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Sample records for indian sugar mills

  1. 77 FR 54607 - Proclaiming Certain Lands, Sugar Parcel Lands, as an Addition to the Bay Mills Indian Reservation...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-05

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Printing Office DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR Bureau of Indian Affairs Proclaiming Certain Lands, Sugar Parcel Lands, as an Addition to the Bay Mills Indian Reservation for the Bay Mills Indian Community of Michigan AGENCY: Bureau of Indian...

  2. Preliminary assessment of off-season fuels for electricity generation at Indian sugar mills

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Perlack, R.D. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States); Ranney, J.W. [Joint Inst. for Energy and Environment, Knoxville, TN (United States)

    1995-11-07

    This report on off-season fuels is part of a preliminary feasibility assessment to retrofit Indian sugar mills to cogenerate heat and power with sales of excess electricity to the local grid. To justify the high capital costs of retrofitting existing facilities, sugar mill operators must attempt to maximize the amount of power they sell to the local grid. This fact means that sugar mills must operate and sell power well-beyond the milling season, which typically lasts about 200 days. The purpose of this report is to assess and determine whether low cost and reliable sources of off-season fuels can be secured for two sugar mills (Simbhaoli and Daurala) within their respective sugar growing districts, located in western Uttar Pradesh. Off-season fuels under consideration include excess bagasse that is stored for off-season use, agricultural field residues (e.g., wheat straw), forest residues (e.g., bark and small limbs), and dedicated energy crops (short-rotation woody crops and herbaceous energy crops). Results of the pre-feasibility indicate that bagasse and some agricultural residues are available in sufficient quantity and may be available at reasonable cost.

  3. Bioremediation of Sugar Mill Effluent Using a Bacteria Staphylococcus aureus

    OpenAIRE

    Buvaneswari.S; Damodarkumar.S; Murugesan.S

    2013-01-01

    Industrial pollution has been and continues to be a major factor causing the degradation of the environment around us, affecting the water we use, the air we breathe and the soil we live on. Among the various industries, sugar mill is one of the largest and most important agro based industries in India. The sugar industry is playing an important role in the economic development of the Indian sub continent, but the effluents released produce a high degree of organic pollution in both aquatic a...

  4. Indian sugar industry: A key driver of rural development of Maharashtra

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vrushali Balbhimrao Kute And R. P. Patil

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available The Indian sugar industry is a key driver of rural development. The industry is supporting over 50 millionfarmers and their families, along with workers and entrepreneurs almost 550 sugar mills. Sugar is a sector ofsignificant importance to the national economy. Maharashtra produces about 36 percent of the total sugar producedin the country and rank second next to Uttar Pradesh. The development of sugar co-operatives in Maharashtra is dueto the favourable policy of government regarding the prices of sugar and sugarcane. The Co-operative sugarindustry has been playing an important role in the development of rural Maharashtra. In recent years, sugarcaneproduction has decelerated to a great extent due to water and power shortage. Special attention is needed to be givenon water resource management. Adequate and regular power supply to sugarcane growers and sugar factorieswould increase production and productivity. To enhance share of Indian sugar industry in global trade, quality andquantity of sugar needs to be enhanced.

  5. Alternative utilization of excess water in Cuban sugar mills

    OpenAIRE

    Larsson, Anna; Bednarcik, Emma

    2014-01-01

    The sugar cane industry is one of the most water demanding industries in the world. In spite of the fact that the sugar cane itself contains enough water to supply the entire sugar manufacturing process, supplementary water from other sources is added. As a result, the sugar cane industry consumes and generates water in excess. The generated wastewater contains high amounts of organic compounds, which would cause pollution if it were directly discharged into nature. The sugar mill Carlos Bali...

  6. Valuation of a Mexican Sugar Mill and Driving Value Factors

    OpenAIRE

    Carlos Acosta-Calzado

    2011-01-01

    This paper includes the methodology used to construct a financial cash flow and perform a valuation using the discounted cash flow analysis for a hypothetical Mexican sugar mill. The objective is to incorporate to the valuation model the most significant variables that are relevant to the sugar production process as well as the operational and financial factors of a common sugar mill which are driven by the current legislation in terms of sugarcane pricing and labor costs. It also includes so...

  7. A methodological approach to sugar mill diversification and conversion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Noé Aguilar Rivera

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Sugar industry diversification is complex, being constrained by biophysical and socioeconomic conditions. Ongoing work has shown the sugarcane industry’s potential as biorefinery or its sustainable use by offering products as raw material. However, few studies have studied how such potential could be achieved by promoting a conventional sugar mill through integrating its indicators for developing an efficient diversified processing plant which would contribute towards fossil energy saving and competitiveness. This paper presents a conceptual framework for analysis based on existing knowledge regarding sugar industry state-of-the-art for evaluating diversification, using analytical hierarchy process (AHP as a tool for analysing complex systems, identifying alternatives to the current situation and discussing them to facilitate collective decision-making. Sugar mill AHP scores enabled discussion about the variables most affecting sugar mill diversification (0.332 factory yield, 0.327 sugar mill products and 0.121 sugarcane quality. The results serve as a useful guidance for formulating strategies for the optimum use of by-products in a sugar mill while maximising benefits to modify/convert a traditional sugar mill to a so-called bio-refinery.

  8. 21 CFR 173.320 - Chemicals for controlling microorganisms in cane-sugar and beet-sugar mills.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ...2009-04-01 true Chemicals for controlling microorganisms in cane-sugar...Additives § 173.320 Chemicals for controlling microorganisms in cane-sugar and beet-sugar mills. Agents for controlling microorganisms in...

  9. 21 CFR 173.320 - Chemicals for controlling microorganisms in cane-sugar and beet-sugar mills.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Chemicals for controlling microorganisms in cane-sugar and beet-sugar mills. 173.320 Section 173.320 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION... controlling microorganisms in cane-sugar and beet-sugar mills. Agents for controlling microorganisms in...

  10. A methodological approach to sugar mill diversification and conversion

    OpenAIRE

    Noé Aguilar Rivera; María Guadalupe Galindo Mendoza; Carlos Contreras Servín; Javier Fortanelli Martínez

    2012-01-01

    Sugar industry diversification is complex, being constrained by biophysical and socioeconomic conditions. Ongoing work has shown the sugarcane industry’s potential as biorefinery or its sustainable use by offering products as raw material. However, few studies have studied how such potential could be achieved by promoting a conventional sugar mill through integrating its indicators for developing an efficient diversified processing plant which would contribute towards fossil energy saving and...

  11. Power Factor Improvement in a Sugar Mill: An Analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Neena Malhotra; Shivani Sehgal

    2012-01-01

    To reduce losses in the distribution system, and toreduce the electricity bill, power factor correction, usually in theform of capacitors, is added to neutralize as much of themagnetizing current as possible..To improve the power factor insugar mill, it is required to install the capacitors of requiredcapacitor ratings as near to the load as possible. This paperreports a case of sugar mill where the induction motors having apower factor of 0.8 has a potential to improve the power factor to0.9...

  12. Predicting remaining life in upper sugar-mill shafts

    OpenAIRE

    Sara Rodríguez Pulecio; John Jairo Coronado Marín; Nelson Arzola de la Peña

    2010-01-01

    A fracture mechanics-based method is presented for determining critical crack size and residual life of upper sugar-mill shafts having semi-elliptical and circumferential cracks. Due to the multiaxial stress field, an equivalent strain energy release rate stress intensity solution is used in Paris’ law to predict crack growth. Ultrasonic inspection intervals for the shaft were established. The crack zone evaluated was located in the shoulder of the bearing nearest to the square box coupling w...

  13. Ergonomic design applied in a sugar mill interface

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    P., Ponsa; B., Amante; M., Díaz.

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available In tasks requiring human supervision in an industrial control room there are applied generic disciplines like automatic control and engineering systems. From the point of view of the human computer interaction applied to these disciplines it is necessary to add usability engineering and cognitive er [...] gonomics. This integrated framework is an example of human-centred design on automation systems. The main goal of this work is the application of a cognitive ergonomic guideline for supervisory control in order to improve the efficiency of a sugar mill interface design.

  14. Predicting remaining life in upper sugar-mill shafts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sara Rodríguez Pulecio

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available A fracture mechanics-based method is presented for determining critical crack size and residual life of upper sugar-mill shafts having semi-elliptical and circumferential cracks. Due to the multiaxial stress field, an equivalent strain energy release rate stress intensity solution is used in Paris’ law to predict crack growth. Ultrasonic inspection intervals for the shaft were established. The crack zone evaluated was located in the shoulder of the bearing nearest to the square box coupling where about 25% of service failures in these types of shaft are observed.

  15. Comparative Analysis of Milled Wood Lignins (MWLs) Isolated from Sugar Maple (SM) and Hot-Water Extracted Sugar Maple (ESM)

    OpenAIRE

    Mangesh J. Goundalkar; Derek B. Corbett; Biljana M. Bujanovic

    2014-01-01

    To further elucidate the advantageous effects of hot-water extraction (HWE) on delignification, milled wood lignin (MWL) was isolated from sugar maple (SM) and from hot-water extracted sugar maple (ESM). Ball-milled wood was analyzed for particle size distribution (PSD) before and after dioxane:water (DW) extraction. The MWL samples were analyzed by analytical and spectral methods. The results indicated that the MWL isolated from SM and ESM was mainly released from the middle lamella (ML) and...

  16. An investigation of new markets for the bagasse in Cuban sugar mills

    OpenAIRE

    Onoszko, Emanuel; Hallersbo, Mattias

    2015-01-01

    Historically, the production and exportation of sugar have been of immense significance for Cuba and although sugar remains to be the product of most vitality in the mills the diversification of sugar cane usage is now of a greater extent. This development has resulted in an increased production and consequently the mills provide by-products in a more considerable degree. The by-product of concern in this report is the sugar cane bagasse, which is used to fuel the boilers in the cogeneration ...

  17. Diabetes and Kidney Disease in American Indians: Potential Role of Sugar-Sweetened Beverages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yracheta, Joseph M; Lanaspa, Miguel A; Le, MyPhuong T; Abdelmalak, Manal F; Alfonso, Javier; Sánchez-Lozada, Laura G; Johnson, Richard J

    2015-06-01

    Since the early 20th century, a marked increase in obesity, diabetes, and chronic kidney disease has occurred in the American Indian population, especially the Pima Indians of the Southwest. Here, we review the current epidemic and attempt to identify remediable causes. A search was performed using PubMed and the search terms American Indian and obesity, American Indian and diabetes, American Indian and chronic kidney disease, and American Indian and sugar or fructose, Native American, Alaska Native, First Nations, Aboriginal, Amerind, and Amerindian for American Indian for articles linking American Indians with diabetes, obesity, chronic kidney disease, and sugar; additional references were identified in these publications traced to 1900 and articles were reviewed if they were directly discussing these topics. Multiple factors are involved in the increased risk for diabetes and kidney disease in the American Indian population, including poverty, overnutrition, poor health care, high intake of sugar, and genetic mechanisms. Genetic factors may be especially important in the Pima, as historical records suggest that this group was predisposed to obesity before exposure to Western culture and diet. Exposure to sugar-sweetened beverages may also be involved in the increased risk for chronic kidney disease. In these small populations in severe health crisis, we recommend further studies to investigate the role of excess added sugar, especially sugar-sweetened beverages, as a potentially remediable risk factor. PMID:26046414

  18. Design and Analysis of Two Roller Sugar mill using FEA Techniques

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Walmiki S Rathod

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available The present analysis relates to proposed modifications in the milling process in sugarcane factory.This paper describes the advantage of using two roller sugar mill over three roller sugar mill by designing and analyzing it with FEA techniques. The roller mill needs to be designed in order to satisfy the condition of keepingnumber of stages same while maintaining optimum crushing rate.In this study theoretical analysis has been done considering simply supported beam with two conditions 1.determinate beam and 2.indeterminate beam condition. By comparing results of above two conditions one factor has been calculated i.e. Bending moment factor which helps in finding actual results. By changing various parameters the performance of roller mill is studied using FEA software and the same is compared with above theoretical results. Based on results the optimum design is proposed.ANSYS software is used to calculate stress-strain state of roller mill.

  19. Wind Resource Assessment Report: Mille Lacs Indian Reservation, Minnesota

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jimenez, A. C.

    2013-12-01

    The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) launched the RE-Powering America's Land initiative to encourage development of renewable energy on potentially contaminated land and mine sites. EPA collaborated with the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE's) National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) and the Mille Lacs Band of Chippewa Indians to evaluate the wind resource and examine the feasibility of a wind project at a contaminated site located on the Mille Lacs Indian Reservation in Minnesota. The wind monitoring effort involved the installation of a 60-m met tower and the collection of 18 months of wind data at multiple heights above the ground. This report focuses on the wind resource assessment, the estimated energy production of wind turbines, and an assessment of the economic feasibility of a potential wind project sited this site.

  20. Pyrolysis and thermal oxidation kinetics of sugar mill press mud

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Press mud, a solid waste obtained from the sugar mills, has the potential of energy generation through pyrolysis and gasification. The paper reports its proximate and ultimate analyses, deformation and fusion ash temperatures, lower and higher heating values, physico-chemical and thermal degradation in nitrogen and air atmospheres. The thermal degradation was conducted in a thermogravimetric analyzer from room temperature to 900 deg C at heating rates of 20 and 40 K min-1. The thermogravimetric, derivative thermogravimetric and differential thermal analyses were carried out to determine the rate of volatiles evolution, the effect of heating rates on the thermal degradation characteristics and to determine the global mass loss kinetics of thermal degradation. The thermal degradation was found to occur in several distinct phases: each phase giving volatile evolution in an independent parallel lump. Each decomposition phase was modeled by a single irreversible reaction with respect to the solid mass. Global mass loss kinetics was also determined for the entire decomposition process, as if occurring in one single step. The integral and differential techniques were used for the determination of kinetic parameters. Using the method of Agrawal and Sivasubramanian [R.K. Agrawal, M.S. Sivasubramanian, AIChE J. 33 (1987) 7] for the total degradation zone, the orders of reaction were found in the range of 1.00-2.50 in both the atmospheres (i.e. nitrogen and air) and the activation energy in the range of 27.84-33.44 and 57.41-88.92 kJ mol-1 in nitrogen and air, respectively. The pre-exponential factor was found in the range of 32.1-95.1 and 5.10 x 104 to 5.46 x 109 min-1 in nitrogen and air atmospheres, respectively

  1. Comparative Analysis of Milled Wood Lignins (MWLs Isolated from Sugar Maple (SM and Hot-Water Extracted Sugar Maple (ESM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mangesh J. Goundalkar

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available To further elucidate the advantageous effects of hot-water extraction (HWE on delignification, milled wood lignin (MWL was isolated from sugar maple (SM and from hot-water extracted sugar maple (ESM. Ball-milled wood was analyzed for particle size distribution (PSD before and after dioxane:water (DW extraction. The MWL samples were analyzed by analytical and spectral methods. The results indicated that the MWL isolated from SM and ESM was mainly released from the middle lamella (ML and the secondary wall (SW, respectively. The cleavage of dibenzodioxocin (DB and spirodienone (SD lignin substructures during HWE is suggested. The removal of lignin during acetone:water (AW extraction of hot-water extracted wood indicates that including an additional operation in a hardwood HWE-based biorefinery would be beneficial for processing of wood.

  2. Potential assessment of BIG-GT technology in Cuban sugar cane mills

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ponce, F. [University of las Villas, Santa Clara (Cuba); Walter, A. [State University of Campinas (Brazil)

    1999-07-01

    Biomass integrated gasification-gas turbine (BIG-GT) technology has been seriously considered for large scale electricity production in the sugar-cane industries owing to its large volume of biomass residues (sugar-cane bagasse and trash). This paper assesses the possible use of this technology in Cuban sugar-cane mills. Two cogeneration cycles were analyzed, the very first BIG-GT units (that use the conventional back-pressure steam power cycle) and a high potential scenario (with high-efficiency combined cycles). A gas turbine simulation code (including steam cycle modules) is used to evaluate realistic system performance figures. Actual Cuban sugar-cane mill data ar used within the integration analysis of power cycle to industry. (author)

  3. Analyzing Regional Variations in Capacity Utilization of Indian Sugar Industry using Non-parametric Frontier Technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sunil KUMAR

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Using time series data spanning over the period 1974/75 to 2004/05, this paper provides the trends of capacity utilization (CU levels in Indian sugar industry from regional perspectives. The results reveal that: i on an average, the sugar industry in India is operating with the excess capacity in tune to 13 percent in each sampled year; ii substantial variations in CU levels appear in the sugar industry of 12 major sugar producing states under consideration; iii a precipitous decline in CU levels is noted in the post-reforms years relative to what has been observed in the prereforms period; iv except the state of Rajasthan, the sugar industry in the remaining 11 states observed a significant decline in CU levels during the postreforms period relative to the pre-reforms period; and v availability of raw material is most significant variable explaining the CU in Indian sugar industr

  4. Generation of Electricity Using Sugar mill Waste Water by Microbial Fuel Cell

    OpenAIRE

    Kavyashree.R.Doddamani

    2014-01-01

    The application of microbial fuel cell (MFC) for electricity generation has been developing recently. This research explores the application of single chamber MFC in generating electricity using sugar wastewater.The different concentration of wastewater has been performed. The maximum current, voltage, BOD, COD ,pH and TDS obtained with respect to time. MFC of sugar mill wastewater showed removal efficiency 69.3% COD, 68.1% BOD and 56.35% TDS with different feed concentration....

  5. Use of gamma radiation in the sugar mills crystallization process control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The technical feasibility of applying the gamma-ray transmission method to the control of the saccharose crystallization process at sugar mills was investigated. Attenuation measurements using a Cs-137 gamma beam showed that the transmission factor depends on the solid phase concentration of saccharose solutions in a very definite manner. Furthermore, temperature and purity of the solutions showed no significant influence on this attenuation behaviour. Therefore, measurements of the transmission factor can be used to implement a continuous control of the saccharose crystallization process on a industrial scale in sugar mills. (author). 7 refs, 3 figs, 4 tabs

  6. Analysis and Physico-Chemical Parameters of Sarvar Devla Sugar Mill Studies of Effluents

    OpenAIRE

    Pathak, R. K.; Janeshwar Yadav

    2012-01-01

    The physico-chemical characteristics contents in the effluents discharged from Neoly sugar mill have been explored. The physico-chemical parameters such as colour, odour, temperature, pH, electrical conductivity, COD, BOD, alkalinity, total hardness,Ca+2, Mg+2, chloride, of the effluent collected from the various sites between the exit point at the mill and discharge point In, have been determined.

  7. Analysis and Physico-Chemical Parameters of Sarvar Devla Sugar Mill Studies of Effluents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. K. Pathak

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The physico-chemical characteristics contents in the effluents discharged from Neoly sugar mill have been explored. The physico-chemical parameters such as colour, odour, temperature, pH, electrical conductivity, COD, BOD, alkalinity, total hardness,Ca+2, Mg+2, chloride, of the effluent collected from the various sites between the exit point at the mill and discharge point In, have been determined.

  8. Operations improvement of the recycling water-cooling systems of sugar mills

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shcherbakov Vladimir Ivanovich

    Full Text Available Water management in sugar factories doesn’t have analogues in its complexity among food industry enterprises. Water intensity of sugar production is very high. Circulation water, condensed water, pulp press water and others are used in technological processes. Water plays the main role in physical, chemical, thermotechnical processes of beet processing and sugar production. As a consequence of accession of Russia to the WTO the technical requirements for production processes are changing. The enforcements of ecological services to balance scheme of water consumption and water disposal increased. The reduction of fresh water expenditure is one of the main tasks in economy of sugar industry. The substantial role in fresh water expenditure is played by efficiency of cooling and aeration processes of conditionally clean waters of the 1st category. The article contains an observation of the technologies of the available solutions and recommendations for improving and upgrading the existing recycling water-cooling systems of sugar mills. The authors present the block diagram of the water sector of a sugar mill and a method of calculating the optimal constructive and technological parameters of cooling devices. Water cooling towers enhanced design and upgrades are offered.

  9. Optimizing the bagasse based co-generation: a case study of dewan sugar mill, thatta, pakistan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To meet Pakistan's projected power demand; about 143 GW of new generating capacity will need to be installed up to 2030. Many studies around the world have identified bagasse based cogeneration as an attractive low-cost option to place additional generating capacity on the grid. The focus of this study is the sugar industry which has long been co generating power for its own purposes is favored as the potential entry market for co-generation. This industry presents a strategic opportunity to develop a validate commercial business to overcome the barriers restricting development. Dewan Sugar Mill situated in district Thatta in Sindh province was selected as case study because of its higher crushing capacity. Power generation study for this sugar mill has been carried out. The study concludes that the mill can generate surplus power to export to the extent of about four times the current generation during the season using bagasse as fuel. These export can go to about five times the current generation subject to the condition, if alternative fuel is supplied. (author)

  10. Environmental impact assessment: a case study of M/S Mirpurkhas sugar mills

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sugar Mills effluent and their effects on the surface and groundwater quality in the vicinity of Mirpurkhas Sugar Mills have been studied during the period from November 04 to February 05. The results obtained from the analysis of samples collected from factory and effluent channel indicates that all values of effluent parameters BOD/sub 5/, COD, TSS, and Oil and Grease are higher than the value recommended in NEQS. The values of physico-chemical parameters of groundwater samples (Ca, Mg, Na, HCO/sub 3/, Cl, SO/sub 4/) also shows variation in results with comparison to mill distance, but still found within the limit of WHO standards. During the environmental survey of adjacent villages, it was also observed that the local environment and quality of water is adversely being affected by mill effluent. This is obvious from samples of effluent and the comparison of results of samples of groundwater supplies taken from various locations. Therefore, it is strongly recommended that the material thrown as effluent must be treated before disposed off into channels and people must be informed about the adverse effects of effluent upon the groundwater quality. (author)

  11. Effect of amendments on chemical immobilization of heavy metals in sugar mill contaminated soils

    OpenAIRE

    Mohammad Jamal Khan, Muhammad Tahir Azeem and Sajida Perveen1; Muhammad Tariq Jan

    2012-01-01

    A bulk soil sample collected from the vicinity of PSM (Premier Sugar Mill) Mardan was amended with diammonium phosphate (DAP), triple super phosphate (TSP), Farm Yard Manure (FYM) and poultry manure (PM) in 1.5 kg soil in a 2 L plastic pot. Both DAP and TSP were added at 230 mg kg 1 (460 kg ha 1) soil whereas the organic amendments (FYM and PM) were added at the rate of 10% by weight of soil. The air dried samples in pots were brought to field moisture content (0.33 bar water content) by the ...

  12. Culture of the microalga chlorella vulgaris on different proportions of sugar mill effluents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chlarella vulgaris was cultured in four different dilutions of sugar mill effluent media (SMEM). Bold's basal medium (BBM) was used as the control under laboratory conditions. Maximum cell growth and chlorophyll-a content were obtained on 10th day of the culture in 50% diluted SMEM, followed by those grown in BBM, and 75, 25 and 100% SMEM at stationary phase. The specific growth rate (mu g/day) of cells and chlorophyll-a of C. vulgaris grown in 50% SMEM varied significantly (p < 0.0 I) from those of C. vulgaris cultured in BBM, followed by other SMEM concentrations. Total biomass of C. vulgaris. cultured in 50% SMEM, was found to be significantly higher (p < 0.0 I) than that of C. vulgaris cultured in BBM, and 25, 75 and 100% SMEM concentrations. Similar trend was also observed in the case of optical density. Cell number and chlorophyll-a of C. vulgaris were highly (p < 0.01) and directly correlated with chlorophyll-a (r2 = 0.991) of C. vulgaris and optical density (r2 = 0.989) for the culture media containing C. vulgaris, respectively. Crude proteins and crude lipids of C. vulgaris. grown in 50% SMEM, were significantly (p < 0.01) higher than those of C. vulgaris cultured in other SMEM concentrations. Due to good growth performance exhibited in the 50% SMEM dilution, the sugar mill effluent may be used for efficient cultivation of C. vulgaris and possibly other micro algae. (author)

  13. Sugar composition and FT-IR analysis of exopolysaccharides produced by microbial isolates from paper mill slime deposits

    OpenAIRE

    Verhoef, R.P.; Schols, H.A.; Blanco Garcia, A.; Siika-Aho, M.; Ratto, M.; Buchert, J.; Lenon, G.; Voragen, A.G.J.

    2005-01-01

    Thirty exopolysaccharides (EPS) produced by bacteria isolated from biofilms or slimelayers from different paper and board mills in Finland, France and Spain were subjected to size exclusion chromatography and sugar compositional analysis. High performance size exclusion chromatography (HPSEC) analysis revealed that some samples were composed of several molecular weight populations. These samples were fractionated by size exclusion chromatography and pooled accordingly. Principal components an...

  14. A STUDY ON FRINGE BENEFITS PROVIDED BY SALEM CO-OPERATIVE SUGAR MILL LIMITED, NAMAKKAL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Senthil Velmurugan

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The topic of the paper is “Fringe Benefits” and it’s Impact on ‘Employee behavior’, It brings out the behavioral aspect of the employees working in “Salem Co-operative Sugar Mill Ltd, Namakkal”. The main objective of the study is to find the overall performance of the Employees.The research design I used this study is descriptive research design . Data from 80 people collected as population study, Data was collected by survey method through structured questionnaire and secondary data from the company records and through questionnaire and secondary data from the company records and through internet. The purpose of the survey process is to provide a more accurate assessment of the existing culture from the employee’s point of view and also to assess their behaviors with respect to that of the exiting culture.

  15. A methodological approach to sugar mill diversification and conversion / Enfoque metodológico de diversificación y reconversión de ingenios azucareros

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    N, Aguilar; G, Galindo; C, Contreras; J, Fortanelli.

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available La diversificación de la industria azucarera es compleja y se ve limitada por condiciones biofísicas y socioeconómicas. Muchos trabajos han demostrado su potencial como biorrefinería y la utilización sostenible de los subproductos como materia prima. Sin embargo, pocos estudios se ha focalizado a tr [...] avés de la integración de indicadores productivos de un ingenio azucarero y cómo este potencial podría lograr transformar un ingenio azucarero convencional en una eficiente planta diversificada que contribuya a reducir el consumo de energía fósil y alcanzar la competitividad. Este trabajo presenta un marco de análisis o metodología basada en el conocimiento existente sobre la industria azucarera o el estado del arte, con la finalidad de evaluar la diversificación mediante el proceso de jerarquías analíticas (AHP) como una herramienta adecuada para el análisis de sistemas complejos, la identificación de alternativas y su discusión de manera que facilite la toma de decisiones colectivas. El análisis AHP obtenido en este estudio ofrece una discusión acerca de las variables que explican la capacidad para diversificar los procesos en un ingenio azucarero (rendimiento de fábrica: 0.332, productos derivados del ingenio azucarero: 0.327 y calidad de materia prima o caña de azúcar: 0.121). Los resultados obtenidos sirven de guía en la formulación de estrategias para la utilización óptima de los recursos derivados de un ingenio azucarero, mientras que la maximización de sus beneficios, para diversificar o reconvertir ingenios azucareros en biorrefinerías. Abstract in english Sugar industry diversification is complex, being constrained by biophysical and socioeconomic conditions. Ongoing work has shown the sugarcane industry's potential as biorefinery or its sustainable use by offering products as raw material. However, few studies have studied how such potential could b [...] e achieved by promoting a conventional sugar mill through integrating its indicators for developing an efficient diversified processing plant which would contribute towards fossil energy saving and competitiveness. This paper presents a conceptual framework for analysis based on existing knowledge regarding sugar industry state-of-the-art for evaluating diversification, using analytical hierarchy process (AHP) as a tool for analysing complex systems, identifying alternatives to the current situation and discussing them to facilitate collective decision-making. Sugar mill AHP scores enabled discussion about the variables most affecting sugar mill diversification (0.332 factory yield, 0.327 sugar mill products and 0.121 sugarcane quality). The results serve as a useful guidance for formulating strategies for the optimum use of by-products in a sugar mill while maximising bene-fits to modify/convert a traditional sugar mill to a so-called bio-refinery.

  16. Anhydrous ethanol production in sugar mills; Produccion de etanol anhidro en ingenios azucareros

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Enriquez Poy, Manuel. E-mail:poymanuel@prodigy.net.mx

    2007-04-15

    The anhydrous ethanol production is recent and limited, because the disadvantage of the renewable energies is the economic impossibility of the projects. Nevertheless, there are aspects to consider to achieve the anhydrous ethanol production, among which are: the cost of the raw material, the self-sufficiency of energy from the sugar cane bagasse without the need of oil burning, the larger size of the distilleries, incorporation of the Cogeneration with delivery of electricity to the public network in the sugar mill facilities, the introduction of the biotechnology to improve the processes of fermentation and subsidies to agriculture. [Spanish] La produccion de etanol anhidro es reciente y limitada, debido a que la desventaja de las energias renovables es la inviabilidad economica de los proyectos. Sin embargo hay aspectos a considerar para lograr la produccion de etanol anhidro, entre los cuales estan: el costo de la materia prima, la autosuficiencia energetica a partir del bagazo de la cana sin necesidad de petroleo, mayor tamano de las destilerias, incorporacion de la Cogeneracion con entrega de electricidad a la red publica en el ingenio, la introduccion de la biotecnologia para mejorar los procesos de fermentacion y subsidios a la agricultura.

  17. Design of two bearings with sealing system for the top roll shaft of sugar cane mill

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Walter, Mora Perdomo; John Sandro, Rivas Murillo; John Jairo, Coronado Marín.

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available Las chumaceras de bronce utilizadas actualmente en los molinos de caña de azúcar presentan elevado desgaste debido, entre otros factores, a la materia extraña que ingresa en ella cuando el eje superior se eleva (flota) por efecto del colchón de caña que pasa entre las mazas y al sobrecalentamiento c [...] ausado por fallas en los sistemas de lubricación y refrigeración. Con el objetivo de solucionar estos problemas dos diseños de chumaceras fueron realizados: uno con refrigeración en la caja y otro con refrigeración en la teja, ambos usando un sistema de sellado. Análisis por Elementos Finitos del comportamiento mecánico y térmico de los diseños garantiza un buen desempeño en operación. Abstract in english The bronze bearings currently used in sugar cane mills undergo an excessive wear due to both, the extraneous matter entering in the bearing gap when the shaft lift by effect of cane passing through the mill and heating caused by failures in both the lubrication and the refrigeration systems. In orde [...] r to solve this problems two bearing were designed: one cooled in the box and other cooled in the roofing tile, both using a sealing system. Finite Elements Analysis of the designs showed that they will have a good mechanical and thermal performance.

  18. Energy Efficiency Feasibility Study and Resulting Plan for the Bay Mills Indian Community

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kushman, Chris

    2014-02-03

    In 2011 the Inter-Tribal Council of Michigan, Inc. was awarded an Energy Efficiency Development and Deployment in Indian Country grant from the U.S. Department of Energy’s Tribal Energy Program. This grant aimed to study select Bay Mills Indian Community community/government buildings to determine what is required to reduce each building’s energy consumption by 30%. The Bay Mills Indian Community (BMIC) buildings with the largest expected energy use were selected for this study and included the Bay Mills Ellen Marshall Health Center building, Bay Mills Indian Community Administration Building, Bay Mills Community College main campus, Bay Mills Charter School and the Waishkey Community Center buildings. These five sites are the largest energy consuming Community buildings and comprised the study area of this project titled “Energy Efficiency Feasibility Study and Resulting Plan for the Bay Mills Indian Community”. The end objective of this study, plan and the Tribe is to reduce the energy consumption at the Community’s most energy intensive buildings that will, in turn, reduce emissions at the source of energy production, reduce energy expenditures, create long lasting energy conscious practices and positively affect the quality of the natural environment. This project’s feasibility study and resulting plan is intended to act as a guide to the Community’s first step towards planned energy management within its buildings/facilities. It aims to reduce energy consumption by 30% or greater within the subject facilities with an emphasis on energy conservation and efficiency. The energy audits and related power consumption analyses conducted for this study revealed numerous significant energy conservation and efficiency opportunities for all of the subject sites/buildings. In addition, many of the energy conservation measures require no cost and serve to help balance other measures requiring capital investment. Reoccurring deficiencies relating to heating, cooling, thermostat setting inefficiencies, powering computers, lighting, items linked to weatherization and numerous other items were encountered that can be mitigated with the energy conservation measures developed and specified during the course of this project.

  19. Optimization of power generation from bagasse and sugarcane waste in a Brazilian sugar and alcohol mill

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maues, Jair Arone [Petrobras - Gas and Power - Energy Development, RJ (Brazil)

    2008-07-01

    Brazil is, along with the USA, one of the world's largest alcohol producers. Since the 80's efforts have been made to reduce alcohol cost production from sugar cane, in a well established and worldwide famous program called Pro-Alcohol, a Brazilian answer to the oil crisis at that time. Nowadays the country is facing a new dilemma, a restriction in its capacity of producing electricity. Despite the huge hydro energy still available to be explored, most of such potential lies in northern regions of Brazil, where power demand is low and where big reservoirs must be formed in order to stabilize power production. This fact brings a significant opportunity for ''exporting'' power production from the more than 300 sugar and alcohol mills spread out through the southeast region. This concept is based on exploring a better utilization for the bagasse which has so far been very inefficiently burnt in low pressure boilers, together with a sugarcane waste collection. Today's practice of burning such waste in the cropland, prior to harvesting, will soon be banned across Brazil. More than 90 new plants are now under development and by 2015 alcohol production should reach twice the current annual volume of 17 billion liters. This study shows how to improve power production based on an installed upgrade of a thermo power bagasse plant in the South of Brazil This improvement can almost double its final output electricity capacity. If properly adopted in other projects, the concepts described herein could easily add more than 5 GW to Brazilian power production capacity in the near future, at competitive costs and low installation and operation risks. (orig.)

  20. Techno-economic assessment of integrating methanol or Fischer-Tropsch synthesis in a South African sugar mill.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petersen, Abdul M; Farzad, Somayeh; Görgens, Johann F

    2015-05-01

    This study considered an average-sized sugar mill in South Africa that crushes 300 wet tonnes per hour of cane, as a host for integrating methanol and Fischer-Tropsch synthesis, through gasification of a combined flow of sugarcane trash and bagasse. Initially, it was shown that the conversion of biomass to syngas is preferably done by catalytic allothermal gasification instead of catalytic autothermal gasification. Thereafter, conventional and advanced synthesis routes for both Methanol and Fischer-Tropsch products were simulated with Aspen Plus® software and compared by technical and economic feasibility. Advanced FT synthesis satisfied the overall energy demands, but was not economically viable for a private investment. Advanced methanol synthesis is also not viable for private investment since the internal rate of return was 21.1%, because it could not provide the steam that the sugar mill required. The conventional synthesis routes had less viability than the corresponding advanced synthesis routes. PMID:25727762

  1. Economic feasibility study regarding the applicability of ultrasonic inspection of the Cuban sugar industry’s sugarcane mill shafts

    OpenAIRE

    Nelson Arzola de la Peña

    2010-01-01

    This article evaluates the economic feasibility of carrying out ultrasonic inspection of sugar-mill shafts. Four alternatives are considered, including the most frequently encountered scenarios. How and when inspections are carried out is analysed, periods between inspections being established by a fatigue-crack growth propagation approach. The lifecycle cost approach was applied for economic evaluation. Operation, maintenance and energy consumption costs were thus taken into consideration...

  2. Detection of Phytoplasma on Indian Fig (Opuntia ficus-indica Mill in Mexico Central Region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ricardo Gaspar

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: The Indian fig (a species of prickly pear cactus, has been known as Nopal, comprises an approximate area of 100,000 ha, in plantations used for human consumption. ?Pyramids? Indian fig area located in the northeastern State of Mexico has been an important Indian-fig area in the country, with 15810 ha, where a phytoplasma has been consistently present in symptomatic plant. Approach: An unknown symptomatology in the Indian fig (prickly pear cactus (Opuntia ficus-indica Mill was analyzed through grafting and a nested-PCR reaction and graft on healthy plants grown in a greenhouse. Results: The symptoms found, deforming, buds proliferation, thickening and heart-shaping in cladodes, with arrested plant growth and deep yellowing of cladodes, were all attributed to the presence of a phytoplasma given the amplification of a 1200 pb fragment of the 16S rRNA gene using primers R16 F2/R2 and R16F2n/R2 and 80% of phytoplasma transmission efficiency of successful grafts. Conclusion: Although the symptoms observed did not completely match those described for this organism in the region, a 1200 pb fragment was amplified and PCR products restriction analysis leading us to assume that the phytoplasma corresponds to subgroup 16Srll, previously reported for other crops in others world regions.

  3. Performance Enhancement of Sugar Mill by Alternate Cooling System for Condenser

    OpenAIRE

    Paras Chouhan

    2014-01-01

    Agro industry plays a crucial role in the industrialization process of developing countries. Sugar industry is second largest agro industry in the world. In sugar manufacturing plants there are various processes for production of sugar i.e. extraction of juice, clarification, evaporation, concentration of juice, forming and separating crystals etc. These processes consumed energies in the form of mechanical energy, electrical energy and heat energy. So there are various source...

  4. Ferti-irrigational impact of sugar mill effluent on agronomical characteristics of Phaseolus vulgaris (L.) in two seasons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Vinod; Chopra, A K

    2014-11-01

    Ferti-irrigation response of 5, 10, 25, 50, 75, and 100 % concentrations of the sugar mill effluent (SME) on French bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L., cv. Annapurna) in the rainy and summer seasons was investigated. The fertigant concentrations produced significant (P? Cr > Zn > Mn > Cu for soil and Mn > Zn > Cu > Cr > Cd for P. vulgaris in both seasons after fertigation with SME. Therefore, the SME can be used to improve the soil fertility and yield of P. vulgaris after appropriate dilution. PMID:25103211

  5. Engenho sim, de açúcar não o engenho de farinha de Frans Post Mills for manioc, not for sugar cane Frans Post's manioc mill

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariza de Carvalho Soares

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available O capítulo toma um recém-lançado catálogo das obras completas de Frans Post para pensar o processamento da cana-de-açúcar e da mandioca no Brasil colonial. O pintor holandês do século XVII viveu no Brasil de 1637 a 1644, durante a ocupação holandesa e deixou uma rica coleção de óleos e desenhos, a maior parte deles representando paisagens do Nordeste, em particular engenhos de açúcar e grandes propriedades rurais. O texto se apóia em fontes escritas de época para demonstrar como as telas de Post podem nos levar a uma interessante análise sobre a produção e o consumo da farinha de mandioca e do açúcar na primeira metade do século XVII.The chapter takes a recently launched catalogue with the complete works by Frans Post to argue about the technology for processing sugar and manioc in colonial Brazil. The seventeenth century Dutch painter lived in Brazil from 1637 to 1644, during the Dutch occupation of Pernambuco, and left a rich collection of paintings and sketches most of them representing the Northeastern landscape, in particular sugar mills and non-identified plantations. The paper relies also on contemporary written sources to demonstrate how Post canvas can leads us tointeresting analysis about the production and uses of manioc meal and sugar during the first half of seventeenth century.

  6. Engenho sim, de açúcar não o engenho de farinha de Frans Post / Mills for manioc, not for sugar cane Frans Post's manioc mill

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Mariza de Carvalho, Soares.

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available O capítulo toma um recém-lançado catálogo das obras completas de Frans Post para pensar o processamento da cana-de-açúcar e da mandioca no Brasil colonial. O pintor holandês do século XVII viveu no Brasil de 1637 a 1644, durante a ocupação holandesa e deixou uma rica coleção de óleos e desenhos, a m [...] aior parte deles representando paisagens do Nordeste, em particular engenhos de açúcar e grandes propriedades rurais. O texto se apóia em fontes escritas de época para demonstrar como as telas de Post podem nos levar a uma interessante análise sobre a produção e o consumo da farinha de mandioca e do açúcar na primeira metade do século XVII. Abstract in english The chapter takes a recently launched catalogue with the complete works by Frans Post to argue about the technology for processing sugar and manioc in colonial Brazil. The seventeenth century Dutch painter lived in Brazil from 1637 to 1644, during the Dutch occupation of Pernambuco, and left a rich [...] collection of paintings and sketches most of them representing the Northeastern landscape, in particular sugar mills and non-identified plantations. The paper relies also on contemporary written sources to demonstrate how Post canvas can leads us tointeresting analysis about the production and uses of manioc meal and sugar during the first half of seventeenth century.

  7. Effect of amendments on chemical immobilization of heavy metals in sugar mill contaminated soils

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Jamal Khan, Muhammad Tahir Azeem and Sajida Perveen1

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available A bulk soil sample collected from the vicinity of PSM (Premier Sugar Mill Mardan was amended with diammonium phosphate (DAP, triple super phosphate (TSP, Farm Yard Manure (FYM and poultry manure (PM in 1.5 kg soil in a 2 L plastic pot. Both DAP and TSP were added at 230 mg kg 1 (460 kg ha 1 soil whereas the organic amendments (FYM and PM were added at the rate of 10% by weight of soil. The air dried samples in pots were brought to field moisture content (0.33 bar water content by the addition of either HIE (Hayatabad Industrial Estate or PSM in two separate sets of experiments. The experimental pots were arranged in randomized complete design with three replicates under laboratory conditions during March to May (Temperature varying between 25 to 30 °C. Treated and control pots were incubated for 90 days al 0.33 bar ca 25% moisture and the moisture deficit during the incubation time was adjusted by adding PSM and HIE effluents in their respective set of experimental pots. Soil samples were collected after 15, 30, 45 and 90 d to determine the effect of amendments on AB-DTPA extractable metals. The results showed that AB-DTPA extractable Cd, Or, Cu, Ni and Cd increased significantly with lime and the maximum values were noted after 90 days incubation whereas the Fe, Mn and Zn content in soil increased with time but the increase was not significant. It was further noted that the increase over time in metal was not pronounced when supplied with amendments indicating their ability to chemically stabilize it compared to unamended soils. Higher values of all the heavy metals were noted in unamended soil. By comparing the different amendments, it was observed that FYM was effective in reducing the extractability/phytoavailability of all the metals under study except Pb whereby DAP was most effective as a stabilizing agent in the soil. It was concluded that in calcareous soil, FYM and DAP can be used to reduce the risk of phytotoxicity of heavy metals in contaminated soil or using wastewater for irrigation.

  8. Las iras del azúcar: la huelga de 1976 en el Ingenio Riopaila / The Wrath of Sugar: the 1976 Riopaila Sugar Mill Strike

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Ricardo, Sánchez Ángel.

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Este artículo presenta las líneas gruesas del desarrollo de la industria azucarera, las pautas de concentración de la propiedad territorial y los cambios tecnológicos que la acompañan, además del proceso social de proletarización que conformará la inmensa masa de trabajadores en torno a esta agroind [...] ustria. Destaca las luchas obreras en distintos momentos, especialmente las huelgas de 1959 y la de 1975-76, con epicentro en el Ingenio Riopaila, que hacen parte de los más importantes conflictos de protesta laboral y social por el peso de la industria azucarera y la región vallecaucana en la economía nacional, por la fuerza de los trabajadores agrícolas y sus organizaciones, la solidaridad de sectores proletarios y populares; las repercusiones políticas y controversias jurídicas derivadas del conflicto, en el contexto internacional. Abstract in english This article broadly outlines the development of the sugar industry, the concentration of property and the technological changes that accompanied it, and the process of proletarianization that subsumed the immense majority of the industry"s workforce. It highlights the labor struggles that occurred [...] at different moments, with particular focus on the 1959 and 1975-76 strikes centered in the Riopaila sugar mill. These strikes were some of the country"s most important labor and social conflicts due to the importance of the sugar industry and the Valle del Cauca in the national economy, the strength of the agricultural workers and their organizations, the solidarity of working class and popular groups, the political repercussions, the legal controversies stemming from the conflict, and the international context of the period.

  9. Utilization of agricultural sugar cane wastes as fuel in modern cogeneration systems applied in sugar cane mills; Aprovechamiento de los residuos agricolas caneras como combustible en sistemas de cogeneracion modernos aplicados a ingenios

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Buendia Dominguez, Eduardo H. [Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas, Cuernavaca (Mexico); De Buen Rodriguez, Odon [Comision Nacional para el Ahorro de la Energia, Mexico, D. F. (Mexico)

    1998-12-31

    Considering the new legal frame on cogeneration in Mexico, the possibility of heat and electricity supply required by the sugar mills to be made by an independent cogenerator of the sugar mill, operating with the sugar cane bagasse and agricultural sugar cane wastes, has been evaluated. Such modern cogenerator would be characterized, besides operating in an independent way of the sugar mill, by the use of high efficiency equipment in its process of heat and electricity generation. In this sense the Comision Nacional para el Ahorro de Energia (CONAE) through its Coordination Program and the Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas (IIE) carried out a joint project to determine the technical and economical viability that the sugar industry maintains the present sugar production without the need of burning fuel oil, installing adjacent to every sugar mill, a modern cogeneration system, operated by independent producers, that using sugar cane bagasse and agricultural sugar cane wastes, allows the supply of all the steam and electricity required by the sugar mill, and additionally can add firm capacity and the supply of electric power to the national grid, during the grinding season as well as out of grinding season. [Espanol] En consideracion al nuevo marco juridico de la cogeneracion en Mexico se ha evaluado la posibilidad de que el suministro de calor y electricidad requerido por los ingenios azucareros sea proporcionado por un cogenerador independiente de la planta de azucar, el cual opere utilizando el bagazo y residuos agricolas caneras (biomasa canera). Dicho cogenerador moderno se caracterizaria, ademas de operar de manera independiente a la planta de azucar, por el uso de equipos de alta eficiencia en su proceso de produccion de calor y electricidad. En este sentido la Comision Nacional para el Ahorro de Energia (CONAE) a traves de la Coordinacion de Programacion y el Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas (IIE) realizaron un trabajo en conjunto para determinar la viabilidad tecnica y economica de que la industria azucarera pueda mantener la produccion actual de azucar, sin tener necesidad de consumir combustoleo, instalando aledano a cada ingenio, un sistema de cogeneracion moderno, operado por productores independientes, que utilizando el bagazo y los residuos agricolas canera, permita suministrar todo el vapor y la electricidad requerida por la fabrica de azucar y, ademas, pueda suministrar capacidad firme y energia electrica a la red nacional, tanto en periodo de zafra como fuera de zafra.

  10. Cogeneration unit modifications to maximize the electricity generation in Cuban sugar mills

    OpenAIRE

    Nylund, Louise; Puskoriute, Laura

    2015-01-01

    The electricity usage in the world is constantly increasing and it is therefore of high importance to improve the utilization of renewable energy sources. The electricity in Cuba is mainly generated from imported fossil fuels which have a negative environmental effect by a large contribution of carbon dioxide emissions. In the cogeneration unit of sugar factories electricity is generated in turbines from the steam produced in boilers by burning bagasse, a residual from the sugar production. T...

  11. Improved Sugar Production by Optimizing Planetary Mill Pretreatment and Enzyme Hydrolysis Process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwon, Jeong Heo; Lee, Siseon; Lee, Jae-Won; Hong, Youn-Woo; Chang, Jeong Ho; Sung, Daekyung; Kim, Sung Hyun; Sang, Byoung-In; Mitchell, Robert J; Lee, Jin Hyung

    2015-01-01

    This paper describes an optimization of planetary mill pretreatment and saccharification processes for improving biosugar production. Pitch pine (Pinus rigida) wood sawdust waste was used as biomass feedstock and the process parameters optimized in this study were the buffering media, the milling time, the enzyme quantity, and the incubation time. Glucose yields were improved when acetate buffer was used rather than citrate buffer. Initially, with each process variable tests, the optimal values were 100 minutes of milling, an enzyme concentration of 16?FPU/g-biomass, and a 12-hour enzymatic hydrolysis. Typically, interactions between these experimental conditions and their effects on glucose production were next investigated using RSM. Glucose yields from the Pinus rigida waste exceeded 80% with several of the conditions tested, demonstrating that milling can be used to obtain high levels of glucose bioconversion from woody biomass for biorefinery purposes. PMID:26539475

  12. Improved Sugar Production by Optimizing Planetary Mill Pretreatment and Enzyme Hydrolysis Process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwon, Jeong Heo; Lee, Siseon; Lee, Jae-Won; Hong, Youn-Woo; Chang, Jeong Ho; Sung, Daekyung; Kim, Sung Hyun; Sang, Byoung-In; Mitchell, Robert J.; Lee, Jin Hyung

    2015-01-01

    This paper describes an optimization of planetary mill pretreatment and saccharification processes for improving biosugar production. Pitch pine (Pinus rigida) wood sawdust waste was used as biomass feedstock and the process parameters optimized in this study were the buffering media, the milling time, the enzyme quantity, and the incubation time. Glucose yields were improved when acetate buffer was used rather than citrate buffer. Initially, with each process variable tests, the optimal values were 100 minutes of milling, an enzyme concentration of 16?FPU/g-biomass, and a 12-hour enzymatic hydrolysis. Typically, interactions between these experimental conditions and their effects on glucose production were next investigated using RSM. Glucose yields from the Pinus rigida waste exceeded 80% with several of the conditions tested, demonstrating that milling can be used to obtain high levels of glucose bioconversion from woody biomass for biorefinery purposes. PMID:26539475

  13. Performance Enhancement of Sugar Mill by Alternate Cooling System for Condenser

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paras Chouhan

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Agro industry plays a crucial role in the industrialization process of developing countries. Sugar industry is second largest agro industry in the world. In sugar manufacturing plants there are various processes for production of sugar i.e. extraction of juice, clarification, evaporation, concentration of juice, forming and separating crystals etc. These processes consumed energies in the form of mechanical energy, electrical energy and heat energy. So there are various sources of waste heat in sugar factory i.e. waste heat from hot flue gasses, hot water from evaporative body and boiler blow down. The large amount of waste heat passes from various devices of sugar factory causes decrease in the efficiency of sugar plants, and also increase the “Global Warming” which is very dangerous for our environment. The present cooling system for condenser is inappropriate & hence decrease vacuum in evaporators and pans. This will increase the boiling point temperature of juice. The proposed cooling system gives solution of both problems. The most important source of waste heat i.e. hot flue gases are use to run absorption chiller. The absorption chiller gives better cooling system for condenser. There will be improvement in condensation of vapour in condenser which will cause increase vacuum in evaporators and pans thereby reducing boiling point temperature of juice. This reduced boiling point temperature of juice requires less amount of steam for boiling, ultimately saving of bagasse and fuel economy can be attained. Thus this arrangement can be treated as the efficient method of utilization of waste heat for cooling condenser water in sugar factory thus saving further depletion of natural resources like coal, petroleum or else increasing its availability to other important processes and one can hope that the “waste heat recovery” may play an even greater role in the industrial development in this new millennium.

  14. Economic feasibility study regarding the applicability of ultrasonic inspection of the Cuban sugar industry’s sugarcane mill shafts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nelson Arzola de la Peña

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available This article evaluates the economic feasibility of carrying out ultrasonic inspection of sugar-mill shafts. Four alternatives are considered, including the most frequently encountered scenarios. How and when inspections are carried out is analysed, periods between inspections being established by a fatigue-crack growth propagation approach. The lifecycle cost approach was applied for economic evaluation. Operation, maintenance and energy consumption costs were thus taken into consideration. The conclusion was drawn that it is highly advisable to use high performance ultrasonic inspection. Introducing ultrasonic inspection (according to the period of time obtained by fracture mechanics model could lead to a saving of half a million dollars per year for the Cuban sugarcane industry in the current conditions.

  15. A STUDY ON HUMAN RESOURCE MANAGEMENT PRACTICES WITH REFERENCE TO THE SALEM CO-OPERATIVE SUGAR MILLS LTD., IN MOHANUR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Senthil Velmurugan

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The importance of personal management is being increasingly realized in industrial and non-industrial organization both in India. The realization has come about because of increasing complexity of the task of managers and administrators. In most organizations the problems of getting the competent and relevant people, retaining them, keeping up their motivation and morale, and helping them to both continuously grow and contribute their best to the organizations, are now viewed as the most critical problems. So with this reference the study titled on HR practices has been followed, based on the primary research in the Salem Co-Operative Sugar Mill has been prepared to get a better insight into the management practices adopted by SCSM with reference to HR Policies prepared by the HR department in organization. It emphasizes on the importance of a clear cut organization structure and culture to avoid any confusion in order to achieve maximum result with minimum resources

  16. Generation of bioethanol and VFA through anaerobic acidogenic fermentation route with press mud obtained from sugar mill as a feedstock.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuruti, Kranti; Gangagni Rao, A; Gandu, Bharath; Kiran, G; Mohammad, Sameena; Sailaja, S; Swamy, Y V

    2015-09-01

    Acidogenic anaerobic fermentation route was explored for the production of bioethanol and volatile fatty acids (VFA) from the press mud (PM) obtained from sugar mill. Slurry was prepared from PM having 10% of total solids and the same was hydrolyzed under acidic thermal conditions. Both press mud slurry (PMS) and pre-treated press mud slurry (PTPMS) was used as feedstock with mixed microbial consortia (MMC) and enriched mixed microbial consortia (EMMC). Mix of bioethanol and VFA were obtained in all the four cases (PMS-MMC, PMS-EMMC, PTPMS-EMC and PTPMS-EMMC), but, bioethanol and VFA yield of 0.04 g/g and 0.27 g/g, respectively obtained from PTPMS with EMMC was found to be comparatively higher. Control experiments carried out with glucose yielded bioethanol and VFA of 0.042 g/g and 0.28 g/g, respectively demonstrating that the organism was using reducible sugars in the feedstock for the generation of bioethanol by simultaneously producing the VFA from COD. PMID:26094189

  17. Esquistossomosse em trabalhadores da Usina Catende, Pernambuco, Brasil Schistosomiasis mansoni in the Catende sugar mill plantation workers in Pernambuco, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dirceu P. Pereira da Costa

    1980-12-01

    Full Text Available Foi realizado estudo transversal sobre a esquistossomose mansônica em nove engenhos da usina Catende localizada na Zona da Mata sul do Estado de Pernambuco (Brasil. A prevalência foi 43,8% para a população geral dos engenhos e 64,6% para os trabalhadores de campo. A prevalência das formas hepato-esplênicas foi 4,1% sendo que em dois engenhos chegou a 8,7% e 9,1%. Biomphalaria straminea foi o único molusco transmissor encontrado na área; sua taxa de infecção natural por S. Mansoni foi 0,07%. Á esquistossomose pode ser considerada como doença grave na região estudada.A sectional study on schistosomiasis mansoni was carried out at nine sugar plantations belonging to the Catende sugar mill. The plantations are located in typical sugar cane country in the southern part of the humid coastal forest region of the State of Pernambuco. Results show that schistosomiasis is a very severe disease in the area. The overall infection rate was 43.8%, distributed according to sex and age groups as shown in table 1; whereas, 64.6% of the field workers were infected. The hepatosplenic forms had a 4.1% prevalence rate (see tables 1 and 2, and on two of the plantations this rate rose to 8.7% and 9.1%. Biomphalaria straminea was the only intermediate host found in the area and was found to have the very low infection rate of 0.07% as is common in these natural conditions.

