating monetary savings. In fact, monetary savings in A and B proposals were $1,05 x 10(6) (0,35 x 10(6) USD) and $1,92 x 10(6) (0,64 x 10(6) USD) per season, respectively. Internal Rates of Return (IRR) were 191% and 20,8%, respectively.

Dora, Paz; Gerónimo J., Cárdenas.

2005-12-01

85

Valoración económica de las pérdidas de exergía de las operaciones térmicas en la industria azucarera de caña Economic value of exergy losses in heating operations in cane sugar mills  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Tomando como base los resultados del análisis exergético de las operaciones térmicas: Calentamiento- Evaporación-Cristalización (CEC de un ingenio de Tucumán, realizado por Paz y Cárdenas en 2005, se procedió a determinar el valor económico de las pérdidas de exergía. Dichas pérdidas de exergía representan potencias eléctricas equivalentes que dejaron de producirse, por lo que el daño causado por las mismas puede ser calculado directamente a partir del precio de la energía eléctrica. Esta original metodología propuesta para determinar ahorros monetarios, basada en la reducción de exergía perdida, se comparó con los resultados obtenidos con la metodología tradicional (basada en el ahorro de vapor vivo. Los ahorros monetarios logrados con las propuestas A y B fueron de $1,05 x 10(6 (0,35 x 10(6 USD y $1,92 x 10(6 (0,64 x 10(6 USD por zafra, determinándose Tasas Internas de Retorno (TIR de 191% y 20,8%, respectivamente.This paper is based on the results of previous work done by Paz and Cárdenas in 2005, in which exergy losses in thermal operations: Heating-Evaporation-Crystallization (H-E-C of a cane sugar mill located in Tucumán, were evaluated. Exergy losses represent equivalent non-produced electric power; therefore, the resulting damage can be calculated directly from the price of the electric energy. Results obtained with this novel methodology (exergy loss reduction were compared with those obtained with the traditional method (live steam saving when evaluating monetary savings. In fact, monetary savings in A and B proposals were $1,05 x 10(6 (0,35 x 10(6 USD and $1,92 x 10(6 (0,64 x 10(6 USD per season, respectively. Internal Rates of Return (IRR were 191% and 20,8%, respectively.

Dora Paz

2005-12-01

86

Passa-se uma engenhoca: ou como se faziam transações com terras, engenhos e crédito em mercados locais e imperfeitos (freguesia de Campo Grande, Rio de Janeiro, séculos XVIII e XIX) / 'Engenhocas' to sell!: or lands, sugar mills and credit’s trade in local and imperfect markets (Campo Grande civil parish, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, XVIII-XIX centuries )  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese A questão central deste artigo é perceber como as hierarquias sociais e as políticas específicas do Antigo Regime nos Trópicos se refletiram em estratégias concretas, e compreender as engrenagens locais de um mercado imperfeito. Analisaremos as escolhas e trajetórias de agentes envolvidos em transaç [...] ões com terras, engenhos e concessão de crédito na freguesia de Campo Grande, no correr do século XVIII até o início do XIX, cuja especificidade foi conseguirem reproduzir sua condição senhorial. Metodologicamente, partimos da microanálise e compusemos redes sociais locais que sustentaram as estratégias dos agentes em questão. Propomos que as rendas criadas a partir das vendas a prazo, os vínculos pessoais entre compradores-credores-vendedores-devedores nas vendas dos engenhos e a sobreposição de vínculos de dependência locais foram fatores que possibilitaram a acumulação econômica e a reprodução ampliada da condição senhorial. Abstract in english Using the concept of ‘Ancien Régime on the Tropics’, this article aims to investigate how social hierarchies and politics in Brazil, during the 18th century, reflected into concrete local strategies. Our objective is to understand the gadgets of an imperfect market, based on agents’ choices who were [...] all involved in lands, sugar mills and credit commercial transactions in the Campo Grande civil parish, in the Rio de Janeiro. All agents had gotten to reproduce its extended senhorial condition. Our methodology is based on microanalysis, so we composed local social nets we guest had supported the agents’ strategies in question. We consider strategies to achieve long term incomes; bonds between purchaser, creditor, salesman and debtors (both involving sugar mills commercial transactions); the overlapping of dependence bonds by strategic exchanges created by sugar mill masters among consanguineous, matrimonial and fictitious relatives had been factors that made possible the economic accumulation and the extended reproduction of the master condition.

Manoela, Pedroza.

2010-06-01

87

Ethanol and sugar production process from sugar cane: renewability evaluation  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Tropical countries, such as Brazil and Colombia, have the possibility of using their lands for growing biomass to produce biofuels like biodiesel and ethanol. Many studies are available which deal with the use of different sources of biomass for this purpose. From sugarcane, sucrose and other sugars (glucose and fructose) are converted into ethanol through a chain of processes. Considering the combined production of sugar and ethanol, the later is produced using part of sugarcane juice from the milling process and molasses from the sugar factory. These flows are mixed and sent to fermentation and distillation to obtain ethanol. In this work, exergy analysis is applied to the production process of sugar and anhydrous ethanol from sugar cane, using real data of one production plant located in Colombia, with capacity to process 10,000 ton a day of sugarcane. Different stages such as: growing, feedstock transport, processes plant, cogeneration plant and residues treatment are considered. Some environmental indicators based on the exergy concept are proposed for analyzing the sugar and ethanol production. According to these indicators, the Exergetic Density, Rational Exergetic Efficiency and the Renewability Performance Indicator, the ethanol production process can not be considered renewable due mainly to the irreversibilities of the energy conversion processes. (author)

Arredondo, Hector Ivan Velasquez [Universidad Nacional de Colombia, Medellin (Colombia). Grupo de Investigacion en Bioprocesos]. E-mail: hivelasq@unal.edu.co; Pellegrini, Luiz Felipe; Oliveira Junior, Silvio de [Universidade de Sao Paulo (USP), SP (Brazil). Escola Politecnica. Dept. de Engenharia Mecanica]. E-mails: luiz.pellegrini@poli.usp.br; silvio.oliveira@poli.usp.br

2008-07-01

88

Monitoreo de un sistema de secado de bagazo acoplado a una caldera en un ingenio de México Monitoring of a bagasse drying system attached to a boiler in a sugar mill in Mexico  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Se evaluó el desempeño de un secador de bagazo diseñado por la Estación Experimental Agroindustrial Obispo Colombres, acoplado a una caldera bagacera convencional en un ingenio de México (caldera Nº 5. Para ello, se realizaron ensayos de mediciones y balances de materia y energía, para la caldera operando con el secador y sin él en funcionamiento. La caldera Nº 5, de una producción nominal de 60 t/h de vapor y una presión máxima de trabajo de 29 bar, cuando fue alimentada únicamente con bagazo húmedo pudo generar como máximo 33 t/h de vapor a 19 bar y 269ºC, con un rendimiento energético de 60,4% y un índice de generación de 1,6 kg de vapor/ kg de bagazo. Con la adición del secador, se logró secar 28,6 toneladas de bagazo de 50,2% a 30,4% de humedad. Aproximadamente un 72% de este bagazo presecado se mezcló con bagazo húmedo y se utilizó para alimentar la caldera, produciéndose así 58,4 t/h de vapor; es decir, 77% más de vapor que sin secador. El rendimiento energético del sistema caldera-secador fue de 73,6%, un 21,8% superior al de la caldera sin secador, mientras que el índice de generación fue de 2,0 kg de vapor/ kg de bagazo, 25% mayor que el de la caldera original. Este aumento en la producción de vapor permitió sacar de servicio a la caldera Nº 6, que producía aproximadamente 20 t/h de vapor, con un rendimiento similar al de la caldera Nº 5 sin secador. Estas mejoras dieron como resultado, un ahorro de energía de 45,4 MJ/h, aproximadamente un 18% respecto a la energía consumida por ambas calderas (Nº 5 y Nº 6 cuando no funcionaba el secador. Este ahorro equivale a 1103 l/h de "fuel oil", es decir, alrededor de 1,5 millones de dólares por zafra.A bagasse dryer designed by Estación Experimental Agroindustrial Obispo Colombres was attached to a conventional bagasse boiler (Boiler No. 5 in a sugar mill in Mexico for evaluation. Measurement tests and material and energy balances for the boiler operating with and without the dryer were made. When supplied only with wet bagasse, boiler No. 5, with a nominal production of 60 t/h of steam and a maximum working pressure of 29 bar, could generate no more than 33 t/h of steam at 19 bar and 269 ºC, with an energy yield of 60.4% and an index of 1.6 kg steam/ kg of bagasse . When the dryer was attached, 28.6 tons of bagasse was dried from 50.2% moisture to 30.4%. Approximately 72% of that pre-dried bagasse, mixed with wet bagasse, was fed into the boiler, which then produced 58.4 t/h of steam, i.e. 77% more than without the dryer. The energy efficiency of the boiler-dryer system was 73.6% and the index was 2.0 kg steam/ kg of bagasse, i.e. 21.8%, 25% higher values than those for the original boiler. This increase in steam production allowed putting boiler No. 6 out of service. Boiler No. 6 produced about 20 t/h of steam with similar efficiency to that of boiler No. 5 without the dryer. These improvements resulted in energy savings of about 18%, as compared with the energy consumed by the two boilers (No. 5 and No. 6 when the dryer was not working. Energy saved amounted to 45.4 MJ/h, which is equivalent to 1103 l/h of fuel oil. This represents savings of USD 1.5 million per season.

Federico J. Franck Colombres

89

Sugar production  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This document on the production of sugar has been published within the SPIN project. In this project information has been collected on industrial plants or industrial processes to afford support to governmental policy on emission reduction. This document contains information on the processes, emission sources, emissions to air and water, waste, emission factors, use of energy and energy factors, emission reduction, energy conservation, research on clean technology and ...

Jhj, Hulskotte; Ajcm, Matthijsen

2012-01-01

90

Sugar industry dilemma in NWFP  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

ave been drawn in part 3 for consideration by all relevant stakeholders of the sector. To avert problems like low cane-yield, minimum return to farmers, negative attitude and delaying tactics in payments, policy makers and decision-support unit of the province should ensure the following: no further expansion of sugar-mills on political grounds and without viable feasibility; immediate improvement in water-courses, improvement of irrigation efficiency, develop cane-varieties with high sucrose-recovery percentage, reduce cost of production of inputs; provide subsidy to cane growers who should also be paid for their produce well on time by the mills. It is recommended that support-price fixation system and timely payment to farmers should be designed and implemented properly. (author)

91

Peat milling  

...dominant technique for large-scale peat extraction across Europe. Peat milling is unsustainable, destroying the...a harrow to assist the drying process. When the peat is dry enough, it is...supply plants grown in 'reduced peat' or peat free media....

92

Anomeric Anhydro Sugars  

Science.gov (United States)

Anomeric anhydro sugars are sugar derivatives where the anomeric carbon participates in an acetal linkage with two of the hydroxyl groups of the sugar. They are essentially intramolecular glycosides, and their bicyclic nature provides a powerful conformational constraint that greatly influences their reactivity. This chapter reviews the occurrence, properties, formation, and reactions of anomeric anhydro sugars. Particular emphasis is placed on 1,2- and 1,6-anhydropyranoses, including conformational aspects and ring-opening reactions. Epoxide-containing 1,6-anhydro sugars (?erný epoxides) are briefly reviewed, and the formation and some reactions of the 1,6-anhydro sugar enone, levoglucosenone, is covered. An overview is given of the use of 1,2-anhydro sugar as glycosyl donors. Also discussed are the formation and reactions of anomeric anhydro sugars containing nitrogen, sulfur, or selenium.

McGill, Nathan W.; Williams, Spencer J.

93

Frequently Asked Questions about Sugar  

Science.gov (United States)

... lactose) and fruits (fructose). Added sugars (or added sweeteners) include natural sugars (such as white sugar, brown sugar and honey) as well as other caloric sweeteners that are chemically manufactured (such as high fructose ...

94

Sugar exported: sugar packed in containers  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This paper presents a study in the port sector specialized in handling of bagged sugar. Sugar has always been exported in bags of 50 kg, placed directly in the holds of ships for general cargo. It appears that this form of transport has become obsolete now, the market for the direct form of transport of sugar packed in containers. Companies involved in this type of port handling need understand the reasons that are influencing this new mode of transportation as a way to fit and remain active and competitive in the industry.

José Alberto Yemal

2010-04-01

95

Sugar - a harmless indulgence?  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

The consumption of sugar is relatively high in Denmark - and other industrial countries - and many persons have a consumption which exceeds the recommended level of maximally 10% of energy intake. A high sugar consumption may reduce the nutrient density of the diet and increase the risk of vitamin and mineral deficiency, especially in low energy consumers. The sugar intake and the fat intake, expressed as percentage of energy, usually show an inverse association. This has lead to the statement that a diet with both a low sugar content and a low fat content is incompatible, but we will argue that this is not the fact. The significance of sugar for the development of obesity is not clarified. A high fat content in the diet seems to promote the development of obesity, while a high carbohydrate content tends to reduce obesity. It is not known if sugar in this connection is comparable to the other carbohydrates in the diet, primarily because of the high energy density of sugar. Diabetes mellitus and heart diseasesdo not seem to have any direct connection with a high sugar consumption. Sugar continues to be a risk factor for the development of caries. Further, it cannot be excluded that high sugar consumption is a risk factor for cancer in the gastrointestinal tract or for Crohn's disease. It seems reasonable to keep the current recommendations about sugar intake.

Rasmussen, Lone Banke; Andersen, Niels Lyhne

1998-01-01

96

The Curse of Frybread: The Diabetes Epidemic in Indian Country.  

Science.gov (United States)

Diabetes among American Indians has become epidemic since World War II, due to dietary changes and a possible genetic predisposition. Innovative community-based programs teach prevention and management of diabetes through exercise, diet, and blood sugar monitoring. Traditional American Indian lifestyles and diets prevented diabetes. Sidebars…

Hill, Mary Anne

1997-01-01

97

Valoración económica sobre la aplicabilidad de inspección ultrasónica a los árboles de los molinos de caña de azúcar para la industria azucarera cubana / Economic feasibility study regarding the applicability of ultrasonic inspection of the Cuban sugar industry’s sugarcane mill shafts  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Colombia | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish Se presenta un análisis económico que evalúa la factibilidad de emplear inspección ultrasónica para los árboles de los molinos de caña de azúcar. Se emplean cuatro variantes de sustitución de los árboles de los molinos que recrean los escenarios más frecuentes. Se incluye la alternativa de utilizar [...] inspección ultrasónica, con periodos de tiempo entre inspecciones fijados según un modelo de propagación de grietas de fatiga. En la valoración económica se utiliza el criterio del costo del ciclo de vida; teniendo en cuenta los costos de operación, mantenimiento y energía que influyen sobre los árboles de los molinos de caña de azúcar. Se llega a la conclusión de que es bastante recomendable emplear inspección ultrasónica con un nivel alto en las especificaciones del procedimiento. Con la introducción de la inspección ultrasónica, según los tiempos obtenidos por el modelo de mecánica de la fractura, es posible lograr un ahorro de medio millón de dólares por año para las condiciones existentes en la industria azucarera cubana. Abstract in english This article evaluates the economic feasibility of carrying out ultrasonic inspection of sugar-mill shafts. Four alternatives are considered, including the most frequently encountered scenarios. How and when inspections are carried out is analysed, periods between inspections being established by a [...] fatigue-crack growth propagation approach. The lifecycle cost approach was applied for economic evaluation. Operation, maintenance and energy consumption costs were thus taken into consideration. The conclusion was drawn that it is highly advisable to use high performance ultrasonic inspection. Introducing ultrasonic inspection (according to the period of time obtained by fracture mechanics model) could lead to a saving of half a million dollars per year for the Cuban sugarcane industry in the current conditions.

Nelson, Arzola de la Peña.

2006-08-01

98

Generation and export of electric energy by sugar and alcohol plants; Geracao e exportacao de energia eletrica por usinas sucroalcooleiras  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This paper presents technical aspects necessary to allow a sugar-cane mill, which promotes cogeneration, to operate as an electrical energy producer. Changes and optimization in the process to produce alcohol and sugar-cane, which results in the increase of electrical energy to export are discussed. A case of a sugarcane mill, working as a thermoelectric power plant is presented. The necessary components to generate energy and to connect the thermoelectric plant to the main transmission system are described. (author)

Queiroz, Gil Mesquita de Oliveira Rabello; Paschoareli Junior, Dionizio; Faria Junior, Max Jose de Araujo [Universidade Estadual Paulista (DEE/UNESP), Ilha Solteira, SP (Brazil). Dept. de Engenharia Eletrica. Grupo de Pesquisa em Fontes Alternativas e Aproveitamento de Energia Eletrica

2008-07-01

99

Indian Delegates  

Presently at ABV-Indian Institute of Information Technology & Management (IIITM\\),. Gwalior from ... Published more than 100 journal and conference papers in the \\area of fault tolerance computing .... bestowed with Padma Shri in 2001. He is a ...

100

Sugar and Sugar Beet Policy Reforms in Turkey  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The translog cost function is applied to analyze input demand in Turkey sugar beet production from 1975 to 2003. Sugar and sugar beet production became an important issue after the sugar act changed in 2001. Although the political aspects of sugar beet production have been studied extensively, few studies are available on the quantitative aspects of sugar beet production in Turkey. The main goal of the study was to estimate input substitution and the elasticity of demand for the factors of sugar beet production. The computed factor demand elasticities show that the demand for the four factor inputs (labor, land, energy and fertilizer considered in the analysis is inelastic with respect to changes in factor prices. Sugar beet production has a feature of traditional labor-intensive farming in Turkey. Current sugar and sugar beet policy may induce the farmers to adopt more efficient production and management techniques, enabling them to remain viable in a liberalized market setting.

Yasar Akcay

2006-01-01

 
 
 
 
101

Indian Summer  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This paper focuses on preserving and strengthening two resources culturally and socially important to the Shoshone-Bannock Indian Tribe on the Fort Hall Reservation in Idaho; their young people and the Pacific-Northwest Salmon. After learning that salmon were not returning in significant numbers to ancestral fishing waters at headwater spawning sites, tribal youth wanted to know why. As a result, the Indian Summer project was conceived to give Shoshone-Bannock High School students the opportunity to develop hands-on, workable solutions to improve future Indian fishing and help make the river healthy again. The project goals were to increase the number of fry introduced into the streams, teach the Shoshone-Bannock students how to use scientific methodologies, and get students, parents, community members, and Indian and non-Indian mentors excited about learning. The students chose an egg incubation experiment to help increase self-sustaining, natural production of steelhead trout, and formulated and carried out a three step plan to increase the hatch-rate of steelhead trout in Idaho waters. With the help of local companies, governmental agencies, scientists, and mentors students have been able to meet their project goals, and at the same time, have learned how to use scientific methods to solve real life problems, how to return what they have used to the water and land, and how to have fun and enjoy life while learning.

Galindo, E. [Sho-Ban High School, Fort Hall, ID (United States)

1997-08-01

102

Greenhouse gas emission associated with sugar production in southern Brazil  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Abstract Background Since sugarcane areas have increased rapidly in Brazil, the contribution of the sugarcane production, and, especially, of the sugarcane harvest system to the greenhouse gas emissions of the country is an issue of national concern. Here we analyze some data characterizing various activities of two sugarcane mills during the harvest period of 2006-2007 and quantify the carbon footprint of sugar production. Results According to our calculations,...

La Scala Newton; Romão Rangel; Panosso Alan; de Figueiredo Eduardo

2010-01-01

103

Indianism values  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The study of the values of the indianism allows to know the fundaments of the lifestyle of the original people; those values that regulate their everyday life are the humanism, communitarianism, respect for the dignity, love to the nature and its knowledge, rectitude, carrying out and respect for the committed word, promotion of spirituality, justice, freedom and peace. The interest to present the theoretical virtues of the indianism has the task of transcending its interpretation just ideological placing it as a type of hilosophy which rationalizes an alternative society project to the Occidental one, identified with the name of good living or live well.

Alberto Saladino García

2013-07-01

104

Metabolic engineering of sugars and simple sugar derivatives in plants.  

Science.gov (United States)

Carbon captured through photosynthesis is transported, and sometimes stored in plants, as sugar. All organic compounds in plants trace to carbon from sugars, so sugar metabolism is highly regulated and integrated with development. Sugars stored by plants are important to humans as foods and as renewable feedstocks for industrial conversion to biofuels and biomaterials. For some purposes, sugars have advantages over polymers including starches, cellulose or storage lipids. This review considers progress and prospects in plant metabolic engineering for increased yield of endogenous sugars and for direct production of higher-value sugars and simple sugar derivatives. Opportunities are examined for enhancing export of sugars from leaves. Focus then turns to manipulation of sugar metabolism in sugar-storing sink organs such as fruits, sugarcane culms and sugarbeet tubers. Results from manipulation of suspected 'limiting' enzymes indicate a need for clearer understanding of flux control mechanisms, to achieve enhanced levels of endogenous sugars in crops that are highly selected for this trait. Outcomes from in planta conversion to novel sugars and derivatives range from severe interference with plant development to field demonstration of crops accumulating higher-value sugars at high yields. The differences depend on underlying biological factors including the effects of the novel products on endogenous metabolism, and on biotechnological fine-tuning including developmental expression and compartmentation patterns. Ultimately, osmotic activity may limit the accumulation of sugars to yields below those achievable using polymers; but results indicate the potential for increases above current commercial sugar yields, through metabolic engineering underpinned by improved understanding of plant sugar metabolism. PMID:23043616

Patrick, John W; Botha, Frikkie C; Birch, Robert G

2013-02-01

105

Characterisation of a phenolic resin and sugar cane pulp composite  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Polymeric materials are increasingly replacing metallic materials as a result of their properties. In this work a composite of phenolic resin and sugar cane pulp was developed. The sugar cane pulp has been previously alkalinised, dried, and milled and the particles had been classified in a range of grain sizes. Experimental assays were performed, varying the proportion of the resin and the reinforcement and the size of the cane pulp fibre, keeping the pressure and moulding temperature constant. These composites were characterised according to physical and chemical properties, through test bodies produced in moulds according to ASTM standards. The experiments performed showed that the use of sugar cane pulp as reinforcement in polymeric composites represents an option for reducing costs in industrial applications, thus suggesting a significant industrial applicability of the product.

Leite J. L.

2004-01-01

106

Characterisation of a phenolic resin and sugar cane pulp composite  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in english Polymeric materials are increasingly replacing metallic materials as a result of their properties. In this work a composite of phenolic resin and sugar cane pulp was developed. The sugar cane pulp has been previously alkalinised, dried, and milled and the particles had been classified in a range of [...] grain sizes. Experimental assays were performed, varying the proportion of the resin and the reinforcement and the size of the cane pulp fibre, keeping the pressure and moulding temperature constant. These composites were characterised according to physical and chemical properties, through test bodies produced in moulds according to ASTM standards. The experiments performed showed that the use of sugar cane pulp as reinforcement in polymeric composites represents an option for reducing costs in industrial applications, thus suggesting a significant industrial applicability of the product.

J. L., Leite; A. T. N., Pires; S. M. A. G. Ulson de, Souza; A. A. Ulson de, Souza.

107

What is sugar?  

Science.gov (United States)

This reading, part of a site about the science of cooking, provides general scientific information about sucrose (white table sugar) together with explanations of the science behind some candy-making procedures. The general information includes the chemical formula of sucrose and a ball-and-stick model that illustrates that sucrose is made of fructose and glucose. Regarding candy, the reading describes how heating a sugar solution produces a supersaturated solution. A discussion about common techniques used to prevent sucrose from crystallizing follows. Copyright 2005 Eisenhower National Clearinghouse

Exploratorium

2004-01-01

108

Indian Orphanages.  

Science.gov (United States)

With their traditional tribal and kinship ties, Native Americans had lived for centuries without the concept of an unwanted child. But besieged by reservation life and boarding school acculturation, many tribes, with the encouragement of whites, came to accept the need for orphanages. This book tells the story of Indian orphanages within the…

Holt, Marilyn Irvin

109

75 FR 60715 - Domestic Sugar Program-FY 2010 and FY 2011 Cane Sugar and Beet Sugar Marketing Allotments and...  

Science.gov (United States)

...FY 2010 and FY 2011 Cane Sugar and Beet Sugar Marketing Allotments and Company...company allocations to sugarcane and sugar beet processors. This applies to all...company allocations to sugarcane and sugar beet processors, which apply to all...

2010-10-01

110

Carbohydrates, Sugar, and Your Child  

Science.gov (United States)

... of obesity. Acidity from sweetened drinks can erode tooth enamel and their high sugar content can cause dental cavities . Instead of soda or juice drinks (which often contain as much added sugar ...

111

Evaluation of soil contents in sugar cane loading using activation analysis  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

When sugar cane is cut and taken to the sugar and alcohol mills, a significant quantity of soil is loaded with the stalks. This content has been reduced to 1% due to improvement in harvesting methods. Elements present in soil but not in sugar cane have been studied to act as tracers in the determination of unwanted minerals. Samples of different soils were irradiated with thermal neutrons in a nuclear reactor and the induced radioactivity measured by high resolution gamma ray spectrometry. (author). 52 refs., 7 figs., 11 tabs

112

SWOT ANALYSIS OF INDIAN JUTE INDUSTRY  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Jute Industrial sector is an important segment of Indian economy. Jute has been the most versatile natural fibre. The jute sector produces products ranging from low value geo-textile to high end garments, decorative, upholstery etc. Many of the jute plants or mills are now engaged in producing jute blended yarns. The jute industry scenario in India has been changed from making traditional hessian to high end fashion garments. The jute export counts to about 1000 crore, the import of raw jute ...

Ramya, G. Karthik And N.

2012-01-01

113

29 CFR 516.18 - Employees employed in certain tobacco, cotton, sugar cane or sugar beet services, who are...  

Science.gov (United States)

...certain tobacco, cotton, sugar cane or sugar beet services, who are partially exempt...tobacco, cotton, sugar cane or sugar beet services, who are partially exempt...sugar cane, sugar processing or sugar beets who are partially exempt from...

2010-07-01

114

Mill’s Liberal Feminism: Its Legacy and Current Criticism  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This paper highlights John Stuart Mill’s views on the problem of gender equality as expressed in The Subjection of Women, which is commonly regarded as one of the core texts of Enlightenment liberal feminism of the 19th century. In this paper, the author outlines the historical context of both Mill’s views and his personal biography, which influenced his argumentation for the emancipation of women, and considers Mill’s utilitarianism and liberalism, as the main philosophical background ...

MARIANA SZAPUOVÁ

2006-01-01

115

Considerations about waste water irrigation characteristics at the Ciro Redondo Agroindustrial sugar complex; Consideraciones sobre las caracteristicas de las aguas residuales del CAI Ciro Redondo para el fertirriego  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The irrigation of wastewater from sugar industry and byproducts is today, in Cuba, the most useful way for the treatment of these waters. With the characterization of the waters from AIC Ciro Redondo it has been proved that these waters must be used as organic matter in the established way for sugar mill wastewaters mix with Torula yeast plants ones. (Author) 10 refs.

Obaya Abreu, M. C.; Valdes Jimenez, E.; Leon Perez, O. L.; Diez Perez, K.; Valencia Rodriguez, R.

2002-07-01

116

Concept on Sugar- A Review  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Sugars have a long history of safe use in foods. They are common food ingredients that add taste appeal and perform important functions in foods. Besides its pleasant sweetness, sugar performs a host of less obvious and important functions in cooking, baking, candy making and the like. As carbohydrates, sugars are a contributor of calories for the body. The ability to produce solutions of varying degrees of sweetness is important in many food applications, particularly in beverages and confectionery. Low-calorie sweeteners add a taste that is similar to that of sucrose. Intense sweeteners are generally several times sweeter than sucrose. On the other hand, sugar replacers are the bulk and volume providing sweeteners usually less sweet than and different tasting from sugar, commonly used on a one-for-one replacement basis for sugar in recipes. Sugars have been studied extensively for their impact on a variety of issues.

Zakaria Ahmed

2001-01-01

117

Sugar Price Analysis in Indonesia  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This study examines the dynamic relationship between sugar price, exchange rate, oil price, rice price, and consumer price index (CPI; and to detect is there any difference between exchange rate, oil price, rice price, and CPI in effecting sugar price. We employ Vector Auto-regressions methods for a time series of monthly data from January 1998 to December 2011. Generally, the Impulse Response Function results provide the positive response of Indonesian sugar price from shock of the change of world sugar price, oil price, rice price and CPI; but there is negative response of Indonesian sugar price from shock of the change of exchange rate. The empirical results in variance decomposition test provide evidence that variability of the change of Indonesian sugar price are vary between each variable. Overall variance decomposition results are below than ten percent. These results indicate there is low transmission of international prices into Indonesian sugar prices.

Kumara Jati

2013-07-01

118

Starches, Sugars and Obesity  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The rising prevalence of obesity, not only in adults but also in children and adolescents, is one of the most important public health problems in developed and developing countries. As one possible way to tackle obesity, a great interest has been stimulated in understanding the relationship between different types of dietary carbohydrate and appetite regulation, body weight and body composition. The present article reviews the conclusions from recent reviews and meta-analyses on the effects of different starches and sugars on body weight management and metabolic disturbances, and provides an update of the most recent studies on this topic. From the literature reviewed in this paper, potential beneficial effects of intake of starchy foods, especially those containing slowly-digestible and resistant starches, and potential detrimental effects of high intakes of fructose become apparent. This supports the intake of whole grains, legumes and vegetables, which contain more appropriate sources of carbohydrates associated with reduced risk of cardiovascular and other chronic diseases, rather than foods rich in sugars, especially in the form of sugar-sweetened beverages.

Erik E. J. G. Aller

2011-03-01

119

Pyrolysis of Table Sugar  

Science.gov (United States)

Table sugars were pyrolyzed at different temperatures (300, 400, and 500°C) in a fixed-bed reactor. The effect of pyrolysis temperature on yields of liquid, solid, and gaseous products was investigated. As expected the yield of liquid products gradually increased and the yield of solid products gradually decreased when the pyrolysis temperature was raised. The yield of liquid products was greatest (52?wt%) at 500°C. The composition of bio-oils extracted with diethyl ether was identified by means of gas chromatography mass spectrometry (GC-MS), nuclear magnetic resonance (1H-NMR), and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR). The following compounds were observed in bio-oils produced from the pyrolysis of table sugar at 500°C: 1,4:3,6-dianhydro-?-d-glucopyranose, 5-(hydroxymethyl) furfural, 5-acetoxymethyl-2-furaldehyde, and cyclotetradecane liquid product. The relative concentration of 5-(hydroxymethyl) furfural was the highest in bio-oils obtained from pyrolysis of table sugars at 500°C. PMID:24223500

Karagoz, Selhan

2013-01-01

120

John Stuart Mill Links  

Science.gov (United States)

Considered one of the most important philosophers of the 19th century, John Stuart Mill was born in 1806 to one James Mill, part-time philosopher and economist, and full-time official in the East India Company. Educated by both his father and the philosopher Jeremy Bentham, Mill learned Greek by age three, Latin shortly thereafter, and was a competent logician by age 12. After suffering a mental breakdown at the age of 20, Mill decided he would commit himself to persuading the general public of the need for a scientific and rational approach to understanding social, political, and economic change. Mill penned some of the most powerful statements on the behalf of utilitarianism during his life, including one of his most enduring works, Utilitarianism. This Web site (offered in numerous different languages) is a compilation of links to works by and about Mill, including full-text versions of such works as On Liberty, Principles of Political Economy, and his Autobiography. Equally compelling are the works about Mill also to be found here, most notably Isaiah Berlin's 1959 article, John Stuart Mill and the Ends of Life.

