WorldWideScience
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77 FR 54607 - Proclaiming Certain Lands, Sugar Parcel Lands, as an Addition to the Bay Mills Indian Reservation...  

Science.gov (United States)

...DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR Bureau of Indian Affairs Proclaiming Certain Lands, Sugar Parcel Lands, as an Addition to the Bay Mills Indian Reservation for the Bay Mills Indian Community of Michigan AGENCY: Bureau...

2012-09-05

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Bioremediation of Sugar Mill Effluent Using a Bacteria Staphylococcus aureus  

OpenAIRE

Industrial pollution has been and continues to be a major factor causing the degradation of the environment around us, affecting the water we use, the air we breathe and the soil we live on. Among the various industries, sugar mill is one of the largest and most important agro based industries in India. The sugar industry is playing an important role in the economic development of the Indian sub continent, but the effluents released produce a high degree of organic pollution in both aquatic a...

Buvaneswari.S; Damodarkumar.S; Murugesan. S

2013-01-01

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Bioremediation of Sugar Mill Effluent Using a Bacteria Staphylococcus aureus  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Industrial pollution has been and continues to be a major factor causing the degradation of the environment around us, affecting the water we use, the air we breathe and the soil we live on. Among the various industries, sugar mill is one of the largest and most important agro based industries in India. The sugar industry is playing an important role in the economic development of the Indian sub continent, but the effluents released produce a high degree of organic pollution in both aquatic and terrestrial ecosystems. They also alter the physico-chemical characteristics of the receiving aquatic bodies and affect aquatic flora and fauna. Bioremediation of sugar-mill industrial effluents by microorganisms serves as an effective method to substitute the conventional recovery and removal process. In the present study, attempt has been made to isolate the native bacteria present in the sugar mill effluent collected from the Cheyyiar Co-operative Sugar Mills Ltd., Thiruvannamalai District and were tested for their individual bioremedial efficiency. The Staphylococcus aureus were capable of bringing about the bioremediation of Sugarmill effluent in the different concentration (Effluent different dilution+bacteria, (Effluent+different density of bacteria, (different pH of effluent+bacteria. It has been identified in terms of measuring their percentage of reduction potentials of parameters such as pH, EC, TDS, OD, BOD and COD. Maximum biodegrading potentials have been observed in the case of bacteria Staphylococcus aureus in all the different studies. i.e., pH(-52.77%, EC(24.47%, TDS(24.44%, BOD(70.32% and COD(64.28% amongst all. This result suggests that this can be recommended for treating various effluents.

Buvaneswari.S

2013-02-01

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21 CFR 173.320 - Chemicals for controlling microorganisms in cane-sugar and beet-sugar mills.  

Science.gov (United States)

... Chemicals for controlling microorganisms in cane-sugar and beet-sugar mills. 173.320 Section 173.320 Food and... Chemicals for controlling microorganisms in cane-sugar and beet-sugar mills. Agents for controlling...

2010-04-01

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Power generation from fuelwood by the Nicaraguan sugar mills  

OpenAIRE

With new concept development for the sugar industry and with new power market opportunities, two sugar mills in Nicaragua initiated projects aimed at becoming power plants during the sugar cane off-season. Basically the idea is to use more efficient boilers and turbines, and generate power beyond the mill's needs fueled by bagasse during the sugar cane crushing season ,and by fuelwood from eucalyptus plantations during the sugar cane off season. The surplus power in both season...

Carneiro Miranda, R.; Broek, R. Den

1997-01-01

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Valuation of a Mexican Sugar Mill and Driving Value Factors  

OpenAIRE

This paper includes the methodology used to construct a financial cash flow and perform a valuation using the discounted cash flow analysis for a hypothetical Mexican sugar mill. The objective is to incorporate to the valuation model the most significant variables that are relevant to the sugar production process as well as the operational and financial factors of a common sugar mill which are driven by the current legislation in terms of sugarcane pricing and labor costs. It also includes so...

Carlos Acosta Calzado

2011-01-01

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A methodological approach to sugar mill diversification and conversion  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Sugar industry diversification is complex, being constrained by biophysical and socioeconomic conditions. Ongoing work has shown the sugarcane industry’s potential as biorefinery or its sustainable use by offering products as raw material. However, few studies have studied how such potential could be achieved by promoting a conventional sugar mill through integrating its indicators for developing an efficient diversified processing plant which would contribute towards fossil energy saving and competitiveness. This paper presents a conceptual framework for analysis based on existing knowledge regarding sugar industry state-of-the-art for evaluating diversification, using analytical hierarchy process (AHP as a tool for analysing complex systems, identifying alternatives to the current situation and discussing them to facilitate collective decision-making. Sugar mill AHP scores enabled discussion about the variables most affecting sugar mill diversification (0.332 factory yield, 0.327 sugar mill products and 0.121 sugarcane quality. The results serve as a useful guidance for formulating strategies for the optimum use of by-products in a sugar mill while maximising benefits to modify/convert a traditional sugar mill to a so-called bio-refinery.

Noé Aguilar Rivera

2012-03-01

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Valuation of a Mexican Sugar Mill and Driving Value Factors  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This paper includes the methodology used to construct a financial cash flow and perform a valuation using the discounted cash flow analysis for a hypothetical Mexican sugar mill. The objective is to incorporate to the valuation model the most significant variables that are relevant to the sugar production process as well as the operational and financial factors of a common sugar mill which are driven by the current legislation in terms of sugarcane pricing and labor costs. It also includes some macroeconomic variables that determine price for sugar, long term costs and the discount rates. With the financial model determined, we use Monte Carlo simulation in order to obtain a probabilistic distribution for the value of the sugar mill and finally we perform a sensitivity analysis to obtain the main variables that affect the resulting enterprise value. The model is constructed on data available for three sugar mills, but the cost structure will not change among other sugar mills, due to regulation and local market conditions; however, the model could be used for any mill by substituting the variables for each case.

Carlos Acosta Calzado

2011-01-01

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A methodological approach to sugar mill diversification and conversion  

OpenAIRE

Sugar industry diversification is complex, being constrained by biophysical and socioeconomic conditions. Ongoing work has shown the sugarcane industry’s potential as biorefinery or its sustainable use by offering products as raw material. However, few studies have studied how such potential could be achieved by promoting a conventional sugar mill through integrating its indicators for developing an efficient diversified processing plant which would contribute towards fossil energy saving a...

Noé Aguilar Rivera; María Guadalupe Galindo Mendoza; Carlos Contreras Servín; Javier Fortanelli Martínez

2012-01-01

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Power Factor Improvement in a Sugar Mill: An Analysis  

OpenAIRE

To reduce losses in the distribution system, and toreduce the electricity bill, power factor correction, usually in theform of capacitors, is added to neutralize as much of themagnetizing current as possible..To improve the power factor insugar mill, it is required to install the capacitors of requiredcapacitor ratings as near to the load as possible. This paperreports a case of sugar mill where the induction motors having apower factor of 0.8 has a potential to improve the power factor to0.9...

Neena Malhotra; Shivani Sehgal

2012-01-01

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Corporate Governance of Sugar Mills in East Java: A Transaction Cost Economics Perspective  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Despite Indonesia?s overall achievements during the past two decades%2C the economy is encountering a series of problems. One of the biggest challenges is the unsatisfactory performance of the state-owned enterprises (SOEs. Subsidisies and uncovered loans to the SOEs have drained the government?s fiscal resources%2C and the signing off of employees creates many social problems. Compared with the SOEs in other sectors%2C state-owned sugar mills face more serious crises which not only jeopardise the social fabric%2C but also endanger the production. Research results strengthen the statement that the basic problem in sugar mills is management inefficiency resulting in high transaction costs. This research compares the transaction costs between state-owned (Ngadiredjo and privately-owned (Kebon Agung sugar mills. The study shows that in Kebon Agung Sugar Mill transaction costs are higher than production costs%2C while in Ngadiredjo Sugar Mill the reverse is true. However%2C the high transaction costs in Kebon Agung Sugar Mill cannot be attributed directly to inefficient institutions%2C because Ngadiredjo Sugar Mill incurred high costs for plants%2C land preparation%2C and fertilizer%2C which decreased the proportion of transaction costs. If analyzed in detail%2C the following facts are revealed: (i market transaction costs in Kebon Agung Sugar Mill are higher than in Ngadiredjo Sugar Mill. This is because Kebon Agung Sugar Mill has established cooperation with sugarcane farmers in the form of extensions and transport subsidies; and (ii the political transaction costs proportion in Ngadiredjo Sugar Mill is higher than in Kebon Agung Sugar Mill because of the imposition of many ?illegal? fees. Abstract in Bahasa Indonesia : transaction cost economics%2C corporate governance%2C sugar mill%2C East Java.

Ahmad Erani Yustika

2007-01-01

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Ergonomic design applied in a sugar mill interface  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Argentina | Language: English Abstract in english In tasks requiring human supervision in an industrial control room there are applied generic disciplines like automatic control and engineering systems. From the point of view of the human computer interaction applied to these disciplines it is necessary to add usability engineering and cognitive er [...] gonomics. This integrated framework is an example of human-centred design on automation systems. The main goal of this work is the application of a cognitive ergonomic guideline for supervisory control in order to improve the efficiency of a sugar mill interface design.

P., Ponsa; B., Amante; M., Díaz.

2010-03-01

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Bagasse and green waste cogen plant, Rocky Point Sugar Mill, Australia  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Bagasse - the fibrous product left over after the extraction of sugar from sugar cane - has enormous potential as a renewable source of fuel, particularly as it is already collected and transported to central plants for processing. It is already used as fuel for cogeneration plants, for example at the Rocky Point Sugar Mill, Australia, where it is co-fired with 'municipal green waste'. (author)

Sims, R.E.H. [Massey University (New Zealand)

2002-02-01

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Pyrolysis and thermal oxidation kinetics of sugar mill press mud  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Press mud, a solid waste obtained from the sugar mills, has the potential of energy generation through pyrolysis and gasification. The paper reports its proximate and ultimate analyses, deformation and fusion ash temperatures, lower and higher heating values, physico-chemical and thermal degradation in nitrogen and air atmospheres. The thermal degradation was conducted in a thermogravimetric analyzer from room temperature to 900 deg C at heating rates of 20 and 40 K min-1. The thermogravimetric, derivative thermogravimetric and differential thermal analyses were carried out to determine the rate of volatiles evolution, the effect of heating rates on the thermal degradation characteristics and to determine the global mass loss kinetics of thermal degradation. The thermal degradation was found to occur in several distinct phases: each phase giving volatile evolution in an independent parallel lump. Each decomposition phase was modeled by a single irreversible reaction with respect to the solid mass. Global mass loss kinetics was also determined for the entire decomposition process, as if occurring in one single step. The integral and differential techniques were used for the determination of kinetic parameters. Using the method of Agrawal and Sivasubramanian [R.K. Agrawal, M.S. Sivasubramanian, AIChE J. 33 (1987) 7] for the total degradation zone, the orders of reaction were found in the range of 1.00-2.50 in both the atmospheres (i.e. nitrogen and air) and t atmospheres (i.e. nitrogen and air) and the activation energy in the range of 27.84-33.44 and 57.41-88.92 kJ mol-1 in nitrogen and air, respectively. The pre-exponential factor was found in the range of 32.1-95.1 and 5.10 x 104 to 5.46 x 109 min-1 in nitrogen and air atmospheres, respectively

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Use of gamma radiation in the sugar mills crystallization process control  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The technical feasibility of applying the gamma-ray transmission method to the control of the saccharose crystallization process at sugar mills was investigated. Attenuation measurements using a Cs-137 gamma beam showed that the transmission factor depends on the solid phase concentration of saccharose solutions in a very definite manner. Furthermore, temperature and purity of the solutions showed no significant influence on this attenuation behaviour. Therefore, measurements of the transmission factor can be used to implement a continuous control of the saccharose crystallization process on a industrial scale in sugar mills. (author). 7 refs, 3 figs, 4 tabs

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Generation of Electricity Using Sugar mill Waste Water by Microbial Fuel Cell  

OpenAIRE

The application of microbial fuel cell (MFC) for electricity generation has been developing recently. This research explores the application of single chamber MFC in generating electricity using sugar wastewater.The different concentration of wastewater has been performed. The maximum current, voltage, BOD, COD ,pH and TDS obtained with respect to time. MFC of sugar mill wastewater showed removal efficiency 69.3% COD, 68.1% BOD and 56.35% TDS with different feed concentration....

Doddamani, Kavyashree R.

2014-01-01

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Analysis and Physico-Chemical Parameters of Sarvar Devla Sugar Mill Studies of Effluents  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The physico-chemical characteristics contents in the effluents discharged from Neoly sugar mill have been explored. The physico-chemical parameters such as colour, odour, temperature, pH, electrical conductivity, COD, BOD, alkalinity, total hardness,Ca+2, Mg+2, chloride, of the effluent collected from the various sites between the exit point at the mill and discharge point In, have been determined.

R. K. Pathak

2012-12-01

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Analysis and Physico-Chemical Parameters of Sarvar Devla Sugar Mill Studies of Effluents  

OpenAIRE

The physico-chemical characteristics contents in the effluents discharged from Neoly sugar mill have been explored. The physico-chemical parameters such as colour, odour, temperature, pH, electrical conductivity, COD, BOD, alkalinity, total hardness,Ca+2, Mg+2, chloride, of the effluent collected from the various sites between the exit point at the mill and discharge point In, have been determined.

Pathak, R. K.; Janeshwar Yadav

2012-01-01

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Operations improvement of the recycling water-cooling systems of sugar mills  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Water management in sugar factories doesn’t have analogues in its complexity among food industry enterprises. Water intensity of sugar production is very high. Circulation water, condensed water, pulp press water and others are used in technological processes. Water plays the main role in physical, chemical, thermotechnical processes of beet processing and sugar production. As a consequence of accession of Russia to the WTO the technical requirements for production processes are changing. The enforcements of ecological services to balance scheme of water consumption and water disposal increased. The reduction of fresh water expenditure is one of the main tasks in economy of sugar industry. The substantial role in fresh water expenditure is played by efficiency of cooling and aeration processes of conditionally clean waters of the 1st category. The article contains an observation of the technologies of the available solutions and recommendations for improving and upgrading the existing recycling water-cooling systems of sugar mills. The authors present the block diagram of the water sector of a sugar mill and a method of calculating the optimal constructive and technological parameters of cooling devices. Water cooling towers enhanced design and upgrades are offered.

Shcherbakov Vladimir Ivanovich

20

Generation of Electricity Using Sugar mill Waste Water by Microbial Fuel Cell  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The application of microbial fuel cell (MFC for electricity generation has been developing recently. This research explores the application of single chamber MFC in generating electricity using sugar wastewater.The different concentration of wastewater has been performed. The maximum current, voltage, BOD, COD ,pH and TDS obtained with respect to time. MFC of sugar mill wastewater showed removal efficiency 69.3% COD, 68.1% BOD and 56.35% TDS with different feed concentration. The current, voltage and power generation in the reactor is 1.28 mA, 0.9 V and 0.304 watts/m2 respectively.

Kavyashree.R.Doddamani

2014-10-01

21

Environmental impact assessment: a case study of M/S Mirpurkhas sugar mills  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Sugar Mills effluent and their effects on the surface and groundwater quality in the vicinity of Mirpurkhas Sugar Mills have been studied during the period from November 04 to February 05. The results obtained from the analysis of samples collected from factory and effluent channel indicates that all values of effluent parameters BOD/sub 5/, COD, TSS, and Oil and Grease are higher than the value recommended in NEQS. The values of physico-chemical parameters of groundwater samples (Ca, Mg, Na, HCO/sub 3/, Cl, SO/sub 4/) also shows variation in results with comparison to mill distance, but still found within the limit of WHO standards. During the environmental survey of adjacent villages, it was also observed that the local environment and quality of water is adversely being affected by mill effluent. This is obvious from samples of effluent and the comparison of results of samples of groundwater supplies taken from various locations. Therefore, it is strongly recommended that the material thrown as effluent must be treated before disposed off into channels and people must be informed about the adverse effects of effluent upon the groundwater quality. (author)

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PREDICTION OF SUGAR-SNAP COOKIE DIAMETER USING SUCROSE SOLVENT RETENTION CAPACITY, KERNEL TEXTURE, AND PROTEIN CONTENT FOR FLOURS PRODUCED USING THREE LABORATORY MILLING SYSTEMS  

Science.gov (United States)

Wheat kernel texture determined during milling, sucrose solvent retention capacity, and protein content for soft wheat flours best predicted sugar-snap cookie diameter. A total of 507 wheats were milled using three laboratory milling systems (short, medium and long mill flow). Prediction equations...

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Culture of the microalga chlorella vulgaris on different proportions of sugar mill effluents  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Chlarella vulgaris was cultured in four different dilutions of sugar mill effluent media (SMEM). Bold's basal medium (BBM) was used as the control under laboratory conditions. Maximum cell growth and chlorophyll-a content were obtained on 10th day of the culture in 50% diluted SMEM, followed by those grown in BBM, and 75, 25 and 100% SMEM at stationary phase. The specific growth rate (mu g/day) of cells and chlorophyll-a of C. vulgaris grown in 50% SMEM varied significantly (p < 0.0 I) from those of C. vulgaris cultured in BBM, followed by other SMEM concentrations. Total biomass of C. vulgaris. cultured in 50% SMEM, was found to be significantly higher (p < 0.0 I) than that of C. vulgaris cultured in BBM, and 25, 75 and 100% SMEM concentrations. Similar trend was also observed in the case of optical density. Cell number and chlorophyll-a of C. vulgaris were highly (p < 0.01) and directly correlated with chlorophyll-a (r2 = 0.991) of C. vulgaris and optical density (r2 = 0.989) for the culture media containing C. vulgaris, respectively. Crude proteins and crude lipids of C. vulgaris. grown in 50% SMEM, were significantly (p < 0.01) higher than those of C. vulgaris cultured in other SMEM concentrations. Due to good growth performance exhibited in the 50% SMEM dilution, the sugar mill effluent may be used for efficient cultivation of C. vulgaris and possibly other micro algae. (author)

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Studies of VA-Mycorrhizal fungi associated with some weed plants in sugar mill effluent soils.  

Science.gov (United States)

This study is to isolate the effluent strain of VAM fungi from polluted soils of sugar mill effluents. Analysis showed that pH and EC was more but the organic matter is less when compared to non-polluted soils. Even though there was low P content that enhances the mycorrhizal infection, the percent of root colonization was less than 75% in polluted study site. The number of VAM propagules and its distribution were also greatly affected due to various factors. Nine different VAM species were isolated and identified from the polluted study site. Using Allium cepa L. as the host plant the efficiency of the native effluent tolerant strains of VAM fungi isolated from the polluted study site was determined. Highest growth rate, high dry weight of gram per plant and increased growth was observed in the order of Glomus intraradices followed by Gigaspora margarita and Glomus fasciculatum. Consequence of the study clearly showed that Glomus intraradices was the efficient strain in sugar mill effluent polluted areas. PMID:16459556

Vani, K; Kumar, G Sampath; Selvaraj, T

2005-10-01

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A STUDY ON FRINGE BENEFITS PROVIDED BY SALEM CO-OPERATIVE SUGAR MILL LIMITED, NAMAKKAL  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The topic of the paper is “Fringe Benefits” and it’s Impact on ‘Employee behavior’, It brings out the behavioral aspect of the employees working in “Salem Co-operative Sugar Mill Ltd, Namakkal”. The main objective of the study is to find the overall performance of the Employees.The research design I used this study is descriptive research design . Data from 80 people collected as population study, Data was collected by survey method through structured questionnaire and secondary data from the company records and through questionnaire and secondary data from the company records and through internet. The purpose of the survey process is to provide a more accurate assessment of the existing culture from the employee’s point of view and also to assess their behaviors with respect to that of the exiting culture.

J. Senthil Velmurugan

2015-03-01

26

A methodological approach to sugar mill diversification and conversion / Enfoque metodológico de diversificación y reconversión de ingenios azucareros  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Colombia | Language: English Abstract in spanish La diversificación de la industria azucarera es compleja y se ve limitada por condiciones biofísicas y socioeconómicas. Muchos trabajos han demostrado su potencial como biorrefinería y la utilización sostenible de los subproductos como materia prima. Sin embargo, pocos estudios se ha focalizado a tr [...] avés de la integración de indicadores productivos de un ingenio azucarero y cómo este potencial podría lograr transformar un ingenio azucarero convencional en una eficiente planta diversificada que contribuya a reducir el consumo de energía fósil y alcanzar la competitividad. Este trabajo presenta un marco de análisis o metodología basada en el conocimiento existente sobre la industria azucarera o el estado del arte, con la finalidad de evaluar la diversificación mediante el proceso de jerarquías analíticas (AHP) como una herramienta adecuada para el análisis de sistemas complejos, la identificación de alternativas y su discusión de manera que facilite la toma de decisiones colectivas. El análisis AHP obtenido en este estudio ofrece una discusión acerca de las variables que explican la capacidad para diversificar los procesos en un ingenio azucarero (rendimiento de fábrica: 0.332, productos derivados del ingenio azucarero: 0.327 y calidad de materia prima o caña de azúcar: 0.121). Los resultados obtenidos sirven de guía en la formulación de estrategias para la utilización óptima de los recursos derivados de un ingenio azucarero, mientras que la maximización de sus beneficios, para diversificar o reconvertir ingenios azucareros en biorrefinerías. Abstract in english Sugar industry diversification is complex, being constrained by biophysical and socioeconomic conditions. Ongoing work has shown the sugarcane industry's potential as biorefinery or its sustainable use by offering products as raw material. However, few studies have studied how such potential could b [...] e achieved by promoting a conventional sugar mill through integrating its indicators for developing an efficient diversified processing plant which would contribute towards fossil energy saving and competitiveness. This paper presents a conceptual framework for analysis based on existing knowledge regarding sugar industry state-of-the-art for evaluating diversification, using analytical hierarchy process (AHP) as a tool for analysing complex systems, identifying alternatives to the current situation and discussing them to facilitate collective decision-making. Sugar mill AHP scores enabled discussion about the variables most affecting sugar mill diversification (0.332 factory yield, 0.327 sugar mill products and 0.121 sugarcane quality). The results serve as a useful guidance for formulating strategies for the optimum use of by-products in a sugar mill while maximising bene-fits to modify/convert a traditional sugar mill to a so-called bio-refinery.

N, Aguilar; G, Galindo; C, Contreras; J, Fortanelli.

2012-08-01

27

Energy Efficiency Feasibility Study and Resulting Plan for the Bay Mills Indian Community  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

In 2011 the Inter-Tribal Council of Michigan, Inc. was awarded an Energy Efficiency Development and Deployment in Indian Country grant from the U.S. Department of Energy’s Tribal Energy Program. This grant aimed to study select Bay Mills Indian Community community/government buildings to determine what is required to reduce each building’s energy consumption by 30%. The Bay Mills Indian Community (BMIC) buildings with the largest expected energy use were selected for this study and included the Bay Mills Ellen Marshall Health Center building, Bay Mills Indian Community Administration Building, Bay Mills Community College main campus, Bay Mills Charter School and the Waishkey Community Center buildings. These five sites are the largest energy consuming Community buildings and comprised the study area of this project titled “Energy Efficiency Feasibility Study and Resulting Plan for the Bay Mills Indian Community”. The end objective of this study, plan and the Tribe is to reduce the energy consumption at the Community’s most energy intensive buildings that will, in turn, reduce emissions at the source of energy production, reduce energy expenditures, create long lasting energy conscious practices and positively affect the quality of the natural environment. This project’s feasibility study and resulting plan is intended to act as a guide to the Community’s first step towards planned energy management within its buildings/facilities. It aims to reduce energy consumption by 30% or greater within the subject facilities with an emphasis on energy conservation and efficiency. The energy audits and related power consumption analyses conducted for this study revealed numerous significant energy conservation and efficiency opportunities for all of the subject sites/buildings. In addition, many of the energy conservation measures require no cost and serve to help balance other measures requiring capital investment. Reoccurring deficiencies relating to heating, cooling, thermostat setting inefficiencies, powering computers, lighting, items linked to weatherization and numerous other items were encountered that can be mitigated with the energy conservation measures developed and specified during the course of this project.

Kushman, Chris

2014-02-03

28

Anhydrous ethanol production in sugar mills; Produccion de etanol anhidro en ingenios azucareros  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The anhydrous ethanol production is recent and limited, because the disadvantage of the renewable energies is the economic impossibility of the projects. Nevertheless, there are aspects to consider to achieve the anhydrous ethanol production, among which are: the cost of the raw material, the self-sufficiency of energy from the sugar cane bagasse without the need of oil burning, the larger size of the distilleries, incorporation of the Cogeneration with delivery of electricity to the public network in the sugar mill facilities, the introduction of the biotechnology to improve the processes of fermentation and subsidies to agriculture. [Spanish] La produccion de etanol anhidro es reciente y limitada, debido a que la desventaja de las energias renovables es la inviabilidad economica de los proyectos. Sin embargo hay aspectos a considerar para lograr la produccion de etanol anhidro, entre los cuales estan: el costo de la materia prima, la autosuficiencia energetica a partir del bagazo de la cana sin necesidad de petroleo, mayor tamano de las destilerias, incorporacion de la Cogeneracion con entrega de electricidad a la red publica en el ingenio, la introduccion de la biotecnologia para mejorar los procesos de fermentacion y subsidios a la agricultura.

Enriquez Poy, Manuel. E-mail:poymanuel@prodigy.net.mx

2007-04-15

29

77 FR 54607 - Proclaiming Certain Lands, Dafter Parcel, as an Addition to the Bay Mills Indian Reservation for...  

Science.gov (United States)

...Bureau of Indian Affairs Proclaiming Certain Lands, Dafter Parcel, as an Addition to the Bay Mills Indian Reservation for the...Reservation Township of Dafter, Chippewa County, Michigan A parcel of land located in the South \\1/2\\ of Section 15,...

2012-09-05

30

Techno-economic assessment of integrating methanol or Fischer-Tropsch synthesis in a South African sugar mill.  

Science.gov (United States)

This study considered an average-sized sugar mill in South Africa that crushes 300 wet tonnes per hour of cane, as a host for integrating methanol and Fischer-Tropsch synthesis, through gasification of a combined flow of sugarcane trash and bagasse. Initially, it was shown that the conversion of biomass to syngas is preferably done by catalytic allothermal gasification instead of catalytic autothermal gasification. Thereafter, conventional and advanced synthesis routes for both Methanol and Fischer-Tropsch products were simulated with Aspen Plus® software and compared by technical and economic feasibility. Advanced FT synthesis satisfied the overall energy demands, but was not economically viable for a private investment. Advanced methanol synthesis is also not viable for private investment since the internal rate of return was 21.1%, because it could not provide the steam that the sugar mill required. The conventional synthesis routes had less viability than the corresponding advanced synthesis routes. PMID:25727762

Petersen, Abdul M; Farzad, Somayeh; Görgens, Johann F

2015-05-01

31

Detection of Phytoplasma on Indian Fig (Opuntia ficus-indica Mill in Mexico Central Region  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Problem statement: The Indian fig (a species of prickly pear cactus, has been known as Nopal, comprises an approximate area of 100,000 ha, in plantations used for human consumption. ?Pyramids? Indian fig area located in the northeastern State of Mexico has been an important Indian-fig area in the country, with 15810 ha, where a phytoplasma has been consistently present in symptomatic plant. Approach: An unknown symptomatology in the Indian fig (prickly pear cactus (Opuntia ficus-indica Mill was analyzed through grafting and a nested-PCR reaction and graft on healthy plants grown in a greenhouse. Results: The symptoms found, deforming, buds proliferation, thickening and heart-shaping in cladodes, with arrested plant growth and deep yellowing of cladodes, were all attributed to the presence of a phytoplasma given the amplification of a 1200 pb fragment of the 16S rRNA gene using primers R16 F2/R2 and R16F2n/R2 and 80% of phytoplasma transmission efficiency of successful grafts. Conclusion: Although the symptoms observed did not completely match those described for this organism in the region, a 1200 pb fragment was amplified and PCR products restriction analysis leading us to assume that the phytoplasma corresponds to subgroup 16Srll, previously reported for other crops in others world regions.

Ricardo Gaspar

2009-01-01

32

Performance Enhancement of Sugar Mill by Alternate Cooling System for Condenser  

OpenAIRE

Agro industry plays a crucial role in the industrialization process of developing countries. Sugar industry is second largest agro industry in the world. In sugar manufacturing plants there are various processes for production of sugar i.e. extraction of juice, clarification, evaporation, concentration of juice, forming and separating crystals etc. These processes consumed energies in the form of mechanical energy, electrical energy and heat energy. So there are various source...

Paras Chouhan

2014-01-01

33

Ferti-irrigational impact of sugar mill effluent on agronomical characteristics of Phaseolus vulgaris (L.) in two seasons.  

Science.gov (United States)

Ferti-irrigation response of 5, 10, 25, 50, 75, and 100 % concentrations of the sugar mill effluent (SME) on French bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L., cv. Annapurna) in the rainy and summer seasons was investigated. The fertigant concentrations produced significant (P? Cr > Zn > Mn > Cu for soil and Mn > Zn > Cu > Cr > Cd for P. vulgaris in both seasons after fertigation with SME. Therefore, the SME can be used to improve the soil fertility and yield of P. vulgaris after appropriate dilution. PMID:25103211

Kumar, Vinod; Chopra, A K

2014-11-01

34

Sugar composition and FT-IR analysis of exopolysaccharides produced by microbial isolates from paper mill slime deposits.  

Science.gov (United States)

Thirty exopolysaccharides (EPS) produced by bacteria isolated from biofilms or slimelayers from different paper and board mills in Finland, France and Spain were subjected to size exclusion chromatography and sugar compositional analysis. High performance size exclusion chromatography (HPSEC) analysis revealed that some samples were composed of several molecular weight populations. These samples were fractionated by size exclusion chromatography and pooled accordingly. Principal components analysis (PCA) of the sugar compositions of the different pools indicated the presence of glucans and mannans caused by insufficient removal of the carbon or nitrogen source (yeast extract) from the bacteria growth medium leading to an overestimation of the glucose and mannose level in the sample, respectively. From the point of view of slime problems the EPS populations are the most important for multivariate analysis. Four groups of EPSs have been recognized by PCA analysis: a group of EPSs produced by Enterobacter and related genera similar to the regularly reported colanic acid; a group of Methylobacterium EPSs having high galactose and pyruvate levels and two groups that showed less dense clusters produced by Bacillus and related genera, showing high mannose and/or glucose levels and Klebsiella EPSs that showed galactose with rhamnose as major characteristic sugar moieties. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR) of the same samples followed by discriminant partial least squares regression (DPLS) and linear discriminant analysis (LDA) showed that, when used with a well-defined training set, FT-IR could be used clustering instead of time-consuming sugar composition analysis. The Enterobacter and Methylobacetrium EPS groups could be recognized clearly. However the fact that this could hardly be done for the other two groups in the dataset indicates the importance of a larger and well-defined training or calibration set. The potential to use FT-IR, as a tool for pattern recognition and clustering with respect to EPS structures produced by micro organisms isolated from a paper mill environment is discussed. PMID:15889397

Verhoef, René; Schols, Henk A; Blanco, Angeles; Siika-aho, Matti; Rättö, Marjaana; Buchert, Johanna; Lenon, Gilles; Voragen, Alphons G J

2005-07-01

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Engenho sim, de açúcar não o engenho de farinha de Frans Post / Mills for manioc, not for sugar cane Frans Post's manioc mill  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese O capítulo toma um recém-lançado catálogo das obras completas de Frans Post para pensar o processamento da cana-de-açúcar e da mandioca no Brasil colonial. O pintor holandês do século XVII viveu no Brasil de 1637 a 1644, durante a ocupação holandesa e deixou uma rica coleção de óleos e desenhos, a m [...] aior parte deles representando paisagens do Nordeste, em particular engenhos de açúcar e grandes propriedades rurais. O texto se apóia em fontes escritas de época para demonstrar como as telas de Post podem nos levar a uma interessante análise sobre a produção e o consumo da farinha de mandioca e do açúcar na primeira metade do século XVII. Abstract in english The chapter takes a recently launched catalogue with the complete works by Frans Post to argue about the technology for processing sugar and manioc in colonial Brazil. The seventeenth century Dutch painter lived in Brazil from 1637 to 1644, during the Dutch occupation of Pernambuco, and left a rich [...] collection of paintings and sketches most of them representing the Northeastern landscape, in particular sugar mills and non-identified plantations. The paper relies also on contemporary written sources to demonstrate how Post canvas can leads us tointeresting analysis about the production and uses of manioc meal and sugar during the first half of seventeenth century.

Mariza de Carvalho, Soares.

2009-06-01

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Performance Enhancement of Sugar Mill by Alternate Cooling System for Condenser  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Agro industry plays a crucial role in the industrialization process of developing countries. Sugar industry is second largest agro industry in the world. In sugar manufacturing plants there are various processes for production of sugar i.e. extraction of juice, clarification, evaporation, concentration of juice, forming and separating crystals etc. These processes consumed energies in the form of mechanical energy, electrical energy and heat energy. So there are various sources of waste heat in sugar factory i.e. waste heat from hot flue gasses, hot water from evaporative body and boiler blow down. The large amount of waste heat passes from various devices of sugar factory causes decrease in the efficiency of sugar plants, and also increase the “Global Warming” which is very dangerous for our environment. The present cooling system for condenser is inappropriate & hence decrease vacuum in evaporators and pans. This will increase the boiling point temperature of juice. The proposed cooling system gives solution of both problems. The most important source of waste heat i.e. hot flue gases are use to run absorption chiller. The absorption chiller gives better cooling system for condenser. There will be improvement in condensation of vapour in condenser which will cause increase vacuum in evaporators and pans thereby reducing boiling point temperature of juice. This reduced boiling point temperature of juice requires less amount of steam for boiling, ultimately saving of bagasse and fuel economy can be attained. Thus this arrangement can be treated as the efficient method of utilization of waste heat for cooling condenser water in sugar factory thus saving further depletion of natural resources like coal, petroleum or else increasing its availability to other important processes and one can hope that the “waste heat recovery” may play an even greater role in the industrial development in this new millennium.

Paras Chouhan

2014-09-01

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High-Efficiency Carbohydrate Fermentation to Ethanol at Temperatures above 40°C by Kluyveromyces marxianus var. marxianus Isolated from Sugar Mills  

OpenAIRE

A number of yeast strains, isolated from sugar cane mills and identified as strains of Kluyveromyces marxianus var. marxianus, were examined for their ability to ferment glucose and cane syrup to ethanol at high temperatures. Several strains were capable of rapid fermentation at temperatures up to 47°C. At 43°C, >6% (wt/vol) ethanol was produced after 12 to 14 h of fermentation, concurrent with retention of high cell viability (>80%). Although the type strain (CBS 712) of K. marxianus var. ...

Anderson, P. J.; Mcneil, K.; Watson, K.

1986-01-01

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Evaluation of Anaerobic Fluidized Bed Reactor for treating Sugar mill effluent - a Case Study  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Anaerobic treatment processes are credible options for providing sustainable treatment to biodegradable waste streams. The Anaerobic Fluidized Bed Reactor (AFBR is an evolving process that requires waste specific design methodologies based on kinetics of the specific process. The research was precisely an experimental study on AFBR having23.56 litres of effective volume to evaluate its treatment performance and gas recovery in terms of Chemical Oxygen Demand (COD, Hydraulic Retention Time(HRTand Organic Loading Rate (OLR. The synthetic sugar influent COD was variedfrom 1500 to 4000 mg/lit. The OLR for the operating flow rates were ranged from 1.36 to 28.8 Kg COD/m3 .day for HRT varied from 3.2 to 24 hrs. The maximum COD removal efficiency is 90.06 at an operating OLR of 3.42 Kg COD/m3 .day. The maximum biogas yield was observed at 0.28 m 3 /kg COD removed.

R. Mathiyazhagan

2014-07-01

39

Survey of Indian issues in the state of New Mexico relating to uranium mining and milling  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

(Estimates of Indian uranium resources range from 11 to 50% of the US total resources. About 17% of New Mexico's reserves are known to be on Indian lands. New Mexico has produced almost half of the nation's uranium supply; over half of the known reserves are located within the state. However, the state has virtually no jurisdiction over development of Indian uranium. As a result, economic and environmental impacts on the state are beyond its control. The lack of state and federal control over these impacts is influencing how the Indians federal control over these impacts is influencing how the Indians allow development to proceed. The impacts of Indian uranium development also influence state control of non-Indian uranium development also influence state control of non-Indian reserves. To the extent that these controls affect the availability of uranium concentrate, DOE needs to understand the issues involved. This issue paper identifies some of the related problems for both the Indians and the state and explores the reasons behind them.

Vandevender, S.G.; Barsumian, L.; Gurbaxani, S.H.

1979-11-01

40

Sugar Sugar  

Science.gov (United States)

This interactive Java applet is a game that challenges a student to solve problems by using logic and rudimentary engineering skills. The goal in each case is to create a conveyance that gets the required amount of sugar to pour into a mug or mugs. The game has 30 stages of increasing complexity.

Bart Bonte

2012-01-01

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Prevención, minimización y control de la contaminación ambiental en un ingenio azucarero de México / Prevention, Minimization and Control of Environmental Pollution at Mexico Sugar Mill  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Mexico | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish La meta de esta investigación es recomendar medidas de prevención, minimización y control de la contaminación ambiental, que permitan mejorar la gestión ambiental de la Industria Azucarera de México, que permanece suspendida por la necesidad de resolver problemas económicos, sociales y tecnológicos [...] por los que ha atravesado. Para conocer el proceso productivo, la problemática real a la que se enfrenta actualmente la industria y con el objeto de hacer propuestas viables de mejora se eligió un ingenio como caso de estudio. El trabajo realizado en este ingenio caso de estudio fue la evaluación integral del proceso productivo, considerando las actividades tanto en el campo cañero como el ingenio para la implementación de medidas de prevención, minimización y control de la contaminación ambiental. Este trabajo permitió el ahorro en el consumo de agua de extracción de 3,620 metros cúbicos promedio por día en el periodo de estudio, una disminución en la generación de residuos sólidos de 325 kilogramos promedio diario por la implementación de un programa de separación de residuos y la disminución de emisiones a la atmósfera de partículas por la instalación de una caldera 100% bagacera. Las medidas de prevención, minimización y control de la contaminación ambiental resultantes de este estudio pueden aplicarse a otros ingenios del país con sus respectivas adaptaciones. Abstract in english This research paper aims to recommend control measures directed towards preventing and minimizing pollution, looking forward to the improvement of the environmental management on the sugar industry in Mexico. This issue has been put on hold due to the necessity to address the economic, social and te [...] chnological issues affecting it over time. In order to better understand the productive process and the actual problem that the industry is facing, while proposing effective and possible actions for improvement, a sugar mill type was selected as a case of study. A comprehensive assessment of the production process for the standard sugar was made, considering the activities in the field and at the mill. The proposed measures in the sugar mill allowed savings in consumption of ground water average 3,620 cubic meters per day, during the period of study, reduction in solid waste generated average 325 kilograms per day by implementing a waste separation program, and reducing atmospheric emissions of particles acting as fuel for a boiler operated with bagasse. The prevention, minimization and pollution control measures proposed can be applied to other mills in the country with the appropriate adaptations.

Candi Ashanti, Domínguez-Manjarrez; Humberto, Bravo-Álvarez; Rodolfo, Sosa-Echeverría.

2014-12-01

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Uranium exploration, mining and milling proposal, Navajo Indian Reservation, New Mexico  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The Secretary of the Interior has been requested to approve an exploration permit and mining lease which are part of a uranium exploration, mining, and milling Agreement, negotiated between the Navajo Tribe and the Exxon Corporation. The exploration area is a 400,000 acre tract located on the Navajo Reservation in San Juan County, New Mexico. If uranium ore in sufficient quantities to warrant development is discovered, Exxon is authorized to take a total of 51,200 acres to lease for mining, of which only 5,120 surface acres may be used for mining and milling purposes. While all exploration and predevelopment costs prior to mining must be borne by Exxon, the Navajo Tribe has reserved the right to participate in the venture on either a royalty basis or as a partner holding up to a 40 percent working interest. Impacts resulting from exploration will include disturbance of soils and vegetation and air quality degradation resulting from the vehicular movement and the operation of drilling equipment. If mining and milling takes place significant environmental impacts include: sub-surface water depletion, soils and vegetation disturbance, air quality degradation, interruption of the wildlife habitat, population increases, increased demands on community services and facilities, and disruption of established lifestyles and social patterns. Low levels of radioactive emissions will be found at mine and mill sites. Income and employment opportunities from the project to the Navajpportunities from the project to the Navajo Tribe, Navajo people, and the entire San Juan County community will be significant

43

Modelación matemática de la flotación de la maza superior de los molinos de caña de azúcar / Mathematical model for instant flotation of top shaft in sugar cane mills  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Cuba | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish En el presente trabajo se desarrolla un modelo matemático de la flotación de la maza superior de los molinos de caña de azúcar durante su funcionamiento, determinado a partir de mediciones experimentales de dicha magnitud en el tiempo. Se realiza un ajuste adecuado a los valores medidos experimental [...] mente y se obtiene una función analítica que permitirá considerar los efectos de la flotación en el estudio del funcionamiento y en los métodos de cálculo de los molinos y sus elementos. Se aplica a un molino en el Complejo Agroindustrial 14 de Julio en Cienfuegos. Se modelan cien segundos de funcionamiento obteniéndose una función que expresa la flotación la que al ser derivada permite obtener la velocidad y aceleración con que varía la flotación instantánea. Los coeficientes y sus bondades son dados matricialmente para todos los ajustes efectuados al construir la función que define la flotación instantánea obtenida en este caso. Abstract in english A mathematical model for the instant flotation of the top shaft of sugar cane mill is developed and analytical function for introduce in the study of other sugar cane mills parts is obtained. The model is applied to July 14th sugar factory in Cienfuegos. One hundred seconds of work is modeled and a [...] functions for floating, velocity and acceleration of floating are obtained. The coefficients and their goodness are given in matrix for all the fits made for to build the function that defines the instant flotation obtained in this case.

Mario Javier, Cabello-Ulloa; Juan José, Cabello-Eras; Jorge, Moya-Rodríguez; Rafael, Goytisolo-Espinosa; José Alberto, Velásquez-Pérez; Juan Rafael, Mestizo-Cerón.

2012-04-01

44

La frescura de la caña de azúcar: Un caso de estudio en tres ingenios de México / Sugar cane cut-to-crush delay: a case study in three sugar mills of México  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Mexico | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish La frescura de la caña de azúcar es el tiempo transcurrido desde la quema o el corte del cultivo hasta que se recibe en los ingenios y es importante reducir este tiempo para evitar la pérdida de sacarosa. Por tanto, se realizó un estudio durante la zafra 2007-2008 en tres ingenios mexicanos: en Zaca [...] tepec, Morelos; en Casimiro Castillo, Jalisco; y en Ciudad Valles, San Luis Potosí. Se recopiló la información de la fecha y hora de entrada y salida de camiones, parcela de origen, identificación del camión, etc., lo cual se complementó con entrevistas a transportistas y conteos de camiones. Se elaboró un modelo matemático para analizar la influencia de varios factores que afectan la frescura. Se estableció que: 1) el tiempo de quema-corte-alzado de la caña es el componente más importante del tiempo de frescura (de 14.7 a 22.23 h, o 67 a 84 %); 2) el segundo componente más importante fue el tiempo de espera en batey (de 2.94 a 10.02 h, o 12 a 30 %); 3) el traslado tuvo la menor influencia (de 0.76 a 1.25 h, o 2.3 a 5.84 %); 4) en las parcelas con corte mecanizado y sin quema de la caña, el tiempo de frescura es aproximadamente la mitad que en las parcelas con corte manual; 5) el parque vehicular es excesivo, lo que se refleja en un muy reducido número de viajes que realiza cada unidad (0.8 a 1.63 viajes d-1), lo cual se traduce en un raquítico ingreso para los transportistas. Abstract in english Sugarcane cut-to-crush delay is the time lapse between cutting and reception in the sugar mills. It is important to reduce this time to avoid loss of sucrose. Therefore, this study was conducted during the 2007-2008 harvest in three Mexican sugar mills: Zacatepec, Morelos; Casimiro Castillo, Jalisco [...] ; and Ciudad Valles, San Luis Potosí. Information on the date and hour of truck entry and exit, origin of the sugar cane, truck identity, etc., was collected; this was complemented with interviews to truckers and truck counting. A mathematical model was developed to analyze the influence of several factors that affect cut-to-crush delay. It was established that: 1) the time between burning, cutting and pickup was the most important time component in cut-to-crush delay (14.7 to 22.23 h, or 67 to 84 %); 2) the second most important component was the waiting time at the mill (2.94 to 10.02 h, or 12 to 30 %); 3) transport to the mill had the least influence (0.76 to 1.25 h, or 2.3 to 5.84 %); 4) in the fields where cutting is mechanized and the cane leaves were not burned off, delay time was approximately half that in the fields where cutting was done manually; 5) the number of vehicles is excessive, that is, the number of trips made by each truck is very small (0.8 to 1.63 trips d-1), which translates into paltry incomes for the truckers.

Oscar L., Palacios-Vélez; Enrique, Mejía-Sáenz; Luis, Piñón-Sosa; Hugo, Sánchez-Hernández.

2011-11-01

45

Sugars profiles of different chestnut (Castanea sativa Mill.) and almond (Prunus dulcis) cultivars by HPLC-RI.  

Science.gov (United States)

Sugar profiles of different almond and chestnut cultivars were obtained by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC), by means of a refractive index (RI) detector. A solid-liquid extraction procedure was used in defatted and dried samples. The chromatographic separation was achieved using a Eurospher 100-5 NH(2) column using an isocratic elution with acetonitrile/water (70:30, v/v) at a flow rate of 1.0 ml/min. All the compounds were separated in 16 min. The method was optimized and proved to be reproducible and accurate. Generally, more than 95% of sugars were identified for both matrixes. Sugars profiles were quite homogeneous for almond cultivars; sucrose was the main sugar (11.46 +/- 0.14 in Marcona to 22.23 +/- 0.59 in Ferragnes g/100 g of dried weight), followed by raffinose (0.71 +/- 0.05 in Ferraduel to 2.11 +/- 0.29 in Duro Italiano), glucose (0.42 +/- 0.12 in Pegarinhos two seeded to 1.47 +/- 0.19 in Ferragnes) and fructose (0.11 +/- 0.02 in Pegarinhos two seeded to 0.59 +/- 0.05 in Gloriette). Commercial cultivars proved to have higher sucrose contents, except in the case of Marcona. Nevertheless, chestnut cultivars revealed a high heterogeneity. Sucrose was the main sugar in Aveleira (22.05 +/- 1.48), Judia (23.30 +/- 0.83) and Longal (9.56 +/- 0.91), while glucose was slightly prevalent in Boa Ventura (6.63 +/- 0.49). The observed variance could serve for inter-cultivar discrimination. PMID:20033298

Barreira, João C M; Pereira, José Alberto; Oliveira, M Beatriz P P; Ferreira, Isabel C F R

2010-03-01

46

Flour mill stream blending affects sugar snap cookie and Japanese sponge cake quality and oxidative cross-linking potential of soft white wheat.  