  18. Do engenho à biorrefinaria: a usina de açúcar como empreendimento industrial para a geração de produtos bioquímicos e biocombustíveis From the mill to a biorefinery: the sugar factory as an industrial enterprise for the generation of biochemicals and biofuels

    OpenAIRE

    José Augusto R Rodrigues

    2011-01-01

    A sugar cane mill is at the present moment a modest biorefinery producing few products such as sugar, ethanol and polyhydroxybutyrate (PHB). In the near future, this mill can expand its production using several renewable feedstock's to produce biofuels and high value biobased chemicals. However, the choice of appropriate products for addition to the portfolio is challenged by a lack of broad-based conversion technology coupled with a plethora of potential targets. The intent of this revision ...

  19. Evaluation of Environmental Education in schools linked to a cane sugar mill in the South Forest of Pernambuco

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Igor Vinícius Pereira Cunha

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Environmental Education (EE in Brazil has recently undergone an accelerated growth driven by the advancement of environmental awareness. Formal education has incorporated this theme in order to train citizens actively concerned with environmental issues in a conscious and sustainable way. A school influences the community where it operates and EE is one of the routes to try overcoming environmental problems. The schools under study are located in an Atlantic forest area, and part of these remnants is within properties of cane sugar mills. Therefore, this paper aims to analyze the inclusion of EE in schools linked to Usina Trapiche, investigating, through questionnaires, the perception of teachers on the theme at workplaces and their difficulties for addressing contents. The questionnaires were answered by 22 teachers serving about 1,300 students at the schools under study. All these schools perform EE activities, with a predominance of the solid waste issue. The difficulties reported were common to Education in general. One observed that EE is included within the studied context, but the challenge seems to be definitely including it in the syllabus and the school’s everyday life. In addition to the research, playful activities, workshops, and lectures were conducted, experiencing along with the school community the most relevant EE themes in the region.

  20. Evaluation of Anaerobic Fluidized Bed Reactor for treating Sugar mill effluent - a Case Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Mathiyazhagan

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Anaerobic treatment processes are credible options for providing sustainable treatment to biodegradable waste streams. The Anaerobic Fluidized Bed Reactor (AFBR is an evolving process that requires waste specific design methodologies based on kinetics of the specific process. The research was precisely an experimental study on AFBR having23.56 litres of effective volume to evaluate its treatment performance and gas recovery in terms of Chemical Oxygen Demand (COD, Hydraulic Retention Time(HRTand Organic Loading Rate (OLR. The synthetic sugar influent COD was variedfrom 1500 to 4000 mg/lit. The OLR for the operating flow rates were ranged from 1.36 to 28.8 Kg COD/m3 .day for HRT varied from 3.2 to 24 hrs. The maximum COD removal efficiency is 90.06 at an operating OLR of 3.42 Kg COD/m3 .day. The maximum biogas yield was observed at 0.28 m 3 /kg COD removed.

  1. Survey of Indian issues in the state of New Mexico relating to uranium mining and milling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Estimates of Indian uranium resources range from 11 to 50% of the US total resources. About 17% of New Mexico's reserves are known to be on Indian lands. New Mexico has produced almost half of the nation's uranium supply; over half of the known reserves are located within the state. However, the state has virtually no jurisdiction over development of Indian uranium. As a result, economic and environmental impacts on the state are beyond its control. The lack of state and federal control over these impacts is influencing how the Indians allow development to proceed. The impacts of Indian uranium development also influence state control of non-Indian. To the extent that these controls affect the availability of uranium concentrate, DOE needs to understand the issues involved. This issue paper identifies some of the related problems for both the Indians and the state and explores the reasons behind them

  2. Modelación matemática de la flotación de la maza superior de los molinos de caña de azúcar / Mathematical model for instant flotation of top shaft in sugar cane mills

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Mario Javier, Cabello-Ulloa; Juan José, Cabello-Eras; Jorge, Moya-Rodríguez; Rafael, Goytisolo-Espinosa; José Alberto, Velásquez-Pérez; Juan Rafael, Mestizo-Cerón.

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available En el presente trabajo se desarrolla un modelo matemático de la flotación de la maza superior de los molinos de caña de azúcar durante su funcionamiento, determinado a partir de mediciones experimentales de dicha magnitud en el tiempo. Se realiza un ajuste adecuado a los valores medidos experimental [...] mente y se obtiene una función analítica que permitirá considerar los efectos de la flotación en el estudio del funcionamiento y en los métodos de cálculo de los molinos y sus elementos. Se aplica a un molino en el Complejo Agroindustrial 14 de Julio en Cienfuegos. Se modelan cien segundos de funcionamiento obteniéndose una función que expresa la flotación la que al ser derivada permite obtener la velocidad y aceleración con que varía la flotación instantánea. Los coeficientes y sus bondades son dados matricialmente para todos los ajustes efectuados al construir la función que define la flotación instantánea obtenida en este caso. Abstract in english A mathematical model for the instant flotation of the top shaft of sugar cane mill is developed and analytical function for introduce in the study of other sugar cane mills parts is obtained. The model is applied to July 14th sugar factory in Cienfuegos. One hundred seconds of work is modeled and a [...] functions for floating, velocity and acceleration of floating are obtained. The coefficients and their goodness are given in matrix for all the fits made for to build the function that defines the instant flotation obtained in this case.

  3. Medieval legacies: the industrial archaeology of an early sixteenth century sugar mill at Sevilla la Nueva, Jamaica

    OpenAIRE

    Woodward, Robyn Patricia

    2006-01-01

    To date, historical and archaeological research has focused only on the late seventeenth- to nineteenth-century French, British, Dutch and Portuguese sugar plantations and their associated slave villages in the Caribbean and Brazil. Attempts by the Spanish to establish sugar estates in the sixteenth century have been largely ignored by archaeologists. Despite its early introduction to the Caribbean in 1494, the sugar industry was not firmly established until 1517 on Hispaniola and Jamaica, an...

  4. High-Efficiency Carbohydrate Fermentation to Ethanol at Temperatures above 40°C by Kluyveromyces marxianus var. marxianus Isolated from Sugar Mills

    OpenAIRE

    Anderson, P J; MCNEIL, K.; Watson, K.

    1986-01-01

    A number of yeast strains, isolated from sugar cane mills and identified as strains of Kluyveromyces marxianus var. marxianus, were examined for their ability to ferment glucose and cane syrup to ethanol at high temperatures. Several strains were capable of rapid fermentation at temperatures up to 47°C. At 43°C, >6% (wt/vol) ethanol was produced after 12 to 14 h of fermentation, concurrent with retention of high cell viability (>80%). Although the type strain (CBS 712) of K. marxianus var. ma...

  5. Prevención, minimización y control de la contaminación ambiental en un ingenio azucarero de México / Prevention, Minimization and Control of Environmental Pollution at Mexico Sugar Mill

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Candi Ashanti, Domínguez-Manjarrez; Humberto, Bravo-Álvarez; Rodolfo, Sosa-Echeverría.

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available La meta de esta investigación es recomendar medidas de prevención, minimización y control de la contaminación ambiental, que permitan mejorar la gestión ambiental de la Industria Azucarera de México, que permanece suspendida por la necesidad de resolver problemas económicos, sociales y tecnológicos [...] por los que ha atravesado. Para conocer el proceso productivo, la problemática real a la que se enfrenta actualmente la industria y con el objeto de hacer propuestas viables de mejora se eligió un ingenio como caso de estudio. El trabajo realizado en este ingenio caso de estudio fue la evaluación integral del proceso productivo, considerando las actividades tanto en el campo cañero como el ingenio para la implementación de medidas de prevención, minimización y control de la contaminación ambiental. Este trabajo permitió el ahorro en el consumo de agua de extracción de 3,620 metros cúbicos promedio por día en el periodo de estudio, una disminución en la generación de residuos sólidos de 325 kilogramos promedio diario por la implementación de un programa de separación de residuos y la disminución de emisiones a la atmósfera de partículas por la instalación de una caldera 100% bagacera. Las medidas de prevención, minimización y control de la contaminación ambiental resultantes de este estudio pueden aplicarse a otros ingenios del país con sus respectivas adaptaciones. Abstract in english This research paper aims to recommend control measures directed towards preventing and minimizing pollution, looking forward to the improvement of the environmental management on the sugar industry in Mexico. This issue has been put on hold due to the necessity to address the economic, social and te [...] chnological issues affecting it over time. In order to better understand the productive process and the actual problem that the industry is facing, while proposing effective and possible actions for improvement, a sugar mill type was selected as a case of study. A comprehensive assessment of the production process for the standard sugar was made, considering the activities in the field and at the mill. The proposed measures in the sugar mill allowed savings in consumption of ground water average 3,620 cubic meters per day, during the period of study, reduction in solid waste generated average 325 kilograms per day by implementing a waste separation program, and reducing atmospheric emissions of particles acting as fuel for a boiler operated with bagasse. The prevention, minimization and pollution control measures proposed can be applied to other mills in the country with the appropriate adaptations.

  6. PROBLEMS OF COOPERATIVE SUGAR INDUSTRY IN MAHARASHTRA

    OpenAIRE

    Khose B. S.

    2014-01-01

    Cooperative Sugar industry is one of the largest industries in the country and makes significant constitution to the economy of the country. The cooperative sugar factories in Maharashtra are facing several challenges in terms of finance, management and governance. The lack of financial management in cooperative sugar mills and rising number of private sugar mills bringing the tough competition for cooperative sugar mills. In spite of the giant economic strength of this sector...

  7. Application of Thiocarbamate Based Chemical for Minimization of Invertase Enzyme Activity in Sugar Cane Juice

    OpenAIRE

    Dr. Sapna Smith

    2009-01-01

    The commercially grown Indian cane variety has su cros e content around 12-14% at peak maturitystage. Due to pre and pos t milling los s es av erage s ugar reco very remain in the range of 9.5-10.0%. This is aserious s ituation, which affect the overall performance and profitability of sugar industry. Therefore, regularus e of an effe ctive broad-s pectrum chemical is important in improving sugar recovery at mill level. In the viewof abov e facts , the inves tigation has been do ne wit h ap p...

  8. Do engenho à biorrefinaria: a usina de açúcar como empreendimento industrial para a geração de produtos bioquímicos e biocombustíveis / From the mill to a biorefinery: the sugar factory as an industrial enterprise for the generation of biochemicals and biofuels

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    José Augusto R, Rodrigues.

    Full Text Available [...] Abstract in english A sugar cane mill is at the present moment a modest biorefinery producing few products such as sugar, ethanol and polyhydroxybutyrate (PHB). In the near future, this mill can expand its production using several renewable feedstock's to produce biofuels and high value biobased chemicals. However, the [...] choice of appropriate products for addition to the portfolio is challenged by a lack of broad-based conversion technology coupled with a plethora of potential targets. The intent of this revision was to catalyze research efforts to expand the list of products and to present an updated evaluation of potential target structures for chemical production.

  9. Uranium exploration, mining and milling proposal, Navajo Indian Reservation, New Mexico

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Secretary of the Interior has been requested to approve an exploration permit and mining lease which are part of a uranium exploration, mining, and milling Agreement, negotiated between the Navajo Tribe and the Exxon Corporation. The exploration area is a 400,000 acre tract located on the Navajo Reservation in San Juan County, New Mexico. If uranium ore in sufficient quantities to warrant development is discovered, Exxon is authorized to take a total of 51,200 acres to lease for mining, of which only 5,120 surface acres may be used for mining and milling purposes. While all exploration and predevelopment costs prior to mining must be borne by Exxon, the Navajo Tribe has reserved the right to participate in the venture on either a royalty basis or as a partner holding up to a 40 percent working interest. Impacts resulting from exploration will include disturbance of soils and vegetation and air quality degradation resulting from the vehicular movement and the operation of drilling equipment. If mining and milling takes place significant environmental impacts include: sub-surface water depletion, soils and vegetation disturbance, air quality degradation, interruption of the wildlife habitat, population increases, increased demands on community services and facilities, and disruption of established lifestyles and social patterns. Low levels of radioactive emissions will be found at mine and mill sites. Income and employment opportunities from the project to the Navajo Tribe, Navajo people, and the entire San Juan County community will be significant

  10. La frescura de la caña de azúcar: Un caso de estudio en tres ingenios de México / Sugar cane cut-to-crush delay: a case study in three sugar mills of México

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Oscar L., Palacios-Vélez; Enrique, Mejía-Sáenz; Luis, Piñón-Sosa; Hugo, Sánchez-Hernández.

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available La frescura de la caña de azúcar es el tiempo transcurrido desde la quema o el corte del cultivo hasta que se recibe en los ingenios y es importante reducir este tiempo para evitar la pérdida de sacarosa. Por tanto, se realizó un estudio durante la zafra 2007-2008 en tres ingenios mexicanos: en Zaca [...] tepec, Morelos; en Casimiro Castillo, Jalisco; y en Ciudad Valles, San Luis Potosí. Se recopiló la información de la fecha y hora de entrada y salida de camiones, parcela de origen, identificación del camión, etc., lo cual se complementó con entrevistas a transportistas y conteos de camiones. Se elaboró un modelo matemático para analizar la influencia de varios factores que afectan la frescura. Se estableció que: 1) el tiempo de quema-corte-alzado de la caña es el componente más importante del tiempo de frescura (de 14.7 a 22.23 h, o 67 a 84 %); 2) el segundo componente más importante fue el tiempo de espera en batey (de 2.94 a 10.02 h, o 12 a 30 %); 3) el traslado tuvo la menor influencia (de 0.76 a 1.25 h, o 2.3 a 5.84 %); 4) en las parcelas con corte mecanizado y sin quema de la caña, el tiempo de frescura es aproximadamente la mitad que en las parcelas con corte manual; 5) el parque vehicular es excesivo, lo que se refleja en un muy reducido número de viajes que realiza cada unidad (0.8 a 1.63 viajes d-1), lo cual se traduce en un raquítico ingreso para los transportistas. Abstract in english Sugarcane cut-to-crush delay is the time lapse between cutting and reception in the sugar mills. It is important to reduce this time to avoid loss of sucrose. Therefore, this study was conducted during the 2007-2008 harvest in three Mexican sugar mills: Zacatepec, Morelos; Casimiro Castillo, Jalisco [...] ; and Ciudad Valles, San Luis Potosí. Information on the date and hour of truck entry and exit, origin of the sugar cane, truck identity, etc., was collected; this was complemented with interviews to truckers and truck counting. A mathematical model was developed to analyze the influence of several factors that affect cut-to-crush delay. It was established that: 1) the time between burning, cutting and pickup was the most important time component in cut-to-crush delay (14.7 to 22.23 h, or 67 to 84 %); 2) the second most important component was the waiting time at the mill (2.94 to 10.02 h, or 12 to 30 %); 3) transport to the mill had the least influence (0.76 to 1.25 h, or 2.3 to 5.84 %); 4) in the fields where cutting is mechanized and the cane leaves were not burned off, delay time was approximately half that in the fields where cutting was done manually; 5) the number of vehicles is excessive, that is, the number of trips made by each truck is very small (0.8 to 1.63 trips d-1), which translates into paltry incomes for the truckers.

  11. Hydrogen photo-evolution by Rhodopseudomonas palustris 6A using pre-treated olive mill wastewater and a synthetic medium containing sugars

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • Adsorbent matrices to convert fresh olive mill wastewater (OMWF) in feedstock. • Dry-Azolla and granular active carbon for adsorbing polyphenols from OMWF. • Photofermentative processes for biohydrogen production. • Culture mixing by means of an impeller or a magnetic stir bar. • A 30% of dephenolised OMW containing medium suits the photofermentative process. - Abstract: Increasing costs of petroleum, associated with the escalating problems of global climate change, require always greater efforts in order to produce an energy carrier as bioH2. In this study, bioH2 production using photofermentative process was investigated. Two culture broths were used: (a) a synthetic medium rich in sugars (glucose and fructose) and (b) a pre-treated fresh olive-mill wastewater (OMWF) diluted with water (30%, v:v). The pre-treatment was carried out using two different vegetable matrices (dry-Azolla and granular active carbon) to decrease both the content of polyphenols and the dark colour of wastewater. Rhodopseudomonas palustris 6A isolated from soil spread with OMW was utilized for batch growth experiments, carried out indoors under continuous light (200 ?E/m2/s). When synthetic medium was used, the culture mixing was performed using either (i) a magnetic stir bar, and (ii) an impeller equipped with five turbines. The latter system made it possible to increase the bioH2 photo-evolution by 1.4 times. The specific hydrogen photo-evolution rate was 13.5 mL/g(dw)/h in the broth containing diluted OMWF and 11.8 mL/g(dw)/h in the synthetic medium containing sugars (glucose and fructose)

  12. Sugars profiles of different chestnut (Castanea sativa Mill.) and almond (Prunus dulcis) cultivars by HPLC-RI.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barreira, João C M; Pereira, José Alberto; Oliveira, M Beatriz P P; Ferreira, Isabel C F R

    2010-03-01

    Sugar profiles of different almond and chestnut cultivars were obtained by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC), by means of a refractive index (RI) detector. A solid-liquid extraction procedure was used in defatted and dried samples. The chromatographic separation was achieved using a Eurospher 100-5 NH(2) column using an isocratic elution with acetonitrile/water (70:30, v/v) at a flow rate of 1.0 ml/min. All the compounds were separated in 16 min. The method was optimized and proved to be reproducible and accurate. Generally, more than 95% of sugars were identified for both matrixes. Sugars profiles were quite homogeneous for almond cultivars; sucrose was the main sugar (11.46 +/- 0.14 in Marcona to 22.23 +/- 0.59 in Ferragnes g/100 g of dried weight), followed by raffinose (0.71 +/- 0.05 in Ferraduel to 2.11 +/- 0.29 in Duro Italiano), glucose (0.42 +/- 0.12 in Pegarinhos two seeded to 1.47 +/- 0.19 in Ferragnes) and fructose (0.11 +/- 0.02 in Pegarinhos two seeded to 0.59 +/- 0.05 in Gloriette). Commercial cultivars proved to have higher sucrose contents, except in the case of Marcona. Nevertheless, chestnut cultivars revealed a high heterogeneity. Sucrose was the main sugar in Aveleira (22.05 +/- 1.48), Judia (23.30 +/- 0.83) and Longal (9.56 +/- 0.91), while glucose was slightly prevalent in Boa Ventura (6.63 +/- 0.49). The observed variance could serve for inter-cultivar discrimination. PMID:20033298

  13. Electricity generation from rice husk in Indian rice mills: potential and financial viability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rice husk generated as a by-product of rice processing is an important energy resource. The availability of this resource in India has been assessed and the technologies for exploitation of its energy potential in the rice processing industry discussed. Nomographs have been developed for estimation of the husk required to meet the energy of parboiling, drying and milling operations. The unit cost of electricity using rice husk gasifier-based power generation systems has been calculated and its financial feasibility assessed in comparison with utility-supplied and diesel-generated electricity. With the cost and efficiency data assumed here, the unit cost of electricity produced by rice husk gasifier-dual fuel engine-generator system varies between Rs 2/kWh and Rs 7/kWh. (35 Rs approximates to SUS 1.). (author)

  14. Sugars profiles of different chestnut (Castanea sativa Mill.) and almond (Prunus dulcis) cultivars by HPLC-RI

    OpenAIRE

    João C. M. Barreira; Pereira, J.A.; Oliveira, M. B. P. P.; Ferreira, Isabel C. F. R.

    2010-01-01

    Sugar profiles of different almond and chestnut cultivars were obtained by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC), by means of a refractive index (RI) detector. A solid-liquid extraction procedure was used in defatted and dried samples. The chromatographic separation was achieved using a Eurospher 100-5 NH2 column using an isocratic elution with acetonitrile/water (70:30, v/v) at a flow rate of 1.0 ml/min. All the compounds were separated in 16 min. The method w...

  15. Effect of drying of jujubes ( Ziziphus jujuba Mill.) on the contents of sugars, organic acids, ?-tocopherol, ?-carotene, and phenolic compounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Qing-Han; Wu, Chun-Sen; Wang, Min; Xu, Bian-Na; Du, Li-Juan

    2012-09-26

    This study investigated the changes in sugars, organic acids, ?-tocopherol, ?-carotene, phenolic profiles, total phenolic content (TPC), and antioxidant capacity of jujube fruits after four drying treatments (sun-, oven-, microwave- and freeze-drying). Sugar, organic acid, phenolic compounds, ?-tocopherol, and ?-carotene were qualitatived and quantitatived by high-performance liquid chromatography. The TPC and antioxidant activity of jujube samples were evaluated using the Folin-Ciocalteau method and 2,2'-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid) radical scavenging activity, respectively. Freeze-drying resulted in jujubes with higher antioxidant activity and was also a good choice for the preparation of ?-carotene from jujubes for the food industry. Microwave-dried jujubes had a higher content of protocatechuic acid, catechin, and epicatechin and maintained the same antioxidant capacity with the freeze-dried jujubes. The combination of microwave- and freeze-drying may be an efficient alternative with shorter processing time and, consequently, less impact on the nutritional value of the jujube. PMID:22958080

  16. The Value of the Freshwater Snail Dip Scoop Sampling Method in Macroinvertebrates Bioassessment of Sugar Mill Wastewater Pollution in Mbandjock, Cameroon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emmanuel Noumi

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Macroinvertebrates identification and enumeration may be used as a simple and affordable alternative to chemical analysis in water pollution monitoring. However, the ecological responses of various taxa to pollution are poorly known in resources-limited tropical countries. While freshwater macroinvertebrates have been used in the assessment of water quality in Europe and the Americas, investigations in Africa have mainly focused on snail hosts of human parasites. There is a need for sampling methods that can be used to assess both snails and other macroinvertebrates. The present study was designed to evaluate the usefulness of the freshwater snail dip scoop method in the study of macroinvertebrates for the assessment of the SOSUCAM sugar mill effluents pollution. Standard snail dip scoop samples were collected upstream and downstream of the factory effluent inputs, on the Mokona and Mengoala rivers. The analysis of the macroinvertebrate communities revealed the absence of Ephemeroptera and Trichoptera, and the thriving of Syrphidae in the sections of the rivers under high effluent load. The Shannon and Weaver diversity index was lower in these areas. The dip scoop sampling protocol was found to be a useful method for macroinvertebrates collection. Hence, this method is recommended as a simple, cost-effective and efficient tool for the bio-assessment of freshwater pollution in developing countries with limited research resources.

  17. Predicción de vida remanente en ejes de masa superior de molino de caña / Predicting remaining life in upper sugar-mill shafts

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Sara, Rodríguez Pulecio; John Jairo, Coronado Marín; Nelson, Arzola de la Peña.

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available En este artículo se presenta un método basado en la mecánica de fractura para el cálculo del tamaño crítico de fisuras y la vida remanente de un eje de masa superior de molino de caña de azúcar, con fisuras semielípticas y circunferenciales. Debido a la presencia de un campo de esfuerzos multiaxiale [...] s es necesario usar en la ley de París un factor de intensidad de esfuerzos equivalente. Se obtuvieron los intervalos entre inspección requeridos para evitar una falla por fatiga de estos elementos. Para el cálculo de vida residual y tamaño de fisura máxima se considera la zona localizada en el cambio de diámetro del guijo más próximo al acoplamiento cuadrado, donde se encontró el 25% de las fallas. Abstract in english A fracture mechanics-based method is presented for determining critical crack size and residual life of upper sugar-mill shafts having semi-elliptical and circumferential cracks. Due to the multiaxial stress field, an equivalent strain energy release rate stress intensity solution is used in Paris’ [...] law to predict crack growth. Ultrasonic inspection intervals for the shaft were established. The crack zone evaluated was located in the shoulder of the bearing nearest to the square box coupling where about 25% of service failures in these types of shaft are observed.

  18. Winds of change: the Central Sugar mill of Aracaty Company and the sugar production in Minas Gerais at the down of XIXth century / Um sopro de mudanças: a Companhia Engenho Central de Aracaty e a produção açucareira mineira no final do Império

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Roberta Barros, Meira.

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Este artigo tem como objetivo analisar as conseqüências da política imperial voltada para o desenvolvimento dos engenhos centrais na Província de Minas Gerais. Pretendemos demonstrar através dos dados sobre o Engenho Central de Aracaty, que mesmo pertencendo a uma área secundaria da produção açucare [...] ira, essa produção teve um certo dinamismo, principalmente por estar voltada para o consumo regional. A Companhia Engenho Central de Aracaty estabeleceu-se no município de Leopoldina e funcionou como um engenho central até 1888. Abstract in english This article analyzes the consequences of imperial policies focused on the development of central sugar mills in the province of Minas Gerais. By examining documents related to the Engenho Central de Aracaty Company, we hope to show that despite its location in a secondary area of sugar production, [...] the mill was characterized by a certain dynamism, largely because it catered to regional consumption. The Engenho Central de Aracaty Company was established in the city of Leopoldina and worked as a central sugar mill until 1888.

  19. Sugar Intake, Obesity, and Diabetes in India

    OpenAIRE

    Gulati, Seema; Misra, Anoop

    2014-01-01

    Sugar and sweet consumption have been popular and intrinsic to Indian culture, traditions, and religion from ancient times. In this article, we review the data showing increasing sugar consumption in India, including traditional sources (jaggery and khandsari) and from sugar-sweetened beverages (SSBs). Along with decreasing physical activity, this increasing trend of per capita sugar consumption assumes significance in view of the high tendency for Indians to develop insulin resistance, abdom...

  20. Estrutura de um fragmento florestal no Engenho Humaitá, Catende, Pernambuco, Brasil Structure of a forest fragment at Humaitá sugar mill, Catende, PE, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco J. P. Guimarães

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Avaliou-se, neste trabalho, a estrutura de um fragmento florestal antropizado denominado Mata das Galinhas, Engenho Humaitá, Catende, Pernambuco, e se utilizaram, para avaliar a composição florística e a estrutura fitossociológica, 14 parcelas de 10 x 25 m a fim de amostrar os indivíduos arbóreos com circunferência a 1,30 m do solo (CAP ? 10 cm. Foram estimados, então, densidade, frequência e dominância e valor de importância (VI e o índice de Shannon, além de registrados 438 indivíduos pertencentes a 63 espécies, 45 gêneros e 29 famílias. As famílias de maior importância foram Mimosaceae, Moraceae, Anacardiaceae e Lecythidaceae e as espécies com maiores valores de VI, foram Brosimum discolor, Parkia pendula, Eschweilera ovata, Thyrsodium spruceanum, Tapirira guianensis, Protium heptaphyllum, Casearia arborea, Helicostylis tomentosa, Dialium guianense, Schefflera morototoni, Himatanthus phagedaenicus e Cupania racemosa. Quando observado isoladamente, conclui-se que o fragmento estudado possui pouca relevância; entretanto, se considerado conjuntamente com outros fragmentos da área, sua diversidade é significativa o que justificaria esforços para sua conservação e manejo.The structure of a forest fragment, known as "Mata das Galinhas" at Humaitá sugar mill, Catende, Pernambuco, Brazil was evaluated. To evaluate the floristic composition and the phytosociological structure under anthropic action 14 plots of 10 x 25 m were used to sample the arboreal individuals with circumference at breast height (CBH ? 10 cm. The density, frequency, and dominance, the importance value (IV and the Shannon's index were calculated. A total of 438 individuals distributed into 63 species, 45 genera and 29 families were recorded. The families of larger importance in the study were Mimosaceae, Moraceae, Anacardiaceae and Lecythidaceae. The species with larger values of IV were Brosimum discolor, Parkia pendula, Eschweilera ovata, Thyrsodium spruceanum, Tapirira guianensis, Protium heptaphyllum, Casearia arborea, Helicostylis tomentosa, Dialium guianense, Schefflera morototoni, Himatanthus phagedaenicus and Cupania racemosa. When observed separately, the studied fragment possesses low relevance; however, when considered jointly with other fragments of the area, its diversity is significant, justifying efforts for conservation and management.

  1. Modelación matemática del funcionamiento de las coronas de molinos considerando la flotación de la maza superior / An equivalent mechanism for the kinetic and dynamic analysis of the sugar cane mill gears

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Mario Javier, Cabello-Ulloa; Juan José, Cabello-Eras; Jorge, Moya-Rodríguez; Rafael, Goytisolo-Espinosa; José Alberto, Velásquez-Pérez; Juan Rafael, Mestizo-Cerón.

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available En este trabajo se propone un mecanismo equivalente para modelar el funcionamiento de las coronas de los molinos de caña de azúcar, que permite tomar en cuenta la forma real del perfil de los dientes trazados por arcos de círculos y la variación de la distancia entre centros durante su funcionamient [...] o. Aplicando el método grafo-analítico al modelo propuesto se obtiene una función cinemática que define la posición angular instantánea de la corona conducida con dependencia de la distancia entre ejes de las ruedas y la posición angular de la corona conductora. Aplicando métodos paramétricos se obtienen ecuaciones para la velocidad y aceleración que son generales para cualquier tipo de perfil de dientes en engranajes que trabajan con variación de distancia entre centros. Finalmente se grafican estos parámetros para el funcionamiento de las coronas de un molino real concluyéndose que estas tienen relación de transmisión instantánea variable y que por el solo hecho de la forma del perfil se producen aceleraciones. Abstract in english Equivalent mechanism is proposed for modeling sugar cane mills gears, which allows to take into account the shape of the tooth profile formed by circular arcs and the variation of the distance between centers for operation. Applying the graph-analytical method to the proposed model is obtained a fun [...] ction to define the instantaneous angular position of the sugar cane mill gear in relation with the instantaneous angular position of driver gear and the center distance of gears. General equations for the velocity and acceleration for any type of gear tooth profile with variable distance between centers are proposed through parametric method. Plotted these parameters for real sugar cane mill gear and it is concluded that the instantaneous speed ratio is variable and the profile shape produced accelerations.

  2. Estrutura de um fragmento florestal no Engenho Humaitá, Catende, Pernambuco, Brasil / Structure of a forest fragment at Humaitá sugar mill, Catende, PE, Brazil

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Francisco J. P., Guimarães; Rinaldo L. C., Ferreira; Luiz C., Marangon; José A. A. da, Silva; Perseu da S., Aparício; Francisco T., Alves Júnior.

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Avaliou-se, neste trabalho, a estrutura de um fragmento florestal antropizado denominado Mata das Galinhas, Engenho Humaitá, Catende, Pernambuco, e se utilizaram, para avaliar a composição florística e a estrutura fitossociológica, 14 parcelas de 10 x 25 m a fim de amostrar os indivíduos arbóreos co [...] m circunferência a 1,30 m do solo (CAP) ? 10 cm. Foram estimados, então, densidade, frequência e dominância e valor de importância (VI) e o índice de Shannon, além de registrados 438 indivíduos pertencentes a 63 espécies, 45 gêneros e 29 famílias. As famílias de maior importância foram Mimosaceae, Moraceae, Anacardiaceae e Lecythidaceae e as espécies com maiores valores de VI, foram Brosimum discolor, Parkia pendula, Eschweilera ovata, Thyrsodium spruceanum, Tapirira guianensis, Protium heptaphyllum, Casearia arborea, Helicostylis tomentosa, Dialium guianense, Schefflera morototoni, Himatanthus phagedaenicus e Cupania racemosa. Quando observado isoladamente, conclui-se que o fragmento estudado possui pouca relevância; entretanto, se considerado conjuntamente com outros fragmentos da área, sua diversidade é significativa o que justificaria esforços para sua conservação e manejo. Abstract in english The structure of a forest fragment, known as "Mata das Galinhas" at Humaitá sugar mill, Catende, Pernambuco, Brazil was evaluated. To evaluate the floristic composition and the phytosociological structure under anthropic action 14 plots of 10 x 25 m were used to sample the arboreal individuals with [...] circumference at breast height (CBH) ? 10 cm. The density, frequency, and dominance, the importance value (IV) and the Shannon's index were calculated. A total of 438 individuals distributed into 63 species, 45 genera and 29 families were recorded. The families of larger importance in the study were Mimosaceae, Moraceae, Anacardiaceae and Lecythidaceae. The species with larger values of IV were Brosimum discolor, Parkia pendula, Eschweilera ovata, Thyrsodium spruceanum, Tapirira guianensis, Protium heptaphyllum, Casearia arborea, Helicostylis tomentosa, Dialium guianense, Schefflera morototoni, Himatanthus phagedaenicus and Cupania racemosa. When observed separately, the studied fragment possesses low relevance; however, when considered jointly with other fragments of the area, its diversity is significant, justifying efforts for conservation and management.

  3. Assessment of In vitro Multiple Shoot Bud Induction from Leaf Explants among Eleven Indian Cultivars of Pigeon Pea (Cajanus cajan L. Mill sp.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manoj Kumar Yadav

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available In vitro multiple shoot bud induction from leaf explants of eleven Indian cultivars of pigeon pea (Cajanus cajan L. Mill sp. under the influence of variable concentration of three different cytokinins namely BAP, KIN and TDZ on MS media has been studied. Callus of variable morphology and nature was observed for most of the cultivars except four cultivars IPA-2013, Pusa-9, T-7 and IPA-98-3 showing multiple shoot bud induction. Among cytokinins used BAP was found to be most effective. Further elongation of multiple shoot buds was achieved in the same media while rooting of regenerated multiple shoots were attempted in MS media supplemented with variable concentration of three different auxins namely NAA, IAA and IBA. Efficient rooting was achieved in the presence of NAA. Regenerated plants were successfully established in soil with acclimatization frequency varying from 25-50% with cultivar IPA-2013 showing the best response.

  4. Produção de açúcar e álcool vs. responsabilidade social corporativa: as ações desenvolvidas pelas usinas de cana-de-açúcar frente às externalidades negativas Sugar and ethanol production vs. corporative social responsibility: the actions taken by the sugar cane mills confronted with negative externalizations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivelise Rasera Bragato

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available A responsabilidade social corporativa (RSC é analisada neste estudo no ambiente organizacional das usinas de cana-de-açúcar paulistas que integram o agronegócio brasileiro de açúcar e álcool. Trata-se de uma pesquisa qualitativa que utiliza dados quantitativos para fins descritivos. Apoiada em dados secundários e primários, aborda-se um estudo exploratório no contexto das usinas de cana-de-açúcar do Estado de São Paulo. O objetivo geral foi estabelecer uma análise comparativa entre as externalidades negativas e as ações sociais e verificar se estas últimas tinham um papel compensatório. Foi possível identificar a relação entre imagem e RSC no cenário organizacional das usinas, ressaltando as principais ações sociais desenvolvidas pelas empresas, as quais vêm contribuindo para a melhoria da imagem do setor sucroalcooleiro como agente participante do desenvolvimento sustentável. Constatou-se que o foco das ações sociais está concentrado nas áreas educacional e ambiental, ocupando um plano secundário as ações relacionadas à cultura, ao esporte e à saúde. Os resultados demonstraram que o número de projetos sociais não está necessariamente relacionado ao porte das empresas pesquisadas.Corporative Social Responsibility (CSR is analyzed in this study in the organizational environment of sugar cane mills in the state of São Paulo and which form the Brazilian agribusiness of sugar and ethanol. Following a qualitative research, the quantitative data was used to define objectives using the primary and secondary data approach; an exploratory study in the context of the sugar-ethanol mills. The goal was to establish a comparative analysis between the negative external aspects and the social actions to investigate whether the latter had a significant role. It was possible to identify the relation between image and CSR in the organizational scenario of sugar-ethanol mills highlighting the main social actions developed by the enterprises which have contributed to improving the image of the sugar-ethanol sector as an active agent in the sustainable development. It was verified that the focus of social actions are concentrated in areas related to environment and education. Those related to culture, sport, and health seemed to be not as important. The results show that the number of social actions is not, necessarily, related to the size of the companies researched.

  5. Produção de açúcar e álcool vs. responsabilidade social corporativa: as ações desenvolvidas pelas usinas de cana-de-açúcar frente às externalidades negativas / Sugar and ethanol production vs. corporative social responsibility: the actions taken by the sugar cane mills confronted with negative externalizations

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Ivelise Rasera, Bragato; Elisabete Stradiotto, Siqueira; Graziela Oste, Graziano; Eduardo Eugênio, Spers.

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available A responsabilidade social corporativa (RSC) é analisada neste estudo no ambiente organizacional das usinas de cana-de-açúcar paulistas que integram o agronegócio brasileiro de açúcar e álcool. Trata-se de uma pesquisa qualitativa que utiliza dados quantitativos para fins descritivos. Apoiada em dado [...] s secundários e primários, aborda-se um estudo exploratório no contexto das usinas de cana-de-açúcar do Estado de São Paulo. O objetivo geral foi estabelecer uma análise comparativa entre as externalidades negativas e as ações sociais e verificar se estas últimas tinham um papel compensatório. Foi possível identificar a relação entre imagem e RSC no cenário organizacional das usinas, ressaltando as principais ações sociais desenvolvidas pelas empresas, as quais vêm contribuindo para a melhoria da imagem do setor sucroalcooleiro como agente participante do desenvolvimento sustentável. Constatou-se que o foco das ações sociais está concentrado nas áreas educacional e ambiental, ocupando um plano secundário as ações relacionadas à cultura, ao esporte e à saúde. Os resultados demonstraram que o número de projetos sociais não está necessariamente relacionado ao porte das empresas pesquisadas. Abstract in english Corporative Social Responsibility (CSR) is analyzed in this study in the organizational environment of sugar cane mills in the state of São Paulo and which form the Brazilian agribusiness of sugar and ethanol. Following a qualitative research, the quantitative data was used to define objectives usin [...] g the primary and secondary data approach; an exploratory study in the context of the sugar-ethanol mills. The goal was to establish a comparative analysis between the negative external aspects and the social actions to investigate whether the latter had a significant role. It was possible to identify the relation between image and CSR in the organizational scenario of sugar-ethanol mills highlighting the main social actions developed by the enterprises which have contributed to improving the image of the sugar-ethanol sector as an active agent in the sustainable development. It was verified that the focus of social actions are concentrated in areas related to environment and education. Those related to culture, sport, and health seemed to be not as important. The results show that the number of social actions is not, necessarily, related to the size of the companies researched.

  6. Ahorro energético en tándem de molinos de caña de azúcar mediante regulación de presiones hidráulicas / Energy saving in tandem of sugar cane mills by means regulation of hydraulic pressures

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Jorge Michel, Corrales-Suárez; José Marcos, Gil-Ortiz; Pedro Dionisio, Remédios-Castañeiras; Yurisleydis, Masjuan-Leyva; José Alexander, Gil-Ceballo.

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Entre las áreas de mayor consumo de energía en un central azucarero se encuentra el tándem de molinos. Una de las variables que influye sobre este consumo es la presión hidráulica aplicada a la maza superior. La investigación tuvo como objetivo determinar las posibilidades de reducir este consumo re [...] gulando apropiadamente las presiones hidráulicas sin disminuir la eficiencia del proceso de extracción, se llevó a cabo en un tándem de seis molinos donde solo se varió las presiones en los molinos intermedios según un diseño estadístico factorial completo 24. Las variables independientes fueron: las presiones hidráulicas en los molinos intermedios; las dependientes: la demanda de potencia, el % pol y % humedad. Se concluyó que en las condiciones del experimento, el empleo de presiones hidráulicas de trabajo menores en 3,45 MPa en los molinos intermedios, no afectó el proceso de extracción de la sacarosa, pero disminuyó en un 8,12 % la demanda de potencia. Abstract in english Among the areas of more energy consumption in a sugar power station is the tandem of mills. One of the variables that influences on this consumption is the hydraulic pressure applied to the superior mass. The investigation had as objective to determine the possibilities to reduce this consumption re [...] gulating the hydraulic pressures appropriately without diminishing the efficiency of the extraction process, it was carried out in a tandem of six mills where alone it was varied the pressures in the intermediate mills according to a complete factorial statistical design 24. The independent variables were: the hydraulic pressures in the intermediate mills; the dependents: the demand of power, the %pol and %humidity. You concluded that under the conditions of the experiment, the employment of hydraulic pressures of smaller work in 3,45 MPa in the intermediate mills, didn't affect the process of extraction of the sucrose, but it diminished in 8,12 % the demand of power.

  7. Assessment of Body Mass Index, Sugar Sweetened Beverage Intake and Time Spent in Physical Activity of American Indian Children in Oklahoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dennison, Michelle E; Sisson, Susan B; Lora, Karina; Stephens, Lancer D; Copeland, Kenneth C; Caudillo, Cynthia

    2015-08-01

    American Indian (AI) children have a combined overweight and obesity prevalence of 53%. Behaviors that contribute to obesity, such as sugar sweetened beverage (SSB) intake and time spent in physical activity (PA), have been poorly explored in this population. The purpose of this study is to report body mass index (BMI), SSB intake, and time spent in PA of 7-to-13-year-old AI children who reside in rural and urban areas in Oklahoma. Cross-sectional survey study. Self-reported SSB intake in the last month, and time spent in PA were collected via questionnaires. Height and weight were professionally measured. The sample included 124 7-to-13-year-old AI children who attended a diabetes prevention summer camp in 2013. BMI percentile, overweight and obesity prevalence, SSB intake, time spent in PA, and number of participants meeting the Physical Activity Guidelines for Americans. Descriptive characteristics for BMI percentile, overweight and obesity, SSB intake, time spent in PA, and meeting PA recommendations were calculated using means, standard deviations, and frequencies. Independent t test and Chi square analyses were used to test for gender differences. Participants were 10.2 ± 1.5 years old and 57% female. Sixty-three percent were overweight or obese. Children consumed 309 ± 309 kcal/day of SSB and spent 4.4 ± 3.8 h per week in moderate-to-vigorous PA. Approximately 32% met the 2008 Physical Activity Guidelines for Americans. No gender differences were observed. The prevalence of overweight and obesity was higher than previously reported in a similar population, and higher than that of US children in the general population. SSB intake and physical activity levels were also found to be higher in this group than in the general population. PMID:25750107

  8. PROBLEMS OF COOPERATIVE SUGAR INDUSTRY IN MAHARASHTRA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khose B. S.

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Cooperative Sugar industry is one of the largest industries in the country and makes significant constitution to the economy of the country. The cooperative sugar factories in Maharashtra are facing several challenges in terms of finance, management and governance. The lack of financial management in cooperative sugar mills and rising number of private sugar mills bringing the tough competition for cooperative sugar mills. In spite of the giant economic strength of this sector, it has not been given due attention. The performance of co-operative sugar mills in India and Maharashtra is very poor when compared with international sugar industry. This is due to sugar mills do not have effective control over the cost incurred during the production and low recovery of sugar from the sugarcane crushed. In order to have a better control over; the cost of new techniques to be followed. Recovery of sugar can be improved by using modern management and machineries. Hence it will improve the productivity and increase the profitability.

  9. Epidemiologia da Esquistossomose Mansônica no Engenho Bela Rosa, município de São Lourenço da Mata, Pernambuco, Brasil / Epidemiology of Mansonic Schistosomiasis in Bela Rosa Sugar Mill, municipality of São Lourenço da Mata, Pernambuco, Brazil

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Constança S., Barbosa; Carlos B. da, Silva.

    1992-03-01

    Full Text Available Bela Rosa, um pequeno engenho localizado no município de São Lourenço da Mata, estado de Pernambuco, representa uma típica unidade produtora de açúcar situada na grande região da mata úmida do nordeste do Brasil. Os 370 habitantes do engenho vivem em níveis social e econômico muito baixos. A região [...] é conhecida pelos seus elevados níveis de prevalência da esquistossomose e foi submetida nestes últimos anos a diferentes tipos de programas de controle da infecção. Utilizando dados de 1967 a 1986 e mais aqueles obtidos por um estudo epidemiológico transversal feito em 1989, os autores descrevem a tendência evolutiva da endemicidade da esquistossomose na área. Abstract in english Bela Rosa, a small sugar mill located in the county of São Lourenço da Mata, state of Pernambuco, is a typical sugar production unit of the large sugar cane belt along the humid and hot coast of northeast Brazil. The Bela Rosa's 370 inhabitants are living under very low social and economic levels. K [...] nown by its high prevalence rates for the disease, the region has been subjected to different types of control programs recently. Using data from 1967 to 1986 plus those from an epidemiological cross-section survey carried out in 1989, the authors describe the evolutional tendency of schistosomiasis endemicity in the area.

  10. Epidemiologia da Esquistossomose Mansônica no Engenho Bela Rosa, município de São Lourenço da Mata, Pernambuco, Brasil Epidemiology of Mansonic Schistosomiasis in Bela Rosa Sugar Mill, municipality of São Lourenço da Mata, Pernambuco, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Constança S. Barbosa

    1992-03-01

    Full Text Available Bela Rosa, um pequeno engenho localizado no município de São Lourenço da Mata, estado de Pernambuco, representa uma típica unidade produtora de açúcar situada na grande região da mata úmida do nordeste do Brasil. Os 370 habitantes do engenho vivem em níveis social e econômico muito baixos. A região é conhecida pelos seus elevados níveis de prevalência da esquistossomose e foi submetida nestes últimos anos a diferentes tipos de programas de controle da infecção. Utilizando dados de 1967 a 1986 e mais aqueles obtidos por um estudo epidemiológico transversal feito em 1989, os autores descrevem a tendência evolutiva da endemicidade da esquistossomose na área.Bela Rosa, a small sugar mill located in the county of São Lourenço da Mata, state of Pernambuco, is a typical sugar production unit of the large sugar cane belt along the humid and hot coast of northeast Brazil. The Bela Rosa's 370 inhabitants are living under very low social and economic levels. Known by its high prevalence rates for the disease, the region has been subjected to different types of control programs recently. Using data from 1967 to 1986 plus those from an epidemiological cross-section survey carried out in 1989, the authors describe the evolutional tendency of schistosomiasis endemicity in the area.

  11. Programação estocástica robusta aplicada ao planejamento agregado de safra em usinas cooperadas do setor sucroenergético Stochastic robust optimization model applied to the aggregate production planning in mill cooperative socities in the sugar-energy sector

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafael Piatti Oiticica de Paiva

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Neste trabalho, apresenta-se um modelo de programação estocástica robusta aplicado ao planejamento agregado da produção em usinas cooperadas do setor sucroenergético. Esta modelagem considera a relação hierárquica existente entre o planejamento anual da cooperativa e o planejamento tático de safra das usinas cooperadas, além de contemplar importantes incertezas existentes nos parâmetros de entrada do modelo. Para resolver os problemas de programação linear e programação inteira mista envolvidos, utiliza-se uma linguagem de modelagem algébrica e um software de última geração de programação matemática. Os resultados computacionais obtidos são comparados aos resultados da modelagem determinística PASUC, discutida em Paiva e Morabito (in press, utilizando os mesmos dados do estudo de caso da Usina Santa Clotilde e da Cooperativa Regional dos Produtores de Açúcar e Álcool de Alagoas.This work presents a stochastic robust optimization model applied to the aggregate production planning in mill cooperative societies in the sugar-energy sector This mathematical model is based on a hierarchical relationship between the annual planning of the cooperative and the tactical planning horizon of the sugarcane mills taking into account important uncertainties in several parameters of this model. In order to solve the linear and mixed integer programming problems involved, an optimization modeling language solver was used. Computational results are presented and compared with the deterministic approach PASUC, dicussed by Paiva e Morabito (in press using the same data from the case studies conducted in the Santa Clotilde milling company and in the regional cooperative society of sugar and ethanol producers of Alagoas.

  12. Programação estocástica robusta aplicada ao planejamento agregado de safra em usinas cooperadas do setor sucroenergético / Stochastic robust optimization model applied to the aggregate production planning in mill cooperative socities in the sugar-energy sector

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Rafael Piatti Oiticica de, Paiva; Reinaldo, Morabito.

    Full Text Available Neste trabalho, apresenta-se um modelo de programação estocástica robusta aplicado ao planejamento agregado da produção em usinas cooperadas do setor sucroenergético. Esta modelagem considera a relação hierárquica existente entre o planejamento anual da cooperativa e o planejamento tático de safra d [...] as usinas cooperadas, além de contemplar importantes incertezas existentes nos parâmetros de entrada do modelo. Para resolver os problemas de programação linear e programação inteira mista envolvidos, utiliza-se uma linguagem de modelagem algébrica e um software de última geração de programação matemática. Os resultados computacionais obtidos são comparados aos resultados da modelagem determinística PASUC, discutida em Paiva e Morabito (in press), utilizando os mesmos dados do estudo de caso da Usina Santa Clotilde e da Cooperativa Regional dos Produtores de Açúcar e Álcool de Alagoas. Abstract in english This work presents a stochastic robust optimization model applied to the aggregate production planning in mill cooperative societies in the sugar-energy sector This mathematical model is based on a hierarchical relationship between the annual planning of the cooperative and the tactical planning hor [...] izon of the sugarcane mills taking into account important uncertainties in several parameters of this model. In order to solve the linear and mixed integer programming problems involved, an optimization modeling language solver was used. Computational results are presented and compared with the deterministic approach PASUC, dicussed by Paiva e Morabito (in press) using the same data from the case studies conducted in the Santa Clotilde milling company and in the regional cooperative society of sugar and ethanol producers of Alagoas.

  13. Supply optimization for the production of raw sugar

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grunow, Martin; Günther, H.O.; Westinner, R.

    2007-01-01

    Based on a case study from Venezuela, the production of raw sugar is investigated. Ideally, sugar mills operate at a constant production rate. However, safety stocks of the raw material cannot be maintained as sugar cane quality deteriorates very rapidly. Sugar cane is therefore continuously sourced in diverse quantities and qualities from hundreds of geographically dispersed haciendas and supplied to the milling process. Furthermore, due to weather conditions changing throughout the year, tight...

  14. Added Sugars

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... corn syrup, molasses, cane sugar, corn sweetener, raw sugar, syrup, honey or fruit juice concentrates. Learn more about reading food labels . Limit your consumption of foods with high amounts of added sugars, such as sugar-sweetened beverages. Just one 12- ...

  15. Propuestas de mejoras energéticas en el área del tándem de un ingenio azucarero de la provincia Las Tunas, Cuba / Proposals for energy improvements in the area of a Sugar Mill tandem of Las Tunas province, Cuba

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Anislei, Santiesteban Velázquez; Julio Osvaldo, Nápoles González; Julio Manuel, Silva Becheran.

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available El presente trabajo se efectuó en ingenio azucarero Antonio Guiteras Holmes, municipio Puerto Padre, provincia Las Tunas en la zafra 2012, con el objetivo de determinar las potencialidades de ahorro de energía eléctrica en el área del tándem, se evalúa el comportamiento de los motores de inducción t [...] rifásicos de los molinos en las condiciones actuales de operación con el conocimiento de las mediciones de las magnitudes eléctricas de tensión, corrientes y factor de potencia, con estos elementos mínimos y aplicando el método de los Datos de Placas se obtuvieron sus indicadores energéticos, estos resultados permitieron conocer el factor de carga, la eficiencia, la potencia real de salida de los motores estándares para lograr un uso más racional y eficiente de la energía en la empresa. Se realiza una propuesta para el redimensionado de estos motores. Abstract in english The study was performed in Sugar Mill Antonio Guiteras Holmes, municipality Puerto Padre, Las Tunas province in the 2012 harvest, the behaviour of induction motors Mills on current operating conditions with the knowledge of the measurements of the electrical parameters is evaluated voltage, current [...] and power factor with these minimum elements and applying the method of their energy data badges indicators were obtained, these results allowed us to know the load factor, efficiency, the actual power output of the engine to achieve standards a more rational and efficient energy use in the company. A proposal for resizing these engines is performed.

  16. The cogeneration potential of the sugar industry in Vietnam

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vietnam produces about 15 million tons of sugarcane per year and about five mt of bagasse. There is the potential for cogeneration using bagasse, which can also help overcome power shortages in the country. This paper analyses the potential for cogeneration from the sugar industry in Vietnam under three different scenarios and finds that between 100 and 300 megawatts of power-generating capacity could be supported by the bagasse generated from sugar mills, depending on the technology considered for sugar mills and cogeneration and the possibility of renovation of the existing mills. The paper also assesses the expense of cogeneration and finds it to be a cost-effective option for all types of sugar mill. It is found that the cost savings from cogeneration would more than offset the cost of introducing cogeneration in sugar mills with inefficient cane processing technologies. Sugar mills with modern technologies would have a significant amount of excess power and most of these plants would break-even if they sold excess power at around 4.5 cents per kilowatt hour. The break-even cost and the average production cost are sensitive to the investment cost assumptions. The paper thus suggests that cogeneration from the sugar industry is an attractive option for investors in existing mills or new sugar mills alike. (Author)

  17. Aplicação da análise envoltória de dados (AED) na avaliação da eficiência operacional relativa entre usinas de cana-de-açúcar no território brasileiro / Data envelopment analysis (DEA) application for the relative evaluation on the operational efficiency of sugar cane mills in Brazil

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Alexandre P., Salgado Junior; Fabio V., Carlucci; Juliana C., Novi.