 
 
 
 
121

Prevalence of byssinosis in textile mills at Ahmedabad, India.  

Science.gov (United States)

In an epidemiological study carried out in three textile mills at Ahmedabad, India, 929 workers were examined from the spinning departments. The mean prevalence of byssinosis in the blow section was 29.62%, whereas in the card section it was 37.83%. The concentrations of cotton dust (dust less fly) were high in the blow and card sections (4.00 mg/m3 in the blow and 3.06 mg/m3 in the card section). This study suggests that the prevalence of byssinosis is not low in the textile mills of India as reported in many earlier Indian studies. PMID:2590643

Parikh, J R; Bhagia, L J; Majumdar, P K; Shah, A R; Kashyap, S K

1989-11-01

122

The ultrasound-assisted sugar extraction from sugar beet cossettes  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The aim of this work was to study the ultrasound-assisted water extraction of sugar from sugar beet cossettes. The ultrasound bath device (25 kHz, 200 W) was used. The sonication accelerated sugar diffusion at both temperatures 18 deg C and 77.6 deg C and gave the higher level of dry matter content SS (4-6 percent) and sugar content CK (7-22 percent) in juice. The SS and CK depended on time of exposition, time and temperature of extraction. In particular, the effects of 5 min ultrasound-assisted extraction were equal to 20 min extraction in traditional conditions. The shorter time, lower temperature, higher efficiency and purity of juice could be the effects of sugar extraction with ultrasound. The change of thickness of diffusion membrane, microflows in tissue as well as it's environment caused by ultrasound was the reason of acceleration of sugar extraction

123

Free sugar profile in cycads  

Science.gov (United States)

The sugars fructose, glucose, maltose, and sucrose were quantified in seven tissues of Zamia muricata Willd. to determine their distribution throughout various organs of a model cycad species, and in lateral structural roots of 18 cycad species to determine the variation in sugar concentration and composition among species representing every cycad genus. Taproot and lateral structural roots contained more sugars than leaf, stem, female strobilus, or coralloid roots. For example, taproot sugar concentration was 6.4-fold greater than stem sugar concentration. The dominant root sugars were glucose and fructose, and the only detected stem sugar was sucrose. Sucrose also dominated the sugar profile for leaflet and coralloid root tissue, and fructose was the dominant sugar in female strobilus tissue. Maltose was a minor constituent of taproot, leaflet, and female strobilus tissue, but absent in other tissues. The concentration of total free sugars and each of the four sugars did not differ among genera or families. Stoichiometric relationships among the sugars, such as the quotient hexoses/disaccharides, differed among organs and families. Although anecdotal reports on cycad starch have been abundant due to its historical use as human food and the voluminous medical research invested into cycad neurotoxins, this is the first report on the sugar component of the non-structural carbohydrate profile of cycads. Fructose, glucose, and sucrose are abundant in cycad tissues, with their relative abundance highly contrasting among organs. Their importance as forms of carbon storage, messengers of information, or regulators of cycad metabolism have not been determined to date. PMID:25339967

Marler, Thomas E.; Lindström, Anders J.

2014-01-01

124

Energy saving in the sugar cane agroindustry; Ahorro de energia en la agroindustria azucarera canera  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The traditional sugar mill is inefficient from the energy point of view. Most of the sugar mills were designed to use all the available bagasse, due to the risk of spontaneous ignition and environmental pollution. Consequently, the steam generators, the turbines and other components were designed to work with low efficiencies. Each ton of sugar produced generates a power potential equivalent to four to six oil barrels (bagasse and residues). That is to say, a sugar mill is capable of producing 500 ton/day of sugar, equivalent to an oil well of 2000 to 3000 barrels/day and one thermoelectric power plant of 15,000 kW. Under this context an analysis is made of the sugar mills in Latin America and the Caribbean as one of the ways of increasing their efficiency and obtain great energy savings. As far as steam generation the appropriate use of energy is dictated by the boilers' efficiency. [Spanish] El ingenio azucarero tradicional es ineficiente desde el punto de vista energetico. La mayoria de los ingenios azucareros se disenaron para usar todo el bagazo disponible, debido al riesgo de ignicion espontanea y contaminacion. En consecuencia, los generadores de vapor, las turbinas y demas componentes fueron disenados para trabajar con bajas eficiencias. Cada tonelada de azucar producida genera una potencialidad energetica equivalente de cuatro a seis barriles de petroleo (bagazo y residuos). Es decir, un ingenio capaz de producir 500 ton/dia de azucar equivalente a un pozo de petroleo de 2000 a 3000 barriles/dia y una termoelectrica de 15000 kW. Bajo este contexto se hace un analisis del ingenio azucarero en Latinoamerica y el Caribe como una de las vias para incrementar su eficiencia y lograr grandes ahorros en la energia. En cuanto a generacion de vapor se refiere, el buen uso de la energia viene expresado por la eficiencia de las calderas.

Zedillo Ponce de Leon, Luis [Grupo de paises Latinoamericanos y del Caribe exportadores de azucar (Mexico)

1996-07-01

125

On an Interpretation of Mill’s Qualitative Utilitarianism  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This paper is a reply to Jonathan Riley’s criticism of my reading of Mill(both published in the Philosophical Quarterly 2003. I show that Riley’s interpretation has no textual support in Mill’s writing by putting the supposedly supporting quotations in their proper context. Secondly it is demonstrated how my reading is not incompatible with hedonism. Mill’s use of the concepts of ‘quality’, ‘quantity’, and ‘pleasure’ are explained and illustrated. I conclude by considering whether the possible redundancy of Mill’s quality/quantity discussion would be problematic.

CHRISTOPH SCHMIDT-PETRI

2006-12-01

126

SUGAR IS SWEET BUT DANGEROUS  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Sugar is viewed from various aspects regarding its composition, metabolismand consumption. A special importance is given to the role of sugar in preventingcardiovascular diseases. It is stressed that the widely-accepted theore about fats ascauses of coronary diseases should be changed since the consumption of greatquantities of ordinary sugar is of greater importance for causing coronary diseases. Inthe conclusion it is claimed that proper nutrition is one ofthe key factors in preventingthe formation of many diseases in human organism.

Sreten Pavlovic

2001-11-01

127

Indian Parliament  

Science.gov (United States)

With one of the largest parliamentary bodies in the world, it is not surprising that the Web site for the Indian Parliament contains a staggering amount of information about its operations, its members, bills, budget proposals, and other important governmental proceedings. Visitors will want to begin by browsing through the section on the president of India (currently this is Dr. A.P.J. Abdul Kalam) to learn about his recent statements and speeches, along with information about the beautiful presidential palace and the exquisite Mughal Garden. The other sections of the site are also compelling, and include areas devoted to the Rajya Sabha (Council of States) and the Lok Sabha (House of the People), where guests can read recent debates (some of which are only available in Hindi), and learn about the members of each body. Additionally, there is a frequently asked questions area that answers some basic queries about the organization and history of the Parliament.

128

Optimization of hammer mills  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A simple mathematical model is proposed for the residence time distribution of crushed grain in hammer mills. The residence time distribution of the crushed grain, product quality, and the total energy consumption under various operation conditions (number of hammer rows, number of hammers in a row, mesh size of screen, velocity and output of the mill has been used as variables) was studied on a pilot hammer mill. The radiotracer was used for the experimental verification of the model and for the determination of a holdup (the magnitude of the rotating grist layer) on the pilot scale and partly also on the full-scale mills. The impulse responses were influenced by transport processes behind the screen. This effect had to be taken into account during the analysis of experimental data. The method of a non-linear regression analysis was applied for the evaluation of parameters of the mathematical model. (author)

129

Pitt Mill Demonstration  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Results of a technical and economic evaluation of application of the Pitt Mill to fine coal grinding are presented. The Pitt Mill is a vertically oriented, batch operated, intermediate energy density (0. 025 kW/lb media), stirred ball mill. The mill grinds coal from coarse sizes (typically 3/16 inch or 4 mesh topsize) to the 10 micron to 20 micron mean particle diameter size range in a single step using a shallow grinding bed containing inexpensive, readily available, course grinding media. Size reduction is efficient because of rapid product circulation through the grinding bed caused by action of a novel circulation screw mounted on the agitator shaft. When a dispersant is employed, the grinding can be carried out to 50% to 60% solids concentration. Use of coarse grinding media offers the possibility of enhanced mineral liberation because size reduction is achieved more by impact shattering than by attrition. The batch method offers the possibility of very close control over product particle size distribution without overproduction of fines. A two- phase program was carried out. In the first phase, Grinding Studies, tests were run to determine a suitable configuration of the Pitt Mill. Machine design parameters which were studied included screw configuration, media type, agitator RPM, time, media size, and slurry chamber aspect ratio. During the last part of this phase of the program, tests were carried out to compare the results of grinding Pocahontas seam, Pittsburgh {number sign}8, and East Kentucky Mingo County coals by the Pitt Mill and by a two-stage grinding process employing a Netzsch John mill to feed a high energy density (0.05 kW/Lb media) disc mill. 22 refs., 25 tabs.

Oder, R.R.; Borzone, L.A.

1990-05-01

130

Serpentine Waste Milling  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Serpentine heaps in the surroundings of Dobšina are a long-life ecological problem of the city and at the same time a suitable raw material for production of MgCl2 and SiO2. In the technological scheme of chemical processing the milling operation it has an important role. In this context the milling rate is an important parameter for creation of the technological scheme and suggestion of industrial equipment.

Les?ko, M.; Bu?gel, M.; Pietrikova?, A.; Bakala?r, T.

2006-01-01

131

Yang-Mills redux  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

It is noted that a given pairing of the phase factor and gauge transformation to retain gauge symmetry is not unique. In their seminal paper, when Yang and Mills (YM) discuss the phase factor - gauge transformation relationship, they cite Pauli's review paper. It is interesting that although Pauli in that paper presents the electromagnetic field strength in terms of a commutator, for whatever reason YM did not extrapolate the commutator's use to obtain the Yang-Mills field s...

Marateck, Samuel L.

2006-01-01

132

PROGRESS AND PROBLEMS OF AGRO-BASED INDUSTRIES IN INDIA: A STUDY OF SUGAR INDUSTRY  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Agro-based industries play a vital role in the development of Indian rural economy. India's 70 per cent of total population directly depends on agriculture and agro-based industries. Sugar industry is one of the most important agro-based industries in the development process of rural India. Therefore, the study has selected this agrobased industry and analysed sugarcane and sugar production, trends of sugarcane and sugar product, recovery of cane during the period 1950-51 to 2010-11. Maharashtra and Uttar Pradesh are two largest sugar producer states in India. So, the study has also discussed the comparative growth of sugarcane production and sugar industries in Maharashtra and Uttar Pradesh states of India. The study has revealed that India is the second largest producer of sugar in the world. India has produced 24394 thousand tones sugar from 527 factories in the year 2010-11. The study has also found that near about 61 per cent of total sugar production in India has produced in Maharashtra and Uttar Pradesh states only.

DINKAR P. TAKALE

2013-02-01

133

The status of the uranium mill tailings remedial actions project (UMTRAP)  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In 1978, Congress enacted Public Law 95-604, the ''Uranium Mill Tailings Radiation Control Act of 1978.'' The Act authorizes the Department of Energy to stabilize and control the tailings at designated inactive uranium mill tailings sites in a safe and environmentally acceptable manner. DOE has established the Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Actions (UMTRA) Project Office to implement, in cooperation with the affected States, Indian tribes and owners of the sites, remedial actions at the sites. The UMTRA Project Office has initiated efforts to perform remedial actions in accordance with EPA cleanup standards

134

Incorporated residues to sugar cone during the industrial processing evaluated by neutron activation analysis  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In the Brazilian sugar and alcohol industry a modern agronomic and industrial technology has been developed during the last years, due to the high demand for sugarcane. The intensive harvest mechanization has increased the soil levels in the cane delivered to the mills despite of the introduced washing systems. Electric welding has been used to recuperate the rollers of the mill and other metallic components thus increasing the contents of metals in the processed material. Samples of cane, juice and bagasse were colected at several points of the milling tandem and submitted to neutron activation analysis. The concentrations of Fe, Cr, Co, Zn, Br and Cs showed an increment through the mill, indicating the contribution of the rollers wear. Sc and the rare earth elements La, Ce, Sm and Eu had about the same levels in all samples, therefore they must have come with the soil adhered to the cane. (author)

135

High Blood Sugar (in Type 1 Diabetes)  

Science.gov (United States)

... and Management / High Blood Sugar High Blood Sugar Definition and Symptoms High blood sugar, or hyperglycemia, occurs ... a Toolkit Get Personal Support Donate Today Your tax-deductible gift will help JDRF create a world ...

136

Ball milling pretreatment of oil palm biomass for enhancing enzymatic hydrolysis.  

Science.gov (United States)

Oil palm biomass, namely empty fruit bunch and frond fiber, were pretreated using a planetary ball mill. Particle sizes and crystallinity index values of the oil palm biomass were significantly reduced with extended ball mill processing time. The treatment efficiency was evaluated by the generation of glucose, xylose, and total sugar conversion yields from the pretreatment process compared to the amount of sugars from raw materials. Glucose and xylose contents were determined using high-performance liquid chromatography. An increasing trend in glucose and xylose yield as well as total sugar conversion yield was observed with decreasing particle size and crystallinity index. Oil palm frond fiber exhibited the best material yields using ball milling pretreatment with generated glucose, xylose, and total sugar conversion yields of 87.0, 81.6, and 85.4%, respectively. In contrast, oil palm empty fruit bunch afforded glucose and xylose of 70.0 and 82.3%, respectively. The results obtained in this study showed that ball mill-treated oil palm biomass is a suitable pretreatment method for high conversion of glucose and xylose. PMID:24908052

Zakaria, Mohd Rafein; Fujimoto, Shinji; Hirata, Satoshi; Hassan, Mohd Ali

2014-08-01

137

77 FR 76514 - Indian Gaming  

Science.gov (United States)

...INTERIOR Bureau of Indian Affairs Indian Gaming AGENCY: Bureau of Indian Affairs, Interior...Approved Amended Tribal-State Class III Gaming Compact taking effect...L. Hart, Director, Office of Indian Gaming, Office of the Deputy Assistant...

2012-12-28

138

76 FR 49505 - Indian Gaming  

Science.gov (United States)

...INTERIOR Bureau of Indian Affairs Indian Gaming AGENCY: Bureau of Indian Affairs, Interior...ACTION: Notice of Tribal-State Class III Gaming Compact taking effect...L. Hart, Director, Office of Indian Gaming, Office of the Deputy Assistant...

2011-08-10

139

77 FR 76513 - Indian Gaming  

Science.gov (United States)

...INTERIOR Bureau of Indian Affairs Indian Gaming AGENCY: Bureau of Indian Affairs, Interior...Approved Amended Tribal-State Class III Gaming Compact taking effect...L. Hart, Director, Office of Indian Gaming, Office of the Deputy Assistant...

2012-12-28

140

75 FR 38833 - Indian Gaming  

Science.gov (United States)

...INTERIOR Bureau of Indian Affairs Indian Gaming AGENCY: Bureau of Indian Affairs, Interior...Notice of Approved Tribal-State Class III Gaming Compact...Paula Hart, Director, Office of Indian Gaming, Office of the Deputy Assistant...

2010-07-06

 
 
 
 
141

76 FR 165 - Indian Gaming  

Science.gov (United States)

...INTERIOR Bureau of Indian Affairs Indian Gaming AGENCY: Bureau of Indian Affairs, Interior...Tribe'') and the State of Wisconsin Gaming Compact of 1992, as Amended in 1999...L. Hart, Director, Office of Indian Gaming, Office of the Deputy Assistant...

2011-01-03

142

77 FR 5566 - Indian Gaming  

Science.gov (United States)

...INTERIOR Bureau of Indian Affairs Indian Gaming AGENCY: Bureau of Indian Affairs, Interior...Notice of Tribal--State Class III Gaming Compact Taking Effect...L. Hart, Director, Office of Indian Gaming, Office of the Deputy Assistant...

2012-02-03

143

Indian Health Disparities  

Science.gov (United States)

... Health Service The Federal Health Program for American Indians and Alaska Natives Feedback Employee Resources • A to ... Overview Annual Budget The Director Eligibility Event Calendar Indian Health Manual Key Leaders Legislation Organizational Structure Our ...

144

Indian Health Service  

Science.gov (United States)

... Health Service The Federal Health Program for American Indians and Alaska Natives Feedback Employee Resources • A to ... Diabetes and Your Heart Next November is American Indian and Alaska Native Heritage Month November is a ...

145

portrush mill strand bathing water profile 2014  

...Mill Strand) Bathing Water Profile Londonderry...2014 Bathing Water Profle — Portrush (Mill Strand) his is one o...Water Quality History at Portrush (Mill Strand) Portrush (Mill Strand) bathing water was identified...

146

25 CFR 31.3 - Non-Indian pupils in Indian schools.  

Science.gov (United States)

... false Non-Indian pupils in Indian schools. 31.3 Section 31.3 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR EDUCATION FEDERAL SCHOOLS FOR INDIANS § 31.3 Non-Indian pupils in Indian schools....

2010-04-01

147

Process for whole cell saccharification of lignocelluloses to sugars using a dual bioreactor system  

Science.gov (United States)

The present invention describes a process for saccharification of lignocelluloses to sugars using whole microbial cells, which are enriched from cultures inoculated with paper mill waste water, wood processing waste and soil. A three-member bacterial consortium is selected as a potent microbial inocula and immobilized on inedible plant fibers for biomass saccharification. The present invention further relates the design of a dual bioreactor system, with various biocarriers for enzyme immobilization and repeated use. Sugars are continuously removed eliminating end-product inhibition and consumption by cell.

Lu, Jue (Okemos, MI); Okeke, Benedict (Montgomery, AL)

2012-03-27

148

Mining and milling of uranium ore: Indian scenario  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The occurrence of uranium minerals in Singhbhum Thrust belt of Eastern India has been known since 1937. In 1950, a team of geologists of the Atomic Minerals Division was assigned to closely examine this 160 km long belt. Since then, several occurrences of uranium have been found and a few of them have sufficient grade and tonnage for commercial exploitation. In 1967, the Government of India formed Uranium Corporation of India Ltd., under the administrative control of the Department of Atomic Energy, with the specific objective of mining and processing of uranium ore and produce uranium concentrates. At present the Corporation operates three underground uranium mines, one ore processing plant with expanded capacity, and two uranium recovery plants. Continuing investigations by the Atomic Mineral Division has discovered several new deposits and favourable areas. The most notable is the large Domiasiat deposit of the sandstone type found in the State of Meghalaya. This deposit is now being considered for commercial exploitation using the in-situ leaching technology. (author)

149

76 FR 62339 - Domestic Sugar Program-2011-Crop Cane Sugar and Beet Sugar Marketing Allotments and Company...  

Science.gov (United States)

...Program--2011-Crop Cane Sugar and Beet Sugar Marketing Allotments and Company...company allocations to sugarcane and sugar beet processors, which apply to all domestic...sector. CCC distributed the FY 2012 beet sugar allotment of 5,139,472...

2011-10-07

150

Mycoflora of sugar beet seeds  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The mycological analyses of three forms of sugar beet seeds: beet seed balls. polished seeds. coated balls, were carried out for assessing the sanitary conditions of the seed material.

M. Kowalik

1984-12-01

151

Sugar Cane Nutrient Distribution Analysis  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Neutron Activation Analysis (NAA), Molecular Absorption Spectrometry (UV-Vis), and Flame Photometry techniques were applied to measure plant nutrient concentrations of Br, Ca, Cl, K, Mn, N, Na and P in sugar-cane root, stalk and leaves. These data will be used to explore the behavior of element concentration in different parts of the sugar-cane to better understand the plant nutrient distribution during its development.

152

Skin problems in sugar artists.  

Science.gov (United States)

Sugar artistry is a growing profession amongst bakers and confectioners and an increasingly common hobby in amateur cooks. The main work consists of manual manipulation of sugar which is formed into figures and objects for table and food decoration. The sugar must be warmed up to 50 degrees C in order to be liquid and malleable and so the artists suffer from diverse thermally induced skin problems on their hands. Such changes have not to date been reported in the dermatological literature. In this study we report our experience in 50 Swiss sugar artists who have suffered from skin problems. The study took the form of a questionnaire survey. The response rate was 30 out of 50. Twenty-six reported no chronic skin disorder. Four suffered from a palmar vesicular relapsing type of chronic eczema. The main skin problems on the hands during work with hot sugar were increased sweating, seen in 20 out of 30 (67%), and burning with erythema and blistering, seen in 12 out of 30 (40%). Most participants (83%) were highly irritated by the skin problems during their work, and applied a protective cream before working with sugar, or wore rubber gloves. Topical therapy with a preparation containing 10% aluminium chloride hexahydrate, used once daily for 3 weeks, evaluated in 14 participants, decreased sweating in 10 (71%) and reduced the thermally induced erythema in one (7%). PMID:8977679

Bangha, E; Elsner, P

1996-11-01

153

Sugar substitutes: Health controversy over perceived benefits  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Sugar is an inseparable part of the food we consume. But too much sugar is not ideal for our teeth and waistline. There have been some controversial suggestions that excessive sugar may play an important role in certain degenerative diseases. So artificial sweeteners or artificially sweetened products continue to attract consumers. A sugar substitute (artificial sweetener) is a food additive that duplicates the effect of sugar in taste, but usually has less food energy. Besides its benefits, ...

Tandel, Kirtida R.

2011-01-01

154

Evaluation of End Mill Coatings  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Milling tests were run on families of High Speed Steel (HSS) end mills to determine their lives while machining 304 Stainless Steel. The end mills tested were made from M7, M42 and T15-CPM High Speed Steels. The end mills were also evaluated with no coatings as well as with Titanium Nitride (TiN) and Titanium Carbo-Nitride (TiCN) coatings to determine which combination of HSS and coating provided the highest increase in end mill life while increasing the cost of the tool the least. We found end mill made from M42 gave us the largest increase in tool life with the least increase in cost. The results of this study will be used by Cutting Tool Engineering in determining which end mill descriptions will be dropped from our tool catalog.

L. J. Lazarus; R. L. Hester,

2005-08-01

155

Mill’s Liberal Feminism: Its Legacy and Current Criticism  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This paper highlights John Stuart Mill’s views on the problem of gender equality as expressed in The Subjection of Women, which is commonly regarded as one of the core texts of Enlightenment liberal feminism of the 19th century. In this paper, the author outlines the historical context of both Mill’s views and his personal biography, which influenced his argumentation for the emancipation of women, and considers Mill’s utilitarianism and liberalism, as the main philosophical background for his criticism of social conditions that subordinated women. She reflects on some of the philosopher’s ideas and arguments for equality and friendship between women and men which may still be considered noteworthy and relevant. Attention is also given to the main lines of contemporary reception of Mill’s liberal feminism from the perspective of current feminist philosophy, within which certain critical views predominate. Despite some problematic points in Mill’s considerations, his essay on women’s subjection may be regarded as one of the philosophically most interesting conceptions of liberal feminist thinking.

MARIANA SZAPUOVÁ

2006-12-01

156

Methods for dehydration of sugars and sugar alcohols  

Science.gov (United States)

The invention includes a method of dehydration of a sugar using a dehydration catalyst and a co-catalyst within a reactor. A sugar is introduced and H.sub.2 is flowed through the reactor at a pressure of less than or equal to about 300 psig to convert at least some of the sugar into an anhydrosugar product. The invention includes a process for producing isosorbide. A starting material comprising sorbitol is flowed into a reactor. H.sub.2 is counter flowed through the reactor. The starting material is exposed to a catalyst in the presence of a co-catalyst which comprises at least one metal. The exposing is conducted at a hydrogen pressure of less than or equal to 300 psig within the reactor and the hydrogen removes at least some of any water present during the exposing and inhibits formation of colored byproducts.

Holladay, Johnathan E [Kennewick, WA; Hu, Jianli [Kennewick, WA; Zhang, Xinjie [Burlington, MA; Wang, Yong [Richland, WA

2010-08-10

157

Traditional And Medicinal Uses Of Indian Black Berry  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Jamun or Indian Black berry is considered as a traditional medicine that helps in controlling diabetes. Specifically, jamun has an action on the pancreas, the main organ responsible for causing diabetes. The fruit, the seeds and even the juice of the jamun all play an important role in the treatment of diabetes. The jamun seeds contain a type of glucose called Jamboline, which checks the conversion of starch into sugar in cases of increased production of glucose, the main reason behind your h...

Sampath Kumar, K. P.; Aravind. G; Pragati Kumar, B.; Harish Gopinath; Durai vel; Debjit Bhowmik

2013-01-01

158

The Efficiency Analyses of Croatian Sugar Industry by Using the Concept of Intellectual Capital  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available During the last fi ve years the sugar industry has become one of the most important branches of Croatian food industry. It is connected with a signifi cant number of various industries in a complex way and employs a signifi cant number of people. A development of the sugar industry stimulates development of commerce, logistics, and a number of correlated industries whose products are necessary in sugar production. Croatian sugar factories have been present at the neighbouring markets and the European Union market for several years. Th e share of sugar in the total export of agricultural products increases every year and in the year 2004, it was 26.8% with the tendency of increasing in the year 2005. Th e foundation of the Intellectual capital (IC concept, as a method of increasing the entire business effi ciency, can be found in the papers of economic theoreticians in the middle of the last century but it reached its real break through in the past 15 years when the concept got more applied and the theory of intellectual capital was developed. In order to prepare Croatian economy for the competition that is expecting Croatia by joining the European Union with full membership, especially the agricultural sector, the application of the IC concept is expected to result with an increase of business effi ciency. Th e intellectual capital concept represents a recommended base, which will help Croatian sugar mills in achieving a better position at the highly competitive market of the European Union.

Dražen Holmik

2006-03-01

159

Mill Hill Essays Archive  

Science.gov (United States)

The National Institute for Medical Research (NIMR) provides this online archive of their Mill Hill Essay Series. This annual publication (last mentioned in the April 6, 2001 Scout Report) is designed for anyone "with an interest in science and the natural world." Essays are presented in HTML format and are generally equivalent to several printed pages. The archive goes back to 1995 and features essays on a variety of health, science and technology topics.

2002-01-01

160

Ball milled magnetic powders  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Exchange-spring magnets consisting of (i) Alnico and Fe, and (ii) Nd2Fe14B and Gd, using the technique of ball milling were synthetized. The composition and microstructure of the ball milled powders was investigated using XRD, SEM and TEM. The bulk magnetic properties of each sample were measured with a SQUID magnetometer, while 155Gd and 57Fe Moessbauer spectroscopy were used to measure the magnetisation of the phases which contained these elements. Exchange-spring magnetic properties were not realised in either of the two systems studied. TEM analysis was inconclusive as to the dimensions of the phases within each sample. However, the SQUID and Moessbauer effect measurements both indicated that the two phases were acting as a coherent magnetic system. It is probable that the required microstructure was not formed in the case of the Nd2Fe14B and Gd powder, where the particle size indicated by SEM was very large (?200?m). For the Alnico/Fe system, it is possible that ball milling undermined the microstructure of Alnico, destroying its hard magnetic properties

 
 
 
 
161

Development and Installation of High Pressure Boilers for Co-Generation Plant in Sugar Industries  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The sugar cane containing minimum 30% fiber was referred as bagasse and used the generation of power required for the operation of sugar mill. The bagasse is fired in the boiler for producing steam at high pressure, which is extracted through various single high capacity turbines and used in the process. The installation of high pressure boilers and high pressure turbo-generators has provision for the operation of co-generation plant during the off-season also that enhances the power generation from 9MW to 23MW. The annual monetary benefits achieved are Rs. 204.13 million and this was based on cost of power sold to the grid @ Rs 2.548 per unit, sugar season of 219 days and off season of 52 days. This required an investment of Rs 820.6 million. The investment had an attractive simple payback period of 48 months.

Kolar Seenappa Venkatesh

2010-05-01

162

Reconstructing Indian Population History  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

India has been underrepresented in genome-wide surveys of human variation. We analyze 25 diverse groups to provide strong evidence for two ancient populations, genetically divergent, that are ancestral to most Indians today. One, the “Ancestral North Indians” (ANI), is genetically close to Middle Easterners, Central Asians, and Europeans, while the other, the “Ancestral South Indians” (ASI), is as distinct from ANI and East Asians as they are from each other. By introducing methods th...

Reich, David; Thangaraj, Kumarasamy; Patterson, Nick; Price, Alkes L.; Singh, Lalji

2009-01-01

163

Indian Science - Response  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

I fail to understand the correlation between general euphoria among Indians over recent nuclear tests and a feeling of Western alienation and bias among Indian scientists. The general public in India has little or no idea how the Western press depicts India. Hence, one cannot attribute the euphoria over nuclear explosions to Western alienation. Various points and personal experiences mentioned by Padmanaban are not specific to India or to any Indian scientist. They are common for anyone from ...

Padmanaban, G.

1998-01-01

164

Production of sugar and sugar derivatives by pyrolysis of biomass  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Thermochemical conversion of biomass to sugar and sugar derivatives is hindered by the inhomogeneity of the substrate and the low specificity of the pyrolytic reactions. Recent analysis and investigation of these reactions have shown that they could be controlled and catalyzed to minimize the side reactions and increase the yield of individual compounds. These compounds include levoglucosan which could be obtained in high yields within the temperature range of 350-400/sup 0/C when the substrate has undergone previous acid treatment or a trace amount of acid is present. This phenomenon has been used for production of sugars from softwood and hardwood based on prehydrolysis and subsequent pyrolysis to a tar that could be posthydrolyzed to sugars. Acid-catalyzed pyrolysis of cellulosic materials, particularly waste paper, gives a pyrolyzate containing mainly levoglucosenone which has proved to be a highly reactive compound for production of a variety of carbohydrate derivatives. Pyrolysis of carbohydrates also provides several other furan and pyran derivatives that could be used as synthetic intermediates. 28 references, 22 figures, 11 tables.

Shafizadeh, F.

1983-01-01

165

75 FR 71463 - Woodland Mills Corporation Mill Spring, NC; Notice of Revised Determination on Reconsideration  

Science.gov (United States)

...Training Administration [TA-W-73,695] Woodland Mills Corporation Mill Spring, NC; Notice of Revised Determination on Reconsideration...eligibility of workers and former workers of Woodland Mills Corporation, Mill Spring, North Carolina, to...

2010-11-23

166

Indian medical journals.  