Science.gov (United States)

The purpose of this research was to study the functional differences between straight grade (75% extraction rate) and patent (60% extraction rate) flour blends from 28 genetically pure soft white and club wheat grain lots, as evidenced by variation in sugar snap cookie and Japanese sponge cake quality. Functional differences were examined relative to arabinoxylan content, protein content, and oxidative cross-linking potential of flour slurries. Oxidative cross-linking measurements were obtained on flour slurries with a low shear Bostwick consistometer and considered endogenous oxidative cross-linking potential (water alone) or enhanced oxidative cross-linking potential (with added hydrogen peroxide-peroxidase). A 2-way ANOVA indicated that flour blend was the greater source of variation compared to grain lot for all response variables except water-extractable arabinoxylan content. Patent flours produced larger sugar snap cookies and Japanese sponge cakes, and contained significantly less total and water-unextractable arabinoxylans, protein, and ash than did straight grade flours. Patent flours produced more viscous slurries for endogenous and enhanced cross-linking measurements compared to the straight grade flours. The functional differences between patent and straight grade flours appear to be related to the particular mill streams that were utilized in the formulation of the 2 flour blends and compositional differences among those streams. PMID:22416692

Ramseyer, Daniel D; Bettge, Arthur D; Morris, Craig F

2011-01-01

47

Electricity generation from rice husk in Indian rice mills: potential and financial viability  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Rice husk generated as a by-product of rice processing is an important energy resource. The availability of this resource in India has been assessed and the technologies for exploitation of its energy potential in the rice processing industry discussed. Nomographs have been developed for estimation of the husk required to meet the energy of parboiling, drying and milling operations. The unit cost of electricity using rice husk gasifier-based power generation systems has been calculated and its financial feasibility assessed in comparison with utility-supplied and diesel-generated electricity. With the cost and efficiency data assumed here, the unit cost of electricity produced by rice husk gasifier-dual fuel engine-generator system varies between Rs 2/kWh and Rs 7/kWh. (35 Rs approximates to SUS 1.). (author)

48

Effect of drying of jujubes ( Ziziphus jujuba Mill.) on the contents of sugars, organic acids, ?-tocopherol, ?-carotene, and phenolic compounds.  

Science.gov (United States)

This study investigated the changes in sugars, organic acids, ?-tocopherol, ?-carotene, phenolic profiles, total phenolic content (TPC), and antioxidant capacity of jujube fruits after four drying treatments (sun-, oven-, microwave- and freeze-drying). Sugar, organic acid, phenolic compounds, ?-tocopherol, and ?-carotene were qualitatived and quantitatived by high-performance liquid chromatography. The TPC and antioxidant activity of jujube samples were evaluated using the Folin-Ciocalteau method and 2,2'-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid) radical scavenging activity, respectively. Freeze-drying resulted in jujubes with higher antioxidant activity and was also a good choice for the preparation of ?-carotene from jujubes for the food industry. Microwave-dried jujubes had a higher content of protocatechuic acid, catechin, and epicatechin and maintained the same antioxidant capacity with the freeze-dried jujubes. The combination of microwave- and freeze-drying may be an efficient alternative with shorter processing time and, consequently, less impact on the nutritional value of the jujube. PMID:22958080

Gao, Qing-Han; Wu, Chun-Sen; Wang, Min; Xu, Bian-Na; Du, Li-Juan

2012-09-26

49

Energy and water saving measures at the Arloev sugar mill. Final report; Energi- och vattenbesparande aatgaerder vid Arloevs Sockerbruk. Slutrapport  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The project comprised several, mutually dependent, sub-projects; mapping, investigation of ways to reduce water consumption, membrane tests aiming to find ways to recover sugar, and pinch analysis to evaluate the possibilities for improved process integration. This final report deals with the overall project results. Identified savings opportunities and savings potentials are presented. The presented measures represent an overall optimisation based on the results of all the project parts. Already during the project, measures have been implemented that are calculated to save 65 000 m{sup 3} water annually, corresponding to 10 % of the total water consumption. This saving is in level with the goals for the project. In the table below, these and additional measures are presented with a total savings potential at approximately 200 000 m{sup 3} /year water. The project will then achieve a saving of just below 35 % of present water consumption. Also in the membrane study the results surpassed the expectations. It was found that with nano filtering a sugar concentration of more than 10 %(W) could be reached in the retentate at a flux 50al/m{sup 2}h. The total sugar losses were less than 5 %, i.e. 95 % should be possible to recover. In total, a savings potential of more than 300 tonnes sugar per year is indicated. The Energy savings in the project are calculated to 7,4 GWh/year, of which 0,2 GWh/year by reduced water consumption, 0,6 GWh/year by water recovery, 1,4 GWh/year by membrane technology and 5,2aGWh/year as a result of process integration. This should be compared to the target 2,5 GWh/year. Hence, the results are almost three times the expected. The savings in monetary terms are estimated at just under SEK 5 million per year. The investment is roughly estimated at between SEK 5 and 6 million, of which SEK 4 million for the membrane equipment and SEK 0,5 million for a process water buffer tank. The remaining investment costs cover heat exchangers, control equipment and piping. This means that the total package will have a payback time of approximately one year. The environmental benefits of this project are mainly a result of the reduced energy consumption. This leads to a 1 600 tonne reduction of carbon dioxide emissions annually from reduced natural gas firing. Furthermore, the results indicate possibilities for a profitable reduction of oxygen depleting substances by over 300 tonnes sugar annually. In addition, the reduction of water consumption by 200 000 cubic meters per year results in reduced electricity and chemicals consumption in both water and sewage treatment plants.

Wamsler, M. [AAF-Processdesign AB, Malmoe (Sweden)

2001-10-01

50

Sugar 101  

Science.gov (United States)

... Fit-Friendly Worksites Program Requirements Fit-Friendly Resources Sugar 101 Updated:Nov 19,2014 Naturally occurring sugars ... sugars Discretionary calories and added sugars Naturally occurring sugars and added sugars There are two types of ...

51

The value of the freshwater snail dip scoop sampling method in macroinvertebrates bioassessment of sugar mill wastewater pollution in Mbandjock, Cameroon.  

Science.gov (United States)

Macroinvertebrates identification and enumeration may be used as a simple and affordable alternative to chemical analysis in water pollution monitoring. However, the ecological responses of various taxa to pollution are poorly known in resources-limited tropical countries. While freshwater macroinvertebrates have been used in the assessment of water quality in Europe and the Americas, investigations in Africa have mainly focused on snail hosts of human parasites. There is a need for sampling methods that can be used to assess both snails and other macroinvertebrates. The present study was designed to evaluate the usefulness of the freshwater snail dip scoop method in the study of macroinvertebrates for the assessment of the SOSUCAM sugar mill effluents pollution. Standard snail dip scoop samples were collected upstream and downstream of the factory effluent inputs, on the Mokona and Mengoala rivers. The analysis of the macroinvertebrate communities revealed the absence of Ephemeroptera and Trichoptera, and the thriving of Syrphidae in the sections of the rivers under high effluent load. The Shannon & Weaver diversity index was lower in these areas. The dip scoop sampling protocol was found to be a useful method for macroinvertebrates collection. Hence, this method is recommended as a simple, cost-effective and efficient tool for the bio-assessment of freshwater pollution in developing countries with limited research resources. PMID:18441407

Takougang, Innocent; Barbazan, Phillipe; Tchounwou, Paul B; Noumi, Emmanuel

2008-03-01

52

“REVIEW OF SUGAR INDUSTRIES IN MAHARASHTRA STATE”  

OpenAIRE

Sugar industry is the largest co-operative industry in India. About 45 million sugarcane farmers, their dependents and agricultural laborer are involved in Indian sugar industry. Maharashtra state is the one of the biggest sugarcane production state in India. Sugar industry play the main role to development in Maharashtra. The sugar industry in Maharashtra is most popular in co-operative sector. The Maharashtra sugar industry has been contributing 40% of India's total sugar production. Mahara...

THORAT PURUSHOTTAM DHANRAJ; Dharne, S. R.

2013-01-01

53

Sugar Intake, Obesity, and Diabetes in India  

OpenAIRE

Sugar and sweet consumption have been popular and intrinsic to Indian culture, traditions, and religion from ancient times. In this article, we review the data showing increasing sugar consumption in India, including traditional sources (jaggery and khandsari) and from sugar-sweetened beverages (SSBs). Along with decreasing physical activity, this increasing trend of per capita sugar consumption assumes significance in view of the high tendency for Indians to develop insulin resistance, abdom...

Gulati, Seema; Misra, Anoop

2014-01-01

54

Estrutura de um fragmento florestal no Engenho Humaitá, Catende, Pernambuco, Brasil Structure of a forest fragment at Humaitá sugar mill, Catende, PE, Brazil  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Avaliou-se, neste trabalho, a estrutura de um fragmento florestal antropizado denominado Mata das Galinhas, Engenho Humaitá, Catende, Pernambuco, e se utilizaram, para avaliar a composição florística e a estrutura fitossociológica, 14 parcelas de 10 x 25 m a fim de amostrar os indivíduos arbóreos com circunferência a 1,30 m do solo (CAP ? 10 cm. Foram estimados, então, densidade, frequência e dominância e valor de importância (VI e o índice de Shannon, além de registrados 438 indivíduos pertencentes a 63 espécies, 45 gêneros e 29 famílias. As famílias de maior importância foram Mimosaceae, Moraceae, Anacardiaceae e Lecythidaceae e as espécies com maiores valores de VI, foram Brosimum discolor, Parkia pendula, Eschweilera ovata, Thyrsodium spruceanum, Tapirira guianensis, Protium heptaphyllum, Casearia arborea, Helicostylis tomentosa, Dialium guianense, Schefflera morototoni, Himatanthus phagedaenicus e Cupania racemosa. Quando observado isoladamente, conclui-se que o fragmento estudado possui pouca relevância; entretanto, se considerado conjuntamente com outros fragmentos da área, sua diversidade é significativa o que justificaria esforços para sua conservação e manejo.The structure of a forest fragment, known as "Mata das Galinhas" at Humaitá sugar mill, Catende, Pernambuco, Brazil was evaluated. To evaluate the floristic composition and the phytosociological structure under anthropic action 14 plots of 10 x 25 m were used to sample the arboreal individuals with circumference at breast height (CBH ? 10 cm. The density, frequency, and dominance, the importance value (IV and the Shannon's index were calculated. A total of 438 individuals distributed into 63 species, 45 genera and 29 families were recorded. The families of larger importance in the study were Mimosaceae, Moraceae, Anacardiaceae and Lecythidaceae. The species with larger values of IV were Brosimum discolor, Parkia pendula, Eschweilera ovata, Thyrsodium spruceanum, Tapirira guianensis, Protium heptaphyllum, Casearia arborea, Helicostylis tomentosa, Dialium guianense, Schefflera morototoni, Himatanthus phagedaenicus and Cupania racemosa. When observed separately, the studied fragment possesses low relevance; however, when considered jointly with other fragments of the area, its diversity is significant, justifying efforts for conservation and management.

Francisco J. P. Guimarães

2009-12-01

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Modelación matemática del funcionamiento de las coronas de molinos considerando la flotación de la maza superior / An equivalent mechanism for the kinetic and dynamic analysis of the sugar cane mill gears  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Cuba | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish En este trabajo se propone un mecanismo equivalente para modelar el funcionamiento de las coronas de los molinos de caña de azúcar, que permite tomar en cuenta la forma real del perfil de los dientes trazados por arcos de círculos y la variación de la distancia entre centros durante su funcionamient [...] o. Aplicando el método grafo-analítico al modelo propuesto se obtiene una función cinemática que define la posición angular instantánea de la corona conducida con dependencia de la distancia entre ejes de las ruedas y la posición angular de la corona conductora. Aplicando métodos paramétricos se obtienen ecuaciones para la velocidad y aceleración que son generales para cualquier tipo de perfil de dientes en engranajes que trabajan con variación de distancia entre centros. Finalmente se grafican estos parámetros para el funcionamiento de las coronas de un molino real concluyéndose que estas tienen relación de transmisión instantánea variable y que por el solo hecho de la forma del perfil se producen aceleraciones. Abstract in english Equivalent mechanism is proposed for modeling sugar cane mills gears, which allows to take into account the shape of the tooth profile formed by circular arcs and the variation of the distance between centers for operation. Applying the graph-analytical method to the proposed model is obtained a fun [...] ction to define the instantaneous angular position of the sugar cane mill gear in relation with the instantaneous angular position of driver gear and the center distance of gears. General equations for the velocity and acceleration for any type of gear tooth profile with variable distance between centers are proposed through parametric method. Plotted these parameters for real sugar cane mill gear and it is concluded that the instantaneous speed ratio is variable and the profile shape produced accelerations.

Mario Javier, Cabello-Ulloa; Juan José, Cabello-Eras; Jorge, Moya-Rodríguez; Rafael, Goytisolo-Espinosa; José Alberto, Velásquez-Pérez; Juan Rafael, Mestizo-Cerón.

2011-12-01

56

Ahorro energético en tándem de molinos de caña de azúcar mediante regulación de presiones hidráulicas / Energy saving in tandem of sugar cane mills by means regulation of hydraulic pressures  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Entre las áreas de mayor consumo de energía en un central azucarero se encuentra el tándem de molinos. Una de las variables que influye sobre este consumo es la presión hidráulica aplicada a la maza superior. La investigación tuvo como objetivo determinar las posibilidades de reducir este consumo re [...] gulando apropiadamente las presiones hidráulicas sin disminuir la eficiencia del proceso de extracción, se llevó a cabo en un tándem de seis molinos donde solo se varió las presiones en los molinos intermedios según un diseño estadístico factorial completo 24. Las variables independientes fueron: las presiones hidráulicas en los molinos intermedios; las dependientes: la demanda de potencia, el % pol y % humedad. Se concluyó que en las condiciones del experimento, el empleo de presiones hidráulicas de trabajo menores en 3,45 MPa en los molinos intermedios, no afectó el proceso de extracción de la sacarosa, pero disminuyó en un 8,12 % la demanda de potencia. Abstract in english Among the areas of more energy consumption in a sugar power station is the tandem of mills. One of the variables that influences on this consumption is the hydraulic pressure applied to the superior mass. The investigation had as objective to determine the possibilities to reduce this consumption re [...] gulating the hydraulic pressures appropriately without diminishing the efficiency of the extraction process, it was carried out in a tandem of six mills where alone it was varied the pressures in the intermediate mills according to a complete factorial statistical design 24. The independent variables were: the hydraulic pressures in the intermediate mills; the dependents: the demand of power, the %pol and %humidity. You concluded that under the conditions of the experiment, the employment of hydraulic pressures of smaller work in 3,45 MPa in the intermediate mills, didn't affect the process of extraction of the sucrose, but it diminished in 8,12 % the demand of power.

Jorge Michel, Corrales-Suárez; José Marcos, Gil-Ortiz; Pedro Dionisio, Remédios-Castañeiras; Yurisleydis, Masjuan-Leyva; José Alexander, Gil-Ceballo.

2013-12-01

57

Programação estocástica robusta aplicada ao planejamento agregado de safra em usinas cooperadas do setor sucroenergético / Stochastic robust optimization model applied to the aggregate production planning in mill cooperative socities in the sugar-energy sector  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Neste trabalho, apresenta-se um modelo de programação estocástica robusta aplicado ao planejamento agregado da produção em usinas cooperadas do setor sucroenergético. Esta modelagem considera a relação hierárquica existente entre o planejamento anual da cooperativa e o planejamento tático de safra d [...] as usinas cooperadas, além de contemplar importantes incertezas existentes nos parâmetros de entrada do modelo. Para resolver os problemas de programação linear e programação inteira mista envolvidos, utiliza-se uma linguagem de modelagem algébrica e um software de última geração de programação matemática. Os resultados computacionais obtidos são comparados aos resultados da modelagem determinística PASUC, discutida em Paiva e Morabito (in press), utilizando os mesmos dados do estudo de caso da Usina Santa Clotilde e da Cooperativa Regional dos Produtores de Açúcar e Álcool de Alagoas. Abstract in english This work presents a stochastic robust optimization model applied to the aggregate production planning in mill cooperative societies in the sugar-energy sector This mathematical model is based on a hierarchical relationship between the annual planning of the cooperative and the tactical planning hor [...] izon of the sugarcane mills taking into account important uncertainties in several parameters of this model. In order to solve the linear and mixed integer programming problems involved, an optimization modeling language solver was used. Computational results are presented and compared with the deterministic approach PASUC, dicussed by Paiva e Morabito (in press) using the same data from the case studies conducted in the Santa Clotilde milling company and in the regional cooperative society of sugar and ethanol producers of Alagoas.

Rafael Piatti Oiticica de, Paiva; Reinaldo, Morabito.

58

Um modelo de otimização para o planejamento agregado da produção em usinas de açúcar e álcool An optimization model for the aggregate production planning in alcohol and sugar mills  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Neste trabalho apresentamos um modelo de otimização para o planejamento agregado da produção de usinas de açúcar e álcool. Este modelo se baseia nos modelos clássicos de seleção de processos e dimensionamento de lotes para representar o sistema de produção de açúcar, álcool e melaço, incluindo decisões da etapa agrícola, das fases de corte, carregamento e transporte de cana e, principalmente, decisões de moagem, escolha do processo produtivo e estoque dos produtos finais. As decisões são tomadas em períodos semanais e o horizonte de planejamento são as semanas de safra. Para resolver o modelo de programação linear inteira mista resultante, utilizamos a linguagem de modelagem GAMS e o solver CPLEX. Um estudo de caso foi realizado em uma usina de açúcar e álcool do estado de Alagoas. Neste estudo foi possível verificar a adequação do modelo proposto quando aplicado para auxiliar nas decisões envolvidas no planejamento agregado da produção de empresas deste tipo. Resultados computacionais são apresentados resolvendo um exemplo com dados de uma safra típica.The main concern of this work is related to the presentation of an aggregate production planning model of a sugar and alcohol milling company. The mathematical model is based on the process selection model and the production lot-sizing model, and aims to help the decision makers in the production planning and control process of determining the quantity of sugarcane crushed, the selection of sugarcane suppliers, the selection of sugarcane transport system suppliers, the selection of industrial process used in the sugar, alcohol and molasses production and the storage decisions related to these final products. The decisions are taken on a weekly basis and the planning horizon is the whole sugarcane harvesting season. To solve the mixed integer mathematical problem found in this model, we applied the GAMS modeling language and the CPLEX solver. A case study was developed in a sugar and alcohol milling company located in Rio Largo, state of Alagoas, Brazil. The results of this case study helped us to verify the applicability of the proposed model in the aggregate production planning of a milling company. Computational results are presented in real data application.

Rafael Piatti Oititica de Paiva

2007-04-01

59

Um modelo de otimização para o planejamento agregado da produção em usinas de açúcar e álcool / An optimization model for the aggregate production planning in alcohol and sugar mills  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Neste trabalho apresentamos um modelo de otimização para o planejamento agregado da produção de usinas de açúcar e álcool. Este modelo se baseia nos modelos clássicos de seleção de processos e dimensionamento de lotes para representar o sistema de produção de açúcar, álcool e melaço, incluindo decis [...] ões da etapa agrícola, das fases de corte, carregamento e transporte de cana e, principalmente, decisões de moagem, escolha do processo produtivo e estoque dos produtos finais. As decisões são tomadas em períodos semanais e o horizonte de planejamento são as semanas de safra. Para resolver o modelo de programação linear inteira mista resultante, utilizamos a linguagem de modelagem GAMS e o solver CPLEX. Um estudo de caso foi realizado em uma usina de açúcar e álcool do estado de Alagoas. Neste estudo foi possível verificar a adequação do modelo proposto quando aplicado para auxiliar nas decisões envolvidas no planejamento agregado da produção de empresas deste tipo. Resultados computacionais são apresentados resolvendo um exemplo com dados de uma safra típica. Abstract in english The main concern of this work is related to the presentation of an aggregate production planning model of a sugar and alcohol milling company. The mathematical model is based on the process selection model and the production lot-sizing model, and aims to help the decision makers in the production pl [...] anning and control process of determining the quantity of sugarcane crushed, the selection of sugarcane suppliers, the selection of sugarcane transport system suppliers, the selection of industrial process used in the sugar, alcohol and molasses production and the storage decisions related to these final products. The decisions are taken on a weekly basis and the planning horizon is the whole sugarcane harvesting season. To solve the mixed integer mathematical problem found in this model, we applied the GAMS modeling language and the CPLEX solver. A case study was developed in a sugar and alcohol milling company located in Rio Largo, state of Alagoas, Brazil. The results of this case study helped us to verify the applicability of the proposed model in the aggregate production planning of a milling company. Computational results are presented in real data application.

Rafael Piatti Oititica de, Paiva; Reinaldo, Morabito.

2007-04-01

60

Flour mill stream blending affects sugar snap cookie and Japanese sponge cake quality and oxidative cross-linking potential of soft white wheat.  

Science.gov (United States)

The purpose of this research was to study the functional differences between straight grade (75% extraction rate) and patent (60% extraction rate) flour blends from 28 genetically pure soft white and club wheat grain lots, as evidenced by variation in sugar snap cookie and Japanese sponge cake quali...

61

Volatile constituents of essential oil and rose water of damask rose (Rosa damascena Mill.) cultivars from North Indian hills.  

Science.gov (United States)

Rosa damascena Mill. is an important aromatic plant for commercial production of rose oil, water, concrete and absolute. The rose water and rose oil produced under the mountainous conditions of Uttarakhand were investigated for their chemical composition. The major components of rose water volatiles obtained from the bud, half bloom and full bloom stages of cultivar 'Ranisahiba' were phenyl ethyl alcohol (66.2-79.0%), geraniol (3.3-6.6%) and citronellol (1.8-5.5%). The rose water volatiles of cultivar 'Noorjahan' and 'Kannouj' also possessed phenyl ethyl alcohol (80.7% and 76.7%, respectively) as a major component at full bloom stage. The essential oil of cultivar 'Noorjahan' obtained from two different growing sites was also compared. The major components of these oils were citronellol (15.9-35.3%), geraniol (8.3-30.2%), nerol (4.0-9.6%), nonadecane (4.5-16.0%), heneicosane (2.6-7.9%) and linalool (0.7-2.8%). This study clearly showed that the flower ontogeny and growing site affect the composition of rose volatiles. The rose oil produced in this region was comparable with ISO standards. Thus, it was concluded that the climatic conditions of Uttarakhand are suitable for the production of rose oil of international standards. PMID:21711177

Verma, Ram Swaroop; Padalia, Rajendra Chandra; Chauhan, Amit; Singh, Anand; Yadav, Ajai Kumar

2011-10-01

62

Sugar Beet  

Science.gov (United States)

World-wide demand for sugar approaches 140Mt each year, and is supplied by only two plants, once of which is the sugar beet (Beta vulgaris, L.). A team of international researchers were assembled by the editor to review the body of literature on sugar beet production and assemble it into an accessi...

63

The cogeneration potential of the sugar industry in Vietnam  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Vietnam produces about 15 million tons of sugarcane per year and about five mt of bagasse. There is the potential for cogeneration using bagasse, which can also help overcome power shortages in the country. This paper analyses the potential for cogeneration from the sugar industry in Vietnam under three different scenarios and finds that between 100 and 300 megawatts of power-generating capacity could be supported by the bagasse generated from sugar mills, depending on the technology considered for sugar mills and cogeneration and the possibility of renovation of the existing mills. The paper also assesses the expense of cogeneration and finds it to be a cost-effective option for all types of sugar mill. It is found that the cost savings from cogeneration would more than offset the cost of introducing cogeneration in sugar mills with inefficient cane processing technologies. Sugar mills with modern technologies would have a significant amount of excess power and most of these plants would break-even if they sold excess power at around 4.5 cents per kilowatt hour. The break-even cost and the average production cost are sensitive to the investment cost assumptions. The paper thus suggests that cogeneration from the sugar industry is an attractive option for investors in existing mills or new sugar mills alike. (Author)

64

Aplicação da análise envoltória de dados (AED) na avaliação da eficiência operacional relativa entre usinas de cana-de-açúcar no território brasileiro / Data envelopment analysis (DEA) application for the relative evaluation on the operational efficiency of sugar cane mills in Brazil  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese Este estudo tem por objetivo analisar o impacto das variáveis tamanho e localização na eficiência operacional de usinas de cana-de-açúcar no Brasil na safra 2008/2009. Para tanto, realizou-se um estudo de eficiência operacional, por meio da aplicação da Análise Envoltória de Dados (AED), na qual foi [...] possível identificar as usinas mais eficientes dentre um universo de 355 e classificá-las por tamanho e localização. A análise quantitativa sugere que existe maior concentração de usinas classificadas como eficientes e de tamanho grande, localizadas no estado de São Paulo. Objetivando uma análise em profundidade, foi realizado um estudo de múltiplos casos em um grupo de usinas. Conclui-se que a eficiência operacional de usinas de cana-de-açúcar depende da variável tamanho, na medida em que as usinas de maior porte tendem a investir mais em tecnologias que proporcionam maior ganho de eficiência operacional. A eficiência também depende da variável localização, na medida em que o estado de São Paulo apresenta condições edafoclimáticas mais favoráveis à extração de uma cana-de-açúcar com maior teor de sacarose, que, consequentemente, pode influenciar na eficiência operacional de usinas de cana-de-açúcar. Abstract in english The study aims to analyze the impact of the variables size and location over the operational efficiency of sugarcane mills producing sugar and ethanol in Brazil year 2008/2009. Data concerning total milling and total production of sugar and ethanol was collected regarding Brazilian sugar cane mills. [...] An operational efficiency ranking was developed, applying Data Envelopment Analysis (DEA) technique, through which was possible to verify which were the most efficient among 355 sugarcane mills and, therefore, compare the variables size, location and operational efficiency among the Brazilian mills. The quantitative analysis suggests that among the efficient groups, there is a major concentration of larger mills, located in the state of São Paulo. Aiming an in-depth analysis, a multiple-case study was conducted in a group of sugarcane mills, and interviews with experts in the sugarcane industry were developed. Therefore, the conclusion is that operational efficiency of sugarcane mills depends on the variable location, as larger mills tend to invest more in technologies that provide major gain in operational efficiency. The operational efficiency depends also on the location of the sugarcane mill, as the state of São Paulo provides favorable edaphoclimatic conditions for the juice extraction of sugarcane with a higher level of sucrose content, hence possibly having influence over the operational efficiency.

Alexandre P., Salgado Junior; Fabio V., Carlucci; Juliana C., Novi.

2014-10-01

65

Modelación del contacto entre dos pares de dientes en las coronas de molinos de caña / Modeling of contact between two pairs of teeth in the sugar cane mills gears  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available En el trabajo se propone un mecanismo equivalente para la modelación del funcionamiento de las coronas de molino de caña de azúcar cuando teóricamente hay dos pares de dientes en contacto. A través del análisis de movilidad del mecanismo se demuestra que no es posible el contacto simultaneo entre do [...] s pares de dientes y que el coeficiente de recubrimiento en estos engranes es igual o menor que la unidad. A partir de los resultados del análisis cinemático del contacto entre un par de dientes, y combinándolo con la modelación del contacto entre dos pares de dientes se demuestra que el coeficiente de recubrimiento real en estos engranajes es menor que la unidad y se producen impactos entre los dientes al inicio del contacto. Abstract in english The paper proposes an equivalent mechanism for modeling the functioning of the crowns of sugar cane mill when theoretically there are two pairs of teeth in contact. Through mobility analysis of the mechanism is demonstrated that is not possible the simultaneous contact between two pairs of teeth and [...] that the coating coefficient of these gears is equal or less than unity. Combining kinematic analysis results for the contact between a pair of teeth with the modeling the contact between two pairs of teeth, it is demonstrated that gear ratio of these gears is less than unity and impacts occur between the teeth at the start of contact

Abdel, Mendoza-Fernández; Mario Javier, Cabello-Ulloa; Juan José, Cabello-Eras; Rafael, Goytisolo-Espinosa; Jorge, Moya-Rodríguez.

2013-12-01

66

Application of Thiocarbamate Based Chemical for Minimization of Invertase Enzyme Activity in Sugar Cane Juice  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The commercially grown Indian cane variety has su cros e content around 12-14% at peak maturitystage. Due to pre and pos t milling los s es av erage s ugar reco very remain in the range of 9.5-10.0%. This is aserious s ituation, which affect the overall performance and profitability of sugar industry. Therefore, regularus e of an effe ctive broad-s pectrum chemical is important in improving sugar recovery at mill level. In the viewof abov e facts , the inves tigation has been do ne wit h ap p lication of thiocarbamate based chemicals. Thecomparative activity of thiocarbamate-bas ed chemicals was tested ag ains t invertase enzyme and s ucrose containin sug ar cane juice. Two different commercial chemicals (1 SUGARBAG PLUSTM and (2 KILLBACT TM wereapplied @ 5 ppm, @10 ppm and @ 15 ppm with control. SUGARBA G PLUSTM@ 10 ppm and KILLBACTTM @ 15 ppm. Dextran, sucro s e and reducing sugar were analyzed periodically with thiocarbamate chemicalstreatments , and data were analyzed with analys is of variance. SUGARBAG PLUSTM @ 15 ppm was found bes ttreatment b ecause lowes t d extran co ntent was observed in this stu dy.

Dr. Sapna Smith

2009-07-01

67

Sweeteners - sugars  

Science.gov (United States)

... and jellies. Enhance flavor in processed meats. Provide fermentation for breads and pickles. Add bulk to ice cream and ... and galactose. Maltose (malt sugar) is produced during fermentation. It is found in beer and breads. Maple sugar comes from the sap of maple ...

68

Mill’s Perfectionism  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available J. S. Mill lays great emphasis on the importance of the notion of theindividual as a progressive being. The idea that we need to conceive the self as an object of cultivation and perfection runs through Mill’s writings on various topics, and has played a certain role in recent interpretations. In this paper I propose a specific interpretation of Mill’s understanding of the self, along the lines of what Stanley Cavell identifies as a “perfectionist” concern for the self. Various texts by Mill, ranging from the Logic to On Liberty, show an understanding of the self in which both the theoretical and the practical domain are presented as being internally connected to the transformation of the self. Mill elaborates a criticism of a notion of truth articulated by doctrines having a life independent of the self, as well as a notion of choice which is not the expression of one’s inner self. This internal relation of truth and choice to the self generates a special dialectic within the self, which Mill explores in On Liberty’s second and third chapters by means of several contrasts, such as passive vs. active knowledge, living vs. dead beliefs, or being oneself vs. liking and choosing in crowds.

PIERGIORGIO DONATELLI

2006-12-01

69

Sintomas vocais e sensações laríngeas em trabalhadores de uma usina de álcool e açúcar expostos a riscos ocupacionais / Vocal symptoms and laryngeal sensations in workers of an ethanol and sugar mill exposed to occupational risks  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Languages: English, Portuguese Abstract in portuguese OBJETIVO: Investigar os sintomas vocais e sensações laríngeas dos trabalhadores de uma usina de álcool e açúcar expostos a ruído e/ou substâncias químicas. MÉTODOS: Participaram 289 trabalhadores de uma usina de álcool e açúcar distribuídos em cinco grupos expostos (I- ruído; II- ruído, óleo, graxa, [...] derivação de petróleo; III- ruído, ácidos, sulfatos, cloretos, nitratos; IV- ruído, poeiras respiráveis e sílica livre cristalizada; V- óleo, graxa, derivação de petróleo) e um grupo controle que responderam o questionário Condições de Produção Vocal - Professor adaptado à categoria profissional. Os grupos foram comparados em relação aos sintomas vocais, sensações laríngeas, tabagismo e riscos físicos e químicos. Esta comparação foi realizada por meio de análise estatística. RESULTADOS: O sintoma vocal e a sensação laríngea mais relatados pelos trabalhadores foram voz grave e tosse com catarro, respectivamente. Considerando o risco físico no ambiente de trabalho, os grupos I e IV foram os que mais citaram presença de ruído. Devido à sua exposição, os mesmos aumentavam a intensidade da voz (Efeito de Lombard-Tarneaud) e, assim, mencionaram sintomas vocais. Em relação aos riscos químicos no ambiente ocupacional, o grupo IV foi o que mais referiu presença de poeira e fumaça, e estas eram compostas por poeiras respiráveis e sílica. Tais exposições ocasionam sintomas vocais e sensações laríngeas e, consequentemente, alterações vocais. CONCLUSÃO: Sintomas vocais e sensações laríngeas podem estar relacionados a atividade profissional em que haja exposição a riscos físicos e/ou químicos. Abstract in english PURPOSE: To investigate vocal symptoms and laryngeal sensations among workers of an ethanol and sugar mill exposed to noise and/or chemical substances. METHODS: Participants were 289 workers of an ethanol and sugar mill distributed into five exposure groups (I - noise; II - noise, oil, grease, petro [...] leum derivatives; III - noise, acids, sulfates, chlorides, nitrates; IV - noise, breathable dust and free crystalline silica; V - oil, grease, petroleum derivatives) and a control group, who answered the questionnaire Conditions of Vocal Production - Teacher adapted to the professional category. The groups were compared regarding vocal symptoms, laryngeal sensations, smoking habits, and exposure to physical and chemical risks. This comparison was conducted using statistical analyses. RESULTS: The most reported vocal symptom and laryngeal sensation were low-pitched voice and cough with phlegm, respectively. Considering the physical risk in the work environment, groups I and IV were the ones that most reported exposure to noise. Because of this exposure, they increase voice intensity (Effect of Lombard-Tarneaud) and, thus, also reported vocal symptoms. Regarding chemical risks in the occupational environment, group IV was the one that most referred presence of dust and smoke, which were composed by breathable dust and silica. Such exposures lead to vocal symptoms and laryngeal sensations and, consequently, to vocal alterations. CONCLUSION: Vocal symptoms and laryngeal sensations can be related to professional activities where workers are exposed to physical and/or chemical risks.

Sylvia Boechat, Coutinho; Ana Claudia, Fiorini; Iára Bittante de, Oliveira; Maria do Rosário Dias de Oliveira, Latorre; Léslie Piccolotto, Ferreira.

2011-09-01

70

Valoración económica de las pérdidas de exergía de las operaciones térmicas en la industria azucarera de caña / Economic value of exergy losses in heating operations in cane sugar mills  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Argentina | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish Tomando como base los resultados del análisis exergético de las operaciones térmicas: Calentamiento- Evaporación-Cristalización (CEC) de un ingenio de Tucumán, realizado por Paz y Cárdenas en 2005, se procedió a determinar el valor económico de las pérdidas de exergía. Dichas pérdidas de exergía rep [...] resentan potencias eléctricas equivalentes que dejaron de producirse, por lo que el daño causado por las mismas puede ser calculado directamente a partir del precio de la energía eléctrica. Esta original metodología propuesta para determinar ahorros monetarios, basada en la reducción de exergía perdida, se comparó con los resultados obtenidos con la metodología tradicional (basada en el ahorro de vapor vivo). Los ahorros monetarios logrados con las propuestas A y B fueron de $1,05 x 10(6) (0,35 x 10(6) USD) y $1,92 x 10(6) (0,64 x 10(6) USD) por zafra, determinándose Tasas Internas de Retorno (TIR) de 191% y 20,8%, respectivamente. Abstract in english This paper is based on the results of previous work done by Paz and Cárdenas in 2005, in which exergy losses in thermal operations: Heating-Evaporation-Crystallization (H-E-C) of a cane sugar mill located in Tucumán, were evaluated. Exergy losses represent equivalent non-produced electric power; the [...] refore, the resulting damage can be calculated directly from the price of the electric energy. Results obtained with this novel methodology (exergy loss reduction) were compared with those obtained with the traditional method (live steam saving) when evaluating monetary savings. In fact, monetary savings in A and B proposals were $1,05 x 10(6) (0,35 x 10(6) USD) and $1,92 x 10(6) (0,64 x 10(6) USD) per season, respectively. Internal Rates of Return (IRR) were 191% and 20,8%, respectively.

Dora, Paz; Gerónimo J., Cárdenas.

2005-12-01

71

Sugar test  

Science.gov (United States)

Metabolism is the conversion or breakdown of a substance from one form to another by a living organism for energy. Yeast is an indicator of how much sugar is in food. Yeast releases carbon dioxide and is a direct indicator of the rate of metabolism. An indicator is an object, material, or organism that tells you if a specific substance is present. Cereals contain sugars, which are carbohydrates. Carbohydrates are chemicals that provide energy.

Olivia Worland (Purdue University; Biological Sciences)

2008-06-06

72

Impact of sugar industry fly ash emissions on environment  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This work was conducted in 1992 to find out the effects and causes of environmental problems due to sugar mills of Sindh. Most of the complaints were received from Nawabshah, Tando Mohammed Khan residential areas where following mills are located, emitting large amounts of fly ash from their chimneys into the atmosphere: (i) Habib Sugar Mills, Nawabshah, (II) Fauji Sugar Mills, Tando Mohammed Khan. Environmental survey of above localities was carried out which reveals that eye-allergy and asthma are the major health effects of fly ash besides the aesthetic problems. Sieve analysis of two fly ash samples viz Fauji Sugar Mills (Old Plant) and Sanghar Sugar Mills (New Plant) showed that the particle size of over 50% of fly ash was above 300 mu m. These large size black particles were unburned carbon particles, which on burning in air gave a weight loss of over 87% at 1000 centi grade. The fly ash analytical results showed that combustion of bagasse in sugar mills was not complete at all and this was not only polluting the atmosphere but also causing energy losses. (author)

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Passa-se uma engenhoca: ou como se faziam transações com terras, engenhos e crédito em mercados locais e imperfeitos (freguesia de Campo Grande, Rio de Janeiro, séculos XVIII e XIX) / 'Engenhocas' to sell!: or lands, sugar mills and credit’s trade in local and imperfect markets (Campo Grande civil parish, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, XVIII-XIX centuries )  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese A questão central deste artigo é perceber como as hierarquias sociais e as políticas específicas do Antigo Regime nos Trópicos se refletiram em estratégias concretas, e compreender as engrenagens locais de um mercado imperfeito. Analisaremos as escolhas e trajetórias de agentes envolvidos em transaç [...] ões com terras, engenhos e concessão de crédito na freguesia de Campo Grande, no correr do século XVIII até o início do XIX, cuja especificidade foi conseguirem reproduzir sua condição senhorial. Metodologicamente, partimos da microanálise e compusemos redes sociais locais que sustentaram as estratégias dos agentes em questão. Propomos que as rendas criadas a partir das vendas a prazo, os vínculos pessoais entre compradores-credores-vendedores-devedores nas vendas dos engenhos e a sobreposição de vínculos de dependência locais foram fatores que possibilitaram a acumulação econômica e a reprodução ampliada da condição senhorial. Abstract in english Using the concept of ‘Ancien Régime on the Tropics’, this article aims to investigate how social hierarchies and politics in Brazil, during the 18th century, reflected into concrete local strategies. Our objective is to understand the gadgets of an imperfect market, based on agents’ choices who were [...] all involved in lands, sugar mills and credit commercial transactions in the Campo Grande civil parish, in the Rio de Janeiro. All agents had gotten to reproduce its extended senhorial condition. Our methodology is based on microanalysis, so we composed local social nets we guest had supported the agents’ strategies in question. We consider strategies to achieve long term incomes; bonds between purchaser, creditor, salesman and debtors (both involving sugar mills commercial transactions); the overlapping of dependence bonds by strategic exchanges created by sugar mill masters among consanguineous, matrimonial and fictitious relatives had been factors that made possible the economic accumulation and the extended reproduction of the master condition.

Manoela, Pedroza.

2010-06-01

74

Managing your blood sugar  

Science.gov (United States)

Hyperglycemia - control; Hypoglycemia - control; Diabetes - blood sugar control ... Know how to: Recognize and treat low blood sugar (hypoglycemia) Recognize and treat high blood sugar (hyperglycemia) ...

75

Bagasse and green waste cogen plant: Rocky Point Sugar  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Bagasse - the fibrous product left over after the extraction of sugar from sugar cane - has enormous potential as a renewable source of fuel, particularly as it is already collected and transported to central plants for processing. And it is already used as a fuel for cogeneration plants: Ralph Sims profiles the Rocky Point Sugar Mill, Australia, where bagasse is co-fired with 'municipal green waste'. (author)

Sims, R. [Massey Univ. (New Zealand). Centre for Energy Research

2002-04-01

76

Sugar industry dilemma in NWFP  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Sugarcane is an important cash-crop in Pakistan, ranking fourth in average cultivation after wheat, rice and cotton. It contributed 6.3 percent to the national agricultural value addition and 1.3 percent of the GDP during 2002-2003. It provides direct employment to more than 10,000 persons in NWFP. Sugarcane is grown over an area of more or less one million hectares in Pakistan, the Punjab shares 66.8%, Sindh 23.5% and NWFP shares 9.5% of the total area and 63.7, 26.5 and 9.7% of the production, respectively (Agriculture statistics of Pakistan FRS 2003). The national average cane-yield (47 tonnes per hectare) is far below the existing potential, Sindh with 53 tonnes per hectare is the leading province, followed by NWFP (48 tonnes) and Punjab (45 tonnes per hectare), respectively. In Pakistan, 73 mills are in operation. On the average, these Sugar Mills produce 3.52 million tons Sugar and employed labour force of 1.06 million persons, involving about nine million people of rural population in the production of sugarcane in 2002. In the year 2002-03, cane production was over 52 million tonnes; the Mills utilized (80.28%) of the total cane production with a yield of 3.66 million tonnes of sugar. Part 1 of this paper discusses the importance of sugarcane crop and sugarcane industry towards national economy. In part 2, problems of varied horizon have been covered, in detail, with sound viable recommendations. Finally, conclusions have been drawn in part 3 for considerationave been drawn in part 3 for consideration by all relevant stakeholders of the sector. To avert problems like low cane-yield, minimum return to farmers, negative attitude and delaying tactics in payments, policy makers and decision-support unit of the province should ensure the following: no further expansion of sugar-mills on political grounds and without viable feasibility; immediate improvement in water-courses, improvement of irrigation efficiency, develop cane-varieties with high sucrose-recovery percentage, reduce cost of production of inputs; provide subsidy to cane growers who should also be paid for their produce well on time by the mills. It is recommended that support-price fixation system and timely payment to farmers should be designed and implemented properly. (author)

77

Monitoreo de un sistema de secado de bagazo acoplado a una caldera en un ingenio de México Monitoring of a bagasse drying system attached to a boiler in a sugar mill in Mexico  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Se evaluó el desempeño de un secador de bagazo diseñado por la Estación Experimental Agroindustrial Obispo Colombres, acoplado a una caldera bagacera convencional en un ingenio de México (caldera Nº 5. Para ello, se realizaron ensayos de mediciones y balances de materia y energía, para la caldera operando con el secador y sin él en funcionamiento. La caldera Nº 5, de una producción nominal de 60 t/h de vapor y una presión máxima de trabajo de 29 bar, cuando fue alimentada únicamente con bagazo húmedo pudo generar como máximo 33 t/h de vapor a 19 bar y 269ºC, con un rendimiento energético de 60,4% y un índice de generación de 1,6 kg de vapor/ kg de bagazo. Con la adición del secador, se logró secar 28,6 toneladas de bagazo de 50,2% a 30,4% de humedad. Aproximadamente un 72% de este bagazo presecado se mezcló con bagazo húmedo y se utilizó para alimentar la caldera, produciéndose así 58,4 t/h de vapor; es decir, 77% más de vapor que sin secador. El rendimiento energético del sistema caldera-secador fue de 73,6%, un 21,8% superior al de la caldera sin secador, mientras que el índice de generación fue de 2,0 kg de vapor/ kg de bagazo, 25% mayor que el de la caldera original. Este aumento en la producción de vapor permitió sacar de servicio a la caldera Nº 6, que producía aproximadamente 20 t/h de vapor, con un rendimiento similar al de la caldera Nº 5 sin secador. Estas mejoras dieron como resultado, un ahorro de energía de 45,4 MJ/h, aproximadamente un 18% respecto a la energía consumida por ambas calderas (Nº 5 y Nº 6 cuando no funcionaba el secador. Este ahorro equivale a 1103 l/h de "fuel oil", es decir, alrededor de 1,5 millones de dólares por zafra.A bagasse dryer designed by Estación Experimental Agroindustrial Obispo Colombres was attached to a conventional bagasse boiler (Boiler No. 5 in a sugar mill in Mexico for evaluation. Measurement tests and material and energy balances for the boiler operating with and without the dryer were made. When supplied only with wet bagasse, boiler No. 5, with a nominal production of 60 t/h of steam and a maximum working pressure of 29 bar, could generate no more than 33 t/h of steam at 19 bar and 269 ºC, with an energy yield of 60.4% and an index of 1.6 kg steam/ kg of bagasse . When the dryer was attached, 28.6 tons of bagasse was dried from 50.2% moisture to 30.4%. Approximately 72% of that pre-dried bagasse, mixed with wet bagasse, was fed into the boiler, which then produced 58.4 t/h of steam, i.e. 77% more than without the dryer. The energy efficiency of the boiler-dryer system was 73.6% and the index was 2.0 kg steam/ kg of bagasse, i.e. 21.8%, 25% higher values than those for the original boiler. This increase in steam production allowed putting boiler No. 6 out of service. Boiler No. 6 produced about 20 t/h of steam with similar efficiency to that of boiler No. 5 without the dryer. These improvements resulted in energy savings of about 18%, as compared with the energy consumed by the two boilers (No. 5 and No. 6 when the dryer was not working. Energy saved amounted to 45.4 MJ/h, which is equivalent to 1103 l/h of fuel oil. This represents savings of USD 1.5 million per season.

Federico J. Franck Colombres

78

An update report on the uranium mill  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In 1978, Congress enacted Public Law 95-604, the ''Uranium Mill Tailings Radiation Control Act of 1978''. The Act authorized the Department of Energy (DOE) to perform remedial actions at designated inactive uranium mill tailings sites. DOE established the Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Actions Project Office to implement, in cooperation with the affected States, Indian tribes and owners of the sites, remedial actions at the sites. The UMTRA Project Office has completed an intensive research and development program and begun remedial actions at one mill site and numerous vicinity properties in accordance with EPA cleanup standards. Remedial actions at additional locations are planned

79

Monitoreo de un sistema de secado de bagazo acoplado a una caldera en un ingenio de México / Monitoring of a bagasse drying system attached to a boiler in a sugar mill in Mexico  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Argentina | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish Se evaluó el desempeño de un secador de bagazo diseñado por la Estación Experimental Agroindustrial Obispo Colombres, acoplado a una caldera bagacera convencional en un ingenio de México (caldera Nº 5). Para ello, se realizaron ensayos de mediciones y balances de materia y energía, para la caldera o [...] perando con el secador y sin él en funcionamiento. La caldera Nº 5, de una producción nominal de 60 t/h de vapor y una presión máxima de trabajo de 29 bar, cuando fue alimentada únicamente con bagazo húmedo pudo generar como máximo 33 t/h de vapor a 19 bar y 269ºC, con un rendimiento energético de 60,4% y un índice de generación de 1,6 kg de vapor/ kg de bagazo. Con la adición del secador, se logró secar 28,6 toneladas de bagazo de 50,2% a 30,4% de humedad. Aproximadamente un 72% de este bagazo presecado se mezcló con bagazo húmedo y se utilizó para alimentar la caldera, produciéndose así 58,4 t/h de vapor; es decir, 77% más de vapor que sin secador. El rendimiento energético del sistema caldera-secador fue de 73,6%, un 21,8% superior al de la caldera sin secador, mientras que el índice de generación fue de 2,0 kg de vapor/ kg de bagazo, 25% mayor que el de la caldera original. Este aumento en la producción de vapor permitió sacar de servicio a la caldera Nº 6, que producía aproximadamente 20 t/h de vapor, con un rendimiento similar al de la caldera Nº 5 sin secador. Estas mejoras dieron como resultado, un ahorro de energía de 45,4 MJ/h, aproximadamente un 18% respecto a la energía consumida por ambas calderas (Nº 5 y Nº 6) cuando no funcionaba el secador. Este ahorro equivale a 1103 l/h de "fuel oil", es decir, alrededor de 1,5 millones de dólares por zafra. Abstract in english A bagasse dryer designed by Estación Experimental Agroindustrial Obispo Colombres was attached to a conventional bagasse boiler (Boiler No. 5) in a sugar mill in Mexico for evaluation. Measurement tests and material and energy balances for the boiler operating with and without the dryer were made. W [...] hen supplied only with wet bagasse, boiler No. 5, with a nominal production of 60 t/h of steam and a maximum working pressure of 29 bar, could generate no more than 33 t/h of steam at 19 bar and 269 ºC, with an energy yield of 60.4% and an index of 1.6 kg steam/ kg of bagasse . When the dryer was attached, 28.6 tons of bagasse was dried from 50.2% moisture to 30.4%. Approximately 72% of that pre-dried bagasse, mixed with wet bagasse, was fed into the boiler, which then produced 58.4 t/h of steam, i.e. 77% more than without the dryer. The energy efficiency of the boiler-dryer system was 73.6% and the index was 2.0 kg steam/ kg of bagasse, i.e. 21.8%, 25% higher values than those for the original boiler. This increase in steam production allowed putting boiler No. 6 out of service. Boiler No. 6 produced about 20 t/h of steam with similar efficiency to that of boiler No. 5 without the dryer. These improvements resulted in energy savings of about 18%, as compared with the energy consumed by the two boilers (No. 5 and No. 6) when the dryer was not working. Energy saved amounted to 45.4 MJ/h, which is equivalent to 1103 l/h of fuel oil. This represents savings of USD 1.5 million per season.