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Este estudo tem por objetivo analisar o impacto das variáveis tamanho e localização na eficiência operacional de usinas de cana-de-açúcar no Brasil na safra 2008/2009. Para tanto, realizou-se um estudo de eficiência operacional, por meio da aplicação da Análise Envoltória de Dados (AED), na qual foi [...] possível identificar as usinas mais eficientes dentre um universo de 355 e classificá-las por tamanho e localização. A análise quantitativa sugere que existe maior concentração de usinas classificadas como eficientes e de tamanho grande, localizadas no estado de São Paulo. Objetivando uma análise em profundidade, foi realizado um estudo de múltiplos casos em um grupo de usinas. Conclui-se que a eficiência operacional de usinas de cana-de-açúcar depende da variável tamanho, na medida em que as usinas de maior porte tendem a investir mais em tecnologias que proporcionam maior ganho de eficiência operacional. A eficiência também depende da variável localização, na medida em que o estado de São Paulo apresenta condições edafoclimáticas mais favoráveis à extração de uma cana-de-açúcar com maior teor de sacarose, que, consequentemente, pode influenciar na eficiência operacional de usinas de cana-de-açúcar. Abstract in english The study aims to analyze the impact of the variables size and location over the operational efficiency of sugarcane mills producing sugar and ethanol in Brazil year 2008/2009. Data concerning total milling and total production of sugar and ethanol was collected regarding Brazilian sugar cane mills. [...] An operational efficiency ranking was developed, applying Data Envelopment Analysis (DEA) technique, through which was possible to verify which were the most efficient among 355 sugarcane mills and, therefore, compare the variables size, location and operational efficiency among the Brazilian mills. The quantitative analysis suggests that among the efficient groups, there is a major concentration of larger mills, located in the state of São Paulo. Aiming an in-depth analysis, a multiple-case study was conducted in a group of sugarcane mills, and interviews with experts in the sugarcane industry were developed. Therefore, the conclusion is that operational efficiency of sugarcane mills depends on the variable location, as larger mills tend to invest more in technologies that provide major gain in operational efficiency. The operational efficiency depends also on the location of the sugarcane mill, as the state of São Paulo provides favorable edaphoclimatic conditions for the juice extraction of sugarcane with a higher level of sucrose content, hence possibly having influence over the operational efficiency.

  18. Efeito da esquistossomose na produtividade do cortador de cana ao longo da safra de açúcar da usina catende, Pernambuco / Effect of schistosomiasis on the productivity of sugar cane cutters during the sugar harvest of the Catende mill, Pernambuco

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Dirceu P. Pereira da, Costa; Frederico Simões, Barbosa.

    1982-12-01

    Full Text Available Estudo prospectivo de pareamento entre dois grupos de trabalhadores do corte de cana infectados com esquistossomose na zona da mata do Estado de Pernambuco, foi realizado durante a safra de 1977-1978. O grupo de "casos" (forma hepatosplénica) foi comparado com o grupo "controle" (forma intestinal). [...] Os resultados mostraram não apenas que os portadores da forma hepatosplénica cortavam significativamente menos cana que seus controles, como também que a produção daqueles mantinha-se baixa ao longo da safra. Dois trabalhadores, dentre os "casos", tiveram que abandonar o trabalho de campo em vista da visível deterioração de seu estado geral de saúde. Abstract in english A prospective study of the effect of schistosomiasis on the productivity of canecutters was carried out in northeastern Brazil during the harvest season 1977-1978. This study revealed that field workers bearing the hepatosplenic form of the disease produce significantly less in terms of cane tons cu [...] t than their pairs (intestinal form, used as controls). Futhermore, the productivity is gradually reduced the period of the sugar-cane cut season. Two workers (cases) with the hepatosplenic form had to leave field work during the experiment due to visible deterioration of their general health.

  19. Assessment of In vitro Multiple Shoot Bud Induction from Leaf Explants among Eleven Indian Cultivars of Pigeon Pea (Cajanus cajan L. Mill sp.)

    OpenAIRE

    Manoj Kumar Yadav; Bijaya Ketan Sarangi; Vandana Kashyap; Dinesh Yadav

    2011-01-01

    In vitro multiple shoot bud induction from leaf explants of eleven Indian cultivars of pigeon pea (Cajanus cajan L. Mill sp.) under the influence of variable concentration of three different cytokinins namely BAP, KIN and TDZ on MS media has been studied. Callus of variable morphology and nature was observed for most of the cultivars except four cultivars IPA-2013, Pusa-9, T-7 and IPA-98-3 showing multiple shoot bud induction. Among cytokinins used BAP was found to be most effective. Further ...

  20. Modelación del contacto entre dos pares de dientes en las coronas de molinos de caña / Modeling of contact between two pairs of teeth in the sugar cane mills gears

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Abdel, Mendoza-Fernández; Mario Javier, Cabello-Ulloa; Juan José, Cabello-Eras; Rafael, Goytisolo-Espinosa; Jorge, Moya-Rodríguez.

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available En el trabajo se propone un mecanismo equivalente para la modelación del funcionamiento de las coronas de molino de caña de azúcar cuando teóricamente hay dos pares de dientes en contacto. A través del análisis de movilidad del mecanismo se demuestra que no es posible el contacto simultaneo entre do [...] s pares de dientes y que el coeficiente de recubrimiento en estos engranes es igual o menor que la unidad. A partir de los resultados del análisis cinemático del contacto entre un par de dientes, y combinándolo con la modelación del contacto entre dos pares de dientes se demuestra que el coeficiente de recubrimiento real en estos engranajes es menor que la unidad y se producen impactos entre los dientes al inicio del contacto. Abstract in english The paper proposes an equivalent mechanism for modeling the functioning of the crowns of sugar cane mill when theoretically there are two pairs of teeth in contact. Through mobility analysis of the mechanism is demonstrated that is not possible the simultaneous contact between two pairs of teeth and [...] that the coating coefficient of these gears is equal or less than unity. Combining kinematic analysis results for the contact between a pair of teeth with the modeling the contact between two pairs of teeth, it is demonstrated that gear ratio of these gears is less than unity and impacts occur between the teeth at the start of contact

  1. Rising critical emission of air pollutants from renewable biomass based cogeneration from the sugar industry in India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahu, S. K.; Ohara, T.; Beig, G.; Kurokawa, J.; Nagashima, T.

    2015-09-01

    In the recent past, the emerging India economy is highly dependent on conventional as well as renewable energy to deal with energy security. Keeping the potential of biomass and its plentiful availability, the Indian government has been encouraging various industrial sectors to generate their own energy from it. The Indian sugar industry has adopted and made impressive growth in bagasse (a renewable biomass, i.e. left after sugercane is crushed) based cogeneration power to fulfil their energy need, as well as to export a big chunk of energy to grid power. Like fossil fuel, bagasse combustion also generates various critical pollutants. This article provides the first ever estimation, current status and overview of magnitude of air pollutant emissions from rapidly growing bagasse based cogeneration technology in Indian sugar mills. The estimated emission from the world’s second largest sugar industry in India for particulate matter, NOX, SO2, CO and CO2 is estimated to be 444 ± 225 Gg yr-1, 188 ± 95 Gg yr-1, 43 ± 22 Gg yr-1, 463 ± 240 Gg yr-1 and 47.4 ± 9 Tg yr-1, respectively in 2014. The studies also analyze and identify potential hot spot regions across the country and explore the possible further potential growth for this sector. This first ever estimation not only improves the existing national emission inventory, but is also useful in chemical transport modeling studies, as well as for policy makers.

  2. EVALUACIÓN DE LA EFICIENCIA DE REACTORES DE LECHO FIJO UTILIZANDO AGUAS MIELES RESIDUALES DE TRAPICHES ARTESANALES / EVALUATION OF THE EFFECTIVENESS OF FIXED BED REACTORS USING WASTE WATER OF SUGAR CRAFT MILLS

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Gloria Lucía, Cárdenas Calvachi; Robert Mauricio, Ramos Ramos.

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available El problema de tratamiento y disposición final de las aguas mieles residuales provenientes de los trapiches artesanales en el departamento de Nariño, en particular los asentados en el municipio de Sandoná, radica en su imposibilidad económica y tecnológica, dadas las características de subsistencia [...] en que se basa su funcionamiento. El sistema de filtros anaerobios de flujo ascendente (FAFA) como unidad principal de tratamiento biológico en la degradación de azúcares, ofrece una buena alternativa por ser considerado eficiente, de relativos bajos costos de construcción, operación y mantenimiento, con el reto central de mantener las condiciones de hábitat adecuadas para el crecimiento de la biomasa al interior del reactor. Se evaluaron cuatro medios de contacto (concha marina, material sintético, material vitrificado y grava de río), a escala de laboratorio, para encontrar el lecho de soporte de FAFA más conveniente en condiciones controladas de temperatura, régimen de flujo y acondicionamiento previo del medio bacteriano. La concha marina y el material sintético, ofrecen características de resistencia, durabilidad y facilidad de consecución y alcanzan remociones de materia orgánica mayores del 80%. Sin embargo, la concha marina alcanza las mayores remociones (89,7% para DQO y 87,8 % para DBO) gracias a su estructura física que ofrece un microambiente adecuado y por su composición química, fuente natural de alcalinidad y micronutrientes al sistema, lo que hace que se lo considere como el medio de contacto más adecuado para diseñar e implementar filtros anaerobios de lecho fijo en la industria artesanal panelera. Abstract in english The problem of treatment and final disposal of waste water coming from artisan sugar mills in the Department of Nariño, particularly those established in the Municipality of Sandoná. It lies in its economical and technological impossibility, according to its nature. The system of Up Flow Anaerobic F [...] ilter (UFAF) as the principal unit of biological treatment on the degradation of sugars, it offers a good alternative because they are considered to be efficient treatments associated with low costs of construction, operation and maintenance, with the challenge of maintaining a suitable habitat conditions for the growth of the biomass inside the reactor. The study evaluated four contact means marine shell, synthetic material, vitrified material and river gravel, through laboratory-scale testing, to find the FAFA's most suitable material under controlled conditions of temperature, flow regime and previous conditioning of the bacterial environment. The marine shell and synthetic material provide characteristics of toughness, durability and easiness of obtaining and allowing an efficient removal of organic material above 80%. However, the marine shell reaches the highest removal (89.7% for COD and 87.8% for BOD) thanks its physical structure that provides an adequate microenvironment and its chemical composition, natural source of alkalinity and micronutrients to the system, which is considered the most suitable contact mean to design and to implement the UFAF in the artisan sugar mills.

  3. Performance Of Sugar Industries In India

    OpenAIRE

    Vrushali Balbhimrao Kute; R. P. Patil

    2013-01-01

    :India is on the first rank in sugar production with 20.2 Million tones followed by EU, Brazil, USA, China, Thailand, Mexico, Australia, Cuba and South Africa. Out of the 453 sugar mills in the country, 269 are in the cooperative sector, 184 in the private sector and 67 in the public sector. Besides, 136 units in the private sector are in various stages of implementation. In India sugar production follows a 5-7 year cycle. Sugar production increases over a 3-4 year period, reaches a high, whi...

  4. Sintomas vocais e sensações laríngeas em trabalhadores de uma usina de álcool e açúcar expostos a riscos ocupacionais Vocal symptoms and laryngeal sensations in workers of an ethanol and sugar mill exposed to occupational risks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sylvia Boechat Coutinho

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Investigar os sintomas vocais e sensações laríngeas dos trabalhadores de uma usina de álcool e açúcar expostos a ruído e/ou substâncias químicas. MÉTODOS: Participaram 289 trabalhadores de uma usina de álcool e açúcar distribuídos em cinco grupos expostos (I- ruído; II- ruído, óleo, graxa, derivação de petróleo; III- ruído, ácidos, sulfatos, cloretos, nitratos; IV- ruído, poeiras respiráveis e sílica livre cristalizada; V- óleo, graxa, derivação de petróleo e um grupo controle que responderam o questionário Condições de Produção Vocal - Professor adaptado à categoria profissional. Os grupos foram comparados em relação aos sintomas vocais, sensações laríngeas, tabagismo e riscos físicos e químicos. Esta comparação foi realizada por meio de análise estatística. RESULTADOS: O sintoma vocal e a sensação laríngea mais relatados pelos trabalhadores foram voz grave e tosse com catarro, respectivamente. Considerando o risco físico no ambiente de trabalho, os grupos I e IV foram os que mais citaram presença de ruído. Devido à sua exposição, os mesmos aumentavam a intensidade da voz (Efeito de Lombard-Tarneaud e, assim, mencionaram sintomas vocais. Em relação aos riscos químicos no ambiente ocupacional, o grupo IV foi o que mais referiu presença de poeira e fumaça, e estas eram compostas por poeiras respiráveis e sílica. Tais exposições ocasionam sintomas vocais e sensações laríngeas e, consequentemente, alterações vocais. CONCLUSÃO: Sintomas vocais e sensações laríngeas podem estar relacionados a atividade profissional em que haja exposição a riscos físicos e/ou químicos.PURPOSE: To investigate vocal symptoms and laryngeal sensations among workers of an ethanol and sugar mill exposed to noise and/or chemical substances. METHODS: Participants were 289 workers of an ethanol and sugar mill distributed into five exposure groups (I - noise; II - noise, oil, grease, petroleum derivatives; III - noise, acids, sulfates, chlorides, nitrates; IV - noise, breathable dust and free crystalline silica; V - oil, grease, petroleum derivatives and a control group, who answered the questionnaire Conditions of Vocal Production - Teacher adapted to the professional category. The groups were compared regarding vocal symptoms, laryngeal sensations, smoking habits, and exposure to physical and chemical risks. This comparison was conducted using statistical analyses. RESULTS: The most reported vocal symptom and laryngeal sensation were low-pitched voice and cough with phlegm, respectively. Considering the physical risk in the work environment, groups I and IV were the ones that most reported exposure to noise. Because of this exposure, they increase voice intensity (Effect of Lombard-Tarneaud and, thus, also reported vocal symptoms. Regarding chemical risks in the occupational environment, group IV was the one that most referred presence of dust and smoke, which were composed by breathable dust and silica. Such exposures lead to vocal symptoms and laryngeal sensations and, consequently, to vocal alterations. CONCLUSION: Vocal symptoms and laryngeal sensations can be related to professional activities where workers are exposed to physical and/or chemical risks.

  5. Sintomas vocais e sensações laríngeas em trabalhadores de uma usina de álcool e açúcar expostos a riscos ocupacionais / Vocal symptoms and laryngeal sensations in workers of an ethanol and sugar mill exposed to occupational risks

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Sylvia Boechat, Coutinho; Ana Claudia, Fiorini; Iára Bittante de, Oliveira; Maria do Rosário Dias de Oliveira, Latorre; Léslie Piccolotto, Ferreira.

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Investigar os sintomas vocais e sensações laríngeas dos trabalhadores de uma usina de álcool e açúcar expostos a ruído e/ou substâncias químicas. MÉTODOS: Participaram 289 trabalhadores de uma usina de álcool e açúcar distribuídos em cinco grupos expostos (I- ruído; II- ruído, óleo, graxa, [...] derivação de petróleo; III- ruído, ácidos, sulfatos, cloretos, nitratos; IV- ruído, poeiras respiráveis e sílica livre cristalizada; V- óleo, graxa, derivação de petróleo) e um grupo controle que responderam o questionário Condições de Produção Vocal - Professor adaptado à categoria profissional. Os grupos foram comparados em relação aos sintomas vocais, sensações laríngeas, tabagismo e riscos físicos e químicos. Esta comparação foi realizada por meio de análise estatística. RESULTADOS: O sintoma vocal e a sensação laríngea mais relatados pelos trabalhadores foram voz grave e tosse com catarro, respectivamente. Considerando o risco físico no ambiente de trabalho, os grupos I e IV foram os que mais citaram presença de ruído. Devido à sua exposição, os mesmos aumentavam a intensidade da voz (Efeito de Lombard-Tarneaud) e, assim, mencionaram sintomas vocais. Em relação aos riscos químicos no ambiente ocupacional, o grupo IV foi o que mais referiu presença de poeira e fumaça, e estas eram compostas por poeiras respiráveis e sílica. Tais exposições ocasionam sintomas vocais e sensações laríngeas e, consequentemente, alterações vocais. CONCLUSÃO: Sintomas vocais e sensações laríngeas podem estar relacionados a atividade profissional em que haja exposição a riscos físicos e/ou químicos. Abstract in english PURPOSE: To investigate vocal symptoms and laryngeal sensations among workers of an ethanol and sugar mill exposed to noise and/or chemical substances. METHODS: Participants were 289 workers of an ethanol and sugar mill distributed into five exposure groups (I - noise; II - noise, oil, grease, petro [...] leum derivatives; III - noise, acids, sulfates, chlorides, nitrates; IV - noise, breathable dust and free crystalline silica; V - oil, grease, petroleum derivatives) and a control group, who answered the questionnaire Conditions of Vocal Production - Teacher adapted to the professional category. The groups were compared regarding vocal symptoms, laryngeal sensations, smoking habits, and exposure to physical and chemical risks. This comparison was conducted using statistical analyses. RESULTS: The most reported vocal symptom and laryngeal sensation were low-pitched voice and cough with phlegm, respectively. Considering the physical risk in the work environment, groups I and IV were the ones that most reported exposure to noise. Because of this exposure, they increase voice intensity (Effect of Lombard-Tarneaud) and, thus, also reported vocal symptoms. Regarding chemical risks in the occupational environment, group IV was the one that most referred presence of dust and smoke, which were composed by breathable dust and silica. Such exposures lead to vocal symptoms and laryngeal sensations and, consequently, to vocal alterations. CONCLUSION: Vocal symptoms and laryngeal sensations can be related to professional activities where workers are exposed to physical and/or chemical risks.

  6. Sugar Intake, Obesity, and Diabetes in India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seema Gulati

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Sugar and sweet consumption have been popular and intrinsic to Indian culture, traditions, and religion from ancient times. In this article, we review the data showing increasing sugar consumption in India, including traditional sources (jaggery and khandsari and from sugar-sweetened beverages (SSBs. Along with decreasing physical activity, this increasing trend of per capita sugar consumption assumes significance in view of the high tendency for Indians to develop insulin resistance, abdominal adiposity, and hepatic steatosis, and the increasing “epidemic” of type 2 diabetes (T2DM and cardiovascular diseases. Importantly, there are preliminary data to show that incidence of obesity and T2DM could be decreased by increasing taxation on SSBs. Other prevention strategies, encompassing multiple stakeholders (government, industry, and consumers, should target on decreasing sugar consumption in the Indian population. In this context, dietary guidelines for Indians show that sugar consumption should be less than 10% of total daily energy intake, but it is suggested that this limit be decreased.

  7. Valoración económica de las pérdidas de exergía de las operaciones térmicas en la industria azucarera de caña / Economic value of exergy losses in heating operations in cane sugar mills

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Dora, Paz; Gerónimo J., Cárdenas.

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available Tomando como base los resultados del análisis exergético de las operaciones térmicas: Calentamiento- Evaporación-Cristalización (CEC) de un ingenio de Tucumán, realizado por Paz y Cárdenas en 2005, se procedió a determinar el valor económico de las pérdidas de exergía. Dichas pérdidas de exergía rep [...] resentan potencias eléctricas equivalentes que dejaron de producirse, por lo que el daño causado por las mismas puede ser calculado directamente a partir del precio de la energía eléctrica. Esta original metodología propuesta para determinar ahorros monetarios, basada en la reducción de exergía perdida, se comparó con los resultados obtenidos con la metodología tradicional (basada en el ahorro de vapor vivo). Los ahorros monetarios logrados con las propuestas A y B fueron de $1,05 x 10(6) (0,35 x 10(6) USD) y $1,92 x 10(6) (0,64 x 10(6) USD) por zafra, determinándose Tasas Internas de Retorno (TIR) de 191% y 20,8%, respectivamente. Abstract in english This paper is based on the results of previous work done by Paz and Cárdenas in 2005, in which exergy losses in thermal operations: Heating-Evaporation-Crystallization (H-E-C) of a cane sugar mill located in Tucumán, were evaluated. Exergy losses represent equivalent non-produced electric power; the [...] refore, the resulting damage can be calculated directly from the price of the electric energy. Results obtained with this novel methodology (exergy loss reduction) were compared with those obtained with the traditional method (live steam saving) when evaluating monetary savings. In fact, monetary savings in A and B proposals were $1,05 x 10(6) (0,35 x 10(6) USD) and $1,92 x 10(6) (0,64 x 10(6) USD) per season, respectively. Internal Rates of Return (IRR) were 191% and 20,8%, respectively.

  8. La irrupción del poder obrero en los ingenios azucareros: avances, límites y cuestionamientos. Tucumán, 1944-1949 / The emergence of workers’ power in sugar mills: advances, limitations and questions. Tucumán, 1944-1949

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Florencia, Gutiérrez.

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Durante la primera década peronista los trabajadores interpelaron la casi omnipresente autoridad de la patronal en las fábricas e impulsaron una transferencia de poder que cuestionó la facultad de los industriales sobre decisiones hasta ese momento consideradas como excluyentes: la administración y [...] organización de la fuerza laboral y el control de los procesos productivos. En el caso de los ingenios azucareros tucumanos, las huelgas declaradas para exigir el despido de ciertos referentes de la jerarquía fabril y la institucionalización del escalafón se convirtieron en dos aspectos clave de esta redistribución del poder. Estas instancias vinculadas con la contratación, la promoción y el despido del personal interpelaron a los empresarios, quienes intentaron resistir el avance de los trabajadores, pero también confrontaron al gobierno peronista con el límite de lo aceptable, impulsándolo a controlar la magnitud del poder obrero. Abstract in english During the first decade of Peronism workers interpellated the almost omnipresent authority of the employers in factories and boosted a transfer of power that challenged the power of industrialists on decisions so far considered exclusive: the administration and organization of the workforce and the [...] control of production processes. In the case of sugar mills from Tucuman, strikes to demand the dismissal of certain referents of the factory hierarchy and institutionalization of seniority became two key aspects of this redistribution of power. These instances -related to recruitment, promotion and dismissal of staff- interpellated businessmen who tried to resist the advance of workers, but they also confronted the Peronist government with its limit of acceptability, prompting it to control the amount of workers’ power.

  9. Impact of sugar industry fly ash emissions on environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This work was conducted in 1992 to find out the effects and causes of environmental problems due to sugar mills of Sindh. Most of the complaints were received from Nawabshah, Tando Mohammed Khan residential areas where following mills are located, emitting large amounts of fly ash from their chimneys into the atmosphere: (i) Habib Sugar Mills, Nawabshah, (II) Fauji Sugar Mills, Tando Mohammed Khan. Environmental survey of above localities was carried out which reveals that eye-allergy and asthma are the major health effects of fly ash besides the aesthetic problems. Sieve analysis of two fly ash samples viz Fauji Sugar Mills (Old Plant) and Sanghar Sugar Mills (New Plant) showed that the particle size of over 50% of fly ash was above 300 mu m. These large size black particles were unburned carbon particles, which on burning in air gave a weight loss of over 87% at 1000 centi grade. The fly ash analytical results showed that combustion of bagasse in sugar mills was not complete at all and this was not only polluting the atmosphere but also causing energy losses. (author)

  10. Passa-se uma engenhoca: ou como se faziam transações com terras, engenhos e crédito em mercados locais e imperfeitos (freguesia de Campo Grande, Rio de Janeiro, séculos XVIII e XIX 'Engenhocas' to sell!: or lands, sugar mills and credit’s trade in local and imperfect markets (Campo Grande civil parish, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, XVIII-XIX centuries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manoela Pedroza

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available A questão central deste artigo é perceber como as hierarquias sociais e as políticas específicas do Antigo Regime nos Trópicos se refletiram em estratégias concretas, e compreender as engrenagens locais de um mercado imperfeito. Analisaremos as escolhas e trajetórias de agentes envolvidos em transações com terras, engenhos e concessão de crédito na freguesia de Campo Grande, no correr do século XVIII até o início do XIX, cuja especificidade foi conseguirem reproduzir sua condição senhorial. Metodologicamente, partimos da microanálise e compusemos redes sociais locais que sustentaram as estratégias dos agentes em questão. Propomos que as rendas criadas a partir das vendas a prazo, os vínculos pessoais entre compradores-credores-vendedores-devedores nas vendas dos engenhos e a sobreposição de vínculos de dependência locais foram fatores que possibilitaram a acumulação econômica e a reprodução ampliada da condição senhorial.Using the concept of ‘Ancien Régime on the Tropics’, this article aims to investigate how social hierarchies and politics in Brazil, during the 18th century, reflected into concrete local strategies. Our objective is to understand the gadgets of an imperfect market, based on agents’ choices who were all involved in lands, sugar mills and credit commercial transactions in the Campo Grande civil parish, in the Rio de Janeiro. All agents had gotten to reproduce its extended senhorial condition. Our methodology is based on microanalysis, so we composed local social nets we guest had supported the agents’ strategies in question. We consider strategies to achieve long term incomes; bonds between purchaser, creditor, salesman and debtors (both involving sugar mills commercial transactions; the overlapping of dependence bonds by strategic exchanges created by sugar mill masters among consanguineous, matrimonial and fictitious relatives had been factors that made possible the economic accumulation and the extended reproduction of the master condition.

  11. Passa-se uma engenhoca: ou como se faziam transações com terras, engenhos e crédito em mercados locais e imperfeitos (freguesia de Campo Grande, Rio de Janeiro, séculos XVIII e XIX) / 'Engenhocas' to sell!: or lands, sugar mills and credit’s trade in local and imperfect markets (Campo Grande civil parish, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, XVIII-XIX centuries )

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Manoela, Pedroza.

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available A questão central deste artigo é perceber como as hierarquias sociais e as políticas específicas do Antigo Regime nos Trópicos se refletiram em estratégias concretas, e compreender as engrenagens locais de um mercado imperfeito. Analisaremos as escolhas e trajetórias de agentes envolvidos em transaç [...] ões com terras, engenhos e concessão de crédito na freguesia de Campo Grande, no correr do século XVIII até o início do XIX, cuja especificidade foi conseguirem reproduzir sua condição senhorial. Metodologicamente, partimos da microanálise e compusemos redes sociais locais que sustentaram as estratégias dos agentes em questão. Propomos que as rendas criadas a partir das vendas a prazo, os vínculos pessoais entre compradores-credores-vendedores-devedores nas vendas dos engenhos e a sobreposição de vínculos de dependência locais foram fatores que possibilitaram a acumulação econômica e a reprodução ampliada da condição senhorial. Abstract in english Using the concept of ‘Ancien Régime on the Tropics’, this article aims to investigate how social hierarchies and politics in Brazil, during the 18th century, reflected into concrete local strategies. Our objective is to understand the gadgets of an imperfect market, based on agents’ choices who were [...] all involved in lands, sugar mills and credit commercial transactions in the Campo Grande civil parish, in the Rio de Janeiro. All agents had gotten to reproduce its extended senhorial condition. Our methodology is based on microanalysis, so we composed local social nets we guest had supported the agents’ strategies in question. We consider strategies to achieve long term incomes; bonds between purchaser, creditor, salesman and debtors (both involving sugar mills commercial transactions); the overlapping of dependence bonds by strategic exchanges created by sugar mill masters among consanguineous, matrimonial and fictitious relatives had been factors that made possible the economic accumulation and the extended reproduction of the master condition.

  12. Scandium as tracer in the sugar and alcohol agroindustry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Neutron activation analysis was used to develop a method of measuring the soil content in a sugar cane consignment. When sugar cane is cut and taken to the sugar and alcohol industries, different quantities of soil are loaded with the stalks, depending on harvesting mechanization and weather conditions. Despite the washing process before crushing, significant amounts of soil have been found in cane delivered to mills. Different soils were sampled at several mills in the State of Sao Paulo, as well as sugar cane stalks of the SP70-1143 variety grown on such soils. Elements present in soil but not in sugar cane have been studied to act as tracers of unwanted impurities. Sc has proved to be an efficient tracer of the soil entering these industries with the sugar cane. (author) 12 refs.; 3 figs.; 1 tab

  13. Neutron activation analysis of different types of cuban sugar

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Concentration of minor and trace elements in sugars (refined, crude and white-direct) from different Cuban mills were determined using instrumental neutron activation analysis with reactor, fourteen elements were fixed: Br, Ce, Co, Cr, Cs, Eu, Fe, La, Rb, Sc, Tb, Sr and Zn. The comparison of teh average concentration in sugar with another food samples is present

  14. Sugar industry dilemma in NWFP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sugarcane is an important cash-crop in Pakistan, ranking fourth in average cultivation after wheat, rice and cotton. It contributed 6.3 percent to the national agricultural value addition and 1.3 percent of the GDP during 2002-2003. It provides direct employment to more than 10,000 persons in NWFP. Sugarcane is grown over an area of more or less one million hectares in Pakistan, the Punjab shares 66.8%, Sindh 23.5% and NWFP shares 9.5% of the total area and 63.7, 26.5 and 9.7% of the production, respectively (Agriculture statistics of Pakistan FRS 2003). The national average cane-yield (47 tonnes per hectare) is far below the existing potential, Sindh with 53 tonnes per hectare is the leading province, followed by NWFP (48 tonnes) and Punjab (45 tonnes per hectare), respectively. In Pakistan, 73 mills are in operation. On the average, these Sugar Mills produce 3.52 million tons Sugar and employed labour force of 1.06 million persons, involving about nine million people of rural population in the production of sugarcane in 2002. In the year 2002-03, cane production was over 52 million tonnes; the Mills utilized (80.28%) of the total cane production with a yield of 3.66 million tonnes of sugar. Part 1 of this paper discusses the importance of sugarcane crop and sugarcane industry towards national economy. In part 2, problems of varied horizon have been covered, in detail, with sound viable recommendations. Finally, conclusions have been drawn in part 3 for consideration by all relevant stakeholders of the sector. To avert problems like low cane-yield, minimum return to farmers, negative attitude and delaying tactics in payments, policy makers and decision-support unit of the province should ensure the following: no further expansion of sugar-mills on political grounds and without viable feasibility; immediate improvement in water-courses, improvement of irrigation efficiency, develop cane-varieties with high sucrose-recovery percentage, reduce cost of production of inputs; provide subsidy to cane growers who should also be paid for their produce well on time by the mills. It is recommended that support-price fixation system and timely payment to farmers should be designed and implemented properly. (author)

  15. Monitoreo de un sistema de secado de bagazo acoplado a una caldera en un ingenio de México Monitoring of a bagasse drying system attached to a boiler in a sugar mill in Mexico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Federico J. Franck Colombres

    Full Text Available Se evaluó el desempeño de un secador de bagazo diseñado por la Estación Experimental Agroindustrial Obispo Colombres, acoplado a una caldera bagacera convencional en un ingenio de México (caldera Nº 5. Para ello, se realizaron ensayos de mediciones y balances de materia y energía, para la caldera operando con el secador y sin él en funcionamiento. La caldera Nº 5, de una producción nominal de 60 t/h de vapor y una presión máxima de trabajo de 29 bar, cuando fue alimentada únicamente con bagazo húmedo pudo generar como máximo 33 t/h de vapor a 19 bar y 269ºC, con un rendimiento energético de 60,4% y un índice de generación de 1,6 kg de vapor/ kg de bagazo. Con la adición del secador, se logró secar 28,6 toneladas de bagazo de 50,2% a 30,4% de humedad. Aproximadamente un 72% de este bagazo presecado se mezcló con bagazo húmedo y se utilizó para alimentar la caldera, produciéndose así 58,4 t/h de vapor; es decir, 77% más de vapor que sin secador. El rendimiento energético del sistema caldera-secador fue de 73,6%, un 21,8% superior al de la caldera sin secador, mientras que el índice de generación fue de 2,0 kg de vapor/ kg de bagazo, 25% mayor que el de la caldera original. Este aumento en la producción de vapor permitió sacar de servicio a la caldera Nº 6, que producía aproximadamente 20 t/h de vapor, con un rendimiento similar al de la caldera Nº 5 sin secador. Estas mejoras dieron como resultado, un ahorro de energía de 45,4 MJ/h, aproximadamente un 18% respecto a la energía consumida por ambas calderas (Nº 5 y Nº 6 cuando no funcionaba el secador. Este ahorro equivale a 1103 l/h de "fuel oil", es decir, alrededor de 1,5 millones de dólares por zafra.A bagasse dryer designed by Estación Experimental Agroindustrial Obispo Colombres was attached to a conventional bagasse boiler (Boiler No. 5 in a sugar mill in Mexico for evaluation. Measurement tests and material and energy balances for the boiler operating with and without the dryer were made. When supplied only with wet bagasse, boiler No. 5, with a nominal production of 60 t/h of steam and a maximum working pressure of 29 bar, could generate no more than 33 t/h of steam at 19 bar and 269 ºC, with an energy yield of 60.4% and an index of 1.6 kg steam/ kg of bagasse . When the dryer was attached, 28.6 tons of bagasse was dried from 50.2% moisture to 30.4%. Approximately 72% of that pre-dried bagasse, mixed with wet bagasse, was fed into the boiler, which then produced 58.4 t/h of steam, i.e. 77% more than without the dryer. The energy efficiency of the boiler-dryer system was 73.6% and the index was 2.0 kg steam/ kg of bagasse, i.e. 21.8%, 25% higher values than those for the original boiler. This increase in steam production allowed putting boiler No. 6 out of service. Boiler No. 6 produced about 20 t/h of steam with similar efficiency to that of boiler No. 5 without the dryer. These improvements resulted in energy savings of about 18%, as compared with the energy consumed by the two boilers (No. 5 and No. 6 when the dryer was not working. Energy saved amounted to 45.4 MJ/h, which is equivalent to 1103 l/h of fuel oil. This represents savings of USD 1.5 million per season.

  16. Monitoreo de un sistema de secado de bagazo acoplado a una caldera en un ingenio de México / Monitoring of a bagasse drying system attached to a boiler in a sugar mill in Mexico

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Federico J., Franck Colombres; Marcos A., Golato; Walter D., Morales; Gustavo, Aso; Dora, Paz.

    2010-12-30

    Full Text Available Se evaluó el desempeño de un secador de bagazo diseñado por la Estación Experimental Agroindustrial Obispo Colombres, acoplado a una caldera bagacera convencional en un ingenio de México (caldera Nº 5). Para ello, se realizaron ensayos de mediciones y balances de materia y energía, para la caldera o [...] perando con el secador y sin él en funcionamiento. La caldera Nº 5, de una producción nominal de 60 t/h de vapor y una presión máxima de trabajo de 29 bar, cuando fue alimentada únicamente con bagazo húmedo pudo generar como máximo 33 t/h de vapor a 19 bar y 269ºC, con un rendimiento energético de 60,4% y un índice de generación de 1,6 kg de vapor/ kg de bagazo. Con la adición del secador, se logró secar 28,6 toneladas de bagazo de 50,2% a 30,4% de humedad. Aproximadamente un 72% de este bagazo presecado se mezcló con bagazo húmedo y se utilizó para alimentar la caldera, produciéndose así 58,4 t/h de vapor; es decir, 77% más de vapor que sin secador. El rendimiento energético del sistema caldera-secador fue de 73,6%, un 21,8% superior al de la caldera sin secador, mientras que el índice de generación fue de 2,0 kg de vapor/ kg de bagazo, 25% mayor que el de la caldera original. Este aumento en la producción de vapor permitió sacar de servicio a la caldera Nº 6, que producía aproximadamente 20 t/h de vapor, con un rendimiento similar al de la caldera Nº 5 sin secador. Estas mejoras dieron como resultado, un ahorro de energía de 45,4 MJ/h, aproximadamente un 18% respecto a la energía consumida por ambas calderas (Nº 5 y Nº 6) cuando no funcionaba el secador. Este ahorro equivale a 1103 l/h de "fuel oil", es decir, alrededor de 1,5 millones de dólares por zafra. Abstract in english A bagasse dryer designed by Estación Experimental Agroindustrial Obispo Colombres was attached to a conventional bagasse boiler (Boiler No. 5) in a sugar mill in Mexico for evaluation. Measurement tests and material and energy balances for the boiler operating with and without the dryer were made. W [...] hen supplied only with wet bagasse, boiler No. 5, with a nominal production of 60 t/h of steam and a maximum working pressure of 29 bar, could generate no more than 33 t/h of steam at 19 bar and 269 ºC, with an energy yield of 60.4% and an index of 1.6 kg steam/ kg of bagasse . When the dryer was attached, 28.6 tons of bagasse was dried from 50.2% moisture to 30.4%. Approximately 72% of that pre-dried bagasse, mixed with wet bagasse, was fed into the boiler, which then produced 58.4 t/h of steam, i.e. 77% more than without the dryer. The energy efficiency of the boiler-dryer system was 73.6% and the index was 2.0 kg steam/ kg of bagasse, i.e. 21.8%, 25% higher values than those for the original boiler. This increase in steam production allowed putting boiler No. 6 out of service. Boiler No. 6 produced about 20 t/h of steam with similar efficiency to that of boiler No. 5 without the dryer. These improvements resulted in energy savings of about 18%, as compared with the energy consumed by the two boilers (No. 5 and No. 6) when the dryer was not working. Energy saved amounted to 45.4 MJ/h, which is equivalent to 1103 l/h of fuel oil. This represents savings of USD 1.5 million per season.

  17. The Truth about Sugar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeung, C Albert; Goodfellow, Ashley; Flanagan, Louise

    2015-01-01

    Sugars are used by the industry to enhance the attractiveness of foods and drinks. These added sugars, or 'free sugars, are not easily identified in food or drink labels. Certain manufactured foods and drinks with 'safe' names, such as dried fruit and fruit juice, still contain free sugars and can be confusing. Guidance states that daily consumption of free sugars should be less than 10% of total energy intake (no more than 5% in the UK). However, it is found that both tooth decay and obesity are associated with consumption of free sugars in large quantities and at inappropriate times. PMID:26506805

  18. Steam consumption minimization model in a multiple evaporation effect in a sugar plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this work, a mathematical model to minimize the steam consumption in a multiple effect evaporation system is shown. The model is based in the dynamic programming technique and the results are tested in a Colombian sugar mill

  19. Sugar - a harmless indulgence?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Lone Banke; Andersen, Niels Lyhne

    1998-01-01

    The consumption of sugar is relatively high in Denmark - and other industrial countries - and many persons have a consumption which exceeds the recommended level of maximally 10% of energy intake. A high sugar consumption may reduce the nutrient density of the diet and increase the risk of vitamin and mineral deficiency, especially in low energy consumers. The sugar intake and the fat intake, expressed as percentage of energy, usually show an inverse association. This has lead to the statement that a diet with both a low sugar content and a low fat content is incompatible, but we will argue that this is not the fact. The significance of sugar for the development of obesity is not clarified. A high fat content in the diet seems to promote the development of obesity, while a high carbohydrate content tends to reduce obesity. It is not known if sugar in this connection is comparable to the other carbohydrates in the diet, primarily because of the high energy density of sugar. Diabetes mellitus and heart diseasesdo not seem to have any direct connection with a high sugar consumption. Sugar continues to be a risk factor for the development of caries. Further, it cannot be excluded that high sugar consumption is a risk factor for cancer in the gastrointestinal tract or for Crohn's disease. It seems reasonable to keep the current recommendations about sugar intake.

  20. Case-control study of lung cancer among sugar cane farmers in India

    OpenAIRE

    Amre, D. K.; Infante-Rivard, C.; Dufresne, A; Durgawale, P. M.; Ernst, P

    1999-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To investigate the risk of lung cancer among sugar cane farmers and sugar mill workers. METHODS: A case-control study was conducted based in six hospitals in the predominantly sugar cane farming districts of the province of Maharashtra in India. Newly diagnosed, histologically confirmed cases were identified from these hospitals between May 1996 and April 1998. Other cancers were chosen as controls and matched to cases by age, sex, district of residence, and timing of diagno...

  1. GROWTH AND EFFICIENCY OF SUGAR UNIT WITH SPECIAL REFERENCE TO RENUKA SUGAR INDUSTRY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. M. Makandar

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Sugar industry is the largest agro-based industry located in the rural India. About 45 million sugarcane farmers, their dependents and a large mass of agricultural labours are involved in sugarcane cultivation, harvesting and ancillary activities, and constituting 7.5 per cent of the rural population. Beside these, about 0.5 million skilled and semi-skilled workers, mostly from the rural areas are engaged in the sugar industry. The sugar industry in India has been a focal point for socio-economic development in the rural areas by mobilizing rural resources, generating employment and higher income, transport and communication facilities. Further, many sugar factories have established schools, colleges, medical centres and hospitals for the benefit of the rural population. Some of the sugar factories have also diversified into by-product based industries and have invested and put up distilleries, organic chemical plants, paper and board factories and cogeneration plants. The industry generates its own replenish able biomass and uses it as fuel without depending on fossil fuel. The sugar industry’s contribution to the Indian economy is, therefore, enormous.

  2. Sugar and Other Sweeteners

    Science.gov (United States)

    Godshall, Mary An

    Sugar and starch are among the most abundant plant products available, and large industries exist worldwide to extract and process them from agricultural sources. The world production of sugar (sucrose from cane and beet) in 2004/2005 was 142 million metric tons, raw value, 1 with 24.8 percent of that being beet sugar and 75.1 percent being cane sugar.2 The proportion of beet sugar to cane sugar has fallen steadily since about 1971, when it constituted 42.8 percent of total sugar production. The decline in total beet sugar proportion over the last ten years represents not so much a decline in beet production, which has remained in a range of 33-39 million metric tons, but rather a continued increase in cane sugar production from around 70 million metric tons in 1991 to 112 million metric tons.2 The production of total world sugar has also risen dramatically since 1971/72, when it was 71.7 million tons.3

  3. Experimental study on compressive strength of concrete by partially replacement of cement with sugar cane bagasse ash

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jayminkumar A. Patel

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Use of waste material in concrete is important for environmental aspect. Sugar cane bagasse ash is a waste by product of sugar mill. Present study is to investigate impact of sugar cane bagasse ash in concrete. In this experimental work sugar cane bagasse ash which is taken from Maroli sugar mill, Navsari, Gujarat, INDIA is partially replace with cement at 0%, 5%, 10%, 15% and 20% by weight in concrete. The grade of concrete is M25 and w/c ratio is 0.49 taken as a reference. 150*150*150 mm cubes are casted and tested for 7, 14, 28 and 56 days. Compressive strength result shows that up to 10% replacement of sugar cane bagasse ash in concrete gives comparable result with normal concrete without any admixture, but 5% replacement give maximum compressive strength. Also the amount of sugar cane bagasse ash increase, workability of concrete increases.

  4. Sugar - a harmless indulgence?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Lone Banke; Andersen, Niels Lyhne; Ovesen, L.

    1998-01-01

    The consumption of sugar is relatively high in Denmark - and other industrial countries - and many persons have a consumption which exceeds the recommended level of maximally 10% of energy intake. A high sugar consumption may reduce the nutrient density of the diet and increase the risk of vitamin and mineral deficiency, especially in low energy consumers. The sugar intake and the fat intake, expressed as percentage of energy, usually show an inverse association. This has lead to the statement t...

  5. James Mill's treatment of religion and the History of British India

    OpenAIRE

    Plassart, A

    2008-01-01

    James Mill's History of British India' (1817) played a major role in re-shaping the English policy and attitudes in India throughout the nineteenth century. This article questions the widely held view that the 'HBI' heralded the utilitarian justification of colonisation found for instance in John Stuart Mill's writings. It suggests that James Mill's role as a proponent of 'utilitarian imperialism' has been overstated, and argues that much of Mill's criticism of Indian society arose from the c...

  6. Sugar and Sugar Beet Policy Reforms in Turkey

    OpenAIRE

    Yasar Akcay; Meral Uzunoz

    2006-01-01

    The translog cost function is applied to analyze input demand in Turkey sugar beet production from 1975 to 2003. Sugar and sugar beet production became an important issue after the sugar act changed in 2001. Although the political aspects of sugar beet production have been studied extensively, few studies are available on the quantitative aspects of sugar beet production in Turkey. The main goal of the study was to estimate input substitution and the elasticity of demand for the factors of su...

  7. Cutting Sugar in Kids' Diets

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Videos & Tools You Are Here: Home ? Latest Health News ? Cutting Sugar in Kids' Diets URL of this page: https://www.nlm.nih.gov/medlineplus/videos/news/Cutting_Sugar_102715.html Cutting Sugar in Kids' ...

  8. Generation and export of electric energy by sugar and alcohol plants; Geracao e exportacao de energia eletrica por usinas sucroalcooleiras

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Queiroz, Gil Mesquita de Oliveira Rabello; Paschoareli Junior, Dionizio; Faria Junior, Max Jose de Araujo [Universidade Estadual Paulista (DEE/UNESP), Ilha Solteira, SP (Brazil). Dept. de Engenharia Eletrica. Grupo de Pesquisa em Fontes Alternativas e Aproveitamento de Energia Eletrica

    2008-07-01

    This paper presents technical aspects necessary to allow a sugar-cane mill, which promotes cogeneration, to operate as an electrical energy producer. Changes and optimization in the process to produce alcohol and sugar-cane, which results in the increase of electrical energy to export are discussed. A case of a sugarcane mill, working as a thermoelectric power plant is presented. The necessary components to generate energy and to connect the thermoelectric plant to the main transmission system are described. (author)

  9. Foods The Indians Gave Us. Coloring Book.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hail, Raven

    This children's coloring book devotes a page to each of twenty of the most familiar American Indian plant foods: avocado, green beans, black walnuts, cocoa, corn, peanuts, pecans, chile peppers, pineapples, popcorn, potatoes, pumpkins, squash, strawberries, sugar maple, sunflowers, sweet potatoes, tapioca, tomatoes, and vanilla. Illustrating each…

  10. Valoración económica sobre la aplicabilidad de inspección ultrasónica a los árboles de los molinos de caña de azúcar para la industria azucarera cubana / Economic feasibility study regarding the applicability of ultrasonic inspection of the Cuban sugar industry’s sugarcane mill shafts

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Nelson, Arzola de la Peña.

    2006-08-01

    Full Text Available Se presenta un análisis económico que evalúa la factibilidad de emplear inspección ultrasónica para los árboles de los molinos de caña de azúcar. Se emplean cuatro variantes de sustitución de los árboles de los molinos que recrean los escenarios más frecuentes. Se incluye la alternativa de utilizar [...] inspección ultrasónica, con periodos de tiempo entre inspecciones fijados según un modelo de propagación de grietas de fatiga. En la valoración económica se utiliza el criterio del costo del ciclo de vida; teniendo en cuenta los costos de operación, mantenimiento y energía que influyen sobre los árboles de los molinos de caña de azúcar. Se llega a la conclusión de que es bastante recomendable emplear inspección ultrasónica con un nivel alto en las especificaciones del procedimiento. Con la introducción de la inspección ultrasónica, según los tiempos obtenidos por el modelo de mecánica de la fractura, es posible lograr un ahorro de medio millón de dólares por año para las condiciones existentes en la industria azucarera cubana. Abstract in english This article evaluates the economic feasibility of carrying out ultrasonic inspection of sugar-mill shafts. Four alternatives are considered, including the most frequently encountered scenarios. How and when inspections are carried out is analysed, periods between inspections being established by a [...] fatigue-crack growth propagation approach. The lifecycle cost approach was applied for economic evaluation. Operation, maintenance and energy consumption costs were thus taken into consideration. The conclusion was drawn that it is highly advisable to use high performance ultrasonic inspection. Introducing ultrasonic inspection (according to the period of time obtained by fracture mechanics model) could lead to a saving of half a million dollars per year for the Cuban sugarcane industry in the current conditions.

  11. Sweeteners - sugar substitutes

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... t shown any serious side effects FDA approved Sucralose (Splenda): 600 times sweeter than sugar Used in ... artificial sweeteners aspartame, acesulfame K, saccharin, neotame, and sucralose are all FDA approved. Aspartame is not recommended ...

  12. Quantitation of trans-aconitic acid in different stages of the sugar-manufacturing process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montoya, Guillermo; Londono, July; Cortes, Paola; Izquierdo, Olga

    2014-08-20

    The sugar cane industry has seen how biomass production in sugar mills would be converted to a readily available source of molecules besides sugar. Properly managed, byproducts would be transformed into a sustainable source of renewable and environmentally friendly chemical products. As a principal and more abundant organic acid in sugar cane juice, trans-aconitic acid (TAA) has been studied for use as a plasticizer in the polymer industry. However, up to now no industrial-scale application has been reported. As a reasonable approach to recover TAA from a sugar mill, first, an analytical method to determine its presence in all stages of the sugar-manufacturing process is needed. A new modern method was developed to measure TAA in seven stages in a sugar mill located in Valle del Cauca, Colombia. The stages with higher content of TAA were syrup, with 3363.6 ± 589.3 mg/L, and honey (molasses), with 6110.05 ± 139.5 mg/L. PMID:25098840

  13. A STUDY OF PERCEPTION OF WOMEN EMPLOYEES IN WEAVING MILLS

    OpenAIRE

    T. K. Jadhav

    2014-01-01

    Indian Textile Industry holds key position in Indian economy. It contributes about 4 percent to the GDP and 12 per cent to the country's total export earnings. It provides direct employment to over 35 million people, the second largest provider of employment after agriculture. Besides, another 54.85 million people are engaged in its allied activities. High perception assists the management to overcome several women employees' problems in weaving mills. In this paper, the r...

  14. Metabolic engineering of sugars and simple sugar derivatives in plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patrick, John W; Botha, Frikkie C; Birch, Robert G

    2013-02-01

    Carbon captured through photosynthesis is transported, and sometimes stored in plants, as sugar. All organic compounds in plants trace to carbon from sugars, so sugar metabolism is highly regulated and integrated with development. Sugars stored by plants are important to humans as foods and as renewable feedstocks for industrial conversion to biofuels and biomaterials. For some purposes, sugars have advantages over polymers including starches, cellulose or storage lipids. This review considers progress and prospects in plant metabolic engineering for increased yield of endogenous sugars and for direct production of higher-value sugars and simple sugar derivatives. Opportunities are examined for enhancing export of sugars from leaves. Focus then turns to manipulation of sugar metabolism in sugar-storing sink organs such as fruits, sugarcane culms and sugarbeet tubers. Results from manipulation of suspected 'limiting' enzymes indicate a need for clearer understanding of flux control mechanisms, to achieve enhanced levels of endogenous sugars in crops that are highly selected for this trait. Outcomes from in planta conversion to novel sugars and derivatives range from severe interference with plant development to field demonstration of crops accumulating higher-value sugars at high yields. The differences depend on underlying biological factors including the effects of the novel products on endogenous metabolism, and on biotechnological fine-tuning including developmental expression and compartmentation patterns. Ultimately, osmotic activity may limit the accumulation of sugars to yields below those achievable using polymers; but results indicate the potential for increases above current commercial sugar yields, through metabolic engineering underpinned by improved understanding of plant sugar metabolism. PMID:23043616

  15. Fossil energy savings potential of sugar cane bio-energy systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nguyen, Thu Lan T; Hermansen, John Erik; Sagisaka, Masayuki

    2009-01-01

    One important rationale for bio-energy systems is their potential to save fossil energy. Converting a conventional sugar mill into a bio-energy process plant would contribute to fossil energy savings via the extraction of renewable electricity and ethanol substituting for fossil electricity and gasoline, respectively. This paper takes a closer look at the Thai sugar industry and examines two practical approaches that will enhance fossil energy savings. The first one addresses an efficient extrac...

  16. Genetic improvement of sugar cane for bioenergy: the Brazilian experience in network research with RIDESA

    OpenAIRE

    Luiz Alexandre Peternelli; Ricardo Augusto Oliveira; Geraldo Veríssimo de Souza Barbosa; Luiz Antônio dos Santos Dias; Marcos Deon Vilela Resende; Márcio Henrique Pereira Barbosa; Edelclaiton Daros

    2012-01-01

    In this paper, it is presented RIDESA’s model for sugar cane breeding to ethanol, and its scientific, technological and human resources training contributions. RIDESA is an inter-university network for the development of sugar cane industry in Brazil, and was formed by a technical cooperation agreement between ten public universities. The model of network management is presented in this study, which involves, among other things, the public-private partnership (Universities-Mills) for the deve...