Science.gov (United States)

Although Indian doctors produce half the articles published from the third world, little has been written about Indian medical journals. We examined 75 of the 113 serious English-language journals published in India. Of the 22 included in the Cumulated Index Medicus only 8 were judged by Indian and foreign referees to be of international standard. A survey of Indian authors indicated that foreign journals were chosen for the best papers because of their wider circulation, better refereeing practices, and punctuality. More than 98% of medical articles from India probably go unnoticed by the international medical community. PMID:1351561

Sahni, P; Reddy, P P; Kiran, R; Reddy, K S; Pande, G K; Nundy, S

1992-06-27

167

78 FR 33435 - Indian Gaming  

Science.gov (United States)

...INTERIOR Bureau of Indian Affairs Indian Gaming AGENCY: Bureau of Indian Affairs, Interior...Notice of Approved Tribal-State Class III Gaming Amendments...to Amend the Class III Tribal-State Gaming Compact between the Salt River...

2013-06-04

168

78 FR 10203 - Indian Gaming  

Science.gov (United States)

...INTERIOR Bureau of Indian Affairs Indian Gaming AGENCY: Bureau of Indian Affairs, Interior...Notice of Approved Tribal State Class III Gaming Compact...Approval of the Class III Tribal- State Gaming Compact between the Chippewa-Cree...

2013-02-13

169

78 FR 44146 - Indian Gaming  

Science.gov (United States)

...INTERIOR Bureau of Indian Affairs Indian Gaming AGENCY: Bureau of Indian Affairs, Interior...ACTION: Notice of Tribal-State Class III Gaming Compact taking effect...III Amended and Restated Tribal-State Gaming Compact between the Shingle Springs...

2013-07-23

170

78 FR 11221 - Indian Gaming  

Science.gov (United States)

...INTERIOR Bureau of Indian Affairs Indian Gaming AGENCY: Bureau of Indian Affairs, Interior...Notice of Approved Tribal-State Class III Gaming Compact...This notice publishes an extension of the gaming compact between the Oglala Sioux...

2013-02-15

171

76 FR 52968 - Indian Gaming  

Science.gov (United States)

...INTERIOR Bureau of Indian Affairs Indian Gaming AGENCY: Bureau of Indian Affairs, Interior...of Approved Tribal--State Class III Gaming Compact...This notice publishes an extension of Gaming between the Rosebud Sioux Tribe and...

2011-08-24

172

76 FR 65208 - Indian Gaming  

Science.gov (United States)

...INTERIOR Bureau of Indian Affairs Indian Gaming AGENCY: Bureau of Indian Affairs, Interior...of Approved Tribal--State Class III Gaming Compact...This notice publishes an Approval of the Gaming Compact between the Confederated...

2011-10-20

173

75 FR 8108 - Indian Gaming  

Science.gov (United States)

...INTERIOR Bureau of Indian Affairs Indian Gaming AGENCY: Bureau of Indian Affairs, Interior...Notice of Approved Tribal-State Class III Gaming Compact...the State of Nevada Governing Class III Gaming. DATES: Effective Date: February...

2010-02-23

174

75 FR 68823 - Indian Gaming  

Science.gov (United States)

...INTERIOR Bureau of Indian Affairs Indian Gaming AGENCY: Bureau of Indian Affairs, Interior...Notice of Approved Tribal-State Class III Gaming Amendment...approval of the Amendments to the Class III Gaming Compact (Amendment) between the...

2010-11-09

175

76 FR 33341 - Indian Gaming  

Science.gov (United States)

...INTERIOR Bureau of Indian Affairs Indian Gaming AGENCY: Bureau of Indian Affairs, Interior...of Approved Tribal--State Class III Gaming Compact...This notice publishes an extension of Gaming between the Rosebud Sioux Tribe and...

2011-06-08

176

78 FR 17427 - Indian Gaming  

Science.gov (United States)

...INTERIOR Bureau of Indian Affairs Indian Gaming AGENCY: Bureau of Indian Affairs, Interior...ACTION: Notice of Approved Amended Gaming Compact...publishes the approval of the Amended Gaming Compact between the...

2013-03-21

177

76 FR 56466 - Indian Gaming  

Science.gov (United States)

...INTERIOR Bureau of Indian Affairs Indian Gaming AGENCY: Bureau of Indian Affairs, Interior...of Approved Tribal--State Class III Gaming Compact...This notice publishes an approval of the gaming compact between the Flandreau Santee...

2011-09-13

178

77 FR 59641 - Indian Gaming  

Science.gov (United States)

...INTERIOR Bureau of Indian Affairs Indian Gaming AGENCY: Bureau of Indian Affairs, Interior...Notice of Approved Tribal-State Class III Gaming Compact...This notice publishes an extension of Gaming between the Rosebud Sioux Tribe and...

2012-09-28

179

77 FR 41200 - Indian Gaming  

Science.gov (United States)

...INTERIOR Bureau of Indian Affairs Indian Gaming AGENCY: Bureau of Indian Affairs, Interior...of Approved Tribal--State Class III Gaming Compact...Department of an extension to the Class III Gaming Compact between the State of...

2012-07-12

180

77 FR 45371 - Indian Gaming  

Science.gov (United States)

...INTERIOR Bureau of Indian Affairs Indian Gaming AGENCY: Bureau of Indian Affairs, Interior...of Approved Tribal--State Class III Gaming Compact...This notice publishes an extension of Gaming between the Oglala Sioux Tribe and...

2012-07-31

 
 
 
 
181

75 FR 61511 - Indian Gaming  

Science.gov (United States)

...INTERIOR Bureau of Indian Affairs Indian Gaming AGENCY: Bureau of Indian Affairs, Interior...Notice of Approved Tribal-State Class III Gaming Compact...This notice publishes an extension of Gaming Compact between the Rosebud Sioux...

2010-10-05

182

78 FR 17428 - Indian Gaming  

Science.gov (United States)

...INTERIOR Bureau of Indian Affairs Indian Gaming AGENCY: Bureau of Indian Affairs, Interior...Notice of Approved Tribal-State Class III Gaming Compact...approval of the Class III Tribal- State Gaming Compact between the Pyramid Lake...

2013-03-21

183

78 FR 15738 - Indian Gaming  

Science.gov (United States)

...INTERIOR Bureau of Indian Affairs Indian Gaming AGENCY: Bureau of Indian Affairs, Interior...of Approved Tribal--State Class III Gaming Compact...This notice publishes an extension of the gaming compact between the Rosebud Sioux...

2013-03-12

184

77 FR 30550 - Indian Gaming  

Science.gov (United States)

...INTERIOR Bureau of Indian Affairs Indian Gaming AGENCY: Bureau of Indian Affairs, Interior...of Approved Tribal--State Class III Gaming Compact...Department of an extension to the Class III Gaming Compact between the Pyramid Lake...

2012-05-23

185

77 FR 43110 - Indian Gaming  

Science.gov (United States)

...INTERIOR Bureau of Indian Affairs Indian Gaming AGENCY: Bureau of Indian Affairs, Interior...of Approved Tribal--State Class III Gaming Compact...This notice publishes an extension of Gaming between the Rosebud Sioux Tribe and...

2012-07-23

186

75 FR 55823 - Indian Gaming  

Science.gov (United States)

...INTERIOR Bureau of Indian Affairs Indian Gaming AGENCY: Bureau of Indian Affairs, Interior...Notice of approved Tribal-State Class III Gaming Compact...This notice publishes an extension of Gaming between the Oglala Sioux Tribe and...

2010-09-14

187

76 FR 8375 - Indian Gaming  

Science.gov (United States)

...INTERIOR Bureau of Indian Affairs Indian Gaming AGENCY: Bureau of Indian Affairs, Interior...Notice of Approved Tribal-State Class III Gaming Compact...This notice publishes an extension of the Gaming Compact between the Oglala Sioux...

2011-02-14

188

76 FR 11258 - Indian Gaming  

Science.gov (United States)

...INTERIOR Bureau of Indian Affairs Indian Gaming AGENCY: Bureau of Indian Affairs, Interior...Notice of Tribal--State Class III Gaming Compact taking effect...Tribal-State Compact for Regulation of Class III Gaming between the Confederated Tribes of...

2011-03-01

189

Uranium-mill appraisal program  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The results of special team appraisals at NRC-licensed uranium mills in the period May to November 1981 are reported. Since the Three Mile Island accident, NRC management has instituted a program of special team appraisals of radiation protection programs at certain NRC-licensed facilities. These appraisals were designed to identify weaknesses and strengths in NRC-licensed programs, including those areas not covered by explicit regulatory requirements. The regulatory requirements related to occupational radiation protection and environmental monitoring at uranium mills have been extensively upgraded in the past few years. In addition, there was some NRC staff concern with respect to the effectiveness of NRC licensing and inspection programs. In response to this concern and to changes in mill requirements, the NRC staff recommended that team appraisals be conducted at mills to determine the adequacy of mill programs, the effectiveness of the new requirements, and mill management implementation of programs and requirements. This report describes the appraisal scope and methodology as well as summary findings and conclusions. Significant weaknesses identified during the mill appraisals are discussed as well as recommendations for improvements in uranium mill programs and mill licensing and inspection

190

Ball milling pretreatment of corn stover for enhancing the efficiency of enzymatic hydrolysis.  

Science.gov (United States)

Ethanol can be produced from lignocellulosic biomass with the usage of ball milling pretreatment followed by enzymatic hydrolysis and fermentation. The sugar yields from lignocellulosic feed stocks are critical parameters for ethanol production process. The research results from this paper indicated that the yields of glucose and xylose were improved by adding any of the following dilute chemical reagents: H(2)SO(4), HCl, HNO(3), CH(3)COOH, HCOOH, H(3)PO(4), and NaOH, KOH, Ca(OH)(2), NH(3)·H(2)O in the ball milling pretreatment of corn stover. The optimal enzymatic hydrolysis efficiencies were obtained under the conditions of ball milling in the alkali medium that was due to delignification. The data also demonstrated that ball milling pretreatment was a robust process. From the microscope image of ball milling-pretreated corn stover, it could be observed that the particle size of material was decreased and the fiber structure was more loosely organized. Meanwhile, the results indicate that the treatment effect of wet milling is better than that of dry milling. The optimum parameters for the milling process were ball speed of 350 r/min, solid/liquid ratio of 1:10, raw material particle size with 0.5 mm, and number of balls of 20 (steel ball, ??=?10 mm), grinding for 30 min. In comparison with water milling process, alkaline milling treatment could increase the enzymatic hydrolysis efficiency of corn stover by 110%; and through the digestion process with the combination of xylanase and cellulase mixture, the hydrolysis efficiency could increase by 160%. PMID:20593309

Lin, Zengxiang; Huang, He; Zhang, Hongman; Zhang, Lin; Yan, Lishi; Chen, Jingwen

2010-11-01

191

25 CFR 273.45 - Indian preference.  

Science.gov (United States)

25 Indians 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Indian preference. 273.45 Section 273.45 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR INDIAN SELF-DETERMINATION AND EDUCATION ASSISTANCE ACT...

2010-04-01

192

The American Indian: A Natural Philosopher  

Science.gov (United States)

Describes American Indian philosophy, Indian attitudes on man's place in the cosmos, Indian socio-political practice, Indian moral values and community philosophy, and the differences between "white" and Indian culture. (RK)

Bunge, Robert P.

1978-01-01

193

Indian Academy of Sciences - General  

Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

/*these are the link style definitions.*/ the academy      other the madras agricultural journal (the indian journal of statistics) (the indian journal of statistics) | about the academy board | other ...

194

Know Your Blood Sugar Numbers  

Science.gov (United States)

... of the National Institutes of Health and the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention There are two ways to measure blood sugar. ... the National Institutes of Health (NIH) and the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) with the support of more than 200 ...

195

Fritz Scholder: Indian/Not Indian  

Science.gov (United States)

The Smithsonian National Museum of the American Indian has a beautiful online exhibit, Fritz Scholder: Indian/Not Indian which is meant to accompany the in situ exhibition in Washington D.C. and New York. Scholder's work is the subject of much debate in the world of Native Art, as his work has no obvious Native American imagery in it and he oftentimes denied he was Native American. By clicking on "Biography" near the top of the page, a list of links, "The Early Years", "The IAIA Years", and "The 70s and After" will appear. Below these links a clickable timeline also appears which advances when rolled over with the mouse. Another way to get an introduction to Scholder's life and the exhibit is to click on the "Podcasts" link near the top of the page. The first podcast listed is "Fritz Scholder: Indian/Not Indian". Visitors should also not miss looking at his bold and sometimes disturbing paintings and sculptures, under the "Works" tab near the top of the page. They can be viewed by either D.C. or New York displays, as well as by "Curator's Choice", which is the default view. Each piece of work is also accompanied by commentary offered by the curators. Just click on the artwork, and under the bottom right hand corner of the image is a speaker to click on, complete with the name of the curator doing the commentary.

2008-01-01

196

Uranium mill tailings management  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Facilities for the disposal of uranium mill tailings will invariably be subjected to geomorphological and climatological influences in the long-term. Proceedings of a workshop discuss how the principles of geomorphology can be applied to the siting, design, construction, decommissioning and rehabilitation of disposal facilities in order to provide for long-term containment and stability of tailings. The characteristics of tailings and their behaviour after disposal influence the potential impacts which might occur in the long-term. Proceedings of another workshop examine the technologies for uranium ore processing and tailings conditioning with a view to identifying improvements that could be made in such characteristics

197

THE COOPERATIVE SUGAR INDUSTRY IN MAHARASHTRA  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The history of cooperatives in India is more than a hundred years old. Maharashtra sugar industry is one of the most large-scale sugar manufacturing sectors in the country. The pace of the growth of sugar manufacturing has been massive over the past few years. The latest statistics of sugar production in Maharashtra indicates that this state this state this doing better than the other states in the country

THORAT PURUSHOTTAM DHANRAJ

2013-05-01

198

77 FR 2081 - Notice of Inventory Completion: Minnesota Indian Affairs Council, Bemidji, MN  

Science.gov (United States)

...Minnesota Indian Affairs Council, Bemidji, MN AGENCY: National Park Service, Interior...Bemidji Avenue NW., Suite 5, Bemidji, MN 56601, telephone (218) 755-3223. SUPPLEMENTARY...remains were removed from Mille Lacs County, MN. This notice is published as part of...

2012-01-13

199

Indian Inuit Pottery '73  

Science.gov (United States)

A unique exhibit of Canadian Native Ceramics which began touring various art galleries in September 1973 is described both verbally and photographically. The Indian Inuit Pottery '73 display, part of the 1973 International Ceramics Exhibition, includes 110 samples of craftsmanship from Indian and Inuit artists across Canada. (KM)

Tawow, 1974

1974-01-01

200

Microsoft Word - Portrush Mill.doc  

...MICROBIOLOGIOCAL RESULTS FOR PORTRUSH MILL BATHING WATER IN NORTHERN IRELAND...faecal streptococci cfu/100ml PORTRUSH (MILL) 06/06/2002 1800 460...2002 1800 460 38 PORTRUSH (MILL) 12/06/2002 50 14...

 
 
 
 
201

77 FR 14837 - Bioassay at Uranium Mills  

Science.gov (United States)

...COMMISSION [NRC-2012-0057] Bioassay at Uranium Mills AGENCY: Nuclear Regulatory Commission...guide (DG), DG-8051, ``Bioassay at Uranium Mills.'' This guide describes a bioassay program acceptable to the NRC staff for uranium mills and applicable portions of...

2012-03-13

202

Japan steel mill perspective  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The international and Japan's steel industry, the coking coal market, and Japan's expectations from Canada's coal industry are discussed. Japan's steel mills are operating at full capacity. Crude steel production for the first half of 2004 was 55.8 million tons. The steel mills are profitable, but costs are high, and there are difficulties with procuring raw materials. Japan is trying to enhance the quality of coke, in order to achieve higher productivity in the production of pig iron. Economic growth is rising disproportionately in the BRICs (Brazil, Russia, India, and China), with a large increase in coking coal demand from China. On the supply side, there are several projects underway in Australia and Canada to increase production. These include new developments by Elk Valley Coal Corporation, Grande Cache Coal, Western Canadian Coal, and Northern Energy and Mining in Canada. The Elga Mine in the far eastern part of Russia is under development. But the market is expected to remain tight for some time. Japan envisions Canadian coal producers will provide a stable coal supply, expansion of production and infrastructure capabilities, and stabilization of price. 16 slides/overheads are included.

Murase, K. [Kobe Steel Ltd., Tokyo (Japan)

2004-07-01

203

Fossil energy savings potential of sugar cane bio-energy systems  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

One important rationale for bio-energy systems is their potential to save fossil energy. Converting a conventional sugar mill into a bio-energy process plant would contribute to fossil energy savings via the extraction of renewable electricity and ethanol substituting for fossil electricity and gasoline, respectively. This paper takes a closer look at the Thai sugar industry and examines two practical approaches that will enhance fossil energy savings. The first one addresses an efficient extraction of energy in the form of electricity from the excess bagasse and cane trash. The second while proposing to convert molasses or sugar cane to ethanol stresses the use of bagasse as well as distillery spent wash to replace coal in meeting ethanol plants' energy needs. The savings potential achieved with extracting ethanol from surplus sugar versus current practice in sugar industry in Thailand amounts to 15 million barrels of oil a year. Whether the saving benefits could be fully realized, however, depends on how well the potential land use change resulting from an expansion of ethanol production is managed. The results presented serve as a useful guidance to formulate strategies that enable optimum utilization of biomass as an energy source

Nguyen, Thu Lan T; Hermansen, John Erik

2009-01-01

204

21 CFR 173.320 - Chemicals for controlling microorganisms in cane-sugar and beet-sugar mills.  

Science.gov (United States)

...10222-01-2). Limitations: Byproduct molasses, bagasse, and pulp containing residues of 2,2-dibromo-3-nitrilopropionamide...0.032 Limitations. Byproduct molasses, bagasse, and pulp containing residues of these quaternary...

2010-04-01

205

75 FR 68618 - Indian Gaming  

Science.gov (United States)

...INTERIOR Bureau of Indian Affairs Indian Gaming AGENCY: Bureau of Indian Affairs, Interior...Tribe'') and the State of Wisconsin Gaming Compact of 1991, as Amended in 1999 and...L. Hart, Director, Office of Indian Gaming, Office of the Deputy Assistant...

2010-11-08

206

Production of clean pyrolytic sugars for fermentation.  

Science.gov (United States)

This study explores the separate recovery of sugars and phenolic oligomers produced during fast pyrolysis with the effective removal of contaminants from the separated pyrolytic sugars to produce a substrate suitable for fermentation without hydrolysis. The first two stages from a unique recovery system capture "heavy ends", mostly water-soluble sugars and water-insoluble phenolic oligomers. The differences in water solubility can be exploited to recover a sugar-rich aqueous phase and a phenolic-rich raffinate. Over 93?wt?% of the sugars is removed in two water washes. These sugars contain contaminants such as low-molecular-weight acids, furans, and phenols that could inhibit successful fermentation. Detoxification methods were used to remove these contaminants from pyrolytic sugars. The optimal candidate is NaOH overliming, which results in maximum growth measurements with the use of ethanol-producing Escherichia coli. PMID:24706373

Rover, Marjorie R; Johnston, Patrick A; Jin, Tao; Smith, Ryan G; Brown, Robert C; Jarboe, Laura

2014-06-01

207

Philippines sugar cane ethanol plant  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The Philippines' National Alcohol Commission has called for international tenders for the construction of ethanol from sugar cane plants. Interested companies have been asked to quote for capacities of 60,000, 120,000 and 180,000 litre per day. The initial tender calls for three plants but the figure could rise to ten which would then be worth about $20 million.

1981-03-06

208

Cogeneration alternatives in sugar and alcohol industries. Case of study; Alternativas de cogeracao na industria sucro-alcooleira. Estudo de caso  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

In the present work, a cogeneration system of sugar-alcohol cane mill is evaluated. Using the Exergetic Cost Theory, a thermo economic analysis is made for the crop corresponding to the year 2000. Previously a detailed energetic analysis was made in order to determine of the first law efficiency for steam boilers and the fuel consumption involved. The first and second law equipment's efficiencies were calculated as well as some performance criteria of the overall system. The fundamental aim of the evaluation was to obtain the cost of the principal fluxes of the system, considering a discount rate of 15 % and a capital recovery period of fifteen years for the energetic equipment in the sugar mill for the monetary cost calculations. In the analysis, was included the sugar mill juice extraction system as a control volume in order to determine the variation in the bagasse cost and its influence in the cost of other fluxes. A Thermodynamic analysis is also made, in which the increase of thermodynamic parameters is studied as a way of improving the fuel economy in Sugar Mill Factories focusing the electric energy obtained in the different alternatives. Diverse strategies are discussed, and as a result, the thermodynamic evaluations of two Proposals of Steam Cogeneration Systems are accomplished as well as the calculations of the exergetic cost. (author)

Sanchez Prieto, Mario Gabriel

2003-07-01

209

Indian Academy of Sciences - New associates, 2012  

Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

indian academy of sciences - new associates, 2012   1. shivani agarwal, indian institute of science, bangalore  3. sujit kumar ghosh, indian institute of science education and research, pune  4. m. jeganmohan, indian institute of science education and research, pune  5. santanu mukherjee, indian institute of science, bangalore  6. nisanth nair, indian institute of technology, kanpur  7. supratim ray, indian institute of scien ...

210

Indian Academy of Sciences - New associates, 2014  

Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

indian academy of sciences - new associates, 2014   1. k. v. adarsh, indian institute of science education and research, bhopal   3. anshu pandey, indian institute of scince, bangalore  4. arvind ayyer, indian institute of science, bangalore  6. chandan srivastava, indian institute of sience, bangalore  7. jyotishman bhowmick, indian statistical institute, kolkata  8. u. kodandaramaiah, indian institute of science education ...

211

Indian Academy of Sciences - New associates, 2012  

Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

indian academy of sciences - new associates, 2012   2. melinda k. bera, indian institute of science education and research, kolkata   3. neena gupta, indian statistical institute, kolkata  4. vishwesha gutta, indian institute of science, bangalore   5. rajan jha, indian institute of technology, bhubaneswar   7. debabrata maiti, indian institute of technology, mumbai   8. abha misra, indian institute of science, bangalore&nb ...

212

Affinity chemiresistor sensor for sugars.  

Science.gov (United States)

In this work, a non-enzymatic chemiresistive sugar sensor has been developed by combining a synthetic receptor with aligned single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWNTs) device. Briefly, boronic acid as a multivalent sugar receptor was immobilized on carbon nanotubes through amide bond formation. The interaction between three common sugars (d-glucose, d-fructose and sucrose) and boronic acid modified SWNTs device was studied. The effect of pH on the receptor-ligand binding was examined and highest response was observed at pH 9. The chemiresistive sensor exhibited specific and reproducible detection with sensitivity over the concentration range of 1-20mM, 1-25 mM, and 1-30 mM for fructose, glucose, and sucrose, respectively. The sensor showed no interference from common electroactive compounds such as citric acid, uric acid, and ascorbic acid. Furthermore, the sensor retained 97.4% of the initial value after five regeneration cycles with an acidic buffer at pH 5, thus ensuring good reusability. PMID:25059188

Tlili, Chaker; Badhulika, Sushmee; Tran, Thien-Toan; Lee, Ilkeun; Mulchandani, Ashok

2014-10-01

213

Sugars proportionately affect artemisinin production.  

Science.gov (United States)

Little is known about the effect of sugars in controlling secondary metabolism. In this study, sugars alone or in combination with their analogs were used to investigate their role in the production of the antimalarial drug, artemisinin, in Artemisia annua L. seedlings. Compared to sucrose, a 200% increase in artemisinin by glucose was observed. Different ratios of fructose to glucose yielded artemisinin levels directly proportional to increases in relative glucose concentration. When the glucose analog, 3-O-methylglucose, was added with glucose, artemisinin production was dramatically decreased, but hexokinase activity was significantly increased compared to glucose alone. In contrast, neither mannose nor mannitol had any significant effect on artemisinin yield. In comparison with 30 g/l sucrose, artemisinin levels were significantly reduced by 80% in the presence of 27 g/l sucrose + 3 g/l palatinose, which cannot be transported into cells through the sucrose transporter. Together these results suggest that both monosaccharide and disaccharide sugars are likely acting not only as carbon sources but also as signals to affect the downstream production of artemisinin, and that the mechanism of these effects appears to be complex. PMID:17221224

Wang, Y; Weathers, P J

2007-07-01

214

Greenhouse gas emission associated with sugar production in southern Brazil  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background Since sugarcane areas have increased rapidly in Brazil, the contribution of the sugarcane production, and, especially, of the sugarcane harvest system to the greenhouse gas emissions of the country is an issue of national concern. Here we analyze some data characterizing various activities of two sugarcane mills during the harvest period of 2006-2007 and quantify the carbon footprint of sugar production. Results According to our calculations, 241 kg of carbon dioxide equivalent were released to the atmosphere per a ton of sugar produced (2406 kg of carbon dioxide equivalent per a hectare of the cropped area, and 26.5 kg of carbon dioxide equivalent per a ton of sugarcane processed. The major part of the total emission (44% resulted from residues burning; about 20% resulted from the use of synthetic fertilizers, and about 18% from fossil fuel combustion. Conclusions The results of this study suggest that the most important reduction in greenhouse gas emissions from sugarcane areas could be achieved by switching to a green harvest system, that is, to harvesting without burning.

La Scala Newton

2010-06-01

215

Mechanical milling of aluminum powder using planetary ball milling process  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Mechanical alloying has recently attracted considerable attention as researchers strive to enhance nanocomposite properties and extend their utility. The process can be performed at room temperature and homogeneous nanocomposite powders can be produced. In this paper, we investigated the effect of different ball milling parameters and operating conditions (milling time, ball size, processing control agent (PCA and speed in mechanical alloying of aluminum powder to achieve particle size reduction with less contamination. Two types of PCA, i.e. stearic acid and methanol have been used and microstructure evolutions at different operating conditions were studied. It was shown that the optimized milling parameters for aluminium composite are 100 stainless steel ball (10 mm, 200 rpm rotation speed with direction reversal and 1 min pause time after every 15 min running time, under argon gas for 30 hr of milling.

M. Ramezani

2012-12-01

216

Underground milling of uranium ores  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Full text: This paper presents and analyzes the new concept of underground milling of high-grade uranium ore. Compared to conventional milling on surface, the underground milling scheme appears to offer significant cost savings and a lower environmental impact. The paper describes the underground milling scheme, presents process flowsheets and plant layouts, and provides an assessment of potential benefits from underground milling. In response to the current supply/demand situation for uranium, there has been, for the past few years, a 'uranium rush' in many parts of the world, including the resource-rich Athabasca basin situated in northern Saskatchewan. In a recent count, there were over forty uranium companies looking for uranium in this region. Positive results from any of these exploration activities could, depending on their location, potentially provide a source of additional feedstock for any of the existing milling centres in northern Saskatchewan and/or result in the establishment of additional new milling capacity. Underground milling would be considered in the latter instance. The above flowsheet shows the basics of the proposed underground milling scheme, which assumes the existence of a high-grade underground uranium mine, similar to the current McArthur River mine or the planned Cigar Lake mine. Grinding, leaching, solid/liquid separation and tailings deposition are all carried out underground. Leach liquor is pumped to surface for impurity removal, precipitation and drying. The impurities, removed as chemical precipitates, are moved back underground for disposal. Expected environmental benefits are significant and include reduction of surface visual impact, leach residues remain underground, and no tailings management facility on surface. Indeed the process residue is arguably more isolated from the environment than was the ore before mining. Contaminant transport from the stored tailings to surface waters is extremely slow. Application of membrane technology to water treatment for the underground milling scheme is expected to provide an aqueous effluent with minimal loading to the environment. In addition to these substantial environmental benefits, underground milling is expected to give a capital cost saving on the order of 35% and an operating cost saving on the order of 30% relative to conventional mining and milling. (author)

217

Ready Indian Country  

Science.gov (United States)

... and recover after disaster strikes. The goal of Ready Indian Country is to collaborate with tribal governments ... Northern Plains - Southern Plains - Northeast - Southeast Visit the Ready.gov Publications section for additional resources for families, ...

218

Indians on the Border  

Science.gov (United States)

Although the Kickapoo have actively sought to preserve their culture at Nacimiento in Coahuila, Mexico, evidence of an eroding culture is found at Eagle Pass, Texas where American Indian migrant workers reside temporarily. (JC)

Jamail, Milton H.

1977-01-01

219

Indian Cosmological Ideas  

CERN Document Server

This paper, third in the series on Indian tradition of physics, describes conceptions of the cosmos with ideas that are clearly spelt out in texts such as Yoga Vasishtha.In particular, the conception of multiple universes that occurs often in this text will be examined in the framework of the Indian physics. The other surprising concepts that are discussed include flow of time and its variability with respect to different observers, and the possibility of passage across universes.

Narayan, R

2007-01-01

220

Indian River Lagoon  

Science.gov (United States)

Located on the eastern coast of Florida, the Indian River Lagoon is a barrier island and lagoonal system which has been impacted by human development. This site, created by the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), details how the system works, its history, human impacts on the system, and the area's future. In addition, visitors can learn about the habitats, plants, and animals found in the Indian River Lagoon.

Water., United S.

 
 
 
 
221

The water footprint of sweeteners and bio-ethanol from sugar cane, sugar beet and maize  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Sugar cane and sugar beet are used for sugar for human consumption. In the US, maize is used, amongst others, for the sweetener High Fructose Maize Syrup (HFMS). Sugar cane, sugar beet and maize are also important for bio-ethanol production. The growth of crops requires water, a scarce resource. The aim of this study is to assess the green, blue and grey water footprint (WF) of sugar, HFMS and ethanol in the main producing countries. In addition, an impact assessment is carried ou...

Gerbens-leenes, P. W.; Hoekstra, A. Y.

2009-01-01

222

76 FR 35221 - Epidemiology Program for American Indian/Alaska Native Tribes and Urban Indian Communities...  

Science.gov (United States)

...for American Indian/Alaska Native Tribes and Urban Indian Communities; Correction AGENCY: Indian Health Service...serving American Indian/Alaska Native Tribes and urban Indian communities. The document contained one incorrect...

2011-06-16

223

Fine milling in applied mechanochemistry  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This review paper is devoted to application of mechanochemistry in extractive metallurgy, crystal engineering, materials engineering, coal industry, building industry, agriculture, pharmacy and waste treatment. In extractive metallurgy the most commercially attractive potential applications using fine milling (Activox, Melt) will be illustrated. Mechanochemical approach in crystal and materials engineering will focus on the non-equilibrium processing of materials and their current and potential applications. In agriculture the technological advantages of mechanochemical methods over traditional methods for improving the solubility of natural phosphates will be documented. In pharmacy, the selected examples of fine milling application will show the improved bioavailability of drugs. The examples of fine milling utilization in coal industry, building industry and waste treatment are also given. Simplification of the processes, ecological safety and the product extraordinariness characterize the application of fine milling in mechanochemistry.

Balaz, P.; Dutkova, E. [Slovak Academy of Sciences, Kosice (Slovakia)

2009-06-15

224

Plastid transformation in sugar beet: Beta vulgaris.  