Federico J., Franck Colombres; Marcos A., Golato; Walter D., Morales; Gustavo, Aso; Dora, Paz.

2010-12-30

80

Characterisation of a phenolic resin and sugar cane pulp composite  

OpenAIRE

Polymeric materials are increasingly replacing metallic materials as a result of their properties. In this work a composite of phenolic resin and sugar cane pulp was developed. The sugar cane pulp has been previously alkalinised, dried, and milled and the particles had been classified in a range of grain sizes. Experimental assays were performed, varying the proportion of the resin and the reinforcement and the size of the cane pulp fibre, keeping the pressure and moulding temperature constan...

Leite, J. L.; Pires, A. T. N.; Ulson Souza, S. M. A. G.; Ulson Souza, A. A.

2004-01-01

81

Steam consumption minimization model in a multiple evaporation effect in a sugar plant  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In this work, a mathematical model to minimize the steam consumption in a multiple effect evaporation system is shown. The model is based in the dynamic programming technique and the results are tested in a Colombian sugar mill

82

Low blood sugar  

Science.gov (United States)

... been told to give yourself a shot of glucagon. This is a medicine that raises blood sugar. If low blood sugar is caused by an insulinoma (insulin-releasing tumor), surgery to remove the tumor will ...

83

Hyperactivity and sugar  

Science.gov (United States)

... more likely to be hyperactive if they eat sugar, artificial sweeteners, or certain food colorings. Other experts ... Some people claim that eating sugar (such as sucrose), aspartame (NutraSweet), ... and other behavior problems in children. They argue ...

84

Home blood sugar testing  

Science.gov (United States)

Check your blood sugar level as often as instructed by your health care provider. Write down the results. This will tell you how ... everyone with diabetes needs to check their blood sugar every day. And some people need to check ...

85

High blood sugar  

Science.gov (United States)

High blood sugar occurs when your body makes too little insulin or when your body is not able to use insulin ... a hormone that helps the body use glucose (sugar) for energy. Insulin is made by the pancreas. ...

86

Frequently Asked Questions about Sugar  

Science.gov (United States)

... lactose, maltose, sucrose), high-fructose corn syrup, fruit juice concentrate, honey, invert sugar, malt sugar, molasses, raw sugar, sugar, syrup. It will be important for policy makers, the food industry and other public health groups to make ...

87

Raising cane: linkages, organizations and negotiations in Malang's sugar industry, East Java.  

OpenAIRE

The linkages between the Javanese sugar industry and the village communities have drawn the attention of both historians and social scientists. The formal organization of these linkages has changed drastically since Indonesia's independence; from plantation into outgrowers production contract systems. The Indonesian government nowadays regulates the sugar markets and the tripartite institutional structure, coordinating activities between the outgrowers' organizations and the mills, under dire...

Hartveld, A. J.

1996-01-01

88

Effect of processing variables on quality of milk burfi prepared with and without sugar  

OpenAIRE

Milk burfi is an Indian traditional confectionery prepared using concentrated milk and sugar. The texture and quality of burfi vary depending on processing conditions and storage period. The effect of processing variable namely total soluble solids (TSS) at the end of cooking and duration of storage on the texture and sensory quality of burfi prepared with and without sugar was studied by applying response surface methodology. Sorbitol with and without added aspartame was used as sugar altern...

Chetana, R.; Ravi, R.; Yella Reddy, S.

2010-01-01

89

Case-control study of lung cancer among sugar cane farmers in India  

OpenAIRE

OBJECTIVES: To investigate the risk of lung cancer among sugar cane farmers and sugar mill workers. METHODS: A case-control study was conducted based in six hospitals in the predominantly sugar cane farming districts of the province of Maharashtra in India. Newly diagnosed, histologically confirmed cases were identified from these hospitals between May 1996 and April 1998. Other cancers were chosen as controls and matched to cases by age, sex, district of residence, and timing of diagno...

Amre, D. K.; Infante-rivard, C.; Dufresne, A.; Durgawale, P. M.; Ernst, P.

1999-01-01

90

Sugar - a harmless indulgence?  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

The consumption of sugar is relatively high in Denmark - and other industrial countries - and many persons have a consumption which exceeds the recommended level of maximally 10% of energy intake. A high sugar consumption may reduce the nutrient density of the diet and increase the risk of vitamin and mineral deficiency, especially in low energy consumers. The sugar intake and the fat intake, expressed as percentage of energy, usually show an inverse association. This has lead to the statement that a diet with both a low sugar content and a low fat content is incompatible, but we will argue that this is not the fact. The significance of sugar for the development of obesity is not clarified. A high fat content in the diet seems to promote the development of obesity, while a high carbohydrate content tends to reduce obesity. It is not known if sugar in this connection is comparable to the other carbohydrates in the diet, primarily because of the high energy density of sugar. Diabetes mellitus and heart diseasesdo not seem to have any direct connection with a high sugar consumption. Sugar continues to be a risk factor for the development of caries. Further, it cannot be excluded that high sugar consumption is a risk factor for cancer in the gastrointestinal tract or for Crohn's disease. It seems reasonable to keep the current recommendations about sugar intake.

Rasmussen, Lone Banke; Andersen, Niels Lyhne

1998-01-01

91

Sugar and Other Sweeteners  

Science.gov (United States)

Sugar and starch are among the most abundant plant products available, and large industries exist worldwide to extract and process them from agricultural sources. The world production of sugar (sucrose from cane and beet) in 2004/2005 was 142 million metric tons, raw value, 1 with 24.8 percent of that being beet sugar and 75.1 percent being cane sugar.2 The proportion of beet sugar to cane sugar has fallen steadily since about 1971, when it constituted 42.8 percent of total sugar production. The decline in total beet sugar proportion over the last ten years represents not so much a decline in beet production, which has remained in a range of 33-39 million metric tons, but rather a continued increase in cane sugar production from around 70 million metric tons in 1991 to 112 million metric tons.2 The production of total world sugar has also risen dramatically since 1971/72, when it was 71.7 million tons.3

Godshall, Mary An

92

Monitoring Blood Sugar: The Importance of Checking Blood Sugar Levels  

Science.gov (United States)

The Importance of Checking Blood Sugar Levels Besides helping to keep blood sugar levels (also known as blood glucose ... with diabetes test their blood sugar levels before breakfast, lunch, and dinner, and at bedtime. They may ...

93

Sugar and Sugar Beet Policy Reforms in Turkey  

OpenAIRE

The translog cost function is applied to analyze input demand in Turkey sugar beet production from 1975 to 2003. Sugar and sugar beet production became an important issue after the sugar act changed in 2001. Although the political aspects of sugar beet production have been studied extensively, few studies are available on the quantitative aspects of sugar beet production in Turkey. The main goal of the study was to estimate input substitution and the elasticity of demand for the factors of su...

Yasar Akcay; Meral Uzunoz

2006-01-01

94

Generation and export of electric energy by sugar and alcohol plants; Geracao e exportacao de energia eletrica por usinas sucroalcooleiras  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This paper presents technical aspects necessary to allow a sugar-cane mill, which promotes cogeneration, to operate as an electrical energy producer. Changes and optimization in the process to produce alcohol and sugar-cane, which results in the increase of electrical energy to export are discussed. A case of a sugarcane mill, working as a thermoelectric power plant is presented. The necessary components to generate energy and to connect the thermoelectric plant to the main transmission system are described. (author)

Queiroz, Gil Mesquita de Oliveira Rabello; Paschoareli Junior, Dionizio; Faria Junior, Max Jose de Araujo [Universidade Estadual Paulista (DEE/UNESP), Ilha Solteira, SP (Brazil). Dept. de Engenharia Eletrica. Grupo de Pesquisa em Fontes Alternativas e Aproveitamento de Energia Eletrica

2008-07-01

95

Sugar Crystal Challenge  

Science.gov (United States)

This lesson focuses on surface area and how the shape of sugar crystals may differ as they are grown from sugars of different coarseness. Learners explore surface area, nanostructures, and work in teams and participate in hands-on activities. Safety: need an adult to handle the very hot water.

IEEE

2013-02-25

96

A STUDY OF PERCEPTION OF WOMEN EMPLOYEES IN WEAVING MILLS  

OpenAIRE

Indian Textile Industry holds key position in Indian economy. It contributes about 4 percent to the GDP and 12 per cent to the country's total export earnings. It provides direct employment to over 35 million people, the second largest provider of employment after agriculture. Besides, another 54.85 million people are engaged in its allied activities. High perception assists the management to overcome several women employees' problems in weaving mills. In this paper, the r...

Jadhav, T. K.

2014-01-01

97

Sugar substitutes during pregnancy  

Science.gov (United States)

Abstract Question I have a pregnant patient who regularly consumes sugar substitutes and she asked me if continuing their use would affect her pregnancy or child. What should I tell her, and are there certain options that are better for use during pregnancy? Answer Although more research is required to fully determine the effects of in utero exposure to sugar substitutes, the available data do not suggest adverse effects in pregnancy. However, it is recommended that sugar substitutes be consumed in moderate amounts, adhering to the acceptable daily intake standards set by regulatory agencies. PMID:25392440

Pope, Eliza; Koren, Gideon; Bozzo, Pina

2014-01-01

98

Quantitation of trans-aconitic acid in different stages of the sugar-manufacturing process.  

Science.gov (United States)

The sugar cane industry has seen how biomass production in sugar mills would be converted to a readily available source of molecules besides sugar. Properly managed, byproducts would be transformed into a sustainable source of renewable and environmentally friendly chemical products. As a principal and more abundant organic acid in sugar cane juice, trans-aconitic acid (TAA) has been studied for use as a plasticizer in the polymer industry. However, up to now no industrial-scale application has been reported. As a reasonable approach to recover TAA from a sugar mill, first, an analytical method to determine its presence in all stages of the sugar-manufacturing process is needed. A new modern method was developed to measure TAA in seven stages in a sugar mill located in Valle del Cauca, Colombia. The stages with higher content of TAA were syrup, with 3363.6 ± 589.3 mg/L, and honey (molasses), with 6110.05 ± 139.5 mg/L. PMID:25098840

Montoya, Guillermo; Londono, July; Cortes, Paola; Izquierdo, Olga

2014-08-20

99

Sugar Sensing and Signaling  

OpenAIRE

Plants, restricted by their environment, need to integrate a wide variety of stimuli with their metabolic activity, growth and development. Sugars, generated by photosynthetic carbon fixation, are central in coordinating metabolic fluxes in response to the changing environment and in providing cells and tissues with the necessary energy for continued growth and survival. A complex network of metabolic and hormone signaling pathways are intimately linked to diverse sugar responses. A combinati...

Ramon, Matthew; Rolland, Filip; Sheen, Jen

2008-01-01

100

Indian Summer  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This paper focuses on preserving and strengthening two resources culturally and socially important to the Shoshone-Bannock Indian Tribe on the Fort Hall Reservation in Idaho; their young people and the Pacific-Northwest Salmon. After learning that salmon were not returning in significant numbers to ancestral fishing waters at headwater spawning sites, tribal youth wanted to know why. As a result, the Indian Summer project was conceived to give Shoshone-Bannock High School students the opportunity to develop hands-on, workable solutions to improve future Indian fishing and help make the river healthy again. The project goals were to increase the number of fry introduced into the streams, teach the Shoshone-Bannock students how to use scientific methodologies, and get students, parents, community members, and Indian and non-Indian mentors excited about learning. The students chose an egg incubation experiment to help increase self-sustaining, natural production of steelhead trout, and formulated and carried out a three step plan to increase the hatch-rate of steelhead trout in Idaho waters. With the help of local companies, governmental agencies, scientists, and mentors students have been able to meet their project goals, and at the same time, have learned how to use scientific methods to solve real life problems, how to return what they have used to the water and land, and how to have fun and enjoy life while learning.

Galindo, E. [Sho-Ban High School, Fort Hall, ID (United States)

1997-08-01

101

Management of inactive uranium mill tailings  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This task committee report to the members of ASCE reviews the status of inactive uranium mills that are being stabilized by the U.S. Department of Energy through the Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) Project. These tailings at 25 locations in the United States remain from the development of nuclear weapons by the Manhattan Engineer District, U.S. Army, and the Atomic Energy Commission. Standards set by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency require long-term stability-for a minimum of 200 years and for 1,000 years where possible. Other participants assisting in the project include the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission and the states and Indian tribes affected. Remedial action is in progress to bury these low-level wastes at the original milling sites or suitable disposal sites and is scheduled to be completed by March 1990. Outstanding issues, conclusions, and recommendations are presented

102

Remedial actions at inactive uranium mill tailings sites  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In 1978, Congress enacted Public Law 95-604, the Uranium Mill Tailings Radiation Control Act of 1978. The Act authorizes the Department of Energy to stabilize and control the tailings from designated inactive uranium mill tailings sites in a safe and environmentally acceptable manner. DOE has established the Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Actions (UMTRA) Project Office to implement, in cooperation with the affected States, Indian tribes and owners of the sites, remedial actions at the sites. The UMTRA Project Office has initiated efforts to perform remedial actions in accordance with EPA cleanup standards

103

76 FR 62339 - Domestic Sugar Program-2011-Crop Cane Sugar and Beet Sugar Marketing Allotments and Company...  

Science.gov (United States)

...DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE Commodity Credit Corporation Domestic Sugar Program--2011-Crop Cane Sugar and Beet Sugar Marketing Allotments and Company Allocations AGENCY: Commodity Credit Corporation, USDA....

2011-10-07

104

Clinical epidemiological profile of American tegumentary leishmaniasis at the Pinto Sugar Mill in Moreno Municipality, Greater Metropolitan Recife, Pernambuco State, Brazil Perfil clínico-epidemiológico da leishmaniose tegumentar americana no Engenho Pinto, Município de Moreno, Região Metropolitana do Recife, Pernambuco, Brasil  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available American tegumentary leishmaniasis (ATL is present in all regions of Pernambuco State, Brazil, where it is spreading, with the emergence of foci in new areas like the Municipality (County of Moreno in Greater Metropolitan Recife. The objective of the current study was to assess the prevalence of infection and identify autochthonous cases of ATL. In April 2006 a population survey was performed using a questionnaire and the Montenegro skin test (MST in 481 individuals from the Pinto Sugar Mill, of whom 47% were males and 74% were younger than 30 years. One hundred forty-four individuals (30% showed a positive MST. Of these, five presented active lesions, 41 were cured after meglumine antimoniate treatment, and one showed a spontaneous cure. Indirect immunofluorescence (IIF was performed on sera from 89 individuals and showed a 36% positive rate. The high ATL prevalence demonstrates the epidemiological spread of the disease in Greater Metropolitan Recife, a worrisome development since there are no effective measures for ATL control except ecological awareness raising to minimize the risk of infection.A leishmaniose tegumentar americana incide em todas as regiões do Estado de Pernambuco, Brasil, onde se apresenta em expansão, com o surgimento de focos em novas áreas, como o Município de Moreno, na região metropolitana do Recife. O objetivo deste estudo foi avaliar a prevalência da infecção e identificar os casos autóctones de leishmaniose tegumentar americana. Em abril de 2006, realizou-se um inquérito populacional por meio da aplicação de um questionário e do teste de intradermoreação de Montenegro a 481 indivíduos do Engenho Pinto, dos quais 47% eram do sexo masculino e 74% menores de 30 anos. Cento e quarenta e quatro (30% indivíduos apresentaram reação positiva ao teste. Dentre estes, cinco apresentaram lesões ativas, 41 foram curados após quimioterapia e um curado espontaneamente. A RIFI realizada nos soros de 89 indivíduos apresentou 36% de positividade. A alta prevalência aponta para a expansão epidemiológica da doença nessa área da região metropolitana, fato preocupante, pois não há medidas eficazes para o controle da leishmaniose tegumentar americana, a não ser uma conscientização ecológica para minimizar o risco de infecção.

Maria Edileuza Felinto de Brito

2008-10-01

105

Clinical epidemiological profile of American tegumentary leishmaniasis at the Pinto Sugar Mill in Moreno Municipality, Greater Metropolitan Recife, Pernambuco State, Brazil / Perfil clínico-epidemiológico da leishmaniose tegumentar americana no Engenho Pinto, Município de Moreno, Região Metropolitana do Recife, Pernambuco, Brasil  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available A leishmaniose tegumentar americana incide em todas as regiões do Estado de Pernambuco, Brasil, onde se apresenta em expansão, com o surgimento de focos em novas áreas, como o Município de Moreno, na região metropolitana do Recife. O objetivo deste estudo foi avaliar a prevalência da infecção e iden [...] tificar os casos autóctones de leishmaniose tegumentar americana. Em abril de 2006, realizou-se um inquérito populacional por meio da aplicação de um questionário e do teste de intradermoreação de Montenegro a 481 indivíduos do Engenho Pinto, dos quais 47% eram do sexo masculino e 74% menores de 30 anos. Cento e quarenta e quatro (30%) indivíduos apresentaram reação positiva ao teste. Dentre estes, cinco apresentaram lesões ativas, 41 foram curados após quimioterapia e um curado espontaneamente. A RIFI realizada nos soros de 89 indivíduos apresentou 36% de positividade. A alta prevalência aponta para a expansão epidemiológica da doença nessa área da região metropolitana, fato preocupante, pois não há medidas eficazes para o controle da leishmaniose tegumentar americana, a não ser uma conscientização ecológica para minimizar o risco de infecção. Abstract in english American tegumentary leishmaniasis (ATL) is present in all regions of Pernambuco State, Brazil, where it is spreading, with the emergence of foci in new areas like the Municipality (County) of Moreno in Greater Metropolitan Recife. The objective of the current study was to assess the prevalence of i [...] nfection and identify autochthonous cases of ATL. In April 2006 a population survey was performed using a questionnaire and the Montenegro skin test (MST) in 481 individuals from the Pinto Sugar Mill, of whom 47% were males and 74% were younger than 30 years. One hundred forty-four individuals (30%) showed a positive MST. Of these, five presented active lesions, 41 were cured after meglumine antimoniate treatment, and one showed a spontaneous cure. Indirect immunofluorescence (IIF) was performed on sera from 89 individuals and showed a 36% positive rate. The high ATL prevalence demonstrates the epidemiological spread of the disease in Greater Metropolitan Recife, a worrisome development since there are no effective measures for ATL control except ecological awareness raising to minimize the risk of infection.

Maria Edileuza Felinto de, Brito; Cláudio Júlio, Silva; Cristiane Máximo, Silva; Pedro Raposo, Salazar; Juliana Santos, Coutinho; Luiza de Campos, Reis; Valéria Rego Alves, Pereira; Sinval Pinto, Brandão-Filho; Ângela Cristina Rapela, Medeiros.

2445-24-01

106

Biomass utilisation in the Caribbean - sugar industry aspects  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The article discusses present and future cogeneration systems for sugar cane factories in individual countries in the Caribbean. At present, as in the past, bagasse is the fuel used to provide mechanical power, electrical power and process heating for the sugar factories, and to provide power for irrigation and for the domestic communities living in the environs of the factories. When bagasse fuel is in short supply (although normally there is a surplus), wood, fuel oil, diesel and natural gas are used. The main factors affecting co-generation levels in cane sugar factories are the grinding rate and the amount of cane milled per year; how these relate to fuel consumption is explained. The article lists some of the issues to be resolved regarding cogeneration. The paper goes on to discuss the potential for utilisation of bagasse in cogeneration in some of the bigger countries, the potential market, and the changes needed to make this more profitable.

Mellowes, W.A.; Pilgrim, A.C. [The University of the West Indies, St. Augustine (Trinidad and Tobago)

2001-07-01

107

Characterisation of a phenolic resin and sugar cane pulp composite  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in english Polymeric materials are increasingly replacing metallic materials as a result of their properties. In this work a composite of phenolic resin and sugar cane pulp was developed. The sugar cane pulp has been previously alkalinised, dried, and milled and the particles had been classified in a range of [...] grain sizes. Experimental assays were performed, varying the proportion of the resin and the reinforcement and the size of the cane pulp fibre, keeping the pressure and moulding temperature constant. These composites were characterised according to physical and chemical properties, through test bodies produced in moulds according to ASTM standards. The experiments performed showed that the use of sugar cane pulp as reinforcement in polymeric composites represents an option for reducing costs in industrial applications, thus suggesting a significant industrial applicability of the product.

J. L., Leite; A. T. N., Pires; S. M. A. G. Ulson de, Souza; A. A. Ulson de, Souza.

2004-06-01

108

Characterisation of a phenolic resin and sugar cane pulp composite  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Polymeric materials are increasingly replacing metallic materials as a result of their properties. In this work a composite of phenolic resin and sugar cane pulp was developed. The sugar cane pulp has been previously alkalinised, dried, and milled and the particles had been classified in a range of grain sizes. Experimental assays were performed, varying the proportion of the resin and the reinforcement and the size of the cane pulp fibre, keeping the pressure and moulding temperature constant. These composites were characterised according to physical and chemical properties, through test bodies produced in moulds according to ASTM standards. The experiments performed showed that the use of sugar cane pulp as reinforcement in polymeric composites represents an option for reducing costs in industrial applications, thus suggesting a significant industrial applicability of the product.

J. L. Leite

2004-06-01

109

A STUDY OF PERCEPTION OF WOMEN EMPLOYEES IN WEAVING MILLS  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Indian Textile Industry holds key position in Indian economy. It contributes about 4 percent to the GDP and 12 per cent to the country's total export earnings. It provides direct employment to over 35 million people, the second largest provider of employment after agriculture. Besides, another 54.85 million people are engaged in its allied activities. High perception assists the management to overcome several women employees' problems in weaving mills. In this paper, the researcher has made an attempt to highlight the perception of women employees in weaving mills in Ichalkaranji. The present study is an earnest attempt to assess present condition of the perception of the women employees in weaving mills at Ichalkaranji in Kolhapur district.

T. K. Jadhav

2014-06-01

110

SWOT ANALYSIS OF INDIAN JUTE INDUSTRY  

OpenAIRE

Jute Industrial sector is an important segment of Indian economy. Jute has been the most versatile natural fibre. The jute sector produces products ranging from low value geo-textile to high end garments, decorative, upholstery etc. Many of the jute plants or mills are now engaged in producing jute blended yarns. The jute industry scenario in India has been changed from making traditional hessian to high end fashion garments. The jute export counts to about 1000 crore, the import of raw jute ...

Ramya, G. Karthik And N.

2012-01-01

111

"Sugar" jõuab lavale / Ülle Hallik  

Index Scriptorium Estoniae

Vanemuises esietendub 5. juunil "Sugar", lavastaja Mare Tommingas. Muusikal põhineb Jule Styne muusikalil "Sugar ehk Dzhässis ainult tüdrukud". Muusikali libreto kirjutas Peter Stone Robert Thoereni jutustuse ning Billy Wilderi ja I. A. L. Dimanondi filmi "Some Like It Hot" põhjal

Hallik, Ülle, 1963-

2008-01-01

112

PROGRESS AND PROBLEMS OF AGRO-BASED INDUSTRIES IN INDIA: A STUDY OF SUGAR INDUSTRY  

OpenAIRE

Agro-based industries play a vital role in the development of Indian rural economy. India's 70 per cent of total population directly depends on agriculture and agro-based industries. Sugar industry is one of the most important agro-based industries in the development process of rural India. Therefore, the study has selected this agrobased industry and analysed sugarcane and sugar production, trends of sugarcane and sugar product, recovery of cane during the period 1950-51 to 2010-11. Mah...

Takale, Dinkar P.

2013-01-01

113

Sugar Cane Magic.  

Science.gov (United States)

The booklet contains a story for middle-grade students which shows how the roles of men and women change through the years. The main characters are three sixth graders in Hawaii: one girl has Hawaiian ancestors, one girl has Japanese ancestors, and one boy has New England missionary ancestors. The children discover a magic stalk of sugar cane…

Mower, Nancy Alpert

114

29 CFR 780.815 - Basic conditions of exemption; second part, processing of sugar beets, sugar-beet molasses...  

Science.gov (United States)

...processing of sugar beets, sugar-beet molasses, sugarcane, or maple sap. 780...Processing of Sugar Beets, Sugar-Beet Molasses, Sugarcane, or Maple Sap into Sugar...processing of sugar beets, sugar-beet molasses, sugarcane, or maple sap....

2010-07-01

115

Evaluation of soil contents in sugar cane loading using activation analysis  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

When sugar cane is cut and taken to the sugar and alcohol mills, a significant quantity of soil is loaded with the stalks. This content has been reduced to 1% due to improvement in harvesting methods. Elements present in soil but not in sugar cane have been studied to act as tracers in the determination of unwanted minerals. Samples of different soils were irradiated with thermal neutrons in a nuclear reactor and the induced radioactivity measured by high resolution gamma ray spectrometry. (author). 52 refs., 7 figs., 11 tabs

116

High Blood Sugar (in Type 1 Diabetes)  

Science.gov (United States)

... Control and Management / High Blood Sugar High Blood Sugar Definition and Symptoms High blood sugar, or hyperglycemia, ... PDF version > What to Do About High Blood Sugar Levels The following recommendations are general treatments for ...

117

Chemistry based on renewable raw materials: perspectives for a sugar cane-based biorefinery.  

Science.gov (United States)

Carbohydrates are nowadays a very competitive feedstock for the chemical industry because their availability is compatible with world-scale chemical production and their price, based on the carbon content, is comparable to that of petrochemicals. At the same time, demand is rising for biobased products. Brazilian sugar cane is a competitive feedstock source that is opening the door to a wide range of bio-based products. This essay begins with the importance of the feedstock for the chemical industry and discusses developments in sugar cane processing that lead to low cost feedstocks. Thus, sugar cane enables a new chemical industry, as it delivers a competitive raw material and a source of energy. As a result, sugar mills are being transformed into sustainable biorefineries that fully exploit the potential of sugar cane. PMID:21637329

Villela Filho, Murillo; Araujo, Carlos; Bonfá, Alfredo; Porto, Weber

2011-01-01

118

Remedial actions at inactive uranium mill tailings sites  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In 1978 Congress enacted Public Law 95-604, the Uranium Mill Tailings Radiation Control Act of 1978. The Act authorizes DOE, in cooperation with the affected States, Indian tribes and the owners of the sites, to implement remedial action at inactive uranium mill tailings sites. Since there are significant uncertainties in the present technology for controlling the radiological hazards associated with mill tailings, a concentrated research and development program based on an integrated Remedial Action Technology Plan will be implemented with significant laboratory, university and contractor participation. Discussed are the major questions and issues concerning the measurement of radon and radon daughters, requirements for remedial action, and the main categories of research and development for the mill tailings project

119

The ultrasound-assisted sugar extraction from sugar beet cossettes  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The aim of this work was to study the ultrasound-assisted water extraction of sugar from sugar beet cossettes. The ultrasound bath device (25 kHz, 200 W) was used. The sonication accelerated sugar diffusion at both temperatures 18 deg C and 77.6 deg C and gave the higher level of dry matter content SS (4-6 percent) and sugar content CK (7-22 percent) in juice. The SS and CK depended on time of exposition, time and temperature of extraction. In particular, the effects of 5 min ultrasound-assisted extraction were equal to 20 min extraction in traditional conditions. The shorter time, lower temperature, higher efficiency and purity of juice could be the effects of sugar extraction with ultrasound. The change of thickness of diffusion membrane, microflows in tissue as well as it's environment caused by ultrasound was the reason of acceleration of sugar extraction

120

Energy saving in the sugar cane agroindustry; Ahorro de energia en la agroindustria azucarera canera  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The traditional sugar mill is inefficient from the energy point of view. Most of the sugar mills were designed to use all the available bagasse, due to the risk of spontaneous ignition and environmental pollution. Consequently, the steam generators, the turbines and other components were designed to work with low efficiencies. Each ton of sugar produced generates a power potential equivalent to four to six oil barrels (bagasse and residues). That is to say, a sugar mill is capable of producing 500 ton/day of sugar, equivalent to an oil well of 2000 to 3000 barrels/day and one thermoelectric power plant of 15,000 kW. Under this context an analysis is made of the sugar mills in Latin America and the Caribbean as one of the ways of increasing their efficiency and obtain great energy savings. As far as steam generation the appropriate use of energy is dictated by the boilers' efficiency. [Spanish] El ingenio azucarero tradicional es ineficiente desde el punto de vista energetico. La mayoria de los ingenios azucareros se disenaron para usar todo el bagazo disponible, debido al riesgo de ignicion espontanea y contaminacion. En consecuencia, los generadores de vapor, las turbinas y demas componentes fueron disenados para trabajar con bajas eficiencias. Cada tonelada de azucar producida genera una potencialidad energetica equivalente de cuatro a seis barriles de petroleo (bagazo y residuos). Es decir, un ingenio capaz de producir 500 ton/dia de azucar equivalente a un pozo de petroleo de 2000 a 3000 barriles/dia y una termoelectrica de 15000 kW. Bajo este contexto se hace un analisis del ingenio azucarero en Latinoamerica y el Caribe como una de las vias para incrementar su eficiencia y lograr grandes ahorros en la energia. En cuanto a generacion de vapor se refiere, el buen uso de la energia viene expresado por la eficiencia de las calderas.

Zedillo Ponce de Leon, Luis [Grupo de paises Latinoamericanos y del Caribe exportadores de azucar (Mexico)

1996-07-01

121

Sugar Price Analysis in Indonesia  

OpenAIRE

This study examines the dynamic relationship between sugar price, exchange rate, oil price, rice price, and consumer price index (CPI); and to detect is there any difference between exchange rate, oil price, rice price, and CPI in effecting sugar price. We employ Vector Auto-regressions methods for a time series of monthly data from January 1998 to December 2011. Generally, the Impulse Response Function results provide the positive response of Indonesian sugar price from shock of the change o...

Kumara Jati

2013-01-01

122

FM Interviews: Stephanie Mills  

OpenAIRE

Stephanie Mills is an author, editor, lecturer and ecological activist who has concerned herself with the fate of the earth and humanity since 1969, when her commencement address at Mills College in Oakland, Calif., drew the attention of a nation. Her speech, which the New York Times called "perhaps the most anguished statement" of the year's crop of valedictory speeches, predicted a bleak future. According to Mills, humanity was destined for suicide, the result of overpopulation and overuse ...

Valauskas, Edward

2002-01-01

123

Molecular Mobility in Sugar Glasses  

OpenAIRE

Glasses are liquids that exhibit solid state behavior as a result of their extremely high viscosity. Regarding their application to foods, glasses play a role in the preservation of foods, due to their high viscosity and the concomitant low molecular mobility. This thesis focuses on sugar glasses. Sugar glasses are relevant as model systems for foods that contain sugars and have a low water content and/or that are frozen, since in both types the sugars can exist in the glassy state. Often, th...

Dries, I. J.

2000-01-01

124

Characterization and lime treatment of olive mill wastewater.  

Science.gov (United States)

Seventeen olive mill wastewater (OMW) samples were characterized. For characterization of the samples, amount of total, fixed, volatile, suspended, volatile-suspended solids, COD, oil-grease, polyphenol, volatile phenol, nitrogen and reducing sugar were determined. Effects of lime treatment on the waste samples were investigated. Reduction of contents of the samples treated with the lime was described. The effect of the addition of lime on an artificial phenolic mixture was also examined. PMID:11358317

Aktas, E S; Imre, S; Ersoy, L

2001-06-01

125

DETERMINATION OF PRIMARY METABOLITES IN CEREAL MILLING FRACTIONS  

OpenAIRE

The aim of this study was to determine of primary metabolites (content of starch, total dietary fibre, reducing sugars, proteins and amino acids) in four milling fractions of selected cereals (barley, wheat, oat, spelt, rye, triticale) grew in the year 2009. It was found that flour fractions (break flour and reduction flour) showed the lower content of primary metabolites than bran fractions (fine bran and coarse bran). The aim of this study was also to mention the potential use of bran parts...

Eva Ivanišová; Miroslav Ondrejovi?; Barbara Mickowska; Stanislav Šilhár; Tatiana Boj?anská

2013-01-01

126

75 FR 60715 - Domestic Sugar Program-FY 2010 and FY 2011 Cane Sugar and Beet Sugar Marketing Allotments and...  

Science.gov (United States)

...DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE Commodity Credit Corporation Domestic Sugar Program--FY 2010 and FY 2011 Cane Sugar and Beet Sugar Marketing Allotments and Company Allocations AGENCY: Commodity Credit Corporation,...

2010-10-01

127

Improvising on an Indian Flute.  

Science.gov (United States)

The Indian flute can be used by teachers to supplement classroom study of Indian culture. Indians used it as a personal instrument. Describes how an Indian flute can be made, and suggests improvising bird calls and melodies on it. (CS)

Giles, Martha Mead

1984-01-01

128

75 FR 38833 - Indian Gaming  

Science.gov (United States)

...INTERIOR Bureau of Indian Affairs Indian Gaming AGENCY: Bureau of Indian Affairs, Interior...Notice of Approved Tribal-State Class III Gaming Compact...Paula Hart, Director, Office of Indian Gaming, Office of the Deputy Assistant...

2010-07-06

129

77 FR 76513 - Indian Gaming  

Science.gov (United States)

...INTERIOR Bureau of Indian Affairs Indian Gaming AGENCY: Bureau of Indian Affairs, Interior...Approved Amended Tribal-State Class III Gaming Compact taking effect...L. Hart, Director, Office of Indian Gaming, Office of the Deputy Assistant...

2012-12-28

130

76 FR 49505 - Indian Gaming  

Science.gov (United States)

...INTERIOR Bureau of Indian Affairs Indian Gaming AGENCY: Bureau of Indian Affairs, Interior...ACTION: Notice of Tribal-State Class III Gaming Compact taking effect...L. Hart, Director, Office of Indian Gaming, Office of the Deputy Assistant...

2011-08-10

131

77 FR 5566 - Indian Gaming  

Science.gov (United States)

...INTERIOR Bureau of Indian Affairs Indian Gaming AGENCY: Bureau of Indian Affairs, Interior...Notice of Tribal--State Class III Gaming Compact Taking Effect...L. Hart, Director, Office of Indian Gaming, Office of the Deputy Assistant...

2012-02-03

132

77 FR 76514 - Indian Gaming  

Science.gov (United States)

...INTERIOR Bureau of Indian Affairs Indian Gaming AGENCY: Bureau of Indian Affairs, Interior...Approved Amended Tribal-State Class III Gaming Compact taking effect...L. Hart, Director, Office of Indian Gaming, Office of the Deputy Assistant...

2012-12-28

133

76 FR 165 - Indian Gaming  

Science.gov (United States)

...INTERIOR Bureau of Indian Affairs Indian Gaming AGENCY: Bureau of Indian Affairs, Interior...Tribe'') and the State of Wisconsin Gaming Compact of 1992, as Amended in 1999...L. Hart, Director, Office of Indian Gaming, Office of the Deputy Assistant...

2011-01-03

134

Usual Intake of Added sugars  

Science.gov (United States)

Usual Intake of Added sugars Table A40. Added sugars: Means, percentiles and standard errors of usual intake, 2007-2010 Age (Years) N1 teaspoons3 Mean (SE)2 5% (SE) 10% (SE) 25% (SE) 50% (SE) 75% (SE) 90% (SE) 95% (SE) Males 1-3 774 9.4 (0.31) 3.1 (0.17) 4.1

135

Corn Wet Milling Lab  

Science.gov (United States)

Description: Wet Corn Milling is an industrial process that that converts corn to a wide variety of by-products. The wet milling industry is the largest non-feed user of corn, using approximately 1 billion bushels annually. This lab looks at the separation steps in the industrial processing of corn.

Olson, Eric

136

When Blood Sugar Is Too High  

Science.gov (United States)

... often can be unhealthy. What Is High Blood Sugar? The blood glucose level is the amount of ... sugar levels are. Continue Causes of High Blood Sugar Levels Managing diabetes is like a three-way ...

137

Sugar beet (Beta vulgaris L.).  

Science.gov (United States)

Creating transgenic plants is invaluable for the genetic analysis of sugar beet and will be increasingly important as sugar beet genomic technologies progress. A protocol for Agrobacterium-mediated transformation of sugar beet is described in this chapter. Our protocol is optimized for a sugar beet genotype that performs exceptionally well in tissue culture, including the steps of dedifferentiation, callus proliferation, and regeneration. Because of the infrequent occurrence of such a genotype in sugar beet populations, our protocol includes an in vitro propagation method for germplasm preservation. The starting materials for transgenic experiments are aseptic shoots grown from surface-sterilized seed balls. Callus is induced from leaf explants and subsequently infected with Agrobacterium. Plantlets are regenerated from transgenic callus and vernalized for flowering, if necessary. The efficiency of transformation was quite high; in our laboratory, the culture of only ten leaf explants, on average, generated one transgenic plant. PMID:25300853

Kagami, Hiroyo; Kurata, Masayuki; Matsuhira, Hiroaki; Taguchi, Kazunori; Mikami, Tetsuo; Tamagake, Hideto; Kubo, Tomohiko

2015-01-01

138

Indian Journal Server Initiative  

Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

click here to start indian journal server initiative problems with indian journals why common platform role of the initiative logistics logistics (contd.) technology ppt slide why journals may be reluctant to join questions to be answered why it may succeed ...

139

Incorporated residues to sugar cone during the industrial processing evaluated by neutron activation analysis  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In the Brazilian sugar and alcohol industry a modern agronomic and industrial technology has been developed during the last years, due to the high demand for sugarcane. The intensive harvest mechanization has increased the soil levels in the cane delivered to the mills despite of the introduced washing systems. Electric welding has been used to recuperate the rollers of the mill and other metallic components thus increasing the contents of metals in the processed material. Samples of cane, juice and bagasse were colected at several points of the milling tandem and submitted to neutron activation analysis. The concentrations of Fe, Cr, Co, Zn, Br and Cs showed an increment through the mill, indicating the contribution of the rollers wear. Sc and the rare earth elements La, Ce, Sm and Eu had about the same levels in all samples, therefore they must have come with the soil adhered to the cane. (author)

140

The "coolie curse": The evolution of white colonial attitudes towards the Indian question, 1860-1900  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Neither by accident nor design, Natal became home to over 50 000 Indian immigrants during the latter half of the nineteenth century. At the request of fewer than 50 sugar planters, colonial Natal embarked on a labour dispensation which was initially envisaged as "an experiment," on a small scale, as [...] Governor John Scott saw it. Appreciated for their contribution as labourers to the success of sugar production, Indians nonetheless, were resented by white colonists as settlers after they had completed their indenture contracts. That resentment was heightened by the influx of traders and non-indentured Indians into Natal after 1875 and found expression in published opinion and in discriminatory legislation. By the 1890s Natal's anti-Indian legislation became an imperial controversy which also proved life-changing for M.K. Gandhi. This article attempts to track the evolution of white settler attitudes to what was termed the "coolie curse."

Duncan, Du Bois.

141

Relationship between Rice Sample Milling Conditions and Milling Quality  

Science.gov (United States)

The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of milling conditions on milling quality of medium grain rough rice M202. Using a McGill No. 3 mill, the conditions studied were milling weight and duration, and polishing weight and duration. This research examined the relationships among the...

142

On an Interpretation of Mill’s Qualitative Utilitarianism  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This paper is a reply to Jonathan Riley’s criticism of my reading of Mill(both published in the Philosophical Quarterly 2003. I show that Riley’s interpretation has no textual support in Mill’s writing by putting the supposedly supporting quotations in their proper context. Secondly it is demonstrated how my reading is not incompatible with hedonism. Mill’s use of the concepts of ‘quality’, ‘quantity’, and ‘pleasure’ are explained and illustrated. I conclude by considering whether the possible redundancy of Mill’s quality/quantity discussion would be problematic.

CHRISTOPH SCHMIDT-PETRI

2006-12-01

143

SWOT ANALYSIS OF INDIAN JUTE INDUSTRY  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Jute Industrial sector is an important segment of Indian economy. Jute has been the most versatile natural fibre. The jute sector produces products ranging from low value geo-textile to high end garments, decorative, upholstery etc. Many of the jute plants or mills are now engaged in producing jute blended yarns. The jute industry scenario in India has been changed from making traditional hessian to high end fashion garments. The jute export counts to about 1000 crore, the import of raw jute has been dropped by 66 per cent in 2008-09. The Indian jute industry is having plenty of opportunity by its side; it is not only one of the oldest industries of India but also among the major employer of the nation. There are a lot of strengths and also much chance to seize them but it could only be done if it overcomes its weaknesses and threats.

G. KARTHIK AND N. RAMYA

2012-11-01

144

The status of the uranium mill tailings remedial actions project (UMTRAP)  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In 1978, Congress enacted Public Law 95-604, the ''Uranium Mill Tailings Radiation Control Act of 1978.'' The Act authorizes the Department of Energy to stabilize and control the tailings at designated inactive uranium mill tailings sites in a safe and environmentally acceptable manner. DOE has established the Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Actions (UMTRA) Project Office to implement, in cooperation with the affected States, Indian tribes and owners of the sites, remedial actions at the sites. The UMTRA Project Office has initiated efforts to perform remedial actions in accordance with EPA cleanup standards

145

Ball milling pretreatment of oil palm biomass for enhancing enzymatic hydrolysis.  

Science.gov (United States)

Oil palm biomass, namely empty fruit bunch and frond fiber, were pretreated using a planetary ball mill. Particle sizes and crystallinity index values of the oil palm biomass were significantly reduced with extended ball mill processing time. The treatment efficiency was evaluated by the generation of glucose, xylose, and total sugar conversion yields from the pretreatment process compared to the amount of sugars from raw materials. Glucose and xylose contents were determined using high-performance liquid chromatography. An increasing trend in glucose and xylose yield as well as total sugar conversion yield was observed with decreasing particle size and crystallinity index. Oil palm frond fiber exhibited the best material yields using ball milling pretreatment with generated glucose, xylose, and total sugar conversion yields of 87.0, 81.6, and 85.4%, respectively. In contrast, oil palm empty fruit bunch afforded glucose and xylose of 70.0 and 82.3%, respectively. The results obtained in this study showed that ball mill-treated oil palm biomass is a suitable pretreatment method for high conversion of glucose and xylose. PMID:24908052

Zakaria, Mohd Rafein; Fujimoto, Shinji; Hirata, Satoshi; Hassan, Mohd Ali

2014-08-01

146

Development and Installation of High Pressure Boilers for Co-Generation Plant in Sugar Industries  

OpenAIRE

The sugar cane containing minimum 30% fiber was referred as bagasse and used the generation of power required for the operation of sugar mill. The bagasse is fired in the boiler for producing steam at high pressure, which is extracted through various single high capacity turbines and used in the process. The installation of high pressure boilers and high pressure turbo-generators has provision for the operation of co-generation plant during the off-season also that enhances the power generati...

Kolar Seenappa Venkatesh; Roy, Aashis S.

2010-01-01

147

Process for whole cell saccharification of lignocelluloses to sugars using a dual bioreactor system  

Science.gov (United States)

The present invention describes a process for saccharification of lignocelluloses to sugars using whole microbial cells, which are enriched from cultures inoculated with paper mill waste water, wood processing waste and soil. A three-member bacterial consortium is selected as a potent microbial inocula and immobilized on inedible plant fibers for biomass saccharification. The present invention further relates the design of a dual bioreactor system, with various biocarriers for enzyme immobilization and repeated use. Sugars are continuously removed eliminating end-product inhibition and consumption by cell.

Lu, Jue (Okemos, MI); Okeke, Benedict (Montgomery, AL)

2012-03-27

148

Optimization of hammer mills  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A simple mathematical model is proposed for the residence time distribution of crushed grain in hammer mills. The residence time distribution of the crushed grain, product quality, and the total energy consumption under various operation conditions (number of hammer rows, number of hammers in a row, mesh size of screen, velocity and output of the mill has been used as variables) was studied on a pilot hammer mill. The radiotracer was used for the experimental verification of the model and for the determination of a holdup (the magnitude of the rotating grist layer) on the pilot scale and partly also on the full-scale mills. The impulse responses were influenced by transport processes behind the screen. This effect had to be taken into account during the analysis of experimental data. The method of a non-linear regression analysis was applied for the evaluation of parameters of the mathematical model. (author)

149

Dangers of High and Low Blood Sugar  

Science.gov (United States)

... On Track Dangers of High and Low Blood Sugar Dangers of High and Low Blood Sugar htmDiab1OnTrack_Dangers Illness, insulin, food and exercise all can affect blood sugar. When these elements get out of balance, sugar ...

150

Sugar Cane Nutrient Distribution Analysis  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Neutron Activation Analysis (NAA), Molecular Absorption Spectrometry (UV-Vis), and Flame Photometry techniques were applied to measure plant nutrient concentrations of Br, Ca, Cl, K, Mn, N, Na and P in sugar-cane root, stalk and leaves. These data will be used to explore the behavior of element concentration in different parts of the sugar-cane to better understand the plant nutrient distribution during its development.

151

Traditional And Medicinal Uses Of Indian Black Berry  

OpenAIRE

Jamun or Indian Black berry is considered as a traditional medicine that helps in controlling diabetes. Specifically, jamun has an action on the pancreas, the main organ responsible for causing diabetes. The fruit, the seeds and even the juice of the jamun all play an important role in the treatment of diabetes. The jamun seeds contain a type of glucose called Jamboline, which checks the conversion of starch into sugar in cases of increased production of glucose, the main reason behind your h...

Sampath Kumar, K. P.; Aravind. G; Pragati Kumar, B.; Harish Gopinath; Durai vel; Debjit Bhowmik

2013-01-01

152

Selection of coal mill reject handling system for thermal power plants  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This paper aims at providing some guidelines to plant engineers and consultants for selecting the appropriate type of coal mill reject handling system for coal fired thermal power plants (especially, for Indian scenario). Evaluation is based on drive kW requirements; other important criteria such as layout, maintenance requirements, fire hazards etc are also compared. (orig.)

Mallick, S.S. [Development Consultants Private Ltd., Kolkata (India)

2009-07-01

153

Sugar substitutes: Health controversy over perceived benefits  

OpenAIRE

Sugar is an inseparable part of the food we consume. But too much sugar is not ideal for our teeth and waistline. There have been some controversial suggestions that excessive sugar may play an important role in certain degenerative diseases. So artificial sweeteners or artificially sweetened products continue to attract consumers. A sugar substitute (artificial sweetener) is a food additive that duplicates the effect of sugar in taste, but usually has less food energy. Besides its benefits, ...

Tandel, Kirtida R.

2011-01-01

154

Mining and milling of uranium ore: Indian scenario  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The occurrence of uranium minerals in Singhbhum Thrust belt of Eastern India has been known since 1937. In 1950, a team of geologists of the Atomic Minerals Division was assigned to closely examine this 160 km long belt. Since then, several occurrences of uranium have been found and a few of them have sufficient grade and tonnage for commercial exploitation. In 1967, the Government of India formed Uranium Corporation of India Ltd., under the administrative control of the Department of Atomic Energy, with the specific objective of mining and processing of uranium ore and produce uranium concentrates. At present the Corporation operates three underground uranium mines, one ore processing plant with expanded capacity, and two uranium recovery plants. Continuing investigations by the Atomic Mineral Division has discovered several new deposits and favourable areas. The most notable is the large Domiasiat deposit of the sandstone type found in the State of Meghalaya. This deposit is now being considered for commercial exploitation using the in-situ leaching technology. (author)

155

76 FR 36512 - USDA Increases the Domestic Sugar Overall Allotment Quantity, Reassigns Domestic Cane Sugar...  

Science.gov (United States)

...AGRICULTURE Office of the Secretary USDA Increases the Domestic Sugar Overall Allotment Quantity, Reassigns Domestic Cane Sugar Allotments, and Increases the Fiscal Year 2011 Raw Sugar Tariff-Rate Quota AGENCY: Office of the Secretary,...