  17. Clinical epidemiological profile of American tegumentary leishmaniasis at the Pinto Sugar Mill in Moreno Municipality, Greater Metropolitan Recife, Pernambuco State, Brazil Perfil clínico-epidemiológico da leishmaniose tegumentar americana no Engenho Pinto, Município de Moreno, Região Metropolitana do Recife, Pernambuco, Brasil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Edileuza Felinto de Brito

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available American tegumentary leishmaniasis (ATL is present in all regions of Pernambuco State, Brazil, where it is spreading, with the emergence of foci in new areas like the Municipality (County of Moreno in Greater Metropolitan Recife. The objective of the current study was to assess the prevalence of infection and identify autochthonous cases of ATL. In April 2006 a population survey was performed using a questionnaire and the Montenegro skin test (MST in 481 individuals from the Pinto Sugar Mill, of whom 47% were males and 74% were younger than 30 years. One hundred forty-four individuals (30% showed a positive MST. Of these, five presented active lesions, 41 were cured after meglumine antimoniate treatment, and one showed a spontaneous cure. Indirect immunofluorescence (IIF was performed on sera from 89 individuals and showed a 36% positive rate. The high ATL prevalence demonstrates the epidemiological spread of the disease in Greater Metropolitan Recife, a worrisome development since there are no effective measures for ATL control except ecological awareness raising to minimize the risk of infection.A leishmaniose tegumentar americana incide em todas as regiões do Estado de Pernambuco, Brasil, onde se apresenta em expansão, com o surgimento de focos em novas áreas, como o Município de Moreno, na região metropolitana do Recife. O objetivo deste estudo foi avaliar a prevalência da infecção e identificar os casos autóctones de leishmaniose tegumentar americana. Em abril de 2006, realizou-se um inquérito populacional por meio da aplicação de um questionário e do teste de intradermoreação de Montenegro a 481 indivíduos do Engenho Pinto, dos quais 47% eram do sexo masculino e 74% menores de 30 anos. Cento e quarenta e quatro (30% indivíduos apresentaram reação positiva ao teste. Dentre estes, cinco apresentaram lesões ativas, 41 foram curados após quimioterapia e um curado espontaneamente. A RIFI realizada nos soros de 89 indivíduos apresentou 36% de positividade. A alta prevalência aponta para a expansão epidemiológica da doença nessa área da região metropolitana, fato preocupante, pois não há medidas eficazes para o controle da leishmaniose tegumentar americana, a não ser uma conscientização ecológica para minimizar o risco de infecção.

  18. Clinical epidemiological profile of American tegumentary leishmaniasis at the Pinto Sugar Mill in Moreno Municipality, Greater Metropolitan Recife, Pernambuco State, Brazil / Perfil clínico-epidemiológico da leishmaniose tegumentar americana no Engenho Pinto, Município de Moreno, Região Metropolitana do Recife, Pernambuco, Brasil

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Maria Edileuza Felinto de, Brito; Cláudio Júlio, Silva; Cristiane Máximo, Silva; Pedro Raposo, Salazar; Juliana Santos, Coutinho; Luiza de Campos, Reis; Valéria Rego Alves, Pereira; Sinval Pinto, Brandão-Filho; Ângela Cristina Rapela, Medeiros.

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available A leishmaniose tegumentar americana incide em todas as regiões do Estado de Pernambuco, Brasil, onde se apresenta em expansão, com o surgimento de focos em novas áreas, como o Município de Moreno, na região metropolitana do Recife. O objetivo deste estudo foi avaliar a prevalência da infecção e iden [...] tificar os casos autóctones de leishmaniose tegumentar americana. Em abril de 2006, realizou-se um inquérito populacional por meio da aplicação de um questionário e do teste de intradermoreação de Montenegro a 481 indivíduos do Engenho Pinto, dos quais 47% eram do sexo masculino e 74% menores de 30 anos. Cento e quarenta e quatro (30%) indivíduos apresentaram reação positiva ao teste. Dentre estes, cinco apresentaram lesões ativas, 41 foram curados após quimioterapia e um curado espontaneamente. A RIFI realizada nos soros de 89 indivíduos apresentou 36% de positividade. A alta prevalência aponta para a expansão epidemiológica da doença nessa área da região metropolitana, fato preocupante, pois não há medidas eficazes para o controle da leishmaniose tegumentar americana, a não ser uma conscientização ecológica para minimizar o risco de infecção. Abstract in english American tegumentary leishmaniasis (ATL) is present in all regions of Pernambuco State, Brazil, where it is spreading, with the emergence of foci in new areas like the Municipality (County) of Moreno in Greater Metropolitan Recife. The objective of the current study was to assess the prevalence of i [...] nfection and identify autochthonous cases of ATL. In April 2006 a population survey was performed using a questionnaire and the Montenegro skin test (MST) in 481 individuals from the Pinto Sugar Mill, of whom 47% were males and 74% were younger than 30 years. One hundred forty-four individuals (30%) showed a positive MST. Of these, five presented active lesions, 41 were cured after meglumine antimoniate treatment, and one showed a spontaneous cure. Indirect immunofluorescence (IIF) was performed on sera from 89 individuals and showed a 36% positive rate. The high ATL prevalence demonstrates the epidemiological spread of the disease in Greater Metropolitan Recife, a worrisome development since there are no effective measures for ATL control except ecological awareness raising to minimize the risk of infection.

  19. Characterisation of a phenolic resin and sugar cane pulp composite

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    J. L., Leite; A. T. N., Pires; S. M. A. G. Ulson de, Souza; A. A. Ulson de, Souza.

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available Polymeric materials are increasingly replacing metallic materials as a result of their properties. In this work a composite of phenolic resin and sugar cane pulp was developed. The sugar cane pulp has been previously alkalinised, dried, and milled and the particles had been classified in a range of [...] grain sizes. Experimental assays were performed, varying the proportion of the resin and the reinforcement and the size of the cane pulp fibre, keeping the pressure and moulding temperature constant. These composites were characterised according to physical and chemical properties, through test bodies produced in moulds according to ASTM standards. The experiments performed showed that the use of sugar cane pulp as reinforcement in polymeric composites represents an option for reducing costs in industrial applications, thus suggesting a significant industrial applicability of the product.

  20. Characterisation of a phenolic resin and sugar cane pulp composite

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. L. Leite

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available Polymeric materials are increasingly replacing metallic materials as a result of their properties. In this work a composite of phenolic resin and sugar cane pulp was developed. The sugar cane pulp has been previously alkalinised, dried, and milled and the particles had been classified in a range of grain sizes. Experimental assays were performed, varying the proportion of the resin and the reinforcement and the size of the cane pulp fibre, keeping the pressure and moulding temperature constant. These composites were characterised according to physical and chemical properties, through test bodies produced in moulds according to ASTM standards. The experiments performed showed that the use of sugar cane pulp as reinforcement in polymeric composites represents an option for reducing costs in industrial applications, thus suggesting a significant industrial applicability of the product.

  1. Ergonomic design applied in a sugar mill interface

    OpenAIRE

    Ponsa Asensio, Pere; Amante García, Beatriz; Díaz Boladeras, Marta

    2010-01-01

    In tasks requiring human supervision in an industrial control room there are applied generic disciplines like automatic control and engineering systems. From the point of view of the human computer interaction applied to these disciplines it is necessary to add usability engineering and cognitive ergonomics. This integrated framework is an example of human-centred design on automation systems. The main goal of this work is the application of a cognitive ergonomic gu...

  2. 76 FR 62339 - Domestic Sugar Program-2011-Crop Cane Sugar and Beet Sugar Marketing Allotments and Company...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-07

    ...Cane Sugar and Beet Sugar Marketing Allotments and Company Allocations AGENCY: Commodity...year (FY) 2012 State sugar marketing allotments and company allocations to sugarcane...adjusting, or suspending sugar marketing allotments in the Federal Register. FOR...

  3. "Sugar" jõuab lavale / Ülle Hallik

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Hallik, Ülle, 1963-

    2008-01-01

    Vanemuises esietendub 5. juunil "Sugar", lavastaja Mare Tommingas. Muusikal põhineb Jule Styne muusikalil "Sugar ehk Dzhässis ainult tüdrukud". Muusikali libreto kirjutas Peter Stone Robert Thoereni jutustuse ning Billy Wilderi ja I. A. L. Dimanondi filmi "Some Like It Hot" põhjal

  4. Evaluation of soil contents in sugar cane loading using activation analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    When sugar cane is cut and taken to the sugar and alcohol mills, a significant quantity of soil is loaded with the stalks. This content has been reduced to 1% due to improvement in harvesting methods. Elements present in soil but not in sugar cane have been studied to act as tracers in the determination of unwanted minerals. Samples of different soils were irradiated with thermal neutrons in a nuclear reactor and the induced radioactivity measured by high resolution gamma ray spectrometry. (author). 52 refs., 7 figs., 11 tabs

  5. Affect of Working Capital Management on Firms Profitability in Sugar Industry of Pakistan

    OpenAIRE

    Malik, Zafar Ullah; iqbal, athar

    2012-01-01

    Management of working capital performs a very vital part in the performance of firms in sugar industry. This thesis tests the impact of working capital management on firm’s profitability in sugar industry of Pakistan for years 1999 to 2009. To analyze this, data of 19 sugar mills which are listed at Karachi Stock Exchange is used. The result shows that the Sales Growth, Current Ratio, No of Days Inventory and No of Days Accounts Payables are significantly affecting the profitability of the fi...

  6. Cutting Sugar in Kids' Diets

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Cutting_Sugar_102715.html Cutting Sugar in Kids' Diets HealthDay News Video - October 28, 2015 To use ... enable JavaScript. Play video: Cutting Sugar in Kids' Diets For closed captioning, click the CC button on ...

  7. Cutting Sugar in Kids' Diets

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... news/Cutting_Sugar_102715.html Cutting Sugar in Kids' Diets HealthDay News Video - October 28, 2015 To ... please enable JavaScript. Play video: Cutting Sugar in Kids' Diets For closed captioning, click the CC button ...

  8. Indian Summer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Galindo, E. [Sho-Ban High School, Fort Hall, ID (United States)

    1997-08-01

    This paper focuses on preserving and strengthening two resources culturally and socially important to the Shoshone-Bannock Indian Tribe on the Fort Hall Reservation in Idaho; their young people and the Pacific-Northwest Salmon. After learning that salmon were not returning in significant numbers to ancestral fishing waters at headwater spawning sites, tribal youth wanted to know why. As a result, the Indian Summer project was conceived to give Shoshone-Bannock High School students the opportunity to develop hands-on, workable solutions to improve future Indian fishing and help make the river healthy again. The project goals were to increase the number of fry introduced into the streams, teach the Shoshone-Bannock students how to use scientific methodologies, and get students, parents, community members, and Indian and non-Indian mentors excited about learning. The students chose an egg incubation experiment to help increase self-sustaining, natural production of steelhead trout, and formulated and carried out a three step plan to increase the hatch-rate of steelhead trout in Idaho waters. With the help of local companies, governmental agencies, scientists, and mentors students have been able to meet their project goals, and at the same time, have learned how to use scientific methods to solve real life problems, how to return what they have used to the water and land, and how to have fun and enjoy life while learning.

  9. Economic analyse of industrial production and electric energy consumption on a sugar-alcohol plant; Analise economica da producao industrial e do consumo de energia eletrica em uma usina sucro-alcooleira

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bini, Aderson

    1993-10-01

    Economic aspects of industrial production of sugar cane and automotive alcohol fuel, the relation between its production and electric energy consumption, electric energy costs to self generated electric power and concessionary supply, involved in plant production on Ribeirao Preto, SP, Brazil, are presented. Studies to verify the relationships between sugar and alcohol production with milling ours as well as sugar cane processed with sugar and alcohol produced are also discussed 27 refs., 12 figs., 38 tabs.

  10. Life Cycle Assessment of Sugar Production (VB)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Teljigovic, Mehmed; Mengiardi, Jon; Factor, Gabriela; Longin, Eric; Welton, Carole; Villanueva, Alejandro; Jørgensen, Michael Søgaard

    1999-01-01

    The environmental organisation NOAH has proposed carrying out an environmental assessment of two different sugar productions (using sugar beet or sugar cane) in order to illustrate which of the systems has a higher environmental impact for sugar consumption in Denmark. Therefore a comparison will be made between sugar from sugar beet produced in Denmark versus sugar produces from sugar cane in a tropical country, Brazil, and transported afterwards to Denmark. To evaluate the environmental aspect...

  11. PROGRESS AND PROBLEMS OF AGRO-BASED INDUSTRIES IN INDIA: A STUDY OF SUGAR INDUSTRY

    OpenAIRE

    DINKAR P. TAKALE

    2013-01-01

    Agro-based industries play a vital role in the development of Indian rural economy. India's 70 per cent of total population directly depends on agriculture and agro-based industries. Sugar industry is one of the most important agro-based industries in the development process of rural India. Therefore, the study has selected this agrobased industry and analysed sugarcane and sugar production, trends of sugarcane and sugar product, recovery of cane during the period 1950-51 to 2010-11. Mah...

  12. Pyrolysis of Table Sugar

    OpenAIRE

    Adnan Bulut; Selhan Karagöz

    2013-01-01

    Table sugars were pyrolyzed at different temperatures (300, 400, and 500°C) in a fixed-bed reactor. The effect of pyrolysis temperature on yields of liquid, solid, and gaseous products was investigated. As expected the yield of liquid products gradually increased and the yield of solid products gradually decreased when the pyrolysis temperature was raised. The yield of liquid products was greatest (52?wt%) at 500°C. The composition of bio-oils extracted with diethyl ether was identified by me...

  13. Starches, Sugars and Obesity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erik E. J. G. Aller

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available The rising prevalence of obesity, not only in adults but also in children and adolescents, is one of the most important public health problems in developed and developing countries. As one possible way to tackle obesity, a great interest has been stimulated in understanding the relationship between different types of dietary carbohydrate and appetite regulation, body weight and body composition. The present article reviews the conclusions from recent reviews and meta-analyses on the effects of different starches and sugars on body weight management and metabolic disturbances, and provides an update of the most recent studies on this topic. From the literature reviewed in this paper, potential beneficial effects of intake of starchy foods, especially those containing slowly-digestible and resistant starches, and potential detrimental effects of high intakes of fructose become apparent. This supports the intake of whole grains, legumes and vegetables, which contain more appropriate sources of carbohydrates associated with reduced risk of cardiovascular and other chronic diseases, rather than foods rich in sugars, especially in the form of sugar-sweetened beverages.

  14. Indian Orphanages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holt, Marilyn Irvin

    With their traditional tribal and kinship ties, Native Americans had lived for centuries without the concept of an unwanted child. But besieged by reservation life and boarding school acculturation, many tribes, with the encouragement of whites, came to accept the need for orphanages. This book tells the story of Indian orphanages within the…

  15. Energy saving in the sugar cane agroindustry; Ahorro de energia en la agroindustria azucarera canera

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zedillo Ponce de Leon, Luis [Grupo de paises Latinoamericanos y del Caribe exportadores de azucar (Mexico)

    1996-07-01

    The traditional sugar mill is inefficient from the energy point of view. Most of the sugar mills were designed to use all the available bagasse, due to the risk of spontaneous ignition and environmental pollution. Consequently, the steam generators, the turbines and other components were designed to work with low efficiencies. Each ton of sugar produced generates a power potential equivalent to four to six oil barrels (bagasse and residues). That is to say, a sugar mill is capable of producing 500 ton/day of sugar, equivalent to an oil well of 2000 to 3000 barrels/day and one thermoelectric power plant of 15,000 kW. Under this context an analysis is made of the sugar mills in Latin America and the Caribbean as one of the ways of increasing their efficiency and obtain great energy savings. As far as steam generation the appropriate use of energy is dictated by the boilers' efficiency. [Spanish] El ingenio azucarero tradicional es ineficiente desde el punto de vista energetico. La mayoria de los ingenios azucareros se disenaron para usar todo el bagazo disponible, debido al riesgo de ignicion espontanea y contaminacion. En consecuencia, los generadores de vapor, las turbinas y demas componentes fueron disenados para trabajar con bajas eficiencias. Cada tonelada de azucar producida genera una potencialidad energetica equivalente de cuatro a seis barriles de petroleo (bagazo y residuos). Es decir, un ingenio capaz de producir 500 ton/dia de azucar equivalente a un pozo de petroleo de 2000 a 3000 barriles/dia y una termoelectrica de 15000 kW. Bajo este contexto se hace un analisis del ingenio azucarero en Latinoamerica y el Caribe como una de las vias para incrementar su eficiencia y lograr grandes ahorros en la energia. En cuanto a generacion de vapor se refiere, el buen uso de la energia viene expresado por la eficiencia de las calderas.

  16. Concept on Sugar- A Review

    OpenAIRE

    Zakaria Ahmed; Hasina Banu; Firaza Akhter; . M. Faruquzzaman; Shamsul Haque

    2001-01-01

    Sugars have a long history of safe use in foods. They are common food ingredients that add taste appeal and perform important functions in foods. Besides its pleasant sweetness, sugar performs a host of less obvious and important functions in cooking, baking, candy making and the like. As carbohydrates, sugars are a contributor of calories for the body. The ability to produce solutions of varying degrees of sweetness is important in many food applications, particularly in beverages and...

  17. KEGG PATHWAY / Amino sugar and nucleotide sugar metabolism [KEGG

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available PATHWAY: map00520 Entry map00520Pathway Name Amino sugar and nucleotide sugar metabolism Class M ... er MH, Hancock RE, Lory S, Olson MV Title Complete genome ... sequence of Pseudomonas aeruginosa PAO1, an opport ... e Large-scale approaches for glycobiology. Journal Genome ... Biol 6:236 (2005) Reference PMID:16452451 Authors ...

  18. PROGRESS AND PROBLEMS OF AGRO-BASED INDUSTRIES IN INDIA: A STUDY OF SUGAR INDUSTRY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    DINKAR P. TAKALE

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Agro-based industries play a vital role in the development of Indian rural economy. India's 70 per cent of total population directly depends on agriculture and agro-based industries. Sugar industry is one of the most important agro-based industries in the development process of rural India. Therefore, the study has selected this agrobased industry and analysed sugarcane and sugar production, trends of sugarcane and sugar product, recovery of cane during the period 1950-51 to 2010-11. Maharashtra and Uttar Pradesh are two largest sugar producer states in India. So, the study has also discussed the comparative growth of sugarcane production and sugar industries in Maharashtra and Uttar Pradesh states of India. The study has revealed that India is the second largest producer of sugar in the world. India has produced 24394 thousand tones sugar from 527 factories in the year 2010-11. The study has also found that near about 61 per cent of total sugar production in India has produced in Maharashtra and Uttar Pradesh states only.

  19. FM Interviews: Stephanie Mills

    OpenAIRE

    Valauskas, Edward

    2002-01-01

    Stephanie Mills is an author, editor, lecturer and ecological activist who has concerned herself with the fate of the earth and humanity since 1969, when her commencement address at Mills College in Oakland, Calif., drew the attention of a nation. Her speech, which the New York Times called "perhaps the most anguished statement" of the year's crop of valedictory speeches, predicted a bleak future. According to Mills, humanity was destined for suicide, the result of overpopulation and overuse ...

  20. Production of sugar and alcohol: financial and operational strategies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Celma de Oliveira Ribeiro

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available This article proposes the construction of an optimization model to define the product portfolio of a sugarcane mill, taking into account operational and financial aspects. It is considered that the revenue earned by a producer comes from the sale of sugar and alcohol in the physical market and the results obtained through hedging in the derivatives market of sugar. Employing CVaR (Conditional Value-at-Risk, as the risk measure, the model allows the construction of an efficient frontier and, according to the producer's risk tolerance, defines the optimal strategy of production (production mix and activity in the derivatives market (hedge ratio. Through the model the article also seeks to analyze the advantage of using the options market in the construction of financial hedging strategies in agricultural commodities markets.

  1. DETERMINATION OF PRIMARY METABOLITES IN CEREAL MILLING FRACTIONS

    OpenAIRE

    Eva Ivanišová; Miroslav Ondrejovi?; Barbara Mickowska; Stanislav Šilhár; Tatiana Boj?anská

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine of primary metabolites (content of starch, total dietary fibre, reducing sugars, proteins and amino acids) in four milling fractions of selected cereals (barley, wheat, oat, spelt, rye, triticale) grew in the year 2009. It was found that flour fractions (break flour and reduction flour) showed the lower content of primary metabolites than bran fractions (fine bran and coarse bran). The aim of this study was also to mention the potential use of bran parts...

  2. Cutting Sugar in Kids' Diets

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Transcript Cutting added sugar without cutting calories can improve the metabolic health of children according to a new study. Researchers ... diet, nearly every measure of the participants' metabolic health improved, ... exercise. Blood pressure decreased, cholesterol, blood sugar and insulin ...

  3. Frequently Asked Questions about Sugar

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... recommend as a limit for daily added sugars intake? The American Heart Association recommends that no more than half of your daily discretionary calorie allowance come from added sugars. For most American women, this is no more than 100 calories per day (about 6 teaspoons). For men, it’s no more ...

  4. Effects of cutting orientation in poplar wood biomass size reduction on enzymatic hydrolysis sugar yield.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Meng; Ju, Xiaohui; Song, Xiaoxu; Zhang, Xiao; Pei, Z J; Wang, Donghai

    2015-10-01

    The aim of this study was to understand how cutting orientation in poplar wood biomass size reduction affects enzymatic hydrolysis sugar yield of wood particles. A metal cutting (milling) machine was used to produce poplar wood particles from three cutting orientations. Results showed that cutting orientation significantly affected enzymatic hydrolysis sugar yield of wood particles. In this study, size reduction from the optimum cutting orientation produced 50% more sugars than the other two cutting orientations. Particles from the cutting orientation with the highest sugar yield had a large enzyme accessible area (125 mg orange dye/g biomass, as evaluated by Simons' stain procedure) and low crystallinity (50% crystallinity index, as calculated by the Segal method). Furthermore, small particle size did not necessarily lead to improvement in enzymatic digestibility. PMID:26220047

  5. Electric power from sugar cane in Costa Rica. A technical and economic analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tugwell, F.; Gowen, M.; Kenda, W.; Cohen, A.

    1988-07-01

    A team of specialists visited Costa Rica in May 1988 to analyze the potential for production and sale of electricity by the sugar-cane industry. Focusing on three sugar mills, the team made technical projections at four levels of investment, ranging from the simplest sale of surplus power to the installation of new turbogenerator systems. For each level, capital costs, electricity production and sales, and fuel options were estimated. Associated risks were assessed through sensitivity analyses to demonstrate the possible impacts of varying interest rates, fuel costs, and electricity sales prices. The team concluded that production and sale of electricity for the national grid could be an excellent investment opportunity for the sugar industry and would provide important economic benefits, including creation of additional jobs in rural areas, diversification of the sugar industry, and (in the short term) displacement of the need for imported fuels.

  6. Bay Mills' Bold Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freedman, Eric

    2011-01-01

    It's a long, long way from Bay Mills Community College, near the shores of frigid Lake Superior, to Detroit. But distance, time and demographics aside, the school and the city are united by Bay Mills' status as the nation's only tribally controlled college that authorizes quasi-public schools, known officially as public school academies. And it's…

  7. Incorporated residues to sugar cone during the industrial processing evaluated by neutron activation analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the Brazilian sugar and alcohol industry a modern agronomic and industrial technology has been developed during the last years, due to the high demand for sugarcane. The intensive harvest mechanization has increased the soil levels in the cane delivered to the mills despite of the introduced washing systems. Electric welding has been used to recuperate the rollers of the mill and other metallic components thus increasing the contents of metals in the processed material. Samples of cane, juice and bagasse were colected at several points of the milling tandem and submitted to neutron activation analysis. The concentrations of Fe, Cr, Co, Zn, Br and Cs showed an increment through the mill, indicating the contribution of the rollers wear. Sc and the rare earth elements La, Ce, Sm and Eu had about the same levels in all samples, therefore they must have come with the soil adhered to the cane. (author)

  8. Comparison of combustion and pyrolysis for energy generation in a sugarcane mill

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • Biomass to energy processes for sugarmills via combustion and pyrolysis are modelled. • Models compared based on technical and economic performance for two mill efficiencies. • Combustion more suited for sugar mill energy supply. • Pyrolysis based models have higher overall process efficiencies. • Pyrolysis contributes more towards environmental mitigation but is less profitable. - Abstract: The study focusses on the comparison of biomass to energy conversion process (BMECP) models to convert sugar mill biomass (bagasse) into energy products via combustion and pyrolysis as thermochemical pathways. Bagasse was converted to steam and electricity via combustion using 40 bar, 63 bar and 82 bar Condensing Extraction Steam Turbines (CEST) systems and a 30 bar back pressure steam turbine (BPST) system. Two BMECPs, namely partial fast pyrolysis and pure fast pyrolysis systems, were modeled for the pyrolysis pathway. In the Pure Fast Pyrolysis BMECP all the input bagasse stream was converted to pyrolysis products, with subsequent combustion of some of these products to generate steam and electricity for sugar mill operations. In the partial fast pyrolysis BMECP, a fraction of the bagasse is combusted directly to supply steam and electricity to the sugar mill, while the remaining fraction is pyrolyzed to generate pyrolysis products. All process models were simulated in AspenPlus® and were assessed on their ability to supply the energy requirement of to two sugar mill scenarios: More efficient mill and less efficient mill. The economic viability of BMECPs was determined using Aspen Process Economic Analyzer. Both combustion based and pyrolysis based BMECPs were capable of meeting the energy requirement of the sugar mill, although the pyrolysis based BMECP had limited steam and electricity production rates due to the accumulation of energy in pyrolysis products. High energy valued pyrolysis products resulted in higher overall process efficiencies of 85.09% and 87.65% for partial fast pyrolysis and Pure Fast Pyrolysis BMECPs respectively compared to 77.48% for the most efficient combustion BMECP (82 bar CEST). CO2 savings were higher for the pyrolysis based BMECPs due to the sequestration of carbon in pyrolysis products. The 63 bar CEST combustion system was the most economic viable option, while the Pure Fast Pyrolysis BMECP was the least viable. The increased energy efficiency and environmental benefits of pyrolysis-based processes are therefore off-set by increases in production costs

  9. On an Interpretation of Mill’s Qualitative Utilitarianism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CHRISTOPH SCHMIDT-PETRI

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper is a reply to Jonathan Riley’s criticism of my reading of Mill(both published in the Philosophical Quarterly 2003. I show that Riley’s interpretation has no textual support in Mill’s writing by putting the supposedly supporting quotations in their proper context. Secondly it is demonstrated how my reading is not incompatible with hedonism. Mill’s use of the concepts of ‘quality’, ‘quantity’, and ‘pleasure’ are explained and illustrated. I conclude by considering whether the possible redundancy of Mill’s quality/quantity discussion would be problematic.

  10. Clinical epidemiological profile of American tegumentary leishmaniasis at the Pinto Sugar Mill in Moreno Municipality, Greater Metropolitan Recife, Pernambuco State, Brazil Perfil clínico-epidemiológico da leishmaniose tegumentar americana no Engenho Pinto, Município de Moreno, Região Metropolitana do Recife, Pernambuco, Brasil

    OpenAIRE

    Maria Edileuza Felinto Brito; Cláudio Júlio Silva; Cristiane Máximo Silva; Pedro Raposo Salazar; Juliana Santos Coutinho; Luiza de Campos Reis; Valéria Rego Alves Pereira; Sinval Pinto Brandão-Filho; Ângela Cristina Rapela Medeiros

    2008-01-01

    American tegumentary leishmaniasis (ATL) is present in all regions of Pernambuco State, Brazil, where it is spreading, with the emergence of foci in new areas like the Municipality (County) of Moreno in Greater Metropolitan Recife. The objective of the current study was to assess the prevalence of infection and identify autochthonous cases of ATL. In April 2006 a population survey was performed using a questionnaire and the Montenegro skin test (MST) in 481 individuals from the Pinto Sugar Mi...

  11. Process for whole cell saccharification of lignocelluloses to sugars using a dual bioreactor system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Jue (Okemos, MI); Okeke, Benedict (Montgomery, AL)

    2012-03-27

    The present invention describes a process for saccharification of lignocelluloses to sugars using whole microbial cells, which are enriched from cultures inoculated with paper mill waste water, wood processing waste and soil. A three-member bacterial consortium is selected as a potent microbial inocula and immobilized on inedible plant fibers for biomass saccharification. The present invention further relates the design of a dual bioreactor system, with various biocarriers for enzyme immobilization and repeated use. Sugars are continuously removed eliminating end-product inhibition and consumption by cell.

  12. Development and Installation of High Pressure Boilers for Co-Generation Plant in Sugar Industries

    OpenAIRE

    Kolar Seenappa Venkatesh; Aashis S. Roy

    2010-01-01

    The sugar cane containing minimum 30% fiber was referred as bagasse and used the generation of power required for the operation of sugar mill. The bagasse is fired in the boiler for producing steam at high pressure, which is extracted through various single high capacity turbines and used in the process. The installation of high pressure boilers and high pressure turbo-generators has provision for the operation of co-generation plant during the off-season also that enhances the power generati...

  13. Cutting Sugar in Kids' Diets

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... from 12 to 4 percent. Blood tests, blood pressure and other medical exams were performed before and ... improved, without change in weight or exercise. Blood pressure decreased, cholesterol, blood sugar and insulin levels dropped ...

  14. Cutting Sugar in Kids' Diets

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... metabolic health of children according to a new study. Researchers recruited 43 kids between the ages of ... liver function improved. The lead author says, “This study definitively shows that sugar is metabolically harmful not ...

  15. Cutting Sugar in Kids' Diets

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... given nine full days worth of kid-friendly food that restricted sugar, but maintained the same fat, ... and Human Services National Institutes of Health Page last updated on ...

  16. Cutting Sugar in Kids' Diets

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... percent and fructose from 12 to 4 percent. Blood tests, blood pressure and other medical exams were performed before ... health improved, without change in weight or exercise. Blood pressure decreased, cholesterol, blood sugar and insulin levels ...

  17. Cutting Sugar in Kids' Diets

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... restricted sugar, but maintained the same fat, protein, carbohydrate, and calorie levels as their previous home diets. ... news for healthier living. Related MedlinePlus Health Topics Carbohydrates Child Nutrition Metabolic Disorders Obesity in Children About ...

  18. Cutting Sugar in Kids' Diets

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... high triglyceride levels. They were given nine full days worth of kid-friendly food that restricted sugar, ... after the new eating plan. After just 9 days on the restricted diet, nearly every measure of ...

  19. Cutting Sugar in Kids' Diets

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... fructose from 12 to 4 percent. Blood tests, blood pressure and other medical exams were performed before and ... health improved, without change in weight or exercise. Blood pressure decreased, cholesterol, blood sugar and insulin levels dropped ...

  20. Life Cycle Assessment of Sugar Production (VB)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Teljigovic, Mehmed; Mengiardi, Jon

    1999-01-01

    The environmental organisation NOAH has proposed carrying out an environmental assessment of two different sugar productions (using sugar beet or sugar cane) in order to illustrate which of the systems has a higher environmental impact for sugar consumption in Denmark. Therefore a comparison will be made between sugar from sugar beet produced in Denmark versus sugar produces from sugar cane in a tropical country, Brazil, and transported afterwards to Denmark. To evaluate the environmental aspects of these two product systems a Life Cycle Assessement (LCA) will be carried out.From the results obtained in the present LCA of sugar produces from sugar canes or sugar beet it is difficult to make an immediate choice between the two possibilities. Indeed, Quantitative results from the EDIP (Environmental Design of Industrial Products) software are globally similar for both ways of producing sugar although big differences between sugar cane and sugar beet exist at a few points. The qualitative approach of other fields like workning environment or specific environmental aspects is necessary to get a broader view of the problem. Nevertheless, it does not allow for a definite decision either. Therefore, privileging sugar cane or sugar beet may only be decided after a precise weighting of the environmental impacts or resource conumption. However, weighting is a political decision especially because two contries with different local conditions are dealt with. Hence, diciding which sugar to buy becomes a personal choice. What the danish consumer should be aware of is that no big difference has been found between sugar from sugar cane and sugar from sugar beet with regard to environmental impacts and resource consumption.

  1. The uranium mill tailings remedial actions project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The ''Uranium Mill Tailings Radiation Control Act of 1978,'' Public Law 95-604, directs the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) to undertake remedial actions at designated inactive uranium mill sites and associated vicinity properties. The purpose of the remedial actions is to stabilize and control the uranium mill tailings currently stored at the sites in a safe and environmentally sound manner in order to minimize radiation health hazards to the public. These remedial actions are to be undertaken by the DOE in cooperation with the affected states and Indian tribes and performed in accordance with standards promulgated by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). The disposal sites, which could be the processing sites, will be acquired by the states with title passing to the DOE and will be licensed by the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC). The DOE's authorization to conduct the program terminates seven (7) years following the promulgation of the EPA standards (January 1983). The current cost estimate for the project in 1982 dollars is $540 million, however, it is expected that this estimate will be somewhat reduced following completion of a review now in progress

  2. Building with sugar and corn

    OpenAIRE

    Pinto, J; Paiva, A; Costa, A.; Tavares, P.; Fernandes, L.; Murta, A.; Varum, H.

    2010-01-01

    Two alternative and highly sustainable building techniques are presented and described. The techniques are sugar reinforcement of earth based material and corncob based thermal isolation material. Some experimental results highlight the advantages and disadvantages of these two proposed techniques whose study is still beginning. The water resistance of earth based materials may be increased by adding a certain amount of sugar. On the other hand, corn cob material may have a similar thermal be...

  3. Ball milling pretreatment of oil palm biomass for enhancing enzymatic hydrolysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zakaria, Mohd Rafein; Fujimoto, Shinji; Hirata, Satoshi; Hassan, Mohd Ali

    2014-08-01

    Oil palm biomass, namely empty fruit bunch and frond fiber, were pretreated using a planetary ball mill. Particle sizes and crystallinity index values of the oil palm biomass were significantly reduced with extended ball mill processing time. The treatment efficiency was evaluated by the generation of glucose, xylose, and total sugar conversion yields from the pretreatment process compared to the amount of sugars from raw materials. Glucose and xylose contents were determined using high-performance liquid chromatography. An increasing trend in glucose and xylose yield as well as total sugar conversion yield was observed with decreasing particle size and crystallinity index. Oil palm frond fiber exhibited the best material yields using ball milling pretreatment with generated glucose, xylose, and total sugar conversion yields of 87.0, 81.6, and 85.4%, respectively. In contrast, oil palm empty fruit bunch afforded glucose and xylose of 70.0 and 82.3%, respectively. The results obtained in this study showed that ball mill-treated oil palm biomass is a suitable pretreatment method for high conversion of glucose and xylose. PMID:24908052

  4. Optimization of hammer mills

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A simple mathematical model is proposed for the residence time distribution of crushed grain in hammer mills. The residence time distribution of the crushed grain, product quality, and the total energy consumption under various operation conditions (number of hammer rows, number of hammers in a row, mesh size of screen, velocity and output of the mill has been used as variables) was studied on a pilot hammer mill. The radiotracer was used for the experimental verification of the model and for the determination of a holdup (the magnitude of the rotating grist layer) on the pilot scale and partly also on the full-scale mills. The impulse responses were influenced by transport processes behind the screen. This effect had to be taken into account during the analysis of experimental data. The method of a non-linear regression analysis was applied for the evaluation of parameters of the mathematical model. (author)

  5. 77 FR 76513 - Indian Gaming

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-28

    ...INTERIOR Bureau of Indian Affairs Indian Gaming AGENCY: Bureau of Indian Affairs, Interior...Approved Amended Tribal-State Class III Gaming Compact taking effect...L. Hart, Director, Office of Indian Gaming, Office of the Deputy Assistant...

  6. 77 FR 76514 - Indian Gaming

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-28

    ...INTERIOR Bureau of Indian Affairs Indian Gaming AGENCY: Bureau of Indian Affairs, Interior...Approved Amended Tribal-State Class III Gaming Compact taking effect...L. Hart, Director, Office of Indian Gaming, Office of the Deputy Assistant...

  7. 76 FR 165 - Indian Gaming

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-03

    ...INTERIOR Bureau of Indian Affairs Indian Gaming AGENCY: Bureau of Indian Affairs, Interior...Tribe'') and the State of Wisconsin Gaming Compact of 1992, as Amended in 1999...L. Hart, Director, Office of Indian Gaming, Office of the Deputy Assistant...

  8. Improvising on an Indian Flute.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giles, Martha Mead

    1984-01-01

    The Indian flute can be used by teachers to supplement classroom study of Indian culture. Indians used it as a personal instrument. Describes how an Indian flute can be made, and suggests improvising bird calls and melodies on it. (CS)

  9. 76 FR 49505 - Indian Gaming

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-10

    ...Indian Affairs Indian Gaming AGENCY: Bureau of Indian...Tribal-State Class III Gaming Compact taking effect...of Upper Lake taking effect. DATES: Effective Date...Director, Office of Indian Gaming, Office of the...

  10. 77 FR 5566 - Indian Gaming

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-03

    ...Indian Affairs Indian Gaming AGENCY: Bureau of Indian...Tribal--State Class III Gaming Compact Taking Effect...Pinoleville Pomo Nation Taking Effect. DATES: Effective Date...Director, Office of Indian Gaming, Office of the...

  11. The "coolie curse": The evolution of white colonial attitudes towards the Indian question, 1860-1900

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Duncan, Du Bois.

    Full Text Available Neither by accident nor design, Natal became home to over 50 000 Indian immigrants during the latter half of the nineteenth century. At the request of fewer than 50 sugar planters, colonial Natal embarked on a labour dispensation which was initially envisaged as "an experiment," on a small scale, as [...] Governor John Scott saw it. Appreciated for their contribution as labourers to the success of sugar production, Indians nonetheless, were resented by white colonists as settlers after they had completed their indenture contracts. That resentment was heightened by the influx of traders and non-indentured Indians into Natal after 1875 and found expression in published opinion and in discriminatory legislation. By the 1890s Natal's anti-Indian legislation became an imperial controversy which also proved life-changing for M.K. Gandhi. This article attempts to track the evolution of white settler attitudes to what was termed the "coolie curse."

  12. 76 FR 36512 - USDA Increases the Domestic Sugar Overall Allotment Quantity, Reassigns Domestic Cane Sugar...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-22

    ...USDA Increases the Domestic Sugar Overall Allotment Quantity, Reassigns Domestic Cane Sugar Allotments, and Increases the Fiscal Year 2011 Raw...increase in the domestic sugar Overall Allotment Quantity (OAQ); a reassignment of...

  13. Methods for dehydration of sugars and sugar alcohols

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Holladay, Johnathan E [Kennewick, WA; Hu, Jianli [Kennewick, WA; Zhang, Xinjie [Burlington, MA; Wang, Yong [Richland, WA

    2010-08-10

    The invention includes a method of dehydration of a sugar using a dehydration catalyst and a co-catalyst within a reactor. A sugar is introduced and H.sub.2 is flowed through the reactor at a pressure of less than or equal to about 300 psig to convert at least some of the sugar into an anhydrosugar product. The invention includes a process for producing isosorbide. A starting material comprising sorbitol is flowed into a reactor. H.sub.2 is counter flowed through the reactor. The starting material is exposed to a catalyst in the presence of a co-catalyst which comprises at least one metal. The exposing is conducted at a hydrogen pressure of less than or equal to 300 psig within the reactor and the hydrogen removes at least some of any water present during the exposing and inhibits formation of colored byproducts.

  14. Effects of the pelleting conditions on chemical composition and sugar yield of corn stover, big bluestem, wheat straw, and sorghum stalk pellets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Theerarattananoon, Karnnalin; Xu, Feng; Wilson, Jonathan; Staggenborg, Scott; Mckinney, Leland; Vadlani, Praveen; Pei, Zhijian; Wang, Donghai

    2012-05-01

    Pelleting of biomass can increase their bulk density and thus improve storability and reduce transportation costs. The objective of this research was to determine the effects of the pelleting conditions on chemical composition and fermentable sugar yield of the biomass. Corn stover, wheat straw, big bluestem, and sorghum stalks were used for this study. Dilute sulfuric acid was used for biomass pretreatment. Accellerase 1500™ was used for cellulose hydrolysis. Effects of mill screen size, die thickness, and L/D ratio of die on chemical compositions and sugar yield were determined. Glucan content of the biomass was positively affected by die thickness and negatively affected by mill screen size. Opposite trend was observed for xylan content. Wheat straw pellets had the highest sugar yield (92.5-94.1%) and big bluestem pellets had the lowest sugar yield (83.6-91.1%). Optimum pelleting condition is 6.5 mm screen size and 44.5 mm die thickness. PMID:21987307

  15. From the sugar age to the information age. : A new high school in Kävlinge.

    OpenAIRE

    Bergqvist, Anders

    2014-01-01

    Decommissioned buildings and structures from the industrial age constitutes a challenge for many municipalities when society and the global economy changes. The transformation of the old sugar mill in Kävlinge originates from that shift – from the production of goods to an information and knowledge based society. How can this type of building be re-programmed as a stimulating place for sharing and acquire knowledge, and at the same time perform well in terms of energy? The sustainable strateg...

  16. Inorganic elements in sugar samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sugar is considered a safe food ingredient; however, it can be contaminated by organic elements since its planting until its production process. Thus, this study aims at checking the presence of inorganic elements in samples of crystal, refined and brown sugar available for consumption in Brazil. The applied technique was neutron activation analysis, the k0 method, using the TRIGA MARK - IPR-R1 reactor located at CDTN/CNEN, in Belo Horizonte. It was identified the presence of elements such as, Au, Br, Co, Cr, Hf, K, Na, Sb, Sc and Zn in the samples of crystal/refined sugar and the presence of As, Au, Br, Ca, Co, Cr, Cs, Fe, Hf, K, Na, Sb, Sc, Sm, Sr, Th and Zn in the brown sugar samples. The applied technique was appropriate to this study because it was not necessary to put the samples in solution, essential condition in order to apply other techniques, avoiding contaminations and sample losses, besides allowing a multi elementary detection in different sugar samples. (author)

  17. The Efficiency Analyses of Croatian Sugar Industry by Using the Concept of Intellectual Capital

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dražen Holmik

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available During the last fi ve years the sugar industry has become one of the most important branches of Croatian food industry. It is connected with a signifi cant number of various industries in a complex way and employs a signifi cant number of people. A development of the sugar industry stimulates development of commerce, logistics, and a number of correlated industries whose products are necessary in sugar production. Croatian sugar factories have been present at the neighbouring markets and the European Union market for several years. Th e share of sugar in the total export of agricultural products increases every year and in the year 2004, it was 26.8% with the tendency of increasing in the year 2005. Th e foundation of the Intellectual capital (IC concept, as a method of increasing the entire business effi ciency, can be found in the papers of economic theoreticians in the middle of the last century but it reached its real break through in the past 15 years when the concept got more applied and the theory of intellectual capital was developed. In order to prepare Croatian economy for the competition that is expecting Croatia by joining the European Union with full membership, especially the agricultural sector, the application of the IC concept is expected to result with an increase of business effi ciency. Th e intellectual capital concept represents a recommended base, which will help Croatian sugar mills in achieving a better position at the highly competitive market of the European Union.

  18. An Overview of Indian Novel Traditional Medicinal Plants with Anti-Diabetic Potentials

    OpenAIRE

    Gupta, Rahul; Bajpai, Kumar Gaurav; Johri, Samta; Saxena, AM

    2007-01-01

    Diabetes mellitus is a global metabolic epidemic affecting essential biochemical activities in almost every age group. Indian literatures like Ayurveda have already mentioned herbal remediation for a number of human ailments. Among Indian traditional medicinal plants several potential anti-diabetic plants and herbs are being used as part of our diet since prehistoric time. India has a long list of native medicinal plants with confirmed blood sugar lowering property. Some of these have proved ...

  19. Race, Interracial Admixture and Genetic Differentiation of Avocado (Persea americana Mill)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avocado (Persea americana Mill.) is a major tropical fruit crop native to Mesoamerica and domesticated around 8000 to 7000 BC. It is a member of the Laureace family and currently classified into three subspecies or races: Guatemalan (G), Mexican (M) and West Indian (WI) according to their ecological...

  20. Selection of coal mill reject handling system for thermal power plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mallick, S.S. [Development Consultants Private Ltd., Kolkata (India)

    2009-07-01

    This paper aims at providing some guidelines to plant engineers and consultants for selecting the appropriate type of coal mill reject handling system for coal fired thermal power plants (especially, for Indian scenario). Evaluation is based on drive kW requirements; other important criteria such as layout, maintenance requirements, fire hazards etc are also compared. (orig.)

  1. FACTORS DETERMINING CAPITAL STRUCTURE OF CO-OPERATIVE SUGAR INDUSTRY IN TAMIL NADU – AN EMPIRICAL STUDY

    OpenAIRE

    M. Sekar; A. PALVANNAN

    2013-01-01

    Finance is an important input for any type of business and is needed for working capital and for permanent investment. The financial success of a firm depends mainly on its capital structure. The choice of debt and equity in the capital structure of corporate firms is an important financial decision because it influences both the return and risk of shareholders. In the present day challenges facing the Indian sugar industry are about 50 % of production of north India and Tamil Nadu are govern...

  2. Explanatory Variables Associated with the Yield Performance Gap among Small- Medium-and Large-Scale Sugarcane (Saccharum officinarum) Growers at Ubombo Sugar, Big bend, Swaziland

    OpenAIRE

    Mbuyazwe M. Dlamini; Barnabas M. Dlamini

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of the ex post facto study was to determine explanatory variables for sugarcane (Saccharum officinarum) yield among small, medium and large scale-growers at Ubombo Sugar, Swaziland. The target population of the census study was all small-medium-and large-scale-growers, milling their cane at the Big Bend Mill. Data were collected using valid and reliable questionnaires. The findings indicated that large-scale farmers obtained significantly higher yields than small and medium scale-...

  3. Effect of steam pretreatment on oil palm empty fruit bunch for the production of sugars

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lignocellulose into fuel ethanol is the most feasible conversion route strategy in terms of sustainability. Oil palm empty fruit bunch (EFB) generated from palm oil production is a huge source of cellulosic material and represents a cheap renewable feedstock which awaits further commercial exploitation. The purpose of this study was to investigate the feasibility of using steam at 0.28 MPa and 140 °C generated from the palm oil mill boiler as a pretreatment to enhance the digestibility of EFB for sugars production. The effects of steam pretreatment or autohydrolysis on chemical composition changes, polysaccharide conversion, sugar production and morphology alterations of four different types of EFB namely fresh EFB (EFB1), sterilized EFB (EFB2), shredded EFB (EFB3) and ground EFB (EFB4) were evaluated. In this study, the effects of steam pretreatment showed major alterations in the morphology of EFB as observed under the scanning electron microscope. Steam pretreated EFB2 was found to have the highest total conversion of 30% to sugars with 209 g kg?1 EFB. This production was 10.5 fold higher than for EFB1 and 1.6 fold and 1.7 fold higher than EFB3 and EFB4, respectively. The results suggested that pretreatment of EFB by autohydrolysis using steam from the mill boiler could be considered as being a suitable pretreatment process for the production of sugars. These sugars can be utilized as potential substrates for the production of various products such as fuel ethanol. -- Highlights: ? We investigate the feasibility of steam pretreatment to enhance digestibility of EFB. ? Steam pretreatment increased sugars to 3.4 fold and caused major alteration in EFB morphology under SEM. ? Autohydrolysis which does not require the addition of chemicals is an attractive pretreatment approach to EFB.

  4. Mining and milling of uranium ore: Indian scenario

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The occurrence of uranium minerals in Singhbhum Thrust belt of Eastern India has been known since 1937. In 1950, a team of geologists of the Atomic Minerals Division was assigned to closely examine this 160 km long belt. Since then, several occurrences of uranium have been found and a few of them have sufficient grade and tonnage for commercial exploitation. In 1967, the Government of India formed Uranium Corporation of India Ltd., under the administrative control of the Department of Atomic Energy, with the specific objective of mining and processing of uranium ore and produce uranium concentrates. At present the Corporation operates three underground uranium mines, one ore processing plant with expanded capacity, and two uranium recovery plants. Continuing investigations by the Atomic Mineral Division has discovered several new deposits and favourable areas. The most notable is the large Domiasiat deposit of the sandstone type found in the State of Meghalaya. This deposit is now being considered for commercial exploitation using the in-situ leaching technology. (author)

  5. Indian Craniometric Variability and Affinities

    OpenAIRE

    Pathmanathan Raghavan; David Bulbeck; Gayathiri Pathmanathan; Suresh Kanta Rathee

    2013-01-01

    Recently published craniometric and genetic studies indicate a predominantly indigenous ancestry of Indian populations. We address this issue with a fuller coverage of Indian craniometrics than any done before. We analyse metrical variability within Indian series, Indians' sexual dimorphism, differences between northern and southern Indians, index-based differences of Indian males from other series, and Indians' multivariate affinities. The relationship between a variable's magnitude and its ...

  6. Yang-Mills and Beyond

    OpenAIRE

    Marateck, Samuel

    2011-01-01

    In their 1954 paper, Yang and Mills invented the non-Abelian field strength to satisfy certain criteria but didn't explain how it could be derived. In the penultimate section we show how the Yang-Mills field strength derives from Yang's gauge transformation. The preceding sections place Yang-Mills theory in historical perspective and cover material relating to the field strength. The final section shows how Yang-Mills theory was combined with spontaneous symmetry breaking, t...

  7. Cutting Sugar in Kids' Diets

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... About MedlinePlus Site Map FAQs Contact Us Health Topics Drugs & Supplements Videos & Tools You Are Here: Home ? Latest Health News ? Cutting Sugar in Kids' Diets URL of this page: https://www.nlm.nih.gov/medlineplus/videos/news/ ...

  8. Cutting Sugar in Kids' Diets

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... sugar." I’m Dr. Cindy Haines of HealthDay TV with the news doctors are reading – health news for healthier living. Related MedlinePlus Health Topics Carbohydrates Child Nutrition Metabolic Disorders Obesity in Children About MedlinePlus Site Map FAQs Contact ...

  9. Cutting Sugar in Kids' Diets

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... sugar." I’m Dr. Cindy Haines of HealthDay TV with the news doctors are reading – health news for healthier living. Related MedlinePlus Health Topics Carbohydrates Child Nutrition Metabolic Disorders Obesity in Children About MedlinePlus Site Map FAQs Contact ...

  10. Cutting Sugar in Kids' Diets

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... that restricted sugar, but maintained the same fat, protein, carbohydrate, and calorie levels as their previous home ... healthier living. Related MedlinePlus Health Topics Carbohydrates Child Nutrition Metabolic Disorders Obesity in Children About MedlinePlus Site ...

  11. 19 CFR 151.22 - Estimated duties on raw sugar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Estimated duties on raw sugar. 151.22 Section 151...Sugars, Sirups, and Molasses § 151.22 Estimated duties on raw sugar. Estimated duties shall be taken on raw sugar,...

  12. Estudio descriptivo de las prácticas de manufactura en la industria panelera de los trapiches San Francisco y La Esmeralda en Boyacá y Caldas / Descriptive study of manufacturing practices of panela (Brown sugar) industry from the San Francisco and La Esmeralda mills (Boyacá and Caldas, Colombia)

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Lucía Constanza, Corrales Ramírez; Maira María, Muñoz Ariza; Lina María, González Pérez.

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available El objetivo de este proyecto fue evaluar la aplicación de las prácticas de manufactura en los trapiches San Francisco y La Esmeralda mediante la aplicación de encuestas etnográficas, documentación fotográfica e identificación de contaminantes microbiológicos presentes en la panela, manos de empleado [...] s e implementos de trabajo. En los resultados obtenidos se encontró que una proporción importante de las muestras presentaron contaminación por bacterias como Staphylococcus epidermidis, Streptococcus uberis, Leuconostoc mesenteroides, Bacillus spp, Corynebacterium spp, Actynomices spp, Lactococcus lactis y Gardnerella vaginalis, y hongos como Fusarium spp, Aspergillus spp, Paecilomyces spp, Penicillium spp y Mucor spp, demostrando falencias en el proceso de producción por la falta de implementación de las Buenas Prácticas de Manufactura. A partir del estudio, se recomendó capacitar a los empleados periódicamente acerca de la manipulación de alimentos y prácticas básicas de higiene y realizar una vigilancia más estricta a los trapiches. Abstract in english In this study was evaluated the implementation of manufacturing practices in the San Francisco and La Esmeralda mills through ethnographic surveys, photographic evidence and recovery of microbiological contaminants from panela, employees hands and working tools. A significant proportion of samples f [...] rom hands, work tools and panela were found contaminate with bacteria such as Staphylococcus epidermidis, Streptococcus uberis, Leuconostoc mesenteroides, Bacillus, Corynebacterium, Actinomyces spp, Lactococcus lactis and Gardnerella vaginalis, and fungi including Fusarium spp, Aspergillus spp, Paecilomyces spp, Penicillium spp and Mucor spp. These results revealed failures in the production process due to the lack of implementation of Good Manufacturing Practices. Based in this study it was recommended to give regular trainings to the employees about food handling and basic hygiene practices. Also carry out a strict monitoring of the mills in order to be able in the future to rank Colombia as greater panela producer and exporter.