Science.gov (United States)

Chloroplast biotechnology has assumed great importance in the past 20 years and, thanks to the numerous advantages as compared to conventional transgenic technologies, has been applied in an increasing number of plant species but still very much limited. Hence, it is of utmost importance to extend the range of species in which plastid transformation can be applied. Sugar beet (Beta vulgaris L.) is an important industrial crop of the temperate zone in which chloroplast DNA is not transmitted trough pollen. Transformation of the sugar beet genome is performed in several research laboratories; conversely sugar beet plastome genetic transformation is far away from being considered a routine technique. We describe here a method to obtain transplastomic sugar beet plants trough biolistic transformation. The availability of sugar beet transplastomic plants should avoid the risk of gene flow between these cultivated genetic modified sugar beet plants and the wild-type plants or relative wild species. PMID:24599867

De Marchis, Francesca; Bellucci, Michele

2014-01-01

225

Sugar-free medicines are counterproductive.  

Science.gov (United States)

Sugar in food and drinks is responsible for the poor dental health of many children and adults. On the other hand, there is no evidence that the small amount of sugar in medicines has been responsible for any dental problems. A recent British Heart Foundation survey found that nearly one in three UK children are eating sweets, chocolate and crisps three or more times a day. Hence it is futile administering sugar-free medicine to a child consuming lot of sweets. Moreover, sugar in medicines makes them palatable and bitter medicines inevitably affect compliance with the prescribed treatment. Poor compliance leads to inadequate treatment of illness and consequently increases the risk of complications from illness. Hence sugar-free medicines promoted as a public health policy could have actually caused more harm than any meaningful net benefit. There is an urgent need for a healthy debate and a fresh look at the policy of promoting sugar-free medicines. PMID:22955756

Sundar, S

2012-09-01

226

Byssinosis among jute mill workers.  

Science.gov (United States)

Although byssinosis in jute mill workers remains controversial, studies in a few jute mills in West-Bengal, India, revealed typical byssinotic syndrome associated with acute changes in FEV1 on the first working day after rest. The present study on 148 jute mill workers is reported to confirm the occurrence of byssinosis in jute mill workers. Work related respiratory symptoms; acute and chronic pulmonary function changes among exposed workers were studied on the basis of standard questionnaire and spirometric method along with dust level, particle mass size distributions and gram-negative bacterial endotoxins. The pulmonary function test (PFT) changes were defined as per the recommendation of World Health Organization and of Bouhys et al. Total dust in jute mill air were monitored by high volume sampling, technique (Staplex, USA), Andersen cascade impactor was used for particle size distribution and personal exposure level was determined by personal sampler (Casella, London). Endotoxin in airborne jute dust was analysed by Lymulus Amebocyte Lysate (LAL) "Gel Clot" technique. Batching is the dustiest process in the mill. Size distribution showed that about 70-80% dust in diameter of byssinosis as observed in cotton, flask and hemp workers. PMID:12916758

Chattopadhyay, Bhaskar P; Saiyed, Habibullah N; Mukherjee, Ashit K

2003-07-01

227

Root rot diseases of sugar beet  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Root rot diseases of sugar beet caused by Rhizoctonia solani (AG 2-2 IIIB and AG 2-2 IV), R. crocorum, Aphanomyces cochlioides, Phoma betae, Macrophomina phaeseolina, Fusarium oxysporum f.sp. radicis-betae, Pythium aphanidermatum Phytophthora drechsleri, Rhizopus stolonifer, R. arrhizus and Sclerotium rolfsii cause significant losses wherever sugar beets are grown. However, not all these soil-borne pathogens have been reported in all sugar beet production areas. Losses include reduced harvest...

Jacobsen Barry J.

2006-01-01

228

76 FR 64839 - Sugar Program; Feedstock Flexibility Program for Bioenergy Producers  

Science.gov (United States)

...refined sugar supplies are the late sugar beet crop of 2005, Hurricane Katrina...the estimate. The sugarcane and sugar beet harvest for making sugar in the following...domestically-grown sugarcane, sugar beets, in- process sugars, or...

2011-10-19

229

The current status of the Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Actions Project  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In late 1978, Congress enacted Public Law 96-604, the ''Uranium Mill Tailings Radiation Control Act of 1978.'' The Act instructed the Department of Energy to perform remedial actions at designated inactive uranium mill tailings sites. DOE established the Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Actions (UMTRA) Project Office to implement remedial actions at the sites, in cooperation with the affected States, Indian tribes, Nuclear Regulatory Commission, and owners of the sites in 1983, with an additional site started in late 1984, and two more planned in 1985. Numerous vicinity properties at four different site areas are also presently being cleaned up. All of this work is being performed in accordance with Environmental Protection Agency cleanup standards

230

Nuclear analytical techniques in Cuban Sugar Industry  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This paper is a review concerning the applications of Nuclear Analytical Techniques in the Cuban sugar industry. The most complete elemental composition of final molasses (34 elements ) and natural zeolites (38) this last one employed as an auxiliary agent in sugar technological processes has been performed by means of Instrumental Neutron Activation Analysis (INAA) and X-Ray Fluorescence Analysis (XRFA). The trace elements sugar cane soil plant relationship and elemental composition of different types of Cuban sugar (rawr, blanco directo and refine) were also studied. As a result, valuable information referred to the possibilities of using these products in animal and human foodstuff so as in other applications are given

231

Sugar beet as energy plants  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Even for sugar beet, with its established peak position in plant production per surface area, there are relatively narrow limits to its use as energy plants in regards to the growing area requirements and availability. The technological concept must cover the disposal of by-products. Allowing for vinasse concentration and pulp drying (still necessary today) and the fact that leaves and tops still cannot be utilized, the energy balance for sugar beet shows a consumption which is greater than production. Hence, it is important to carry out research and development so that the energy pre-load is reduced in alcohol production from beet. The proposed compound heat process (vinasse evaporation and distillation) is effective in this direction. Alcohol plants demand considerable investment, since units for production of the fermentation substrate (juice extraction) must be set up as well. Calculation of the economics is especially problematical, since the production costs for the alcohol equivalent of 1 litre of gasoline (price ex refinery approximately 0.45 DM) show a 5-6-fold increase based on the standard beet price (A-beet). The raw material proportion alone comes to about 0.90 DM.

Reinefeld, E.; Wagner, F.; Winner, C.

1980-01-01

232

The sugar industry in Peru  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Since the early Colonial times sugar production has been a key sector in the Peruvian export economy. This article analyzes its evolution as from the beginning of its modern phase by mid 19th Century, its consolidation in the Northern coastal region, and its concentration in scale-economy plants. The prosperity of this type of production contributed to the formation of both an oligarchy which governed the country until 1968, and the populist party (APRA and its electoral basis (the so-called «Aprista North». In the sixties Velasco Alvarado’s military revolution nationalized the sugar industry, which underwent structural changes leading to a serious crisis in the eighties that has not been overcome up-todate.

La producción de azúcar ha constituido un importante sector en la economía exportadora del Perú desde el período colonial temprano. Este artículo analiza su evolución, sobre todo tras el inicio de su fase moderna, fechada a partir de mediados del siglo XIX, cuando se modernizó, se consolidó en la región costera septentrional y se concentró en fábricas que operaban con economías de escala. Su prosperidad, contribuyó, además, a la formación de una oligarquía que gobernó el país hasta 1968 y del partido populista, APRA, y su base electoral (el llamado «sólido Norte aprista». La revolución militar de Velasco Alvarado nacionalizó la industria en la década de 1960 y los cambios estructurales que sufrió posteriormente le condujeron a una grave crisis en los años ochenta que aún no ha superado.

Klaren, Peter F.

2005-04-01

233

Indian Academy of Sciences - New associates, 2007  

Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

indian academy of sciences - new associates, 2007 department of physics,indian institute of science,bangalorecomputer science and automation department,indian institute of science,bangaloredepartment of inorganic and physical chemistry,indian institute of science,bangaloredepartment of mathematics,indian institute of technology, bombay,mumbaidepartment of mathematics and statistics,indian institute of technology, kanpur,kanpur ...

234

Indian Academy of Sciences - New associates, 2010  

Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

indian academy of sciences - new associates, 2010   2. suvendra nath bhattacharyya, indian institute of chemical biology, kolkata  3. ayan datta, indian institute of science education and research, thiruvananthapuram  5. abhishek dey, indian association for the cultivation of science, kolkata  7. subroto mukerjee, indian institute of science, bangalore  9. samik nanda, indian institute of technology, kharagpur10. vijay natarajan, india ...

235

7 CFR 1435.304 - Beet and cane sugar allotments.  

Science.gov (United States)

...sugar allotments. (a) The allotment for beet sugar will be 54.35 percent of the overall allotment...the overall allotment quantity. (c) A sugar beet processor allocated a share of the beet sugar allotment may use only beet sugar to...

2010-01-01

236

Wild strains of fermenting yeast isolated of sugar cane juice from an alcohol distillery from Mato Grosso, Brazil  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Ethanol production for fuel is important for the Brazilian economy as a renewable solution to oil derivatives. Theindustrial process uses commercially available yeast, most of them isolated from sugar mills from the Brazilian stateof São Paulo. The research information on the availability of yeast appropriate to the climatic conditions occurringin the Midwest region of Brazil is scarce. The article presents the isolation and morphological characterization offermentative wild yeast prospected on the sugar cane juice of a sugar and alcohol mill of Mato Grosso State. Thejuice samples were collected in both the hot and rainy (HR season and in the cold and dry (CD one. The dilutedsugar cane juice samples were plated on agar LWYN and evaluated for fermentation in test tubes containinginverted Durham tubes. From 26 morphotypes isolated, 50% were able to ferment sugar cane juice. Greater numberand diversity of yeasts was found in both December (HR and July (CD. In the remaining months of each seasonthere were a low number of colonies with a poor diversity.

Rosimeire Oenning da Silva

2011-01-01

237

La science politique de John Stuart Mill  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This essay explores aspects of John Stuart Mill’s approach to social and political science in the Considerations on Representative Government (1861 with an emphasis on the significance of character or ‘ethology’ in this science. The starting point is a discussion of psychology and ethology in Book VI of the Logic (1843. This conception is examined in terms of Mill’s framework of inductive and deductive science and the distinction between art and science where the views of Mill and Jeremy Bentham are contrasted. Given Mill’s view of the relationship between art and science, the science of ethology (including political ethology assumes a more prominent position in Mill’s thought than any political art or any distinctly political science. Contrary to many commentators, it is argued that Mill never abandoned his commitment to ethology, as is clear from the discussion of ‘the ideally best form of government’ in the Considerations. Mill’s conception of ‘active character’ here underpins and directs what might otherwise be seen as a traditional account of forms of government. The cultivation of active character becomes an essential condition for the success of representative government. The essay concludes with remarks on Mill’s emphasis on society for his account of liberty in On Liberty (1859 and suggests that he considered new ways of understanding the traditional processes of government.

Frederick Rosen

2008-02-01

238

78 FR 54670 - Indian Gaming  

Science.gov (United States)

...Affairs [DR.5B711.IA000813] Indian Gaming AGENCY: Bureau of Indian Affairs, Interior...extension of Tribal--State Class III Gaming Compact...notice of the Extension of the Class III gaming compact between the Yankton Sioux...

2013-09-05

239

78 FR 78377 - Indian Gaming  

Science.gov (United States)

...Affairs [DR.5B711.IA000814] Indian Gaming AGENCY: Bureau of Indian Affairs, Interior...extension of Tribal-State Class III Gaming Compact...notice of the extension of the Class III gaming compact between the Yankton Sioux...

2013-12-26

240

78 FR 62650 - Indian Gaming  

Science.gov (United States)

...Affairs [DR.5B711.IA000813] Indian Gaming AGENCY: Bureau of Indian Affairs, Interior...extension of Tribal-State Class III Gaming Compact...notice of the extension of the Class III gaming compact between the Rosebud Sioux...

2013-10-22

 
 
 
 
241

Resisting the Script of Indian Education: Zitkala Sa and the Carlisle Indian School.  

Science.gov (United States)

Offers a "definition" of Zitkala Sa as an Indian teacher who, at the turn of the 20th century, challenged and countered educational norms that silenced Indian voices and erased Indian culture. Examines her autobiographical essays, "Impressions of an Indian Childhood,""The School Days of an Indian Girl," and "An Indian Teacher among Indians," in…

Enoch, Jessica

2002-01-01

242

Sugar cane/sweet sorghum as an ethanol feedstock in Louisiana and Piedmont  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Cost to provide readily fermentable feedstock for a year round sweet sorghum-to-ethanol production facility, up to the point at which fermentation begins, was determined. It was assumed that sweet sorghum is produced on marginal crop lands in the Southeastern Piedmont, and is purchased, standing in the field by a central ethanol production facility. Feedstock cost varied from $1.96 to $2.98/gal of ethanol potential depending on harvest system and use of by-products. Major contributors to feedstock cost were field production, harvest/field processing, and cost to evaporate juice to a storable syrup. Cost to transport feedstock to a central production facility, and cost of storage were relatively minor components of total cost, contributing only $0.05 and $0.06/gal ethanol potential, respectively. For a point of comparison, cost of producing ethanol feedstock from sugar cane, based on current processing practices in Louisiana sugar mills, was determined to be $2.50/gal ethanol potential. This cost is higher than determined for most options in the Piedmont for two reasons: (1) sugar cane demands a higher price in Louisiana than was assumed for sweet sorghum in the Piedmont, and (2) little market exists in Louisiana for by-products of sugar milling, consequently, no by-product credit was assigned. Current market value of ethanol must approximately double before a sweet sorghum-to-ethanol industry in the Piedmont could be economically viable, as no opportunity was identifilly viable, as no opportunity was identified for a significant reduction in feedstock cost

243

Cell wall sugars | UK Energy Research Centre  

Most mass in the plant cell wall is in the form of polysaccharides- cellulose and ... \\for fermentation to fuel and can be converted to mixed sugar solutions by the use \\of ... assault on its structural sugars from the microbial and animal kingdoms.

244

Keeping Track of Your Blood Sugar  

Science.gov (United States)

... their blood sugar levels. Continue How Does It Work? You can test blood sugar levels at home using a blood glucose meter, which is a computerized device that measures the amount of glucose in a sample of your blood and displays it on a ...

245

Holograms recorded in dichromated with simple sugars  

Science.gov (United States)

Sugars as glucose and fructose can be used to holographic record. These materials have the advantage to mix very well with K2Cr2O7.Holographic gratings recorded in sugars, were made by a lineal setup to producing interference pattern using a wavelength at 473 nm. These materials have the ability to register information in real time.

Mejias-Brizuela, N. Y.; Olivares-Pérez, A.; Grande-Grande, A.

2011-01-01

246

Microbiological Spoilage of High-Sugar Products  

Science.gov (United States)

The high-sugar products discussed in this chapter are referred to as chocolate, sugar confectionery (non-chocolate), liquid sugars, sugar syrups, and honey. Products grouped in the sugar confectionery category include hard candy, soft/gummy candy, caramel, toffee, licorice, marzipan, creams, jellies, and nougats. A common intrinsic parameter associated with high-sugar products is their low water activity (a w), which is known to inhibit the growth of most spoilage and pathogenic bacteria. However, spoilage can occur as a result of the growth of osmophilic yeasts and xerophilic molds (Von Richter, 1912; Anand & Brown, 1968; Brown, 1976). The a w range for high-sugar products is between 0.20 and 0.80 (Banwart, 1979; Richardson, 1987; Lenovich & Konkel, 1992; ICMSF, 1998; Jay, Loessner, & Golden, 2005). Spoilage of products, such as chocolate-covered cherries, results from the presence of yeasts in the liquid sugar brine or the cherry. Generally, the spoiled product will develop leakers. The chocolate covering the cherry would not likely be a source of yeast contamination.

Thompson, Sterling

247

Directory of American Indian Tribes.  

Science.gov (United States)

This directory provides general information on American Indian and Alaska Native tribes and lands. The information was compiled from several resources including the "Federal Register," the Bureau of Indian Affairs, "The Native American Almanac" (A. Hirschfelder, M. K. de Montano), the "Atlas of North American Indian Tribes" (Carl Waldman), the…

Northern Arizona Univ., Flagstaff. Inst. for Human Development.

248

The Indian in American History.  

Science.gov (United States)

The treatment of American Indians is discussed historically with reference to the 4 principal methods used to create or perpetuate false impressions: obliteration, defamation, disembodiment, and disparagement. Indian contributions to American civilization are cited in contrast with historical references to Indians in textbooks. The author suggests…

Vogel, Virgil J.

249

78 FR 26801 - Indian Gaming  

Science.gov (United States)

...Affairs [DR.5B711.IA000813] Indian Gaming AGENCY: Bureau of Indian Affairs, Interior...Notice of Approved Tribal-State Class III Gaming Compact...amendment to the Class III Tribal-State Gaming Compact between the Menominee Indian...

2013-05-08

250

The Promise of Indian Youth.  

Science.gov (United States)

Promising practices were shared during the American Indian School-to-Work Conference (Seattle, Washington, May 2000). Successful programs included such elements as emphasis on Indian cultural values, partnerships with local businesses and tribal colleges, cooperation among Indian school-to-work programs, community service, and connections to…

Stone, Patricia Mackey

2000-01-01

251

Colorado's prospectus on uranium milling  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The first part of this paper will discuss Colorado's control of uranium mill tailings under Titles I and II of the Uranium Mill Tailings Radiation Control Act of 1978. Colorado has a legacy of nine inactive mill sites requiring reclamation under Title I, and two presently active plus a number of new mill proposals which must be regulated in accordance with Title II. Past failures in siting and control on the part of federal jurisdictions have left the state with a heavy legacy requiring extensive effort to address impacts to the state's environment and population. The second part of this paper will discuss the remedial action programme authorized under Public Law 92-314 for Mesa Country, where lack of federal control led to the dispersal of several hundred thousand tons of uranium mill tailings on thousands of properties, including hundreds of homes, schools and other structures. Successful completion of the State efforts under both programmes will depend on a high level of funding and on the maintenance of adequate regulatory standards. (author)

252

Synthetic applications of sugar pyranosides  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Carbohydrates provide as an inexpensive starting material for the synthesis of polyfunctional, chiral natural products during the last two to three decades, the literature has revealed tremendous growth in this area, high lighted by many out standing achievements (1). The synthetic effort of carbohydrate chemistry has been inspired by the biochemical events and the knowledge gained from such studies has been useful in advancing many areas of the biological sciences. The asymmetric synthesis has been indigenously and widely used in the creation of C-C bonds in developing organic molecules. The control of absolute stereochemistry and regiospecific introduction of various functionality at predetermined sites remain a crucial problem in making moderately functionalized chiral compound. The compound in which the sugar portion is apparent and can be singled out by examination of their structures. (author)

253

Undigestible sugars in food products.  

Science.gov (United States)

In the field of sucrose replacement, low-energy bulk ingredients must be used to lower the energy density of food. Ideally, low-energy bulk ingredients as a substitute for sucrose should have significantly less energy, possess physical and chemical properties that precisely match those of sucrose in all food applications, provide secondary health benefits (such as being noncariogenic, being useful for diabetics, and having fiber-like effects), confer no negative side effects, and be completely safe at any amount of consumption. The food industry has developed a range of low-energy bulk ingredients. Most of these are legally permitted in food applications and are undigestible sugars (eg, polyols and fructo-oligosaccharides). Their main nutritional properties (energy value, digestive tolerance, and cariogenicity) are related to their fate in the digestive tract, especially their capacity to be used and fermented by bacteria. PMID:8116563

Bornet, F R

1994-03-01

254

7 CFR 457.109 - Sugar Beet Crop Insurance Provisions.  

Science.gov (United States)

... 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Sugar Beet Crop Insurance Provisions. 457.109 ...COMMON CROP INSURANCE REGULATIONS § 457.109 Sugar Beet Crop Insurance Provisions. The Sugar Beet Crop Insurance Provisions for the...

2010-01-01

255

Computational simulation for analysis of the freight in the sugar cane transportation – a case study in the Rio de Janeiro state  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This work presents an analysis of the freight distribution in the sugar cane supply system in a mill made by computational simulation. The mill supply system is compound basically by the cut, loading and transportation operations (known as CLT. The costs of these operations represent 27% on an average of the direct costs of the production per hectare. Only transportation represents, approximately 55% of the CLT total costs per hectare. In Campos dos Goytacazes, north of Rio de Janeiro state, the sugar cane activity is traditional and of great value, demanding continuous improvement of these operations. The aim of this work was to develop a simulation model to evaluate the relation of the CLT freight cost with the distance of the sugar cane supplier to the mill. Simulations of various ypothetical sceneries built to allow connecting the various suppliers concerning the paid freight were done. Results were validated with data from literature and with information furnish by local mills, allowing, and this way, to determine the impact of the freight over the direct operations costs of the CLT.

João José de Assis Rangel

2008-12-01

256

Mill controlling with SR::MILL in Weiher power plant; Einsatz des Muehlenmoduls SR::MILL im Kraftwerk Weiher  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The physical properties of coal fluctuate strongly. Frequent start-up and load changes of the power plant unit present a high challenge regarding the safe and efficient operation of the coal mills. Consequently, an intelligent automatic software solution becomes especially valuable. The mill optimisation module SR::Mill takes over the control over the mill feeding providing a great assistance to the power plant operator. (orig.)

Maltsev, Alexander [Evonik Energy Services GmbH, Zwingenberg (Germany); Prinz, Stephan [Evonik Power Saar GmbH, Quierschied (Germany). Kraftwerk Weiher

2010-07-01

257

Uranium mill tailings and radon  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The major health hazard from uranium mill tailings is presumed to be respiratory cancer resulting from the inhalation of radon daughter products. A review of studies on inhalation of radon and its daughters indicates that the hazard from the tailings is extremely small. If the assumptions used in the studies are correct, one or two people per year in the United States may develop cancer as a result of radon exhaled from all the Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action program sites. The remedial action should reduce the hazard from the tailings by a factor of about 100

258

Uranium mill tailings and radon  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The major health hazard from uranium mill tailings is presumed to be respiratory cancer resulting from the inhalation of radon daughter products. A review of studies on inhalation of radon and its daughters indicates that the hazard from the tailings is extremely small. If the assumptions used in the studies are correct, one or two people per year in the US may develop cancer as a result of radon exhaled from all the Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action Program sites. The remedial action should reduce the hazard from the tailings by a factor of about 100

259

Higher Yang-Mills Theory  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Electromagnetism can be generalized to Yang-Mills theory by replacing the group U(1)$ by a nonabelian Lie group. This raises the question of whether one can similarly generalize 2-form electromagnetism to a kind of "higher-dimensional Yang-Mills theory". It turns out that to do this, one should replace the Lie group by a "Lie 2-group", which is a category C where the set of objects and the set of morphisms are Lie groups, and the source, target, identity and composition maps...

Baez, John C.

2002-01-01

260

What Price Sugar? Land, Labor, and Revolution  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available [First paragraph] Sugar, Slavery, and Society: Perspectives on the Caribbean, India, the Mascarenes, and the United States. Bernard Moitt (ed.. Gainesville: University Press of Florida, 2004. vii + 203 pp. (Cloth US $ 65.00 Tropical Babylons: Sugar and the Making of the Atlantic World, 1450-1680. Stuart B. Schwartz (ed.. Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press, 2004. xiii + 347 pp. (Paper US $ 22.50 These two books illustrate the fascination that sugar, slavery, and the plantation still exercise over the minds of scholars. One of them also reflects an interest in the influence these have had on the modern world. For students of the history of these things the Schwartz collection is in many ways the more useful. It seeks to fill a lacuna left by the concentration of monographs on the eighteenth and nineteenth centuries, suggesting that we know less about the history of sugar than we thought we did. Perhaps in no other single place is such a range of information on so wide an area presented in such detail for so early a period. Ranging from Iberia to the Caribbean and including consumption as well as production of sugar, with a nod to the slave trade and a very useful note on weights and currencies, this volume is a gold mine of information. It considers (briefly the theoretical meaning as well as the growing of this important crop, contrasting its production in Iberia with that on the Atlantic islands of Madeira and the Canaries, colonized by Iberian powers, and continuing the contrast with São Tomé, off the coast of Africa, and on to Brazil and the Spanish American empire before ending with the British in Barbados. In the transit, it of necessity considers and complicates the meaning of “sugar revolution” and shows how scholars using that term do not always mean the same thing. John McCusker and Russell Menard, for example, tackling a cornerstone of the traditional interpretation of the development of sugar, argue that there was no “sugar revolution” in Barbados; economic change had already begun before sugar’s advent, though sugar may have accelerated it, and yet sugar production was transformed on the island. They also undercut, without quite denying, the significance of the Dutch role in the process. Schwartz, while questioning, lings to the traditional expression if not the traditional outlook, seeing in Barbados “the beginning of the sugar revolution” (p. 10.

Daniel C. Littlefield

2008-12-01

 
 
 
 
261

The Indian Space Program  

Science.gov (United States)

The Indian Space program aimed at providing operation space services in communications and remote sensing and using state-of-the-art space technologies is reviewed. Emphasis is placed on the development and operation of satellites and launch vehicles for providing these space services.

Talapatra, Dipak C.

1993-01-01

262

Indians of New Mexico.  

Science.gov (United States)

The booklet gives a general introduction to American Indians in New Mexico. Covering historical background and present status, reports are given for these tribes: the 19 Pueblos (i.e., Acoma, Cochiti, Isleta, Jemez, Laguna, and Zuni), the Jicarilla and Mescalero Apaches, and the Navajos. Also included are 26 places of interest such as Acoma…

Bureau of Indian Affairs (Dept. of Interior), Washington, DC.

263

Caregiving in Indian Country  

Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

This podcast discusses the role of caregivers in Indian County and the importance of protecting their health. It is primarily targeted to public health and aging services professionals.  Created: 12/23/2009 by National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion (NCCDPHP).   Date Released: 12/23/2009.

2009-12-23

264

28 CFR 90.50 - Indian tribal governments discretionary program.  

Science.gov (United States)

... false Indian tribal governments discretionary program. 90.50 Section 90...WOMEN Indian Tribal Governments Discretionary Program § 90.50 Indian tribal governments discretionary program. (a) Indian...

2010-07-01

265

EPA's role in uranium mining and milling  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

EPA's role and actions in regulating uranium mining and milling are reviewed and updated. Special emphasis is given to EPA's current activities under the Uranium Mill Tailings Radiation Control Act of 1978

266

Indian Academy of Sciences - New associates, 2011  

Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

indian academy of sciences - new associates, 2011   6. thirupathi gudi, indian institute of science, bangalore  9. supriyo mitra, indian institute of science education and research, nadia10. debdeep mukhopadhyay, indian institute of technology, kharagpur11. g. v. pavan kumar, indian institute of science education and research, pune13. thomas j. pucadyil, indian institute of science education and reesarch, pune14. dipankar saha, indian institute of technology, mumba ...

267

Correlation between process parameters and milling efficiency  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

An experimental ball-milling study was performed to compare the deagglomeration behavior and the evolution of the particle size distribution with increasing milling time of two relatively coarse WC powders used for the production of cemented carbide cutting tools. The WC-powders were found to have distinctly different particle size distributions and particle morphologies prior to milling. Lab-scale WC samples were made using a range of different process parameters and milling times. These wer...

Johansson, Anna

2012-01-01

268

77 FR 43369 - Alumax Mill Products, Inc. Doing Business as Alcoa Mill Products Texarkana a Subsidiary of Alcoa...  

Science.gov (United States)

...TA-W-71,149] Alumax Mill Products, Inc. Doing Business as Alcoa Mill Products Texarkana a Subsidiary of Alcoa...follows: All workers of Alumax Mill Products, Inc., doing business as Alcoa Mill Products Texarkana, a subsidiary...

2012-07-24

269

Machine Shop. Module 6: Milling. Instructor's Guide.  

Science.gov (United States)

This document consists of materials for a 12-unit course on the following topics: (1) introduction to milling; (2) structure and accessories; (3) safety and maintenance; (4) cutting-tool variables; (5) basic set-up activities; (6) squaring a workpiece; (7) hole-making operations; (8) form milling; (9) machining keyways; (10) milling angular…

Walden, Charles H.

270

ECONOMIC ANALYSIS OF SUGAR BEAT PRODUCTION  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Croatian quota of 180.000 tones of sugar beet per year is approved for export to EU countries. For that amount of sugar it is necessary to produce about 30.000 ha of sugar beet. Sugar beet production requires deep and fertile soils, and crop rotation requirement is at least five year. Therefore, Slavonia and Baranya do t have enough areas under sugar beet. An additional problem is so called “sugar reform” applied by EUaiming to decrease price of sugar produced from sugar beet root and its equalization to sugar cane price. Consequences of this movement will be decreasing of sugar beet domestic redemption price. In that way, sugar beet production will be increased only within producers with relative good soils, suitable mechanization and knowledge. The research shows the results of production sugar beet on family farm of Vukovar – SrijemCounty on 21 ha. Technical and technological process includes 35 working operations spending 26.9 hours/ha of mechanization and 65.8 hours/ha of labor. Total costs amount to 15.947,05 kn/ha. Producers paid for seed 1.405,44 kn/ha or 9.4% and for 1.100 kg of fertilizers 2.217,50 kn/ha or 14.8% of total costs. Significant values are also costs for plant protection (9 l/ha being 15.2% of total cost. Mechanization fee is 5.070,96 kn/ha with share of 33.9% what indicates that this is the most important element in total costs, partly as a consequence of increased distance between arable land and farm. Total value of production is 20.759,59 kn/ha, with yields of the root (70.30 t/ha and government subsidies. Amount of 1.068,82 kg root is producedper hour of human labour; while 0.94 hour of human labour is necessary per tone of products. Economic coefficient is 1.36. Profit of 36.67 kn is achieved on 100 invested kunas in production process.

Jozo Kanisek

2008-06-01

271

Rapid screening for anthocyanins in cane sugars using ESR spectroscopy.  

Science.gov (United States)

Anthocyanin, which is soluble in water and released into sugar steam during extraction, was investigated in this study. The anthocyanin content in refined sugar, plantation white sugar, soft brown sugar and raw sugar was determined using electron spin resonance (ESR) spectroscopy, which was operated at room temperature, and compared with spectra from standard anthocyanin. The ESR spectra of red and violet anthocyanins was predominantly g?2.0055, which corresponded to an unpaired electron located in the pyrylium ring. Signals for Fe(III) and Mn(II), which naturally occur in plants, were found in raw sugar, soft brown sugar and standard anthocyanin but were absent from refined sugar and plantation white sugar due to the refining process. In addition, the ESR results were correlated with the apparent colour of the sugar, which was determined using the method of the International Commission for Uniform Methods of Sugar Analysis and inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectroscopy. PMID:25308651

Thamaphat, Kheamrutai; Goodman, Bernard A; Limsuwan, Pichet; Smith, Siwaporn Meejoo

2015-03-15

272

J. S. Mill on Education  

Science.gov (United States)

Mill may be said either to have written rather little on education or to have written a very great deal. He himself distinguished between a "narrow" and a "wider" sense of education, the former limited to what happens in formal educational settings, the latter embracing all the influences that make us who and what we are. He wrote rather little on…

Ryan, Alan

2011-01-01

273

Super Yang-Mills Plasma  

CERN Document Server

The N = 4 super Yang-Mills plasma is studied in the regime of weak coupling. Collective excitations and collisional processes are discussed and compared to those of QCD plasma. The two systems are concluded to be very similar to each other with the differences mostly reflecting different numbers of degrees of freedom.