2011-06-22

156

Effect of the milling conditions on the degree of amorphization of selenium by milling in a planetary ball mill  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The effect of the milling parameters (rotation speed of the milling device and duration of milling) on the phase composition of the products of milling of fully crystalline selenium has been investigated. The milling was conducted using a planetary micromill and the phase composition of the milling products was determined by differential thermal analysis. It has been found that ball milling leads to the partial amorphization of the starting crystalline material. The content of amorphous phase in the milling products depends, in a rather complicated way, on the milling parameters. At the milling parameters adopted in the present study, the milling product was never fully amorphous. The complicated way the milling parameters affect the content of amorphous phase in the milling products is a result of competition of two processes: amorphization due to deformation and refinement of grains of milled material and crystallization of the already produced amorphous material at the cost of heat evolved in the milling vial during the milling process

157

National Indian Gaming Commission  

Science.gov (United States)

The National Indian Gaming Commission is an independent federal regulatory agency, and along with regulating gaming activities on Indian lands, they are also responsible for "shielding Indian tribes from organized crime and other corrupting influences." The Commission's website is designed to inform interested parties about their ongoing activities, and visitors will find that the information here ranges from calendars of upcoming conferences to official decisions and actions taken by the Commission. First-time visitors may wish to start by looking over the FAQ section within the "About Us" area. Once there, they can find the answers to questions like "Do Indian tribes pay taxes?" and "What happens to the profits from Indian gaming operations?" Moving on, the "Laws & Regulations" area contains the text of such important documents as the Indian Gaming Regulatory Act and the Johnson Act. The site is rounded out by the "Reading Room", which contains recent and past bulletins, gaming ordinances, and a list of tribal gaming operations.

158

Methods for dehydration of sugars and sugar alcohols  

Science.gov (United States)

The invention includes a method of dehydration of a sugar using a dehydration catalyst and a co-catalyst within a reactor. A sugar is introduced and H.sub.2 is flowed through the reactor at a pressure of less than or equal to about 300 psig to convert at least some of the sugar into an anhydrosugar product. The invention includes a process for producing isosorbide. A starting material comprising sorbitol is flowed into a reactor. H.sub.2 is counter flowed through the reactor. The starting material is exposed to a catalyst in the presence of a co-catalyst which comprises at least one metal. The exposing is conducted at a hydrogen pressure of less than or equal to 300 psig within the reactor and the hydrogen removes at least some of any water present during the exposing and inhibits formation of colored byproducts.

Holladay, Johnathan E [Kennewick, WA; Hu, Jianli [Kennewick, WA; Zhang, Xinjie [Burlington, MA; Wang, Yong [Richland, WA

2010-08-10

159

76 FR 56466 - Indian Gaming  

Science.gov (United States)

...INTERIOR Bureau of Indian Affairs Indian Gaming AGENCY: Bureau of Indian Affairs, Interior...of Approved Tribal--State Class III Gaming Compact...This notice publishes an approval of the gaming compact between the Flandreau Santee...

2011-09-13

160

78 FR 17427 - Indian Gaming  

Science.gov (United States)

...INTERIOR Bureau of Indian Affairs Indian Gaming AGENCY: Bureau of Indian Affairs, Interior...ACTION: Notice of Approved Amended Gaming Compact...publishes the approval of the Amended Gaming Compact between the...

2013-03-21

161

77 FR 30550 - Indian Gaming  

Science.gov (United States)

...INTERIOR Bureau of Indian Affairs Indian Gaming AGENCY: Bureau of Indian Affairs, Interior...of Approved Tribal--State Class III Gaming Compact...Department of an extension to the Class III Gaming Compact between the Pyramid Lake...

2012-05-23

162

77 FR 45371 - Indian Gaming  

Science.gov (United States)

...INTERIOR Bureau of Indian Affairs Indian Gaming AGENCY: Bureau of Indian Affairs, Interior...of Approved Tribal--State Class III Gaming Compact...This notice publishes an extension of Gaming between the Oglala Sioux Tribe and...

2012-07-31

163

77 FR 43110 - Indian Gaming  

Science.gov (United States)

...INTERIOR Bureau of Indian Affairs Indian Gaming AGENCY: Bureau of Indian Affairs, Interior...of Approved Tribal--State Class III Gaming Compact...This notice publishes an extension of Gaming between the Rosebud Sioux Tribe and...

2012-07-23

164

75 FR 61511 - Indian Gaming  

Science.gov (United States)

...INTERIOR Bureau of Indian Affairs Indian Gaming AGENCY: Bureau of Indian Affairs, Interior...Notice of Approved Tribal-State Class III Gaming Compact...This notice publishes an extension of Gaming Compact between the Rosebud Sioux...

2010-10-05

165

77 FR 41200 - Indian Gaming  

Science.gov (United States)

...INTERIOR Bureau of Indian Affairs Indian Gaming AGENCY: Bureau of Indian Affairs, Interior...of Approved Tribal--State Class III Gaming Compact...Department of an extension to the Class III Gaming Compact between the State of...

2012-07-12

166

77 FR 59641 - Indian Gaming  

Science.gov (United States)

...INTERIOR Bureau of Indian Affairs Indian Gaming AGENCY: Bureau of Indian Affairs, Interior...Notice of Approved Tribal-State Class III Gaming Compact...This notice publishes an extension of Gaming between the Rosebud Sioux Tribe and...

2012-09-28

167

76 FR 8375 - Indian Gaming  

Science.gov (United States)

...INTERIOR Bureau of Indian Affairs Indian Gaming AGENCY: Bureau of Indian Affairs, Interior...Notice of Approved Tribal-State Class III Gaming Compact...This notice publishes an extension of the Gaming Compact between the Oglala Sioux...

2011-02-14

168

78 FR 15738 - Indian Gaming  

Science.gov (United States)

...INTERIOR Bureau of Indian Affairs Indian Gaming AGENCY: Bureau of Indian Affairs, Interior...of Approved Tribal--State Class III Gaming Compact...This notice publishes an extension of the gaming compact between the Rosebud Sioux...

2013-03-12

169

78 FR 11221 - Indian Gaming  

Science.gov (United States)

...INTERIOR Bureau of Indian Affairs Indian Gaming AGENCY: Bureau of Indian Affairs, Interior...Notice of Approved Tribal-State Class III Gaming Compact...This notice publishes an extension of the gaming compact between the Oglala Sioux...

2013-02-15

170

75 FR 55823 - Indian Gaming  

Science.gov (United States)

...INTERIOR Bureau of Indian Affairs Indian Gaming AGENCY: Bureau of Indian Affairs, Interior...Notice of approved Tribal-State Class III Gaming Compact...This notice publishes an extension of Gaming between the Oglala Sioux Tribe and...

2010-09-14

171

76 FR 52968 - Indian Gaming  

Science.gov (United States)

...INTERIOR Bureau of Indian Affairs Indian Gaming AGENCY: Bureau of Indian Affairs, Interior...of Approved Tribal--State Class III Gaming Compact...This notice publishes an extension of Gaming between the Rosebud Sioux Tribe and...

2011-08-24

172

75 FR 8108 - Indian Gaming  

Science.gov (United States)

...INTERIOR Bureau of Indian Affairs Indian Gaming AGENCY: Bureau of Indian Affairs, Interior...Notice of Approved Tribal-State Class III Gaming Compact...the State of Nevada Governing Class III Gaming. DATES: Effective Date: February...

2010-02-23

173

76 FR 33341 - Indian Gaming  

Science.gov (United States)

...INTERIOR Bureau of Indian Affairs Indian Gaming AGENCY: Bureau of Indian Affairs, Interior...of Approved Tribal--State Class III Gaming Compact...This notice publishes an extension of Gaming between the Rosebud Sioux Tribe and...

2011-06-08

174

76 FR 65208 - Indian Gaming  

Science.gov (United States)

...INTERIOR Bureau of Indian Affairs Indian Gaming AGENCY: Bureau of Indian Affairs, Interior...of Approved Tribal--State Class III Gaming Compact...This notice publishes an Approval of the Gaming Compact between the Confederated...

2011-10-20

175

78 FR 33435 - Indian Gaming  

Science.gov (United States)

...INTERIOR Bureau of Indian Affairs Indian Gaming AGENCY: Bureau of Indian Affairs, Interior...Notice of Approved Tribal-State Class III Gaming Amendments...to Amend the Class III Tribal-State Gaming Compact between the Salt River...

2013-06-04

176

78 FR 10203 - Indian Gaming  

Science.gov (United States)

...INTERIOR Bureau of Indian Affairs Indian Gaming AGENCY: Bureau of Indian Affairs, Interior...Notice of Approved Tribal State Class III Gaming Compact...Approval of the Class III Tribal- State Gaming Compact between the Chippewa-Cree...

2013-02-13

177

78 FR 44146 - Indian Gaming  

Science.gov (United States)

...INTERIOR Bureau of Indian Affairs Indian Gaming AGENCY: Bureau of Indian Affairs, Interior...ACTION: Notice of Tribal-State Class III Gaming Compact taking effect...III Amended and Restated Tribal-State Gaming Compact between the Shingle Springs...

2013-07-23

178

75 FR 68823 - Indian Gaming  

Science.gov (United States)

...INTERIOR Bureau of Indian Affairs Indian Gaming AGENCY: Bureau of Indian Affairs, Interior...Notice of Approved Tribal-State Class III Gaming Amendment...approval of the Amendments to the Class III Gaming Compact (Amendment) between the...

2010-11-09

179

78 FR 17428 - Indian Gaming  

Science.gov (United States)

...INTERIOR Bureau of Indian Affairs Indian Gaming AGENCY: Bureau of Indian Affairs, Interior...Notice of Approved Tribal-State Class III Gaming Compact...approval of the Class III Tribal- State Gaming Compact between the Pyramid Lake...

2013-03-21

180

The Efficiency Analyses of Croatian Sugar Industry by Using the Concept of Intellectual Capital  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available During the last fi ve years the sugar industry has become one of the most important branches of Croatian food industry. It is connected with a signifi cant number of various industries in a complex way and employs a signifi cant number of people. A development of the sugar industry stimulates development of commerce, logistics, and a number of correlated industries whose products are necessary in sugar production. Croatian sugar factories have been present at the neighbouring markets and the European Union market for several years. Th e share of sugar in the total export of agricultural products increases every year and in the year 2004, it was 26.8% with the tendency of increasing in the year 2005. Th e foundation of the Intellectual capital (IC concept, as a method of increasing the entire business effi ciency, can be found in the papers of economic theoreticians in the middle of the last century but it reached its real break through in the past 15 years when the concept got more applied and the theory of intellectual capital was developed. In order to prepare Croatian economy for the competition that is expecting Croatia by joining the European Union with full membership, especially the agricultural sector, the application of the IC concept is expected to result with an increase of business effi ciency. Th e intellectual capital concept represents a recommended base, which will help Croatian sugar mills in achieving a better position at the highly competitive market of the European Union.

Dražen Holmik

2006-03-01

181

Inorganic elements in sugar samples  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Sugar is considered a safe food ingredient; however, it can be contaminated by organic elements since its planting until its production process. Thus, this study aims at checking the presence of inorganic elements in samples of crystal, refined and brown sugar available for consumption in Brazil. The applied technique was neutron activation analysis, the k0 method, using the TRIGA MARK - IPR-R1 reactor located at CDTN/CNEN, in Belo Horizonte. It was identified the presence of elements such as, Au, Br, Co, Cr, Hf, K, Na, Sb, Sc and Zn in the samples of crystal/refined sugar and the presence of As, Au, Br, Ca, Co, Cr, Cs, Fe, Hf, K, Na, Sb, Sc, Sm, Sr, Th and Zn in the brown sugar samples. The applied technique was appropriate to this study because it was not necessary to put the samples in solution, essential condition in order to apply other techniques, avoiding contaminations and sample losses, besides allowing a multi elementary detection in different sugar samples. (author)

182

Modeling analysis of sugar fermentation  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The metabolism of glucose and xylose by a naturally occurring anaerobic bacteria, Klebsiella planticola, was studied by using in-vivo NMR techniques and substrates selectively enriched with {sup 13}C to follow the step-by-step transformation process to ethanol. A modelling approach based on compartmental analysis of energy flows was used to study the metabolic constants. The transformation processes for the two sugars followed different mechanisms. Glucose was linked to the basic metabolic activities of the bacteria. Its conversion to ethanol depended only upon the concentration of active cells and therefore was independent of the sugar concentration. The transformation of xylose was linked to an autocatalytic process that demonstrated the secondary nature of the xylose consumption. This process depends on both the concentration of active cells and the concentration of sugar. (author)

Rossi, C.; Loiselle, S.; Bastianoni, S.; Picchi, M.P.; Bonechi, C.; Porcelli, M. [University of Siena (Italy)

1997-07-01

183

Synthesis of the Sugar Moieties  

Science.gov (United States)

Biological activity of the anthracycline antibiotics, which have found wide application in clinical oncology, is strongly related to their glycosidic structure. Modification or switch of the saccharide moiety became an important line of new drug discovery and study of their mechanism of action. Natural glycons (sugar moieties) of the anthracycline antibiotics belong to the 2,6-dideoxypyranose family and their principal representative, daunosamine, is 3-amino-2,3,6-trideoxy- l-lyxo-pyranose. Some newer chemical syntheses of this sugar, from a chiral pool as well as from achiral starting materials, are presented and their capability for scale-up and process development are commented upon. Rational sugar structural modifications, which are either useful for synthetic purposes or offer advantages in experimental therapy of cancer, are discussed from the chemical point of view.

Grynkiewicz, Grzegorz; Szeja, Wieslaw

184

Development and Installation of High Pressure Boilers for Co-Generation Plant in Sugar Industries  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The sugar cane containing minimum 30% fiber was referred as bagasse and used the generation of power required for the operation of sugar mill. The bagasse is fired in the boiler for producing steam at high pressure, which is extracted through various single high capacity turbines and used in the process. The installation of high pressure boilers and high pressure turbo-generators has provision for the operation of co-generation plant during the off-season also that enhances the power generation from 9MW to 23MW. The annual monetary benefits achieved are Rs. 204.13 million and this was based on cost of power sold to the grid @ Rs 2.548 per unit, sugar season of 219 days and off season of 52 days. This required an investment of Rs 820.6 million. The investment had an attractive simple payback period of 48 months.

Kolar Seenappa Venkatesh

2010-05-01

185

Uranium mining and milling  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In this report uranium mining and milling are reviewed. The fuel cycle, different types of uranium geological deposits, blending of ores, open cast and underground mining, the mining cost and radiation protection in mines are treated in the first part of this report. In the second part, the milling of uranium ores is treated, including process technology, acid and alkaline leaching, process design for physical and chemical treatment of the ores, and the cost. Each chapter is clarified by added figures, diagrams, tables, and flowsheets. (HK)

186

Effect of steam pretreatment on oil palm empty fruit bunch for the production of sugars  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Lignocellulose into fuel ethanol is the most feasible conversion route strategy in terms of sustainability. Oil palm empty fruit bunch (EFB) generated from palm oil production is a huge source of cellulosic material and represents a cheap renewable feedstock which awaits further commercial exploitation. The purpose of this study was to investigate the feasibility of using steam at 0.28 MPa and 140 °C generated from the palm oil mill boiler as a pretreatment to enhance the digestibility of EFB for sugars production. The effects of steam pretreatment or autohydrolysis on chemical composition changes, polysaccharide conversion, sugar production and morphology alterations of four different types of EFB namely fresh EFB (EFB1), sterilized EFB (EFB2), shredded EFB (EFB3) and ground EFB (EFB4) were evaluated. In this study, the effects of steam pretreatment showed major alterations in the morphology of EFB as observed under the scanning electron microscope. Steam pretreated EFB2 was found to have the highest total conversion of 30% to sugars with 209 g kg?1 EFB. This production was 10.5 fold higher than for EFB1 and 1.6 fold and 1.7 fold higher than EFB3 and EFB4, respectively. The results suggested that pretreatment of EFB by autohydrolysis using steam from the mill boiler could be considered as being a suitable pretreatment process for the production of sugars. These sugars can be utilized as potential substrates for the production of various products such as fuel ethanol. -- Highlights: ? We investigate the feasibility of steam pretreatment to enhance digestibility of EFB. ? Steam pretreatment increased sugars to 3.4 fold and caused major alteration in EFB morphology under SEM. ? Autohydrolysis which does not require the addition of chemicals is an attractive pretreatment approach to EFB.

187

dix.html">Indian Academy of Sciences - Initiatives  

Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

indian academy of sciences - initiatives appendix: indian institute of science, chandigarh--> indian institute of science, centre for theoretical studies, indian institute, of science, indian statistical institute, ."statistical outline ...

188

ConcepTest: Sugar-Rock Analogy  

Science.gov (United States)

Water containing dissolved sugar evaporates to leave a deposit of sugar in the bottom of a glass. This could be seen as an analog for the formation of a type of a. igneous rock b. metamorphic rock c. sedimentary ...

189

Salt and Sugar in Kids' Meals  

Science.gov (United States)

... right-hand corner of the player. Salt and Sugar in Kids' Meals HealthDay February 2, 2015 Related ... packaged kids’ meals contain too much salt or sugar. The researchers looked at the nutrition content of ...

190

Keeping Track of Your Blood Sugar  

Science.gov (United States)

... Center > Treatment & Prevention > Keeping Track of Your Blood Sugar Print A A A Text Size What's in ... prevent future problems, you have to keep blood sugar levels in a healthy range. To do that, ...

191

Salt and Sugar in Kids' Meals  

Medline Plus

Full Text Available ... meals contain too much salt or sugar. The researchers looked at the nutrition content of more than ... heavy on salt or contained added sugar. The researchers recommend parents and caregivers carefully check labels for ...

192

BIOLISTIC TRANSFORMATION OF SUGAR BEET CELL SUSPENSIONS  

Science.gov (United States)

Nonproprietary sugar beet transformation methods are plagued by low transformation frequencies and lack of reproducibility. In efforts to optimize the methods, we established highly embryogenic sugar beet cell suspension cultures for transformation by the particle bombardment method. Callus obtain...

193

Salt and Sugar in Kids' Meals  

Medline Plus

Full Text Available ... per serving. High sugar, greater than 35% of total calories. The good news, all but 2 of ... many of which exceeded the study limit for total sugars. The not-so-good news, 72% of ...

194

77 FR 2081 - Notice of Inventory Completion: Minnesota Indian Affairs Council, Bemidji, MN  

Science.gov (United States)

...Minnesota Indian Affairs Council, Bemidji, MN AGENCY: National Park Service, Interior...Bemidji Avenue NW., Suite 5, Bemidji, MN 56601, telephone (218) 755-3223. SUPPLEMENTARY...remains were removed from Mille Lacs County, MN. This notice is published as part of...

2012-01-13

195

Sugar Canes as Bioenergy Feedstocks  

Science.gov (United States)

The sugar cane crops currently being grown in the South can play a role in helping the United States meet its need for both renewable transportation fuel and food and feed. Research being conducted at the USDA’s Agricultural Research Service’s Sugarcane Research Laboratory at Houma, Louisiana is g...

196

Estudio descriptivo de las prácticas de manufactura en la industria panelera de los trapiches San Francisco y La Esmeralda en Boyacá y Caldas / Descriptive study of manufacturing practices of panela (Brown sugar) industry from the San Francisco and La Esmeralda mills (Boyacá and Caldas, Colombia)  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Colombia | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish El objetivo de este proyecto fue evaluar la aplicación de las prácticas de manufactura en los trapiches San Francisco y La Esmeralda mediante la aplicación de encuestas etnográficas, documentación fotográfica e identificación de contaminantes microbiológicos presentes en la panela, manos de empleado [...] s e implementos de trabajo. En los resultados obtenidos se encontró que una proporción importante de las muestras presentaron contaminación por bacterias como Staphylococcus epidermidis, Streptococcus uberis, Leuconostoc mesenteroides, Bacillus spp, Corynebacterium spp, Actynomices spp, Lactococcus lactis y Gardnerella vaginalis, y hongos como Fusarium spp, Aspergillus spp, Paecilomyces spp, Penicillium spp y Mucor spp, demostrando falencias en el proceso de producción por la falta de implementación de las Buenas Prácticas de Manufactura. A partir del estudio, se recomendó capacitar a los empleados periódicamente acerca de la manipulación de alimentos y prácticas básicas de higiene y realizar una vigilancia más estricta a los trapiches. Abstract in english In this study was evaluated the implementation of manufacturing practices in the San Francisco and La Esmeralda mills through ethnographic surveys, photographic evidence and recovery of microbiological contaminants from panela, employees hands and working tools. A significant proportion of samples f [...] rom hands, work tools and panela were found contaminate with bacteria such as Staphylococcus epidermidis, Streptococcus uberis, Leuconostoc mesenteroides, Bacillus, Corynebacterium, Actinomyces spp, Lactococcus lactis and Gardnerella vaginalis, and fungi including Fusarium spp, Aspergillus spp, Paecilomyces spp, Penicillium spp and Mucor spp. These results revealed failures in the production process due to the lack of implementation of Good Manufacturing Practices. Based in this study it was recommended to give regular trainings to the employees about food handling and basic hygiene practices. Also carry out a strict monitoring of the mills in order to be able in the future to rank Colombia as greater panela producer and exporter.

Lucía Constanza, Corrales Ramírez; Maira María, Muñoz Ariza; Lina María, González Pérez.

2012-07-01

197

Effect of milling temperature and post-milling cooling procedures on rice milling quality appraisals  

Science.gov (United States)

The objective of this research was to study the effects of different milling conditions and post-milling handling procedures on appraised milling quality of rough rice. Samples of medium grain rough rice (M202) with moisture content (MC) of 11.5±0.2% were used for this study. To create different mil...

198

Force prediction in thread milling  

OpenAIRE

A mechanistic approach for modeling the thread milling process is presented. The mechanics of cutting for thread milling is analyzed as an end milling process with modified cutting edge. The geometry of threads is added to the geometry of the end milling tool to calculate the chip load area. The linear path is simulated and values of the specific energy from end milling are used to compute the cutting forces involved. A comparison between the simulation of the cutting forces for a specific to...

Araujo A. C.; Silveira J. L.; Kapoor S.

2004-01-01

199

19 CFR 151.24 - Unlading facilities for bulk sugar.  

Science.gov (United States)

... false Unlading facilities for bulk sugar. 151.24 Section 151.24 Customs...SAMPLING, AND TESTING OF MERCHANDISE Sugars, Sirups, and Molasses § 151.24 Unlading facilities for bulk sugar. When dutiable sugar is to be...

2010-04-01

200

7 CFR 1435.305 - State cane sugar allotments.  

Science.gov (United States)

... 2010-01-01 false State cane sugar allotments. 1435.305 Section...For Sugar § 1435.305 State cane sugar allotments. (a) Hawaii and...000 short tons, raw value, of the cane sugar allotment. (b) A new...

2010-01-01

201

75 FR 68618 - Indian Gaming  

Science.gov (United States)

...INTERIOR Bureau of Indian Affairs Indian Gaming AGENCY: Bureau of Indian Affairs, Interior...Tribe'') and the State of Wisconsin Gaming Compact of 1991, as Amended in 1999 and...L. Hart, Director, Office of Indian Gaming, Office of the Deputy Assistant...

2010-11-08

202

Indian Academy of Sciences - New associates, 2012  

Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

indian academy of sciences - new associates, 2012   1. shivani agarwal, indian institute of science, bangalore  3. sujit kumar ghosh, indian institute of science education and research, pune  4. m. jeganmohan, indian institute of science education and research, pune  5. santanu mukherjee, indian institute of science, bangalore  6. nisanth nair, indian institute of technology, kanpur  7. supratim ray, indian institute of scien ...

203

Saccharification of recalcitrant biomass and integration options for lignocellulosic sugars from Catchlight Energy’s sugar process (CLE Sugar  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background Woody biomass is one of the most abundant biomass feedstocks, besides agriculture residuals in the United States. The sustainable harvest residuals and thinnings alone are estimated at about 75 million tons/year. These forest residuals and thinnings could produce the equivalent of 5 billion gallons of lignocellulosic ethanol annually. Softwood biomass is the most recalcitrant biomass in pretreatment before an enzymatic hydrolysis. To utilize the most recalcitrant lignocellulosic materials, an efficient, industrially scalable and cost effective pretreatment method is needed. Results Obtaining a high yield of sugar from recalcitrant biomass generally requires a high severity of pretreatment with aggressive chemistry, followed by extensive conditioning, and large doses of enzymes. Catchlight Energy’s Sugar process, CLE Sugar, uses a low intensity, high throughput variation of bisulfite pulping to pretreat recalcitrant biomass, such as softwood forest residuals. By leveraging well-proven bisulfite technology and the rapid progress of enzyme suppliers, CLE Sugar can achieve a high yield of total biomass carbohydrate conversion to monomeric lignocellulosic sugars. For example, 85.8% of biomass carbohydrates are saccharified for un-debarked Loblolly pine chips (softwood, and 94.0% for debarked maple chips (hardwood. Furan compound formation was 1.29% of biomass feedstock for Loblolly pine and 1.10% for maple. At 17% solids hydrolysis of pretreated softwood, an enzyme dose of 0.075 g Sigma enzyme mixture/g dry pretreated (unwashed biomass was needed to achieve 8.1% total sugar titer in the hydrolysate and an overall prehydrolysate liquor plus enzymatic hydrolysis conversion yield of 76.6%. At a much lower enzyme dosage of 0.044 g CTec2 enzyme product/g dry (unwashed pretreated softwood, hydrolysis at 17% solids achieved 9.2% total sugar titer in the hydrolysate with an overall sugar yield of 85.0% in the combined prehydrolysate liquor and enzymatic hydrolysate. CLE Sugar has been demonstrated to be effective on hardwood and herbaceous biomass, making it truly feedstock flexible. Conclusions Different options exist for integrating lignocellulosic sugar into sugar-using operations. A sugar conversion plant may be adjacent to a CLE Sugar plant, and the CLE Sugar can be concentrated from the initial 10% sugar as needed. Concentrated sugars, however, can be shipped to remote sites such as ethanol plants or other sugar users. In such cases, options for shipping a dense form of sugars include (1 pretreated biomass with enzyme addition, (2 lignocellulosic sugar syrup, and (3 lignocellulosic sugar solid. These could provide the advantage of maximizing the use of existing assets.

Gao Johnway

2013-01-01

204

Combined pretreatment using ozonolysis and wet-disk milling to improve enzymatic saccharification of Japanese cedar.  

Science.gov (United States)

Ozonolysis and subsequent wet-disk milling (DM) were carried out on Japanese cedar (Cryptomeria japonica) to improve sugar production by enzymatic saccharification. When the moisture content reached more than 40%, ozone consumption decreased, resulting in less delignification. Ozone treatment removed mainly lignin, but also small amounts of polysaccharides. The application of DM following the ozone treatment further increased glucose and xylose yields, but had no significant effect on mannose yield, due to the loss of mannan in the ozone-treated product and the lack of mannose-releasing activity in the hemicellulase used. Sugar concentration increased with substrate concentration, when a constant ratio of enzyme to substrate was used. PMID:23073106

Miura, Toyokazu; Lee, Seung-Hwan; Inoue, Seiichi; Endo, Takashi

2012-12-01

205

Natural radionuclides as dirt tracers in sugar cane consignments  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Soil is usually carried out to the mills, as an impurity in sugar cane, leading to economic drawbacks for the industry. The quantification of this dirt is important to identify its causes and for routine quality control. Several methods have been used for this purpose, however, no single one has been pointed out as an industrial standard. The use of a ?-ray emitting radionuclide of natural occurence was investigated and, after several soil and cane radioactivity analyses, 212Pb was chosen as the best tracer. Calibration curves developed with the addition of soil in clean cane, from 0 to 10% (dry mass), demonstrated the linearity of the method. Analyses of eleven samples taken from consignments showed that the procedure was consistent and reliable when compared to the traditional ash method. (author)

206

Fossil energy savings potential of sugar cane bio-energy systems  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

One important rationale for bio-energy systems is their potential to save fossil energy. Converting a conventional sugar mill into a bio-energy process plant would contribute to fossil energy savings via the extraction of renewable electricity and ethanol substituting for fossil electricity and gasoline, respectively. This paper takes a closer look at the Thai sugar industry and examines two practical approaches that will enhance fossil energy savings. The first one addresses an efficient extraction of energy in the form of electricity from the excess bagasse and cane trash. The second while proposing to convert molasses or sugar cane to ethanol stresses the use of bagasse as well as distillery spent wash to replace coal in meeting ethanol plants' energy needs. The savings potential achieved with extracting ethanol from surplus sugar versus current practice in sugar industry in Thailand amounts to 15 million barrels of oil a year. Whether the saving benefits could be fully realized, however, depends on how well the potential land use change resulting from an expansion of ethanol production is managed. The results presented serve as a useful guidance to formulate strategies that enable optimum utilization of biomass as an energy source

Nguyen, Thu Lan T; Hermansen, John Erik

2009-01-01

207

Fossil energy savings potential of sugar cane bio-energy systems  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

One important rationale for bio-energy systems is their potential to save fossil energy. Converting a conventional sugar mill into a bio-energy process plant would contribute to fossil energy savings via the extraction of renewable electricity and ethanol substituting for fossil electricity and gasoline, respectively. This paper takes a closer look at the Thai sugar industry and examines two practical approaches that will enhance fossil energy savings. The first one addresses an efficient extraction of energy in the form of electricity from the excess bagasse and cane trash. The second while proposing to convert molasses or sugar cane to ethanol stresses the use of bagasse as well as distillery spent wash to replace coal in meeting ethanol plants' energy needs. The savings potential achieved with extracting ethanol from surplus sugar versus current practice in sugar industry in Thailand amounts to 15 million barrels of oil a year. Whether the saving benefits could be fully realized, however, depends on how well the potential land use change resulting from an expansion of ethanol production is managed. The results presented serve as a useful guidance to formulate strategies that enable optimum utilization of biomass as an energy source. (author)

Nguyen, Thu Lan T. [Department of Agroecology, Aarhus University, Tjele (Denmark); The Joint Graduate School of Energy and Environment, King Mongkut' s University of Technology Thonburi, Bangkok (Thailand); Hermansen, John E. [Department of Agroecology, Aarhus University, Tjele (Denmark); Sagisaka, Masayuki [Institute of Science for Safety and Sustainability, National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology, Tsukuba (Japan)

2009-11-15

208

Yang-Mills integrals  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Two results are presented for reduced Yang-Mills (YM) integrals with different symmetry groups and dimensions: the first is a compact integral representation in terms of the relevant variables of the integral; the second is a method to analytically evaluate the integrals in cases of low order. This is exhibited by evaluating a YM integral over real symmetric matrices of order 3. (author). Letter-to-the-editor

209

Mill Hill Essays Archive  

Science.gov (United States)

The National Institute for Medical Research (NIMR) provides this online archive of their Mill Hill Essay Series. This annual publication (last mentioned in the April 6, 2001 Scout Report) is designed for anyone "with an interest in science and the natural world." Essays are presented in HTML format and are generally equivalent to several printed pages. The archive goes back to 1995 and features essays on a variety of health, science and technology topics.

2002-01-01

210

CHEMICAL CHARACTERISATION AND DILUTE-ACID HYDROLYSIS OF RICE HULLS FROM AN ARTISAN MILL  

OpenAIRE

The chemical composition of rice hulls produced in an artisan mill and its conversion to fermentable sugars was investigated. The carbohydrate fraction represented 59.2% (w/w) of the dry hulls. Cellulose, with 36.6%, was the main component, followed by xylan with 13.9%. An important contribution of starch (8.7%) was also detected. The content of ash (19.6%) and lignin (15.5%) was comparable with that of rice hulls obtained in industrial mills. Dilute-sulphuric acid hydrolysis at different tem...

Yoney López; Ariel Garcia; Keikhosro Karimi; Taherzadeh, Mohammad J.; Carlos Martin

2010-01-01

211

Ball milled magnetic powders  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Exchange-spring magnets consisting of (i) Alnico and Fe, and (ii) Nd2Fe14B and Gd, using the technique of ball milling were synthetized. The composition and microstructure of the ball milled powders was investigated using XRD, SEM and TEM. The bulk magnetic properties of each sample were measured with a SQUID magnetometer, while 155Gd and 57Fe Moessbauer spectroscopy were used to measure the magnetisation of the phases which contained these elements. Exchange-spring magnetic properties were not realised in either of the two systems studied. TEM analysis was inconclusive as to the dimensions of the phases within each sample. However, the SQUID and Moessbauer effect measurements both indicated that the two phases were acting as a coherent magnetic system. It is probable that the required microstructure was not formed in the case of the Nd2Fe14B and Gd powder, where the particle size indicated by SEM was very large (?200?m). For the Alnico/Fe system, it is possible that ball milling undermined the microstructure of Alnico, destroying its hard magnetic properties

212

Shifting sugars and shifting paradigms.  

Science.gov (United States)

No organism lives in a constant environment. Based on classical studies in molecular biology, many have viewed microbes as following strict rules for shifting their metabolic activities when prevailing conditions change. For example, students learn that the bacterium Escherichia coli makes proteins for digesting lactose only when lactose is available and glucose, a better sugar, is not. However, recent studies, including three PLOS Biology papers examining sugar utilization in the budding yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae, show that considerable heterogeneity in response to complex environments exists within and between populations. These results join similar recent results in other organisms that suggest that microbial populations anticipate predictable environmental changes and hedge their bets against unpredictable ones. The classical view therefore represents but one special case in a range of evolutionary adaptations to environmental changes that all organisms face. PMID:25688600

Siegal, Mark L

2015-02-01

213

Concentrate This! Sugar or Salt...  

Science.gov (United States)

Students investigate the property dependence between concentrations and boiling point. First, they investigate the boiling point of various liquid solutions. Then they analyze data collected from the entire class to generate two boiling point curves, one for salt solutions and one for sugar solutions. Finally, students use the data they have analyzed to design cost-effective solutions with particular boiling points---similar to the everyday work of chemical engineers.

Culturally Relevant Engineering Application in Mathematics GK-12 Program,

214

Sugar recognition by human galactokinase  

OpenAIRE

Abstract Background Galactokinase catalyses the first committed step of galactose catabolism in which the sugar is phosphorylated at the expense of MgATP. Recent structural studies suggest that the enzyme makes several contacts with galactose – five side chain and two main chain hydrogen bonds. Furthermore, it has been suggested that inhibition of galactokinase may help sufferers of the genetic disease classical galactosemia which is caused by defects in another enzyme of the pathway galact...

Timson David J; Reece Richard J

2003-01-01

215

Irradiation of cane sugar spirit  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The present study deals with the effect of irradiation on the gas-chromatographic profile of irradiated cane sugar spirit irradiated in glass containers in the presence of oak chops with doses of 0-10 kGy. Volatile constituents were analyzed in a CG gas chromatographer with a flame ionization detector using a Megabore CG-745 column. The results are discussed considering the contribution of irradiation to the quality of the spirit and the contribution of the irradiated oak wood. (author)

216

Stable isotope studies of Indian rivers  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

To understand the surface water characteristics in India, the nine most important rivers have been sampled around the sub-continent. Both Oxygen 18 and Deuterium have been measured to determine the origin of the water and the possible evaporation process. Also the main ions have been analyzed to obtain complementary information. Where some basins have been previously studies, mainly in the North, this is a first attempt at a wider investigation of Indian rivers. If we compare our results with the mean isotopic variation of rainfall over Indian as seen from the GNIP data set, a general NW/ SE isotopic gradient is revealed. The west coast and the south part of Dekkan are the least depleted in heavy isotopes, with a ?18O values of between 0 and -2 per mille, and this relate to the Kaveri, Nethvrati and Krishna rivers. The area below the Thar desert displays a ?18O value of around -3 per mille, as in the Narmada and Tapti rivers. The central part of the Dekkan and the east coast are characterised by ?18O values of around -5 per mille, like for the Godavari and Mahanadi rivers. The North India big plains present ?18O value of between -6 and -12 per mille, like for the Ganga and Brahmaputra rivers. For the Ganga and the Brahmaputra rivers, the seasonal effect is stronger due to significant variations in different water sources i.e.: i) perennial tributaries coming from the inland hills, or the ground water discharge, which con the ground water discharge, which contributes water moderately depleted in 18O (winter and spring), ii) Himalayan tributaries fed by snow and glacier melt which are very depleted in heavy isotopes (sommer and fall), and iii) the heavy monsoon rainfall (early summer) which can travel deep inland more lighter water. As seen from the slope of the ?18O and ?2H regression and the calculation of the deuterium excess, the water of these rivers evaporates only slightly during the wet monsoon season (June-September). Evaporation could be more intense before in the hot and dry season (April-May), as seen from sampling on the Yamuna River, the main tributary of the Ganga. Better understanding the characteristics and water origin of these rivers will help to improve the management of the substantial water needs (potable water, irrigation, industry) of this expanding country. But also it can contribute to our understanding of means of flood control, drought prevention, hydroelectric power generation, and improvements in environmental quality

217

76 FR 58076 - Designation of The Indian Mujahideen, Also Known as Indian Mujahedeen, Also Known as Indian...  

Science.gov (United States)

...Indian Mujahideen, also known as Indian Mujahedeen, also known as Indian Mujahidin, also known as Islamic Security Force-Indian Mujahideen (ISF- IM), committed...security, foreign policy, or economy of the United States....

2011-09-19

218

Indian River Lagoon  

Science.gov (United States)

Located on the eastern coast of Florida, the Indian River Lagoon is a barrier island and lagoonal system which has been impacted by human development. This site, created by the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), details how the system works, its history, human impacts on the system, and the area's future. In addition, visitors can learn about the habitats, plants, and animals found in the Indian River Lagoon.

United States. Environmental Protection Agency. Office of Water.

219

Indian Cosmological Ideas  

CERN Document Server

This paper, third in the series on Indian tradition of physics, describes conceptions of the cosmos with ideas that are clearly spelt out in texts such as Yoga Vasishtha.In particular, the conception of multiple universes that occurs often in this text will be examined in the framework of the Indian physics. The other surprising concepts that are discussed include flow of time and its variability with respect to different observers, and the possibility of passage across universes.

Narayan, R

2007-01-01

220

Ishi: A Yahi Indian.  

Science.gov (United States)

The Yahi Indians were part of a larger tribal group called the Yana. The Yahi way of life, along with the lives of many other California Indian groups, changed when European and U.S. settlers came to California. In 1872 Ishi and his family were the last of the Yahi living in the Deer Creek (California) area. By 1911 Ishi was the last surviving…

2003

221

Acceptance of sugar reduction in flavored yogurt.  

Science.gov (United States)

To investigate what level of sugar reduction is accepted in flavored yogurt, we conducted a hedonic test focusing on the degree of liking of the products and on optimal sweetness and aroma levels. For both flavorings (strawberry and coffee), consumers preferred yogurt containing 10% added sugar. However, yogurt containing 7% added sugar was also acceptable. On the just-about-right scale, yogurt containing 10% sugar was more often described as too sweet compared with yogurt containing 7% sugar. On the other hand, the sweetness and aroma intensity for yogurt containing 5% sugar was judged as too low. A second test was conducted to determine the effect of flavoring concentration on the acceptance of yogurt containing 7% sugar. Yogurts containing the highest concentrations of flavoring (11% strawberry, 0.75% coffee) were less appreciated. Additionally, the largest percentage of consumers perceived these yogurts as "not sweet enough." These results indicate that consumers would accept flavored yogurts with 7% added sugar instead of 10%, but 5% sugar would be too low. Additionally, an increase in flavor concentration is undesirable for yogurt containing 7% added sugar. PMID:23871368

Chollet, M; Gille, D; Schmid, A; Walther, B; Piccinali, P

2013-09-01

222

Uranium-mill appraisal program  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The results of special team appraisals at NRC-licensed uranium mills in the period May to November 1981 are reported. Since the Three Mile Island accident, NRC management has instituted a program of special team appraisals of radiation protection programs at certain NRC-licensed facilities. These appraisals were designed to identify weaknesses and strengths in NRC-licensed programs, including those areas not covered by explicit regulatory requirements. The regulatory requirements related to occupational radiation protection and environmental monitoring at uranium mills have been extensively upgraded in the past few years. In addition, there was some NRC staff concern with respect to the effectiveness of NRC licensing and inspection programs. In response to this concern and to changes in mill requirements, the NRC staff recommended that team appraisals be conducted at mills to determine the adequacy of mill programs, the effectiveness of the new requirements, and mill management implementation of programs and requirements. This report describes the appraisal scope and methodology as well as summary findings and conclusions. Significant weaknesses identified during the mill appraisals are discussed as well as recommendations for improvements in uranium mill programs and mill licensing and inspection

223

Indian Siddis: African descendants with Indian admixture.  

Science.gov (United States)

The Siddis (Afro-Indians) are a tribal population whose members live in coastal Karnataka, Gujarat, and in some parts of Andhra Pradesh. Historical records indicate that the Portuguese brought the Siddis to India from Africa about 300-500 years ago; however, there is little information about their more precise ancestral origins. Here, we perform a genome-wide survey to understand the population history of the Siddis. Using hundreds of thousands of autosomal markers, we show that they have inherited ancestry from Africans, Indians, and possibly Europeans (Portuguese). Additionally, analyses of the uniparental (Y-chromosomal and mitochondrial DNA) markers indicate that the Siddis trace their ancestry to Bantu speakers from sub-Saharan Africa. We estimate that the admixture between the African ancestors of the Siddis and neighboring South Asian groups probably occurred in the past eight generations (?200 years ago), consistent with historical records. PMID:21741027

Shah, Anish M; Tamang, Rakesh; Moorjani, Priya; Rani, Deepa Selvi; Govindaraj, Periyasamy; Kulkarni, Gururaj; Bhattacharya, Tanmoy; Mustak, Mohammed S; Bhaskar, L V K S; Reddy, Alla G; Gadhvi, Dharmendra; Gai, Pramod B; Chaubey, Gyaneshwer; Patterson, Nick; Reich, David; Tyler-Smith, Chris; Singh, Lalji; Thangaraj, Kumarasamy

2011-07-15

224

Indian Siddis: African Descendants with Indian Admixture  

Science.gov (United States)

The Siddis (Afro-Indians) are a tribal population whose members live in coastal Karnataka, Gujarat, and in some parts of Andhra Pradesh. Historical records indicate that the Portuguese brought the Siddis to India from Africa about 300–500 years ago; however, there is little information about their more precise ancestral origins. Here, we perform a genome-wide survey to understand the population history of the Siddis. Using hundreds of thousands of autosomal markers, we show that they have inherited ancestry from Africans, Indians, and possibly Europeans (Portuguese). Additionally, analyses of the uniparental (Y-chromosomal and mitochondrial DNA) markers indicate that the Siddis trace their ancestry to Bantu speakers from sub-Saharan Africa. We estimate that the admixture between the African ancestors of the Siddis and neighboring South Asian groups probably occurred in the past eight generations (?200 years ago), consistent with historical records. PMID:21741027

Shah, Anish M.; Tamang, Rakesh; Moorjani, Priya; Rani, Deepa Selvi; Govindaraj, Periyasamy; Kulkarni, Gururaj; Bhattacharya, Tanmoy; Mustak, Mohammed S.; Bhaskar, L.V.K.S.; Reddy, Alla G.; Gadhvi, Dharmendra; Gai, Pramod B.; Chaubey, Gyaneshwer; Patterson, Nick; Reich, David; Tyler-Smith, Chris; Singh, Lalji; Thangaraj, Kumarasamy

2011-01-01

225

Does information about sugar source influence consumer liking of products made with beet and cane sugars?  

Science.gov (United States)

Beet sugar contains an off-aroma, which was hypothesized to generate expectations on the acceptability of a product made with beet sugar. Thus, the objective of this study was to assess the impact of information about the sugar source (beet vs. cane) on the overall liking of an orange-flavored beverage. One hundred panelists evaluated an orange-flavored powdered beverage mix and beverage made with beet and cane sugars using a 5-phase testing protocol involving a tetrad test and hedonic ratings performed under blind and informed conditions. Tetrad test results indicated that there was a significant difference (P beet sugar and cane sugar; however, no difference was found between the beverage made with beet sugar and cane sugar. Hedonic ratings revealed the significance of information conditions on the panelists evaluation of sugar (F = 24.67, P sugar source information in a beverage product. Based on concerns with the use of beet sugar expressed in the popular press, there may be a subgroup of the population that has a preconceived bias about sugar sources due to their prior experiences and knowledge and, thus, would be influenced by labels indicating the sugar source used in a product. PMID:25308071

Urbanus, Brittany L; Schmidt, Shelly J; Lee, Soo-Yeun

2014-11-01

226

77 FR 14837 - Bioassay at Uranium Mills  

Science.gov (United States)

...COMMISSION [NRC-2012-0057] Bioassay at Uranium Mills AGENCY: Nuclear Regulatory Commission...guide (DG), DG-8051, ``Bioassay at Uranium Mills.'' This guide describes a bioassay program acceptable to the NRC staff for uranium mills and applicable portions of...

2012-03-13

227

Indian Academy of sciences - New associates, 2010  

Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

indian academy of sciences - new associates, 2010   3. ayan datta, indian institute of science education and research, thiruvananthapuram  5. abhishek dey, indian association for the cultivation of science, kolkata  7. subroto mukerjee, indian institute of science, bangalore10. vijay natarajan, indian institute of science, bangalore12. partho sarothi ray, indian institute of science education and research, kolkata13. sanoli gun, institute of mathematical ...

228

Indian Academy of sciences - New fellows  

Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

indian academy of sciences - new fellows indian association for the cultivation of science, kolkata national centre for cell science, pune indian association for the cultivation of science, kolkata indian institute of science, bangaloreindian institute of science, bangaloreindian institute of science, bangalore indian institute of science, bangalore indian institute of science, bangalore ...

229

Root rot diseases of sugar beet  

OpenAIRE

Root rot diseases of sugar beet caused by Rhizoctonia solani (AG 2-2 IIIB and AG 2-2 IV), R. crocorum, Aphanomyces cochlioides, Phoma betae, Macrophomina phaeseolina, Fusarium oxysporum f.sp. radicis-betae, Pythium aphanidermatum Phytophthora drechsleri, Rhizopus stolonifer, R. arrhizus and Sclerotium rolfsii cause significant losses wherever sugar beets are grown. However, not all these soil-borne pathogens have been reported in all sugar beet production areas. Losses include reduced harvest...

Jacobsen Barry J.

2006-01-01

230

Production of Biopolymers from Sugar Beet Pulp  

OpenAIRE

Sugar beet pulp is an important by-product of the sugar industry. In order to make the most of this waste, pectin extraction can constitute an economical solution. Pectin is commonly used in food industry as a gelling agent. However, in the present study another use of pectin is considered: its potential embedding into biodegradable polymer films which can further be used in plastic industry. At first, different pectin extraction methods have been developed on sugar beet pulp in order t...