  13. South African Sugar Technologists' Association. Proceedings of the fifty-ninth annual congress held at Durban and Mount Edgecombe, 17 to 21 June 1985

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This publication presents the proceedings of the fifty-ninth annual congress of the South African Sugar Technologists' Association, held in Durban and Mount Edgecombe, from 17 to 21 June 1985. Almost every facet of the sugar industry is covered including topics such as milling, irrigation, growth, crystal elongation and crystal size distribution, pans, stirrers and boilers used in the industry, evaporation, sucrose losses, radiometric and other gauges, the use of x-ray techniques and chemical methods of analysis, diseases, cooling waters, refining, maintenance, efficiency, operation, production and performance of a sugar station

  14. Saccharification of recalcitrant biomass and integration options for lignocellulosic sugars from Catchlight Energy’s sugar process (CLE Sugar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gao Johnway

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Woody biomass is one of the most abundant biomass feedstocks, besides agriculture residuals in the United States. The sustainable harvest residuals and thinnings alone are estimated at about 75 million tons/year. These forest residuals and thinnings could produce the equivalent of 5 billion gallons of lignocellulosic ethanol annually. Softwood biomass is the most recalcitrant biomass in pretreatment before an enzymatic hydrolysis. To utilize the most recalcitrant lignocellulosic materials, an efficient, industrially scalable and cost effective pretreatment method is needed. Results Obtaining a high yield of sugar from recalcitrant biomass generally requires a high severity of pretreatment with aggressive chemistry, followed by extensive conditioning, and large doses of enzymes. Catchlight Energy’s Sugar process, CLE Sugar, uses a low intensity, high throughput variation of bisulfite pulping to pretreat recalcitrant biomass, such as softwood forest residuals. By leveraging well-proven bisulfite technology and the rapid progress of enzyme suppliers, CLE Sugar can achieve a high yield of total biomass carbohydrate conversion to monomeric lignocellulosic sugars. For example, 85.8% of biomass carbohydrates are saccharified for un-debarked Loblolly pine chips (softwood, and 94.0% for debarked maple chips (hardwood. Furan compound formation was 1.29% of biomass feedstock for Loblolly pine and 1.10% for maple. At 17% solids hydrolysis of pretreated softwood, an enzyme dose of 0.075 g Sigma enzyme mixture/g dry pretreated (unwashed biomass was needed to achieve 8.1% total sugar titer in the hydrolysate and an overall prehydrolysate liquor plus enzymatic hydrolysis conversion yield of 76.6%. At a much lower enzyme dosage of 0.044 g CTec2 enzyme product/g dry (unwashed pretreated softwood, hydrolysis at 17% solids achieved 9.2% total sugar titer in the hydrolysate with an overall sugar yield of 85.0% in the combined prehydrolysate liquor and enzymatic hydrolysate. CLE Sugar has been demonstrated to be effective on hardwood and herbaceous biomass, making it truly feedstock flexible. Conclusions Different options exist for integrating lignocellulosic sugar into sugar-using operations. A sugar conversion plant may be adjacent to a CLE Sugar plant, and the CLE Sugar can be concentrated from the initial 10% sugar as needed. Concentrated sugars, however, can be shipped to remote sites such as ethanol plants or other sugar users. In such cases, options for shipping a dense form of sugars include (1 pretreated biomass with enzyme addition, (2 lignocellulosic sugar syrup, and (3 lignocellulosic sugar solid. These could provide the advantage of maximizing the use of existing assets.

  15. Natural radionuclides as dirt tracers in sugar cane consignments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Soil is usually carried out to the mills, as an impurity in sugar cane, leading to economic drawbacks for the industry. The quantification of this dirt is important to identify its causes and for routine quality control. Several methods have been used for this purpose, however, no single one has been pointed out as an industrial standard. The use of a ?-ray emitting radionuclide of natural occurence was investigated and, after several soil and cane radioactivity analyses, 212Pb was chosen as the best tracer. Calibration curves developed with the addition of soil in clean cane, from 0 to 10% (dry mass), demonstrated the linearity of the method. Analyses of eleven samples taken from consignments showed that the procedure was consistent and reliable when compared to the traditional ash method. (author)

  16. Fossil energy savings potential of sugar cane bio-energy systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nguyen, Thu Lan T; Hermansen, John Erik

    2009-01-01

    One important rationale for bio-energy systems is their potential to save fossil energy. Converting a conventional sugar mill into a bio-energy process plant would contribute to fossil energy savings via the extraction of renewable electricity and ethanol substituting for fossil electricity and gasoline, respectively. This paper takes a closer look at the Thai sugar industry and examines two practical approaches that will enhance fossil energy savings. The first one addresses an efficient extraction of energy in the form of electricity from the excess bagasse and cane trash. The second while proposing to convert molasses or sugar cane to ethanol stresses the use of bagasse as well as distillery spent wash to replace coal in meeting ethanol plants' energy needs. The savings potential achieved with extracting ethanol from surplus sugar versus current practice in sugar industry in Thailand amounts to 15 million barrels of oil a year. Whether the saving benefits could be fully realized, however, depends on how well the potential land use change resulting from an expansion of ethanol production is managed. The results presented serve as a useful guidance to formulate strategies that enable optimum utilization of biomass as an energy source

  17. Mill’s Liberal Feminism: Its Legacy and Current Criticism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MARIANA SZAPUOVÁ

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper highlights John Stuart Mill’s views on the problem of gender equality as expressed in The Subjection of Women, which is commonly regarded as one of the core texts of Enlightenment liberal feminism of the 19th century. In this paper, the author outlines the historical context of both Mill’s views and his personal biography, which influenced his argumentation for the emancipation of women, and considers Mill’s utilitarianism and liberalism, as the main philosophical background for his criticism of social conditions that subordinated women. She reflects on some of the philosopher’s ideas and arguments for equality and friendship between women and men which may still be considered noteworthy and relevant. Attention is also given to the main lines of contemporary reception of Mill’s liberal feminism from the perspective of current feminist philosophy, within which certain critical views predominate. Despite some problematic points in Mill’s considerations, his essay on women’s subjection may be regarded as one of the philosophically most interesting conceptions of liberal feminist thinking.

  18. Indian concepts on sexuality

    OpenAIRE

    Chakraborty, Kaustav; Thakurata, Rajarshi Guha

    2013-01-01

    India is a vast country depicting wide social, cultural and sexual variations. Indian concept of sexuality has evolved over time and has been immensely influenced by various rulers and religions. Indian sexuality is manifested in our attire, behavior, recreation, literature, sculptures, scriptures, religion and sports. It has influenced the way we perceive our health, disease and device remedies for the same. In modern era, with rapid globalization the unique Indian sexuality is getting diffu...

  19. 75 FR 77042 - Determination of Trade Surplus in Certain Sugar and Syrup Goods and Sugar Containing Products of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-10

    ...Determination of Trade Surplus in Certain Sugar and Syrup Goods and Sugar Containing Products of...the trade surplus in certain sugar and syrup goods and sugar-containing products of...goods relates to the quantity of sugar and syrup goods and sugar-containing products...

  20. 78 FR 146 - Determination of Trade Surplus in Certain Sugar and Syrup Goods and Sugar-Containing Products of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-02

    ...Determination of Trade Surplus in Certain Sugar and Syrup Goods and Sugar-Containing Products of...the trade surplus in certain sugar and syrup goods and sugar containing products of...Determination of Trade Surplus in Certain Sugar and Syrup Goods and Sugar-Containing Products...

  1. 77 FR 45371 - Indian Gaming

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-31

    ...INTERIOR Bureau of Indian Affairs Indian Gaming AGENCY: Bureau of Indian Affairs, Interior...of Approved Tribal--State Class III Gaming Compact...This notice publishes an extension of Gaming between the Oglala Sioux Tribe and...

  2. 76 FR 33341 - Indian Gaming

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-08

    ...INTERIOR Bureau of Indian Affairs Indian Gaming AGENCY: Bureau of Indian Affairs, Interior...of Approved Tribal--State Class III Gaming Compact...This notice publishes an extension of Gaming between the Rosebud Sioux Tribe and...

  3. 75 FR 68823 - Indian Gaming

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-11-09

    ...INTERIOR Bureau of Indian Affairs Indian Gaming AGENCY: Bureau of Indian Affairs, Interior...Notice of Approved Tribal-State Class III Gaming Amendment...approval of the Amendments to the Class III Gaming Compact (Amendment) between the...

  4. 78 FR 33435 - Indian Gaming

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-04

    ...INTERIOR Bureau of Indian Affairs Indian Gaming AGENCY: Bureau of Indian Affairs, Interior...Notice of Approved Tribal-State Class III Gaming Amendments...to Amend the Class III Tribal-State Gaming Compact between the Salt River...

  5. 76 FR 52968 - Indian Gaming

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-24

    ...INTERIOR Bureau of Indian Affairs Indian Gaming AGENCY: Bureau of Indian Affairs, Interior...of Approved Tribal--State Class III Gaming Compact...This notice publishes an extension of Gaming between the Rosebud Sioux Tribe and...

  6. 77 FR 30550 - Indian Gaming

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-23

    ...INTERIOR Bureau of Indian Affairs Indian Gaming AGENCY: Bureau of Indian Affairs, Interior...of Approved Tribal--State Class III Gaming Compact...Department of an extension to the Class III Gaming Compact between the Pyramid Lake...

  7. 75 FR 55823 - Indian Gaming

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-14

    ...INTERIOR Bureau of Indian Affairs Indian Gaming AGENCY: Bureau of Indian Affairs, Interior...Notice of approved Tribal-State Class III Gaming Compact...This notice publishes an extension of Gaming between the Oglala Sioux Tribe and...

  8. 78 FR 17428 - Indian Gaming

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-21

    ...INTERIOR Bureau of Indian Affairs Indian Gaming AGENCY: Bureau of Indian Affairs, Interior...Notice of Approved Tribal-State Class III Gaming Compact...approval of the Class III Tribal- State Gaming Compact between the Pyramid Lake...

  9. 77 FR 41200 - Indian Gaming

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-12

    ...INTERIOR Bureau of Indian Affairs Indian Gaming AGENCY: Bureau of Indian Affairs, Interior...of Approved Tribal--State Class III Gaming Compact...Department of an extension to the Class III Gaming Compact between the State of...

  10. 75 FR 61511 - Indian Gaming

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-05

    ...INTERIOR Bureau of Indian Affairs Indian Gaming AGENCY: Bureau of Indian Affairs, Interior...Notice of Approved Tribal-State Class III Gaming Compact...This notice publishes an extension of Gaming Compact between the Rosebud Sioux...

  11. 76 FR 56466 - Indian Gaming

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-13

    ...INTERIOR Bureau of Indian Affairs Indian Gaming AGENCY: Bureau of Indian Affairs, Interior...of Approved Tribal--State Class III Gaming Compact...This notice publishes an approval of the gaming compact between the Flandreau Santee...

  12. 78 FR 15738 - Indian Gaming

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-12

    ...INTERIOR Bureau of Indian Affairs Indian Gaming AGENCY: Bureau of Indian Affairs, Interior...of Approved Tribal--State Class III Gaming Compact...This notice publishes an extension of the gaming compact between the Rosebud Sioux...

  13. 78 FR 17427 - Indian Gaming

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-21

    ...INTERIOR Bureau of Indian Affairs Indian Gaming AGENCY: Bureau of Indian Affairs, Interior...ACTION: Notice of Approved Amended Gaming Compact...publishes the approval of the Amended Gaming Compact between the...

  14. 78 FR 10203 - Indian Gaming

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-13

    ...INTERIOR Bureau of Indian Affairs Indian Gaming AGENCY: Bureau of Indian Affairs, Interior...Notice of Approved Tribal State Class III Gaming Compact...Approval of the Class III Tribal- State Gaming Compact between the Chippewa-Cree...

  15. 75 FR 8108 - Indian Gaming

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-02-23

    ...INTERIOR Bureau of Indian Affairs Indian Gaming AGENCY: Bureau of Indian Affairs, Interior...Notice of Approved Tribal-State Class III Gaming Compact...the State of Nevada Governing Class III Gaming. DATES: Effective Date: February...

  16. 77 FR 59641 - Indian Gaming

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-28

    ...INTERIOR Bureau of Indian Affairs Indian Gaming AGENCY: Bureau of Indian Affairs, Interior...Notice of Approved Tribal-State Class III Gaming Compact...This notice publishes an extension of Gaming between the Rosebud Sioux Tribe and...

  17. 78 FR 11221 - Indian Gaming

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-15

    ...INTERIOR Bureau of Indian Affairs Indian Gaming AGENCY: Bureau of Indian Affairs, Interior...Notice of Approved Tribal-State Class III Gaming Compact...This notice publishes an extension of the gaming compact between the Oglala Sioux...

  18. 76 FR 8375 - Indian Gaming

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-02-14

    ...INTERIOR Bureau of Indian Affairs Indian Gaming AGENCY: Bureau of Indian Affairs, Interior...Notice of Approved Tribal-State Class III Gaming Compact...This notice publishes an extension of the Gaming Compact between the Oglala Sioux...

  19. 77 FR 43110 - Indian Gaming

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-23

    ...INTERIOR Bureau of Indian Affairs Indian Gaming AGENCY: Bureau of Indian Affairs, Interior...of Approved Tribal--State Class III Gaming Compact...This notice publishes an extension of Gaming between the Rosebud Sioux Tribe and...

  20. Philippines sugar cane ethanol plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1981-03-06

    The Philippines' National Alcohol Commission has called for international tenders for the construction of ethanol from sugar cane plants. Interested companies have been asked to quote for capacities of 60,000, 120,000 and 180,000 litre per day. The initial tender calls for three plants but the figure could rise to ten which would then be worth about $20 million.

  1. Effect of processing variables on quality of milk burfi prepared with and without sugar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chetana, R; Ravi, R; Yella Reddy, S

    2010-01-01

    Milk burfi is an Indian traditional confectionery prepared using concentrated milk and sugar. The texture and quality of burfi vary depending on processing conditions and storage period. The effect of processing variable namely total soluble solids (TSS) at the end of cooking and duration of storage on the texture and sensory quality of burfi prepared with and without sugar was studied by applying response surface methodology. Sorbitol with and without added aspartame was used as sugar alternative. Simultaneous optimization by desirability approach was carried out on the independent variables to get the optimum levels within the experimental conditions. It was found that the optimum conditions for burfi prepared with sugar were: TSS of 78°B and 2-3 days of storage. Burfi prepared at optimum conditions had a breaking strength of 13.3 N with a sensory overall acceptability score of 9.5 on a 10-point scale. Similarly, for burfi prepared with sorbitol to obtain a product close to its sugar counterpart required a TSS of 77.5°B and storage for 5-6 days to obtain a breaking strength of 12.9 N and a sensory overall acceptability score of 9.1. PMID:23572612

  2. Affinity chemiresistor sensor for sugars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tlili, Chaker; Badhulika, Sushmee; Tran, Thien-Toan; Lee, Ilkeun; Mulchandani, Ashok

    2014-10-01

    In this work, a non-enzymatic chemiresistive sugar sensor has been developed by combining a synthetic receptor with aligned single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWNTs) device. Briefly, boronic acid as a multivalent sugar receptor was immobilized on carbon nanotubes through amide bond formation. The interaction between three common sugars (d-glucose, d-fructose and sucrose) and boronic acid modified SWNTs device was studied. The effect of pH on the receptor-ligand binding was examined and highest response was observed at pH 9. The chemiresistive sensor exhibited specific and reproducible detection with sensitivity over the concentration range of 1-20mM, 1-25 mM, and 1-30 mM for fructose, glucose, and sucrose, respectively. The sensor showed no interference from common electroactive compounds such as citric acid, uric acid, and ascorbic acid. Furthermore, the sensor retained 97.4% of the initial value after five regeneration cycles with an acidic buffer at pH 5, thus ensuring good reusability. PMID:25059188

  3. INDIAN WORDS IN ENGLISH : PERSPECTIVES

    OpenAIRE

    SNEHAL RATNAKAR HEGISHTE

    2013-01-01

    Indian English has come to be recognized as a variety of English in its own right. The process of Indianization of English had started long before Independence. Alarge number of Indian words have been assimilated into the English language. More striking forms of assimilation are those that borrow the abstract concepts of Indian Socio-Cultural phenomena and the Indian way of conceptualizing reality through the Indian language items and use them to interpret the native English speakers own pred...

  4. Cogeneration alternatives in sugar and alcohol industries. Case of study; Alternativas de cogeracao na industria sucro-alcooleira. Estudo de caso

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sanchez Prieto, Mario Gabriel

    2003-07-01

    In the present work, a cogeneration system of sugar-alcohol cane mill is evaluated. Using the Exergetic Cost Theory, a thermo economic analysis is made for the crop corresponding to the year 2000. Previously a detailed energetic analysis was made in order to determine of the first law efficiency for steam boilers and the fuel consumption involved. The first and second law equipment's efficiencies were calculated as well as some performance criteria of the overall system. The fundamental aim of the evaluation was to obtain the cost of the principal fluxes of the system, considering a discount rate of 15 % and a capital recovery period of fifteen years for the energetic equipment in the sugar mill for the monetary cost calculations. In the analysis, was included the sugar mill juice extraction system as a control volume in order to determine the variation in the bagasse cost and its influence in the cost of other fluxes. A Thermodynamic analysis is also made, in which the increase of thermodynamic parameters is studied as a way of improving the fuel economy in Sugar Mill Factories focusing the electric energy obtained in the different alternatives. Diverse strategies are discussed, and as a result, the thermodynamic evaluations of two Proposals of Steam Cogeneration Systems are accomplished as well as the calculations of the exergetic cost. (author)

  5. Ball milling pretreatment of corn stover for enhancing the efficiency of enzymatic hydrolysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Zengxiang; Huang, He; Zhang, Hongman; Zhang, Lin; Yan, Lishi; Chen, Jingwen

    2010-11-01

    Ethanol can be produced from lignocellulosic biomass with the usage of ball milling pretreatment followed by enzymatic hydrolysis and fermentation. The sugar yields from lignocellulosic feed stocks are critical parameters for ethanol production process. The research results from this paper indicated that the yields of glucose and xylose were improved by adding any of the following dilute chemical reagents: H(2)SO(4), HCl, HNO(3), CH(3)COOH, HCOOH, H(3)PO(4), and NaOH, KOH, Ca(OH)(2), NH(3)·H(2)O in the ball milling pretreatment of corn stover. The optimal enzymatic hydrolysis efficiencies were obtained under the conditions of ball milling in the alkali medium that was due to delignification. The data also demonstrated that ball milling pretreatment was a robust process. From the microscope image of ball milling-pretreated corn stover, it could be observed that the particle size of material was decreased and the fiber structure was more loosely organized. Meanwhile, the results indicate that the treatment effect of wet milling is better than that of dry milling. The optimum parameters for the milling process were ball speed of 350 r/min, solid/liquid ratio of 1:10, raw material particle size with 0.5 mm, and number of balls of 20 (steel ball, ??=?10 mm), grinding for 30 min. In comparison with water milling process, alkaline milling treatment could increase the enzymatic hydrolysis efficiency of corn stover by 110%; and through the digestion process with the combination of xylanase and cellulase mixture, the hydrolysis efficiency could increase by 160%. PMID:20593309

  6. Development of hemicelluloses biorefineries for integration into kraft pulp mills

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ajao, Olumoye Abiodun

    The development and wide spread acceptance of production facilities for biofuels, biochemicals and biomaterials is an important condition for reducing reliance on limited fossil resources and transitioning towards a global biobased economy. Pulp and paper mills in North America are confronted with high energy prices, high production costs and intense competition from emerging economies and low demand for traditional products. Integrated forest biorefineries (IFBR) have been proposed as a mean to diversify their product streams, increase their revenue and become more sustainable. This is feasible because they have access to forest biomass, an established feedstock supply chain and wood processing experience. In addition, the integration of a biorefinery process that can share existing infrastructure and utilities on the site of pulp mill would significantly lower investment cost and associated risks. Kraft pulping mills are promising receptor processes for a biorefinery because they either possess a prehydrolysis step for extracting hemicelluloses sugars prior to wood pulping or it can be added by retrofit. The extracted hemicelluloses could be subsequently transformed into a wide range of value added products for the receptor mill. To successfully implement hemicelluloses biorefinery, novel processes that are technically and economically feasible are required. It is necessary to identify products that would be profitable, develop processes that are energy efficient and the receptor mill should be able to supply the energy, chemicals and material demands of the biorefinery unit. The objective of this thesis is to develop energy efficient and economically viable hemicelluloses biorefineries for integration into a Kraft pulping process. A dissolving pulp mill was the reference case study. The transformation of hemicellulosic sugars via a chemical and biochemical conversion pathway, with furfural and ethanol as representative products for each pathway was studied. In the first part of this work, the feasibility of concentrating prehydrolysate solution with a reverse osmosis membrane was studied. The concentration step is required to reduce the energy demand of the subsequent conversion processes and the size of process equipments. Reconstituted prehydrolysate solutions containing different concentrations of glucose, xylose acetic acid, syringaldehyde and furfural was used to determine the feasibility of concentrating with a reverse osmosis membrane. The effect of the solution composition and operating conditions (cross flow velocity, temperature and pressure) on the selectivity of the membrane and the permeate flux were investigated. The results revealed that irrespective of the prehydrolysate composition, the feed pressure and temperature had the most dominant effect on the permeate flux. A permeate flux decline was observed in all experiments and the mechanisms responsible for the flux decline were elucidated. It was also confirmed that the membrane fouling is reversible and regeneration can be successfully carried out by cleaning with a sodium hydroxide solution. The second part of this work focussed on a chemical conversion pathway for furfural production. A prehydrolysate solution was generated by using a wood chips furnish that is similar to that of the reference mill and used to evaluate the membrane concentration requirements for furfural production. The retention and flux characteristics of six commercial organic membranes made from different polymers (polyamide, cellulose acetate and polypiperazine amide) and with molecular weight cut offs (MWCO) between 100 and 500 Da were evaluated. A membrane with total sugar retention of 99% and a MWCO of about 200 Da was shown to be the most suitable for a furfural process based on the criteria: low energy requirement for concentration, low degree of fouling potential and high retentions of the desired components (sugars, acetic acid and furfural). The maximum volumetric concentration factor was determined to be 4, exceeding this limit leads to increased fouling of the membran

  7. IMPACT OF PAPER MILL EFFLUENTS ON SOIL AND VEGETATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohan Singh Mandloi

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Environmental pollution poses a great health hazard to human beings, animals and plants. Pollution has also adverse effects on the land, water and its living and nonliving components. Industrial effluents, containing organic and inorganic compounds have strong influence on the development of growth of crop plants. The treated effluent was collected from OPM paper mill from its outlet. Thephysicochemical characteristics of paper mill industry effluent were measured and some were found to beabove the permissible limits prescribed by Indian irigation water standard. A study was conducted in pots toinvestigate the effects of different concentrations (10, 20, 30, 40, 50, 60, 70, 80 and 100% of paper mill effluenton growth and production of rice, mustard and pea for three years. The study reveals that the paper mill effluenthas deleterious effect on the growth of crop at higher concentrations. However, at lower concentration (viz. 10 to40% in rice, 10 to 50% in mustard and 10 to 60% in pea of effluent, beneficial impact on general welfare of thecrops was noticed. Growth and development was increased with increasing the concentration of the effluent upto 30% in rice, 40% in mustard and 50% in pea. Investigation showed that the growth and production of rice,mustard and pea was found maximum at a concentration of 30, 40 and 50% effluent respectively.

  8. Indian Summer Arts Festival?

    OpenAIRE

    Martel, Yann; Tabu; Tejpal, Tarun; Kunzru, Hari

    2011-01-01

    The SFU Woodward's Cultural Unit partnered with the Indian Summer Festival Society to kick off the inaugural Indian Summer Festival. Held at the Goldcorp Centre for the Arts, it included an interactive Literature Series with notable authors from both India and Canada, including special guests Yann Martel, Bollywood superstar Tabu, journalist Tarun Tejpal, writer Hari Kunzru, and many others.

  9. Pima Indian Legends.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaw, Anna Moore

    The stated purpose of this book is to preserve in writing some of the Pima Indian legends that had been verbally passed from generation to generation in the past. This collection of 23 legends, which were originally used to instruct the young people of the tribe, presents in story form various aspects of American Indian life--including…

  10. BIO-SUPERPHOSPHATE (BIO-SP APPLICATION ON SUGAR CANE (Saccharum officinarum L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Didiek Hadjar Goenadi

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available The highest expense on sugarcane management is fertilization in which one of them is phosphate fertilizer produced by imported raw materials. An innovation was made by using the local phosphate deposits with low reactivity processed further to improve their effectiveness for sugarcane. The objective of this study was to investigate the growth, yield and quality of sugarcane as affected by bio-superphosphate (Bio-SP application on a highly weathered tropical soil. A nine-month field experiment was conducted at Jatitujuh Sugar Mill area, West Java, Indonesia, comparing between sugarcane fertilized with Bio-SP to replace conventional single superphosphate (SP-36 and that fertilized with SP-36. Urea and MOP (Muriate of Potash were applied at similar dosages as recommended by division of Jatitujuh Sugar Mill Agronomy Research. Bio-SP was formulated by reacting a Central Java Rock Phosphate with liquid culture supernatant (LCS and phosphoric acid characterized by 33% total soluble P2O5, 23.1, and 10.7 % citric acid and water-soluble P2O5, respectively. The results indicated that Bio-SP at 50% dosage of SP-36 was as effective as the SP-36 in supporting sugarcane growth and improved yield up to 8% as crystal sugar. Further consequence of this finding is that the application of Bio-SP reduced 9.2% of fertilizer cost for sugarcane.

  11. Amino sugars in suspended particulate matter from the Bay of Bengal during the summer monsoon of 2001

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Fernandes, L.; DeSouza, F.P.; Matondkar, S.G.P.; Bhosle, N.B.

    of AS containing organic matter. 2. Material and methods 2.1 Description of the study area Bay of Bengal (BOB) is a semi-enclosed trop- ical basin in the northern Indian Ocean. It is bounded by the Indian Peninsula and Sri Lanka on the west and by the Andaman... at 50openbulletC and then analyzed for par- ticulate organic carbon (POC) and particulate nitrogen (PN) using a Perkin Elmer Elemental ana- lyzer 2400 CHN analyzer. The precision of the methods was better than 7%. Filters for amino sugar analysis were...

  12. Indians in Indian Fiction: The Shadow of the Trickster.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Velie, Alan R.

    1984-01-01

    Studies mythic dimension of protagonists in novels by American Indian authors Scott Momaday and James Welch. Illustrates discrepancies between White readers' beliefs about Indians and Indian myths of the trickster and how mythologies affect interpretation of the novels. Contrasts use of myth by Indian authors Leslie Silko and Gerald Vizenor. (LFL)

  13. THE STUDY OF STATUS OF WORKERS IN THE RAJIVJI SPINNING MILL (KOLHAPUR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sudhakar Vishnu Chougule

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The Textile Industry plays important role in the Indian economy and contributes substantially to its exports earnings. Textiles exports shares nearly 30 per cent of the country's total exports. It is 20 per cent of the National production. It provides direct employment to over 15 million persons in the mill, power loom and handloom sectors. India is the world’s second largest producer of textiles after China. It is the world’s third largest producer of cotton-after China and the USA-and the second largest cotton consumer after China. The textile industry in India is one of the oldest manufacturing sectors in the country and is currently it’s largest. In Maharashtra Kolhapur is very important in textile industry. Ichalkarnji from Kolhapur is known as Manchester of India. But now five star MIDC has been established in between Kolhapur and Kagal in which most of the textile industries established with advance technology. The co-operative spinning mill in India is relatively started recently. The cooperative textile sector has played a commendable role in the upliftment of workers in the Rajivji Spinning Mill. Here about 10 % workers are selected as sample for study. This mill is located in the rural area of Karveer tehsil; the workers are coming from surrounding villages of this mill. Therefore all the study is about a significant socio-economic transformation in the area by this mill. This transformation took the shape of better civic infrastructure and a noticeable improvement in the quality of life. Rajivji mill is provided jobs for 510 peoples, these peoples are settled near to the mill around 5 to 10 Km. According to field Survey this mill is very useful for change in Socio-economic condition of workers. This mill is providing various facilities to workers.

  14. Sugar-free medicines are counterproductive.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sundar, S

    2012-09-01

    Sugar in food and drinks is responsible for the poor dental health of many children and adults. On the other hand, there is no evidence that the small amount of sugar in medicines has been responsible for any dental problems. A recent British Heart Foundation survey found that nearly one in three UK children are eating sweets, chocolate and crisps three or more times a day. Hence it is futile administering sugar-free medicine to a child consuming lot of sweets. Moreover, sugar in medicines makes them palatable and bitter medicines inevitably affect compliance with the prescribed treatment. Poor compliance leads to inadequate treatment of illness and consequently increases the risk of complications from illness. Hence sugar-free medicines promoted as a public health policy could have actually caused more harm than any meaningful net benefit. There is an urgent need for a healthy debate and a fresh look at the policy of promoting sugar-free medicines. PMID:22955756

  15. Uranium-mill appraisal program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The results of special team appraisals at NRC-licensed uranium mills in the period May to November 1981 are reported. Since the Three Mile Island accident, NRC management has instituted a program of special team appraisals of radiation protection programs at certain NRC-licensed facilities. These appraisals were designed to identify weaknesses and strengths in NRC-licensed programs, including those areas not covered by explicit regulatory requirements. The regulatory requirements related to occupational radiation protection and environmental monitoring at uranium mills have been extensively upgraded in the past few years. In addition, there was some NRC staff concern with respect to the effectiveness of NRC licensing and inspection programs. In response to this concern and to changes in mill requirements, the NRC staff recommended that team appraisals be conducted at mills to determine the adequacy of mill programs, the effectiveness of the new requirements, and mill management implementation of programs and requirements. This report describes the appraisal scope and methodology as well as summary findings and conclusions. Significant weaknesses identified during the mill appraisals are discussed as well as recommendations for improvements in uranium mill programs and mill licensing and inspection

  16. Production of Biopolymers from Sugar Beet Pulp

    OpenAIRE

    Meyer, Laurence; Paquot, Michel; Dubois, Philippe

    2009-01-01

    Sugar beet pulp is an important by-product of the sugar industry. In order to make the most of this waste, pectin extraction can constitute an economical solution. Pectin is commonly used in food industry as a gelling agent. However, in the present study another use of pectin is considered: its potential embedding into biodegradable polymer films which can further be used in plastic industry. At first, different pectin extraction methods have been developed on sugar beet pulp in order t...

  17. Pullulan production from sugar beat molasses

    OpenAIRE

    Kassim, Mohammad Bashir Ismail [???? ??????????? ????

    1997-01-01

    Sugar beet molasses was used as the substrate for the production of pullulan with Aureobasidum pullulans ATCC 42023. In addition biomass, residual sugar and final pH of the culture medium were investigated. In comparing sugar beet molasses and glucose media, it was found that production of pullulan from glucose medium highly exceeded that produced from molasses medium. Treatment of molasses with sodium sulphate slightly enhanced pullulan production. Highest pullulan production from molasses o...

  18. Sugar recognition by human galactokinase

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Timson David J

    2003-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Galactokinase catalyses the first committed step of galactose catabolism in which the sugar is phosphorylated at the expense of MgATP. Recent structural studies suggest that the enzyme makes several contacts with galactose – five side chain and two main chain hydrogen bonds. Furthermore, it has been suggested that inhibition of galactokinase may help sufferers of the genetic disease classical galactosemia which is caused by defects in another enzyme of the pathway galactose-1-phosphate uridyl transferase. Galactokinases from different sources have a range of substrate specificities and a diversity of kinetic mechanisms. Therefore only studies on the human enzyme are likely to be of value in the design of therapeutically useful inhibitors. Results Using recombinant human galactokinase expressed in and purified from E. coli we have investigated the sugar specificity of the enzyme and the kinetic consequences of mutating residues in the sugar-binding site in order to improve our understanding of substrate recognition by this enzyme. D-galactose and 2-deoxy-D-galactose are substrates for the enzyme, but N-acetyl-D-galactosamine, L-arabinose, D-fucose and D-glucose are all not phosphorylated. Mutation of glutamate-43 (which forms a hydrogen bond to the hydroxyl group attached to carbon 6 of galactose to alanine results in only minor changes in the kinetic parameters of the enzyme. Mutation of this residue to glycine causes a ten-fold drop in the turnover number. In contrast, mutation of histidine 44 to either alanine or isoleucine results in insoluble protein following expression in E. coli. Alteration of the residue that makes hydrogen bonds to the hydroxyl attached to carbons 3 and 4 (aspartate 46 results in an enzyme that although soluble is essentially inactive. Conclusions The enzyme is tolerant to small changes at position 2 of the sugar ring, but not at positions 4 and 6. The results from site directed mutagenesis could not have been predicted from the crystal structure alone and needed to be determined experimentally.

  19. The sugar-pie game

    OpenAIRE

    Mullat, Joseph E.

    2012-01-01

    Playing a bargaining game the players are trying to enlarge their share of a sugar-pie. However, HE is not very keen on sweets and does not prefer a piece of the pie if the size of the pie is too small or too large. In HIS view, too small or too large pies are not of a reasonable quality. In contrast, SHE, the second actor, likes sweets what ever they are. HE is a soft negotiator but SHE is a tough negotiator. The paper addresses the problem: what should be HIS power of negotiations if an equ...

  20. Blood Sugar - Multiple Languages: MedlinePlus

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... enable JavaScript. Arabic (???????) Spanish (español) Arabic (???????) Fasting Blood Sugar Test (Arabic) ?????? ??? ???? ?????? - ??????? Bilingual PDF Health Information Translations Spanish (español) Azúcar en la sangre ...

  1. Nuclear analytical techniques in Cuban Sugar Industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper is a review concerning the applications of Nuclear Analytical Techniques in the Cuban sugar industry. The most complete elemental composition of final molasses (34 elements ) and natural zeolites (38) this last one employed as an auxiliary agent in sugar technological processes has been performed by means of Instrumental Neutron Activation Analysis (INAA) and X-Ray Fluorescence Analysis (XRFA). The trace elements sugar cane soil plant relationship and elemental composition of different types of Cuban sugar (rawr, blanco directo and refine) were also studied. As a result, valuable information referred to the possibilities of using these products in animal and human foodstuff so as in other applications are given

  2. 75 FR 68618 - Indian Gaming

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-11-08

    ...INTERIOR Bureau of Indian Affairs Indian Gaming AGENCY: Bureau of Indian Affairs, Interior...Tribe'') and the State of Wisconsin Gaming Compact of 1991, as Amended in 1999 and...L. Hart, Director, Office of Indian Gaming, Office of the Deputy Assistant...

  3. Indian Students and College Preparation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chavers, Dean

    A study examined the extent to which high schools are preparing American Indian students for college. Counselors were surveyed at 47 on- and off-reservation high schools serving Indian students in 16 states. Only 17 percent of Indian students in the schools were enrolling in college. Under 10 percent of Indian students were taking 4 years of…

  4. 77 FR 59641 - Indian Gaming

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-28

    ...Under Section 11 of the Indian Gaming Regulatory Act of 1988 (IGRA...purpose of engaging in Class III gaming activities on Indian lands...Umpqua Tribe of Indians is now in effect. Amendment I is considered...the provisions of the Indian Gaming Regulatory Act. Dated:...

  5. 77 FR 14837 - Bioassay at Uranium Mills

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-13

    ...COMMISSION [NRC-2012-0057] Bioassay at Uranium Mills AGENCY: Nuclear Regulatory Commission...guide (DG), DG-8051, ``Bioassay at Uranium Mills.'' This guide describes a bioassay program acceptable to the NRC staff for uranium mills and applicable portions of...

  6. Sugar palm (Argena pinnata). Potential of sugar palm for bio-ethanol production

    OpenAIRE

    Elbersen, H.W.; Oyen, L.P.A.

    2010-01-01

    The energetic and economic feasibility of bioethanol production from sugar palm is virtually unknown. A positive factor are the potentially very high yields while the long non-productive juvenile phase and the high labor needs can be seen as problematic. Expansion to large scale sugar palm cultivation comes with risks. Small-scale cultivation of sugar palm perfectly fits into local farming systems. In order to make a proper assessment of the value palm sugar as bio-ethanol crop more informati...

  7. indian Academy of Sciences - New associates, 2012

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    indian academy of sciences - new associates, 2012   2. melinda k. bera, indian institute of science education and research, kolkata   3. neena gupta, indian statistical institute, kolkata  4. vishwesha gutta, indian institute of science, bangalore   5. rajan jha, indian institute of technology, bhubaneswar   7. debabrata maiti, indian institute of technology, mumbai   8. abha misra, indian institute of science, bangalore&nb ...

  8. indian Academy of Sciences - New associates, 2012

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    indian academy of sciences - new associates, 2012   1. shivani agarwal, indian institute of science, bangalore  3. sujit kumar ghosh, indian institute of science education and research, pune  4. m. jeganmohan, indian institute of science education and research, pune  5. santanu mukherjee, indian institute of science, bangalore  6. nisanth nair, indian institute of technology, kanpur  7. supratim ray, indian institute of scien ...

  9. 75 FR 60715 - Domestic Sugar Program-FY 2010 and FY 2011 Cane Sugar and Beet Sugar Marketing Allotments and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ...through September 30, 2011. Although CCC already has announced most of the information...cane allotment to raw cane sugar imports already expected from non-TRQ sources. With...was reassigned to raw cane sugar imports already expected from non-TRQ sources. In...

  10. Wild strains of fermenting yeast isolated of sugar cane juice from an alcohol distillery from Mato Grosso, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosimeire Oenning da Silva

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Ethanol production for fuel is important for the Brazilian economy as a renewable solution to oil derivatives. Theindustrial process uses commercially available yeast, most of them isolated from sugar mills from the Brazilian stateof São Paulo. The research information on the availability of yeast appropriate to the climatic conditions occurringin the Midwest region of Brazil is scarce. The article presents the isolation and morphological characterization offermentative wild yeast prospected on the sugar cane juice of a sugar and alcohol mill of Mato Grosso State. Thejuice samples were collected in both the hot and rainy (HR season and in the cold and dry (CD one. The dilutedsugar cane juice samples were plated on agar LWYN and evaluated for fermentation in test tubes containinginverted Durham tubes. From 26 morphotypes isolated, 50% were able to ferment sugar cane juice. Greater numberand diversity of yeasts was found in both December (HR and July (CD. In the remaining months of each seasonthere were a low number of colonies with a poor diversity.

  11. STUDY OF PEAK EXPIRATORY FLOW RATE IN WORKERS WORKING IN SUGAR INDUSTRY DURING WORKING SEASON

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. A. Nayakawadi.

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available -Sugar industry is one of the important agro based industry plays an important role in national economy. It is one of the largest employers of labour providing work to peoples in rural areas and their being thousands of workers throughout the nation. The workers working in sugar industry exposed to variety of occupational hazards such as excessive heat, inadequate light ,high level of noise ,excessive workload ,unsatisfactory working conditions ,higher concentration of dust particle are mainly found in various processing unit of sugar industry viz. cane yard ,mill, boiler, bagasse baling and sugar house .In present investigation randomly selected ten workers from each processing unit (section were selected for the study of peak expiratory flow rates ,It was found that there is respiratory stress due to high concentration dust particles in the environment which affects the health status of these workers. It is necessary that genuine measures must be taken for health, protection of those workers. The suitable recommendations for the management of respiratory stress due to dust are suggested.

  12. Microbiological Spoilage of High-Sugar Products

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Sterling

    The high-sugar products discussed in this chapter are referred to as chocolate, sugar confectionery (non-chocolate), liquid sugars, sugar syrups, and honey. Products grouped in the sugar confectionery category include hard candy, soft/gummy candy, caramel, toffee, licorice, marzipan, creams, jellies, and nougats. A common intrinsic parameter associated with high-sugar products is their low water activity (a w), which is known to inhibit the growth of most spoilage and pathogenic bacteria. However, spoilage can occur as a result of the growth of osmophilic yeasts and xerophilic molds (Von Richter, 1912; Anand & Brown, 1968; Brown, 1976). The a w range for high-sugar products is between 0.20 and 0.80 (Banwart, 1979; Richardson, 1987; Lenovich & Konkel, 1992; ICMSF, 1998; Jay, Loessner, & Golden, 2005). Spoilage of products, such as chocolate-covered cherries, results from the presence of yeasts in the liquid sugar brine or the cherry. Generally, the spoiled product will develop leakers. The chocolate covering the cherry would not likely be a source of yeast contamination.

  13. Simple Potentiometric Determination of Reducing Sugars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moresco, Henry; Sanson, Pedro; Seoane, Gustavo

    2008-01-01

    In this article a potentiometric method for reducing sugar quantification is described. Copper(II) ion reacts with the reducing sugar (glucose, fructose, and others), and the excess is quantified using a copper wire indicator electrode. In order to accelerate the kinetics of the reaction, working conditions such as pH and temperature must be…

  14. When Blood Sugar Is Too Low

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... to take. Kids with diabetes may need a hormone called insulin and/or diabetes pills to help their bodies use the sugar ... shot. Glucagon (say: GLOO-kuh-gon) is a hormone that helps get your blood sugar level back to normal very quickly. Your doctor and diabetes health care team can tell you if you ...

  15. Depression in Indian history.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rao, A V

    2000-05-01

    This write up on some aspects of Indian history of depression touches briefly on references to some aspects of depression in Ayurveda, in philosophical texts and in the epics Ramayana and Mahabharata. PMID:11002619

  16. Sugar cane/sweet sorghum as an ethanol feedstock in Louisiana and Piedmont

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cost to provide readily fermentable feedstock for a year round sweet sorghum-to-ethanol production facility, up to the point at which fermentation begins, was determined. It was assumed that sweet sorghum is produced on marginal crop lands in the Southeastern Piedmont, and is purchased, standing in the field by a central ethanol production facility. Feedstock cost varied from $1.96 to $2.98/gal of ethanol potential depending on harvest system and use of by-products. Major contributors to feedstock cost were field production, harvest/field processing, and cost to evaporate juice to a storable syrup. Cost to transport feedstock to a central production facility, and cost of storage were relatively minor components of total cost, contributing only $0.05 and $0.06/gal ethanol potential, respectively. For a point of comparison, cost of producing ethanol feedstock from sugar cane, based on current processing practices in Louisiana sugar mills, was determined to be $2.50/gal ethanol potential. This cost is higher than determined for most options in the Piedmont for two reasons: (1) sugar cane demands a higher price in Louisiana than was assumed for sweet sorghum in the Piedmont, and (2) little market exists in Louisiana for by-products of sugar milling, consequently, no by-product credit was assigned. Current market value of ethanol must approximately double before a sweet sorghum-to-ethanol industry in the Piedmont could be economically viable, as no opportunity was identified for a significant reduction in feedstock cost

  17. Influence of some sugars on xylanase production by Aspergillus awamori in solid state fermentation

    OpenAIRE

    Judith Liliana Solórzano Lemos; Nei Pereira Junior

    2002-01-01

    Aspergillus awamori showed high extracellular endoxylanase (100 U/ml) and beta-xylosidase activities (3.5 U/ml) when grown on milled sugar cane bagasse as the principal carbon source without treatment. Partial characterization of xylanases showed that the apparent values of Km were 3.12 ± 0.05 mg/ml for endoxylanase (in birchwood xylan) and 0.45 ± 0.05 mM for beta-xylosidase (in p -nitrophenyl beta-D-xylanopiranoside). Corresponding values of Vmax were 6.63 ± 0.02 and 0.0...

  18. Fructose-containing sugars and cardiovascular disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rippe, James M; Angelopoulos, Theodore J

    2015-07-01

    Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is the single largest cause of mortality in the United States and worldwide. Numerous risk factors have been identified for CVD, including a number of nutritional factors. Recently, attention has been focused on fructose-containing sugars and their putative link to risk factors for CVD. In this review, we focus on recent studies related to sugar consumption and cardiovascular risk factors including lipids, blood pressure, obesity, insulin resistance, diabetes, and the metabolic syndrome. We then examine the scientific basis for competing recommendations for sugar intake. We conclude that although it appears prudent to avoid excessive consumption of fructose-containing sugars, levels within the normal range of human consumption are not uniquely related to CVD risk factors with the exception of triglycerides, which may rise when simple sugars exceed 20% of energy per day, particularly in hypercaloric settings. PMID:26178027

  19. Moisture sorption curves of fruit and nut cereal bar prepared with sugar and sugar substitutes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pallavi, Byrappa Vasu; Chetana, Ramakrishna; Ravi, Ramaswamy; Reddy, Sunkireddy Yella

    2015-03-01

    Low sugar, low fat, dry fruit and nut cereal bars without sugar were prepared using cereals, nuts, and sugar substitutes. The sorption characteristics of the bars prepared with sugar substitutes in comparison with that of sugar were studied by keeping the bars at water activity (aw) from 0.1 to 0.9. The sorption isotherms of low sugar bars were practically identical below aw of 0.5 but above aw of 0.5, a clear differentiation in the isotherms could be observed compared to that of sugar counterpart. A sharp increase in moisture content was observed in the bars prepared with alternative sweeteners, above aw 0.6, whereas a gradual increase in aw was observed in the case of bar prepared with sugar. The ERH (Equilibrium relative humidity) value for bar with sugar was 50 %, and for bars prepared with alternative sweeteners, it was about 60 %. Low sugar cereal bar prepared with sorbitol + maltitol (SM) syrup scored higher sensory quality compared to other product prepared with sorbitol + nutriose (SN) as the former retained softness and chewiness on storage. Thus, it was observed that bars with alternative sweeteners will be more stable as their ERH is closer to normal ambient conditions compared to that prepared with sugar. PMID:25745238

  20. Indian transplant registry

    OpenAIRE

    Shroff, Sunil

    2007-01-01

    An ‘Indian transplant registry’ has been established over the past two years due to the efforts of the Indian Society of Organ Transplantation. This society is about 20 years old with over 450 members who are doctors and basic scientist. The registry is currently in the first phase of its development and can be partly viewed at www.transplantindia.com. The endeavor has been undertaken with the objective of having a centralized repository of information of the various transplants that are bein...

  1. Indian Cosmological Ideas

    CERN Document Server

    Narayan, R

    2007-01-01

    This paper, third in the series on Indian tradition of physics, describes conceptions of the cosmos with ideas that are clearly spelt out in texts such as Yoga Vasishtha.In particular, the conception of multiple universes that occurs often in this text will be examined in the framework of the Indian physics. The other surprising concepts that are discussed include flow of time and its variability with respect to different observers, and the possibility of passage across universes.

  2. Effects of compost application on fruits yields, sugar and mineral contents and ?15N values of tomato fruits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We examined the effects of chemical fertilizer and compost application on the yields and sugar and mineral content of tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill. Saturn) in an isolated bed. Five treatments were conducted within a two-year period of 4 continuous croppings. CDU and LSR (Low-sulfate slow-release fertilizer) were used for the chemical fertilizer plots. A mixture of cattle manure and CDU (CM + CDU), a mixture of poultry manure and CDU (PM + CDU), and mixture of cattle and poultry manure (PM + CM) plots were arranged as compost-using plots. We also measured the ?15N values of tomatoes and the soils of each treatment, and estimated the correlation of the ?15N values between fruits and soil to certify compost applied products. We did not find any reproductive differences in the yield or sugar content among the treatments. As to inorganic content of tomatoes, there were no significant differences except for Mg content among the plots. These results showed that it is difficult to assay regular benefit of organic fertilizer application to tomato yields and quality. On the other hand, ?15N values of tomato fruits showed significant differences among fertilizer applications. ?15N values of the chemical fertilizer were +1.6 per mille and -1.1% for CDU and LSR, respectively. Those of mixture of chemical and compost were +12.2 per mille and +11.2 per mille for CM + CDU and PM + CDU, respectively. The mixture of PM and CM showed the highest ?15N values (17.9 per mille) among the treatments. ?15N values of the soils and fruits reflected those of the fertilizers and were positively correlated (R2 = 0.89). It may be possible to use ?15N values as an indicator of organic products by setting the threshold point, e.g. +5.0 per mille, to distinguish them from the products cultivated with chemical fertilizer. (author)

  3. DO INDIAN RESEARCHERS READ INDIAN RESEARCH?

    OpenAIRE

    Andrade, Chittaranjan; Choudhury, Partha

    1994-01-01

    It is the authors' experience that papers in the Indian Journal of Psychiatry (IJP) under-reference relevant research previously published in the journal. To empirically address this issue, four volumes of the IJP, from 1989 to 1992 (both years inclusive), were surveyed. It was found that of 292 articles examined, 133 articles (45.5%) had neglected to cite relevant articles previously published in the IJP. The overall ratio of IJP reference included to IJP reference omitted was 1:1. Surprisin...

  4. What Price Sugar? Land, Labor, and Revolution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel C. Littlefield

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available [First paragraph] Sugar, Slavery, and Society: Perspectives on the Caribbean, India, the Mascarenes, and the United States. Bernard Moitt (ed.. Gainesville: University Press of Florida, 2004. vii + 203 pp. (Cloth US $ 65.00 Tropical Babylons: Sugar and the Making of the Atlantic World, 1450-1680. Stuart B. Schwartz (ed.. Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press, 2004. xiii + 347 pp. (Paper US $ 22.50 These two books illustrate the fascination that sugar, slavery, and the plantation still exercise over the minds of scholars. One of them also reflects an interest in the influence these have had on the modern world. For students of the history of these things the Schwartz collection is in many ways the more useful. It seeks to fill a lacuna left by the concentration of monographs on the eighteenth and nineteenth centuries, suggesting that we know less about the history of sugar than we thought we did. Perhaps in no other single place is such a range of information on so wide an area presented in such detail for so early a period. Ranging from Iberia to the Caribbean and including consumption as well as production of sugar, with a nod to the slave trade and a very useful note on weights and currencies, this volume is a gold mine of information. It considers (briefly the theoretical meaning as well as the growing of this important crop, contrasting its production in Iberia with that on the Atlantic islands of Madeira and the Canaries, colonized by Iberian powers, and continuing the contrast with São Tomé, off the coast of Africa, and on to Brazil and the Spanish American empire before ending with the British in Barbados. In the transit, it of necessity considers and complicates the meaning of “sugar revolution” and shows how scholars using that term do not always mean the same thing. John McCusker and Russell Menard, for example, tackling a cornerstone of the traditional interpretation of the development of sugar, argue that there was no “sugar revolution” in Barbados; economic change had already begun before sugar’s advent, though sugar may have accelerated it, and yet sugar production was transformed on the island. They also undercut, without quite denying, the significance of the Dutch role in the process. Schwartz, while questioning, lings to the traditional expression if not the traditional outlook, seeing in Barbados “the beginning of the sugar revolution” (p. 10.

  5. Indian Academy of Sciences - New associates, 2015

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

      1. b. anand , indian institute of technology, guwahati   2. p. anbarasan , indian institute of technology, chennai   5. ankur a. kulkarni , indian institute of technology, mumbai   6. chandan mukherjee ,indian institute of technology, guwahati ...

  6. Mechanical milling of aluminum powder using planetary ball milling process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Ramezani

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Mechanical alloying has recently attracted considerable attention as researchers strive to enhance nanocomposite properties and extend their utility. The process can be performed at room temperature and homogeneous nanocomposite powders can be produced. In this paper, we investigated the effect of different ball milling parameters and operating conditions (milling time, ball size, processing control agent (PCA and speed in mechanical alloying of aluminum powder to achieve particle size reduction with less contamination. Two types of PCA, i.e. stearic acid and methanol have been used and microstructure evolutions at different operating conditions were studied. It was shown that the optimized milling parameters for aluminium composite are 100 stainless steel ball (10 mm, 200 rpm rotation speed with direction reversal and 1 min pause time after every 15 min running time, under argon gas for 30 hr of milling.

  7. Underground milling of uranium ores

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: This paper presents and analyzes the new concept of underground milling of high-grade uranium ore. Compared to conventional milling on surface, the underground milling scheme appears to offer significant cost savings and a lower environmental impact. The paper describes the underground milling scheme, presents process flowsheets and plant layouts, and provides an assessment of potential benefits from underground milling. In response to the current supply/demand situation for uranium, there has been, for the past few years, a 'uranium rush' in many parts of the world, including the resource-rich Athabasca basin situated in northern Saskatchewan. In a recent count, there were over forty uranium companies looking for uranium in this region. Positive results from any of these exploration activities could, depending on their location, potentially provide a source of additional feedstock for any of the existing milling centres in northern Saskatchewan and/or result in the establishment of additional new milling capacity. Underground milling would be considered in the latter instance. The above flowsheet shows the basics of the proposed underground milling scheme, which assumes the existence of a high-grade underground uranium mine, similar to the current McArthur River mine or the planned Cigar Lake mine. Grinding, leaching, solid/liquid separation and tailings deposition are all carried out underground. Leach liquor is pumped to surface for impurity removal, precipitation and drying. The impurities, removed as chemical precipitates, are moved back underground for disposal. Expected environmental benefits are significant and include reduction of surface visual impact, leach residues remain underground, and no tailings management facility on surface. Indeed the process residue is arguably more isolated from the environment than was the ore before mining. Contaminant transport from the stored tailings to surface waters is extremely slow. Application of membrane technology to water treatment for the underground milling scheme is expected to provide an aqueous effluent with minimal loading to the environment. In addition to these substantial environmental benefits, underground milling is expected to give a capital cost saving on the order of 35% and an operating cost saving on the order of 30% relative to conventional mining and milling. (author)

  8. Critical management issues for the Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) Project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Uranium Mill Tailings Radiation Control Act of 1978 (PL95-604) authorized the Secretary of Energy to enter into cooperative agreements with certain states and Indian Tribes to clean up 24 inactive uranium mill tailing sites and associated vicinity properties. The Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) Project includes the three Federal agencies (EPA, DOE, and NRC), eleven state, Indian Tribes, and at least four major contractors. The UMTRA Project extends over a period of ten years. The standards for the Project require a design life of 1000 years with a minimum performance period of 200 years. This paper discusses the critical management issues in dealing with the UMTRA Project and identifies the development of solutions for many of those issues. The highlights to date are promulgation of EPA standards, continued support from Congress and participating states and Indian Tribes, significant leadership shown at all levels, establishment of credibility with the public, and continued motivation of the team. The challenge for tomorrow is making certain NRC will license the sites and maintaining the high level of coordination exhibited to date to assure Project completion on schedule

  9. Understanding milling induced changes: Some results

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    K Chattopadhyay; N Ravishankar; T A Abinandanan; Viji Varghese

    2003-10-01

    The effect of mechanical milling on materials has been studied using simple model systems. The results show that milling leads to enhancement in both thermodynamic driving force and transport kinetics. A study of some characteristic physical properties of the milled samples in comparison to the bulk shows how milling affects the properties.

  10. Determining energy costs for milling solid matter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guangbin, Yu., Dr.; Kuznetsova, M. M.; Marakhovskii, M. B.; Aleksina, A. A.

    2015-05-01

    The article provides findings of analytical research into the process of milling friable matter in a ball mill. We have received an expression to determine energy cost of milling with the account of the method of milling and the characteristics of the material to be ground.