Czajka, Alina

2013-01-01

274

Fulton Bag and Cotton Mills  

Science.gov (United States)

The origins of the Fulton Bag and Cotton Mill can be traced back to 1868 when a German Jewish immigrant named Jacob Elsas began to work in Atlanta's rag, paper, and hide trade. Elsas joined forces with another German Jewish immigrant several years later and then created a firm that would grow to include a print shop, bag mill, and a bleachery. When the plant closed in 1978, the archival records of the Fulton Bag company found their way to the Georgia Institute of Technology archives department. Many of these records have been digitized and they are now available on this site. Visitors can learn about the project in the "Project Info" area, and then browse several historical essays on the company in the "History" section. Interested parties should move over to the "Search" area to look over the company documents by keyword or name. The subject headings are most helpful, and they include thematic collections related to child labor in the mills, detective agencies that spied on activities within the mills, and labor organizing. As a piece of labor history, this archive is a real gem, and it's one that is most worthy of several visits.

275

Low-cost boring mill  

Science.gov (United States)

Portable unit and special fixture serve as boring mill. Machine, fabricated primarily from scrap metal, was designed and set up in about 12 working days. It has reduced setup and boring time by 66 percent as compared with existing boring miles, thereby making latter available for other jobs. Unit can be operated by one man.

Hibdon, R. A.

1979-01-01

276

Will the "Real" Indians Please Stand Up?  

Science.gov (United States)

Explores what it means to be an American Indian in an era in which nearly half of the identifiable Indians live off the reservations and in urban areas. As the principal definition of "Indian-ness" today, the issue of blood quantum leads to misunderstandings. Being an Indian, to the author, is being a person connected to a tribe. (SLD)

Pewewardy, Cornel

1998-01-01

277

Root rot diseases of sugar beet  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Root rot diseases of sugar beet caused by Rhizoctonia solani (AG 2-2 IIIB and AG 2-2 IV, R. crocorum, Aphanomyces cochlioides, Phoma betae, Macrophomina phaeseolina, Fusarium oxysporum f.sp. radicis-betae, Pythium aphanidermatum Phytophthora drechsleri, Rhizopus stolonifer, R. arrhizus and Sclerotium rolfsii cause significant losses wherever sugar beets are grown. However, not all these soil-borne pathogens have been reported in all sugar beet production areas. Losses include reduced harvestable tonnage and reduced white sugar recovery. Many of these pathogens also cause post harvest losses in storage piles. Control for diseases caused by these pathogens include disease resistant cultivars, avoidance of stresses, cultural practices such as water management and the use of fungicides.

Jacobsen Barry J.

2006-01-01

278

Hypoglycemia (Low Blood Sugar) in Diabetes Mellitus  

Science.gov (United States)

... more frequently in people who tightly control their blood sugar levels with insulin (called intensive therapy). People who drink excessive amounts of alcohol, are tired, or who take a beta-blocker ( ...

279

Treatment of biomass to obtain fermentable sugars  

Science.gov (United States)

Biomass is pretreated using a low concentration of aqueous ammonia at high biomass concentration. Pretreated biomass is further hydrolyzed with a saccharification enzyme consortium. Fermentable sugars released by saccharification may be utilized for the production of target chemicals by fermentation.

Dunson, Jr., James B. (Newark, DE); Tucker, Melvin (Lakewood, CO); Elander, Richard (Evergreen, CO); Hennessey, Susan M. (Avondale, PA)

2011-04-26

280

Indian President visits CERN  

CERN Multimedia

On 1 October, her Excellency Mrs Pratibha Devisingh Patil, President of India, picked CERN as the first stop on her official state visit to Switzerland. Accompanied by a host of Indian journalists, a security team, and a group of presidential delegates, the president left quite an impression when she visited CERN’s Point 2!   Upon arrival, Pratibha Patil was greeted by CERN Director General Rolf Heuer, as well as senior Indian scientists working at CERN, and various department directors. After a quick overview of the Organization, Rolf Heuer and the President addressed India’s future collaboration with CERN. India is currently an Observer State of the Organization, and is considering becoming an Associate Member State. A short stop in LHC operations gave Steve Myers and the Accelerator team the opportunity to take the President on a tour through the LHC tunnel. From there, ALICE’s Tapan Nayak and Spokesperson Paolo Giubellino took Pratibha Patil to the experiment&am...

Katarina Anthony

2011-01-01

 
 
 
 
281

Sugar continues to vex Estonia, Latvia  

Index Scriptorium Estoniae

Põllumajandusminister Ester Tuiksoo saatis Euroopa Komisjoni volinikule põllumajanduse alal kirja, milles palus kodumajapidamistes tarvitatava suhkru mahaarvamist koguvarudest. Läti meedia teatas, et Euroopa Komisjon võib anda rohkem aega suhkruvarudest vabanemiseks

2005-01-01

282

Evolution of the sugar receptors in insects  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Abstract Background Perception of sugars is an invaluable ability for insects which often derive quickly accessible energy from these molecules. A distinctive subfamily of eight proteins within the gustatory receptor (Gr) family has been identified as sugar receptors (SRs) in Drosophila melanogaster (Gr5a, Gr61a, and Gr64a-f). We examined the evolution of these SRs within the 12 available Drosophila genome sequences, as well as three mosquito, two moth, and beetle, b...

Robertson Hugh M; Kent Lauren B

2009-01-01

283

Holograms recorded in dichromated with simple sugars  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Sugars as glucose and fructose can be used to holographic record. These materials have the advantage to mix very well with K{sub 2}Cr{sub 2}O{sub 7}.Holographic gratings recorded in sugars, were made by a lineal setup to producing interference pattern using a wavelength at 473 nm. These materials have the ability to register information in real time.

Mejias-Brizuela, N Y; Olivares-Perez, A [Instituto Tecnologico Superior de Atlixco, Coordinacion de Bioquimica, Prolongacion Heliotropo N0 1201, Vista Hermosa Atlixco, Puebla (Mexico); Grande-Grande, A, E-mail: nilyame@inaoep.mx, E-mail: olivares@inaoep.mx

2011-01-01

284

AN INDIAN ENTREPRENEUR ESTABLISHING  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Title: An Indian Entrepreneur Establishing Business in Europe Course: Master Thesis EFO705 in International Business and Entrepreneurship, Swedish credit points (15 ECTS) Authors: Xiaoran Wang and Amit Vaghela Tutor: Leif Linnskog Problem: How did Mr. Deepak Soni establish and develop his company Anora Pvt Ltd in Poland, a company operating in the branch of textile and clothing? From this research problem, the dissertation will be focused on the internationalization. Purpose: The aim of thesi...

Vaghela, Amit; Wang, Xiaoran

2008-01-01

285

American Indian Environmental Relations  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

It's an iconic image. A lone Indian paddles a birch bark canoe downstream. The churning river passes through lush forestland and then empties into open water. Pounding drums give way to strings, woodwinds, and horns as the canoe bumps against floating trash and the landscape morphs into a steaming industrial landscape of smokestacks and rusting steel beneath a blood-red sky. The music reaches a hammering orchestral crescendo then fades as the canoe lands on a litter-strewn beach. The cam...

Lewis, David Rich

2010-01-01

286

Indian summer monsoon experiments  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Eight major field experiments have been carried out so far addressing the Indian summer monsoon. While these experiments were international and the impetus was external till 1980, India’s own monsoon programmes evolved since then. In this article, objectives and outcomes from some of these experiments are described. It is shown that monsoon experiments have contributed in several ways. Each experiment enhanced the infrastructure facilities in the country, brought together scientists from di...

Bhat, Gs; Narasimha, R.

2007-01-01

287

West Indian Orchidaceae Database  

Science.gov (United States)

The New York Botanical Garden has recently placed online this searchable database of West Indian Orchids. Containing approximately 5,200 specimen records for the family Orchidacese (from the New York Botanical Garden's collection), the database may be searched by Family, Collector, Country, Taxon, State/Province, and other select fields. Typical returns provide information on Specimen name (scientific name), Location, Collector, Description, and Habitat.

288

Aerosol Chemistry of Furfural and Sugars  

Science.gov (United States)

Furfural and sugars (as levoglucosan equivalent) are derived from biomass burning and contribute to aerosol composition. This study examined the potential of furfural and levoglucosan to be tracers of biomass burning. Furfural is likely to be oxidized quickly so comparison with levoglucosan may give a sense of the age of the aerosols in forest fire smoke. However, few furfural emissions are available for biomass combustion. Furfural and sugars were determined in coarse aerosols (>2.4?m aerodynamic diameter) and fine aerosols (Malaysia including haze episodes. Also total suspended particulate matter (TSP) samples were collected from Taiwan. Furfural and sugars dominated in fine fractions, especially in the UK autumn. Sugars were found at 5.96-18.37 nmol m-3 in fine mode and 1.36-5.75 nmol m-3 in coarse mode aerosols in the UK. Furfural was found at 0.18-0.91 nmol m-3 and 0.05-0.51 nmol m-3 respectively in the same aerosols. Sugars were a dominant contributor to aerosol derived from biomass burning. Sugars and furfural were about 10 and 20 times higher during haze episodes in Malaysia. Laboratory experimental simulation suggested furfural is more rapid destroyed by UV and sunlight than levoglucosan.

Srithawirat, T.; Brimblecombe, P.

2008-12-01

289

Indian Converts Collection  

Science.gov (United States)

First published in 1727, the remarkable book "Indian Converts, or Some account of the lives and dying speeches of a considerable number of the Christianized Indians of Martha's Vineyard" is now available in full online. Written by Experience Mayhew, the book provides remarkable insights into the lives and culture of four generations of Native Americans in colonial America. This digitized version was created at Reed College, and visitors can look through all four sections of the work, which include "Indian Ministers" and "Pious Children." Throughout the work, Mayhew details the books that different age groups were reading, provides insights into early New England pedagogy and childrearing practices, and also describes each individual in terms of their own genealogy and personal history. The truly fantastic thing about the site is that it also contains an archive with over 600 images and documents that further contextualize the work. Also, the site contains study guides designed for classroom use that cover artifact analysis, genealogy, and reading gravestones.

290

Working Women: Indian Perspective  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In India, due to unprecedented rise in the cost of living, ris-ing prices of commodities, growing expenses on children ed-ucation, huge rate of unemployment, and increasing cost of housing properties compel every Indian family to explore all the possible ways and means to increase the household income. It is also witnessed that after globalization Indian women are able to get more jobs but the work they get is more casual in nature or is the one that men do not prefer to do or is left by them to move to higher or better jobs. Working women refers to those in paid employment. They work as lawyers, nurses, doctors, teachers and secretaries etc. There is no profession today where women are not employed. University of Oxford’s Professor Linda Scott recently coined the term the Double X Economy to describe the global economy of women. The present paper makes an attempt to discuss issues and challenges that are being faced by Indian working women at their respective workstations.

Dharmendra MEHTA

2014-06-01

291

Indian Vacuum Society: The Indian Vacuum Society  

Science.gov (United States)

The Indian Vacuum Society (IVS) was established in 1970. It has over 800 members including many from Industry and R & D Institutions spread throughout India. The society has an active chapter at Kolkata. The society was formed with the main aim to promote, encourage and develop the growth of Vacuum Science, Techniques and Applications in India. In order to achieve this aim it has conducted a number of short term courses at graduate and technician levels on vacuum science and technology on topics ranging from low vacuum to ultrahigh vacuum So far it has conducted 39 such courses at different parts of the country and imparted training to more than 1200 persons in the field. Some of these courses were in-plant training courses conducted on the premises of the establishment and designed to take care of the special needs of the establishment. IVS also regularly conducts national and international seminars and symposia on vacuum science and technology with special emphasis on some theme related to applications of vacuum. A large number of delegates from all over India take part in the deliberations of such seminars and symposia and present their work. IVS also arranges technical visits to different industries and research institutes. The society also helped in the UNESCO sponsored post-graduate level courses in vacuum science, technology and applications conducted by Mumbai University. The society has also designed a certificate and diploma course for graduate level students studying vacuum science and technology and has submitted a syllabus to the academic council of the University of Mumbai for their approval, we hope that some colleges affiliated to the university will start this course from the coming academic year. IVS extended its support in standardizing many of the vacuum instruments and played a vital role in helping to set up a Regional Testing Centre along with BARC. As part of the development of vacuum education, the society arranges the participation of expert members on the subject to deliver lectures and take part in devising courses in the universities. IVS publishes a quarterly called the `Bulletin of Indian Vacuum Society' since its inception, in which articles on vacuum and related topics are published. NIRVAT, news, announcements, and reports are the other features of the Bulletin. The articles in the Bulletin are internationally abstracted. The Bulletin is distributed free to all the members of the society. The society also publishes proceedings of national/international symposia and seminars, manuals, lecture notes etc. It has published a `Vacuum Directory' containing very useful information on vacuum technology. IVS has also set up its own website http://www.ivsnet.org in January 2002. The website contains information about IVS, list of members, list of EC members, events and news, abstracts of articles published in the `Bulletin of Indian Vacuum Society', utilities, announcements, reports, membership and other forms which can be completed online and also gives links to other vacuum societies. Our Society has been a member of the executive council of the International Union of Vacuum Science, Techniques and Applications (IUVSTA) and its various committees since 1970. In 1983 IVS conducted an International Symposium on Vacuum Technology and Nuclear Applications in BARC, Mumbai, under the sponsorship of IUVSTA. In 1987 IVS arranged the Triennial International Conference on Thin Films in New Delhi, where more than 200 foreign delegates participated. IVS also hosted the IUVSTA Executive Council Meeting along with the conference. The society organized yet again an International Conference on Vacuum Science and Technology and SRS Vacuum Systems at CAT, Indore in1995. IVS arranges the prestigious Professor Balakrishnan Memorial Lecture in memory of its founder vice-president. Leading scientists from India and abroad in the field are invited to deliver the talks. So far 23 lectures have been held in this series. IVS has instituted the `IVS- Professor D Y Phadke Memorial Prize' in memory of our founder presid

Saha, T. K.

2008-03-01

292

INDIAN WORDS IN ENGLISH : PERSPECTIVES  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Indian English has come to be recognized as a variety of English in its own right. The process of Indianization of English had started long before Independence. Alarge number of Indian words have been assimilated into the English language. More striking forms of assimilation are those that borrow the abstract concepts of Indian Socio-Cultural phenomena and the Indian way of conceptualizing reality through the Indian language items and use them to interpret the native English speakers own predicament.Attempts have been made by number of scholars to identify the lexical borrowing and specify the circumstances in which this has happened. In this paper an attempt has been made to focus the most influential works in the field of lexical borrowing in English. It also focuses limitations of this work.

SNEHAL RATNAKAR HEGISHTE

2013-06-01

293

Comparison of wind mill cluster performance: A multicriteria approach  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Energy is a crucial input for the economic and social development of any nation. Both renewable and non-renewable energy contribute in meeting the total requirement of the economy. As an affordable and clean energy source, wind energy is amongst the world's fastest growing renewable energy forms. Though there are several wind-mill clusters producing energy in different geographical locations, evaluating their performance is a complex task and not much of literature is available in this area. In this backdrop, an attempt is made in the current paper to estimate the performance of a wind-mill cluster through an index called Cluster Performance Index (CPI) adopting a multi-criteria approach. The proposed CPI comprises four criteria viz., Technical Performance Indicators (TePI), Economic Performance Indicators (EcPI), Environmental Performance Indicators (EnPI), and Sociological Performance Indicators (SoPI). Under each performance criterion a total of ten parameters are considered with five subjective and five objective oriented responses. The methodology is implemented by collecting empirical data from three wind-mill clusters located at Chitradurga, Davangere, and Gadag in the southern Indian State of Karnataka. Totally fifteen different stake holders are consulted through a set of structured researcher administered questionnaire to collect the relevant data in each wind farm. Stake holders involved engineers working in wind farms, wind farm developers, Government officials from energy department and a few selected residential people near the wind farms. The results of the study revealed that Chitradurga wind farm performed much better with a CPI of 45.267 as compared to Gadag (CPI of 28.362) and Davangere (CPI of 19.040) wind farms. (Author)

Rajakumar, D.G.; Nagesha, N. [Visvesvaraya Technological Univ., Karnataka (India)

2012-07-01

294

Electron beam processing of sugar cane bagasse to cellulose hydrolysis  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Sugarcane bagasse has been considered as a substrate for single cell protein, animal feed, and renewable energy production. Sugarcane bagasse generally contain up to 45% glucose polymer cellulose, 40% hemicelluloses, and 20% lignin. Pure cellulose is readily depolymerised by radiation, but in biomass, the cellulose is intimately bonded with lignin, that protect it from radiation effects. The objective of this study is the evaluation of the electron beam irradiation as a pre-treatment to enzymatic hydrolysis of cellulose in order to facilitate its fermentation and improves the production of ethanol biofuel. Samples of sugarcane bagasse were obtained in sugar/ethanol Iracema Mill sited in Piracicaba, Brazil, and were irradiated using Radiation Dynamics Electron Beam Accelerator with 1.5 MeV energy and 37kW, in batch systems. The applied absorbed doses of the fist sampling, Bagasse A, were 20 kGy, 50 kGy, 100 kGy and 200 kGy. After the evaluation the preliminary obtained results, it was applied lower absorbed doses in the second assay: 5 kGy, 10 kGy, 20 kGy, 30 kGy, 50 kGy, 70 kGy, 100 kGy and 150 kGy. The electron beam processing took to changes in the sugarcane bagasse structure and composition, lignin and cellulose cleavage. The yield of enzymatic hydrolyzes of cellulose increase about 40 % with 30 kGy of absorbed dose. (author)

295

Modelling profitability of Indian banks  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This paper identifies the key determinants of profitability of Indian banks. It integrates the macroeconomic environment and industry level variables of India for predicting profitability of Indian banks. A simultaneous equation system has been formulated to derive the estimates of net interest income (NII) and Credit for the banking system as a whole. Net interest income as well as efficiency ratio have significant role in determining profitability in Indian banking scenario. The Net interes...

Sinha, Pankaj; Dutta, Dipanwita

2011-01-01

296

The future of Indian gaming.  

Science.gov (United States)

The legal right for Native Americans to administer gambling on their land provides them with probably the most profitable opportunity currently available to generate tribal income. The federal Indian Gaming Regulatory Act which guarantees this right is frequently invoked in instances where Indian gaming is competitive with state or private commercial gambling interests. This article examines multiple aspects of the competitive conflicts which arise and provides some speculation about the future of Indian gaming. PMID:24242021

Rose, I N

1992-12-01

297

Indian Academy of sciences - Fellowship  

Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

indian academy of sciences - fellowship present fellowsfounding fellowswomen fellows (also see women in science pages) animal sciences earth & planetary sciences mathematical sciences plant sciences ...

298

76 FR 63325 - National Indian Gaming Commission  

Science.gov (United States)

...INFORMATION CONTACT: National Indian Gaming Commission, 1441...SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: The Indian Gaming Regulatory Act...consultation schedule of 33 meetings over 11 months with a...second-guess tribal business decisions. Similar comments...private investment in Indian country. These...

2011-10-12

299

77 FR 43111 - Indian Gaming; Correction  

Science.gov (United States)

...INTERIOR Bureau of Indian Affairs Indian Gaming; Correction AGENCY: Bureau of Indian...of Approved Tribal--State Class III Gaming Compact; Correction...notice that the Tribal-- State Class III Gaming Compact between the State of...

2012-07-23

300

The "coolie curse": The evolution of white colonial attitudes towards the Indian question, 1860-1900  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO South Africa | Language: English Abstract in english Neither by accident nor design, Natal became home to over 50 000 Indian immigrants during the latter half of the nineteenth century. At the request of fewer than 50 sugar planters, colonial Natal embarked on a labour dispensation which was initially envisaged as "an experiment," on a small scale, as [...] Governor John Scott saw it. Appreciated for their contribution as labourers to the success of sugar production, Indians nonetheless, were resented by white colonists as settlers after they had completed their indenture contracts. That resentment was heightened by the influx of traders and non-indentured Indians into Natal after 1875 and found expression in published opinion and in discriminatory legislation. By the 1890s Natal's anti-Indian legislation became an imperial controversy which also proved life-changing for M.K. Gandhi. This article attempts to track the evolution of white settler attitudes to what was termed the "coolie curse."

Duncan, Du Bois.

 
 
 
 
301

An econometrics method to estimate demand of sugar  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Sugar is one of the strategic goods in the basket of households in each country and it plays an important role in supplying the required energy. On the other hand, it is one of the goods, which Iranian government is about to change its subsidy strategies. To design useful sugar subsidy strategies, it is necessary to know sugar position in the basket of households and be familiar with households' sugar demand or consumption behavior. This research estimates sugar demand for Iranian households ...

Negar Seyed Soleimany; Masoud Babakhani

2012-01-01

302

State of weed infestation and features of sugar beet protection in Belarus  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The changes of phytosanitary situation recently taking place in sugar beet crops in the Republic of Belarus are shown. It is noticed that in the crop agrocoenosises there is a high infestation level caused by Japanese barnyard millet (Echinochloa crus-galli (L Pal. Beauv, field sowthistle (Sonchus arvensis L, chickweed (Stellaria media (L Vill, quick grass (Agropyron repens (L Pal Beauv, matricary (Matricaria perforate Merat, creeping thistle (Circium arvense (L scop, marsh woundwort (Stachus palustris L wild buckwheat (Polygonum convolvulus L, bristle stem hemp nettle (Galeopsis tetrahit L, common horsetail (Equisetum arvense L, field forget-me-not (Myosotis arvensis (L Hill, shepherd's purse (Capsella bursa-pastoris (L Med etc. Due to non-observance of preventive and separate agrotechnical techniques especially in spring-summer period, such weeds as bedstraw (Galium aparine L, white campion (Melandrium album (Mill Garcke, green amaranthus (Amaranthus retroflexus L started to appear in the crops. To protect sugar beet effectively, two variants of herbicides application are proposed. The first one - a combined, one stipulating soil action herbicides application before planting or before sugar beet seedlings emergence and on seedlings - to carry out two treatment by post-emergence preparations. The second variant, a split post- -emergence herbicide application (two-three times spraying on growing weeds at small application rates. In the next 5-6 years, a combined method will be of a primary importance in the conditions of the Republic.

Soroka Sergey Vladimirovich

2006-01-01

303

48 CFR 352.270-3 - Indian preference program.  

Science.gov (United States)

...Acquisition Regulations System HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES CLAUSES AND FORMS SOLICITATION...Indian applicant was not selected; (v) Actions taken to give preference to Indian organizations...includes Indian reservations, public domain Indian Allotments, former Indian...

2010-10-01

304

24 CFR 1003.510 - Indian preference requirements.  

Science.gov (United States)

...United States to Indians because of their status as Indians. (2) In section 3 of the Indian Financing Act...industrial, or business activity established...This act defines Indian organization...shall be given to Indians. (d)...

2010-04-01

305

American Indian Intellectualism and the New Indian Story.  

Science.gov (United States)

Critically reviews modern writings about American Indians, focusing on Indian romance novels, children's stories, biographies, works by "urban mixed-bloods," and the "art for art's sake" stance. Views non-Native works as irrelevant and most Native writings as self-centered or escapist. Calls for Native intellectuals to contribute to the real life…

Cook-Lynn, Elizabeth

1996-01-01

306

PROCESS OF OBTAINING OF SUGAR FROM SUGAR BEET AND INFLUENCE ON ITS QUALITY  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Cooking of massecuites has been study in the connection with different particle size distribution of white sugar. During the crystallization is possible to operate with parameters which have influence on particle size of white sugar. Dry matter of juice in crystallizer, volume of the standard syrup in crystallizer and heating curve of crystallization process are constant parameters in thi...

Marián Tokár; Helena Fran?áková; Tatiana Boj?anská; Marek Bennár

2011-01-01

307

THE EFFECT OF NITROGEN INPUT ON POLARISED SUGAR PRODUCTION AND QUALITATIVE PARAMETERS OF SUGAR BEET  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available During 1998-2002, the application of different forms and doses of nitrogen on quantitative (polarised sugar productionand qualitative parameters (digestion, molasses forming components - potassium, sodium and ?-amino nitrogen content of sugar beet in vulnerable zones (Nitrate directive was studied. Calculated input of nitrogen ranged from 12 kg up to 240 kg N.ha-1. By increasing input of N from FYM application into the soil causes an increases of ?- amino nitrogen content in root, which in consequence causes a decreases the sugar content (negative correlation r= -0.8659+. The application of straw instead FYM of analogues treatments caused significant decrease (straw versus FYM and highly significant decrease (straw plus N fertilizers versus FYM plus N fertilizers of ?-amino nitrogen content in sugar beet root living the productive parameters unchanged. The content of ?-amino nitrogen in root of sugar beet indicate an environmentally friendly management practices with causal relation to water protection from nitrate.

MILAN MACÁK

2007-11-01

308

PRODUCTION VALUES OF INVESTIGATED SUGAR BEET HYBRIDS  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Production values of 43 experimental and recognized sugar beet hybrids were conducted on the Zagreb location in the period 2003-2005. The trials included hybrids from six breeding institutions that sell sugar beet seed in the Republic of Croatia. Research results have revealed significant differences in yields and root quality among investigated sugar beet hybrids. However, the results of a large number of hybrids were equal in value; namely, the difference between them was within the statistically allowable deviation. The hybrids KW 0148 HR and Buda in 2003, Sofarizo and Takt were distinguished by high sugar yields in 2004, whereasMerak, Impact and Europa in 2005. The highest root yields were recorded for hybrids Dioneta, Buda and KW 0148 HR in 2003, Sofarizo, Takt, HI 0191 and Dorotea in 2004, Impact and SES 2371 in 2005. The highest root sugar contents were determined in hybrids Zita and Evelina in 2003, Cyntia, Diamant and Belinda in2004, and Merak, Belinda and Cyntia in 2005.

Milan Pospišil

2006-06-01

309

Post-oral appetite stimulation by sugars and nonmetabolizable sugar analogs.  

Science.gov (United States)

Post-oral sugar actions enhance the intake of and preference for sugar-rich foods, a process referred to as appetition. Here, we investigated the role of intestinal sodium glucose cotransporters (SGLTs) in sugar appetition in C57BL/6J mice using sugars and nonmetabolizable sugar analogs that differ in their affinity for SGLT1 and SGLT3. In experiments 1 and 2, food-restricted mice were trained (1 h/day) to consume a flavored saccharin solution [conditioned stimulus (CS-)] paired with intragastric (IG) self-infusions of water and a different flavored solution (CS+) paired with infusions of 8 or 12% sugars (glucose, fructose, and galactose) or sugar analogs (?-methyl-D-glucopyranoside, MDG; 3-O-methyl-D-glucopyranoside, OMG). Subsequent two-bottle CS+ vs. CS- choice tests were conducted without coinfusions. Infusions of the SGLT1 ligands glucose, galactose, MDG, and OMG stimulated CS+ licking above CS- levels. However, only glucose, MDG, and galactose conditioned significant CS+ preferences, with the SGLT3 ligands (glucose, MDG) producing the strongest preferences. Fructose, which is not a ligand for SGLTs, failed to stimulate CS+ intake or preference. Experiment 3 revealed that IG infusion of MDG+phloridzin (an SGLT1/3 antagonist) blocked MDG appetition, whereas phloridzin had minimal effects on glucose-induced appetition. However, adding phloretin (a GLUT2 antagonist) to the glucose+phloridzin infusion blocked glucose appetition. Taken together, these findings suggest that humoral signals generated by intestinal SGLT1 and SGLT3, and to a lesser degree, GLUT2, mediate post-oral sugar appetition in mice. The MDG results indicate that sugar metabolism is not essential for the post-oral intake-stimulating and preference-conditioning actions of sugars in mice. PMID:23926132

Zukerman, Steven; Ackroff, Karen; Sclafani, Anthony

2013-10-01

310

The Indian PHWR programme  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The Indian Nuclear Power Programme is based on the pressurised heavy water reactors of the horizontal channel concept. Indigenous capability in all aspects such as uranium production, fuel fabrication, heavy water production, manufacture of the equipment for the reactor and auxiliaries, construction, commissioning, operation and maintenance of NPPs have been developed over the years. These capabilities are fully proven in the range of 220-235 MWe PHWRs. However in order to implement a nuclear power programme with installation of several 500 MWe PHWRs, indigenous design and development works were also initiated. In this report a brief attempt is made to present a summary of the above

311

Indian nuclear power programme  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Integrated energy policy of India considers the role of nuclear power as vital for long term energy security and sustainable development of the country. To increase the nuclear power capacity in the country, India pursues development and deployment of nuclear power plants through indigenous technologies as well as import of reactors from abroad. Presently, there are 20 NPP units in operation with an installed capacity of 4780 MWe. Seven more units with a capacity of 5300 MWe are under construction/commissioning. In addition, a number of new NPPs are planned to significantly increase the nuclear power base from the current levels. The paper discusses the Indian nuclear power programme in general

312

Omaha Indian Music  

Science.gov (United States)

This Library of Congress website houses the digitized Omaha Indian Music collection. Featuring a pithy Collection Overview and links to contextualizing elements, such as Historical Eras and Related Collections and Exhibits, the site makes accessible an important cultural tradition. Of course, the exhibit itself really shines. The multiformat ethnographic field collection contains dozens of wax cylinder recordings from the 1890s, as well as modern recordings of pow-wows and performances. Additionally, black and white photographs and contemporary films exhibit dances and celebrations, while interviews with tribal members elucidate the various cultural practices.

313

American Indian Literacy and Reading  

Science.gov (United States)

Literacy, which has only positive connotations in most cultures, has long been associated in Native communities with colonial education, "the reculturing and reeducation of American Indians by the secular and religious institutions of colonizing nations." Early educators imposed literacy on Indian children attending government-organized boarding…

Roy, Loriene

2004-01-01

314

"Red Power" and Indian Education.  

Science.gov (United States)

The document is the result of research conducted on 14 Indian reservations and one settlement in the Southwest, Midwest, West, and Pacific Northwest by Illinois State University in the summer of 1970. Some 124 Indians were interviewed, many of whom were leaders and participants in various Red Power organizations. As noted, the dominant impression…

Heath, G. Louis

315

Acoustics of the Indian Drum  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This article investigates as to how the Indian Drums are able to produce harmonics. In particular, it looks at the density distribution on an Indian Drum, the Tabla, and shows that it is the form of the density distribution that results in harmonics.

Malu, Siddharth S.; Siddharthan, Advaith

2000-01-01

316

78 FR 62649 - Indian Gaming  

Science.gov (United States)

...Affairs [DR.5B711.IA000813] Indian Gaming AGENCY: Bureau of Indian Affairs, Interior...ACTION: Notice of Tribal-State Class III Gaming Compact taking effect...This notice publishes the Class III Gaming Compact between the North Fork...