Meyer, Laurence; Paquot, Michel; Dubois, Philippe

2009-01-01

231

Sugar recognition by human galactokinase  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background Galactokinase catalyses the first committed step of galactose catabolism in which the sugar is phosphorylated at the expense of MgATP. Recent structural studies suggest that the enzyme makes several contacts with galactose – five side chain and two main chain hydrogen bonds. Furthermore, it has been suggested that inhibition of galactokinase may help sufferers of the genetic disease classical galactosemia which is caused by defects in another enzyme of the pathway galactose-1-phosphate uridyl transferase. Galactokinases from different sources have a range of substrate specificities and a diversity of kinetic mechanisms. Therefore only studies on the human enzyme are likely to be of value in the design of therapeutically useful inhibitors. Results Using recombinant human galactokinase expressed in and purified from E. coli we have investigated the sugar specificity of the enzyme and the kinetic consequences of mutating residues in the sugar-binding site in order to improve our understanding of substrate recognition by this enzyme. D-galactose and 2-deoxy-D-galactose are substrates for the enzyme, but N-acetyl-D-galactosamine, L-arabinose, D-fucose and D-glucose are all not phosphorylated. Mutation of glutamate-43 (which forms a hydrogen bond to the hydroxyl group attached to carbon 6 of galactose to alanine results in only minor changes in the kinetic parameters of the enzyme. Mutation of this residue to glycine causes a ten-fold drop in the turnover number. In contrast, mutation of histidine 44 to either alanine or isoleucine results in insoluble protein following expression in E. coli. Alteration of the residue that makes hydrogen bonds to the hydroxyl attached to carbons 3 and 4 (aspartate 46 results in an enzyme that although soluble is essentially inactive. Conclusions The enzyme is tolerant to small changes at position 2 of the sugar ring, but not at positions 4 and 6. The results from site directed mutagenesis could not have been predicted from the crystal structure alone and needed to be determined experimentally.

Timson David J

2003-11-01

232

The sugar-pie game  

OpenAIRE

Playing a bargaining game the players are trying to enlarge their share of a sugar-pie. However, HE is not very keen on sweets and does not prefer a piece of the pie if the size of the pie is too small or too large. In HIS view, too small or too large pies are not of a reasonable quality. In contrast, SHE, the second actor, likes sweets what ever they are. HE is a soft negotiator but SHE is a tough negotiator. The paper addresses the problem: what should be HIS power of negotiations if an equ...

Mullat, Joseph E.

2012-01-01

233

78 FR 62650 - Indian Gaming  

Science.gov (United States)

...Affairs [DR.5B711.IA000813] Indian Gaming AGENCY: Bureau of Indian Affairs, Interior...extension of Tribal-State Class III Gaming Compact...notice of the extension of the Class III gaming compact between the Rosebud Sioux...

2013-10-22

234

78 FR 78377 - Indian Gaming  

Science.gov (United States)

...Affairs [DR.5B711.IA000814] Indian Gaming AGENCY: Bureau of Indian Affairs, Interior...extension of Tribal-State Class III Gaming Compact...notice of the extension of the Class III gaming compact between the Yankton Sioux...

2013-12-26

235

78 FR 54670 - Indian Gaming  

Science.gov (United States)

...Affairs [DR.5B711.IA000813] Indian Gaming AGENCY: Bureau of Indian Affairs, Interior...extension of Tribal--State Class III Gaming Compact...notice of the Extension of the Class III gaming compact between the Yankton Sioux...

2013-09-05

236

Indian Academy of Sciences - General  

Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

indian journal of physics ijpkkd@mahendra.iacs.res.in indian journal of physics ms sandra rajiva, editorial support ms gayatri ugra, assistant editor, journal mr jayaprakash menon, computer support ...

237

National Indian Youth Leadership Camp.  

Science.gov (United States)

Describes the sixth Annual (1988) National Indian Youth Leadership Camp, an 8-day cooperative leadership experience for 40 Indian seventh and eighth graders. Discusses staff, funding, program philosophy, outdoor activities, seminar content and values, and program evaluation. (SV)

Hall, McClellan

1989-01-01

238

Indian Womanhood: Some Psychological Concepts*  

Science.gov (United States)

Indian womanhood today is at crossroads. The present paper discusses the status of Indian womanhood and its psychological underpinnings. It discusses how Indian women have suffered at the hands of their families and society leaving no path but to succumb to psychiatric illness. The role of mental health professionals and family members in supporting and promoting growth and development of the Indian woman is outlined.

De Sousa, Dhanalakshmi; De Sousa, Avinash

2015-01-01

239

40 CFR 409.20 - Applicability; description of the crystalline cane sugar refining subcategory.  

Science.gov (United States)

... Applicability; description of the crystalline cane sugar refining subcategory. ...SUGAR PROCESSING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Crystalline Cane Sugar Refining Subcategory ...Applicability; description of the crystalline cane sugar refining...

2010-07-01

240

7 CFR 1435.304 - Beet and cane sugar allotments.  

Science.gov (United States)

...sugar allotments. (a) The allotment for beet sugar will be 54.35 percent of the overall allotment...the overall allotment quantity. (c) A sugar beet processor allocated a share of the beet sugar allotment may use only beet sugar to...

2010-01-01

241

Survey on some contaminants in white sugar from Serbian sugar beet refineries.  

Science.gov (United States)

Refined white sugar is a very pure food product, even though it contains very small amounts of soluble and insoluble impurities. The content of these impurities has nutritional significance and determines the usefulness of sugar for various industrial applications. The main quality criteria used to indicate the content of these impurities are ash and colour. The aim of this paper was to evaluate the quality according to the EU sugar market regime and the content of iron, copper and zinc in white sugar samples from Serbian sugar beet refineries during the 2003 campaign. A total of 166 samples representative of the production of four Serbian sugar refineries were investigated. After wet digestion the concentrations of iron, copper and zinc were determined by flame atomic absorption spectrometry. The mean content of iron, copper and zinc in sugar samples was 0.37 mg/kg, 0.06 mg/kg and 0.02 mg/kg and was significantly different from the average content 0.28 mg/kg, 0.09 mg/kg and 0.07 mg/kg respectively in the analysed European sugar factories. The data were also compared with literature values for commercial white sugar samples from European sugar beet refineries and European legislation set for copper and zinc. Furthermore, the quality of produced sugar was evaluated according to the standards of the European Union indicating that 76% of all investigated Serbian samples belonged to the second sugar quality category. PMID:16393812

Skrbi?, Biljana; Gyura, Julianna

2006-01-01

242

78 FR 26801 - Indian Gaming  

Science.gov (United States)

...Affairs [DR.5B711.IA000813] Indian Gaming AGENCY: Bureau of Indian Affairs, Interior...Notice of Approved Tribal-State Class III Gaming Compact...amendment to the Class III Tribal-State Gaming Compact between the Menominee Indian...

2013-05-08

243

Scientists Discover Sugar in Space  

Science.gov (United States)

The prospects for life in the Universe just got sweeter, with the first discovery of a simple sugar molecule in space. The discovery of the sugar molecule glycolaldehyde in a giant cloud of gas and dust near the center of our own Milky Way Galaxy was made by scientists using the National Science Foundation's 12 Meter Telescope, a radio telescope on Kitt Peak, Arizona. "The discovery of this sugar molecule in a cloud from which new stars are forming means it is increasingly likely that the chemical precursors to life are formed in such clouds long before planets develop around the stars," said Jan M. Hollis of the NASA Goddard Space Flight Center in Greenbelt, MD. Hollis worked with Frank J. Lovas of the University of Illinois and Philip R. Jewell of the National Radio Astronomy Observatory (NRAO) in Green Bank, WV, on the observations, made in May. The scientists have submitted their results to the Astrophysical Journal Letters. "This discovery may be an important key to understanding the formation of life on the early Earth," said Jewell. Conditions in interstellar clouds may, in some cases, mimic the conditions on the early Earth, so studying the chemistry of interstellar clouds may help scientists understand how bio-molecules formed early in our planet's history. In addition, some scientists have suggested that Earth could have been "seeded" with complex molecules by passing comets, made of material from the interstellar cloud that condensed to form the Solar System. Glycolaldehyde, an 8-atom molecule composed of carbon, oxygen and hydrogen, can combine with other molecules to form the more-complex sugars Ribose and Glucose. Ribose is a building block of nucleic acids such as RNA and DNA, which carry the genetic code of living organisms. Glucose is the sugar found in fruits. Glycolaldehyde contains exactly the same atoms, though in a different molecular structure, as methyl formate and acetic acid, both of which were detected previously in interstellar clouds. Glycolaldehyde is a simpler molecular cousin to table sugar, the scientists say. The sugar molecule was detected in a large cloud of gas and dust some 26,000 light-years away, near the center of our Galaxy. Such clouds, often many light-years across, are the material from which new stars are formed. Though very rarified by Earth standards, these interstellar clouds are the sites of complex chemical reactions that occur over hundreds of thousands or millions of years. So far, about 120 different molecules have been discovered in these clouds. Most of these molecules contain a small number of atoms, and only a few molecules with eight or more atoms have been found in interstellar clouds. The 12 Meter Telescope "Finding glycolaldehyde in one of these interstellar clouds means that such molecules can be formed even in very rarified conditions," said Hollis. "We don't yet understand how it could be formed there," he added. "A combination of more astronomical observations and theoretical chemistry work will be required to resolve the mystery of how this molecule is formed in space." "We hope this discovery inspires renewed efforts to find even more kinds of molecules, so that, with a better idea of the total picture, we may be able to deduce the details of the prebiotic chemistry taking place in interstellar clouds," Hollis said. The discovery was made by detecting faint radio emission from the sugar molecules in the interstellar cloud. Molecules rotate end-for-end, and as they change from one rotational energy state to another, they emit radio waves at precise frequencies. The "family" of radio frequencies emitted by a particular molecule forms a unique "fingerprint" that scientists can use to identify that molecule. The scientists identified glycolaldehyde by detecting six frequencies of radio emission in what is termed the millimeter-wavelength region of the electromagnetic spectrum -- a region between more-familiar microwaves and infrared radiation. The NRAO 12 Meter Telescop

2000-06-01

244

The sugar industry in Peru  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Since the early Colonial times sugar production has been a key sector in the Peruvian export economy. This article analyzes its evolution as from the beginning of its modern phase by mid 19th Century, its consolidation in the Northern coastal region, and its concentration in scale-economy plants. The prosperity of this type of production contributed to the formation of both an oligarchy which governed the country until 1968, and the populist party (APRA and its electoral basis (the so-called «Aprista North». In the sixties Velasco Alvarado’s military revolution nationalized the sugar industry, which underwent structural changes leading to a serious crisis in the eighties that has not been overcome up-todate.

La producción de azúcar ha constituido un importante sector en la economía exportadora del Perú desde el período colonial temprano. Este artículo analiza su evolución, sobre todo tras el inicio de su fase moderna, fechada a partir de mediados del siglo XIX, cuando se modernizó, se consolidó en la región costera septentrional y se concentró en fábricas que operaban con economías de escala. Su prosperidad, contribuyó, además, a la formación de una oligarquía que gobernó el país hasta 1968 y del partido populista, APRA, y su base electoral (el llamado «sólido Norte aprista». La revolución militar de Velasco Alvarado nacionalizó la industria en la década de 1960 y los cambios estructurales que sufrió posteriormente le condujeron a una grave crisis en los años ochenta que aún no ha superado.

Klaren, Peter F.

2005-04-01

245

American Indian Policy Institute  

Science.gov (United States)

Based at Arizona State University, the American Indian Policy Institute collaborates with tribal governments and American Indian communities on issues that affect them and also works to nurture innovation for American Indian sustainability. The site offers a wealth of reports, news articles, publications, conference programs, and other items that will be of interest to scholars. The Reports & Publications area contains thoughtful missives such as "Tribes and Energy within Arizona" and "Land Use Challenges and Choices for the 21st Century." The Award-Winning First Innovations area offers up a host of best practices designed to introduce sustainability entrepreneurship in Native American communities. Additionally, the Projects & Initiatives area offers detailed program information about tribal planning summits and financial management seminars.

246

Wild strains of fermenting yeast isolated of sugar cane juice from an alcohol distillery from Mato Grosso, Brazil  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Ethanol production for fuel is important for the Brazilian economy as a renewable solution to oil derivatives. Theindustrial process uses commercially available yeast, most of them isolated from sugar mills from the Brazilian stateof São Paulo. The research information on the availability of yeast appropriate to the climatic conditions occurringin the Midwest region of Brazil is scarce. The article presents the isolation and morphological characterization offermentative wild yeast prospected on the sugar cane juice of a sugar and alcohol mill of Mato Grosso State. Thejuice samples were collected in both the hot and rainy (HR season and in the cold and dry (CD one. The dilutedsugar cane juice samples were plated on agar LWYN and evaluated for fermentation in test tubes containinginverted Durham tubes. From 26 morphotypes isolated, 50% were able to ferment sugar cane juice. Greater numberand diversity of yeasts was found in both December (HR and July (CD. In the remaining months of each seasonthere were a low number of colonies with a poor diversity.

Rosimeire Oenning da Silva

2011-01-01

247

Working Women: Indian Perspective  

OpenAIRE

In India, due to unprecedented rise in the cost of living, ris-ing prices of commodities, growing expenses on children ed-ucation, huge rate of unemployment, and increasing cost of housing properties compel every Indian family to explore all the possible ways and means to increase the household income. It is also witnessed that after globalization Indian women are able to get more jobs but the work they get is more casual in nature or is the one that men do not prefer to do or is left by them...

Mehta, Dharmendra; Mehta, Naveen K.; Mehta, Rajesh Kumar

2014-01-01

248

Post-oral appetite stimulation by sugars and nonmetabolizable sugar analogs  

OpenAIRE

Post-oral sugar actions enhance the intake of and preference for sugar-rich foods, a process referred to as appetition. Here, we investigated the role of intestinal sodium glucose cotransporters (SGLTs) in sugar appetition in C57BL/6J mice using sugars and nonmetabolizable sugar analogs that differ in their affinity for SGLT1 and SGLT3. In experiments 1 and 2, food-restricted mice were trained (1 h/day) to consume a flavored saccharin solution [conditioned stimulus (CS?)] paired with intrag...

Zukerman, Steven; Ackroff, Karen; Sclafani, Anthony

2013-01-01

249

CHARACTERIZATION OF ARABIDOPSIS UDP-SUGAR PYROPHOSPHORYLASE  

Science.gov (United States)

UDP-sugars are critical substrates for synthesis of cell wall polysaccharides in plants. We used a bioinformatics approach to clone and characterize an UDP-sugar pyrophosphorylase from Arabidopsis thaliana (AtUSP) that has high activity with UDP-glucuronic acid (UDP-GlcA). AtUSP is predicted to be a...

250

Usual Intake of Energy from added sugars  

Science.gov (United States)

Usual Intake of Energy from added sugars Table A41. Energy from added sugars: Means, percentiles and standard errors of usual intake, 2007-2010 Age (Years) N1 kilocalories Mean (SE)2 5% (SE) 10% (SE) 25% (SE) 50% (SE) 75% (SE) 90% (SE) 95% (SE) Males 1-3 774 150.2

251

Sugar cane/sweet sorghum as an ethanol feedstock in Louisiana and Piedmont  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Cost to provide readily fermentable feedstock for a year round sweet sorghum-to-ethanol production facility, up to the point at which fermentation begins, was determined. It was assumed that sweet sorghum is produced on marginal crop lands in the Southeastern Piedmont, and is purchased, standing in the field by a central ethanol production facility. Feedstock cost varied from $1.96 to $2.98/gal of ethanol potential depending on harvest system and use of by-products. Major contributors to feedstock cost were field production, harvest/field processing, and cost to evaporate juice to a storable syrup. Cost to transport feedstock to a central production facility, and cost of storage were relatively minor components of total cost, contributing only $0.05 and $0.06/gal ethanol potential, respectively. For a point of comparison, cost of producing ethanol feedstock from sugar cane, based on current processing practices in Louisiana sugar mills, was determined to be $2.50/gal ethanol potential. This cost is higher than determined for most options in the Piedmont for two reasons: (1) sugar cane demands a higher price in Louisiana than was assumed for sweet sorghum in the Piedmont, and (2) little market exists in Louisiana for by-products of sugar milling, consequently, no by-product credit was assigned. Current market value of ethanol must approximately double before a sweet sorghum-to-ethanol industry in the Piedmont could be economically viable, as no opportunity was identifilly viable, as no opportunity was identified for a significant reduction in feedstock cost

252

19 CFR 151.25 - Mixing classes of sugar.  

Science.gov (United States)

...2010-04-01 false Mixing classes of sugar. 151.25 Section 151.25 Customs...SAMPLING, AND TESTING OF MERCHANDISE Sugars, Sirups, and Molasses § 151.25 Mixing classes of sugar. No regulations relative to the...

2010-04-01

253

Moisture sorption curves of fruit and nut cereal bar prepared with sugar and sugar substitutes.  

Science.gov (United States)

Low sugar, low fat, dry fruit and nut cereal bars without sugar were prepared using cereals, nuts, and sugar substitutes. The sorption characteristics of the bars prepared with sugar substitutes in comparison with that of sugar were studied by keeping the bars at water activity (aw) from 0.1 to 0.9. The sorption isotherms of low sugar bars were practically identical below aw of 0.5 but above aw of 0.5, a clear differentiation in the isotherms could be observed compared to that of sugar counterpart. A sharp increase in moisture content was observed in the bars prepared with alternative sweeteners, above aw 0.6, whereas a gradual increase in aw was observed in the case of bar prepared with sugar. The ERH (Equilibrium relative humidity) value for bar with sugar was 50 %, and for bars prepared with alternative sweeteners, it was about 60 %. Low sugar cereal bar prepared with sorbitol + maltitol (SM) syrup scored higher sensory quality compared to other product prepared with sorbitol + nutriose (SN) as the former retained softness and chewiness on storage. Thus, it was observed that bars with alternative sweeteners will be more stable as their ERH is closer to normal ambient conditions compared to that prepared with sugar. PMID:25745238

Pallavi, Byrappa Vasu; Chetana, Ramakrishna; Ravi, Ramaswamy; Reddy, Sunkireddy Yella

2015-03-01

254

Prison Reform and Indians  

Science.gov (United States)

Briefly describing the history of prison reform and the American Indian, this article argues that the "professed" humanitarian philosophy of the reformers would not have been extended to "peoples languishing in prison or sequestered on reservations had it not been expedient for the business interests of the larger society". (JC)

Keller, Charles

1976-01-01

255

Indians of North Carolina.  

Science.gov (United States)

Published by the U.S. Department of the Interior, this brief booklet on the historical development of the Cherokee Nation emphasizes the Tribe's relationship with the Bureau of Indian Affairs and its improved economy. Citing tourism as the major tribal industry, tribal enterprises are named and described (a 61 unit motor court in existence since…

Bureau of Indian Affairs (Dept. of Interior), Washington, DC.

256

Synthetic applications of sugar pyranosides  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Carbohydrates provide as an inexpensive starting material for the synthesis of polyfunctional, chiral natural products during the last two to three decades, the literature has revealed tremendous growth in this area, high lighted by many out standing achievements (1). The synthetic effort of carbohydrate chemistry has been inspired by the biochemical events and the knowledge gained from such studies has been useful in advancing many areas of the biological sciences. The asymmetric synthesis has been indigenously and widely used in the creation of C-C bonds in developing organic molecules. The control of absolute stereochemistry and regiospecific introduction of various functionality at predetermined sites remain a crucial problem in making moderately functionalized chiral compound. The compound in which the sugar portion is apparent and can be singled out by examination of their structures. (author)

257

Effects of compost application on fruits yields, sugar and mineral contents and ?15N values of tomato fruits  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

We examined the effects of chemical fertilizer and compost application on the yields and sugar and mineral content of tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill. Saturn) in an isolated bed. Five treatments were conducted within a two-year period of 4 continuous croppings. CDU and LSR (Low-sulfate slow-release fertilizer) were used for the chemical fertilizer plots. A mixture of cattle manure and CDU (CM + CDU), a mixture of poultry manure and CDU (PM + CDU), and mixture of cattle and poultry manure (PM + CM) plots were arranged as compost-using plots. We also measured the ?15N values of tomatoes and the soils of each treatment, and estimated the correlation of the ?15N values between fruits and soil to certify compost applied products. We did not find any reproductive differences in the yield or sugar content among the treatments. As to inorganic content of tomatoes, there were no significant differences except for Mg content among the plots. These results showed that it is difficult to assay regular benefit of organic fertilizer application to tomato yields and quality. On the other hand, ?15N values of tomato fruits showed significant differences among fertilizer applications. ?15N values of the chemical fertilizer were +1.6 per mille and -1.1% for CDU and LSR, respectively. Those of mixture of chemical and compost were +12.2 per mille and +11.2 per mille for CM + CDU and PM + CDU, respectively. The mixture of PM and CM showctively. The mixture of PM and CM showed the highest ?15N values (17.9 per mille) among the treatments. ?15N values of the soils and fruits reflected those of the fertilizers and were positively correlated (R2 = 0.89). It may be possible to use ?15N values as an indicator of organic products by setting the threshold point, e.g. +5.0 per mille, to distinguish them from the products cultivated with chemical fertilizer. (author)

258

75 FR 35070 - American Indians Into Medicine; Notice of Competitive Grant Applications for American Indians...  

Science.gov (United States)

...Indians by encouraging Indians to enter the health...private practice among Indians. This program is...has as its target population Indian Tribes primarily...of North Dakota, South Dakota, Nebraska...willingness to have a Tribal representative...

2010-06-21

259

76 FR 50285 - Fiscal Year 2012 Tariff-Rate Quota Allocations for Raw Cane Sugar, Refined and Specialty Sugar...  

Science.gov (United States)

...THE UNITED STATES TRADE REPRESENTATIVE Fiscal Year 2012 Tariff-Rate Quota Allocations for Raw Cane Sugar, Refined and Specialty Sugar and Sugar-Containing Products AGENCY: Office of the United States Trade Representative. ACTION:...

2011-08-12

260

77 FR 57180 - Fiscal Year 2013 Tariff-rate Quota Allocations for Raw Cane Sugar, Refined and Specialty Sugar...  

Science.gov (United States)

...OFFICE OF THE TRADE REPRESENTATIVE Fiscal Year 2013 Tariff-rate Quota Allocations for Raw Cane Sugar, Refined and Specialty Sugar, and Sugar-Containing Products AGENCY: Office of the United States Trade Representative. ACTION:...

2012-09-17

261

75 FR 53013 - Fiscal Year 2011 Tariff-rate Quota Allocations for Raw Cane Sugar, Refined and Specialty Sugar...  

Science.gov (United States)

...THE UNITED STATES TRADE REPRESENTATIVE Fiscal Year 2011 Tariff-rate Quota Allocations for Raw Cane Sugar, Refined and Specialty Sugar, and Sugar-containing Products; Revision AGENCY: Office of the United States Trade Representative....

2010-08-30

262

75 FR 50796 - Fiscal Year 2011 Tariff-Rate Quota Allocations for Raw Cane Sugar, Refined and Specialty Sugar...  

Science.gov (United States)

...THE UNITED STATES TRADE REPRESENTATIVE Fiscal Year 2011 Tariff-Rate Quota Allocations for Raw Cane Sugar, Refined and Specialty Sugar, and Sugar-Containing Products AGENCY: Office of the United States Trade Representative. ACTION:...

2010-08-17

263

What Price Sugar? Land, Labor, and Revolution  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available [First paragraph] Sugar, Slavery, and Society: Perspectives on the Caribbean, India, the Mascarenes, and the United States. Bernard Moitt (ed.. Gainesville: University Press of Florida, 2004. vii + 203 pp. (Cloth US $ 65.00 Tropical Babylons: Sugar and the Making of the Atlantic World, 1450-1680. Stuart B. Schwartz (ed.. Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press, 2004. xiii + 347 pp. (Paper US $ 22.50 These two books illustrate the fascination that sugar, slavery, and the plantation still exercise over the minds of scholars. One of them also reflects an interest in the influence these have had on the modern world. For students of the history of these things the Schwartz collection is in many ways the more useful. It seeks to fill a lacuna left by the concentration of monographs on the eighteenth and nineteenth centuries, suggesting that we know less about the history of sugar than we thought we did. Perhaps in no other single place is such a range of information on so wide an area presented in such detail for so early a period. Ranging from Iberia to the Caribbean and including consumption as well as production of sugar, with a nod to the slave trade and a very useful note on weights and currencies, this volume is a gold mine of information. It considers (briefly the theoretical meaning as well as the growing of this important crop, contrasting its production in Iberia with that on the Atlantic islands of Madeira and the Canaries, colonized by Iberian powers, and continuing the contrast with São Tomé, off the coast of Africa, and on to Brazil and the Spanish American empire before ending with the British in Barbados. In the transit, it of necessity considers and complicates the meaning of “sugar revolution” and shows how scholars using that term do not always mean the same thing. John McCusker and Russell Menard, for example, tackling a cornerstone of the traditional interpretation of the development of sugar, argue that there was no “sugar revolution” in Barbados; economic change had already begun before sugar’s advent, though sugar may have accelerated it, and yet sugar production was transformed on the island. They also undercut, without quite denying, the significance of the Dutch role in the process. Schwartz, while questioning, lings to the traditional expression if not the traditional outlook, seeing in Barbados “the beginning of the sugar revolution” (p. 10.

Daniel C. Littlefield

2008-12-01

264

Mill's argument against religious knowledge  

OpenAIRE

In On Liberty, Mill says that 'the same causes which make ... [a person] a Churchman in London, would have made him a Buddhist or a Confucian in Pekin.' Despite Mill's not having drawn it out, there is an argument implicit in his comments that is germane to both externalist and internalist understandings of the epistemic justification of religious beliefs, even though some of these understandings would not wish to use the term 'epistemic justification' to refer to whatever it is they suggest ...

Mawson, Tj

2009-01-01

265

SILAGE CANE SUGAR ADDED WITH DRIED BREWER  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The objective of this experiment was to evaluate the fermentative parameters and chemical composition of silage cane sugar added with residue dried brewery. The experimental design was completely randomized with four treatments and four replications: 100% cane sugar; 90% of cane sugar + 10% residue dried brewer; 80% of cane sugar + 20% residue dried brewer and 70% cane sugar + 30% dried brewer based on natural matter, composed silages. The sugar cane was chopped in a stationary machine with forage particle size of approximately 2 cm, and homogenized manually with the additives. For storage chopped fresh weight were used in experimental silos capacity of about 4 liters. The results showed that the contents of dry matter and crude protein showed positive linear (P0.05 with mean value of 3.81, while for ether extract and ash results were positive linear (P0.05 for N ammonia presented average value of 4.18. It is concluded that the addition of brewer dehydrated improves the fermentation process of silage cane sugar, in addition to improving their nutritional characteristics.

W. J. R. Castro

2015-02-01

266

Improved molecular tools for sugar cane biotechnology.  

Science.gov (United States)

Sugar cane is a major source of food and fuel worldwide. Biotechnology has the potential to improve economically-important traits in sugar cane as well as diversify sugar cane beyond traditional applications such as sucrose production. High levels of transgene expression are key to the success of improving crops through biotechnology. Here we describe new molecular tools that both expand and improve gene expression capabilities in sugar cane. We have identified promoters that can be used to drive high levels of gene expression in the leaf and stem of transgenic sugar cane. One of these promoters, derived from the Cestrum yellow leaf curling virus, drives levels of constitutive transgene expression that are significantly higher than those achieved by the historical benchmark maize polyubiquitin-1 (Zm-Ubi1) promoter. A second promoter, the maize phosphonenolpyruvate carboxylate promoter, was found to be a strong, leaf-preferred promoter that enables levels of expression comparable to Zm-Ubi1 in this organ. Transgene expression was increased approximately 50-fold by gene modification, which included optimising the codon usage of the coding sequence to better suit sugar cane. We also describe a novel dual transcriptional enhancer that increased gene expression from different promoters, boosting expression from Zm-Ubi1 over eightfold. These molecular tools will be extremely valuable for the improvement of sugar cane through biotechnology. PMID:24150836

Kinkema, Mark; Geijskes, Jason; Delucca, Paulo; Palupe, Anthony; Shand, Kylie; Coleman, Heather D; Brinin, Anthony; Williams, Brett; Sainz, Manuel; Dale, James L

2014-03-01

267

A preliminary characterization of the mutagenicity of atmospheric particulate matter collected during sugar cane harvesting using the Salmonella/microsome microsuspension assay.  

Science.gov (United States)

During sugar cane harvesting season, which occurs from May to November of each year, the crops are burnt, cut, and transported to the mills. There are reports showing that mutagenic activity and PAH content increase during harvesting season in some areas of São Paulo State in comparison with nonharvesting periods. The objective of this work was to preliminarily characterize the mutagenic activity of the total organic extracts as well as corresponding organic fractions of airborne particulate matter (PM) collected twice from two cities, Araraquara (ARQ) and Piracicaba (PRB), during sugar cane harvesting season using the Salmonella/microsome microssuspension assay. One sample collected in São Paulo metropolitan area was also included. The mutagenicity of the total extracts ranged from 55 to 320 revertants per cubic meter without the addition of S9 and from not detected to 57 revertants per cubic meter in the presence of S9 in areas with sugar cane plantations. Of the three fractions analyzed, the most polar ones (nitro and oxy) were the most potent. A comparison of the response of TA98 with YG1041 and the increased potencies without S9 indicated that nitro compounds are causing the observed effect. More studies are necessary to verify the sources of the mutagenic activity such as burning of vegetal biomass and combustion of heavy duty vehicles used to transport the sugar cane to the mills. The Salmonella/microsome assay can be an important tool to monitor the atmosphere for mutagenicity during sugar cane harvesting season. PMID:18288717

de Aragão Umbuzeiro, Gisela; Franco, Alexandre; Magalhães, Dulce; de Castro, Francisco José Viana; Kummrow, Fábio; Rech, Célia Maria; Rothschild Franco de Carvalho, Lilian; de Castro Vasconcellos, Pérola

2008-05-01

268

How Much Sugar Is in Bubble Gum?  

Science.gov (United States)

Some of the flavoring in bubble gum is due to the sugar or other sweetener it contains. As gum is chewed, the sugar dissolves and is swallowed. After a piece of gum loses its sweetness, it can be left to dry at room temperature and then the difference between its initial (unchewed) mass and its chewed mass can be used to calculate the percentage of sugar in the gum. This demonstration experiment is used to generate new questions about gums and their ingredients, and students can then design and execute new experiments based on their own questions.

Engineering K-PhD Program,

269

Uranium mill tailings stabilization  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Uranium mill tailings pose a potential radiation health hazard to the public. Therefore, stabilization or disposal of these tailings in a safe and environmentally sound way is needed to minimize radon exhalation and other environmental hazards. One of the most promising concepts for stabilizing U tailings is the use of asphalt emulsion to contain radon and other hazardous materials within uranium tailings. This approach is being investigated at the Pacific Northwest Laboratory. Results of these studies indicate that a radon flux reduction of greater than 99% can be obtained using either a poured-on/sprayed-on seal (3.0 to 7.0 mm thick) or an admixture seal (2.5 to 12.7 cm thick) containing about 18 wt % residual asphalt. A field test was carried out in June 1979 at the Grand Junction tailings pile in order to demonstrate the sealing process. A reduction in radon flux ranging from 4.5 to greater than 99% (76% average) was achieved using a 15.2-cm (6-in.) admix seal with a sprayed-on top coat. A hydrostatic stabilizer was used to apply the admix. Following compaction, a spray coat seal was applied over the admix as the final step in construction of a radon seal. Overburden was applied to provide a protective soil layer over the seal. Included in part of the overburden was a herbicide to prevent root penetration

270

SUBAQUEOUS DISPOSAL OF MILL TAILINGS  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A study of mill tailings and sulfide minerals was carried out in order to understand their behavior under subaqueous conditions. A series of electrochemical experiments, namely, cyclic voltammetry, electrochemical impedance spectroscopy and galvanic coupling tests were carried out in artificial seawater and in pH 6.8 buffer solutions with chloride and ferric salts. Two mill tailings samples, one from the Kensington Mine, Alaska, and the other from the Holden Mine, Washington, were studied along with pyrite, galena, chalcopyrite and copper-activated sphalerite. SEM analysis of mill tailings revealed absence of sulfide minerals from the Kensington Mine mill tailings, whereas the Holden Mine mill tailings contained approximately 8% pyrite and 1% sphalerite. In order to conduct electrochemical tests, carbon matrix composite (CMC) electrodes of mill tailings, pyrite and galena were prepared and their feasibility was established by conducting a series of cyclic voltammetry tests. The cyclic voltammetry experiments carried out in artificial seawater and pH 6.8 buffer with chloride salts showed that chloride ions play an important role in the redox processes of sulfide minerals. For pyrite and galena, peaks were observed for the formation of chloride complexes, whereas pitting behavior was observed for the CMC electrodes of the Kensington Mine mill tailings. The electrochemical impedance spectroscopy conducted in artificial seawater provided with the Nyquist plots of pyrite and galena. The Nyquist plots of pyrite and galena exhibited an inert range of potential indicating a slower rate of leaching of sulfide minerals in marine environments. The galvanic coupling experiments were carried out to study the oxidation of sulfide minerals in the absence of oxygen. It was shown that in the absence of oxygen, ferric (Fe3+) ions might oxidize the sulfide minerals, thereby releasing undesirable oxidation products in the marine environment. The source of Fe{sup 3{minus}} ions may be attributed to iron-bearing sulfide (and oxide) minerals present in the mill tailings. However, the concentration of available Fe{sup 3{minus}} ions can be reduced by the precipitation of insoluble ferric hydroxides (Fe(OH ){sub 3}) by seawater due to its near neutral pH. In such case, the oxidation of a sulfide mineral is inhibited due to the absence of an oxidizing agent (viz. oxygen and/or Fe{sup 3+} ions). The experiments carried out in this study provided a better understanding of behavior of sulfide minerals and mill tailings in subaqueous conditions and may be useful for further investigation of sulfide minerals and mill tailings in other environments.

Neeraj K. Mendiratta; Roe-Hoan Yoon; Paul Richardson

1999-09-03

271

Indian President visits CERN  

CERN Multimedia

On 1 October, her Excellency Mrs Pratibha Devisingh Patil, President of India, picked CERN as the first stop on her official state visit to Switzerland. Accompanied by a host of Indian journalists, a security team, and a group of presidential delegates, the president left quite an impression when she visited CERN’s Point 2!   Upon arrival, Pratibha Patil was greeted by CERN Director General Rolf Heuer, as well as senior Indian scientists working at CERN, and various department directors. After a quick overview of the Organization, Rolf Heuer and the President addressed India’s future collaboration with CERN. India is currently an Observer State of the Organization, and is considering becoming an Associate Member State. A short stop in LHC operations gave Steve Myers and the Accelerator team the opportunity to take the President on a tour through the LHC tunnel. From there, ALICE’s Tapan Nayak and Spokesperson Paolo Giubellino took Pratibha Patil to the experiment&am...

Katarina Anthony

2011-01-01

272

Sugar regulation of SUGAR TRANSPORTER PROTEIN 1 (STP1) expression in Arabidopsis thaliana.  

Science.gov (United States)

Sugars regulate the expression of many genes at the transcriptional level. In Arabidopsis thaliana, sugars induce or repress the expression of >1800 genes, including the STP1 (SUGAR TRANSPORTER PROTEIN 1) gene, which encodes an H(+)/monosaccharide cotransporter. STP1 transcript levels decrease more rapidly after the addition of low concentrations of sugars than the levels of other repressed genes, such as DIN6 (DARK-INDUCED 6). We found that this regulation is exerted at the transcriptional level and is initiated by phosphorylatable sugars. Interestingly, the sugar signal that modulates STP1 expression is transmitted through a HEXOKINASE 1-independent signalling pathway. Finally, analysis of the STP1 5' regulatory region allowed us to delimit a region of 309bp that contains the cis elements implicated in the glucose regulation of STP1 expression. Putative cis-acting elements involved in this response were identified. PMID:25281700

Cordoba, Elizabeth; Aceves-Zamudio, Denise Lizeth; Hernández-Bernal, Alma Fabiola; Ramos-Vega, Maricela; León, Patricia

2015-01-01

273

AN INDIAN ENTREPRENEUR ESTABLISHING  

OpenAIRE

Title: An Indian Entrepreneur Establishing Business in Europe Course: Master Thesis EFO705 in International Business and Entrepreneurship, Swedish credit points (15 ECTS) Authors: Xiaoran Wang and Amit Vaghela Tutor: Leif Linnskog Problem: How did Mr. Deepak Soni establish and develop his company Anora Pvt Ltd in Poland, a company operating in the branch of textile and clothing? From this research problem, the dissertation will be focused on the internationalization. Purpose: The aim of thesi...

Vaghela, Amit; Wang, Xiaoran

2008-01-01

274

Indian scales and inventories  

OpenAIRE

This conceptual, perspective and review paper on Indian scales and inventories begins with clarification on the historical and contemporary meanings of psychometry before linking itself to the burgeoning field of clinimetrics in their applications to the practice of clinical psychology and psychiatry. Clinimetrics is explained as a changing paradigm in the design, administration, and interpretation of quantitative tests, techniques or procedures applied to measurement of clinical variables, t...

Venkatesan, S.

2010-01-01

275

An overview of Indian novel traditional medicinal plants with anti-diabetic potentials.  

Science.gov (United States)

Diabetes mellitus is a global metabolic epidemic affecting essential biochemical activities in almost every age group. Indian literatures like Ayurveda have already mentioned herbal remediation for a number of human ailments. Among Indian traditional medicinal plants several potential anti-diabetic plants and herbs are being used as part of our diet since prehistoric time. India has a long list of native medicinal plants with confirmed blood sugar lowering property. Some of these have proved remarkable for cure of diabetes and its complications. The current paper is aimed at providing a review on clinical and experimental studies carried out on the most effective and commonly used hypoglycemic plants and herbs species from traditional Indian flora. This write-up includes hypoglycemic and anti-hyperglycemic activities of plants, active hypoglycemic compounds and constituents along with their available toxicity status. PMID:20162049

Gupta, Rahul; Bajpai, Kumar Gaurav; Johri, Samta; Saxena, A M

2007-01-01

276

76 FR 63325 - National Indian Gaming Commission  

Science.gov (United States)

...DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR National Indian Gaming Commission AGENCY: National Indian Gaming Commission. ACTION: Notice of no action...On November 18, 2010, the National Indian Gaming Commission (NIGC) issued a Notice of...

2011-10-12

277

77 FR 43111 - Indian Gaming; Correction  

Science.gov (United States)

...INTERIOR Bureau of Indian Affairs Indian Gaming; Correction AGENCY: Bureau of Indian...of Approved Tribal--State Class III Gaming Compact; Correction...notice that the Tribal-- State Class III Gaming Compact between the State of...

2012-07-23

278

La science politique de John Stuart Mill  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This essay explores aspects of John Stuart Mill’s approach to social and political science in the Considerations on Representative Government (1861 with an emphasis on the significance of character or ‘ethology’ in this science. The starting point is a discussion of psychology and ethology in Book VI of the Logic (1843. This conception is examined in terms of Mill’s framework of inductive and deductive science and the distinction between art and science where the views of Mill and Jeremy Bentham are contrasted. Given Mill’s view of the relationship between art and science, the science of ethology (including political ethology assumes a more prominent position in Mill’s thought than any political art or any distinctly political science. Contrary to many commentators, it is argued that Mill never abandoned his commitment to ethology, as is clear from the discussion of ‘the ideally best form of government’ in the Considerations. Mill’s conception of ‘active character’ here underpins and directs what might otherwise be seen as a traditional account of forms of government. The cultivation of active character becomes an essential condition for the success of representative government. The essay concludes with remarks on Mill’s emphasis on society for his account of liberty in On Liberty (1859 and suggests that he considered new ways of understanding the traditional processes of government.

Frederick Rosen

2008-02-01

279

Indian cosmogonies and cosmologies  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Various ideas on how the universe appeared and develops, were in Indian tradition related to mythic, religious, or philosophical ideas and contexts, and developed during some 3.000 years - from the time of Vedas, to Puranas. Conserning its appeareance, two main ideas were presented. In one concept it appeared out of itself (auto-generated, and gods were among the first to appear in the cosmic sequences. In the other, it was a kind of divine creation, with hard work (like the dismembering of the primal Purusha, or as emanation of divine dance. Indian tradition had also various critiques of mythic and religious concepts (from the 8th c. BC, to the 6c., who favoured naturalistic and materialistic explanations, and concepts, in their cosmogony and cosmology. One the peculiarities was that indian cosmogony and cosmology includes great time spans, since they used a digit system which was later (in the 13th c. introduced to Europe by Fibonacci (Leonardo of Pisa, 1170-1240.

Pajin Dušan

2011-01-01

280

Working Women: Indian Perspective  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In India, due to unprecedented rise in the cost of living, ris-ing prices of commodities, growing expenses on children ed-ucation, huge rate of unemployment, and increasing cost of housing properties compel every Indian family to explore all the possible ways and means to increase the household income. It is also witnessed that after globalization Indian women are able to get more jobs but the work they get is more casual in nature or is the one that men do not prefer to do or is left by them to move to higher or better jobs. Working women refers to those in paid employment. They work as lawyers, nurses, doctors, teachers and secretaries etc. There is no profession today where women are not employed. University of Oxford’s Professor Linda Scott recently coined the term the Double X Economy to describe the global economy of women. The present paper makes an attempt to discuss issues and challenges that are being faced by Indian working women at their respective workstations.

Dharmendra MEHTA

2014-06-01

281

Association of ?13C in Fingerstick Blood with Added Sugars and Sugar-sweetened Beverage Intake  

OpenAIRE

A reliance on self-reported dietary intake measures is a common research limitation, thus the need for dietary biomarkers. Added sugar intake may play a role in the development and progression of obesity and related co-morbidities; common sweeteners include corn and sugar cane derivatives. These plants contain a high amount of 13C, a naturally-occurring stable carbon isotope. Consumption of these sweeteners, of which sugar-sweetened beverages (SSB) are the primary dietary source, may be refle...

Davy, Brenda M.; Jahren, A. Hope; Hedrick, Valisa E.; Comber, Dana L.

2011-01-01

282

Evidence for sugar addiction: Behavioral and neurochemical effects of intermittent, excessive sugar intake  

OpenAIRE

The experimental question is whether or not sugar can be a substance of abuse and lead to a natural form of addiction. “Food addiction” seems plausible because brain pathways that evolved to respond to natural rewards are also activated by addictive drugs. Sugar is noteworthy as a substance that releases opioids and dopamine and thus might be expected to have addictive potential. This review summarizes evidence of sugar dependence in an animal model. Four components of addiction are analy...

Avena, Nicole M.; Rada, Pedro; Hoebel, Bartley G.

2007-01-01

283

SUGAR-SWEETENED BEVERAGE, SUGAR INTAKE OF INDIVIDUALS AND THEIR BLOOD PRESSURE: INTERMAP STUDY  

OpenAIRE

The obesity epidemic has focused attention on relationships of sugars and sugar-sweetened beverages (SSB) to cardiovascular risk factors. Here we report cross-sectional associations of SSB, diet beverages, sugars with blood pressure (BP) for UK and USA participants of the International Study of Macro/Micro-nutrients and Blood Pressure (INTERMAP). Data collected includes four 24-h dietary recalls, two 24-h urine collections, eight BP readings, questionnaire data for 2,696 people ages 40-59 fro...

Brown, Ian J.; Stamler, Jeremiah; Horn, Linda; Robertson, Claire E.; Chan, Queenie; Dyer, Alan R.; Huang, Chiang-ching; Rodriguez, Beatriz L.; Zhao, Liancheng; Daviglus, Martha L.; Ueshima, Hirotsugu; Elliott, Paul

2011-01-01

284

Salt and Sugar in Kids' Meals  

Medline Plus

Full Text Available ... and Newborn Nutrition Toddler Nutrition Transcript Reading nutrition labels may be especially important for parents feeding young ... The researchers recommend parents and caregivers carefully check labels for sodium and added sugar. They say reducing ...

285

Salt and Sugar in Kids' Meals  

Medline Plus

Full Text Available ... of the infant vegetables, dinners, fruits and dry cereals were low in sodium and the majority contained ... added sugar. The exception: ready-to-eat mixed grains and fruit, many of which exceeded the study ...

286

Salt and Sugar in Kids' Meals  

Medline Plus

Full Text Available ... 000 infant and toddler foods and drinks. High sodium was defined as more than 210 milligrams per ... dinners, fruits and dry cereals were low in sodium and the majority contained no added sugar. The ...

287

Salt and Sugar in Kids' Meals  

Medline Plus

Full Text Available ... young ones. A new study in the journal Pediatrics finds many pre-packaged kids’ meals contain too ... added sugar. They say reducing excessive amounts of these ingredients from birth to 24 months can lead ...

288

Root rot diseases of sugar beet  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Root rot diseases of sugar beet caused by Rhizoctonia solani (AG 2-2 IIIB and AG 2-2 IV, R. crocorum, Aphanomyces cochlioides, Phoma betae, Macrophomina phaeseolina, Fusarium oxysporum f.sp. radicis-betae, Pythium aphanidermatum Phytophthora drechsleri, Rhizopus stolonifer, R. arrhizus and Sclerotium rolfsii cause significant losses wherever sugar beets are grown. However, not all these soil-borne pathogens have been reported in all sugar beet production areas. Losses include reduced harvestable tonnage and reduced white sugar recovery. Many of these pathogens also cause post harvest losses in storage piles. Control for diseases caused by these pathogens include disease resistant cultivars, avoidance of stresses, cultural practices such as water management and the use of fungicides.

Jacobsen Barry J.

2006-01-01

289

Salt and Sugar in Kids' Meals  

Medline Plus

Full Text Available ... greater than 35% of total calories. The good news, all but 2 of the infant vegetables, dinners, ... limit for total sugars. The not-so-good news, 72% of toddler dinners were high in sodium ...

290

Hypoglycemia (Low Blood Sugar) in Diabetes Mellitus  

Science.gov (United States)

... in people with diabetes (The Basics) Patient information: Diabetes and diet (The Basics) Patient information: Should I switch to ... hypoglycemia during treatment of diabetes mellitus Patient information: Diabetes and diet (The Basics) Patient information: Low blood sugar in ...

291

Indian Vacuum Society: The Indian Vacuum Society  

Science.gov (United States)

The Indian Vacuum Society (IVS) was established in 1970. It has over 800 members including many from Industry and R & D Institutions spread throughout India. The society has an active chapter at Kolkata. The society was formed with the main aim to promote, encourage and develop the growth of Vacuum Science, Techniques and Applications in India. In order to achieve this aim it has conducted a number of short term courses at graduate and technician levels on vacuum science and technology on topics ranging from low vacuum to ultrahigh vacuum So far it has conducted 39 such courses at different parts of the country and imparted training to more than 1200 persons in the field. Some of these courses were in-plant training courses conducted on the premises of the establishment and designed to take care of the special needs of the establishment. IVS also regularly conducts national and international seminars and symposia on vacuum science and technology with special emphasis on some theme related to applications of vacuum. A large number of delegates from all over India take part in the deliberations of such seminars and symposia and present their work. IVS also arranges technical visits to different industries and research institutes. The society also helped in the UNESCO sponsored post-graduate level courses in vacuum science, technology and applications conducted by Mumbai University. The society has also designed a certificate and diploma course for graduate level students studying vacuum science and technology and has submitted a syllabus to the academic council of the University of Mumbai for their approval, we hope that some colleges affiliated to the university will start this course from the coming academic year. IVS extended its support in standardizing many of the vacuum instruments and played a vital role in helping to set up a Regional Testing Centre along with BARC. As part of the development of vacuum education, the society arranges the participation of expert members on the subject to deliver lectures and take part in devising courses in the universities. IVS publishes a quarterly called the `Bulletin of Indian Vacuum Society' since its inception, in which articles on vacuum and related topics are published. NIRVAT, news, announcements, and reports are the other features of the Bulletin. The articles in the Bulletin are internationally abstracted. The Bulletin is distributed free to all the members of the society. The society also publishes proceedings of national/international symposia and seminars, manuals, lecture notes etc. It has published a `Vacuum Directory' containing very useful information on vacuum technology. IVS has also set up its own website http://www.ivsnet.org in January 2002. The website contains information about IVS, list of members, list of EC members, events and news, abstracts of articles published in the `Bulletin of Indian Vacuum Society', utilities, announcements, reports, membership and other forms which can be completed online and also gives links to other vacuum societies. Our Society has been a member of the executive council of the International Union of Vacuum Science, Techniques and Applications (IUVSTA) and its various committees since 1970. In 1983 IVS conducted an International Symposium on Vacuum Technology and Nuclear Applications in BARC, Mumbai, under the sponsorship of IUVSTA. In 1987 IVS arranged the Triennial International Conference on Thin Films in New Delhi, where more than 200 foreign delegates participated. IVS also hosted the IUVSTA Executive Council Meeting along with the conference. The society organized yet again an International Conference on Vacuum Science and Technology and SRS Vacuum Systems at CAT, Indore in1995. IVS arranges the prestigious Professor Balakrishnan Memorial Lecture in memory of its founder vice-president. Leading scientists from India and abroad in the field are invited to deliver the talks. So far 23 lectures have been held in this series. IVS has instituted the `IVS- Professor D Y Phadke Memorial Prize' in memory of our founder presid

Saha, T. K.