  11. SILAGE CANE SUGAR ADDED WITH DRIED BREWER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W. J. R. Castro

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this experiment was to evaluate the fermentative parameters and chemical composition of silage cane sugar added with residue dried brewery. The experimental design was completely randomized with four treatments and four replications: 100% cane sugar; 90% of cane sugar + 10% residue dried brewer; 80% of cane sugar + 20% residue dried brewer and 70% cane sugar + 30% dried brewer based on natural matter, composed silages. The sugar cane was chopped in a stationary machine with forage particle size of approximately 2 cm, and homogenized manually with the additives. For storage chopped fresh weight were used in experimental silos capacity of about 4 liters. The results showed that the contents of dry matter and crude protein showed positive linear (P0.05 with mean value of 3.81, while for ether extract and ash results were positive linear (P0.05 for N ammonia presented average value of 4.18. It is concluded that the addition of brewer dehydrated improves the fermentation process of silage cane sugar, in addition to improving their nutritional characteristics.

  12. Indian Ocean Triple Junction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tapscott, C.R.; Patriat, P.; Fisher, R.L.; Sclater, J.G.; Hoskins, H.; Parsons, B.

    1980-09-10

    The boundaries of three major plates (Africa, India, and Antarctica) meet in a triple junction in the Indian Ocean near 25 /sup 0/S, 70 /sup 0/E. Using observed bathymetry and magnetic anomalies, we locate the junction to within 5 km and show that it is a ridge-ridge-ridge type. Relative plate motion is N60 /sup 0/E at 50 mm/yr (full rate) across the Central Indian Ridge, N47 /sup 0/E at 60 mm/yr across the Southeast Indian Ridge, and N3 /sup 0/W at 15 mm/yr across te Southwest Indian Ridge; the observed velocity triangle is closed. Poles of instantaneous relative plate motion are determined for all plate pairs. The data in the South Atlantic and Indian oceans are consistent with a rigid African plate without significant internal deformation. Two of the ridges at the triple junction are normal midocean spreading centers with well-defined median valleys. The Southwest Indian Ridge, however, has a peculiar morphology near the triple junction, that of an elongate triangular deep, with the triple junction at its apex. The floor of the deep represents crust formed at the Southwest Indian Ridge, and the morphology is a consequence of the evolution of the triple junction and is similar to that at the Galapagos Triple Junction. Though one cannot determine with precision the stability conditions at the triple junction, the development of the junction over the last 10 m.y. can be mapped, and the topographic expressions of the triple junction traces may be detected on the three plates.

  13. The current status of the Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Actions Project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In late 1978, Congress enacted Public Law 96-604, the ''Uranium Mill Tailings Radiation Control Act of 1978.'' The Act instructed the Department of Energy to perform remedial actions at designated inactive uranium mill tailings sites. DOE established the Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Actions (UMTRA) Project Office to implement remedial actions at the sites, in cooperation with the affected States, Indian tribes, Nuclear Regulatory Commission, and owners of the sites in 1983, with an additional site started in late 1984, and two more planned in 1985. Numerous vicinity properties at four different site areas are also presently being cleaned up. All of this work is being performed in accordance with Environmental Protection Agency cleanup standards

  14. 78 FR 62650 - Indian Gaming

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-10-22

    ...Affairs [DR.5B711.IA000813] Indian Gaming AGENCY: Bureau of Indian Affairs, Interior...extension of Tribal-State Class III Gaming Compact...notice of the extension of the Class III gaming compact between the Rosebud Sioux...

  15. 78 FR 54670 - Indian Gaming

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-05

    ...Affairs [DR.5B711.IA000813] Indian Gaming AGENCY: Bureau of Indian Affairs, Interior...extension of Tribal--State Class III Gaming Compact...notice of the Extension of the Class III gaming compact between the Yankton Sioux...

  16. 78 FR 78377 - Indian Gaming

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-26

    ...Affairs [DR.5B711.IA000814] Indian Gaming AGENCY: Bureau of Indian Affairs, Interior...extension of Tribal-State Class III Gaming Compact...notice of the extension of the Class III gaming compact between the Yankton Sioux...

  17. Association of American Indian Physicians

    Science.gov (United States)

    Association of American Indian Physicians Apply Log In Facebook Twitter YouTube About Mission Board of Directors Staff ... of AAIP student programs. Join Renew Programs The Association of American Indian Physicians provides educational programs, health ...

  18. Indian research on sleep disorders

    OpenAIRE

    Shah, Nilesh; Bang, Abha; Bhagat, Aparna

    2010-01-01

    Literature on sleep disorders from our country, India, can mainly be found in the Indian journal of Sleep medicine, Indian Journal of psychiatry, The Annals of Indian Academy of Neurology and certain other journals and books. The article highlights the contribution of various Indian doctors in the field of sleep disorders, which includes review articles, prevalence studies, studies on etiology and treatment options, case reports and a couple of case control studies. Also included are studies ...

  19. Knoevenagel Reaction of Unprotected Sugars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scherrmann, Marie-Christine

    The Knoevenagel reaction of unprotected sugars was investigated in the 1950s using zinc chloride as promoter. The so-called Garcia Gonzalez reaction had been almost forgotten for 50 years, until the emergence of new water tolerant catalysts having Lewis acid behavior. The reaction was thus reinvestigated and optimal conditions have been found to prepare trihydroxylated furan derivatives from pentose or ?-tetrahydrofuranylfuran from hexoses with non-cyclic ?-keto ester or ?-diketones. Other valuable compounds such as ?-linked tetrahydrobenzofuranyl glycosides or hydroxyalkyl-3,3,6,6,-tetramethyl-3,4,5,6,7,9-hexahydro-1H-xanthene-1,8(2H)-dione can be obtained using cyclic ?-dicarbonylic derivatives. Apart from one report in the 1950s, the Knoevenagel reaction of unprotected carbohydrate in basic condition has been studied only in the mid-1980s to prepare C-glycosyl barbiturates from barbituric acids and, later on, from non-cyclic ?-diketones, ?-C-glycosidic ketones. The efficient method exploited to prepare such compounds has found an industrial development in cosmetics.

  20. Sustainability Issues and Opportunities in the Sugar and Sugar-Bioproduct Industries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gillian Eggleston

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Like many other industries, the sugar and sugar-bioproduct industries are facing important sustainability issues and opportunities. The relatively low and fluctuating profit for sugar, surpluses of sugar, world-wide trend to produce alternative, renewable bio-based fuels and chemicals to those derived from petroleum and reduce greenhouse gases, water- and energy-intensive factories and refineries, and increased consumer demands for sustainably manufactured products are putting pressure on the industries to diversify for sustainability. Sugar crops, including sugar and energy cane (Saccharum officinarum, sugar and energy beets (Beta vulgaris, and sweet sorghum (Sorghum bicolor L. Moench, are excellent, renewable biomass feedstocks because of their availability, their being amongst the plants that give the highest yields of carbohydrates per hectare, and high sugar contents. While much research has been focused on conversion technologies for advanced biofuels and bioproducts, attention is now focused on developing sustainable supply chains of sugar feedstocks for the new, flexible biorefineries, with customers wanting maximum feedstock reliability and quality, while minimizing cost. All biomass from sugar crops are potential feedstocks. The cogeneration of bioelectricity from bagasse and leaf residues is being increasingly manufactured in more countries and, due to the high carbon content of bagasse and leaves, can also be converted into value-added products such as biochar. Sugar crops are superior feedstocks for the production of platform chemicals for the manufacture of a range of end-products, e.g., bioplastics, chemicals, and biomaterials. In several countries and regions, green sustainability criteria are now in place and have to be met to count against national biofuel targets. Processes to convert high-fiber sugar crop biomass into biofuel have been developed but there has only been limited commercialization at the large-scale.

  1. Evidence for sugar addiction: Behavioral and neurochemical effects of intermittent, excessive sugar intake

    OpenAIRE

    Nicole M Avena; Rada, Pedro; Hoebel, Bartley G.

    2007-01-01

    The experimental question is whether or not sugar can be a substance of abuse and lead to a natural form of addiction. “Food addiction” seems plausible because brain pathways that evolved to respond to natural rewards are also activated by addictive drugs. Sugar is noteworthy as a substance that releases opioids and dopamine and thus might be expected to have addictive potential. This review summarizes evidence of sugar dependence in an animal model. Four components of addiction are analyzed....

  2. Indian Ocean Traffic: Introduction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lola Sharon Davidson

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Like the Mediterranean, the Indian Ocean has been a privileged site of cross-cultural contact since ancient times. In this special issue, our contributors track disparate movements of people and ideas around the Indian Ocean region and explore the cultural implications of these contacts and their role in processes that we would come to call transnationalization and globalisation. The nation is a relatively recent phenomenon anywhere on the globe, and in many countries around the Indian Ocean it was a product of colonisation and independence. So the processes of exchange, migration and cultural influence going on there for many centuries were mostly based on the economics of goods and trade routes, rather than on national identity and state policy.

  3. Treatment of biomass to obtain fermentable sugars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunson, Jr., James B. (Newark, DE); Tucker, Melvin (Lakewood, CO); Elander, Richard (Evergreen, CO); Hennessey, Susan M. (Avondale, PA)

    2011-04-26

    Biomass is pretreated using a low concentration of aqueous ammonia at high biomass concentration. Pretreated biomass is further hydrolyzed with a saccharification enzyme consortium. Fermentable sugars released by saccharification may be utilized for the production of target chemicals by fermentation.

  4. When Blood Sugar Is Too High

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... in a Healthy Relationship? Be Your Best Self Smart Snacking Losing Weight Safely When Blood Sugar Is ... Medical identification also can also include your doctor's phone number or a parent's phone number. Avoiding High ...

  5. Root rot diseases of sugar beet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacobsen Barry J.

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Root rot diseases of sugar beet caused by Rhizoctonia solani (AG 2-2 IIIB and AG 2-2 IV, R. crocorum, Aphanomyces cochlioides, Phoma betae, Macrophomina phaeseolina, Fusarium oxysporum f.sp. radicis-betae, Pythium aphanidermatum Phytophthora drechsleri, Rhizopus stolonifer, R. arrhizus and Sclerotium rolfsii cause significant losses wherever sugar beets are grown. However, not all these soil-borne pathogens have been reported in all sugar beet production areas. Losses include reduced harvestable tonnage and reduced white sugar recovery. Many of these pathogens also cause post harvest losses in storage piles. Control for diseases caused by these pathogens include disease resistant cultivars, avoidance of stresses, cultural practices such as water management and the use of fungicides.

  6. 78 FR 26801 - Indian Gaming

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-08

    ...Affairs [DR.5B711.IA000813] Indian Gaming AGENCY: Bureau of Indian Affairs, Interior...Notice of Approved Tribal-State Class III Gaming Compact...amendment to the Class III Tribal-State Gaming Compact between the Menominee Indian...

  7. 78 FR 44146 - Indian Gaming

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-23

    ...From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing...Bureau of Indian Affairs Indian Gaming AGENCY: Bureau of Indian Affairs...of Tribal-State Class III Gaming Compact taking effect...and Restated Tribal-State Gaming Compact between the...

  8. 75 FR 38833 - Indian Gaming

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-06

    ...Director, Office of Indian Gaming, Office of the Deputy Assistant...Under section 11 of the Indian Gaming Regulatory Act of 1988 (IGRA...purpose of engaging in Class III gaming activities on Indian lands...the State of Florida is now in effect. Dated: June 28, 2010....

  9. Forecasting Sales in a Sugar Factory

    OpenAIRE

    Vassilios ASSIMAKOPOULOS; Dimitrios MICHOS; Polychronis KOUTSOLIAKOS; Petropoulos, Fotios; Sofia-ira KTENA

    2011-01-01

    Beets’ cultivation and sugar production represent one of the most important parts of Greek agricultural economy. A careful and well-organized planning of the production as well as the determination of an accurate safety stock is important for sugar industry, as for many other companies and organizations, in order to define the production quantity which leads to maximum revenues and profits. Forecasting, and especially widely used statistical forecasting techniques, is the best way for policym...

  10. Engineering of sugar metabolism in Lactococcus lactis

    OpenAIRE

    Pool, Weia Arianne,

    2008-01-01

    Short English Summary Lactococcus lactis is a lactic acid bacterium used in the dairy industry. This thesis decribes the genetic engineering performed on the sugar metabolism of L. lactis. Besides our fundamental interest for sugar metabolism and its regulation in L. lactis, this project had the interest of the dairy industry. L. lactis strains were made with improved lactose and galactose consumption rates, to produce dairy products with lower (ga)lactose concentrations. This is benefici...

  11. Fermentable sugars by chemical hydrolysis of biomass

    OpenAIRE

    Binder, Joseph B.; Raines, Ronald T.

    2010-01-01

    Abundant plant biomass has the potential to become a sustainable source of fuels and chemicals. Realizing this potential requires the economical conversion of recalcitrant lignocellulose into useful intermediates, such as sugars. We report a high-yielding chemical process for the hydrolysis of biomass into monosaccharides. Adding water gradually to a chloride ionic liquid-containing catalytic acid leads to a nearly 90% yield of glucose from cellulose and 70–80% yield of sugars from untreated ...

  12. Conditioned Taste Aversion Diminishes Sugar Intake

    OpenAIRE

    Alma Gabriela Martínez Moreno; Antonio López-Espinoza; Imelda de León López; Laura Vanesa Solano Santos; Fernando Hernández- Leonardo

    2014-01-01

    Animals learn to avoid particular food when some of its sensory properties are associated with gastrointestinal discomfort. Twenty rats were exposed to free access to food and a sugar solution for ten days in first phase. During second phase, experimental group received a dose of LiCl. Control group received an injection without LiCl. Both groups had free access to a sugar solution and food restriction for three days. In the final phase, both groups returned to the cond...

  13. Enzymatic conversion of lignocellulose into fermentable sugars

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Henning; Kristensen, Jan Bach; Felby, Claus

    2007-01-01

    The economic dependency on fossil fuels and the resulting effects on climate and environment have put tremendous focus on utilizing fermentable sugars from lignocellulose, the largest known renewable carbohydrate source. The fermentable sugars in lignocellulose are derived from cellulose and hemicelluloses but these are not readily accessible to enzymatic hydrolysis and require a pretreatment, which causes an extensive modification of the lignocellulosic structure. A number of pretreatment techn...

  14. Fungal secretomes enhance sugar beet pulp hydrolysis

    OpenAIRE

    Kracher, Daniel; Oros, Damir; Yao, Wanying; Preims, Marita; Rezic, Iva; Haltrich, Dietmar; Rezic, Tonci; Ludwig, Roland

    2014-01-01

    The recalcitrance of lignocellulose makes enzymatic hydrolysis of plant biomass for the production of second generation biofuels a major challenge. This work investigates an efficient and economic approach for the enzymatic hydrolysis of sugar beet pulp (SBP), which is a difficult to degrade, hemicellulose-rich by-product of the table sugar industry. Three fungal strains were grown on different substrates and the production of various extracellular hydrolytic and oxidative enzymes involved in...

  15. Holograms recorded in dichromated with simple sugars

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mejias-Brizuela, N Y; Olivares-Perez, A [Instituto Tecnologico Superior de Atlixco, Coordinacion de Bioquimica, Prolongacion Heliotropo N0 1201, Vista Hermosa Atlixco, Puebla (Mexico); Grande-Grande, A, E-mail: nilyame@inaoep.mx, E-mail: olivares@inaoep.mx

    2011-01-01

    Sugars as glucose and fructose can be used to holographic record. These materials have the advantage to mix very well with K{sub 2}Cr{sub 2}O{sub 7}.Holographic gratings recorded in sugars, were made by a lineal setup to producing interference pattern using a wavelength at 473 nm. These materials have the ability to register information in real time.

  16. SUBAQUEOUS DISPOSAL OF MILL TAILINGS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Neeraj K. Mendiratta; Roe-Hoan Yoon; Paul Richardson

    1999-09-03

    A study of mill tailings and sulfide minerals was carried out in order to understand their behavior under subaqueous conditions. A series of electrochemical experiments, namely, cyclic voltammetry, electrochemical impedance spectroscopy and galvanic coupling tests were carried out in artificial seawater and in pH 6.8 buffer solutions with chloride and ferric salts. Two mill tailings samples, one from the Kensington Mine, Alaska, and the other from the Holden Mine, Washington, were studied along with pyrite, galena, chalcopyrite and copper-activated sphalerite. SEM analysis of mill tailings revealed absence of sulfide minerals from the Kensington Mine mill tailings, whereas the Holden Mine mill tailings contained approximately 8% pyrite and 1% sphalerite. In order to conduct electrochemical tests, carbon matrix composite (CMC) electrodes of mill tailings, pyrite and galena were prepared and their feasibility was established by conducting a series of cyclic voltammetry tests. The cyclic voltammetry experiments carried out in artificial seawater and pH 6.8 buffer with chloride salts showed that chloride ions play an important role in the redox processes of sulfide minerals. For pyrite and galena, peaks were observed for the formation of chloride complexes, whereas pitting behavior was observed for the CMC electrodes of the Kensington Mine mill tailings. The electrochemical impedance spectroscopy conducted in artificial seawater provided with the Nyquist plots of pyrite and galena. The Nyquist plots of pyrite and galena exhibited an inert range of potential indicating a slower rate of leaching of sulfide minerals in marine environments. The galvanic coupling experiments were carried out to study the oxidation of sulfide minerals in the absence of oxygen. It was shown that in the absence of oxygen, ferric (Fe3+) ions might oxidize the sulfide minerals, thereby releasing undesirable oxidation products in the marine environment. The source of Fe{sup 3{minus}} ions may be attributed to iron-bearing sulfide (and oxide) minerals present in the mill tailings. However, the concentration of available Fe{sup 3{minus}} ions can be reduced by the precipitation of insoluble ferric hydroxides (Fe(OH ){sub 3}) by seawater due to its near neutral pH. In such case, the oxidation of a sulfide mineral is inhibited due to the absence of an oxidizing agent (viz. oxygen and/or Fe{sup 3+} ions). The experiments carried out in this study provided a better understanding of behavior of sulfide minerals and mill tailings in subaqueous conditions and may be useful for further investigation of sulfide minerals and mill tailings in other environments.

  17. Study of fiber optic sugar sensor

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    A Jayanth Kumar; N M Gowri; R Venkateswara Raju; G Nirmala; B S Bellubbi; T Radha Krishna

    2006-08-01

    Over the last two decades, the fiber optic technology has passed through many analytical stages. Some commercially available fiber optic sensors, though in a small way, are being used for automation in mechanical and industrial environments. They are also used for instrumentation and controls. In the present work, an intensity-modulated intrinsic fiber optic sugar sensor is presented. This type of sensor, with slight modification, can be used for on-line determination of the concentration of sugar content in sugarcane juice in sugar industry. In the present set-up, a plastic fiber made of polymethylmethacrylate is used. A portion of the cladding (1 cm, 2 cm, 3 cm) at the mid-point along the length of the fiber is removed. This portion is immersed in sugar solution of known concentration and refractive index. At one end of the fiber an 850 nm source is used and at the other end a power meter is connected. By varying the concentration of sugar solution, the output power is noted. These studies are made due to the change in refractive index of the fluid. The device was found to be very sensitive which is free from EMI and shock hazards, stable and repeatable and they can be remotely interfaced with a computer to give on-line measurements and thus become useful for application in sugar industries.

  18. Aerosol Chemistry of Furfural and Sugars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srithawirat, T.; Brimblecombe, P.

    2008-12-01

    Furfural and sugars (as levoglucosan equivalent) are derived from biomass burning and contribute to aerosol composition. This study examined the potential of furfural and levoglucosan to be tracers of biomass burning. Furfural is likely to be oxidized quickly so comparison with levoglucosan may give a sense of the age of the aerosols in forest fire smoke. However, few furfural emissions are available for biomass combustion. Furfural and sugars were determined in coarse aerosols (>2.4?m aerodynamic diameter) and fine aerosols (Furfural and sugars dominated in fine fractions, especially in the UK autumn. Sugars were found at 5.96-18.37 nmol m-3 in fine mode and 1.36-5.75 nmol m-3 in coarse mode aerosols in the UK. Furfural was found at 0.18-0.91 nmol m-3 and 0.05-0.51 nmol m-3 respectively in the same aerosols. Sugars were a dominant contributor to aerosol derived from biomass burning. Sugars and furfural were about 10 and 20 times higher during haze episodes in Malaysia. Laboratory experimental simulation suggested furfural is more rapid destroyed by UV and sunlight than levoglucosan.

  19. Dietary sugar utilisation by putative oral probiotics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stamatova, I; Kari, K; Hervonen, L; Meurman, J H

    2012-09-01

    Probiotic consumption and repeated probiotic intake have shown promising results as adjunct therapies in prevention and alleviation of some chronic disease conditions in the gastrointestinal tract. Recent evidence suggests that probiotics may also be beneficial in preventing oral diseases. An efficient probiotic candidate in the mouth, however, should not impose any risk to oral tissues, such as acid demineralisation of tooth enamel because of sugar fermentation. The aim of the present in vitro study was to evaluate the utilisation of some sugars and sugar alcohols by yogurt starter Lactobacillus delbrueckii subsp. bulgaricus strains and to assess the influence of these carbohydrate sources on cell surface properties. For comparsion, a commercially available probiotic, Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG, was used. The results showed that lactose, glucose and fructose were readily metabolised by all strains tested. However, strain-specific metabolic patterns were observed when other sugars and sugar alcohols were used as sole carbohydrate source in the growth medium. Surface properties of the bacteria such as hydrophobicity and surface-associated proteins appeared to vary with the carbohydrate content of the growth medium. Based on these results it can be concluded that among the L. delbrueckii subsp. bulgaricus strains probiotic candidate strains are available that warrant further studies due to their inability to ferment sugars with pronounced cariogenic properties. PMID:22968411

  20. World Sugar Market – Basic Development Trends and Tendencies

    OpenAIRE

    M. Svatos?; M. Maitah; A. Belova

    2013-01-01

    This article is devoted to the issues of the world‘s sugar production and cultivation of sugar crops (sugar beet and sugar cane). It also analyzes the development of the global sugar trade. The main aim of this paper is to define the basic developmental trends and tendencies that affect the current situation on the market for sugar and sugar crops and then outline a process of gradual profiling of the world markets for these commodities. The article identifies the most important players opera...

  1. DETERMINATION OF PRIMARY METABOLITES IN CEREAL MILLING FRACTIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eva Ivanišová

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to determine of primary metabolites (content of starch, total dietary fibre, reducing sugars, proteins and amino acids in four milling fractions of selected cereals (barley, wheat, oat, spelt, rye, triticale grew in the year 2009. It was found that flour fractions (break flour and reduction flour showed the lower content of primary metabolites than bran fractions (fine bran and coarse bran. The aim of this study was also to mention the potential use of bran parts of grain - substances from these parts can be isolated and after treatment, which causes their efficiently usable for human body, they can be used for fortification of wide range of food products.

  2. 77 FR 21568 - Indian Health Professions Preparatory, Indian Health Professions Pregraduate and Indian Health...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-10

    ...Tribal and urban Indian health programs and...section 338A of the Public Health Service...of the Indian Health Professions Scholarship...its Tribal or Urban Indian partners...with IHCIA, Public Law 94-437...funded under the Health Professions...

  3. 75 FR 38764 - USDA Reassigns Domestic Cane Sugar Allotments and Increases the Fiscal Year 2010 Raw Sugar Tariff...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-06

    ...Secretary USDA Reassigns Domestic Cane Sugar Allotments and Increases the Fiscal Year 2010 Raw...surplus sugar under domestic cane sugar allotments of 300,000 short tons raw value...projected surplus cane sugar marketing allotments and allocations under the FY...

  4. 76 FR 20305 - USDA Reassigns Domestic Cane Sugar Allotments and Increases the Fiscal Year 2011 Raw Sugar Tariff...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-12

    ...Secretary USDA Reassigns Domestic Cane Sugar Allotments and Increases the Fiscal Year 2011 Raw...surplus sugar under domestic cane sugar allotments of 325,000 short tons raw value...projected surplus cane sugar marketing allotments under the FY 2011 (October 1,...

  5. 75 FR 22095 - USDA Reassigns Domestic Cane Sugar Allotments and Increases the Fiscal Year 2010 Raw Sugar Tariff...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-27

    ...Secretary USDA Reassigns Domestic Cane Sugar Allotments and Increases the Fiscal Year 2010 Raw...surplus sugar under domestic cane sugar allotments of 200,000 short tons raw value...projected surplus cane sugar marketing allotments and allocations under the FY...

  6. Oxidative enzymatic gelation of sugar beet pectin for emulsion stabilization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Abang Zaidel, Dayang Norulfairuz; Meyer, Anne S.

    2013-01-01

    Pectin from sugar beet is derived from the sugar beet pulp residue which results when sugar beets are processed for sucrose extraction. The sugar beet pectin has poor gelationability by the classic divalentcation molecular mechanism because of a relatively high acetylation degree and short polygalacturonate backbone chain length. However, due to the feruloyl-substitutions on the side chains, the sugar beet pectic polysaccharides can be cross-linked via enzyme catalyzed oxidation. The enzyme kine...

  7. The Russian Federation – Specifics of the Sugar Market

    OpenAIRE

    L. Smutka; M. Maitah; E. A. Zhuravleva

    2014-01-01

    The Russian Federation represents a significant force in the global production and consumption of beet sugar. Its population which is in excess of more than 140 million people consumes over 5.6 million net tons of sugar annually, and the amount is steadily growing. The Russian sugar industry was unable to meet the domestic demand, especially during the economic transformation period (sugar beet and sugar production are very sensitive in relation to changes in economic, political, production a...

  8. Noise exposure in oil mills

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prasanna Kumar G

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Context: Noise of machines in various agro-based industries was found to be the major occupational hazard for the workers of industries. The predominant noise sources need to be identified and the causes of high noise need to be studied to undertake the appropriate measures to reduce the noise level in one of the major agro-based industries, oil mills. Aims: To identify the predominant noise sources in the workrooms of oil mills. To study the causes of noise in oil mills. To measure the extent of noise exposure of oil mill workers. To examine the response of workers towards noise, so that appropriate measures can be undertaken to minimize the noise exposure. Settings and Design: A noise survey was conducted in the three renowned oil mills of north-eastern region of India. Materials and Methods: Information like output capacity, size of power source, maintenance condition of the machines and workroom configurations of the oil mills was collected by personal observations and enquiry with the owner of the mill. Using a Sound Level Meter (SLM (Model-824, Larson and Davis, USA, equivalent SPL was measured at operator?s ear level in the working zone of the workers near each machine of the mills. In order to study the variation of SPL in the workrooms of the oil mill throughout its operation, equivalent SPL was measured at two appropriate locations of working zone of the workers in each mill. For conducting the noise survey, the guidelines of Canadian Centre for Occupational Health and Safety (CCOHS were followed. Grid points were marked on the floor of the workroom of the oil mill at a spacing of 1 m x 1 m. SPL at grid points were measured at about 1.5 m above the floor. The direction of the SLM was towards the nearby noisy source. To increase accuracy, two replications were taken at each grid point. All the data were recorded for 30 sec. At the end of the experiment, data were downloaded to a personal computer. With the help of utility software of Larson and Davis, USA, equivalent SPL and noise spectrum at each reading was obtained. Noise survey map of equivalent SPL was drawn for each oil mill by drawing contour lines on the sketch of the oil mill between the points of equal SPL. The floor area in the oil mill where SPL exceeded 85 dBA was identified from the noise survey map of each oil mill to determine the causes of high level of noise. Subjective assessment was done during the rest period of workers and it was assessed with personal interview with each worker separately. Demographic information, nature of work, working hours, rest period, experience of working in the mill, degree of noise annoyance, activity interference, and psychological and physiological effects of machine noise on the worker were asked during the interview. These details were noted in a structured form. Statistical Analysis Used: Nil. Results: The noise survey conducted in three renowned oil mills of north-eastern region of India revealed that about 26% of the total workers were exposed to noise level of more than 85 dBA. Further, 10% to 30% floor areas of workrooms, where oil expellers are provided have the SPL of more than 85 dBA. The noise in the oil mills was dominated by low frequency noise. The predominant noise sources in the oil mills were seed cleaner and power transmission system to oil expellers. Poor maintenance of machines and use of bamboo stick to prevent the fall of belt from misaligned pulleys were the main reason of high noise. Noise emitted by the electric motor, table ghani and oil expellers in all the oil mills was well within 85 dBA. Subjective response indicated that about 63% of the total workers felt that noise interfered with their conversation. About 16% each were of the opinion that noise interfered in their work and harmed their hearing. About 5% of workers stated that the workroom noise gave them headaches. Conclusions: The workers engaged in the workrooms of the oil mills are exposed to high noise, which will have detrimental effect on their health. Th

  9. Electron beam processing of sugar cane bagasse to cellulose hydrolysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sugarcane bagasse has been considered as a substrate for single cell protein, animal feed, and renewable energy production. Sugarcane bagasse generally contain up to 45% glucose polymer cellulose, 40% hemicelluloses, and 20% lignin. Pure cellulose is readily depolymerised by radiation, but in biomass, the cellulose is intimately bonded with lignin, that protect it from radiation effects. The objective of this study is the evaluation of the electron beam irradiation as a pre-treatment to enzymatic hydrolysis of cellulose in order to facilitate its fermentation and improves the production of ethanol biofuel. Samples of sugarcane bagasse were obtained in sugar/ethanol Iracema Mill sited in Piracicaba, Brazil, and were irradiated using Radiation Dynamics Electron Beam Accelerator with 1.5 MeV energy and 37kW, in batch systems. The applied absorbed doses of the fist sampling, Bagasse A, were 20 kGy, 50 kGy, 100 kGy and 200 kGy. After the evaluation the preliminary obtained results, it was applied lower absorbed doses in the second assay: 5 kGy, 10 kGy, 20 kGy, 30 kGy, 50 kGy, 70 kGy, 100 kGy and 150 kGy. The electron beam processing took to changes in the sugarcane bagasse structure and composition, lignin and cellulose cleavage. The yield of enzymatic hydrolyzes of cellulose increase about 40 % with 30 kGy of absorbed dose. (author)

  10. Estonian sugar mountain turns sour / Alec Charles

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Charles, Alec

    2005-01-01

    Eesti valitsus jätkab võitlust Euroopa Komisjoniga, et mitte maksta 55 miljonit eurot trahvi suhkru ladustamise eest. Peaminister Juhan Parts saatis Euroopa Komisjoni presidendile Jose Manuel Barrosole kirja, milles palus trahvi nõudmise suhtes järele mõelda.

  11. Caregiving in Indian Country

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2009-12-23

    This podcast discusses the role of caregivers in Indian County and the importance of protecting their health. It is primarily targeted to public health and aging services professionals.  Created: 12/23/2009 by National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion (NCCDPHP).   Date Released: 12/23/2009.

  12. Radiocarbon and Indian archaeology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The increasing use of radiocarbon (C14) dating techniques in Indian archaeology has been described in detail. Work done in Microlithic cultures, Neolithic period, Indus civilization and Iron age cultures have been reported. C14 dates of various archaeological sites are listed. (K.B.)

  13. American Indian Recipes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gurnoe, Katherine J.; Skjervold, Christian, Ed.

    Presenting some 60 to 70 Native American recipes, this document includes a brief introduction and a suggested reading list (15 citations related to American Indian foods). The introduction identifies five regional Native American cuisines as follows: in the Southwest, peppers and beans were made into chili, soups, guacamole, and barbecue sauces by…

  14. Indians of Arizona.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bureau of Indian Affairs (Dept. of Interior), Washington, DC.

    Brief descriptions of the historical and cultural background of the Navajo, Apache, Hopi, Pima, Papago, Yuma, Maricopa, Mohave, Cocopah, Havasupai, Hualapai, Yavapai, and Paiute Indian tribes of Arizona are presented. Further information is given concerning the educational, housing, employment, and economic development taking place on the…

  15. Effect of soya milk on nutritive, antioxidative, reological and textural properties of chocolate produced in a ball mill

    OpenAIRE

    Zari? Danica B.; Pajin Biljana S.; Rakin Marica B.; Šereš Zita I.; Doki? Ljubica P.; Tomi? Jelena M.

    2011-01-01

    Chocolate is a complex rheological system in which non-fat cocoa particles and sugar particles are enveloped by crystal matrix of cocoa butter. Physical properties of chocolate depend on ingredient composition, method of production and properly performed pre-crystallization phase. In this work, chocolate was produced in an unconventional way, i.e. in a ball mill applying variable refining time (30, 60 and 90 min) and pre-crystallization temperature in chocolate masses (26, 28 and 30?C)....

  16. CHEMICAL CHARACTERISATION AND DILUTE-ACID HYDROLYSIS OF RICE HULLS FROM AN ARTISAN MILL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yoney López

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available The chemical composition of rice hulls produced in an artisan mill and its conversion to fermentable sugars was investigated. The carbohydrate fraction represented 59.2% (w/w of the dry hulls. Cellulose, with 36.6%, was the main component, followed by xylan with 13.9%. An important contribution of starch (8.7% was also detected. The content of ash (19.6% and lignin (15.5% was comparable with that of rice hulls obtained in industrial mills. Dilute-sulphuric acid hydrolysis at different temperatures, from 160 to 210°C, was evaluated for production of fermentable sugars. Due to starch hydrolysis, the concentration of glucose in the hydrolysates produced at 160°C was higher than the values that have previously been reported for industrial sorts of rice hulls under comparable conditions. The xylan-to-xylose conversion increased steadily with increase of the temperature and reached a maximum (67.7% at 190°C. Further increases of the hydrolysis temperature decreased the yield of sugars due to their dehydration to furfural and HMF.

  17. FAILURE ANALYSIS IN TUBING OF AIR PREHEATER OF BOILER FROM A SUGARCANE MILL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joner Oliveira Alves

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The increased demand for energy from sugarcane bagasse has made the sugar and alcohol mills search alternatives to reduce maintenance of the boilers, releasing more time to the production. The stainless steel use has become one of the main tools for such reduction. However, specification errors can lead to premature failures. This work reports the factors that led tubes of AISI 409 stainless steel fail after half season when applied in a air preheater of boiler from a sugarcane mill. In such application, the AISI 304 lasts about 15 seasons and the carbon steel about 3. A tube sent by the sugar mill was characterized by wet chemical analysis, optical microscopy and EDS. Results indicated chloride formation on the internal walls of the tube, which combined with the environment, accelerated the corrosion process. The carbon steel showed high lifetime due to a 70% higher thickness. Due to the work condictions is recommended the use of stainless steels with higher corrosion resistance, such as the traditional AISI 304 or the ferritic AISI 444, the last presents better thermal exchange.

  18. State of weed infestation and features of sugar beet protection in Belarus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soroka Sergey Vladimirovich

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available The changes of phytosanitary situation recently taking place in sugar beet crops in the Republic of Belarus are shown. It is noticed that in the crop agrocoenosises there is a high infestation level caused by Japanese barnyard millet (Echinochloa crus-galli (L Pal. Beauv, field sowthistle (Sonchus arvensis L, chickweed (Stellaria media (L Vill, quick grass (Agropyron repens (L Pal Beauv, matricary (Matricaria perforate Merat, creeping thistle (Circium arvense (L scop, marsh woundwort (Stachus palustris L wild buckwheat (Polygonum convolvulus L, bristle stem hemp nettle (Galeopsis tetrahit L, common horsetail (Equisetum arvense L, field forget-me-not (Myosotis arvensis (L Hill, shepherd's purse (Capsella bursa-pastoris (L Med etc. Due to non-observance of preventive and separate agrotechnical techniques especially in spring-summer period, such weeds as bedstraw (Galium aparine L, white campion (Melandrium album (Mill Garcke, green amaranthus (Amaranthus retroflexus L started to appear in the crops. To protect sugar beet effectively, two variants of herbicides application are proposed. The first one - a combined, one stipulating soil action herbicides application before planting or before sugar beet seedlings emergence and on seedlings - to carry out two treatment by post-emergence preparations. The second variant, a split post- -emergence herbicide application (two-three times spraying on growing weeds at small application rates. In the next 5-6 years, a combined method will be of a primary importance in the conditions of the Republic.

  19. Genetic improvement of sugar cane for bioenergy: the Brazilian experience in network research with RIDESA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luiz Alexandre Peternelli

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, it is presented RIDESA’s model for sugar cane breeding to ethanol, and its scientific, technological and human resources training contributions. RIDESA is an inter-university network for the development of sugar cane industry in Brazil, and was formed by a technical cooperation agreement between ten public universities. The model of network management is presented in this study, which involves, among other things, the public-private partnership (Universities-Mills for the development of cultivars. RIDESA has produced 59 cultivars since 1990 and is now responsible for 59% of the total area cultivated with this plant in Brazil. In the last five years, 286 agronomists were trained in breeding programs at universities that comprise RIDESA. In this same period, the network formed 35 professors, 24 doctors and 7 post-docs in researches with this crop. It is also presented a conceptual approach on methods of sugar cane breeding involving families and genome-wide selection.

  20. 78 FR 57445 - Fiscal Year 2014 WTO Tariff-Rate Quota Allocations for Raw Cane Sugar, Refined and Specialty...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-18

    ...tariff-rate quotas (TRQs) for imported raw cane sugar, refined sugar (syrups and molasses), specialty sugar, and sugar-containing...TRQs for imports of raw cane sugar and refined sugar (syrups and molasses). Pursuant to Additional...

  1. Utilization of Waste Heat from Sugar Mills in Cuba for Thermally Driven Cooling

    OpenAIRE

    Feychting, Sofia; Vitez, Marina

    2014-01-01

    The demand for air conditioning keeps rising, especially in developing countries where the standard of living has improved. This results in an increased consumption of electricity and puts further pressure on the power grid. In Cuba, electricity is a scarce commodity and the electricity production relies heavily on fossil fuels, which causes high emissions. An alternative technology for producing cooling is thermally driven cooling where the installment of an absorption chiller could utilize ...

  2. Evaluation of Anaerobic Fluidized Bed Reactor for treating Sugar mill effluent - a Case Study

    OpenAIRE

    R. Mathiyazhagan; Dr. V. Nehru Kumar

    2014-01-01

    Anaerobic treatment processes are credible options for providing sustainable treatment to biodegradable waste streams. The Anaerobic Fluidized Bed Reactor (AFBR) is an evolving process that requires waste specific design methodologies based on kinetics of the specific process. The research was precisely an experimental study on AFBR having23.56 litres of effective volume to evaluate its treatment performance and gas recovery in terms of Chemical Oxygen Demand (COD), Hydraulic ...

  3. Infield routing network and reducing transportation costs on a sugar mill in Colombia

    OpenAIRE

    Ca?rdenas Reina, Jorge Mario; Krigsfeld Kuzman, Adrian

    2012-01-01

    Globalization and free trade agreements are factors that affect the world¿s economy. For some industries they can be beneficial and for others not so much. Additionally customers are ever more and more demanding, they want better products, with better quality and at a lower price. To stay competitive in the market it is necessary to give the customers everything they want and to supply all the client¿s needs. Being competitive is hard work to maintain and also expensive if the costs are no...

  4. ONLINE SAG MILL PULSE MEASUREMENT AND OPTIMIZATION

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Raj Rajamani; Jose Delgadillo; Vishal Duriseti

    2006-06-24

    The grinding efficiency of semi autogenous milling or ball milling depends on the tumbling motion of the total charge within the mill. Utilization of this tumbling motion for efficient breakage of particles depends on the conditions inside the mill. However, any kind of monitoring device to measure the conditions inside the mill shell during operation is virtually impossible due to the severe environment presented by the tumbling charge. An instrumented grinding ball, which is capable of surviving a few hours and transmitting the impacts it experiences, is proposed here. The spectrum of impacts collected over 100 revolutions of the mills presents the signature of the grinding environment inside mill. This signature could be effectively used to optimize the milling performance by investigating this signature's relation to mill product size, mill throughput, make-up ball size, mill speed, liner profile and ball addition rates. At the same time, it can also be used to design balls and liner systems that can survive longer in the mill. The technological advances made in electronics and communication makes this leap in instrumentation certainly viable. Hence, the instrumented grinding ball offers the ability to qualitatively observe and optimize the milling environment.

  5. Nutritional profile of Indian vegetarian diets – the Indian Migration Study (IMS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Background The cardiovascular and other health benefits and potential harms of protein and micronutrient deficiency of vegetarian diets continue to be debated. Methods Study participants included urban migrants, their rural siblings and urban residents (n = 6555, mean age - 40.9 yrs) of the Indian Migration Study from Lucknow, Nagpur, Hyderabad and Bangalore. Information on diet (validated interviewer-administered semi-quantitative food frequency questionnaire), tobacco, alcohol, physical activity, medical histories, as well as blood pressure, fasting blood and anthropometric measurements were collected. Nutrient databases were used to calculate nutrient content of regional recipes. Vegetarians ate no eggs, fish, poultry and meat. Using multivariate linear regression with robust standard error model, we compared the macro- and micro-nutrient profile of vegetarian and non-vegetarian diets. Results Vegetarians, (32.8% of the population), consumed greater amounts of legumes, vegetables, roots and tubers, dairy and sugar, while non-vegetarians had a greater intake of cereals, fruits, spices, salt (p?Indian vegetarian diets were found to be adequate to sustain nutritional demands according to recommended dietary allowances with less fat. Lower vitamin B12 bio-availability remains a concern and requires exploration of acceptable dietary sources for vegetarians. PMID:24899080

  6. 76 FR 11494 - List of Recipients of Indian Health Scholarships Under the Indian Health Scholarship Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-02

    ...Service List of Recipients of Indian Health Scholarships Under the Indian Health Scholarship Program The regulations governing Indian...Register a list of recipients of Indian Health Scholarships, including the name of each...

  7. THE EFFECT OF NITROGEN INPUT ON POLARISED SUGAR PRODUCTION AND QUALITATIVE PARAMETERS OF SUGAR BEET

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MILAN MACÁK

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available During 1998-2002, the application of different forms and doses of nitrogen on quantitative (polarised sugar productionand qualitative parameters (digestion, molasses forming components - potassium, sodium and ?-amino nitrogen content of sugar beet in vulnerable zones (Nitrate directive was studied. Calculated input of nitrogen ranged from 12 kg up to 240 kg N.ha-1. By increasing input of N from FYM application into the soil causes an increases of ?- amino nitrogen content in root, which in consequence causes a decreases the sugar content (negative correlation r= -0.8659+. The application of straw instead FYM of analogues treatments caused significant decrease (straw versus FYM and highly significant decrease (straw plus N fertilizers versus FYM plus N fertilizers of ?-amino nitrogen content in sugar beet root living the productive parameters unchanged. The content of ?-amino nitrogen in root of sugar beet indicate an environmentally friendly management practices with causal relation to water protection from nitrate.

  8. Locality of cryoprotective sugars in membranes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The goal of this project is to understand the major factors that determine the ability of various recalcitrant plant species to survive cryogenic storage, with particular relevance to post mining restoration of bauxite mining activities in South Western Australia. Research has focused on the biophysical properties of the cell membranes of 'model' systems, in order to determine how natural cryoprotective agents (eg sugars) protect cell membranes from freezing and dehydration damage. A number of organisms have evolved mechanisms to avoid such damage. One such mechanism is the accumulation of small solutes (sugars such as sucrose, trehalose and glucose), which have been shown to preserve membranes by inhibiting deleterious phase changes at low hydration. The effects of sugars on bilayer phase transitions have been studied for a number of years, and have led to a good understanding of the factors at work. The RMIT group has used SANS and SAXS to enhance this understanding by demonstrating that there is sugar partitioning between the lamellar lipid phase, and sugar water microphases. To further this understanding, neutron membrane diffraction experiments (ANDR/A, NIST, Gaithersburg, U.S.A.) where performed using deuterated trehalose in a DOPC membrane. Chemically deuterated trehalose, was synthesized at the Australian National Deuteration Facility (NDF). By deuterating the trehalose, and varying the amount of deuteration in order to phase and reconstruct the unit cell, we are hoping to accurately describe the concentration profile of trehalose within the model membrane system.

  9. PRODUCTION VALUES OF INVESTIGATED SUGAR BEET HYBRIDS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milan Pospišil

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Production values of 43 experimental and recognized sugar beet hybrids were conducted on the Zagreb location in the period 2003-2005. The trials included hybrids from six breeding institutions that sell sugar beet seed in the Republic of Croatia. Research results have revealed significant differences in yields and root quality among investigated sugar beet hybrids. However, the results of a large number of hybrids were equal in value; namely, the difference between them was within the statistically allowable deviation. The hybrids KW 0148 HR and Buda in 2003, Sofarizo and Takt were distinguished by high sugar yields in 2004, whereasMerak, Impact and Europa in 2005. The highest root yields were recorded for hybrids Dioneta, Buda and KW 0148 HR in 2003, Sofarizo, Takt, HI 0191 and Dorotea in 2004, Impact and SES 2371 in 2005. The highest root sugar contents were determined in hybrids Zita and Evelina in 2003, Cyntia, Diamant and Belinda in2004, and Merak, Belinda and Cyntia in 2005.

  10. Reconciliation of opposing views on membrane-sugar interactions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Delcomyn Andersen, Heidi; Wang, Chunhua

    2011-01-01

    It is well established that small sugars exert different types of stabilization of biomembranes both in vivo and in vitro. However, the essential question of whether sugars are bound to or expelled from membrane surfaces, i.e., the sign and size of the free energy of the interaction, remains unresolved, and this prevents a molecular understanding of the stabilizing mechanism. We have used small-angle neutron scattering and thermodynamic measurements to show that sugars may be either bound or expelled depending on the concentration of sugar. At low concentration, small sugars bind quite strongly to a lipid bilayer, and the accumulation of sugar at the interface makes the membrane thinner and laterally expanded. Above ?0.2 M the sugars gradually become expelled from the membrane surface, and this repulsive mode of interaction counteracts membrane thinning. The dual nature of sugar–membrane interactions offers a reconciliation of conflicting views in earlier reports on sugar-induced modulations of membrane properties.

  11. Uranium mill tailings and radon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The major health hazard from uranium mill tailings is presumed to be respiratory cancer resulting from the inhalation of radon daughter products. A review of studies on inhalation of radon and its daughters indicates that the hazard from the tailings is extremely small. If the assumptions used in the studies are correct, one or two people per year in the United States may develop cancer as a result of radon exhaled from all the Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action program sites. The remedial action should reduce the hazard from the tailings by a factor of about 100

  12. Uranium mill tailings and radon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The major health hazard from uranium mill tailings is presumed to be respiratory cancer resulting from the inhalation of radon daughter products. A review of studies on inhalation of radon and its daughters indicates that the hazard from the tailings is extremely small. If the assumptions used in the studies are correct, one or two people per year in the US may develop cancer as a result of radon exhaled from all the Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action Program sites. The remedial action should reduce the hazard from the tailings by a factor of about 100

  13. The chemistry of uranium milling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The major stages in conventional processes for the milling of uranium ores are the leaching of the uranium by acid or alkaline solutions, concentration and purification by solvent extraction or ion-exchange, and precipitation. The chemistry of uranium through-out these key stages is discussed, as well as the relationship between mineralogy and chemistry in pretreatment and leaching stages. The behavior of vandium, which is an important byproduct in many mills, is also discussed. The chemistry of uranium in alternative processes for uranium recovery is briefly reviewed, e.g. in bacterial leaching, heap leaching, solution mining, production of uranium tetrafluoride instead of yellowcake, and recovery from phosphate liquors. (orig.)

  14. Greenhouse gasses emissions and energy balances of a non-vertically integrated sugar and ethanol supply chain: A case study in Argentina

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In order to address society's concerns regarding the sustainability of sugar and ethanol production and use, this paper calculates the energy and greenhouse gasses (GHG) emissions' balances of a non-vertically integrated sugarcane industry in Tucumán-Argentina. The essential operations involved in the sugar/ethanol production cycle were taken into account. Results show that this industry generated an energy balance of 3.4:1. GHG emissions during sugarcane production were 1824 and 2231 kg CO2eq. ha?1 year?1 for low and middle to high farms' technological levels, respectively. The mill process emitted 1187 kg CO2eq. ha?1 year?1. The main factors influencing these balances were gas-oil and nitrogen fertilizers used in the agricultural stage, natural gas consumed by the sugar mill, and sugarcane burning (only for GHG balance). The impact of ethanol use in reducing GHG emissions under the current production scheme (6.8 Mg ha?1 of sugar + 380.9 kg ha?1 of ethanol), in final blends of 95% gasoline and 5% ethanol in vehicles, is negligible. A sensitivity analysis indicates that switching to 100% bagasse used as fuel in mill's boilers, ethanol being produced directly from sugarcane juice, and a final blend of 90% gasoline and 10% ethanol, an amount of 1746 kg CO2eq. ha?1 year?1 of GHG emissions could be avoided. - Highlights: ? Energy and GHG emissions' balances for the non-integrated sugar/ethanol industry in Tucumán-Argentina. ? The energy balance was positive, while there were important GHG emissions. ? Factors influencing both balances were gas-oil, N fertilizers, burning and natural gas. ? Ethanol use for reducing GHG emissions in the current production scheme is negligible. ? Results are promising, as the main factors influencing both balances are identified

  15. Indian Academy of Sciences - New associates, 2014

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

      1. k. v. adarsh, indian institute of science education and research, bhopal   5. k. biswas, jawaharlal nehru centre for advanced scientific research, bangalore   8. u. kodandaramaiah, indian institute of science education and research, thiruvananthapuram   9. r. mahalakshmi, indian institute of science education and research, bhopal 10. angshuman nag, indian institute of science education and research, pune 11. r. s. swathi, indian institute of science ...

  16. Total, Added, and Free Sugars: Are Restrictive Guidelines Science-Based or Achievable?

    OpenAIRE

    Erickson, Jennifer; Slavin, Joanne

    2015-01-01

    Sugar consumption, especially added sugars, is under attack. Various government and health authorities have suggested new sugar recommendations and guidelines as low as 5% of total calories from free sugars. Definitions for total sugars, free sugars, and added sugars are not standardized, nor are there accepted nutrient databases for this information. Our objective was to measure total sugars and added sugars in sample meal plans created by the United States Department of Agriculture (USDA) a...

  17. The Yang-Mills field strength revisited

    OpenAIRE

    Marateck, Samuel L.

    2007-01-01

    The Yang-Mills field strength incorporating a non-Abelian feature is one of the cornerstones of the standard model. Although Yang-Mills gauge theories have been around for over fifty years, surprisingly the derivation of the Yang-Mills field strength using classical gauge theory does not appear anywhere in the literature. In their 1954 paper, Yang and Mills had to invent a non-Abelian field strength to satisfy certain criteria. In Section 5 we use Yang's gauge transformation...

  18. Sugar Transport and Metabolism in Thermotoga

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Noll, Kenneth M.; Romano, Antonio H.

    2003-02-11

    The work conducted under this grant demonstrated that the hyperthermophilic bacterium Thermotoga neapolitana carries out glucose and lactose transport in a sodium-dependent manner and that energization of anaerobic cells is required to observe transport. We also demonstrated that Thermotoga maritima carries out maltose and glucose transport using periplasmic sugar binding proteins. We began defining patterns of expression of genes encoding sugar transport and catabolic functions in both T. maritima and T. neapolitana. We began a collaborative effort to identify all the genes regulated at the transcriptional level in response to sugars substrates. These funds also allowed us to begin an examination of the functions of several periplasmic substrate binding proteins encoded in the genome of T. maritima.

  19. [Prophylaxis of dental caries using sugar substitutes].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eberle, G

    1984-12-01

    Among the three measures, which are capable of producing a preventive effect against caries only when applied combined, i.e. adequate fluoride supply, proper mouth hygiene and healthy nutrition, the latter is dealt with in greater detail. The use of sugar substitutes is discussed under the aspects of caries prevention, substitute composition and production technology as well as from a medical point of view. Among the presently available sugar substitutes with nutritive value are mentioned Xylite, Lycasine, Mannite, Sorbite, Palatinite, the non-calorific substitutes such as the natural Aspartame as well as the synthetic sweetening agents Saccharine and Cyclamate. The possibilities and limitations of using these sugar substitutes in the prevention of caries in adults and children are presented. PMID:6532015

  20. Ground beetle populations near a kraft mill

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Freitag, R.; Hastings, L.; Mercer, W.R.; Smith, A.

    1973-02-01

    Twenty species of ground beetles (Family Carabidae) and one species of carrion beetle (Family Silphidae) were collected in six stations east of a kraft paper mill in Thunder Bay, Ontario, from May to August, 1971. The beetle population decreased markedly towards the mill. There was no apparent statistical difference in size variation of specimens near the mill and those further away.

  1. 77 FR 14837 - Bioassay at Uranium Mills

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-13

    ... COMMISSION Bioassay at Uranium Mills AGENCY: Nuclear Regulatory Commission. ACTION: Draft regulatory guide... for public comment draft regulatory guide (DG), DG-8051, ``Bioassay at Uranium Mills.'' This guide describes a bioassay program acceptable to the NRC staff for uranium mills and applicable portions...

  2. BIA Indian Lands Dataset (Indian Lands of the United States)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Geographic Data Committee — The American Indian Reservations / Federally Recognized Tribal Entities dataset depicts feature location, selected demographics and other associated data for the...

  3. 40 CFR 409.20 - Applicability; description of the crystalline cane sugar refining subcategory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ...description of the crystalline cane sugar refining subcategory. 409.20...PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS SUGAR PROCESSING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Crystalline Cane Sugar Refining Subcategory §...

  4. 40 CFR 409.40 - Applicability; description of the Louisiana raw cane sugar processing subcategory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ...description of the Louisiana raw cane sugar processing subcategory. 409...PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS SUGAR PROCESSING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Louisiana Raw Cane Sugar Processing Subcategory §...

  5. 40 CFR 409.70 - Applicability; description of the Hawaiian raw cane sugar processing subcategory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ...description of the Hawaiian raw cane sugar processing subcategory. 409...PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS SUGAR PROCESSING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Hawaiian Raw Cane Sugar Processing Subcategory §...