2013-10-22

317

78 FR 54908 - Indian Gaming  

Science.gov (United States)

...Affairs [DR.5B711.IA000813] Indian Gaming AGENCY: Bureau of Indian Affairs, Interior...Notice of approved Tribal-State Class III Gaming Compact...approval of the Class III Tribal- State Gaming Compact between the Wiyot Tribe and...

2013-09-06

318

75 FR 49524 - Woodland Mills Corporation, Mill Spring, NC; Notice of Affirmative Determination Regarding...  

Science.gov (United States)

...DEPARTMENT OF LABOR Employment and Training Administration [TA-W-73,695] Woodland Mills Corporation, Mill Spring, NC; Notice of Affirmative Determination Regarding Application for Reconsideration By application...

2010-08-13

319

Recycling of mill scale in sintering process  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This investigation deals with the effect of replacing some amount of Baharia high barite iron ore concentrate by mill scale waste which was characterized by high iron oxide content on the parameters of the sintering process., and investigation the effect of different amount of coke breeze added on sintering process parameters when using 5% mill scale waste with 95% iron ore concentrate. The results of this work show that, replacement of iron ore concentrate with mill scale increases the...

El-Hussiny N.A.; Mohamed F.M.; Shalabi M.E.H

2011-01-01

320

Sugar Transport and Metabolism in Thermotoga  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The work conducted under this grant demonstrated that the hyperthermophilic bacterium Thermotoga neapolitana carries out glucose and lactose transport in a sodium-dependent manner and that energization of anaerobic cells is required to observe transport. We also demonstrated that Thermotoga maritima carries out maltose and glucose transport using periplasmic sugar binding proteins. We began defining patterns of expression of genes encoding sugar transport and catabolic functions in both T. maritima and T. neapolitana. We began a collaborative effort to identify all the genes regulated at the transcriptional level in response to sugars substrates. These funds also allowed us to begin an examination of the functions of several periplasmic substrate binding proteins encoded in the genome of T. maritima.

Noll, Kenneth M.; Romano, Antonio H.

2003-02-11

 
 
 
 
321

Uranium mill monitoring for natural fission reactors  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Isotopic monitoring of the product stream from operating uranium mills is proposed for discovering other possible natural fission reactors; aspects of their occurrence and discovery are considered. Uranium mill operating characteristics are formulated in terms of the total uranium capacity, the uranium throughput, and the dilution half-time of the mill. The requirements for detection of milled reactor-zone uranium are expressed in terms of the dilution half-time and the sampling frequency. Detection of different amounts of reactor ore with varying degrees of /sup 235/U depletion is considered.

Apt, K.E.

1977-12-01

322

Economic impacts of implementing the new plants to sugar cane; Impactos economicos da implementacao das novas usinas de cana-de-acucar  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The sugar industry goes through an important moment: invest and develop to supply future demand, mainly by fuel alcohol (around 70% of new vehicles sales are from flex fuel models - and the majority of these vehicles are supplied by alcohol). Due to this foreseeable increase of alcohol demand, sugar industry has already announced 41 new projects, which will contribute with the milling of 70 million tons of sugar cane by the conclusion of these plants. In this phase of expansion, the alcohol market must be pressured for the demand, managing the supplying of the domestic and external markets. With this scenario and the possibility of sector growth which has an important role in Brazil development, this work evaluates the economic impacts of the new plants implementation investments. (author)

Terciote, Ricardo [Universidade Estadual de Campinas (DE/FEM/UNICAMP), SP (Brazil). Fac. de Engenharia Mecanica. Dept. de Energia

2006-07-01

323

Sugar profile of extracellular polysaccharides from different Tremella species.  

Science.gov (United States)

Heteropolysaccharides isolated from liquid cultures of Tremella species were derivatised to alditol acetates and identified by GLC against derivatised sugar standards. From the sugar profiles it was evident that all of the polysaccharides contained essentially the same sugars but in different ratios. Some of the polysaccharides contained the five carbon sugars-fucose, ribose, xylose and arabinose together with six carbon sugars-mannose, galactose and glucose. The uronic acid content of Tremella heteropolysaccharides also varied according to species. In addition, carbon source (arabinose, xylose, glucose, fructose and galactose) affected the sugar (including uronic acid content) ratio within the polysaccharides. PMID:12382692

Khondkar, Proma; Aidoo, Kofi E; Tester, Richard F

2002-11-15

324

The Mill Hill Essays 2000  

Science.gov (United States)

The UK National Institute for Medical Research (NIMR) has placed online the 2000 edition of The Mill Hill Essays (first reviewed in the July 9, 1999 Scout Report). Published annually and written by NIMR staff members and guest authors, the essays "are designed to be accessible to anyone with an interest in science and the natural world." Six volumes (1995-2000) are currently available in their entirety at the site. Sample essays include "From microbes to cancer," "Of frogs and men," and "Unravelling the workings of the brain." Essays are presented in HTML format and are generally equivalent to several printed pages.

2001-01-01

325

Control for Cold Rolling Mills  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This report contains the details in a final research thesis work done rolling mill technology. The work is carried out at Heat Transfer located at Finspång. The main objective of this work is to evaluate thickness and flatness data from the profile to give an optimal start value for the pressure and force applied on the machine and the speed as well, so that the profiles produced, have the right thickness and best possible flatness. Thickness, start value for power, the degree of bending the...

Morad, Antoni; Travancic, Faruk

2005-01-01

326

40 CFR 409.10 - Applicability; description of the beet sugar processing subcategory.  

Science.gov (United States)

...Applicability; description of the beet sugar processing subcategory. 409...PROCESSING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Beet Sugar Processing Subcategory § 409.10 Applicability; description of the beet sugar processing subcategory....

2010-07-01

327

Indian Academy of Sciences - New fellows  

Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

indian academy of sciences - new fellows indian institute of technology, kanpurindian institute of technology, new delhiindian institute of science, bangaloreindian institute of science, bangalorecsir indian institute of chemical biology, kolkatacsir indian institute of chemical biology, kolkataindian institute of astrophysics, bangaloreall india institute of medical sciences, new delhi ...

328

The Competitiveness of Sugar Cane Production: A Study of Kenana Sugar Company, Sudan  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The study aimed to measure the competitiveness of sugar cane in Kenana Sugar Company as the major objective covering the seasons 2004/05, 2005/06, and 2006/07. Specific objectives are to measure the hard currency revenue gained, the quantity of local resources used to gain hard currency, efficiency of local resources used and to see whether Kenana Sugar Company is taxed or subsidized. The study depended mainly on secondary data which was collected from different sources. The data was analy...

Abda Abdalla Emam; Osman Mohamed Musa

2011-01-01

329

Ambient aerosol concentrations of sugars and sugar-alcohols at four different sites in Norway  

Science.gov (United States)

Sugars and sugar-alcohols are demonstrated to be important constituents of the ambient aerosol water-soluble organic carbon fraction, and to be tracers for primary biological aerosol particles (PBAP). In the present study, levels of four sugars (fructose, glucose, sucrose, trehalose) and three sugar-alcohols (arabitol, inositol, mannitol) in ambient aerosols have been quantified using a novel HPLC/HRMS-TOF (High Performance Liquid Chromatography in combination with High Resolution Mass Spectrometry - Time of Flight) method to assess the contribution of PBAP to PM>sub>10 and PM2.5. Samples were collected at four sites in Norway at different times of the year in order to reflect the various contributing sources and the spatial and seasonal variation of the selected compounds. Sugars and sugar-alcohols were present at all sites investigated, underlining the ubiquity of these highly polar organic compounds. The highest concentrations were reported for sucrose, reaching a maximum concentration of 320 ng m-3 in PM10 and 55 ng m-3 in PM2.5. The mean concentration of sucrose was up to 10 times higher than fructose, glucose and the dimeric sugar trehalose. The mean concentrations of the sugar-alcohols were typically lower, or equal, to that of the monomeric sugars and trehalose. Peak concentrations of arabitol and mannitol did not exceed 30 ng m-3 in PM10, and for PM2.5 all concentrations were below 6 ng m-3. Sugars and sugar-alcohols were associated primarily with coarse aerosols except during wintertime at the suburban site in Elverum, where a shift towards sub micron aerosols was observed. It is proposed that this shift was due to the intensive use of wood burning for residential heating at this site during winter, confirmed by high concurrent concentrations of levoglucosan. Elevated concentrations of sugars in PM2.5 were observed during spring and early summer at the rural background site Birkenes. It is hypothesized that this was due to ruptured pollen.

Yttri, K. E.; Dye, C.; Kiss, G.

2007-08-01

330

46 CFR 50.25-3 - Manufacturer or mill certification.  

Science.gov (United States)

...2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Manufacturer or mill certification. 50.25-3 Section 50...Components § 50.25-3 Manufacturer or mill certification. (a) A manufacturer or mill producing materials used in certain...

2010-10-01

331

21 CFR 515.10 - Medicated feed mill license applications.  

Science.gov (United States)

... 2010-04-01 false Medicated feed mill license applications. 515.10 Section...FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS MEDICATED FEED MILL LICENSE Applications § 515.10 Medicated feed mill license applications. (a) Medicated...

2010-04-01

332

Burrs produced by end milling  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The operation of small precision mechanisms such as timers, switches, or actuators depends on burr-free, sharp-edged component parts. Traditional methods of producing these near-perfect edges on miniature parts are costly and not as precise or repeatable as some piecepart designs require. By controlling the size of burrs produced in machining operations, burr removal costs can be lowered, and the repeatability of the resulting edges improved. This investigation sought to determine how machining variables influence burr size in end-milling operations. It was concluded that the low feed rates which are commonly used in precision miniature machining create larger burrs than do more conventional feedrates. Dull tools double the size of burrs. Increasing the radial depth of cut also increases burr size on many edges. A single end-milling cut can produce eight different burrs. Burr properties vary noticeably even along a single edge. Burrs in 1018 steel, 6061-T6 aluminum, 303 Se, and 17-4 PH stainless were typically 0.003 inch thick. Burr heights ranged from 0.0001 to 0.070 inch. Conceptual and mathematical descriptions of burr formation have been developed.

Gillespie, L.K.

1976-09-01

333

Bioethanol production from fermentable sugar juice.  

Science.gov (United States)

Bioethanol production from renewable sources to be used in transportation is now an increasing demand worldwide due to continuous depletion of fossil fuels, economic and political crises, and growing concern on environmental safety. Mainly, three types of raw materials, that is, sugar juice, starchy crops, and lignocellulosic materials, are being used for this purpose. This paper will investigate ethanol production from free sugar containing juices obtained from some energy crops such as sugarcane, sugar beet, and sweet sorghum that are the most attractive choice because of their cost-effectiveness and feasibility to use. Three types of fermentation process (batch, fed-batch, and continuous) are employed in ethanol production from these sugar juices. The most common microorganism used in fermentation from its history is the yeast, especially, Saccharomyces cerevisiae, though the bacterial species Zymomonas mobilis is also potentially used nowadays for this purpose. A number of factors related to the fermentation greatly influences the process and their optimization is the key point for efficient ethanol production from these feedstocks. PMID:24715820

Zabed, Hossain; Faruq, Golam; Sahu, Jaya Narayan; Azirun, Mohd Sofian; Hashim, Rosli; Boyce, Amru Nasrulhaq

2014-01-01

334

Green chemistry: Biodiesel made with sugar catalyst  

Science.gov (United States)

The production of diesel from vegetable oil calls for an efficient solid catalyst to make the process fully ecologically friendly. Here we describe the preparation of such a catalyst from common, inexpensive sugars. This high-performance catalyst, which consists of stable sulphonated amorphous carbon, is recyclable and its activity markedly exceeds that of other solid acid catalysts tested for `biodiesel' production.

Toda, Masakazu; Takagaki, Atsushi; Okamura, Mai; Kondo, Junko N.; Hayashi, Shigenobu; Domen, Kazunari; Hara, Michikazu

2005-11-01

335

Sugar transport by maize endosperm suspension cultures  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

To determine the mechanism of sugar uptake by suspension cultures derived from developing maize (Zea mays L.) endosperm, incorporation of radioactivity from 14C-sugars by the tissue in the mid-log phase of growth was examined. Among the sugars tested was l'-deoxy-l'-fluorosucrose (FS), a derivative not hydrolyzed by invertase but recognized by sucrose carriers in other systems. At 40 mM, uptake of label from FS was 23% of that from sucrose, while uptake of label from L-glucose (used as a control for medium carry-over and adsorption) was 16% of that from sucrose. Uptake of label from sucrose did not increase at concentrations above 50 mM, possibly due to a rate-limiting requirement for extracellular hydrolysis. Kinetic analysis revealed both saturable and linear components of uptake for glucose and fructose. The rate of fructose uptake exceeded that of glucose at all concentrations. Fructose uptake at 20 mM was inhibited by NaN3, HgCl2, dinitrophenol, carbonyl cyanide m-chlorophenylhydrazone, and p-chloromercuribenzenesulfonic acid. Results suggest that sucrose is hydrolyzed prior to uptake, and that fructose is transported preferentially by a carrier sensitive to an external sulfhydryl group inhibitor. Metabolic activity is required for sugar uptake. The specificity of the hexose transporter is currently being investigated

336

INDIAN PHILOSOPHY IN GERMAN WRITINGS  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Literature reflects the thinking and beliefs of the concerned folk. Some German writers came in contact with Ancient Indian Literature. They were influenced by the Indian Philosophy, especially, Buddhism. German Philosopher Arther Schopenhauer, was very much influenced by the Philosophy of Buddhism. He made the ancient Indian Literature accessible to the German people. Many other authors and philosophers were influenced by Schopenhauer. The famous German Indologist, Friedrich Max Muller has also done a great work, as far as the contact between India and Germany is concerned. He has translated “Sacred Books of the East”.

P. Vasundhara Rao

2014-10-01

337

Optimal Condition of Fenton's Reagent to Enhance the Alcohol Production from Palm Oil Mill Effluent (POME  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Application of Fenton's reaction for a proper hydrolysis step is an essential and important step in obtaining a higher level of readily biodegradable sugars from palm oil mill effluent (POME for improving the alcohol production by using immobilized Clostridium acetobutylicum. The objective of this research was, therefore, to investigate the optimum condition of Fenton's reaction in terms of COD: H2O2 ratios (w/w and H2O2: Fe2+ ratios (molar ratio used to oxidize carbohydrate and high molecular organic compounds into simple sugars, which are further fermented into alcohol. The experiments were carried out at H2O2: Fe2+ ratios (molar ratios of 5, 10, 20, 30 and 40 and the COD: H2O2 ratios (w/w of 50, 70, 100 and 130 (initial COD about 50,000 mg/L. The total sugar concentrations and organic compounds biodegradability (BOD5/COD ratios were also used for investigating suitable conditions for Fenton's reaction. The concentration of Fenton's reagent at H2O2:Fe2+ and COD:H2O2 ratio of 20 and 130 was identified as the optimum operating condition for the highest simple sugars of about 0.865% and BOD5/COD ratios of 0.539. The alcohol productions were carried out in the continuous stirred tank reactors (CSTR under an anaerobic continuous immobilization system. At a hydraulic retention time of 12 hours and POME pH of 4.8, the maximum total ABE concentration of 495 mg/L and the ABE yield of 0.236 grams of ABE produced/gram of reducing sugars were achieved at the mixed polyvinyl alcohol (PVA and palm oil ash (POA ratio of 10 : 3.

Supawadee Sinnaraprasat

2011-07-01

338

Jyrsinturpeen kuivuminen. (Drying of milled peat).  

Science.gov (United States)

In this paper the study of milled peat drying in the weather and field condition simulator, the drying theory of porous media, the experimental design and the multivariate data analysis system are described. An experimental design for milled peat drying i...

K. Hillebrand, M. Kallio, P. Frilander

1991-01-01

339

Radiological health aspects of uranium milling  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This report describes the operation of conventional and unconventional uranium milling processes, the potential for occupational exposure to ionizing radiation at the mill, methods for radiological safety, methods of evaluating occupational radiation exposures, and current government regulations for protecting workers and ensuring that standards for radiation protection are adhered to. In addition, a survey of current radiological health practices is summarized

340

Child Labor in the Cotton Mills  

Science.gov (United States)

In this lesson, students read two primary source documents on the subject of child labor in Southern cotton mills during the early twentieth century and listen to excerpts of oral histories from mill workers. In a critical analysis, students will identify the audiences for both documents and the motivations and intent of its authors, as well as examine the historical importance of each document.

South, Documenting T.

2012-04-03

 
 
 
 
341

Vertical boring mill capacity is increased  

Science.gov (United States)

Commercially available vertical boring mill with a nominal capacity to 27 feet in diameter of workpiece has been modified in-shop to handle work up to 36 feet in diameter. Capacity was increased by adding extension saddles to the mill support columns on each side.

Young, R. J.

1968-01-01

342

Indian Country Today  

Science.gov (United States)

The Indian Country Today website is a one-stop shop for people with an interest in the world of Native American culture. The site includes special sections dedicated to news updates in the areas of genealogy, sports, environment, politics, and so on. First-time visitors will want to look at the Editor's Picks to get started, as this contains the most salient news items as of late. The Around the Web area features stories related to Native Americans from a range of online media sources. People with a visual bent will appreciate the Our World In Pictures area, as it contains key links to images culled from across the country, including blogs, Flickr, and a range of other sources. Finally, the Things About area provides thoughtful opinion pieces on a range of topics that affect Native Americans, including higher education, federal policy changes, and environmental degradation.

343

International Indian Treaty Council  

Science.gov (United States)

The International Indian Treaty Council (IITC) is "an organization of indigenous peoples from North, Central, South America, the Caribbean and the Pacific working for the sovereignty and self determination of indigenous peoples." To achieve their broad goals, the IITC works to support networks of indigenous peoples around the world through their policy work in areas that include global trade, women's rights, reproductive health, and the environment. On their homepage, visitors can browse through thematic headings on the left-hand side of the page, such as "Treaty Conferences", "Cultural Rights", "Health/Toxics", and about a dozen additional listings. Visitors should also click on the "Web Content" tab to read flyers, United Nations resolutions, and draft declarations. Also, visitors can sign up to subscribe to the IITC's electronic news updates here.

344

Omaha Indian Music  

Science.gov (United States)

The oral traditions of many North American Indian groups are generally well known, though access to existing sound recordings and the like can often be limited to on-site listening booths at major museums and archives. This nice collection of traditional music from the Omaha tribe is a fine way to begin learning about these traditions. The online exhibit was created by the American Memory project at the Library of Congress and includes traditional Omaha music both from the 1890s and the 1980s. The selections from the 1890s include 44 wax cylinder recordings made by Francis La Flesche and Alice Cunningham Fletcher. Equally compelling are the 323 songs from the 1983 Omaha harvest celebration powwow that are also available here. The collection also includes a brief introductory essay, fieldnotes from the 1983 powwow, and an original program from the 1983 celebration.

345

Enantiomer Ratios of Meteoritic Sugar Derivatives  

Science.gov (United States)

Carbonaceous meteorites contain a diverse suite of soluble organic compounds. Studies of these compounds reveal the Solar System's earliest organic chemistry. Among the classes of organic compounds found in meteorites are keto acids (pyruvic acid, etc.), hydroxy tricarboxylic acids (1), amino acids, amides, purines and pyrimidines. The Murchison and Murray meteorites are the most studied for soluble and insoluble organic compounds and organic carbon phases. The majority of (indigenous) meteoritic compounds are racemic, (i.e., their D/L enantiomer ratios are 50:50). However, some of the more unusual (non-protein) amino acids contain slightly more of one enantiomer (usually the L) than the other. This presentation focuses on the enantiomer analyses of three to six-carbon (3C to 6C) meteoritic sugar acids. The molecular and enantiomer analysis of corresponding sugar alcohols will also be discussed. Detailed analytical procedures for sugar-acid enantiomers have been described. Results of several meteorite analyses show that glyceric acid is consistently racemic (or nearly so) as expected of non-biological mechanisms of synthesis. Also racemic are 4-C deoxy sugar acids: 2-methyl glyceric acid; 2,4-dihydroxybutyric acid; 2,3-dihydroxybutyric acid (two diastereomers); and 3,4-dihydroxybutyric acid. However, a 4C acid, threonic acid, has never been observed as racemic, i.e., it possesses a large D excess. In several samples of Murchison and one of GRA 95229 (possibly the most pristine carbonaceous meteorite yet analyzed) threonic acid has nearly the same D enrichment. In Murchison, preliminary isotopic measurements of individual threonic acid enantiomers point towards extraterrestrial sources of the D enrichment. Enantiomer analyses of the 5C mono-sugar acids, ribonic, arabinonic, xylonic, and lyxonic also show large D excesses. It is worth noting that all four of these acids (all of the possible straight-chained 5C sugar acids) are present in meteorites, including the rare lyxonic acid, and their relative abundances are in equilibrium proportions. In addition (in contrast to the above D-only excesses), some of the above acids are found in biology as the L enantiomer. Whether rare are common, all of the 6C sugar acids that are present in sufficient amounts to allow enantiomer analysis (Mannonic, gluconic, altronic, talonic, idonic, gulonic, and galactonic) also, apparently, possess significant D excesses.

Cooper, George

2012-01-01

346

7 CFR 868.310 - Grades and grade requirements for the classes Long Grain Milled Rice, Medium Grain Milled Rice...  

Science.gov (United States)

...Rice, Medium Grain Milled Rice, Short Grain Milled Rice, and Mixed Milled Rice. (See also § 868.315.) Grades, Grade Requirements...and objectionable seeds (number in 500 grams) Red rice and damaged kernels (singly or...

2010-01-01

347

29 CFR 570.54 - Logging occupations and occupations in the operation of any sawmill, lath mill, shingle mill, or...  

Science.gov (United States)

...2010-07-01 false Logging occupations and occupations in the operation of any sawmill, lath mill, shingle mill, or cooperage stock mill (Order 4). 570.54 Section 570.54 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor...

2010-07-01

348

Indian foreign policy and media framing  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available A content analysis of Indian newspapers coverage of the Tibetan issue on autonomyThis study analyzed how the Tibetan issues on autonomy were framed by the Indian newspapers. By usingcontent analysis the study concluded Indian foreign policy was an external factor influencing the Indian newspaperscoverage of the autonomy of Tibet. In short, Indian newspapers chose a fact or set a news frame reflecting Indianforeign policy toward Tibetan autonomy.

Deepa viswam

2013-07-01

349

Sugars as the Source of Energized Carbon for Abiogenesis  

Science.gov (United States)

Reaction of sugars with nitrite under mild conditions yielded ammonia needed for the synthesis of nitrogenous organics for abiogenesis, thereby eliminating the need for a planet-wide source of unstable ammonia for origins processes based on sugars.

Weber, A. L.

2010-04-01

350

KRAFT MILL BIOREFINERY TO PRODUCE ACETIC ACID AND ETHANOL: TECHNICAL ECONOMIC ANALYSIS  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The “near neutral hemicellulose extraction process” involves extraction of hemicellulose using green liquor prior to kraft pulping. Ancillary unit operations include hydrolysis of the extracted carbohydrates using sulfuric acid, removal of extracted lignin, liquid-liquid extraction of acetic acid, liming followed by separation of gypsum, fermentation of C5 and C6 sugars, and upgrading the acetic acid and ethanol products by distillation. The process described here is a variant of the “near neutral hemicellulose extraction process” that uses the minimal amount of green liquor to maximize sugar production while still maintaining the strength quality of the final kraft pulp. Production rates vary between 2.4 to 6.6 million gallons per year of acetic acid and 1.0 and 5.6 million gallons per year of ethanol, depending upon the pulp production rate. The discounted cash flow rate of return for the process is a strong function of plant size, and the capital investment depends on the complexity of the process. For a 1,000 ton per day pulp mill, the production cost for ethanol was estimated to vary between $1.63 and $2.07/gallon, and for acetic acid between $1.98 and $2.75 per gallon depending upon the capital equipment requirements for the new process. To make the process economically attractive, for smaller mill sizes the processing must be simplified to facilitate reductions in capital cost.

Haibo Mao

2010-05-01

351

Value Added Products from Hemicellulose Utilization in Dry Mill Ethanol Plants  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The Iowa Corn Promotion Board is the principal contracting entity for this grant funded by the US Department of Agriculture and managed by the US Department of Energy. The Iowa Corn Promotion Board subcontracted with New Jersey Institute of Technology, KiwiChem, Pacific Northwest National Lab and Idaho National Lab to conduct research for this project. KiwiChem conducted the economic engineering assessment of a dry-mill ethanol plant. New Jersey Institute of Technology conducted work on incorporating the organic acids into polymers. Pacific Northwest National Lab conducted work in hydrolysis of hemicellulose, fermentation and chemical catalysis of sugars to value-added chemicals. Idaho National Lab engineered an organism to ferment a specific organic acid. Dyadic, an enzme company, was a collaborator which provided in-kind support for the project. The Iowa Corn Promotion Board collaborated with the Ohio Corn Marketing Board and the Minnesota Corn Merchandising Council in providing cost share for the project. The purpose of this diverse collaboration was to integrate the hydrolysis, the conversion and the polymer applications into one project and increase the likelihood of success. This project had two primary goals: (1) to hydrolyze the hemicellulose fraction of the distillers grain (DG) coproduct coming from the dry-mill ethanol plants and (2) convert the sugars derived from the hemicellulose into value-added co-products via fermentation and chemical catalysis.

Rodney Williamson, ICPB; John Magnuson, PNNL; David Reed, INL; Marco Baez, Dyadic; Marion Bradford, ICPB

2007-03-30

352

Preliminary Test of Upgraded Conventional Milling Machine into PC Based CNC Milling Machine  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

CNC (Computerized Numerical Control) milling machine yields a challenge to make an innovation in the field of machining. With an action job is machining quality equivalent to CNC milling machine, the conventional milling machine ability was improved to be based on PC CNC milling machine. Mechanically and instrumentally change. As a control replacing was conducted by servo drive and proximity were used. Computer programme was constructed to give instruction into milling machine. The program structure of consists GUI model and ladder diagram. Program was put on programming systems called RTX software. The result of up-grade is computer programming and CNC instruction job. The result was beginning step and it will be continued in next time. With upgrading ability milling machine becomes user can be done safe and optimal from accident risk. By improving performance of milling machine, the user will be more working optimal and safely against accident risk. (author)

353

EVOLUTION OF SUGAR BEET AND SUGAR PRODUCTION IN ROMANIA AFTER ITS ACCESSION INTO THE E.U.  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The paper presents an analysis of the evolution for sugar beet production and sugar beet extraction after Romania accesion in European Union. The analysis is based on the evolutions of areas, total and average yields per unit of area. The last period (2007- 2013 is compared to the previous period (2001-2006, utilised at reference. Also, it is performed in the four sugar factories respectively (SC AGRANA Romania SA, Sugar Factory Bod, SC sugar Oradea SA, sugar Ludus SA and it was made for the 2007-2013 period, after the application of EU’s rules for sugar market. The study presents the evolution of the biological sugar content and white sugar content between the years 2007 and 2013 and it evaluates the variability of the way of achieving production quotas. The main conclusion imposed after the analysis is that the systems of sugar production from sugar beet are stabilized. Statistically multi-annual average deviation from the assigned quota is approx .2%. Annual variations of sugar production are set between (- 15 % - (+ 43%, compared with the Romanian quota (104.688 tons white sugar.

Aurel-Florentin BADIU

2014-03-01

354

Environmental regulation, productive efficiency and cost of pollution abatement: a case study of the sugar industry in India.  

Science.gov (United States)

In this paper the input distance function is estimated for the Indian Sugar industry under alternative assumptions of weak and strong disposability of bad outputs. The estimated distance function is used to make the estimates of environmental efficiency, Malmquist productivity index and shadow prices of pollutants. The technical efficiency measure estimated under the assumption of weak disposability of bad outputs is utilized to test the Porter hypothesis. Marginal costs of pollution abatement functions are estimated for different pollutants of water. Pollutant specific taxes are computed using the tax-standards method. PMID:16181728

Murty, M N; Kumar, Surender; Paul, Mahua

2006-04-01

355

Powder homogenization using a hammer mill.  

Science.gov (United States)

Hammer mill applicability in the comixing milling operation is discussed with reference to a 1:1000 microfine salicylic acid-sucrose binary system. The hammer mill would not serve as a mixing machine under most circumstances because of the low holdup capacity. Grinding of pure materials was preferable to mixture grinding since active ingredients could be lost during the milling operation. Remixing was always necessary following comminution of the mixture in the hammer mill. Grinding followed by remixing considerably enhanced mixture homogeneity. A large size range was produced by comminution, which resulted in the segregation of ordered units such that the final mixture could be described as a randomized ordered mixture. PMID:458572

Yeung, C C; Hersey, J A

1979-06-01

356

Review of engineering and management tools in beet sugar industry  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Due to the initiative of European Commission to reduce sugar price and admit sugar imports from least developed countries, European sugar industry seeks for new ideas on production technology, engineering and management. In order to approach competitiveness, safety and environmental impact of beet sugar processing, advanced engineering and management tools for optimising the efficiency of raw material use, utilisation of by-products and energy and water use need to be incorporated into practi...

Krajnc, Damjan; Glavic?, Peter

2012-01-01

357

76 FR 33314 - Epidemiology Program for American Indian/Alaska Native Tribes and Urban Indian Communities  

Science.gov (United States)

...all Tribal and urban Indian communities served by...follows: 1. Develop a protocol for conducting the BRFSS...Disease Prevention, Indian Health Service, 5300...specific grant-related and business management information...of Grants Management, Indian Health Service,...

2011-06-08

358

Hydrogenolysis of 5-carbon sugars, sugar alcohols, and methods of making propylene glycol  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Methods and compositions for reactions of hydrogen over a Re-containing catalyst with compositions containing a 5-carbon sugar, sugar alcohol, or lactic acid are described. It has been surprisingly discovered that reaction with hydrogen over a Re-containing multimetallic catalyst resulted in superior conversion and selectivity to desired products such as propylene glycol. A process for the synthesis of PG from lactate or lactic acid is also described.

Werpy, Todd A [West Richland, WA; Zacher, Alan H [Kennewick, WA

2006-05-02

359

PROCESS OF OBTAINING OF SUGAR FROM SUGAR BEET AND INFLUENCE ON ITS QUALITY  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Cooking of massecuites has been study in the connection with different particle size distribution of white sugar. During the crystallization is possible to operate with parameters which have influence on particle size of white sugar. Dry matter of juice in crystallizer, volume of the standard syrup in crystallizer and heating curve of crystallization process are constant parameters in this process. Quantity of slurry (seed magma crystallizate and volume of slurry massecuite are parameters which can be changed for control the particle size distribution of white sugar. Five variants of viable parameters have been trying for obtain ideal particle size distribution of white sugar. As a best has been evaluated variant with 1100 cm3 of slurry and 20 % of volume of slurry massecuite in crystallizer. This variant has had the crystals proportions captured by the sieves between 1.00 and 0.40 mm with minimal differences in weight. More results have been related to reduction of losses of sugar in molasses with the right setting for the line of cooling crystallization process. The looses of sugar can be reduced by adding two coolers in the end of cooling crystalization process what will decrease a temperature to 40 ° C. This temperature will lead to more efficient crystallization in the cooling crystallization process.doi:10.5219/122

Marián Tokár

2011-02-01

360

Sugar and Modernity in Latin America : Interdisciplinary Perspectives  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

This book treats the relationship between sugar, diabetes and modernity. It is an interdisciplinary investigation that asks two questions: what are the relationships between diabetes, sugar intake and dangerous modern lifestyles? and second: how can research into the material, symbolic and historical functions of sugar redefine the concept of modernity.