2008-03-01

292

DETERMINATION OF PRIMARY METABOLITES IN CEREAL MILLING FRACTIONS  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The aim of this study was to determine of primary metabolites (content of starch, total dietary fibre, reducing sugars, proteins and amino acids in four milling fractions of selected cereals (barley, wheat, oat, spelt, rye, triticale grew in the year 2009. It was found that flour fractions (break flour and reduction flour showed the lower content of primary metabolites than bran fractions (fine bran and coarse bran. The aim of this study was also to mention the potential use of bran parts of grain - substances from these parts can be isolated and after treatment, which causes their efficiently usable for human body, they can be used for fortification of wide range of food products.

Eva Ivanišová

2013-10-01

293

Noise exposure in oil mills  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Context: Noise of machines in various agro-based industries was found to be the major occupational hazard for the workers of industries. The predominant noise sources need to be identified and the causes of high noise need to be studied to undertake the appropriate measures to reduce the noise level in one of the major agro-based industries, oil mills. Aims: To identify the predominant noise sources in the workrooms of oil mills. To study the causes of noise in oil mills. To measure the extent of noise exposure of oil mill workers. To examine the response of workers towards noise, so that appropriate measures can be undertaken to minimize the noise exposure. Settings and Design: A noise survey was conducted in the three renowned oil mills of north-eastern region of India. Materials and Methods: Information like output capacity, size of power source, maintenance condition of the machines and workroom configurations of the oil mills was collected by personal observations and enquiry with the owner of the mill. Using a Sound Level Meter (SLM (Model-824, Larson and Davis, USA, equivalent SPL was measured at operator?s ear level in the working zone of the workers near each machine of the mills. In order to study the variation of SPL in the workrooms of the oil mill throughout its operation, equivalent SPL was measured at two appropriate locations of working zone of the workers in each mill. For conducting the noise survey, the guidelines of Canadian Centre for Occupational Health and Safety (CCOHS were followed. Grid points were marked on the floor of the workroom of the oil mill at a spacing of 1 m x 1 m. SPL at grid points were measured at about 1.5 m above the floor. The direction of the SLM was towards the nearby noisy source. To increase accuracy, two replications were taken at each grid point. All the data were recorded for 30 sec. At the end of the experiment, data were downloaded to a personal computer. With the help of utility software of Larson and Davis, USA, equivalent SPL and noise spectrum at each reading was obtained. Noise survey map of equivalent SPL was drawn for each oil mill by drawing contour lines on the sketch of the oil mill between the points of equal SPL. The floor area in the oil mill where SPL exceeded 85 dBA was identified from the noise survey map of each oil mill to determine the causes of high level of noise. Subjective assessment was done during the rest period of workers and it was assessed with personal interview with each worker separately. Demographic information, nature of work, working hours, rest period, experience of working in the mill, degree of noise annoyance, activity interference, and psychological and physiological effects of machine noise on the worker were asked during the interview. These details were noted in a structured form. Statistical Analysis Used: Nil. Results: The noise survey conducted in three renowned oil mills of north-eastern region of India revealed that about 26% of the total workers were exposed to noise level of more than 85 dBA. Further, 10% to 30% floor areas of workrooms, where oil expellers are provided have the SPL of more than 85 dBA. The noise in the oil mills was dominated by low frequency noise. The predominant noise sources in the oil mills were seed cleaner and power transmission system to oil expellers. Poor maintenance of machines and use of bamboo stick to prevent the fall of belt from misaligned pulleys were the main reason of high noise. Noise emitted by the electric motor, table ghani and oil expellers in all the oil mills was well within 85 dBA. Subjective response indicated that about 63% of the total workers felt that noise interfered with their conversation. About 16% each were of the opinion that noise interfered in their work and harmed their hearing. About 5% of workers stated that the workroom noise gave them headaches. Conclusions: The workers engaged in the workrooms of the oil mills are exposed to high noise, which will have detrimental effect on their health. Th

Prasanna Kumar G

2008-01-01

294

Conditioned Taste Aversion Diminishes Sugar Intake  

OpenAIRE

Animals learn to avoid particular food when some of its sensory properties are associated with gastrointestinal discomfort. Twenty rats were exposed to free access to food and a sugar solution for ten days in first phase. During second phase, experimental group received a dose of LiCl. Control group received an injection without LiCl. Both groups had free access to a sugar solution and food restriction for three days. In the final phase, both groups returned to the cond...

Alma Gabriela Martínez Moreno; Antonio López-Espinoza; Imelda de León López; Laura Vanesa Solano Santos; Fernando Hernández- Leonardo

2014-01-01

295

Modelling sugar beet water use in Spain  

OpenAIRE

Crop production has a great contribution to water use and abstraction. Sugar beet is an important crop in irrigated land in Spain and covers 70.000 Ha. Crop and resources management are key factors for a sustainable agriculture. The aim of this work is to mode the sugar beet crop growth and water consumption in order to quantify crop water use and virtual water content in different growing conditions.

Soler Rovira, Jose?; Go?mez La Calle, P.; Arroyo Sanz, Juan Manuel

2012-01-01

296

Engineering of sugar metabolism in Lactococcus lactis  

OpenAIRE

Short English Summary Lactococcus lactis is a lactic acid bacterium used in the dairy industry. This thesis decribes the genetic engineering performed on the sugar metabolism of L. lactis. Besides our fundamental interest for sugar metabolism and its regulation in L. lactis, this project had the interest of the dairy industry. L. lactis strains were made with improved lactose and galactose consumption rates, to produce dairy products with lower (ga)lactose concentrations. This is benefici...

Pool, Weia Arianne

2008-01-01

297

Sugars, the clock and transition to flowering  

OpenAIRE

Sugars do not only act as source of energy, but they also act as signals in plants. This mini review summarizes the emerging links between sucrose-mediated signaling and the cellular networks involved in flowering time control and defense. Cross-talks with gibberellin and jasmonate signaling pathways are highlighted. The circadian clock fulfills a crucial role at the heart of cellular networks and the bilateral relation between sugar signaling and the clock is discussed. It is proposed that i...

Moghaddam, Mohammad R. Bolouri; Den Ende, Wim

2013-01-01

298

Fungal secretomes enhance sugar beet pulp hydrolysis  

OpenAIRE

The recalcitrance of lignocellulose makes enzymatic hydrolysis of plant biomass for the production of second generation biofuels a major challenge. This work investigates an efficient and economic approach for the enzymatic hydrolysis of sugar beet pulp (SBP), which is a difficult to degrade, hemicellulose-rich by-product of the table sugar industry. Three fungal strains were grown on different substrates and the production of various extracellular hydrolytic and oxidative enzymes involved in...

Kracher, Daniel; Oros, Damir; Yao, Wanying; Preims, Marita; Rezic, Iva; Haltrich, Dietmar; Rezic, Tonci; Ludwig, Roland

2014-01-01

299

High risk pesticides in sugar beet protection  

OpenAIRE

According to traits of pesticides permitted to use in sugar beet (oral percutaneus and inhalation toxicity, toxicity to wildlife, bees and aquatic organisms, re-entry interval, maximum number of treatments, effects on reproduction) do not present health risk in sugar production/technology. However, the danger exists for workers by chronic exposure during the application, especially from pesticide being potential endocrine disruptors (EDS) (fentin acetate, benomyl, endosulfan, methomyl, methid...

Šovljanski Radmila A.; Kloko?ar-Šmit Zlata D.; In?i? Dušanka V.

2006-01-01

300

UV monitoring of sugars during wine making.  

Science.gov (United States)

A UV/UV system for the spectrophotometric determination of sugars during wine production is described. The methodology is based on the formation of a UV-absorbing byproduct produced by the photodegradation of sugars. Under the given experimental conditions, the influence of increasing the amount of acids and alcohol is negligible. The measurement by UV/UV is compared with FTIR as reference method and validated according to the French norm AFNOR XPT 90 210. PMID:12504384

Roig, B; Thomas, O

2003-01-01

301

Dietary sugar utilisation by putative oral probiotics.  

Science.gov (United States)

Probiotic consumption and repeated probiotic intake have shown promising results as adjunct therapies in prevention and alleviation of some chronic disease conditions in the gastrointestinal tract. Recent evidence suggests that probiotics may also be beneficial in preventing oral diseases. An efficient probiotic candidate in the mouth, however, should not impose any risk to oral tissues, such as acid demineralisation of tooth enamel because of sugar fermentation. The aim of the present in vitro study was to evaluate the utilisation of some sugars and sugar alcohols by yogurt starter Lactobacillus delbrueckii subsp. bulgaricus strains and to assess the influence of these carbohydrate sources on cell surface properties. For comparsion, a commercially available probiotic, Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG, was used. The results showed that lactose, glucose and fructose were readily metabolised by all strains tested. However, strain-specific metabolic patterns were observed when other sugars and sugar alcohols were used as sole carbohydrate source in the growth medium. Surface properties of the bacteria such as hydrophobicity and surface-associated proteins appeared to vary with the carbohydrate content of the growth medium. Based on these results it can be concluded that among the L. delbrueckii subsp. bulgaricus strains probiotic candidate strains are available that warrant further studies due to their inability to ferment sugars with pronounced cariogenic properties. PMID:22968411

Stamatova, I; Kari, K; Hervonen, L; Meurman, J H

2012-09-01

302

World Sugar Market – Basic Development Trends and Tendencies  

OpenAIRE

This article is devoted to the issues of the world‘s sugar production and cultivation of sugar crops (sugar beet and sugar cane). It also analyzes the development of the global sugar trade. The main aim of this paper is to define the basic developmental trends and tendencies that affect the current situation on the market for sugar and sugar crops and then outline a process of gradual profiling of the world markets for these commodities. The article identifies the most important players ope...

Svatos?, M.; Maitah, M.; Belova, A.

2013-01-01

303

Effect of soya milk on nutritive, antioxidative, reological and textural properties of chocolate produced in a ball mill  

OpenAIRE

Chocolate is a complex rheological system in which non-fat cocoa particles and sugar particles are enveloped by crystal matrix of cocoa butter. Physical properties of chocolate depend on ingredient composition, method of production and properly performed pre-crystallization phase. In this work, chocolate was produced in an unconventional way, i.e. in a ball mill applying variable refining time (30, 60 and 90 min) and pre-crystallization temperature in chocolate masses (26, 28 and 30?C...

Zari? Danica B.; Pajin Biljana S.; Rakin Marica B.; Šereš Zita I.; Doki? Ljubica P.; Tomi? Jelena M.

2011-01-01

304

American Indian Intellectualism and the New Indian Story.  

Science.gov (United States)

Critically reviews modern writings about American Indians, focusing on Indian romance novels, children's stories, biographies, works by "urban mixed-bloods," and the "art for art's sake" stance. Views non-Native works as irrelevant and most Native writings as self-centered or escapist. Calls for Native intellectuals to contribute to the real life…

Cook-Lynn, Elizabeth

1996-01-01

305

Structural confirmation of oligosaccharides newly isolated from sugar beet molasses  

OpenAIRE

Abstract Background Sugar beet molasses is a viscous by-product of the processing of sugar beets into sugar. The molasses is known to contain sucrose and raffinose, a typical trisaccharide, with a well-established structure. Although sugar beet molasses contains various other oligosaccharides as well, the structures of those oligosaccharides have not been examined in detail. The purpose of this study was isolation and structural confirmation of these other oligosaccharides found in sugar beet...

Abe Tatsuya; Horiuchi Kenichi; Kikuchi Hiroto; Aritsuka Tsutomu; Takata Yusuke; Fukushi Eri; Fukushi Yukiharu; Kawabata Jun; Ueno Keiji; Onodera Shuichi; Shiomi Norio

2012-01-01

306

Practical problems in use of sugar substitutes in preventive dentistry  

OpenAIRE

Sugar (sucrose) being most acceptable sweetening agent in use by mankind is considered as the “Arch Criminal” in dental caries initiation. Search for suitable sweetening agent which will satisfy all the characteristics of sugar along with being non-cariogenic is going on since decades. At this given point of time, there is no such substitute which will replace sugar in all aspects, but, cariogenic potential can certainly be reduced by using sugar substitutes. Recently, few sugar substitut...

Roshan, N. M.; Sakeenabi, B.

2011-01-01

307

“CO-OPERATIVE SUGAR INDUSTRY IN MAHARASHTRA AND MARATHWADA”  

OpenAIRE

Sugar industry has acquired a great significance in India, Maharashtra and Marathwada. Sugar industry accounts for a huge investment of over Rs. 2,500 crores and provides employment to about five lakh rural peoples. About 5.5 million farmers are engaged in cane cultivation. The rapid growth of sugar industry in Maharashtra has helped to a very great extent in stabilizing the sugar production in the country and reducing the chronic shortage of sugar. Maharashtra produces about ...

“CO-OPERATIVE SUGAR INDUSTRY IN MAHARASHTRA AND MARATHWADA”

2014-01-01

308

An econometrics method to estimate demand of sugar  

OpenAIRE

Sugar is one of the strategic goods in the basket of households in each country and it plays an important role in supplying the required energy. On the other hand, it is one of the goods, which Iranian government is about to change its subsidy strategies. To design useful sugar subsidy strategies, it is necessary to know sugar position in the basket of households and be familiar with households' sugar demand or consumption behavior. This research estimates sugar demand for Iranian households ...

Negar Seyed Soleimany; Masoud Babakhani

2012-01-01

309

The Russian Federation – Specifics of the Sugar Market  

OpenAIRE

The Russian Federation represents a significant force in the global production and consumption of beet sugar. Its population which is in excess of more than 140 million people consumes over 5.6 million net tons of sugar annually, and the amount is steadily growing. The Russian sugar industry was unable to meet the domestic demand, especially during the economic transformation period (sugar beet and sugar production are very sensitive in relation to changes in economic, political, production a...

Smutka, L.; Maitah, M.; Zhuravleva, E. A.

2014-01-01

310

Estonian sugar mountain turns sour / Alec Charles  

Index Scriptorium Estoniae

Eesti valitsus jätkab võitlust Euroopa Komisjoniga, et mitte maksta 55 miljonit eurot trahvi suhkru ladustamise eest. Peaminister Juhan Parts saatis Euroopa Komisjoni presidendile Jose Manuel Barrosole kirja, milles palus trahvi nõudmise suhtes järele mõelda.

Charles, Alec

2005-01-01

311

Sugar continues to vex Estonia, Latvia  

Index Scriptorium Estoniae

Põllumajandusminister Ester Tuiksoo saatis Euroopa Komisjoni volinikule põllumajanduse alal kirja, milles palus kodumajapidamistes tarvitatava suhkru mahaarvamist koguvarudest. Läti meedia teatas, et Euroopa Komisjon võib anda rohkem aega suhkruvarudest vabanemiseks

2005-01-01

312

Standardization of rate of sugar addition for the manufacture of Thabdi.  

Science.gov (United States)

Traditional Indian Dairy Products are manufactured in India using an age old practice which varies from place to place. For manufacture of these products industrially, a standard formulation is required. Thabdi, a region specific, very popular heat desiccated milk product is one of such products which has not been studied scientifically. Sugar plays an important role in physico-chemical, sensory, textural characteristics and also the shelf life of any milk sweet. Hence for process standardization of Thabdi manufacture, different levels of sugar i.e. 4, 6, 8 and 10 (percent of milk) were studied so that an optimum level yielding best organoleptic characteristics in final product can be selected. The product was made from milk standardized to 0.66 Fat:SNF level and added with ghee @ 1.2 % of milk at the time of colour and texture development stage as selected from the earlier phase of study. Based on the results obtained, a level of 8 % sugar addition on the milk basis at the time of manufacture has been selected to have full taste and sensory attributes. PMID:25694732

Hirpara, Krupa B; Patel, H G; Prajapati, J P

2015-02-01

313

Evaluation of Anaerobic Fluidized Bed Reactor for treating Sugar mill effluent - a Case Study  

OpenAIRE

Anaerobic treatment processes are credible options for providing sustainable treatment to biodegradable waste streams. The Anaerobic Fluidized Bed Reactor (AFBR) is an evolving process that requires waste specific design methodologies based on kinetics of the specific process. The research was precisely an experimental study on AFBR having23.56 litres of effective volume to evaluate its treatment performance and gas recovery in terms of Chemical Oxygen Demand (COD), Hydraulic ...

Mathiyazhagan, R.; Nehru Kumar, Dr V.

2014-01-01

314

Infield routing network and reducing transportation costs on a sugar mill in Colombia  

OpenAIRE

Globalization and free trade agreements are factors that affect the world¿s economy. For some industries they can be beneficial and for others not so much. Additionally customers are ever more and more demanding, they want better products, with better quality and at a lower price. To stay competitive in the market it is necessary to give the customers everything they want and to supply all the client¿s needs. Being competitive is hard work to maintain and also expensive if the costs are ...

Ca?rdenas Reina, Jorge Mario; Krigsfeld Kuzman, Adrian

2012-01-01

315

Genetic improvement of sugar cane for bioenergy: the Brazilian experience in network research with RIDESA  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In this paper, it is presented RIDESA’s model for sugar cane breeding to ethanol, and its scientific, technological and human resources training contributions. RIDESA is an inter-university network for the development of sugar cane industry in Brazil, and was formed by a technical cooperation agreement between ten public universities. The model of network management is presented in this study, which involves, among other things, the public-private partnership (Universities-Mills for the development of cultivars. RIDESA has produced 59 cultivars since 1990 and is now responsible for 59% of the total area cultivated with this plant in Brazil. In the last five years, 286 agronomists were trained in breeding programs at universities that comprise RIDESA. In this same period, the network formed 35 professors, 24 doctors and 7 post-docs in researches with this crop. It is also presented a conceptual approach on methods of sugar cane breeding involving families and genome-wide selection.

Luiz Alexandre Peternelli

2012-01-01

316

State of weed infestation and features of sugar beet protection in Belarus  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The changes of phytosanitary situation recently taking place in sugar beet crops in the Republic of Belarus are shown. It is noticed that in the crop agrocoenosises there is a high infestation level caused by Japanese barnyard millet (Echinochloa crus-galli (L Pal. Beauv, field sowthistle (Sonchus arvensis L, chickweed (Stellaria media (L Vill, quick grass (Agropyron repens (L Pal Beauv, matricary (Matricaria perforate Merat, creeping thistle (Circium arvense (L scop, marsh woundwort (Stachus palustris L wild buckwheat (Polygonum convolvulus L, bristle stem hemp nettle (Galeopsis tetrahit L, common horsetail (Equisetum arvense L, field forget-me-not (Myosotis arvensis (L Hill, shepherd's purse (Capsella bursa-pastoris (L Med etc. Due to non-observance of preventive and separate agrotechnical techniques especially in spring-summer period, such weeds as bedstraw (Galium aparine L, white campion (Melandrium album (Mill Garcke, green amaranthus (Amaranthus retroflexus L started to appear in the crops. To protect sugar beet effectively, two variants of herbicides application are proposed. The first one - a combined, one stipulating soil action herbicides application before planting or before sugar beet seedlings emergence and on seedlings - to carry out two treatment by post-emergence preparations. The second variant, a split post- -emergence herbicide application (two-three times spraying on growing weeds at small application rates. In the next 5-6 years, a combined method will be of a primary importance in the conditions of the Republic.

Soroka Sergey Vladimirovich

2006-01-01

317

76 FR 11258 - Indian Gaming  

Science.gov (United States)

...Under Section 11 of the Indian Gaming Regulatory Act of 1988 (IGRA...purpose of engaging in Class III gaming activities on Indian lands...and establishes the Oregon Benefit Fund to receive payments from...percentages of net win. The gaming facility authorized by...

2011-03-01

318

78 FR 54908 - Indian Gaming  

Science.gov (United States)

...Affairs [DR.5B711.IA000813] Indian Gaming AGENCY: Bureau of Indian Affairs, Interior...Notice of approved Tribal-State Class III Gaming Compact...approval of the Class III Tribal- State Gaming Compact between the Wiyot Tribe and...

2013-09-06

319

78 FR 62649 - Indian Gaming  

Science.gov (United States)

...Affairs [DR.5B711.IA000813] Indian Gaming AGENCY: Bureau of Indian Affairs, Interior...ACTION: Notice of Tribal-State Class III Gaming Compact taking effect...This notice publishes the Class III Gaming Compact between the North Fork...

2013-10-22

320

The Carlisle Indian Industrial School.  

Science.gov (United States)

The Carlisle Indian Industrial School was the first off-reservation boarding school and began the social experiment of assimilation of Native Americans into American culture. For almost 40 years, from 1879 to 1918, the school sought to civilize "savage" Indian children. Richard H. Pratt, founder of the school, believed that the school was the…

Satterlee, Anita

321

Indian Academy of Sciences - Events  

Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

photonic band gap materials: engineering light–matter interactions by professor sajeev john (university of toronto, toronto, canada), 3 january 2008, indian institute of science, bangalore a dialogue on science and mathematics in india by professor k. r. sreenivasan (the abdus salam international centre for theoretical physics, trieste, italy), 28 december 2007, indian institute of science, bangalore to the fifth dimension and back ...

322

Indian Academy of Sciences - General  

Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

dr n. c. jain, editorial support, indian journal of medical research jainnc@vsnl.net mr r. muniasamy, programmer, indian journal of medical research national medical journal of india href="mailto:nmji@aiims.aiims.ac.in">nmji@aiims.aiims.ac.in ...

323

Acoustics of the Indian Drum  

CERN Document Server

This article investigates as to how the Indian Drums are able to produce harmonics. In particular, it looks at the density distribution on an Indian Drum, the Tabla, and shows that it is the form of the density distribution that results in harmonics.

Malu, S S; Malu, Siddharth S; Siddharthan, Advaith

2000-01-01

324

California Indian Food and Culture.  

Science.gov (United States)

This learning kit begins with a glossary of terms to help students learn about California Indians and their food. The kit explains that California Indians were the first people to live in the area now known as California, and that these tribes differed in the languages they spoke, the regions they lived in, and the foods that they ate. It explains…

2001

325

77 FR 76514 - Indian Gaming  

Science.gov (United States)

...Under section 11 of the Indian Gaming Regulatory Act of 1988 (IGRA) Public...purpose of engaging in Class III gaming activities on Indian lands. On November...The Compact increases the number of Video Gaming Machines from 76 to 816, and...

2012-12-28

326

Uranium mill tailings and radon  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The major health hazard from uranium mill tailings is presumed to be respiratory cancer resulting from the inhalation of radon daughter products. A review of studies on inhalation of radon and its daughters indicates that the hazard from the tailings is extremely small. If the assumptions used in the studies are correct, one or two people per year in the United States may develop cancer as a result of radon exhaled from all the Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action program sites. The remedial action should reduce the hazard from the tailings by a factor of about 100

327

Uranium mill tailings and radon  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The major health hazard from uranium mill tailings is presumed to be respiratory cancer resulting from the inhalation of radon daughter products. A review of studies on inhalation of radon and its daughters indicates that the hazard from the tailings is extremely small. If the assumptions used in the studies are correct, one or two people per year in the US may develop cancer as a result of radon exhaled from all the Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action Program sites. The remedial action should reduce the hazard from the tailings by a factor of about 100

328

Effect of zero energy cool chamber and post-harvest treatments on shelf-life of fruits under semi-arid environment of Western India. Part 2. Indian gooseberry fruits  

OpenAIRE

Effect of zero energy cool chamber (ZECC) along with post-harvest treatments including CaCl2, mustard oil and K2SO4 separately on shelf-life and fruit quality attributes of Indian gooseberry or aonla (Emblica officinalis Gaertn) during storage under semi-arid ecosystem of Gujarat was studied. Increase in physiological loss in weight (PLW), spoilage loss, total soluble solids, total sugar and reducing sugars, reduction in titratable acidity and ascorbic acid were observed during storage period...

Singh, Sanjay; Singh, A. K.; Joshi, H. K.; Bagle, B. G.; More, T. A.

2010-01-01

329

The Indian ultrasound paradox  

OpenAIRE

The liberalization of the Indian economy in the 1990s made prenatal ultrasound technology affordable and available to a large fraction of the population. As a result, ultrasound use amongst pregnant women rose dramatically in many parts of India. This paper provides evidence on the consequences of the expansion of prenatal ultrasound use on sex-selection. We exploit state-by-cohort variation in ultrasound use in India as a unique quasi-experiment. We find that sex-selective abortion of female...

Akbulut-yuksel, Mevlude; Rosenblum, Daniel

2012-01-01

330

Indian cosmogonies and cosmologies  

OpenAIRE

Various ideas on how the universe appeared and develops, were in Indian tradition related to mythic, religious, or philosophical ideas and contexts, and developed during some 3.000 years - from the time of Vedas, to Puranas. Conserning its appeareance, two main ideas were presented. In one concept it appeared out of itself (auto-generated), and gods were among the first to appear in the cosmic sequences. In the other, it was a kind of divine creation, with hard work (like the dismemberi...

Pajin Dušan

2011-01-01

331

Omaha Indian Music  

Science.gov (United States)

This Library of Congress website houses the digitized Omaha Indian Music collection. Featuring a pithy Collection Overview and links to contextualizing elements, such as Historical Eras and Related Collections and Exhibits, the site makes accessible an important cultural tradition. Of course, the exhibit itself really shines. The multiformat ethnographic field collection contains dozens of wax cylinder recordings from the 1890s, as well as modern recordings of pow-wows and performances. Additionally, black and white photographs and contemporary films exhibit dances and celebrations, while interviews with tribal members elucidate the various cultural practices.

332

Alcohol and Indian porphyrics.  

OpenAIRE

The role of alcohol as the precipitating factor in the induction of acute attacks of acute intermittent porphyria was studied in an Indian population. Thirty-four teetotal patients with acute intermittent porphyria, in remission, were given 60 ml of 30% ethanol. Except for two patients, all had negative Watson-Schwartz tests prior to the alcohol. Within 24 hours, the Watson-Schwartz test became positive in 16 of these 32 patients (50%). In 8 out of the 34 patients (23.5%) a clinical attack wa...

Saksena, H. C.; Panwar, R. B.; Rajvanshi, P.; Sabir, M.; Suri, M.

1991-01-01

333

Indian nuclear power programme  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Integrated energy policy of India considers the role of nuclear power as vital for long term energy security and sustainable development of the country. To increase the nuclear power capacity in the country, India pursues development and deployment of nuclear power plants through indigenous technologies as well as import of reactors from abroad. Presently, there are 20 NPP units in operation with an installed capacity of 4780 MWe. Seven more units with a capacity of 5300 MWe are under construction/commissioning. In addition, a number of new NPPs are planned to significantly increase the nuclear power base from the current levels. The paper discusses the Indian nuclear power programme in general

334

THE EFFECT OF NITROGEN INPUT ON POLARISED SUGAR PRODUCTION AND QUALITATIVE PARAMETERS OF SUGAR BEET  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available During 1998-2002, the application of different forms and doses of nitrogen on quantitative (polarised sugar productionand qualitative parameters (digestion, molasses forming components - potassium, sodium and ?-amino nitrogen content of sugar beet in vulnerable zones (Nitrate directive was studied. Calculated input of nitrogen ranged from 12 kg up to 240 kg N.ha-1. By increasing input of N from FYM application into the soil causes an increases of ?- amino nitrogen content in root, which in consequence causes a decreases the sugar content (negative correlation r= -0.8659+. The application of straw instead FYM of analogues treatments caused significant decrease (straw versus FYM and highly significant decrease (straw plus N fertilizers versus FYM plus N fertilizers of ?-amino nitrogen content in sugar beet root living the productive parameters unchanged. The content of ?-amino nitrogen in root of sugar beet indicate an environmentally friendly management practices with causal relation to water protection from nitrate.

MILAN MACÁK

2007-11-01

335

Machine Shop. Module 6: Milling. Instructor's Guide.  

Science.gov (United States)

This document consists of materials for a 12-unit course on the following topics: (1) introduction to milling; (2) structure and accessories; (3) safety and maintenance; (4) cutting-tool variables; (5) basic set-up activities; (6) squaring a workpiece; (7) hole-making operations; (8) form milling; (9) machining keyways; (10) milling angular…

Walden, Charles H.

336

Ground beetle populations near a kraft mill  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Twenty species of ground beetles (Family Carabidae) and one species of carrion beetle (Family Silphidae) were collected in six stations east of a kraft paper mill in Thunder Bay, Ontario, from May to August, 1971. The beetle population decreased markedly towards the mill. There was no apparent statistical difference in size variation of specimens near the mill and those further away.

Freitag, R.; Hastings, L.; Mercer, W.R.; Smith, A.

1973-02-01

337

Greenhouse gasses emissions and energy balances of a non-vertically integrated sugar and ethanol supply chain: A case study in Argentina  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In order to address society's concerns regarding the sustainability of sugar and ethanol production and use, this paper calculates the energy and greenhouse gasses (GHG) emissions' balances of a non-vertically integrated sugarcane industry in Tucumán-Argentina. The essential operations involved in the sugar/ethanol production cycle were taken into account. Results show that this industry generated an energy balance of 3.4:1. GHG emissions during sugarcane production were 1824 and 2231 kg CO2eq. ha?1 year?1 for low and middle to high farms' technological levels, respectively. The mill process emitted 1187 kg CO2eq. ha?1 year?1. The main factors influencing these balances were gas-oil and nitrogen fertilizers used in the agricultural stage, natural gas consumed by the sugar mill, and sugarcane burning (only for GHG balance). The impact of ethanol use in reducing GHG emissions under the current production scheme (6.8 Mg ha?1 of sugar + 380.9 kg ha?1 of ethanol), in final blends of 95% gasoline and 5% ethanol in vehicles, is negligible. A sensitivity analysis indicates that switching to 100% bagasse used as fuel in mill's boilers, ethanol being produced directly from sugarcane juice, and a final blend of 90% gasoline and 10% ethanol, an amount of 1746 kg CO2eq. ha?1 year?1 of GHG emissions could be avoided. - Highlights: ? Energy and GHG emissions' balances for the non-integrated sugar/ethanol industry in Tucumán-Argentina. ? The energy balance was positive, while there were important GHG emissions. ? Factors influencing both balances were gas-oil, N fertilizers, burning and natural gas. ? Ethanol use for reducing GHG emissions in the current production scheme is negligible. ? Results are promising, as the main factors influencing both balances are identified

338

Locality of cryoprotective sugars in membranes  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The goal of this project is to understand the major factors that determine the ability of various recalcitrant plant species to survive cryogenic storage, with particular relevance to post mining restoration of bauxite mining activities in South Western Australia. Research has focused on the biophysical properties of the cell membranes of 'model' systems, in order to determine how natural cryoprotective agents (eg sugars) protect cell membranes from freezing and dehydration damage. A number of organisms have evolved mechanisms to avoid such damage. One such mechanism is the accumulation of small solutes (sugars such as sucrose, trehalose and glucose), which have been shown to preserve membranes by inhibiting deleterious phase changes at low hydration. The effects of sugars on bilayer phase transitions have been studied for a number of years, and have led to a good understanding of the factors at work. The RMIT group has used SANS and SAXS to enhance this understanding by demonstrating that there is sugar partitioning between the lamellar lipid phase, and sugar water microphases. To further this understanding, neutron membrane diffraction experiments (ANDR/A, NIST, Gaithersburg, U.S.A.) where performed using deuterated trehalose in a DOPC membrane. Chemically deuterated trehalose, was synthesized at the Australian National Deuteration Facility (NDF). By deuterating the trehalose, and varying the amount of deuteration in order to phase and reconstruct the unit cell, we are hoping to accurately describe the concentration profile of trehalose within the model membrane system.

339

PRODUCTION VALUES OF INVESTIGATED SUGAR BEET HYBRIDS  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Production values of 43 experimental and recognized sugar beet hybrids were conducted on the Zagreb location in the period 2003-2005. The trials included hybrids from six breeding institutions that sell sugar beet seed in the Republic of Croatia. Research results have revealed significant differences in yields and root quality among investigated sugar beet hybrids. However, the results of a large number of hybrids were equal in value; namely, the difference between them was within the statistically allowable deviation. The hybrids KW 0148 HR and Buda in 2003, Sofarizo and Takt were distinguished by high sugar yields in 2004, whereasMerak, Impact and Europa in 2005. The highest root yields were recorded for hybrids Dioneta, Buda and KW 0148 HR in 2003, Sofarizo, Takt, HI 0191 and Dorotea in 2004, Impact and SES 2371 in 2005. The highest root sugar contents were determined in hybrids Zita and Evelina in 2003, Cyntia, Diamant and Belinda in2004, and Merak, Belinda and Cyntia in 2005.

Milan Pospišil

2006-06-01

340

Emerging role of Indian ocean on Indian northeast monsoon  

Science.gov (United States)

This study examines the emerging role of Indian Ocean sea surface temperature (SST) on the inter-annual variability (IAV) of Indian north-east monsoon rainfall (NEMR). The IAV of NEMR is associated with the warm SST anomaly over east Bay-of-Bengal (BoB) (88.5oE-98.5oE; 8.5oN-15.5oN) and cool SST anomaly over east equatorial Indian Ocean (80.5oE-103.5oE; 6.5oS-3.5oN). The gradient of SST between these boxes (i.e. northern box minus southern box) shows strong and robust association with the Indian NEMR variability in the recent decades. For establishing the teleconnections, SST, mean sea level pressure, North Indian Ocean tropical storm track, and circulation data have been used. The study reveals that during the positive SST gradient years, the inter-tropical convergence zone (ITCZ) shifts northwards over the East Indian Ocean. The tropical depressions, storms and cyclones formed in the North Indian Ocean moves more zonally and strike the southern peninsular India and hence excess NEMR. While, during the negative SST gradient years, the ITCZ shifts southwards over the Indian Ocean. The tropical depressions, storms and cyclones formed in the North Indian Ocean moves more northwestward direction and after crossing 15oN latitude re-curve to north-east direction towards head BoB and misses southern peninsular India and hence, deficient NEMR.

Yadav, Ramesh Kumar

2013-07-01

341

American Indian Resources Index  

Science.gov (United States)

This Website offers a directory of briefly annotated links to resources and Websites in Native American Studies, Texts, Culture, Literature and Background, History, Representations, Languages, and Nations. Students and researchers can find information here on everything from the representation of Laguna women in Leslie Marmon Silko's fiction to the Bureau of Indian Affairs's official definition of a "tribe," to dozens of links for Native American law and advocacy issues. All of the pages we visited had been updated in the past few months, and the site links to a page by Elaine Cubbins, graduate student at University of Arizona, "Techniques for Evaluating American Indian Web Sites," that not only serves to give a sense of the inclusion criteria of the site's authors, but provides a kind of tutorial for doing Web research related to Native Americans or Native American issues. The Website is authored by Will Karkavelas of Osaka University and is part of his larger site, Multicultural Resources, offering similar directories for African-American and Hawaiian studies.

342

Indians in American Economy and Governmental Policy  

Science.gov (United States)

As an aid in teaching ESL (English as a second language) area studies, this article presents information on American Indians, including economic aspects, original Indian attitudes toward land and property, the Indian Wars, and the ambiguous policy of the government toward Indian protection and assimilation. (IFS/WGA)

Mailaender, Nicholas; Klobusicky-Mailaender, Elizabeth

1977-01-01

343

Performance test of dynamic mill  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In order to extend reactor cycle lengths and higher fuel discharge burn-ups, it is necessary that both the loading portion of MOX(Mixed OXide) and the addition of PuO2 increase. In general, ball-mill or attrition mill is used to improve the degree of mixing of powders and resulting homogeneous microstructure of pellet in the manufacturing process of MOX nuclear fuel. However, these milling devices showed not only difficulties of handling but also a limited range of amount(2 to be added in the powder mixture. A performance test for the Dynamic Mill(DM) device, which was designed and manufactured by KAERI, has been carried out to improve the above-described limits of the performance. The DM was tested by use of (U,Ce)O2[Ce ; 5?20wt%] powder. The results of the performance test show a superiority in performance. That is, the DM shows excellent degree of ease for handling and the pellet fabricated by this device also shows good homogeneity of microstructure with higher amount of CeO2 increased up to 20wt%

344

Mechanization and automation gear milling  

OpenAIRE

Cutting teeth is the most time consuming process in the technology of gears. It spent 50 - 60% of the total labor input processing gear. Therefore, improving the efficiency of the process is an important task gear milling machine. When you are citing the document, use the following link http://essuir.sumdu.edu.ua/handle/123456789/33627

Grebchenko, A.

2013-01-01

345

Super Yang-Mills Plasma  

OpenAIRE

The N = 4 super Yang-Mills plasma is studied in the regime of weak coupling. Collective excitations and collisional processes are discussed and compared to those of QCD plasma. The two systems are concluded to be very similar to each other with the differences mostly reflecting different numbers of degrees of freedom.

Czajka, Alina; Mrowczynski, Stanislaw

2013-01-01

346

Comparison of wind mill cluster performance: A multicriteria approach  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Energy is a crucial input for the economic and social development of any nation. Both renewable and non-renewable energy contribute in meeting the total requirement of the economy. As an affordable and clean energy source, wind energy is amongst the world's fastest growing renewable energy forms. Though there are several wind-mill clusters producing energy in different geographical locations, evaluating their performance is a complex task and not much of literature is available in this area. In this backdrop, an attempt is made in the current paper to estimate the performance of a wind-mill cluster through an index called Cluster Performance Index (CPI) adopting a multi-criteria approach. The proposed CPI comprises four criteria viz., Technical Performance Indicators (TePI), Economic Performance Indicators (EcPI), Environmental Performance Indicators (EnPI), and Sociological Performance Indicators (SoPI). Under each performance criterion a total of ten parameters are considered with five subjective and five objective oriented responses. The methodology is implemented by collecting empirical data from three wind-mill clusters located at Chitradurga, Davangere, and Gadag in the southern Indian State of Karnataka. Totally fifteen different stake holders are consulted through a set of structured researcher administered questionnaire to collect the relevant data in each wind farm. Stake holders involved engineers working in wind farms, wind farm developers, Government officials from energy department and a few selected residential people near the wind farms. The results of the study revealed that Chitradurga wind farm performed much better with a CPI of 45.267 as compared to Gadag (CPI of 28.362) and Davangere (CPI of 19.040) wind farms. (Author)

Rajakumar, D.G.; Nagesha, N. [Visvesvaraya Technological Univ., Karnataka (India)

2012-07-01

347

Development-specific responses to drought stress in Aleppo pine (Pinus halepensis Mill.) seedlings.  

Science.gov (United States)

Aleppo pine (Pinus halepensis Mill.) is a pioneer species, highly competitive due to exceptional resistance to drought. To investigate the stress resistance in the first and second year of development, a steady-state drought experiment was implemented. Photosynthesis (A(net)), stomatal conductance and transpiration (E) were measured on three different sampling dates together with phloem soluble sugars, amino acids and non-structural proteins. Needle ascorbic acid (AsA) and reactive oxygen species were measured to evaluate the seedlings' drought stress condition in the final sampling. Drought impaired A(net) and E by 35 and 31%, respectively, and increased AsA levels up to 10-fold, without significant impact on the phloem metabolites. Phloem sugars related to temperature fluctuations rather than soil moisture and did not relate closely to A(net) levels. Sugars and proteins decreased between the second and third sampling date by 56 and 61%, respectively, and the ratio of sugars to amino acids decreased between the first and third sampling by 81%, while A(net) and water-use efficiency (A(net)/E) decreased only in the older seedlings. Although gas exchange was higher in the older seedlings, ascorbic acid and phloem metabolites were higher in the younger seedlings. It was concluded that the drought stress responses depended significantly on developmental stage, and research on the physiology of Aleppo pine regeneration should focus more on temperature conditions and the duration of drought than its severity. PMID:24200584

Alexou, Maria

2013-10-01

348

Sugar Transport and Metabolism in Thermotoga  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The work conducted under this grant demonstrated that the hyperthermophilic bacterium Thermotoga neapolitana carries out glucose and lactose transport in a sodium-dependent manner and that energization of anaerobic cells is required to observe transport. We also demonstrated that Thermotoga maritima carries out maltose and glucose transport using periplasmic sugar binding proteins. We began defining patterns of expression of genes encoding sugar transport and catabolic functions in both T. maritima and T. neapolitana. We began a collaborative effort to identify all the genes regulated at the transcriptional level in response to sugars substrates. These funds also allowed us to begin an examination of the functions of several periplasmic substrate binding proteins encoded in the genome of T. maritima.

Noll, Kenneth M.; Romano, Antonio H.

2003-02-11

349

40 CFR 409.10 - Applicability; description of the beet sugar processing subcategory.  

Science.gov (United States)

...Applicability; description of the beet sugar processing subcategory. 409...PROCESSING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Beet Sugar Processing Subcategory § 409.10 Applicability; description of the beet sugar processing subcategory....

2010-07-01

350

Software Development Of Sugar Cane Plantation And Harvesting Management  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This software is a management system based on database-driven computer software application. It is intended to improve the quality of sugar cane through increased efficiency in managing, harvesting and transporting of sugar cane, as part of a sugar factory operation. The software was developed using the Borland Delphi development platform, with database manipulation using Microsoft Access. The software is intended for Personal Computer with Windows 95 (or later) installed. The application has been tested with acceptable result and can be used in Sragi Sugar Factory's related activities; namely sugar cane plantation management, harvesting and transporting of sugar cane, payment process and other related administrative processes

351

Economic impacts of implementing the new plants to sugar cane; Impactos economicos da implementacao das novas usinas de cana-de-acucar  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The sugar industry goes through an important moment: invest and develop to supply future demand, mainly by fuel alcohol (around 70% of new vehicles sales are from flex fuel models - and the majority of these vehicles are supplied by alcohol). Due to this foreseeable increase of alcohol demand, sugar industry has already announced 41 new projects, which will contribute with the milling of 70 million tons of sugar cane by the conclusion of these plants. In this phase of expansion, the alcohol market must be pressured for the demand, managing the supplying of the domestic and external markets. With this scenario and the possibility of sector growth which has an important role in Brazil development, this work evaluates the economic impacts of the new plants implementation investments. (author)

Terciote, Ricardo [Universidade Estadual de Campinas (DE/FEM/UNICAMP), SP (Brazil). Fac. de Engenharia Mecanica. Dept. de Energia

2006-07-01

352

Yang-Mills theory for nonsemisimple groups  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

For semisimple groups, possibly multiplied by U(1)'s, the number of Yang-Mills gauge fields is equal to the number of generators of the group. In this paper, it is shown that, for nonsemisimple groups, the number of Yang-Mills fields can be larger. These additional Yang-Mills fields are not irrelevant because they appear in the gauge transformations of the original Yang-Mills fields. Such nonsemisimple Yang-Mills theories may lead to physical consequences worth studying. The nonsemisimple group with only two generators that do not commute is studied in detail

353

Biological treatment of olive mill wastewater by non-conventional yeasts.  

Science.gov (United States)

The ability of lipolytic yeasts to grow on olive mill wastewater (OMW)-based medium and to produce high-value compounds while degrading this waste, was tested. OMW collected from three-phase olive mills from the North region of Portugal were characterized and used. OMW with COD ranging from 100 g L(-1) to 200 g L(-1) were supplemented with yeast extract and ammonium chloride. Studies of OMW consumption were carried out in batch cultures of Candida rugosa, Candida cylindracea and Yarrowia lipolytica. All strains were able to grow in the OMW-based media, without dilution, to consume reducing sugars and to reduce COD. C. cylindracea was the best strain concerning the lipase production and the reduction of phenolic compounds and COD. For all strains, the phenols degradation was quite difficult, mostly when more easily degradable carbon source is still present in the medium. Among the phenolic compounds tested catechol is the most inhibitory to the cells. PMID:19231162

Gonçalves, Cristiana; Lopes, Marlene; Ferreira, João P; Belo, Isabel

2009-08-01

354

Design and development of electronic weight grader for sapota (Manilkara achras (Mill).fosberg)  

OpenAIRE

Sapota (Manilkara achras (Mill).fosberg) is a native of tropical America, having originated in Mexico of Central America. It is a delicious fruit, also known as chikoo, zapota etc.Sapota belongs to the family of Sapotaceae. Sapota is a good source of digestible sugar, protein, fat, fibre, calcium, phosphorus, iron and other minerals. India is the largest producer of sapota with 30 to 40 thousand hectares. The average yield per tree is 2500 to 3500 fruitsweighing around 150 to 300g under Banga...

Syed Mazara Ali; S.C Mandhar,; Ambrish ganachari,; Udaykumar Nidoni,; Ananthacharya

2010-01-01

355

Optimal Condition of Fenton's Reagent to Enhance the Alcohol Production from Palm Oil Mill Effluent (POME)  

OpenAIRE

Application of Fenton's reaction for a proper hydrolysis step is an essential and important step in obtaining a higher level of readily biodegradable sugars from palm oil mill effluent (POME) for improving the alcohol production by using immobilized Clostridium acetobutylicum. The objective of this research was, therefore, to investigate the optimum condition of Fenton's reaction in terms of COD: H2O2 ratios (w/w) and H2O2: Fe2+ ratios (molar ratio) used to oxidize carbohydrate and high molec...

Supawadee Sinnaraprasat; Prayoon Fongsatitkul

2011-01-01

356

Continuous bio-catalytic conversion of sugar mixture to acetone-butanol-ethanol by immobilized Clostridium acetobutylicum DSM 792.  

Science.gov (United States)

Continuous production of acetone, n-butanol, and ethanol (ABE) was carried out using immobilized cells of Clostridium acetobutylicum DSM 792 using glucose and sugar mixture as a substrate. Among various lignocellulosic materials screened as a support matrix, coconut fibers and wood pulp fibers were found to be promising in batch experiments. With a motive of promoting wood-based bio-refinery concept, wood pulp was used as a cell holding material. Glucose and sugar mixture (glucose, mannose, galactose, arabinose, and xylose) comparable to lignocellulose hydrolysate was used as a substrate for continuous production of ABE. We report the best solvent productivity among wild-type strains using column reactor. The maximum total solvent concentration of 14.32 g L(-1) was obtained at a dilution rate of 0.22 h(-1) with glucose as a substrate compared to 12.64 g L(-1) at 0.5 h(-1) dilution rate with sugar mixture. The maximum solvent productivity (13.66 g L(-1) h(-1)) was obtained at a dilution rate of 1.9 h(-1) with glucose as a substrate whereas solvent productivity (12.14 g L(-1) h(-1)) was obtained at a dilution rate of 1.5 h(-1) with sugar mixture. The immobilized column reactor with wood pulp can become an efficient technology to be integrated with existing pulp mills to convert them into wood-based bio-refineries. PMID:22159612

Survase, Shrikant A; van Heiningen, Adriaan; Granström, Tom

2012-03-01

357

75 FR 36414 - American Indians Into Psychology; Notice of Competitive Grant Applications for American Indians...  

Science.gov (United States)

...American Indians into Psychology Program. This program...purpose of the Indians into Psychology Program is to develop and maintain Indian psychology career recruitment programs...the priority area of Educational and...

2010-06-25

358

Sensory differences between beet and cane sugar sources.  