  6. 40 CFR 409.10 - Applicability; description of the beet sugar processing subcategory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ...Applicability; description of the beet sugar processing subcategory. 409.10...PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS SUGAR PROCESSING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Beet Sugar Processing Subcategory §...

  7. “Impact of Irrigation Scheme on Agricultural Development - A study of Krishna Sugar Factory Irrigation Scheme Rethare Bk. Satara District , Maharashtra State”

    OpenAIRE

    Rajhans Snehal Makarand

    2012-01-01

    India is the most extensively irrigated country in the world. The problem of Indian agriculture is mainly the water supply. Water is indispensable to agricultural production. In areas where rainfall is well distributed throught the year, there is no problem. But in uncertain rainfall areas irrigation is quite essention for cultivation. For the sugarcane cultivation there is requirement of regular supply of water. Because of this Krishna Sugar Factory established a Krishna Irrigati...

  8. Indian President visits CERN

    CERN Multimedia

    Katarina Anthony

    2011-01-01

    On 1 October, her Excellency Mrs Pratibha Devisingh Patil, President of India, picked CERN as the first stop on her official state visit to Switzerland. Accompanied by a host of Indian journalists, a security team, and a group of presidential delegates, the president left quite an impression when she visited CERN’s Point 2!   Upon arrival, Pratibha Patil was greeted by CERN Director General Rolf Heuer, as well as senior Indian scientists working at CERN, and various department directors. After a quick overview of the Organization, Rolf Heuer and the President addressed India’s future collaboration with CERN. India is currently an Observer State of the Organization, and is considering becoming an Associate Member State. A short stop in LHC operations gave Steve Myers and the Accelerator team the opportunity to take the President on a tour through the LHC tunnel. From there, ALICE’s Tapan Nayak and Spokesperson Paolo Giubellino took Pratibha Patil to the experiment&am...

  9. Economic impacts of implementing the new plants to sugar cane; Impactos economicos da implementacao das novas usinas de cana-de-acucar

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Terciote, Ricardo [Universidade Estadual de Campinas (DE/FEM/UNICAMP), SP (Brazil). Fac. de Engenharia Mecanica. Dept. de Energia

    2006-07-01

    The sugar industry goes through an important moment: invest and develop to supply future demand, mainly by fuel alcohol (around 70% of new vehicles sales are from flex fuel models - and the majority of these vehicles are supplied by alcohol). Due to this foreseeable increase of alcohol demand, sugar industry has already announced 41 new projects, which will contribute with the milling of 70 million tons of sugar cane by the conclusion of these plants. In this phase of expansion, the alcohol market must be pressured for the demand, managing the supplying of the domestic and external markets. With this scenario and the possibility of sector growth which has an important role in Brazil development, this work evaluates the economic impacts of the new plants implementation investments. (author)

  10. Indian death rituals

    OpenAIRE

    Evison, Gillian (Gillian Anne)

    1990-01-01

    ?This work provides a survey of Indian funeral rites, concentrating on ceremonies performed by rural mainland Hindus, who have been divided into the broad social categories of brahmins, caste Hindus and outcastes/tribes. The primary intention is to identify a core of ritual, which can be used as a baseline against which particular funeral performances can be checked. This work also examines the variation of brahminical ritual over time through a survey of ethnographic mat...

  11. Indian scales and inventories

    OpenAIRE

    Venkatesan, S.

    2010-01-01

    This conceptual, perspective and review paper on Indian scales and inventories begins with clarification on the historical and contemporary meanings of psychometry before linking itself to the burgeoning field of clinimetrics in their applications to the practice of clinical psychology and psychiatry. Clinimetrics is explained as a changing paradigm in the design, administration, and interpretation of quantitative tests, techniques or procedures applied to measurement of clinical variables, t...

  12. Working Women: Indian Perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dharmendra MEHTA

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available In India, due to unprecedented rise in the cost of living, ris-ing prices of commodities, growing expenses on children ed-ucation, huge rate of unemployment, and increasing cost of housing properties compel every Indian family to explore all the possible ways and means to increase the household income. It is also witnessed that after globalization Indian women are able to get more jobs but the work they get is more casual in nature or is the one that men do not prefer to do or is left by them to move to higher or better jobs. Working women refers to those in paid employment. They work as lawyers, nurses, doctors, teachers and secretaries etc. There is no profession today where women are not employed. University of Oxford’s Professor Linda Scott recently coined the term the Double X Economy to describe the global economy of women. The present paper makes an attempt to discuss issues and challenges that are being faced by Indian working women at their respective workstations.

  13. Indian cosmogonies and cosmologies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pajin Dušan

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Various ideas on how the universe appeared and develops, were in Indian tradition related to mythic, religious, or philosophical ideas and contexts, and developed during some 3.000 years - from the time of Vedas, to Puranas. Conserning its appeareance, two main ideas were presented. In one concept it appeared out of itself (auto-generated, and gods were among the first to appear in the cosmic sequences. In the other, it was a kind of divine creation, with hard work (like the dismembering of the primal Purusha, or as emanation of divine dance. Indian tradition had also various critiques of mythic and religious concepts (from the 8th c. BC, to the 6c., who favoured naturalistic and materialistic explanations, and concepts, in their cosmogony and cosmology. One the peculiarities was that indian cosmogony and cosmology includes great time spans, since they used a digit system which was later (in the 13th c. introduced to Europe by Fibonacci (Leonardo of Pisa, 1170-1240.

  14. Mechanization and automation gear milling

    OpenAIRE

    Grebchenko, A.

    2013-01-01

    Cutting teeth is the most time consuming process in the technology of gears. It spent 50 - 60% of the total labor input processing gear. Therefore, improving the efficiency of the process is an important task gear milling machine. When you are citing the document, use the following link http://essuir.sumdu.edu.ua/handle/123456789/33627

  15. J. S. Mill on Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryan, Alan

    2011-01-01

    Mill may be said either to have written rather little on education or to have written a very great deal. He himself distinguished between a "narrow" and a "wider" sense of education, the former limited to what happens in formal educational settings, the latter embracing all the influences that make us who and what we are. He wrote rather little on…

  16. Indian Vacuum Society: The Indian Vacuum Society

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saha, T. K.

    2008-03-01

    The Indian Vacuum Society (IVS) was established in 1970. It has over 800 members including many from Industry and R & D Institutions spread throughout India. The society has an active chapter at Kolkata. The society was formed with the main aim to promote, encourage and develop the growth of Vacuum Science, Techniques and Applications in India. In order to achieve this aim it has conducted a number of short term courses at graduate and technician levels on vacuum science and technology on topics ranging from low vacuum to ultrahigh vacuum So far it has conducted 39 such courses at different parts of the country and imparted training to more than 1200 persons in the field. Some of these courses were in-plant training courses conducted on the premises of the establishment and designed to take care of the special needs of the establishment. IVS also regularly conducts national and international seminars and symposia on vacuum science and technology with special emphasis on some theme related to applications of vacuum. A large number of delegates from all over India take part in the deliberations of such seminars and symposia and present their work. IVS also arranges technical visits to different industries and research institutes. The society also helped in the UNESCO sponsored post-graduate level courses in vacuum science, technology and applications conducted by Mumbai University. The society has also designed a certificate and diploma course for graduate level students studying vacuum science and technology and has submitted a syllabus to the academic council of the University of Mumbai for their approval, we hope that some colleges affiliated to the university will start this course from the coming academic year. IVS extended its support in standardizing many of the vacuum instruments and played a vital role in helping to set up a Regional Testing Centre along with BARC. As part of the development of vacuum education, the society arranges the participation of expert members on the subject to deliver lectures and take part in devising courses in the universities. IVS publishes a quarterly called the `Bulletin of Indian Vacuum Society' since its inception, in which articles on vacuum and related topics are published. NIRVAT, news, announcements, and reports are the other features of the Bulletin. The articles in the Bulletin are internationally abstracted. The Bulletin is distributed free to all the members of the society. The society also publishes proceedings of national/international symposia and seminars, manuals, lecture notes etc. It has published a `Vacuum Directory' containing very useful information on vacuum technology. IVS has also set up its own website http://www.ivsnet.org in January 2002. The website contains information about IVS, list of members, list of EC members, events and news, abstracts of articles published in the `Bulletin of Indian Vacuum Society', utilities, announcements, reports, membership and other forms which can be completed online and also gives links to other vacuum societies. Our Society has been a member of the executive council of the International Union of Vacuum Science, Techniques and Applications (IUVSTA) and its various committees since 1970. In 1983 IVS conducted an International Symposium on Vacuum Technology and Nuclear Applications in BARC, Mumbai, under the sponsorship of IUVSTA. In 1987 IVS arranged the Triennial International Conference on Thin Films in New Delhi, where more than 200 foreign delegates participated. IVS also hosted the IUVSTA Executive Council Meeting along with the conference. The society organized yet again an International Conference on Vacuum Science and Technology and SRS Vacuum Systems at CAT, Indore in1995. IVS arranges the prestigious Professor Balakrishnan Memorial Lecture in memory of its founder vice-president. Leading scientists from India and abroad in the field are invited to deliver the talks. So far 23 lectures have been held in this series. IVS has instituted the `IVS- Professor D Y Phadke Memorial Prize' in memory of our founder presid

  17. Methodology for understanding Indian culture

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sinha, Jai; Kumar, Rajesh

    2004-01-01

    Methods of understanding cultures, including Indian culture, are embedded in a broad spectrum of sociocultural approaches to human behavior in general. The approaches examined in this paper reflect evolving perspectives on Indian culture, ranging from the starkly ethnocentric to the largely eclectic and integrative. Most of the methods herin discussed were developed in the West and were subsequently taken up with or without adaptations to fit the Indian context. The paper begins by briefly revie...

  18. The future of Indian gaming.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rose, I N

    1992-12-01

    The legal right for Native Americans to administer gambling on their land provides them with probably the most profitable opportunity currently available to generate tribal income. The federal Indian Gaming Regulatory Act which guarantees this right is frequently invoked in instances where Indian gaming is competitive with state or private commercial gambling interests. This article examines multiple aspects of the competitive conflicts which arise and provides some speculation about the future of Indian gaming. PMID:24242021

  19. Continuous bio-catalytic conversion of sugar mixture to acetone-butanol-ethanol by immobilized Clostridium acetobutylicum DSM 792.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Survase, Shrikant A; van Heiningen, Adriaan; Granström, Tom

    2012-03-01

    Continuous production of acetone, n-butanol, and ethanol (ABE) was carried out using immobilized cells of Clostridium acetobutylicum DSM 792 using glucose and sugar mixture as a substrate. Among various lignocellulosic materials screened as a support matrix, coconut fibers and wood pulp fibers were found to be promising in batch experiments. With a motive of promoting wood-based bio-refinery concept, wood pulp was used as a cell holding material. Glucose and sugar mixture (glucose, mannose, galactose, arabinose, and xylose) comparable to lignocellulose hydrolysate was used as a substrate for continuous production of ABE. We report the best solvent productivity among wild-type strains using column reactor. The maximum total solvent concentration of 14.32 g L(-1) was obtained at a dilution rate of 0.22 h(-1) with glucose as a substrate compared to 12.64 g L(-1) at 0.5 h(-1) dilution rate with sugar mixture. The maximum solvent productivity (13.66 g L(-1) h(-1)) was obtained at a dilution rate of 1.9 h(-1) with glucose as a substrate whereas solvent productivity (12.14 g L(-1) h(-1)) was obtained at a dilution rate of 1.5 h(-1) with sugar mixture. The immobilized column reactor with wood pulp can become an efficient technology to be integrated with existing pulp mills to convert them into wood-based bio-refineries. PMID:22159612

  20. 76 FR 63325 - National Indian Gaming Commission

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-12

    ...DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR National Indian Gaming Commission AGENCY: National Indian Gaming Commission. ACTION: Notice of no action...On November 18, 2010, the National Indian Gaming Commission (NIGC) issued a Notice of...

  1. Asthma and American Indians/Alaska Natives

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Minority Population Profiles > American Indian/Alaska Native > Asthma Asthma and American Indians/Alaska Natives In 2012, 147, ... Native American adults reported that they currently have asthma. American Indian/Alaska Native children are 80% more ...

  2. Indian Academy of Sciences - New associates, 2010

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

      3. ayan datta, indian institute of science education and research, thiruvananthapuram12. partho sarothi ray, indian institute of science education and research, kolkata14. s. shankaranarayanan, indian institute of science education and r ...

  3. Sugars as tobacco ingredient: Effects on mainstream smoke composition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Talhout, Reinskje; Opperhuizen, Antoon; van Amsterdam, Jan G C

    2006-11-01

    Sugars are natural tobacco components, and are also frequently added to tobacco during the manufacturing process. This review describes the fate of sugars during tobacco smoking, in particular the effect of tobacco sugars on mainstream smoke composition. In natural tobacco, sugars can be present in levels up to 20 wt%. In addition, various sugars are added in tobacco manufacturing in amounts up to 4 wt% per sugar. The added sugars are usually reported to serve as flavour/casing and humectant. However, sugars also promote tobacco smoking, because they generate acids that neutralize the harsh taste and throat impact of tobacco smoke. Moreover, the sweet taste and the agreeable smell of caramelized sugar flavors are appreciated in particular by starting adolescent smokers. Finally, sugars generate acetaldehyde, which has addictive properties and acts synergistically with nicotine in rodents. Apart from these consumption-enhancing pyrolysis products, many toxic (including carcinogenic) smoke compounds are generated from sugars. In particular, sugars increase the level of formaldehyde, acetaldehyde, acetone, acrolein, and 2-furfural in tobacco smoke. It is concluded that sugars in tobacco significantly contribute to the adverse health effects of tobacco smoking. PMID:16904804

  4. Ambient aerosol concentrations of sugars and sugar-alcohols at four different sites in Norway

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. E. Yttri

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available Sugars and sugar-alcohols are demonstrated to be important constituents of the ambient aerosol water-soluble organic carbon fraction, and to be tracers for primary biological aerosol particles (PBAP. In the present study, levels of four sugars (fructose, glucose, sucrose, trehalose and three sugar-alcohols (arabitol, inositol, mannitol in ambient aerosols have been quantified using a novel HPLC/HRMS-TOF (High Performance Liquid Chromatography in combination with High Resolution Mass Spectrometry – Time of Flight method to assess the contribution of PBAP to PM>sub>10 and PM2.5. Samples were collected at four sites in Norway at different times of the year in order to reflect the various contributing sources and the spatial and seasonal variation of the selected compounds.

    Sugars and sugar-alcohols were present at all sites investigated, underlining the ubiquity of these highly polar organic compounds. The highest concentrations were reported for sucrose, reaching a maximum concentration of 320 ng m?3 in PM10 and 55 ng m?3 in PM2.5. The mean concentration of sucrose was up to 10 times higher than fructose, glucose and the dimeric sugar trehalose. The mean concentrations of the sugar-alcohols were typically lower, or equal, to that of the monomeric sugars and trehalose. Peak concentrations of arabitol and mannitol did not exceed 30 ng m?3 in PM10, and for PM2.5 all concentrations were below 6 ng m?3.

    Sugars and sugar-alcohols were associated primarily with coarse aerosols except during wintertime at the suburban site in Elverum, where a shift towards sub micron aerosols was observed. It is proposed that this shift was due to the intensive use of wood burning for residential heating at this site during winter, confirmed by high concurrent concentrations of levoglucosan. Elevated concentrations of sugars in PM2.5 were observed during spring and early summer at the rural background site Birkenes. It is hypothesized that this was due to ruptured pollen.

  5. Indian Academy of Sciences - Fellowship

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    indian academy of sciences - fellowship present fellowsfounding fellowswomen fellows (also see women in science pages) animal sciences earth & planetary sciences mathematical sciences plant sciences ...

  6. Design and development of electronic weight grader for sapota (Manilkara achras (Mill).fosberg)

    OpenAIRE

    Syed Mazara Ali; S.C Mandhar,; Ambrish ganachari,; Udaykumar Nidoni,; Ananthacharya

    2010-01-01

    Sapota (Manilkara achras (Mill).fosberg) is a native of tropical America, having originated in Mexico of Central America. It is a delicious fruit, also known as chikoo, zapota etc.Sapota belongs to the family of Sapotaceae. Sapota is a good source of digestible sugar, protein, fat, fibre, calcium, phosphorus, iron and other minerals. India is the largest producer of sapota with 30 to 40 thousand hectares. The average yield per tree is 2500 to 3500 fruitsweighing around 150 to 300g under Banga...

  7. Optimal Condition of Fenton's Reagent to Enhance the Alcohol Production from Palm Oil Mill Effluent (POME)

    OpenAIRE

    Supawadee Sinnaraprasat; Prayoon Fongsatitkul

    2011-01-01

    Application of Fenton's reaction for a proper hydrolysis step is an essential and important step in obtaining a higher level of readily biodegradable sugars from palm oil mill effluent (POME) for improving the alcohol production by using immobilized Clostridium acetobutylicum. The objective of this research was, therefore, to investigate the optimum condition of Fenton's reaction in terms of COD: H2O2 ratios (w/w) and H2O2: Fe2+ ratios (molar ratio) used to oxidize carbohydrate and high molec...

  8. Optimization of chip size and moisture content to obtain high, combined sugar recovery after sulfur dioxide-catalyzed steam pretreatment of softwood and enzymatic hydrolysis of the cellulosic component.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olsen, Colin; Arantes, Valdeir; Saddler, Jack

    2015-07-01

    The influence of chip size and moisture content on the combined sugar recovery after steam pretreatment of lodgepole pine and subsequent enzymatic hydrolysis of the cellulosic component were investigated using response surface methodology. Chip size had little influence on sugar recovery after both steam pretreatment and enzymatic hydrolysis. In contrast, the moisture of the chips greatly influenced the relative severity of steam pretreatment and, as a result, the combined sugar recovery from the hemicellulosic and cellulosic fractions. Irrespective of chip size and the pretreatment temperature, time, and SO2 loading that were used, the relative severity of pretreatment was highest at a moisture of 30-40w/w%. However, the predictive model indicated that an elevated moisture content of roughly 50w/w% (about the moisture content of a standard softwood mill chip) would result in the highest, combined sugar recovery (80%) over the widest range of steam pretreatment conditions. PMID:25863206

  9. 25 CFR 241.5 - Commercial fishing, Karluk Indian Reservation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ...Commercial fishing, Karluk Indian Reservation. 241.5 Section 241.5 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR FISH AND WILDLIFE INDIAN FISHING IN ALASKA § 241.5 Commercial fishing, Karluk Indian...

  10. Comparison of wind mill cluster performance: A multicriteria approach

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rajakumar, D.G.; Nagesha, N. [Visvesvaraya Technological Univ., Karnataka (India)

    2012-07-01

    Energy is a crucial input for the economic and social development of any nation. Both renewable and non-renewable energy contribute in meeting the total requirement of the economy. As an affordable and clean energy source, wind energy is amongst the world's fastest growing renewable energy forms. Though there are several wind-mill clusters producing energy in different geographical locations, evaluating their performance is a complex task and not much of literature is available in this area. In this backdrop, an attempt is made in the current paper to estimate the performance of a wind-mill cluster through an index called Cluster Performance Index (CPI) adopting a multi-criteria approach. The proposed CPI comprises four criteria viz., Technical Performance Indicators (TePI), Economic Performance Indicators (EcPI), Environmental Performance Indicators (EnPI), and Sociological Performance Indicators (SoPI). Under each performance criterion a total of ten parameters are considered with five subjective and five objective oriented responses. The methodology is implemented by collecting empirical data from three wind-mill clusters located at Chitradurga, Davangere, and Gadag in the southern Indian State of Karnataka. Totally fifteen different stake holders are consulted through a set of structured researcher administered questionnaire to collect the relevant data in each wind farm. Stake holders involved engineers working in wind farms, wind farm developers, Government officials from energy department and a few selected residential people near the wind farms. The results of the study revealed that Chitradurga wind farm performed much better with a CPI of 45.267 as compared to Gadag (CPI of 28.362) and Davangere (CPI of 19.040) wind farms. (Author)

  11. Measurements of particulate sugars at urban and forested suburban sites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tominaga, Sae; Matsumoto, Kiyoshi; Kaneyasu, Naoki; Shigihara, Ado; Katono, Koichi; Igawa, Manabu

    2011-04-01

    Neutral sugars (arabinose, fucose, galactose, glucose, mannose, rhamnose, and xylose) in fine and coarse aerosols were measured at urban and forested suburban sites in Japan. The most dominant compound in the sugar group was glucose at both sites. Size partitioning of the sugars generally showed dominance in the fine mode range but shifted toward the coarse mode range in summer. Seasonal trends in the sugar concentrations in the fine and coarse mode ranges were opposite: higher concentrations of fine mode sugars were found in winter, although coarse mode sugars increased in summer. Fine mode glucose consisted dominantly of the combined form, whereas free glucose increased in the coarse mode range. Although the sources of the sugars in the aerosols remain largely uncertain, primary biogenic particles can be considered as candidates of main sources of the sugars in both coarse and fine mode ranges.

  12. Analysis of Biomass Sugars Using a Novel HPLC Method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Agblevor, F. A.; Hames, B. R.; Schell, D.; Chum, H. L.

    2007-01-01

    The precise quantitative analysis of biomass sugars is a very important step in the conversion of biomass feedstocks to fuels and chemicals. However, the most accurate method of biomass sugar analysis is based on the gas chromatography analysis of derivatized sugars either as alditol acetates or trimethylsilanes. The derivatization method is time consuming but the alternative high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) method cannot resolve most sugars found in biomass hydrolysates. We have demonstrated for the first time that by careful manipulation of the HPLC mobile phase, biomass monomeric sugars (arabinose, xylose, fructose, glucose, mannose, and galactose) can be analyzed quantitatively and there is excellent baseline resolution of all the sugars. This method was demonstrated for standard sugars, pretreated corn stover liquid and solid fractions. Our method can also be used to analyze dimeric sugars (cellobiose and sucrose).

  13. EVOLUTION OF SUGAR BEET AND SUGAR PRODUCTION IN ROMANIA AFTER ITS ACCESSION INTO THE E.U.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aurel-Florentin BADIU

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents an analysis of the evolution for sugar beet production and sugar beet extraction after Romania accesion in European Union. The analysis is based on the evolutions of areas, total and average yields per unit of area. The last period (2007- 2013 is compared to the previous period (2001-2006, utilised at reference. Also, it is performed in the four sugar factories respectively (SC AGRANA Romania SA, Sugar Factory Bod, SC sugar Oradea SA, sugar Ludus SA and it was made for the 2007-2013 period, after the application of EU’s rules for sugar market. The study presents the evolution of the biological sugar content and white sugar content between the years 2007 and 2013 and it evaluates the variability of the way of achieving production quotas. The main conclusion imposed after the analysis is that the systems of sugar production from sugar beet are stabilized. Statistically multi-annual average deviation from the assigned quota is approx .2%. Annual variations of sugar production are set between (- 15 % - (+ 43%, compared with the Romanian quota (104.688 tons white sugar.

  14. FDA Wants to Strengthen Sugar Labeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... proposal. Newly reviewed studies suggest that a healthy diet, featuring reduced amounts of sugar-sweetened foods and beverages, may reduce the risk ... Nutrition Recent Health News Related MedlinePlus Health Topics ... MD 20894 U.S. Department of Health and Human Services National Institutes of Health Page last updated ...

  15. Forecasting Sales in a Sugar Factory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vassilios ASSIMAKOPOULOS

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Beets’ cultivation and sugar production represent one of the most important parts of Greek agricultural economy. A careful and well-organized planning of the production as well as the determination of an accurate safety stock is important for sugar industry, as for many other companies and organizations, in order to define the production quantity which leads to maximum revenues and profits. Forecasting, and especially widely used statistical forecasting techniques, is the best way for policymakers to organize their activities and company’s production and make the appropriate adjustments. Apparently, management information systems and forecasting support packages play a leading role in this area, since the amount of data under process is usually quite large and demands an automated procedure to effectively produce and evaluate forecasts. In this case study, “Pythia”, an expert forecasting platform developed by the Forecasting and Strategy Unit of the National Technical University of Athens, was implemented on a monthly data series regarding sugar sales of a Greek sugar factory for the years 2000-2005, bringing theory and practice together. Additionally, the methods or combinations of methods which are well suited for this time series are highlighted based on three error indices. Finally, the results of the study and conclusions are considered and perspectives of progress and development in the field of forecasting are contemplated.

  16. Idiomatic Control used in Sugar Plants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Kirsten Mølgaard; Nielsen, Jens Frederik Dalsgaard; Pedersen, Tom Søndergaard

    1993-01-01

    A description of a control system for a large scale industrial plant - the evaporator section of a sugar plant. The control system is based on the idiomatic control concept, causing decomposition into loop control units - idioms. Dynamic decoupling, feedforward- and feedback loops eg. have been used as idioms.

  17. Sweet solution: sugars to the rescue

    OpenAIRE

    Freeze, Hudson H

    2002-01-01

    Sugar pills are usually placebos, but Smith et al. (2002, this issue) use one to rescue designer mice unable to make GDP-Fucose. Dietary fucose enters a salvage pathway and spares the mice. Sound simple? Not so. Unknown genetic factors determine life or death.

  18. Extraction and characterization of sugar beet polysaccharides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sugar Beet Pulp (SBP), contains 65 to 80% (dry weight) of potentially valuable polysaccharides. We separated SBP into three fractions. The first fraction, extracted under acid conditions, was labeled pectin, the second was comprised of two sub fractions solubilized under alkaline conditions and wa...

  19. Variability in Phoma species affecting sugar beet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phoma betae can cause damage to sugar beet (Beta vulgaris) at multiple growth stages. It has historically been an important seedling disease, but this is largely managed by ensuring clean seed for planting. The pathogen also can cause a root rot, a leaf spot, and rotting of beets during storage. In ...

  20. Regulations of sugar transporters: insights from yeast.

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Horák, Jaroslav

    2013-01-01

    Ro?. 59, 1-2 (2013), s. 1-31. ISSN 0172-8083 R&D Projects: GA ?R(CZ) GAP503/10/0307 Institutional support: RVO:67985823 Keywords : sugar transporter * yeast * glucose signal ing * sensing Subject RIV: EE - Microbiology, Virology Impact factor: 1.712, year: 2013

  1. Diabetes - low blood sugar - self-care

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... glucose tablets 1/2 cup (4 ounces) of fruit juice or regular, non-diet soda 5 or 6 hard candies 1 tablespoon of sugar, plain or dissolved in water 1 tablespoon of honey or syrup Wait about 15 minutes before eating any more. ...

  2. Detection of Sugar-Lectin Interactions by Multivalent Dendritic Sugar Functionalized Single-Walled Carbon Nanotubes

    CERN Document Server

    Vasu, K S; Bagul, R S; Jayaraman, N; Sood, A K; 10.1063/1.4739793

    2012-01-01

    We show that single walled carbon nanotubes (SWNT) decorated with sugar functionalized poly (propyl ether imine) (PETIM) dendrimer is a very sensitive platform to quantitatively detect carbohydrate recognizing proteins, namely, lectins. The changes in electrical conductivity of SWNT in field effect transistor device due to carbohydrate - protein interactions form the basis of present study. The mannose sugar attached PETIM dendrimers undergo charge - transfer interactions with the SWNT. The changes in the conductance of the dendritic sugar functionalized SWNT after addition of lectins in varying concentrations were found to follow the Langmuir type isotherm, giving the concanavalin A (Con A) - mannose affinity constant to be 8.5 x 106 M-1. The increase in the device conductance observed after adding 10 nM of Con A is same as after adding 20 \\muM of a non - specific lectin peanut agglutinin, showing the high specificity of the Con A - mannose interactions. The specificity of sugar-lectin interactions was chara...

  3. Kinetic modelling of the Maillard reaction between proteins and sugars

    OpenAIRE

    Brands, C.M.J.

    2002-01-01

    Keywords: Maillard reaction, sugar isomerisation, kinetics, multiresponse modelling, brown colour formation, lysine damage, mutagenicity, casein, monosaccharides, disaccharides, aldoses, ketosesThe aim of this thesis was to determine the kinetics of the Maillard reaction between proteins and sugars, taking into account other simultaneously occurring sugar reactions. Model systems of foods, consisting of the protein casein and various sugars in a buffered solution, were studied. The reaction c...

  4. Sugar, Uric Acid, and the Etiology of Diabetes and Obesity

    OpenAIRE

    Johnson, Richard J; Nakagawa, Takahiko; Sanchez-Lozada, L Gabriela; Shafiu, Mohamed; Sundaram, Shikha; Le, Myphuong; Ishimoto, Takuji; Sautin, Yuri Y.; Lanaspa, Miguel A

    2013-01-01

    The intake of added sugars, such as from table sugar (sucrose) and high-fructose corn syrup has increased dramatically in the last hundred years and correlates closely with the rise in obesity, metabolic syndrome, and diabetes. Fructose is a major component of added sugars and is distinct from other sugars in its ability to cause intracellular ATP depletion, nucleotide turnover, and the generation of uric acid. In this article, we revisit the hypothesis that it is this unique aspect of fructo...

  5. 77 FR 47868 - Indian Entities Recognized and Eligible To Receive Services From the Bureau of Indian Affairs

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-10

    ...of Oklahoma Jackson Rancheria of Me-Wuk Indians of California Jamestown S'Klallam Tribe Jamul Indian Village of California Jena Band of Choctaw Indians Jicarilla Apache Nation, New Mexico Kaibab Band of Paiute Indians of the Kaibab Indian...

  6. Whole-of-society monitoring framework for sugar, salt, and fat consumption and noncommunicable diseases in India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arora, Narendra K; Pillai, Rakesh; Dasgupta, Rajib; Garg, Priyanka Rani

    2014-12-01

    India has experienced a rising prevalence of cardiometabolic risk factors in the past 15 years: the prevalence of diabetes has increased from 5.9% to 9.1%, hypertension from 17.2% to 29.2%, and obesity from 4% to 15%. The increase is among all socioeconomic groups and in urban and rural populations, though the quantum of change varies. A concomitant increase in per capita consumption of sugar from 22 to 55.3 g/day and total fat from 21.2 to 54 g/day was observed, with significant differences between states of high and low human development index (HDI). Per capita consumption of sugar, salt, and fat is consistently and significantly associated with overweight and obesity but variably associated with the occurrence of hypertension and diabetes. Market research shows that approximately 50-60% of total salt, sugar, and fat in Indian markets is procured by bulk purchasers, generally for manufacturing processed food items. This sector of the Indian economy is among the fastest growing, with several policy incentives. It is not clear from most of the data sets whether available information on per capita sugar, salt, and fat consumption has considered the contribution of processed and ready-to-eat food items. The unprecedented changes of rapid urbanization, mechanization, and globalization demand close monitoring of social, developmental, and economic determinants. This paper provides pieces of evidence to justify a whole-of-society (WoS) framework for monitoring the inputs, processes, and behavioral components of the National Programme for Prevention and Control of Cancer, Diabetes, Cardiovascular Disease and Stroke (NPCDCS) in India. PMID:25335459

  7. Technical and Economical Feasibility of Production of Ethanol from Sugar Cane and Sugar Cane Bagasse:

    OpenAIRE

    Efe, C.; Straathof, A.J.J.; van der Wielen, L. A. M.

    2005-01-01

    The primary aim of this study is to investigate and analyze the sugar-ethanol plants operating in Brazil to construct a raw model to gain better understanding and insight about the technical and economical aspects of the currently operating plants. And, the secondary aim is to combine the knowledge gathered from the currently existing plant with the future design idea of converting lignocellulose into ethanol together with sucrose. The major products of the plants are ethanol and sugar. T...

  8. Continuous ethanol production from sugar beet thick juice by Saccharomyces cerevisiae immobilized onto sugar beet pulp

    OpenAIRE

    Vu?urovi? Vesna M.; Razmovski Radojka N.; Milji? Uroš D.; Puškaš Vladimir S.

    2013-01-01

    The immobilization of Saccharomyces cerevisiae onto sugar beet pulp (SBP) by natural adhesion is an efficient and low-cost method for retaining high biocatalyst density in the ethanol fermentation system. In the present study, cells of S. cerevisiae 163, were immobilized by natural adhesion onto SBP. The retention of immobilized cells attained the level of about 1.7×1011 cells/gram of dry SBP. Continuous ethanol production from sugar beet thick juice (TJ) w...

  9. Sugar Beet Production: A System Dynamics Model and Economic Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rozman ?rtomir

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Background and Purpose: The sugar beet is the main field crop used for sugar production in the temperate climatic zone. Since investment in sugar beet industry are long term and ireversible the decision support and economic analysis are required in order to maximise investment returns.

  10. “CO-OPERATIVE SUGAR INDUSTRY IN MAHARASHTRA AND MARATHWADA”

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    “CO-OPERATIVE SUGAR INDUSTRY IN MAHARASHTRA AND MARATHWADA”

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Sugar industry has acquired a great significance in India, Maharashtra and Marathwada. Sugar industry accounts for a huge investment of over Rs. 2,500 crores and provides employment to about five lakh rural peoples. About 5.5 million farmers are engaged in cane cultivation. The rapid growth of sugar industry in Maharashtra has helped to a very great extent in stabilizing the sugar production in the country and reducing the chronic shortage of sugar. Maharashtra produces about 40 percent of the total sugar produced in the country and rank second to Uttar Pradesh. Sugarcane is being cultivated on an area of around 35 lakh hectares with the production being around 110 lakh tones. Marathwada region has good potentials for sugarcane cultivation and development of sugar industry because the land of Marathwada is very fertile and the climate is suitable for growth sugarcane crop. Sugar industry adds to the income of the farmers, provides casual and permanent employment, helps to earn foreign exchange and also helps to develop various kinds of ancillary and by product industries. There are 173 cooperative and 18 private sugar factories in Maharashtra with a total number of 191. There were 50 cooperative sugar factories whereas 8 private sugar factories in Marathwada. One of the most hopeful developments of the last decade in the field of co-operative processing has been the rapid establishment of co-operative sugar factories in the Maharashtra State and Marathwada region.

  11. Ethanol production in fermentation of mixed sugars containing xylose

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viitanen, Paul V. (West Chester, PA); Mc Cutchen, Carol M. (Wilmington, DE); Li; Xu (Newark, DE); Emptage, Mark (Wilmington, DE); Caimi, Perry G. (Kennett Square, PA); Zhang, Min (Lakewood, CO); Chou, Yat-Chen (Lakewood, CO); Franden, Mary Ann (Centennial, CO)

    2009-12-08

    Xylose-utilizing Z. mobilis strains were found to have improved ethanol production when grown in medium containing mixed sugars including xylose if sorbitol or mannitol was included in the medium. The effect was seen in concentrations of mixed sugars where no growth lag period occurs, as well as in higher sugars concentrations.

  12. 19 CFR 151.22 - Estimated duties on raw sugar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Estimated duties on raw sugar. 151.22 Section 151.22 Customs Duties U.S. CUSTOMS AND BORDER PROTECTION, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY; DEPARTMENT OF... Molasses § 151.22 Estimated duties on raw sugar. Estimated duties shall be taken on raw sugar, as...

  13. Utilization of pectin extracted sugar beet pulp for composite application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sugar beet pulp (SBP) is the residue left after beet sugar extraction. SBP contains ~25% pectin and is an important source for pectin. However, sugar beet pectin does not have good gel-forming properties and complete extraction of pectin is not typically performed due to the low quality of the galac...

  14. PECTIN ACETYLESTERASE - ANALYSIS AND APPLICATION FOR SUGAR BEET PECTIN UTILIZATION

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sustainable technologies are being sought to provide new and higher-value coproducts from sugar beet pulp. Pectin is a complex plant cell wall polysaccharide that represents a major fraction of sugar beet pulp. One distinguishing feature of sugar beet pectin is a high content of C2 and C3 acetyl e...

  15. PROCESS OF OBTAINING OF SUGAR FROM SUGAR BEET AND INFLUENCE ON ITS QUALITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marián Tokár

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Cooking of massecuites has been study in the connection with different particle size distribution of white sugar. During the crystallization is possible to operate with parameters which have influence on particle size of white sugar. Dry matter of juice in crystallizer, volume of the standard syrup in crystallizer and heating curve of crystallization process are constant parameters in this process. Quantity of slurry (seed magma crystallizate and volume of slurry massecuite are parameters which can be changed for control the particle size distribution of white sugar. Five variants of viable parameters have been trying for obtain ideal particle size distribution of white sugar. As a best has been evaluated variant with 1100 cm3 of slurry and 20 % of volume of slurry massecuite in crystallizer. This variant has had the crystals proportions captured by the sieves between 1.00 and 0.40 mm with minimal differences in weight. More results have been related to reduction of losses of sugar in molasses with the right setting for the line of cooling crystallization process. The looses of sugar can be reduced by adding two coolers in the end of cooling crystalization process what will decrease a temperature to 40 ° C. This temperature will lead to more efficient crystallization in the cooling crystallization process.doi:10.5219/122

  16. Money, Semantics, and Indian Leadership.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lurie, Nancy O.

    1986-01-01

    Discusses cultural differences between Indian and white people in their perceptions of money and the meanings of certain English words such as greed and jealousy. Identifies possible sticking points in Indian-white communication and political/economic relationships. Relates intratribal disputes and factionalism to impose financial situations and…

  17. Indian Academy of Sciences - Events

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    photonic band gap materials: engineering light–matter interactions by professor sajeev john (university of toronto, toronto, canada), 3 january 2008, indian institute of science, bangalore a dialogue on science and mathematics in india by professor k. r. sreenivasan (the abdus salam international centre for theoretical physics, trieste, italy), 28 december 2007, indian institute of science, bangalore to the fifth dimension and back ...

  18. California Indian Food and Culture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2001

    This learning kit begins with a glossary of terms to help students learn about California Indians and their food. The kit explains that California Indians were the first people to live in the area now known as California, and that these tribes differed in the languages they spoke, the regions they lived in, and the foods that they ate. It explains…

  19. 78 FR 54908 - Indian Gaming

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-06

    ...Under section 11 of the Indian Gaming Regulatory Act of 1988 (IGRA...purpose of engaging in Class III gaming activities on Indian lands...forgo operation of Class III gaming on its lands. Pursuant to 25...an approved compact takes effect on the date that notice of...

  20. Native Americans: 23 Indian Biographies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Axford, Roger W.

    The lives and careers of 24 contemporary American Indians, including Dr. Louis W. Ballard (musician and composer, Cherokee and Sioux); Charles Banks Wilson (artist and historian); Veronica L. Murdock (President of the National Congress of American Indians, Mohave); Peter MacDonald, Sr. (Chairman of the Navajo Tribal Council, Navajo); and Jim…

  1. Mathemagical 2014 - An Indian Perspective

    CERN Document Server

    Gupta, Patrick Das

    2015-01-01

    Mathematical tradition in India is deep rooted. Indian (and of Indian origin) mathematicians have continued to do seminal work till present times, culminating in Manjul Bhargava receiving the Fields Medal last year. In such fabulous times, a non-mathematician ponders about the nature of mathematics, and revisits the question: why are fundamental laws of Nature inherently mathematical?

  2. Acoustics of the Indian Drum

    OpenAIRE

    Malu, Siddharth S; Siddharthan, Advaith

    2000-01-01

    This article investigates as to how the Indian Drums are able to produce harmonics. In particular, it looks at the density distribution on an Indian Drum, the Tabla, and shows that it is the form of the density distribution that results in harmonics.

  3. Milling media from zirconia ceramics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zirconia ceramics has found applications in various important fields. Oxygen sensors, heating elements, solid electrolytes, cutting tools, high temperature insulation, metal casting dies and nozzles are some of the areas of applications. Milling of zirconia compositions should preferably be done with ZrO2 milling media. Moreover, higher density of ZrO2 (5.5-5.7 gm/cc.) compared to alumina (3.4-3.7 gm/cc) results in faster grinding by zirconia balls. Wear of the grinding jar is also less compared to alumina balls. In the present work grinding balls have been prepared from zirconia, Y2O3, CaO-TiO2 stabilizing agents. (author). 6 refs., 2 figs., 1 tab

  4. Methodology for understanding Indian culture

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sinha, Jai; Kumar, Rajesh

    2004-01-01

    Methods of understanding cultures, including Indian culture, are embedded in a broad spectrum of sociocultural approaches to human behavior in general. The approaches examined in this paper reflect evolving perspectives on Indian culture, ranging from the starkly ethnocentric to the largely eclectic and integrative. Most of the methods herin discussed were developed in the West and were subsequently taken up with or without adaptations to fit the Indian context. The paper begins by briefly reviewing the intrinsic concept of culture. It then adopts a historical view of the different ways and means by which scholars have construed the particular facets of Indian culture, highlighting the advantages and disadvantages of each. The final section concludes with some proposals about the best ways of understnding the complexity that constitutes the Indian cultural reality.

  5. GLYCOSIDES FROM LINARIA VULGARIS MILL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natalia Mashcenko

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available A new flavonol glycoside, 5,4?-dimethylkaempferol 3-O-?-D-(6??-?-Lrhamnopyranosyl -glucopyranoside, together with three known compounds were isolated from the n-butanolic soluble fraction of underground and aerial parts of Linaria vulgaris Mill, collected on the territory of Moldova. The characterisation of these compounds was achieved by various chromatographic and spectroscopic methods (IR, UV, 13C-NMR, 1H-NMR and MS.

  6. Fuel bio ethanol production from experimental crops of sugar cane, sweet sorghum and sugar beet in Uruguay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This article is about the fuel bio ethanol production. Its requires the use of raw materials, process, integration with food producing chains, and social inclusion. Agricultural and fermentability assays of three sugar crops were performed: sugar beet, sugar cane and sweet sorghum grown in fields of small producers .

  7. Urinary sugars (sucrose and fructose) associations with self-reported sugars intake: the influence of plausibility of reported energy intake

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urinary sucrose and fructose may serve as biomarkers of sugars intake, the latter which are thought to be underreported in dietary assessment. We examined associations of urinary sugars with reported sugars intake in adults recruited for a study on diet and chronic disease risk. Methods: Healthy, no...

  8. Online SAG Mill Pluse Measurement and Optimization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Raj Rajamani; Jose Delgadillo; Vishal Duriseti

    2007-06-30

    The grinding efficiency of semi autogenous milling or ball milling depends on the tumbling motion of the total charge within the mill. Utilization of this tumbling motion for efficient breakage of particles depends on the conditions inside the mill. However, any kind of monitoring device to measure the conditions inside the mill shell during operation is virtually impossible due to the severe environment presented by the tumbling charge. An instrumented grinding ball, which is capable of surviving a few hours and transmitting the impacts it experiences, is proposed here. The spectrum of impacts collected over 100 revolutions of the mills presents the signature of the grinding environment inside mill. This signature could be effectively used to optimize the milling performance by investigating this signature's relation to mill product size, mill throughput, make-up ball size, mill speed, liner profile and ball addition rates. At the same time, it can also be used to design balls and liner systems that can survive longer in the mill. The technological advances made in electronics and communication makes this leap in instrumentation certainly viable. Hence, the instrumented grinding ball offers the ability to qualitatively observe and optimize the milling environment. An instrumented load cell package that can measure the force of impacts inside the grinding chamber of a mill is developed here. The signal from the instrumented load cell package is interpreted in terms of a histogram termed as an impact spectrum which is a plot of the number of impacts at a specific energy level against the energy. It reflects on the average force regime of the mill. The instrumented load cell package was calibrated against the ultra fast load cell which has been unanimously accepted as a standard to measure single breakage events. The load cell package was successfully used to produce impact spectra in an 8.5 inch lab scale mill. The mill speed and the ball size were varied to study their effect on the impact spectra. A good correlation was found between the process variables and the impact spectra. The load cell package was then used in a 16 inch pilot scale mill. The mill speed, ball size, and mill filling were varied here and a consistent trend between these variables and impact spectra was observed. With a better understanding developed from the initial tests, the design of the load cell package was significantly changed to eliminate noise. With the new design, the impact spectra were re-determined in the 16 inch pilot mill varying the process variables - ball size, mill speed, and mill filling. Finally, it is successfully shown that a change in the operating variables of a mill can be seen in the impact spectra and that this concept can be successfully developed to monitor the grinding operation of industrial mills. To adapt it to industrial level it is mandatory to make the load cell package wireless. A design of a wireless circuit that is capable of transferring data at the required speed of 1000 kbps was also developed and tested at Cortez Gold Mines (CGM), Nevada.

  9. Sugar-Based Ethanol Biorefinery: Ethanol, Succinic Acid and By-Product Production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Donal F. Day

    2009-03-31

    The work conducted in this project is an extension of the developments itemized in DE-FG-36-04GO14236. This program is designed to help the development of a biorefinery based around a raw sugar mill, which in Louisiana is an underutilized asset. Some technical questions were answered regarding the addition of a biomass to ethanol facility to existing sugar mills. The focus of this work is on developing technology to produce ethanol and valuable by-products from bagasse. Three major areas are addressed, feedstock storage, potential by-products and the technology for producing ethanol from dilute ammonia pre-treated bagasse. Sugar mills normally store bagasse in a simple pile. During the off season there is a natural degradation of the bagasse, due to the composting action of microorganisms in the pile. This has serious implications if bagasse must be stored to operate a bagasse/biorefinery for a 300+ day operating cycle. Deterioration of the fermentables in bagasse was found to be 6.5% per month, on pile storage. This indicates that long term storage of adequate amounts of bagasse for year-round operation is probably not feasible. Lignin from pretreatment seemed to offer a potential source of valuable by-products. Although a wide range of phenolic compounds were present in the effluent from dilute ammonia pretreatment, the concentrations of each (except for benzoic acid) were too low to consider for extraction. The cellulosic hydrolysis system was modified to produce commercially recoverable quantities of cellobiose, which has a small but growing market in the food process industries. A spin-off of this led to the production of a specific oligosaccharide which appears to have both medical and commercial implications as a fungal growth inhibitor. An alternate use of sugars produced from biomass hydrolysis would be to produce succinic acid as a chemical feedstock for other conversions. An organism was developed which can do this bioconversion, but the economics of succinic acid production were such that it could not compete with current commercial practice. To allow recovery of commercial amounts of ethanol from bagasse fermentation, research was conducted on high solids loading fermentations (using S. cerevisiae) with commercial cellulase on pretreated material. A combination of SHF/SSF treatment with fed-batch operation allowed fermentation at 30% solids loading. Supplementation of the fermentation with a small amount of black-strap molasses had results beyond expectation. There was an enhancement of conversion as well as production of ethanol levels above 6.0% w/w, which is required both for efficient distillation as well as contaminant repression. The focus of fermentation development was only on converting the cellulose to ethanol, as this yeast is not capable of fermenting both glucose and xylose (from hemicellulose). In anticipation of the future development of such an organism, we screened the commercially available xylanases to find the optimum mix for conversion of both cellulose and hemicellulose. A different mixture than the spezyme/novozyme mix used in our fermentation research was found to be more efficient at converting both cellulose and hemicellulose. Efforts were made to select a mutant of Pichia stipitis for ability to co-ferment glucose and xylose to ethanol. New mutation technology was developed, but an appropriate mutant has not yet been isolated. The ability to convert to stillage from biomass fermentations were determined to be suitable for anaerobic degradation and methane production. An economic model of a current sugar factory was developed in order to provide a baseline for the cost/benefit analysis of adding cellulosic ethanol production.

  10. Effect of open air drying, LPG based drier and pretreatments on the quality of Indian gooseberry (aonla)

    OpenAIRE

    Gudapaty, Pratibha; Indavarapu, Srinivas; Korwar, Girish R.; Shankar, Arun Kumar; Adake, Ravi Kant V.; Bandi, Venkateshwarlu; Kanchu, Srinivas Rao

    2010-01-01

    The aonla fruits (whole fruit, pricking, splits, segments) were subjected to pretreatments like blanching, osmotic dehydration with salt (2%) and sugar (40%) in different experiments before drying to obtain a product with better keeping quality. An LPG based drier (CRIDA drier) with capacity to dry 50 kg of fresh Indian gooseberry (aonla) was used. Nutritional quality and rehydration characteristics of CRIDA drier dried products were higher and free from contamination. Drying time was shortes...

  11. CHANGES EFFECT OF SUGAR IMPORT TARIFF IN INDONESIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agnes Q. Pudjiastuti

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this paper is to study the effect of sugar import tariffs changes since the tariff import is the only policy to increase the sugar domestic production. This analysis is performed using a CGE (computable general equilibrium model of Indonesian economy in 2008. Results showed that the increases of sugar import tariff have some different conclusions. If sugar tariff import will rise to 41.6% and to 50%, the domestic output of sugar will increase about 1.89% and 3.77%; and household welfare would increase about 0.52 and 0.76%, respectively. But when the sugar import tariff is removed, domestic output of sugar and sugarcane have not changed, but the agricultural sector would reduce and income of all agents would decrease. Thus, the relevant tariff depends on the purpose of the government whether to increase domestic output and import or export of certain sectors, and the welfare of producers or consumers.

  12. Oxidative enzymatic gelation of sugar beet pectin for emulsion stabilization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Abang Zaidel, Dayang Norulfairuz; Meyer, Anne S.

    2013-01-01

    Pectin from sugar beet is derived from the sugar beet pulp residue which results when sugar beets are processed for sucrose extraction. The sugar beet pectin has poor gelationability by the classic divalentcation molecular mechanism because of a relatively high acetylation degree and short polygalacturonate backbone chain length. However, due to the feruloyl-substitutions on the side chains, the sugar beet pectic polysaccharides can be cross-linked via enzyme catalyzed oxidation. The enzyme kinetics and functionality of such oxidativelycross-linked sugar beet pectin, in relation to stabilizing emulsions has recently been investigated in model food emulsions. This paper reviews the pectin chemistry, enzymatic oxidative gelation mechanisms, interaction mechanisms of the sugar beet pectin with the emulsion droplets and explores how the gelation affects the rheology and stability of emulsion systems. The applied biotechnology concept of enzymatic gelation provides an array of opportunities for upgrading of low-value pectins for new food and non-food uses.

  13. Statistics Concerning Indian Education. Fiscal Year 1972.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hildebrand, Alice S., Comp.

    Statistical facts on the education of American Indian children in 1972 are presented in this booklet. It is noted that many of the treaties between the United States and Indian tribes provided for the establishment of schools for Indian children. The Bureau of Indian Affairs has direct responsibility for the 57,788 children enrolled in Federal…

  14. Indian Academy of Sciences - New fellows

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    indian academy of sciences - new fellows csir - institute of microbial, technology, chandigarh csir - national institute of oceanography, goa indian association for the cultivation of science, kolkata saha institute of nuclear physics, kolkataindian institute of technology, mumbai indian association for the cultivation of science, kolkata indian institute of science, bangalorenational institute of immunology, new delhiindian institute of technology, kharagpurindian institute of scienc ...

  15. Indian Academy of Sciences - New associates, 2011

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

      9. supriyo mitra, indian institute of science education and research, nadia11. g. v. pavan kumar, indian institute of science education and research, pune13. thomas j. pucadyil, indian institute of science education and reesarch, pune15. ritesh k. singh, indian institute of science education and research, nadia ...

  16. Optimal Condition of Fenton's Reagent to Enhance the Alcohol Production from Palm Oil Mill Effluent (POME

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Supawadee Sinnaraprasat

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Application of Fenton's reaction for a proper hydrolysis step is an essential and important step in obtaining a higher level of readily biodegradable sugars from palm oil mill effluent (POME for improving the alcohol production by using immobilized Clostridium acetobutylicum. The objective of this research was, therefore, to investigate the optimum condition of Fenton's reaction in terms of COD: H2O2 ratios (w/w and H2O2: Fe2+ ratios (molar ratio used to oxidize carbohydrate and high molecular organic compounds into simple sugars, which are further fermented into alcohol. The experiments were carried out at H2O2: Fe2+ ratios (molar ratios of 5, 10, 20, 30 and 40 and the COD: H2O2 ratios (w/w of 50, 70, 100 and 130 (initial COD about 50,000 mg/L. The total sugar concentrations and organic compounds biodegradability (BOD5/COD ratios were also used for investigating suitable conditions for Fenton's reaction. The concentration of Fenton's reagent at H2O2:Fe2+ and COD:H2O2 ratio of 20 and 130 was identified as the optimum operating condition for the highest simple sugars of about 0.865% and BOD5/COD ratios of 0.539. The alcohol productions were carried out in the continuous stirred tank reactors (CSTR under an anaerobic continuous immobilization system. At a hydraulic retention time of 12 hours and POME pH of 4.8, the maximum total ABE concentration of 495 mg/L and the ABE yield of 0.236 grams of ABE produced/gram of reducing sugars were achieved at the mixed polyvinyl alcohol (PVA and palm oil ash (POA ratio of 10 : 3.

  17. Strip-till seeder for sugar beets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Schulze Lammers

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Strip-till save costs by reducing tillage on the area of sugar beet rows only. The seeding system is characterized by a deep loosening of soil with a tine combined with a share and by following tools generating fine-grained soil as seed bed. In cooperation with the Kverneland company group Soest/Germany a strip tiller combined with precision seeder was designed and tested in field experiments. Tilling and seeding was performed in one path on fields with straw and mustard mulch. Even the plant development was slower as compared to conventional sawn sugar beets the yield was on equivalent level. Further field experiments are planned to attest constant yield, cost and energy efficiency of the seeding system.

  18. 25 CFR 140.24 - Cash payments only to Indians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Cash payments only to Indians. 140.24 Section 140.24 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR FINANCIAL ACTIVITIES LICENSED INDIAN TRADERS § 140.24 Cash payments only to Indians. Traders must not pay Indians in tokens, tickets, store...