HØjlund, Susanne

2014-01-01

 
 
 
 
361

21 CFR 172.585 - Sugar beet extract flavor base.  

Science.gov (United States)

... 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Sugar beet extract flavor base. 172.585 Section 172...Agents and Related Substances § 172.585 Sugar beet extract flavor base. Sugar beet extract flavor base may be safely used in...

2010-04-01

362

Ethanol production in fermentation of mixed sugars containing xylose  

Science.gov (United States)

Xylose-utilizing Z. mobilis strains were found to have improved ethanol production when grown in medium containing mixed sugars including xylose if sorbitol or mannitol was included in the medium. The effect was seen in concentrations of mixed sugars where no growth lag period occurs, as well as in higher sugars concentrations.

Viitanen, Paul V. (West Chester, PA); Mc Cutchen, Carol M. (Wilmington, DE); Li; Xu (Newark, DE); Emptage, Mark (Wilmington, DE); Caimi, Perry G. (Kennett Square, PA); Zhang, Min (Lakewood, CO); Chou, Yat-Chen (Lakewood, CO); Franden, Mary Ann (Centennial, CO)

2009-12-08

363

“CO-OPERATIVE SUGAR INDUSTRY IN MAHARASHTRA AND MARATHWADA”  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Sugar industry has acquired a great significance in India, Maharashtra and Marathwada. Sugar industry accounts for a huge investment of over Rs. 2,500 crores and provides employment to about five lakh rural peoples. About 5.5 million farmers are engaged in cane cultivation. The rapid growth of sugar industry in Maharashtra has helped to a very great extent in stabilizing the sugar production in the country and reducing the chronic shortage of sugar. Maharashtra produces about 40 percent of the total sugar produced in the country and rank second to Uttar Pradesh. Sugarcane is being cultivated on an area of around 35 lakh hectares with the production being around 110 lakh tones. Marathwada region has good potentials for sugarcane cultivation and development of sugar industry because the land of Marathwada is very fertile and the climate is suitable for growth sugarcane crop. Sugar industry adds to the income of the farmers, provides casual and permanent employment, helps to earn foreign exchange and also helps to develop various kinds of ancillary and by product industries. There are 173 cooperative and 18 private sugar factories in Maharashtra with a total number of 191. There were 50 cooperative sugar factories whereas 8 private sugar factories in Marathwada. One of the most hopeful developments of the last decade in the field of co-operative processing has been the rapid establishment of co-operative sugar factories in the Maharashtra State and Marathwada region.

“CO-OPERATIVE SUGAR INDUSTRY IN MAHARASHTRA AND MARATHWADA”

2014-06-01

364

Taxation and the American Indian  

Science.gov (United States)

The article explores American Indian tribal rights to tax exemptions and self-imposed taxation; general recommendations on possible tribal tax alternatives; and evaluation of the probable economic effect of taxation. (FF)

Brunt, David

1973-01-01

365

29 CFR 780.815 - Basic conditions of exemption; second part, processing of sugar beets, sugar-beet molasses...  

Science.gov (United States)

...Labor 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Basic conditions of exemption; second part, processing of sugar beets, sugar-beet molasses, sugarcane, or maple sap. 780.815 Section 780.815 Labor Regulations Relating to...

2010-07-01

366

Environmental planning in uranium milling  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Effluents from uranium milling in the Achala region in the province of Cordoba are studied. Liquids from lixiviation-recovery and from precipitation-washing of yellow-cake were analyzed. Separation of both liquids before treatment and disposal is recommended. Data of the hydric environment are presented specially for volumes of flow. The disposal criteria established by the provincial authorities are presented, and discussed. Calculations to define the effects on the environment of two types of effluents (the leaching effluent without treatment and the same after treating it) on two points of the rivers net, are given and the results discussed. A disposal policy for a treated effluent of mean composition is presented, based on two different amounts for the two phases of the river flux; the possible effects on two points of the net were also calculated. In the author's opinion, such policy will result in a disposal without a sensible damage in the receptor. (Author)

367

Fuel bio ethanol production from experimental crops of sugar cane, sweet sorghum and sugar beet in Uruguay  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This article is about the fuel bio ethanol production. Its requires the use of raw materials, process, integration with food producing chains, and social inclusion. Agricultural and fermentability assays of three sugar crops were performed: sugar beet, sugar cane and sweet sorghum grown in fields of small producers .

368

76 FR 50285 - Fiscal Year 2012 Tariff-Rate Quota Allocations for Raw Cane Sugar, Refined and Specialty Sugar...  

Science.gov (United States)

...first-come, first- served basis. In response to increased tightness in the U.S. raw cane sugar market, USDA also announced...specialty sugar and sugar-containing products. * Conversion factor: 1 metric ton = 1.10231125 short tons. Ronald Kirk,...

2011-08-12

369

Sugar-Based Ethanol Biorefinery: Ethanol, Succinic Acid and By-Product Production  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The work conducted in this project is an extension of the developments itemized in DE-FG-36-04GO14236. This program is designed to help the development of a biorefinery based around a raw sugar mill, which in Louisiana is an underutilized asset. Some technical questions were answered regarding the addition of a biomass to ethanol facility to existing sugar mills. The focus of this work is on developing technology to produce ethanol and valuable by-products from bagasse. Three major areas are addressed, feedstock storage, potential by-products and the technology for producing ethanol from dilute ammonia pre-treated bagasse. Sugar mills normally store bagasse in a simple pile. During the off season there is a natural degradation of the bagasse, due to the composting action of microorganisms in the pile. This has serious implications if bagasse must be stored to operate a bagasse/biorefinery for a 300+ day operating cycle. Deterioration of the fermentables in bagasse was found to be 6.5% per month, on pile storage. This indicates that long term storage of adequate amounts of bagasse for year-round operation is probably not feasible. Lignin from pretreatment seemed to offer a potential source of valuable by-products. Although a wide range of phenolic compounds were present in the effluent from dilute ammonia pretreatment, the concentrations of each (except for benzoic acid) were too low to consider for extraction. The cellulosic hydrolysis system was modified to produce commercially recoverable quantities of cellobiose, which has a small but growing market in the food process industries. A spin-off of this led to the production of a specific oligosaccharide which appears to have both medical and commercial implications as a fungal growth inhibitor. An alternate use of sugars produced from biomass hydrolysis would be to produce succinic acid as a chemical feedstock for other conversions. An organism was developed which can do this bioconversion, but the economics of succinic acid production were such that it could not compete with current commercial practice. To allow recovery of commercial amounts of ethanol from bagasse fermentation, research was conducted on high solids loading fermentations (using S. cerevisiae) with commercial cellulase on pretreated material. A combination of SHF/SSF treatment with fed-batch operation allowed fermentation at 30% solids loading. Supplementation of the fermentation with a small amount of black-strap molasses had results beyond expectation. There was an enhancement of conversion as well as production of ethanol levels above 6.0% w/w, which is required both for efficient distillation as well as contaminant repression. The focus of fermentation development was only on converting the cellulose to ethanol, as this yeast is not capable of fermenting both glucose and xylose (from hemicellulose). In anticipation of the future development of such an organism, we screened the commercially available xylanases to find the optimum mix for conversion of both cellulose and hemicellulose. A different mixture than the spezyme/novozyme mix used in our fermentation research was found to be more efficient at converting both cellulose and hemicellulose. Efforts were made to select a mutant of Pichia stipitis for ability to co-ferment glucose and xylose to ethanol. New mutation technology was developed, but an appropriate mutant has not yet been isolated. The ability to convert to stillage from biomass fermentations were determined to be suitable for anaerobic degradation and methane production. An economic model of a current sugar factory was developed in order to provide a baseline for the cost/benefit analysis of adding cellulosic ethanol production.

Donal F. Day

2009-03-31

370

76 FR 8743 - Indian Health Professions Preparatory, Indian Health Professions Pre-Graduate and Indian Health...  

Science.gov (United States)

...funding from other scholarship, grant and fee waiver programs, will have these monies applied to... Indian Health Professions Scholarship A. Bio Medical Engineering--BS. B. Bio Medical Technology--AAS. C....

2011-02-15

371

77 FR 21568 - Indian Health Professions Preparatory, Indian Health Professions Pregraduate and Indian Health...  

Science.gov (United States)

...funding from other scholarship, grant and fee waiver programs, will have these monies applied... Indian Health Professions Scholarship A. Bio Medical Engineering--BS. B. Bio Medical Technology--AAS. C....

2012-04-10

372

Morphological and biochemical properties of a Sphaerotilus sp. Isolated from paper mill slimes.  

Science.gov (United States)

Four strains of filamentous bacteria were isolated from slimes collected in different paper mill factories. Morphological and physiological characterization of the isolates indicated an affiliation with the genus Sphaerotilus. However, while the physiological properties of the isolates were almost identical, pronounced physiological differences between the isolates and Sphaerotilus natans DSM 6575(T), DSM 565, and DSM 566 with respect to their ability to metabolize complex polysaccharides, sugars, polyalcohols, or organic acids as carbon sources were detected. In contrast to the analyzed culture collection strains of S. natans, all paper mill isolates were able to grow at elevated temperatures of up to 40 degrees C. Comparative sequence analysis of nearly complete 16S ribosomal DNA (rDNA) sequences from the four new isolates demonstrated that the retrieved sequences were highly similar to each other (99.6 to 99.8% similarity) and to previously published partial 16S rDNA sequences of S. natans DSM 6575(T) and ATCC 15291. Polyphasic characterization of the isolated Sphaerotilus strains revealed interesting adaptations of the strains to the environmental paper mill conditions with regard to temperature tolerance and utilization of cellulose and starch. PMID:9872774

Pellegrin, V; Juretschko, S; Wagner, M; Cottenceau, G

1999-01-01

373

Pretreatment of wastepaper and pulp mill sludge by aqueous ammonia and hydrogen peroxide.  

Science.gov (United States)

Pretreatment of two different softwood-based lignocellulosic wastes (newsprint and Kraft pulp mill sludge) was investigated. Pretreatment was done by aqueous ammonia and hydrogen peroxide (H2O2), two delignifying reagents that are environmentally benign. Three different treatment schemes were employed: aqueous ammonia alone (ammonia recycled percolation [ARP]), mixed stream of aqueous ammonia and H2O2, and successive treatment with H2O2 and aqueous ammonia. In all cases there was a substantial degree of delignification ranging from 30 to 50%. About half of the hemicellulose sugars were dissolved into the process effluent. Retention of cellulose after pretreatment varied from 85 to 100% for newspaper feedstock and from 77 to 85% for the pulp mill sludge. After treatment with aqueous ammonia alone (ARP), the digestibility of newspaper and the pulp mill sludge was improved only by 5% (from 40 to 45% for the former and from 68 to 73% for the latter), despite a substantial degree of delignification occurring after the ARP process. The lignin content thus did not correlate with the digestibility for these substrates. Simultaneous treatment with H2O2 and aqueous ammonia did not bring about any significant improvement in the digestibility over that of the ARP. A successive treatment by H2O2 and ARP showed the most promise because it improved the digestibility of the newspaper from 41 to 75%, a level comparable to that of alpha-cellulose. PMID:10849784

Kim, J S; Lee, Y Y; Park, S C

2000-01-01

374

Formation and emission of PCDD/Fs in Chinese non-wood pulp and paper mills.  

Science.gov (United States)

Chlorine bleaching is still practiced by non-wood pulp and paper mills in China, resulting in considerable formation and emission of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDD/Fs). We investigate the distribution of PCDD/Fs in different papermaking processes and dioxin emissions at six typical Chinese non-wood pulp and paper mills. Raw materials for papermaking included reed, wheat straw, bamboo, and sugar cane bagasse. The formation and emission of PCDD/Fs varied strikingly according to bleaching processes and raw materials. Elemental chlorine bleaching promoted the formation of tetra- to octa-CDDs and 2,3,7,8-TCDF, while hypochlorite bleaching only gave rise to a significant increase of 2,3,7,8-TCDF. Bleaching with elemental chlorine and hypochlorite increased 2,3,7,8-TCDF 0.9-42.5 and 0.3-4.1 times, respectively. Most of the 2,3,7,8-TCDF formed at hypochlorite bleaching stage was partitioned into the effluent, which indicated that hypochlorite bleaching was also an important emission source of dioxins. The removal of PCDD/Fs occurred visibly during alkaline digestion, alkaline extraction, and hydrogen peroxide bleaching. Furthermore, the annual emission of PCDD/Fs from Chinese non-wood pulp and paper mills was evaluated. PMID:23067332

Wang, Xueli; Ni, Yuwen; Zhang, Haijun; Zhang, Xueping; Chen, Jiping

2012-11-01

375

Separation of sugars by continuous annular chromatography  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Continuous chromatographic separations of aqueous fructose-glucose-sucrose solutions have been investigated in a laboratory-scale continuous annular chromatograph (CAC) using calcium-exchanged Dowex 50W-X8 resin. Comparative studies have also been conducted using a conventional fixed-bed column packed with the same resin. Complete resolution of fructose-glucose mixtures could be obtained both in a 60-cm-long CAC and in a conventional column of the same length with a sugar feed concentration of up to 200 g/L. Partial resolution of sucrose in three component mixtures was also obtained, and the three sugars were completely separated from added higher-molecular-weight saccharides. Results have been analyzed in terms of approximate linear chromatographic theories and orthogonal collocation of exact mass transfer model equations for fixed and rotating beds. A systematic, comparative evaluation of factors affecting process performance and design procedures is presented.

Howard, A.J.; Carta, G.; Byers, C.H.

1987-08-01

376

Turgor-mediated transport of sugars  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Membrane associated processes have been suggested to be modulated by cellular turgor. The nature of this regulation is not, however, clearly understood. Evidence is presented that active but not passive transport of sugars is turgor regulated. Isolated phloem tissue, vascular bundles or storage parenchyma of celery were incubated in buffered solutions adjusted to 100, 200 or 400 m osmolal that contained various concentrations of 14C-sugars. Cellular turgor was manipulated by using the non-permeating PEG (3350). Saturating carrier-mediated sucrose transport which is present only in phloem-containing tissue was enhanced under low turgor conditions. Sucrose diffusion, the predominant mode of uptake in non-phloem parenchyma tissue was not affected by cellular turgor. Furthermore, GA and IAA seem to interact with cellular turgor to bring about modified rates of sucrose uptake. The data are consistent with observations that sucrose loading is enhanced under mild water deficit conditions

377

FACTORS DETERMINING CAPITAL STRUCTURE OF CO-OPERATIVE SUGAR INDUSTRY IN TAMIL NADU – AN EMPIRICAL STUDY  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Finance is an important input for any type of business and is needed for working capital and for permanent investment. The financial success of a firm depends mainly on its capital structure. The choice of debt and equity in the capital structure of corporate firms is an important financial decision because it influences both the return and risk of shareholders. In the present day challenges facing the Indian sugar industry are about 50 % of production of north India and Tamil Nadu are governed by State Advised Prices, Government controls on domestic sales and exports make commercial planning very difficult. Erratic financial returns have made the business less bankable, only industry in the country to bear financial burden of a social welfare program of the government.

M. SEKAR

2013-04-01

378

Coal Moisture Estimation in Power Plant Mills  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Knowledge of moisture content in raw coal feed to a power plant coal mill is of importance for efficient operation of the mill. The moisture is commonly measured approximately once a day using offline chemical analysis methods; however, it would be advantageous for the dynamic operation of the plant if an on-line estimate were available. In this paper we such propose an on-line estimator (an extended Kalman filter) that uses only existing measurements. The scheme is tested on actual coal mill...

Andersen, Palle; Bendtsen, Jan Dimon; Pedersen, Tom S.; Mataji, Babak

2009-01-01

379

STABILIZATION OF EXPANSIVE SOIL USING MILL SCALE  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The present paper deals with the evaluation of the mechanical properties of black cotton soil mixed with mill scale in varying proportions and comparing the same with the results of pure black cotton soil. The mechanical properties of mill scale and black cotton soil are individually determined first and then the two are combined in varying proportions. The properties like plastic limit, CBR and Permeability of the same are evaluated. It is found that mixing mill scale in varying proportions increases the permeability of the soil, strength characteristics and decreases the plasticity.

Y.I.Murthy

2012-02-01

380

Yang-Mills origin of gravitational symmetries  

CERN Document Server

By regarding gravity as the convolution of left and right Yang-Mills theories, we derive in linearised approximation the gravitational symmetries of general covariance, p-form gauge invariance, local Lorentz invariance and local supersymmetry from the flat space Yang-Mills symmetries of local gauge invariance and global super-Poincar\\'e. As a concrete example we focus on the new-minimal (12+12) off-shell version of simple four-dimensional supergravity obtained by tensoring the off-shell Yang-Mills multiplets (4 + 4, N_L = 1) and (3 + 0, N_R = 0).

Anastasiou, A; Duff, M J; Hughes, L J; Nagy, S

2014-01-01

 
 
 
 
381

Coal Moisture Estimation in Power Plant Mills  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Knowledge of moisture content in raw coal feed to a power plant coal mill is of importance for efficient operation of the mill. The moisture is commonly measured approximately once a day using offline chemical analysis methods; however, it would be advantageous for the dynamic operation of the plant if an on-line estimate were available. In this paper we such propose an on-line estimator (an extended Kalman filter) that uses only existing measurements. The scheme is tested on actual coal mill data collected during a one-month operating period, and it is found that the daily measured moisture content agrees with the estimates.

Andersen, Palle; Bendtsen, Jan Dimon

2009-01-01

382

Bioassay studies of Canadian uranium mill workers  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A study of 79 subjects from 3 Canadian uranium mills is presented to correlate uranium lung burdens with urinary excretion of yellowcake. Direct measurements of uranium lung burdens were made in Ottawa where in vivo counting facilities were available. The work histories of the workers are summarized, and the concentrations of uranium in the air at various locations in the 3 mills are given. The results indicate a lack of correlation between thorax burdens and various other indices, such as concurrent urine values, annual average urine values, years of service and type of operation. The results suggest that radiation exposure of the lung is not a major hazard in uranium mills

383

Environmental design of a uranium mill  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In the frame work of the Cleaner Technology Project for Uranium Mining and Milling, Australian Nuclear and Technology Organization (ANSTO), Environment Division of ANSTO has carried out a programme of research which seeks to identify, investigate and develop cleaner technologies that have the potential to minimize the environmental impact of uranium mining and milling. This paper describes three design options of a new uranium mill that can meet environmental, technical and economical objectives. The feasibility of such an approach was examined in the laboratory and in a pilot plant study. (author)

384

Oxidative enzymatic gelation of sugar beet pectin for emulsion stabilization  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Pectin from sugar beet is derived from the sugar beet pulp residue which results when sugar beets are processed for sucrose extraction. The sugar beet pectin has poor gelationability by the classic divalentcation molecular mechanism because of a relatively high acetylation degree and short polygalacturonate backbone chain length. However, due to the feruloyl-substitutions on the side chains, the sugar beet pectic polysaccharides can be cross-linked via enzyme catalyzed oxidation. The enzyme kinetics and functionality of such oxidativelycross-linked sugar beet pectin, in relation to stabilizing emulsions has recently been investigated in model food emulsions. This paper reviews the pectin chemistry, enzymatic oxidative gelation mechanisms, interaction mechanisms of the sugar beet pectin with the emulsion droplets and explores how the gelation affects the rheology and stability of emulsion systems. The applied biotechnology concept of enzymatic gelation provides an array of opportunities for upgrading of low-value pectins for new food and non-food uses.

Meyer, Anne S.

2013-01-01

385

Sugar-Assisted Ligation in Glycoprotein Synthesis  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Sugar-assisted ligation (SAL) presents an attractive strategy for the synthesis of glycopeptides, including the synthesis of cysteine-free ?-O-linked and N-linked glycopeptides. Here we extended the utility of SAL for the synthesis of ?-O-linked glycopeptides and glycoproteins. In order to explore SAL in the context of glycoprotein synthesis, we developed a new chemical synthetic route for the ?-O-linked glycoprotein diptericin ?. In the first stage of our synthesis, diptericin segment Cy...

Yang, Yu-ying; Ficht, Simon; Brik, Ashraf; Wong, Chi-huey

2007-01-01

386

Indian draught animals power  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available With the modernization of agriculture, the use of mechanical power in agriculture has increased but draught animal power (DAP continues to be used on Indian farms due to small holdings and hill agriculture. More than 55% of the total cultivated area is still being managed by using draught animals as against about 20% by tractors. India possessed the finest breeds of draught animals. Bullocks, buffaloes and camels are the major draught animals for field operations. Horses, mules, donkeys, yak and mithun are the pack animals for transport. The quality of work from the draught animals depends upon the power developed by them. The design of traditional implements is based on long experience and these have served the purpose of the farmers. However there is plenty of scope to improve the design based on animal-machine-environment interaction so as to have more output and increased efficiency without jeopardizing animal health. [Vet World 2009; 2(10.000: 404-407

K. L. Phaniraja

387

Euthanasia: An Indian perspective  

Science.gov (United States)

In our society, the palliative care and quality of life issues in patients with terminal illnesses like advanced cancer and AIDS have become an important concern for clinicians. Parallel to this concern has arisen another controversial issue-euthanasia or “mercy –killing” of terminally ill patients. Proponents of physician-assisted suicide (PAS) feel that an individual's right to autonomy automatically entitles him to choose a painless death. The opponents feel that a physician's role in the death of an individual violates the central tenet of the medical profession. Moreover, undiagnosed depression and possibility of social ‘coercion’ in people asking for euthanasia put a further question mark on the ethical principles underlying such an act. These concerns have led to strict guidelines for implementing PAS. Assessment of the mental state of the person consenting to PAS becomes mandatory and here, the role of the psychiatrist becomes pivotal. Although considered illegal in our country, PAS has several advocates in the form of voluntary organizations like “death with dignity” foundation. This has got a fillip in the recent Honourable Supreme Court Judgment in the Aruna Shaunbag case. What remains to be seen is how long it takes before this sensitive issue rattles the Indian legislature. PMID:22988327

Sinha, Vinod K.; Basu, S.; Sarkhel, S.

2012-01-01

388

[Occupational skin diseases in rolling-mill workers in aluminum mills].  

Science.gov (United States)

Some data on frequency and nature of occupational dermatological diseases and stigmata, as well as the results of epicutaneous allergy tests done with occupational allergens with 234 rollers in the rolling mills of the aluminum mill in Razine, near Sibenik are presented. We have recorded occupational dermatose in 44 rollers (18.8%). In the hot rolling mill, sixty rollers have undergone the test and there was 16 recorded cases of occupational dermatose (26.6%). In the cold rolling mill, 174 rollers have undergone the test, and the occupational dematose was recorded in 28 rollers (16.1%). Positive epicutaneous allergic reaction on occupational allergens was found in 5 (2.1%) rollers. Occupational stigmata are somewhat more frequent in the hot rolling mill and their ratio is from 48-100%, whereas in the cold rolling mill they are somewhat less frequent ranging between 40.3 and 97.0% of rollers. PMID:2528044

Bali?, J; Klarica, J

1989-01-01

389

Renewable energy in Indian country  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

On June 25--27, 1995, at Mesa Verde National Park in southwestern Colorado, the Center for Resource Management (CRM), organized and sponsored a conference in conjunction with the Navajo Nation, EPA, and Bechtel Group, Inc., to deal with issues associated with developing renewable energy resources on Indian lands. Due to the remoteness of many reservation homes and the cost of traditional power line extensions, a large percentage of the Indian population is today without electricity or other energy services. In addition, while they continue to develop energy resources for export, seeing only minimal gain in their own economies, Indian people are also subject to the health and environmental consequences associated with proximity to traditional energy resource development. Renewable energy technologies, on the other hand, are often ideally suited to decentralized, low-density demand. These technologies--especially solar and wind power--have no adverse health impacts associated with generation, are relatively low cost, and can be used in applications as small as a single home, meeting power needs right at a site. Their minimal impact on the environment make them particularly compatible with American Indian philosophies and lifestyles. Unfortunately, the match between renewable energy and Indian tribes has been hampered by the lack of a comprehensive, coordinated effort to identify renewable energy resources located on Indian lands, to develop practical links between Indian people`s needs and energy producers, and to provide the necessary training for tribal leaders and members to plan, implement, and maintain renewable energy systems. Summaries of the presentations are presented.

NONE

1995-12-31

390

IMPROVED BIOREFINERY FOR THE PRODUCTION OF ETHANOL, CHEMICALS, ANIMAL FEED AND BIOMATERIALS FROM SUGAR CANE  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The Audubon Sugar Institute (ASI) of Louisiana State University’s Agricultural Center (LSU AgCenter) and MBI International (MBI) sought to develop technologies that will lead to the development of a sugar-cane biorefinery, capable of supplying fuel ethanol from bagasse. Technology development focused on the conversion of bagasse, cane-leaf matter (CLM) and molasses into high value-added products that included ethanol, specialty chemicals, biomaterials and animal feed; i.e. a sugar cane-based biorefinery. The key to lignocellulosic biomass utilization is an economically feasible method (pretreatment) for separating the cellulose and the hemicellulose from the physical protection provided by lignin. An effective pretreatment disrupts physical barriers, cellulose crystallinity, and the association of lignin and hemicellulose with cellulose so that hydrolytic enzymes can access the biomass macrostructure (Teymouri et al. 2004, Laureano-Perez, 2005). We chose to focus on alkaline pretreatment methods for, and in particular, the Ammonia Fiber Expansion (AFEX) process owned by MBI. During the first two years of this program a laboratory process was established for the pretreatment of bagasse and CLM using the AFEX process. There was significant improvement of both rate and yield of glucose and xylose upon enzymatic hydrolysis of AFEX-treated bagasse and CLM compared with untreated material. Because of reactor size limitation, several other alkaline pretreatment methods were also co-investigated. They included, dilute ammonia, lime and hydroxy-hypochlorite treatments. Scale-up focused on using a dilute ammonia process as a substitute for AFEX, allowing development at a larger scale. The pretreatment of bagasse by an ammonia process, followed by saccharification and fermentation produced ethanol from bagasse. Simultaneous saccharification and fermentation (SSF) allowed two operations in the same vessel. The addition of sugarcane molasses to the hydrolysate/fermentation process yielded improvements beyond what was expected solely from the addition of sugar. In order to expand the economic potential for building a biorefinery, the conversion of enzyme hydrolysates of AFEX-treated bagasse to succinic acid was also investigated. This program established a solid basis for pre-treatment of bagasse in a manner that is feasible for producing ethanol at raw sugar mills.

Dr. Donal F. Day

2009-01-29

391

Impact of an acid fungal protease in high gravity fermentation for ethanol production using Indian sorghum as a feedstock.  

Science.gov (United States)

This study evaluated the conventional jet cooking liquefaction process followed by simultaneous saccharification and fermentation (SSF) at 30% and 35% dry solids (DS) concentration of Indian sorghum feedstock for ethanol production, with addition of acid fungal protease or urea. To evaluate the efficacy of thermostable ?-amylase in liquefaction at 30% and 35% DS concentration of Indian sorghum, liquefact solubility, higher dextrins, and fermentable sugars were analyzed at the end of the process. The liquefact was further subjected to SSF using yeast. In comparison with urea, addition of an acid fungal protease during SSF process was observed to accelerate yeast growth (?), substrate consumption (Q(s)), ultimately ethanol yield based on substrate (Y(p/s)) and ethanol productivity based on fermentation time (Q(p)). The fermentation efficiency and ethanol recovery were determined for both concentrations of Indian sorghum and found to be increased with use of acid fungal protease in SSF process. PMID:23292745

Gohel, V; Duan, G; Maisuria, V B

2013-01-01

392

Homogeneity evaluation of Chinese sugar carbon (CSC) standard for AMS {sup 14}C measurement  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The Chinese national radiocarbon standard Chinese Sugar Carbon (CSC), or often called the 'Chinese Sucrose Charcoal,' was investigated for its homogeneity and its suitability as a radiocarbon standard for Accelerator Mass Spectrometer (AMS). We randomly chose ten new CSC bottles and two opened bottles and measured their carbon isotope compositions. {delta}{sup 13}C results obtained by Isotope Ratio Mass Spectrometer (IRMS) showed relatively large variation: from -15.9 to -22.2 Per-Mille-Sign with an average of -19.0 {+-} 1.2 Per-Mille-Sign (n = 49), indicating CSC grains in the mg range are not isotopically homogeneous. However, {sup 14}C results of CSC, expressed as Fraction Modern (FM), are well constrained to 2.4 Per-Mille-Sign after fractionation correction to -25 Per-Mille-Sign . Measurements from all 12 bottles gave an average FM value of 1.3533 {+-} 0.0034 (n = 55). This value is about 7 Per-Mille-Sign higher that the FM value of 1.346 {+-} 0.002, converted from the originally reported R value of 1.362 {+-} 0.002 (n = 14, with {delta}{sup 13}C of -19.32, n = 9) [1,2]. The R value of 1.362 is the ratio of {sup 14}C activity of CSC to 95% of OXI, not an FM value. The online simultaneous AMS {sup 13}C/{sup 12}C measurement that allows for correction of all isotopic fractionation, including manufacture, graphitization and machine induced fractionation, is the key for obtaining consistent {sup 14}C measurements on this standard. Without further homogenization, CSC may not be a good choice of standard for an AMS that does not have the capability of measuring online AMS {delta}{sup 13}C. Further study is needed to see if mixing/grinding can reduce the inhomogeneity. Re-measurement is suggested with more laboratories involved in order to get a better defined consensus value.

Xu Xiaomei, E-mail: xxu@uci.edu [Keck Carbon Cycle AMS Facility, Department of Earth System Science, University of California, Irvine, CA 92697-3100 (United States); Shen Chengde [State Key Laboratory of Isotope Geochemistry, Guangzhou Institute of Geochemistry, Chinese Academy of Sciences, 510640 Guangzhou (China); Stills, Aubrey K.; Southon, John R. [Keck Carbon Cycle AMS Facility, Department of Earth System Science, University of California, Irvine, CA 92697-3100 (United States)

2013-01-15

393

New proposal for integrated production of sugar and biofuels from sugar beet  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The problems related to the traditional technology of sugar-beet processing have became so important that the beet sector in Europe, and particularly in Italy, has been shocked. If we want to produce sugar beet in the future it is necessary to decrease the production costs through a simplification of the technology, a decreasing of the problems related to the energy and water consumptions, the elimination of the solid, liquid and gaseous wastes. We tried in the past to give our contribution for solving these problems but we have found difficulties in convincing the beet sugar world to drastically modify the traditional technology. The problems are so important that an European Project (TOSSIE - TOward Sustainable Sugar Industry in Europe) has the main object of disseminating the results of the research obtained in the last decades. We proposed different solutions including the elimination of calco-carbonic purification process, the utilization of membrane technology and suggesting different processing schemes. Now we would like to propose another possible solution with the elimination of the diffusion process and a balanced production, beside the crystallized sugar, of biofuels. Preliminary results obtained in laboratory and in a pilot plant will be presented and discussed. (orig.)