Science.gov (United States)

Research concerning the sensory properties of beet and cane sugars is lacking in the scientific literature. Therefore, the objectives of this research were to determine whether a sensory difference was perceivable between beet and cane sugar sources in regard to their (1) aroma-only, (2) aroma and taste without nose clips, and (3) taste-only with nose clips, and to characterize the difference between the sugar sources using descriptive analysis. One hundred panelists evaluated sugar samples using a tetrad test. A significant difference (P aroma-only and taste and aroma without nose clips. However, there was no difference when tasted with nose clips. To characterize the observed differences, ten trained panelists identified and quantified key sensory attributes of beet and cane sugars using descriptive analysis. Analysis of variance indicated significant differences (P aroma, fruity and burnt sugar aroma-by-mouth, sweet aftertaste, and burnt sugar aftertaste. The sensory profile of beet sugar was characterized by off-dairy, oxidized, earthy, and barnyard aromas and by a burnt sugar aroma-by-mouth and aftertaste, whereas cane sugar was characterized by a fruity aroma-by-mouth and sweet aftertaste. This study shows that beet and cane sugar sources can be differentiated by their aroma and provides a sensory profile characterizing the differences. As sugar is used extensively as a food ingredient, sensory differences between beet and cane sugar sources once incorporated into different product matrices should be studied as a next step. PMID:25124655

Urbanus, Brittany L; Cox, Ginnefer O; Eklund, Emily J; Ickes, Chelsea M; Schmidt, Shelly J; Lee, Soo-Yeun

2014-09-01

359

Whole-of-society monitoring framework for sugar, salt, and fat consumption and noncommunicable diseases in India.  

Science.gov (United States)

India has experienced a rising prevalence of cardiometabolic risk factors in the past 15 years: the prevalence of diabetes has increased from 5.9% to 9.1%, hypertension from 17.2% to 29.2%, and obesity from 4% to 15%. The increase is among all socioeconomic groups and in urban and rural populations, though the quantum of change varies. A concomitant increase in per capita consumption of sugar from 22 to 55.3 g/day and total fat from 21.2 to 54 g/day was observed, with significant differences between states of high and low human development index (HDI). Per capita consumption of sugar, salt, and fat is consistently and significantly associated with overweight and obesity but variably associated with the occurrence of hypertension and diabetes. Market research shows that approximately 50-60% of total salt, sugar, and fat in Indian markets is procured by bulk purchasers, generally for manufacturing processed food items. This sector of the Indian economy is among the fastest growing, with several policy incentives. It is not clear from most of the data sets whether available information on per capita sugar, salt, and fat consumption has considered the contribution of processed and ready-to-eat food items. The unprecedented changes of rapid urbanization, mechanization, and globalization demand close monitoring of social, developmental, and economic determinants. This paper provides pieces of evidence to justify a whole-of-society (WoS) framework for monitoring the inputs, processes, and behavioral components of the National Programme for Prevention and Control of Cancer, Diabetes, Cardiovascular Disease and Stroke (NPCDCS) in India. PMID:25335459

Arora, Narendra K; Pillai, Rakesh; Dasgupta, Rajib; Garg, Priyanka Rani

2014-12-01

360

EVOLUTION OF SUGAR BEET AND SUGAR PRODUCTION IN ROMANIA AFTER ITS ACCESSION INTO THE E.U.  

OpenAIRE

The paper presents an analysis of the evolution for sugar beet production and sugar beet extraction after Romania accesion in European Union. The analysis is based on the evolutions of areas, total and average yields per unit of area. The last period (2007- 2013) is compared to the previous period (2001-2006), utilised at reference. Also, it is performed in the four sugar factories respectively (SC AGRANA Romania SA, Sugar Factory Bod, SC sugar Oradea SA, sugar Ludus SA) and it was made for t...

Badiu, Aurel-florentin; Badiu, Florentina

2014-01-01

361

The Competitiveness of Sugar Cane Production: A Study of Kenana Sugar Company, Sudan  

OpenAIRE

The study aimed to measure the competitiveness of sugar cane in Kenana Sugar Company as the major objective covering the seasons 2004/05, 2005/06, and 2006/07. Specific objectives are to measure the hard currency revenue gained, the quantity of local resources used to gain hard currency, efficiency of local resources used and to see whether Kenana Sugar Company is taxed or subsidized. The study depended mainly on secondary data which was collected from different sources. The data was analyzed...

Abda Abdalla Emam; Osman Mohamed Musa

2011-01-01

362

Indian geological repository programme  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The paper presents some important components of Indian concept for geological disposal of radioactive waste. Comparative merits and limitations of few major rock types viz. basalts, argillaceous rocks and granites as natural barrier of a deep geological repository evaluated through laboratory based studies are discussed. Some of their engineering geological, rock mechanical and hydraulic properties obtained through Geographic Information System based geo-structural studies coupled with geophysical and borehole based investigation are also elaborated. A conceptual layout of geological repository has been developed and analyzed for optimization of dimension of disposal tunnels and pits, their spacing, depth and geometry. It also presents few salient results on thermo-mechanical analysis of reference disposal tunnels and pits of geological repository. (author)

363

International Indian Treaty Council  

Science.gov (United States)

The International Indian Treaty Council (IITC) is "an organization of indigenous peoples from North, Central, South America, the Caribbean and the Pacific working for the sovereignty and self determination of indigenous peoples." To achieve their broad goals, the IITC works to support networks of indigenous peoples around the world through their policy work in areas that include global trade, women's rights, reproductive health, and the environment. On their homepage, visitors can browse through thematic headings on the left-hand side of the page, such as "Treaty Conferences", "Cultural Rights", "Health/Toxics", and about a dozen additional listings. Visitors should also click on the "Web Content" tab to read flyers, United Nations resolutions, and draft declarations. Also, visitors can sign up to subscribe to the IITC's electronic news updates here.

364

25 CFR 63.31 - Can both the Bureau of Indian Affairs and tribes operate Indian child protection and family...  

Science.gov (United States)

...Affairs and tribes operate Indian child protection and family violence prevention... TRIBAL GOVERNMENT INDIAN CHILD PROTECTION AND FAMILY VIOLENCE PREVENTION Indian Child Protection and Family Violence...

2010-04-01

365

Sugars as the Source of Energized Carbon for Abiogenesis  

Science.gov (United States)

Reaction of sugars with nitrite under mild conditions yielded ammonia needed for the synthesis of nitrogenous organics for abiogenesis, thereby eliminating the need for a planet-wide source of unstable ammonia for origins processes based on sugars.

Weber, A. L.

2010-04-01

366

Successful application of dextranase in sugar beet factories  

Science.gov (United States)

Dextranases are sometimes applied to hydrolyze dextran polysaccharide in sugar manufacture when bacterial deterioration of sugar beet has occurred. Unfortunately, dextranases only have a small market and low volume sales compared to many other industrial enzymes. Consequently, research and develop...

367

Taxation and the American Indian  

Science.gov (United States)

The article explores American Indian tribal rights to tax exemptions and self-imposed taxation; general recommendations on possible tribal tax alternatives; and evaluation of the probable economic effect of taxation. (FF)

Brunt, David

1973-01-01

368

Association of American Indian Physicians  

Science.gov (United States)

... Newsletter Archives Press Release Did You Know Photo Gallery Contact Donate Donate Now 2015 NNAYI Application Available ... of American Indian Physicians. Website designed by Back40 Design & managed by Javelin CMS

369

ANGLO - INDIAN EDUCATION IN TRICHINOPOLY  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Anglo – Indian education and 1Anglo – Indian schools have had a chequered career. Indeed, Anglo – Indian schools have traversed many vicissitudes, political and financial. The East India Company seldom, if ever, undertook any responsibility towards Anglo – Indian children. Between 1640 and 1660, when the children2 grew up literally within the sound of shot and shell, it was not necessary for them to have more than a smattering of the 3 Rs. All manner of people were employed as tutors – disabled soldiers, old pensioners, bankrupt merchants or dismissed factors. The first school to be opened was at St. George (Madras, between 1645 and 1650 that was the result of missionary effort.

A.SELVAMARY

2013-01-01

370

Regulations of sugar transporters: insights from yeast.  

Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

Ro?. 59, 1-2 (2013), s. 1-31. ISSN 0172-8083 R&D Projects: GA ?R(CZ) GAP503/10/0307 Institutional support: RVO:67985823 Keywords : sugar transporter * yeast * glucose signaling * sensing Subject RIV: EE - Microbiology, Virology Impact factor: 1.712, year: 2013

Horák, Jaroslav

2013-01-01

371

Forecasting Sales in a Sugar Factory  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Beets’ cultivation and sugar production represent one of the most important parts of Greek agricultural economy. A careful and well-organized planning of the production as well as the determination of an accurate safety stock is important for sugar industry, as for many other companies and organizations, in order to define the production quantity which leads to maximum revenues and profits. Forecasting, and especially widely used statistical forecasting techniques, is the best way for policymakers to organize their activities and company’s production and make the appropriate adjustments. Apparently, management information systems and forecasting support packages play a leading role in this area, since the amount of data under process is usually quite large and demands an automated procedure to effectively produce and evaluate forecasts. In this case study, “Pythia”, an expert forecasting platform developed by the Forecasting and Strategy Unit of the National Technical University of Athens, was implemented on a monthly data series regarding sugar sales of a Greek sugar factory for the years 2000-2005, bringing theory and practice together. Additionally, the methods or combinations of methods which are well suited for this time series are highlighted based on three error indices. Finally, the results of the study and conclusions are considered and perspectives of progress and development in the field of forecasting are contemplated.

Vassilios ASSIMAKOPOULOS

2011-12-01

372

Variability in Phoma species affecting sugar beet  

Science.gov (United States)

Phoma betae can cause damage to sugar beet (Beta vulgaris) at multiple growth stages. It has historically been an important seedling disease, but this is largely managed by ensuring clean seed for planting. The pathogen also can cause a root rot, a leaf spot, and rotting of beets during storage. In ...

373

Salt and Sugar in Kids' Meals  

Medline Plus

Full Text Available ... content of more than 1,000 infant and toddler foods and drinks. High sodium was defined as more than 210 milligrams per serving. High sugar, greater than 35% of total calories. The good news, all but 2 of the infant vegetables, dinners, fruits and dry cereals were low ...

374

TRANSFORMATION OF SUGAR BEET CELL SUSPENSION CULTURES  

Science.gov (United States)

A sugar beet transformation method was developed using particle bombardment of short-term suspension cultures of a breeding line FC607. Highly embryogenic suspension cultures derived from leaf callus were bombarded with the uidA (GUS) reporter gene under the control of either the osmotin or protein...

375

Green chemistry: Biodiesel made with sugar catalyst  

Science.gov (United States)

The production of diesel from vegetable oil calls for an efficient solid catalyst to make the process fully ecologically friendly. Here we describe the preparation of such a catalyst from common, inexpensive sugars. This high-performance catalyst, which consists of stable sulphonated amorphous carbon, is recyclable and its activity markedly exceeds that of other solid acid catalysts tested for `biodiesel' production.

Toda, Masakazu; Takagaki, Atsushi; Okamura, Mai; Kondo, Junko N.; Hayashi, Shigenobu; Domen, Kazunari; Hara, Michikazu

2005-11-01

376

Bioethanol production from fermentable sugar juice.  

Science.gov (United States)

Bioethanol production from renewable sources to be used in transportation is now an increasing demand worldwide due to continuous depletion of fossil fuels, economic and political crises, and growing concern on environmental safety. Mainly, three types of raw materials, that is, sugar juice, starchy crops, and lignocellulosic materials, are being used for this purpose. This paper will investigate ethanol production from free sugar containing juices obtained from some energy crops such as sugarcane, sugar beet, and sweet sorghum that are the most attractive choice because of their cost-effectiveness and feasibility to use. Three types of fermentation process (batch, fed-batch, and continuous) are employed in ethanol production from these sugar juices. The most common microorganism used in fermentation from its history is the yeast, especially, Saccharomyces cerevisiae, though the bacterial species Zymomonas mobilis is also potentially used nowadays for this purpose. A number of factors related to the fermentation greatly influences the process and their optimization is the key point for efficient ethanol production from these feedstocks. PMID:24715820

Zabed, Hossain; Faruq, Golam; Sahu, Jaya Narayan; Azirun, Mohd Sofian; Hashim, Rosli; Boyce, Amru Nasrulhaq

2014-01-01

377

Indian research: Focus on clozapine  

OpenAIRE

Clozapine has been used in the treatment of schizophrenia for about two decades and extensive data have been accumulated with regard to its use in various parts of the world. However, in contrast to Western countries, there are few studies which have evaluated the usefulness of clozapine in Indian patients. This article attempts to review the available data on clozapine originating from India. This review reflects the fact that there are few studies from the Indian subcontinent and most of th...

Grover, Sandeep; Dutt, Alakananda; Avasthi, Ajit

2010-01-01

378

Indian Academy of Sciences - Events  

Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

professor michael l. klein (frs)(raman professor, indian academy of sciences)laura h. carnell professor of sciencetemple university, philadelphia, usaspark of life: understanding nature's voltage-gated ion channels using computation28 february 2014, 4 p.m.faculty hall, indian institute of science, bangaloredetails 25th midyear meeting, 4 and 5 july 2013, bangaloretentative programme 8 to 10 november 2013chandigarh tentative programme  &nbs ...

379

West Indian intellectuals in Britain:  

OpenAIRE

Caribbean migration to Britain brought many new things - new musics, new foods, new styles. It brought new ways of thinking too. This lively, innovative book explores the intellectual ideas which the West Indians brought with them to Britain. It shows that for more than a century West Indians living in Britain developed a dazzling intellectual critique of the codes of Imperial Britain. This is the first comprehensive discussion of the major Caribbean thinkers who came to live in twentieth-cen...

2003-01-01

380

Enantiomer Ratios of Meteoritic Sugar Derivatives  

Science.gov (United States)

Carbonaceous meteorites contain a diverse suite of soluble organic compounds. Studies of these compounds reveal the Solar System's earliest organic chemistry. Among the classes of organic compounds found in meteorites are keto acids (pyruvic acid, etc.), hydroxy tricarboxylic acids (1), amino acids, amides, purines and pyrimidines. The Murchison and Murray meteorites are the most studied for soluble and insoluble organic compounds and organic carbon phases. The majority of (indigenous) meteoritic compounds are racemic, (i.e., their D/L enantiomer ratios are 50:50). However, some of the more unusual (non-protein) amino acids contain slightly more of one enantiomer (usually the L) than the other. This presentation focuses on the enantiomer analyses of three to six-carbon (3C to 6C) meteoritic sugar acids. The molecular and enantiomer analysis of corresponding sugar alcohols will also be discussed. Detailed analytical procedures for sugar-acid enantiomers have been described. Results of several meteorite analyses show that glyceric acid is consistently racemic (or nearly so) as expected of non-biological mechanisms of synthesis. Also racemic are 4-C deoxy sugar acids: 2-methyl glyceric acid; 2,4-dihydroxybutyric acid; 2,3-dihydroxybutyric acid (two diastereomers); and 3,4-dihydroxybutyric acid. However, a 4C acid, threonic acid, has never been observed as racemic, i.e., it possesses a large D excess. In several samples of Murchison and one of GRA 95229 (possibly the most pristine carbonaceous meteorite yet analyzed) threonic acid has nearly the same D enrichment. In Murchison, preliminary isotopic measurements of individual threonic acid enantiomers point towards extraterrestrial sources of the D enrichment. Enantiomer analyses of the 5C mono-sugar acids, ribonic, arabinonic, xylonic, and lyxonic also show large D excesses. It is worth noting that all four of these acids (all of the possible straight-chained 5C sugar acids) are present in meteorites, including the rare lyxonic acid, and their relative abundances are in equilibrium proportions. In addition (in contrast to the above D-only excesses), some of the above acids are found in biology as the L enantiomer. Whether rare are common, all of the 6C sugar acids that are present in sufficient amounts to allow enantiomer analysis (Mannonic, gluconic, altronic, talonic, idonic, gulonic, and galactonic) also, apparently, possess significant D excesses.

Cooper, George

2012-01-01

381

Review of engineering and management tools in beet sugar industry  

OpenAIRE

Due to the initiative of European Commission to reduce sugar price and admit sugar imports from least developed countries, European sugar industry seeks for new ideas on production technology, engineering and management. In order to approach competitiveness, safety and environmental impact of beet sugar processing, advanced engineering and management tools for optimising the efficiency of raw material use, utilisation of by-products and energy and water use need to be incorporated into practi...

Krajnc, Damjan; Glavic?, Peter

2012-01-01

382

Interaction of Herpes Primase with the Sugar of a NTP †  

OpenAIRE

We analyzed the interaction of NTPs containing modified sugars to develop a better understanding of how DNA primase from herpes simplex virus I catalyzes primer synthesis. During the NTP binding reaction, primase tolerated a large number of modifications to the sugar ring. Altering the 2? and 3? carbons, and even converting the furanose sugar into an acyclic sugar, did not prevent binding. Whether or not the base on the NTP could form a correct base-pair with the template base being repli...

Keller, Kristopher E.; Cavanaugh, Nisha; Kuchta, Robert D.

2008-01-01

383

Sugar, Uric Acid, and the Etiology of Diabetes and Obesity  

OpenAIRE

The intake of added sugars, such as from table sugar (sucrose) and high-fructose corn syrup has increased dramatically in the last hundred years and correlates closely with the rise in obesity, metabolic syndrome, and diabetes. Fructose is a major component of added sugars and is distinct from other sugars in its ability to cause intracellular ATP depletion, nucleotide turnover, and the generation of uric acid. In this article, we revisit the hypothesis that it is this unique aspect of fructo...

Johnson, Richard J.; Nakagawa, Takahiko; Sanchez-lozada, L. Gabriela; Shafiu, Mohamed; Sundaram, Shikha; Le, Myphuong; Ishimoto, Takuji; Sautin, Yuri Y.; Lanaspa, Miguel A.

2013-01-01

384

Sugar signals and the control of plant growth and development.  

Science.gov (United States)

Sugars have a central regulatory function in steering plant growth. This review focuses on information presented in the past 2 years on key players in sugar-mediated plant growth regulation, with emphasis on trehalose 6-phosphate, target of rapamycin kinase, and Snf1-related kinase 1 regulatory systems. The regulation of protein synthesis by sugars is fundamental to plant growth control, and recent advances in our understanding of the regulation of translation by sugars will be discussed. PMID:24453229

Lastdrager, Jeroen; Hanson, Johannes; Smeekens, Sjef

2014-03-01

385

Milling media from zirconia ceramics  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Zirconia ceramics has found applications in various important fields. Oxygen sensors, heating elements, solid electrolytes, cutting tools, high temperature insulation, metal casting dies and nozzles are some of the areas of applications. Milling of zirconia compositions should preferably be done with ZrO2 milling media. Moreover, higher density of ZrO2 (5.5-5.7 gm/cc.) compared to alumina (3.4-3.7 gm/cc) results in faster grinding by zirconia balls. Wear of the grinding jar is also less compared to alumina balls. In the present work grinding balls have been prepared from zirconia, Y2O3, CaO-TiO2 stabilizing agents. (author). 6 refs., 2 figs., 1 tab

386

Sugar in Moderation: Variable Sugar Diets Affect Short-Term Parasitoid Behavior  

Science.gov (United States)

The biological control potential of parasitic wasps in the field is expected to increase with provisioning of sugar sources, which increase longevity and replenish carbohydrate reserves. Apanteles aristoteliae Viereck is an important parasitoid of Argyrotaenia franciscana (Walsingham), the orange to...

387

Detection of Sugar-Lectin Interactions by Multivalent Dendritic Sugar Functionalized Single-Walled Carbon Nanotubes  

CERN Document Server

We show that single walled carbon nanotubes (SWNT) decorated with sugar functionalized poly (propyl ether imine) (PETIM) dendrimer is a very sensitive platform to quantitatively detect carbohydrate recognizing proteins, namely, lectins. The changes in electrical conductivity of SWNT in field effect transistor device due to carbohydrate - protein interactions form the basis of present study. The mannose sugar attached PETIM dendrimers undergo charge - transfer interactions with the SWNT. The changes in the conductance of the dendritic sugar functionalized SWNT after addition of lectins in varying concentrations were found to follow the Langmuir type isotherm, giving the concanavalin A (Con A) - mannose affinity constant to be 8.5 x 106 M-1. The increase in the device conductance observed after adding 10 nM of Con A is same as after adding 20 \\muM of a non - specific lectin peanut agglutinin, showing the high specificity of the Con A - mannose interactions. The specificity of sugar-lectin interactions was chara...

Vasu, K S; Bagul, R S; Jayaraman, N; Sood, A K; 10.1063/1.4739793

2012-01-01

388

Biogas from sugar beet press pulp as substitute of fossil fuel in sugar beet factories.  

Science.gov (United States)

Sugar beet press pulp (SBP) accumulates as a by-product in sugar factories and it is generally silaged or dried to be used as animal food. Rising energy prices and the opening of the European Union sugar market has put pressure on the manufacturers to find alternatives for energy supply. The aim of this project was to develop a technology in the treatment of SBP that would lead to savings in energy consumption and would provide a more competitive sugar production from sugar beets. These goals were met by the anaerobic digestion of SBP for biogas production. Lab-scale experiments confirmed the suitability of SBP as substrate for anaerobic bacteria. Pilot-scale experiments focused on process optimization and procedures for a quick start up and operational control. Both single-stage and two-stage process configurations showed similar removal efficiency. A stable biogas production could be achieved in single-stage at a maximum volumetric loading rate of 10 kgCSB/(m(3) x d). Degradation efficiency was 75% for VS and 72% for COD. Average specific gas production reached 530 NL/kgCOD(SBP) or 610 NL/kgVS(SBP). (CH(4): 50 to 53%). The first large-scale biogas plant was put into operation during the sugar processing period 2007 at a Hungarian sugar factory. Digesting approximately 50% of the SBP (800 t/d, 22%TS), the biogas produced could substitute about 40% of the natural gas required for the thermal energy supply within the sugar processing. PMID:18957765

Brooks, L; Parravicini, V; Svardal, K; Kroiss, H; Prendl, L

2008-01-01

389

Continuous ethanol production from sugar beet thick juice by Saccharomyces cerevisiae immobilized onto sugar beet pulp  

OpenAIRE

The immobilization of Saccharomyces cerevisiae onto sugar beet pulp (SBP) by natural adhesion is an efficient and low-cost method for retaining high biocatalyst density in the ethanol fermentation system. In the present study, cells of S. cerevisiae 163, were immobilized by natural adhesion onto SBP. The retention of immobilized cells attained the level of about 1.7×1011 cells/gram of dry SBP. Continuous ethanol production from sugar beet thick juice (TJ) ...

Vu?urovi? Vesna M.; Razmovski Radojka N.; Milji? Uroš D.; Puškaš Vladimir S.

2013-01-01

390

Hydrogenolysis of 5-carbon sugars, sugar alcohols, and methods of making propylene glycol  

Science.gov (United States)

Methods and compositions for reactions of hydrogen over a Re-containing catalyst with compositions containing a 5-carbon sugar, sugar alcohol, or lactic acid are described. It has been surprisingly discovered that reaction with hydrogen over a Re-containing multimetallic catalyst resulted in superior conversion and selectivity to desired products such as propylene glycol. A process for the synthesis of PG from lactate or lactic acid is also described.

Werpy, Todd A [West Richland, WA; Zacher, Alan H [Kennewick, WA

2006-05-02

391

Critical evaluation of the sugar-EPR dosimetry system  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Sugar has received much attention as an emergency dosimeter for the general populace. This study was undertaken to clarify several conflicts in the literature. Here we report on the spectra characteristics of common `cane` sugar and sucrose, the lower limit of detection for cane sugar, and the influence of absorbed dose on the study of time-dependent EPR signal intensity changes. (author).

Fattibene, P. [Istituto Superiore di Sanita, Rome (Italy)]|[Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Rome (Italy). Sezione Sanita; Duckworth, T.L.; Desrosiers, M.F. [National Inst. of Standards and Technology (NML), Gaithersburg, MD (United States). Ionizing Radiation Div.

1996-11-01

392

Critical evaluation of the sugar-EPR dosimetry system  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Sugar has received much attention as an emergency dosimeter for the general populace. This study was undertaken to clarify several conflicts in the literature. Here we report on the spectra characteristics of common 'cane' sugar and sucrose, the lower limit of detection for cane sugar, and the influence of absorbed dose on the study of time-dependent EPR signal intensity changes. (author)

393

19 CFR 151.22 - Estimated duties on raw sugar.  

Science.gov (United States)

...2010-04-01 false Estimated duties on raw sugar. 151.22 Section 151.22 Customs...SAMPLING, AND TESTING OF MERCHANDISE Sugars, Sirups, and Molasses § 151.22 Estimated duties on raw sugar. Estimated duties shall be taken...

2010-04-01

394

21 CFR 172.585 - Sugar beet extract flavor base.  

Science.gov (United States)

... 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Sugar beet extract flavor base. 172.585 Section 172...Agents and Related Substances § 172.585 Sugar beet extract flavor base. Sugar beet extract flavor base may be safely used in...

2010-04-01

395

“CO-OPERATIVE SUGAR INDUSTRY IN MAHARASHTRA AND MARATHWADA”  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Sugar industry has acquired a great significance in India, Maharashtra and Marathwada. Sugar industry accounts for a huge investment of over Rs. 2,500 crores and provides employment to about five lakh rural peoples. About 5.5 million farmers are engaged in cane cultivation. The rapid growth of sugar industry in Maharashtra has helped to a very great extent in stabilizing the sugar production in the country and reducing the chronic shortage of sugar. Maharashtra produces about 40 percent of the total sugar produced in the country and rank second to Uttar Pradesh. Sugarcane is being cultivated on an area of around 35 lakh hectares with the production being around 110 lakh tones. Marathwada region has good potentials for sugarcane cultivation and development of sugar industry because the land of Marathwada is very fertile and the climate is suitable for growth sugarcane crop. Sugar industry adds to the income of the farmers, provides casual and permanent employment, helps to earn foreign exchange and also helps to develop various kinds of ancillary and by product industries. There are 173 cooperative and 18 private sugar factories in Maharashtra with a total number of 191. There were 50 cooperative sugar factories whereas 8 private sugar factories in Marathwada. One of the most hopeful developments of the last decade in the field of co-operative processing has been the rapid establishment of co-operative sugar factories in the Maharashtra State and Marathwada region.

“CO-OPERATIVE SUGAR INDUSTRY IN MAHARASHTRA AND MARATHWADA”

2014-06-01

396

PECTIN ACETYLESTERASE - ANALYSIS AND APPLICATION FOR SUGAR BEET PECTIN UTILIZATION  

Science.gov (United States)

Sustainable technologies are being sought to provide new and higher-value coproducts from sugar beet pulp. Pectin is a complex plant cell wall polysaccharide that represents a major fraction of sugar beet pulp. One distinguishing feature of sugar beet pectin is a high content of C2 and C3 acetyl e...

397

USDA DATABASE FOR THE ADDED SUGARS CONTENT OF SELECTED FOODS  

Science.gov (United States)

The database contains carbohydrate, total sugar, and added sugar values for 2,038 foods. Values for total carbohydrate by difference and total sugar were taken from the USDA National Nutrient Database for Standard Reference, Release 18 (SR18). Values contain the same number of decimal places as tho...

398

Ethanol production in fermentation of mixed sugars containing xylose  

Science.gov (United States)

Xylose-utilizing Z. mobilis strains were found to have improved ethanol production when grown in medium containing mixed sugars including xylose if sorbitol or mannitol was included in the medium. The effect was seen in concentrations of mixed sugars where no growth lag period occurs, as well as in higher sugars concentrations.

Viitanen, Paul V. (West Chester, PA); Mc Cutchen, Carol M. (Wilmington, DE); Li; Xu (Newark, DE); Emptage, Mark (Wilmington, DE); Caimi, Perry G. (Kennett Square, PA); Zhang, Min (Lakewood, CO); Chou, Yat-Chen (Lakewood, CO); Franden, Mary Ann (Centennial, CO)

2009-12-08

399

Online SAG Mill Pluse Measurement and Optimization  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The grinding efficiency of semi autogenous milling or ball milling depends on the tumbling motion of the total charge within the mill. Utilization of this tumbling motion for efficient breakage of particles depends on the conditions inside the mill. However, any kind of monitoring device to measure the conditions inside the mill shell during operation is virtually impossible due to the severe environment presented by the tumbling charge. An instrumented grinding ball, which is capable of surviving a few hours and transmitting the impacts it experiences, is proposed here. The spectrum of impacts collected over 100 revolutions of the mills presents the signature of the grinding environment inside mill. This signature could be effectively used to optimize the milling performance by investigating this signature's relation to mill product size, mill throughput, make-up ball size, mill speed, liner profile and ball addition rates. At the same time, it can also be used to design balls and liner systems that can survive longer in the mill. The technological advances made in electronics and communication makes this leap in instrumentation certainly viable. Hence, the instrumented grinding ball offers the ability to qualitatively observe and optimize the milling environment. An instrumented load cell package that can measure the force of impacts inside the grinding chamber of a mill is developed here. The signal from the instrumented load cell package is interpreted in terms of a histogram termed as an impact spectrum which is a plot of the number of impacts at a specific energy level against the energy. It reflects on the average force regime of the mill. The instrumented load cell package was calibrated against the ultra fast load cell which has been unanimously accepted as a standard to measure single breakage events. The load cell package was successfully used to produce impact spectra in an 8.5 inch lab scale mill. The mill speed and the ball size were varied to study their effect on the impact spectra. A good correlation was found between the process variables and the impact spectra. The load cell package was then used in a 16 inch pilot scale mill. The mill speed, ball size, and mill filling were varied here and a consistent trend between these variables and impact spectra was observed. With a better understanding developed from the initial tests, the design of the load cell package was significantly changed to eliminate noise. With the new design, the impact spectra were re-determined in the 16 inch pilot mill varying the process variables - ball size, mill speed, and mill filling. Finally, it is successfully shown that a change in the operating variables of a mill can be seen in the impact spectra and that this concept can be successfully developed to monitor the grinding operation of industrial mills. To adapt it to industrial level it is mandatory to make the load cell package wireless. A design of a wireless circuit that is capable of transferring data at the required speed of 1000 kbps was also developed and tested at Cortez Gold Mines (CGM), Nevada.

Raj Rajamani; Jose Delgadillo; Vishal Duriseti

2007-06-30

400

PROCESS OF OBTAINING OF SUGAR FROM SUGAR BEET AND INFLUENCE ON ITS QUALITY  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Cooking of massecuites has been study in the connection with different particle size distribution of white sugar. During the crystallization is possible to operate with parameters which have influence on particle size of white sugar. Dry matter of juice in crystallizer, volume of the standard syrup in crystallizer and heating curve of crystallization process are constant parameters in this process. Quantity of slurry (seed magma crystallizate and volume of slurry massecuite are parameters which can be changed for control the particle size distribution of white sugar. Five variants of viable parameters have been trying for obtain ideal particle size distribution of white sugar. As a best has been evaluated variant with 1100 cm3 of slurry and 20 % of volume of slurry massecuite in crystallizer. This variant has had the crystals proportions captured by the sieves between 1.00 and 0.40 mm with minimal differences in weight. More results have been related to reduction of losses of sugar in molasses with the right setting for the line of cooling crystallization process. The looses of sugar can be reduced by adding two coolers in the end of cooling crystalization process what will decrease a temperature to 40 ° C. This temperature will lead to more efficient crystallization in the cooling crystallization process.doi:10.5219/122

Marián Tokár

2011-02-01

401

75 FR 39697 - Indians Into Psychology Program; Correction  

Science.gov (United States)

...HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Indian Health Service Indians Into Psychology Program; Correction AGENCY: Indian Health Service, HHS...Number: HHS-IHS-2010-INPSY-0001, for the Indians Into Psychology Program. The document contained an incorrect Funding...

2010-07-12

402

42 CFR 136.330 - Indian health scholarships.  

Science.gov (United States)

...2010-10-01 false Indian health scholarships. 136.330 Section 136.330 Public...Programs Subdivision J-4-Indian Health Scholarship Program § 136.330 Indian health scholarships. Indian Health Scholarships...

2010-10-01

403

48 CFR 1452.226-70 - Indian Preference.  

Science.gov (United States)

...2010-10-01 false Indian Preference. 1452.226-70...INTERIOR CONTRACT MANAGEMENT SOLICITATION PROVISIONS...226-70 Indian Preference. As prescribed...the Indian employment preference requirements of this...effectiveness of an Indian employee. (c) If the...

2010-10-01

404

Differential Anoxic Expression of Sugar-Regulated Genes Reveals Diverse Interactions between Sugar and Anaerobic Signaling Systems in Rice  

OpenAIRE

The interaction between the dual roles of sugar as a metabolic fuel and a regulatory molecule was unveiled by examining the changes in sugar signaling upon oxygen deprivation, which causes the drastic alteration in the cellular energy status. In our study, the expression of anaerobically induced genes is commonly responsive to sugar, either under the control of hexokinase or non-hexokinase mediated signaling cascades. Only sugar regulation via the hexokinase pathway was susceptible for O2 def...

Lim, Mi-na; Lee, Sung-eun; Yim, Hui-kyeong; Kim, Jeong Hoe; Yoon, In Sun; Hwang, Yong-sic

2013-01-01

405

Synthesis of bacterial cellulose using hot water extracted wood sugars.  

Science.gov (United States)

Bacterial cellulose (BC), a type of nanopolymer produced by Acetobacter xylinum is a nanostructured material with unique properties and wide applicability. However, a standard medium used for the cultivation of BC, the Hestrin-Schramm medium, is expensive and prevents wide scale extension of BC applications. In this research, a relatively low-cost culture media was successfully developed from wood hot water extracts for the Acetobacter xylinus 23769 strain. Hot water extract (HWE) is a residual material originating from pulp mills and lignocellulosic biorefineries and consists of mainly monomeric sugars, organic acids and organics. The effects of different pH (5, 6, 7 and 8) and temperatures (26, 28 and 30°C) were also examined in this research. There were no significant differences in the crystallinity and the recorded I? fraction of cellulose produced between Hestrin-Schramm and the HWE medium. The maximum production of 0.15g/l of BC was obtained at a pH of 8 and temperature of 28°C. Glucose and xylose in the HWE were the main nutrient sources utilized in all BC cultivations based on high-pressure liquid chromatography (HPLC) results. HWE was shown to be a suitable carbon source for BC production, and a process was established for BC production from lignocellulosic feedstocks without using any modification of the HWE. HWE is an abundant and relatively inexpensive forest by-product. Using HWE for BC production could reduce burdens on the environment and also, achieve the goal of large scale BC production at low cost without using added culture nutrients. PMID:25839803

Erbas Kiziltas, Esra; Kiziltas, Alper; Gardner, Douglas J

2015-06-25

406

Radioisotope control of ball mills filling  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Results of performance testing of radioisotope meter for determining ball mills filling RIZMSh21 at Lebedinsky mining and concentrating works. The testing was carried out to study the possibility of radioisotope control of mills filling with concentrate pulp and to use the above instrument signal for regulating mills filling process. Data presented testify the possibility of RIZMSh21 device as an indicator for mills filling with concentrate pulp. Instrument for measuring power uptake by drive engine is recommended to use for control mill ball filling. Automatic system for control mill operation is developed at mining and concentrating works. It permits to control according to RIZMSh21 meter signal the revolution frequency of a pump feeding concentrate pulp from a mixer

407

75 FR 23631 - Sugar Re-Export Program, the Sugar-Containing Products Re-Export Program, and the Polyhydric...  

Science.gov (United States)

...AGRICULTURE Foreign Agricultural Service 7 CFR Part 1530 Sugar Re-Export Program, the Sugar-Containing Products Re-Export Program, and...S. Note 6, which authorizes entry of raw cane sugar under subheading 1701.11.20 of the HTS for...

2010-05-04

408

Fuel bio ethanol production from experimental crops of sugar cane, sweet sorghum and sugar beet in Uruguay  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This article is about the fuel bio ethanol production. Its requires the use of raw materials, process, integration with food producing chains, and social inclusion. Agricultural and fermentability assays of three sugar crops were performed: sugar beet, sugar cane and sweet sorghum grown in fields of small producers .

409

Postpartum Nutrient Intakes and Beverage Patterns of American Indian Women  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Objectives: American Indian (AI children are at risk for chronic diseases associated with marginal early nutrition environments. We describe nutrient intakes and beverage patterns of AI women during the early postnatal period to identify nutritional adequacy and beverage habits. Methods: 24 hour recalls and beverage frequency questionnaires were administered to AI mothers (n = 239 from a Northern Plains Tribal community 1 month postpartum. 24 hour recalls were analyzed using Nutritionist PRO(R software, and intakes were compared to Estimated Average Requirements (EAR. Results: The percentage of AI women reporting nutrient intakes below the EAR was 97% for vitamin D, 96% for vitamin E, 69% for vitamin A, 55% for vitamin C, 73% for calcium and 79% for magnesium. Median (25th, 75th percentile beverage intakes reported by beverage consumers were 8.0(4.0, 16.0 oz milk, 8.0(3.4, 16.0 oz 100% juice, 8.0(4.0, 16.0 oz juice drinks, 18.6(7.4, 28.0 oz regular pop, 9.1(4.6, 18.3oz sports drinks, 12.0(5.1, 22.0oz sugared flavored water and 48.0(24.0, 96.0 oz water. Conclusions: The low nutrient and high sugared beverage intakes increased risk of chronic malnutrition. The nutritional environment predisposes AI children to chronic diseases including obesity and dental caries through early metabolic programming and later modeling behaviors.

Teresa A. Marshall

2014-06-01

410

Optimal Condition of Fenton's Reagent to Enhance the Alcohol Production from Palm Oil Mill Effluent (POME  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Application of Fenton's reaction for a proper hydrolysis step is an essential and important step in obtaining a higher level of readily biodegradable sugars from palm oil mill effluent (POME for improving the alcohol production by using immobilized Clostridium acetobutylicum. The objective of this research was, therefore, to investigate the optimum condition of Fenton's reaction in terms of COD: H2O2 ratios (w/w and H2O2: Fe2+ ratios (molar ratio used to oxidize carbohydrate and high molecular organic compounds into simple sugars, which are further fermented into alcohol. The experiments were carried out at H2O2: Fe2+ ratios (molar ratios of 5, 10, 20, 30 and 40 and the COD: H2O2 ratios (w/w of 50, 70, 100 and 130 (initial COD about 50,000 mg/L. The total sugar concentrations and organic compounds biodegradability (BOD5/COD ratios were also used for investigating suitable conditions for Fenton's reaction. The concentration of Fenton's reagent at H2O2:Fe2+ and COD:H2O2 ratio of 20 and 130 was identified as the optimum operating condition for the highest simple sugars of about 0.865% and BOD5/COD ratios of 0.539. The alcohol productions were carried out in the continuous stirred tank reactors (CSTR under an anaerobic continuous immobilization system. At a hydraulic retention time of 12 hours and POME pH of 4.8, the maximum total ABE concentration of 495 mg/L and the ABE yield of 0.236 grams of ABE produced/gram of reducing sugars were achieved at the mixed polyvinyl alcohol (PVA and palm oil ash (POA ratio of 10 : 3.

Supawadee Sinnaraprasat

2011-07-01

411

High-speed milling of light metals  

OpenAIRE

Purpose: of this paper: Introduction applicability of high-speed cutting of light metals is presented in this paper.Design/methodology/approach: HSC is the result of numerous technical advances ensuring that milling has become faster than conventional milling and has gained importance as a cutting process. The advantages of the HSC milling are higher productivity owing to the reduction of machining times increase of the flow time of production, reduction of the number of technological operati...

Cus, F.; Zuperl, U.; Gecevska, V.

2007-01-01

412

Renewable energy in Indian country  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

On June 25--27, 1995, at Mesa Verde National Park in southwestern Colorado, the Center for Resource Management (CRM), organized and sponsored a conference in conjunction with the Navajo Nation, EPA, and Bechtel Group, Inc., to deal with issues associated with developing renewable energy resources on Indian lands. Due to the remoteness of many reservation homes and the cost of traditional power line extensions, a large percentage of the Indian population is today without electricity or other energy services. In addition, while they continue to develop energy resources for export, seeing only minimal gain in their own economies, Indian people are also subject to the health and environmental consequences associated with proximity to traditional energy resource development. Renewable energy technologies, on the other hand, are often ideally suited to decentralized, low-density demand. These technologies--especially solar and wind power--have no adverse health impacts associated with generation, are relatively low cost, and can be used in applications as small as a single home, meeting power needs right at a site. Their minimal impact on the environment make them particularly compatible with American Indian philosophies and lifestyles. Unfortunately, the match between renewable energy and Indian tribes has been hampered by the lack of a comprehensive, coordinated effort to identify renewable energy resources located on Indian lands, to develop practical links between Indian people`s needs and energy producers, and to provide the necessary training for tribal leaders and members to plan, implement, and maintain renewable energy systems. Summaries of the presentations are presented.

NONE

1995-12-31

413

Sugar-Based Ethanol Biorefinery: Ethanol, Succinic Acid and By-Product Production  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The work conducted in this project is an extension of the developments itemized in DE-FG-36-04GO14236. This program is designed to help the development of a biorefinery based around a raw sugar mill, which in Louisiana is an underutilized asset. Some technical questions were answered regarding the addition of a biomass to ethanol facility to existing sugar mills. The focus of this work is on developing technology to produce ethanol and valuable by-products from bagasse. Three major areas are addressed, feedstock storage, potential by-products and the technology for producing ethanol from dilute ammonia pre-treated bagasse. Sugar mills normally store bagasse in a simple pile. During the off season there is a natural degradation of the bagasse, due to the composting action of microorganisms in the pile. This has serious implications if bagasse must be stored to operate a bagasse/biorefinery for a 300+ day operating cycle. Deterioration of the fermentables in bagasse was found to be 6.5% per month, on pile storage. This indicates that long term storage of adequate amounts of bagasse for year-round operation is probably not feasible. Lignin from pretreatment seemed to offer a potential source of valuable by-products. Although a wide range of phenolic compounds were present in the effluent from dilute ammonia pretreatment, the concentrations of each (except for benzoic acid) were too low to consider for extraction. The cellulosic hydrolysis system was modified to produce commercially recoverable quantities of cellobiose, which has a small but growing market in the food process industries. A spin-off of this led to the production of a specific oligosaccharide which appears to have both medical and commercial implications as a fungal growth inhibitor. An alternate use of sugars produced from biomass hydrolysis would be to produce succinic acid as a chemical feedstock for other conversions. An organism was developed which can do this bioconversion, but the economics of succinic acid production were such that it could not compete with current commercial practice. To allow recovery of commercial amounts of ethanol from bagasse fermentation, research was conducted on high solids loading fermentations (using S. cerevisiae) with commercial cellulase on pretreated material. A combination of SHF/SSF treatment with fed-batch operation allowed fermentation at 30% solids loading. Supplementation of the fermentation with a small amount of black-strap molasses had results beyond expectation. There was an enhancement of conversion as well as production of ethanol levels above 6.0% w/w, which is required both for efficient distillation as well as contaminant repression. The focus of fermentation development was only on converting the cellulose to ethanol, as this yeast is not capable of fermenting both glucose and xylose (from hemicellulose). In anticipation of the future development of such an organism, we screened the commercially available xylanases to find the optimum mix for conversion of both cellulose and hemicellulose. A different mixture than the spezyme/novozyme mix used in our fermentation research was found to be more efficient at converting both cellulose and hemicellulose. Efforts were made to select a mutant of Pichia stipitis for ability to co-ferment glucose and xylose to ethanol. New mutation technology was developed, but an appropriate mutant has not yet been isolated. The ability to convert to stillage from biomass fermentations were determined to be suitable for anaerobic degradation and methane production. An economic model of a current sugar factory was developed in order to provide a baseline for the cost/benefit analysis of adding cellulosic ethanol production.

Donal F. Day

2009-03-31

414

Euthanasia: An Indian perspective.  

Science.gov (United States)

In our society, the palliative care and quality of life issues in patients with terminal illnesses like advanced cancer and AIDS have become an important concern for clinicians. Parallel to this concern has arisen another controversial issue-euthanasia or "mercy -killing" of terminally ill patients. Proponents of physician-assisted suicide (PAS) feel that an individual's right to autonomy automatically entitles him to choose a painless death. The opponents feel that a physician's role in the death of an individual violates the central tenet of the medical profession. Moreover, undiagnosed depression and possibility of social 'coercion' in people asking for euthanasia put a further question mark on the ethical principles underlying such an act. These concerns have led to strict guidelines for implementing PAS. Assessment of the mental state of the person consenting to PAS becomes mandatory and here, the role of the psychiatrist becomes pivotal. Although considered illegal in our country, PAS has several advocates in the form of voluntary organizations like "death with dignity" foundation. This has got a fillip in the recent Honourable Supreme Court Judgment in the Aruna Shaunbag case. What remains to be seen is how long it takes before this sensitive issue rattles the Indian legislature. PMID:22988327

Sinha, Vinod K; Basu, S; Sarkhel, S

2012-04-01

415

Opening the Indian market  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Despite several remaining questions, India's government is paving the way for foreign investments to help meet the country's capacity shortfall. A high-level delegation from India recently conducted meetings in the United Kingdom and the United States to promote foreign investment in the Indian power generation market. The delegation, led by Cabinet Secretary Naresh Chandra, met in late May and early June in London, Washington, Houston, New York and San Francisco to discuss October 1991 amendments to India's electricity law and policy changes designed to remove obstacles to foreign investment. The delegation said foreign investments are needed to meet additional capital requirements and to supply advanced technology. The move to the private sector was precipitated by projections of substantial shortfalls in generating capacity during the next five years. The government can supply only 28,000 MW of the estimated 39,369 MW required, and officials hope foreign investors will supply a significant portion of the shortfall. India's existing capacity totals 69,000 MW. This article discusses the opening market for independent power generation in India

416

An econometrics method to estimate demand of sugar  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Sugar is one of the strategic goods in the basket of households in each country and it plays an important role in supplying the required energy. On the other hand, it is one of the goods, which Iranian government is about to change its subsidy strategies. To design useful sugar subsidy strategies, it is necessary to know sugar position in the basket of households and be familiar with households' sugar demand or consumption behavior. This research estimates sugar demand for Iranian households by using time series of 1984-2008, which is taken from central bank of Iran. In this paper, first independent and dependent variables of household sugar demand model are chosen based on the literature review and theory of demand. Then, sugar demand is estimated by OLS technique and linear regression. The preliminary statistical observations such as Durbin-Watson, F statistic and R2 indicate that the regression is admissible. The results seem plausible and consistent with theory and show that sugar demand in Iranian households is associated with household expenditure, relative sugar price, family size and indicate that demand of sugar is affected during the war time. The results also show the income elasticity is 0.8 and price elasticity is -0.2 which means sugar is essential good for Iranian households and is inelastic to price.

Negar Seyed Soleimany

2012-01-01

417

Raman spectra of graphite and diamond mechanically milled with agate or stainless steel ball-mill  

Science.gov (United States)

The reduction of crystalline size and amorphization of graphite and diamond during agate and stainless ball-milling are investigated by Raman spectroscopy. The ultimate crystalline size of graphite, estimated by the Raman intensity ratio, of 2.5 nm for the agate ball-mill is smaller than that of 3.5 nm for the stainless ball-mill, while the milling time to reach the ultimate size for the former is about 10 times larger than for the latter, indicating more stability of the nanocrystalline graphite. After reaching the ultimate crystalline size, a significant broadening of the Raman spectra, which indicates the completion of amorphization, is detected only for the stainless ball-milled graphite at approximately 500 h of milling. Also the increase rate of the Raman peakwidth for the stainless ball-milled graphite before amorphization is higher than that for the agate ball-milled graphite, indicating a larger introduction of disorder from the start of milling. Amorphization of diamond is also observed for the stainless ball-mill. The difference in the results between the agate and the stainless ball-mill is discussed in terms of the effect of impurity mixed from the milling apparatus on the stability of nanocrystalline carbon materials.

Niwase, K.; Tanaka, T.; Kakimoto, Y.; Ishihara, K. N.; Shingu, P. H.