  19. FACTORS DETERMINING CAPITAL STRUCTURE OF CO-OPERATIVE SUGAR INDUSTRY IN TAMIL NADU – AN EMPIRICAL STUDY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. SEKAR

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Finance is an important input for any type of business and is needed for working capital and for permanent investment. The financial success of a firm depends mainly on its capital structure. The choice of debt and equity in the capital structure of corporate firms is an important financial decision because it influences both the return and risk of shareholders. In the present day challenges facing the Indian sugar industry are about 50 % of production of north India and Tamil Nadu are governed by State Advised Prices, Government controls on domestic sales and exports make commercial planning very difficult. Erratic financial returns have made the business less bankable, only industry in the country to bear financial burden of a social welfare program of the government.

  20. Adaptive sugar sensors in hypothalamic feeding circuits

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Williams, Rhiannan H; Alexopoulos, Haris; Jensen, Lise T; Fugger, Lars; Burdakov, Denis

    2008-01-01

    Brain glucose sensing is critical for healthy energy balance, but how appropriate neurocircuits encode both small changes and large background values of glucose levels is unknown. Here, we report several features of hypothalamic orexin neurons, cells essential for normal wakefulness and feeding: (i) A distinct group of orexin neurons exhibits only transient inhibitory responses to sustained rises in sugar levels; (ii) this sensing strategy involves time-dependent recovery from inhibition via ada...

  1. Sugar cane bagasse prehydrolysis using hot water

    OpenAIRE

    D. Abril; Medina, M.; ABRIL, A

    2012-01-01

    Results are presented on the hot water prehydrolysis of sugar cane bagasse for obtaining ethanol by fermentation. The experimental study consisted of the determination of the effect of temperature and time of prehydrolysis on the extraction of hemicelluloses, with the objective of selecting the best operating conditions that lead to increased yield of extraction with a low formation of inhibitors. The study, carried out in a pilot plant scale rotational digester, using a 3² experimental desig...

  2. Pioneering multilateralism: the sugar agreements 1864 – 1914

    OpenAIRE

    Moura Filho, Heitor

    2006-01-01

    This paper examines the negotiations which led to the Brussels Convention of 1902 for the abolition of subsidies on sugar exports, showing how the practice of multilateral commodity trade negotiations was an outcome of this experience. Encompassing diverse fiscal systems, these negotiations began a process of pluri-national harmonization of taxation criteria and regulations, which forced changes to national statutes. They also initiated new forms of economic negotiations and coexistence. When...

  3. GEOMETRICAL CHARACTERIZATION OF MICRO END MILLING TOOLS

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Borsetto, Francesca; Bariani, Paolo

    2004-01-01

    The milling process is one of the most common metal removal operation used in industry. This machining process is well known since the beginning of last century and has experienced, along the years, many improvements of the basic technology, as concerns tools, machine tools, coolants/lubricants, milling strategies and controls. Moreover the accuracy of tool geometry directly affects the performance of the milling process influencing the dimensional tolerances of the machined part, the surface to...

  4. IMPROVED BIOREFINERY FOR THE PRODUCTION OF ETHANOL, CHEMICALS, ANIMAL FEED AND BIOMATERIALS FROM SUGAR CANE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dr. Donal F. Day

    2009-01-29

    The Audubon Sugar Institute (ASI) of Louisiana State University’s Agricultural Center (LSU AgCenter) and MBI International (MBI) sought to develop technologies that will lead to the development of a sugar-cane biorefinery, capable of supplying fuel ethanol from bagasse. Technology development focused on the conversion of bagasse, cane-leaf matter (CLM) and molasses into high value-added products that included ethanol, specialty chemicals, biomaterials and animal feed; i.e. a sugar cane-based biorefinery. The key to lignocellulosic biomass utilization is an economically feasible method (pretreatment) for separating the cellulose and the hemicellulose from the physical protection provided by lignin. An effective pretreatment disrupts physical barriers, cellulose crystallinity, and the association of lignin and hemicellulose with cellulose so that hydrolytic enzymes can access the biomass macrostructure (Teymouri et al. 2004, Laureano-Perez, 2005). We chose to focus on alkaline pretreatment methods for, and in particular, the Ammonia Fiber Expansion (AFEX) process owned by MBI. During the first two years of this program a laboratory process was established for the pretreatment of bagasse and CLM using the AFEX process. There was significant improvement of both rate and yield of glucose and xylose upon enzymatic hydrolysis of AFEX-treated bagasse and CLM compared with untreated material. Because of reactor size limitation, several other alkaline pretreatment methods were also co-investigated. They included, dilute ammonia, lime and hydroxy-hypochlorite treatments. Scale-up focused on using a dilute ammonia process as a substitute for AFEX, allowing development at a larger scale. The pretreatment of bagasse by an ammonia process, followed by saccharification and fermentation produced ethanol from bagasse. Simultaneous saccharification and fermentation (SSF) allowed two operations in the same vessel. The addition of sugarcane molasses to the hydrolysate/fermentation process yielded improvements beyond what was expected solely from the addition of sugar. In order to expand the economic potential for building a biorefinery, the conversion of enzyme hydrolysates of AFEX-treated bagasse to succinic acid was also investigated. This program established a solid basis for pre-treatment of bagasse in a manner that is feasible for producing ethanol at raw sugar mills.

  5. Uranium Mill and ISL Facility Database

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — An Excel database on NRC and Agreement State licensed mills providing status, locational/operational/restoration data, maps, and environmental reports including...

  6. Value Added Products from Hemicellulose Utilization in Dry Mill Ethanol Plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rodney Williamson, ICPB; John Magnuson, PNNL; David Reed, INL; Marco Baez, Dyadic; Marion Bradford, ICPB

    2007-03-30

    The Iowa Corn Promotion Board is the principal contracting entity for this grant funded by the US Department of Agriculture and managed by the US Department of Energy. The Iowa Corn Promotion Board subcontracted with New Jersey Institute of Technology, KiwiChem, Pacific Northwest National Lab and Idaho National Lab to conduct research for this project. KiwiChem conducted the economic engineering assessment of a dry-mill ethanol plant. New Jersey Institute of Technology conducted work on incorporating the organic acids into polymers. Pacific Northwest National Lab conducted work in hydrolysis of hemicellulose, fermentation and chemical catalysis of sugars to value-added chemicals. Idaho National Lab engineered an organism to ferment a specific organic acid. Dyadic, an enzme company, was a collaborator which provided in-kind support for the project. The Iowa Corn Promotion Board collaborated with the Ohio Corn Marketing Board and the Minnesota Corn Merchandising Council in providing cost share for the project. The purpose of this diverse collaboration was to integrate the hydrolysis, the conversion and the polymer applications into one project and increase the likelihood of success. This project had two primary goals: (1) to hydrolyze the hemicellulose fraction of the distillers grain (DG) coproduct coming from the dry-mill ethanol plants and (2) convert the sugars derived from the hemicellulose into value-added co-products via fermentation and chemical catalysis.

  7. KRAFT MILL BIOREFINERY TO PRODUCE ACETIC ACID AND ETHANOL: TECHNICAL ECONOMIC ANALYSIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haibo Mao

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available The “near neutral hemicellulose extraction process” involves extraction of hemicellulose using green liquor prior to kraft pulping. Ancillary unit operations include hydrolysis of the extracted carbohydrates using sulfuric acid, removal of extracted lignin, liquid-liquid extraction of acetic acid, liming followed by separation of gypsum, fermentation of C5 and C6 sugars, and upgrading the acetic acid and ethanol products by distillation. The process described here is a variant of the “near neutral hemicellulose extraction process” that uses the minimal amount of green liquor to maximize sugar production while still maintaining the strength quality of the final kraft pulp. Production rates vary between 2.4 to 6.6 million gallons per year of acetic acid and 1.0 and 5.6 million gallons per year of ethanol, depending upon the pulp production rate. The discounted cash flow rate of return for the process is a strong function of plant size, and the capital investment depends on the complexity of the process. For a 1,000 ton per day pulp mill, the production cost for ethanol was estimated to vary between $1.63 and $2.07/gallon, and for acetic acid between $1.98 and $2.75 per gallon depending upon the capital equipment requirements for the new process. To make the process economically attractive, for smaller mill sizes the processing must be simplified to facilitate reductions in capital cost.

  8. Indian foreign policy and media framing

    OpenAIRE

    Deepa viswam

    2013-01-01

    A content analysis of Indian newspapers coverage of the Tibetan issue on autonomyThis study analyzed how the Tibetan issues on autonomy were framed by the Indian newspapers. By usingcontent analysis the study concluded Indian foreign policy was an external factor influencing the Indian newspaperscoverage of the autonomy of Tibet. In short, Indian newspapers chose a fact or set a news frame reflecting Indianforeign policy toward Tibetan autonomy.

  9. Increased release of fermentable sugars from elephant grass by enzymatic hydrolysis in the presence of surfactants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • Milling is an attractive method to enhance the enzymatic hydrolysis of biomass. • Surfactants improve the efficiency of lignocellulose enzymatic hydrolysis. • Pretreatment with NaOH, smaller particle size and Tween 80® were more efficient. - Abstract: In the search for renewable energy sources, elephant grass is an alternative substrate for ethanol production, but this substrate must be hydrolyzed by cellulases and xylanases to liberate fermentable sugars. During enzymatic hydrolysis, cellulase activity is reduced by the irreversible adsorption of cellulase onto cellulose, decreasing the rate of hydrolysis. Adding surfactants during hydrolysis can improve the process. The effects of Tween® and Triton® surfactants on the enzymatic hydrolysis of elephant grass were evaluated in this context. The data indicate that pretreatment with sodium hydroxide, along with a smaller particle size (0.075–0.152 mm) and the use of Tween 80®, increased the efficiency of releasing reducing sugars from pretreated elephant grass biomass. Thus, it is possible to reduce grinding costs in second-generation ethanol production through the use of surfactants, as they allow efficient hydrolysis of larger biomass particles

  10. Bagasse-based co-generation at Hippo Valley Estates sugar factory in Zimbabwe

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Busiso, Mtunzi; Ntshengedzeni, Mampwheli; Edson, Meyer; Wilson, Mungwena.

    Full Text Available The paper reports on the assessment of the use of bagasse for cogeneration purposes at Hippo Valley Estates (HVE), a sugar manufacturing company in Zimbabwe. Much emphasis was on an assessment of the quantity of energy that was lost due to inefficient combustion of bagasse and the use of steam that [...] was generated. The study investigated the quantity of sugar cane processed and the possible corresponding steam produced; the sugarcane processed was found to be approximately 2.33 million tons per annum and the steam produced was 193.1 tons per hour. The steam was used in the process department as well as to drive mills. The excess steam generated was found to be 81.03 tons per hour. Economic analysis on the use of excess steam to produce extra power for sale to the utility company was also undertaken. It was established that the power plant for the company could generate an annual surplus of US2.8Million as revenue, and the payback period was found to be 3.3 years. The sensitivity analysis of the project indicated that the electricity prices as well as the energy produced were the most sensitive areas in the project. The other inputs such as operations and maintenance costs, interest, capital investment and number of years were not as sensitive as the price and the energy.

  11. 76 FR 35221 - Epidemiology Program for American Indian/Alaska Native Tribes and Urban Indian Communities...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-16

    ...DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Indian Health Service Epidemiology Program for American Indian/Alaska Native Tribes and Urban...competitive cooperative agreement applications to establish Tribal Epidemiology Centers serving American Indian/Alaska Native Tribes...

  12. Development of Chloroplast Microsatellite Markers and Analysis of Chloroplast Diversity in Chinese Jujube (Ziziphus jujuba Mill.) and Wild Jujube (Ziziphus acidojujuba Mill.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Jian; Yang, Xiaoting; Zhang, Chunmei; Yin, Xiao; Liu, Shipeng; Li, Xingang

    2015-01-01

    Ziziphus is an important genus within the family Rhamnaceae. This genus includes several important fruit tree species that are widely planted in China and India, such as the Chinese jujube (Ziziphus jujuba Mill.), the wild jujube (Z. acidojujuba), and the Indian jujube (Z. mauritiana). However, information about their domestication based on the chlorotype diversity of Chinese jujube population is lacking. In this study, chloroplast microsatellite (cpSSR) markers were developed and used to investigate the genetic relationships between and domestication of jujube cultivars and wild jujube populations. Primer sets flanking each of the 46 cpSSR loci in non-coding regions of the chloroplast genome sequence of Z. jujuba Mill. cv. 'Junzao' were designed. In total, 10 markers showed polymorphisms from 15 samples (9 jujube cultivars and 6 wild jujube individuals), of which 8 loci were due to variations in the number of mononucleotide (A/T) repeats and 2 were due to indels. Six cpSSR markers were used in further analyses of 81 additional samples (63 jujube cultivars, 17 wild jujube samples, and 1 Indian jujube). Using these cpSSR markers, the number of alleles per locus ranged from two to four. In general, the Shannon Index (I) for each cpSSR ranged from 0.159 to 0.1747, and the diversity indices (h) and uh were 0.061 to 0.435 and 0.062 to 0.439, respectively. Seven chlorotypes were found; the Indian jujube showed distinct chlorotypes, and both the Chinese and wild jujube had four chlorotypes and shared two chlorotypes. A dominant chlorotype (G) accounted for 53 of 72 jujube cultivars and 13 of 23 wild jujube individuals. All chlorotypes were highly localized along the Yellow River, from the mid- to the lower reaches, suggesting a wide origin of jujube. These cpSSR markers can be applied to population and evolution studies of Chinese jujube and wild jujube. PMID:26406601

  13. Development of Chloroplast Microsatellite Markers and Analysis of Chloroplast Diversity in Chinese Jujube (Ziziphus jujuba Mill.) and Wild Jujube (Ziziphus acidojujuba Mill.)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Jian; Yang, Xiaoting; Zhang, Chunmei; Yin, Xiao; Liu, Shipeng; Li, Xingang

    2015-01-01

    Ziziphus is an important genus within the family Rhamnaceae. This genus includes several important fruit tree species that are widely planted in China and India, such as the Chinese jujube (Ziziphus jujuba Mill.), the wild jujube (Z. acidojujuba), and the Indian jujube (Z. mauritiana). However, information about their domestication based on the chlorotype diversity of Chinese jujube population is lacking. In this study, chloroplast microsatellite (cpSSR) markers were developed and used to investigate the genetic relationships between and domestication of jujube cultivars and wild jujube populations. Primer sets flanking each of the 46 cpSSR loci in non-coding regions of the chloroplast genome sequence of Z. jujuba Mill. cv. ‘Junzao’ were designed. In total, 10 markers showed polymorphisms from 15 samples (9 jujube cultivars and 6 wild jujube individuals), of which 8 loci were due to variations in the number of mononucleotide (A/T) repeats and 2 were due to indels. Six cpSSR markers were used in further analyses of 81 additional samples (63 jujube cultivars, 17 wild jujube samples, and 1 Indian jujube). Using these cpSSR markers, the number of alleles per locus ranged from two to four. In general, the Shannon Index (I) for each cpSSR ranged from 0.159 to 0.1747, and the diversity indices (h) and uh were 0.061 to 0.435 and 0.062 to 0.439, respectively. Seven chlorotypes were found; the Indian jujube showed distinct chlorotypes, and both the Chinese and wild jujube had four chlorotypes and shared two chlorotypes. A dominant chlorotype (G) accounted for 53 of 72 jujube cultivars and 13 of 23 wild jujube individuals. All chlorotypes were highly localized along the Yellow River, from the mid- to the lower reaches, suggesting a wide origin of jujube. These cpSSR markers can be applied to population and evolution studies of Chinese jujube and wild jujube. PMID:26406601

  14. KSC ADVANCED GROUND BASED FIELD MILL V1

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The Advanced Ground Based Field Mill (AGBFM) network consists of 34 (31 operational) field mills located at Kennedy Space Center (KSC), Florida. The field mills...

  15. Effect of electron radiation on sugar content in inverted liquid sugar

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Inverted liquid sugar is a mixture of sucrose, glucose and fructose, which shows its relevant characteristic on high sweetness power. Ionizing radiation has been applied to different kind of food and ingredients for different reasons, such as pathogens reduction, disinfestations, quarantine purposes, ripening delay among others. Radiation from an electron beam can be utilized as a technique to treat this ingredient because it can process a great volume of material per unit of time. The main goal of this paper was to verify the effect of radiation on the properties of inverted liquid sugar. This ingredient was irradiated in an electron accelerator (Radiation Dynamics) at a dose ranging from 5 to 50 kGy. Sucrose content measurements were reduced by 23% at 30 kGy when compared to control and the reduced sugar content increased around 11%. Density and moisture values were not affected by radiation. The total soluble solids (Brix degrees) rose in function of the absorbed dose. (authors)

  16. Homogeneity evaluation of Chinese sugar carbon (CSC) standard for AMS {sup 14}C measurement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xu Xiaomei, E-mail: xxu@uci.edu [Keck Carbon Cycle AMS Facility, Department of Earth System Science, University of California, Irvine, CA 92697-3100 (United States); Shen Chengde [State Key Laboratory of Isotope Geochemistry, Guangzhou Institute of Geochemistry, Chinese Academy of Sciences, 510640 Guangzhou (China); Stills, Aubrey K.; Southon, John R. [Keck Carbon Cycle AMS Facility, Department of Earth System Science, University of California, Irvine, CA 92697-3100 (United States)

    2013-01-15

    The Chinese national radiocarbon standard Chinese Sugar Carbon (CSC), or often called the 'Chinese Sucrose Charcoal,' was investigated for its homogeneity and its suitability as a radiocarbon standard for Accelerator Mass Spectrometer (AMS). We randomly chose ten new CSC bottles and two opened bottles and measured their carbon isotope compositions. {delta}{sup 13}C results obtained by Isotope Ratio Mass Spectrometer (IRMS) showed relatively large variation: from -15.9 to -22.2 Per-Mille-Sign with an average of -19.0 {+-} 1.2 Per-Mille-Sign (n = 49), indicating CSC grains in the mg range are not isotopically homogeneous. However, {sup 14}C results of CSC, expressed as Fraction Modern (FM), are well constrained to 2.4 Per-Mille-Sign after fractionation correction to -25 Per-Mille-Sign . Measurements from all 12 bottles gave an average FM value of 1.3533 {+-} 0.0034 (n = 55). This value is about 7 Per-Mille-Sign higher that the FM value of 1.346 {+-} 0.002, converted from the originally reported R value of 1.362 {+-} 0.002 (n = 14, with {delta}{sup 13}C of -19.32, n = 9) [1,2]. The R value of 1.362 is the ratio of {sup 14}C activity of CSC to 95% of OXI, not an FM value. The online simultaneous AMS {sup 13}C/{sup 12}C measurement that allows for correction of all isotopic fractionation, including manufacture, graphitization and machine induced fractionation, is the key for obtaining consistent {sup 14}C measurements on this standard. Without further homogenization, CSC may not be a good choice of standard for an AMS that does not have the capability of measuring online AMS {delta}{sup 13}C. Further study is needed to see if mixing/grinding can reduce the inhomogeneity. Re-measurement is suggested with more laboratories involved in order to get a better defined consensus value.

  17. World Sugar Market – Basic Development Trends and Tendencies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Svatos?

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available This article is devoted to the issues of the world‘s sugar production and cultivation of sugar crops (sugar beet and sugar cane. It also analyzes the development of the global sugar trade. The main aim of this paper is to define the basic developmental trends and tendencies that affect the current situation on the market for sugar and sugar crops and then outline a process of gradual profiling of the world markets for these commodities. The article identifies the most important players operating in the global market, both in terms of production and in terms of trade. It also identifies not only the most important subjects of the global market from the viewpoint of the realized volume of production and trade, but also in terms of available comparative advantages and growth dynamics of the realized volume of production and trade. Finally, the paper highlights the significant differences existing in unit prices of the realized export and import flows in individual countries and regions. The results of this study show clearly that the world sugar market is extremely concentrated. A narrow group of entities localized mainly in Latin America, Southeast Asia, Europe and North America controls most of the world production of sugar beet and sugar cane. Furthermore, the results of the analysis show that the production and export of sugar are logically closely linked with the regions cultivating sugar crops, which again suggests that a limited number of entities controls most of the global sugar market. Currently, this market is dominated mainly by Latin American countries and Southeast Asia together with Europe.

  18. Palm Oil Milling Wastes and Sustainable Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. C. Er

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: Palm oil milling generates solid wastes, effluent and gaseous emissions. The aim of this study is to assess the progress made in waste management by the Malaysian palm oil milling sector towards the path of sustainable development. Sustainable development is defined as the utilization of renewable resources in harmony with ecological systems. Inclusive in this definition is the transition from low value-added to higher value-added transformation of wastes into resources. Approach: A longitudinal study was carried out from 2003-2010 via, initially a field survey and subsequently a key informant approach with observation as a complementation for both. Results: Solid wastes, inclusive of solid wastes derived from air emissions and palm oil mil effluent, have a utility function with zero wastage. The principal source of effluent is palm oil mill effluent. Treated palm oil mill effluent is utilized for cropland application by plantation-based palm oil mills. However, independent mills discharge treated palm oil mill effluent in accordance to environmental parameters into receiving waterways. Methane is also released by palm oil mill effluent. Biogas from palm oil mill effluent and biomass energy from solid wastes are potential sources of renewable energy in Malaysia. Conclusion: In general, the wastes from palm oil milling are returned to the field for cropland application, utilized in-house or in the plantation, or sold to third parties. Thus, there is progress made towards sustainable development. The addition of new technologies and replacement of old mills will help to reduce the carbon footprint. However, at this juncture, the feed-in tariff for renewable energy is not financially attractive. If the biogas and biomass renewable energy sector were to take-off, enhancement in the value chain would occur and in tandem further progress towards sustainable development can be attained.

  19. WOMAN IN INDIAN ENGLISH POETRY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    More Rajendra Dagadu

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Woman is a multifaceted personality with the power of benevolence, adjustability and tolerance. She is companion of man gifted with equal mental faculty. She is an embodiment love and affection. Woman, such a blooming flower, which scants the world. She is as tall as Himalaya, having a flow of river. But woman can not be sufficiently defined in these phrases. With the passage of time she reflects dimensional faces. She is such a magnificent creature of god that she has motivated many world renowned writers of the world. Indian English Poets have also depicted Indian woman with every facets of her character. The present paper tries to focus on the representation of Indian woman by Indian poets of English.

  20. Taxation and the American Indian

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brunt, David

    1973-01-01

    The article explores American Indian tribal rights to tax exemptions and self-imposed taxation; general recommendations on possible tribal tax alternatives; and evaluation of the probable economic effect of taxation. (FF)

  1. 76 FR 11258 - Indian Gaming

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-01

    ...Class III gaming activities on Indian lands. The compact authorizes up to 2,000 video lottery terminals, up to 70 table games, and establishes the Oregon Benefit Fund to receive payments from the Confederated Tribes of the Warm Springs...

  2. Sugar cane yield response to deficit irrigation at two growth stages

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A field study on sugar cane (Saccharum officinarum L.) yield response to deficit irrigation during both tillering and stem elongation stages, in order to increase crop water use efficiency, was carried out at Institut des Savanes (IDESSA) experimental station of Ferkessedougou, in Northern Ivory Coast. This cane crop tested was Co 449, an early - maturing genotype of indian origin. This experiment has been conducted for three consecutive years as virgin crop ( from November, 1991 to December 1992 ), first ratoon crop ( from December 1992 to January 1994 ) and as second ratoon crop ( from January 1994 to January 1995 ). The experimental design was a randomized complete block with 10 irrigation treatments in 4 replicates of 54 m sup2 sized plots. Water was applied through an improved furrow irrigation system. Crop water consumption was estimated using the water balance approach based on neutron probe and tensiometer measurements. This field water balance method required the determination of soil hydraulic conductivity as a function of water content and the neutron calibration curve. Data presented are related to the two ratoon crops for which field water balance measurements were investigated. It has been shown in the study that sugar cane growth and yield decline due to water deficit is significantly high during stem elongation as compared to tillering. As a result, the sugar cane tested was much more sensitive to water stress at stem elongation than at tillering. Therefore, deficit irrigation practice as to increase crop water use efficiency might be recommended at tillering rather than stem elongation. The water management strategy to be suggested here may consist of omitting irrigation during tillering ( assuming that the crop is successfully established ), for the benefit of stem elongation. As far as stem elongation is concerned, a moderate water deficit of about 25% with respect to the full irrigation regime appears to increase crop water use efficiency.6 figs; 4 tabs; 15 refs (Author)

  3. Positioning Indian Emigration to Japan

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    D'Costa, Anthony

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to show how the Indian IT industry could position itself in the Japanese market. But in order to accomplish this, it is necessary to identify the key challenges and opportunities the Indian IT industry faces in the Japanese market. The opportunities for India, as well as other IT-strong developing countries, are to supply technical talent, whose availability in Japan is constrained by the secular demographic crisis and changing educational and occupational preference...

  4. Indian Academy of Sciences - Events

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    professor abhay ashtekar(honorary fellow, indian academy of sciences)director, institute for gravitation and the cosmos, and holder, eberly chair in physics, department of physicspennsylvania state university, university park, usagravitation and the cosmos: 100 years after einstein's discovery of general relativity9 october 2015, 4 p.m.faculty hall, indian institute of science, bangaloredetails 25th midyear meeting, 4 and 5 july 2013, bangaloretentative program ...

  5. Global Trade and Indian Politics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lubinski, Christina

    2015-01-01

    This article analyzes the German dye business in India before 1947 as an example of expanding German-Indian commercial relationships. German dye manufacturers showed great interest in India's economic potential in the absence of discriminatory tariffs, while Indian elites were interested in non-British Western partners, which could support their struggle for industrial self-reliance. This particular alignment of interests facilitated cooperation and shows that the so-called European experience i...

  6. The Russian Federation – Specifics of the Sugar Market

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Smutka

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The Russian Federation represents a significant force in the global production and consumption of beet sugar. Its population which is in excess of more than 140 million people consumes over 5.6 million net tons of sugar annually, and the amount is steadily growing. The Russian sugar industry was unable to meet the domestic demand, especially during the economic transformation period (sugar beet and sugar production are very sensitive in relation to changes in economic, political, production and consumption environment (S?pic?ka, Janotova?, 2013, and Russia has thus become heavily dependent on imports of both refined and raw sugar. After a long period of stagnation the Russian Federation has over the past decade focused on promoting plans for restoring the production capacities of both the sugar beet growing and sugar manufacture. The government programme promoted at both the federal and regional levels has very significantly boosted the production potential and reduced Russia’s dependence on imports of sugar. This article aims to identify major trends and directions affecting the development of the Russian sugar industry in the past two decades. From the analysis outlined below it follows that the period of 1992 - 2000 was a very critical time for the Russian sugar industry during which there was a downswing in its cultivation and processing capacities. There was a significant decline not only in the quantitative but also qualitative characteristics of the Russian sugar industry. As a consequence, there has been a fall in competitiveness and a significant increase in import dependency. In the period 2000 - 2012, then was contrary to resuscitate the Russian market and the economy. This was reflected in the growth of sugar beet production, as well as in the growth of its own sugar production. Russia‘s dependence on imports of sugar from abroad dropped significantly and changed the structure of traded goods containing sugar. Due to a series of reforms, and to strengthen the competitiveness of Russian sugar industry, especially in relation to countries with which Russia has signed an agreement on customs union or free trade area.

  7. Prospects of sugarcane milling waste utilization for hydrogen production in India

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cane-sugar producing countries also generate sufficient waste (bagasse) that is mostly utilized ''on-site'' as a replacement to coal in specialized boilers. In addition to sugar and molasses, about 25% by-product of the cane milling is bagasse that still retains 2.5% sugar on dry wt. basis.This paper deals with the prospects of bagasse fermentation for hydrogen production. It seems relevant, as India and Brazil are the major sugarcane producers in the world. The results obtained confirm bagasse, annually generated to a tune of 40 Mt (million tons) in India, can be diverted from the conventional burning or composting to fermentative hydrogen production in a cost-effective way. The processing cost of bagasse for hydrogen production (3Nm3) equivalent to 1L petrol is about half. The system optimization for accessibility of polysaccharides in bagasse and the use of genetically efficient bacterial strains for agrowaste-based hydrogen production seems the ideal option for clean energy generation

  8. Radiological health aspects of uranium milling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report describes the operation of conventional and unconventional uranium milling processes, the potential for occupational exposure to ionizing radiation at the mill, methods for radiological safety, methods of evaluating occupational radiation exposures, and current government regulations for protecting workers and ensuring that standards for radiation protection are adhered to. In addition, a survey of current radiological health practices is summarized

  9. Electrical energy demand for uranium mining, milling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The amount of electrical energy consumed in mining, transporting, and hoisting uranium ore to the surface was empirically calculated as a function of ore depth and production rate. Four mathematical algorithms have been developed as a function of tonnage milled and mill types

  10. Preliminary Test of Upgraded Conventional Milling Machine into PC Based CNC Milling Machine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    CNC (Computerized Numerical Control) milling machine yields a challenge to make an innovation in the field of machining. With an action job is machining quality equivalent to CNC milling machine, the conventional milling machine ability was improved to be based on PC CNC milling machine. Mechanically and instrumentally change. As a control replacing was conducted by servo drive and proximity were used. Computer programme was constructed to give instruction into milling machine. The program structure of consists GUI model and ladder diagram. Program was put on programming systems called RTX software. The result of up-grade is computer programming and CNC instruction job. The result was beginning step and it will be continued in next time. With upgrading ability milling machine becomes user can be done safe and optimal from accident risk. By improving performance of milling machine, the user will be more working optimal and safely against accident risk. (author)

  11. REDUCING SUGAR CONTENT IN ELEUSINE CORACANA GAERTN UNDER STRESSED CONDITIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kadam Sonali Santosh

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Reducing sugars are sugars with potentially free aldehyde or ketone groups, able to reduce metal ions under alkaline conditions. At high salt concentration of 150mM pretreated plants, the reducing sugars decreased in both the cultivars but the decrease in HR 374 cultivar was by74 %. Dapoli-3 variety showed the increased amount of reducing sugars at 2 days water stress which was almost three folds more while in HR-374 it was nearly one and a half folds compare to control. Reducing sugar content in Dapoli-3 variety, under salt stress and drought conditions, increased while in HR- 374 the content decreased. Present study deals with reducing sugar content in Eleusine coracana showing its salt and drought tolerant ability.

  12. Discrimination of genetically modified sugar beets based on terahertz spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Tao; Li, Zhi; Yin, Xianhua; Hu, Fangrong; Hu, Cong

    2016-01-15

    The objective of this paper was to apply terahertz (THz) spectroscopy combined with chemometrics techniques for discrimination of genetically modified (GM) and non-GM sugar beets. In this paper, the THz spectra of 84 sugar beet samples (36 GM sugar beets and 48 non-GM ones) were obtained by using terahertz time-domain spectroscopy (THz-TDS) system in the frequency range from 0.2 to 1.2 THz. Three chemometrics methods, principal component analysis (PCA), discriminant analysis (DA) and discriminant partial least squares (DPLS), were employed to classify sugar beet samples into two groups: genetically modified organisms (GMOs) and non-GMOs. The DPLS method yielded the best classification result, and the percentages of successful classification for GM and non-GM sugar beets were both 100%. Results of the present study demonstrate the usefulness of THz spectroscopy together with chemometrics methods as a powerful tool to distinguish GM and non-GM sugar beets. PMID:26436847

  13. An Update on the Consequences of EU Sugar Reform

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sibusiso Moyo

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Since its formation the European Union (EU has employed a rather complicated policy to ensure high prices to domestic sugar growers and trade preferences to certain sugar exporting countries, e.g. the African Caribbean and Pacific (ACP group. One result of this policy is that the EU has been both the second largest importer and second largest exporter in the world market. Under pressure from the World Trade Organization (WTO, the EU agreed to reform its policies toward sugar in 2001, with the full effect of the reforms being fully implemented in 2006. In this paper, the impact of the sugar reform on EU production, consumption, imports, and exports is examined especially with regard to how it all affects the ACP countries who receive preferential treatment regarding access to EU sugar markets. Preliminary analysis indicates that lowering domestic EU prices, while quotas requirements for ACP countries remain intact might have negative revenue implications for poor sugar producers.

  14. John Stuart Mill and gender violence: weaknesses and strengths of Mill’s thought

    OpenAIRE

    Gil Ruiz, Juana María

    2007-01-01

    Hoy, tanto como ayer, la violencia de género sigue erigiéndose en lacra social por antonomasia, constitutyendo una de las principales causas de muerte y agresión de mujeres en el mundo según el último informe de la Organización Mundial de la Salud. De hecho, la preocupación por los malos tratos aparece más que presente a lo largo de la obra de los Mill, lo que viene a demostrar que cuando hablamos de violencia de género no hablamos de un fenómeno social nuevo, propio del contexto del siglo XX...

  15. Application of Molecular Markers in Sugar Beet Breeding

    OpenAIRE

    Hjerdin Panagopoulos, Annika

    2003-01-01

    Around 1750 a German chemist discovered it to be possible to extract sugar crystals from beet juice. Since then, breeding and improved agricultural practices have increased the concentration of sucrose per root from around 4% to around 18%. Sugar content is still one of the most important characters in sugar beet breeding, but breeders of today are also faced with many more characters, many of a complex nature. The introduction of molecular marker techniques has added a very powerful t...

  16. Reconciliation of opposing views on membrane-sugar interactions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Heidi D.; Wang, Chunhua; Arleth, Lise; Peters, Günther H.J.; Westh, Peter

    2011-01-01

    It is well established that small sugars exert different types of stabilization of biomembranes both in vivo and in vitro. However, the essential question of whether sugars are bound to or expelled from membrane surfaces, i.e., the sign and size of the free energy of the interaction, remains unresolved, and this prevents a molecular understanding of the stabilizing mechanism. We have used small-angle neutron scattering and thermodynamic measurements to show that sugars may be either bound or exp...

  17. Design, synthesis and bioactivity studies of novel sugar derivatives

    OpenAIRE

    Zhu, Chenjiang

    2008-01-01

    Sugar widely exists in the nature. It plays a key role in various molecular recognition processes. Aiming at probing sugar derivatives and their synthetic study, four series of sugar derivatives were designed and synthesized. The first chapiter described the synthesis of C glycosyl analogues of arbutin, a natural product for whitening skin. The second chapiter is devoted to the synthesis of C glycosyl analogues of vitamin E, with the aim to improve their anti oxidant activity. The third chapi...

  18. Simple Sugar Intake and Hepatocellular Carcinoma: Epidemiological and Mechanistic Insight

    OpenAIRE

    Laguna, Juan Carlos; Alegret, Marta; Roglans, Núria

    2014-01-01

    Sugar intake has dramatically increased during the last few decades. Specifically, there has been a clear trend towards higher consumption of fructose and high fructose corn syrup, which are the most common added sugars in processed food, soft drinks and other sweetened beverages. Although still controversial, this rising trend in simple sugar consumption has been positively associated with weight gain and obesity, insulin resistance and type 2 diabetes mellitus and non-alcoholic fatty liver ...

  19. Study of Maillard Reaction Inhibitors for the Sugar Cane Processing

    OpenAIRE

    J.I. Christian; Mbedane Dongby Pacheco; Biao Feng

    2012-01-01

    Maillard Reaction (MR) is a complicated non-enzymatic browning which can happen in many kinds of food, processed products such as breweries, dairy products and sugar products. Studies have done in order to remove the Maillard reaction products, to decolorize colored compounds or to treat wastewater from sugar cane factory. For this reason, this research was performed to study and identify MR inhibitors during sugar cane processing using model systems with different concentrations of amino aci...

  20. Perceptions of sugar mommy practices in South Africa

    OpenAIRE

    Phaswana-Mafuya, Nancy; Shisana, Olive; Davids, Adlai; Tabane, Cily; Mbelle, Margaret; Matseke, Gladys; Banyini, Mercy; Kekana, Queen

    2014-01-01

    The study sought to explore sugar mommy practices regarding their occurrence, acceptability as well as perceived reasons why older women and younger men enter into sugar mommy relationships. An exploratory qualitative study involving 135 participants from 11 diverse focus groups in terms of age, gender (females=27%) and geotype throughout the nine South African provinces was conducted. Data on the participants’ views, opinions and experiences of sugar mommy practices were collected using focu...

  1. Compressive Strength and Microstructure of Sugar Cane Bagasse Ash Concrete

    OpenAIRE

    Asma Abd Elhameed Hussein; Nasir Shafiq; Muhd Fadhil Nuruddin; Fareed Ahmed Memon

    2014-01-01

    This study presents the results of an experimental research study on the effectiveness of Sugar Cane Bagasse Ash (SCBA) as a cement replacement material in concrete production. The ordinary Portland cement was replaced with 0, 5, 10, 15, 20, 25 and 30%, respectively bagasse ash, the effect of Sugar cane Bagasse Ash on workability, compressive strength and microstructure of Interfacial Transition Zone (ITZ) of concrete was examined. The results showed that inclusion of Sugar cane Bagasse Ash i...

  2. Lyoluminescence of common salt and sugar

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lyoluminescence of the above chemicals after exposure to gamma dose of up to 45 kGray were studied. The solvent used was distilled water. The lyoluminescence (LL) response for sugar was linear with dose up to 0.5 kGray and then started to saturate up to the dose of 2 kGray after which the response drop rapidly. For salt, the LL response was linear up ? 10 kGray, after which the response drop. The effect of bleaching with UV light and annealing immediately after irradiation were also studied. (author)

  3. 42 CFR 136.330 - Indian health scholarships.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ...2010-10-01 false Indian health scholarships. 136.330 Section 136.330 Public...Programs Subdivision J-4-Indian Health Scholarship Program § 136.330 Indian health scholarships. Indian Health Scholarships...

  4. 75 FR 39697 - Indians Into Psychology Program; Correction

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-12

    ...HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Indian Health Service Indians Into Psychology Program; Correction AGENCY: Indian Health Service, HHS...Number: HHS-IHS-2010-INPSY-0001, for the Indians Into Psychology Program. The document contained an incorrect Funding...

  5. Embedded Fuzzy Module for Sugar Industrial Boiler Parameter Control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hanamane M. D.

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available In sugar industry, past the sugar was main product and bagasse was considered as west and its disposal was the problem. The present paper highlights the design and development of Embedded Fuzzy Module for energy efficiency improvement of bagasse boiler for a sugar factory intended for cogeneration system. The multipurpose boiler considered parameters are Water flow, Steam flow, Amount of fuel and Air flow. The Fuzzy Logic Inference is to find out the desirable amount of fuel (bagasse and Air flow for targeted steam flow. In this paper Embedded Fuzzy Logic Module for improving the steam generation performance as well as saving fuel of boiler in the sugar industry.

  6. Characterization of Sugar Insensitive (sis) Mutants of Arabidopsis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gibson, Susan I.

    2009-06-08

    Despite the fact that soluble sugar levels have been postulated to play an important role in the control of a wide variety of plant metabolic and developmental pathways, the mechanisms by which plants respond to soluble sugar levels remain poorly understood. Plant responses to soluble sugar levels are also important in bioenergy production, as plant sugar responses are believed to help regulate both carbon fixation and carbon partitioning. For example, accumulation of soluble sugars, such as sucrose and glucose, in source tissues leads to feedback inhibition of photosynthesis, thereby decreasing rates of carbon fixation. Soluble sugar levels can also affect sink strengths, affecting the rates of accumulation of carbon-based compounds into both particular molecular forms (e.g. carbohydrates versus lipids versus proteins) and particular plant organs and tissues. Mutants of Arabidopsis that are defective in the ability to respond to soluble sugar levels were isolated and used as tools to identify some of the factors involved in plant sugar response. These sugar insensitive (sis) mutants were isolated by screening mutagenized seeds for those that were able to germinate and develop relatively normal shoot systems on media containing 0.3 M glucose or 0.3 M sucrose. At these sugar concentrations, wild-type Arabidopsis germinate and produce substantial root systems, but show little to no shoot development. Twenty-eight sis mutants were isolated during the course of four independent mutant screens. Based on a preliminary characterization of all of these mutants, sis3 and sis6 were chosen for further study. Both of these mutations appear to lie in previously uncharacterized loci. Unlike many other sugar-response mutants, sis3 mutants exhibit a wild-type or near wild-type response in all phytohormone-response assays conducted to date. The sis6-1 mutation is unusual in that it appears to be due to overexpression of a gene, rather than representing a loss of function mutation. Characterization of mutant and wild-type plants has revealed that sugars inhibit breakdown of seed storage lipids. In addition, high concentrations of exogenous sugars largely eliminate the development of mature chloroplasts by developing seedlings. Affymetrix GeneChip experiments have revealed that expression of many plant genes is partially regulated by sugar levels, with approximately two percent of genes exhibiting alterations in steady-state mRNA levels in response to changing sugar concentrations. Ultimately, a better understanding of plant sugar responses may allow improvements in rates of carbon fixation and manipulation of carbon partitioning. These improvements will be needed to help make production of energy from biomass more economically attractive.

  7. Sugar-fat seesaw: a systematic review of the evidence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadler, Michele Jeanne; McNulty, Helene; Gibson, Sigrid

    2015-01-01

    Further to reports of a reciprocal relationship between sugar and fat intakes, this review aimed to provide an in-depth analysis and to determine the likely influence of this relationship on the achievement of population dietary guidelines. Using systematic methods, relevant literature was selected according to preset criteria. A strong and consistent inverse association was found between total sugars and total fat intakes expressed as percentage energy. Fewer studies considered absolute intakes and these reported a positive relationship, which may be influenced by confounding with energy intakes. Evidence for an inverse relationship between percentage energy from fat and extrinsic sugars was weaker and less consistent than for fat and total sugars. Reciprocal relationships were also observed for sugar-saturated fat, sugar-protein, sugar-alcohol, and sugar-starch expressed as percentage energy. Under-reporting of dietary intakes had no major influence on the findings. This review confirms the existence of the sugar-fat seesaw on a percentage energy basis and concludes that it is most likely explained by a combination of mathematical and food compositional effects. This finding is relevant because dietary guidelines are expressed as percentage energy and implies that at the population level multiple guidelines may be difficult to achieve in practice. PMID:24915391

  8. Reconciliation of opposing views on membrane-sugar interactions.

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Heidi D.; Wang, Chunhua

    2011-01-01

    It is well established that small sugars exert different types of stabilization of biomembranes both in vivo and in vitro. However, the essential question of whether sugars are bound to or expelled from membrane surfaces, i.e., the sign and size of the free energy of the interaction, remains unresolved, and this prevents a molecular understanding of the stabilizing mechanism. We have used small-angle neutron scattering and thermodynamic measurements to show that sugars may be either bound or expelled depending on the concentration of sugar. At low concentration, small sugars bind quite strongly to a lipid bilayer, and the accumulation of sugar at the interface makes the membrane thinner and laterally expanded. Above â¼0.2 M the sugars gradually become expelled from the membrane surface, and this repulsive mode of interaction counteracts membrane thinning. The dual nature of sugar-membrane interactions offers a reconciliation of conflicting views in earlier reports on sugar-induced modulations of membrane properties.

  9. Euthanasia: An Indian perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sinha, Vinod K; Basu, S; Sarkhel, S

    2012-04-01

    In our society, the palliative care and quality of life issues in patients with terminal illnesses like advanced cancer and AIDS have become an important concern for clinicians. Parallel to this concern has arisen another controversial issue-euthanasia or "mercy -killing" of terminally ill patients. Proponents of physician-assisted suicide (PAS) feel that an individual's right to autonomy automatically entitles him to choose a painless death. The opponents feel that a physician's role in the death of an individual violates the central tenet of the medical profession. Moreover, undiagnosed depression and possibility of social 'coercion' in people asking for euthanasia put a further question mark on the ethical principles underlying such an act. These concerns have led to strict guidelines for implementing PAS. Assessment of the mental state of the person consenting to PAS becomes mandatory and here, the role of the psychiatrist becomes pivotal. Although considered illegal in our country, PAS has several advocates in the form of voluntary organizations like "death with dignity" foundation. This has got a fillip in the recent Honourable Supreme Court Judgment in the Aruna Shaunbag case. What remains to be seen is how long it takes before this sensitive issue rattles the Indian legislature. PMID:22988327

  10. Fungal secretomes enhance sugar beet pulp hydrolysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kracher, Daniel; Oros, Damir; Yao, Wanying; Preims, Marita; Rezic, Iva; Haltrich, Dietmar; Rezic, Tonci; Ludwig, Roland

    2014-04-01

    The recalcitrance of lignocellulose makes enzymatic hydrolysis of plant biomass for the production of second generation biofuels a major challenge. This work investigates an efficient and economic approach for the enzymatic hydrolysis of sugar beet pulp (SBP), which is a difficult to degrade, hemicellulose-rich by-product of the table sugar industry. Three fungal strains were grown on different substrates and the production of various extracellular hydrolytic and oxidative enzymes involved in pectin, hemicellulose, and cellulose breakdown were monitored. In a second step, the ability of the culture supernatants to hydrolyze thermally pretreated SBP was tested in batch experiments. The supernatant of Sclerotium rolfsii, a soil-borne facultative plant pathogen, was found to have the highest hydrolytic activity on SBP and was selected for further hydrolyzation experiments. A low enzyme load of 0.2 mg g(-1) protein from the culture supernatant was sufficient to hydrolyze a large fraction of the pectin and hemicelluloses present in SBP. The addition of Trichoderma reesei cellulase (1-17.5 mg g(-1) SBP) resulted in almost complete hydrolyzation of cellulose. It was found that the combination of pectinolytic, hemicellulolytic, and cellulolytic activities works synergistically on the complex SBP composite, and a combination of these hydrolytic enzymes is required to achieve a high degree of enzymatic SBP hydrolysis with a low enzyme load. PMID:24677771

  11. Sugar cane bagasse prehydrolysis using hot water

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Abril

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Results are presented on the hot water prehydrolysis of sugar cane bagasse for obtaining ethanol by fermentation. The experimental study consisted of the determination of the effect of temperature and time of prehydrolysis on the extraction of hemicelluloses, with the objective of selecting the best operating conditions that lead to increased yield of extraction with a low formation of inhibitors. The study, carried out in a pilot plant scale rotational digester, using a 3² experimental design at temperatures of 150-190ºC and times of 60-90 min, showed that it is possible to perform the hot water prehydrolysis process between 180-190ºC in times of 60-82 min, yielding concentrations of xylose > 35 g/L, furfural < 2.5 g/L, phenols from soluble lignin < 1.5 g/L, and concentrations < 3.0 g/L of hemicelluloses in the cellolignin residue. These parameters of temperature and prehydrolysis time could be used for the study of the later hydrolysis and fermentation stages of ethanol production from sugar cane bagasse.

  12. Concrete images of the sugar content in sugar-sweetened beverages reduces attraction to and selection of these beverages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, John Milton; Hart, William; Gilmer, Lauren; Lloyd-Richardson, Elizabeth E; Burton, K Alex

    2014-12-01

    In the present research, we offer a novel method for informing consumers about the sugar content in sugar-sweetened beverages (SSBs). With a series of experiments, we present evidence that this method curbs preference for SSBs and leads to more negative attitudes toward SSBs. We propose that people view SSBs more negatively and show less preference for SSBs when they are able to concretely visualize the quantity of sugar in SSBs. For example, we suggest that people might have more negative views toward the idea of consuming 28 sugar cubes (concrete information), compared to consuming "70g" of sugar (abstract information). Indeed, we found that, without any intervention, people struggle to convert sugar grams into a concrete, physical sugar representation (Experiment 1). But, when people are provided ways to convert abstract sugar-nutrition information into a concrete representation, they find SSBs less attractive (Experiment 2) and are less likely to select SSBs in favor of sugar-free beverage options (Experiments 3 and 4). These findings offer direct applications to the design of public-health messages and nutrition-education interventions. Such applications might benefit society in its battle with the obesity epidemic. PMID:25108238

  13. Environmental planning in uranium milling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Effluents from uranium milling in the Achala region in the province of Cordoba are studied. Liquids from lixiviation-recovery and from precipitation-washing of yellow-cake were analyzed. Separation of both liquids before treatment and disposal is recommended. Data of the hydric environment are presented specially for volumes of flow. The disposal criteria established by the provincial authorities are presented, and discussed. Calculations to define the effects on the environment of two types of effluents (the leaching effluent without treatment and the same after treating it) on two points of the rivers net, are given and the results discussed. A disposal policy for a treated effluent of mean composition is presented, based on two different amounts for the two phases of the river flux; the possible effects on two points of the net were also calculated. In the author's opinion, such policy will result in a disposal without a sensible damage in the receptor. (Author)

  14. Radioactive Contamination in Steel Products - Indian Experience

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radioactive sources in both sealed and unsealed forms are used in a wide variety of applications in medicine, industry and research for societal benefits. These applications of radioactive sources are controlled in each country by the respective national regulatory bodies. In spite of regulatory control there are incidents of theft, loss or abandoned radioactive sources worldwide. These lost or stolen sources get into metal scrap used in steel recycling industry. Recently, there have been cases of radioactive contamination in steel products exported by many countries. A few such cases of contamination of material exported from India to foreign countries have been reported to Atomic Energy Regulatory Board (AERB) in India. On investigation it was found that the steel products were made out of steel produced in foundries where radioactively contaminated imported metal scrap has been used. Though the radiological impact of such incident is too low to cause any significant hazard, such incidents are undesirable and need to be prevented. A number of measures were taken by AERB to prevent recurrence of such incidents. These include holding meetings with the concerned associations of exporters and the organization of seminars to improve radiation safety awareness among the manufacturers and exporters. The concept of defence in depth is used for detection of radioactivity in metal scrap by the installation of portal monitors at borders, radiation monitoring at metal scrap dealers, foundries, steel mills, manufacturing units of steel products and finally the radiation monitoring of the final product prior to supply in domestic market or export. In this paper, Indian experience in handling the incidents of contaminated steel products and the general and specific preventive measures adopted in India to control such incidents are described. A suggested action plan at the international level is discussed. (author)

  15. Analysis and estimative of the economic impacts of the investment on the sugar-cane plant implementation; Analise e estimativa dos impactos economicos do investimento na implementacao de usinas de cana-de-acucar

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Terciote, Ricardo [Universidade Estadual de Campinas (UNICAMP), SP (Brazil). Faculdade de Engenharia Mecanica]. E-mail: rterciote@yahoo.com

    2006-07-01

    The sugar industry goes through an important moment: invest and develop to supply future demand, mainly by fuel alcohol (around 70% of new vehicles sales are from flex fuel models - and the majority of these vehicles are supplied by alcohol). Due to this foreseeable increase of alcohol demand, sugar industry has already announced 41 new projects, which will contribute with the milling of 70 million tons of sugar cane by the conclusion of these plants. In this phase of expansion, the alcohol market must be pressured for the demand, managing the supplying of the domestic and external markets. With this scenario and the possibility of sector growth which has an important role in Brazil development, this work evaluates the economic impacts of the new plants implementation investments. (author)

  16. American Indian History and Writing from Home: Constructing an Indian Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fixico, Donald L.

    2009-01-01

    If the typical premise of American Indian history is actually the history of Indian-white relations, then the "other" side of the coin must be turned over for understanding an Indian point of view and what is called "writing from home." Conceptually, "writing from home" is the challenge of historians who are American Indian and who write history…

  17. 75 FR 35070 - American Indians Into Medicine; Notice of Competitive Grant Applications for American Indians...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-21

    ... SERVICES Indian Health Service American Indians Into Medicine; Notice of Competitive Grant Applications for American Indians Into Medicine Program Announcement Type: New. Funding Opportunity Number: HHS-2010-IHS... Indians into Medicine Program. This program is authorized under the authority of 25 U.S.C. 1616g...

  18. 76 FR 58076 - Designation of the Indian Mujahideen, Also Known as Indian Mujahedeen, Also Known as Indian...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-19

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Printing Office DEPARTMENT OF STATE... Known as Islamic Security Force-Indian Mujahideen (ISF-IM), as a Foreign Terrorist Organization Pursuant... known as Indian Mujahidin, also known as Islamic Security Force-Indian Mujahideen (ISF-IM). Therefore,...

  19. Indian Academy of Sciences - Astrophysics and Astronomy

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    indian academy of sciences - astrophysics and astronomy structure and tectonics: the indian geomagnetic methods and lithospheric climate and global warming progressive and superposed deformations isotopic windows on earth and planetary ...

  20. Concentraciones agroazucareras de Camagüey. Condicionantes de su consolidación territorial / Sugar cane Agro-industries Concentrations. Conditioning factors of territorial consolidation

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Gerson, Herrera Pupo.

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Determinadas condicionantes posibilitaron que la agroindustria azucarera cubana se desarrollara de forma singular y con carácter monumental en determinadas regiones. El Camagüey: la provincia más despoblada hacia inicios del siglo XX, presentaba características geográficas peculiares, que unidas a d [...] eterminadas condiciones históricas facilitaron la creación de un entramado agrícola e industrial dedicado a la caña de azúcar de dimensiones significativas. En el presente artículo se muestran los resultados de una investigación dedicada a la identificación de las condiciones históricas vinculadas a la construcción de los centrales azucareros y sus áreas de influencia, así como a la estructuración del territorio a partir de su ocupación. Con el uso de las técnicas tradicionales para la obtención de información y el análisis gráfico de los resultados, se elaboraron esquemas de las concentraciones agroazucareras en el territorio, los que permitieron identificar un sistema de ejes de crecimiento, los cuales fueron ordenando el área geográfica de la antigua provincia. Abstract in english A variety of singular factors have shaped the development of the Cuban sugar industry, and they have left distinct regional imprints across the island. Camaguey, one of the most under-populated provinces at the turn of the 20th century, had unique regional geographic conditions that contributed to t [...] he growth of sugar-cane production. This paper identifies those conditions as they shaped the construction of sugar mills and their surrounding hinterlands. Clusters of sugar-cane production are identified through traditional archival work and graphic analysis. Findings show a clear pattern of axes of growth which gave structure to the province.