Vaccari, Giuseppe; Tamburini, Elena [University of Ferrara, Ferrara (Italy); Marchetti, Gianluigi; Lenzini, Gustavo [S.M.I srl, Legnaro (Italy)

2009-02-15

394

Traditional And Medicinal Uses Of Indian Black Berry  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Jamun or Indian Black berry is considered as a traditional medicine that helps in controlling diabetes. Specifically, jamun has an action on the pancreas, the main organ responsible for causing diabetes. The fruit, the seeds and even the juice of the jamun all play an important role in the treatment of diabetes. The jamun seeds contain a type of glucose called Jamboline, which checks the conversion of starch into sugar in cases of increased production of glucose, the main reason behind your high sugar levels.It has anti cancer and anti viral properties. Jamun juice has carminative and mild astringent properties. The extracts of the bark, seeds and leaves are used for the treatment of diabetes. The leaves have antibacterial properties and used for strenghthening teeths and gums.Oral administration of dried alcohalic extracts of the seeds to diabetic patients was found to reduce the level of blood sugar and glycosuria in trials conducted at CDRI, Lucknow.The bark of black berry tree is astringent, digestive, diuretic, anthelmintic and is considered useful for throat problems.A decoction of the bark and powdered seeds is believed to be very useful in the treatment of diarrhea, dysentery and dyspepsia.The antibiotic activity of black berry extract has been widely studied and found useful against a number of microbial agents. The fruit is also considered to be stomachic, carminative, antiscorbutic and diuretic.Vinegar made from black berry fruit is administered in cases of enlargement of spleen, chronic diarrhoea and urine retention for ringworm treatment, water diluted juice is used as lotion.

K.P.Sampath Kumar

2013-01-01

395

Hopelessness among White- and Indian-identified American Indian adolescents.  

Science.gov (United States)

Despite a number of investigations into the protective effects of ethnic and cultural identity among a variety of diverse populations, there have been relatively few studies that examine the relationship between this identity and American Indian mental health. This brief report investigates the associations between ethnic/cultural identification and feelings of hopelessness among American Indian adolescents. Data were drawn from middle-school respondents on a reservation community at 2 time points 14 months apart. Although White cultural identification was significantly and negatively correlated with hopelessness at 14 months, Indian cultural identification was not associated with hopelessness at either time point. These results are discussed with attention to the developmental stage of our respondents and to the possibility of social dynamics relevant to this particular reservation community. PMID:20658888

Albright, Karen; Lafromboise, Teresa D

2010-07-01

396

Continuous grinding mill simulation using Austin's model  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Comminution is a frequently-required step in mineral processing and is responsible for almost 90% of all energy consumption in a mineral processing plant. Tumbling mill design has been studied since the middle of the XIX century. There are many comminution models in the literature, with preponderance, however, of Austin’s model (2002 for mineral impact breakage. In this paper, Austin’s model was applied to tubular tumbling mills. Once Austin's model was proposed for batch processing of narrowly-distributed fraction sizes, an artifice has allowed it to be used in continuous grinding mill processes with widely-distributed fraction sizes. Interesting results were obtained with errors less than 0.005 for mills with sharp residence time distributions.

Andr\\u00E9 Carlos Silva

2012-01-01

397

Uranium mining and milling: the regulatory process  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The uranium industry has become one of the most regulated industries. The primary issue facing the industry is the management practices for tailings. The Uranium Mill Tailings Radiation Control Act of 1978 provided policy and legal authority for the management of mill tailings. In this paper the evolution of the regulated industry is observed since early 1950's. A regulatory process is described, which is the process a company goes through to plan for a new uranium mining and milling project. Historically, the process consisted of exploration, resource definition, technical feasibility studies, detailed mining and milling plans, construction, operation, and possibly reclamation. Today, regulations require a company also to make evaluations of numerous legal, regulatory, political, and social issues

398

Yang-Mills on Quantum Heisenberg Manifolds  

Science.gov (United States)

In the noncommutative geometry program of Connes, there are two variations of the concept of the Yang-Mills action functional. We show that for the quantum Heisenberg manifolds for generic parameter values they agree.

Chakraborty, Partha Sarathi; Guin, Satyajit

2014-09-01

399

Index symmetry of classical Yang Mills fields  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A method of constructing new solutions of the Yang Mills equations from the existing ones by interchanging the 3 and 4 components of the gauge potential is exhibited. In particular, time dependent solutions may be constructed from static ones

400

Mineralogy and geochemistry of uranium mill tailings  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

We have investigated three main types of uranium mill tailings: (1) acid mill tailings (Mounana, Gabon), (2) neutralized acid mill tailings (Ecarpiere and Jouac, France) and (3) alkaline mill tailings (Lodeve, France). We have focused especially on radium behaviour which is of major environmental concern in these tailings, but other metals were also studied. It is shown that in type 1 , trapping of 226Ra by anglesite and barite is dominant whereas in types 2 and 3, 226Ra is mainly or significantly scavenged by Fe- Mn oxyhydroxides. This study points out the importance of keeping conditions in which these oxyhydroxides will be stable for the long-term. Uranium would be also released during acidification of the tailings. This shows the importance to know more about the behavior of Ra during the crystallization of oxyhydroxides and during tailings diagenesis. Therefore, it is very important to study the sorption of Ra by clay minerals or late authigeneous minerals such as barite. (author)

 
 
 
 
401

Yang-Mills Gravity in Biconformal Space  

CERN Document Server

We propose a new conformal supergravity model with direct relevance to string/gauge theory dualities. This biconformal supergravity theory is formulated with a Yang-Mills type action. The resulting 8-dim symplectic geometries describe 4-dim scale-invariant general relativity. We then show an extension of N = 4 SUSY Yang-Mills to a curved biconformal geometry such that the extended form of the Yang-Mills fields provides the curvatures for the biconformal space. These curvatures solve the biconformal field equations whenever the original 4-dim fields satisfy the 4-dim YM theory. This gives a 1-1 mapping between the gravity and gauge theories. We also display systematic extension of any spacetime co-tangent bundle to a biconformal space, and extension of any 4-dim Yang-Mills theory to an equivalent theory on that space.

Anderson, L B; Anderson, Lara B.; Wheeler, James T.

2004-01-01

402

Jälle need Milling ja Normann / Ilona Martson  

Index Scriptorium Estoniae

Kanal 2 uus kodumaine komöödiaseriaal "Õpetajate tuba" : käsikiri Peep Pedmanson : lavastus Ivo Eensalu : näitlejad Ita Ever, Eino Baskin, Madis Milling, Henrik Normann, Maria Klenskaja, Margus Tabor jt. : tootjafirma "Ruut"

Martson, Ilona, 1970-

2003-01-01

403

ndix.html">Indian Academy of Sciences - Initiatives  

Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

indian academy of sciences - initiatives appendix: indian institute of science, chandigarh--> indian institute of science, indian institute, of science, indian statistical institute, ."statistical outline of india: 1988-89", tata press ltd., government of india, 1986. in science at indian universities, 1989. ...

404

Barium ferrite powders prepared by milling and annealing  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Purpose: Microstructure and magnetic properties analysis of barium ferrite powder obtained by milling and heat treatment.Design/methodology/approach: The milling process was carried out in a vibratory mill, which generated vibrations of the balls and milled material inside the container during which their collisions occur. After milling process the powders were annealed in electric chamber furnace. The X-ray diffraction methods were used for qualitative phase analysis of studied powder sampl...

Nowosielski, R.; Babilas, R.; Dercz, G.; Paja?k, L.; Wrona, J.

2007-01-01

405

Engineering assessment of inactive uranium mill tailings  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Junction tailings were examined: (a) heap leaching; (b) treatment at an existing mill; and (c) reprocessing at a new conventional mill constructed for tailings reprocessing. The cost of the uranium recovered would be about $200/lb by heap leach and $150/lb by conventional plant processes. The spot market price for uranium was $25/lb early in 1981. Therefore, reprocessing the tailings for uranium recovery appears not to be economically attractive

406

Global parametrization of Yang-Mills fields  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Global gauge-invariant parameters are introduced for Yang-Mills fields. The space of gauge-invariant parameters is the direct product (over all points x) of compact homogeneous spaces. It is shown that with this approach to a Yang-Mills theory in a 2+1-dimensional case ''confinement'' of quarks occurs. This phenomenon is a consequence of the ''compactness'' of the parameter space and the fact that the coupling constant is dimensional in the 2+1-dimensional theory

407

Yang-Mills theory and Tamagawa numbers  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Atiyah and Bott used equivariant Morse theory applied to the Yang-Mills functional to calculate the Betti numbers of moduli spaces of vector bundles over a Riemann surface, rederiving inductive formulae obtained from an arithmetic approach which involved the Tamagawa number of SL_n. This article surveys this link between Yang-Mills theory and Tamagawa numbers, and explains how methods used over the last three decades to study the singular cohomology of moduli spaces of bundl...

Asok, Aravind; Doran, Brent; Kirwan, Frances

2008-01-01

408

Bernard Yarnton Mills 1920-2011  

CERN Document Server

Bernie Mills is remembered globally as an influential pioneer in the evolving field of radio astronomy. His contributions with the 'Mills Cross' at the CSIRO Division of Radiophysics and later at the University of Sydney's School of Physics and the development of the Molonglo Observatory Synthesis Telescope (MOST) were widely recognised as astronomy evolved in the years 1948-1985 and radio astronomy changed the viewpoint of the astronomer as a host of new objects were discovered.

Frater, R H; Wendt, H W

2013-01-01

409

Mills' ratio: Reciprocal concavity and functional inequalities  

CERN Document Server

This note contains suficient conditions for the probability density function of an arbitrary continuous univariate distribution such that the corresponding Mills ratio to be reciprocally convex (concave). To illustrate the applications of the main results, the Mills ratio of some common continuous univariate distributions, like gamma, log-normal and Student's t distributions, are discussed in details. The application to monopoly theory is also summarized.

Baricz, Árpád

2010-01-01

410

Sugar best single chorda tympani nerve fiber responses to various sugar stimuli in rat and hamster.  

Science.gov (United States)

1. Sugar best single chorda tympani nerve fiber of rat and hamster were tested with six sugars. 2. Fibers were selected for this experiment, only if they responded to 1.0 M sucrose or 1.0 M maltose and they responded poorly to 0.1 M NaCl. 3. In rat, some single fibers gave larger responses to maltose than to sucrose, while in hamster nearly all nerve fibers responded best to sucrose. 4. The order of effectiveness of sugars was maltose greater than fructose greater than or equal to lactose greater than sucrose greater than glucose greater than galactose in rat and sucrose greater than fructose greater than or equal to glucose greater than or equal to galactose greater than maltose greater than lactose in hamster. PMID:2575946

Tonosaki, K; Beidler, L M

1989-01-01

411

American Indian History and Writing from Home: Constructing an Indian Perspective  

Science.gov (United States)

If the typical premise of American Indian history is actually the history of Indian-white relations, then the "other" side of the coin must be turned over for understanding an Indian point of view and what is called "writing from home." Conceptually, "writing from home" is the challenge of historians who are American Indian and who write history…

Fixico, Donald L.

2009-01-01

412

Indian Academy of Sciences - Astrophysics and Astronomy  

Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

indian academy of sciences - astrophysics and astronomy structure and tectonics: the indian geomagnetic methods and lithospheric climate and global warming progressive and superposed deformations isotopic windows on earth and planetary ...

413

Obesity and American Indians/Alaska Natives  

Science.gov (United States)

Obesity and American Indians/Alaska Natives American Indian/Alaska Native women are 30% more likely than non- ... findings/nhqrdr/nhqrdr12/index.html HEALTH IMPACT OF OBESITY More than 80 percent of people with type ...

414

Indian Health Service: Find Health Care  

Science.gov (United States)

... Health Service The Federal Health Program for American Indians and Alaska Natives Feedback Employee Resources • A to ... Overview Annual Budget The Director Eligibility Event Calendar Indian Health Manual Key Leaders Legislation Organizational Structure Our ...

415

World Sugar Market – Basic Development Trends and Tendencies  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This article is devoted to the issues of the world‘s sugar production and cultivation of sugar crops (sugar beet and sugar cane. It also analyzes the development of the global sugar trade. The main aim of this paper is to define the basic developmental trends and tendencies that affect the current situation on the market for sugar and sugar crops and then outline a process of gradual profiling of the world markets for these commodities. The article identifies the most important players operating in the global market, both in terms of production and in terms of trade. It also identifies not only the most important subjects of the global market from the viewpoint of the realized volume of production and trade, but also in terms of available comparative advantages and growth dynamics of the realized volume of production and trade. Finally, the paper highlights the significant differences existing in unit prices of the realized export and import flows in individual countries and regions. The results of this study show clearly that the world sugar market is extremely concentrated. A narrow group of entities localized mainly in Latin America, Southeast Asia, Europe and North America controls most of the world production of sugar beet and sugar cane. Furthermore, the results of the analysis show that the production and export of sugar are logically closely linked with the regions cultivating sugar crops, which again suggests that a limited number of entities controls most of the global sugar market. Currently, this market is dominated mainly by Latin American countries and Southeast Asia together with Europe.

M. Svatos?

2013-06-01

416

A MISCELLANY ON INDIAN TRADITIONAL MUSIC  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Indian music has a very long, unbroken tradition and is an accumulated heritage of centuries. Music in India was popular among all the sections of society and intertwined in life and culture from birth to death. Indian music was formed with the evolution of ancient religious and secular music. The Indian culture absorbed all the best that was brought by other nations in the process of historical development. The Indian music is quite diverse: there are classical instrumental and vocal works a...

Rauf Kerimov

2013-01-01

417

Sugar cane yield response to deficit irrigation at two growth stages  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A field study on sugar cane (Saccharum officinarum L.) yield response to deficit irrigation during both tillering and stem elongation stages, in order to increase crop water use efficiency, was carried out at Institut des Savanes (IDESSA) experimental station of Ferkessedougou, in Northern Ivory Coast. This cane crop tested was Co 449, an early - maturing genotype of indian origin. This experiment has been conducted for three consecutive years as virgin crop ( from November, 1991 to December 1992 ), first ratoon crop ( from December 1992 to January 1994 ) and as second ratoon crop ( from January 1994 to January 1995 ). The experimental design was a randomized complete block with 10 irrigation treatments in 4 replicates of 54 m sup2 sized plots. Water was applied through an improved furrow irrigation system. Crop water consumption was estimated using the water balance approach based on neutron probe and tensiometer measurements. This field water balance method required the determination of soil hydraulic conductivity as a function of water content and the neutron calibration curve. Data presented are related to the two ratoon crops for which field water balance measurements were investigated. It has been shown in the study that sugar cane growth and yield decline due to water deficit is significantly high during stem elongation as compared to tillering. As a result, the sugar cane tested was much more sensitive to water stress at stem elongation than at tillering. Therefore, deficit irrigation practice as to increase crop water use efficiency might be recommended at tillering rather than stem elongation. The water management strategy to be suggested here may consist of omitting irrigation during tillering ( assuming that the crop is successfully established ), for the benefit of stem elongation. As far as stem elongation is concerned, a moderate water deficit of about 25% with respect to the full irrigation regime appears to increase crop water use efficiency.6 figs; 4 tabs; 15 refs (Author)

418

The Mainstream--Where Indians Drown.  

Science.gov (United States)

A proposed solution to "the Indian problem" of economic dependence and psychological crippling, in comparison with the tragedy of the white man's well meaning "common sense" approach to "Get them into the Mainstream", is geared to the Indian's traditional orientation. The 18-year history of the Bureau of Indian Affairs relocation program will be…

Archibald, Charles W., Jr.

419

Indian Education; Annual Report, 1968-1969.  

Science.gov (United States)

Information is provided on education for Montana Indian tribes during 1968-69. Indian students attending institutions of higher education through the aid of Federal funds are listed by name, and breakdowns of funds allocated by the Johnson O'Malley Act are given. Tables provide statistics on Indian enrollment, attendance, and graduates, as well as…

Montana State Dept. of Public Instruction, Helena.

420

Tecumseh. The Story of an American Indian.  

Science.gov (United States)

Tecumseh, famed for his skills as an orator, warrior, military strategist, and leader of his Shawnee people, has been called one of the great American leaders. In 1812 he assembled 3,000 warriors from 32 American Indian tribes in an effort to save the Indian lands from the onslaught of the white soldiers and settlers. It was the largest Indian

Schraff, Anne

 
 
 
 
421

American Indian Migration and Economic Opportunities.  

Science.gov (United States)

Explores the determinants of interstate migration and the impact of migration on labor force participation for American Indians, in comparison to White and intermarried Indian/White couples. Interstate migration was much lower for endogenous American Indian couples, but its effect on labor force participation was the same for all couples. (ETS)

Sandefur, Gary D.

1986-01-01

422

INDIAN SCENARIO OF M&AS  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The practice of mergers and acquisitions has attained considerable significance in the contemporary corporate scenario which is broadly used for reorganizing the business entities. Indian industries were exposed to plethora of challenges both nationally and internationally, since the introduction of Indian economic reforms in 1991. The cut-throat competition in international market compelled the Indian firms to opt for mergers and acquisitions str...

EKTA ARORA

2013-01-01

423

IMPACT OF GLOBALIZATION ON INDIAN CLASSICAL MUSIC  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This article is an attempt to present some recent developments of Indian classical music. The article is concentrated on globalization and its impacts on the Indian music. This includes musical migrations, adaptations, promotions, teaching system and usage of the technology in the Indian classical music.

Dundayya Pujer

2014-08-01

424

Moral Leadership in Education: An Indian Perspective.  

Science.gov (United States)

Discusses reasons for emergence of management concepts in Indian education. Reviews Western literature on leadership and offers an Indian perspective on leadership. Provides overview of the lives of three famous Indian leaders who demonstrated the essence of moral leadership: Swami Vivekananda, Rabindranath Tagore, and Mahatma Gandhi. Draws…

Sapre, Padmakar M.; Ranade, Mridula D.

2001-01-01

425

25 CFR 273.45 - Indian preference.  

Science.gov (United States)

...2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Indian preference. 273.45 Section 273.45 Indians...Contract Requirements § 273.45 Indian preference. (a) Any contract made by the...to the greatest extent feasible, give preference in and opportunities for...

2010-04-01

426

The Social Worker and the Indian Client.  

Science.gov (United States)

The 5-page information sheet presents a brief history and background information involving the social worker and the Indian client. Also provided are lists of differences in Indian and White cultural values and kinds of practices concerning interpersonal relationships common among the Indian people, and suggestions and techniques for use by social…

National Indian Child Abuse and Neglect Resource Center, Tulsa, OK.

427

25 CFR 170.912 - Does Indian employment preference apply to Federal-aid Highway Projects?  

Science.gov (United States)

... Section 170.912 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT...governments may provide an Indian employment preference for Indians living on or near a...recruiting efforts toward Indians living on or near Indian reservations,...

2010-04-01

428

24 CFR 1000.52 - What Indian preference requirements apply to IHBG procurement?  

Science.gov (United States)

...employment shall be given to Indians; and (ii) Preferences...subcontracts shall be given to Indian organizations and Indian-owned...any subcontracts to Indian organizations and Indian-owned economic enterprises...training and employment to Indians. (4) The...

2010-04-01

429

25 CFR 170.914 - What is the difference between tribal preference and Indian preference?  

Science.gov (United States)

...between tribal preference and Indian preference? 170.914 Section 170.914 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF...Indian preference? Indian preference is a hiring preference for Indians in general....

2010-04-01

430

25 CFR 163.40 - Indian and Alaska Native forestry education assistance.  

Science.gov (United States)

...Section 163.40 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT...trained, professional Indians and Alaska Natives in the management of Indian and Alaska Native...Alaska Natives and Indians who are employed by the Bureau of Indian Affairs, a...

2010-04-01

431

Indian Space Research Organisation (ISRO)  

Science.gov (United States)

Well known by remote sensing scientists around the world, the Indian Space Research Organisation (ISRO) maintains the Indian Remote Sensing Satellite (IRS), providing earth photos for environmental management and global research applications. ISRO has more than this to offer; its objectives include the development of launch vehicles, such as the Polar Satellite Launch Vehicle (PSLV) and the Geosynchronous Satellite Launch Vehicle (GSLV), as well as the development of sounding rockets and supporting ground systems. The homepage provides background information on ISRO's history, space programs and services, partnerships and international relationships. Visitors can find summaries in the Recent Events section; future missions and planned developments are highlighted in the Decade Plan section.

1969-12-31

432

Primary rhinoplasty: An Indian perspective  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The spectrum of indications for rhinoplasty in Indian patients is very wide. An ill-defined nose with lack of projection and broad osteocartilagenous framework is the commonest problem. A large number of patients require narrowing of the framework by osteotomies, alar wedge resection,and augmentation by a suitable fill, preferably a cartilage graft. The technique of rhinoplasty in Indian patients with special emphasis on cartilage grafting has been discussed here. Cartilage grafts, when used as a fill, produce soft, natural results.

Bhat Uday

2008-10-01

433

Satellite Communications: The Indian Scenario  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available India has launched as many as 73 Indian satellites as of today since its first attempt in 1975. Besides serving traditional markets of telephony and broadcasting, satellites are on the frontiers of advanced applications as telemedicine, distance learning, environment monitoring, remote sensing, and so on. Satellite systems are optimized for services such as Internet access, virtual private networks and personal access. Costs have been coming down in recent years to the point where satellite broadband is becoming competitive. This article is an attempt to view this important topic from Indian perspective. India’s Project GAGAN, GPS Aided Geo Augmented Navigation is discussed.

Dr. Ranjit Singh

2014-05-01

434

East Indians in the Caribbean  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available [First paragraph] Transients to Settlers: The Experience of Indians in Jamaica 1845-J950. VERENE SHEPHERD. Leeds, U.K.: Peepal Tree Books, 1993. 281 pp. (Paper £12.95 Survivors of Another Crossing: A History of East Indians in Trinidad, 1880-1946. MARIANNE D. SOARES RAMESAR. St. Augustine, Trinidad and Tobago: U.W.I. School of Continuing Education, 1994. xiii + 190 pp. (Paper n.p. Les Indes Antillaises: Presence et situation des communautes indiennes en milieu caribeen. ROGER TOUMSON (ed.. Paris: L'Harmattan, 1994. 264 pp. (Paper 140.00 FF Nation and Migration: The Politics of Space in the South Asian Diaspora. PETER VAN DER VEER (ed.. Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press, 1995. vi + 256 pp. (Cloth US$ 39.95, Paper US$ 17.95 In the decade since 1988, Caribbean nations with Indian communities have commemorated the 150th anniversary of the arrival of East Indians to the West Indies. These celebrations are part of local revitalization movements of Indian culture and identity stretching from the French departement of Guadeloupe in the Windward Islands to Trinidad and Guyana in the south. Political changes have mirrored the cultural revival in the region. While the debate so often in the past centered on the legitimacy of East Indian claims to local nationality in these societies where African or Creole cultures dominate, in the 1990s leaders of Indian descent were elected heads of government in the two Caribbean nations with the most populous East Indian communities: Cheddi Jagan as President of Guyana in October 1992 (after a 28-year hiatus and Basdeo Panday as Prime Minister of Trinidad in November 1995. Both men have long been associated with their respective countries' struggles for economic, political, and social equality. Outside the region during the summer of 1997, fiftieth-anniversary celebrations marking the independence of India and Pakistan from Britain confirmed that Indo chic — or "Indofrenzy" as anthropologist Arjun Appadurai calls it (Sengupta 1997:13 - has captured the American imagination with the new popularity of literature, art, and film emanating from India and its diaspora.

Ellen M. Schnepel

1999-07-01

435

The effect of sugar solution type, sugar concentration and viscosity on the imbibition and energy intake rate of bumblebees.  

Science.gov (United States)

Nectar is an essential resource for bumblebees and many other flower-visiting insects. The main constituents of nectar are sugars, which vary in both composition and concentration between plant species. We assessed the influence of sugar concentration, sugar solution viscosity and sugar solution composition on the imbibition and energy intake rate of bumblebees, Bombus impatiens Cresson (Hymenoptera: Apidae). To do this, we measured their rate of solution intake for 49 different sugar solution treatments, which varied in both sugar composition and concentration. In general, the imbibition rates of bumblebees were found to increase with increasing sugar concentration, probably due to their preference for high sugar concentrations, up to a concentration of 27% (w/w), at which point solutions reached a threshold viscosity of approximately 1.5-1.6 mPa.s. Above this threshold, the increasing viscosity of the solutions physically inhibited the imbibition rates of bees, and imbibition rate began to decrease as the concentration increased. Nevertheless, bumblebee energy intake rate increased with increasing concentration up to about 42-56%. Although we found that sugar solution composition had an impact on both imbibition and energy intake rate, its effect was not as straightforward as that of sugar concentration and viscosity. PMID:23831183

Nardone, Erika; Dey, Tania; Kevan, Peter G

2013-09-01

436

GOOD GOVERNANCE: INDIAN CONTEXT  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Good governance is an indeterminate term used in international development literature to describe how public institutions conduct public affairs and manage public resources. Governances "the process of decision-making and the process by which decisions are implemented or not implemented. The concept of "good governance centers around the responsibility of governments and governing bodies to meet the needs of the masses as opposed to select groups in society. As per the United Nation's Commission on Human Rights, the key attributes of good governance include transparency, responsibility, accountability, participation and responsiveness to the needs of the people. Good governance is thus linked to an enabling environment conducive to the enjoyment of Human Rights and promoting growth and sustainable human development. The expectation of every civil society by its Government is that it would fulfill its commitments and provide an equitable atmosphere contributing to individual's growth. Good governance is epitomized by predictable, open and enlightened policy-making, a bureaucracy imbued with professional culture acting in furtherance of the public good, the rule of law, transparent processes, and a strong civil society participating in public affairs. In Indian constitutional system, every person is entitled to equality before law and equal protection under the law. No person can be deprived of his life or personal liberty except according to the procedure established by law. At present our administration is not like this. In order to have proper administration the lack of confidence has to be removed by building up an image of helpful responsive administration. The bureaucracy has to be reoriented. There are many challenges to Good governance in India but criminalization of Politics and corruption as major challenges to good governance. The media can play the important role in Promoting Good Governance. First of all, the media must be independent and pluralistic. It is time we concentrated on the solutions, rather than identifying faults. Good governance is an ideal which is difficult to achieve in its totality. Very few countries and societies have come close to achieving good governance in its totality. However, to ensure sustainable human development, actions must be taken to work towards this ideal with the aim of making it a reality

S.P.CHAVAN

2013-05-01

437

A hexokinase with broad sugar specificity from a thermophilic bacterium.  

Science.gov (United States)

A recombinant thermophilic Thermus caldophilus GK24 hexokinase, one of the ROK-type (repressor protein, open reading frames, and sugar kinase) proteins, exists uniquely as a 120 kDa molecule with four subunits (31 kDa), in contrast to eukaryotic and bacterial sugar kinases which are monomers or dimers. The optimal temperature and pH for the enzyme reaction are 70-80 degrees C and 7.5, respectively. This enzyme shows broad specificity toward glucose, mannose, glucosamine, allose, 2-deoxyglucose, and fructose. To understand the sugar specificity at a structural level, the enzyme-ATP/Mg2+-sugar binding complex models have been constructed. It has been shown that the sugar specificity is probably dependent on the interaction energy occurred by the positional proximity of sugars bound in the active site of the enzyme, which exhibits a tolerance to modification at C2 or C3 of glucose. PMID:16053915

Bae, Jungdon; Kim, Dooil; Choi, Yongseok; Koh, Sukhoon; Park, Jung Eun; Su Kim, Joong; Moon, Seong Hoon; Park, Bo-Hyun; Park, Miri; Song, Hye-Eun; Hong, Suk-In; Lee, Dae-Sil

2005-09-01

438

Thermal stabilization of freeze-dried enzymes by sugars  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The thermal stabilization effect of sugars on freeze-dried proteins is studied, particularly the relation between stabilizing effect and the degree of sugar crystallinity. Three kinds of enzymes, alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH), lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), and malate dehydrogenase (MDH), were used as model proteins. Aqueous solutions of enzymes with sugars were freeze-dried and stored in dry air at 65degC. The stabilities of freeze-dried enzymes improve remarkably by addition of trehalose or raffinose. By measurement of X-ray diffractometry, the sugars are found to form fully amorphous matrix in freeze-dried samples. Furthermore, sucrose stabilizes enzymes to a great extent when it is amorphous in samples, though it shows little stabilizing effect when it is crystalline. These results indicate that the stabilizing effect of sugars closely relates to the amorphous matrix formed by the sugars. 15 refs., 3 figs., 1 tab.

Suzuki, T.; Imamura, K.; Yamamoto, K.; Satoh, T.; Okazaki, M. [Kyoto Univ., Kyoto (Japan). Department of Chemical Engineering

1997-08-01

439

On symmetry groups of Yang-Mills and self-dual Yang-Mills equations  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The problem is considered of finding groups of point transformations admissible by Yang-Mills equations as well as by some forms of self-dual Yang-Mills equations in four-dimensional Euclidean space. The explicit form of basic generators for such groups is found. With the use of the Noether theorem some conserved quantities are obtained

440

Sugar-Ester Nonionic Microemulsion: Structural Characterization.  

Science.gov (United States)

Surfactants containing sugar components and fatty acids satisfy the quality standards for food application. The food grade sugar ester in this study is a commercial sucrose monoester of stearic acid (abbreviated SES), the oil phase consists of a 1:1 mixture of n-tetradecane and l-butanol. The originally planned food grade oil, a medium chain triglyceride, is substituted by tetradecane because tetradecane is available as a fully deuterated product, which is necessary for some structural investigations. The investigated system is solid at room temperature, but liquefies and structures into a homogeneous microemulsion when heated to above 37 degrees C. The structural characterization of such microemulsions is the aim of this work. The established methods for this purpose are scattering methods, such as small-angle scattering of X-rays and neutrons and dynamic light scattering. These scattering techniques can be used to obtain valuable information on the size, shape, and internal structure of colloids and complex fluids. We started our investigation with the pseudobinary system SES, tetradecane and l-butanol, varying the SES content. The scattering results show that the sugar ester form inverse globular micelles in the oil phase. The size of these micelles is about 6 nm. While the size is nearly constant in a wide SES concentration regime (5 up to 40% surfactant), the volume or aggregation number increases significantly with SES. This is explained by an increasing replacement of l-butanol molecules by sugar-ester molecules in the micelles formed. Moreover, it can be shown that these micelles strongly overlap. Their center-to-center distance is about 3.8 nm at 40% SES at a micellar diameter of 6 nm. The micellar overlap leads to a highly reduced diffusion of the micelles as was found with dynamic light scattering. When incorporating water in the micellar core, the micelles swell up to about 10 nm and the shape of the aggregates becomes more and more elongated with higher water content. Copyright 2001 Academic Press. PMID:11502124

Glatter, Otto; Orthaber, Doris; Stradner, Anna; Scherf, Günther; Fanun, Monzer; Garti, Nissim; Clément, Véronique; Leser, Martin E.

2001-09-01