1995-02-01

418

Considerations Concerning the Dynamics of Vibratory Mills Used in Powders’ Mechanical Milling Process  

OpenAIRE

Dynamic mechanical milling process in a powder mill was studied by analyzing the vibratory effects of vibration and shock phenomena on the material microstructure ground. During the milling process, there were noticed both distinct modes of ball motion: the one generated by the periodic vibration and the one produced by chaotic vibration.

Radu Panaitescu-Liess; Amelitta Legendi; Cristian Pavel

2010-01-01

419

Considerations Concerning the Dynamics of Vibratory Mills Used in Powders’ Mechanical Milling Process  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Dynamic mechanical milling process in a powder mill was studied by analyzing the vibratory effects of vibration and shock phenomena on the material microstructure ground. During the milling process, there were noticed both distinct modes of ball motion: the one generated by the periodic vibration and the one produced by chaotic vibration.

Radu Panaitescu-Liess

2010-01-01

420

Oxidative enzymatic gelation of sugar beet pectin for emulsion stabilization  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Pectin from sugar beet is derived from the sugar beet pulp residue which results when sugar beets are processed for sucrose extraction. The sugar beet pectin has poor gelationability by the classic divalentcation molecular mechanism because of a relatively high acetylation degree and short polygalacturonate backbone chain length. However, due to the feruloyl-substitutions on the side chains, the sugar beet pectic polysaccharides can be cross-linked via enzyme catalyzed oxidation. The enzyme kinetics and functionality of such oxidativelycross-linked sugar beet pectin, in relation to stabilizing emulsions has recently been investigated in model food emulsions. This paper reviews the pectin chemistry, enzymatic oxidative gelation mechanisms, interaction mechanisms of the sugar beet pectin with the emulsion droplets and explores how the gelation affects the rheology and stability of emulsion systems. The applied biotechnology concept of enzymatic gelation provides an array of opportunities for upgrading of low-value pectins for new food and non-food uses.

Abang Zaidel, Dayang Norulfairuz; Meyer, Anne S.

2013-01-01

421

Blood sugar monitoring with laser diode  

Science.gov (United States)

In this paper, the non-invasive measurement of blood sugar level was studied by use of near infrared laser diode. The in-vivo experiments were carried out using laser diodes with wavelength 1625nm and 1650nm. Several volunteers were tested before and after drinking glucose solution. We took blood from a fingertip and measured its concentration with a glucose meter while taking signal voltage from laser diode system. The signal voltage was processed by using a computer and blood absorption was obtained. The results show that blood sugar level and blood absorption have similar trends before and after drinking glucose solution. We also compared the trends of drinking glucose solution and pure water and the results show that the difference of blood absorption is obvious. From the results we can see that laser diode is suitable for blood glucose monitoring.

Zhang, Xiqin; Chen, Jianhong; Yeo, Joon Hock

2006-09-01

422

Turgor-mediated transport of sugars  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Membrane associated processes have been suggested to be modulated by cellular turgor. The nature of this regulation is not, however, clearly understood. Evidence is presented that active but not passive transport of sugars is turgor regulated. Isolated phloem tissue, vascular bundles or storage parenchyma of celery were incubated in buffered solutions adjusted to 100, 200 or 400 m osmolal that contained various concentrations of 14C-sugars. Cellular turgor was manipulated by using the non-permeating PEG (3350). Saturating carrier-mediated sucrose transport which is present only in phloem-containing tissue was enhanced under low turgor conditions. Sucrose diffusion, the predominant mode of uptake in non-phloem parenchyma tissue was not affected by cellular turgor. Furthermore, GA and IAA seem to interact with cellular turgor to bring about modified rates of sucrose uptake. The data are consistent with observations that sucrose loading is enhanced under mild water deficit conditions

423

Sugars, the clock and transition to flowering.  

Science.gov (United States)

Sugars do not only act as source of energy, but they also act as signals in plants. This mini review summarizes the emerging links between sucrose-mediated signaling and the cellular networks involved in flowering time control and defense. Cross-talks with gibberellin and jasmonate signaling pathways are highlighted. The circadian clock fulfills a crucial role at the heart of cellular networks and the bilateral relation between sugar signaling and the clock is discussed. It is proposed that important factors controlling plant growth (DELLAs, PHYTOCHROME INTERACTING FACTORS, invertases, and trehalose-6-phosphate) might fulfill central roles in the transition to flowering as well. The emerging concept of "sweet immunity," modulated by the clock, might at least partly rely on a sucrose-specific signaling pathway that needs further exploration. PMID:23420760

Bolouri Moghaddam, Mohammad R; Van den Ende, Wim

2013-01-01

424

High risk pesticides in sugar beet protection  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available According to traits of pesticides permitted to use in sugar beet (oral percutaneus and inhalation toxicity, toxicity to wildlife, bees and aquatic organisms, re-entry interval, maximum number of treatments, effects on reproduction do not present health risk in sugar production/technology. However, the danger exists for workers by chronic exposure during the application, especially from pesticide being potential endocrine disruptors (EDS (fentin acetate, benomyl, endosulfan, methomyl, methidathion. EDS can cause sterility or decreased fertility, impaired development, birth defects of the reproductive tract and metabolic disorders. Authors recommend limited application of EDS pesticides (to limit the number of treatments to only one during the vegetation, replacement with pesticides with low risk to humans game and fishes, as well as mandatory submission of re-entry data for registration.

Šovljanski Radmila A.

2006-01-01

425

Obesity and American Indians/Alaska Natives  

Science.gov (United States)

Obesity and American Indians/Alaska Natives American Indian/Alaska Native women are 30% more likely than non- ... findings/nhqrdr/nhqrdr12/index.html HEALTH IMPACT OF OBESITY More than 80 percent of people with type ...

426

Indian Academy of Sciences - Astrophysics and Astronomy  

Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

indian academy of sciences - astrophysics and astronomy structure and tectonics: the indian geomagnetic methods and lithospheric climate and global warming progressive and superposed deformations isotopic windows on earth and planetary ...

427

Indian Academy of sciences - New fellows  

Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

indian academy of sciences - new fellows indian institute of science, bangaloreindian institute of science, bangaloreindian institute of science, bangalorenational centre for cell science, puneindian institute of science, bangaloreindian institute of science, bangalore ...

428

Indian Health Service: Find Health Care  

Science.gov (United States)

... and Human Services Indian Health Service The Federal Health Program for American Indians and Alaska Natives Feedback ... Home Find Health Care Share This Page: Find Health Care IMPORTANT If you are having a health ...

429

Pioneering multilateralism: the sugar agreements 1864 – 1914  

OpenAIRE

This paper examines the negotiations which led to the Brussels Convention of 1902 for the abolition of subsidies on sugar exports, showing how the practice of multilateral commodity trade negotiations was an outcome of this experience. Encompassing diverse fiscal systems, these negotiations began a process of pluri-national harmonization of taxation criteria and regulations, which forced changes to national statutes. They also initiated new forms of economic negotiations and coexistence. When...

Moura Filho, Heitor

2006-01-01

430

Hybrid modelling of a sugar boiling process  

OpenAIRE

The first and maybe the most important step in designing a model-based predictive controller is to develop a model that is as accurate as possible and that is valid under a wide range of operating conditions. The sugar boiling process is a strongly nonlinear and nonstationary process. The main process nonlinearities are represented by the crystal growth rate. This paper addresses the development of the crystal growth rate model according to two approaches. The first approach...

Lauret, Philippe; Boyer, Harry; Gatina, Jean-claude

2012-01-01

431

Acetamido Sugar Biosynthesis in the Euryarchaea? †  

OpenAIRE

Archaea and eukaryotes share a dolichol phosphate-dependent system for protein N-glycosylation. In both domains, the acetamido sugar N-acetylglucosamine (GlcNAc) forms part of the core oligosaccharide. However, the archaeal Methanococcales produce GlcNAc using the bacterial biosynthetic pathway. Key enzymes in this pathway belong to large families of proteins with diverse functions; therefore, the archaeal enzymes could not be identified solely using comparative sequence analysis. Genes encod...

Namboori, Seema C.; Graham, David E.

2008-01-01

432

7 CFR 868.301 - Definition of milled rice.  

Science.gov (United States)

...2010-01-01 false Definition of milled rice. 868.301 Section 868.301 Agriculture...COMMODITIES United States Standards for Milled Rice Terms Defined § 868.301 Definition of milled rice. Whole or broken kernels of rice...

2010-01-01

433

Indian Academy of Sciences - Videos of talks  

Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

the challenge of climate change: shyam saran,chairman, research and information system for developing countries fascinating flow of complex fluids . jamming, order and chaos: a.k. sood,chairman, indian institute of science, bangalore nanotube dynamo and graphene: a.k. sood, indian institute of science, bangalore india and the indian ocean: in search of a strategic role : c raja mohan,strategic affairs editor, the indian express, new delhi higher education and economic development: kaushik basu , ...

434

INDIAN SCENARIO OF M&AS  

OpenAIRE

The practice of mergers and acquisitions has attained considerable significance in the contemporary corporate scenario which is broadly used for reorganizing the business entities. Indian industries were exposed to plethora of challenges both nationally and internationally, since the introduction of Indian economic reforms in 1991. The cut-throat competition in international market compelled the Indian firms to opt for mergers and acquisitions str...

EKTA ARORA

2013-01-01

435

25 CFR 502.12 - Indian lands.  

Science.gov (United States)

... 502.12 Section 502.12 Indians NATIONAL INDIAN GAMING COMMISSION, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR GENERAL PROVISIONS...either— (1) Held in trust by the United States for the benefit of any Indian tribe or individual; or (2) Held by...

2010-04-01

436

Information Concerning the Washoe County Indian Community.  

Science.gov (United States)

Information relative to Indian residents of Washoe County, Nevada, has been developed to provide an analysis of educational and employment needs. Population figures are presented by age and sex for 3 basic Indian residence groups in the county. Statistics are presented in tabular form for Indian student enrollment in area schools, income level of…

Nevada Univ., Reno. Coll. of Education.

437

Moral Leadership in Education: An Indian Perspective.  

Science.gov (United States)

Discusses reasons for emergence of management concepts in Indian education. Reviews Western literature on leadership and offers an Indian perspective on leadership. Provides overview of the lives of three famous Indian leaders who demonstrated the essence of moral leadership: Swami Vivekananda, Rabindranath Tagore, and Mahatma Gandhi. Draws…

Sapre, Padmakar M.; Ranade, Mridula D.

2001-01-01

438

Sugar cane yield response to deficit irrigation at two growth stages  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A field study on sugar cane (Saccharum officinarum L.) yield response to deficit irrigation during both tillering and stem elongation stages, in order to increase crop water use efficiency, was carried out at Institut des Savanes (IDESSA) experimental station of Ferkessedougou, in Northern Ivory Coast. This cane crop tested was Co 449, an early - maturing genotype of indian origin. This experiment has been conducted for three consecutive years as virgin crop ( from November, 1991 to December 1992 ), first ratoon crop ( from December 1992 to January 1994 ) and as second ratoon crop ( from January 1994 to January 1995 ). The experimental design was a randomized complete block with 10 irrigation treatments in 4 replicates of 54 m sup2 sized plots. Water was applied through an improved furrow irrigation system. Crop water consumption was estimated using the water balance approach based on neutron probe and tensiometer measurements. This field water balance method required the determination of soil hydraulic conductivity as a function of water content and the neutron calibration curve. Data presented are related to the two ratoon crops for which field water balance measurements were investigated. It has been shown in the study that sugar cane growth and yield decline due to water deficit is significantly high during stem elongation as compared to tillering. As a result, the sugar cane tested was much more sensitive to water stress at stem elongation than at tillering. Therefore, deficit irrigation practice as to increase crop water use efficiency might be recommended at tillering rather than stem elongation. The water management strategy to be suggested here may consist of omitting irrigation during tillering ( assuming that the crop is successfully established ), for the benefit of stem elongation. As far as stem elongation is concerned, a moderate water deficit of about 25% with respect to the full irrigation regime appears to increase crop water use efficiency.6 figs; 4 tabs; 15 refs (Author)

439

Homogeneity evaluation of Chinese sugar carbon (CSC) standard for AMS {sup 14}C measurement  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The Chinese national radiocarbon standard Chinese Sugar Carbon (CSC), or often called the 'Chinese Sucrose Charcoal,' was investigated for its homogeneity and its suitability as a radiocarbon standard for Accelerator Mass Spectrometer (AMS). We randomly chose ten new CSC bottles and two opened bottles and measured their carbon isotope compositions. {delta}{sup 13}C results obtained by Isotope Ratio Mass Spectrometer (IRMS) showed relatively large variation: from -15.9 to -22.2 Per-Mille-Sign with an average of -19.0 {+-} 1.2 Per-Mille-Sign (n = 49), indicating CSC grains in the mg range are not isotopically homogeneous. However, {sup 14}C results of CSC, expressed as Fraction Modern (FM), are well constrained to 2.4 Per-Mille-Sign after fractionation correction to -25 Per-Mille-Sign . Measurements from all 12 bottles gave an average FM value of 1.3533 {+-} 0.0034 (n = 55). This value is about 7 Per-Mille-Sign higher that the FM value of 1.346 {+-} 0.002, converted from the originally reported R value of 1.362 {+-} 0.002 (n = 14, with {delta}{sup 13}C of -19.32, n = 9) [1,2]. The R value of 1.362 is the ratio of {sup 14}C activity of CSC to 95% of OXI, not an FM value. The online simultaneous AMS {sup 13}C/{sup 12}C measurement that allows for correction of all isotopic fractionation, including manufacture, graphitization and machine induced fractionation, is the key for obtaining consistent {sup 14}C measurements on this standard. Without further homogenization, CSC may not be a good choice of standard for an AMS that does not have the capability of measuring online AMS {delta}{sup 13}C. Further study is needed to see if mixing/grinding can reduce the inhomogeneity. Re-measurement is suggested with more laboratories involved in order to get a better defined consensus value.

Xu Xiaomei, E-mail: xxu@uci.edu [Keck Carbon Cycle AMS Facility, Department of Earth System Science, University of California, Irvine, CA 92697-3100 (United States); Shen Chengde [State Key Laboratory of Isotope Geochemistry, Guangzhou Institute of Geochemistry, Chinese Academy of Sciences, 510640 Guangzhou (China); Stills, Aubrey K.; Southon, John R. [Keck Carbon Cycle AMS Facility, Department of Earth System Science, University of California, Irvine, CA 92697-3100 (United States)

2013-01-15

440

Radiological health aspects of uranium milling  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This report describes the operation of conventional and unconventional uranium milling processes, the potential for occupational exposure to ionizing radiation at the mill, methods for radiological safety, methods of evaluating occupational radiation exposures, and current government regulations for protecting workers and ensuring that standards for radiation protection are adhered to. In addition, a survey of current radiological health practices is summarized

441

Electrical energy demand for uranium mining, milling  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The amount of electrical energy consumed in mining, transporting, and hoisting uranium ore to the surface was empirically calculated as a function of ore depth and production rate. Four mathematical algorithms have been developed as a function of tonnage milled and mill types

442

Airborne effluent control at uranium mills  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The Oak Ridge National Laboratory has made an engineering cost--environmental benefit study of radioactive waste treatment systems for decreasing the amount of radioactive materials released from uranium ore processing mills. This paper summarizes the results of the study which pertain to the control and/or abatement of airborne radioactive materials from the mill processes. The tailings area is not included. Present practices in the uranium milling industry, with particular emphasis on effluent control and waste management, have been surveyed. A questionnaire was distributed to each active mill in the United States. Replies were received from about 75 percent of the mill operators. Visits were made to six operating uranium mills that were selected because they represented the different processes in use today and the newest, most modern in mill designs. Discussions were held with members of the Region IV Office of NRC and the Grand Junction Office of ERDA. Nuclear Science Abstracts, as well as other sources, were searched for literature pertinent to uranium mill processes, effluent control, and waste management

443

Radiological health aspects of uranium milling  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This report describes the operation of conventional and unconventional uranium milling processes, the potential for occupational exposure to ionizing radiation at the mill, methods for radiological safety, methods of evaluating occupational radiation exposures, and current government regulations for protecting workers and ensuring that standards for radiation protection are adhered to. In addition, a survey of current radiological health practices is summarized.

Fisher, D.R.; Stoetzel, G.A.

1983-05-01

444

Satellite Communications: The Indian Scenario  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available India has launched as many as 73 Indian satellites as of today since its first attempt in 1975. Besides serving traditional markets of telephony and broadcasting, satellites are on the frontiers of advanced applications as telemedicine, distance learning, environment monitoring, remote sensing, and so on. Satellite systems are optimized for services such as Internet access, virtual private networks and personal access. Costs have been coming down in recent years to the point where satellite broadband is becoming competitive. This article is an attempt to view this important topic from Indian perspective. India’s Project GAGAN, GPS Aided Geo Augmented Navigation is discussed.

Dr. Ranjit Singh

2014-05-01

445

INDIAN CULTURE THROUGTH BRITHISH EYES  

OpenAIRE

Representation of Indian Culture by the British Eye through literature, “APassage To India” by E.M. Forster is the best example of it.The title itself is symbolic- “Passage” is symbolic of “link” or “connection”,so by giving the title “A Passage to India”, E.M. Forster advocates for a link orconnection between Anglo-Indians and the natives of India. India in the novel stands notmerely for as country but also for a mystifying pattern of art and life for what the Englishcall...

ARPITA DAUD; ANJALI DAUD

2013-01-01

446

Effect of electron radiation on sugar content in inverted liquid sugar  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Inverted liquid sugar is a mixture of sucrose, glucose and fructose, which shows its relevant characteristic on high sweetness power. Ionizing radiation has been applied to different kind of food and ingredients for different reasons, such as pathogens reduction, disinfestations, quarantine purposes, ripening delay among others. Radiation from an electron beam can be utilized as a technique to treat this ingredient because it can process a great volume of material per unit of time. The main goal of this paper was to verify the effect of radiation on the properties of inverted liquid sugar. This ingredient was irradiated in an electron accelerator (Radiation Dynamics) at a dose ranging from 5 to 50 kGy. Sucrose content measurements were reduced by 23% at 30 kGy when compared to control and the reduced sugar content increased around 11%. Density and moisture values were not affected by radiation. The total soluble solids (Brix degrees) rose in function of the absorbed dose. (authors)

447

Uranium mill ore dust characterization  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Cascade impactor and general air ore dust measurements were taken in a uranium processing mill in order to characterize the airborne activity, the degree of equilibrium, the particle size distribution and the respirable fraction for the 238U chain nuclides. The sampling locations were selected to limit the possibility of cross contamination by airborne dusts originating in different process areas of the mill. The reliability of the modified impactor and measurement techniques was ascertained by duplicate sampling. The results reveal no significant deviation from secular equilibrium in both airborne and bulk ore samples for the 234U and 230Th nuclides. In total airborne dust measurements, the 226Ra and 210Pb nuclides were found to be depleted by 20 and 25%, respectively. Bulk ore samples showed depletions of 10% for the 226Ra and 210Pb nuclides. Impactor samples show disequilibrium of 226Ra as high as +-50% for different size fractions. In these samples the 226Ra ratio was generally found to increase as particle size decreased. Activity median aerodynamic diameters of the airborne dusts ranged from 5 to 30 ?m with a median diameter of 11 ?m. The maximum respirable fraction for the ore dusts, based on the proposed International Commission on Radiological Protection's (ICRP) definition of pulmonary deposition, was < 15% of the total airborne concentration. Ore dust parameters calculated for impactor duplicate samples were found to be in excellent agreement

448

Uranium mill ore dust characterization  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Cascade impactor and general air ore dust measurements were taken in a uranium processing mill in order to characterize the airborne activity, the degree of equilibrium, the particle size distribution and the respirable fraction for the /sup 238/U chain nuclides. The sampling locations were selected to limit the possibility of cross contamination by airborne dusts originating in different process areas of the mill. The reliability of the modified impactor and measurement techniques was ascertained by duplicate sampling. The results reveal no significant deviation from secular equilibrium in both airborne and bulk ore samples for the /sup 234/U and /sup 230/Th nuclides. In total airborne dust measurements, the /sup 226/Ra and /sup 210/Pb nuclides were found to be depleted by 20 and 25%, respectively. Bulk ore samples showed depletions of 10% for the /sup 226/Ra and /sup 210/Pb nuclides. Impactor samples show disequilibrium of /sup 226/Ra as high as +-50% for different size fractions. In these samples the /sup 226/Ra ratio was generally found to increase as particle size decreased. Activity median aerodynamic diameters of the airborne dusts ranged from 5 to 30 ..mu..m with a median diameter of 11 ..mu..m. The maximum respirable fraction for the ore dusts, based on the proposed International Commission on Radiological Protection's (ICRP) definition of pulmonary deposition, was < 15% of the total airborne concentration. Ore dust parameters calculated for impactor duplicate samples were found to be in excellent agreement.

Knuth, R.H.; George, A.C.

1980-11-01

449

Preliminary Test of Upgraded Conventional Milling Machine into PC Based CNC Milling Machine  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

CNC (Computerized Numerical Control) milling machine yields a challenge to make an innovation in the field of machining. With an action job is machining quality equivalent to CNC milling machine, the conventional milling machine ability was improved to be based on PC CNC milling machine. Mechanically and instrumentally change. As a control replacing was conducted by servo drive and proximity were used. Computer programme was constructed to give instruction into milling machine. The program structure of consists GUI model and ladder diagram. Program was put on programming systems called RTX software. The result of up-grade is computer programming and CNC instruction job. The result was beginning step and it will be continued in next time. With upgrading ability milling machine becomes user can be done safe and optimal from accident risk. By improving performance of milling machine, the user will be more working optimal and safely against accident risk. (author)

450

75 FR 3906 - Request for Public Comment: 30-Day Proposed Information Collection: Indian Health Service...  

Science.gov (United States)

...Collection: Indian Health Service Customer Satisfaction Survey AGENCY: Indian Health...Indian Health Service Customer Satisfaction Survey.'' Type of Information...Indian Health Service Customer Satisfaction Survey.''...

2010-01-25

451

Sugar-dependent rats show enhanced intake of unsweetened ethanol.  

Science.gov (United States)

Rats show signs of dependence on sugar when it is available intermittently, including bingeing, withdrawal, and cross-sensitization with amphetamine. In the current study, we sought to determine whether sugar-dependent rats would show increased intake of unsweetened ethanol and, conversely, whether intermittent access to ethanol would augment sugar consumption. In Experiment 1, with intermittent versus ad libitum access to ethanol, Sprague-Dawley rats were given escalating concentrations of ethanol (1%, 2%, 4%, 7%, and 9%) over the course of 20 days. Rats in the intermittent ethanol access group, with 12-h daily access, consumed more 4%, 7%, and 9% ethanol during the first hour of access, and more 9% ethanol daily, than did rats in the ad libitum ethanol access group. In Experiment 2, with ethanol as a gateway to sugar intake, the rats from Experiment 1 were switched to 10% sucrose with 12-h daily access for 1 week. Rats in the intermittent ethanol access group consumed significantly more sugar than was consumed by rats in a control group with no prior ethanol experience. In Experiment 3, with sugar as a gateway to ethanol to determine whether sugar dependence leads to increased ethanol intake, four groups were maintained for 21 days according to the following designations: intermittent access to sugar and chow, ad libitum access to sugar and chow, intermittent access to chow, or ad libitum access to chow. Four days later, all groups were switched to intermittent ethanol access, as described in Experiment 1. The group with intermittent access to sugar and chow consumed the most 9% ethanol, supporting the suggestion that sugar dependence alters a rat's proclivity to drink ethanol. These results may relate to the co-morbidity between binge-eating disorders and alcohol intake and the tendency of people abstaining from alcohol to consume excessive amounts of sugar. In conclusion, bingeing on either ethanol or sugar fosters intake of the other. PMID:15902914

Avena, Nicole M; Carrillo, Carmen A; Needham, Lance; Leibowitz, Sarah F; Hoebel, Bartley G

2004-01-01

452

World Sugar Market – Basic Development Trends and Tendencies  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This article is devoted to the issues of the world‘s sugar production and cultivation of sugar crops (sugar beet and sugar cane. It also analyzes the development of the global sugar trade. The main aim of this paper is to define the basic developmental trends and tendencies that affect the current situation on the market for sugar and sugar crops and then outline a process of gradual profiling of the world markets for these commodities. The article identifies the most important players operating in the global market, both in terms of production and in terms of trade. It also identifies not only the most important subjects of the global market from the viewpoint of the realized volume of production and trade, but also in terms of available comparative advantages and growth dynamics of the realized volume of production and trade. Finally, the paper highlights the significant differences existing in unit prices of the realized export and import flows in individual countries and regions. The results of this study show clearly that the world sugar market is extremely concentrated. A narrow group of entities localized mainly in Latin America, Southeast Asia, Europe and North America controls most of the world production of sugar beet and sugar cane. Furthermore, the results of the analysis show that the production and export of sugar are logically closely linked with the regions cultivating sugar crops, which again suggests that a limited number of entities controls most of the global sugar market. Currently, this market is dominated mainly by Latin American countries and Southeast Asia together with Europe.

M. Svatos?

2013-06-01

453

Prospects of sugarcane milling waste utilization for hydrogen production in India  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Cane-sugar producing countries also generate sufficient waste (bagasse) that is mostly utilized ''on-site'' as a replacement to coal in specialized boilers. In addition to sugar and molasses, about 25% by-product of the cane milling is bagasse that still retains 2.5% sugar on dry wt. basis.This paper deals with the prospects of bagasse fermentation for hydrogen production. It seems relevant, as India and Brazil are the major sugarcane producers in the world. The results obtained confirm bagasse, annually generated to a tune of 40 Mt (million tons) in India, can be diverted from the conventional burning or composting to fermentative hydrogen production in a cost-effective way. The processing cost of bagasse for hydrogen production (3Nm3) equivalent to 1L petrol is about half. The system optimization for accessibility of polysaccharides in bagasse and the use of genetically efficient bacterial strains for agrowaste-based hydrogen production seems the ideal option for clean energy generation

454

A COMPARATIVE STUDY ON PERFORMANCE OF INDIAN POWERLOOM SECTOR DURING PRE AND POST LPG SCENARIO  

OpenAIRE

The Indian textile industry is one of the largest in the world with a massive raw material and textiles manufacturing base. About 27% of the foreign exchange earnings are on account of export of textiles and clothing alone. The textiles and clothing sector contributes about 14% to the industrial production and 3% to the Gross Domestic Product (GDP) of the country. Around 8% of the total Excise Revenue collection is contributed by the textile industry. The power looms and mills are able to go ...

Senthilkumar, M.; Rajendran, R.

2013-01-01

455

Big Sugar in southern Africa: rural development and the perverted potential of sugar/ethanol exports.  

Science.gov (United States)

This paper asks how investment in large-scale sugar cane production has contributed, and will contribute, to rural development in southern Africa. Taking a case study of the South African company Illovo in Zambia, the argument is made that the potential for greater tax revenue, domestic competition, access to resources and wealth distribution from sugar/ethanol production have all been perverted and with relatively little payoff in wage labour opportunities in return. If the benefits of agro-exports cannot be so easily assumed, then the prospective 'balance sheet' of biofuels needs to be re-examined. In this light, the paper advocates smaller-scale agrarian initiatives. PMID:20873031

Richardson, Ben

2010-01-01

456

Modeling sugar content of farmer-managed sugar beets (Beta vulgaris L.).  

OpenAIRE

We measured or estimated leaf and root physical and chemical traits of spatio-temporally heterogeneousfield-grown sugar beet throughout its ontogeny during three growing seasons. The objective was toquantify the impact of temporal changes in these traits on root sugar content [S(R); g 100 g-1 root dryweight]. Artificial Neural Network (ANN), in conjunction with thermal time (ºCd), adequately delineatedthe boundaries (mean ± standard deviation, S.D.) between S(R) during early (41.6 ± 6.2), ...

Jaradat, Abdullah A.; Jana Rinke

2012-01-01

457

The Russian Federation – Specifics of the Sugar Market  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The Russian Federation represents a significant force in the global production and consumption of beet sugar. Its population which is in excess of more than 140 million people consumes over 5.6 million net tons of sugar annually, and the amount is steadily growing. The Russian sugar industry was unable to meet the domestic demand, especially during the economic transformation period (sugar beet and sugar production are very sensitive in relation to changes in economic, political, production and consumption environment (S?pic?ka, Janotova?, 2013, and Russia has thus become heavily dependent on imports of both refined and raw sugar. After a long period of stagnation the Russian Federation has over the past decade focused on promoting plans for restoring the production capacities of both the sugar beet growing and sugar manufacture. The government programme promoted at both the federal and regional levels has very significantly boosted the production potential and reduced Russia’s dependence on imports of sugar. This article aims to identify major trends and directions affecting the development of the Russian sugar industry in the past two decades. From the analysis outlined below it follows that the period of 1992 - 2000 was a very critical time for the Russian sugar industry during which there was a downswing in its cultivation and processing capacities. There was a significant decline not only in the quantitative but also qualitative characteristics of the Russian sugar industry. As a consequence, there has been a fall in competitiveness and a significant increase in import dependency. In the period 2000 - 2012, then was contrary to resuscitate the Russian market and the economy. This was reflected in the growth of sugar beet production, as well as in the growth of its own sugar production. Russia‘s dependence on imports of sugar from abroad dropped significantly and changed the structure of traded goods containing sugar. Due to a series of reforms, and to strengthen the competitiveness of Russian sugar industry, especially in relation to countries with which Russia has signed an agreement on customs union or free trade area.

L. Smutka

2014-03-01

458

GOOD GOVERNANCE: INDIAN CONTEXT  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Good governance is an indeterminate term used in international development literature to describe how public institutions conduct public affairs and manage public resources. Governances "the process of decision-making and the process by which decisions are implemented or not implemented. The concept of "good governance centers around the responsibility of governments and governing bodies to meet the needs of the masses as opposed to select groups in society. As per the United Nation's Commission on Human Rights, the key attributes of good governance include transparency, responsibility, accountability, participation and responsiveness to the needs of the people. Good governance is thus linked to an enabling environment conducive to the enjoyment of Human Rights and promoting growth and sustainable human development. The expectation of every civil society by its Government is that it would fulfill its commitments and provide an equitable atmosphere contributing to individual's growth. Good governance is epitomized by predictable, open and enlightened policy-making, a bureaucracy imbued with professional culture acting in furtherance of the public good, the rule of law, transparent processes, and a strong civil society participating in public affairs. In Indian constitutional system, every person is entitled to equality before law and equal protection under the law. No person can be deprived of his life or personal liberty except according to the procedure established by law. At present our administration is not like this. In order to have proper administration the lack of confidence has to be removed by building up an image of helpful responsive administration. The bureaucracy has to be reoriented. There are many challenges to Good governance in India but criminalization of Politics and corruption as major challenges to good governance. The media can play the important role in Promoting Good Governance. First of all, the media must be independent and pluralistic. It is time we concentrated on the solutions, rather than identifying faults. Good governance is an ideal which is difficult to achieve in its totality. Very few countries and societies have come close to achieving good governance in its totality. However, to ensure sustainable human development, actions must be taken to work towards this ideal with the aim of making it a reality

S.P.CHAVAN

2013-05-01

459

Morphological and biochemical properties of a Sphaerotilus sp. Isolated from paper mill slimes.  

Science.gov (United States)

Four strains of filamentous bacteria were isolated from slimes collected in different paper mill factories. Morphological and physiological characterization of the isolates indicated an affiliation with the genus Sphaerotilus. However, while the physiological properties of the isolates were almost identical, pronounced physiological differences between the isolates and Sphaerotilus natans DSM 6575(T), DSM 565, and DSM 566 with respect to their ability to metabolize complex polysaccharides, sugars, polyalcohols, or organic acids as carbon sources were detected. In contrast to the analyzed culture collection strains of S. natans, all paper mill isolates were able to grow at elevated temperatures of up to 40 degrees C. Comparative sequence analysis of nearly complete 16S ribosomal DNA (rDNA) sequences from the four new isolates demonstrated that the retrieved sequences were highly similar to each other (99.6 to 99.8% similarity) and to previously published partial 16S rDNA sequences of S. natans DSM 6575(T) and ATCC 15291. Polyphasic characterization of the isolated Sphaerotilus strains revealed interesting adaptations of the strains to the environmental paper mill conditions with regard to temperature tolerance and utilization of cellulose and starch. PMID:9872774

Pellegrin, V; Juretschko, S; Wagner, M; Cottenceau, G

1999-01-01

460

Pretreatment of wastepaper and pulp mill sludge by aqueous ammonia and hydrogen peroxide.  

Science.gov (United States)

Pretreatment of two different softwood-based lignocellulosic wastes (newsprint and Kraft pulp mill sludge) was investigated. Pretreatment was done by aqueous ammonia and hydrogen peroxide (H2O2), two delignifying reagents that are environmentally benign. Three different treatment schemes were employed: aqueous ammonia alone (ammonia recycled percolation [ARP]), mixed stream of aqueous ammonia and H2O2, and successive treatment with H2O2 and aqueous ammonia. In all cases there was a substantial degree of delignification ranging from 30 to 50%. About half of the hemicellulose sugars were dissolved into the process effluent. Retention of cellulose after pretreatment varied from 85 to 100% for newspaper feedstock and from 77 to 85% for the pulp mill sludge. After treatment with aqueous ammonia alone (ARP), the digestibility of newspaper and the pulp mill sludge was improved only by 5% (from 40 to 45% for the former and from 68 to 73% for the latter), despite a substantial degree of delignification occurring after the ARP process. The lignin content thus did not correlate with the digestibility for these substrates. Simultaneous treatment with H2O2 and aqueous ammonia did not bring about any significant improvement in the digestibility over that of the ARP. A successive treatment by H2O2 and ARP showed the most promise because it improved the digestibility of the newspaper from 41 to 75%, a level comparable to that of alpha-cellulose. PMID:10849784

Kim, J S; Lee, Y Y; Park, S C

2000-01-01

461

ATLAS Visit of Indian President  

CERN Multimedia

Welcomed by CERN's Director General, Robert Aymar, the President of India Dr. A.P.J. Abdul Kalam visited the LHC tunnel, the ATLAS experimental cavern and the test facility for the LHC magnets. There the President had the chance to meet Indian scientists working at CERN.

IT-UDS Audiovisual Services

2005-01-01

462

FIIs in Indian Derivative Markets  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available since 1990-91, Government of India startedliberalization and economic reforms with a view of bringingabout substantial economic growth and move towards Theglobalization. As a part of this liberalization process, theGovernment under its New Industrial Policy liberalized itsforeign investment policy recognizing the growingimportance of FDI as an instrument of foreign capital flowand technological development. Government, for the firsttime, permitted foreign institutional investors to invest inIndian capital market through portfolio investments. FromSeptember 14, 1992 with suitable restrictions, FIIs werepermitted to invest in all the securities traded on the primaryand secondary markets, including shares, debentures andwarrants issued by companies which were listed or were tobe listed on the Stock Exchanges in India.Since then FIIs are investing in the different sections ofIndian capital Market. FIIs invest huge amount in differentsections of Indian capital market and there trades make asignificant impact in the movement of stock market as wellas in the growth of the economy.The study of the impact of FIIs trades in Indian Capitalmarket is of vital importance for investors as well aseconomists

Mr. Manohar Giri

2013-02-01

463

Youth Gangs in Indian Country  

Science.gov (United States)

Since 1995, the National Youth Gang Center (NYGC) has surveyed law enforcement agencies across the nation about youth gang activity. Because tribal police departments were not included in earlier surveys, however, youth gang activities in Indian country have been largely absent from survey findings. This Bulletin describes the nature and makeup…

Major, Aline K.; Egley, Arlen Jr.; Howell, James C.; Mendenhall, Barbara; Armstrong, Troy

2004-01-01

464

MARCELIN BERTHELOT AND INDIAN ALCHEMY  

OpenAIRE

Based on unpublished manuscripts, the article reveals the keen interest shown by Marcelin Berthelot in Indian alchemy. The French Savant has actually inspired and encouraged the first historical research in this field, undertaken at the end of the last century, in Calcutta, by the Bengali scientist Prafulla Chandra Ray.

Rosu, Arion

1986-01-01

465

Dogmatism of Indian Teacher Educators.  

Science.gov (United States)

This document investigates the extent, degrees, and educational implications of the dogmatism of Indian teacher educators. The study is reported to have involved 126 teacher educators in the state of Rajasthan who filled out the Dogmatic Scale (E form) by Rokeach. The document discusses the scores as to general distribution of scale scores,…

Raina, T. N.

466

Indian Academy of Sciences - General  

Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

science and technology science and technology have been an integral part of indian civilization and culture. india?s traditions in science and technology stretch over several millenia and have been founded on the principle of universal harmony and independence, india and its people have been committed to the task of promoting the spread of science and have ...

467

Indian Academy of Sciences - Memorandum  

Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

indian academy of sciences - memorandum history | memorandum 1. to promote the progress and uphold the cause of science, both in pure and applied branches. having similar objects and with others when founded. 3. to encourage and publish important researches in the branches of science comprehended by the academy and to 4. to undertake, cont ...

468

Indian Academy of Sciences - Journals  

Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

indian academy of sciences - journals journal subscription prices for 2009 (india only) journal pramana - journal of physics journal of astrophysics and astronomy journal of earth system science (formerly proc. - earth planet. sci.) journal of chemical sciences (formerly proc. - chem. sci.) journal of biosciences journal of ...

469

Indian Academy of Sciences - Journals  

Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

indian academy of sciences - journals journal subscription prices for 2007 (india only) journal pramana - journal of physics journal of astrophysics and astronomy journal of earth system science (formerly proc. - earth planet. sci.) journal of chemical sciences (formerly proc. - chem. sci.) journal of biosciences journal of ...

470

Indian Academy of sciences - Journals  

Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

indian academy of sciences - journals proceedings - mathematical sciences journal of earth system science (formerly proc. - earth planet. sci.) journal of chemical sciences (formerly proc. - chem. sci.) bulletin of materials science sadhana (engineering sciences) journal of biosciences resonance - journal of science education ...

471

Post Independence Indian English Poetry  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available After the fall of the Berlin Wall and the collapse of thebureaucratic Stalinist regimes of Russia and Eastern Europe a wave ofeuphoria provoked in the West. People rejoiced at the demise of Stalinism and termed it as the "end of Socialism." The final victory of the "free market" was trumpeted from the pages of learned journals from Tokyo to New York. The strategists of capital were exultant. Francis Fukuyama even went so far as to proclaim the "end of history." Henceforth, the class war would be no more. Everything would be for the best in the best of all capitalist worlds. History has proved them incredibly wrong. It we take the Post independence Indian English Poetry in account, we will find that Marxist Idiom has played a crucial role in moulding the literature of Indian in a peculiar way. Indian English Literature and especially Indianpoetry in English has witnessed multiple social struggles on various levels that motivated a number of poets big and small equally to scribble their pen dipped in the ink of Marxist philosophy of protest. The present paper seeks to explore the unexplored regions of Marxist influence in Indian Poetry in English from its inception to its present day.

Shaleen Kumar Singh

2009-05-01

472

The emerging Indian power scenario  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This article outlines the Indian economic policy from the point of view of the energy demand and supply, energy consumption, power transmission and distribution. It also highlights about the financial resources and restructuring of SEBs (State Electricity Boards) along commercial lines for better investments

473

An Indian in White America.  

Science.gov (United States)

In his autobiography, Mark Monroe relates his life experiences as a Lakota Sioux Indian in White America. The book begins with Monroe reminiscing about his happy childhood on the Rosebud Reservation in South Dakota. In 1941 his family moved to Alliance, Nebraska, and his father Dakota. In 1941 his family moved to Alliance, Nebraska, and his father…

Monroe, Mark; Reyer, Carolyn, Ed.

474

Acetamido sugar biosynthesis in the Euryarchaea.  

Science.gov (United States)

Archaea and eukaryotes share a dolichol phosphate-dependent system for protein N-glycosylation. In both domains, the acetamido sugar N-acetylglucosamine (GlcNAc) forms part of the core oligosaccharide. However, the archaeal Methanococcales produce GlcNAc using the bacterial biosynthetic pathway. Key enzymes in this pathway belong to large families of proteins with diverse functions; therefore, the archaeal enzymes could not be identified solely using comparative sequence analysis. Genes encoding acetamido sugar-biosynthetic proteins were identified in Methanococcus maripaludis using phylogenetic and gene cluster analyses. Proteins expressed in Escherichia coli were purified and assayed for the predicted activities. The MMP1680 protein encodes a universally conserved glucosamine-6-phosphate synthase. The MMP1077 phosphomutase converted alpha-D-glucosamine-6-phosphate to alpha-D-glucosamine-1-phosphate, although this protein is more closely related to archaeal pentose and glucose phosphomutases than to bacterial glucosamine phosphomutases. The thermostable MJ1101 protein catalyzed both the acetylation of glucosamine-1-phosphate and the uridylyltransferase reaction with UTP to produce UDP-GlcNAc. The MMP0705 protein catalyzed the C-2 epimerization of UDP-GlcNAc, and the MMP0706 protein used NAD(+) to oxidize UDP-N-acetylmannosamine, forming UDP-N-acetylmannosaminuronate (ManNAcA). These two proteins are similar to enzymes used for proteobacterial lipopolysaccharide biosynthesis and gram-positive bacterial capsule production, suggesting a common evolutionary origin and a widespread distribution of ManNAcA. UDP-GlcNAc and UDP-ManNAcA biosynthesis evolved early in the euryarchaeal lineage, because most of their genomes contain orthologs of the five genes characterized here. These UDP-acetamido sugars are predicted to be precursors for flagellin and S-layer protein modifications and for the biosynthesis of methanogenic coenzyme B. PMID:18263721

Namboori, Seema C; Graham, David E

2008-04-01

475

Acetamido Sugar Biosynthesis in the Euryarchaea? †  

Science.gov (United States)

Archaea and eukaryotes share a dolichol phosphate-dependent system for protein N-glycosylation. In both domains, the acetamido sugar N-acetylglucosamine (GlcNAc) forms part of the core oligosaccharide. However, the archaeal Methanococcales produce GlcNAc using the bacterial biosynthetic pathway. Key enzymes in this pathway belong to large families of proteins with diverse functions; therefore, the archaeal enzymes could not be identified solely using comparative sequence analysis. Genes encoding acetamido sugar-biosynthetic proteins were identified in Methanococcus maripaludis using phylogenetic and gene cluster analyses. Proteins expressed in Escherichia coli were purified and assayed for the predicted activities. The MMP1680 protein encodes a universally conserved glucosamine-6-phosphate synthase. The MMP1077 phosphomutase converted ?-d-glucosamine-6-phosphate to ?-d-glucosamine-1-phosphate, although this protein is more closely related to archaeal pentose and glucose phosphomutases than to bacterial glucosamine phosphomutases. The thermostable MJ1101 protein catalyzed both the acetylation of glucosamine-1-phosphate and the uridylyltransferase reaction with UTP to produce UDP-GlcNAc. The MMP0705 protein catalyzed the C-2 epimerization of UDP-GlcNAc, and the MMP0706 protein used NAD+ to oxidize UDP-N-acetylmannosamine, forming UDP-N-acetylmannosaminuronate (ManNAcA). These two proteins are similar to enzymes used for proteobacterial lipopolysaccharide biosynthesis and gram-positive bacterial capsule production, suggesting a common evolutionary origin and a widespread distribution of ManNAcA. UDP-GlcNAc and UDP-ManNAcA biosynthesis evolved early in the euryarchaeal lineage, because most of their genomes contain orthologs of the five genes characterized here. These UDP-acetamido sugars are predicted to be precursors for flagellin and S-layer protein modifications and for the biosynthesis of methanogenic coenzyme B. PMID:18263721

Namboori, Seema C.; Graham, David E.

2008-01-01

476

USBF Performance in Treating Sugar Industries Wastewater  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available "n "nBackground and Objectives: Upflow Sludge Blanket Filtration (USBF system is a modification  of the conventional activated sludge process that incorporates an anoxic zone with an upflow sludge blanket filtration clarifier in one bioreactor. It has no inherent capacity limits and is used in a wide range of applications in municipal, industrial and agricultural wastewater treatment. The main objective of this study was to evaluate the performance of a continuous USBF reactor for the treatment of sugar industrial wastewater."nMaterials and Methods: Sixty liter laboratory pilot scale plant was made of plexiglass consists of   14 liter anoxic zone, 38 liter aerobic zone and 8 liter clarifier. Used molasses for raw wastewater was obtained from Varamin Sugar Company. During the study, the wastewater has been initially fed to anoxic zone of the bioreactor. It mixed with recycled activated sludge returned from the clarifier and the mixed liquor entered into aerobic zone of the bioreactor. From aeration zone, the mixed liquor passed through the sludge zone at the bottom of the clarifier which was then separated by upflow sludge blanket filtration and then the clear water discharged from the system. To complete the internal circulation loop, collected activated sludge at the bottom of the clarifier was recycled to the anoxic zone."nResults: Experimental studies indicated that average removal efficiency of COD with HRTs from 21  to 26 hours in the aerobic zone and from 8 to 10 hours in the anoxic zone were from 77 to 97 percent depended on input feed (1000 to 30000 mg/L."nConclusion: USBF as an advanced biological process had a proper COD removal efficiency for the biological treatment of sugar industries wastewater compared to other researchers methods.

B Ayati

2009-03-01

477

Sugar transporters for intercellular exchange and nutrition of pathogens  

OpenAIRE

Sugar efflux transporters are essential for the maintenance of animal blood glucose levels, plant nectar production, and plant seed and pollen development. Despite broad biological importance, the identity of sugar efflux transporters has remained elusive. Using optical glucose sensors, we identified a new class of sugar transporters, named SWEETs, and show that at least six out of seventeen Arabidopsis, two out of over twenty rice and two out of seven homologues in Caenorhabditis elegans, an...

Chen, Li-qing; Hou, Bi-huei; Lalonde, Sylvie; Takanaga, Hitomi; Hartung, Mara L.; Qu, Xiao-qing; Guo, Woei-jiun; Kim, Jung-gun; Underwood, William; Chaudhuri, Bhavna; Chermak, Diane; Antony, Ginny; White, Frank F.; Somerville, Shauna C.; Mudgett, Mary Beth

2010-01-01

478

Spectrophotometric determination of sugars labelled with 14C  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Comparative analysis of methods for determination of microgram amounts of 14C-labelled sugars has been carried out. The ferricyanide and Shomodyi-Nelson methods were approbated in experimental study. The relative error of the ferricyanide method was found to be smaller than that of the Shomodyi-Nelson method. Thus the ferricyanide method was used for obtaining calibration curves for 15 sugars. The accuracy for sugar amounts higher than 3 ?g/10 ml was better than +, - 5%

479

ATP-DEPENDENT SUGAR TRANSPORT COMPLEXITY IN HUMAN ERYTHROCYTES  

OpenAIRE

Human erythrocyte glucose sugar transport was examined in resealed red cell ghosts under equilibrium exchange conditions ([sugar]intracellular = [sugar]extracellular). Exchange 3-O-methylglucose (3MG) import and export are monophasic in the absence of cytoplasmic ATP but are biphasic when ATP is present. Biphasic exchange is observed as the rapid filling of a large compartment (66% cell volume) followed by the slow filling of the remaining cytoplasmic space. Biphasic exchange at 20 mM 3MG eli...

Leitch, Jeffry; Carruthers, Anthony

2006-01-01

480

Simple Sugar Intake and Hepatocellular Carcinoma: Epidemiological and Mechanistic Insight  

OpenAIRE

Sugar intake has dramatically increased during the last few decades. Specifically, there has been a clear trend towards higher consumption of fructose and high fructose corn syrup, which are the most common added sugars in processed food, soft drinks and other sweetened beverages. Although still controversial, this rising trend in simple sugar consumption has been positively associated with weight gain and obesity, insulin resistance and type 2 diabetes mellitus and non-alcoholic fatty liver ...

Laguna, Juan Carlos; Alegret, Marta; Roglans, Nu?ria

2014-01-01